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A History of Tennessee 

Wesleyan College: 


By LeRoy Albert Martin 

Tennessee Wesleyan College owes its be- 
ginnings to an academy located on the 
present site of the Wesleyan campus which 
burned in the early 1850's. The Odd 
Fellows Lodge, sponsor of several colleges 
in Tennessee and Virginia, secured a 
charter for a college January 2, 1854. The 
Old College building of today was started, 
but financial problems prompted the 
Trustees to seek the support of the Holston 
Cotiference of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, in 1857. 

Evidence reveals Wesleyan to be the only 
college which became officially related to 
Methodism in 1857; the only college to 
serve under the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, and The Methodist Church. 

The College has felt the impact of wars, 
panics, depressions, many changes in char- 
ter and name, the unpopularity of a 
"Northern" school in a Southern com- 
munity, demotion in status from university 
to preparatory school, return to junior 
college program, and finally as a senior 
college since 1954. It has sui-vived, and 
is now in a position to render service 
during its second century. 




1857 - 1957 



Copyright 1957 
LeRoy a. Martin 



John Alanson Patten^ LL.D. 

Edith Manker Patten 

The Reverend Burton McMahan Martin^ D.D. 

Julia Haggard Martin 

The idea of responsibility contains the essence 
of morality. — Charles W. Hendel 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

LYRASIS IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 

A Personal Preface 

Tennessee Wesleyan College owes its early beginnings 
to McMinn Lodge No. 54 of the Independent Order of 
Odd Fellows which chartered a college January 2, 1854 
to take the place of a private school which had burned. 
An excellent building — Old College — was started, but 
the Trustees in charge in 1857 felt the need of a larger 
support and turned to the Holston Conference of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, for sponsorship. 

For 100 years beginning in 1857 the institution has 
been related to Methodism — the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, the Methodist Episcopal Church, The 
Methodist Church. 

Many names, many charters, innumerable problems — 
this institution has survived all of them and now concludes 
its first century and prepares for the future. 

My relationship to the college is more personal than 

My paternal ancestors — Blackburns and McMahans 
— were pioneer families in McMinn County; my grand- 
mother's brother was secretary of the convention held in 
St. John's Protestant Episcopal Church in Knoxville July 
7, 1864 which initiated the reorganization of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church in Athens June 1-5, 1865, (called by 
Hodding Carter a great tragedy) ; my father, Burton Mc- 
Mahan Martin, was a native of McMinn County. Follow- 
ing theological training at U. S. Grant University, '95, he 
served as a member of the Board of Visitors, as college 
pastor for five years, and as a trustee for the eight years 
preceding his death in 1924. 

I have known or seen six of my eleven predecessors, 
many of the institution's graduates, their children and 
grandchildren, trustees, faculty, and twelve of the seventeen 
vice-presidents, vice-chancellors, acting presidents and 

vi A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

I have gone through thousands of pages of books, cata- 
logues, Annual and General Conference Journals, memoirs, 
alumni records, magazines, student publications, school 
records, minutes of faculties and trustees and Executive 
Committees, church papers, and chosen documents and 
materials to tell their own story — readers may miss refer- 
ence to events or persons especially meaningful personally; 
that is unavoidable — as factually as possible by an amateur 

The history could not have been compiled without the 
availability of the materials collected and written by David 
Alexander Bolton, '72, whose relationship to the institution 
covered the years from 1869 to 1931. Bolton recorded its 
history as student, faculty member, secretary of the faculty, 
trustee and professor emeritus. 

In recognition of a devotion to alma mater beyond 
imitation, we include excerpts from his unpublished auto- 
biography which reveals the teacher, trustee and church- 
man known to thousands of students and friends, and as a 
tribute to faculty members from the leading colleges of the 
North and East who served on the faculties with unchang- 
ing commitment to Liberal Arts, traditionally at salaries 
too meager for anything but the plainest living. 

I have had the generous assistance of many — Mrs. 
A. H. Myers, resourceful librarian at Wesleyan; Miss Mary 
Agnes Bayless, granddaughter of J. W. Bayless, '81, and 
Agnes Byington Bayless, '81, for research in student activi- 
ties for the years 1896-1906; to Dr. Enid Parker Bryan, for 
study of materials in files of the University of Chattanooga, 
graciously arranged by President David A. Lockmiller, son 
of G. Frank Lockmiller, one of the seven incorporators of 
1925, and Lotta Ulrey Lockmiller, '97, and /or her writing 
of the section covering the years 1950-1957; to Gilbert 
Govan and James W. Livingood for their excellent history 

A Personal Preface vii 

of the University of Chattanooga which contains much 

relevant material which has been followed as authentic 
and authoritative; to Dan M, Robinson, State Librarian 
and Archivist, and Mrs. Gertrude Morton Parsley, Refer- 
ence Librarian, of the Tennessee State Library and Arch- 
ives, for copies of charters; and to Mrs. Frank Y. Jackson, 
Jr., Misses Robbie Jean Ensminger and Doris Ann Crowell 
for typing and retyping the manuscript — to all of these 
persons I am deeply indebted and consider it a privilege to 
express my appreciation for their assistance. 

L. A. M. 


McMinn County, Tennessee, 

March 23, 1957. 

I Contents 


Chapter I 
Formation of Methodist Episcopal Church, South . . . Holston 
Conference accepts Athens Female College in 1857 . . . the charter 
. . . an early catalogue . . . President Rowley . . . Holston Conference 
Education reports . . . life in the Confederacy . . . Northern victories 
. . . Rowley litigation . . . sale of property. 

~ Chapter II 


The reorganization of the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1865 
. . . President Wilson . . . life during Reconstruction . . . the Methodist 
Episcopal Church buys Athens Female College property . . . the 
charter . . . President Cohleigh . . . faith of the Holston Conference 
. , . financial problems . . . class of 1871 . . . President Dean t . . 
President Manker . . . President Spence . . . debts paid . . . Bixby 
. . . chapel . . . high academic standards . . . Spartan college life . . . 
property valued at $50,000.00. 

Chapter III 

Spence secures political endorsement to recognize Grant . . . 
Chattanooga University . . . its charter . . . President Lewis . . . merger 
of Chattanooga University and Grant Memorial . . . charter of U. S. 
Grant University . . . Bennett Hall . . . Ritter Hall . . . Spence leaves 
. . . Joyce as Chancellor . . . President Race . . . Educational Confer- 
ence of 1898 . . . Race's reports . . . strengthens College of Liberal 
Arts . . . Banfield.Hall . . . Blakeslee Hall . . . Warren's sermon . . . 
injunction and results . . . 1906 class. 

Chapter IV 



Two-year college program . . . Wright resigns . . . Bovard . . . 
$500,000 campaign . . . Petty Manker . . . President Hixson . . . offer- 
ings restricted . . . death of Dr. John A. Patten . . . Hooper acting 


X Contents 

president . . . President Brown . . . local autonomy . . . $750,000 cam- 
paign . . . practice school . . . gymnasium and auditorium . . . 
separation from University of Chattanooga . . . Mrs. John A. Patten 
. . . Bishop Thirkield . . . proposal accepted. 

Chapter V 

Charter . . . President Robb . . . the name . . . the academic 
program . . . an inauguration . . . period of transition . . . campaign 
of 1928 . . . Ochs remembers Rule . . . senior college status . . . the 
Pfeiffers and their gifts . . . Townsend bequest . . . a daughter's 
tribute . . . Forward Movement of 1938 . . . unification . . . survey 
of 1943 . . . T. I. A. A. . . . war . . . survey of 1948 . . . retirement 
of Robb and his election to office of President Emeritus . . . President 
Martin elected in 1950 . . . four-year consideration . . . Fowler's 
letter . . . Athens Advisory Board . . . approval af senior college 
program in 1954 . . . faculty changes . . . physical improvements 
. . . Fowlers . . . Black . . . Tom Sherman . . . construction plans 
. . . Long Range Development of Holston Conference . . . enroll- 
ment . . . majors and requirements for graduation . . . athletics . . . 
the choir . . . 100th anniversary and awarding of Bachelor's Degrees 
. . . the future? . . . charter of today. 

Chapter VI 



Chapter VII 

An Autobiography 
Early Life . . . Departure for Kentucky . . . To Cincinnati and 
Indianapolis . . . My Experience in Indianapolis . . . To Muncie and 
a Country Home . . . With Shireys . . . December 1863 to September, 
1864 . . . Soldier in the Civil War . . . Battle of Nashville . . . On the 
March . . .The Stay at Huntsville . . . The Civil War . . . Homeward 
Bound . . . Desolation Due to Civil War . . . .Desire for an Education 
. . . At Laurel Hill Academy . . . At Franklin Academy . . . My First 
Experience in Teaching . . . Eventful summer of 1869 . . . A Student 
at Athens From August 1869 to June 19, 1872 . . . Methodist Con- 
vention at the University . . . First Class . . . 1871 . . . Graduated 

Contents xi 

. . . 1871 . . . Junior Class . . . Last Year in University . . . The Year 
in Washington Comity . . . Places Where Myself and Family Resided 
. . . Keeping Boarders . . . The Call to Teach . . . Continuance 
Therein . . . Relationship to My Teachers and to Faculties . . . Ex- 
perience and Importance of Teaching . . . Three Great Fields of 
Activity and Service . . . My Marriage. 


a. Board of Trustees 

b. Presidents of Board 

c. Faculty 

d. Seruor Class 

f. Quadrennial Program on Higher Education of The Methodist 





As Athens Female College 

The churches were moved by several motives and 
ideals in establishing colleges. Without doubt the primary 
aim in the founding of these institutions was the education 
of ministers. Second, they considered education a function 
of the church. Third, they desired to lower the cost of 
education and bring it within reach of the common man. 
Fourth, they felt that the church as a strong and important 
part of the body politic was in a position to render, and 
ought to render, service in the field of education. Fifth, 
church colleges were considered vital factors in keeping 
students loyal to their respective denominations. Sixth, 
colleges were important and strategic agencies for the 
building of denominational prestige and the extension of 
denominational views. Seventh, colleges were made to serve 
the interests of denominational rivalry. Eighth, colleges 
were an important means of evangelism. Ninth, to some 
extent colleges in the South served sectional interests. 
Tenth, the churches built colleges to offset and rival the 
influence of state universities in the old South. ^ 

1 Godbold, Albea, The Church College of The Old South — Duke University Press, 
Durham, N. C. 1944, p.p. 186, 187, used by permission. 


4 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

Following long and often bitter debate in the General 
Conferences of the Methodist Episcopal Church concern- 
ing slavery, the Methodists of the South decided to with- 
draw on the basis of the General Conference "Plan of 
Separation" adopted by the General Conference in 1844. 

The spirit of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South 
as organized May 1, 1845, is succinctly set forth in the Pre- 
amble to the Doctrines and Discipline of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South. 

"In the judgment of the delegates of the several An- 
nual Conferences in the slaveholding States, the continued 
agitation of the subject of slavery and abolition in a portion 
of the Church, the frequent action on that subject in the 
General Conference, and especially the proceedings of the 
General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
of 1844, in the case of the Rev. James O. Andrew, D.D., 
one of the Bishops, who had become connected with slavery 
by marriage, produced a state of things in the South which 
rendered a continuance of the jurisdiction of that General 
Conference over the Conferences aforesaid, inconsistent 
with the success of the ministry in their proper calling. 
This conviction they declared in solemn form to the General 
Conference, accompanied with a protest against the action 
referred to, assured that public opinion in the slaveholding 
States would demand, and that a due regard to the vital 
interests of Christ's kingdom would justify, a separate and 
independent organization. The developments of a few 
months vindicated their anticipations. The Church in the 
South and South-west, in her primary assemblies, her 
Quarterly and Aimual Conferences, with a unaminity un- 
paralleled in ecclesiastical history, approved the course of 
the delegates, and declared her conviction that a separate 
jurisdiction was necessary to her existence and prosperity. 
The General Conference of 1844 having adopted a "Plan 

As Athens Female College 5 

of Separation" provided for the erection of the Annual 
Conferences in the slaveholding States into a separate 
ecclesiastical connection, under the jurisdiction of a South- 
ern General Conference, the delegates of the aforemen- 
tioned Conferences, in a published address, recommended 
that a convention of delegates from the said Conferences, 
duly instructed as to the wishes of the ministry and laity, 
should assemble at Louisville, Ky., on the first day of May, 

"Tlie convention met, delegates having been formally 
appointed in pursuance of this recommendation; and after 
a full and minute representation of all the facts in the 
premises, acting under the provisional "Plan of Separa- 
tion," declared, by solemn resolution, the jurisdiction hith- 
erto exercised by the General Conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church over the Conferences in the slaveholding 
States entirely dissolved^ and erected the said Annual Con- 
ferences into a separate ecclesiastical connection, under the 
style and title of The Methodist Episcopal Church, South; 
the first General Conference of which was held in the 
town of Petersburg, Va., on the first day of May, 1846." ^ 

The Holston Annual Conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South met in Marion, Virginia, October 
22, 1857, with Bishop John Early as the President. At this 
session the Trustees of the Athens Female College, of 
Athens, Tennessee, offered to transfer the property of the 
College to the Holston Conference of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, South. The Trustees in possession of the 
college at that time had secured the property from the 
McMinn County Lodge of the Odd Fellows for $3,500.00, 
which had been chartered as a college by the State of 
Tennessee January 2, 1854, for McMinn Lodge No. 54 
of Independent Order of Odd Fellows to operate under 

'The Doctrines and Discipline of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 1SS8, 
Section II, pages 13' 16 

6 ■ A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

the name of Odd Fellows Female College. At that time 
the college campus consisted of two acres of ground in 
the town of Athens and a three story brick building, 
60 X 40 feet, which was incomplete, known today as Old 
College. The Trustees did not ask the Holston Conference 
to accept any financial responsibility but requested the 
Conference to appoint a President and an Agent to raise 
$2,000.00 for the completion of the building. It was further 
recommended that two additional acres be purchased which 
would be used as the site for a dining hall. This was the 
beginning in church affiliation of an institution which has 
existed under one of the branches of the Methodist Church 
from 1857 to this date. 

The Charter was passed at the first session of the 
Thirty-Second General Assembly of the State of Tennessee. 
Charter follows: 

Chapter 92. (An Act to amend the charter of Bethel 
College, and for other purposes. . . .) Sec. 4. Be it further 
enacted. That there shall be established in the town of 
Athens, I'ennessee, an institution of learning for young 
ladies, and the same shall be known and designated by the 
style of the "Athens Female College." 

Sec. 5. Be it further enacted. That John F. Slover, 
William M. Sehorn, R. M. Fisher, William H. Ballew, 
Alexander H. Keith, R. C. Jackson, Geo. W. Bridges, M. L. 
Phelps, T. Sullins, Thomas L. Hoyle, W. E. Hall, S. K. 
Reeder, Willie Lowry, Andrew Hutsell, John L. Bridges, 
and Samuel P. Ivins, Trustees of said College, appointed 
and confirmed by the Holston Conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South, are hereby constituted a body 
corporate and politic, in deed and in law, with perpetual 
succession, by the name and style of the "Athens Female 
College," by which name and style, they, the said Trustees, 
and their successors in office, shall be capable, in law and 

As Athens Female College 7 

in equity, to take to themselves and their successors, for the 
use and benefit of said College, any estate in lands, tene- 
ments, hereditaments, goods, chattels, moneys, or other 
effects, by gift, grant, bargain, sale, will, devise or bequest 
of any person or persons, or bodies politic and corporate, 
and the same lands, tenements, hereditaments, goods, chat- 
tels, moneys, or other effects, to grant, bargain, sell, convey, 
devise, or place out at interest, or otherwise dispose of, for 
the use of said College, in such manner as they may deem 
most beneficial, and by the same name may sue and be 
sued, plead and be impleaded, in any court of law or equity, 
in all manner of suits or actions whatever; and by and in 
the same manner may do and transact all and every, the 
business touching and concerning the premises, not herein- 
after provided for, as fully and effectually as any natural 
person or body corporate in this State, have power to 
manage their own concerns or business. 

Sec. 6. Be it further enacted. That said "Athens 
Female College," and Trustees herein named, and their 
successors in office shall be under the control and patron- 
age of the Holston Conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church South, and that said Conference shall have power 
to appoint the President and Professors of said College, and 
the Board of Trustees shall confirm the same by ballot; 
and that all vacancies in the Board of Trustees, or in the 
faculty, shall be filled by said Conference, but if any vac- 
ancy shall occur before the annual meeting of said Con- 
ference, said Board of Trustees may fill such vacancy until 
the annual meeting of the next conference thereafter. 

Sec. 7. Be it further enacted, That no misnomer of 
said Corporation, shall defeat any gift, grant or bequest 
to or from said Corporation, nor shall any misuser or non- 
user of the rights, liberties or privileges hereby granted to 
said Corporation, create or cause a forfeiture of the same, 

8 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

and the lands, lots and grounds belonging to said College 
buildings, together with the buildings, school fixtures, and 
appurtenaces of said Corporation shall be exempt from 
taxation for State or county purposes, and all and every 
taxation whatever. ^ 

Sec. 8. Be it further enacted. That said Board of 
Trustees, by the recommendation of the Professors and 
Teachers of said College, shall grant to such students, as 
they may deem worthy of the same, all and every, the mark 
of distinction usual in other Colleges; and all and every 
literary degree or degrees, usual in any college or institution 
of learning in this State, that of graduate or other degrees, 
and full power is here given and granted to said Board of 
Trustees to make such needful rules and regulations in the 
conferring such honorary degrees and honors as they may 
think most advisable and most to the interest of said Col- 
lege, that the certificates, honorary cards and diplomas 
granted, shall be signed by the President of the College and 
Professors and Secretary of the Board of Trustees, with the 
seal of the Corporation affixed, and when so signed and 
sealed, shall have all the authority and rights, influence 
and respectability, which is secured by law, to the certifi- 
cate, diploma, &c., of any other institution of learning in 
this State. 

Sec. 9. Be it further enacted. That said Board of 
Trustees shall cause to be made for their use, one common 
seal, with such device and inscription as they may think 
proper to engrave thereon, under and by which, all deeds, 
diplomas, certificates, honorary cards and acts of said Cor- 
poration shall pass and be authenticated, and that a copy 
of this charter, granted by the Legislature of Tennessee, 
be copied on parchment, and filed in the archives of said 


Historic Print, Old College, Tennessee Wesleyan 


As Athens Female College 9 

College, with the signatures of the Board of Trustees 
thereon . . . . ^ 

The records of the early days of Athens Female Col- 
lege are extremely limited. Only one copy of a catalog is 
known to exist, the second annual catalog dated July 5, 
1860, which gives these facts. 

The Board of Trustees consisted of William H. Ballew, 
President, John F. Slover, Secretary, Stephen K. Reeder, 
Treasurer, Alexander H. Keith, Richard M. Fisher, Wil- 
liam N. Sehorn, Milton L. Phillips, George W. Bridges, 
Esq., Reverend Timothy SuUins, R. C. Jackson, Sam P. 
Ivins, W. E. Hall, M.D., John L. Bridges, Willie Lowry, 
Esq., Andrew Hutsell. 

The Board of Visitors appointed by the Holston An- 
nual Conference for 1860-61 included: Reverend J. H. 
Bruner, A.M., Hiwassee College, Reverend R. M. Stevens, 
Knox County, Reverend E. F. Sevier, Chattanooga, Rev- 
erend R. M. Hickey, Wytheville, Virginia, Colonel J. M. 
Brett, Sweetwater, W. F. Lenoir, Esq., Philadelphia, and 
Reverend W. H. Kelley, Philadelphia. 

The President of the College was the Reverend Erastus 
Rowley, A.M., D.D. Dr. Rowley was born in Richmond, 
Massachusetts. He prepared for college at Wilbraham 
Academy and was graduated from Union College, Sche- 
nectady, New York, in 1834. (The father of William and 
Henry James was a student at Union College at the same 
time.) After graduation he served as principal of the Lan- 
sinburg Academy, as a member of the faculty of the Epis- 
copal Institute of Troy in New York, and as head of 
institutes in South Carolina and in North Carolina. He 
was elected president of Athens Female College in 1858. 
He remained here until 1865 when he accepted the position 

1 Public Acts of the State of Tennessee, passed at the first session of the 
ThirtySecond General Assembly, for the years 1857'8. Nashville, G. G. Torbett 
y Company, printers, 1858. pp. 210'211. 

10 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

of president of De Pauw College in New Albany, Indiana, 
where he served until 1879. We have no record of his life 
after that date. 

Several pages were devoted to General Remarks. 

This Institution, under the charge of the Holston 
Conference, opened its second annual session the 28th, 
August, 1859, the second annual catalog, which its trustees 
now present to the public, manifesting results as favorable 
as the most ardent friends of the Institution could have 
reasonably expected. 


This College is located in the pleasant village of 
Athens; a village unsurpassed for its health, and for the 
intelligence and morality of its citizens. 

The College Building, a magnificent edifice, contain- 
ing seven rooms, besides a spacious Chapel, occupies a 
commanding eminence, affording a full view of the village 
and the surrounding beautiful scenery. 

There will hereafter be two Sessions in the year, the 
Fall Session beginning the first Monday in September, 
and the Spring Session commencing the first Monday of 


There will be two vacations: one of two weeks, after 
the 23rd of December; and the other of eight weeks, after 
the close of the Spring Session. 


The Annual Public Examination will be held the two 
days preceding Commencement, which will hereafter be 
the last Thursday in June. 

As Athens Female College 11 


This Institution having been chartered with full Col- 
lege privileges, will grant Diplomas, thereby conferring the 
degree of Mistress of Arts on those pupils who complete 
the Scientific course, and the higher degree of Mistress of 
Arts and Classical Literature on those who also complete 
the Classical course. 


While Literary Branches will claim preeminence, spe- 
cial attention will be paid to Drawing and Painting, Em- 
broidery, and Vocal and Instrumental Music. 

Five Pianos and one Superior Melodeon, are in daily 
use for Instruction and Practice. 


The government of the Institution is of a mild and 
parental character, administered with mildness and effici- 
ency, equally removed from weakness on one hand, and 
from austerity and rashness on the other. 

Every valuable improvement in the method of in- 
struction will be adopted, and the great aim will be to 
develop the mental and moral powers of the pupil, and 
to educate the mind to habits of thinking, with clearness 
and force. 


The exercises of each day will be conducted by read- 
ing the Bible and prayer. Every pupil will be required to 
attend public worship, at least once on the Sabbath, at 
the church designated by the parent or guardian. 


Young ladies boarding with the President cannot be 
allowed to visit, except among their near relatives. - Neither 

12 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

will any correspondence be allowed between them and 
gentlemen, unauthorized by their parents or guardians. We 
cannot hold ourselves responsible to parents unless their 
daughters are subjected to these regulations. 


We urge upon parents the propriety of supplying their 
daughters with plain, substantial clothing, retaining all 
gaudy and costly decorations and jewelry at home. - Such 
things are a source of great trouble to the Faculty and 
injury to the pupil. 

Every pupil boarding at the College should have every 
article of clothing distinctly marked, and should be sup- 
plied with an umbrella, a pair of rubber overshoes, and a 
thick shawl or cloak. 


The most rigid economy will be encouraged, and all 
purchases at the stores will hereafter be made through 
someone designated by the President. Young Ladies, in 
the future cannot be allowed to visit the stores. 


No pupil hereafter will be received for a less time than 
the unexpired session after admission. 

Every pupil, previous to admission, must subscribe 
her name to the rules and regulations of the College, as an 
expression of her desire to obtain its benefits, and a desire 
to conform to its law. 

The Holston Conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, met in Athens, Tennessee, in October 1862. 
The Report of the Committee on Education, the most 
complete report given at the Session, is as follows: 

"The Committee on Education report, that the in- 
terests of education, within the bounds of our Conference, 
have suffered greatly in consequence of our national troubles 
is a fact but too well known to the Conference as well as to 

As Athens Female College 13 

your Committee. But from the facts which the Committee 
have been able to ehcit, they are led to believe that these 
great interests have not been undervalued nor have they 
been lost sight of, but are only temporarily obscured by 
others more absorbing in their character. 

"The report from the Holston Conference Female Col- 
lege represents that institution in a condition even more 
favorable than the circumstances of the times might allow 
us to expect. The last collegiate year closed with about 70 
pupils, and the present session is progressing with the pros- 
pect of even a larger number. The Board of Instruction 
has been necessarily diminished to suit the number of pupils 
in attendance, and the charges for board and tuition have 
been somewhat increased, yet we feel satisfied that the Insti- 
tution is prudently managed, that its interests are in safe 
hands, and that with the return of peace it will quickly 
regain its former prosperity. 

"The report from the Athens Female College is en- 
couraging; 85 pupils were in attendance during the year 
June 27th, about 40 are now attending, with a good pros- 
pect of an increase in the number after the adjournment 
of Conference. We commend this school as well deserving 
the fostering care of Conference. 

"In the absence of any formal report from Martha 
Washington Female College, we beg leave to state that 
from representations made by its President to members 
of this Committee, it appears that the school is progressing 
under the management of President Harris, with about 40 
pupils in attendance. The receipts, as we are informed, 
have hitherto been rather more than sufficient to meet the 
current expenses. We cannot learn, however, that anything 
has been done towards liquidating the debt incurred in the 
purchase of the buildings. — The notes executed for the 
property have passed from the original owner into the 

14 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

hands of Messrs. Stewart, Buchanan, & Co., who are not 
only not sohcitous about their present collection provided 
the interest be paid, but express a perfect willingness to 
receive back the property in lieu of the bond, both principal 
and interest if the trustees desire it, a fact indicating that 
the purchase of the property has not been injudicious. 

"Your Committee regret to state that the school at 
Emory and Henry College has of necessity been entirely 
suspended during the past year. The students have left its 
halls and are gone to fight the battles of the country. Efforts 
have been made to reopen the school but without success, 
and we are unwillingly forced to the conclusion that its 
operations must remain suspended until the return of peace 
and the successful establishment of our independence. 

"During the greater part of the past year the college 
buildings have been used as a hospital for sick and wounded 
soldiers, for which the Confederate Authorities pay the 
Trustees an annual rent of $2500. The farm is rented to 
other parties for $500. per annum, making an aggregate 
annual income of $3000. — The buildings and grounds have 
been carefully protected from injury while occupied by the 

"Your Committee recommend that the communication 
from the Trustees of Shoal Creek Academy be received 
with favor, but prefer that the question of appointing the 
Rev. Wm. Hicks as Principal be left with the authority to 
which it properly belongs. 

"In conclusion your Committee would most earnestly 
recommend the members of the Holston Annual Conference 
to give all the encouragement and support to the cause of 
education that these times of darkness will admit of: a 

As Athens Female College 15 

cause on which the future success and power of our Con- 
federacy must greatly depend. 
Respectfully submitted. 

Chairman of Committee"^ 

The following Board of Visitors was appointed in 
1862 for Athens Female College: Rev'ds T. Sullins, J. H. 
Burnett, G. Taylor, J. Atkins, A. G. Worley, J. F. Woodfin. 

The same Conference Minutes announced that Rev- 
erend Erastus Rowley, D.D., had been appointed to preach 
the annual sermon on the first day of the Conference to 
be held in 1863. 

The Daily Post, an Athens newspaper, under date of 
Friday, April 10, 1863, contains information concerning the 
College and refers to the general optimism of the South 
concerning the success of the Confederacy. 

The Athens Female College was reported to be "nearly 
full to its capacity." This fact was followed by this state- 
ment: "The larger and better portion of the young men 
of the country are in the Army, fighting the battles of 
freedom and independence. And whatever else you leave 
undone, don't neglect to educate your daughters." 

An editorial entitled "Confederate Bonds" revealed 
the confidence of the Confederacy. 

"We are gratified to learn that so many persons are 
disposed to invest their surplus money in Confederate 
Bonds. It is the safest, best, and most profitable disposition 
that can be made of it at present. — The interest, eight per 
cent, will be paid promptly semi-annually, and there can 
be no reasonable doubt of the redemption of the Bonds at 
maturity. Whenever the war closes, which is certain by 
the expiration of the present year at least, no matter how 

iMinutes of Holston Annual Conference, 

16 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

the wiseacres may shake their heads and carpers emit their 
doleful predictions, Confederate Bonds will command a 
heavy premium. Suppose a man invests ten thousand dol- 
lars in Bonds, he secures to himself the snug little sum of 
eight hundred dollars — enough in ordinary times to sup- 
port a good sized family quite genteely in this country. It 
will be remembered that the Bonds are exempt from the 
tax which Government levies upon other credits and prop- 
erty; and by this investment the purchaser helps himself 
and helps to relieve the public treasury from some of the 
difficulties which surround it in carrying on the war. Sus- 
taining the currency is essential to a successful termination 
of the struggle — a fact too palpable to admit of argument. 
Invest your surplus in Bonds, by all means, and when grim 
visaged war shall smoothe his wrinkled front and peace 
once more beam upon the land, they will be better to you 
than so many hoarded dollars, or lands and negroes, besides 
the satisfaction of having assisted your country in its hour 
of greatest need." 

Six months later the situation had changed consider- 
ably. The successes of General Grant, in Chattanooga, and 
General Sherman had enabled the Federal forces to con- 
trol East Tennessee. General Sherman records in Decem- 
ber of 1863 that he had ordered General Howard to Athens 
and later reports that he had ordered General Ewing's 
division to Athens. General Sherman's forces had been 
marched from Chattanooga to Knoxville and returned. He 
says that "by the ninth all our troops \vere in position, and 
we held the rich country between the Little Tennessee and 
the Hiwassee." 

The Methodists of Tennessee who had aligned them- 
selves with Union loyalties had become restive in the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, South following the conference 
session held in Athens in 1862. The successes of Grant and 

Second President of the College 

As Athens Female College 17 

Sherman released their loyalties and provided them with 
a spirit of agitation to reorganize the Methodist Episcopal 
Church in Tennessee as soon as hostilities ceased. 

The subsequent reorganization of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church resulted in the property of Athens Female 
College being purchased from President Rowley. It was 
natural that the Holston Conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South was reluctant to lose this property 
and the Journals of the annual conference sessions in 
1865 and 1866 contain reports on the situation of the 
College. In 1865 the following action was taken: 

"The Athens Female College is represented as em- 
barrassed by conflicting claims. Doctor Rowley, its Presi- 
dent, has upon a personal claim against the institution filed 
a bill in chancery asking that a sale of the property be 
made in thirty days without redemption. Your Committee 
would recommend that immediate steps be taken by this 
Conference to induce the Trustees of the College to demand 
an investigation of the claims of Doctor Rowley and to file 
a cross bill asking that the right of redemption be reserved 
to them in the case the property is sold. The Committee 
would further recommend that the Reverend C. Long and 
Reverend James Atkins be appointed as Agents to see the 
wishes of this Conference be carried into immediate effect." 

President Rowley was represented in Chancery Court 
by H. Blizard. Chancellor D. C. Trewhitt decreed that 
President Rowley's claims against the College were valid; 
it being brought out in the petition that Rowley with his 
own funds had bought additional acreage for the College 
and provided repairs and equipment during his administra- 
tion and held notes against the College totaling about 
$6,000. The court ordered a chancery sale of the Athens 
Female College to satisfy these claims. M. L. Phillips 
advertised the sale for August 10, 1866. 


In the Wesleyan Tradition 

Summing up the activities of the college president of 
a hundred fifty, or a hundred, yes even of seventy-five years 
ago we can conclude that these are the things he did: 
solicited funds for the operation of the college, recruited 
students, prepared the budget, supervised expenditures, 
purchased such materials and supplies as were used, recom- 
mended policies to trustees, corresponded with those inter- 
ested in the institution, admitted students and gave guid- 
ance to them, administered discipline, taught what we 
would regard today as a full load, conducted the chapel 
programs, preached every Sunday, carried on a public rela- 
tions program, participated in community and state affairs, 
prepared the curriculum, employed teachers and all other 
help. In other words the president of former time was not 
only the president but he was also, the vice-president, the 
registrar or dean of admission, the dean of the college, the 
comptroller, the superintendent of buildings and grounds, 
the chaplain, the director of guidance, personnel director, 
director of public relations and teacher. What a man! 

Today the college president of former years would be 
referred to by our faculties as a dictator; undoubtedly he 
was one. His authority was rarely if ever challenged, and 
seldom resented. 



20 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

As the federal forces triumphed, the Methodists of 
East Tennessee, friendly to the Union cause, began to hold 
services, organize Sunday Schools, and issued through the 
Knoxville Whig May 27, 1864 an invitation to a convention 
of those termed "Loyal Methodists" to decide what course 
they would pursue. A call issued for the Convention was as 
follows : 

"The undersigned, members and ministers of the 
Methodist Church, respectfully invite Methodist preachers 
and laymen, who are loyal to the government of the United 
States, within the bounds of the Holston Conference, to 
meet them in Convention at Knoxville, on the first Thurs- 
day in July, to take into consideration the troubles, wants 
and interests of our Church; and also the action of the 
late General Conference at Philadelphia in regard to our 
wants and our condition growing out of the rebellion. 

W. G. Brownlow 
J. A. Hyden 
E. E. Gillenwaters 
W. T. Dowell 
William Cureton 
James Gumming 
Thomas Russell 
William H. Rogers" 
The Convention met in St. John's Protestant Episcopal 
Church, Knoxville, Tennessee, July 7, 1864. The following 
persons were present as delegates: 

Messrs. James Murphy, James S. Hunt, F. Rule, D. B. 
Hunt, J. A. Ruble, Sr., A. R. Byington, Andrew Hutsell, 
J. W. Gibson, Elias Gibson, Dr. James Mahoney, James 
Baker, Alex. Kennedy, Wm. H. Hawk, G. G. Hawk, J. B. 
Sharp, James Plumley, W. W. Hawes, Daniel P. Gass, 
W. H. Finley, Jacob French, Michael French, Henry Har- 
rison, William Cheney, W. H. Carter, J. H. Howell, Solo- 

In the Wesleyan Tradition 21 

mon Clapp, James Curry, James Grigsby, V. S. Lotspeich, 
A. C. E. Callen, J. C. Hankins, Benjamin Wells. 

The following ministers, traveling and local: Revs. 
E. E. Gillenwaters, W. G. Brownlow, J. Albert Hyden, 
W. H. Rogers, W. C. Daily, E. Still, John Bower, W. T. 
Dowell, E. A. Adee, T. P. Rutherford, T. A. Cass, E. Stock- 
bridge, J. F. Morrison, T. H, Russell, Henry Walker, Wm. 
Crutchfield, Joseph Milburn, Spencer Henry, P. H. Reed, 
John Cox, James Gumming, Wm. Cureton, R. G. Black- 

The Convention was organized by the election of E. E. 
Gillenwaters, both a minister and a lawyer, as chairman, 
and R. G. Blackburn, as secretary. It was reported that 
Governor Brownlow had recently visited Bishop Matthew 
Simpson at Philadelphia and Bishop Davis W. Clark at 
Cincinnati, and that Rev. W. C. Daily had been direct- 
ing the work of reorganization in a tentative way in 
Bradley and other counties in lower East Tennessee. It 
was also made known that a canvas was being made to 
ascertain the number of ministers in East Tennessee who 
were in sympathy with the movement, and it was reported 
in the Convention that sixty ordained ministers, traveling 
and local, were ready to enter the ranks of the proposed 
organized movement, and sixty-five others unordained. It 
was asserted that about forty others whom it had not 
been possible to see, could be counted on. Several com- 
mittees were appointed, and among them one of eleven 
representative men, called the General Committee, whose 
particular duty it was to consider and report as to the line 
of action to be chosen. 


This committee reported, in part, as follows: 

"Pursuant to public notice, a Convention of loyal 
Methodist laymen and preachers, local and traveling, con- 

22 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

vened in the City of Knoxville, Tennessee, on the 7th of 
July, 1864, to take into consideration the wants, prospects 
and interests of the Methodist Church within the bounds 
of the Holston Annual Conference. The General Com- 
mittee, to whom this subject was referred, have had the 
matter under serious and prayerful consideration, and beg 
leave to submit the following brief report: 

"At an early period in this wicked rebellion the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, South, took her stand upon the 
treasonable and therefore false foundation of secession; her 
pulpits bellowed with more terrific thunder on the side of 
disunion than those of almost any other church, hurling 
fiery invectives at the Union and the North — carrying the 
most of her leading and influential ministers and members 
into the unhallowed embrace of treason. Under the ad- 
ministration of this, our former church, some of our min- 
isters have been proscribed, some refused circuits and 
stations, and others expelled — all for opinion's sake, and 
because they were loyal to the United States. We have 
determined, therefore, no longer to live under the iron rule 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, or to be associ- 
ated in our Church relations with the men who control the 
interest of said church and are likely to direct her future 

"It, therefore, remains for us and the loyal thousands 
of our brethren similarly situated, to do one of three things 
— either to remain in the wilderness (not of Judea, but of 
Dixie) and wander off into the mountains of sin and un- 
belief, whence we came; or, next, to form ourselves into a 
separate and independent organization; or, last of all, to 
seek a reunion with the Methodist Episcopal Church in the 
United States, whose doctrine, usages and faith are in ac- 
cord with ours, and in the enjoyment and practice of which 
we desire to live and die. 

In the Wesleyan Tradition 23 

"We, therefore, report in favor of returning to the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and asking, most respectfully, 
to be recognized by her and provided for, as the Holston 
Annual Conference, giving our loyal preachers the lead in 
our new organization, subject to the control and authority 
of the appointed heads of our church in the United States 
and to her Discipline. 

"1. Resolved, That the rebeUion of the Southern 
States against the government of the United States was 
without any just and sufficient cause, and therefore what 
has followed is without any foundation in right, justice, or 
laws of the land, or in the wants and necessities of the 
people in this or any other country. 

"2. Resolved, That all who willingly engaged in this 
rebellion, have, in the eyes of the Supreme Laws of the 
land, in the judgment of all enlightened nations, and 
especially in the feelings of every loyal heart of this vast 
continent, forfeited all the rights, privileges and immunities 
of the government of the United States. 

"3. Resolved, That the loyal members and ministers 
of the Holston Conference are entitled in law to all prop- 
erty belonging to said ecclesiastical organization, and vvdth 
the Divine Blessing we intend to claim and hold the same, 
and rebuild the waste places of Zion. 

"4. Resolved, That the loyal people and preachers of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, within the bounds 
of the Holston Conference, constitute said Church, and 
this convention, acting for said church and people, hereby 
propose at the earliest day practicable, to transfer the same 
to the Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States, 
and that a committee be appointed to complete the 
negotiations, subject to the approval of those transferred. 

"5. Resolved, That ministers having charge of Cir- 
cuits, Stations and Missions, and all who may have in the 

24 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

future, be instructed to propose to the churches in their 
respective charges to change their church relations from 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, by going en masse 
to the Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States." 

The report was unanimously adopted. 

Following the Convention in Knoxville the work of 
reorganizing Sunday schools and classes, circuits and sta- 
tions, under the general direction of Rev. W. C. Daily, 
was continued in anticipation of an early reorganization of 
the Conference. 

Patriotism and religion are two of the basic emotional 
allegiances of the human mind. Patriotism can cause un- 
dying love for one's country and great commitment to its 
preservation. Religion has been characterized by equal 
emotional devotion and strangely enough bitterness and 
hatred have issued from religious professions. 

The years which followed the end of the Civil War in 
East Tennessee were made even more difficult by the com- 
petition between the established Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South and the Methodist Episcopal Church which 
was reorganized in Athens, June 1-5, 1865, with Bishop 
Davis W. Clark, of Cincinnati, presiding, which declared 
itself favoring the organization of a college for the Central 

Under the principalship of Percival Clark Wilson the 
educational goal of the Holston Conference came to early 
fruition in Athens, Tennessee. 

Percival Clark Wilson was born at Thornville, Ohio, 
October 20, 1830. Wilson was graduated from Ohio Wes- 
leyan University with a Bachelor of Arts Degree in 1855, 
and with a Master of Arts Degree in 1858. Following 
travels in Europe Wilson joined the Faculty of Ohio 
Wesleyan University. 

Wilson refused a commission and entered the United 

Teacher, Trustee, and Fifth President 

In the Wesleyan Tradition 25 

States Army as a private in the second Ohio Heavy Artil- 
lery and attained the rank of Second Lieutenant. While in 
Tennessee during the War, he became impressed by the 
scenery, climate and economic opportunities in East Ten- 
nessee, and at the close of the War he located in Athens 
and became a merchant. He was married to Letitia Smith 
Atlee, the daughter of Reverend and Mrs. Edwin A. Atlee, 
a Pennsylvania family. The facilities of Athens Female 
College were used by Wilson for the organization of a 
school which opened late in 1866 or in January 1867. 
Eighty-six students were enrolled, fifty-two males and thirty- 
four females, only three of this number were listed as col- 
lege students, the remainder were enrolled in the prepara- 
tory department. The opening of school in this area faced 
many problems. The East Tennessee area having been 
devastated by contending military forces, the supplies of 
the people were limited, and primary attention had to be 
given to economic recovery rather than to providing 
education for the young people of the area. 

David A. Bolton in his Memoirs describes the prob- 
lems East Tennessee families faced at the close of the Civil 
War and during the years of Reconstruction. 

"The waste and ruin to homes and farms in East 
Tennessee was very great. The Bolton farm at the be- 
ginning of the Civil War was very productive and well 
supplied for that day with sheep, hogs, cattle and horses. 
Before I left home each Army forged over a large portion 
of the Eastern part of the State. My brother John and 
myself in the Fall of 1863 made every effort to save from 
Confederate forces six good horses, especially two which we 
prized very highly, and felt one day we had them safely 
concealed, but in short time a few Calvarymen passed the 
home leading our favorite horses. We felt keenly our loss. 

"At the close of the War the farm was fully without 

26 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

livestock. By slow processes and sacrifice the most needed 
for support of the family was soon secured. During two 
years the usual crops had not been produced. People were 
short of provisions — some of which could not be secured 
such as sugar, coffee, tea and other articles which could 
not be grown there. Many citizens grew sugar cane and 
made sorghum and devised a so-called substitute for coffee 
from parched \vheat or particles of sweet potatoes, poor 
makeshifts for the genuine goods. While I had a great 
variety of good food in Indiana, my home folks and others 
in East Tennessee were subsisting on scanty rations. 

"No one knows the privations and sufferings of those 
war time years in East Tennessee except those who 
experienced them. 

"The foregoing lines but vaguely describe the condi- 
tions when I returned home. The country had been wasted 
by the forces of opposing armies into which many boys, 
young men and old men had gone to fight against each 
other. Families and communities often had representatives 
in each army. These conditions made civic life tense, 
critical and unfriendly when the War ended. 

"The material surroundings and the spiritual influences 
about my old home were not as favorable as they were 
before the beginning of hostilities." 

Preceding the organization of a school by Professor 
Wilson, President Rowley, of Athens Female College, had 
transferred his conference membership from the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South to the reorganized Holston Con- 
ference of the Methodist Episcopal Church and had been 
appointed by Bishop Davis as President and Financial 
Agent of Athens Female College at the session June 1-5, 

The Conference Journal of 1867 refers to a report sub- 
mitted by Professor P. C. Wilson, Chairman of the Confer- 

In the Wesleyan Tradition 27 

ence Committee which had been appointed in 1866 and 
given the power to select and locate a college, and the 
Committee on Education made the following roport: 

The Committee reported that the Reverend Doctor 
T. H. Pearne, who had transferred to the Holston Confer- 
ence from the Oregon Conference, was serving as the 
President of the Board of Trustees of this institution and 
that he had been able to secure a Charter from the Legis- 
lature of the State of Tennessee, "giving to the institution 
University powers and privileges," and also reporting that 
a flourishing preparatory department had been in operation 
during the past year, under the supervision of Professor 

The Conference expressed its gratification that the 
Committee had been able to secure property worth $15,000 
to $20,000 in the town of Athens, McMinn County, with a 
good title, and with funds available to meet existing obliga- 
tions, purchased through the bidding of the Reverend 
Edwin A. Atlee, on June 4, 1867, in settlement of President 
Rowley's claims against the Board of Trustees. 

A Charter was passed March 9, 1867, by the General 
Assembly of the State of Tennessee and signed by the Sec- 
retary of State on April 13, 1867. The Charter for East 
Tennessee Wesleyan College read as follows: 
An Act Incorporating the East Tennessee Wesleyan College 
at Athens Tennessee : and for other purposes. 
Whereas sundry citizens of Tennessee have purchased suit- 
able bjildings and grounds near Athens, Tennessee, in 
McMinn County, State of Tennessee, for the purpose of 
establishing and conducting therein, a first class College for 
Males, which College is to be under the government and 
control of the Holston Annual Conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, subject to such rules and restrictions as 
are therein after set forth: and Whereas, The security of 

28 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

society, the supremacy of the Laws, the preservation of our 
civil and rehgious Hberties the perpetuation of our Institu- 
tions and of the Union are materially dependant upon the 
intelligence and virtue of the people: and Whereas it is 
greatly to the interest of the State to encourage the erection 
of Schools and. Colleges for the dissemination of Knowledge 
and Education, Therefore. 

Section 1. 

Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Ten- 
nessee: That a Corporation is hereby constituted and 
established under the name and style of the East Tennessee 
Wesleyan College, and in that name capable of suing and 
being sued, pleading and be impleaded, and of buying, 
holding improving, disposing of, governing and protecting 
suitable grounds and buildings for higher educational pur- 
poses, in or near the Town of Athens, McMinn County 
State of Tennessee: and also capable of collecting gifts, 
grants on bequests made to the purposes of Education in 
said institution. 

Section 2. 

Be it further enacted. That Thomas H. Pearne, J. Albert 
Hyden, L. F. Drake, John T. Spence, W. C. Daily, James 
Hornsby, Geo. W. Ross, Milton S. Phillips, M. A. Helm, 
E. A. Allen, C. W. Vincent, William G. Brownlow, James 
Turner, James Baker, R. R. Butler, N. A. Patterson, Samuel 
Hutsell, John W. Mann, and J. B. Little and their Suc- 
cessors in Office shall constitute the aforesaid corporation 
and they shall have power to create by receiving gifts, grants 
or bequests and to preserve a fund or funds to an amount 
not exceeding five hundred thousand dollars, for the endow- 
ment and maintenance of said East Tennessee Wesleyan 
College, procure libraries and apparatus suitable therefor, 
fix the course of studies for pupils engage, or discharge 
professors, confer degrees and do all other things necessary 

In the Wesleyan Tradition 29 

to be done for the maintenance and prosperity of a col- 
legiate or University Institution. 

Section 3. 

Be it further enacted, That said Trustees when called to- 
gether by the first above named Trustees, and their succes- 
sors from year to year thereafter, shall organize by electing 
a President, Secretary and Treasurer out of their own body : 
and they may adopt a corporate seal and such by-laws and 
regulations as they find necessary, provided they are not 
inconsistent with the constitution of the State of Tennessee 
and of the United States, nor with the special objects of 
this Act, and provided also, that not less than a majority 
shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business, at 
meetings of the Board. 

Section 4. 

Be it further enacted: That the above named Trustees 
shall have succession as follows: At the first meeting of the 
said Trustees, after the passage of this Act, they shall pro- 
ceed by ballot, to devide themselves into three classes, num- 
bered. One, Two, and Three, respectively as follows: Class 
no one to consist of seven persons whose first term of Office 
shall continue until October 1st A. D. 1867, and each 
succeeding term of said class three years: Class no. two to 
consist of six persons, whose first term of Office shall con- 
tinue until October 1st 1868. and each succeeding term of 
said class, three years: Class number three, to consist of 
six persons whose first term of office shall continue until 
October 1st 1869. and each succeeding term of said class, 
three years: at which several times, the Holston Annual 
Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church shall have 
power to fill said vacancies or others which may occur and 
thence forward from year to year, the several classes being 
respectively elected for three years. 

30 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

Section 5. 

Be it further enacted, That the said Trustees and their 
Successors, as well in the obtaining and preservation of 
grounds, buildings, endowments, or other funds as in the 
General direction and government of the said College shall 
observe and carry out the Expressed will and pleasure of 
the aforesaid Holston Annual Conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, so far as the same shall be communi- 
cated to them and not be in conflict with the special object 
of this Act. 

Section 12. 

Be it further enacted, That this Act shall take effect from 

and after its passage. Passed March 9th 1867. 

J. S. Mulloy, 

Speaker Protem of the H. of R. 

Joshua B. Frierson 

Speaker of the Senate. 

I, ANDREW J. FLETCHER, Secretary of State of 
the State of Tennessee, do Certify that the foregoing is a 
copy of So much of An Act of the General Assembly of the 
State of Tennessee, as relates to the East Tennessee Wesley- 
an College at Athens, Tennessee, the original of which is 
now on file in my office. 

In Testimony Thereof, I have hereunto subscribed my 
Official Signature, and by order of the Governor, 
affixed the Great Seal of the State of Tennessee; 
at the Department in the City of Nashville, this 
13 day of April A. D., 1867. 

A. J. Fletcher 
Secretary of State. 

Due to business interests Professor Wilson did not de- 
sire to continue as the head of East Tennessee Wesleyan 
College although his interest in the school and in the later 

In the Wesleyan Tradition 31 

established institution in Chattanooga was to be continued 
during the remainder of his Hfe. 

Concerning the abiHty of Professor Wilson, Doctor 
John J. Manker wrote as follows: "Possessed of intellectual 
faculties of a high order, fine business qualities and untiring 
energy, he rendered a service of great value to the Church." 

The Board of Trustees and the Holston Conference 
considered they were fortunate to secure the leadership of 
the Reverend Nelson E. Cobleigh, already recognized 
nationally as one of the distinguished leaders of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church, who became president in 1867. 

Cobleigh was born in Littleton, New Hampshire, Nov- 
ember 24, 1814. He was the youngest of eleven children. 
He began his preparatory studies in Newbury, Vermont, in 
1838. In 1839 he entered Wesleyan University, in Middle- 
town, Connecticut, where for four years he struggled against 
poverty but graduated in 1843 with first honors. In 1844 
Mr. Cobleigh joined the New England Conference of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church and continued in the pastorate 
for nine years. In 1853 he accepted the Chair of Ancient 
Languages in McKendree College, in Lebanon, Illinois. The 
following year he was elected to a professorship in Law- 
rence College, in Appleton, Wisconsin. In 1857 he was 
elected the president of McKendree College and entered 
upon his responsibilities in 1858. In this position he revealed 
qualities of mind and heart which enabled him to bring 
McKendree College from a state of bankruptcy to a solvent 

In 1863 Doctor Cobleigh was elected to the Editorship 
of Zion's Herald in Boston, Massachusetts, which he re- 
signed to accept the invitation to become the President of 
East Tennessee Wesleyan University. 

President Cobleigh realized that he had accepted a 
responsibility which would demand courage, conviction and 

32 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

heroism. The situation which President Cobleigh faced 
was also reaHstically acknowledged by the Holston Confer- 
ence Committee on Education. 

The Committee realized that it was beginning a college 
in a small way, but it took comfort in referring to the first 
ten years of the history of Yale College and declared that 
by comparison East Tennessee Wesleyan University had 
within it the potential of becoming a strong institution. 
This faith was expressed in the following sentence: 

"Though the things of to-day be small with us, not so 
our expectations." 

The Conference adopted the following resolution: 

"WHEREAS, The labor of building up an Institution 
of the character this is designed to be is not the work of a 
day or year; but a work requiring time, money and per- 
severing effort. And 

"WHEREAS, In other localities several annual con- 
ferences combine in building up one institution, it appears 
to your Committee of the highest importance that this Con- 
ference should be fully impressed with the idea of unity of 
feeling and action in this great enterprise. Therefore, 

"Resolved 1, That as a Conference we pledge our- 
selves, individually and collectively, to give our united in- 
fluence to the work of building up, sustaining and amply 
endowing the East Tennessee Wesleyan College. 

"Resolved 2, That we will promptly discourage and 
oppose any attempt to divide the interests of the Church, 
by any movement whatever to establish another Institution 
of the same grade for males, within the bounds of the 

The College apparently was made co-educational in 
1868 and the name of the school was authorized by the 
State Legislature to read East Tennessee Wesleyan Univer- 
sity, its third name in two years. 

Sixth President of the College 

In the Wesleyan Tradition 33 

The report listed the resources of the College : 

Assets — Buildings and Eleven Acres of Land $20,000.00 

Library (1,000 volumes) 1,200.00 

Organ for Chapel 300.00 

Apparatus and Furniture 200.00 



liabilities — Balance due on purchase 

of property 


Balance due to teachers 


Total $ 810.15 

By 1869 financial problems had begun to make them- 
selves felt in the thinking of the Conference, and the Com- 
mittee on Education reported: 

"Your Committee, in view of the fact that our literary 
institutions are more or less embarrassed, financially, would 
recommend that steps be taken at once to control but few 
institutions, and make these few self-supporting if possible." 

The following resolutions were adopted: 

"Resolved, That we request the presiding Bishop to 
appoint an agent for our literary institutions for the ensu- 
ing year. 

"Resolved, That we most affectionately request and 
urge upon all the ministers of the Conference, upon reach- 
ing their respective charges, to present the claims of the 
East Tennessee Wesleyan University to the consideration of 
our people ; and that they each raise as much as ten dollars 
to the charge, upon the average, if possible, and forward the 
same to James H. Hornsby, Treasurer, Athens, McMinn 
county, Tennessee; and that they each endeavor to send at 
least one additional student to our University." 

The Committee faced a problem which proved to be 
perennial in the life of the college, and that had to do with 

34 A Hi<:torv of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

its financing. The Committee on Education acknowledged 
that there was much progress but added that there is a 
single drawback which has to do with the financial structure 
of the institution, saying that the amounts that come from 
tuition are insufficient to carry the expenses of operating the 
university. Trustees see the situation, and feel the embar- 
rassment, and ask what is to be done. "The present in- 
debtedness is $2,478, due only to the Faculty," 

The expenses for the year were estimated at $4,050, 
and the income from tuition at $3,000, leaving a deficit of 
$1,050. This added to previous indebtedness w^ould in- 
crease the debt to $3,800. It was the judgment of the 
Trustees and of the committee that this Conference should 
at its present session, devise some plan and make provision : 
"First, to meet the annual deficiency in current expenses, 
and, secondly, to pay off the indebtedness." 

A special committee was appointed to deal with 
methods of covering the deficit and the obligations, and for 
the first time the districts of the Conference were appor- 
tioned amounts to be raised for the College during the year 
as follows : 

Knox\illc District $ 300 

Athens District 200 

Chattanooga District 200 

Morristo\\'n District 125 

Jonesboro District 125 

Ashe\'ille District 50 

Total $1,000 

The Presiding Elders (District Superintendents) of the 
Districts were invited to call educational meetings at their 
First Quarterly Conference, if practicable, for the purpose 
of raising or devising the means of securing the amount 
apportioned to the Districts, and to urge upon his people 

In the Wesleyan Tradition 35 

the importance of sending qualified students to the Uni- 

In 1871 the Board of Trustees authorized the opening 
of a theological department in the University and directed 
the President to give a substantial amount of his time to 
the development of this department, which enrolled about 
a dozen students, who had decided to study for the Christian 

The Executive Committee, the same year, authorized 
the opening of a law department and the responsibility for 
developing this department was placed in the hands of the 
Honorable N. A. Patterson. 

The first graduating class, that of 1871, included the 
following persons : Edwin Augustus Atlee, John Henry Clay 
Foster, Joseph Leander Gaston, Wiley S. Gaston, Josephine 
Gaston Hale, Cornelia Atlee Hutsell, John Jenkins Manker, 
William Elbert Franklin Milburn, Susan Lizzie Moore, and 
Mary J. Mason Presnell. 

It was announced in 1872 that the Board of Trustees 
had adopted a policy of providing free tuition to all students 
needing aid, a policy which was to provide encouragement 
to many poor students but was to begin a tradition which 
continued to cause embarrassment to the institution for 
many generations, as it created an assumption in the think- 
ing of successive classes of students that a college education 
could be received without financial sacrifice on the part of 
the student and his family. 

President Cobleigh served with devotion for five years. 
At the General Conference of 1872 he accepted election 
as the editor of the Methodist Advocate, published in At- 
lanta, Georgia. 

Doctor Cobleigh was a man of great versatility, excel- 
ling as preacher, administrator, writer and teacher. As 
President, he carried a heavy responsibility as a teaching 

36 ' A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

member of the faculty. He gave instruction in Latin, Greek, 
History, Rhetoric, Ethics and Psychology. David A. Bolton 
was devoted to him, as apparently were all the students of 
the University. Bolton writes that he required each member 
of the class to bring a good translation of the previous day's 
Greek lesson. His assignments seemed too demanding. Bol- 
ton recalls Cobleigh's comment concerning his heavy re- 
quirements, "Young men, if you can endure this pressure 
now, you need not fear what may come to you later." 
Doctor Cobleigh returned to Athens to keep an important 
preaching appointment, became ill, and died in Atlanta, 
February 1, 1874. Doctor Cobleigh had been more than a 
local leader in New England or in Tennessee. He had 
served as a member of the General Conferences of 1864, 
1868, and 1872. Following his death, resolutions com- 
mending his great contribution to the Church were passed 
by the Ne\v York preachers' meeting, the Boston preachers' 
meeting, the Book Committee of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church at its annual meeting arid the 1874 session of the 
Holston Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

The University turned to another graduate of Wesley- 
an University and secured the services of the Reverend 
James A. Dean. 

Dean was born in Hubbardton, Vermont, April 3, 
1823. He spent his boyhood years at Ogdenburg, New 
York. He was graduated from Wesleyan University, in 
Middletown, Connecticut, in 1847. He spent seven years 
teaching in North Carolina and Virginia and later joined 
the Ne\v England Southern Conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. In 1872 he was elected President of East 
Tennessee Wesleyan University, where he remained until 
1875. He then returned to the New York East Conference 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church and was later elected 
President of New Orleans University. He received the Doc- 







In the Wesleyan Tradition 37 

tor of Divinity Degree from Illinois Wesleyan University. 
He was known for his accurate scholarship and habits of 

In 1872 it was reported that the efforts to meet the 
expenses of the university had failed. Although through the 
efforts of Reverend R. D. Black who had been appointed 
as financial agent, substantial amounts had been raised a 
deficit of $2,000 still remained unpaid. 

The financial situation accentuated partly by the eco- 
nomic panic of 1872 continued to be a major problem and 
President Dean resigned at the end of three years to return 
to the pastoral ministry. 

Following his administration here, Doctor Dean pub- 
lished an abridgement in two volumes of "The Decline and 
Fall of the Roman Empire" which was said to have received 
a very generous reception. 

He died March 29, 1884, in New Brunswick, New 

The Board of Trustees turned to Doctor John J. Man- 
ker for presidential leadership. Doctor Manker served from 
June until October. Appointment to the presidency re- 
quired the approval of the presiding Bishop and this could 
not be given until the October session of the Annual Con- 
ference. Doctor Manker announced at that time that he 
preferred not to be given a permanent assignment as the 
head of the institution. 

John J. Manker was born December 24, 1839, at Fin- 
castle, Ohio. He received an A.B. degree from East Tennes- 
see Wesleyan University in 1871 and a Master of Arts de- 
gree from Ohio Wesleyan University in 1874. The Univers- 
ity of Tennessee conferred the honorary Doctor of Divinity 
degree upon him in 1883. After service in the United 
States Army during the Civil War, Mr. Manker decided to 
identify himself with the Methodist Episcopal Church in the 

38 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

Holston Conference. He served as a member of the faculty 
of East Tennessee Wesleyan University, as presiding elder, 
as minister of leading churches, as a professor in Chatta- 
nooga University, as a professor in the School of Theology 
of Grant University, and as editor of The Methodist Advo- 
cate Journal. Doctor Manker released creative educational 
interests which found their expression in the great contri- 
butions of John A. Patten, Mrs. John A. Patten, Mrs. 
Alexander Guerry, Manker Patten, and Lupton Patten, 
now president of the Board of Trustees of the Univ^ersity 
of Chattanooga. 

Doctor Manker was to prove one of the foundation 
stones in the maintenance of the institutions both at Athens 
and Chattanooga. 

In September 1875 the Holston Conference reported 
that East Tennessee Wesleyan University had been required 
to execute a Deed of Trust in the amount of $5,000, which 
could be closed out at any time. 

The Conference had committed itself at the first ses- 
sion to the building of a strong institution. Its aspirations 
had ended in frustration but the Conference was not willing 
to relinquish its efforts to stabilize the university and to 
secure adequate financial undergirding. In the light of the 
urgent needs of the university the Conference turned to the 
Reverend J. F. Spcnce, who had served as a member of the 
Board of Trustees and had been successful in securing funds 
for the college, to serve as its President, and the Conference 
requested the Presiding Bishop to appoint Doctor Spence 
to the presidency of East Tennessee Wesleyan University, 
and appealed to the Methodists of Georgia, Alabama, and 
Tennessee to set aside their Centennial Year ofTerings to be 
designated for the strengthening of the institution at Athens. 

John Fletcher Spence was born in Greenville, Ohio, 
February 3, 1828. He received his education at Ohio Wes- 

In the Wesleyan Tradition 39 

leyan University from which he received the Bachelor of 
Arts degree in 1856, and the Master of Arts degree in 1880. 
Mr. Spence united with the Cincinnati Conference of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church in 1853 and served churches 
in that Conference until 1862 when he became a chaplain 
in the United States Army. At the close of the Civil War, 
Mr. Spence located in Knoxville after transferring his mem- 
bership to the reorganized Holston Conference of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church in 1865 of which he was sec- 
retary. Later he was appointed presiding elder of the Knox- 
ville District where he served from 1869 until 1872. Doctor 
Spence, as he became with honorary degrees from Mount 
Union College and Scioto College, was one of the founders 
of Tennessee Wesleyan College, had much to do with the 
charter which was secured, and from the beginning of his 
residence in East Tennessee took an active part in the 
establishment of educational institutions. He was successful 
in securing funds in the North and East for the College and 
is credited with securing funds in sufficient amounts to pay 
the indebtedness on the institution after it was bought in 
1867. Doctor Spence served the institution in many capac- 
ities over a twenty-six year period, as financial agent, as 
president, and as chancellor. It was during his administra- 
tion that the name of the school was changed first to Grant 
Memorial University, and then three years later to U. S. 
Grant University at the time of its consolidation with 
Chattanooga University. Because of a disagreement with 
the Board of Trustees, Doctor Spence left the institution in 
1893 and established a competitive institution in Harriman, 
Tennessee, known as American Temperance University. 
Doctor Spence's estrangement was of short duration. In 
later years he became a trustee again and was generous in 
providing financial assistance for the institution. 

During his administration Doctor Spence went into the 

40 A History of Teyinessee Wesleyan Colle^ie 

mountain sections of the South and appealed to young men 
to get an education. Then he went into the North to secure 
funds to provide the resources to enable the institution to 
provide the training. In an address in Troy, New York, he 
said, "The close of the Civdl War saw such poverties as 
never before known. The poor became poorer and the 
ignorant more ignorant. We are training the illiterate, non- 
slave holding portion of the South for the leaders of the 

The contribution which the university made to East 
Tennesse during Doctor Spence's administration cannot be 
measured. For instance, from 1886 to 1889 there were 
sixty-seven graduates of the school. Of this number, four 
became physicians, ten became judges or lawyers, twenty 
became teachers, and sixteen became ministers. 

The confidence of the Conference in President Spence's 
resourcefulness was not without foundation as his leadership 
during the first year of his administration clearly revealed. 
By October 1876 it was reported that the entire indebted- 
ness of the University had been liquidated and that addi- 
tional funds for repairs and equipment had been secured. 

The Committee refused to place education in a 
secondary position and insisted that it was of primary 
significance in the life of the Church. 

The report reads, in part, as follows: 

"In direct returns and benefits, the college is far su- 
perior to the missionary cause. One is home, the other 
foreign — one our o^vn household, the other a stranger's. 

"Money given to the college is not a pebble thrown 
into the sea, but a dyke against the raging waves. The col- 
lege is not an ornament but an arsenal. It is not a cancer 
on the body, but a vital function in it. It is not a burden of 
useless freight, but a rich cargo; not barnacles on the keel, 
but wind in the sails of the ship. In helping the college we 

In the Wesleyan Tradition 41 

are feeding, clothing, training our child; that child will 
give us back love, a strong arm and brain, and vigorous 
labor for the improvement of the original estate; and will 
be constantly dropping golden fruit into the bosom of her 
who gave it birth. 

"The East Tennessee Wesleyan University is the child 
of this Conference; born in 1867. Scarcely ten years of age; 
has been feeble most of her life; came nigh unto death one 
year ago, has recovered ; is now convalescent, has received a 
new suit of clothes from her friends in the North — in this 
new dress and hearty state she presents herself before her 
mother this day, claiming recognition, love and attention." 

President Spence's administration was the second long- 
est in the history of the institution. A number of outstanding 
achievements are credited to his leadership. Among the 
advances made and the changes effected during his admini- 
stration the following are of special significance : 

In 1878 a gift was made which seemed to be a solution 
of many of the university's problems. Colonel H. G. Bixby, 
of California, it was reported, has given the University a 
large interest in eight rich silver mines near Globe City, 
Arizona. Through the efforts of President Spence and Pro- 
fessor Caldwell a mill costing $40,000 had been erected 
and paid for. It was anticipated that by December 10, 
1878, the University would receive a dividend of $7,000. 
The Conference expressed its gratitude in the following 
resolution : 

"That we gratefully acknowledge the munificent gift of 
Colonel H. G. Bixby to the University, and recognize in him 
a friend to humanity, and a real benefactor to our Church, 
whom we shall ever delight to respect and honor." 

A year later it was reported that "the Trustees are not 

42 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

realizing on the Arizona mineral interest as soon as was an- 
ticipated ; nevertheless, it is full of promise, and all are con- 
fident of success in the near future." Apparently that was 
the end of Colonel Bixby and we find no evidence that the 
University received any income from this gift and the sub- 
stantial investment which the University had made in pro- 
viding the facilities for the operation of the mines. 

The failure of Colonel Bixby's contribution to 
materialize did not defeat the institution. In 1880 it was 
reported by the Conference that "the report of its trustees 
shows the institution to be free of debt. The income from 
tuition is wholly inadequate to support the University. But 
through the efforts of its President its income has been 
largely supplemented by donations and collections from 
churches and friends in the North." Included among these 
friends in the North there is reference to a Mrs. Clark, of 
Cleveland, Ohio, \vho had provided a bequest of $1,000 
for the establishment of a scholarship. 

In 1882 the construction of a Chapel located on the 
site of the present Townsend Memorial Hall was begun. 
This building served for assembly programs and chapel 
services, and as a place of worship for the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, of Athens, from the time of its construction 
until the erection of the present Trinity Methodist Church, 
in Athens, erected under the leadership of the Reverend 
Burton M. Martin in 1909, the Church selling its share of 
the Chapel to the University at that time. The institution 
continued to use the Chapel until 1924 \vhen it was razed 
to provide an area for the construction of \\hat is no\v 
Townsend Memorial Hall. 

The spirit of the President in his leadership is indicated 
by a report in 1882 that a debt of $3,000 had accumulated, 
$2,500 of it was back salary and advances made by Presi- 

In the Weslcyan Tradition 43 

dent Spence. The President generously proposed that if the 
Trustees would pay $500 he would donate $2,500. The 
Trustees accepted the proposition and "we report with 
gladness the institution entirely free of debt." 

President Spence was not only interested in the finan- 
cial solvency of the institution and interested enough to put 
his own resources into the University, but he was especially 
concerned with the curriculum. 

In 1883 the Conference stated in its report, "the Uni- 
versity Curriculum, as laid down in the Catalog, compares 
favorably with any in the land." 

From 1867 until 1906 the University required four 
years of residence for the awarding of the baccalaureate 
degree, one of the first in the South to establish the four- 
year curriculum. As late as 1911 no southern state univer- 
sity required four years of residence work for the A.B. 
degree. In 1913 only seven colleges or universities in the 
South required four years of residence work for the Bache- 
lor's degree and the University of Chattanooga, by that 
time parent of the institution organized in Athens, was 
among those requiring four years. 

Throughout the reports it was mentioned frequently 
that East Tennessee Wesleyan University was at a disad- 
vantage in increasing its student body because students 
could go to other institutions and receive a degree for less 
than four years of residence work. 

The catalog of 1882-1883 listed three curricula. Classi- 
cal, Latin Scientific, and Scientific, in addition to the 
normal curriculum which required less than four years but 
did not lead to a degree. 

44 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

The curricula were as follows: 

First Term 
Latin — Livy. 
Greek — Odyssey. 

Second Term 
Latin — Livy. 
Greek — Memorabilia. 
General Geometry. 
Orator's Manual. 

Third Term 
Latin — Germania. 
Greek — Thucydides. 
General Geometry. 

First Term 

Latin — Horace's Odes. 

Greek — Plato's Apology. 

Land Surveying. 


Second Term 

Latin — Agricola. 

Greek — Plato's Crito. 

Differential Calculus. 

Civil Government. 


Third Term 

Latin — Terence. 

Greek — Euripides. 

Integral Calculus. 



First Term 

Latin — Satires and 

Epistles of Horace. 
Greek — Demosthenes 

or German. 
Second Term 
Latin — Juvenal. 
Greek — Demosthenes 

or German. 


Latin — Aeneid 
Latin Prose. 
History' of Rome. 
Plane Geometry. 
Complete Algebra. 

Latin — Cicero. 
Solid 6? Spherical 

Complete Algebra. 
Orator's Manual. 
Civil Government. 

Latin — Cicero. 
Advanced Geometry. 


Latin — Livy. 
Odes of Horace. 

Latin — Livy. 
General Geometry. 

Latin — Germania. 
General Geometry. 
Political Econom}'. 


Latin — Satires and 

Epistles of Horace. 
Land Surveying. 
Science of Rhetoric. 

Latin — Agricola. 
Differential Calculus. 


History of Rome. 
Plane Geometry. 
Complete Algebra. 

Solid 6? Spherical 

Complete Algebra. 
Orator's Manual. 
Civil Government. 

Advanced Geometry. 






General Geometry. 

General Geometry. 
Political Economy. 

Land Surveying. 
Science of Rhetoric. 
French — Elective. 

Differential Calculus. 
French — Elective. 

1 Catalog I882-'83. 

In the Wesleyan Tradition 


Third Term 

Latin — Seneca's Epistles 

Greek — Acts of Apostles 

or German. 
Political Economy. 

First Term 

Latin — Cicero De 

Natura Deorum. 
Science of Rhetoric. 
Moral Science. 
Second Term 

Butler's Analogy. 
English Literature. 

Intellectual Science. 
Third Term 
Kame's Elements of 

International Law. 
Intellectual Science. 

Latin — Terence. 
Integral Calculus. 
International Law. 


Latin — Cicero De 
Natura Deorum. 
Moral Science. 

Latin — Juvenal. 
Butler's Analogy. 
Intellectual Science. 

Latin — Seneca's Essay. 
Kame's Elements of 

Intellectual Science. 

International Law. 
Integral Calculus. 
History of Philosophy. 
French — Elective. 

Constitutional History. 


Moral Science. 

English Literature. 
Butler's Analogy. 
Intellectual Science. 

Kame's Elements of 

Evidences of Christianity. 
Intellectual Science. 

Student handbooks were apparently unknown at that 
time. The regulations governing student conduct were 
known as "By-Laws" and were listed in the University 

Students who achieved a degree by the way of Greek, 
Latin, physics, chemistry, botany and history had little time 
for social life, athletics or fun. 

The catalog for 1882-1883 describes the Spartan 


1. Students are expected to rise at 5 o'clock in the morn- 
ing and retire by 10 p.m. 

2. Recitations, prayers in the morning and other regular 
exercises shall be punctually attended by each student. 

3. During study hours, students are not allowed to visit 
each other's rooms nor visit about the village. 

4. Students will obtain permission of one of the teachers 
before leaving town. 

iCatalog 1882''83. 

46 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan Colle^^e 

5. Students are required to be orderly and quiet in and 
about the buildings. 

6. Profane or obscene language will not be tolerated un- 
der any circumstances. 

7. The use of any intoxicating beverage and the playing 
of cards are absolutely forbidden. 

8. No student will be permitted to attend balls, dancing 
parties, circuses or operatic shows. 

9. A strict observance of the Sabbath, and attendance 
upon public worship will be required. 

10. Young ladies may not receive calls from gentlemen, 
except of friends from a distance. 

1 1 . Young gentlemen are not permitted to visit young 
ladies at their own rooms. 

12. The escorting of young ladies by young gentlemen is 
not allowed without especial permission from the 

13. Students will be held responsible for any injuries done 
to their rooms or other parts of the building. 

14. Students will not be allowed to use tobacco within the 

15. Absence from recitation \\ithout satisfactory excuse, as 
well as insubordination in the class-room, shall be 
reckoned and bear upon the student's grade. 

16. Any student desiring to sever his connection with the 
University before the close of the term must inform 
the Faculty in writing of his intention, and obtain their 

Any student habitually violating the above rules will not be 
allowed to remain in the University. 

It must have been reassuring to President Spence to 
hear the Holston Conference report of 1884: 

"The passed year has been one of unprecedented pros- 
perity and material growth. The annual catalogue shows 

In the Wesleyan Tradition 47 

an enrollment of 279 students, 30 of whom were in perpara- 
tion for the ministry. During the year nine southern states 
were represented in the halls of the University, also two 
northern states. 

"The Hatfield Boarding Hall, a beautiful structure, 74 
feet long by 32 feet wide, three stories high, with a capacity 
to accommodate 40 students, has just been completed at a 
cost of $3,000, every dollar of which has been paid. 

'The Chapel and Church, a splendid building of mod- 
ern style, has been completed and dedicated with every 
dollar of indebtedness provided for. 

"The moral and religious status of the school during 
the past year has been unusually good. 

"This school was never more full of promise than at 
the present. The Trustees continue the free tuition system, 
simply charging an incidential fee of $5 per term. 

''Resolved, That we are greatly gratified with the 
prosperity of the University during the past year, and we 
hereby pledge our cordial support for the year to come." 

In 1885 it was reported that there had been another 
year of prosperity, that the enrollment had averaged 250 
during preceding five years, and that some nine to eleven 
states had been represented in the student body. It was also 
reported that 24 young men were preparing for the Chris- 
tian ministry and that in cooperation with the University 
Y.M.C.A. a corps of Christian workers had been organized 
so effectively that a revival of the preceding winter had re- 
sulted in fifty conversions. 

The trustees had purchased during the year the Wilson 
property consisting of two acres and a building of eight 
rooms to be used as a boarding house for young ladies. 

A summary indicated that the campus consisted of 18 
acres, six buildings with a capacity to accommodate 400 stu- 
dents, and that the property if located in Knoxville \\ ould 
be w^orth $50,000. 


As a Memorial to Grant 

To labor constantly for the world with no thought of 
self, to find indifference and opposition where you ought to 
find active assistance, to meet criticism with patience and 
the open attacks of ignorance without resentment, to plead 
with others for their own good, to follow sleepless nights 
with days of incessant toil, to strive continually without ever 
attaining — this is to be a college president. But this is only 
half the truth. To be associated with ambitious youth and 
high-minded men, to live in an atmosphere charged with 
thoughts of the world's greatest thinkers, to dream of a 
golden age not in the past but in the future, to build 4ip a 
great kingdom of material conquest and make life richer 
and fuller, to spiritualize wealth and convert it into weal, 
to enrich personal character and elevate all human rela- 
tionships, to leave the impress of one's life on a great and 
immortal institution — this, too, is to be a college president. 

— James H. Kirkland 


As a Memorial to Grant 49 

President Spence's background and success inspired by 
the influence of President Grant who had died July 23, 
1885, led him to suggest naming East Tennessee Wesleyan 
University in memory of the former President. 

Grant had been solicited in April 1867 for a contribu- 
tion towards the establishment of East Tennessee Wesleyan 
College. He had agreed to head the list of contributors 
giving his approval in these words: "I want to help the 
class of people for which the school is being established, for 
I believe a Christian education among the masses in the 
CENTRAL SOUTH is now a necessity." 

President Spence in a piece of promotional material 
paid tribute to General Grant and made an appeal for 
support in these words: 

"We are now laboring to successfully build this living 
monument to the memory of this GREAT MAN — a monu- 
ment in which there shall be no displacement of capstone 
or foundation, but standing an intellectual and moral light- 
house to the nation, upon the heights of which Grant's 
exalted character shall be transfigured for ever. 

"We close this brief statement by appealing to you in 
the name of 750,000 WHITE men living South of Mason 
and Dixon's line that cannot read the ballots they cast, and 
on behalf of 3,000,000 more of WHITES in the same 
territory, over ten years of age,* groping in the darkness of 
intellectual illiteracy. 

"If humanly possible, aid us in this great undertaking. 
Place at least to your name "one brick" in this living monu- 
ment, and help to wreathe it with your love of patriotism 
and Christian education. No other human instrumentality 
can do so much toward brushing away the bitter thoughts of 
the past, of harmonizing the discordant elements, and 
cementing into one great bond of fraternity this whole 

50 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

President Spence apparently was well acquainted in 
Washington. He was able to secure the endorsement of a 
representative group of members of the United States House 
of Representatives and of the United States Senate who 
formed their approval in an endorsement headed by the 
President of the Senate. 

"United States Senate, March 5, 1886 
"To whom it may concern: 

"We have learned of the recent action of the Board of 
Regents of the East Tennessee Wesleyan University, in 
changing the name of that institution to the "Grant Me- 
morial University," thus establishing a living and durable 
monument to the name of the greatest of American soldiers. 
"This institution has already accomplished a great 
work in training thousands of the youths of the Central 
South for usefulness and leadership among the masses. 

"The importance of Grant University in the South 
cannot be overestimated. 

"We give it our unqualified indorsement, and com- 
mend it to the favorable consideration of the friends of a 
liberal education. 

"The results that have already been accomplished, the 
number and character of those who have been educated for 
the various occupations of life, and the general favor with 
which the school is now regarded in its patronizing territory, 
should satisfy the most critical of its merits, and command 
the respect and material aid of all patriotic citizens. 

JOHN SHERMAN, President of the Senate 
J. Don Cameron, U.S.S., Pa. 
Howell E. Jackson, U.S.S., Tenn. 
Warner Miller, U.S.S., N.Y. 
Philetus Sawyer, U.S.S., Wisconsin 
Wm. Mahone, U.S.S., Va. 
Henry W. Blair, U.S.S., N.H. 

As a Memorial to Grant 51 

Charles F. Manderson, U.S.S., Neb. 

Nelson W. Aldrich, U.S.S., R.I. 

John D. Long, M.C., Mass. 

E. B. Taylor, M.C., Ohio 

James S. Negley, M.C., Pa. 

Wm. M. Evarts, U.S.S., N.Y. 

P. B. Plumb, U.S.S., Kansas 

H. M. Teller, U.S.S., Colorado 

John C. Spooner, U.S.S., Wis. 

Geo. F. Hoar, U.S.S., Mass. 

John J. Ingalls, U.S.S., Kan. 

Joseph E. Brown, U.S.S., Ga. 

Frank Hiscock, M.C., N.Y. 

John Litde, M.C., Ohio 

Wm. D. Kelley, M.C., Pa. 

C. H. Grosvenor, M.C., Ohio" 
A celebration of Grant's sixty-fourth anniversary pro- 
vided an opportunity to publicize the new name of the 
University and to appeal for general support. The cele- 
bration was held in the Metropolitan Church, Washington, 
D.C., April 27, 1866. 

The Commander-in-Chief of the Grand Army of the 
Republic, unable to attend, addressed a letter of approval 
to Chief Justice Morrison R. Waite, Chairman of the 

Headquarters Grand Army of the Republic.^ 

Washington, D. C, April 27, 1886. 
Hon. Morrison R. Waite, Chairman, etc.: 

Dear Sir: ■ — I find, to my very great regret, that I shall 
be unable to be present to-night at the meeting over which 
you are to preside, and which, called on the sixty-fourth an- 
niversary of the birth of General Grant, is intended, whilst 
giving occasion for patriotic and affectionate revival of 

1 Grant Memorial University, page 12. 

52 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

memories of him and of his great work for his country, has 
also the purpose to bring into notice and helpful sympathy 
the educational institution, which, planted in the South, has 
taken his loved name ; and so in the fit place of your meeting 
proposes that this bestowal of a new name shall have the 
certificate of a public baptism. * * * * 

Considered in the light only of a monument to his 
memory, the affixing of his name to a school of learning is 
a happy thought. Enduring memories are not such as in 
form of mere stone or brass run the race against all- destroy- 
ing time. Beneficient purpose alone gives promise of those 
unfading qualities with which, for all time, we would en- 
dow the monuments reared to those we hold in chief honor. 
Mutilated images and nameless piles are found on all the 
plains and beside all the seas; there is no memory of those 
for whom they were reared; but, though the Alexandrian 
Library perished by the torch of the destroyer, Ptolemy 
Philadelphus lives to be named forever as its founder. A 
thousand names, great in achievement and in honors won, 
will have passed out of the shelter of our mother tongue 
whilst yet the founders and patrons for whom are called 
some of the colleges which constitute the Universities of 
Oxford and Cambridge are fresh of memory. In our own 
short history the diligence of search alone brings out of the 
shadows names which were great on yesterady; but Harvard 
and Yale are household words, and with Oberlin and Cor- 
nell, and now with Grant, will march with steady step in the 
array of things to be forever named. It will be a great work 
well done, if the fitness of this day's occasion shall help to 
broaden the foundations of education and liberty; and the 
Grand Army will not only rejoice in a work so wrought 
out, but all the more because done under a name which, to 
its membership, is an inspiration to patriotism, and seems a 
sure promise of the perpetuation of those institutions of 

As a Memorial to Grant 53 

liberty his valor and faithfulness so much helped to rescue 
from the ruin which they were lately threatened. 

Faithfully yours, 
Commander-in-Chief, G.A.R. 

Addresses were given by representative leaders from 
Georgia, Massachusetts, New York and Ohio. Excerpts 
from these addresses are printed below: 

From the Address of Senator Joseph E. Brown, ^ of 

****** On a beautiful eminence, in a picturesque 
valley in East Tennessee, an institution of learning, bearing 
the name of General Grant, has been established for the 
education of poor boys, and this celebration, as I understand 
it, is partly for the benefit of Grant University. I cordially 
approve the objects of the founders of this institution. I 
believe it is well and ably conducted, and trust it may ac- 
complish great results in the future. I fully indorse the 
enterprise, and commend it to the favorable consideration, 
not only of those who have attended this celebration, but of 
a generous public. May it grow as the fame of the great 
man whose name it bears grew, until its character is known 
and its benefits felt by the whole American people. 

From the Address of Ex-Govcrnor John D. Long, ^ 
of Mass. 

****** My fellow-citizens, if any poor word of mine 
can avail anything, I desire to utter it, not in eulogy of Gen- 
eral Grant, who needs none, but in aid of the Grant 
University of East Tennessee, which does need the helping 
hand and word of every one of us, and which honors the 
name it bears by the good work it is doing for the cause of 
education in the South, There is something in a new uni- 
versity, limited in its resources, devoted to the education of 

^ Grant Memorial University, page 8. 
2 Grant Memorial University, pp. 10, 11. 

54 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

young men of scant means, plowing the first deep furrows 
in a virgin soil, that appeals to the heart with a very pathos, 
and that awakens an interest which our older seats of learn- 
ing, venerable with age and fame, and rich in resources, 
can never arouse. When they tell me of a poor boy in 
Georgia or from the Tennessee hills, already well along in 
years, going day after day and week after week almost in 
actual want, living on little else than that divine fire of the 
scholar's ambition and the freeman's instinct of the posses- 
sion of undeveloped and untrained intellectual power; when 
they tell me of that boy's sacrifice and self-denials, of his 
fulfilling his course in spite of all obstacles, of his eloquence 
flaming out on commencement-day, and of his later going 
forth into the communities of the new South to be a power- 
ful element for good, for growth, and for the republic; when 
they multiply such an instance a hundred fold, aye, a 
thousand fold, aye, three thousand fold; when I see such 
men as this sent out by such a university in solid battalions 
to fight the battles of the whole country, its battles of truth, 
for happiness, for equal rights, for freedom, for humanity, 
for the settlement of the great social questions which to-day 
depend upon a difTused education of the people up to the 
idea of doing right by choice and not by force; when I see 
them thus solving all problems of race and of our social and 
democratic civilization, then am I reminded of the earlier 
and the heroic days of our elder colleges; I am reminded of 
the days when Hiram and Williams equipped Garfield to 
fight and win the victories of the battle-field and the greater 
victories of the forum (applause) ; I am reminded of the 
days when Dartmouth sent out Webster, whose heart, the 
heart of a poor boy, had almost broken at his father's sacri- 
fices to give him an education — sent out Webster to fix and 
confirm the foundations of the Constitution and the Union 
(applause) ; and remembering these things, knowing what 

As a Memorial to Grant 55 

such a college as this on the hills of East Tennessee means 
in that reclaimed section of our Union, knowing what 
it means for the republic, knowing what it means for 
humanity, knowing what in its influences it means for the 
future of my country, I say God bless it, and God put it 
into your hearts to help the Grant University of East 
Tennessee and give it means to do its great and needed 
work in the education of the South and thereby for the 
republic of which we are citizens. (Applause.) 

From the Address of Senator Wm. M. Evarts,^ of 
New York. 

It is with great pleasure that I take part in this birth- 
day-t:elebration of the illustrious soldier, statesman, general 
and President, whose recent loss we lament, whose per- 
petual fame we shall always desire to celebrate. And not 
less it gives me pleasure to have a share in bestowing proper 
encomiums upon this Grant Memorial University, and ex- 
pressing for its future our well-wishes that attend it. It has 
been said by the wisest of men that a good name is rather 
to be chosen than great riches; and the framers of your 
new progressive establishment, your University, have dis- 
played that wisdom when you have chosen the great and 
good name of Grant. (Applause.) It is better, if you can- 
not have both, than the great riches. But there is nothing 
to dissuade us, in the Scriptures, from hoping that, starting 
with a good name, we may also come, in our endowments, 
to great riches, and that we hope for in this new Grant 
Memorial University. ******* 

Now, for education, which Senator Sherman has so 
properly emphasized in three repetitions. Why is education 
this great matter in human affairs? Why, especially, is it 
of vital importance in this free nation, and this free and 
equal society upon which the greatness of our nation has 

] Grant Memorial University, pp. 9, 10. 

56 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

been built? The wisest ancient philosopher, the one most 
quoted for wisdom in its application to our own time so 
remote from his own, Aristotle, said: "It is by education 
that I learn to do by choice what other men do from force." 
That, indeed, is the vital and central point for this im- 
mense population, this immense development of interest 
and intelligence: that we should do by choice what less 
favored nations must do through force. (Applause.) 

But education, when it is to be applied to great masses 
of population, is not to end with the school children, nor 
with the college graduates. ***** Education, indeed, 
means in the strict sense, developing the mind, forming 
the heart, opening the receptives of nature. * * Thus 
we see that when we plan either in the philanthropy of 
George Peabody or in the wise name that has been given 
to this nascent great University, we are consulting for the 
welfare, not of the South nor of the North, but of the 
people of the whole country, by education in that portion 
of the land that needs most to be brought up in fair rela- 
tions with the rest of the country. We may talk about an 
Old South and a New South, but the true prospect and 
hope is that there will be no South and no North. (Ap- 
plause.) When of one heart and of one mind, and per- 
meated equally in all parts by these great vital impulses 
that I have indicated, we have no South, no North, no 
East, no West, but one heart and one mind, the heart and 
mind of the American people. (Applause.) 

And now, gentlemen and ladies, I have said that in 
the endowment of this University with the name of the 
illustrious Grant the University was fortunate. Let me say, 
also, that no monument more noble, more permanent, or 
more secure in the reverence of this people, could be chosen 
on which to inscribe the name of General Grant than this 
University to bear on its front this illustrious name. This 

As a Memorial to Grant 57 

name shall be written in many forms on marble and on 
brass, on arches and on mausoleums. But here this name 
shall be engraven on the fleshy tablets of the hearts of all 
the scholars of this University, and will be written in 
characters of living light all over the conduct and the 
careers, the names and the fame of all these educated men 
that shall issue from Grant University, as the impulse and 
the energy of their lives. (Applause.) 

From the Address of Senator John Shermann, ^ of 

***** *What the new South wants now more 
than all else is education ! education ! ! education ! ! ! The 
statistics with which we have been made familiar recently 
in the debate in the Senate of illiteracy in the South, are 
appalling, but not much more so than was the condition 
of the Western States fifty years ago. The negroes being 
slaves were, of necessity, without education. The great 
mass of the white people were in the same condition, not 
because it was desired in the South, but because from the 
sparseness of the population and the existence of planta- 
tions instead of farms, it was difficult to establish a system 
of public schools. A change in this respect cannot be 
brought about suddenly ; but it is apparent that every South- 
ern State appreciates the importance of education of both 
white and black. It is the bounden duty of the National 
Government to extend the aid of its large resources. If the 
action of the Senate is sanctioned by the House, and fairly 
and justly executed by the people of the Southern States, 
there need be no danger from the ignorance of the next 
generation. I believe that these conditions will be the solu- 
tion of the troubles of the South, and make a great step 
on the road to prosperity and union in the South. 

iGrant Memorial University, pp. 8, 9. 

58 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

Now, but a few words in conclusion. It is not merely 
common school education in the South that is needed, but 
it is higher education. It is all the learning of the schools, 
all that science has taught, all that religion teaches, all 
that medicine has found in its alchemy, all the justice 
which the law points out and seeks to administer; the South 
wants opportunity for that higher education which cannot 
be obtained from common schools, but which exists in no 
country except where common schools abound. It wants 
in its midst the places where the active leading young men 
of the South can gather in colleges and universities, and 
there gain that higher education which prepares them to be 
leaders among men. I congratulate you, my countrymen, 
here in Washington, that, under the authority of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, a Christian denomination, under 
the name of the illustrious hero General Grant, there has 
been founded in the mountains of Tennessee, away up 
among the clouds and in the pure air of heaven, in the 
midst of a loyal and patriotic population, an institution of 
learning which will be a blessing to all the people of the 
South, and I trust to all the people of the North. Every 
aid possible should be showered from the North and South 
alike. Let them light their fires at this modern Athens upon 
the mountain top and they will shine forth all over our 
land. Here the young men of the South will fit themselves 
to lead in the march of progress and improvement. They 
will learn to vary their production, to develop their re- 
sources, to advance every race and generation in education, 
intelligence and patriotism, and with charity broad enough 
to secure all their people of every race and tribe the 
peaceful and unquestioned enjoyment of their civil and 
political rights. 

The organization of a college in Chattanooga under 
the auspices of the Methodist Episcopal Church dates back 

As a Memorial to Grant 59 

to at least August 7, 1872, when a meeting was held at the 
Pine Street Methodist Church, of Chattanooga, to consider 
the organization of a college in that city. At various meet- 
ings of the Holston Annual Conference and the General 
Conference following that date, the designation of Chatta- 
nooga as the location for a university for the Central South 
was considered. 

During these years it was debated whether such an 
institution should be located in Athens, the seat of East 
Tennessee Wesleyan University, in Knoxville, in competi- 
tion with the University of Tennessee, or in Chattanooga, 
where there was no recognized college and which was 
anxious to have a college. The press of Chattanooga gave 
encouragement to the efforts of those who wanted the insti- 
tution located in Chattanooga contending that Chattanooga 
needed "a college of the first class worse than she needed 
more railroads." 

In October 1881 the Mayor of Chattanooga presided 
over a meeting of citizens of the City to discuss the possibil- 
ity of the organization of a college. Committees were ap- 
pointed, other meetings were held, and the press of the City 
gave its support to a financial campaign. The officers of the 
Freedman's Aid Society visited the City and gave encour- 
agement to this project. The Chattanooga Times took an 
aggressive position concerning the establishment of a college 
in Chattanooga. A mass meeting was held April 19, 1883, 
and new committees were selected "to solicit land, money 
and other donations." The Freedman's Aid Society of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church made the final decision that 
the institution would be organized. The citizens of Chatta- 
nooga had already raised $15,000 to assist in this project. 
Govan and Livingood sum up the details of this final 
decision in these words: 

"Eleven years of planning had been necessary to bring 

60 A History of Tennessee Wesley an College 

the idea of a central university this far. Devoted labor in 
conference and committee had secured the support of the 
national organization of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
for the vision Chattanooga had held of a college in their 
community. But in arriving at this cooperation the seeds 
had been planted for a bitter rivalry between the supporters 
of the Chattanooga institution and those of East Tennessee 
Wesleyan University at Athens." 

In July, 1883, property was bought on McCallie Ave- 
nue at a cost of $31,000 as the location for a college. On 
January 18, 1884, a contract was awarded for the 
construction of a building to cost $40,000. 

A charter for Chattanooga University was applied for 
on June 24, 1886. 

Be It Known: That D. M. Key, H. S. Chamberlain, 
J. W. Adams, J. F. Loomis, D. E. Rees, J. H. Van Deman, 
Creed F. Bates, S. D. Wester, D. Woodworth, Jr., A. J. 
Gahagan, J. J. Manker, T. C. Warner, J. R. Rathmell, 
T. C. Carter, J. W. Mann, Jno. W. Ramsey, H. C. Beck, 
Alvin Hawkins, Wm. Rule, J. T. Wilder, J. B. Hoxsie, 
Wm. H. Rogers, James Mitchell, E. H. Vaughan, J. L. 
Freeman, J. D. Roberson, R. S. Rust and J. M. Walden 
are hereby constituted a body politic and corporate by the 
name and style of 


The general purposes and objects of the said corpora- 
tion being the support of a literary and scientific under- 
taking as a University in the city of Chattanooga, Hamilton 
County, Tennessee, for the general diffusion of knowledge, 
with power to confer degrees, etc. 

The general powers of the said corporation shall be 
to sue and be sued by the corporate name, to have and use 
a common seal which it may alter at pleasure; if no com- 
mon seal, then the signature of the name of the corpora- 

As a Memorial to Grant 61 

tion, by any duly authorized officer, shall be legal and 
binding; to purchase and hold or receive by gift, bequest 
or devise, in addition to the personal property owned by 
the corporation, real estate necessary or convenient for the 
transaction of the corporate business, and also to purchase 
or accept any real estate in payment or in part payment 
of any debt due the corporation, and sell the same; to 
establish by-laws and make rules and regulations, not in- 
consistent with the laws and constitution and this Charter, 
deemed necessary or expedient for the management of the 
corporate affairs, or required by the religious denomination 
establishing the same. The term of all officers may be fixed 
by the by-laws, the said term not, however to exceed three 

The powers of said corporation shall also be to keep 
and maintain any, all and every department of a University 
in the property owned and held for that purpose in said 
city of Chattanooga, Hamilton County, Tennessee, by the 
Freedman's Aid Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
on such terms and conditions as may be agreed upon by 
the two corporations; to take charge of and protect said 
University buildings, property and grounds; to adopt rules 
governing the admission of pupils and students in said Uni- 
versity; the rates of tuition and course of study therefor, 
to purchase libraries and apparatus and employ and control 
professors and other teachers, tutors and instructors for 
said University, and when necessary discharge the same; 
with power to define their duties, to confer any and all 
degrees, and award diplomas usually conferred or awarded 
by a university, in all branches of study that may be pursued 
therein; to confer honorary degrees, to have, possess and 
exercise all such other and further rights and privileges as 
shall and may be necessary to the successful maintenance 
of any and every department of a first class university in 

62 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

the property named, to be under the auspices and control 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church; subject, by agreement 
of the parties hereto, and as a part of this act of incorpora- 
tion, to the following fundamental conditions, namely: 

First. Said University shall be and remain under the 
auspices of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and be under 
its control, and be governed by a board of trustees, and 
the corporate authority of this corporation shall be exercised 
by a board of trustees, as hereinafter provided. 

Second. The first board of trustees shall consist of 
the corporators hereinabove named, who shall hold their 
office until their successors are elected and enter upon the 
discharge of their respective duties. The President and 
Corresponding Secretary of the said, The Freedmen's Aid 
Society and the President of the Faculty of the University, 
shall also be members ex-officio, of said first board of 
trustees, and of all succeeding boards, and without election. 

Third. Upon acceptance of the Charter and organi- 
zation under it the trustees who are corporators shall divide 
their body by lot into three equal classes, the first class to 
hold their oflfice three years, the second class two years, 
and the third class one year. 

Fourth. The term of all trustees elected to fill vacan- 
cies or expired terms, shall be for three years, and so 
arranged as that one third of them shall go out of office 
every year; provided, that when an election is made to fill 
an unexpired term it shall only be for the unexpired period 
of said term. 

Fifth. All vacancies in the Board of Trustees herein- 
before provided for by expiration of term of office or other 
cause shall be filled by election by the Freedmen's Aid 
Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church; but this rela- 
tion of the Freedmen's Aid Society to this corporation shall 
in no event be construed or held to clothe the corporation 

As a Memorial to Grant 63 

with power or authority to act for or as an agent of the 
said, The Freedmen's Aid Society, nor to authorize the 
corporation to contract any debt or other Habiiity for or 
on account of said Society. 

Sixth. But in addition to the foregoing members, the 
Board of Trustees shall also consist of three members of 
the Holston Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, and two members each of the Virginia, Blue Ridge, 
Georgia, Alabama and Central Tennessee Annual Confer- 
ences of the said Methodist Episcopal Church, elected an- 
nually by the conferences respectfully, to be elected at the 
first annual meeting thereof, and to hold their offices as 
follows : 

Those of the Holston Conference one for one year, 
one for two years, and the other for three years; those of 
each of the other conferences one to hold for one year and 
the other for two years. 

The alumni of the University, when they shall num- 
ber forty, shall have a representation in the Board of 
Trustees under such provisions as the said Board shall 

Seventh. After the above named conferences shall 
have elected trustees, as provided, all future elections shall 
be so arranged that a majority of the whole board shall 
be members of the Methodist Episcopal Church; any num- 
ber of said Board of Trustees, not less than eleven shall 
constitute a quorum to do business. 

Eighth. The Board of Trustees shall have power and 
authority to elect at each annual meeting ten of its own 
members to be known as the Executive Committee, to have 
the supervision of the affairs of the University between the 
meetings of the said Board, and transact ad interim all 
necessary business under such rules and restrictions as the 
Board of Trustees may prescribe. 

64 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

The President and corresponding Secretary of the 
said Freedmen's Aid Society and the President of the Uni- 
versity shall also be members ex officio of said Executive 
Committee and at least seven members of said Executive 
Committee shall be members of the Methodist Episcopal 

Ninth. If at any time, or for any reason, this corpora- 
tion shall fail, or ceases to maintain or keep a University 
in said property, or if a dissolution of this corporation shall 
occur, all its assets and property shall revert to and become 
the property of the said Freedmen's Aid Society, subject to 
its control. 

The general welfare of society and not individual 
profit being the object of this organization, the members 
and trustees thereof are not stockholders in the legal sense 
of the term. 

Tenth. The number of trustees may be increased or 
diminished from time to time as may be deemed expedient, 
but only with the consent of the Freedmen's Aid Society, 
and only at an annual meeting of the board, and due notice 
having been given for that purpose. 

We, the undersigned, apply to the State of Tennessee, 
by virtue of the laws of the land, for a Charter of Incorpora- 
tion for the purposes and with the powers declared in the 
foregoing instrument. 

Witness our hands the 24th day of June, 1886. 

H. S. Chamberlain 
D. E. Rees 
S. D. Wester 
J. J. Manker 
T. C. Carter 
H. C. Beck 
J. M. Walden 
J. W. Adams 

As a Memorial to Grant 65 

Creed F. Bates 
David Woodworth, Jr. 
T. C. Warner 
J. T. Wilder 
Wm. Rule 
James Mitchell 
J. F. Loomis 
J. H. Van Deman 
A. J. Gahagan 
J. R. Rathmell 
J. B. Hoxsie 
R. S. Rust 
W. H. Rogers 
County of Hamilton. 
Personally appeared before me, J. H. Messick, Deputy 
Clerk of the County Court of said County, H. S, Chamber- 
lain, J. W. Adams, J. F. Loomis, D. E. Rees, Creed F. 
Bates, J. H. Van Deman, S. D. Wester, David Woodworth, 
Jr., A. J. Gahagan, J. J. Manker, T. C. Warner, J. R. 
Rathmell, T. C. Carter, J. T. Wilder, H. C. Beck, R. S. 
Rust and J. M. Walden, the within named bargainors, with 
whom I am personally acquainted, and who acknowledged 
that they executed the within instrument for the purpose 
therein contained. 

Witness of my hand and seal of said County Court at 
office this 2d day of July, 1886. 

J. H. MESSICK, Deputy Clerk. 

I, JOHN ALLISON, Secretary of State of the State 
of Tennessee, do certify that the foregoing instrument, with 
certificate of acknowledgment of Probate and Registration, 
was filed in my office for registration on the 8th day of 
July, 1886, and recorded on the 8th day of July 1886, in 

66 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

Corporation Record Book K, in said office, pages 534, 535, 
536 and 537. 

In Testimony Whereof I have hereunto subscribed my 
Official Signature, and by the order of the Governor, affixed 
the Great Seal of the State of Tennessee, at the Department 
in the City of Nashville, this 8th day of July, A.D. 1886. 


Secretary of State. 


The foregoing Charter and Certificate of Registration 
in this County, and of Registration in the office of the Sec- 
retary of State, ^vith the Great Seal of the State impressed 
thereon, was returned to me this 9th day of July, 1886, at 
8 A.M., and said Secretary's certificate and seal by me 
recorded in Book V, volume 2, page 253. 

Witness my hand at office in Chattanooga. 

H. C. BECK, Register. 

This Agreement, made this day of , 

1886, between the Freedmen's Aid Society of the M.E. 
Church, a corporation under the laws of Ohio, and the 
Chattanooga L^niversity, a corporation under the laws of 
Tennessee : 

WITNESSETH, That whereas the ground, buildings, 
furniture, etc., on and in which the L^niversity is about to 
be established and opened, belong to the said, the Freed- 
men's Aid Society, and are exclusively owned by it, and the 
said, the Chattanooga L^niversity is to occupy the same for 
the purpose of establishing, opening and carrying on a 
university according to its charter, 

Now, therefore, in consideration of the premises it 
is agreed as follows: 

First. The said, the Chattanooga LIniversity shall 

As a Memorial to Grant G7 

hold, use and occupy the said property as aforesaid so long 
as the parties herein named shall agree thereto; but this 
arrangement shall not be determined except upon a notice 
of either one to the other in writing for one year previous 
to such termination; and on its part, the said, the Chatta- 
nooga University, shall not waste or suffer to be wasted, 
any of the said property, and shall keep the said property 
in good repair and condition. 

Second. The income of the said, the Chattanooga 
University, arising from all sources, shall be administered 
by the said, the Chattanooga University, but a statement 
and full report thereof, and of all expenditures shall be 
made to the said Freedmen's Aid Society at the close of 
each term of the school year. But no extraordinary ex- 
penditures shall be incurred by the said University except 
with the approval of the Freedmen's Aid Society. 

Third. The officers and members of the faculty shall 
be appointed by the Freedmen's Aid Society, subject to 
the approval of or election by the said University. The 
salaries of the faculty shall be fixed by the University, sub- 
ject to the approval of the Freedmen's Aid Society, and 
these salaries, with all other current expenses, shall be paid 
out of the current income of the University ; the Freedmen's 
Aid Society, however, to pay from its own treasury any 
deficit that may occur in the expenditures made with its 
consent or approval. 

Fourth. Any funds that may be contributed for the 
endowment of the said University shall be under the control 
and management of the Freedmen's Aid Society, but it 
shall advise with reference thereto with the said University. 
It is further agreed that should the University secure an 
endowment sufficient for its maintenance the Freedmen's 
Aid Society shall transfer its right in the property to the 

68 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

University on condition that it refund all monies expended 
by the said society. 

Fifth. In case this contract be terminated as herein- 
tofore provided, all the property of every description, good 
\\ ill and endowment funds are to be the sole and exclusive 
property of the Freedmen's Aid Society, as provided in the 
charter of the said University, and the said society shall 
be entitled to the immediate possession and control thereof. 

Sixth. The Freedmen's Aid Society shall not be re- 
sponsible for, nor holden for any contracts made or obliga- 
tions assumed, or expenditures of any kind made by the 
University, without the consent and approval of the said 


On July 26, 1886, Edward Samuel Lewis was con- 
firmed as Dean of the College and acting President of 
Chattanooga University. Doctor Lewis was a graduate of 
Boston University where he had received graduation honors 
and election to Phi Beta Kappa. He had served as a pro- 
fessor at Cincinnati Wesleyan College and had become 
President of Little Rock University, which was also under 
the supervision of the Freedman's Aid Society. President 
Lewis was only thirty-one years of age but his scholarly 
attainments and achievements in college teaching and ad- 
ministration seemed to fit him admirably for becoming the 
head of this new college in Chattanooga. 

The school year opened with considerable enthusiasm. 
The Holston Annual Conference joined Chattanooga in 
a commendation of the organization of Chattanooga 
University in the following statement: 

"The completion and occupancy of the Chattanooga 
University is a fact that we note with great satisfaction. 
The establishment by the Freedman's Aid Society, of a 
property so substantial and valuable, at a point so com- 

As a Memorial to Grant 69 

manding in the Central South, to strengthen our educa- 
tional work in our Conferences of this -section, is a most 
important fact, full of encouragement to our people, and 
indicative of the growing power and enduring character 
of the work to which we are providentially called. 

"The first year in its scholastic history opens with a 
full and competent corps of instructors, and an attendance 
already of 171 students. The facts named are the earnest 
of a career of great usefulness. Its success will be of vast 
importance to our Methodism in its entire patronizing 

It was not long until problems developed which re- 
sulted in that enthusiasm being dissipated. The problems 
had largely to do with whether Chattanooga University 
would accept Negro students. The decision of the Board 
of Trustees was an instruction to the faculty that no Negroes 
were to be enrolled in the College. By September 1887, the 
enthusiasm which had characterized the opening of the new 
college was absent. It was recorded in The Chattanooga 
Times that "the college was not flourishing as it should." 

There followed much agitation to bring about the 
consolidation of Chattanooga University and Grant Me- 
morial University, of Athens. Doctor Joseph C. Hartzell 
attended the annual Conference Session held in October 
and made a "strong speech," according to The Chattanooga 
Times, in favor of the consolidation of the two institutions. 
The Holston Conference, after discussion, voted unani- 
mously for the resolution which endorsed the unification of 
Chattanooga University and Grant Memorial University. 

The unanimity of the Holston Conference in approv- 
ing the merger was expressed by the Holston Conference 
in 1889 in this report: 

"It is with great joy that we report that the move- 
ment to unify Grant Memorial and Chattanooga Univer- 

70 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

sity, discussed and commended at the last session of the 
Conference, has been crowned with success. The two insti- 
tutions are now one, with one Chancellor and Board of 

"The consummation of this union has been heartily 
approved by the whole church through the voice of the 
Bishops and the press. It came as the result of many and 
prayerful consultations between the Society at Cincinnati, 
under the leadership of Doctor J. C. Hartzell as Corres- 
ponding Secretary, and the Boards of Trustees at Chatta- 
nooga and Athens. No educational event in the history of 
the church in the South promises more for the future 
spiritual and intellectual welfare of the church than does 
this Central University, with a system of affiliated 
academies in the central South. 

"Under the present status of things the schools at 
Athens and Chattanooga are permitted to continue their 
work largely as heretofore." 

The merger called for another charter which was 
applied for to the State of Tennessee on March 26, 1889: 

BE IT KNOWN, that Isaac W. Joyce, John M. Wal- 
den, Joseph C. Hartzell, D. M. Key, Halbert B. Case, Earl 
Cranston, J. H. BayHss, M. D. Cone, A. J. Gahagan, T. C. 
Carter, J. K. P. Marshall, E. H. Matthews, John F. Spence, 
J. D. Walsh, Amos Shinkle, L. B. Caldwell and J. W. 
Adams are hereby constituted a body politic and corporate 
by the name and style of "U. S. Grant University,"* for 
the following purposes, namely: The maintenance of a 
university of Christian learning under the patronage, con- 
trol and regulation of the Methodist Episcopal Church, as 
represented in the General Conference of said Church, with 
various colleges, academics, normal and preparatory schools, 

*Legally changed from Grant Memorial University June 7, 1892. 

As a Memorial to Grant 71 

societies, lyceums, libraries, and schools of art, law, and 
medicine, normal, training, trade, and such other schools 
as may from time to time be organized by the Board of 
Trustees; with power to confer degrees; with authority to 
create Boards of Visitors, prescribe the mode of election 
and define their duties ; such board or boards to be separate 
from, and in addition to, the Board of Trustees. 

2. The property owned, or to be owned, or held by 
the corporation hereby created shall be so held and owned 
in the name of said corporation for the use and benefit of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, under such trust clause, 
or clauses, as may be provided in the book of Discipline of 
said Church. And the government and management of 
said corporation, and the teachings in its several schools, 
shall forever be conducted in harmony and consonance 
with, and in the interest of, the said Methodist Episcopal 
Church, as set forth, or declared from time to time, by the 
General Conference of said Church. 

3. Said corporation shall be self-perpetuating, sub- 
ject only to the policy above stated. Any departure from 
the objects and policy of said corporation as above limited 
shall be good ground for removal of the Board of Trustees 
upon cause properly shown in the court of equity having 
jurisdiction, but shall not work a forfeiture of this charter. 

4. The general powers of said corporation shall be 
to sue and be sued by the corporate name; to have and 
use a common seal, which it may alter at pleasure; if no 
common seal, then the signature of the name of the cor- 
poration by any duly authorized officer shall be legal and 
binding; to purchase and hold, or receive by gift, bequest, 
or devise, in addition to the personal property owned by 
the corporation, real estate necessary for the transaction 
of the corporate business, and also such property, real and 
personal, or special trusts, as may be deemed needful for 

72 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

special purposes; and also to purchase and accept any real 
estate in payment, or in part payment, of any debt due to 
the incorporation, and sell the same; to establish By-laws, 
and make all rules and regulations, not inconsistent with 
the laws and constitution, deemed expedient for the man- 
agement of corporate affairs; and to appoint such subor- 
dinate officers and agents, in addition to the president, 
secretary and treasurer, as the business of the corporation 
may require; elect such teachers, professors, and faculties 
of the various schools of the university as they shall deem 
best and fix the salaries of the same. The School of Theol- 
ogy, the School of Law, the School of Medicine, and the 
School of Technology shall be located at Chattanooga, 
Tennessee. The College of Liberal Arts shall be located 
at Athens, Tennessee; with academic departments of equal 
grade at each place, and such other departments at either 
place as may hereafter be determined upon by the Board 
of Trustees.* 

5. The said corporation shall within a convenient 
time after the registration of this charter in the office of 
the Secretary of State, elect from their number a president, 
secretary and treasurer, or the last two officers may be 
combined into one ; said officers and the other incorporators 
to constitute the first Board of Trustees. In all elections 
each member present shall be entitled to one vote, and the 
result shall be determined by a majority of the vote cast. 
Due notice of any election must be given by advertisement 
in a newspaper, personal notice to the members, or a day 
stated on the minutes of the board six months preceding 
the election. The Board of Trustees shall keep a record of 
all their proceedings, which shall be at all times subject 
to the inspection of any member. The corporation may 

*Amendment of June 7, 1892. 





















"c -D 
















































— 1 





M- ■ 








o • 


As a Memorial to Grant 73 

establish branches or affiHated schools in any other county 
in the State. 

6. This corporation shall have power to increase the 
number of trustees; to regulate the mode and manner of 
appointments of the same on expiration of terms of service ; 
to remove any trustee from the said corporation when in 
their judgment he shall be rendered incapable, by age or 
otherwise of discharging the duties of his office, or shall 
neglect or refuse to perform the same; to regulate the 
number, duties, and manner of election of officers, either 
actual or ex officio; to appoint executive agencies, and to 
pass all other by-laws for the government of said institution, 
as may be required by the Methodist Episcopal Church: 
Provided, said by-laws are not inconsistent with the consti- 
tution and laws of this State. At least two-thirds of the 
trustees shall be members in good standing of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. The terms of all officers may be fixed by 
the by-laws; the said term not, however, to exceed three 
years. All officers and trustees shall hold over until their 
successors are elected and qualified. 

7. The members may at any time voluntarily dissolve 
the corporation, by the conveyance of its assets and property 
to any other corporation holding a charter from this State 
not for purposes of individual profit, first providing for 
incorporate debts: Provided, the objects and aims of said 
corporation shall be the same and in harmony with those 
contained in this charter. A violation of any of the pro- 
visions of this charter shall subject the corporation to dis- 
solution at the instance of the State, in which event its 
property and effects shall revert to the Trustees of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, a corporate body existing 
under, and by virtue of, the laws of the State of Ohio. 
This charter is subject to modification or amendment by 
the Legislature, and in case said modification or amend- 

74 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

ment is not accepted, corporate business is to cease, and 
the assets and property, after payment of debts, are to be 
conveyed, as aforesaid, to some other corporation holding 
a charter for purposes not connected with individual profit, 
and for the same objects and benefit of, and revert to, the 
aforesaid Trustees of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
Acquiescence in any ^modification thus declared shall be 
determined in a meeting of the members specially called 
for that purpose, and only those voting in favor of the 
modification shall thereafter compose the corporation. 

8. The means, assets, income, or other property of 
the corporation shall not be employed, directly or indirectly, 
for any purpose whatever than to accomplish the legitimate 
objects of its creation, and by no implication or construction 
shall it possess the power to issue notes or coin, buy or sell 
products, or engage in any kind of trading operation, nor 
holding more real estate than is necessary for its legitimate 
purposes, and in no event shall the trustees permit any 
part of the principal of the endowment fund, or funds, or 
any portion of the real estate of the corporation, to be 
used for the payment of the current expenses. 

9. We, the undersigned, hereby apply to the State 
of Tennessee, by virtue of the laws of the land, for a charter 
of incorporation for the purpose and with the powers and 
privileges, etc., declared in the foregoing instrument. 
Witness our hands the 26th day of March, A.D., 1889. 

Isaac W. Joyce, 
D. M. Key, 
J. C. Hartzell, 
J. H. Bayliss 
M. D. Cone, 
A. J. Gahagan, 
Earl Cranston, 
J. K. P. Marshall, 

As a Memorial to Grant 75 

T. C. Carter, 
J. W. Adams, 
E. H. Matthews 
J. D. Walsh, 
John F. Spence, 
L. B. Caldwell, 
J. M. Walden, 
A. Shinkle, 
Halbert B. Case. 

There was reluctance on the part of the student body 
and the citizens of Chattanooga to lose the appropriate 
name of Chattanooga University for the institution, but 
the University Lookout, publication of the student body of 
Chattanooga, expressed its approval in an editorial and 
The Chattanooga Times also expressed approval even as 
to the name. "This name is favored as a monument to 
General Grant, deceased. It was in this section that he 
fought his decisive battles and as no one objects to a college 
in his honor it is thought fitting to continue the title of the 
Athens institution." The approval of the Times concluded 
with the assertion that Grant Memorial University "will 
be the grandest University in the South and one of the 
grandest in the Methodist Episcopal Church." The first 
meeting of the new Board was held May 2, 1889, for the 
purpose of electing a President of the combined institutions. 
Four persons were placed in nomination including Doctor 
J. F. Spence. Doctor Spence received ten of the thirteen 
votes. Commenting on this election The Chattanooga 
Times headlined the story "Spence Gobbled It." These 
editorial sentences evaluated the election. "Athens and 
President Spence now have possession of Chattanooga and 
the Chattanooga University property. The game has been 
remarkably well played. The men who built the university 
have been shoved aside . . ." The Board elected Captain 

76 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

H. S. Chamberlain as President of the Board, changed the 
title of President to Chancellor, and changed the name of 
the institution to satisfy the desire of Chattanooga citizens 
from Grant Memorial University to U. S. Grant University. 
Govan and Livingood completed their recital of this story 
with these words: "Thus, Chattanooga University, after 
only three years of troubled existence, disappeared as an 
official entity, and the administrative offices of the 
institution were moved to Athens." ^ 

The report for 1890 indicated a total enrollment in 
Athens and Chattanooga of 524, with 41 faculty members, 
a School of Theology in Athens with 29 students, whose 
object was to "train young men in every branch of theologi- 
cal science for effective work as preachers of the gospel. 
The general culture of our age, and the widening of 
christian thought, demands a well-trained ministry." 

Associated with U. S. Grant University there were 
several academies whose enrollment exceeded 1,500. 

It was estimated that the value of the property in 
Chattanooga and Athens including endowment totaled 

Another Pennsylvanian had become interested in the 
division at Athens. Bennett Hall was completed at a cost 
of $8,000 providing thirty-three rooms through the 
generosity of Mrs. P. L. Bennett. 

A building referred to as the New University Building, 
purchased the previous April, was being slowly finished. 
Chancellor Spence had been able to raise $6,000 toward 
this project during the preceding year. 

Attendance at Athens had increased 30% and Chatta- 
nooga 50% over the previous year. 

One of the most significant contributions of Chancellor 
Spence's administration was his encouragement of the 

^Quotations from Govan and Livingood by permission of authors and President 
David A. Lockmiller. 

As a Memorial to Grant 77 

establishment of Elizabeth Ritter Hall, an institution sup- 
ported by the Woman's Home Missionary Society of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. 

Shortly after the organization of the Woman's Home 
Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church in 
1880, the Society became interested in the establishment 
of a school which would serve the young women of the 
mountains of the South. No funds were available for such 
an undertaking, but the enthusiasm of the Society was 
contagious and interest was maintained until funds were 
made available. At the annual meeting of the Central 
Ohio Conference Woman's Home Missionary Society, held 
in Lakeside, Ohio, in 1886, Mrs. Elizabeth Ritter, of Na- 
poleon, Ohio, gave $1,000. In recognition of this, the larg- 
est gift up to that date, the Society decided to name the 
Home (later changed to Hall) for Mrs. Elizabeth Ritter. 
With this generous gift as a stimulus sufficient funds were 
soon made available. 

After considering several available localities, Athens, 
Tennessee, was chosen because of its close proximity to the 
mountain areas of Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama and North 
Carolina, and because of the Christian influences and high 
ideals of the faculty members and student body in Grant 
University. To assist in this program of service to young 
women, the Trustees of Grant University deeded a part of 
its campus to the Woman's Home Missionary Society, and 
here the Elizabeth Ritter Home, accommodating forty 
girls, was opened September 1891. 

Mrs. Delia Williams, of Delaware, Ohio, Correspond- 
ing Secretary of the Woman's Home Missionary Society, 
provided much of the aggressive leadership necessary to 
secure the funds for the construction of Ritter Hall. 

The purposes of Ritter Home and its relationship to 

78 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

U. S. Grant University were set forth in the Yearbook 
for 1891-92: 


and School for Young Women.* 

This department of Grant University, located at 
Athens, will be opened in September. The plan of instruc- 
tion will be modeled after the best features of the world- 
famous Mount Holyoke School, founded by Mary Lyon, the 
most eminent teacher of her age. 

The Department of Domestic Instruction is now be- 
coming the most popular of any branch in Vassar, N. Y., 
and Auburndale, Mass. 

Grant L^niversity proposes to be as progressive in this 
phase of its work as it has been in other departments. 

The Ritter Home will be under the auspices of the 
Woman's Home Missionary Society of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church. The ladies who are directing this important 
enterprise will spare neither labor nor money in making 
this one of the best schools of the kind in the South. 

The object of this school is to train the hand as well 
as the head. To teach each young lady how to perform 
most skillfully all the duties that pertain to a woman as 
the head of a house or home. 

It is training in Domestic Economy; sewing, the cutting 
and making of a garment; house-keeping, cooking, market- 
ing, keeping domestic accounts, and such other duties as 
devolve upon a wife, sister or mother. 

The Home will accommodate fifty girls, and is in itself 
the Practice School for all the theoretic instruction. The 
boarding expenses can be greatly reduced by taking this 

The idea of the Home will be the family idea, each 
pupil contributing her share of service, which, divided 


As a Memorial to Grant 79 

among so many, will not be burdensome, besides getting the 
benefit of her work in reduction of expenses. By a hearty 
cooperation of all the members of the household the total 
expenses of living can be reduced to even less than $2 per 
week. The amount of expense will be largely under the 
control of the pupils themselves, for after a little experience 
they will be able to adjust their daily bills of fare to any 
scale of prices they may choose to adopt. The expenses of 
the Home will be adjusted on the co-operative plan. 

The Society will furnish the Home and pay the teach- 
ers. The running expenses of the houses will be equally 
divided among the members of the household. The Society 
will extend the helping hand to such as are worthy, and 
unable to meet the necessary expense themselves. 

We are confident our people will manifest their ap- 
preciation of this school by filling the halls of our splendid 
new building with earnest, ambitious young women. Thus, 
side by side in Grant University, brother and sister can be 
trained not only in letters, but applied sciences, and become 
skilled mechanics and home-makers. 

A conflict developed between President Spence and 
members of the Board of Trustees in Chattanooga which 
resulted in his leaving U. S. Grant University and establish- 
ing the American Temperance University, in Harriman, 

Doctor Spence's relationship to the institution had 
begun at the reorganization conference of which he was 
secretary which established as one of its goals the establish- 
ment of a university. The Holston Conference was not un- 
mindful of his significant contributions and aggressive 
leadership and expressed its gratitude at the Annual Session 
in 1893 in the following resolution of appreciation: 

"WHEREAS, Dr. John F. Spence has been for many 
years the leader of the educational forces in the Holston 

80 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

Conference, and has heroically struggled to secure oppor- 
tunities to the thousands of youth in this section for a liberal 
education, toiling through these weary years to build up a 
central University with its affiliated seminaries and 
academies, and, 

"WHEREAS, He is no longer connected with this 
great and cherished work in the school which he has labored 
so diligently to found in our midst, and has been called to 
the chancellorship of the American Temperance University, 

"Resolved, That we highly appreciate the great work 
which Dr. Spence has accomplished for this Conference 
and territory." 

Doctor Spence had been made president in 1890 and 
Bishop Joyce had become the chancellor of the University. 

Isaac \\'ilson Joyce was born in Colerain Township, 
Hamilton County, Ohio, October 11, 1836. He received 
his education at Hartsville College and united with the 
Methodist Episcopal Church in 1858. He was admitted to 
the North\vest Indiana Conference in 1859. In 1866 he 
was appointed to what was later Trinity Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, of Lafayette, Indiana, where he continued for 
a period of ten years. In 1876 he was forced because of 
illness to take the supernumerary relationship. From 1877 
to 1880, he was pastor of Roberts Chapel, in Greencastle, 
Indiana, the scat of Indiana Asbury University, later De- 
Pauw University. From 1880 to 1888, he was minister of 
leading Methodist churches in Cincinnati. In 1888 he was 
elected a Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church and 
assigned to the episcopal residence in Chattanooga, 

Bishop Jo)'ce continued as head of the university until 
1896. For a period of a year the institution was managed 

Theology 1895, College Pastor and Trustee 

As a Memorial to Grant 81 

by the deans at Chattanooga and at Athens, with Dr. 
Richard J. Cooke as acting chancellor. 

John H. Race was born at Paupack, Pennsylvania, 
March 10, 1862. He was graduated from Princeton Univer- 
sity with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1890 and received a 
Master of Arts degree from Princeton in 1894. He was a 
member of Phi Beta Kappa. Ordained to the ministry of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1890, he served as a 
teacher of Greek at Wyoming Seminary, in Kingston, 
Pennsylvania, 1890-94, and was minister of the Centenary 
Church, of Binghamton, New York, 1894-98. Mr. Race 
had been chosen as the president of U. S. Grant University 
in 1897, and he met the faculty at Athens November 15, 
1897. He continued his ministerial responsibilities in Bing- 
hamton until the summer of 1898. He and Mrs. Race 
moved to Athens and lived in Bennett Hall until he de- 
cided that it would be preferable to have the administra- 
tive offices of the president located in Chattanooga rather 
than in Athens. 

Doctor Race identified himself with all the interests 
of the Holston Conference and was highly regarded by the 
laymen and ministers of the Conference. He was con- 
sidered an illustrious citizen of Chattanooga and in recogni- 
tion of the City's appreciation a magnificent home for him 
was built and presented to the University. 

Doctor Race resigned the presidency of the University 
in 1913 to accept election as one of the publishing agents 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church and as treasurer of the 
Methodist Book Concern, where he served until his retire- 
ment in 1936. Doctor Joy, the editor of The Christian 
Advocate, paid this tribute to the outstanding ability of 
Doctor Race at the time of his retirement from this position 
at the age of 74: 

82 A History of Tenrrrssce Wesleyan College 

Dr. JOHN H. RACE, at seventy-four, is retiring as 
Publishing Agent at New York. Born in a Wyoming par- 
sonage, trained in Methodist schools and at Princeton, he 
was summoned from a thriving pastorate in Binghamton, 
to lead a forlorn educational hope in Tennessee, where in 
the years following the Civil War a fatuous group had set 
up a loose-jointed Methodist college and burdened it with 
the name of U. S. Grant University — and that in a border 
state! Facing extreme discouragements he persevered until 
the University of Chattanooga rewarded his efforts, a 
liberal arts college fashioned on the model of Nassau Hall, 
strongly established in the good will of the community and 
in the esteem of the educational world. Elected Publishing 
Agent in 1913, his co-operative spirit helped to forward the 
unification of the publishing business, and greatly improved 
the "team work" of the Cincinnati House. Transferred to 
Ne\v York after the death of E. R. Graham in 1921, he 
made the same policies effective here. As treasurer of the 
Episcopal Fund, he has known both how to be abased and 
how to abound. In the difficult years since 1929 he has 
managed Episcopal finances so skillfully that the bank- 
indebtedness of $225,000 has been entirely liquidated. With 
his colleagues he has maintained the morale of the publish- 
ing house during six years of unexampled difficulty. Its 
obligations to the banks has been reduced by one-half, and 
in the past year it has again shown a profit. His character 
combines sound judgment, flawless integrity, and broad 
human sympathy, with simple and unaffected piety. This 
editor, whose work has at times brought him into close 
relations with many high officials of the denomination, can 
recall no one who has met each day's responsibilities with 
riper wisdom, more resolute mind or firmer faith.^ 


As a Memorial to Grant 83 

President Race's leadership was revealed early in the 
administration by holding a conference as a means of 
evaluating the resources, responsibilities and opportunities 
of U. S. Grant University. President Race's Educational 
Conference was held in Athens, December 22-23, 1898.^ 
The program for this two-day conference was as follows: 

Thursday, 10:30 a.m. 
Devotional Exercises conducted by Bishop Goodsell. 

Introductory Address President Race 

Organization and appointment of committees. 
Paper: Historical Sketch of our Educational 

Work in the South Prof. Joseph H. Ketron, A.M. 

Reminiscences Led by Prof. D. A. Bolton, A.M. 

Thursday, 2:00 p.m. 
Address: The Twentieth Century Offering 

-Rev. G. E. Ackerman, D.D. 

Paper: The Relation of the Denominational 

Institution to the Common 

School - Prof. John A. Hicks, A.M. 

Paper: The Relation of the Denominational 

Institution to the State 

University Prof. Walter Franklin, A.M. 

Thursday, 7:00 p.m. 
Lecture : 

Methodism in the Centuries ...Rev. R. J. Cooke, D.D. 

Friday, 9:00 a.m. 
Devotional Exercises. 
Symposium, Our University — 

Liberal Arts..... Dean W. A. Wright 

Theology... Dean G. T. Newcomb 

Medicine Dean E. A. Cobleigh 

Law Dean J. W. Farr, Jr. 

lEducational Conference 
Athens, Tennessee 
December 22-23, 1898 

84 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

Paper: Our Academies.. Prof. Alvis Craig, A.B. 

Paper: Our Field Rev. R. Pierce, D.D. 

Friday, 2:00 p.m. 
Address : The Circuit Rider and the 

School Master Rev. F. M. Cones, Ph. D. 

Paper: Uniform Course of Study for 

Our Preparatory Schools Prof. W. W. Hooper, D.D. 

Paper : How to Secure a More Vital Relation 

between our University and the 

Seminaries Prof. M. L. Roark, A.M. 

Paper: Hopeful Features in 

Our Work. Prof. M. H. Monroe, A.M. 

Friday, 7:00 p.m. 
Lecture: Six Months in 

Rome... Rev. D. A. Goodsell, LL. D. 

President Race's first report to the Board of Trustees 
was dated May 16, 1899. He gave the figures of enrollment 
as of the preceding December: 

Professional and Post-Graduate Students.. 227 

Collegiate Students 38 

Sub-Collegiate 542 

Total 765 

President Race pointed out what was an apparently 
obvious fact — that the College of Liberal Arts was the 
weakest part of the program. "Already notice has been 
given us that unless we can strengthen our work in English, 
we shall be rated among the academies of the Church." 
President Race insisted that attention must be given to 
instruction in Modern Languages and the sciences. From 
this report it can be seen that the department which should 
be strengthened is lamentably weak when we compare what 
it is with what it should be. Under existing conditions, he 
felt that this must continue. Remove the conditions was 

Teacher, Vice Chancellor, First Book Editor of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, elected a Bishop in 

As a Memorial to Grant 85 

the required solution. After a year's study of the problem 
he felt justified in suggesting a solution to be worked out 
as soon as possible. President Race said that during public 
discussion of the University during the past winter, "when 
the question of the remission of taxes on the unoccupied 
campus in Chattanooga was being discussed, various opin- 
ions seemed to prevail concerning the future of the Univer- 
sity; and since there is no doubt in my mind as to the 
future policy I feel justified in presenting my views." 
President Race then described the present situation as 
follows: "After thirty-two years of effort we have a col- 
legiate department this year of thirty-nine students. The 
result is that the great body of the students in our prepara- 
tory department are not receiving the consideration that 
they should receive, because of the attention given to the 
collegiate students by our professors. Our professional de- 
partments are stronger than our college of Liberal Arts. 
We are in a top heavy condition. The remedy is to divorce 
the college of Liberal Arts from the preparatory depart- 
ment, remove the college to Chattanooga, concentrate our 
attention at Athens on the preparatory work; make that 
department of the institution a seminary in the largest 
sense of that term. This would mean an increased number 
of students at Athens and facilities for training that we do 
not now possess; so that attention would be directed to the 
fundamentals in a liberal education. It is not necessary to 
go into details, although these exist in my own mind." 

President Race's report not only called for strengthen- 
ing a college of Liberal Arts in Chattanooga and strength- 
ening a preparatory department in Athens, but also called 
for the erection of new buildings, the requirements to pro- 
vide better salaries for faculty members, saying, "we must 
present the claims of Grant University upon the denomina- 
tion." President Race insisted that the University must 

86 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

press for modern facilities and methods in carrying out its 

The Board reconvened at 8:00 o'clock in the evening 
and the Committee on Consolidation reported in favor of 
consolidating "the College of Liberal Arts with the Profes- 
sional Schools at Chattanooga." In President Race's second 
annual report, dated June 1, 1900, he refers to his report 
of the previous year in which he called attention to the fact 
that "the University Senate, of which body our institution 
is a member, had notified us that unless our work in English 
could be strengthened we should be rated among the 
academies of the Church." 

President Race faced and discussed the difficulties in- 
volved, mentioning that "our expenses in connection with 
the department at Athens already were largely in excess 
of our receipts." President Race mentioned other problems 
to be faced, providing laboratory facilities for natural 
sciences and a dormitory for men at Athens. After thought 
and prayer, the Board decided "to place a representative 
of the school in the local field." The Board of Trustees 
was "convinced that the institution must avail herself of 
the Twentieth Century movement and place a representa- 
tive in the local field." 

Dean W. A. Wright, of Athens, was assigned to this 
responsibility. He was requested to raise funds to erect 
greatly needed buildings, including a science building. 

The Board at this meeting employed a new Latin 
teacher at a salary of $400 a year and an English teacher 
at a salary of $375. President Race reported that there had 
been considerable improvement in the English Department 
and listed the required readings for English students. 
President Race had not lost his conviction concerning the 
College of Liberal Arts. "Necessarily this department must 
be the vertebral column of the University." He was still 

As a Memorial to Grant 87 

of the opinion that Athens should have a preparatory de- 
partment that would be "first class in every particular." 
It would be a modern Methodist seminary, "furnishing at 
the same time a satisfactory academic program to that body 
of students unable to go to college." Concerning the Col- 
lege of Liberal Arts of Chattanooga, President Race said 
that there should be a college "with a close and reciprocal 
relation between it and the professional schools, arranging 
the courses of study in such a manner that the individual 
having a profession in view may pursue studies that are 
of especial value to him. The ancient iron-clad college 
course must go." 

Referring to the action of the Board of Trustees in 
submitting the idea of consolidation to the patronizing con- 
ferences. President Race reported that the Annual Confer- 
ences had recommended that consolidation be effected as 
soon as the facilities and equipment were available. The 
President urged the Board of Trustees to find the means 
to make this consolidation possible. 

It was reported that the Board of Trustees of the 
Freedman's Aid and Southern Education Society had met 
February 17, 1903, and that the Society had approved the 
necessary amendments to the charter as follows : "Resolved, 
That the President and local Executive Committee be au- 
thorized to open a college of liberal arts in Chattanooga 
in the fall of 1904 provided that sufficient funds are 

The recommendations of President Race to limit the 
work at Athens to preparatory work and to establish a 
College of Liberal Arts in Chattanooga had received the 
necessary official approval. Friends of the institution in 
Athens expressed the conviction that the years of contro- 
versy concerning the future of the Athens Division had 

88 A History of Tennessee Wesley an College 

done much to lessen the interest of the pubhc and the 
Church in the institution. 

The assignment of Dean Wright to raise funds for the 
erection of a science building resulted in the construction 
of Banfield Hall. Dean Wri^ght had interested William Ban- 
field, of Beaver, Pennsylvania, in providing $16,400. to pro- 
vide the cost of construction. In addition to the contribution 
of Mr. Banfield, whose generosity was directed toward the 
erection of a memorial for his son, C. H. Banfield, Dean 
Wright secured a gift of $6,000 from J. W. Fisher, of New- 
port, to provide the cost of laboratories, a gift of $1,000 
from Doctor J. W. Foster, of Athens, for a library, and a 
member of the faculty, Mrs. A. C. Knight, sister of Bishop 
Henry W. Warren, and Doctor William F. Warren, first 
president of Boston University, contributed $1,000. Banfield 
Hall was formally opened October 7, 1902. Two major 
addresses were given by Bishop J. M. Walden and Doctor 
W. P. Thirkield. Excerpts from these addresses follow: 

Bishop Walden said in part^: "For several days I have 
given a careful study to the territory of East Tennessee, of 
which this University is practically the center. The 
Church as found in the Holston Conference of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church has a very vital relation to this 
University. The study of the last few days reveals to me 
the fact that vast changes have taken place within the last 
few years, and that now nearly every county seat can be 
reached by some line of railroad, thus bringing within easy 
reach of this place many who but a few years since could 
reach it only with difficulty. This fact is significant, as it 
affects the influence of this school in this region. 

"The wealth of these hills and valleys will some time 
be exhausted; but there are hidden stores of wealth which 
do not lie on the surface. I have been asking the question, 

ITHE UNIVERSITY LOOKOUT — November 10, 1902. 



As a Memorial to Grant 89 

'What is the relation of this institution, this new Hall of 
Science, to the future, when the present stores of wealth 
shall be exhausted?' 

"Science in the hands of the scholar can go about over 
the hidden sources of power and locate it. Only the scien- 
tifically educated man can reveal these secrets of power in 
the future. 

"Young men and women must have as good privileges 
in our church schools as they can find in the State 
University if we expect them to come to the church school. 

"Grant University assures the young men and women 
of this region of these excellent privileges. A school would 
not be complete as a Christian school unless it should stand 
in the very forefront on scientific lines. This will be the aim 
and purpose of Grant University from this on." 

Dr. Thirkield's address was in part as follows ^ : 
"This institution occupies a strategic position in relation 
to the distinctively American population of this central 
south. In the 196 counties stretching through the hill and 
mountain country from Virginia on through Northern Ala- 
bama is a population of about three millions; here is found 
a larger percentage of Americans of Anglo-Saxon stock 
than in any other section of America. They are descendants 
of the original Scotch-Irish, and English settlers, who in 
the rush toward the great West became stranded in this 
mountainous country. Pressed away from the fertile regions 
of the South through the influence of the old system, with 
labor regarded as the task of slaves only, here tens of mil- 
lions of them have lived a separate people — of hardy 
stock, of virile blood, of large native capacity, yet through 
lack of opportunity, a belated and undeveloped people. It 
is said that 97 per cent of these people are sons and daugh- 
ters of men of the Revolutionary War, the war of 1812, 

ITHE UNIVERSITY LOOKOUT — November 10, 1902. 

90 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

and the Mexican War. They have shown the spirit of 
patriots, sending into the civil war more soldiers on both 
sides than any other section of the country. 

"From these mountain people came Abraham Lincoln, 
Stonewall Jackson and Cyrus McCormick. What school has 
larger opportunity in the reaching and uplifting of these 
people? This Banfield Hall of Science, with its noble equip- 
ment stands as a living memorial. No monument of marble, 
however tall and splendid, is comparable with it. What 
an investment this noble and generous Christian patriot has 
made ! From this hall, or from its lecture rooms and labora- 
tories, are to go forth young men thoroughly equipped for 
service. And what a splendid field for them is there in the 
development of immense material resources of the South 
that are now only being uncovered. While cotton was king, 
this hill and mountain country was left bare, and undevel- 
oped. But now their untold wealth in coal, iron, timber, 
marble, and other minerals is being opened up. Think of 
the tremendous strides forward that the South had made 
in the last decade, with an increase in population from 
sixteen to twenty-three millions; railway mileage increasing 
150 per cent, and exports 100 per cent; the value of manu- 
factures more than treble, and coal mined rising from six 
to fifty million tons. 

"The call for well equipped men in science and mechan- 
ics to help in this work of development is imperative. Grant 
University offers the opportunity. Let young men get ready 
or the graduates from Northern colleges will take your 

"This school stands related to the ignorant and irre- 
ligious condition of the States lying between the foothills 
of the Blue Ridge on the east and the Cumberland 
Mountains on the west. 

"Here in 1900 in a total male population of 870,537 

As a Memorial to Grant 91 

while, twenty-one years of age, over 142,312, or 16.34 per 
cent, could not read and write. This means that 50 per cent 
of the entire white population are without letters. 

"The call is not merely for better school houses, but for 
trained teachers who will consecrate themselves to the edu- 
cation of these belated people. It is startling to realize that 
in one county of this State, Claiborne, the average of each 
school property is only $51.72. School keeps on an average 
sixty-one days; teachers are paid $22.50 per month and 
the average expenditure for public education per capita 
of the population is 47 cents. 

"The religious condition of multitudes of these Ameri- 
cans calls for trained ministers. O, what whitening fields 
lie before the consecrated missionary, in the uplifting of 
the masses of both races in the South. For the sake of 
America, for the sake of the world, the call for this form 
of service is urgent and imperative. Here, young men and 
women, is an urgent call for service in the enlightening and 
uplifting of a- depressed and belated people. 

"Here in the splendid equipment of Grant University 
is an opportunity for the best investment a young man or 
woman can make. Would that parents also might feel that 
an investment in the brains of their children offers larger 
returns than money put in fields or mines." 

The Hall was formally dedicated May 19, 1903. The 
program included addresses by President Race, John W. 
Fisher, Doctor James S. Ramsey, Dean Wright, Doctor 
William D. Parr, and Bishop Daniel A. Goodsell. Captain 
H. S. Chamberlain, president of the Board of Trustees, 

In 1905 Mr. and Mrs. C. S. Blakeslee, of Macksburg, 
Ohio, presented the brick residence on the corner of North 
Jackson and Robeson Streets to the University to be used 
as a dormitory for men. The announcement indicated the 

92 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

Standards which the administration of the University hoped 
the atmosphere of Blakeslee Hall might produce. "An 
education that does not lead to good manners is a failure. 
Train a boy until he is polite unconsciously, otherwise he 
is handicapped for life. It is our hope, therefore, more and 
more to throw around all our students the refining influ- 
ences, such as prevail in a well regulated home, and Blakes- 
lee Hall is to be just such a place." 

The action of the Board of Trustees to discontinue 
college work in Athens met w^ith two vigorous protests. The 
alumni assembled in Banfield Hall and presented a four- 
page document supporting the retention of the College of 
Liberal Arts in Athens, and a petition signed by sixteen 
leaders, including Dean Wright and Professor Bolton, was 
presented to the Board protesting the reducing of the Athens 
Division to academy rank. 

Mrs. A. C. Knight who had served the College since 
1880 was completing her last year of service in 1905. It 
was appropriate that one of her two distinguished brothers, 
Doctor William F. Warren, should be invited to give the 
Baccalaureate Sermon and the Commencement Address. 

Doctor Warren's sermon has been preserved and is 
being included in this volume as a symbol of a unique and 
distinguished Methodist family. 


Delivered by 
Rev. William F. Warren, LL. D., 

Dean of the School of Theology, Boston University 

In the University Chapel, Athens, Tenn. 

May 14, 1905 


Your prayerful attention is invited to a striking ex- 
pression found in Paul's letter to the Ephesians, in the third 

As a Memorial to Grant 93 

chapter and twentieth verse: "The power that worketh 
in us." 

One day as I was travehng by railway in France, I 
chanced to pass through the university town in which but 
a short time before Professor and Madame Curie had made 
their world-famous discoveries respecting radium. It 
chanced that a gentleman in our coupe had with him a 
tiny specimen of the newly discovered element. At his 
invitation we constructed with our two overcoats a kind 
of tent to serve as a camera obscura, under the roof of which 
our little party then had the pleasure of watching the radio- 
active process as the mysterious element gave off its quickly 
succeeding points of light in one incessant bombardment of 
the immensities in every direction from its centre. It was 
a spectacle before which my heart well nigh stood still in 
awe and wonder. It was as if I had violated the privacy 
of nature's most secret laboratory, and had suddenly come 
upon one of the hidden motors of the universe. In my 
amazement the question rose to my lips: "Whence, O ye 
thaumaturgic atoms, whence have ye this unwearying, 
wasteless, exhaustless energy?" Then from out of the fath- 
omless silence I seemed to hear the answer: "We can not 
tell. It is a power that worketh in us." 

Last summer I was riding along a highway in the 
country. As I was looking up into the tall elms that over- 
arched me, I remembered the day when years before I 
saw them planted as slender, almost branchless, saplings by 
the roadside. How wonderful seemed the change! Then 
rose a new question to my lips, and I said: "How is it, ye 
thaumaturgic trees, how is it that ye have been adding all 
these cubits to your stature? You have been doing what 
no man can do." The oracular answer quickly came, and 
it was this : "We have done nothing. A mysterious interior 
force takes up the soil beneath your feet, lifts it through 

94 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

liquid pipes yard after yard, and builds and builds our 
tops into the upper air. It is the power that worketh in 

Today let us look for a little at the world of men. 
Here is the planet we occupy, a solid earth wrapt round 
with oceanic waters that seem immeasurable. But men are 
navigating the stormiest seas; they have actually weighed 
the earth; they are measuring the innumerable stars. A 
few geologic years ago not one representative of our human 
family ^vas here. When the first of the kind appeared they 
seemed the least promising of all the animate tribes. They 
\vere at birth the weakest of all; they were the slowest of 
all in reaching individual maturity. Their chances for bare 
survival in the struggle for existence seemed the poorest of 
all. Despite this unpromising beginning, however, they have 
long since taken possession of one of the ripest worlds in the 
solar system, inclosed its every acre of land and water in a 
vast net of meridians and parrallels from whose meshes it 
can nowhere escape. They have plucked from the clouds 
the thunderbolts and bid fair to be soon sending their wire- 
less messages from planet to planet. Remembering the 
feebleness of our beginnings and contrasting with them our 
ever-gro\\ing approaches to world sovereignty, must we not 
join with the radio-active elements, and with the towering 
elms, in the confession: "There is a power that worketh 
in us." 

This thought that in each one of us there is at work 
a po\ver distinguishable from ourselves, a power not our 
own, is one of the most startling imaginable. Our minds 
habitually think of themselves as capable of being acted 
upon only from points without. We hear continually about 
our environment, and about the potent, the well-nigh all- 
decisive, effect of the forces that act upon us from our en- 
vironment. The idea that besides all these exterior forces, 

As a Memorial to Grant 95 

there is another, a force within, one central to our central 
self, yet not our own, is at first almost alarming. It seems 
as if it carried with it a betrayal of the inner citadel of our 
very personality. If a force not our own is at work at our 
very centre, and at the same time forces not our own are 
pressing in from without from every point in our environ- 
ing sphere, what earthly chance have we to rise superior to 
alien forces, to triumph over predetermined influences, to 
give decisive effect to any noble spontaneous purpose? In- 
deed what are we but empty vortical atoms kept in existence 
simply by the equilibrium of forces that exactly counterpoise 
each other? 

Startling, however, as the thought may be, alarming 
though it may seem, I think all truly thoughtful men sooner 
or later reach the conclusion that it is in strict accord with 
reality. In the realm of our bodily life there seems no 
possibility of doubting it. It was by no plan or effort of 
mine that my physical frame took on the form and features 
of a human being. Within my breast I find the central 
power-house of my physical life, but I am certain that it 
was not fitted by me. In it a power not my own set in 
operation the throbbing dynamo of my heart. A power not 
my own determined its permissible rates of motion and pre- 
established its term of normal operation. Each one of us 
is an animated onrushing automobile, whose driving engine 
we have never seen, whose fuel supply we have no means of 
estimating, and whose stop at the goal will not be at our 
personal word of command. Truly the pre-conditioning, 
the sustentation, and the abiding issues of our physical life, 
are not our own; they are from the power that worketh 
in us. 

Not less evident is a similar working in our intellectual 
and moral life. The real originator of our spiritual faculties, 
the determiner of their actions and interactions, the author 

96 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

of the conditions of their sane and normal exercise, the 
giver of their possibihties of improvement and abuse, was 
in each case not ourselves. It must have been one whose 
being and whose agency antedates our own. And if a power 
capable of all this did all this for us in advance, it would be 
the height of unreason to imagine that his operations myste- 
riously ceased the moment of infant powers had once been 
set in motion. The very heathen never fall into so gross 
an error as that. You who have studied Plato and the great 
tragedians of pre-Christian ages know that even there men 
found within themselves illuminations, and quickenings, and 
uplifts, which they recognized as from some power other 
than their own, some power that was working in them. To 
Socrates, no less than to us, the voice of conscience was a 
divine voice. Centuries before the Christian era, lawgivers 
like Hammurabi, and poets like Homer, felt spiritual im- 
pulsions which led to deeds and words immortal. Surely 
none of us are willing to be more blind than the heathen 
of those distant ages. Surely, Epictetus and Plutarch, we 
will confess that there is within us a light not of our own 
kindling, a power not ourselves that makes for righteousness. 
Moreover, as Plato and Epictetus and Plutarch hesitated 
not to identify this personal interior worker with the in- 
visible Sovereign of the universe, — the Creator and right- 
ful Lord of all men — we too will not hesitate to unite 
with them in the confession: "It is God that worketh in us 
both to will and to do of his own good pleasure." 

A properly vivid realization of this inward working of 
the inner Worker is something wonderfully inspiring. Would 
that each one of us might possess it and possess it uninter- 
mittently! It affects one's total world-view. It communi- 
cates a courage and a confidence which nothing else can 
give. Whenever we fully possess it we can not doubt that 
despite all conflicts and set-backs and discomfitures, we are 

WILLIAM A. WRIGHT, Class of 1878 
Teacher and Dean 

As a Memorial to Grant 97 

equipped for ultimate and certain victory. We clearly see 
that the power within is the ground and the governor of 
all the powers without; and consequently that all the im- 
pulses within us toward the harmony, order and perfection 
of our being have allies in the corresponding forces which 
are at work in the outer world, - — forces evermore making 
for harmony and order and perfection in the broadest 
reaches of our total world-environment. We can not give 
way to weak despondencies and impotent despairs, for be- 
fore our very eyes we note these adjusted and mated forces 
at work through all the longitudes of time and through all 
the latitudes of space, — working, working, forever working 
with wasteless energy for ends precisely answering to those 
for which the power within us is working. The vision lifts 
us at once above the gloom of our disappointments and the 
bitterness of our defeats; it causes us to cry out in sudden 
exultation, "If God be for us who can be against us!" It 
so identifies us with God's very life that we are ready to 
pray : 

Breathe within our breathing. Thou; 

Beat within our pulses now; 

Conscience of our conscience be. 

Soul of souls eternally. 

If any person now listening to me has never yet at- 
tended to this deepest and highest activity within him, I 
would ask, Why not? Why not? 

Perhaps you say, "I have always had the idea that 
only deluded mystics, or at least, dreamy, mystically con- 
stituted persons, could have experiences such as the apostle, 
and even some lofty spirits among the heathen, have 
claimed to have. And really, is there not something border- 
ing on the pathologic in all such experiences?" 

In answer to your question I might cite you the langu- 
age of Seneca, the Stoic, who certainly was far enough 

98 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

from being a mystic, or a dreamer; yet who says: "There 
is within us a holy spirit who treats us as we treat him." 
But you would prefer, perhaps, to hear a modern, a man 
of broad intelligence and ripe experience in the world. I 
will select you one. Shall he be a child of Greater Boston? 
Very good. Must he be an author known and honored 
wherever the literature of the English tongue is studied? 
Very good. Must he be versed in other great modern 
literatures? Yes, he shall be a man \vho for long years was 
a University Professor of two of them. Must he have 
abounding humor and great powers of burlesque? Be it so. 
He shall be one who holds a front rank among our greatest 
American satirists. Shall he have in him the fire of a politi- 
cal reformer? Quite right. He shall be the man who in the 
old anti-slavery times Edgar Allen Poe branded as the most 
fanatical of all the Abolitionists. Shall he yet have such 
cool and excellent judgment and such knowledge of men 
that he can be entrusted with a public office? O yes, he 
shall be a man of such eminent qualifications for public 
service that the whole American people were proud to see 
him, during more than one administration, serving as our 
ambassador and minister plenipotentiary at the Court of 
St. James. And now what does this scholar, this reformer, 
this wide-awake modern man of affairs say in response to 
your question? Turn to the closing lines of "The Cathe- 
dral," written by James Russell Lowell, and you have his 
answer. Speaking from the depths of his own experience 
he begins: 

"O Power more near my life than life itself, 
Oh what seems life to us in sense immersed." 

This is the way in which he addresses the power that 
worketh in us. He represents this power as knowable intui- 
tively, knowable by men. He claims for his own soul an 
inward surety of God's presence \vithin him. More than 

As a Memorial to Grant 99 

this, he goes on to affirm that only through this personal 
divine Power within does his soul feel and self-realize her- 
self. Surely if the author of the Biglow Papers, this many- 
sided ambassador at the Court of St. James can thus speak 
of the central realities of his own personal experience, you 
may well reconsider your notion that only mystics and 
dreamers and dupes of unregulated imagination ever per- 
suade themselves that God is working within them. May 
it not turn out that you are the dreamer, and that this very 
notion of yours is part of a baseless dream? 

Thus far I have spoken of certain analogies that war- 
rant us in expecting to find a divine working within 
ourselves. Next, of the recognition of its existence by the 
more intelligent among heathen thinkers. Next, of the 
matchless inspiration and help of such a working when 
fully recognized by us. Next, of the sanity and wholesome- 
ness of a life conscious of this inward working. Now, ad- 
vancing a further step I come to a question which more 
than any other challenges our interest and our action. It 
is this: To what degree, if any, can we control, direct, or 
modify the working of this superhuman power that worketh 
in us? In answer to this question I must first of all say that 
according to the agreeing testimony of all witnesses, heathen 
or Christian, the interior divine working as a matter of fact 
antedates all expectation and seeking on the part of the 
human will. It is, therefore, in the first instance, not a 
divine response to some forth-putting of human energy that 
serves as a procuring cause. As the stars give illumination 
to the midnight landscape without being asked to do so, so 
over the night of our infant souls there is shed from the 
beginning a heavenly illumination. Better than that, the 
source of this celestial light takes up his abode in the centre 
of our darkness and becomes the light that lighteth every 
man that cometh into the world. 

100 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

So far, then, it is not ours to control the power that 
worketh in us. It is, however, ours to modify, and so far 
forth to control, this power in all further workings. These 
are psychologically conditioned on personal human response 
to personal divine solicitation. The unconditionally given 
light is sufficient to reveal evidences of the presence of Him 
whom all responsive souls recognize as "The Great Com- 
panion." But it is in our power so to turn our eyes away 
from their evidences to things visible and tangible, and so 
to set our affections on our own selfish schemes and our own 
selfish selves as to have no place for thoughts of God, no 
capacity for affections such as are due toward Him. It is 
in this condition that the unmitigated worldling lives. In 
comparison with the man he might be, he is more to be 
pitied than the man who is blind of eye and utterly void 
of tactual sensibility. The visions he is missing surpass all 
that keenest eye has ever seen. The delights that he has 
forfeited are beyond all that bounding heart or tingling 
nerve has ever reported. Even the Bramin and the Budd- 
hist unite with the Christian in pronouncing such a man a 
spiritual bankrupt, — a being who has utterly missed his 
true life and all that ecstacy of conscious self-realization 
claimed by Russell Lowell and claimed by every soul 
conscious of its indwelling God. 

The action of the Board of Trustees of 1904 was not 
easily accepted by alumni, trustees, and friends of the Col- 
lege in Athens, and in order to prevent President Race ai;id 
the Board of Trustees from continuing this policy, John W, 
Bayless '81, of Athens, and a member of the Board of 
Trustees, and Robert J. Fisher, a prominent citizen of 
Athens, caused to be filed on August 15, 1904, in Athens, 
a bill of injunction, enjoining the President of the Univer- 
sity from control of the affairs of the Division at Athens 
and also from interferring in its management by officers 

Trustee, Donor of Fisher Laboratories 

As a Memorial to Grant 101 

residing in McMinn County. Judge McConnell decided 
in favor of Bayless and Fisher, granting the chief elements 
sought in the injunction. This case was appealed and taken 
to the Chancery Court of Appeals. Judge J. F. Wilson, of 
the Chancery Court of Appeals, reversed the decision of 
Judge McConnell and the case was then appealed to the 
Supreme Court. The Supreme Court, in its session in 
Knoxville in September — November, 1904, handed down 
no decision. The Supreme Court gave its decision in 
November 1905 through Judge W. K. McAlister. This 
action reversed the action of Judge McConnell and 
concludes with this statement: 

"The Chattanooga and Athens institutions, in 1892, 
were merged into one institution, by an act of the Legisla- 
ture by and with the consent of the Trustees of both institu- 
tions. The new corporation accepted a trust, and has since 
that time been conducting and operating same. The decree 
of the Court of Chancery Appeals sustained demurrer, 
therefore affirmed, and the bill dismissed." 

Apparently, during the period of litigation President 
Race had not felt welcome in Athens and had had little 
to do with the institution and had objected to signing the 
diplomas which were to be awarded in June 1905. 

Following the action of the Supreme Court of the State 
of Tennessee, designating the Board of Trustees as being in 
control of the university, Doctor Race, accompanied by 
J. E. Annis, visited Athens, dining at Blakeslee Hall, and 
meeting in Banfield Hall of Science. 

The meeting was attended also by John W. Bayless, 
John W. Foster, Dean Wright and Professor David A. 
Bolton. President Race reported that inasmuch as the con- 
duct of the University had been restored to the Board of 
Trustees and to himself as President, he and Mr. Annis had 
come to Athens to discover what financial obligations had 

102 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

been entered into by the local Trustees and the Dean of 
the College. President Race accepted financial responsi- 
bility and said that all obligations would be paid in full. 

There was discussion concerning the conditions upon 
which the Freedman's Aid and Southern Education Society 
of Cincinnati would resume payment for the maintenance 
of current operations at Athens. The President and Mr. 
Annis said that they believed that the Society would resume 
its payment if the authorities at Athens would work in 
harmony with the policy of the Society. John W. Foster 
said that as long as he was a member of the Board of Trus- 
tees he would do everything in his power to prevent the 
College of Liberal Arts, in Athens, from being discontinued. 
His sentiments were seconded by John W. Bayless. The 
meeting, although frank discussion was participated in, was 
reported to be "harmonious in its conclusions." President 
Race reported that he was having success in securing 
$200,000 to be added to the endowment of the University 
to meet the challenge of Doctor John Pearson, of Chicago, 
who had pledged $50,000 on condition that the University 
raise an additional $150,000.00. The local Executive Com- 
mittee met with Dean Wright and President Race at com- 
mencement time in 1906. The financial budget for the 
coming year was considered and the members of the faculty 
were approved for election, and Dean Wright and Professor 
Bolton, who had taken some interest in the injunction 
proceedings of the preceding two years, were re-elected. 

At the meeting of the Board of Trustees June 14, 1906 
in Chattanooga, Bishop J. W. Walden objected to the 
election of certain members of the faculty at Athens. The 
Board of Trustees declared the Dean's place vacant and the 
Chair of Mathematics vacant. The Board of Trustees 
adopted the report, not a member voting against it, but 

As a Memorial to Grant 103 

John W. Bayless, of Athens, and James A. Fowler, of 
Knoxville, did not vote. 

Dean Wright was selected a Professor of Latin at a 
reduced salary. This he declined to accept. The Chair 
of Mathematics, which had been occupied by D. A. Bolton 
for 33 consecutive years, was left vacant. 

The failure to re-elect Wright as Dean and Bolton as 
Professor created considerable opposition and on June 16, 
1906, James A. Fowler, '84, who had failed to vote at the 
meeting two days before sent the following letter to each 
member of the Executive Committee which consisted of 
President Race, H. S. Chamberlain, J. E. Annis, William 
Banfield, Bishop Luther B. Wilson, John A. Patten, John 
W. Fisher, C. L. Parham, W. P. Thirkield, G. T. Francisco 
and John W. F. Foster. 

"Dear Sir: — On reflection I have concluded that it 
would not be inappropriate, but that it is probably my duty 
to express to you my views with reference to the action of 
the Board of Trustees on the 14th inst. in regard to 
Professors Wright and Bolton. 

"I said nothing at the time, because I was fearful that 
something might be said that would mar the good feeling 
that appeared to prevail among the entire membership of 
the Board. I have the utmost confidence in every member 
of the Committee who submitted the report in question, 
and, of course, I know that they, as well as all other mem- 
bers of the Board, have the very best interest of the institu- 
tion at heart, and would carefully avoid doing anything 
that might jeopardize that interest; and I am sure that all 
have the liberality to permit me to dissent from the view 
that the action taken is calculated to best promote the wel- 
fare of the school. This action was, of course, the result 
of the litigation which terminated at the last term of the 
Supreme Court at Knoxville, and whether or not that liti- 

104 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

gation was in any respect justifiable, is not a matter which 
I shall discuss. However, I will suggest, that if something 
of that kind had not occurred, there might have been radi- 
cal steps taken, before conditions had so adjusted them- 
selves as to prevent serious friction. But let us concede that 
it was ill-advised, then will it not be admitted that all 
persons are liable to err, and that a mere error in judgment 
which involves no improper motive should be overlooked? 
There can be no doubt that the statement of Dr. Wright 
(Dean) to the Board that his conscience was clear, and 
that he had done nothing but what he believed to be right, 
was absolutely true; and there can be no doubt that Prof. 
Bolton could, with equal truth, make the same statement. 
It is difficult for some of the Board to put themselves in 
their position. The Athens School was their Alma Mater. 
They had witnessed its early years of struggle, and had 
given the energies of the best years of their lives to lifting 
it from obscurity to a position of respectability, and natur- 
ally they resented what they conceived to be an effort to 
cripple its usefulness. You, who were opposed to their 
views, of course, believe you had a broader vision than they, 
and had no such purpose as they supposed, but you ought 
to be kind enough to overlook the words and acts of us who 
adhere to Athens, when they are the outgrowth, not only 
of our best judgments, but also of the memories that 
surround, and the love that binds us to that institution. 

"Now if the conduct of these two gentlemen does not 
show that their motives were impure and unworthy of men 
who teach the youth of our land, what reason can there 
be for removing them from the Faculty, or attempting to 
administer a rebuke to them? 

"I was led to believe that the Board had determined 
to sufTer the past to remain behind them and to turn their 
faces to the future, and to do that which would best sub- 

As a Memorial to Grant 105 

serve the future interests of the entire institution, both the 
departments at Chattanooga and those at Athens. With 
this in mind I had no thought of any action being taken 
that would reflect upon Professors Wright and Bolton, or 
that might in the least estrange their feelings and sympa- 
thies from the work, because neither their efficiency, nor 
their Christian character has ever been questioned, and I 
imagine that there is hardly a student who attended at 
Athens during the past year, or an alumnus of that school, 
who would not feel that an irreparable loss had befallen 
the institution on account of their absence. 

"In addition to this, no active Professors of the institu- 
tion are so well known to, or so well understand, the people 
of the patronizing territory as they. They are native born 
and reared and have spent their lives in educating this very 
people and in this very institution, and must, therefore, 
have many scores of influential friends among the alumni 
and former and present students, scattered throughout this 
entire territory. Are all these advantages to be thrown 
away, and these men who have devoted so much and valu- 
able service to our school and church, and who have past 
that period of life when they can readily turn to some other 
avocation, to be sacrificed? And if so, for what? For some- 
thing which I submit, no business man should consider for 
a moment, if action upon it would materially interfere with 
the success of his business. 

"As I understand, the whole matter is now in the 
hands of the Executive Committee, and it is for this reason 
that I have taken the liberty of thus addressing you. You 
will please pardon me for also taking the liberty of sending 
a copy of this communication to each member of the com- 
mittee. I think that it is a matter that deserves of them 
the most careful and prayerful consideration, and knowing 
the personnel of that Committee, and their anxiety to do 

106 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

under all the circumstances the best thing, I do not doubt 
that it will receive the consideration that it deserves. 

"Pardon me for also suggesting that in justice to the 
institution, the Committee should take this matter under 
advisement and act upon it at the earliest convenient date. 

.^ Sincerely yours, 

James A. Fowler" 

William Banfield, who largely because of his friend- 
ship with Dean Wright, had erected C. H. Banfield Memo- 
rial Hall received a communication from Dean Wright 
relating to him the acts of the Board concerning Professor 
Bolton and himself. 

Mr. Banfield wrote the following letter to President 

"I am in receipt of a newspaper clipping from Dean 
Wright, giving an account of the business transacted at the 
last Trustee's meeting. 

"I find that Dr. Bolton was dropped and that the 
Deanship was taken from Mr. Wright. I infer that this is 
a punishment for the part they took in the litigation. If 
this is so, I sincerely protest against the course taken by 
the Trustees. I have endeavored not to take sides in the 
unpleasant controversy, feeling that I was not fully posted 
in the history of the institution and its original agreement 
made between the branch at Athens and Chattanooga. I 
am of the opinion, however, that these people have a per- 
fect right to stand up for the original agreement. I do not 
for a minute question the loyalty of Dr. Bolton or Dean 
Wright to the institution. 

"For the sake of peace and harmony and the good of 
the institution, I think they should be restored to their 
former positions. If they have been removed for inefficiency 
or for a lack of loyalty to the institution or the work, then 
I have nothing to say. I am of the opinion that both sides 

As a Memorial to Grant 107 

made mistakes in the unpleasant controversy. It is my 
opinion that if these men are reinstated the matter will 
soon be forgotten and the good done in the past at Athens 
will be continued. 

"I would very much like to be at the meeting of the 
Executive Committee, but I find that I have so much work 
on hand that it will be impossible. 

"With best wishes, I remain 

Yours truly, 
William Banfield" 

On June 29th Dean Wright was invited to go to Chat- 
tanooga for a conference with President Race. President 
Race was joined by J. E. Annis and John A. Patten. They 
discussed the problems involved in the running of the insti- 
tution. Dean Wright returned to Athens that evening en- 
couraged that he would be continued as Dean and that 
D. A. Bolton would be restored to his position as Professor 
of Mathematics at Athens. 

"This was all, however, based on the condition that 
these men work in harmony with the administration au- 
thorities of the University. President Race requested each 
write a letter stating as much." 

"Wright and Bolton thought that further opposition 
against the decision of the majority of the Board would 
be useless and each one wrote a personal letter to President 
Race admitting the reasonableness of his request and ex- 
pressing their purpose of fidelity to the President and Board 
of Trustees in the carrying out of their policy so long as 
they may be teachers in the University." 

A conference was held in Athens, July 6, 1906, at- 
tended by President Race, John A. Patten, J. E. Annis, 
W. A. Wright, and D. A. Bolton. 

"In this conference at Athens all present agreed that 
the strife and contention about the departments of the 

108 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

University should be ended as soon as possible, and, if 
possible, a satisfactory agreement reached by which the 
Board could carry out its policy without disturbance." 

President Race recommended to the Committee that 
four years of preparatory work in the Scientific and Classi- 
cal Curricula be continued and that two years beyond prep- 
aratory school leading to the awarding of a diploma which 
would carry the title of Literary Scientific and a normal 
diploma course. Wright and Bolton made additional sug- 
gestions which were apparently acceptable to other 
members of the Committee. 

"This Conference at Athens recommended the courses 
mentioned for Athens for the following year 1906-1907, 
and that W. A. Wright be elected Dean of the Department 
at Athens, and that David A. Bolton be elected Professor 
of Mathematics — they concurring in the said courses of 
study, and the men from Chattanooga declaring to care 
for the work at Athens and to develop it to a greater 

John A. Patten was to carry the above recommenda- 
tions to the meeting of the Cincinnati Board and to make 
a plea for their adoption on July 10, 1906. 

"The society met in Cincinnati on July 10, 1906, and 
took action approving the suggestions made at Banfield 
Hall on July 6, 1906. President Race soon notified Wright 
that he and Bolton were restored to their former positions." 

And, so the college program which began in 1857 with 
the awarding of degrees came to an end, and the members 
of the last graduating class in 1906 were as follows: 

Ellis E. Crabtree, John Jennings, Walter F. Williams, 
Isabelle Gettys, and J. Howard Jarvis. 


As The Athens School of the University 
of Chattanooga 

Unless those who beheve in a Christian civihzation 
are willing to sacrifice of their good, hard-earned cash to 
educate Christian leaders, they will find in a few genera- 
tions that their dream has vanished, that tyranny with its 
hard and fast ruthless rules of life will be substituted for 
the good life. It is not a question so much of churches and 
preachers alone as it is of these and colleges that will make 
leaders who will create a world in which churches can 
thrive, leaders in all walks of life, and in all callings and 
professions. If American churchmen fail to support the 
kinds of colleges that turn out Christian leaders, American 
life under another leadership soon will close the church. 

— William Allen White. 


110 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

The Board of Trustees petitioned the State of Tennes- 
see on June 11, 1907, "for an amendment to its charter of 
incorporation, for the purpose of changing the name of 
said corporation from the U. S. Grant University to Uni- 
versity of Chattanooga," and the Athens Division of U. S. 
Grant University became The Athens School of the 
University of Chattanooga. 

President Race as previously reported in conference 
with Dean Wright and Professor Bolton had agreed upon 
a two-year post-high school program. The following 
curricula were offered: 




First Term. College Algebra 5 

Latin, De Senectute 5 English Prose 5 

Greek, Herodotus 5 Third Term. 

College Algebra 5 Latin, Tacitus 5 

Advanced Rhetoric 5 Greek, Memorabilia 5 

Second Term. Botany 5 

Latin, Livy 5 Political Institutions 5 

Greek, Herodotus 5 


First Term. Trigonometry 5 

German or French 5 American History 5 

Physics 5 Third Term. 

European HistOiy 5 German or French 5 

Economics 5 Physics 5 

Second Term. Sociology 5 

German or French 5 19th Century 5 



First Term. College Algebra 5 

Latin, De Senectute 5 English Prose 5 

German or French 5 Third Term. 

College Algebra 5 Latin, Tacitus 5 

Advanced Rhetoric 5 German or French 5 

Second Term. Botany 5 

Latin, Livy 5 Political Institutions 5 

German or French 5 


First Term. Trigonometry 5 

German or French 5 American History 5 

Physics 5 Third Term. 

European History 5 German or French 5 

Economics 5 Physics 5 

Second Term. Sociology 5 

German or French 5 19th Century Literature 5 

Phvsics 5 

*Catalogue 1907 

As T he Athens S chool of the University of Chattanooga 111 



First Term. Chemistry-Qualitative 

German or French 5 Analysis 5 

Chemistry-Qualitative English Prose 5 

Analysis 5 Third Term. 

College Algebra 5 German or French 5 

Advanced Rhetoric 5 Chemistry-Qualitative 

Second Term. Analysis 5 

German or French 5 Botany 5 

College Algebra 5 Political Institutions 5 


First Term Physics 5 

French 5 Zoology 5 

Physics 5 Third Term. 

European History 5 French 5 

Economics 5 Physics 5 

Second Term. Geology 5 

French 5 Trigonometry and 

Trigonometry 5 Mensuration 5 



First Term. Education 5 

Latin, German or French 5 English Prose 5 

Physics 5 Third' Term. 

Pedagogy-Psychology 5 Latin, German or French 5 

Advanced Rhetoric 5 Physics 5 

Second Term. Pedagogy-Principles of 

Latin, German or French 5 Education 5 

Physics 5 Political Institutions 5 

Pedagogy-History of 


First Term. Zoology 5 

Latin, German or French 5 American History 5 

Philosophy of Education 5 Third Term. 

European History 5 Latin, German or French 5 

Economics 5 Educational Problems 5 

Second Term. Botany 5 

Latin, German or French 5 Sociology 5 

Pedagogy — Child Study 5 

Dean W. A. Wright, who had served the University 
with such great devotion and integrity, decided to leave 
his alma mater and became the president of Grayson 
College in Whitewright, Texas. 

The Board of Trustees changed the title of dean to 
vice-president, and Doctor William S. Bovard, member of 
one of the most distinguished educational families in 
Methodism, was appointed Vice-President of the Univer- 

112 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

sity and he and his family took up residence in Blakeslee 
Hall. In 1911, President Race initiated a financial cam- 
paign for $500,000, $150,000 of which was to come from 
the General Board of Education, endowed by John D. 
Rockefeller. The Holston Conference called upon Method- 
ists and other friends of the University of Chattanooga and 
The Athens School to assist in securing by November 1, 
1912, the $350,000 necessary to secure the Rockefeller 

It will be recalled that President Race had suggested 
in one of his earlier reports the urgent need of a science 
building and an adequate dormitory for men in Athens. 
The dedication of the dormitory to be known as Petty- 
Manker Hall, took place November 20, 1913. 

This building was erected during the summer of 1913 
at a cost of $25,000. John A. Patten, of Chattanooga, 
ofi"ered to give $10,000 toward the erection of a residence 
hall for young men if the citizens of Athens \vould secure 
an additional $10,000. This proposition \\as accepted by 
the community of Athens and under the leadership of 
Bishop R. J. Cooke, '80, and others, the campaign met 
with success. 

This building \vas named by the Trustees as Petty- 

Manker Hall honoring Doctor J. J. Manker and Doctor 

J. S. Petty, personal friends and leaders of Holston 

On the day established for the dedication services the 
program had to be delayed for several hours because the 
Chattanooga train was three hours late. 

The program began at 3 : 30 in the Chapel of The 
Athens School. The Reverend Doctor Robert B. Stansell, 
Vice-President of the University and acting President for 
the year, presided; the Reverend Albert E. Wallace, minis- 

As The At hens School of the University of Chattanooga 113 

ter of the Mars Hill Presbyterian Church, in Athens, gave 
the invocation. 

Doctor Stansell introduced Captain H. C. Chamber- 
lain, of Chattanooga, President of the Board of Trustees, 
who gave the opening address. At the conclusion of his 
address Captain Chamberlain became the Master of Cere- 
monies and introduced the following persons who gave 
addresses: The Honorable T. C. Thompson, Mayor of the 
City of Chattanooga, Bishop R. J. Cooke, the Honorable 
John H. Early, '86, of Chattanooga, Doctor John A. Patten, 
and Frank F. Hooper, '97, member of the faculty of the 
University of Chattanooga. The program was concluded 
with a prayer by Doctor J. J. Manker. 

President Race continued as acting President of the 
University of Chattanooga and The Athens School of the 
University until the election of Doctor Fred Whitlo Hixson 
who took office in 1914. 

Fred Whitlo Hixson was born November 24, 1874, at 
Doverhill, Indiana. At sixteen years of age, Mr. Hixson 
entered the preparatory school of DePauw University. He 
was graduated from DePauw University, June, 1889, with 
a Bachelor of Arts Degree and entered the ministry of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. From September, 1899, to 
1914 he was pastor of leading churches in Indiana. In 
1914, Doctor Hixson became president of the University of 
Chattanooga. He was inaugurated October 22, 1914, in 
services held in the City Auditorium of Chattanooga. The 
faculty and students of The Athens School attended in a 
body. Bishop Theodore S. Henderson, the resident Bishop 
of the Chattanooga area, presided. Addresses were given 
by President William A. Shanklin, of Wesleyan University, 
President George R. Grose, of DePauw University, Bishop 
William F. McDowell and by President Hixson. Doctor 
Hixson continued as president of the University of Chatta- 

114 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

nooga and The Athens School of the University until June 
1920, when he was elected the eleventh president of 
Allegheny College, at Meadville, Pennsylvania, where he 
served for four years. Doctor Hixson died in his 49th year 
after giving himself unremittingly as the president of the 
University of Chattanooga and The Athens School and 
Allegheny College. It was during President Hixson's ad- 
ministrations that restrictions on post-high school \\ork were 
further imposed on The Athens School. One year of 
academic work was offered, designed to assist in the 
preparation of elementary school teachers. 


(Open to graduates of first'class high schools.) 
First Term. Second Term. 

General Psychology (5) General Psychology (5) 

Primary Methods (5) General Methods (5) 

Rhetoric (5) Grammar Grade Methods (5) 

Teachers' Arithmetic (3) Rhetoric (5) 

Expression (2) Teachers' Geography (3) 

Drawing (2) 

Third Term. 

School Management or School Administration (5) 

Observation and Practice Teaching (3) 

Teaching of Literature (3) 

Public School Music (2) 

Drawing (2) 

A two-year pre-medical course was included in the 


(Open to graduates of high schools.) 

French, Spanish, or Latin 
Solid Geometry or History 

(Advanced Ale;ebra in Third Term.) 
First Term. Second Term. 

Physics Physics 

Organic Chemistry Psychology 

Psychology Bible Literature 

French, Spanish, or Latin French, Spanish, or Latin 

Third Term. 
Bible Literature 
French, Spanish, or Latin 

^Catalogue 1919-1920 

As The At hens School of the University of Chattanooga 115 

It was during President Hixson's administration that 
the University of Chattanooga and The Athens School of 
the University of Chattanooga suffered an irreparable loss. 
The death of Doctor John A. Patten occurred on April 
26, 1916. 

The Gold and Blue expressed the respect of faculty 
and students in the following manner: 

On Wednesday, April 26, the whole city of Athens 
was shocked and a great gloom cast over the school when 
the news of John A. Patten's death swept into our midst. 
We have never sustained such a loss — one so wholly 
irreparable, so keenly felt and so deeply mourned. 

Mr. Patten has done more for this school than any 
other one man. He has given liberally of his time and 
money — more than that — he put his whole soul into it ; 
its interests were his interests. 

Petty-Manker Hall, our splendid boys' dormitory was 
made possible by his generous giving and untiring efforts. 
Every year he paid the expenses of some two or three 
students to the Southern Students' Conference at Black 
Mountain, N. C, and gave many confidential gifts to the 
various enterprises of the school. 

He Sounded No Trumpet. 
Mr. Patten did not do his alms before men to be seen 
of them, neither did he sound a trumpet that others might 
know of his wonderful work. He gave his gifts confidenti- 
ally and did his work for the love of it. He has helped 
scores of young men to get an education, and he always 
said, "This is confidential." He did not want the praises 
of men, nor the newspaper's publicity but desired to con- 
tinue in the even tenor of his way, doing unto others as he 
would have them do unto him. 

His Last Visit Here, 
The students of this school will never forget his last 

116 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

visit to Athens. On the evening of February 24th he at- 
tended a banquet at Ritter Home, where he deHvered an 
address, and the next morning at the chapel, we were 
privileged to hear him deliver a most excellent address. 
Mr. Patten said in substance, that we, as students were 
enjoying a rare privilege — that of attending such a splen- 
did school. He urged Xis to make the most of the golden 
hours. He said that we ought to go from this institution, 
unselfish, and willing to impart to others some of the great 
things we had learned here.^ 

Dean Frank F. Hooper, dean of the College of Liberal 
Arts, in Chattanooga, was designated as acting president 
for the year 1920-21. 

Doctor Arlo Ayres Brown was elected President of 
the University of Chattanooga and The Athens School 
June 7, 1921. Doctor Brown's education and experience 
fitted him admirably to assume the dual responsibility of 

Doctor Brown was born in Sunbeam, Mercer County, 
Illinois, on April 15, 1883. He was educated at North- 
western University, Drew Theological Seminary, and Union 
Theological Seminary, in New York. He received honorary 
degrees from Cornell College, Iowa, Syracuse University, 
University of Chattanooga, Northwestern University and 
Boston University. Doctor Brown was ordained in the Meth- 
odist ministry in 1907 and served as associate pastor of Mad- 
ison Avenue Church, in New York, and as pastor of Mount 
Hope Church, in New York. In 1912 he represented the 
Board of Foreign Missions of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church in Jerusalem. This service was followed by assign- 
ment as Executive Secretary of the Newark, New Jersey, 
District Church Society. In 1914 he was appointed Super- 
intendent of teacher training for the Board of Sunday 

iThe Gold and Blue — May 1916 

As The Athens School of the University of Chattanooga 117 

Schools of the Methodist Episcopal Church. He assumed 
the presidency of the University of Chattanooga and The 
Athens School of the University in 1921. Following the 
separation of The Athens School from the University of 
Chattanooga in 1925, Doctor Brown continued his respon- 
sibility in Chattanooga until 1929 when he was elected 
president of Drew University. The honors which came to 
Doctor Brown revealed his leadership in education and 
the Church. Among them were the following: Chairman, 
International Council of Religious Education; president, 
the American Association of Theological Schools; presi- 
dent, Methodist Educational Association; member, the 
Commission on Conference Courses of Study of The Meth- 
odist Church; member, the Board of Education of The 
Methodist Church; member, the Methodist Commission on 
Chaplains; member. Appraisal Commission of Laymen's 
Foreign Missions Inquiry, which enabled him and Mrs. 
Brown to join Professor Hocking's Committee in 1931-32 
for a year's visit to the mission stations of the world; mem- 
ber, the International Committee of the International Board 
of the Army and Navy Commission; member of the Public 
Relations Committee of the Y.M.C.A. Doctor Brown, 
a member of Phi Beta Kappa, is the author of the fol- 
lowing books : Studies in Christian Living, Primer of Teach- 
er Training, Life in the Making, A History of Religious 
Education, Education in Recent Times and Youth and 
Christian Living. 

At the time of Doctor Brown's retirement at Drew 
University in 1948, Dean John Keith Benton, of Vanderbilt 
University described him as "one of the genuinely dis- 
tinguished leaders in education and Methodism in this 
century." His interest in Tennessee Wesleyan has been 
continued, and he has been immeasurably helpful in recent 
years in providing valuable counsel in the transition to the 

118 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

senior college program at Wesleyan. 

Early in President Brown's administration the Execu- 
tive Committee of the University of Chattanooga responded 
to the requests of The Athens School for more autonomous 
leadership and responsibility to be exercised by Trustees 
primarily interested in the success of The Athens School. 

In the response to this demand and to provide in- 
terested leadership in both Chattanooga and Athens, the 
Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees of the Uni- 
versity of Chattanooga unanimously approved the following 
resolution on July 11, 1921, presented by John S. Fletcher, 
and seconded by W. E. Brock: 

"Be it resolved by the Executive Committee of the 
Trustees of the University of Chattanooga that the depart- 
ments of the University of Chattanooga shall be operated 
in so far as local matters are concerned by the members of 
the Committee residing in Chattanooga, viz: Z. E. Whel- 
and, F. M. Bristol, M. Chamberlain, C. N. Woodworth, 
Z. C. Patten, Jr., J. S. Fletcher, A. A. Brown and W. E. 
Brock; and the departments of the University located at 
Athens shall, in so far as local affairs are concerned, be 
operated by a sub-committee consisting of A. A. Brown, 
chairman, and ex-officio member, J. W. Fisher, G. F. Lock- 
miller and J. W. Bayless. All matters pertaining to the 
general policy and government of the institution as a whole 
shall be acted upon by the Executive Committee as a whole, 
and the Executive Committee as a whole shall have author- 
ity in the matter of purchase of additional buildings and 
grounds, or the contraction of any debts not included in 
the budget." 

President Brown led in a major financial campaign 
for the University of Chattanooga and The Athens School. 
This campaign was highly successful, and it added a total 
of $750,000 to the assets of the University. 

As The Athens School of the University of Chattanooga 119 

In President Brown's report to the Board of Trustees 
July 6, 1922, he stated that at The Athens School there had 
been "almost a capacity attendance." President Brown 
gave considerable attention to the endowment campaign 
and paid tribute to the excellent response which the com- 
munity of Athens had provided. He stated, "In the re- 
markable success of the campaign at Athens, we are 
especially indebted to Dean Robb, Professors Craig and 
Goforth, with other faculty members, the student body, 
and the Kiwanis Club." 

President Brown advised the Board that the campaign 
had enabled the University to pay debts, provide expendi- 
tures for repairs, and stated that other things will be done 
for Athens. He promised that "the model school building 
and gymnasium will be erected." Concerning the future of 
the school in Athens, President Brown stated that the Uni- 
versity is committed to developing the best possible second- 
ary school and normal department to meet needs of the 
Church, State and nation. The normal, he continued, will 
provide two years of high school work "but it is not ex- 
pected that students who are planning to take a Bachelor's 
degree will take their first two years in Athens and then 
go on to a College of Liberal Arts." If students complete 
the normal course and decide to work toward the Bachelor's 
degree usually three additional years will be required "be- 
cause of the very nature of the normal course curriculum." 
President Brown also promised that "we will give training 
in Athens to rural preachers who are taking the high school 
and normal courses." 

The commitments of President Brown to The Athens 
School vvere carried out at an early date. On August 11, 
1922, a committee consisting of Doctor J. M. Melear, who 
had been added to the Athens committee, G. F. Lockmiller 
and J. W. Fisher, was authorized to supervise the construe- 

120 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

tion of a practice school to be used in the training of school 
teachers. September 6, 1922, the bid of L. S. Large for 
$3,895.48 was accepted for the construction of the practice 
school, and Dean James L. Robb was authorized to sign 
the contract. 

The students of the institution had been petitioning for 
a gymnasium for twenty-five years. At last the needs of 
the institution in this respect were to be met. On February 
12, 1923, the Athens Committee met to consider the con- 
struction of the building to provide for the gymnasium and 
other facilities to be incorporated into the building. Dean 
James L. Robb was authorized to invite various architects 
to submit preliminary sketches for a building which would 
provide a gymnasium, dressing room, shower rooms, an 
auditorium to seat 600 on the main floor, and a balcony 
to seat 200, and also to provide administrative offices and 
classrooms. On motion of Doctor J. M. Melear, the Com- 
mittee decided that the proposed gymnasium-auditorium 
would occupy the site of the college chapel, constructed in 
1882, and that the old chapel would be razed and materials 
used in the construction of the new building. Adhering to 
the requirements and traditions of economy, the Com- 
mittee, on April 2, 1923, decided to eliminate the swimming 
pool originally planned to be incorporated in the gymnas- 
ium area. On August 21, 1923, the firm of Manley, Young 
& Meyer, of Knoxville, was selected as the architects, and 
it was announced that bids would be opened September 
12, 1923. On December 12, D. C. Young, of Sweetwater, 
was awarded the contract for the construction of the new 

A program for the laying of the corner stone was held 
May 28, 1924, with President Arlo Ayres Brown presiding. 

Industrialist, Devoted Churchman and Trustee 

As The Athens School of the University of Chattanooga 121 

The program was as follows: 

School Song Prof. Alvis Craig, leading 

Prayer Prof. R. A. Kilburn 

Address Mr. C. N. Woodworth 

Chairman, Executive Committee, Board of Trustees 

Reading List of Contents of Box Dean James L, Robb 

Laying of Corner Stone .Mr. Z. W. Wheland 

President, Board of Trustees 

The auditorium-gymnasium was completed at a cost 
of $75,619.31. 

President Brown's administration was to provide a 
difficult and momentous decision for the future of The 
Athens School, a proposal for its separation from the Uni- 
versity of Chattanooga which for twenty years had pro- 
vided creative leadership and financial support for the 
institution in Athens. 

Two distinguished leaders, both of whom had long 
been related to the divisions in Chattanooga and Athens, 
provided the leadership and understanding required to 
effect the separation and to provide new beginnings for 
The Athens School. 

Mrs. John A. Patten, daughter of Doctor John J. 
Manker, '71, faculty member, trustee, and president, had 
continued active interest in the University of Chattanooga 
and The Athens School of the University of Chattanooga 
following the death of her distinguished husband in 1916. 

At the request of the writer Doctor Arlo Ayres Brown 
has provided a tribute to one of the most remarkable 
women associated with educational and Methodist Church 
activities in Tennessee in the history of the State: 

"She was one of the greatest Christian laymen that it 
has ever been my privilege to know. Bishop Thirkield once 
described her as "a true Christian aristocrat in the highest 
sense." Her's was a deep and abiding interest in Tennessee 

122 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

Wcslcyan. She was the daughter of a distinguished Metho- 
dist preacher and the wife of an outstanding layman who 
gave generously of his time and money to the development 
of Methodist institutions in this area. After her husband's 
death in 1916 she not only carried forward his plans but 
developed her o\vn program of Christian service, 

"When she faced a problem she took the pains to be- 
come \vell informed about the situation. Her keen insight, 
sound judgment, and farseeing vision made her advice as 
eagerly sought as her gifts. Modestly she sought no recog- 
nition for herself but all who worked with her kne\v ho^v 
constructive and far reaching were her contributions to 
Christian causes around the world. Church leaders eagerly 
sought her counsel. She was in her quiet way the leading 
personal influence in the decision which gave The Athens 
School of the University of Chattanooga an independent 
status as Tennessee Wesleyan College. As a trustee, she 
was a constant and generous supporter of the institutions' 
highest interests. 

"To be in her home was a treasured experience. She 
was a great mother and her devotion to the needs of the 
younger generation \vas tireless. 

"We will not soon see her like again, but her influence 
abides. As Tennessee Wesleyan and the University of 
Chattanooga continue to grow their development will owe 
much to the generous warmhearted support to this states- 
manlike Christian lady." 

The other leader in the movement to provide indepen- 
dence for The Athens School was Bishop W^ilbur P. Thir- 
kield, the resident Bishop of the Chattanooga area of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. 

Wilbur P. Thirkield was born September 25, 1854, in 
Franklin, Ohio. He was graduated \vith a Bachelor of Arts 
degree from Ohio Wesleyan University in 1876 and received 

AsT he Athens School of the University of Chattanooga 123 

a Master of Arts degree in 1879. He was graduated from 
Boston University School of Theology with the Bachelor of 
Systematic Theology degree in 1881 and received a Doctor 
of Divinity degree from Emory College, of Oxford, in 1889. 
He entered the ministry of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
in 1878 and was president of Gammon Theological Semi- 
nary of Atlanta from 1883 until 1899. He received the 
Doctor of Divinity degree from Ohio Wesleyan in 1899 
and the Doctor of Laws in 1906. He served as General 
Secretary of the Epworth League from 1899 to 1900 and 
then became General Secretary of the Freedman's Aid and 
Southern Educational Society, which office he held from 
1900 until 1906. It was during this period that Doctor 
Thirkield had an unusual opportunity to become acquainted 
with U. S. Grant University, operating in Athens and 
Chattanooga. Doctor Thirkield gave the major address at 
the dedication of Banfield Hall in 1901. Doctor Thirkield 
became president of Howard University, in Washington, 
D. C, in 1906 and served until 1912. He was elected a 
bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1912. Bishop 
Thirkield was a member of Phi Beta Kappa, the author of 
a number of books, and was particularly creative in en- 
couraging high standards for the conducting of services of 
worship. His background, educationally, culturally, with a 
large understanding of the South, fitted him in an unusual 
degree to assume leadership in the Chattanooga area and 
to aid in the separation of The Athens School from the 
University of Chattanooga and to assist in preserving the 
opportunities for both institutions to grow and serve the 
State and the Church. 

A joint committee of trustees representing the Univer- 
sity of Chattanooga and The Athens School was held June 
2, 1925. The meeting was called to order by Bishop Thir- 
kield. The following persons were present: President 

124 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

Brown, Z. C. Patten, Jr., C. N. Woodworth, John S. 
Fletcher, Doctor J. M. Melear, Judge S. C. Brown, G. F. 
Lockmiller and Dean James L. Robb, who was designated 
as Secretary. 

Bishop Thirkield stated that the object of the meeting 
was to consider the adjustment of relations between the 
University of Chattanooga and The Athens School in the 
University with a view to the separation of the two institu- 
tions. Apparently considerable thought had been given to 
this proposal before the meeting was held. The following 
resolution was adopted: 

"Be it resolved, that we recommend to the Trustees 
of the University of Chattanooga that the properties of 
The Athens School be transferred to a new and indepen- 
dent educational corporation with the following incorpora- 
tors, viz: G. F. Lockmiller, S. C. Brown, J. M. Melear, 
J. W. Fisher, W. B. Townsend, C. N. Woodworth, Mrs. 
John A. Patten, who shall determine the name and scope 
of the new organization, except that its charter shall include 
the provisions set forth in the Charter of the University of 
Chattanooga as required before it can transfer its property 
to any other corporation. Said charter shall be applied for 
and the corporation organized as soon as practicable but 
not later than May 1926. The University of Chattanooga 
shall assign to the new corporation $144,000 as subscription 
notes resulting from the 1921 campaign, pay it $50,000.00 
in cash or acceptable securities on or before three years 
from the date of organization of the new corporation with 
interest at six per cent per annum until paid; the new cor- 
poration to assume nine thousand due by the University of 
Chattanooga to the banks of Athens, Tennessee and the 
new corporation to pay the University of Chattanooga 
$10,000 from said $144,000 toward the expense incurred 
in securing same which shall be paid from the collections 
at the rate of 8 per cent of collections as made after the 
said nine thousand indebtedness shall have become paid." 

Tenth President of the College 


Trustee, Generous Benefactor, and leader in 

securing of new charter in 1925. 


As Tennessee Wesleyan College 

The small colleges will be fortunate if they appreciate 
their own advantages; if they do not fall into the naturalis- 
tic fallacy of confusing growth in the human sense \vith 
mere expansion ; if they do not allow themselves to be over- 
awed by size and quantity, or hypnotized by numbers: 
Even though the whole world seem bent on living the 
quantitative life, the college should remember that its busi- 
ness is to make of its graduates men of quality in the real 
and not the conventional meaning of the term. In this way 
it will do its share toward creating that aristocracy of 
character and intelligence that is needed in a community 
like ours to take the place of an aristocracy of birth, and 
to counteract the tendency toward an aristocracy of money. 
A great deal is said nowadays about the democratic spirit 
that should prevade our colleges. This is true if it means 
that the college should be in profound sympathy with what 
is best in democracy. It is false if it means, as it often does, 
that the college should level down and suit itself to the point 
of view of the average individual. Some of the arguments 
advanced in favor of a three years' course imply that we 
can afford to lower the standard of the degree, provided 
we thereby put it within reach of a larger number of 
students. But from the standpoint of the college one thor- 
oughly cultivated person should be more to the purpose 
than a hundred persons who are only partially cultivated. 
The final test of democracy, as Tocqueville has said, will 
be its power to produce and encourage the superior indi- 
vidual. Because the claims of the average man have been 
slighted in times past, does it therefore follow that we must 
now slight the claims of the superior man? We cannot 
help thinking once more of Luther's comparison. The col- 
lege can only gain by close and sympathetic contact \\ ith 


126 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

the graduate school on the one hand, and the lower schools 
on the other, provided it does not forget that its function is 
different from either. The lower schools should make 
abundant provision for the education of the average citizen, 
and the graduate school should offer ample opportunity for 
specialization and advanced study; the prevailing spirit of 
the college, however, should be neither humanitarian nor 
scientific, — though these elements may be largely repre- 
sented, — but humane, and, in the right sense of the word, 
aristocratic. — Irving Babbitt. 

As Tennessee Wesleyan College 127 

Following the action of Bishop Thirkield's committee, 
the resolution was referred to the Trustees of the Univer- 
sity of Chattanooga meeting on June 9, 1925. The basis 
of separation was adopted by the Board of Trustees on that 
date. A charter for Tennessee Wesleyan College was ap- 
plied for June 26, 1925. The original charter was as 
follows : 

Be it known that G. F. Lockmiller, S. C. Brown, J. M. 
Melear, J. W. Fisher, W. B. Townsend, C. N. Woodworth 
and Mrs. John A. Patten are hereby constituted a body 
politic and corporate by the name and style of the Tennes- 
see Wesleyan College for the purpose of founding, main- 
taining and conducting a college of liberal arts at Athens, 
Tennessee, under the auspices of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church as represented in the general conference of said 
church wherein may be taught the courses of study usually 
taught in said colleges or institutions, including literary, 
scientific, theological, normal and commercial courses with 
preparatory and academic departments; also music, art 
and elocution or expression with power to confer appro- 
priate degrees and to issue diplomas and certificates to 
those entitled thereto under the standards, rules and regu- 
lations of said college as fixed by its Board of Trustees; to 
maintain libraries and recreational grounds and equipment ; 
to provide for and preserve an endowment fund for the 
support and maintenance of said college by taking, receiv- 
ing and holding any moneys, choses in action, real estate, 
personal or mixed property, by gift, devise or otherwise. 

2. The property owned, or to be owned, or held by 
the corporation hereby created shall be so held and owned 
in the name of said corporation for the use and benefit of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, under such trust clause, 

128 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

or clauses, as may be provided in the book of Discipline of 
said Church. The government and management of said 
corporation and the teachings in its several courses or de- 
partments, shall forever be conducted in harmony and con- 
sonance with, and in the interest of, the said Methodist 
Episcopal Church, as set forth, or declared from time to 
time, by the General Conference of said Church. 

3. Said corporation shall be self-perpetuating, sub- 
ject only to the policy above stated. Any departure from 
the objects and policy of said corporation as above limits 
shall be good ground for removal of the Board of Trustees 
upon cause properly shown in the court of equity having 
jurisdiction, but shall not work a forfeiture of this charter. 

4. The general powers of said corporation shall be: 

(a) To sue and be sued by the corporate name. 

(b) To have and use a common seal, which it may 
alter at pleasure; if no common seal, then the signature of 
the name of the corporation, by any duly authorized officer, 
shall be legal and binding. 

(c) To purchase and hold, or receive by gift, bequest, 
or devise, in addition to the personal property owned by 
the corporation, real estate necessary for the transaction of 
the corporate business, and also to purchase or accept any 
real estate in payment, or in part payment, of any debt 
due to the corporation, and sell the same. 

(d) To establish by-laws, and make all rules and 
regulations not inconsistent with the laws and constitution, 
deemed expedient for the management of corporate affairs. 


Trustee, Resident Bishop of the Chattanooga Area 

at time of reorganization in 1925 

As Tennessee Wesleyan College 129 

(e) To appoint such subordinate officers and agents, 
in addition to a president and secretary, or treasurer, as 
the business of the corporation may require. 

(f) To designate the name of the office, and fix the 
compensation of the officer. 

(g) To borrow money to be used in payment of 
property bought by it, and for erecting buildings, making 
improvements, and for other purposes germane to the 
objects of its creation, and secure the repayment of the 
money thus borrowed by mortgage, pledge, or deed of 
trust, upon such property, real, personal, or mixed, as may 
be owned by it; and it may, in like manner, secure by 
mortgage, pledge or deed of trust, any existing indebtedness 
which it may have lawfully contracted. 

(h) To elect a president, a dean or other necessary 
officers or agents in the management of said college, to 
prescribe the studies and texts for the various courses or 
departments therein, to elect a faculty of such teachers- and 
instructors as may be deemed proper and to fix the salaries 
of such officers and teachers. 

5. The said incorporators shall within a convenient 
time after the registration of the charter in the office of 
the Secretary of State, elect from their number a chairman, 
secretary and treasurer; said officers and the other incor- 
porators shall constitute the first Board of Trustees. In all 
elections each member present shall be entitled to one vote, 
and the result shall be determined by a majority of the 
vote cast. Due notice of any election must be given by 
advertisement in a newspaper, personal notice to the mem- 
bers, or a day stated on the minutes of the board six months 
preceding the election. The Board of Trustees shall keep 

130 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

a record of all their proceedings, which shall be at all times 
subject to the inspection of any member. 

6. The number of trustees shall be fixed by the by- 
laws not to exceed thirty-three nor less than twenty-one, and 
at the first election one third of the number to be elected 
for one year, one third for two years, one third for three 
years, and thereafter each trustee to be elected for three 
years. Each trustee shall be a person twenty-one years of 
age and two-thirds of the total number shall be members of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church in good standing. 

There shall be elected to the said Board of Trustees 
one member from each of the following annual conferences, 
viz: Alabama, Blue Ridge-Atlantic, Central Tennessee, 
Georgia and St. Johns River, and each of said conferences 
may at the first annual session thereof after such election, 
confirm or reject the trustee so elected. The remaining 
number of trustees may be elected from the Holston Con- 
ference or else\vhere and said conference may, at the first 
annual session thereof after such election, likewise confirm 
or reject the trustees so elected. And should any trustee be 
rejected by any of said annual conferences a vacancy shall 
then exist and such rejection shall be certified by such con- 
ferences to the Board of Trustees, the vacancy to be filled 
by said Board at its next meeting, either regular or called, 
and may be confirmed or rejected as aforesaid. 

7. The Board of Trustees may appoint executive 
agencies, and pass all necessary by-laws for the govern- 
ment of said institution, as may be required by the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, provided said by-laws are not in- 
consistent with the constitution and laws of this State. The 
terms of all officers shall be fixed by the by-laws, the term 
not to exceed three years and all officers shall hold over 
until their successors are duly elected and qualified. 

8. The members may at any time voluntarily dissolve 

As Tennessee Wesleyan College 131 

the corporation, by the conveyance of its assets and prop- 
erty to any other corporation holding a charter from this 
State not for purposes of individual profit, first providing 
for incorporate debts: Provided, the objects and aims of 
said corporation shall be the same and in harmony with 
those contained in this charter. A violation of any of the 
provisions of this charter shall subject the corporation to 
dissolution at the instance of the State, in which event its 
property and effects shall revert to the Trustees of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, a corporate body existing 
under, and by virtue of, the laws of the State of Ohio. 
This charter is subject to modification or amendment by 
the Legislature, and in case said modification or amend- 
ment is not accepted, corporate business is to cease, and 
the assets and property, after payment of debts, are to be 
conveyed, as aforesaid, to some other corporation holding 
a charter for purposes not connected with individual profit 
and for the same objects and benefit of, and revert to, the 
aforesaid Trustees of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
Acquiescence in any modification thus declared shall be 
determined in a meeting of the Trustees specially called 
for that purpose, and only those voting in favor of the 
modification shall thereafter compose the corporation. 

9. The means, assets, income, or other property of 
the corporation shall be employed, directly or indirectly, 
for any other purpose whatever than to accomplish the 
legitimate objects of its creation, and by no implication or 
construction shall it possess the power to issue notes or 
coin, buy or sell products, or engage in any kind of trading 
operation, nor holding more real estate than is necessary 
for its legitimate purposes, and in no event shall the trustees 
permit any part of the principal of the endowment fund or 
any portion of the real estate of the corporation, to be used 
for the payment of the current expenses. 

132 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

10. We, the undersigned, hereby apply to the State 
of Tennessee, by virtue of the laws of the land, for a charter 
of incorporation for the purpose and with the powers and 
privileges, etc., declared in the foregoing instrument. 
Witness our hands the 26th day of June, A.D., 1925. 


G. F. Lockmiller 
S. C. Brown 
J. W. Fisher 
J. M. Melear 
W. B. Townsend 
C. N. Woodworth 
Mrs. John A. Patten 

Doctor James L. Robb who had served as the admini- 
strative head of The Athens School since 1918 was 
appointed acting president. 

The choice of a name for the new institution was not 
easily made. There were members of the Committee who 
were anxious to perpetuate the name of Athens in the 
title; others were convinced that an approximation of the 
original name adopted in 1867 should be used. The wishes 
of those who accepted the allegiance to the Wesleyan tradi- 
tion prevailed and The Athens School of the University of 
Chattanooga became Tennessee Wesleyan College. 

James L. Robb was fitted admirably for the heavy 
responsibility as head of Tennessee Wesleyan College. 
Doctor Robb was born in Atlanta, Georgia, January 21, 
1884. He had been a student in the Athens Division of 
Grant University and had received the A.B. degree from 
the University of Chattanooga in 1906. He was later to 
receive an A.M. from Northwestern University in 1926, 
and his leadership in educational circles was recognized by 
Illinois Wesleyan University in 1943 when he \vas given an 
honorary LL.D. degree. President Robb had served as 

Eleventh President 

As Tennessee Wesleyan College 133 

principal of Mt. Zion Seminary, government supervisor of 
schools in the Philippine Islands, as superintendent of 
schools and president of Bowdon College in Bowdon, 
Georgia, and as high school principal in Gainesville, 
Georgia, before his election as dean of The Athens School 
of the University of Chattanooga in 1918. He guided the 
school during the difficult war years. President Robb was 
later to serve as a member of the Ecumenical Conference in 
1930, General Conference in 1932, 36, 40, and the Uniting 
Conference of 1939. President Robb had the distinction of 
serving as a member of the University Senate from 1932 
to 1948, and in 1934 served as the president of the National 
Association of Methodist Colleges and Universities. Ten- 
nessee recognized him in 1936 in electing him the president 
of the Tennessee College Association. President Robb was 
also active in the Southeastern Athletic Association of 
Junior Colleges and the Southern Association of Junior 
Colleges. He is a member of Phi Delta Kappa. 

Mrs. James L. Robb served as a member of the faculty, 
teaching voice and public school music from 1921 until 

Although chartered as a College of Liberal Arts with 
authority to give baccalaureate degrees, President Robb 
discouraged the inauguration of a senior college program, 
strongly favored by David A. Bolton, and instituted a two- 
year junior college program. The catalog for the initiation 
of this program lists the curriculum as follows: 

The two years of college \\'ork entitled Diploma 
Courses required the following for graduation: 

(15 High School units required for entrance; 100 
term hours required for graduation.) 

1. Major Subject 24 hours 

2. Minor Subject 12 hours 


A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

Other Required subjects, if not included in Major 
or Minor. 




English Composition 12 hours 

Social Science 12 hours 

Foreign Language 12 or 21 hours 

(depending upon amount of entrance 


Mathematics, Science or 

Home Economics ....12 hours 

Elective Subjects to total ...100 hours 

to be selected from the following list: 

Subjects Hours 

Algebra, College 8 

Arithmetic, Teacher's 4 

Business Law 4 

Biology, Advanced 12 

Chemistry, Advanced 15 

Chemistry, Analytical 15 

Child Study 5 

Civics, Constitutional Law 4 

Domestic Art 15 

Domestic Science 15 

Educational Sociology 4 

Economics 4 

Economic History 4 

French 21 

Geography and Methods 4 

Geometry, Analytic 5 

Grammar and Method 4 

General Sociolog}^ 4 

History, Advanced American 8 

History, Advanced European 8 

History, English 9 

History, Spanish-American 4 

Wesleyan also offered a two-year Normal Diploma 
Course, two years in Pre-Engineering, Pre-Medical, Pre- 
Law, and Pre-Ministerial. Four years of college preparatory 
work were also offered. 

Following a year as acting president. Doctor Robb was 
elected president of the College and was inaugurated on 
October 25, 1926. The inauguration was reported by the 
press as follows: James Lindscy Robb, A.M., was inaugu- 
rated president of Tennessee Wesleyan College, Athens, 
Tcnn., October 25, 1926. A large crowd of friends and 

Subjects Hours 

History and Methods 4 

History of Education 4 

Latin, Advanced 4 

Methods 8 

Money and Banking 4 

Physical Education 6 

Play Production 3 

Play Directing 2 

Practice Teaching 4 

Psychology, Elementary 4 

Psychology, General 4 

Public School Drawing 6 

Public School Music 6 

Public Speaking 9 

Religious Education 12 

Rural Economics 5 

Rural Sociology 5 

School Administration 4 

School Hygiene 4 

School Management 4 

Trigonometry 5 

As Tennessee Wesleyan College 135 

Students assembled in the beautiful auditorium for the 
impressive exercises, which were opened with prayer by 
Bishop R. J. Cooke, '80. The presentation was by Professor 
David A. Bolton, '72, and the installation by Bishop W. P. 
Thirkield. Greetings for the Methodist Episcopal Church 
were presented by Bishop W. O. Shepard; for Tennessee, 
by President H. A. Morgan, of the University of Tennessee ; 
for the Board of Education of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, by Secretary William S. Bovard, formerly vice 
president of the University of Chattanooga; for denomina- 
tional colleges, by President Wilson, of Maryville College; 
for Holston and other Conferences, by the Reverend R. M. 
Millard, formerly Dean of The Athens School; for friends 
in general, by Doctor John H. Race, former president. The 
benediction was by President Arlo Ayres Brown, of the 
University of Chattanooga. 

The separation from the University of Chattanooga 
did not solve the problems facing the institution. Doctor 
Robb was to know throughout his long administration the 
constant repetition of heavy financial responsibilities. Some 
of them were created by independence, others by the de- 
pression, others by World War II, and others by the reluct- 
ance of the Holston Conference to accept responsibility for 
providing adequate undergirding of the College. There 
were periods when the problems seemed almost beyond 
handling, but President Robb's persistence and courage 
enabled the College to survive, to grow, and to make a 
large contribution during his twenty-five years as president 
of Wesleyan. 

In his annual report to the Board of Trustees in June, 
1927, President Robb discussed the period of transition 
through which the College was passing and very frankly 
presented the facts concerning the financial situation of 

136 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan Colic fie 

the College and the need of the Conference and the Board 
of Trustees to provide adequate financing. 

Excerpts from President Robb's report reveal his can- 
didness in dealing with the situation. "I have referred to 
the fact that the college is in a period of transition follow- 
ing the separation from the University. Strange to say it 
has apparently never occurred to some that such a period 
was necessary and would be one of great difficulty, calling 
for real eflFort on the part of all concerned. The most dis- 
couraging feature which has yet been encountered has been 
the disposition of some to wish to throw up the hands in 
despair when any real difficulties are encountered. If the 
institution isn't worth fighting for, it isn't worth surviving." 

Doctor Robb then discussed the methods by which 
supplementary financing could be secured. He suggested 
several ways. Higher rates could be charged which he 
stated would eliminate many students unable to pay higher 
rates which the College had long served. A second method 
was to provide a producing endowment of which $200,000 
is needed to take care of the annual deficit. A third was 
to secure annual funds from the patronizing conferences. 
The Board of Education of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
which had contributed generously over a long period could 
be asked to increase its contribution. 

Doctor Robb acknowledged that these methods, if ap- 
proved, would not immediately solve the problem. Presi- 
dent Robb put the problem up to the Board. "One cannot 
afford to allow the college to drift into serious financial 
difficulties thru neglect to face the issue." President Robb 
saw no other immediate solution than to borrow funds. He 
stated, "You will need to make some provision for caring 
for the present indebtedness and for the deficit in operating 
expenses until such time as the income from these sources 
is adequate ... I recommend such a loan as a means of 

President of Board of Trustees for nineteen years 

As Tennessee Wesley an College 137 

tiding over the remainder of the period of transition." 
President Robb attempted to secure larger responsibihty on 
the part of the Board of Trustee, concluding, "I have 
noted a disposition to unload the whole burden of finance 
upon the administrative officers. This is a serious mistake. 
Unquestionably the responsibility of formulating and adopt- 
ing a financial program belongs to the Board. The president 
and others may help and they must carry out the program, 
but the Board's responsibility must be clearly recognized." 

The Board was not unmindful of the problems Presi- 
dent Robb faced. A committee consisting of C. N. Wood- 
worth, J. G. Lowe, C. R. Kennedy, Colonel W. B. 
Townsend, and G. F. Lockmiller, had been studying the 
financial structure of the College and had discovered that 
$32,000 would be needed before the end of the academic 
year 1927-28 to pay obligations and to cover an anticipated 
deficit of $10,000 for that academic year. 

This committee recommended to the Executive Com- 
mittee that a campaign for $500,000 be initiated and that 
the first unit of $250,000 be raised in a campaign beginning 
January 1, 1928. 

A year was devoted to the canvas under the direction 
of M. G. Terry. He reported to the Executive Committee 
December 14, 1928, that $297,062.00 had been subscribed, 
and the Executive Committee voted to consider the cam- 
paign successful and to validate the pledges. This cam- 
paign had been stimulated by a $25,000 gift from Mrs. 
John A. Patten, of Chattanooga, and a $25,000 contribution 
by Colonel W. B. Townsend. 

The urgency of the situation was evidenced by the 
necessity of the Board of Trustees to "execute a mortgage 
or deed of trust" for $40,000 for use in prosecuting the 
endowment campaign. 

The only problem about the campaign was that the 

138 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

nation fell into a major economic depression and only a 
small amount of the total subscribed was ever realized. 

The College continued to draw a substantial enroll- 
ment, and President Robb reported for the year 1928-29 
a total of 519 students of which 127 were in preparatory 
classes, 285 in college classes, and 29 in the summer school. 

Judge S. C. Brown communicated a letter from Adolph 
S. Ochs, publisher of The New York Times, in 1928, con- 
cerning his desire to recognize his appreciation of Captain 
William Rule, long distinguished editor of The Knoxville 
Journal. Mr. Ochs wrote: "If acceptable, I would be 
pleased to transfer to your institution, in trust, ten (10) 
shares (par value $100.00 each) of the 8% preferred stock 
of the New York Times Company yielding $80.00 per an- 
num; the income to be used as a prize awarded annually 
to be known as the William Rule Prize. I suggest that it 
be a prize for an essay on the responsibility of citizenship." 

In President Robb's report to the Board of Trustees, 
June 3, 1935, he raised the question concerning the resump- 
tion of senior college work at Tennessee Wesleyan. His 
report is as follows: 

"In view of these circumstances and in consideration 
of the obvious need of the six conferences of these two areas 
for at least one institution of senior college rank under 
Methodist control, I would raise question before this Board 
if the time has not now arrived when a declaration of 
policy should be made looking toward the resumption of 
senior college work in Tennessee Wesleyan College as soon 
as funds can be secured to qualify for this status. With a 
constituency of six conferences covering six Southern states, 
including 353 charges and 100,000 members and with the 
confidence and loyalty to the school to be found through- 
out all these conferences it appears that such a step would 
be fully justified." 

As Tennessee Wesleyan College 139 

In considering the President's recommendation Dr. 
Everett M. Ellison moved that the recommendations of 
the President be accepted and that the college resume 
senior college status. This motion was seconded by Doctor 
G. T. Francisco. Doctor W. M. Dye concurred in this 
position saying, "This is the college that we need to con- 
centrate on for the conference and look very definitely for 
a four-year college." Doctor W. J. Davidson, of the Board 
of Education, was present and he cautioned against the 
inauguration of a senior college program until the college 
had at least $500,000 endowment with all debts paid. 
Doctor Davidson said he did not oppose the idea but simply 
cautioned against going into such a program before the 
college was prepared for it. He concluded, "Of course, I 
am not opposed to the idea. Soon Methodists will be one 
and then we would' have the competition of all Southern 
Methodists colleges." 

Following a general discussion in which all members 
present participated freely, there was general agreement 
to study the plan and to report at a subsequent meeting 
of the Board. 

Surely, one of the great satisfactions of President Robb 
must have been the response of Mr. and Mrs. Henry Pfeif- 
fer, of New York City, to support the College. In 1935, 
Mrs. Pfeiffer agreed to assist in providing funds for current 
operations and specifically to provide at least a part of the 
amount needed each year to cover the anticipated deficit. 
Mrs. Pfeiffer's contribution enabled President Robb to 
report to the Board in 1935 that there had been no deficit. 

That was the beginning of an interest which provided 
facilities and assets which led to a new day for the College. 
One cannot say that the College could not have existed had 
it not been for the Pfeiffers' generosity but we can say 
without question that it would have been greatly crippled 

140 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

during the years which followed if Mrs. Pfeiffer's imagina- 
tion had not been stirred by President Robb's persuasiveness 
in interpreting the services which Tennessee Wesleyan Col- 
lege would render if it had adequate facilities and income- 
producing endowment. 

President Robb has provided, at our request, a sum- 
mary of the Pfeiffers' gifts. Aside from funds for current 
operations, over a decade, and payment of the cost of a 
sprinkler system in Ritter Hall, Mrs. Pfeiffer contributed 
a total of $441,666, the largest gift being $133,333, which 
made possible the construction of the James L. Robb 

The first building to be constructed by funds made 
available by Mrs. Pfeiffer was the Merner-Pfeiffer Library, 
$100,000 of which she gave, the balance being contributed 
by friends of the College. The Library was dedicated 
Wednesday, November 5, 1941. The program for this 
occasion included the following: 
President James L. Robb, Presiding 

Invocation - Rev. C. E. Lundy 

Superintendent, Sweetwater District 

Address of Welcome General J. A. Fowler 

President of Board of Trustees 

Address - Honorable Prentice Cooper 

Governor, State of Tennessee 

Address Bishop Paul B. Kern 

Resident Bishop, Nashville Area, Methodist Church 

Music - - - — -College Chorus 

Address ...Mrs. Henry Pfeiffer 

Greetings Dr. Gilbert Govan 

Librarian, University of Chattanooga 

Miss Mary E. Baker 
Librarian, University of Tennessee 

As Tennessee Wesleyan College 141 

Dr. Louis Shores 
Director of Library School, George Peabody College 
Hymn — How Firm A Foundation 

Dedication Bishop Kern 

Benediction Dr. John H. Race 

Corner Stone Laying 

Annie Pfeiffer Hall Bishop Kern 

Two years later another building, the total cost of 
which was provided by Mrs. Pfeiffer, was ready for dedi- 
cation. In providing Sarah Merner Lawrence Hall Mrs. 
Pfeiffer perpetuated the name of her sister. This building 
was dedicated May 9, 1943, with the following program: 


Invocation Rev. J. W. Henley 

Pastor, Centenary Methodist Church, Chattanooga 
President, Holston Conference Board of Education 

Address of Welcome General J. A. Fowler 

President, Board of Trustees 

Vocal Solo Rev. J. M. Hampton 

Pastor, Brainerd Methodist Church, Chattanooga 

Dedicatory Address Rev. Arlo A. Brown, D.D. 

President, Drew University, Madison, N. J. 

Music College Chorus 

Dr. Werner Wolff, Conducting 

Greetings Dr. H. W. McPherson 

Executive Secretary, Board of Education 
Mrs. P. L. Cobb 
President, Woman's Society of Christian 
Service, The Holston Conference 

Dr. James D. Hoskins 
President, University of Tennessee 

142 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

Dr. David A. Lockmiller 
President, University of Chattanooga 
Mrs. Henry Pfeiffer 
Hymn — "O Worship the King" 

The James L. Robb Gymnasium, named in honor of 
President Robb, was dedicated Tuesday, February 21, 1950. 
Among those who participated in the dedication program 
were: Paul J. Walker, Doctor L. E. Hoppe, Dean Paul 
Riviere, the Reverend F. M. Dowell, the Reverend Henry 
C. Dawson, and Harwell Proffitt. 

The Daily Post-Athenian carried an editorial by C. C. 
Redfern, excerpts from which w^e quote: 

"The gymnasium is a great asset to the city, and it 
pays honor to the school's illustrous president, James L. 
Robb. The game, featuring TWC and Emory and Henry, 
will be more than worth the price of admission as Coach 
Hudson's team has proven to be a high scoring, fast break- 
ing quintet. The fact that sports fans can see the finest 
of gymnasiums, complete with the new type glass back- 
boards, electric timing system and fold-away bleachers, is 
also worth the price of admission. The seating capacity 
more than doubles any gym in the county, with room for 
nearly 1500 fans. The beauty of the gym, along with its 
50 x90' hardwood floor has been more than a pleasant sur- 
prise to every person entering the new structure. Even if 
you haven't been to a basketball game in years . . . we urge 
you to take in this formal opening. For many years many 
basketball fans have stayed at home because there just 
wasn't room in our gymnasiums. We predict that basket- 
ball will take on ntw interest in the county now^ that the 
new James L. Robb Gymnasium is in operation, providing 
the fans with seating space and players with a modern 

At the time of the appearance of the Tennessee Wes- 

As Tennessee Wesleyan College 143 

leyan Choir before the General Conference of The Meth- 
odist Church, meeting in MinneapoHs in the spring of 1956, 
Bishop John Wesley Lord, presiding, invited the writer to in- 
troduce the Choir and at that time the contribution of the 
Pfeiffers was publicly acknowledged and the program 
dedicated to the memory of two persons whose sense of 
stewardship led them to give to Methodist institutions a 
large fortune most of which had been liquidated by the 
time of the death of Mr. and Mrs. Pfeiffer. 

In 1936, Wesleyan lost one of its most understanding 
and generous friends. Colonel W. B. Townsend had as- 
sisted the College on many occasions and in his will pro- 
vided that 10% of the residue of his estate would come to 
Wesleyan at the end of a fifteen-year period. M. S. Tipton 
reported to President Robb that this bequest would likely 
amount to from $25,000 to $50,000. The estate was settled 
in 1951. The College received a settlement of $62,500 
which was returned to the endowment fund of the College 
from which $75,000 had been borrowed to complete the 
construction of the James L. Robb Gymnasium. 

A memorial service was held to honor Colonel Town- 
send, and the Board of Trustees, May 25, 1936, formally 
expressed its high regard for Colonel Townsend in the 
following resolution : 

"The Board of Trustees of Tennessee Wesleyan College 
records with profound sorrow its sense of loss in the death 
of Colonel W. B. Townsend, an outstanding member of this 
body. A man of sterling qualities and character his voice 
registered plans that usually resulted in constructive action. 
Devoted to the promotion of Christian Education, he gave 
liberally of his time, talents and money to promote the 
interest of this and similar institutions. 

"Colonel Townsend was far more than an interested 
colleague — he was an intimate friend and wise counsellor 

144 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

who held our full confidence during the period of our 
personal and official relationship. 

"Resolved, That we hereby express our high appreci- 
ation of Colonel Townsend's devotion to Tennessee Wes- 
leyan College and also as a sympathetic and loyal friend. 
Firm in conviction, sound in judgment, he brought to every 
problem clarity and light. We shall greatly miss him in 
our deliberations. 

"Resolved, That a copy of this resolution be placed 
upon our records and one forwarded to the family whose 
sympathetic interest in Tennessee Wesleyan College is 
likewise gratefully acknowledged." 

We have inxited Colonel Townsend's daughter, Mrs. 
Herbert Blake Nields, to contribute personal recollections 
of her father for use in this history, and we use her tribute 
as follo^vs: 

"In regard to my Father — he was such a wonderful 
person that its hard to pick out a few things as the "high 
lights" of his life were many. 

"He was born March 24th, 1854, at Nickle Mines, 
Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. His "formal" education 
was almost "nil." The fifth grade in the primary school — 
yet he was one of the best-read men I have ever known and 
as \vords \\ ere his hobby • — or one of them — he had an 
excellent \'ocabulary. I think due to his lack of schooling 
\vas one of the reasons he had such a keen interest in helping 
the mountain girls and boys get a good education. That 
led to his interest in the old Murphy College in Sevierville, 
Tennessee (which is no more) and to Tennessee \\'^esleyan. 

"His interests were many and varied and for several 
years served on The National Board of Home Missions of 
The Methodist Church. 

"He loved the Smoky Mts. and he and Gov. Peay had 
visions of establishing a National Forest. He turned over 

Class 1891 



As Tennessee Wesleyan College 145 

72,000 acres of cut over land which was the start but Gov. 
Peay died so the acreage became the nucleus of The Great 
Smoky Mtn. National Park. He was in the lumber and 
contract building in Pennsylvania before moving to Tennes- 
see in 1900. He and his associates purchased 110,000 acres 
and organized the Little River Lumber Company and The 
Little River Railroad Co. and he was Pres. and General 
Manager of both corporations. This was one of the largest 
hardwood operations in the South and my Father served 
in this capacity until his death in 1936. 

"He was connected with banking having served as 
Pres. of the Bankers Trust Co. in Knoxville and later as 
Pres. of The Blount National Bank in Maryville. 

"He was interested in many other enterprises and 
served as a Director of The Lee Clay Products Co. in Ky. 
The Fidelity Bankers Trust Co. and The Fireproof Storage 
and Van Co. of Knoxville, Tennessee. 

"He was a very dynamic speaker and very influential 
in the enterprises with which he was connected. 

"I hope from the foregoing that you will be able to 
get the things you need or want. So many, many more 
things I could tell but these are, to me, the "high lights" 
of a very remarkable and successful man and a self-made 
one at that."^ 

Doctor Robb anticipated the coming of unification of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church and the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, South, as early as 1936 and called this 
possibility to the attention of the Board of Trustees. 

In 1938, the second phase of the Forward Movement, 
initiated in 1928, was authorized and a campaign to raise 
$250,000 was inaugurated. 

During the years between 1937 and 1940 the Carnegie 

iMrs. Herbert Blake Nields — February 11, 1957. 

146 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

Corporation made contributions to the Library Fund and 
to the Music Department. 

Tennessee Wesleyan had not yet recovered from the 
problems of the depression and found itself in serious liti- 
gation which eventually went to the Supreme Court of the 
United States concerning the failure of the Chattanooga 
National Bank. The Supreme Court ruled against the Col- 
lege and eventually the College had to borrow funds to 
liquidate this indebtedness which threatened the future of 
the College. 

The problems of peace were serious and the problems 
of war equally demanding. Early in the war years it was 
necessary for the College to borrow an amount equal to 
twice its annual budget, and by 1944 the enrollment had 
dropped to 141 students, 20 of them were men and most 
of these \vere persons considered ineligible for military 

The uniting of the two Holston Conferences brought 
to the Holston Conference of The Methodist Church the 
responsibility of three institutions, Emory and Henry 
College, Hiwassee College, and Tennessee Wesleyan 

A study of these three institutions was made in the 
summer of 1943 by three distinguished educators. 

The section of the report dealing with Tennessee 
Wesleyan College follows: 


EDUCATION — JULY 12, 1943 


B. ^Ve recommend that Tennessee Wesleyan College 
be continued as the Junior College of liberal arts for men 
and women in the Conference. 

C. We recommend that the three institutions retain 

As Tennessee Wesleyan College 147 

separate administrations, and extend the principle among 
themselves of partially inter-locking Boards of Trustees. 


B. Consideration of the total college program for 
the Conference in any and all future fund-raising cam- 
paigns; that is, the elimination of individual college drives 
for funds. 

F. Liquidation of the indebtedness on Tennessee 
Wesleyan College. This amounts, we believe, to something 
like $51,000.00. 


C. We recommend that the music and arts depart- 
ments of Tennessee Wesleyan College be strengthened by 
offering more courses and by allowing more credit for 
courses given. 


A. We recommend that plans be made, with esti- 
mated costs, for reconditioning or remodeling certain build- 
ings and with the Boys' Hall and Ritter Hall at Tennessee 
Wesleyan College. Certain dormitory conditions need to 
be remedied at Tennessee Wesleyan College. 

B. We recommend that plans be drawn, with esti- 
mated costs, for essential new buildings to be added. Such 
plans would concern themselves with a Student Activities 
Building at Tennessee Wesleyan College. 


We recommend that Methodist group assemblies and 
activities be centered, where possible, in the Conference 
colleges. Our Committee was surprised to see an opposite 
policy in action. If the facilities of these colleges are not 
adequate for Conference purposes, it is because they are 
not adequate to fulfill the purposes of the colleges as edu- 

148 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan Colleg^e 

cational institutions, and it is the duty and opportunity, as 
well, of the Conference to make them so. 

Methodism should not be satisfied to own, control, 
and operate colleges for whose physical plants it is forced 
to apologize and to which it is ashamed to send its sons 
and daughters to be educated. 


We recommend that a Conference-wide program be 
planned and carried out to recapture for the Conference 
colleges the imagination of Holston Methodism. The pro- 
gram should ha\'e one main objective — to impress upon 
the minds of Holston Methodists the fact that, if they want 
to keep their ehureh-r elated colleges, they must support 
them. They must support them by making generous gifts 
and by sending their sons and daughters to them to be 
educated. One creative act of tangible, substantial support 
is worth a thousand pious exhortations concerning the \-ir- 
tues of one's dear Alma Mater. The time has arrived ^vhen 
Methodism should stop the business of depending upon 
secular agencies for the support and development of its 

Methodism must give substantial exidence of ^vhether 
its asserted belief in Christian Education is a living belief 
or merely dead dogma. The only belief worth having is a 
belief that translates itself into life and conduct. 




\\ e request the Special Commission created by the 
Holston Conference, together with the Conference Board 
of Education, to take cognizance of the three separate re- 
ports, hereto appended, on Finances, Instructional Program, 
and Property of the respecti\'e colleges, for the purpose of 


Class 1886 


As Tennessee Wesleyan College 149 

ascertaining their individual needs and arriving at the ap- 
proximate amount of funds necessary to provide an ade- 
quate program of higher education for the Holston 

Respectfully submitted by 
Joseph Roemer 
John W. Long 
W. K. Greene, Chairman 
The Survey Committee. 




The finances of this College are, in the main, in good 
condition and should be protected against adverse results 
incident to war. This statement is made in spite of the 
fact that reduction in enrollment of men has produced an 
operating deficit. 

The extent of the resources of the College tends to 
minimize the possible ill effects of its indebtedness, which 
seems comparatively small. This debt of approximately 
$51,000.00 should be liquidated as soon as possible. 

The addition of the excellent dormitory for women 
and the Library necessitates an increase in operating funds 
to take care of increased maintenance costs. Failure to 
recognize this fact with respect to new buildings has 
produced unfortunate results in many of our colleges. 

The annual appropriation of $5,000.00 to the College 
by the General Board of Education, together with the likeli- 
hood of its continuance, should be considered when the 
proportionate distribution of the Conference annual 
appropriation to all three colleges is made. 

The favorable financial situation of the College 
should not militate against this institution's receiving its 
justly proportionate share of Conference funds, either for 

150 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

purposes of operation or for the improvement and 
enlargement of its physical plant. 


A rather full instructional program is found in all of 
the traditional departments. From observation and check- 
ing, the Committee got the impression that rather high- 
grade substantial students attend Tennessee Wesleyan. They 
come from homes that are average or above and are sensi- 
tive to the cultural influences to be found in the offerings 
of the liberal arts college. The academic atmosphere and 
student morale in general at Tennessee Wesleyan were of 
a high quality and very pleasing to the Committee. 


It is the opinion of the Committee that Tennessee 
Wesleyan College should pursue its program of general, 
cultural, liberal education, with emphasis upon music, fine 
arts, home economics and home-making for the student 
body it is attempting to serve. 


The Committee was favorably impressed with the 
college plant at Tennessee Wesleyan. It is centrally located 
in the beautiful town of Athens, which naturally takes 
considerable pride in having an institution of this 
character in the community. 

On the whole, the buildings are grouped in such a 
pattern as to enhance the beauty of the campus, contribute 
to the convenience of faculty and students, and make for 
economy of operation. 

Much can be said for Lawrence Hall, the new dormi- 
tory for girls, and the Merner-Pfeiffer Library, both con- 
tributed by Mrs. Pfeiffer of New York City. They add 

As Tennessee Wesleyan College 151 

greatly to the beauty of the campus, the living conditions 
of the girls, and the general cultural atmosphere of the 
College. Tennessee Wesleyan is fortunate in having these 
beautiful and useful buildings. 

The Elizabeth Ritter Hall, owned and operated by 
the Woman's Society of Christian Service of the Metho- 
dist Church, is a frame building, but is in excellent condi- 
tion both within and without. An automatic sprinkler 
system and outside fire escapes contribute to the factor of 

The J. W. Fisher Laboratory building offers unusually 
commodious quarters and satisfactory equipment. This 
building is in good condition. 

The Administration Building provides administrative 
offices, a large auditorium, and a gymnasium. This build- 
ing was erected in 1924, and is attractive and imposing in 
appearance. Some repairs, particularly a new roof, are 

For efficiency and econom}' of operation the Com- 
mittee would recommend a new central heating plant, and 
while the present gymnasium can be made to serve the 
purposes of physical education, a new building, making 
possible a separate gymnasium for young men and young 
women, would add to the greater efficiency of a physical 
education and athletic program. On the whole. President 
Robb and the Trustees are to be congratulated on the 
number, type, condition, and attractiveness of the buildings 
on their campus. 

This survey was the beginning of a new interest in the 
Holston Annual Conference in its colleges. President Robb 
had reported that the Holston Conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church in 1934 had contributed $3,600 and in 
1937 $1,634 for current operations. President Robb urged 

152 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

the Conference to increase this amount to from $10,000 
to $15,000. 

Doctor Robb had referred almost annually in his re- 
ports to the small salaries the College was paying, salaries 
which in 1933 had remained unpaid following an assessment 
in 1932 of two weeks' salary from each faculty member 
as a contribution toward an effort to balance the budget. 
No retirement program existed. In 1944 a retirement pro- 
gram, approved by the faculty, was introduced. It provided 
for participation in TIAA with the faculty member paying 
5% of his salary and the College paying an equal amount. 
The TIAA became effective October 1, 1945. Before his 
retirement Doctor Robb reported to the Board of Trustees 
that the 5% payment by the College was entirely inade- 
quate and recommended that this amount be increased to 
from 7 to 10%. 

The end of the war brought staggering problems. 
President Robb anticipated an increase in enrollment but 
did not anticipate that in 1947 there would be 240 G.I.'s 
on the campus. This required a rapid expansion of faculty, 
facilities, and the erection of three temporary buildings, a 
cafeteria, a dormitory, and a student center. The close of the 
war brought to the campus Louie Underwood as Superin- 
tendent of Buildings and Grounds whose dependability has 
contributed much to the life of the College during the 
years which followed. 

During the 40's the interest of the people of Athens 
in the College grew, and we have reports of Athens raising 
$5,000 annually toward the operating expenses of the Col- 
lege with much of the credit for the success of these 
campaigns going to Frank Dodson and Paul J. Walker. 

The Kiwanis Club, of Athens, long friendly to the 
College and a friendship which has grown remarkably in 

Industrialist, Trustee, Generous Benefactor 

As Tennessee Wesleyan College 153 

recent years underwrote a Vocations Day in 1941, the first 
instituted in the State of Tennessee. 

A comprehensive evaluation of the College was made 
in 1948 by Doctors John L. Seaton and James W. Reynolds. 
At the end of this forty-five page evaluation, Reynolds and 
Seaton make the following suggestions and recommenda- 
tions concerning means by which the college could be 
greatly strengthened. 


Throughout the report suggestions and recommenda- 
tions of a definite character have been made in connection 
with the discussion. In some cases there are implications 
which appeared not to warrant direct statement, but which 
might well be given consideration. As a convenience some 
of the more obvious needs are here assembled. 

1. Revision of the charter and by-laws. 

2. Simplification of administrative processes. 

3. Better preparation of the faculty; more continuity 
in service; encouragement of participation in professional 
meetings and in research suited to the junior college level; 
also encouragement in writing, particularly articles for 
professional and other magazines. 

4. Simpler organization of the faculty and lessened 
teaching loads for some of the members. 

5. More comprehensive provision for general educa- 
tion in the curriculum and organization of the curriculum 
on the divisional plan. 

6. Consideration of the status and service of the 
practice school, and the possibility of having practice 
conducted in city and county schools. 

7. Better balance in the ratio of freshman to 
sophomore students. 

8. Reconsideration of policies in field work of 
admissions, of counseling, and of personnel organization. 

154 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

9. Such improvement of men's dormitories as may 
be possible and much better supervision. 

10. Better lighting of the library and other incentives 
to increase its use. 

1 1 . Some improvements in the laboratories especially 
the physics laboratory. 

12. General and extensive reconditioning of Petty 
Manker Hall, and simplification of the uses to which it is 

13. Concentration of the activities in music as soon 
as suitable quarters can be provided. A building for music, 
art, and dramatics would be highly desirable. 

14. Reconsideration, if and when possible, of the 
plan to have one director of public relations for the three 

15. Clarification of the accounting and auditing as 
discussed in the body of this report. 

16. Liquidation as soon as possible of all interfund 
loans and discontinuance of interfund borrowing. 

17. Improvements as they may be feasible in 
purchasing procedures. 

18. Establishment of reserves or contingent funds to 
tide over the readjustment which may be necessary as the 
tide of veteran students subsides. 

19. Plans for a spaced development of the physical 

20. Long-range plans for permanent endowment and 
probably "living endowment."^ 

Doctor Robb in 1949 announced his desire to the 
Board of Trustees to retire in 1950. 

A new president was elected March 24, 1950, and the 
alumni sponsored a dinner to honor Doctor and Mrs. Robb 
which was held in the college dining hall on June third. 

IReport of Survey, April, 1948 

Prepared and Presented by James W. Reynolds and John L. Seaton. 

As Tennessee Wesleyan College 155 

All members of Doctor and Mrs. Robb's family were 
present. At the close of an evening of greetings the Alumni 
Association of the College expressed its affection for Presi- 
dent and Mrs. Robb by presenting to them the keys to an 
automobile, and the new president was introduced to the 
faculty, alumni, and student body. And so concluded the 
longest period of administrative leadership in the history 
of the institution. Doctor James L. Robb had served as 
dean of The Athens School of the University of Chatta- 
nooga for seven years, one year as acting president of 
Tennessee Wesleyan College, and 24 years as the president 
of the College. He had seen the school move from second- 
ary school level to a place of regional and national recogni- 
tion as one of the leading junior colleges in the Church, 
accredited since 1926 by the Southern Association of Col- 
leges and Secondary Schools. The Board of Trustees elected 
Dr. Robb President Emeritus for life, the only president in 
the history of the college who continued in office until 
retirement age. 

When Dr. LeRoy Albert Martin^ was elected president 
of Tennessee Wesleyan College, Athens welcomed the 
home-coming of a local boy who had shown his ability and 
earned recognition in other regions and who now returned 
to serve and advance his alma mater. Dr. Martin was 
superintendent of the Paterson district of the Newark Con- 
ference, a metropolitan area and one of the largest districts 
in Methodism, when his appointment to the Wesleyan presi- 
dency was announced in March of 1950. For the eight 
years which preceded this superintendency he was pastor 
of the Madison (New Jersey) Methodist Church, just off 
the campus of Drew University. Bishop Oxnam wrote from 
New York to the Executive Committee of the Wesleyan 

1 Section on present administration written by Enid Parker Bryan, Ph.D., 
professor of English and Classics at Tennessee Wesleyan College. 

156 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

Board of Trustees: "I hold LeRoy A. Martin in the highest 
esteem . . . He was a most successful college minister. On 
the district he has revealed unusual administrative ability. 
. . . He has a most brotherly spirit, wins the loyalty of his 
fellow workers. He is creative, unafraid of hard work — 
in a word, is an individual I can recommend without 

Dr. Martin was born In Morristown, Tennessee, in 
1901, but spent most of his childhood in the Trinity Meth- 
odist parsonage in Athens. His father, the late Reverend 
B. M. Martin, noted for his administrative ability through- 
out the Holston Conference, was a native of McMinn 
County and a graduate of the theological division of Grant 
University. LeRoy Martin attended both the Athens Col- 
lege and the University of Chattanooga, where he took his 
A.B. in 1924. He did his graduate work at the Boston 
University School of Theology, where he received an S.T.B. 
in 1928, and at Drew Universky, where he received hh 
master's degree in 1931. He was accepted into full mem- 
bership in the Holston Conference in 1929, and during 
the succeeding years he rendered extensive and varied 
services to The Methodist Church in several regions. He 
was also at one time a member of the faculty of Baylor 
School in Chattanooga. 

Dr. Martin's wife, the former Miss Ruth Duckwall 
of Knoxville, was educated at the University of Tennessee. 
With unfailing friendliness and charm she capably filled the 
role of "first lady" at Blakeslee Hall, the president's resi- 
dence on the campus. Her talent for interior and exterior 
building decoration enabled her to make many valuable 
contributions to the college at large. The Martins were 
accompanied on the move to Athens by their two children; 
Julia Caroline, better known as Sally, aged sixteen and 

As Tennessee Wesleyan College 157 

soon to enter Wesleyan; and Elizabeth Blackburn, or Betsy, 
aged six. A frequent and always welcome visitor in the 
home was Dr. Martin's mother, then living in Chattanooga, 
who could tell many an interesting story of life in Athens 
and at Wesleyan in days gone by. 

President Martin arrived on the Tennessee Wesleyan 
campus on July 6, 1950, and energetically set himself ^^ 
cope with the many problems which beset a small junior 
college in that difficult Korean War period. Financial 
difficulties alone were enormous; the college had for some 
years operated at a deficit. Dr. Martin forcefully presented 
the case for the college to one civic group after another, 
and within a matter of months he had enlisted strong 
community support. An editorial in the Daily Post- Athe- 
nian in 1951 lauded the efforts of volunteer workers in 
what was called the Tennessee Wesleyan Appreciation 
Drive; their goal was $20,000. Pointing out that Wesleyan 
did not have a large endowment to see it through inflation- 
ary periods, the writer urged all citizens to contribute 
generously. He declared that all the community enjoyed 
the blessings already brought to Athens by the college. This 
drive proved to be only a prelude to the greater efforts that 
were to follow. 

Ever since 1925, when Tennessee Wesleyan became a 
completely independent institution, administrators and sup- 
porters of the college had from time to time dreamed that 
it might once again be a four-year college. The actual 
formulation of this ideal and the steps essential to its realiza- 
tion were the work of LeRoy A. Martin. Early in 1952 he 
made public contents of a letter which he had received from 
General James A. Fowler, '84, of Knoxville, honorary mem- 
ber of the Board of Trustees and a former chairman of the 
board. General Fowler's letter contained the following 
statement : 

158 A History of Teiinessee Wesleyan College 

"Tennessee Wesleyan College occupies an unfavorable 
position with reference to increasing its student body. It 
is strictly a junior college, and therefore, its curriculum is 
limited to the freshman and sophomore college years. As 
long as that condition exists it will be difficult to procure 
an attendance sufficient to maintain the school. I have 
given the matter considerable thought and talked it over 
with a gentleman who, I think, has had more experience 
with all grades of educational work than any other person 
in the State. My judgment is that the curriculum should 
be extended to a full four-year college course; and the 
sooner it is done the better the result for the school." 

This letter strengthened President Martin in a convic- 
tion that he had held for some time. He and the Executive 
Committee of the Board of Trustees began several months 
of intensive study. In his report to the board on May 28, 
1952, Dr. Martin set forth in considerable detail the argu- 
ments in favor of a four-year institution. Supporting his 
points with statistics, he emphasized the lack of growth in 
the enrollment of junior colleges of The Methodist Church 
in recent years, especially those in the South. Coming to 
the problem of financial support for junior colleges, he 
presented convincing evidence that government agencies, 
philanthropic foundations, and even individual alumni do 
not adequately support junior colleges. A third considera- 
tion that Dr. Martin brought to the attention of the trustees 
was the action of the Tennessee Department of Education 
in requiring four rather than two years of college training 
for permanent teacher certification. He added that in- 
creases had likewise been made in the requirements for 
entering professional schools of medicine, law, and theology. 
His final point was that the industrial growth of McMinn 
County, strikingly symbolized in the establishment of the 

As Tennessee Wesleyan College 159 

Bowaters Southern Paper Corporation at Calhoun, 
indicated a bright economic future for the region. 

There followed many months filled with committee 
meetings, conferences, and studies of various kinds. Two 
years passed before the Holston Conference took the final 
action which was needed to make Tennessee Wesleyan a 
four-year, degree-granting college. During this perioa 
President Martin was in touch with a number of outstand- 
ing leaders in American higher education, representing both 
church-related and secular institutions. Several of these 
persons through their advice and suggestions made signifi- 
cant contributions to the final realization of Wesleyan's 
senior college status. Prominent among them were the 
following: Dr. Myron F, Wicke, associate director, Section 
of Secondary and Higher Education of the Division of 
Educational Institutions of the General Board of Educa- 
tion of The Methodist Church; Dr, Hurst R, Anderson, 
president of American University, Washington, D, C, and 
member of the University Senate of The Methodist Church ; 
Dr. Arlo Ayres Brown, president of Tennessee Wesleyan 
College from 1921 to 1925; Dr. John O, Gross, executive 
secretary of the Division of Educational Institutions of the 
Board of Education of The Methodist Church; and Dr. 
Edward W. Seay, president of Centenary College in Hac- 
kettstown, New Jersey, and member of the University 
Senate of The Methodist Church. Most of these men con- 
tinued their generous interest long after the four-year 
program was adopted and put into operation. 

In October, 1952, President Martin presented to the 
Executive and the Buildings and Grounds Committees of 
the trustees a comprehensive report which showed the 
points at which Tennessee Wesleyan would have to expand 
its facilities and increase its resources in order to meet the 
standards for senior colleges as set by the Southern As- 

160 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

sociation of Colleges and Secondary Schools. Somewhat 
later a study committee of the board enlisted the assistance 
of Dr. Donald Agnew, then financial consultant of the 
Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools, 
in order to get an estimate of the funds that would be 
needed during the first several years of a senior college 
program at Wesleyan. On the basis of Dr. Agnew's find- 
ings it was estimated that at least $108,900 would have to 
be secured, over and above the usual support given the 
college, to cover the increase in operating costs for the 
first four years. 

The Board of Trustees considered this information and 
many other pertinent facts when they met in May, 1953. 
The Holston Conference had just launched what was called 
its College Development Program, a long-range fund-rais- 
ing campaign for the support and improvement of the three 
colleges owned by the conference. No part of these funds 
could be used to change the status of Wesleyan. Concerned 
for the success of this drive, the trustees voted to delay 
action upon the senior-college proposal. 

The situation was saved by the courageous action of 
a group of Athens business and professional men who some 
years earlier had organized the Tennessee Wesleyan Advis- 
ory Board for the purpose of strengthening the college. 
Under the leadership of Mr. Harry L. Hawkins, their chair- 
man at this time, the Advisory Board agreed to underwrite 
the needed $108,900 and also pledged itself to specific 
and continued support far beyond the first four years of 
the new program. Without the concerted and prompt 
efforts of this group and the generous contributions of the 
citizens of Athens, the four-year program would not have 
materialized when it did. The following members have 
served on this Board: C. A. Anderson, Charles W. Bellows, 
Frank N. Bratton, Dr. T. J. Burton, R. Frank Buttram, 

■ <0 

























































As Tennessee Wesley an College 161 

William P. Chesnutt, Ralph W. Duggan, J. Neal Ensminger, 
William Biddle, Dr. W. E. Force, Joe T. Frye, T. D. 
Gambill, Junius G. Graves, William D. Hairrell, Rhea 
Hammer, Felix Harrod, Harry L. Hawkins, Kenneth D. 
Higgins, Wallace D. Hitch, Harry Johnson, George R. 
Koons, C. Scott Mayfield, Thomas B. Mayfield, H. F. Mc- 
Millan, Harwell W. Profitt, Dr. E. B. Ranck, Joe W. Rice, 
Frank Riggs, Edgar R. Self, H. A. Smith, Paul J. Walker, 
R. A. Wall, W. F. Whitaker, James H. Willson and Marvin 

The Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees 
immediately renewed its request that the board make 
Wesleyan a four-year, degree-granting institution at the 
earliest possible date. The following reasons were adduced : 

1. The action of the Advisory Board in underwriting 
the necessary funds. It was pointed out that all pledges 
were conditional upon the adoption of the four-year 
program in the near future. 

2. The expected increase in college enrollments all 
over the nation within the next few years. The committee 
foresaw that if the conversion should be completed by 1957, 
Wesleyan would by the time of the influx be in a good 
position to compete for students and render service in the 
name of The Methodist Church as a strong, small liberal 
arts college with a select student body. 

3. The fact that the Tennessee Board of Education 
had already authorized Tennessee Wesleyan to give three 
years in elementary teacher training, with the understand- 
ing that the college would move to four-year status at an 
early date. If it did not do so, the privilege would be re- 
voked. The committee stated their conviction that many 
of the finest teachers in America were produced by church- 
related colleges and that Wesleyan could make a valuable 
contribution in this field. Furthermore, it was advisable 

162 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

that the college enter upon the teacher-training program 
right away, since a new curriculum for prospective teachers 
was then being initiated in Tennessee institutions. 

4. The fact that the professional schools at the Uni- 
versity of Tennessee had approved a three-year program in 
pre-law and pre-medicine at Wesleyan with the under- 
standing that the college would soon have senior college 
status. If the change did not take place, the college v/ould 
have to relinquish its work in these two fields. 

On May 11, 1954, the Board of Trustees approved 
the initiation of a senior college program at Tennessee 
Wesleyan. The decision was unanimously approved by the 
Holston Annual Conference on June 3. Only a change in 
the by-laws of the board was necessary, for the college 
charter of 1925 had established a college of liberal arts 
with the authority to confer appropriate baccalaureate 

A new chapter in the history of Tennessee Wesleyan 
College began forthwith. President Martin now shouldered 
enormous and pressing responsibilities. The selection of 
additional competent faculty and staff members, the ex- 
pansion and improvement — almost the complete remodel- 
ing — of the physical plant of the college, and the promo- 
tion of the Holston Conference College Development 
Program were among his major problems. 

With respect to faculty, Dr. Martin had already made 
several notable additions, including the appointment of 
Dr. F. Heisse Johnson, formerly of Brothers College of 
Drew University, as C. O. Jones professor of religion. Up- 
on adoption of the senior college program, Dr. Johnson be- 
came dean of the college, with primary responsibility for 
the academic program. Dean Paul Riviere was made dean 
of admissions and registrar succeeding C. O. Douglass. 
Others of President Martin's appointments in the 1950-57 

As Tennessee Wesleyan College 163 

period included: Dr. Alf H. Walle, professor of education 
and director of the Evening College; Dr. John M. Martin, 
associate professor of history and director of the Summer 
School; Dr. Enid P. Bryan, professor of English and 
classics; Dr. L. C. Jordy, professor of chemistry and physics; 
Carl B. Honaker, associate professor of chemistry and 
physics; Richard M. Johnson, associate professor of biology; 
M. Clifton Smith, associate professor of education and 
basketball coach; Dr. T. G. Richner, associate professor of 
modern languages; B, T. Hutson, associate professor of 
business administration; Miss Reva Puett, assistant profes- 
sor of home economics; William M. McGill, assistant pro- 
fessor of English; John J. McCoy, assistant professor of 
biology and chemistry; Miss Mary L. Greenhoe, instructor 
in piano and organ; Miss Frances J. Biddle, instructor in 
physical education; Harry W. Coble, instructor in speech 
and drama; Fred Puett, instructor in business administra- 
tion; Mrs. Claryse D. Myers, librarian; and Rabbi Abra- 
ham Feinstein, visiting instructor in the history of Judaism. 
No list of new personnel for this period would be complete 
without mention of Mrs. Mary Nelle Jackson, administra- 
tive secretary, whose bright smile added much to the 
pleasantness of life at Wesleyan. 

It was with keenly felt regret that faculty and students 
saw that retirement of Dr. James W. Baldwin and Professor 
Arthur H. Myers, in 1956. Dr. Baldwin, a native Tennes- 
seean, had for two years assisted in establishing the teacher- 
training program at Wesleyan on a senior college basis. 
Mr. Myers, professor of philosophy and psychology, retired 
after twenty-two years at Wesleyan but continued to teach 
on a part-time basis in 1956-57. Professor Myers' calm, 
cheery manner and his deep personal interest in his students 
made him a great favorite, and returning alumni were 
certain to ask for and about him. 

164 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

As for the physical plant, many of the older college 
buildings were badly in need of repair in the early 1950's. 
Almost $100,000 was spent during the summer of 1954 on 
additions to the campus, renovations, and redecorating, 
and the work continued in succeeding years. Every build- 
ing on the campus received some attention. Petty-Manker 
Hall underwent complete renovation in 1954, and a tele- 
vision lounge and an infirmary were added to its facilities. 
Banfield Hall, which now housed the science departments, 
was provided with new lighting and additional equipment. 
Townsend Memorial Hall, erected in 1924, was rededi- 
cated in 1951 in memory of the late Colonel W. B. Town- 
send, one of Wesleyan's most generous benefactors. Town- 
send Hall now provided an auditorium which seated ap- 
proximately eight hundred, another auditorium which 
seated three hundred, a student recreational center, a snack 
bar, a post office, and offices for the president and other 
administrative personnel. 

As the enrollment of men students by 1954 was far 
greater than it had ever been before, several additional 
residence halls for men were opened. Fowler Hall, formerly 
a motel, was purchased in 1954 and was named in honor 
of General James A. Fowler, '84, and Mrs. Fowler. Estab- 
lished somewhat later, Bolton Hall was named in memory 
of Professor David A. Bolton, '72, and Wright Hall was 
named for Dean W. A. Wright, '78. 

Elizabeth Ritter Hall, owned and supported as a 
woman's residence hall by the Woman's Division of Christ- 
ian Service of The Methodist Church, was extensively 
renovated during the summer of 1954. The dining hall 
area was increased to a seating capacity of three hundred, 
and a cafeteria and automatic dishwashing equipment were 
installed. This dining hall, which served the entire college, 
was named in honor of Mrs. H. C. Black, for many years 

As Tennessee Wesleyan College 165 

a trustee of the college. In addition, provision was made 
in one wing of Ritter for the department of home econom- 
ics, with electrically equipped unit kitchens, a private din- 
ing room, and a textile laboratory. An automatic sprinkler 
system, the gift of Mrs. Henry PfeiflFer, and fire escapes 
were installed throughout Ritter Hall. 

Late in 1955 it was announced that Mr. Tom Sher- 
man, Athens business man and an honorary member of 
the Tennessee Wesleyan Board of Trustees, had presented 
the college a check with which to buy a choice site for a 
fine arts building. The money was used for the purchase 
of the Bolton property, on the corner of North Jackson 
and College Streets, a piece of property that the college 
had long desired to have within its holdings. The Board 
of Trustees authorized the erection there of a building to 
contain music, speech, drama, and radio classrooms and 
studios, as well as a small auditorium for recitals and little 
theater productions, as soon as sufficient funds should be 
available. Blueprints were drawn and approved in 1956. 
It was noted that the excellent central location of the 
projected building would assist in serving both the college 
and the entire community of Athens. 

Meanwhile, a site was cleared late in 1956 for another 
much needed building, a modern brick dormitory to house 
over one hundred men. The new $300,000 structure was 
to be at the corner of Robeson and Green Streets, across 
from what was the original college campus. Necessary 
financing was secured, and construction was planned for 
the summer of 1957. 

As has been mentioned, Tennessee Wesleyan had an 
active interest and share in the success of the College 
Development Program which the Holston Conference con- 
ducted in the early 1950's for the improvement of its three 

166 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

colleges. Early in 1955 the conference successfully 
completed this $1,750,000 drive. 

Faculty and administration, plus buildings and other 
facilities, add up to classes, as every college student well 
knows. Many new courses were added to the Tennessee 
Wesleyan curriculum in the three years that followed the 
change to a senior college program. In most departments 
several third-year courses were added in the school year 
1955-56, and fourth-year courses the following year. By 
1956 a student could choose any of the following as his 
field of major emphasis: English, biology, chemistry, social 
science, history and government, religion and philosophy, 
education, and business administration and economics. The 
field of minor emphasis could be chosen from these, plus 
music, mathematics, physical education, and speech and 

For the present the College plans to award the Bache- 
lor of Arts degree and the Bachelor of Science degree. 
Requirements for the Bachelor's degree are as follows: 

1. A minimum of 18 hours of English 

2. A minimum of 18 hours of a foreign language 
(For Bachelor of Arts only) 

3. A minimum of 9 hours of religion, including R400 

4. A minimum of 9 hours in history or American 
Government and Politics 

5. A minimum of 9 hours in sociology, psychology, 
economics or geography (Education majors must take the 
course in The Family as 3 of the 9 hours required.) 

6. A minimum of 12 hours of laboratory science for 
the Bachelor of Arts Degree 

A minimum of 24 hours in two difTerent laboratory 
sciences or 12 hours in a laboratory science plus 10 hours 
of mathematics for the Bachelor of Science Degree 

As Tennessee Wesleyan College 167 

7. A minimum of 3 hours in speech or dramatics 

8. A minimum of 6 hours in physical education 

9. The completion of the requirements in one major 
and one minor field of emphasis. A minimum of 36 hours 
is required in the major field and a minimum of 27 hours 
is required in the minor field. One half of the work in 
both the major and minor must be in upper level courses. 
No student will receive credit for more than 51 hours 
toward his major. 

10. The completion of 192 hours of college work with 
a cumulative average of 1.00 or C of which the senior year 
(the last 45 hours) must be taken at Tennessee Wesleyan 

In terms of enrollment, the expansion to a senior col- 
lege program soon fulfilled the expectations of President 
Martin, Dean Johnson, Dean Riviere, and the many others 
who had advocated the change. Total enrollment in the 
regular session of the school year 1953-54 was 237; in the 
following year, the first on the new program, it was 305, 
including 30 students in the Evening College. In the fall 
of 1956 the enrollment was 572, including 96 students in 
the Evening College. 

Evening classes had been held at Tennessee Wesleyan 
College intermittently for several years, but the inaugura- 
tion of the four-year program brought a great increase of 
interest. The Evening College now constituted an import- 
ant area in which Wesleyan could render a special service 
to Athens and the surrounding region. Under the direction 
of Dr. Alf H. Walle, the Evening College opened in the 
fall of 1954 with an enrollment of thirty students, mostly 
in the fields of education and business administration. This 
enrollment increased through the year and had more than 
doubled by the following fall. In 1956-1957 the Evening 
College had an enrollment of ninety-six. Most of these 

168 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

were teachers and business people who had previously done 
some portion of their college work, at Wesleyan or else- 
where. Some were able to qualify for degrees at the 1957 
commencement. Courses in education and busines sadmin- 
istration continued to be in the greatest demand, but work 
was given in many fields, including English and American 
literature, mathematics, religion, history, engineering draw- 
ing, and the natural sciences. Some classes were taught by 
the regular faculty of the college, and others were handled 
by visiting instructors. Among the latter were Harold N. 
Powers, Paul Rowland, Dr. William H. Joubert, John I. 
Foster, James C. Guffey, Bernard H. Zellner, Eugene 
Sadler, and Marvis Cunningham. 

For the young people regularly enrolled at Wesleyan, 
however, life was not altogether made up of classes and 
study. Like college students everywhere, they organized a 
number of clubs and interest groups of various kinds. The 
student body had the Student Council as its executive 
agent. Other active organizations on the campus included 
the Wesleyan Chapter of the Future Business Leaders of 
America; the Life Service Volunteers, composed of those 
planning to enter the ministry or go to a mission field; 
Alpha Beta, honorary scholastic fraternity of the college; 
the Veterans' Club; the Wesleyan College Chapter of the 
Tennessee Poetry Society; the staflFs of the Bulldog, student 
newspaper, and the Nocatula, the Wesleyan yearbook; the 
Student Christian Association ; and the Tennessee Wesleyan 
Choir. The Student Christian Association, with faculty 
sponsorship, met once a week for study and services of 
worship. This weekly service, held on Wednesday evenings 
and known as Wesleyan Worship, had come to be a rich 
and meaningful tradition of the college. The S.C.A. also 
sponsored several social events each year. All college 

Trustee, Bishop of the Nashville Area and Secretary 
of the Council of Bishops of The Methodist Church. 

As Tennessee Wesley an College 169 

Students were eligible to participate in the work and 
activities of this group. 

In the fall of 1956 it was announced that eight Ten- 
nessee Wesleyan students had been selected to represent 
the college in the forthcoming issue of Who's Who Among 
Students in American Universities and Colleges, a distinc- 
tion for which Wesleyan students were now eligible. These 
outstanding students, who were chosen on the basis of 
leadership, service to the college, and academic achieve- 
ment, were the following: Billy Akins, of Athens; Patricia 
DeLozier, of Maryville ; Richard Gilbert, of Dover, New 
Jersey; Billie Dean Haley, of Athens; Dolores Mynatt, of 
Chattanooga; Barbara Pickel, of Pigeon Forge; Charles 
Seepe, of Knoxville; and Paul Starnes, of Chattanooga. 
All were seniors slated to receive degrees at the Centennial 
Commencement the following spring. 

Much of the social life at Wesleyan continued to be 
organized and stimulated by the Greek-letter social groups 
which had been organized in the days of the junior college. 
Sororities active on the campus in the 1950-1957 period 
were Sigma Iota Chi, Eta Upsilon Gamma, Zeta Mu Ep- 
silon, and Kappa Delta Phi; and active fraternities were 
Eta Iota Tau, Theta Sigma Chi, and Phi Sigma Nu. Stu- 
dents were invited to become members of the organizations 
through a system of preferential bidding, but the system 
was so administered that every student received a "bid" 
if he had indicated a desire to join a Greek-letter group. 
Sororities and fraternities had faculty sponsors and were 
regulated and coordinated by a student-faculty Panhellenic 
Council. In 1956-57 a plan was worked out whereby two 
large dances, open to the entire student body, were held 
during the year, each sponsored by a combination of three 
social groups. 

Athletics and physical training had always been an 

170 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

important part of the program at Wesleyan. But the change 
to senior college status naturally brought with it several 
problems in the matter of inter-college sports participation. 
President Martin acted to strengthen both the football and 
the basketball programs. Coach Rankin Hudson continued 
as mentor of the football squad, which in 1956 played a 
senior college schedule with fair success. M. Clifton Smith 
was added to the college staff as associate professor of 
education and basketball c©ach. Coach "Tip" Smith came 
to Wesleyan with an enviable record in high school work, 
including basketball coaching, in Southeastern Tennessee. 
Wesleyan was admitted to the Smoky Mountain Athletic 
Conference in 1956-1957; the basketball team played a 
reasonably stiff schedule and came through with seventeen 
wins and seven losses. Concurrent with these major sports 
was a strong program of physical education and intramural 
sports for all students, both men and women. Tennis, 
volleyball, baseball, archery, soccer, and field hockey, as 
well as football and basketball, found many enthusiasts. 

Interest in music, especially in the Tennessee Wesleyan 
College Choir, was at least as great as interest in athletics. 
Choir Director Jack Houts, who came to Wesleyan in 
1946, during President Robb's administration, constantly 
devoted his energy and ability to the service of the college 
and the community. Foremost among Professor Houts' 
community activities was the training of the Athens Male 
Chorus, a group that greatly enriched the cultural life of 
the region." In 1955 the Athens Rotary Club presented him 
with a plaque bearing the inscription "To Jack Houts, for 
Outstanding Contribution in Community Service." 

During Houts' second year at Wesleyan, several 
churches of the Holston Conference asked the college choir 
to present a one-hour program of sacred music. As the 
reputation of the choir gradually spread, more and more 

As Tennessee Wesleyan College 171 

requests were received from churches in several Southern 
states. By 1950 the choir was arranging a schedule of Sun- 
day and week-end concerts that filled most of the calendar 
from February through May, with appearances in churches 
from West Virginia to Florida. 

This development and expansion came to a fitting 
climax in April, 1956, when the Wesleyan Choir was priv- 
ileged to sing at the General Conference of The Methodist 
Church held that year in Minneapolis. Seventeen choirs 
representing Methodist colleges were invited to sing at the 
1956 meeting of the General Conference, a world body 
which meets only every four years. It was, then, a great 
honor and distinction for the Tennessee Wesleyan Choir 
to appear on this occasion. In particular, great credit was 
due President Martin for the preliminary arrangements 
that made the invitation and the trip possible. The forty- 
five voice choir sang three times at various sessions and 
groups of the conference, and their performance won high 

TJie choir early formed the habit of turning to secular 
music in the late spring and producing a show which was 
called the Spring Festival. The popular musical The Red 
Mill was chosen for production in 1950, followed by The 
Desert Song, Rose Marie, Naughty Marietta, The Vagabond 
King, Oklahoma! and The Three Musketeers in succeed-* 
ing years. It was decided that the 1957 Spring Festival 
should be integrated with the centennial celebration of the 
college. A musical dramatization of the Cherokee Indian 
legend of Nocatula, ^ part of Wesleyan's heritage from 
the earliest days, was scheduled for production during 
Centennial Week. The entire drama was written and ar- 
ranged by Wesleyan College personnel: Harry Coble, in- 
■<^ructor in speech and drama; Miss Mary Greenhoe, 

172 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

instructor in piano and organ; and Professor and Mrs. 

Early spring of 1957 found the Tennessee Wesleyan 
campus a busy place indeed. Regular college activities 
went on as usual. The Holston Conference conducted a 
Vocations Clinic for students interested in various fields 
of religious work. In March the Chattanooga Symphony 
Orchestra, under the direction of Julius Hegyi, gave a 
"pops" concert in Townsend Auditorium. A little later, 
Religion in Life Week brought Dr. George C. Baker of 
Southern Methodist University to the campus, along with 
several other competent leaders of seminars and discussion 
groups. The college then prepared for Vocations Day, an 
annual event which had the co-sponsorship of the Athens 
Kiwanis Club, when several hundred high school seniors 
from the surrounding region would visit the campus to 
get information from leaders in business and professional 

But a great deal more than the usual activity of a 
college campus was in evidence at Wesleyan in 1957. Ad- 
ministrators and faculty had long been busy with adjust- 
ments and improvements in the entire college program; 
and now, with a view to meeting senior college accredita- 
tion standards in the near future, they accelerated their 
efforts. Students were aware of the challenge and in most 
cases responded with increased interest and application. 
Above all, everyone connected with the college looked 
forward to the events of Centennial Week and the com- 
mencement at which Tennessee Wesleyan w ould once again 
confer degrees and so reclaim her heritage as a senior 

Speaking of the history of the college and the outlook 
for the future, President Martin made this statement: 

One hundred years of struggle — poverty, debts, de- 

As Tennessee Wesleyan College 173 

prsssions, wars — all these facts made their impact, yet 
presidents held on, convinced that days of greater service 
would dawn — and now as a second century begins, it can 
be said that 1957 could be the dawn of a nobler and more 
creative day, and for these reasons: 

The vast and varied economy of East Tennessee, at- 
tributable to many factors, is gaining steadily. The poverty 
which followed Reconstruction is now a minority move- 
ment; the Old South has become the New South. There 
is wealth in this area to provide adequate support. 

The Methodist Church has nurtured the college for a 
century, sometimes providing a lean diet, with the most 
substantial support for a long period coming from general 
funds of the Board of Education and from Methodists of 
the North and East; but with the growing interest of the 
Holston Conference of The Methodist Church as manifested 
since unification of Methodism there is now assurance that 
the support will grow as the years pass, the college being 
strengthened materially as a result. 

The community of Athens has benefited greatly by 
the college but has often been indifferent towards its needs; 
the community now manifests a warm and generous spirit, 
this stimulated by an Advisory Board of Athenians. 

These three facts made possible and imperative the 
resumption of senior college work. 

In the light of these facts I dare to make a prophecy: 
within twenty-five years or less, if adequate church and 
community support continues and large gifts for buildings 
and endow7nent are made, Wesleyan will become as dis- 
tinguished a college as two well-known Methodist institu- 
tions located in towns of comparable size — DePauw and 
Ohio Wesleyan. 

I am grateful to the Board of Trustees, the Holston 
Conference of The Methodist Church, the community of 

174 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

Athens, the alumni and the many other friends who have 
brought us to the new day which warrants the confidence 
in the future seriously expressed above. 



AS AMENDED MAY 14, 1954 

Be it known that G. F. Lockmiller, S. C. Brown, J. M. 
Melear, J. W. Fisher, W. B. Townsend, C. N. Woodworth 
and Mrs. John A. Patten are hereby constituted a body 
politic and corporate by the name and style of Tennessee 
Wesleyan College for the purpose of founding, maintaining 
and conducting a college of liberal arts at Athens, Tennes- 
see, under the auspices of The Methodist Church as repre- 
sented in the General Conference of said Church wherein 
may be taught the courses of study usually taught in said 
colleges or institutions, including literary, scientific, theo- 
logical, normal and elocution or expression with 
power to confer appropriate degrees and to issue diplomas 
and certificates to those entitled thereto under the stand- 
ards, rules and regulations of said college as fixed by its 
Board of Trustees; to maintain libraries and recreational 
grounds, and equipment; to provide for and preserve an 
endowment fund for the support and maintenance of said 
college by taking, receiving and holding any monies, choses 
in action, real estate, personal or mixed property by gift, 
devise or otherwise. 

2. The property owned, or to be owned, or held by 
the corporation hereby created shall be so held and owned 
in the name of said corporation for the use and benefit of 
The Methodist Church, under such trust clause, or clauses, 
as may be provided in the book of Discipline of said 
Church. The government and management of said cor- 
poration and the teachings in its several courses or depart- 
ments, shall forever be conducted in harmony and conson- 

As Tennessee Wesleyan College 175 

ance with, and in the interest of, the said Methodist 
Church, as set forth, or declared from time to time, by the 
General Conference of said Church. 

3. Said corporation shall be self-perpetuating, subject 
only to the policy above stated. Any departure from the 
objects and policy of said corporation as above limited shall 
be good ground for removal of the Board of Trustees upon 
cause properly shown in the court of equity having 
jurisdiction, but shall not work a forfeiture of this charter. 

4. The general powers of the said corporation shall 

(a) To sue and be sued by the corporate name. 

(b) To have and use a common seal, which it 
may alter at pleasure; if no common seal, 
then the signature of the name of the cor- 
poration, by any duly authorized officer, shall 
be legal and binding. 

(c) To purchase and hold, or receive by gift, be- 
quest, or devise in addition to the personal 
property owned by the corporation, real estate 
necessary for the transaction of the corporate 
business, and also to purchase or accept any 
real estate in payment, of any debt due the 
corporation, and sell the same. 

(d) To establish by-laws, and make all rules and 
regulations not inconsistent with the laws and 
constitution, deemed expedient for the man- 
agement of corporate affairs. 

(e) To appoint such subordinate officers and 
agents, in addition to a president and secre- 
tary, or treasurer, as the business of the cor- 
poration may require. 

(f) To designate the name of the office, and fix 
the compensation of the officer. 

176 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

(g) To borrow money to be used in payment of 
property bought by it, and for erecting build- 
ings, making improvements, and for other 
purposes germane to the object of its creation, 
and secure the repayment of the money thus 
borrowed by mortgage, pledge, or deed of 
trust, upon such property, real, personal, or 
mixed, as may be owned by it; and it may, 
in like manner, secure by mortgage, pledge, 
or deed of trust, any existing indebtedness 
which it may have lawfully contracted. 

(h)To elect a president, a dean or other necessary 
officers or agents in the management of said 
college, to prescribe the studies and texts for 
the various courses or departments therein, 
to elect a faculty of such teachers and in- 
structors as may be deemed proper and to fix 
the salaries of such officers and teachers. 

5. The said corporators shall within a convenient 
time after the registration of the charter in the office of 
the Secretary of State, elect from their number a chairman, 
secretary and treasurer; said officers and the other incor- 
porators shall constitute the first Board of Trustees. In all 
elections each member present shall be entitled to one vote, 
and the result shall be determined by a majority of the vote 
cast. Due notice of any election must be given by advertise- 
ment in a newspaper, personal notice to the members or a 
day stated on the minutes of the board six months preced- 
ing the election. The Board of Trustees shall keep a record 
of all their proceedings, which shall be at all times subject 
to the inspection of any member. 

6. That the number of Trustees shall be forty in addi- 
tion to the president, who shall be an ex-officio member of 



.^P(^ i*'^Wt 


Donor of site for fine arts center 

As Tennessee Wesleyan College 111 

the board of trustees. The trustees shall hold office as 
follows : 

The Board of Trustees at its annual meeting shall each 
year elect one-fourth of the number of Trustees to serve 
for a term of four years from the date of such meeting and 
until their successors are duly elected as herein provided. 
The said Trustees shall be elected from nominations by the 
Holston Annual Conference of The Methodist Church, on 
recommendation of the Board of Education of the said 

In case the Holston Annual Conference of The Meth- 
odist Church fails to nominate a Trustee to fill any vacancy 
as hereinbefore provided, then such nomination may be 
made by the Bishop having in charge the Holston Annual 
Conference at that time until such a vacancy is filled. Any 
vacancy or vacancies, in the Board of Trustees occasioned 
by death, resignation, removal or other causes than those 
stated above, shall be supplied in the same manner as pro- 
vided in this section for the election of a trustee. Any mem- 
ber of said Board of Trustees shall be eligible to re-election 

The thirty-two members of the present Board of 
Trustees shall serve out their respective terms. At the 1953 
session of the Holston Annual Conference a sufficient num- 
ber of new trustees shall be nominated to make the total 
number of trustees forty, exclusive of the president. At the 
next annual meeting of the Board of Trustees, after the 
1953 session of the Holston Annual Conference, it shall 
elect eight new trustees; two of the new trustees shall be 
elected for a term of one year; two of said new trustees 
shall be elected for a term of two years; two of said new 
trustees shall be elected for a term of three years, and two 
of said new trustees shall be elected for a term of four years. 
Each year after 1953 the Board of Trustees, at its regular 

178 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

annual meeting, shall elect ten members of the Board of 
Trustees for a term of four years. 

7. The Board of Trustees may appoint executive 
agencies, and pass all necessary by-laws for the government 
of said institution, as may be required by The Methodist 
Church, provided said by-laws are not inconsistent with 
the constitution and laws of this State. The terms of all 
officers shall be fixed by the by-laws, the term not to exceed 
three years and all officers shall hold over until their 
successors are duly elected and qualified. 

8. The members may at any time voluntarily dissolve 
the corporation by the conveyance of its assets and property 
to any other corporation holding a charter from this State 
not for purposes of individual profit, first providing for 
incorporate debts; provided, the objects and aims of said 
corporation shall be the same and in harmony with those 
contained in this charter. A violation of any of the provis- 
ions of this charter shall subject the corporation to dissolu- 
tion at the instance of the State, in which event its property 
and effects shall revert to the Holston Annual Conference, 
Inc., a corporation. This charter is subject to modification 
or amendment by the Legislature, and in case said modifi- 
cation or amendment is not accepted, corporate business 
is to cease, and the assets and property, after payment of 
debts, are to be conveyed, as aforesaid, to some other cor- 
poration holding a charter for purposes not connected with 
individual profit and for the same objects and benefit of, 
and revert to, the aforesaid Holston Annual Conference, 
Inc. Acquiescence in any modification thus declared shall 
be determined in a meeting of the Trustees specially called 
for that purpose, and only those voting in favor of the 
modification shall thereafter compose the corporation. 

9. The means, assets, income, or other property of 
the corporation shall not be employed, directly or indirectly, 

As Tennessee Wesleyan College 179 

for any purpose whatever than to accompHsh the legitimate 
objects of its creation, and by no imphcation or construc- 
tion shall it possess the power to issue notes or coin, buy or 
sell products, or engage in any kind of trading operation, 
nor holding more real estate than is necessary for its legiti- 
mate purposes, and in no event shall the trustees permit 
any part of the principal of the endowment fund, or any 
portion of the real estate of the corporation, to be used for 
the payment of the current expenses. 

10. We, the undersigned, hereby apply to the State 
of Tennessee, by virtue of the laws of the land, for a charter 
of incorporation for the purpose and with the powers and 
privileges, etc., declared in the foregoing instrument. 
Witness our hands the 26th day of June, A.D., 1925. 

G. F. Lockmiller 
S. C. Brown 
J. W. Fisher 
J. M. Melear 
W. B. Townsend 
C. N. Woodworth 
Mrs. John A. Patten 
State of Tennessee 
County of McMinn 

Personally appeared before me, Tom M. Frye, Clerk 
of the County Court for the County aforesaid, G. F. Lock- 
miller, S. C. Brown, J. M. Melear, J. W. Fisher, W. B. 
Townsend, C. N. Woodworth and Mrs. John A. Patten, 
the incorporators and signers of the within Charter of 
Incorporation, with whom I am personally acquainted and 
who acknowledged that they executed the same for the 
purpose therein contained. Witness my hand and seal of 
office at Athens, McMinn County, Tennessee, this the 26th 
day of June, 1925. ^^^ j^ P^^^ 

County Court Clerk 


Student Activities 

I. 1895-1907 
The year 1895 was highlighted by the dynamic interest 
of the students in the school. (U. S. Grant University with 
the College of Liberal Arts located at Athens, Tennessee.) 
This interest was manifested in many varying fields. There 
was a resurgence of enthusiasm toward academic and social 
aspects of student life. 

The voice of this enthusiasm was the University Ex- 
ponent, a proposed monthly, under the editorship of Alvis 
Craig, Juliette Everett, Frank F. Hooper, W. Fay Roeder, 
Charles F. Van DeWater, and Olle M. West. The purpose 
of the paper was stated in the Salutatory as "To convince 
the people of Athens and the South the importance of 
Grant University and her paper and of their DUTY in 
supporting the former, and thus supporting the latter . . ." 
The editors explained that the idea of a paper was 
an old one and defended its establishment by enumerating 
the benefits that the student body might derive from such 
a publication. 

The establishment of a University paper is by no 
means a young idea, but on the contrary has long been 
contemplated by our students. A school of the size and 
character of Grant University ought not and cannot 
succeed properly without some publication devoted to 
its interest. 

•5f * * 

A college paper should bring its students together, 
stimulate them in their desire for education and make 
them more loyal to their college and give them a livelier 
interest in the same. 


Student Activities 181 

In 1895, as in every year before World War I, the 
majority of student activity centered around the programs 
of the various "literary societies." There were four of these 
societies which corresponded to Greek letter organizations 
on other campuses. They were the Athenian and Philo- 
mathean for men and Sapphonian and Knightonian for 
women. The Athenian was the oldest of these. It was 
organized on January 19, 1867, as the Athenian Literary 
Society of East Tennessee Wesleyan University. Professor 
P. C. Wilson was elected president, and J. V. Love was 
elected recording secretary. The Society had a publication 
entitled the Athenaeum and a private library for the use 
of its members. The Philomathean was organized on March 
1, 1868, because the increased enrollment prevented many 
students from participating in the activities of the 

The Sapphonian Society was organized in the winter 
of 1878-79, with Agnes Byington, President, and Emma 
Rule, Secretary. It was organized as a protest by "ladies 
who felt that they were without the literary advantages 
which, the existing societies furnish to the young gentlemen." 

By 1895 the functions of these societies were predomi- 
nately social. The open meetings, oratorical contests, socials 
and outings were a sanctioned method of contact between 
men and women. One notices a contrast between a typical 
week's activity in 1882 and that of one in 1895. 

Sunday afternoon, College lecture, weekly 2:00 p.m. 
College Prayer meeting, weekly, with Y.M.C.A. Weds. 
6:30 p.m. 

Y.M.C.A. holds its Social and Bible meetings alter- 
nately every Sunday afternoon, immediately after the 
College Sunday Lecture. Pres., Ed. S. Patterson, 
Secty., J. W. P. Massey. 

182 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

Theological Society meets semi-monthly on Saturday, 
2:00 p.m. Pres., Dr. John F. Spence, Sect., C. H. 

Athenian Literary Society meetings are held weekly 
on Friday, 6 : 30 p.m. Pres. J. J. Robinette, Rec. Secty., 
C. M. Gillenwaters. Editor Athenaeum, F. L. Mans- 

Philomathean Literary Society meets weekly on Satur- 
day, 6:30 p.m. Pres., W. A. Long, Rec. Secty., J. A. 
Denton, editor, Philomathean, James F. Swingle. 
Sapphonian Literary Society meets weekly on Monday 
at 4:00 p.m. Pres., Miss Eugenia Long, Rec. Secty., 
Miss Telia Kelley, editress Sapphonian Journal, Miss 
Mary Trevethan. 

The advent of Professor Joel S. Barlow and his family 
brought music to the campus. Professor Barlow, late of the 
Great Band of England (Queen Victoria's Band) , had later 
given lessons in New York and Chicago. His daughter, 
Grace, also gave voice and piano lessons. The Barlow 
daughters, Anna and Ethel, were always active on any 
musical occasion. 

A Ladies Orchestra and a string band called the "Vio- 
lin Case" were formed. The students even proposed 
organizing a glee club. Although there was no official 
organization that year, the members of the literary clubs 
had their individual singing groups. -' 


DECEMBER 14, 1897 


True music is the natural expression of a lofty passion 
for a right cause. — Ruskin. 

Music is well said to be the speech of angels; it brings 
us near to the infinite. — - Thomas Carlyle. 

Student Activities 183 

Here we will sit, and let the sound of music creep in 
our ears. — Shakespeare. 

1. Orchestra — "Forget Me Not" .....Popp 

2. Part Song — "Cuckoo" Macfarren 

Miss Ophie Bolton, Miss Anna Taite, Mr. Howard Burke 

and Mr. Parker Sizer. 
The man that hath no music in himself, 
Nor is not moved with concord of sweet sounds, 
Is fit for treasons, stratagems and spoils. 

— Shakespeare. 

3. Violin Solo — "Adieu" Beethoven 

Miss Margaret Wright. 
Song — "September" — Mr. John C. Lusk. 

4. Orchestra — "Sirenes Valse" Waldteufe 

5. Song — "The Alpine Horn" Proch 

Mr. Howard Burke. 
"Were it nor for sound and song. 
Life would lose its pleasure." 

6. Piano Solo — Cachoucha Caprice.... Raff 

Miss Mildred Marston. 

7. Orchestra — - "Love in May" ....Weiad 

It is little rift within the lute 

That by and by will make the music mute. 

And ever widening slowly silence all. 

— Tennyson. 

8. Piano and Organ, Overture — "Norma" .Bellini 

Miss Blanche Sheffler, Miss Nellie Young 
and Prof. J. S. Barlow. 
They laid their hands upon the pallid keys. 
Straightway the notes began to throb and thrill. 

— Owen Innsly 

184 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

9. Song — "The Flower Girl" Bevignani 

Miss Grace Barlow. 
Sing on, thou soul of melody, sing on, 
Till we forget our sorrows and our wrongs. 

— David Bates. 

10. Vocal Trio- — Selected — Mr. Howard Burke, 

Mr. John'Lusk and Mr. E. S. Oaks. 

11. Violin Solo — "Stradella" ..Flotow 

Miss Grace Barlow. 

12. Orchestra — Selection from the Opera of 

"Martha" Flotow 

The soul of music sleeps on the string, 
And the spirit of harmony closes her wing. 

— Ed. L. Swift. 

The organization of the band was a result, to some 
extent, of the increased interest in the military school. The 
military school program had originated with a drill line of 
students carrying their own guns. In 1895 drill was com- 
pulsory for students between the ages of 16-21. Captain 
Charles F. Van DeWater was in charge of the cadets. He 
and Bishop Isaac Joyce felt that "the boys" should have a 
band. After receiving a letter from Bishop Joyce, Dr. C. G. 
Conn, manufacturer of band instruments, personally 
selected fourteen band instruments and presented them as 
a gift to the school. 

The University Exponent commented that "the band 
is progressing nicely and in short time we expect to hear 
some good music from it." Evidently the band made some 
progress since we read of it greeting visiting dignitaries at 
the Southern Railway station later in the year. Many 
members of the band gave solos for their Societies' enter- 
tainments and for commencement and class day. We read 
of piccolo and trombone solos rendered by members of the 
University Band. 

Student Activities 185 

The students at U. S. Grant University had in com- 
mon with students all over the nation a predilection for 
poker, Frat pins, celluloid collars, complaints about food, 
candy pulls, and measles. They were also seriously inter- 
ested in the Christian tradition and the future of their 
nation. They felt through education that they could per- 
petuate the former and secure the latter. Articles appeared 
in the school paper defending military training. They felt 
that this training was not incompatible with the spirit of 

A typical editorial stated that: 

The great work of the University is not to make 
lawyers or doctors or mechanics or merchants but a 
work infinitely higher, that of developing men. When 
its work is done the schools of various professions have 
materials of the most excellent calibre with which to 
fill the vacancies they are expected to supply. 

Their idea of America was expressed in a similar 
manner. Alvis Craig visualized "the American Republic 
not only a land of wealth, beauty and power, but one of 
culture and justice as well." 

In the interest of culture the students proposed the 
organization of an Art Literature Club such as Syracuse 
University's. They wished a reading room accessible to the 
faculty, students, and refined citizens from the town. In 
this same interest they realized the importance of the 
professional schools at Chattanooga. 

Chattanooga is undoubtedly the place where a 
great university will grow up. Let us have a closer 
union in the work of our departments, and a strong 
unanimity of purpose to embrace the opportunity of 
filling a great need today. 

Throughout the year the students showed interest in 
the idea of an athletic program. The tennis club cleaned 

186 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan CoUege 

the courts in the spring and encouraged the student body 
to beautify the campus. The students were clamoring for 
a gymnasium. As one editorial stated, "One department 
in which our school is lacking is Athletics ... A gymnasium, 
modestly, but properly equipped, with an instructor to 
oversee the work of the students . . . would be a valuable 
addition to the school. Can some one start a gym 

The Epworth League, the Y.M.C.A. and the Y.W.C.A. 
were Christian organizations that had entertainments or 
socials on the campus. The students and faculty frequently 
had joint entertainments, usually in Bennett Hall, where 
cookies and ice cream were served. 

An off-campus social event was the annual reception 
of Kappa Sigma Fraternity, the only national fraternity at 
Grant University. On Feb. 8, 1895, the fraternity held its 
reception at the Euclid Hotel. The rainy evening did not 
dampen the young people's spirits. The fact that this was 
an evening entertainment and refreshments were served at 
the late hour of 9:30 p.m. was exciting. Those present 
were: Misses Olphie Bolton, Annie McKeldin, Louise Ma- 
gill, Ruby Simonds, Cora Mann, Mary French, Lotta Ulrey, 
Grace Barlow, and Messrs. L. W. Cass, S. E. Miller, W. F. 
Hufhne, F. F. Hooper, Alvis Craig, Wm. T. Cooper, J. M. 
Rutherford, M. S. Oakes, Guy H. Lemon, John C. Lusk, 
and F. Parker Sizer. 

The commencement exercises culminated a year of 
vigorous student activity at U. S. Grant University. The 
three honor students who delivered orations at commence- 
ment were Annie B. McKeldin, Lewis W. Cass, and Alvis 

David A, Bolton assumed the editorship of the Univer- 
sity Exponent for the year 1896-97. The student associates 
were Albert S. Humphrey, John C. Lusk, Cora B. Mann, 

Student Activities 187 

Louise Roeder, Henry M. Foster. The paper no longer 
showed the revolutionary spirit of the preceding year, but 
it still reported the activities of the students diligently. 

The Grant University Athletic Association was founded 
early in 1897. There were fifty members who started work- 
ing on fields for track and baseball. The first officers were 
F. E. Fuller, president, M. S. Oakes, vice-president, F. 
Parker Sizer, secretary, H. M. Cass, treasurer. The mem- 
bers of the advisory board were Noyes Matteson, W. M. 
Caldwell, F. F. Hooper. In the spring issue of the Exponent 
a picture of the newly organized baseball team appeared. 
One would little suspect that these indolent young men 
would be nimble, sometime violent and profane ball players. 
The members of this team were Hooper, Davis, Horton, 
Ira Bolton, Harris, W. M. Caldwell, Fuller (Mgr.), Denton, 
H. R. Caldwell, and Hornsby. 

This was the year that the enrollment filled the 
Y.M.C.A. Sunday meetings, and their ice cream and oyster 
suppers swelled their treasury. In order to provide for the 
increase in numbers and to have a place for benefits, this 
organization had to find new facilities. 

The usual tempo of student activities was kept at the 
University in 1897. The Literary Societies gave orations on 
Washington's birthday and Arbor Day. One of the im- 
portant debates at the Athenian Hall was "Should the 
U. S. Recognize the Belligerency of Cuba?" The classes 
gave receptions, the Beethoven Music Club entertained, 
Ritter Home had a reception, a field trip was taken to the 
Fisher Typewriter Factory, and Dr. J. W. Hamilton, secre- 
tary of the Freedmen's Aid Society and Southern Education 
was the featured speaker at the dedication of Parker 

Miss Nellie Maupin a student at Athens received a 
prize of a gold ring in elocution at an inter-collegiate con- 

188 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

test held at Chattanooga. Five other persons competed in 
this contest. It was felt that the bi-monthly recitals of the 
students of Elocution held at the Athenian Hall benefited 
Miss Maupin. 

One of the most interesting comments concerning ath- 
letics was made in 1898. "The brutal football game does 
not disturb our peace, nor check our intellectual and moral 
growth." Little did they realize that football was to be an 
activity enthusiastically welcomed by the students, if not 
the faculty. 

Student activities then as now included some social 
contact between young men and women. Evidently there 
was too much contact on occasions, at least for a Christian 
college. Several students were denied "social privileges" 
and their parents notified. The reason was rarely recorded. 
Often students denied these "privileges" could not partici- 
pate in such activities as the school choir. The denial of 
this privilege was an especially harsh one, since the choir 
was the most popular activity on the campus. 

Also in 1898 the members of the literary societies in 
association with Dr. W. W. Hooper organized to improve 
the college grounds. The Athenian and Philomatheans 
voted two days' work a week from each member plus a 
cash contribution of $.10 to $.25 per member. 

A prize of ten dollars was offered for the best oration 
from competing literary societies on Washington's Birthday. 
The contest was later carried on by a gift from John A. 
Patten of Chattanooga. 

The year 1898-99 is not an outstanding one in the field 
of student activity. The Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. partici- 
pated in the annual observance of College Day of prayer. 
A new era was being ushered in by the faculty announce- 
ment that any student might play tennis or croquet on the 
campus on Saturday from 2:30 to 5:00 p.m. 

Student Activities 189 

There are evidences that the student baseball team 
was active in 1899. It had usurped the croquet players' 
grounds and practiced every afternoon. The faculty, how- 
ever, refused the team permission to play Sweetwater, 
deeming the trip "unwise." 

From 1900 to 1907 the usual student activities con- 
tinued. The Annual Athenian chestnut hunt was enjoyed. 
There were means of evading the regulations of : ( 1 ) no 
pairing off (2) a chaperon and (3) returning before dark. 
Socials, ice cream suppers, and joint meetings of the 
literary groups were held. 

During these years a subtle change took place. There 
seems to be a gradual disintegration of self-discipline and 
enthusiasm in the students. In order to stimulate superior 
academic work, various "prizes" were offered for excellence 
in scholarship and oratory. Among these are the Patten 
Prize Oratorical Contest held annually on Washington's 
Birthday, the Annis Prize Debate Contest, and the 
University Scholarship Awards presented annually at 


Year 1st Place 2nd Place 

1900 Mary Harris Leila W. Hunt 

1901 John Jennings, Jr. Wilma Dean PafFord 

1902 Margaret Wright . Ellis E. Crabtree 

1903 Ethel Southard Charles M. Newcomb 


1904 Edward E. Lewis Ada Hawley 

1905 Ellis E. Crabtree W. C. McCarty 

1906 Isabelle Gettys J. H. Howard Jarvis 

1907 N. Alvin Steadman Aure Lea 


(Same prize amount as Patten) 

Year 1st Place 2nd Place 

1900 Robert B. Stansell Lena R. Morgan 

1901 John Jennings, Jr. Shelby L. Burdeshaw 

1902 Margaret Crowder Margaret Marston 

1903 Flora Matney George Stansell 

1904 Mary J. Stone Margaret Gettys Marston 

1905 Jessie Ferguson J. H. Jarvis 

1906 Alvin F. White Muza McCarron 

190 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan Collef^e 


Year 3rd Preparatory 4th Preparatory Freshman Sophomore 

1901 Edna Borchering Margaret G. Marston 

1902 Foss Smith Lena Morgan 

1903 John F. Owen Mary J. Stone Ray Prentiss Mabel R. Hooper 

1904 Wallace Sutton Alfred Stickney James Hampton Jessie Ferguson 
1903 Joyce Amis Annis Matssey Ethel Southard 

In the year 1900-01 certain types of student activity 
were restricted by school regulations forbidding drinking, 
dancing, playing cards, using profanity, frequenting saloons, 
and leaving town without the permission of the dean. In 
turn, regular church attendance, punctuality and attention 
in class recitations and school exercises were encouraged. 
The contention that year as today, that regulations ^vere 
made to be broken, seemed to be held. Various students 
\\ere given demerits and campused, or required to stay off 
campus for, smoking, "use of intoxicants," use of profanity, 
visiting saloons, and disrespect for teachers. 

The main interest of the year 1901-02 was what will 
James F. Cooke do next. Cooke, Owen Mahery, May- 
nard Ellis, and Boyd Nankivell kept the faculty guessing. 
(10 demerits were each giv^en to James F. Cooke and R. 
Lim Henderson for going into Bennett Hall on the evening 
of Feb. 12, and securing an organ and benches and placing 
them as an obstruction outside the chapel door while Dr. 
C. M. Hall of Knoxville, Tennessee, \\as lecturing on 
Abraham Lincoln.) 

In 1901-02 more young women were substituting 
stenography and typewriting for languages. Box suppers 
and tacky parties enlivened the campus. The Reverend 
J. Richard Boyle, D.D., of Philadelphia was the 
commencement sjDcaker. 

1902-03 Banfield Hall \vas dedicated. The students 
were most entertained on that occasion, however, by a 
quartette composed of Dr. Nankivell, Prof. Stone. Miss 
Carter, Mrs. Allgood, and Miss Frances Mofhtt at the 
piano. Many of the students made the two hour trip on 

Student Activities 191 

the Southern to see the Grant team from Athens play the 
teams of the professional schools at Chattanooga. Football 
appeared on the scene at U. S. Grant University in Athens 
in 1903. That year the team played Sweetwater, Lincoln 
Memorial Law School at Lebanon, and the team of the 
professional schools at Chattanooga. The team was vic- 
torious over Sweetwater 11-0, but defeated by Lebanon 
and Chattanooga. Football was prohibited to any student 
making a grade below 70. 

Some changes were made in the conduct of the literary 
societies. A charge of admission ($.10) to the annual en- 
tertainments of the societies was allowed. Also the con- 
testants in oratorical contests had to swear to the originality 
of their "pieces." 

In the spring of 1904 the baseball team played Jeffer- 
son City, Fountain City, Maryville, and Knoxville. Mem- 
bers of the team were: James F. Cooke, Maynard Ellis, 
W. W. Durand, O. F. Whittle, J. L. Robb, Curtis George, 
Frank Shelton, W. R. Miller, and Charles F. Heastly. The 
town was so interested in the team that suppers were given 
at the Court House to benefit it. Students from the college 
attended these affairs. 

1904-05 was a year of firsts and lasts. The first evening 
social was begun. The socials were held once a month in 
the different halls. Persimmon hunts were instigated. Had 
the Chestnut Blight hit Grant? If so, do not underestimate 
the ingenuity of young people with the benefit of higher 
education! Boyd Nankivell received permission to drill 
students free of charge, but it was clearly designated that 
this was not to be a military company. 

Commencement that year featured two friends of the 
University. The Reverend B. M. Martin of Maryville 
addressed the religious organizations and the Reverend 
William F. Warren, ex-president of Boston University and 

192 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

brother of Mrs. A. C. Knight, gave the Baccalaureate 
sermon and the Commencement Address. 

In 1906 certain restrictions were placed on the base- 
ball team. Games had to be played on the home field. 
Outsiders were not allowed to participate in the games. 
Former members were allowed to play with the exception 
of one, a player who had used public profanity toward the 
umpire. The home team was not permitted to travel. These 
restrictions did not extinguish the ardor of the team or their 
fans among the young ladies of the campus and the citizens 
of Athens. 

The interest in music had surrendered to enthusiasm 
for sports on the campus, but the department of music was 
still "carrying on." A recital was given in the spring by 
the Department of Music and Elocution. Among those 
performing were : Margaret Farrell, Lena Hoback, Florence 
Law, and Walter Williams. 

Commencement of 1906 was a sad yet proud occasion. 
Bishop Henry Spellmeyer gave the address. Isabelle Gettys 
and John Jennings, Jr., gave orations. The class of 1906 
was the last class to be graduated from the four year course 
at Athens. The members of that graduating class were: 
Ellis E. Crabtree, Isabelle Gettys, Howard J. Jarvis, John 
Jennings, Jr., and Walter F. Williams. 

The program of student activity was reorganized in 
1906-07 to fit the needs of the school. A dime social was 
given at Bennett Hall in the interest of a women's basket- 
ball team. The Y.M.C.A. sponsored a Reading Room. 
Some of the students contributed articles to the University 
Echo which was published at Chattanooga. From 1907 to 
1916, as the whole school at Athens underwent a change, 
so did certain phases of the student activities. On the 
whole, the students were still interested to some varying 
degrees in athletics, music, academic excellence, fun, social 
and political competition, and love. 

Student Activities 193 

II. 1907-1916 

Although U. S. Grant University at Athens was called 
The Athens School of the University of Chattanooga after 
1907, the patrons, alumni, and students remained devoted 
to her endeavors. To a non-educator the ability of an insti- 
tution to endure wars, depressions, floods, and famines, and 
carry on the business of education as long as there remain 
one student, one instructor, and one building, is perhaps 
incredible. Nevertheless this gift of schools seems an 
unalterable truth. 

The Athens School was no exception. In the academic 
year 1907-08, the students rallied to hear J. O. Randall, 
of the Commission of Aggressive Evangelism speak in 
October. Many souls were saved, only to be lost again at 
the local pool hall. 

The Athletic Association gave Saturday night socials 
above Morton's Drug store. Through much petitioning they 
also were alloted $25.00 for cinders for the athletic track. 
The young men were so robust on the baseball diamond 
that Dean Wright secured from the Board of Aldermen 
the services of a marshall on days of a match game. Pro- 
fessor W. W. Phelan was the sponsor for the Athletic As- 
sociation and the Y.M.C.A. He submitted a typical report 
to faculty on the use of funds of those organizations : 




$ 0.05 



Football trousers 




Books for Y.M.C.A. 


Goal post 


Trip to Washington, D. C. 

Y.M.C.A. delegates 



194 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

That year the Y.M.C.A. sent delegates to Washington 
and received a new floor covering for the Reading Room 
which it sponsored. When the students were not cheering 
the baseball team on to victory, attending prayer meetings, 
open debates of the literary societies, or playing tennis, they 
attended the recitals given by the department of music. 
The program of a recital for 1907 follows: 


Given by Students of Musical Department 

Athens, Tennessee 
FRIDAY, MAY 10, 1907 7:30 P.M. 

Two Little Melodies — Catherine Keith 
Melody — James Brient 
First Waltz — Lena Boggess 
Ride a Cock Horse and Waltz — Joy Bayless 
Valse and Bobolink — Susannah Brient 
Dollie Lost — Dollie Madison 

Spanish Souvenir — Richard Bayless and Catherine Colston 
AVhims — F. Trula Belle Long 
Golden Sunbeams — Jeanette Dodson 
Czardas No. 6 — Nora Childress 
Adieu to the Piano — Estelle Rodgers 
Valse Lente — Margaret Fawrell and Phoebe Horton 
The Green Gnome — Grace Morton 

Spanish Dance No. 1 — Mayme Milligan and Lula Melton 
Valse Impromptu — Louise Keith 
A May Morning — Adda Wylie 
Valse Stryrrienne — Gillie Myers 
Scarf Dance — Katherine Smythe and Jessie Jones 

In 1908-09 the student interest in school activities was 
boosted by generous gifts to the school. The previous year 
Mr. E. Stagg Whitin of Ne\v York had offered a prize of 
$10.00 for the best essay by a female student. Mr. L. M. 

Student Activities 195 

Southard of Athens matched this interest in the women 
students by offering prizes connected with the "domestic 
arts." $15.00 and $10.00 were offered for first and second 
prizes respectively for the best essays on some phase of 
homemaking. In addition a prize of $5.00 was offered to 
the Ritter girl who excelled in cooking. Another contribu- 
tion that year was made by F. A. Loveland of Carry, Pa., 
who had given $25.00 for the Reading Room. 

The students at the Athens School witnessed 1909- 
1910 as a year of changes. Professor William A. Wright 
assumed the presidency of Grayson College at Whitewright, 
Texas, and Professor W. W. Phelan left to teach at Baylor 
University, Waco, Texas. 

One member of the faculty was taken by death. Dr. 
E. C. Walden, professor of science, became seriously ill on 
a return trip from Chattanooga. Over one hundred people 
from Athens had traveled to view the football game between 
The Athens School and Chattanooga at Chamberlain field. 
Dr. Walden was returned to Chattanooga, where he died 
at Erlanger Hospital, October 19, 1909. His father was 
Bishop J. M. Walden of Cincinnati, a devoted friend of The 
Athens School. 

The school was fortunate in procuring Dr. Edward J. 
Mueller to succeed Dr. Walden. Dr. Mueller had been 
graduated from German Wallace College in Berea, Ohio. 
From there he had gone to Berlin, studying four years at 
the University of Berlin, from which institution he received 
his doctorate. The students at The Athens School were 
sparked by Dr. Mueller's enthusiasm for many activities. 
We read of his coaching the athletic teams, singing solos 
for musical entertainments, assisting in the organization of 
a German Club called Der Deutsche Bund, and using sharp 
repartee to encourage students to excel academically. His 
"aw Bugs" would guillotine any idle student's excuses. 

196 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

Miss Frances Cullcn Moffitt returned from Europe 
where she had been studying. Miss Moffitt undertook 
singiehanded the challenge of providing CULTURE for 
the students. At her own expense she arranged for plays, 
recitals, and performances of visiting artists that were held 
in the University Chapel. The students were the first on 
any campus to participate in what Miss Moffitt called 
"Musical Sterioptics."' This consisted of showing slides and 
listening to recordings on the phonograph simultaneously. 
Later Miss Moffitt purchased a phonograph for the use 
of the students. Miss Moffitt received national recognition 
for her \\ork in music. In 1913 she was listed in WHO'S 

In 1909-10 the students became interested in field 
sports. Young men could be seen between classes playing 
"leap-frog," jumping over obstacles like bicycles and garb- 
age cans in preparation for hurdle racing, pole vaulting, 
and jumping events. These field sports became so contagi- 
ous that the rest of the campus, less expert, voted to join. 
Consequently, The Athens School celebrated its first May 
Day May 2, 1910. 

The students welcomed Rev. W. S. Bovard who filled 
the newly-created office of the vice-president of the Univer- 
sity of Chattanooga. Dr. Bovard and his family moved to 
Athens. They resided at Blakeslee Hall. Dr. Bovard ably 
assumed administrative duties of The Athens School. 

The year 1910-11 was very similar to that of 1895 in 
the amount of student acti\'ity. Another school paper was 
organized. This organ was called the Exponent. Dr. E, C. 
Ferguson w as editor-in-chief, Cecil McDo\vell was the stu- 
dent business manager. The paper voiced the feeling of the 
students in decrying "Knocking,'' and "Boosting'-' was the 
order of the day. The enrollment was the largest on record 
(341) and the students wanted to be heard! Their loyalty 
























Student Activities 197 

is expressed in the School Song printed in the Exponent, 


Here's to old Athens 

The pride of Tennessee. 

May she stand forever, 

In my sacred memory. 

She has been here ages, 

She has stood the test. 

Many who have dwelt here. 

Are quietly at rest. 

Of all the schools of Tennessee, 

The one that is most dear to me, 

Goes by the name of U. of C. 

Altho I know there's old Central High, 

And also Dear Old T. M. I., 

But in Athens we wish to die. 

— Russell Haskew 

Articles appeared in the Exponent illustrating the 
need of a gym. One of these reported that U. T.'s second 
basketball team came to play on Saturday, Feb. 11, 1911, 
but that a rain and snow storm prevented play on the out- 
door court. The U. T. team picked up their gear and went 
to play T. M. I. instead — INSIDE. Another instance 
which showed the advantages of practicing in a gym was 
given when the basketball team made a trip to Chattanooga 
to play Central and Chattanooga High Schools. The team 
consisted of Bayless, Daves, Vernon, Keith, B. Bovard, G. 
Bovard, E. Wills, and B. Wills. This was the team's first 
practice that season on an inside court. The score was 
44-18 in favor of Central. The next day, however, Athens 
defeated Chattanooga High School 25-24. Despite student 
urging, the erection of a gym was an undertaking that the 
school did not attempt to tackle for some years. 

198 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

That unfathomable phenomenon pecuHar to campus 
life, college humor, had a place in the pages of the 
Exponent. . Examples such as these kept the students 

"While Fred Bertram was standing in a corner 
of the Magill Hotel recently, he was roughly seized 
by an old gentleman who had took him for a gold 
head cane." 

Dr. Mueller: "Of what does blood consist?" 
Guy Williford: "Blood consists of two kinds of 
CORKSCREWS, red and white." 

Miss Selby organized a French Club, LeCercle 
Francias, that year. The officers were Margaret Farrell, 
president, Gladys Moody, secretary, Emma Sue Mayfield, 
treasurer, M. Burton Bovard, Sgt.-at-Arms, and Daphne 
Morris, pianist. This organization frequently met with the 
German Club. 

The baseball team's schedule had changed from the 
days the faculty had felt it "unwise" to play Sweetwater. 
In 1911 the season opened by playing the Deaf and Dumb 
School at Knoxville. Other schools on the schedule were 
Milligan, Maryville, Washington, Carson-Newman, T. M. 
I., Sweetwater, Baylor, City, and Central. Members of the 
team were: Frank Cook, "Dandy" Keith, Frank Daves, 
Frank Dodson, Norton, Bales, B. Wills, Dick Bayless, Moore, 
Will Cooke, Blansitt. 

The year 1911-12 saw no particular new phase of 
student activity. The Exponent was printed monthly, the 
Athletic Association was still petitioning for a gym, the 
Tennis Club was re-organized and cleared ofT the courts. 
Mrs. Chapman, the superintendent at Ritter for many years, 
died in Cincinnati. A memorial service was held at the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. Students, faculty, and prom- 
inent citizens of Athens took part. The football team — 

Student Activities 199 

Keith, Bales, Martin, Norton, Bayless, Smyth, Goforth, 
Wills, and Hunt — was victorious over Knoxville — 47-0. 
Petty-Manker Dormitory for Men was opened Novem- 
ber 20, 1913. The train bearing the members of the Board 
of Trustees from Chattanooga was three hours late. (This 
seemed to be an omen of ill-fortune. Later there was 
trouble at Petty-Manker continually — food, order, super- 
visor, etc.) Capt. Hiram Chamberlain, Doctor John A. 
Patten, and T. C. Thompson, Mayor of Chattanooga, were 
present. Athens was represented by John W. Bayless, mem- 
ber of the Board, and Dr. J. J. Manker, Editor of the 
Methodist Advocate Journal. 







Clarence Pafford 

Willie Daniel 


Thomas I. Magill 

John W. May 


Eva M. Earnest 

Martha L. Henderson 



Florence Brown 

Bertram F. Presson 



R. M. Millard 


I ear 

Willie Callen 


John W. May 

Grace Lasater 


Louise Keith 

Fred B. Stone 


Randolph St. John 

Annie Haskew 


H. C. Green 

Mabel Lamons 


F. L. Bradley 

Ethel Davis 


F. L. Callender 

Joy Bayless 

*Both these prizes were discontinued in 1915. That year the Athenian 
Literary Society first declined to participate in either. The other societies de- 
clined also. Mr. Annis withdrew his prize, and the faculty decided against 
holding the Patten Prize Oratorical Contest. 

Although far from the rumble of European guns in 
1914, The Athens School witnessed a brand of warfare of 
its own. The Athenians were accused of sabotaging a Philo 
meeting. Stones were thrown, wires cut, the campus and 
Philo hall were in darkness — all were aspects of this con- 
flict. Thomas Hunt, Rollo Emert, Roy Johnson, Paul Nor- 
ton, and Dick Bayless were a group of suspected Athenians 
who had been seen lurking around the campus in the vicin- 
ity of the disturbance. Nothing was ever proved. The 

200 A History of Tennessee Wesley an College 

faculty found no basis for action. The Philos informed the 
faculty that they would find redress themselves if the school 
took no action. 

The moving picture shows became very popular with 
the students in 1914. They were a means of penetrating 
the isolation of the college campus from the events of the 
world at large. The faculty became so anxious over the 
increased interest in the cinema versus a decrease of interest 
in studies that it asked the Board of Aldermen to pass an 
ordinance regulating movies. 

The Exponent admonished the students to USE YOUR 
BRAINS. Members of the editorial staff were D. T. 
Starnes and Sarah Campbell, editors, Raphael Rice, busi- 
ness manager, and Juno Grigsby, Lucile Johnson, Kiker 
^\^eems, and B. F. Presson, associates. The paper reported 
that excursions to the Ingleside Dairy were popular with 
the students. 

Dr. Schulman allowed girls on the basketball team to 
use the Armory for open games. Sadie Magill was the 
coach. Ruth Miller, Joy Bayless, forwards, Jessie Smith, 
Lillie Ross Hornsby, guards, and Margaret Rowan, center. 
Later Carl Rowan took Miss Magill's place. The team 
played Tellico Plains, Knoxville High, Park City High, and 
Lenoir City. The x\thens girls won all games. 

Commencement 1914 was exciting. The Class of '14 
had given a concrete arch for the front of the campus. 
The seniors marched through it to listen to the Commence- 
ment Address and receive their diplomas in the Chapel. 
James A. Fo\vler, class of 1884, and former assistant At- 
torney General of the L^^nited States, gave the address. 
The new president of the L^niversity of Chattanooga, Fred- 
ric Whitlo Hixson, performed his first official act in 
conferring the diplomas. 

1914 and 1915 campuses all over the nation \vere feel- 

Student Activities 201 

ing the repercussions of international tension and domestic 
unrest. The enrollment at The Athens School and the Uni- 
versity of Chattanooga had dropped. The literary societies 
felt it best not to enter oratorical or debating contests, the 
payment of salaries for the faculty was in arrears, and the 
students postponed Field Day. 

Professor J. Howard Jarvis, Dean of The Athens 
School, expressed his appreciation to the pastors of the 
Holston Conference for their support. His letter was also 
one commending students of The Athens School who had 
become better leaders in their respective communities 
because of the training they had received at Athens. 

AUGUST 7, 1915 
Judging from the reports of faithful and loyal ministers 
concerning the work they are doing in the interest of our 
institution in the different communities where they are at 
work, I beheve, that DESPITE THE FINANCIAL CON- 
DITION OF THE COUNTRY, we are going to have a 
large enrollment in The Athens School in September. I 
have never known of more and better co-operation among 
our ministers in the interest and cause of Christian educa- 
tion. It would seem from the encouraging things we are 
hearing that our ministers are now determined that all our 
communities shall be reached and Christian education 
preached to the end that every charge shall be represented 
in this institution in the coming session. 

Dear pastors, we believe in you, in your loyalty to 
every institution of the church which you represent; hence 
we are not surprised to see such unity of purpose and great- 
ness of spirit shown in the cause which we directly represent. 
I have previously asked for your loyal support and co- 
operation, and I know now that I have it. The list of 
names which you are sending us and the work that we hear 
you are doing means much to us. Really it is very encourag- 

202 A History of Tennessee Wesley an College 

ing to know of these things. We are not going to forget the 
pastors who are helping us so much. 

We are not surprised, however, that you are working 
so loyally. This is one of the institutions of our church 
and deserves the co-operation of all those who wish to build 
up the Christian life of the communities represented. The 
young people who attend school here return to their homes 
better prepared to take up the activities of the church. The 
great need in most of the communities where our church 
has been established is that of capable LEADERSHIP. 
This school prepares the young life to take up leadership 
in the church. In several communities visited recently, I 
have witnessed the fine church work done by the young 
people who have recently attended this institution. They 
are relieving the pastors of sojiie of the work that they would 
have to do had it not been for the special training the young 
people received here 

October 13-18, 1915, the Students of The Athens 
School filled the balcony of Methodist Episcopal Church. 
The Methodist Episcopal Church was celebrating the 50th 
anniversary of the reorganization of the Holston Conference 
in Athens June 1-5, 1865. 

The members of the church and the pastors of the 
area had rallied behind the school, for in 1915-16 there 
was an increase in enrollment. The Gold and Blue, the 
student publication which supplanted the Exponent, re- 
ported a flow of student activity. 

Tangible proof of their activity was the painting of 
the Y.M.C.A. room and the presentation of a play by the 
senior class to raise funds for erecting a memorial on the 
campus. The class selected the play. The Elopment of 
Ellen. The cast consisted of Frank Scruggs, Lucile John- 
son, Carey Force, Bertram M. Larson, Ann Kennedy, and 
T. Clinton Lingerfelt. 

Student Activities 203 

The students held a mass meeting in which they re- 
quested that the school levy an athletic fee and grant 
admission to games free of a door charge. The culmination 
of a twenty-year campaign for a gymnasium came when 
the faculty petitioned the Board of Trustees for a gym. 

Musical recitals, faculty dinners, socials, and student 
escapades continued to enliven the campus scene in 1916. 

A closer feeling between The Athens School and 
Chattanooga was being sought by the students. The Uni- 
versity Echo, published in Chattanooga, and The Gold and 
Blue exchanged articles. Members of the boosters club 
from Chattanooga were entertained by Miss Annie Haskew 
and the girls at Bennett Hall. 

In April 1916 two shadows fell upon The Athens 
School. President Woodrow Wilson asked the Congress of 
the United States that a state of war be declared between 
this country and the Central Powers of Europe. Many 
young men from the school enlisted, some to die, some to 
be wounded, some to live and fight again. The other 
occurrence was the death of John A. Patten. In a tribute 
to Mr. Patten, the faculty of The Athens School observed 
that he was the "institution's greatest benefactor on points 
of finance, service, and interest." Mr. Patten had been a 
frequent visitor to the campus and the students included 
him in their activities whether it was a ball game or social 
at Ritter or Bennett. 

College publications during World War I were at a 
minimum. The Athens School ran at a very low ebb. Mc- 
Minn County furnished more soldiers for the War than any 
other county in the United States on a per capita basis. 
McMinn County lived up to the Volunteer State tradition. 

The New Exponent, a paper for the students, pub- 

204 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

Ifshed a Farewell Number for 1920-21. It was dedicated 
to Professor David A. Bolton and Doctor E. C. Ferguson. 
The editor-in-chief was Don G. Henshaw. The literary 
societies reported the following presidents for the year: 
Philomathean, Curtiss Mauldin; Knightonian, Cleo Ealy; 
Sapphonian, Billy Swafford; Athenian, F. E. Jillson. Other 
organizations listed for the year were the Y.M.C.A., which 
designated C. G. Rann, J. M. Dew, and Roscoe E. Glenn 
to represent the School at the annual Southern Student 
Conference at Blue Ridge to be held in June, the Y.W.C.A. 
with Miss Ruth Harmon as president, an Athletic Associa- 
tion, and a Tennis Club. The New Exponent took recogni- 
tion of the new Department of Religious Education of 
Rural Leadership which was being sponsored by the Board 
of Home Missions and Church Extension of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. The Reverend W. L. Ledford, A.B., 
B.D., had been selected as Head of this Department. Its 
purpose was to provide special training for rural leadership. 

The Knightonian and Philomathean Literary Societies 
gave their annual party before the Christmas vacation. An 
operetta entitled "The Feast and the Little Lanterns" in 
which Miss Nelle Ziegler had one of the leading roles 
"delighted the audience with her rich sweet voice" ... A 
chapel service included speakers from the Board of Educa- 
tion of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Mark Moore 
provided a thoughtful article on "The Year Ahead." The 
athletic prophecy included that under Professor Goforth 
that most of the players from '21 would be back and ready 
for membership on the football squad in 1922. An editorial 
by J. Curtiss Mauldin attacked the radicalism of the Presi- 
dent of Bryn Mawr asserted the conservative thinking of 
the students in the Athens School. 

Bishop Herbert Welch, in charge of Methodist work 
in Japan and Korea, delivered a lecture on Korea at a 

Student Activities 205 

chapel service. The Y.M.C.A. was addressed by Dr. Cul- 
pepper. A Christmas party had been held at Ritter for 
students spending the vacation on the campus, "games 
were played, jokes told, and a general good time enjoyed 
by all. The girls served large juicy, fresh Florida oranges. 
The young men reported that the party was the best they 
had ever attended at Ritter and that they had a big place 
in their hearts for Miss Wilson who made the affau 

The girls at Bennett also held a Christmas party, a 
measuring party. A short program was given after which a 
social hour and refreshments were enjoyed. The money 
received from the party was invested in a large mirror to 
be put on the first floor at Bennett Hall. The girls wonder 
now how they ever did without it! 

The New Exponent announced an endowment cam- 
paign for the University of Chattanooga and The Athens 
School of the University of Chattanooga. The Athens 
division would be able to construct a gymnasium and a 
modern practice school if funds from this campaign for 
$750,000 were pledged and paid. Emory L. Aycock 
contributed an editorial concerning the importance of the 
endowment campaign for The Athens School. He concluded 
his editorial with this tribute: 

"To many of us the Athens School was the best if not 
the only place we could continue our education. Public 
secondary schools for this section of the South are very 
inadequate. Some come here from the rural sections and 
the small towns where there are no high schools or very 
poor ones. Some have found their need of education late 
in life, too late to attend a public high school, but Athens 
welcomes old as well as young. Only the large cities can 
or do furnish facilities as competent as ours and often these 

206 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

large high schools are organizations destroying rather than 
developing individuality." 

The name of Coach Stewart appears. It was an- 
nounced that the first game for the year would be with 
Tennessee Military Institute. 

The Moffitt Music Club gave a recital in the college 
chapel for the benefit of the new grand piano recently 
purchased for the college. A circus visited Athens, the 
troop including a light weight wrestler, Young Herman. 
The manager of the circus offered $5.00 to the man who 
could stay with him for five minutes without being de- 
feated. Fred Reed, a resident of Petty-Manker, won 

\Villiam B. Mauldin contributed an article on "The 
Aim of Life," referring to the many excellent talks which 
had been made at Chapel during the time he had been at 
The Athens School. He summed them up by saying, "They 
point to us the fundamental of success and say that we 
must have an aim in life and that our lives are not a success 
in every sense unless they are rendering service to our 
fellowman and helping to make the world a better place 
in which to live. Result of this service is happiness." 

The May number for that year reports the annual field 
day with The Athens School playing a double-header \\'ith 
Maryville Poly. The pitching of Weisner and Smith did 
not give the Maryville men a chance to try their luck on 
the bases. Between the two games a group of girls with 
Miss Joy Bayless as leader gave a graceful Scot dance while 
the beautiful Maypole dance was performed after the last 
game reflecting much credit on the artistic ability of Miss 
Bayless. Miss Maude Weidner was the editor of the New 
Exponent. A successful year in the Y.M.C.A. \vas reported. 
The officers included: Rex Weisner, President, H. B. John- 

Student Activities 207 

son, Vice-President, and William B. Mauldin, Secretary. 
The officers of the Y.M.C.A. expressed the desire that they 
be able to help in the athletic program of the School dur- 
ing the following year, and to assist the whole student body 
in providing a victorious athletic season. A program by 
the Spanish students entertaining the French students was 
given in April. At that time Dean Robb was head of the 
Spanish Department. 

Dean Hoskins of the University of Tennessee gave an 
address at Chapel. He said, "I find the young person of 
the college freshman age very interesting. It is then that 
he begins to assume responsibilities of a man. He is neither 
boy nor man at that stage and is misunderstood by every- 
one, even his own family. He seems to think he is smarter 
than anyone else. In some institutions they try to take this 
out of him. They tell him he should be seen and not heard, 
but just fit in and help form the landscape of the campus. 
Give him a chance, the Dean continued, to express his opin- 
ions for his problems are just as great as anybody's. The 
experience will temper him and he will come out a man 
if properly guided." 

The Homecoming and Reunion Program was an- 
nounced to be held May 20-23. It was anticipated that a 
large number of former students would be here for these 
activities. The program committee consisted of: Professor 
R. W. Goforth, Miss Eda Selby, and Miss Joy Bayless. The 
classes of 1913 and 1914 were planning to compete to see 
which would have a larger attendance. Dr. Morgan, presi- 
dent of the University of Tennessee, gave a chapel address. 
The students expressed surprise at the nature of his address 
which was entitled "The Appreciation of Life" which was 
described as scholarly and clear with Christian implications 
which the students did not expect to be emphasized by the 
President of the State University. President Morgan con- 

208 A History of Teyinessee Wesleyan College 

eluded as follows: "The great obstaele in the appreciation 
of the meaning of life is the lack of appreciation of God 
as a never ceasing benefactor and most of all a lack of 
appreciation of Christ. God and Christ are always giving 
and the nearer we approach to the ideal of Christ the more 
we will give and the less we shall take, thereby gaining 
happiness in our climb of the hill of life and our proper 
appreciation of its meaning." 

The French Society met at the home of Miss Selby in 
April and after the two-hour program ice cream, cake, 
coffee and mints were served. 

Athens wallops T. M. I. again. "The Athens squad 
journeyed to Sweetwater April 24 and trimmed T. M. I. 
Cadets 15-2. Left Brown led the offensive for Athens and 
did fine work in the box. Torbett hit a home run and many 
other long hits were given up by the Cadet moundsmen." 

A Queen Esther Society was organized at Ritter Hall 
with Miss Mary Lee Terry as president. A faculty reception 
honoring new members of the faculty including Miss Mabel 
Sorman, Miss Florence Clark, Miss Eileen Faulkner, Mr. 
CO. Douglass, and Mr. Morris Stubbs, was held in Octo- 
ber at Ritter Hall. Miss Mabel Metzger, superintendent 
of Ritter Hall, headed the receiving line and acted as host- 
ess for the evening. Dean James L. Robb presented the 
new instructors of the School and President Arlo Ayres 
Brown gave an address and also rendered a vocal solo. 
Bishop R. J. Cooke delivered an address at Chapel on "The 
Constitution of the LInited States." 

The football squad for 1923 included: Noel Creighton, 
Meddlin Crowder, W Hornsby, Robb, E. Mauldin, Joe 
Mauldin, Julian, Hatcher, Durham, Jones, Graves, Smith, 
Cooke, Proudfoot, Lowry, Clark, Wilson, Bivens, Strange, 
Norton, Slagle, Boyer, Simmons, Foster, and C. Hornsby. 

Dr. Frank G. Lankard of the University of Chattanoo- 

Student Activities 209 

ga spoke at Chapel basing his talk on four well-known lines 
of Henry Van Dyke. Miss Grace Lee Scott, representing 
the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, gave a Chapel 
address on "The Double Standard of Morals." 

A vigorous editorial was contributed by J. Curtiss 
Mauldin on "A Tobaccoless School." President Brown gave 
a chapel talk in which he listed four factors enabling a 
student to complete a college education. "First, those who 
have ambition; Second, those who possess good health; 
Third, those who have a thorough high school preparation ; 
Fourth, those young people who have a capacity for hard 
work and sacrifice." President David A. Bolton gave one 
of his appreciated talks at chapel service. 


Much interest was expressed in the persons who might 
be nominated for the presidency and speeches were made 
at assembly favoring Senator Underwood, Calvin Coolidge 
and William G. McAdoo. 

A page of poetry was included with poems by Nessmith 
Malone, Maude Weidner, Dixie Craig, Vaughn Smathers 
and J. M. Mauldin. The prize going to Nessmith Malone. 

"The Thanksgiving Football Game, Fight, Athens, 
Fight." It was reported that four games had been 
played and three of them won including Bradley, unbeaten 
for many years. The new gym had been opened and there 
was much enthusiasm expressed concerning the quality of 
basketball w^hich the college would be able to enjoy. 

At the dedication of the auditorium-gymnasium an 
offering was taken and more than a thousand dollars re- 
ceived toward the construction of the building. The faculty 
reception was held at Ritter Hall with the following persons 
in the receiving line : President and Mrs. Arlo Ayres Brown, 
Bishop and Mrs. W. P. Thirkield, Dean and Mrs. James L. 
Robb. Mrs. Richard Bayless sang and addresses were given 

210 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

by Dr. William S. Bovard, Bishop W. P. Thirkield, Judge 
Clem Jones, and Dr. William F. Pitts. 


The annual debate was held in February 1925 as re- 
ported in The Exponent with Ruth Barnett as editor-in- 
chief. The subject for debate was "Resolved that the Legis- 
lature of the State of Tennessee should ratify the proposed 
child labor amendment." 

A special week devoted to Religion Emphasis was 
announced with the addresses to be given by Dr. Earnest, 
of Knoxville. 

The Athenians elected officers which included: James 
Robb, President, Gaylord Knight, Vice President, J. 
Mitchell Durham, Secretary, Edwin Joseph, Treasurer, 
Doc Wilson, Ambassador, M. Curtiss, Chaplain, Fred 
McKay, Sergeant-at-Arms. 

Other Society news recorded: A meeting of the Philo- 
mathean Society under the leadership of Howard Dennis, 
its President, with addresses given by Professor Craig, 
Professor Douglass. 

The Y.W.C.A. was meeting on Thursday nights at the 
Ritter Hall study hall with Miss Maude Weidner as 

The football games for the year and the scores were 
reported at the end of the season. 

Wesleyan 61^ — Copperhill 28 

Wesleyan 36 — Notre Dame 30 

Wesleyan 29 — Bradley 30 

Wesleyan 33 — Hiwassee 12 

Wesleyan 42 — Decatur 32 

Wesleyan 23 — Porter High 27 

Wesleyan 28 — Bradley 13 

Wesleyan 34 — Tusculum 21 

Wesleyan 28 — Notre Dame 42 

Student Activities 211 

Wesleyan 42 — State Normal 27 

Wesleyan 19 — Milligan College 25 

Wesleyan 29 — Tusculum 42 

Wesleyan 22 — Milligan College 27 

Wesleyan 42 — U. T. Rats 41 

Wesleyan 28 — Chattanooga High School 3 1 

For the first time a college directory was included in 
the New Exponent. It was as follows for 1925: James L. 
Robb, Acting President, Frank U. Lockmiller, Bursar, 
Louise Tuell, Secretary. Student Council: Victor Watts, 
Student President, Zaidee Ledbetter, Secretary. Y.M.C.A. : 
Carmel Ketron, President, Wilsie Wilder, Secretary. Y.W. 
C.A. : Ruth Bird, President, Fleetwood Jones, Secretary. 
Wesleyan Brotherhood: Carl Thomas, Bishop. Queen 
Esther Circle: Gladys Love, President, Blanche Kestner, 
Secretary. Moffitt Music Club: Verna Gibson, President. 
Athletics: Charles W. Parsons, Head Coach, George F. 
Stewart, Assistant Coach. Philomathean Society: Victor 
Watts, President, Charles Holliday, Secretary. Athenian 
Society : Gaylord Knight, President, James Robb, Secretary. 
Knightonian Society: Anna Mae Coldwell, President, 
Fleetwood Jones, Secretary. Sapphonian Society: Mary 
Childress, President, Zaidee Ledbetter, Secretary. Senior 
Class: James Robb, President, Pearl Leslie, Secretary. 
Junior Class: Anna Lou Miller, President, Bernice Knight, 
Secretary. New Exponent: Joe Mauldin, Editor, Ralph 
Cardwell, Business Manager. 

For the first time the Strand Theatre was referred to 
and Mary Pickford was being featured in "Little Annie 
Rooney." Admission 10 and 25 cents. 

An address was given by Bishop Edgar Blake at chapel. 
The Philomathean Literary Society issued a declara- 
tion of independence which read as follows: "We, the 

212 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

members of Philomathean Society, realizing that our Society 
is able to rely upon its own strength and that we are capable 
of directing it in the best way possible, do hereby declare 
that we are no longer in the race for a cup because we 
think it is a barrier to our progress instead of a help. We 
furthermore declare that we have the right to enter or not 
enter any debating, oratorical, or declamatory contests ac- 
cording to our will. Furthermore, we wish to extend to 
each faculty member an invitation to visit us at any time 
he so desires to come as a visitor and not as a judge." 

Carl Thomas contributed the following concerning 
the Wesleyan Brotherhood. 

"The purpose of the Wesleyan Brotherhood is to train 
young men for the Christian ministry. Prayer meeting is 
held regularly once a week and on Monday evening of each 
week a preaching service is held. These sermons are deliv- 
ered by members of the Brotherhood. Many Sunday after- 
noons are devoted to missionary work in town and in the 
country. In this way, leaders of Christianity are trained. 
Perhaps only one might become a Bishop, probably only 
two missionaries, but each has his own place to fill, and no 
matter how small this may be the Wesleyan Brotherhood 
will help him." 

In October the lead editorial was entitled "Our Col- 
lege," referring to the transition from the status of The 
Athens School of the University of Chattanooga to the re- 
cently reorganized and rechartered Tennessee Wesleyan 
College. The editorial called upon the students to take 
pride in their new college membership and to assist in 
producing a school which will become better than the one 

Under Social Activities it was announced that on Sep- 
tember 24 the B.Y.P.U. of the First Baptist Church had 
entertained the Epworth League with a social. The pro- 

The Hackberry and Oak trees, long center of the 
Nocatula Legend. 

Student Activities 213 

gram was in charge of Dewey Creasman and Marie Kinser. 
The students recorded the inauguration of President Robb 
who, at the end of one year as Acting President, had been 
elected President of Tennessee Wesleyan College. The 
inauguration took place in the auditorium Monday, 
October 9, 1926 at 10:00 o'clock. The installation address 
was given by Bishop W. P. Thirkield and the inaugural 
address by Dr. James L. Robb. Greetings were given by 
Bishop William O. Shepard, Dr. H. A. Morgan, President 
of the University of Tennessee, Dr. William S. Bovard, 
Secretary of the Board of Education of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, Dr. Richard M. Millard, on behalf of 
the Holston and other patronizing Conferences, and Dr. 
Samuel P. Wilson, President of Maryville College. The 
address by President Wilson was carried in its entirety in 
the New Exponent. President Wilson said in part, "And 
now the Tennessee Wesleyan College has taken its place 
on the foundation of successive institutions of other names 
but of a historic continuity; and it is doing business at the 
old stand in a new way. And the friends of the old young 
college have gathered on this October morning to congratu- 
late the institution on its present, its past and its future and 
to gather in congratulation around the good men to whom 
by the confidence of the Church has been entrusted the 
pilot's job for the voyage upon which the College has now 
launched." The benediction was given by Dr. Arlo Ayres 
Brown, President of the University of Chattanooga. 

In 1926 the annual football banquet for the Wesleyan 
"Bulldogs" was held at the Robert E. Lee Hotel with Pro- 
fessor J. A. Jones as Toastmaster. Awarded letters to 18 
and managers' letters to 2. Those who received letters 
were: Ira Strange, E. Alley, G. Lewis, B. Boyer, Doc Wil- 
son, F. Thomas, W. Hornsby, R. McCray, R. Westfall, A. 
Grant, F. Whitehead, D. Whitehead, J. Sewell, V. Metz- 

214 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

gcr, T. Pupo, W. Wilder, C. Lindsay, William Whitaker, 
and James Atha and Paul Phelps. 

Tennessee Wesleyan beat the University of Tennessee 
"Vols" 22-20. Wesleyan was beaten by the Maryville Col- 
lege "Highlanders" by a score of 31-30. 

The Y.M.C.A. announced the election of officers 
for the year which included: President, Charlie Mehaffey, 
Vice-President, Hebron Ketron, Secretary, Doc Whitehead, 
and Treasurer, Frank Rollins. 

The New Expo?ient for the year included on its staff: 
Editor, Jack Atha, Business Manager, H, L. Jenkins, As- 
sociate Editors, Gladys Love, Ray Painter, Osmond Sprad- 
ling, Cecil Brock, Bernice Knight. The Junior Senior 
Banquet was held in Trinity Methodist Episcopal Church 
Dining Hall on May 1 1 . Joe Mauldin served as Toast- 
master. President Robb spoke on "Wesleyan Echoes" 
listing the advances of the college. 

The Athenian under the date of Thursday, June 2, 
1927, records much of interest concerning the College. Ten 
students had received diplomas from the college depart- 
ment and twenty-four from the preparatory at the 
1927 Commencement Exercises, the second as Tennessee 
Wesleyan College. 

C. E. Rogers, Superintendent of Schools of Johnson 
City, was elected president of the Alumni Association with 
R. W. Goforth as Vice-President, and Miss Maude Smith 
was re-elected as Secretary-Treasurer of the Association. 
Mrs. Juno Grigsby Altom, of Rogersville, retiring president 
of the Association, presided at the dinner. Addresses were 
given by W. L Stookesbury, C. ^V. Lester, W. A. Burnett, 
J. J. Graham, Judge S. C. Brown, and D. A, Bolton. 

Wesleyan defeats Mars Hill by the score of 18 to 

Student Activities 215 

6 and the University of Chattanooga Freshmen were de- 
feated by 6 in football. 1927 the reference to a Glee Club 
is related indicating that it had sung at the First Methodist 
Church, in Knoxville, on October 20 in connection with 
the session of the Holston Annual Conference. Professor 
Fisher, of the Wesleyan faculty, in charge. Fisher had come 
from Ohio Wesleyan where for three years he had been 
a member of the Ohio Wesleyan Glee Club. 

The Philomatheans had won the Burnett first prize and 
the Knightonians second. Prizes were $100.00 for the first 
place and $50.00 for second. 

The Tarheel Club was organized with students from 
North Carolina eligible for membership. Doris Weld was 
elected President. 

Wesleyan beat Tennessee Tech 19-0 and Hiwassee 

In an article on Who's Who Professor M. F. Stubbs, 
referred to many times because of his active partici- 
pation in college life, is described as follows: "The best 
teacher on the campus is no one but Professor M. F. Stubbs. 
We are sure no one will feel bad about the fact for it is 
true. He is the teacher that every studerjt likes. Why? 
Because although he sometimes gets hard he is always 
friendly and cheerful, and he is very efficient in his work. 
His classes are not boresome because he is so interested in 
the subject which he is teaching it becomes fascinating." 

The New Exponent carried an article under the 
title of "Student Council" as follows: "Student Council 
meets each Thursday for the purpose of upholding the 
student body in all school activities. The Student Council 
needs the cooperation of each student to make it a success." 

"For the past few meetings the Council had devoted 
their time in discussing the good of sororities and fraterni- 

216 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

ties here at Tennessee Wesleyan. It was decided that this 
was not the best for Tennessee Wesleyan to undertake now. 

"Much time and work is being put into forming and 
revising a constitution for the Council. Any suggestions as 
to this from any of the students will be greatly appreciated 
by the Council." (Signed by the Secretary) Pat Cowden 
seemed to be the Editor at this time. 

Pat Cowden is recorded as president of the Gamma 
Gammas, a group of congenial girls striving to improve 
themselves as well as to be helpful to others. 

In 1928 the New Exponent expressed regret that there 
were not as many Student Activities in the College as there 
should be. The editorial listed the Literary Societies, Y.M. 
C.A., Y.W.C.A., the Ministerial Association', Debating 
Club, but implied that other organizations were needed. 

In 1928 the Nocatula takes over as the college news- 
paper. The Nocatula which was to be published semi- 
monthly by the students of Tennessee Wesleyan College 
under date of November 15, 1928, provides the following 
editorial membership: Editor-in-Chief, W. D. Johnston, 
Literary Editor, Chelsea Laws, Sports Editor, Tom Cash, 
Alumni Editor, Maude Wagner, Religious Editor, J. F. 
Wyatt, Faculty Adviser, Gladys Dejournette, Joke Editor, 
Charles Weaver, Staff Artist, Mouzon Peters. Business 
Staff consisted of: Business Manager W. D. Johnston, Ad- 
vertising Manager, Emily Johnson, Assistant Advertising 
Manager, Wilsie Wilder, and Circulation Manager, 
Thomas Phillips. In the editorial it was asserted "The 
South has a wonderful future and the progress of some of 
the states is beginning to give us some idea of just how 
wonderful that future is." 

Articles discussed the companionship of a good book, 
the Athenian Literary Society, the Knightonian Literary 
Society, athletics, Halloween, the music department, and 

Trustee, long-time Editor of The Knoxville Journal, 
honored by Adolph S. Ochs of The New York 
Times who established trust in his memory. 

Student Activities 217 

for the first time a section entitled "Literary" provided 
articles concerning Theodore Roosevelt as a writer and 
reader, Abraham Lincoln and what books meant to him, 
written by Mary Louise Melear. 

Wesleyan lost to the University of Tennessee "Rats." 

Literary society Presidents for 1928 were as follows: 
Philomathean, Charlie Mehaffey; Knightonian, Valeria 
Ogle; Athenian, Thompson Weese. A new organization 
had its annual banquet on November 30. It was called 
Wesleyan Brotherhood and Service Club. Rudolph Baker 
served as Toastmaster for the evening. An address was 
given by Dean Miller on "The Brotherhood and Its 


The lure of Ritter had been constant and three 
students at Petty - Manker, Tom Bean, Carlos and John 
King, found the desire to search for pies at Ritter, 
to be irresistible, and they approached the building only 
to be scared by a campus police and they revealed their 
skill in track. 

The Gamma Gammas are now referred to as Gamma 
Gamma Sorority. Their guests were honored by their 
pledges at a Valentine Party given at the home of Mr. and 
Mrs. Stubbs January 26, 1929. 


The Nocatula for 1930 lists John Earl Sims as Editor- 

Alpha Gamma Sorority makes its appearance with 
Edyth Finnel as President. 

The "Hits" are also referred to as being the Brother 
fraternity of the Alpha Gamma. 

Coach McCray provided a tribute to the Tennessee 
Wesleyan "Bulldogs." He lists each member of the team 
and gives an evaluation of each man's ability in football. 

218 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

At the end he says to the team as a whole, "Boys, for one 

time instead of giving you the... , or I should say raking 

you over the coals, I am going to take time to thank you 
for your cooperation and the splendid work you gave me." 


Bishop Keeney, formerly Bishop to China and now 
Resident Bishop of the Atlanta area of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, spoke at chapel on "Changing China." 

The "Bulldogs" had beaten the University of Chatta- 
nooga Freshmen team. 

The Epworth League and the Ladies Aid Society of 
the First Methodist Church gave a party for Tennessee 
Wesleyan students. 

The 1931 debating season was perhaps one of the most 
successful seasons ever enjoyed by a Tennessee Wesleyan 
College team, either forensic or athletic. The affirmative 
team composed of Clyde Bearden, Fred Puett and William 
Bates debated at home and made a very creditable show- 
ing to support the traveling team. The latter was made up 
of J. Neal Ensiminger and Sam Adkins and brought back 
from their first tour the Junior College Championship of 
Tennessee and North Carolina and by winning from Milli- 
gan College took a high standing in the Smoky Mountain 

Miss Lillian Danielson, the coach, then entered her 
team in the Southern Tournament of the Southern Associa- 
tion of Colleges held in Atlanta, Georgia. Although the 
only junior college in the Tournament, and by far the 
smallest school represented, Wesleyan annexed second place 
by eliminating three southern inter-collegiate conference 
teams namely, Louisiana State University, University of 
Florida and University of North Carolina. 

The four Literary Societies met on September 1 1 for 
a joint meeting. 

Student Activities 219 

Harold Gassman is listed as Editor-in-Chief of the 

We find reference to Eta Iota Tau Fraternity and 
Sigma Tau Sigma Sorority. The Sapphonian Literary 
Society had met November 29 and had elected Mary Louise 
Melear as President. 

The Phi Pi Deltas reported "sure, we're still alive. 
We expect to move mountains sometime in the near future." 

The Phi Mu Lambdas gave a party at Bennett Hall 
to honor pledges — Cecile Cox, Gona Dorsey, Helen Shaw, 
and Ara Knox. 

The Queen Esther Circle met in Ritter and an address 
was given by Dr. Psieh of China, on "Present Conditions 
in China." 


The annual Panhellenic Banquet was given Saturday, 
February 6, with all fraternities and sororities well repre- 
sented. Impromptu speeches were given by Dean Stubbs 
and Neal Ensminger with Fred Puett acting as Toast- 
master. The officers of the Panhellenic Union were: Presi- 
dent, Fred Mitchell, Vice President, Fred Puett, Secretary- 
Treasurer, Evelyn Edwards. 

Under basketball it was written that the Wesleyan 
Basketeers are experiencing one of its best seasons possible. 
Under a well coached system of defense work they have 
been able to overpower nearly every contestant they have 
been up against. Their losses have been only at the hands of 
senior colleges but had taken their share of victories from 
there. In the junior college games the team has always 
won by a large margin. 

The Drama Department gave "The Doll's House" by 
Ibsen in February. 

Washington's birthday was celebrated \vith the main 
address being given by Mr. Harry T. Burn. 

220 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

The Sigma Iota Chi and the Pi Phi Delta pledges 
were entertained at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Robert J. 

The Dean's Honor Roll included Robert Abernathy, 
Hartley Ashley, Leona Clark, Nell Finnell, Martha Martin, 
Catherine Neil, Ruby Arrants, Buell Charles, Margaret 
Fillers, Sara Large, Margaret MacMurray, Helen Shaw, 
Grant Ashley, Myrtle Brewer, Ruby Donald, Marguerite 
Gantt, Wilma Headrick, Margaret Hoback, Marjorie Law- 
son, Grace Poulston, Thelma Baker, Ruby Brown, Mattie 
Griffies, Eneid Higgs, Nat Kuikendall, Ruth Ousley, and 
Betty Powell. 


Religious Emphasis Week with the Reverend W. H. 
Lewis, pastor of Trinity Methodist Church, announced to 
be the leader for the week. 

The popularity contest was held on February 16, the 
pictures to be placed in the Senior Edition of the Nocatula. 

A chapel program announced Louis Lytton, formerly 
of the Peruchi Players, who would give a Shakespearean 
program, Huck Mitchell was elected Captain of the foot- 
ball squad. Editor-in-Chief, Drannan Elliott. The 
Knightonian Society discussed Shelly and Keats. 

Richard H. Haliburton, author of Royal Road to Ro- 
mance, later to disappear on a trip by himself from China 
toward the United States, spoke at a chapel service. 

Thomas Edds contributed an article on "School 
Spirit" which said, "Someone has said that Wesleyan does 
not have any school spirit. Do you believe this? Of course 
not. We are going to show our team and the whole school 
that the students are not lacking in school spirit." 

The Religious Council had charge of the evening serv- 
ice at Trinity Methodist Church, with Astor Jenkins presid- 
ing. David Denton spoke on "Thy Will Be Done." Charles 

Student Activities 221 

Gorst, a leading ornithologist, spoke at an assembly in the 
college auditorium. 


The Reverend W. D. Wilkerson, a graduate of Ten- 
nessee Wesleyan, superintendent of the Bristol District of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, provided leadership for 
Religious Emphasis Week. Dr. W. M. Dye showed his 
pictures in Ritter Study Hall of his travels in Palestine and 
Dr. James Nankivell gave an address at Bennett Hall on 
the general topic of "Disease." Bishop Wallace E. Brown, 
of Chattanooga, spoke in chapel on Wednesday, January 
17. The students expressed their congratulations to Presi- 
dent Robb upon his election to the Presidency of the Meth- 
odist Educational Association which had its annual meeting 
in St. Louis. Revival services being conducted by W. H.' 
Lewis and the Reverend W. D. Wilkerson received unusual 
attention in the Nocatula. 

The juniors entertained the seniors with a Rainbow 
Banquet. Astor Jenkins, president of the Junior Class, 
served as Toastmaster and Don Chance, president of the 
Senior Class, gave the response. 

Miss Wilma Headrick, a senior, member of Alpha 
Gamma Sorority, Phi Theta Kappa, Y.M.C.A., Glee Club, 
Queen Esthers, member of the Staff of the Nocatula, was 
elected Queen for the May Day program. 

Don Chance wrote concerning the tennis courts. 

The Dean's Honor Roll for the year included Grant 
Ashley, Myrtle Brewer, Ruby Donald, Thomas Edds, Mar- 
guerite Gantt, Nelle Harmon, Wilma Headrick, Marjorie 
Lawson, Beulah Melton, Louise Shaefer, Karl Boyd, Hugh 
Carney, Catherine Collins, Helen Donaldson, Hoyle Epper- 
son, Gladys McCallie, Nancy Roberts, Frances Forrester, 
Ethel Redden, Marion Robb, Elizabeth Spahr, Annabel 
Spangle, Jeanette Wickham. 

222 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 


Bobby and Gwcn Robertson crow ned King and Queen. 

Professor Myers took his Religious Education classes 
to visit the churches of Chattanooga including the First 
Methodist, Centenary Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 
First Christian, First Presbyterian, and First Baptist. 

Dr. J. ^V. Broyles conducted the Religious Emphasis 
Week beginning February 4. 

For 1935 Karl Boyd was Editor-in-Chief of the 

The Sigma Tau Sigmas announced the following new 
members for the year: Virginia McCay, Adra Stott, Ella 
Mae Russell, Ellen Hurst, Margie Moser, Eleanor 
Dougherty, Lolita Alley. 

The Nocatida recognized the interest of Mrs. Henry 
Pfeiffer, of New York City, in ofTering to give $2,500 to 
match a similar amount to be raised by the college to assist 
in supplying scholarships for needy students. 

Class favorites were elected from the senior class. Miss 
Senior, Jeanctte Wickham; Mr. Senior, Karl Boyd; Most 
Athletic Girl, Geneva ^Vhitaker; Most Athletic Boy, Lewis 
Young Keith ; Most Ideal Senior Couple, Miss Becky Dixon 
and Bobby Robertson. 

On March 23 a local chapter of Phi Rho Pi, debating 
fraternity, was organized on the Wesleyan campus with 
Edwin Graves as President, Carsie Turner, Secretary- 

The Knoxville College Quartet presented a program 
in the auditorium. 

The Y.M.C.A. installed new officers including: Presi- 
dent, Cecil Thornton, Vice-President, Edwin Graves, Sec- 
retary-Treasurer, Fred Miller, Chaplain, \V. I. Farmer. 

The following were pledged to Phi Theta Kappa: 
Ozell Huff, Julia Sellers, Lorene Duckworth, Jessie Sherlin, 

Student Activities 223 

Iva Lewis, Jeanette Wickham, Elizabeth Parris, Edwin 
Graves, and James Gantt. Professor C. O. Douglass was 
the sponsor. 

The Nocatula for September 13, 1937, reported en- 
rollment at 222, an opening address by Judge Clem J. 
Jones, the placing of Alden E. Eddy in the field as repre- 
sentative of the College to be responsible for student enroll- 
ment and securing of funds for the College. Y.M.C.A. 
and the Y.W.C.A. had decided to merge and become the 
Christian Service Club. There was much speculation as to 
the caliber of the football team for 1937. The successes in 
'36 had been so phenomenal there was great interest in 
what the achievements might be. Johnny Gate wrote an 
article saying, "If serious injuries do not invade the Tennes 
see Wesleyan Bulldogs camp, they will be in there ready 
to win the King game at Bristol Saturday night. The 
Tornadoes boast of a strong aggregation this year." . . . The 
outlook for the coming season is good. There are eleven 
lettermen from last year's National Junior College Champ- 
ionship returning, namely, Captain Hollingsworth, Huddles- 
ton, Henderson, Bacon, Ramsey, Thorpe, Turner, Hudson, 
D. Simpson, B. Simpson and Bowery. . . . "Among the new- 
comers are several who have shown that they can really 
play football. "Speedy" Burchfield, who hails from Town- 
send High, is a triple-threat man, good enough to make 
almost anybody's ball team. Watch him, girls. Fred Dock- 
ery, the Cleveland flash, is one more sweet back. . . . "In 
the line is Ray Graves from Knoxville. He looks good 
enough for center. Willard Bacon and Hook Ramsey will 
be right in there in the guard position. Huddleston and 
Thorpe head the list of tackles. . . . "One of the worries of 
Coach McCray is the end positions. "Long" John Hender- 
son and Doug Simpson are outstanding candidates for these 
places. . . . "Come on, students, let's get behind this team. 

224 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

It can be as great as the 1936 champions with your 

Mrs. Annie M. Pfeiffer, of New York, and her travel- 
ing companion, Mrs. Annie K. Rule, visited the campus 
on December 9 and were given an enthusiastic welcome. 

Mrs. Pfeiffer spoke briefly at a chapel service saying 
concerning her generosity, "I enjoy doing it." 

The Dean's list for the first quarter included Rhoda 
\Vitt, Johanna Banks, Doris Cooper, Betty Varnell, Iva 
Roderick, Jeanette Slagel, Eula Thomas, Mary Ann Wat- 
kins, Margaret Lawson, Fred Wankan, Jr., Wilma Better- 
ton, Lorene LeVan, Helen Patton, Helen Slack, Bertha 
Dean Upshaw. 

On May 12 an address was given at chapel by Colonel 
Julius Ochs Adler, Vice-President and General Manager 
of The New York Thiies. 

The address as quoted in The New York Times May 
13 is as f ollo\\ s : 

"In the newspaper profession there exists an especially 
good opportunity to appraise citizenship. From the first 
page to the last news deals with citizenship in all of its mani- 
festations. Newspapers, for example, report the words and 
acts of statesmen and persons in authority, of men and 
\\ omen whom the voters have elected \vith the expectation 
of sound government, and so are afforded an opportunity 
to display the highest citizenship. 

"Further, some stories recall failures in citizenship, such 
as crimes against the public welfare. Other news stories 
which are pleasanter to record tell of the efforts of high- 
minded men and women to correct abuses, to improve 
li\ing conditions and to plan generally for the betterment 
of humanity. The tiniest news item concerning the humb- 
lest person in the community may reflect an attribute of 
citizenship, good or bad." 



Cornerstone Laying, Merner-Pfeiffer Library, Tennessee Wesleyan 
College, Athens, Tennessee, November 20, 1940. Right to left: 
Bishop Paul B. Kern, G. F. Lockmiller, President J. L. Robb, Judge 
Xen Hicks, District Superintendent J. A. Bays and Rev. J. M. 

Student Activities ' 225 

Warning that people today are far too prone to take 
the rights of citizenship for granted, Colonel Adler said 
that the news of the world today "must make any intelligent 
reader value the more the blessings of citizenship of our 
nation." Millions who live under communism or fascism 
have suffered appalling losses of liberty, he said. 

Opinions may differ with respect to the powers of the 
three great branches of our national government. Colonel 
Adler said, but, he added: 

"There can and will be no real difference of opinion 
concerning those liberties which are guaranteed to citizens 
under the Bill of Rights. 

"Guard well these precious rights guaranteed to the 
humblest citizen of our country, and recall them constantly 
as you read the news which comes from those nations where 
democracy is only a pretense and freedom of the individual 
is a hideous sham." 

Colonel Adler said that as a native Tennessean he was 
astonished a few months ago when the Tennessee Senate 
passed the so-called Morgan gag bill, and that he was 
relieved and gratified at the outburst of public opinion 
which doomed it to "an ignominious death." 

"Permit me to remind you that the freedom of the 
press is only trusted to newspaper owners, publishers and 
editors," he declared. "That freedom itself belongs solely 
to the people. The first amendment gives the citizens of 
our country the right to enjoy the blessings of a free press. 
The editor merely holds a position of trust. He must be 
vigilant to see that this freedom is preserved and that his 
trust is deserved. 

"The editor has great responsibilities as a citizen to 
other citizens, and because Captain Rule and Mr. Ochs 
were called upon to discharge said responsibilities I feel 
free to speak to you a moment about newspapers generally. 

226 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

"A worthy editor, conscious of his responsibility of 
citizenship, beh'eves he has a paramount obhgation to pre- 
sent to his readers an unbiased report of events, especially 
of public affairs. 

"A newspaper should, of course, espouse certain poli- 
cies and political principles, and argue for them as ably as 
it can in its editorial columns. But good newspaper citizen- 
ship demands that the editor present an unbiased, accurate 
news report, so that readers may form their own opinions. 

"To suppress news, to distort it or color it, is thorough- 
ly bad newspaper citizenship, and any editor who is worthy 
of the name condemns the barest suggestion of indifference 
towards these high principles of his profession." 

Colonel Adler closed his address with an appeal to his 
auditors not to permit their conception of citizenship to 
become narrow or self-satisfied. 

"We must not think of citizenship as ending at the 
frontiers of our country," he said. "The world is too closely 
bound together today and the interdependence of nations 
too firmly knit for any government to withdraw within 
itself and to ignore the problems of other peoples. Far 
from being an isolationist, I believe that^merica should 
take its place among the nations of the world in settling 
those problems which can and must be solved by 
international action. 

"Be first a good citizen of your community, of your 
State and of your nation, but be prepared in your mind to 
be a citizen of the world." 

Commencement was held June 1 with diplomas being 
given to 78 members of the graduating class. 

It was reported that the Carnegie Corporation had 
contributed $4,500.00 for the purchase of additional books 
for the library for general reading. 

Student Activities 227 

On June 3 Mr. and Mrs. Harry T. Burn entertained 
the faculty at the James Monroe Hotel in Sweetwater. 


Phi Theta Kappa met at the home of Betty Varnell, 
in Charleston, and the following officers were elected: 
President, Jeanette Slagle, Vice-President, Eula Thomas. 

The Nocatula reported a meeting at the Robert E. Lee 
Hotel for the purpose of raising $10,000.00 for the College. 
Mr. Tom Sherman was reported saying, "I know of nothing 
in my travels worth more to Athens than the College." 
Other persons who spoke in favor of the community sup- 
porting the College were Mayor Paul J. Walker, Mrs. 
Rosabel Boyd, and G. F. Lockmiller. Students gave con- 
siderable attention in their publications to the rehabilitation 
of Old College. 

The Eta Iota Taus, the Sigma Iota Chis, and the 
Alpha Gammas all reported social activities of a formal 
nature during February. At the Sigma Iota Chi Carnival 
Sammye Arrants and John L. Henderson were acclaimed 
queen and king. The plans for the remodeling of Old 
College had been completed and Bishop Wallace E. Brown, 
of the Chattanooga Area of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, Judge Clem Jones, Judge S. C. Brown, '86 and 
Dr. J. M. Melear participated in the ceremony of 

The fall reception was given September 27. Those in 
the receiving line were President and Mrs. James L. Robb, 
Dean and Mrs. M. F. Stubbs, Mrs. E. A. Brubaker, Profes- 
sor and Mrs. C. O. Douglass, Professor and Mrs. G. A. 
Yates, Professor and Mrs. John W. Overby, Professor S. C. 
Evins, Professor and Mrs. A. J. Peters, Professor and Mrs. 
A. H. Myers, Dr. and Mrs. James M. Melear, Professor 
Don Chance, Miss Margie Alderfer, Mrs. Martha Hale, 
Miss Mary E. Delaney, Miss Fannye Mackey, Miss Ethel 

228 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

Prior, Coach R. H. McCray, Mrs. Ralph Knight, Mrs. 
Esta Vestal, Mr. and Mrs. J. Rogers Carroll, Mrs, A. B. 
Collins and Miss Frances Moffitt. 

Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
approved $150,000.00 campaign for Tennessee Wesleyan 

A Founders' Day Program was inaugurated and held 
on Thursday, November 17th. General Carey F. Spence, 
of Knoxville, son of Dr. John F. Spence, one-time President 
of the instution, gave the address and presented a picture 
of his father to the College. 

Dr. John M. Versteeg, minister of the Walnut Hill 
Methodist Church of Cincinnati, was on the campus in 
November for a series of addresses on "Christian Living." 

Rudolph Hoppe contributed an article concerning the 
organization of a campus council for the purpose of super- 
vising extra-curricular activities. This committee from the 
faculty working with the students on these plans included 
Mr. Myers, Mrs. Brubaker, Mrs. Melear, Miss Delaney, 
and Coach McCray. 

FEW reported "For the seventh consecutive time Ten- 
nessee Wesleyan College beat back all odds to come through 
with the Junior College Championship laurels tucked under 
their arms at the end of a tough and wooly season by 
defeating Middle Georgia College, of Cochran, Georgia, 


Coach McCray, who had provided such spectacular 
leadership for the Bulldogs, accepted an invitation to 
join the staff at William and Mary. Hooper Eblen was 
secured to assume the responsibilities of coach. Eblen had 
attended Wesleyan, the University of Tennessee, and fol- 
lowing his graduation from U. T. had been coach at Whit- 
well High School, Carter High School, in Knoxville. 

Student Activities 229 

President Robb said in introducing him, "Mr. Eblen is a 
good coach, will fit into our scheme of things splendidly. 
While at Wesleyan he was not only an outstanding athlete, 
but was President of the Study Body, President of YMCA, 
an honor student and well liked by all." 

Dr. E. C. Dewey, of Atlanta, provided leadership for 
Religious Emphasis Week, with the cooperation of the 
YM-YW and the Christian Service Club. 

In February Dr. H. H. Holt, Charlottesville, Virginia, 
spent some time on the campus as a part of the Youth 
Crusade of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. 

The Post Athenian reported the activity of Dr. E. M. 
Ellison, Rhea Hammer, and Dr. J. M. Mclear in stimulating 
the Forward Movement Program. 

Dr. Archie M. Palmer, President of the University of 
Chattanooga, addressed the students in March saying, "A 
Liberal Education is not and cannot be a series of studies 
over a definite period of time. A college can merely furnish 
an introduction to a Liberal Education, teach its students 
the meaning and importance of such an education. Educa- 
tion is a process of slow maturity and takes place in the 
individual alone." 

Chicago Little Philharmonic Orchestra under the 
leadership of Dr. Eric Sorantin was presented in March. 
Miss Grace Leigh Scott, National Field Secretary to 
W.C.T.U., gave a chapel address. 

It was reported that the largest student body 
Wesleyan had ever seen attended the first chapel service 
on Wednesday, September 6. The address was given by 
the Reverend W. H. Harrison. Dr. and Mrs. Werner Wolfe 
were introduced and Mrs. Wolfe sang Schubert's "Ave 
Maria." Others participating in this service were the Rev- 
erend Joe Hampton, Judge S. C. Brown, Dr. Miles Riddle, 
and Dr. J. M. Melear. Dr. Melear announced that the 

230 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan Collei^e 

enrollment was 600% above the first year of President 
Robb's administration. Jack A. Bell was introduced as 
president of the student body and Ida Mae Kilgore as 

The Forward Movement issue of the Bulletin an- 
nounced Holston Conference unification, carrying a photo- 
graph taken Friday, October 6, 1939, at 9:55, when Bishop 
Paul Kern, Dr. James C. Orr, Dr. J. M. M. Gray of 
Washington, and Bishop W. N. Ainsworth took part in a 
service in Central Methodist Church of Knoxville which 
declared the Holston Conference a part of the recently 
united Methodist Church. President Robb announced a 
gift of $100,000 from Mrs. Pfeiffer toward the construction 
of a long needed library. G. F. Lockmiller, Chairman of 
the Forward Movement Program of Tennessee Wesleyan 
College, declared the campaign to secure other funds to 
make the library possible as "Wesleyan's big opportunity." 
General James A. Fowler gave the address at the Founders' 
Day service. Thirty-two students were on the Dean's List: 
seniors: Elizabeth Allen, Gladys Andes, Freddie Boggess, 
C. M. Boyer, James Burn, Martha Cavaleri, Evelyn Craig, 
Irene Elrod, Irene Hall, Rudolph Hoppe, Clifford Ingram, 
L. G. Jaco, Jr., Thomas Mackey, Briscoe Staley, Mary 
Evelyn Stinnette, Mrs. Josephine Stone, Mary Lou Yates, 
Newell Morris; juniors; Lawrence Amburgy, Richard 
Cooke, Frank Dodson, Charles Neil Gibbs, Roy Godsey, 
Laura Evelyn Goforth, Ernestine Grant, Ruth Hines, Allie 
Marie Jenkins, William R. Selden, James Wilson, Mary 
Witt, Orinda Wood, Muriel Milton. 

Janet Marson and Carl Anderson had the lead roles 
in "The Night of January 16." 

Tennessee Wesleyan was host to the Southeastern 
Junior College Tournament which was held at Wesleyan, 

Student Activities 231 

March 7-9. Eleven colleges participated. Dr. D. D. Holt 
spent a week on the campus discussing the general theme 
"Christianity: A Way of Life." 

Mrs. Henry Pfeiffer visited the campus. 

Pianist Jerold Frederick gave a concert in February. 

Dr. and Mrs. W. M. Dye contributed $10,000 toward 
the campaign for funds for the Merner-PfeifTer Library. 

"Our Town" was presented by the Tewesco Players, 
the leading roles being carried by Martha Cavaleri and 
Buddy Maltby. 

Dr. Edwin C. Lewis, of Drew Theological Seminary, 
spoke at chapel. A College Chorus has been organized 
under the direction of Dr. Werner Wolfe; it included 
Gladys Andes, Jean Douglass, Virginia Swanson, Mary Fay 
Kennedy, Virginia Quinn, Louise Fritts, Bertha Chastain, 
Norma Stonecipher, Irene Hall, Ernestine Grant, Carolyn 
Bishop, Fred Jenkins, Felix Harrod, Bill Selden, and Bill 
Scott. Commencement plans for 1940 were announced in 
April, the following persons to take part: Dr. W. F. Black- 
ard, of Church Street Methodist Church, Knoxville, the 
Reverend A. K. Wilson, First Methodist Church, Ports- 
mouth, Ohio, Charles M. Newcomb, Candler, North 
Carolina. The students announced with pride the election 
of President Robb to head the Southern Association of 
Junior Colleges. Owen Snodderly and Clifford Ingram 
were designated to represent the Wesleyan Chapter of Phi 
Rho at the regional convention. The fall reception was 
held in September at Ritter Hall. Those participating in 
the program were Mrs. Werner Wolfe, Norma Stonecipher, 
Sophia Brown, Ernestine Grant, Mrs. Morgan Watkins and 
Felix Harrod. The Homecoming Game, which drew 750, 
provided a victory for Wesleyan over South Georgia, 6-0. 
Christine Langley was crowned Homecoming Queen. Dr. 
James M. Melear, who had been in the hospital in Knox- 

232 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

ville, was reported back in Athens much to the deHght of 
the Wesleyan students. Judge Xen Hicks gave the Found- 
ers' Day Address in November and the cornerstone for the 
new Hbrary was laid by Bishop Paul B. Kern, his first visit 
to the Wesleyan campus. In December the Bulldogs were 
announced as Southeastern Jurisdictional Title winners for 
the ninth time. The squad included Austin McDonald, J. O. 
Kimsey, Ralph Nelson, James Brake, Spence Renfro, James 
Trotter, Richard LaFrance, Horace Knox, Felix Harrod, 
Hobart Jones, Ab Swan, J, D. Pack, Jerry Ayers, Walter 
Sherrod, Charles Forrester, Otis Meredith, Melman Stroud, 
Pat Sharpe, Charles Brickie, Hugh Anderson, Edgar Ruth- 
erford, Lynn Lomell, Albert Maltby, Emmert Robertson, 
Frank Clay. Miles Proudfoot was the manager and Thomas 
Hopkins, assistant manager. 

Doctor T. D. Holt, of Centenery Church, Lynch- 
burg, Virginia, whose visits to the campus during the 
years had proved especially popular, visited the campus 
again. A formal was announced to be given by the seniors. 
. . . The Wesleyan "Netters" were announced. They were 
Glen Michaels, Spence Renfro, Bill Headrick and Charles 
Pangle. . . . President Robb, in February, had completed 
personal interviews with all members of the freshman 
class. . . . Thirty-five members of the Tennessee Wesleyan 
chorus participated in programs under the direction of 
Doctor Wolfe. . . . Andrew J. Peters, member of the faculty, 
was given a write-up. . . . Wesleyan basketball champions 
were Jack Thames, Bill Headrick, James Brake, Charles 
Pangle, Pat Sharp, Jim Trotter, Millman Stroud, Ralph 
Nelson, Glenn Michaels, Spence Renfro, Charles Brickel 
and Winston Kirksey. Miles Proudfoot was the student 
manager. . . . Mildred Hampton was crowned Homecom- 
ing Queen. . . . The Sigma Iota Chis presented floodlights 

Student Activities 233 

for the barbecue pit area. . . . The Avon players presented 
"Hamlet." . . . Robert Nicholson, baritone of New York, 
presented a program in December. . . . Doctor Hugh C. 
Stuntz, of Nashville, spent two days on the campus. . . . 
Women's and Men's Councils were organized in 1941. 

Coach Hutsell had left Wesleyan to become a 
Cadet in the Air Force. . . . The Reverend Marquis 
Tripplett, of Knoxville, conducted the services during Re- 
ligious Emphasis Week. . . . Phi Theta Kappa, honorary 
scholastic fraternity, initiated eight new members. They 
were Margaret Sue Ballew, Oleta Williams, Margaret Lee 
Hale, Ann Moore, June Margaret Jo Shipley, Clarence 
Barnett and George Oliphant. . . . Elections in 1942 pro- 
vided the following leaders : President of the Student Coun- 
cil, Calvin Rector, Vice-President, Katherine Wheeler, and 
J. Elmo Greene, Editor of the college newspaper and the 
annual, both of which at that time were called the Noca- 
tula. . . . James P. Pope, director of the Tennessee Valley 
Authority, was announced to give the commencement ad- 
dress. . . . Alfred D. Mynders, editor of the Chattanooga 
Times, gave an address at the time of the awarding of the 
William Rule Prize Essay Contest. . . . Miser R. Richmond 
was designated as dean to succeed M. F. Stubbs, w^ho had 
resigned to become head of the Chemistry Department of 
Carthage College. . . . Coach Frank Chaney announced 
that twenty-four men had agreed to work on near-by farms 
on Saturday to assist in supplying labor during the war. 
. . . The Wesleyan students and faculty collected 5,000 
pounds of scrap. . . . Carolyn Banfield, of Youngstown, 
Ohio, granddaughter of T. H. Banfield, for whom Banfield 
Hall was named, enrolled as a student at Wesleyan. . . . 
Doctor L. H. Colloms, native of Athens and McMinn 
County, became the minister of Trinity Methodist Church. 

234 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

He was described by J. Elmo Greene as "a personable, 
sportsloving man." . . . Wesleyan students were entering 
the Army and Navy in large numbers. . . . Dean Richmond 
announced the Dean's List which included Betty Chase, 
Evelyn Cooke, Margaret Lee Hale, Catherine Hooper, 
Wanda McConnell, Anna Louise Moore, George Oliphant, 
Calvin Rector, Frances Rowland, Bernice Scott, Mary Jo 
Shipley, Janie Tompkins, Louise Wetzel, Katherine Wheel- 
er, Oleta Williams, J. R. Bohannon, Elsie Click, Anna 
Belle Craig, Catherine Douglass, Donald Flynn, Bessie 
Headrick, Mildred Kennedy, Margaret Long, Emily Low- 
rey, Alice Myers, Marjorie Patching, Brownie Patton, 
Louise Roberts, Frances Stafford, Fritts Thomas, Clark 
Welch, George Anna Yates. 


Apparently, no student publications were produced 
during that year. 


Phi Theta Kappa initiates new members: Helen 
Chastain, Frances Cunningham, Elizabeth Selden, Edna 
Hicks Miller and Evelyn Meadows. . . . An effort had 
been made to make Wesleyan a woman's college but 
the Nocatula announced in October 1944 that Wesleyan 
keeps independent status and will remain a co-educational 
institution. Credit for the victory going to General James 
A. Fowler, president of the Board of Trustees, to Paul J. 
Walker, and to C. E. Rogers. 

J. E. Milburn, minister of the First Methodist 
Church, of Knoxville, was announced as Religious Empha- 
sis Week leader. . . . Mrs. Ruth Bryan Owen spoke on 
"After Peace — What?" . . . 1945 Vocation Day sets rec- 
ord with 1100 attending. . . . Participating in the service 
were Doctor J. M. Melear, Mayor Paul J. Walker, and 

Student Activities 235 

Doctor T. Otto Nail, managing editor of The Christian 
Advocate, of Chicago. . . . Bishop Schuyler E. Garth, of the 
Wisconsin area of The Methodist Church, spent three days 
on the campus. . . . The 1945 Commencement Program 
included Doctor C. E. Lundy, Doctor M. S. Kincheloe, 
Doctor E. E. Lewis, of Ohio State University, who had at 
one time been a student at Wesleyan. . . . Two students 
had been elected to Phi Theta Kappa: Carolyn Lockname 
and Agnes Howell. . . . Doctor Bachman G. Hodge, minister 
of Centenary Methodist Church, of Chattanooga, gave a 
chapel address. . . . Wesleyan welcomes "Vets": the head- 
line in the Nocatula. ... A college quartet was organized. 
Its members were Jerry Grubb, Carolyn Scruggs, Alice Ann 
Ayres and Janie Beals. ... J. Neal Ensminger spoke at 
chapel on Courtesy. . . . Edgar Miller and Helen Erwin 
were crowned King and Queen of Hearts. . . . The Rever- 
end Sterling L. Price, minister of the First Baptist Church, 
of Athens, spoke to the students on "You're neither too 
young nor too old." 

Doctor Luibuld Wallick, Rabbi of Beth - el Temple, 
Knoxville, spent two days on the campus. . . . Chapel 
address was given by Doctor King Vivion, of M'c- 
Kendree Methodist Church, in Nashville. . . . Vocations 
Day drew 750 students to the Wesleyan campus. Charles 
Montgomery and Linnie Miller were the winners in the 
Rule Essay contest. The prizes were awarded by Doctor 
F. Howard Callihan, of New York. . . . The Gammas 
depicted the life of President and Mrs. Robb. ... It was 
announced July 1946 that T.W.C. has record enrollment. 
471 were registered for the fall. Of these, 208 were G.I.'s. 
. . . Bulldogs are Junior College champions again . . . Chap- 
lain George Naff presented his first article entitled "The 
Chaplain's Corner." 

236 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

The Reverend Earl G. Hunt, Jr., provided leader- 
ship for ReHgious Emphasis Week. . . . The football queen 
was Anne McCamy. . . . Neal Ensminger spoke at chapel 
on "The Choice of a Vocation." . . . The Reverend Ralph 
W. Mohney, minister of the Manker Memorial Methodist 
Church, of Chattanooga, was announced as Religious 
Emphasis Week speaker. 

Percy Chambers, the blind pianist, gave a pro- 
gram in Chapel. . . . The Reverend Henry Dawson, 
minister of the Keith Memorial Church, of Athens, was 
introduced by Chaplain George E. Naff. . . . The Choir, 
under the direction of Alfred Jack Houts, sang in the Vestal 
Methodist Church and the Epworth Methodist Church in 
Knoxville, on February 11. . . . Doctor C. P. Hardin, 
superintendent of the Johnson City District, gave a chapel 
address in March. . . . The Union College Choir gave an a 
capella program in the auditorium. . . . Jack Houts was 
selected to have a part in La Boheme to be given under the 
direction of Doctor Werner Wolfe, in Chattanooga. . . . 
Paul Riviere began his work as Dean of the College, suc- 
ceeding Dean Richmond who had accepted a position as 
professor of Anatomy and Embryology at Tennessee Poly- 
technic Institute. . . . Sara Jo Emert and Olen Cole were 
designated as T.W.C. Personalities. . . . Doctor Arlo Ayres 
Brown, President of Drew University, Madison, New Jersey, 
and formerly president of The Athens School of the Univer- 
sity of Chattanooga, spoke at chapel and paid particular 
honor to the Athens Kiwanis Club for its interest in the 
development of Wesleyan. ... A contract was let to Fred 
E. Hicks and Company, of Knoxville, for the construction 
of a new gymnasium. . . . Officers for Phi Theta Kappa 
were: President, James Parton, Vice-President, Earl Cope- 

Student Activities Til 

land, Secretary, Helen Jackman, Treasurer, Betty Jones, 
Corresponding Secretary, Dean Banks, Reporter Hilda 
Gentry. . . . Tennessee Wesleyan suffered its first defeat by 
a junior college in ten years when it was beaten by South 
Georgia College 18-12. 3,000 persons attended the game 
in Douglas, Georgia. . . . Rankin Hudson joined the Wes- 
leyan staff. . . . The football team for '48 included Alex 
Williams, J. L. Hitson, Arturo Suarez, John Hanks, James 
Hoggatt, Alex Cook, Bill Blair, R. E. Ballew, Grady Gow- 
ens, J. D. Ahrend, A. J. Reeves, Ed McBroom, Jimmy 
Rawls, Charles Lanier, James Pangle, Bill Knox, Dave 
Wood, Arthur Farford, Kenneth Dixon, Tommy Coleman, 
Bill Knaffle, Russell Clements, John Heitz, Dick Rosen- 
baum, James Heath, Billy Miller, Bob Allen, Joe Douglas, 
Carl Porter, Jack Moneyhun, Carl Burnette, John Taylor, 
Billy Rob Hutson, Ted McDonald and Buck Mitchell. Mil- 
ton Hale was manager and James Fellman trainer. Coach 
Hudson was assisted by line coach Bob Matthews. A 
Wesleyan student, Farnum Rand, of Newark, New Jersey, 
was killed in a motorcycle accident. 

Rabbi Abraham Feinstein, of Ochs Memorial Tem- 
ple, of Chattanooga, gave an address on Brotherhood. 
. . . Despite unfavorable weather it was reported that the 
new gymnasium was making fairly good headway. . . . 
George Collins and Carol Covington were elected King and 
Queen of Hearts. The Reverend Paul Worley, minister of 
the Munsey Memorial Methodist Church, of Johnson City, 
and Chairman of the Inter-Board Council of the Holston 
Conference, conducted Religious Emphasis Week, January 
31 -February 4. . . . Horace McFarland, baritone, gave a 
recital May 12. . . . The Commerce Club held its last meet- 
ing for the year May 8 with Neal Ensminger as the guest 
speaker. . . . On June 6, the cornerstone for the James L. 

238 A History of Temiessee Wesleyan College 

Robb Gymnasium \vas laid. This building was made pos- 
sible by the United College Movement of the Holston 
Conference and Mrs. Annie Pfeiffer. Those taking part in- 
cluded Dr. James L. Robb, Dr. J. M. Melear, the Tennes- 
see Wesleyan Choir, under the direction of Professor Jack 
Houts, Dr. C. E. Lundy, Judge R. A. Davis, who laid the 
cornerstone. . . . Reverend J. Woodford Stone, public rela- 
tions director for the Holston Conference Colleges, spoke 
at chapel September 16. Dr. Myron F. Wicke, Secretary 
of the Department of Educational Institutions of the Meth- 
odist Board of Education, spent a day on the campus. . . . 
Henry Stamey, Helen Vestal, and Edell Hearn were desig- 
nated as T.W.C. personalities in recognition of outstanding 
leadership. . . . William L. Schirer participated in the 
Artist Series program. . . . \Vesleyan ^\'on the homecoming 
tilt and defeated St. Bernard 33-6. Betty Inman was 
cro\vncd football queen. 

The Reverend T. F. Chilcote, Jr., minister of the 
First Methodist Church, of Chattanooga, provided 
leadership for Religious Emphasis Week. . . . The Chatta- 
nooga Symphony under the leadership of Joseph Hawthorne 
ga\'e a program in December. . . . The Boston University 
Singers, under direction of Dr. James B. Houghton, visited 
the campus in January. . . . Mildred Kelley, Cecil McFar- 
land and Nancy Bailey were recognized in the personality 
parade. . . . Phi Theta Kappa elected Evelyn Hudgins, 
Bernola Melborn, Harry Norton, Mr. and Mrs. Spurgeon 
Davis and Jack MacKie as members. . . . The Home Ec 
Club with 22 members was organized. . . . Louis Freyre 
and Alma Martin were elected King and Queen of Hearts 
at the Valentine Party. ... At a successful football banquet 
with an address by Coach Ray, of Vanderbilt, Wade Hub- 
bard and Ed Sparks were designated as Co-Captains for 

Student Activities 239 

1950. . . . Launa Sutherland, Amos Callihan and Helen 
Hinds were included in the Personality recognition, . . . Mrs. 
W. A. Cook, president of the Alumni Association, an- 
nounced June 3, 1950, at 7 o'clock, as the time when all 
alumni would meet to pay special honor to President and 
Mrs. James L. Robb and to meet the president-elect. ... A 
dream of many years became a reality Tuesday, February 
21, when the James L. Robb Gymnasium, named in honor 
of President Robb in recognition of his thirty-two years of 
service to the College, seven as dean and twenty-five as 
president, was opened to the public and formally dedicated. 
. . . Miss Mary Shadow, head of the History Department at 
Wesleyan and Floterial Representative of Meigs and Rhea 
Counties spoke at the annual meeting of the General Board 
of Education May 1-4, in Cincinnati. . . . The Wesleyan 
Choir took a trip which included appearances at South 
Georgia College, Wayne Memorial Church, Jacksonville, 
Florida, Community Methodist Church, Daytona Beach, 
Bethune-Cookman College, Daytona Beach, New Smyrna 
Methodist Church, New Smyrna, Melbourne Methodist 
Church, Melbourne, Florida Southern College, and Le- 
Grange College. . . . The Boston University Singers, with 
David Giles, Wesleyan graduate, as the organist, visited the 
campus . . . Mary Alice Dennis, Bruce Sandin and Evelyn 
Hudgins were recognized for outstanding student leadership. 
. . . Members of the 1950 basketball team were Stephenson, 
Partain, Smith, Rutledge, Hogatt, Shorter, Ethel, White, 
Rosenbaum, Richardson, Inzer, Pangle, Pruner, Gate, with 
Rankin Hudson as the Coach. . . . Commencement activi- 
ties in 1950 included the giving of "The Red Mill" by the 
College Choir, under direction of A. J. Houts, Mrs. Houts 
and Levis Hampton. . . . The Commencement Address, on 
Monday, June 5, was given by the Honorable Gordon 
Browning, Governor of the State of Tennessee. . . . Kenneth 

240 A History of Ten?iessee Wesleyan College 

Toombs and Bill Knox won the Rule Essay prizes. . . . 
Kathcrine Mason and Buck Mitchell were designated May 
Queen and King. . . . Joe Whalen, Katherine Mason and 
Carl Porter were recognized for student leadership. . . . 
Dean Coe had a tennis team which included Samples, Van 
Nostrand, Hudson, Whalen, MacKie with Poole as mana- 
ger. , . . James P. Wilson joined the faculty as a member 
of the Music Department. . . . Marilyn Hunt, Harold 
Young and Norma Picard were accorded recognition for 
student leadership. . . . The biggest homecoming celebration 
in many years was celebrated. . . . Helen Pelleaux was 
designated as football queen. . . . Patsy Boggess, Janie 
Fowler and Vaughn Kuykendall were recognized as student 


Personality Parade included Lois Perry, Ken Harris 
and Ann Bogart. . . . Chapel speakers during the 
Spring Quarter included the Reverend Walter A. Smith, 
Doctor J. Homer Slutz, Reverend W. Mervin Seymour, 
Bishop Paul B. Kern, the Reverend Glenn F. Lippse, Doctor 
E. D. Worley, Reverend Frank Y. Jackson, Jr., Bob W^all- 
ace. Sue Hart and Gene Mehaffy were designated as out- 
standing personalities. Ann Hicks was the Phi Sig Sweet- 
heart. . . . Senior Class Superlatives were: Best Personality 
— Jane Martin and Bob Irwin, Most Athletic — Lois Kim- 
sey and Dale Carnes, Best Dressed — Lis Tropp and Hu- 
bert Blackburn, Best All Around — Noveita Trotter and 
Scotty Tinney, Most Likely to Succeed — Eugene Mehaffy 
and Marion Essary, Most Friendly — Alice Jo Gilliam and 
Bob Dail, Most Talented — Margaret Kesterson and Jimmy 
King, Most Popular — Ann Hicks and Philip Watkins. 
. . . Wayne Allen, Alice Jo Gilliam and Philip Watkins 
received recognition for student leadership. . . . The "Bull- 

Student Activities 241 

dogs" ended the football season with five victories and two 


Debbie Smail wrote that homecoming was a big 
success and that many alumni returned. . . . The Phi 
Sigma Nu gave a Homecoming Party. . . . Kaye Margrave 
was designated as Phi Sig Dream Girl. . . . Senior Class 
Superlatives were : Senior Beauty — Sara Barnett, Senior 
Handsome — Frank Henson, Best Personality — Jean Sharp 
and Ralph White, Most Athletic — Jean Guinn and 
Charles Stone, Best Dressed — Betty Lou Neal and Osiris 
Martines, Best All Around — Betty Haney and Don Mc- 
Elroy, Most Likely to Succeed — Hilda Remine and 
Johnny McKenzie, Friendliest — Pat Isenhower and Danny 
Hayes, Most Talented — Carolyn Robertson and Bill 
Adams, Most Popular — Kaye Margrave and Lee Asbury. 
. . . The annual reception held in October in Ritter Hall 
included the following in the receiving line: Lee Asbury, 
President and Mrs. Martin, Dean and Mrs. Riviere, Mrs. 
Richard Millard, Mrs. T. B. Donner, Mrs. C. D. Mehaffy, 
Charles O'Reilly, Mrs. and Mrs. Marvin Shadel. . . . Per- 
sonality winners in '51 were Debbie Smail, Danny Hayes, 
Janice Hixson. "Rose Marie" given under the leadership 
of Mr. Jack Houts, with Don Wolford having a leading 
part, was considered an outstanding success. . . . Student 
officers included: President of the Student Body, Lee As- 
bury, Editor of the Nocatula, Bill Adams, Vice-President 
of the Student Body, Jean Guinn, and Editor of the "Bull- 
dog," Danny Hayes. . . . Miss Margaret Kesterson won the 
Grace Moore Scholarship at the University of Tennessee. 
... At commencement time "The Man Who Came to 
Dinner" was given by Delta Psi Omega, dramatic fraternity. 
. . . The 60th anniversary of the organization of Elizabeth 
Ritter Hall was recognized by a special service at Trinity 

242 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

Methodist Church. . . . Mrs. J. N. Rhodeheaver, of Indiana, 
was the speaker. . . . The baccalaureate sermon was given 
by the Reverend Earl G. Hunt, Jr., of Morristown, and the 
commencement address by Doctor John O. Gross, Secretary 
of the Board of Education of Nashville. . . . Personalities for 
the year included Scotty Tinney, Bob Irwin, Jimmy King 
and Ann DcLozier. 


Tennessee Wesleyan Choir began its annual tour 
January 25. . . . Rabbi Feinstein visited the campus. 
. . . The organization of the Advisory Board was reported. 
. . . The Reverend Ben B. St. Clair was the speaker for 
Religion in Life Week. . , . Doris Weary, Jim McQuain and 
Kaye Margrave were recognized as student leaders. Reeves 
Bingham and Jean Sharp were designated as King and 
Queen of Hearts. . . . Johnny McKenzie, Faye Templin 
and Lawrence Clark received recognition for student lead- 
ership. . . . Don Patrick \vas elected captain of basketball 
for '52-'53. Don had scored 302 points during the season. 
. . . T.W.C. cagers were Ralph White, Johnny Atha, Don 
Patrick, Bob Alien, Bill Wilson, Chun Philhps, "Fud" Bur- 
ris, Lee Asbury, Lloyd Daugherty, David Kirk and Bob 
Gibson. . . . Charles Inzer was manager with Coach Rankin 
Hudson as mentor. . . . T.W.C. Choir gave "Naughty 
Marietta'' \\ ith Don Wolford in the lead. . . . Dallas Ander- 
son was elected president of the student body for '53-'54. 
. . . "Beanie" Anderson was elected vice-president, Chris 
Mackey as Bulldog editor, and Bob Hawk as editor of the 
Nocatula. . . . Jean Sharp, Bill Crump and Virginia Patrick 
had the honors of personality leadership. Tennessee Wesle- 
yan to Become A Four- Year School: the headlines for the 
issue Monday, November 30, 1953. . . . An editorial on the 
Long Range Development Program and Its Implications 
for the future of Tennessee Wesleyan was also headlined. 

Student Activities 243 

. . . Regenia Lawson wrote an article on another outstand- 
ing Homecoming. Ann Hutcheson, of Chattanooga, was 
crowned football queen. 


Doctor F. H. Johnson, after six months at Wesleyan, 
writes on "What Wesleyan Means to Me" in the 
light of his experience here. . . . Dallas Anderson, Anne 
Hutcheson, and Raymond McQuain were considered the 
outstanding personalities on the campus. . . . $109,000 goal 
for the Four- Year Program was reached. ... It was an- 
nounced the funds being provided by local citizens to make 
possible the transition to the senior college program. . . . 
Gus Gregory and Nadien Trotter were designated as King 
and Queen of Hearts. . . . The Reverend Elton Jones, of 
Asbury Methodist Church, in Greeneville, spent the week 
on the campus as the leader for Religion in Life Week. 
. . . Betty Jean Anderson, Marvin Webb and Edith Smalley 
joined in the Personality Parade. . . . Recognition was also 
given to Jean Riddle, Gus Gregory and Theresa Chappe- 
lear, for contributions to the life of the college. . . . Dr. Eric 
Baker, of England, gave the convocation address September 
20. Tom Sherman, of Athens, was honored by a surprise 
testimonial banquet in the college dining hall. The Presi- 
dent-Emeritus and leading citizens of Athens gathered to 
honor a local citizen who had given the substantial contri- 
bution to make possible the securing of the funds for the 
transition to the senior college. . . . Nadien Trotter was 
crowned queen for the football homecoming game. . . . 
President's Reception was given October 21 at Ritter. 
Those in the receiving line were George Flint, president of 
the student body. President and Mrs. Martin, Dean and 
Mrs. F. Heisse Johnson, Doctor Baldwin, Doctor and Mrs. 
Walle, Dean Neal, Miss Reba Parsons, Miss Mary Green- 
hoe, William McGill, Miss Catherine Baker, and Mr. and 

244 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

Mrs. Paul J. Walker, Jr. . . . Personality Parade included 
Barbara Akers and Ray Robinson. 


Three former students of Wesleyan now attending East 
Tennessee State were included in Who's Who Among Stu- 
dents in American Colleges and Universities. They were 
Lois Kimsey, Don McElroy and Doris Weary. ... At the 
football banquet, with Doctor T. J. Burton as the speaker 
and sponsored by the Athens Jaycees, it was announced 
that Virgil Whitlock and Wayne Swartout were elected 
CO - captains for 1955. . . . "Oklahoma!" was given 
by the Wesleyan Choir. . . . Doctor F. B. Shelton, Chairman 
of the Board of Trustees, was the first non-alumnus ever 
given the Alumni Key. President Martin presented this Key 
in recognition of the outstanding leadership which Doctor 
Shelton had provided as Director of Public Relations for 
the Holston Conference Colleges during the Long Range 
Development Program. . . . Mrs. H. C. Black, of Johnson 
City, long a friend of Wesleyan and former trustee, was 
recognized by having the remodeled dining hall of Ritter 
Hall dedicated in her honor. ... It was announced that 
Coach Clifton "Tip" Smith, from Bradley High School, 
had been employed as Basketball Coach as Wesleyan. . . . 
Doctor George Y. Flint, minister of the First Methodist 
Church, of \Varren, Ohio, and Doctor David A. Lockmiller, 
President of the L^niversity of Chattanooga, were the speak- 
ers at the commencement exercises. ... It was announced 
in October 1955 that the enrollment had hit a new high 
of 405 with students from Tennessee, Maryland, New 
Jersey, New York, Louisiana, Virginia, Kentucky, Florida, 
Connecticut, Massachusetts, North and South Carolina, 
and Iran, Malaya and Columbia. . . . Cheerleaders who 
had done such an outstanding job during the football season 
were recognized. They were Delores Ingram, Roma Faye 

The College's most generous benefactors 

Student Activities 245 

Harris, Jo Ann Clayton, Delores Mynatt, Rita Pearson and 
Barbara Akers. . . . President Martin announced in chapel 
that the Tennessee Wesleyan Choir has been invited to sing 
at the General Conference of The Methodist Church, 
Friday, April 27, 1956. . . . Bolton Hall received first prize 
for dormitory decorations at the Homecoming game. . . . 
The Vets Club presented an attractive bulletin board. . . . 
The Jaycees sponsored the football banquet with William 
Walkup, member of the Board of Trustees, of Knoxville, 
as speaker. 


Dwain Farmer was elected president and Jim Mc- 
Quain vice-president of the student body. . . . The Rev. 
erend Arthur H. Jones, of First Methodist Church, of 
Chattanooga, led Religion in Life Week. . . . Carol Ann 
Kennedy and Ronnie Knight were elected Miss T.W.C. 
and Mr. T.W.C. for 1956. . . . The Honor Society changed 
its name and became Alpha Beta with Richard Gilbert 
as president. . . . Floyd Simpson, father of a Tennessee 
Wesleyan graduate who lost his life on the battlefield in 
Normandy in 1944, presented the college with a flag. The 
presentation was made by Captain Richard L. Ray, of the 
Athens National Guard. . . . The basketball team ended a 
highly successful season. The team included Jim Shelby, 
Elbert Prewitt, Pat Gorman, Ronnie Knight, Joe Crabtree, 
Dwain Farmer, Doyle Fowler, Boyd Woody, Von Cook, 
Dick Mendenhall, Sam Craig, Hugh Reynolds, Ed Cart- 
wright, with Frank Duckworth as manager and Coach 
Smith as Mentor. . . . The Wesleyan Choir made several 
appearances during the General Conference of The Meth- 
odist Church in Minneapolis. . . . "The Three Musketeers" 
was presented by the Choir, on May 25-26. . . . Wesleyan 
was admitted as a member of the Smoky Mountain Confer- 
ence. . . . Coach Hudson was assisted in football by LeRoy 

246 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

Anderson and Junie Graves, assistant coaches. Claude Ca- 
tron served as captain. . . . Tennessee Wesleyan for the first 
time in its history, was recognized by including representa- 
tive students in Who's Who Among Students in American 
Colleges and Universities. Those recognized included Billy 
Aikens, Billie Dean Haley, Dortha Patricia DeLozier, Rich- 
ard Gilbert, Charles Seepe, Dolores Mynatt, Paul Starnes 
and Barbara Pickel. . . . Homecoming received the attention 
of the Alumni Association and attracted a large crowd and 
included a successful parade. . . . The Chapter of the Ten- 
nessee Poetry Society was organized. , . . Marilyn Williams, 
of Athens, was elected Sweetheart of the Veterans Club. . . . 
Howard College was the victim of the Wesleyan football 
power. . . . Mrs. Mary Nelle Jackson was recognized by 
the "Bulldog" for her outstanding contributions to Wes- 
leyan and her friendly understanding of Wesleyan students. 
. . . King Ensminger was elected president of the 
Freshman Class. 


As a part of the senior college program, the De- 
partment of Education of the College in cooperation 
with the City and McMinn County Schools initiated the 
Teacher-Training Program, under the direction of Doctor 
Alf Walle. . . . The sixty-five voice choir of Bowling Green 
State University under the direction of Doctor Paul Ken- 
nedy visited the campus January 31 and gave one of the 
most successful musical programs ever given on the Wesley- 
an campus. ... It was announced that the Wesleyan Choir 
would begin its concert tours February 3. . . . Coach 
Smith's "Bulldogs" continued at the high level of achieve- 
ment laid down the preceding year. . . . The Senior Girl 
Scouts of Athens replanted the hackberry and the oak on 
the Wesleyan campus. . . . Bowaters initiated scholarship 
program and presented a check for library enrichment. . . . 

Student Activities 247 

Louie Underwood was saluted by the "Bulldog" staff as 
was Mrs. Vera Coe, who has worked in the Library for 
several years. . . . Nancy Holman, of Randolph, Vermont, 
received recognition for her poem, "Night." It is to be 
published in Annual Anthology of College Poetry. . . . Pro- 
fessor and Mrs. A. H. Myers were recognized in February 
by the "Bulldog" staff. . . . John Withers was elected presi- 
dent of the Future Business Leaders of America. . . . Rabbi 
Meyer H. Marx, of Temple Beth-el, in Knoxville, provided 
the leadership for Brotherhood Week. . . . Student body 
officers for the year included: President, James McQuain; 
Vice-President, Ronnie Knight; Secretary, Dolores Mynatt; 
Treasurer, Billie Dean Haley; Editor of Nocatula, John 
Withers; Editor of Bulldog, Harold Hook. 


David A. Bolton 
An Autobiography 

Early Life 

My parents were Joseph Bokon, the only child of his 
parents, and Saraphina Willett Bolton, the first born of her 
parents, Joseph Willett and Susan Stout Willett. 

My parents were married in Washington County, 
Tennessee, May 1, 1845, and ever after, as long as each 
lived, made their home in that of my father's parents. 

My mother said that I began my earthly career in a 
very early hour of January 1st, 1847, in the home of my 
father and his parents. 

My paternal ancestors included the large families of 
Bowmans and Byerleys, who lived in Old Virginia, many 
of them reading and conversing in the German language. 

My maternal ancestors were pioneers of East Tennes- 
see, were of Scotch-Irish descent, as represented by the 
Willetts, Stouts and Broyleses. 

The first sixteen and a half years of my life were spent 
upon the farm — doing such chores and other work as fell 
to the lot of a boy in those days. The first school I attended 
was at McAllister's log school house, taught by my mother's 
uncle, Montgomery Stout. Later a two-story brick school- 
building was erected, much nearer my home, called Frank- 
lin Academy. Here, during a number of years, a good 
school was conducted by Misses Nan and Lou Telford. 

I well remember the first small handsewing machine, 
and the first cookstove brought into my Mother's home. 
I watched with much eagerness the building near-by my 
father's farm of the East Tennessee and Virginia Rail Road 
now the Southern Railway. Not long afterwards, I was one 
of a great company of farm-folks who assembled in Jones- 


David A. Bolton 249 

boro — the oldest town of Tennessee — to see the railway 
train come into the old town from Virginia. It was a great 
delight and revelation for a gawky and awkward country 
boy in that day to pass through the "Passenger Coaches," 
and note their provisions for conveniences and comfort to 
travellers. But it was more marvelous to look upon the 
steam engine and meditate upon its intricate machinery 
and its mighty power. 

The two sets of parents in my boyhood home were 
early risers. Their custom was, "Early to bed, and early 
to rise." This enabled me to be up soon enough to hear, 
as I often did, the blowing of the long college tin horn at 
5 o'clock in the morning at old Washington College. 

That gave me some idea of the work that was done 
for young men of the South in that famous College in the 
decade before the Civil War, 

In my home in early life there were but few books, or 
papers, nothing of fiction, story, or literature. My father 
had a book of tables used for computing interest. Beside 
this there was Fox's, Book of Martyrs, and a large and 
illustrated Bible in German — Also an English Bible. My 
uncles, Elbert Whitfield, and Washington Willett — living 
a mile from my house — were students in Washington 
College. Now and then I received from them texts on 
mental and moral science which I read in part at too early 
an age. Yet I have often thought that they formed the 
basis of a desire and delight I experienced later in studying 
books on Ethics and Philosophy. 

During a long life I have often felt the lack in early 
boyhood of books and the formation of the habit of read- 
ing. My heart goes out in sympathy for the multitudes of 
children who grow to manhood and womanhood without 
good books and a strong desire to read them. 

The Civil War between the States began in 1861. Ad- 

250 A History of Temiessee Wesleyan College 

herents to the Federal and Confederate factions were about 
equal then in East Tennessee. The common civic condi- 
tions were not much changed during the first two years. 
No forces of opposing soldiery had crossed its soil, or for- 
aged on its productions. Farms, towns and homes had not 
been made desolate by hostile marauding troops. 

But in the early Fall of 1863, conditions became very 
different. The Confederate General Buckner, who for some 
time past had with a small force held Knoxville, vacated 
that City on the approach of a larger body of soldiers under 
Federal General A. E. Burnside, who later held that place 
against a superior force. 

During many months small hostile forces foraged back 
and forth over upper East Tennessee — occasionally 
engaging in skirmishes. 

A small force of infantry was sent out by Burnside on a 
railway train and very nearly approached Jonesboro. There 
a superior force of Confederates encountered it, and in 
pushing it back toward Limestone Station, where it was 
captured, a skirmish was engaged in along the railroad, just 
north of and visible from the elevation on which was Frank- 
lin Academy. This was in October, 1863, when many 
young people had assembled at the Academy on that day 
for the opening of school. That school never gathered 
again. I was there then — in my seventeenth year. Other 
young men were there who were about my age. They were 
loyal to the United States, and for a time went to hiding 
themselves from fear of being conscripted into the Southern 
Army. The Union people of East Tennessee had great 
hopes that General Burnside would soon take permanent 
possession of the eastern Section of the State. Weeks were 
passed by them cherishing the anticipation which was not 
made real until in December 1864. General Hood's defeat 
in the battle at Nashville freed Tennessee from the control 

David A. Bolton 251 

of the Confederate Army. Guerrillas, in some places, 
continued their depredations. 

Following the disruption of the school at Franklin 
Academy, as previously related, I kept myself, a short time, 
in concealment in my father's home, except when my broth- 
er John and myself, when no enemy seemed nigh, would go 
forth to hide a few good horses we highly prized. Our 
efforts were not successful. 

About this time a feeling of unrest possessed certain 
men of the community and their friends. Such men were 
Theopolus Britton, Haze and Harv Huffman, all in middle 
life and Rev, John Rubush, a good preacher in the United 
Brethren Church — and his only child, Paul, and myself. 
The preacher and his son — a little younger than myself — 
were my near neighbors. My parents specially requested 
— if the men left the community - — that I should be put in 
charge of minister Rubush. 

We soon decided to leave our homes — we bade our 
friends adieu — believing that such changes would occur in 
the Civil War that we would not go far from our homes, or 
be gone a long time. But such was not true as the sequel 
will show. We went our way stealthily, in October 1863, to 
the home of a Union man in the Southwestern part of 
Greene County, where we remained quietly for near two 

Departure for Kentucky 

The small company of Union men, leaving their friends 
in Greene County, passed in a North westerly direction 
through the counties of Hamblen, Jefferson, Grainger, and 
Claiborne, going by night through Talbott on the Southern 
Railway, and Tazewell, and in the route crossing the rivers, 
Holston, Clinch, Powell, Cumberland Gap, we arrived late 
one evening at Barboursville, Kentucky, where we spent the 
night — occupied one small room — part sleeping as best 

252 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

they could on the floor. Our meals were served, in that 
mountain town, in a distinct log structure, with no filling 
in the chinks, a large open-fire place, an eneven dirt-floor, 
and thereon a calf and many hounds. 

This journey was unusually successful, and without 
any disturbance. We passed through an enemy's country, 
where loyal Union men on their way to the North had been 
made prisoners or shot for their fealty to the Government of 
the United States. 

Some experiences on the route were new to men who 
had been reared on the farm where life was quiet and of 
uniform character. They had not been used to night travel, 
and sleeping on floors, or in the open. Crossing in the chilly 
autumn, the mountains and swollen creeks and rivers, was 
a novelty but not always a pleasing one. Once in fording a 
swollen stream, I was on horseback with Haze HuflFman 
who was in the saddle, carrying me behind him on the same 
horse. On arriving near the opposite bank, the hind legs 
of the horse sank deep into the water and mud. So deep, 
that I slid off his rump, fortunately landing on the bank, but 
carrying in my hands part of an old overcoat worn by the 
man riding in the saddle. My rider-companion, who was 
of very jovial nature, and others, often laughed heartily 
over that incident, congratulating me on landing on solid 

Later we crossed the Cumberland River when a full 
tide was on carrying drift wood now and then. This cross- 
ing was in an obscure place — heavy wooded on each side 
of the stream. Our only way to cross over was to unsaddle 
the horses and have them swim, and put the saddles and 
several men at one time in a long but narrow skiff formed 
from the trunk of a tree. In the first load over the men 
held, or lead, two horses on the upper side of the small boat. 
Before the landing was made one horse touched the bottom 

David A. Bolton 253 

of the river with his rear feet and gave a lunge against the 
vessel which nearly upset it — greatly frightening the men. 
The other loads were taken over by placing the horses below 
the boat, and if they pulled too strong on the halter they 
were turned loose — as several were — reaching the farther 
bank much below the place of landing. 

It has long been a matter of thankfulness that I was 
not in that first load going over. I could not swim; I es- 
caped some fright. 

To Cincinnati and Indianapolis 
Leaving Barboursville the small company passed by 
foot and horseback through Corbin, London, Richmond, 
and on to Lexington, Kentucky. However, only Reverend 
Rubush, his son Paul and myself, made the run from Rich- 
mond, the others going to Crab Orchard then a center of 
supplies and soldiers of the Federal Army. 

Rev. Rubush, his son, and the writer spent a day in 
Lexington sight seeing, and then went by railway to Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, our first visit in that City, stopping during 
a Sabbath day at the Gibson Hotel. The weather was cold, 
and now and then the wind was scattering snow flakes in 
the air. During the afternoon, Paul and myself went stroll- 
ing on the streets of the City. Once when turning a corner 
we came suddenly face to face with a group of City boys 
from twelve to fifteen years of age. They were well dressed, 
and had on overcoats. Paul and myself were very different- 
ly attired. I wore coarse, rough looking shoes, had a suit 
of homewoven jeans of unusual color, a straw-hat made 
from wheat straw by a lady artist of Tennessee. So when 
the City chaps laid eyes on us, it is no wonder that they in 
one voice cried out to us, "Butternuts! Butternuts!" They 
hollowed and laughed, while Paul and myself passed on 
quietly-smiling as best we could. I shall never forget that 

254 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

"Butternut" was, in that time of 1863, a word applied 
to refugees from the South, seeking the protection of the 
Federal government. 

While in Cincinnati on Saturday night I had my first 
experience in a barber's shop, where my long hair was 
trimmed, and I was given a general clean up, paying for it 
fifty cents. 

On Monday we left Cincinnati for Indianapolis where 
we met some friends of Tennessee who had preceded us, 
they \vere John Bowen, Adam Andes, our former neighbors, 
who had left East Tennessee about one year before to avoid 
conscription into the Confederate Army. That was a joy- 
ous meeting. They and their acquaintances were very good 
to us as late refugees from Tennessee. 

My experience in Indianapolis 
I remained in the City about one month. I had no 
money, having spent all of the small amount which I had 
on leaving my home in Washington County, East Tennes- 
see. I had not the needed supply of clothing for the rig- 
orous winter. It was necessary for me to find work. I hired 
to a man who kept a wood-yard, to drive a span of gray 
horses and deliver wood, for my board and a little money. 
I delivered wood to the State College in the City, and to 

To Muncie and a Country Home 
Mr. Adam Andes, knowing that I was not doing very 
\vell hauling wood, and being well acquainted with my 
father and family, secured for me — just before Christmas, 
1863, a place in a Country home in Delaware County, 
about ten miles South of Muncie, Indiana, He had pre- 
viously spent a short time in this same home, and knew the 
family, which consisted of Joseph Shirey, his wife and two 
small children, and his wife's mother whom we called 
Grandmother Bowers ■ — a widow of fine Christian spirit 

David A. Bolton 255 

and character — Mr. and Mrs. Shirey were such also ~- 
all having come from Old Virginia, 

I arrived at Muncie in the forenoon. It was a thawing 
day and chilly. Some snow was on the ground, and the 
road was wet and muddy for a footman wearing worn 
brogans — but I walked alone out ten miles to my new 
home, arriving there about noon. 

The Shireys were looking for me. I told them who I 
was, and that Mr. Andes had sent me to them. After look- 
ing me over, Grandmother Bowers asked me if my feet 
were wet. I replied, "Yes." She, rightly decided that I had 
no change of socks, at once provided me with dry ones, and 
my feet were soon more comfortable. 

From that moment on for more than a year. Grand- 
mother Bowers and Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Shirey were as 
kind and loving toward me as my nearest kindred could 
have been. They and Adam Andes proved themselves 
"Friends indeed to me in need." 

With Shireys — December, 1863 to September, 1-864 
I remained with the Shirey family from just before 
Christmas 1863 to September 1864. From the iron mineral 
spring on their premises I drank water in abundance, I 
ate from their table which was always well supplied with 
a variety of good food. During a few months my weight 
went from 156 pounds to 184 pounds, the greatest weight 
I ever had before or since that time. 

During the unusually cold weather, I did many chores, 
such as preparing fuel, feeding and caring for horses, hogs 
and cattle, with the temperature sometimes 25 degrees 
to 30 degrees below zero. 

In the spring and summer, I performed all kinds of 
labor on the farm, and for several weeks was with a wheat 
thrasher in the neigborhood where much wheat was grown. 
Mr. Shirey gave me board and lodging paying me during 

256 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

the winter twelve dollars a month, and in the summer 
sixteen dollars. 

I went to school a short time, attended church services, 
and as many patriotic functions as possible. The Blue 
Uniform in that day was captivating, especially to a Ten- 
nessean who had never before seen so many of them. 

Soldier in the Civil War 

In the Spring of 1864, Paul Rubush came from In- 
dianapolis to work on a farm near where I was employed. 
I did not afterwards get so lonely probably home-sick. 
Paul remained during the summer. The war was still being 
waged, without any indication that it would terminate soon. 
Excitement throughout the North was high during 1864. 
Calls were made for more Federal Soldiers. To obtain them 
bounty-money was paid by Counties to secure their quota. 
Delaware County paid each man who was accepted on 
examination Five Hundred Dollars. While many young 
men of Indiana were enlisting, Paul and myself could not 
refrain from doing so. Many influences conspired to sweep 
us into the Army. So we and our good friend Michael 
Bowers, went to Indianapolis, where on September 13 th, 
1864, A. D., we were enlisted in the 25th Battery of Light 
Artillery Indiana Volunteers to serve one year, or during 
the war. My age then was 1 7 years 8 months 1 2 days, and 
I was enrolled as David Bolton. 

The captain of the Battery was Frederick C. Strum, 
then an experienced soldier. 

I remained in camp at Indianapolis for about one 
month. Up to this time the company had not received 
equipment, or uniforms, nor had it been drilled. Soon it 
had all supplies, was drilled, and hurried off to Nashville, 
Tennessee to join the army of Gen. George H. Thomas who 
was then preparing to meet the attack of Gen. John Bell 
Hood's Confederate Army, then approaching that city. 

David A. Bolton 257 

The 25th Battery was composed mainly of veterans — 
men who had served in the Federal Army as infantry-men, 
or the department of cavalry, or artillery. 

We arrived at Nashville in the last of November, 1 864, 
and encamped hard by the State penitentiary where we 
remained about fifteen days. 

Battle of Nashville 

In November 1864, the Confederate Army under Gen. 
John B. Hood re-entered Tennessee, crossed the Tennessee 
river, November 21, 1864, and marched for Nashville. An 
estimate of the strength of the armies at this time was 
Confederate, 33,393; Federal, 75,153. 

In Hood's march toward Nashville, the battle of 
Franklin was fought. Gen. Schoefield was sent to oppose 
Gen. Hood. After skirmishing at Spring Hill, Schofield 
retreated to Franklin where, on November 30, 1864, was 
fought one of the hardest and most fatal battles of the 
Civil War. Federal loss 2,326, Confederate loss 4,500. 
Schofield retreated, followed by Hood who established his 
army about two miles from Nashville on December 2nd, 

Gen. George H. Thomas had assembled a great force 
of Federals at Nashville, and on December 15th, says a his- 
torian, assaulted the Confederate lines, and was repulsed. 
The next day the assault was renewed and the Federal 
forces were victorious, and Gen. Hood retreated on the 
Franklin road. 

During this battle the 25th Indiana Battery was placed 
on a high ridge from which its long-ranged guns were used 
in throwing shells upon the enemy which replied causing 
shells to explode near the position of the Battery. No mem- 
bers of it were killed, or wounded. This was the only en- 
gagement the Battery had while in the services. 

258 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

On the March 
The Battle of Nashville on December 16th, 1864, 
from about noon to the middle of the afternoon was fierce 
and bloody. Late on that day, Hood began his retreat to- 
ward Franklin, and the forces of Gen. Thomas pursued 
him, not stopping to camp until near midnight. The 
weather was cold, and for days the slopes near the City 
were covered with sleet and ice, and all that section covered 
for the earlier hours with a very dense fog. Late at night 
following the battle, the 25th Battery stopped for camp and 
rest. All along the road that night the bodies of dead 
soldiers could be seen under the light in the hands of an 

As we were preparing for camp that night, the army 
bands gave cheering music, all in the darkness. 

The next day we passed through Franklin, and noted 
some incidents of the bloody battle fought there on Novem- 
ber 30th, 1864. Many dead horses were on the grounds, 
while forests and houses revealed the hailstorm of the 
missiles of war. 

In a short time the Battery arrived at Duck River, 
just beyond which was Columbia, "Tennessee. The river 
bridge at this place had been destroyed and the Army was 
delayed in crossing on a pontoon bridge. The weather was 
very cold and soldiers suflFered much while waiting. Men 
\\'ho were riding the horses of the Battery had their feet 
frozen in the stirrups. The descent on the north bank of the 
river was dangerous both to horses and men. A heavy 
rope-cable was placed around a large post on the top of 
the bank and one end of it attached to the rear of a caisson, 
or a cannon to hold it off the six horses and the three men 
in front. It was difficult for the horses to keep on foot, 
down the steep incline. 

By and by, all were safely over Duck River, and the 

David A. Bolton 259 

march was continued through Columbia, Lynnville and 
Pulaski, Tennessee. 

From Pulaski on the road was much worse than we had 
experienced since leaving Nashville. It was made almost 
impassable by the train of wagons carrying various supplies 
for the army. 

We camped one night just beyond Pulaski, in lo 
ground, protecting ourselves as best we could, from the 
chill and the falling rain. 

The next day we renewed our march, and at some 
point in Giles County, December 25th, 1864, overtook us. 
The stock of food for the men had been consumed, and no 
renewal was then to be had. So part of this Christmas Day 
was spent in foraging, and in camp preparing something 
to eat. The main meal was taken without bread of any 
kind, and consisted chiefly of coffee, and goosemeat and 

Resuming the march, it was continued, without any 
unusual incidents, towards Huntsville, Alabama. 

The Stay at Huntsville 

The 25th Battery arrived at Huntsville early in Jan- 
uary 1865, and remained there about one month probably. 
Huntsville in that day was a small and beautiful town, 
having a very large spring of water gushing out from the 
base of cliff in the City. The banks of the stream for some 
distance were made of rock making a fine place for water- 
ing stock. We often took the horses of the Battery there 
for water. It was a beautiful and abundant supply of water 
coming out of the ridge and foothills near by. 

Near the close of our stay in Huntsville, the orders 
came to take the horses away, and place the Battery on 
garrison duty at old Decatur, Alabama. So the change 
was made, perhaps, in February, and the men and guns 
and supplies were sent by railway to Decatur, situated on 

260 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

the South bank of the Tennessee River. There the Battery 
with a few other forces remained until peace was declared, 
bringing to a close the Civil War. 

The sojourn of a few months at Decatur was monoto- 
nous except as broken by contests in swimming across the 
river, and by the news of the assassination of Abraham 
Lincoln, President of the United States of America, in 
Ford's Theater, Washington, D. C, on the evening of 
April 14, 1865, by Wilkes Booth, "an actor and fanatical 
secessionist." Lincoln was shot and died the next morning. 

The Lincoln tragedy cast an indescribable gloom over 
the people of the northern states, and the entire Federal 
Army yet in service. The forces at Decatur were almost 
prostrate with grief by the sudden cut off of a President 
whom the entire soldiery greatly loved. Some soldiers were 
enraged ; others were humiliated and despondent. It seemed 
to me the greatest sadness that ever came into my young 
manhood. I had never seen Lincoln yet I admired him. 

The Civil War 
"The actual outbreak of the war is dated from April 
12, 1861; Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated for Second 
term as President of United States on March 4, 1865; Gen. 
Lee surrendered to Gen. Grant at Appomattox on April 
26, 1865; within two months more all the Confederate 
forces had laid down their arms." 

Homeward Bound 

Soon after the declaration of peace the 25th Battery 
received orders to return to Indianapolis, Indiana, to be 
discharged from the service. This was probably the last 
of June 1865. This prospect brought much joy to all, but 
to none quite so much as to myself and Paul Rubush, the 
only Tennesseans, who now had hope of getting back to 
their homes in Eastern Tennessee. 

On leaving Decatur the Battery went to Nashville, 

Teacher, Trustee, College Historian 

David A. Bolton 261 

Tennessee, by railroad, and there deposited all equipment 
of war. From there it went to Indianapolis, where, on 
July 20, 1865, each man received his discharge as a soldier 
from the Federal Army. 

After purchasing some clothing for use by an American 
citizen, I soon left on train for Muncie, Indiana, and in due 
time was in my adopted home with Mr. Joseph Shirey and 
family, whom I was glad to meet again for their kindness 
to me. 

I had loaned Shirey some money, and desired to collect 
same before starting for my home in Tennessee. It was now 
about last of July 1865, and while in the Shirey home I 
was taken with chills and ague, incident to that country, 
and was detained there for a fortnight. This was my first 
experience with chills. I had seen babies chill, and soldiers 
chill and shake while on the march, and wondered how 
they kept their place in the army. 

About August 5, 1865, I bade adieu to the Shirey 
family, and by way of Muncie returned to Indianapolis, 
where I was joined by Paul Rubush. Then he and I soon 
left that city for our respective parental homes in the Vol- 
unteer State, passing through Louisville, Kentucky, Nash- 
ville, Chattanooga, and Knoxville, Tennessee, arriving at 
Telford on August 9, 1865, late in the afternoon. The ride 
from Nashville was long and rough. The railway track and 
cars were in need of repair. We and others rode most of 
the route in a box-car with no accommodation except a few 
rickety old benches. We were from ten p.m. August 8th 
to four p.m. August 9th in making the run from Chattanoo- 
ga to Telford on the East Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia 
Rail Road. 

That which most engaged our thought was getting to 
our homes among the hills, which now seemed higher than 

262 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

On the afternoon of my leaving the train, I walked 
down the Little Limestone Creek valley, about two miles to 
my old home, the home of my boyhood and manhood — 
which, under very peculiar circumstances, I had left twenty- 
two months before. I had enjoyed during that time good 
health, having no sickness except the chills and ague. God 
had been good to me, and all the dear ones at home, from 
whom, during long periods, no letters reached me, and mine 
could not get to them, because of the hostile armies between 

But I was at home once more ! My Mother first met me 
between the spring and the old home with its white walls 
and green shutters. Blessed Home ! Happy meeting of par- 
ents, brothers and sisters — all there ! 

John Ho\\ard Payne blessed many hearts when he 
sang, "Home, Sweet Home," saying, 

'"Mid pleasures and palaces though we may roam. 
Be it ever so humble, there's no place like home; 

A charm from the skies seems to hallow us there, 

Which, seek through the world, is ne'er met with 

Home, home, sweet, sweet, home, 

Be it ever so humble, there's no place like home." 

Desolation Due to Civil War 
The waste and ruin to homes and farms in East Ten- 
nessee was very great. The Bolton farm at the beginning of 
the Civil War was very productive and well supplied for 
that day with sheep, hogs, cattle and horses. Before I left 
home, each army foraged over a large portion of the eastern 
part of the State. My brother John and myself in the Fall 
of 1863, made every effort to save from Confederate forces, 
six good horses, especially two which we prized very highly, 
and thought one day we had them safely concealed. But 

David A. Bolton 263 

in short time a few cavalry men passed the home leading 
our favorite horses. We felt keenly our loss. 

At the close of the War the farm was wholly without 
live stock. By slow processes and sacrifice that most needed 
for support of the family was soon secured. During two 
years the usual crops had not been produced. People were 
short of provisions — some of which could not be secured, 
such as sugar, coffee, tea and other articles which could 
not be grown there. Many citizens grew sugar cane and 
made sarghum, and devised a so-called substitute for coffee 
from parched wheat, or particles of sweet potatoes. Poor 
makeshifts for the genuine goods! While I had a great va- 
riety of good food in Indiana, my home-folks and others in 
East Tennessee were subsisting on scanty rations. 

No one knows the privations and sufferings of those 
war-time-years in East Tennessee, except those who experi- 
enced them. 

The foregoing lines but vaguely describe the conditions 
when I returned home. The country had been wasted by 
forces of opposing armies into which many boys, young 
men and old men, had gone to fight against each other. 
Families and communities often had representatives in each 
army, while at home were scouts, or marauding bands on 
each side. These conditions made civic life tense, critical, 
and unfriendly, which did not cease when the war ended. 

The material surroundings and the spiritual influences 
about my old home were not as favorable as they were be- 
fore the beginning of hostilities. 

The fact was, I was at home. What should I do? What 
could I do? During the years of my absence, I had saved 
a few hundred dollars in Federal money. That was needed 
by my parents, and it served them. 

I was just a little past eighteen and a half years of age, 
and desired to resume my education, but being the oldest 

264 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

child of my parents, my first duty was to aid them in their 
time of need, which I did in both labor and money. 

Desire for an Education 

Why I desired, at an early age, an education I do not 
know. It may be I did not, I may have attributed impres- 
sions of later years to those sooner gone by. Any way, here 
are a few facts. 

My home was not supplied with books, or literature 
adapted to a growing boy. My mother had three brothers, 
Elbert, Whitfield, and Washington Willett, whose home 
\\'as near mine, and who \v(^yc students in Washington Col- 
lege which could be seen in part from my father's farm. I 
now and then, \vhen a boy, met them in their place of study 
at home with books and papers. As soon as I could write 
and knew a little arithmetic, I kept the accounts of an old 
blacksmith, near my home, who could neither read nor 
write. ^Vhilc in the army, I was often requested, by soldiers 
older than myself, to write letters to their friends. 

The foregoing truths, and influences lead me to this 
conclusion, "If I ever get home, I will seek more training 
and education." 

At Laurel Hill Academy 
On September 4, 1865, I entered Laurel Hill Academy 
which was about five miles from my father's home, and 
vSouth east therefrom not far from the mountains. The 
principal. Professor Henderson Presnell, a brother of my 
class-mate, in 1872, Alexander Mathes Presnell, had taught 
there before the Civil War. In later years, he was superin- 
tendent of schools of Washington County, and died in 
Washington, D. C, where he had long been in the Educa- 
tional Department of the LInited States. He ^vas a gradu- 
ate of Emory and Henry College in Virginia, a Christian 
gentleman and an exemplary teacher. He \vas born a 
teacher, wide awake, kind, genial, much interested in his 

David A. Bolton 265 

pupils. When students were slow in replies, he often cried 
out, what I never forgot, "Tempus Fugit!" Tempus 
Fugit!" "Time Flys!" "Time Flys!" 

There were in this school in 1865-1866, the following 
young men, beside myself, who had served, as soldiers in 
Federal Army. W. Calvin Keezle, Adam Broyles, W. E. 
F. Milburn. During this year I was a student in Arithmetic, 
Algebra, Geometry, English and Chemistry. On March 1, 
1866, I was forced to leave school because of another attack 
of chills, and a failing in my eyes. I returned home and 
spent the spring and summer of 1866 in recuperation and 
work on the farm. In September 1866 I again entered the 
same school, where I remained the full year, I began the 
study of Latin at Laurel Hill. 

During the two years at Laurel Hill, the writer and the 
following, Cal and Jake Keezle, David Miller and Adam 
Broyles kept "Bachelor's Hall," we lived in a cottage and 
prepared our own meals, except what was brought ready for 
use, from our respective homes. Those were days of work 
and study, yet were full of joys of life. 

I passed the summer of 1867 at home, and at work on 
the farm, still feeling that I ought to go to school longer. 

At Franklin Academy 

Professor Presnell retirccf from school at Laurel Hill 
and taught some years in Jonesboro. His former students 
separated to various places. 

At the opening of the scholastic year of 1867-1868, I 
put myself in the Franklin Academy, near my home on a 
hill overlooking the old Earnest Chapel of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church in the bend of the Little Limestone 
creek. I remained in school here the entire year. The school 
was large , and well conducted by the principal Reverend 
Professor, A. R. Bennick, who had recently taught a few^ 

266 A History of Tennessee yVesleyan College 

years at Johnson City, and because of his popularity there 
many of his students follov/ed him to FrankHn. 

I there continued the study of Latin, reading the writ- 
ings of Cicero and Horace, and began the study of Greek. 
The instruction, fellowship, and interest in the work of the 
literary society was encouraging and helpful. 

I spent part of the summer of 1868 on the farm. I was 
impressed that I should do something to help support my- 
self, and not go to school next year. So I canvassed for sale 
of books, but did not succeed. Then I decided to secure a 
position to teach school. 

My First Experience in Teaching 
During the fall and winter of 1868-1869, I made an 
effort to teach my first schools. I taught first a five-month 
school in Miller's church on Jockey Creek, one and a half 
miles from where it empties into Big Limestone creek. This 
was a subscription school. I boarded with my father's 
uncle, Henry Bolton, who lived near the Church. One night 
about 2 A. M. this good uncle called me out of my bed and 
sleep to witness my first meteoric shower in the northern 
heavens. I never before had seen anything equal to it. 

My second school was taught in the early months of 
1869 in Williams school house on the east slope of the 
ridge north-east of my boarding place. These schools were 
of primary grade, yet I presumed to teach one pupil in 
Practical Arithmetic, and another in Mental Science. 

However, I was not discouraged in my hrst experience 
in teaching school, but found interest in the text-books, 
the pupils, and the government of them. I found in each 
hard tasks, and amusements. 

Eventful Summer of 1869 
I was again on the old farm which always gave its 
events of labor, food, service and good will, and good fellow- 
ship. Many times during a long life have I been thankful 

David A. Bolton 267 

for the lessons on work and helpfulness taught on the farm 
and in the home, during boyhood and early manhood. 
Eventful! Yes, Much So! 

During this summer, my mother's oldest brother, a 
graduate of Emory and Henry College, Virginia, late a 
Colonel in the Confederate Army, now a lawyer in Carrol- 
ton, Alabama, Elbert Decatur Willett - — visited my mother 
in Washington County, Tennessee. He and I were horseback 
riding one day to his old home about one mile away. He in- 
troduced and continued a talk on education, and asked me 
what I aimed to do. I was not decided, really had no plan 
for my life. I replied, "I must quit going to school, and take 
up farming." He soon said, "You ought not to do that, you 
have a good start for college." We rode on a short time in 
silence, when he said, "Get ready to go to college until you 
are graduated and I will loan you the money you need, and 
you can have all the time you desire in which to pay it 

This was a difficult problem to a young man who had 
been reared to avoid making a debt. I said to him, I will 
consider your advice and offer of a loan. Eventful ! Yes, in- 
tensely so. I stood at the divide of two roads, one leading 
to the farm, the other to college. Which should I take? In 
the meantime, two visitors came to the home of my parents 
in my behalf, each having for my 'life the same goal. One 
was W. E. F. Milburn who had been in school with me at 
Laurel Hill, and was the preceding year in the college at 
Athens, Tennessee, the other was Rev. W. H. Rogers, an 
aged member of the Holston Annual Conference, and the 
financial agent of .the East Tennessee Wesleyan University, 
founded there in 1866 by the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
The advice of these two friends and that of my good uncle 
combined in bringing me to a decision to enter the Univer- 
sity at Athens. 

268 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

So I supplied myself with clothing and money for a 
year and late in August 1868 went to Athens for purpose of 
entering the University. 

A Student at Athens from August 1869 to June 19, 1872 

I remained a few days in the family of Mitchel Gaston 
on Washington Street nearly opposite the old Methodist 
Church. Then, W. E. F. Milburn, Alexander M. Presnell 
and myself went to the home of William Howard, adjacent 
to the Cedar Grove Cemetery, where we boarded until 
June 1870. The residence was a two-story brick situated on 
a knoll with a spring and large oaks hard by. In our room 
each evening, by turns, a selection of the Scriptures was 
read and prayer was offered. 

During this first year, I applied myself diligently to the 
proper activities of the college, such as study of text books 
and work in the literary society; so much so that I lost near 
thirty pounds in my weight. 

I continued the classical course of study, reading both 
Latin and Greek. But the subjects which greatly interested 
me, as taught by that great teacher and ripe scholar, Rev. 
Nelson E. Cobliegh, D.D., the President, was Mark Hop- 
kins, "Law of Love and Love as a Law," and Noah Porter's 
"Human Intellect." I highly prize these books, and have 
gone to them often during the fifty-six years they have been 
in my small library. 

"I love my books! they are companions dear, 
Sterling in worth, in friendship most sincere." 

While a student , I spent the Christmas holidays in 
Athens, and the summer vacation on the old farm. 

The summer of 1870 gave me great concern on two 
points, first about my return to college, second, what should 
I take up for my life work. 

From a diary kept that summer, I give the following 
quotations ; 

David A. Bolton 269 

Sunday, June 25, 1870 — I have thought today about 
my future Hfe. My great desire is to do some good. My 
want of means is an embarrassment. If I was only through 
college ! 

Monday, August 1, 1870 — I took my horse (one my 
father and his father gave me) to Limestone and sold him 
to J. B. Barkley for $140 cash and returned home on foot. 
I think now I am prepared for another year in college. — 
My hopes grow brighter. 

Tuesday, August 30, 1870 — I leave home this morn- 
ing with $156 for Athens. My father and grandfather are 
affected. This is a drawback to me. 

Monday, September 12, 1870 — Athens. I received a 
short letter from my uncle, E. D. Willett, Carrolton, Ala., 
saying, "I am glad you have gone to college again, that is 
the place to lay the foundation for future usefulness." 

On my arrival in Athens I found the teachers of the 
last year in their places, — Dr. N. E. Cobleigh, President, 
Rev. J. C. Barb, Mathematics; Rev. J. J. Manker, Greek; 
Edwin A. Atlee, Latin; Miss Helen Bosworth, music; Miss 
Margarita M. Hauschild, English; (now Jan. 12, 1926, all 
dead, except Miss Hauschild who is now the widow of the 
late Rev. E. M. Smith, D.D., and living with her daughter 
at 1669 Overton Park Ave., Memphis, Tennessee.) 

Many former students were students again. All my 
classmates returned. 

During years 1870-1871, and 1871-1872, I boarded in 
the home of Mrs. Atlee, the widow of the late Rev. Edwin 
A. Atlee, and her widowed daughter Mrs. S. C. Luter, and 
sons B. G. and Edwin A. Junior, a most excellent Christian 
family. No peculiar incident came into my second year in 
college except one noted in connection with the close of my 
last and third year in college. 

270 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

Methodist Convention at the University 
This convention met June 15-19, 1871. It was com- 
posed of representatives from Methodist Episcopal Churches 
in the middle west, the eastern states and specially from 
the Southern States. The purpose was to advance the in- 
terests of the Church and its education in the South. Per- 
haps the ablest paper read to the convention was that by 
Rev. E. Q. Fuller, D. D., then editor of "The Methodist 
Advocate," published at Atlanta, Ga., on "The Relations 
of the East Tennessee Wesleyan University to the Pros- 
perity of our Work in the South." The author and the 
convention favored only one University in the South for 
white people and that one the University at Athens, Ten- 
— See Pamphlet of published proceedings of Convention. 

First Class — 1871 — Graduated 
One of the most interesting functions of the University 
was the graduation of its first class on June 14, 1871, com- 
posed as follows: Edwin A. Atlee, John Henry Clay Foster, 
Joseph L. Gaston, Wiley S. Gaston, Josephine Gaston, 
Cornelia Atlee, John J. Manker, Mary J. Mason, W. E. F. 
Milburn, Susan Lizzie Moore. 

1871 — Junior Class 

David Alexander Bolton, Marshall Monroe Callen, 
Samuel Silas Curry, Alexander Mathes Presnell, John O. 

Last Year in University 

This year opened August 31, 1871, myself and all mem- 
bers of my class present. Their determination to complete 
the course encouraged me, as did also the loan of money 
tendered by my worthy uncle. The Faculty was unchanged. 
During part of this year I taught a class in Greek to pay 
my tuition. During this year I kept a more complete diary 
of incidents and experiences in my personal career. 

David A. Bolton 271 

On May 8, 1872, I received a letter from my old 
home with a request from my grand-father, David Bolton, 
to come to his bedside as he was sick and did not expect 
to recover. I was by his bed early next morning. He died 
May 12th; funeral next day and interment made in Lime- 
stone Cemetery of the Dunkard Church of which he had 
been a member for many years. I remained until May 25th 
when I returned to Athens to complete my senior year, now 
so near its close, on June 19, 1872. 

The commencement exercises. Dr. N. E. Cobleigh, 
President presiding, were held during the forenoon on the 
third floor of the first -and only building at that day on the 
campus. The places of honor on the program were "Saluta- 
tory" and "Valedictory," given to the two members of the 
class having the highest grades during the collegiate years, 
the highest determining who should give the valedictory 
oration, which now fell to S. S. Curry. The Salutatory went 
to D. A. Bolton. 

The class of 1872 was made up as follows: — David 
Alexander Bolton, Telford, Washington County; Marshall 
Monroe Callen, Thorn Grove, Knox County; Samuel Silas 
Curry, Chatata, Bradley County; James Milton Patterson, 
Ten Mile, Meigs County; Alexander Mathes Presnell, 
Brownsboro, Washington County. 

All were from homes of good common people in East 
Tennessee ; each received the degree of A.B. — Bachelor of 
Arts ; each was, and had been for years, an active Christian 
in the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

Immediately following an alumni address, in the col- 
lege chapel of that day, before a large audience, occurred the 
marriage of David Alexander Bolton and Miss Ann Eliza- 
beth Hornsby; Dr. Nelson E. Cobleigh officiating, assisted 
by Rev. John W. Mann, D.D. The special attendants were 
by couples, Prof. Edwin A. Atlee and Miss Nannie Gibson ; 

272 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

Joseph L. Gaston and Miss Mattie Rider; Marshall M. 
Callcn and Miss Helen Bosworth; Alexander M. Presnell 
and Miss Mary Mason; M. Mack Fitzgerald and Miss 
Florence Fisher; Prof. W. E. F. Milburn and Miss Mar- 
garita M. Hanschild. 

The marriage ceremony being concluded, the bridal 
party and a fe\v friends, went to the corner of Green and 
Gollege Streets, the home of the bride's parents. Major and 
Mrs. James H. Hornsby, for a supper. Near midnight the 
bride and groom boarded a train for Telford, Tennessee, 
\vhere we arrived in the early morning, and met that day 
in the old home a large number of friends and neighbors, 
and appreciated their congratulations. 

The Year in Washington County 
On June 20, 1872, myself and wife, with the consent of 
my parents, took our places as members of their family. 
My father and mother were then living, as were my three 
brothers, John F., Elbert V., Henry W., and two sisters, 
Susan Caroline, and Alice Florine, none of them married. 
During the year peace, love and happiness prevailed. 

In August I began teaching a school at Franklin Acad- 
emy, nearby, where I had been a student in other years. 
Tw enty-six pupils were enrolled at first, which number was 
increased during the winter. The school was never satis- 
factory, cither in attendance, or salary. So after its close 
in April 1873, myself and wife were prospecting for another 
position but I had not accepted any offer. 
In the meantime our first child was born on May 15, 1873, 
and named Ophie May. 

At the meeting of the Board of Trustees of the Univer- 
sity at Athens, on May 28, 1873, I was elected a member 
of the Faculty for the next year at a salary of $600 of which 
I was promptly notified by my good friend Jacob S. Mat- 
thews, Secretary of the Board. As I had made no applica- 

David A. Bolton 273 

tion, this election to teach in my Alma Mater came as a 
great surprise to me and my dear wife. Her father, a trustee, 
was doubtless a great factor in my election, which brought 
great joy to me and to her. To her it meant going back to 
home-folks and many dear friends ; to me it was the solution 
of a perplexing problem in my life by taking me back 
among friends, who knew my reputation and character for 
righteous living. So our hearts were gladdened with the 
decision of returning to Athens. The call seemed provi- 

Major James H. Hornsby kindly offered us a home 
in his family without expense for one year. Therefore, on 
July 9, 1873, my wife with our first born babe, returned to 
her parental home, while I remained making a few col- 
lections on my subscription school accounts. 

Places Where Myself and Family Resided: 
In Athens, Tennessee. 

In 1873-1874, with the family of my father-in-law. 
Major James Hornsby, at corner of Green and College 

We began housekeeping near corner of Church and 
Bank Streets, in old log structure West of a new brick house 
erected by William Turner, in August 1874, and remained 
there until November 1874. 

Then we moved to North Hill Street about middle 
of block north of Washington Street on the West side. 
This was an inferior structure, not by any means attractive, 
or comfortable in cold weather. The winter while here, in 
1876-1877, was very cold, once about 24 degrees below 
zero. There our twin boys were born, July 19, 1877. 

In August 1877, we rented the widow Urey property 
eastern corner of College Street and Black Alley, later 
named Long Street, and the family soon occupied it — 
placing me near the University and my wife near her par- 

274 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

ents home. We remained there four years ; have lived seven 
years in very inferior rented property. 

In October 1881, my wife and I contracted for and 
purchased our first and only earthly home of Rev. John 
W. Mann, D. D., and his wife, a lot fronting near 132 feet 
on Jackson Avenue, and about 270 feet on South side of 
College Street, lying South of College Campus. On this lot 
was a two-room one story brick with three small rooms in 
the rear made of boards placed vertically. Into this the 
father and mother with five children moved in November 

There the family resided until the summer of 1889, 
when the Grant Memorial University at Athens, and the 
Chattanooga University were united and placed under the 
same management. I was elected Professor of Mathematics 
in the department at Chattanooga. At this time I had 
secured and paid for an architect's plans for a nice home on 
the Mann lot. I sacrificed all, and in summer of 1889 took 
my family to Chattanooga where we lived in low-rent prop- 
erty on Vine Street on Fort Wood for three years before be- 
ing sent back to Athens 1892 to resume my work there as 
Professor of Mathematics. Parents and children were glad to 
go back to the old home-place, and into a new cottage on 
corner of College and Long Streets, built while we lived in 
Chattanooga. There the family dwelt until the fall of 
1898, when it occupied the new two-story ten-room frame 
house, built during late spring and summer of 1898, on the 
site of the old house on the Mann-lot when it was pur- 

Keeping Boarders 
Upon the insistence of my good and faithful wife, the 
family furnished board and lodging, or only meals, at each 
place it resided in Athens, generally to students or teachers 
before the time of boarding halls on the college campus. 

David A. Bolton 275 

After getting into the large new home, rooms and 
meals were given during a few years to a limited number 
of transient, or travelling men. In this way some money was 
saved to pay in part a small debt made in building. 

The Call to Teach — Continuance Therein 

In May 1873, the Board of Trustees elected me to 
teach Matematics in my Alma Mater, the East Tennessee 
Wesleyan University, at Athens, Tennessee. I accepted, 
and taught Mathematics in year 1873-1874. 

During the next two years, by appointment, I taught 
Latin and Greek. 

Then by election, I taught Mathematics from 1876 
to 1889, a total of thirteen years. 

Then following the union of the two Universities, I 
was transferred to Chattanooga where I taught the same 
subject during three years. 

From September 1892 to June 1920 — 28 years — at 
Athens, I taught Mathematics, chiefly, sometimes I taught 
classes in Ethics and History of Philosophy. 

I have taught, consecutively, forty-seven years in the 
same institution. 

In June 1920, I was put in Emeritus Relation, with no 
classes to teach, but retained a member of Faculty at Athens 
during five years on a small pension, thus giving me the 
relation of teaching in the same Institution during a period 
of fifty-two years, preceded by three years of experience as 
a student, beginning at Athens in August 1869, a grand 
total of fifty-five years, including many years as Secretary 
of the Faculty, and some years as a trustee and secretary 
of the Board of Trustees of the University at Athens. 

Relationship to My Teachers and to Faculties 
One of the good experiences of a student is his pleasant 
relations to his teachers. During my early years when a 
student in the public schools or the Academy, I cherished a 

276 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

proper regard and respect for my instructors, believing they 
were my helpers toward a better and higher way of living. 

This was specially true when I entered the University 
at Athens. There I had a high appreciation of my teachers. 
True, the lessons were hard, and the requirements of teach- 
ers often seemed exacting. This was particularly true of 
work required by Dr. N. E. Cobleigh, President of the Uni- 
versity, when in reading Homer, he required each member 
of the class to bring each day a good written translation of 
the previous lesson. Then his assignment for lessons in 
Latin and in Greek seemed great. One day he spoke of it 
before the class, saying, "Young men, if you can endure 
this pressure now, you need not fear work that may come to 
you later." 

During my long service as a teacher at Athens and 
Chattanooga, it was one of my greatest pleasures to be 
associated with about one hundred Professors — probably 
sixty men and forty women, — each one, as I believe 
earnestly engaged in doing the best possible things for those 
who were their pupils. I was much helped by the associa- 
tion and fellowship of my fellow teachers. 

I especially appreciated their counsel, during the years 
at Athens, when as Vice President of the University, or 
acting Dean, it was my duty to act as Chairman of the 
Faculty and keep watch on the discipline of the students. 

During many years I have held in grateful memory 
the wisdom and support of the good men and "noble 
women" of those times so greatly worthwhile to the lives of 
young men and women. 

Experience and Importance of Teaching 
Early in my experience as a teacher I saw the import- 
ance of knowmg well the subject being taught, the pupil 
to be taught, and what makes the teaching process effectual. 
Here are three essentials of the true teacher — himself, his 

David A. Bolton 277 

pupil and what it is to teach. These lead me to a diligent 
study of books on teaching from which I obtained more 
valuable information than I received from teachers' 

I was much helped by a definition of teaching given 
by the author of a book I read when he said "Teaching is 
causing another to know;" and then adding, in substance, 
telling a thing, or talking is not at all times teaching. The 
teacher in the act of teaching is a mediator, or middleman 
— between the subject being taught, and the student to be 
taught. The teacher must know what he is trying to teach, 
and the necessary activities of the learner that he may be 
taught. Thus equipped the teacher's efforts bring into a 
state of fusion the thoughts of the pupil and the thought 
in the subject being taught. Such is teaching, a condition 
of paramount importance. 

The duly exacting teacher in the class-room is often 
unpopular with students who think his requirements are too 
rigid, although they may not be more so than truth and 
life demand. This demand arises generally from the fact 
that the teaching process calls the student to a higher and 
an unusual mental activity. 

Three Great Fields of Activity and Service 
During many years, my life and energies were devoted 
to three regions of activities — 1, My Family, 2, The 
Church, 3, The College. 

I served the College, the cause of education, as here- 
in previously related — for more than fifty years, laboring 
earnestly and devotedly for the cause of Christian Educa- 
tion, by teaching, by character, and by daily life endeavor- 
ing to enrich and equip the lives of young men and young 
women for much worth while service in later years. 

During more than half a century, I was interested in 

278 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

the welfare of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Athens, 
Tennessee, often failing to do my full duty due it. 

This Church, its membership, worshipped, from 1863 
to 1910, in five different buildings, three of them being 
rented for Church services. In October 1910, the members 
of said church and its friends first found a permanent home 
and place of worship in the new, beautiful, and commodi- 
ous temple at corner of Jackson Avenue and College Street, 
located adjacent to and South East of the Campus of the 
College of said Church. 

I served for many years as Secretary of the Board of 
Trustees of the Church; and was for thirty-five years 
Superintendent of its Sunday School. 

Since March 1924, I have been teacher of the Judge 
Brown Men's Bible Class. 

4f * * 

My Marriage 

During my first year in college at Athens as a student, 
I devoted myself studiously to rank high as a student. The 
primary purpose was good scholarship. I was regular in 
attendance upon Sunday School and Church services, and 
the public activities of the university and of the Athenian 
Literary Society, I did not call upon any young lady or 
frequent social functions in the homes in that day. 

I noted the regular attendance on services in the church 
of a certain young woman of beautiful carriage and form 
with very praise-worthy conduct. Near the beginning of 
my second year in the university, I sought and found her 
company in the home of her parents. Major James H. 
Hornsby and his wife, at corner of Green and College 
Streets. This was the beginning of an association which 
grew into real love of each for the other, and later into 
courtship and marriage of David A. Bolton and Ann 

David A. Bolton 279 

Elizabeth Hornsby, each being the first born of their 
respective parents. 

The marriage was a pubHc one, and occurred on the 
third floor of the Old Administration Hall of the university 
before a large audience, following the first address to 
Alumni given by Professor Edwin A. Atlee, A.B., Class of 
1871, first class from University. The second class consist- 
ing of five young men from East Tennessee, each a member 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, the writer being one 
of them, was graduated, during forenoon of June 19, 1872. 

The marriage ceremony was performed by Rev. Nelson 
E. Cobleigh, D.D., LL. D., closing a four year period as 
President of East Tennessee Wesleyan University, assisted 
by Rev. John W. Mann, D.D., my personal friend, who 
was during many years, a member of the Holston Confer- 
ence which was instrumental in founding the University 
at Athens. 

After a special supper in the home of Major Hornsby 
with a few friends, the bride and groom boarded a train on 
Southern Railway for the home of the groom's parents in 
Washington County, East Tennessee, where the newly 
married ones spent a very happy year, his wife helping in 
the work of a farmer's home, and the husband doing many 
kinds of work on the farm during the summer and teaching 
school near by during the winter of 1872-1873. 

While passing through a period of uncertainty as to 
where I would teach another year, the call came to me to 
teach in my Alma Mater. I and my dear wife, who was 
now mother of our first-born, very joyfully accepted, and 
before the summer was ended we were, by invitation, in 
the home of her parents, where we continued during the 
scholastic year 1873-1874. 

We have here another year of happiness together — 

280 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

she with her father and family and friends and I starting in 
what turned out to be a long period of teaching in the same 
institution, from 1873 to 1920, 47 years in active work as a 

Appendix 281 


PANEL OF 1957 

Earl Blazer Maryville, Tennessee 

C. A. Brabston Newport, Tennessee 

Fred C. Buck Abingdon, Virginia 

Grover C. Graves Athens, Tennessee 

Fred B. Greear Norton, Virginia 

H. D. Hart Oak Ridge, Tennessee 

Mark M. Moore Elizabethton, Tennessee 

Roy H. Short.-.- Nashville, Tennessee 

George H. Smith Knoxville, Tennessee 

W. D. Sullins - Athens, Tennessee 

PANEL OF 1958 

J. A. Bays Oak Ridge, Tennessee 

R. A. Brock Chattanooga, Tennessee 

C. E. Lundy Chattanooga, Tennessee 

E. V. Richardson Marion, Virginia 

S. B. R)'mer, Jr - Cleveland, Tennessee 

W. M. Seymour Chattanooga, Tennessee 

Lynn Sheeley Morristown, Tennessee 

Charles C. Sherrod Johnson City, Tennessee 

W. S. Steele - Johnson City, Tennessee 

William C. Walkup Knoxville, Tennessee 

PANEL OF 1959 

Robert C. Burton Kingsport, Tennessee 

R. H. Duncan Knoxville, Tennessee 

D. Trigg James -Johnson City, Tennessee 

Carrie R. Kirk Greeneville, Tennessee 

R. R. Kramer Maryville, Tennessee 

John A. Messer, Jr Galax, Virginia 

Mrs. H. M. Russell Tazewell, Virginia 

*F. B. Shelton Emory, Virginia 

R. G. Waterhouse Knoxville, Tennessee 

W. Paul Worley Atlanta, Georgia 

PANEL OF 1960 

Robert W. Flegal. - Rossville, Georgia 

Harley Fowler Knoxville, Tennessee 

C. P. Hardin Chattanooga, Tennessee 

H. Olin Troy.-- Bristol, Virginia 

Hebron Ketron Athens, Tennessee 

Carroll H. Long Johnson City, Tennessee 

W. N. Neff --- Abingdon, Virginia 

R. O. VanDyke Tazewell, Virginia 

E. E. Wiley, Jr Kingsport, Tennessee 

E. D. Worley- Johnson City, Tennessee 

*Deceased April 28, 1957 

282 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

LeRoy A. Martin Athens, Tennessee 


Herbert G. Stone Kingsport, Tennessee 

M. C. Weikel Cleveland, Tennessee 

Rhea Hammer Athens, Tennessee 

Tom SheiTnan Athens, Tennessee 


*F. B. Shelton Chairman 

Hebron Ketron Vice-Chairman 

Harley Fowler Secretary 


Hebron Ketron, Chairman Carroll H. Long 

Harley Fowler, Secretary Mark M. Moore 

J. A. Bays Mrs. H. M. Russell 

R. H. Duncan Roy H. Short 

Grover C. Graves W. D. Sullins 

C. P. Hardin *F. B. Shelton 

R. R. Kramer William C. Walkup 

Miss Muriel Day 


LeRoy A. Martin 

LeRoy A. Martin, Chaimian Harry Hawkins 

Scott Mayfield, Secretary R. R. Kramer 

Ralph Duggan Carroll H. Long 

Harley Fowler W. D. Sullins 

\V. D. Hairrell W. C. Walkup 


Grover C. Graves, Chairman 
Ralph Duggan, Secretary 
W. P. Chestnutt 
Ncal Ensminger 
Harley Fowler 

^Deceased April 28, 1957 

Hebron Ketron 
George Koons 
Mark M. Moore 
E. E. Wiley, Jr. 
James H. Willson 

Appendix 283 

1857-1866 WilHam H. Ballew 

1867 - 1869 The Reverend Thomas H. Pearne, D.D. 

1870- 1871 Theodore Richmond 

1872 - 1873 The Reverend N. E. Cobleigh, D.D., LL. D. 

1874 - 1875 The Reverend J. Albert Hyden 

1876- 1880 J. W. Ramsey 

1881 - 1882 The Reverend E. Q. Fuller, D.D. 

1882 - 1885 Bishop Henry W. Warren, D.D. 
1886 - 1890 Bishop J. M. Walden, D.D., LL.D. 
1891-1897 Captain H. S. Chamberlain 

1898 - 1899 Bishop D. A. Goodsell, D.D., LL.D. 

1899- 1916 Captain H. S. Chamberlain 

1917- 1921 Bishop T. S. Henderson, D.D., LL.D. 

1922 - 1925 Z. W. Wheland 

1925 - 1928 Judge Xenophon Hicks 

1929 - 1948 General James A. Fowler 

1949-1957 *The Reverend F. B. Shelton, D. D. 


LeRoy A. Martin, D.D President 

F. Heisse Johnson, Ph.D Dean 

Paul Riviere, B.D Dean of Admissions and Registrar 

*F. B. Shelton, D.D Director of Public Relations 

Mary Nelle Jackson Administrative Secretary 

R. E. Branham, C.P.A Bursar 

Enid Parker Bryan, Ph. D Professor of English and Classics 

F. Heisse Johnson, Ph. D C. O. Jones Professor of Religion 

Louis C. Jordy, Ph.D Professor of Chemistry and Physics 

A. H. Walle, Ed.D Professor of Education 

G. A. Yates, M.A Professor of Mathematics 

J. Van B. Coe, M.A Associate Professor of Economics and Sociology 

**Carl Boggess Honaker, M.S Associate Professor of Chemistry 

and Physics 

Alfred Jack Houts, M.M Associate Professor of Music 

and Choral Director 

*Deceased April 28, 1957 
**On Leave 

284 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

B. T. Hutson, M.S Associate Professor of Business Administration 

Richard Mann Johnson, M.S Associate Professor of Biology 

John M. Martin, Ph.D ..Associate Professor of History 

Claryse D. Myers, B.S. in L.S Librarian 

T. G. Richner, Ph.D Associate Professor of Modem Languages 

Paul Riviere, B.D.. Associate Professor of History 

E. G. Rogers, M.A , ..Associate Professor of English 

M. Clifton Smith, M.S Associate Professor of Education 

John J. McCoy, M.S Assistant Professor of Biology and Chemistry 

William M. McGill, M.A ...Assistant Professor of English 

Reva Puett, M.A Assistant Professor of Home Economics 

Frances J. Biddle, A.M Instructor in Physical Education 

Harry W. Coble, M.A Instructor in Speech and Dramatics 

Mary L. Greenhoe, M.M Instructor in Piano and Organ 

Rankin Hudson, B.S Instructor in Physical Education 

Fred Puett, LL.B Instructor in Commercial Subjects 

James L. Robb, A.M., LL.D ..President 

C. O. Douglass, M.A Registrar — Associate Professor of Education 

A. H. Myers, B.D Professor of Philosophy 


Mands Cunningham, B.S Instructor in Science and History 

Abraham Feinstein, D.D Visiting Instructor in History of Judaism 

John I. Foster, Jr., LL.B Instructor in Business Administration 

James C. GufTey, B.S Instructor in Business Administration 

Frances S. Graves, B.A Instructor in Art 

Martha B. Hale Instructor in Art 

*William Harry Joubert, Ph.D Instructor in Economics 

and Government 

George R. Koons, B.A Instructor in Business Administration 

James Pikl, M.A ..Instructor in Business Administration 

Harold N. Powers, M.S Instructor in Education 

Wilmer B. Robbins, B.D Instructor in Bible 

Paul Rowland, B.D Visiting Professor of English 

Helen M. Richards, M.D ....Assistant Professor of Biology 

ErUgene Sadler, B.S Instructor in Business Administration 

William R. Smith III, B.D Instructor in Bible 

Bernard H. Zellner, M.S Instructor in Mechanical Drawing 

*On Leave 

Appendix 285 


Una F. Akins Secretary to the Dean 

LeRoy B. Anderson, B.S Assistant to the Football Coach 

Vera Goe Assistant to the Librarian 

Sue Davis, R.N Nurse 

Robbie J. Ensminger, A. A Secretary to the President 

Junius G. Graves, B.A Assistant to the Football Coach 

Patricia Hooper Stenographer to Registrar 

Marilyn S. Johnson Clerical Assistant 

Virginia King Bookkeeper 

Ida Ruth Lewis Head Resident, Lawrence Hall 

Eddie McMillan Assistant to the Basketball Coach 

Reba Parsons Head Resident, Ritter Hall 

Edith Walker Dietitian 

Nancy W. White, A.A Secretary to the Registrar 

Louie Underwood Superintendent of Buildings and Grounds 


A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

B.S. Degree 

Billy Lee Akins 
Bobby Edd Allen 
*Dallas Anderson 
Charles Dillard Bamett 
Robert Carrett Bledsoe, Jr. 
Warren Gill Brewster 
John Martin Calhoun 
Claude Frank Catron, Jr. 
Dan Kenning Choat 
William Alfred Gofer, Jr. 
James Edward Davis 
Dortha Patricia DeLozier 
Lucy Ann Dosser 
Ralph Owens Dunn 
Oran David Elrod 
Ruba Jones Enochs 
Bob Charles Erwin 
Billie Dean Haley 
Robert Daniel Hays 
Joe Philip Honey 
Frank George Hughes 
Viola Huskey 
Gretchen Denton Keim 
Lewis Edwin King 
Louise Orr King 
Norma Jean Kyle 
Randolph Lee 
Teck Seng Lian 
Marjorie Rose Lowe 

George A. Lusk 
Herlien Elizabeth McCamy 
Hugh Douglas McMurray 
James Davis McQuain 
Fannie Taylor Maddox 
Jimmy Anderson Mason 
Harry Lane Moore 
Gwendolyn Woody Morrison 
Dolores Elaine Mynatt 
Clifford McKinley O'Dell 
James Bernard Patterson 
Barbara Sue Pickel 
Ruth Jarvis Pickens 
William J. Quirk 
Sara Exum Ranck 
Richard Lafayette Ray 
Hugh Miller Reynolds 
Ruby Bryan Richardson 
Jack Coogan Ritchie 
Dorothy Henley Runyan 
LaVeme Owenby Schultz 
Charles Richard Seepe 
Eddie J. Stansell 
Phyllis Mae Williams 
George Wilson 
Hugh Oscar Wilson 
Robert Jerry Wilson 
Elmer Boyd Woody 
Kenneth Leabow Wynn 

*To be awarded posthumously. 



F. Max Allison 
Wesley Lee Asbury 
Mildred Humberd Ball 
Mary Sue Barnes 
Grace Whitaker Barnett 
William Larry Borden 
Carmelia Jo Bryant 
Margaret Virginia Clark 
Charlotte M. Cupp 
Florence Bell Edwards 
Phyllis Anne Fox 
Albert Llewellyn Galloway, Jr. 
William Shepard Gamble 

B.A. Degree 

Dorothy Marie Frick Gilbert 
Richard Clark Gilbert 
Elizabeth Jones Gilliland 
William Perry Legg 
Burhl Frank McCracken 
Anna Perkinson Puett 
Catherine Collins Ray 
Ray Edwin Robinson 
Paul Malvine Starnes 
Jack Preston Thacker 
Betty Frances Trew 
Richard Ralph Webb 
Hugh Layman Wilson 

John Marshall Withers 


B.S. Degree 
Najeeb'Namock Al-Orfali 

Mary Louise Bolen 
Iva Lou Crisp 
Charles H. Gorman 
Helen Howard Hale 
Robert Eugene Jackson 
Sushil Nath Khosla 
Bob G. Killen 
Clyde Alexander Kyle, Jr. 
Henry Lee Lenoir 

Laura Blair Lillard 
Glena Martin Moses 
Ralph Jackson Nunley 
Jefferson Barrington O'Connor 
Doran Craig Sharp 
Benson Andrew Spurling 
Harry Rexford Sutton 
Mary Lyde Swafford 
Katherine Hines Thomas 
John Houston Williams, Jr. 

B.A. Degree 
Donald Richard Hoback Ray Aileen Watkins 

Mary Wade Kimbrough Rhea Dail Watkins 

288 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 


(Adopted by the General Conference of The Methodist Church, 
Minneapolis, Minnesota, April-May, 1956) 

The Church Universal lives and labors under the compulsion of 
the Great Commission: "Go therefore and make disciples of all 
nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and 
of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have com- 
manded you." The commission carries with it the persuasive authority 
of Him whom we confess to be the Head of the Church. 

Our Lord's words are timeless — as pertinent to this era and the 
tasks that challenge us as to the first century. The Church is in the 
world to capture the hearts of men and to make them faithful disciples 
of the Nazarene and also to capture their minds and established them 
in the truth that leads to abundant and unending life. By missions 
and evangelism we extend the frontiers of the Kingdom. By educa- 
tion we build the City of God. These are two' phases of one 
magnificent enterprise. 

An organized church-wide effort to expand and strengthen the 
educational program of The Methodist Church in the United States 
of America is long overdue. The following plan is adopted for high- 
lighting the mission of the church in the field of higher education and 
for strengthening our institutions of learning for more effective service. 
The same task of strengthening our institutions of higher learning in 
other lands where the demand also is imperative and the urgency 
pressing is entrusted to the Central Conferences in which they are 
located, with the assistance of the Board of Missions through the 
Division of World Missions and the Department of Work in Foreign 
Fields of the Woman's Division of Christian Service. 

1. a) There shall be constituted a Quadrennial Commission on 
Christian Higher Education, which shall have general direction and 
supervision of the quadrennial higher education emphasis in accord- 
ance with the directives hereinafter contained. It shall be composed 
as follows: the effective bishops resident in the United States, and 
two bishops from Central Conferences elected by the Council of 
Bishops from those who are in the United States when the commis- 
sion icets; four ministers and six laymen from each jurisdiction, 
elected by the General Conference on nomination of the Council of 
Bishops; the president, vice-presidents, and twelve other members of 
the General Board of Education, elected by the board or its executive 
committee; the general secretaries of the three divisions of the Board 

Appendix 289 

of Education and of the Division of World Missions of the Board of 
Missions; and twenty members at large elected by the commission on 
account of their experience and ability in the field of education. The 
commission at its discretion may elect advisory members without vote. 
It shall elect its own officers for the quadrennium. 

b) The expenses of the commission shall be provided from 
the World Service Fund according to the schedule of distribution 
recommended by the Council on World Service and Finance and 
voted by the General Conference. Its annual budget shall be subjec. 
to approval by the General Board of Education. Its headquarters 
shall be in Nashville, Tennessee. It may employ such executive and 
clerical assistance as it may judge to be necessary for the effective 
promotion of its work within the limits of its budget. The Commis- 
sion on Promotion and Cultivation shall have such responsibility in 
this field as may be mutually agreed on by the two commissions. 

2. There are few precedents to guide us in a church-wide 
emphasis on Christian higher education over a period of time. New 
trails must be blazed and techniques developed. Accordingly, certain 
specific directives are given in this subsection, and to these are ap- 
pended below (par. 3) certain suggested procedures which are not 
mandatory. The commission should be given considerable liberty to 
find its way and to determine its methods. 

a) The over-all task committed to the commission- is to 
strengthen the bonds that bind our institutions of learning to the 
church, to lead our schools and colleges to a thorough commitment 
to Christian standards and ideals, and to lead the church in an effort 
to undergird them with adequate moral and financial support. The 
commission's program shall include the institutions of learning related 
to the Division of Educational Institutions of the General Board of 
Education, including theological schools and Wesley Foundations. 
The commission shall work in co-operation with the Division of Edu- 
cational Institutions, the Boards of Education of the respective Annual 
Conferences, and the Boards of Trustees of the respective educational 

b) The commission shall, by such procedures as it may deter- 
mine, and in co-operation with the Division of Educational Institu- 
tions and with local foundations, promote the work of the Wesley 
Foundations, assisting local foundations in raising funds and making 
their work effective on college campuses. 

c) If the distinctive service which our schools and colleges 

290 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

render the church and society were made clear and convincing, the 
moral and financial support they now receive would be materially 
increased. The commission shall therefore especially address itself 
to the basic task of interpretation, to wit: 

( 1 ) To interpret to our church-related colleges and universities 
their place and function in the life of the church and the obligation 
of these institutions to be Christian in teaching and in practice, and 
in their policies of serving the youth of the local churches, conferences, 
and areas from which they receive support. 

(2) To interpret to our people of The Methodist Church the 
distinctive function of our institutions of learning in the church and 
in society. The church must continue to look principally to her own 
educational institutions for trained leadership. These institutions, 
dedicated to Christian ideals, must as heretofore be evangelists in the 
field of higher education, to the end that the Christian concept of 
God and man may become the dominant element in American cul- 
ture. The commission shall, as far as practicable, make use of our 
existing church organization in the prosecution of this task, setting 
up, with the aid of bishops, district superintendents, conference secre- 
taries of education, college administrators, Wesley Foundation ad- 
ministrators, and others, educational conferences on the district and 
Annual Conference level; supplying speakers at conferences, pastors' 
schools, convocations, and other church gatherings; and producing 
appropriate materials for our church-school publications, conference 
and area papers, and the secular press. It is suggested that the com- 
mission give consideration to the preparation of a popular study book 
on the chutxh and its institutions of learning for use in leadership 
training schools, pastors' schools, church schools, men's clubs, and 

d) The commission shall study the financial status of our 
church-related institutions of learning and lead the church in an effort 
so to undergird them that their efficiency, academic standards, per- 
manence, and support of Christian ideals shall be assured. It shall 
devise such methods of credit for the local church as it may determine. 
It shall not undertake a single nationwide financial campaign for the 
benefit of all our educational institutions. It is patent that in the main 
these institutions must find support on a conference area, or regional 
basis. The commission shall therefore encourage individual institu- 
tions, conferences, areas, or jurisdictions to assume leadership in pro- 
viding adequate support for our schools of all grades, and for Wesley 

Appendix 291 

Foundations, and shall supply expert advice, possible plans of pro- 
cedure, personal leadership, and other assistance as the need may 
require and as the commission may determine. 

3. To the specific directives above named (par. 2) certain pos- 
sible procedures are hereunder appended for the guidance of the 
commission, the same being for the commission's consideration with- 
out the force of a mandate: 

a) It is necessary that on the Annual Conference level there 
be a Quadriennial Committee on Christian Higher Education, for the 
purpose of initiating and implementing any proposed campaign or 
policy. It is recommended that this committee be constituted by the 
Annual Conference and that representation from the Conference 
Board of Education be included in its membership. If two or more 
Annual Conferences co-operate in an undertaking or appeal, the 
committees of the participating Annual Conferences should be jointly 
the implementing body. 

b) The commission may constitute from its membership a 
committee to examine the charters of the respective institutions of 
learning related to The Methodist Church to determine the actual 
status of relationship. The bonds connecting a number of our educa- 
tional institutions with the church should be strengthened. It is 
recommended that in instances where such strengthening is desirable 
the commission encourage the trustees of the institutions concerned 
to take appropriate steps to alter their charters accordingly. 

c) In an appeal to the membership of the church for the 
support of our institutions of learning at least two approaches are 
possible: (1) a financial campaign and /or (2) an apportionment 
transmitted annually by the respective Annual Conferences to local 
churches and accepted by the respective Quarterly Conferences, as 
in the case of world service and conference benevolences. The nature 
of the appeal and the financial goals and apportionments shall be 
determined by the Annual Conference concerned in each undertak- 
ing, and the commission shall adjust its procedures accordingly. In 
many cases special financial campaigns are advisable and will be 
undertaken. It does not appear, however, that periodic appeals will 
provide for the continuing financial needs of our educational institu- 
tions. It is highly important that we develop in our whole constit- 
uency a conscience concerning the continuing support of our 
institutions of learning and that a procedure be established in all our 

292 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

conferences by which our people will contribute annually per member 
an average of not less than one dollar for the support of educational 
institutions related to the respective conferences, and not less than 
thirty cents for Wesley Foundations. If such a program can be made 
effective among nine and a half million Methodists in the United 
States, we will witness the dawn of a new day in Christian higher 

d) The commission shall give consideration to requesting the 
several Annual Conferences to set aside a certain percentage of the 
sums received for their schools and colleges, such percentage to be 
remitted to the Division of Education Institutions and administered 
by it for educational institutions where there is special need, with due 
recognition of the needs of those historically operated for Negroes. 

e) The commission shall give consideration to recommending 
to all our educational institutions that each set aside out of funds 
received from the church a certain portion for permanent endowment, 
thus establishing a backlog of security. 

f) The commission shall give consideration to constituting a 
committee to work out a procedure whereby an appeal may go to 
our people in every local church to leave in their wills a bequest in 
some amount for some institution of learning in the church. 

g) The commission shall give consideration to constituting a 
committee to promote a plan of appeal to the alumni of all our insti- 
tutions of learning. If, for example, each alumnus should recognize 
his obligation to the college or university at which he received his 
training and should resolve to return to her, either by gift during his 
lifetime or by bequest, the cost of his education over and above the 
fees he paid, a new loyalty would appear and a continuing avenue 
of support would be opened. 

4. For more than two centuries the Methodist movement has 
been a stalwart patron of education. Its beginning may be traced to 
Oxford University. John Wesley, our spiritual father, was a scholar 
as well as an evangelist. His spiritual zeal would hardly have changed 
the religious climate of England and America in the eighteenth cen- 
tury had there not been coupled with it a trained and discerning 
mind. As the Methodist movement pushed westward over the Ameri- 
can continent, it left in its wake schools as well as churches. The 
circuit riders were pioneers in building colleges and universities. Many 
of them remain, and they are the church's indispensable asset. Such 
is our heritage. 



The perils and opportunities of the present challenge us more 
insistently than the heritage of yesterday. We live in an age of moral 
confusion. Materialism and Communism defy the Christian concept 
of God and man. The centuries prove that the Christian Church 
builds itself into the culture of a people through its institutions of 
learning. We look forward to the day when our institutions of learn- 
ing, committed to the Christian ideal, shall occupy as pivotal a posi- 
tion in the total program of The Methodist Church as missions and 

Quadrennial Commission on Higher 

Earl Blazer 
Richard A. Brock 
R. C. Burton 
Gabe Clark 
Harley Fowler 
Prof. H. C. Graybeal 
Mrs. C. P. Hardin 
Leo Jackson 

Bishop Roy H. Short 
Herschel Abshire 
W. F. Blackard 
T. F. Chilcote 
W. Kyle Cregger 
Edgar A. Eldridge 
J. A. Hardin 
D. Trigg James 
C. E. Lundy 
C. D. MehafTy 
Ralph W. Mohney 


Hebron Ketron 
W. N. Neff 
Mrs. J. L. Patterson 
Mrs. H. M. Russell 
Bud Schaerer 
Dr. C. C. Sherrod 
George H. Smith 
Hubert Wheeler 


E. H. Ogle 
W. L. Pickering 
Amos Rogers 
H. M. Russell 
Frank A. Settle 
Ben B. St. Clair 
W. S. Steele 
J. W. Stone 
M. C. Weikel 
James S. Wilder 
E. E. Wiley, Jr. 
A. B. Wing 

Horace N. Barker Earl G. Hunt, Jr. 

LeRoy A. Martin 

*Discipline of The Methodist Church, 1956, pp 696-702. 

294 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

*Dr. F. B. Shelton 

Sam Dodson R. D. McGee 

Donald L. Hughes Glen Otis Martin 


Bolton, David A. Memoirs. Manuscript. - ' 

Chattanooga University. Book I. 1886-1887. 

Newspaper clippings. Book II. 1890- 

Record of the Alumni, U. S. Grant University, 1886-1896. 

Knoxville: Ogden Bros, and Co., 1896. 

The Red Book, University at Athens, Tennessee, during 

Injunction Period, June 1904 - December 1905. Manuscript. 

Class Records, 1871-1918, Manuscript. 

List of degree graduates, 1866-1906; Diploma graduates, 


Historical Sketches. Manuscript. 

Tributes and Memorials. Manuscript. 

Caldwell, John C. China Coast Family. Chicago: Henry Regner\', 

1953. " 
Catalogue: Athens Female College. 1859-1860. 
Catalogues: East Tennessee Wesleyan College. 1866-1867. 
East Tennessee Wesleyan University. 1867-1886. 
Grant Memorial University. 1886-1889. 
U. S. Grant University. 1889-1909. 
Athens School of the University of Chattanooga. 

Tennessee Wesleyan College. 1926-1957. 
College Newspapers, 1896-1957. 

CiH'ts, Lewis. The General Conferences of the Methodist Episcopal 

Church from J 792-1 896. New York: Cranston and Mains, 1900. 

Dabney, Charles William. Universal Education in the South. 2 vols. 

Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1936. 
Discipline of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Nashville: 

J. B. MTerrin, 1858. 
Faculty Minutes, East Tennessee Wesleyan University. March 1, 
1869-December 1, 1881. Book II. 

*Dcceased April 28, 1957. 

Appendix 295 

Faculty Minutes, Grant Memorial University. August 1886- June 

1889. Book IV. 
Faculty Minutes, U. S. Grant University. September 1889-December 

21, 1896. Book V. 
Faculty Minutes, University and The Athens School, Jan. 1, 1897 

to May 1907. Book VI. 
Faculty Minutes, The Athens School. September 1907-June 1918. 

Book VII. 
Faculty Mmutes, The Athens School. July 1918-January 1920. 

Book VIII. 
Faculty Minutes, Tennessee Wesleyan College. 1925-1927, 1927- 

1930, 1930-1934, 1935-1940, 1940-1947, 1947-1950, 1950-1957. 
Godbold, Albea. The Church College of the Old South. Durham: 

Duke University Press^ 1944. 
Govan and Livingood. University of Chattanooga, Sixty Years. 

Chattanooga: University of Chattanooga, 1947. 
Grant Memorial University, Its History, and the Commendations of 

Leading Statesmen and Divines. Philadelphia: A. T. Zeising 

and Co., 1896. 
Greene, Roemer and Long. A Report on a Program of Higher Edu- 
cation for the Holston Conference of The Methodist Church, 

1943, Mimeographed. 
Journals of the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal 

Church, 1876-1904. 
Journals of the Holston Conference of the Methodist Episcopal 

Church, 1865-1956. 
Ketron, McCarron, Robinette. Grant University Paper Adopted by 

Alumni Association. 1905. 
Minutes of the Holston Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal 

Church, South. 1862. 
Patten, Cartter. A Tennessee Chronicle. 1953. 
Presidents' Reports, 1897-1957. 
Price, R. N. Holston Methodism. 4 vols. Nashville and Dallas: 

Smith and Lamarr, 1903. 
Reynolds, James W. and Seaton, John L., Tennessee Wesleyan 

College, Report of Survey, 1948, Mimeographed. 
Simpson, Matthew. Encyclopedia of Methodism. Philadelphia: Lewis 

Heverts, 1892. 
Snavely, Guy E. A Short History of the Southern Association of 
Colleges and Secondary Schools. 1945. 

296 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 

Snavely, Guy E. The Church and the Four-Year College. New York: 

Harper and Brothers, 1955. 
Sweet, William Warren. Methodists iii American History. New York, 

Cincinnati, and Chicago: The Methodist Book Concern, 1933. 
The Methodist Advocate Journal, 1902-1924. 
The University of Chattanooga Alumni Directory 1866-1922. 

Chattanooga: 1922. 

About the Author 

President Martin claims no technical com- 
petence as a historian^ but his personal 
background fits him to compile this his- 
tory. Born in East Tennessee, son of a 
graduate of The School of Theology of 
U. S. Grant University of the class of 
1895, President Martin traces his paternal 
ancestry to pioneer families in McMinn 
County, where his father was bom in 
1866; educated at Tennessee Wesleyan, 
the University of Chattanooga, Boston 
University and Drew University, he has 
served as President of Tennessee Wesleyan 
since 1950. As a boy he lived near the 
campus, where his father served as col- 
lege pastor, and he has known many of 
Wesleyan's presidents, teachers, students, 
alumni and trustees. He has attempted 
to allow the records of a centuiy to tell 
their story of failure, success, tragedy and 
triumph, all ingredients in the century of 
sen-ice which trained a multitude of doc- 
tors, judges, lawyers, teachers and min- 
isters whose contributions cannot be 
measured even in words. 



iig-T ri..