K"-*-* m m r rrr m $5.00 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College: 1857-1957 By LeRoy Albert Martin Tennessee Wesleyan College owes its be- ginnings to an academy located on the present site of the Wesleyan campus which burned in the early 1850's. The Odd Fellows Lodge, sponsor of several colleges in Tennessee and Virginia, secured a charter for a college January 2, 1854. The Old College building of today was started, but financial problems prompted the Trustees to seek the support of the Holston Cotiference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, in 1857. Evidence reveals Wesleyan to be the only college which became officially related to Methodism in 1857; the only college to serve under the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, the Methodist Episcopal Church, and The Methodist Church. The College has felt the impact of wars, panics, depressions, many changes in char- ter and name, the unpopularity of a "Northern" school in a Southern com- munity, demotion in status from university to preparatory school, return to junior college program, and finally as a senior college since 1954. It has sui-vived, and is now in a position to render service during its second century. A HISTORY OF TENNESSEE WESLEYAN COLLEGE 1857 - 1957 By LeROY a. MARTIN Copyright 1957 LeRoy a. Martin PRINTED IN THE U.S.A. FOR John Alanson Patten^ LL.D. Edith Manker Patten The Reverend Burton McMahan Martin^ D.D. Julia Haggard Martin The idea of responsibility contains the essence of morality. — Charles W. Hendel Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2011 with funding from LYRASIS IVIembers and Sloan Foundation http://www.archive.org/details/historyoftenness1957lero A Personal Preface Tennessee Wesleyan College owes its early beginnings to McMinn Lodge No. 54 of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows which chartered a college January 2, 1854 to take the place of a private school which had burned. An excellent building — Old College — was started, but the Trustees in charge in 1857 felt the need of a larger support and turned to the Holston Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, for sponsorship. For 100 years beginning in 1857 the institution has been related to Methodism — the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, the Methodist Episcopal Church, The Methodist Church. Many names, many charters, innumerable problems — this institution has survived all of them and now concludes its first century and prepares for the future. My relationship to the college is more personal than professional. My paternal ancestors — Blackburns and McMahans — were pioneer families in McMinn County; my grand- mother's brother was secretary of the convention held in St. John's Protestant Episcopal Church in Knoxville July 7, 1864 which initiated the reorganization of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Athens June 1-5, 1865, (called by Hodding Carter a great tragedy) ; my father, Burton Mc- Mahan Martin, was a native of McMinn County. Follow- ing theological training at U. S. Grant University, '95, he served as a member of the Board of Visitors, as college pastor for five years, and as a trustee for the eight years preceding his death in 1924. I have known or seen six of my eleven predecessors, many of the institution's graduates, their children and grandchildren, trustees, faculty, and twelve of the seventeen vice-presidents, vice-chancellors, acting presidents and deans. vi A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College I have gone through thousands of pages of books, cata- logues, Annual and General Conference Journals, memoirs, alumni records, magazines, student publications, school records, minutes of faculties and trustees and Executive Committees, church papers, and chosen documents and materials to tell their own story — readers may miss refer- ence to events or persons especially meaningful personally; that is unavoidable — as factually as possible by an amateur recorder. The history could not have been compiled without the availability of the materials collected and written by David Alexander Bolton, '72, whose relationship to the institution covered the years from 1869 to 1931. Bolton recorded its history as student, faculty member, secretary of the faculty, trustee and professor emeritus. In recognition of a devotion to alma mater beyond imitation, we include excerpts from his unpublished auto- biography which reveals the teacher, trustee and church- man known to thousands of students and friends, and as a tribute to faculty members from the leading colleges of the North and East who served on the faculties with unchang- ing commitment to Liberal Arts, traditionally at salaries too meager for anything but the plainest living. I have had the generous assistance of many — Mrs. A. H. Myers, resourceful librarian at Wesleyan; Miss Mary Agnes Bayless, granddaughter of J. W. Bayless, '81, and Agnes Byington Bayless, '81, for research in student activi- ties for the years 1896-1906; to Dr. Enid Parker Bryan, for study of materials in files of the University of Chattanooga, graciously arranged by President David A. Lockmiller, son of G. Frank Lockmiller, one of the seven incorporators of 1925, and Lotta Ulrey Lockmiller, '97, and /or her writing of the section covering the years 1950-1957; to Gilbert Govan and James W. Livingood for their excellent history A Personal Preface vii I of the University of Chattanooga which contains much relevant material which has been followed as authentic and authoritative; to Dan M, Robinson, State Librarian and Archivist, and Mrs. Gertrude Morton Parsley, Refer- ence Librarian, of the Tennessee State Library and Arch- ives, for copies of charters; and to Mrs. Frank Y. Jackson, Jr., Misses Robbie Jean Ensminger and Doris Ann Crowell for typing and retyping the manuscript — to all of these persons I am deeply indebted and consider it a privilege to express my appreciation for their assistance. L. A. M. "Footnote" McMinn County, Tennessee, March 23, 1957. I Contents A PERSONAL PREFACE Chapter I AS ATHENS FEMALE COLLEGE Formation of Methodist Episcopal Church, South . . . Holston Conference accepts Athens Female College in 1857 . . . the charter . . . an early catalogue . . . President Rowley . . . Holston Conference Education reports . . . life in the Confederacy . . . Northern victories . . . Rowley litigation . . . sale of property. ~ Chapter II IN THE WESLEYAN TRADITION The reorganization of the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1865 . . . President Wilson . . . life during Reconstruction . . . the Methodist Episcopal Church buys Athens Female College property . . . the charter . . . President Cohleigh . . . faith of the Holston Conference . , . financial problems . . . class of 1871 . . . President Dean t . . President Manker . . . President Spence . . . debts paid . . . Bixby . . . chapel . . . high academic standards . . . Spartan college life . . . property valued at $50,000.00. Chapter III AS A MEMORIAL TO GRANT Spence secures political endorsement to recognize Grant . . . Chattanooga University . . . its charter . . . President Lewis . . . merger of Chattanooga University and Grant Memorial . . . charter of U. S. Grant University . . . Bennett Hall . . . Ritter Hall . . . Spence leaves . . . Joyce as Chancellor . . . President Race . . . Educational Confer- ence of 1898 . . . Race's reports . . . strengthens College of Liberal Arts . . . Banfield.Hall . . . Blakeslee Hall . . . Warren's sermon . . . injunction and results . . . 1906 class. Chapter IV AS THE ATHENS SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHATTANOOGA Two-year college program . . . Wright resigns . . . Bovard . . . $500,000 campaign . . . Petty Manker . . . President Hixson . . . offer- ings restricted . . . death of Dr. John A. Patten . . . Hooper acting ix X Contents president . . . President Brown . . . local autonomy . . . $750,000 cam- paign . . . practice school . . . gymnasium and auditorium . . . separation from University of Chattanooga . . . Mrs. John A. Patten . . . Bishop Thirkield . . . proposal accepted. Chapter V AS TENNESSEE WESLEYAN COLLEGE Charter . . . President Robb . . . the name . . . the academic program . . . an inauguration . . . period of transition . . . campaign of 1928 . . . Ochs remembers Rule . . . senior college status . . . the Pfeiffers and their gifts . . . Townsend bequest . . . a daughter's tribute . . . Forward Movement of 1938 . . . unification . . . survey of 1943 . . . T. I. A. A. . . . war . . . survey of 1948 . . . retirement of Robb and his election to office of President Emeritus . . . President Martin elected in 1950 . . . four-year consideration . . . Fowler's letter . . . Athens Advisory Board . . . approval af senior college program in 1954 . . . faculty changes . . . physical improvements . . . Fowlers . . . Black . . . Tom Sherman . . . construction plans . . . Long Range Development of Holston Conference . . . enroll- ment . . . majors and requirements for graduation . . . athletics . . . the choir . . . 100th anniversary and awarding of Bachelor's Degrees . . . the future? . . . charter of today. Chapter VI STUDENT ACTIVITIES 1896-1957 Chapter VII DAVID A. BOLTON An Autobiography Early Life . . . Departure for Kentucky . . . To Cincinnati and Indianapolis . . . My Experience in Indianapolis . . . To Muncie and a Country Home . . . With Shireys . . . December 1863 to September, 1864 . . . Soldier in the Civil War . . . Battle of Nashville . . . On the March . . .The Stay at Huntsville . . . The Civil War . . . Homeward Bound . . . Desolation Due to Civil War . . . .Desire for an Education . . . At Laurel Hill Academy . . . At Franklin Academy . . . My First Experience in Teaching . . . Eventful summer of 1869 . . . A Student at Athens From August 1869 to June 19, 1872 . . . Methodist Con- vention at the University . . . First Class . . . 1871 . . . Graduated Contents xi . . . 1871 . . . Junior Class . . . Last Year in University . . . The Year in Washington Comity . . . Places Where Myself and Family Resided . . . Keeping Boarders . . . The Call to Teach . . . Continuance Therein . . . Relationship to My Teachers and to Faculties . . . Ex- perience and Importance of Teaching . . . Three Great Fields of Activity and Service . . . My Marriage. APPENDICES a. Board of Trustees b. Presidents of Board c. Faculty d. Seruor Class f. Quadrennial Program on Higher Education of The Methodist Church A HISTORY OF TENNESSEE WESLEYAN COLLEGE I As Athens Female College The churches were moved by several motives and ideals in establishing colleges. Without doubt the primary aim in the founding of these institutions was the education of ministers. Second, they considered education a function of the church. Third, they desired to lower the cost of education and bring it within reach of the common man. Fourth, they felt that the church as a strong and important part of the body politic was in a position to render, and ought to render, service in the field of education. Fifth, church colleges were considered vital factors in keeping students loyal to their respective denominations. Sixth, colleges were important and strategic agencies for the building of denominational prestige and the extension of denominational views. Seventh, colleges were made to serve the interests of denominational rivalry. Eighth, colleges were an important means of evangelism. Ninth, to some extent colleges in the South served sectional interests. Tenth, the churches built colleges to offset and rival the influence of state universities in the old South. ^ 1 Godbold, Albea, The Church College of The Old South — Duke University Press, Durham, N. C. 1944, p.p. 186, 187, used by permission. 3 4 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College Following long and often bitter debate in the General Conferences of the Methodist Episcopal Church concern- ing slavery, the Methodists of the South decided to with- draw on the basis of the General Conference "Plan of Separation" adopted by the General Conference in 1844. The spirit of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South as organized May 1, 1845, is succinctly set forth in the Pre- amble to the Doctrines and Discipline of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. "In the judgment of the delegates of the several An- nual Conferences in the slaveholding States, the continued agitation of the subject of slavery and abolition in a portion of the Church, the frequent action on that subject in the General Conference, and especially the proceedings of the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church of 1844, in the case of the Rev. James O. Andrew, D.D., one of the Bishops, who had become connected with slavery by marriage, produced a state of things in the South which rendered a continuance of the jurisdiction of that General Conference over the Conferences aforesaid, inconsistent with the success of the ministry in their proper calling. This conviction they declared in solemn form to the General Conference, accompanied with a protest against the action referred to, assured that public opinion in the slaveholding States would demand, and that a due regard to the vital interests of Christ's kingdom would justify, a separate and independent organization. The developments of a few months vindicated their anticipations. The Church in the South and South-west, in her primary assemblies, her Quarterly and Aimual Conferences, with a unaminity un- paralleled in ecclesiastical history, approved the course of the delegates, and declared her conviction that a separate jurisdiction was necessary to her existence and prosperity. The General Conference of 1844 having adopted a "Plan As Athens Female College 5 of Separation" provided for the erection of the Annual Conferences in the slaveholding States into a separate ecclesiastical connection, under the jurisdiction of a South- ern General Conference, the delegates of the aforemen- tioned Conferences, in a published address, recommended that a convention of delegates from the said Conferences, duly instructed as to the wishes of the ministry and laity, should assemble at Louisville, Ky., on the first day of May, 1845. "Tlie convention met, delegates having been formally appointed in pursuance of this recommendation; and after a full and minute representation of all the facts in the premises, acting under the provisional "Plan of Separa- tion," declared, by solemn resolution, the jurisdiction hith- erto exercised by the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church over the Conferences in the slaveholding States entirely dissolved^ and erected the said Annual Con- ferences into a separate ecclesiastical connection, under the style and title of The Methodist Episcopal Church, South; the first General Conference of which was held in the town of Petersburg, Va., on the first day of May, 1846." ^ The Holston Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South met in Marion, Virginia, October 22, 1857, with Bishop John Early as the President. At this session the Trustees of the Athens Female College, of Athens, Tennessee, offered to transfer the property of the College to the Holston Conference of the Methodist Episco- pal Church, South. The Trustees in possession of the college at that time had secured the property from the McMinn County Lodge of the Odd Fellows for $3,500.00, which had been chartered as a college by the State of Tennessee January 2, 1854, for McMinn Lodge No. 54 of Independent Order of Odd Fellows to operate under 'The Doctrines and Discipline of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 1SS8, Section II, pages 13' 16 6 ■ A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College the name of Odd Fellows Female College. At that time the college campus consisted of two acres of ground in the town of Athens and a three story brick building, 60 X 40 feet, which was incomplete, known today as Old College. The Trustees did not ask the Holston Conference to accept any financial responsibility but requested the Conference to appoint a President and an Agent to raise $2,000.00 for the completion of the building. It was further recommended that two additional acres be purchased which would be used as the site for a dining hall. This was the beginning in church affiliation of an institution which has existed under one of the branches of the Methodist Church from 1857 to this date. The Charter was passed at the first session of the Thirty-Second General Assembly of the State of Tennessee. Charter follows: Chapter 92. (An Act to amend the charter of Bethel College, and for other purposes. . . .) Sec. 4. Be it further enacted. That there shall be established in the town of Athens, I'ennessee, an institution of learning for young ladies, and the same shall be known and designated by the style of the "Athens Female College." Sec. 5. Be it further enacted. That John F. Slover, William M. Sehorn, R. M. Fisher, William H. Ballew, Alexander H. Keith, R. C. Jackson, Geo. W. Bridges, M. L. Phelps, T. Sullins, Thomas L. Hoyle, W. E. Hall, S. K. Reeder, Willie Lowry, Andrew Hutsell, John L. Bridges, and Samuel P. Ivins, Trustees of said College, appointed and confirmed by the Holston Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, are hereby constituted a body corporate and politic, in deed and in law, with perpetual succession, by the name and style of the "Athens Female College," by which name and style, they, the said Trustees, and their successors in office, shall be capable, in law and As Athens Female College 7 in equity, to take to themselves and their successors, for the use and benefit of said College, any estate in lands, tene- ments, hereditaments, goods, chattels, moneys, or other effects, by gift, grant, bargain, sale, will, devise or bequest of any person or persons, or bodies politic and corporate, and the same lands, tenements, hereditaments, goods, chat- tels, moneys, or other effects, to grant, bargain, sell, convey, devise, or place out at interest, or otherwise dispose of, for the use of said College, in such manner as they may deem most beneficial, and by the same name may sue and be sued, plead and be impleaded, in any court of law or equity, in all manner of suits or actions whatever; and by and in the same manner may do and transact all and every, the business touching and concerning the premises, not herein- after provided for, as fully and effectually as any natural person or body corporate in this State, have power to manage their own concerns or business. Sec. 6. Be it further enacted. That said "Athens Female College," and Trustees herein named, and their successors in office shall be under the control and patron- age of the Holston Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, and that said Conference shall have power to appoint the President and Professors of said College, and the Board of Trustees shall confirm the same by ballot; and that all vacancies in the Board of Trustees, or in the faculty, shall be filled by said Conference, but if any vac- ancy shall occur before the annual meeting of said Con- ference, said Board of Trustees may fill such vacancy until the annual meeting of the next conference thereafter. Sec. 7. Be it further enacted, That no misnomer of said Corporation, shall defeat any gift, grant or bequest to or from said Corporation, nor shall any misuser or non- user of the rights, liberties or privileges hereby granted to said Corporation, create or cause a forfeiture of the same, 8 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College and the lands, lots and grounds belonging to said College buildings, together with the buildings, school fixtures, and appurtenaces of said Corporation shall be exempt from taxation for State or county purposes, and all and every taxation whatever. ^ Sec. 8. Be it further enacted. That said Board of Trustees, by the recommendation of the Professors and Teachers of said College, shall grant to such students, as they may deem worthy of the same, all and every, the mark of distinction usual in other Colleges; and all and every literary degree or degrees, usual in any college or institution of learning in this State, that of graduate or other degrees, and full power is here given and granted to said Board of Trustees to make such needful rules and regulations in the conferring such honorary degrees and honors as they may think most advisable and most to the interest of said Col- lege, that the certificates, honorary cards and diplomas granted, shall be signed by the President of the College and Professors and Secretary of the Board of Trustees, with the seal of the Corporation affixed, and when so signed and sealed, shall have all the authority and rights, influence and respectability, which is secured by law, to the certifi- cate, diploma, &c., of any other institution of learning in this State. Sec. 9. Be it further enacted. That said Board of Trustees shall cause to be made for their use, one common seal, with such device and inscription as they may think proper to engrave thereon, under and by which, all deeds, diplomas, certificates, honorary cards and acts of said Cor- poration shall pass and be authenticated, and that a copy of this charter, granted by the Legislature of Tennessee, be copied on parchment, and filed in the archives of said MlBifiiiii^ffliiiBliiiliSg^^ Historic Print, Old College, Tennessee Wesleyan Campus BENNETT HALL AND UNIVERSITY CHAPEL, 1917 As Athens Female College 9 College, with the signatures of the Board of Trustees thereon . . . . ^ The records of the early days of Athens Female Col- lege are extremely limited. Only one copy of a catalog is known to exist, the second annual catalog dated July 5, 1860, which gives these facts. The Board of Trustees consisted of William H. Ballew, President, John F. Slover, Secretary, Stephen K. Reeder, Treasurer, Alexander H. Keith, Richard M. Fisher, Wil- liam N. Sehorn, Milton L. Phillips, George W. Bridges, Esq., Reverend Timothy SuUins, R. C. Jackson, Sam P. Ivins, W. E. Hall, M.D., John L. Bridges, Willie Lowry, Esq., Andrew Hutsell. The Board of Visitors appointed by the Holston An- nual Conference for 1860-61 included: Reverend J. H. Bruner, A.M., Hiwassee College, Reverend R. M. Stevens, Knox County, Reverend E. F. Sevier, Chattanooga, Rev- erend R. M. Hickey, Wytheville, Virginia, Colonel J. M. Brett, Sweetwater, W. F. Lenoir, Esq., Philadelphia, and Reverend W. H. Kelley, Philadelphia. The President of the College was the Reverend Erastus Rowley, A.M., D.D. Dr. Rowley was born in Richmond, Massachusetts. He prepared for college at Wilbraham Academy and was graduated from Union College, Sche- nectady, New York, in 1834. (The father of William and Henry James was a student at Union College at the same time.) After graduation he served as principal of the Lan- sinburg Academy, as a member of the faculty of the Epis- copal Institute of Troy in New York, and as head of institutes in South Carolina and in North Carolina. He was elected president of Athens Female College in 1858. He remained here until 1865 when he accepted the position 1 Public Acts of the State of Tennessee, passed at the first session of the ThirtySecond General Assembly, for the years 1857'8. Nashville, G. G. Torbett y Company, printers, 1858. pp. 210'211. 10 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College of president of De Pauw College in New Albany, Indiana, where he served until 1879. We have no record of his life after that date. Several pages were devoted to General Remarks. This Institution, under the charge of the Holston Conference, opened its second annual session the 28th, August, 1859, the second annual catalog, which its trustees now present to the public, manifesting results as favorable as the most ardent friends of the Institution could have reasonably expected. LOCATION This College is located in the pleasant village of Athens; a village unsurpassed for its health, and for the intelligence and morality of its citizens. The College Building, a magnificent edifice, contain- ing seven rooms, besides a spacious Chapel, occupies a commanding eminence, affording a full view of the village and the surrounding beautiful scenery. SESSIONS There will hereafter be two Sessions in the year, the Fall Session beginning the first Monday in September, and the Spring Session commencing the first Monday of February. VACATIONS There will be two vacations: one of two weeks, after the 23rd of December; and the other of eight weeks, after the close of the Spring Session. EXAMINATIONS The Annual Public Examination will be held the two days preceding Commencement, which will hereafter be the last Thursday in June. As Athens Female College 11 DIPLOMAS This Institution having been chartered with full Col- lege privileges, will grant Diplomas, thereby conferring the degree of Mistress of Arts on those pupils who complete the Scientific course, and the higher degree of Mistress of Arts and Classical Literature on those who also complete the Classical course. ORNAMENTAL DEPARTMENT While Literary Branches will claim preeminence, spe- cial attention will be paid to Drawing and Painting, Em- broidery, and Vocal and Instrumental Music. Five Pianos and one Superior Melodeon, are in daily use for Instruction and Practice. GOVERNMENT The government of the Institution is of a mild and parental character, administered with mildness and effici- ency, equally removed from weakness on one hand, and from austerity and rashness on the other. METHOD OF INSTRUCTION Every valuable improvement in the method of in- struction will be adopted, and the great aim will be to develop the mental and moral powers of the pupil, and to educate the mind to habits of thinking, with clearness and force. RELIGIOUS EXERCISE The exercises of each day will be conducted by read- ing the Bible and prayer. Every pupil will be required to attend public worship, at least once on the Sabbath, at the church designated by the parent or guardian. VISITING AND CORRESPONDENCE Young ladies boarding with the President cannot be allowed to visit, except among their near relatives. - Neither 12 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College will any correspondence be allowed between them and gentlemen, unauthorized by their parents or guardians. We cannot hold ourselves responsible to parents unless their daughters are subjected to these regulations. ^ OUTFIT We urge upon parents the propriety of supplying their daughters with plain, substantial clothing, retaining all gaudy and costly decorations and jewelry at home. - Such things are a source of great trouble to the Faculty and injury to the pupil. Every pupil boarding at the College should have every article of clothing distinctly marked, and should be sup- plied with an umbrella, a pair of rubber overshoes, and a thick shawl or cloak. EXPENSES The most rigid economy will be encouraged, and all purchases at the stores will hereafter be made through someone designated by the President. Young Ladies, in the future cannot be allowed to visit the stores. ADMISSION No pupil hereafter will be received for a less time than the unexpired session after admission. Every pupil, previous to admission, must subscribe her name to the rules and regulations of the College, as an expression of her desire to obtain its benefits, and a desire to conform to its law. The Holston Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, met in Athens, Tennessee, in October 1862. The Report of the Committee on Education, the most complete report given at the Session, is as follows: "The Committee on Education report, that the in- terests of education, within the bounds of our Conference, have suffered greatly in consequence of our national troubles is a fact but too well known to the Conference as well as to As Athens Female College 13 your Committee. But from the facts which the Committee have been able to ehcit, they are led to believe that these great interests have not been undervalued nor have they been lost sight of, but are only temporarily obscured by others more absorbing in their character. "The report from the Holston Conference Female Col- lege represents that institution in a condition even more favorable than the circumstances of the times might allow us to expect. The last collegiate year closed with about 70 pupils, and the present session is progressing with the pros- pect of even a larger number. The Board of Instruction has been necessarily diminished to suit the number of pupils in attendance, and the charges for board and tuition have been somewhat increased, yet we feel satisfied that the Insti- tution is prudently managed, that its interests are in safe hands, and that with the return of peace it will quickly regain its former prosperity. "The report from the Athens Female College is en- couraging; 85 pupils were in attendance during the year June 27th, about 40 are now attending, with a good pros- pect of an increase in the number after the adjournment of Conference. We commend this school as well deserving the fostering care of Conference. "In the absence of any formal report from Martha Washington Female College, we beg leave to state that from representations made by its President to members of this Committee, it appears that the school is progressing under the management of President Harris, with about 40 pupils in attendance. The receipts, as we are informed, have hitherto been rather more than sufficient to meet the current expenses. We cannot learn, however, that anything has been done towards liquidating the debt incurred in the purchase of the buildings. — The notes executed for the property have passed from the original owner into the 14 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College hands of Messrs. Stewart, Buchanan, & Co., who are not only not sohcitous about their present collection provided the interest be paid, but express a perfect willingness to receive back the property in lieu of the bond, both principal and interest if the trustees desire it, a fact indicating that the purchase of the property has not been injudicious. "Your Committee regret to state that the school at Emory and Henry College has of necessity been entirely suspended during the past year. The students have left its halls and are gone to fight the battles of the country. Efforts have been made to reopen the school but without success, and we are unwillingly forced to the conclusion that its operations must remain suspended until the return of peace and the successful establishment of our independence. "During the greater part of the past year the college buildings have been used as a hospital for sick and wounded soldiers, for which the Confederate Authorities pay the Trustees an annual rent of $2500. The farm is rented to other parties for $500. per annum, making an aggregate annual income of $3000. — The buildings and grounds have been carefully protected from injury while occupied by the soldiers. "Your Committee recommend that the communication from the Trustees of Shoal Creek Academy be received with favor, but prefer that the question of appointing the Rev. Wm. Hicks as Principal be left with the authority to which it properly belongs. "In conclusion your Committee would most earnestly recommend the members of the Holston Annual Conference to give all the encouragement and support to the cause of education that these times of darkness will admit of: a As Athens Female College 15 cause on which the future success and power of our Con- federacy must greatly depend. Respectfully submitted. JAS. A. DAVIS Chairman of Committee"^ The following Board of Visitors was appointed in 1862 for Athens Female College: Rev'ds T. Sullins, J. H. Burnett, G. Taylor, J. Atkins, A. G. Worley, J. F. Woodfin. The same Conference Minutes announced that Rev- erend Erastus Rowley, D.D., had been appointed to preach the annual sermon on the first day of the Conference to be held in 1863. The Daily Post, an Athens newspaper, under date of Friday, April 10, 1863, contains information concerning the College and refers to the general optimism of the South concerning the success of the Confederacy. The Athens Female College was reported to be "nearly full to its capacity." This fact was followed by this state- ment: "The larger and better portion of the young men of the country are in the Army, fighting the battles of freedom and independence. And whatever else you leave undone, don't neglect to educate your daughters." An editorial entitled "Confederate Bonds" revealed the confidence of the Confederacy. "We are gratified to learn that so many persons are disposed to invest their surplus money in Confederate Bonds. It is the safest, best, and most profitable disposition that can be made of it at present. — The interest, eight per cent, will be paid promptly semi-annually, and there can be no reasonable doubt of the redemption of the Bonds at maturity. Whenever the war closes, which is certain by the expiration of the present year at least, no matter how iMinutes of Holston Annual Conference, 1862 16 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College the wiseacres may shake their heads and carpers emit their doleful predictions, Confederate Bonds will command a heavy premium. Suppose a man invests ten thousand dol- lars in Bonds, he secures to himself the snug little sum of eight hundred dollars — enough in ordinary times to sup- port a good sized family quite genteely in this country. It will be remembered that the Bonds are exempt from the tax which Government levies upon other credits and prop- erty; and by this investment the purchaser helps himself and helps to relieve the public treasury from some of the difficulties which surround it in carrying on the war. Sus- taining the currency is essential to a successful termination of the struggle — a fact too palpable to admit of argument. Invest your surplus in Bonds, by all means, and when grim visaged war shall smoothe his wrinkled front and peace once more beam upon the land, they will be better to you than so many hoarded dollars, or lands and negroes, besides the satisfaction of having assisted your country in its hour of greatest need." Six months later the situation had changed consider- ably. The successes of General Grant, in Chattanooga, and General Sherman had enabled the Federal forces to con- trol East Tennessee. General Sherman records in Decem- ber of 1863 that he had ordered General Howard to Athens and later reports that he had ordered General Ewing's division to Athens. General Sherman's forces had been marched from Chattanooga to Knoxville and returned. He says that "by the ninth all our troops \vere in position, and we held the rich country between the Little Tennessee and the Hiwassee." The Methodists of Tennessee who had aligned them- selves with Union loyalties had become restive in the Meth- odist Episcopal Church, South following the conference session held in Athens in 1862. The successes of Grant and PERCIVAL C. WILSON Second President of the College As Athens Female College 17 Sherman released their loyalties and provided them with a spirit of agitation to reorganize the Methodist Episcopal Church in Tennessee as soon as hostilities ceased. The subsequent reorganization of the Methodist Epis- copal Church resulted in the property of Athens Female College being purchased from President Rowley. It was natural that the Holston Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South was reluctant to lose this property and the Journals of the annual conference sessions in 1865 and 1866 contain reports on the situation of the College. In 1865 the following action was taken: "The Athens Female College is represented as em- barrassed by conflicting claims. Doctor Rowley, its Presi- dent, has upon a personal claim against the institution filed a bill in chancery asking that a sale of the property be made in thirty days without redemption. Your Committee would recommend that immediate steps be taken by this Conference to induce the Trustees of the College to demand an investigation of the claims of Doctor Rowley and to file a cross bill asking that the right of redemption be reserved to them in the case the property is sold. The Committee would further recommend that the Reverend C. Long and Reverend James Atkins be appointed as Agents to see the wishes of this Conference be carried into immediate effect." President Rowley was represented in Chancery Court by H. Blizard. Chancellor D. C. Trewhitt decreed that President Rowley's claims against the College were valid; it being brought out in the petition that Rowley with his own funds had bought additional acreage for the College and provided repairs and equipment during his administra- tion and held notes against the College totaling about $6,000. The court ordered a chancery sale of the Athens Female College to satisfy these claims. M. L. Phillips advertised the sale for August 10, 1866. II In the Wesleyan Tradition Summing up the activities of the college president of a hundred fifty, or a hundred, yes even of seventy-five years ago we can conclude that these are the things he did: solicited funds for the operation of the college, recruited students, prepared the budget, supervised expenditures, purchased such materials and supplies as were used, recom- mended policies to trustees, corresponded with those inter- ested in the institution, admitted students and gave guid- ance to them, administered discipline, taught what we would regard today as a full load, conducted the chapel programs, preached every Sunday, carried on a public rela- tions program, participated in community and state affairs, prepared the curriculum, employed teachers and all other help. In other words the president of former time was not only the president but he was also, the vice-president, the registrar or dean of admission, the dean of the college, the comptroller, the superintendent of buildings and grounds, the chaplain, the director of guidance, personnel director, director of public relations and teacher. What a man! Today the college president of former years would be referred to by our faculties as a dictator; undoubtedly he was one. His authority was rarely if ever challenged, and seldom resented. — H. L. DONOVAN 19 20 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College As the federal forces triumphed, the Methodists of East Tennessee, friendly to the Union cause, began to hold services, organize Sunday Schools, and issued through the Knoxville Whig May 27, 1864 an invitation to a convention of those termed "Loyal Methodists" to decide what course they would pursue. A call issued for the Convention was as follows : "The undersigned, members and ministers of the Methodist Church, respectfully invite Methodist preachers and laymen, who are loyal to the government of the United States, within the bounds of the Holston Conference, to meet them in Convention at Knoxville, on the first Thurs- day in July, to take into consideration the troubles, wants and interests of our Church; and also the action of the late General Conference at Philadelphia in regard to our wants and our condition growing out of the rebellion. W. G. Brownlow J. A. Hyden E. E. Gillenwaters W. T. Dowell William Cureton James Gumming Thomas Russell William H. Rogers" The Convention met in St. John's Protestant Episcopal Church, Knoxville, Tennessee, July 7, 1864. The following persons were present as delegates: Messrs. James Murphy, James S. Hunt, F. Rule, D. B. Hunt, J. A. Ruble, Sr., A. R. Byington, Andrew Hutsell, J. W. Gibson, Elias Gibson, Dr. James Mahoney, James Baker, Alex. Kennedy, Wm. H. Hawk, G. G. Hawk, J. B. Sharp, James Plumley, W. W. Hawes, Daniel P. Gass, W. H. Finley, Jacob French, Michael French, Henry Har- rison, William Cheney, W. H. Carter, J. H. Howell, Solo- In the Wesleyan Tradition 21 mon Clapp, James Curry, James Grigsby, V. S. Lotspeich, A. C. E. Callen, J. C. Hankins, Benjamin Wells. The following ministers, traveling and local: Revs. E. E. Gillenwaters, W. G. Brownlow, J. Albert Hyden, W. H. Rogers, W. C. Daily, E. Still, John Bower, W. T. Dowell, E. A. Adee, T. P. Rutherford, T. A. Cass, E. Stock- bridge, J. F. Morrison, T. H, Russell, Henry Walker, Wm. Crutchfield, Joseph Milburn, Spencer Henry, P. H. Reed, John Cox, James Gumming, Wm. Cureton, R. G. Black- burn. The Convention was organized by the election of E. E. Gillenwaters, both a minister and a lawyer, as chairman, and R. G. Blackburn, as secretary. It was reported that Governor Brownlow had recently visited Bishop Matthew Simpson at Philadelphia and Bishop Davis W. Clark at Cincinnati, and that Rev. W. C. Daily had been direct- ing the work of reorganization in a tentative way in Bradley and other counties in lower East Tennessee. It was also made known that a canvas was being made to ascertain the number of ministers in East Tennessee who were in sympathy with the movement, and it was reported in the Convention that sixty ordained ministers, traveling and local, were ready to enter the ranks of the proposed organized movement, and sixty-five others unordained. It was asserted that about forty others whom it had not been possible to see, could be counted on. Several com- mittees were appointed, and among them one of eleven representative men, called the General Committee, whose particular duty it was to consider and report as to the line of action to be chosen. REPORT OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. This committee reported, in part, as follows: "Pursuant to public notice, a Convention of loyal Methodist laymen and preachers, local and traveling, con- 22 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College vened in the City of Knoxville, Tennessee, on the 7th of July, 1864, to take into consideration the wants, prospects and interests of the Methodist Church within the bounds of the Holston Annual Conference. The General Com- mittee, to whom this subject was referred, have had the matter under serious and prayerful consideration, and beg leave to submit the following brief report: "At an early period in this wicked rebellion the Meth- odist Episcopal Church, South, took her stand upon the treasonable and therefore false foundation of secession; her pulpits bellowed with more terrific thunder on the side of disunion than those of almost any other church, hurling fiery invectives at the Union and the North — carrying the most of her leading and influential ministers and members into the unhallowed embrace of treason. Under the ad- ministration of this, our former church, some of our min- isters have been proscribed, some refused circuits and stations, and others expelled — all for opinion's sake, and because they were loyal to the United States. We have determined, therefore, no longer to live under the iron rule of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, or to be associ- ated in our Church relations with the men who control the interest of said church and are likely to direct her future movements. "It, therefore, remains for us and the loyal thousands of our brethren similarly situated, to do one of three things — either to remain in the wilderness (not of Judea, but of Dixie) and wander off into the mountains of sin and un- belief, whence we came; or, next, to form ourselves into a separate and independent organization; or, last of all, to seek a reunion with the Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States, whose doctrine, usages and faith are in ac- cord with ours, and in the enjoyment and practice of which we desire to live and die. In the Wesleyan Tradition 23 "We, therefore, report in favor of returning to the Methodist Episcopal Church, and asking, most respectfully, to be recognized by her and provided for, as the Holston Annual Conference, giving our loyal preachers the lead in our new organization, subject to the control and authority of the appointed heads of our church in the United States and to her Discipline. "1. Resolved, That the rebeUion of the Southern States against the government of the United States was without any just and sufficient cause, and therefore what has followed is without any foundation in right, justice, or laws of the land, or in the wants and necessities of the people in this or any other country. "2. Resolved, That all who willingly engaged in this rebellion, have, in the eyes of the Supreme Laws of the land, in the judgment of all enlightened nations, and especially in the feelings of every loyal heart of this vast continent, forfeited all the rights, privileges and immunities of the government of the United States. "3. Resolved, That the loyal members and ministers of the Holston Conference are entitled in law to all prop- erty belonging to said ecclesiastical organization, and vvdth the Divine Blessing we intend to claim and hold the same, and rebuild the waste places of Zion. "4. Resolved, That the loyal people and preachers of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, within the bounds of the Holston Conference, constitute said Church, and this convention, acting for said church and people, hereby propose at the earliest day practicable, to transfer the same to the Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States, and that a committee be appointed to complete the negotiations, subject to the approval of those transferred. "5. Resolved, That ministers having charge of Cir- cuits, Stations and Missions, and all who may have in the 24 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College future, be instructed to propose to the churches in their respective charges to change their church relations from the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, by going en masse to the Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States." The report was unanimously adopted. Following the Convention in Knoxville the work of reorganizing Sunday schools and classes, circuits and sta- tions, under the general direction of Rev. W. C. Daily, was continued in anticipation of an early reorganization of the Conference. Patriotism and religion are two of the basic emotional allegiances of the human mind. Patriotism can cause un- dying love for one's country and great commitment to its preservation. Religion has been characterized by equal emotional devotion and strangely enough bitterness and hatred have issued from religious professions. The years which followed the end of the Civil War in East Tennessee were made even more difficult by the com- petition between the established Methodist Episcopal Church, South and the Methodist Episcopal Church which was reorganized in Athens, June 1-5, 1865, with Bishop Davis W. Clark, of Cincinnati, presiding, which declared itself favoring the organization of a college for the Central South. Under the principalship of Percival Clark Wilson the educational goal of the Holston Conference came to early fruition in Athens, Tennessee. Percival Clark Wilson was born at Thornville, Ohio, October 20, 1830. Wilson was graduated from Ohio Wes- leyan University with a Bachelor of Arts Degree in 1855, and with a Master of Arts Degree in 1858. Following travels in Europe Wilson joined the Faculty of Ohio Wesleyan University. Wilson refused a commission and entered the United JOHN JENKINS MANKER, Class 1871 Teacher, Trustee, and Fifth President In the Wesleyan Tradition 25 States Army as a private in the second Ohio Heavy Artil- lery and attained the rank of Second Lieutenant. While in Tennessee during the War, he became impressed by the scenery, climate and economic opportunities in East Ten- nessee, and at the close of the War he located in Athens and became a merchant. He was married to Letitia Smith Atlee, the daughter of Reverend and Mrs. Edwin A. Atlee, a Pennsylvania family. The facilities of Athens Female College were used by Wilson for the organization of a school which opened late in 1866 or in January 1867. Eighty-six students were enrolled, fifty-two males and thirty- four females, only three of this number were listed as col- lege students, the remainder were enrolled in the prepara- tory department. The opening of school in this area faced many problems. The East Tennessee area having been devastated by contending military forces, the supplies of the people were limited, and primary attention had to be given to economic recovery rather than to providing education for the young people of the area. David A. Bolton in his Memoirs describes the prob- lems East Tennessee families faced at the close of the Civil War and during the years of Reconstruction. "The waste and ruin to homes and farms in East Tennessee was very great. The Bolton farm at the be- ginning of the Civil War was very productive and well supplied for that day with sheep, hogs, cattle and horses. Before I left home each Army forged over a large portion of the Eastern part of the State. My brother John and myself in the Fall of 1863 made every effort to save from Confederate forces six good horses, especially two which we prized very highly, and felt one day we had them safely concealed, but in short time a few Calvarymen passed the home leading our favorite horses. We felt keenly our loss. "At the close of the War the farm was fully without 26 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College livestock. By slow processes and sacrifice the most needed for support of the family was soon secured. During two years the usual crops had not been produced. People were short of provisions — some of which could not be secured such as sugar, coffee, tea and other articles which could not be grown there. Many citizens grew sugar cane and made sorghum and devised a so-called substitute for coffee from parched \vheat or particles of sweet potatoes, poor makeshifts for the genuine goods. While I had a great variety of good food in Indiana, my home folks and others in East Tennessee were subsisting on scanty rations. "No one knows the privations and sufferings of those war time years in East Tennessee except those who experienced them. "The foregoing lines but vaguely describe the condi- tions when I returned home. The country had been wasted by the forces of opposing armies into which many boys, young men and old men had gone to fight against each other. Families and communities often had representatives in each army. These conditions made civic life tense, critical and unfriendly when the War ended. "The material surroundings and the spiritual influences about my old home were not as favorable as they were before the beginning of hostilities." Preceding the organization of a school by Professor Wilson, President Rowley, of Athens Female College, had transferred his conference membership from the Methodist Episcopal Church, South to the reorganized Holston Con- ference of the Methodist Episcopal Church and had been appointed by Bishop Davis as President and Financial Agent of Athens Female College at the session June 1-5, 1865. The Conference Journal of 1867 refers to a report sub- mitted by Professor P. C. Wilson, Chairman of the Confer- In the Wesleyan Tradition 27 ence Committee which had been appointed in 1866 and given the power to select and locate a college, and the Committee on Education made the following roport: The Committee reported that the Reverend Doctor T. H. Pearne, who had transferred to the Holston Confer- ence from the Oregon Conference, was serving as the President of the Board of Trustees of this institution and that he had been able to secure a Charter from the Legis- lature of the State of Tennessee, "giving to the institution University powers and privileges," and also reporting that a flourishing preparatory department had been in operation during the past year, under the supervision of Professor Wilson. The Conference expressed its gratification that the Committee had been able to secure property worth $15,000 to $20,000 in the town of Athens, McMinn County, with a good title, and with funds available to meet existing obliga- tions, purchased through the bidding of the Reverend Edwin A. Atlee, on June 4, 1867, in settlement of President Rowley's claims against the Board of Trustees. A Charter was passed March 9, 1867, by the General Assembly of the State of Tennessee and signed by the Sec- retary of State on April 13, 1867. The Charter for East Tennessee Wesleyan College read as follows: An Act Incorporating the East Tennessee Wesleyan College at Athens Tennessee : and for other purposes. Whereas sundry citizens of Tennessee have purchased suit- able bjildings and grounds near Athens, Tennessee, in McMinn County, State of Tennessee, for the purpose of establishing and conducting therein, a first class College for Males, which College is to be under the government and control of the Holston Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, subject to such rules and restrictions as are therein after set forth: and Whereas, The security of 28 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College society, the supremacy of the Laws, the preservation of our civil and rehgious Hberties the perpetuation of our Institu- tions and of the Union are materially dependant upon the intelligence and virtue of the people: and Whereas it is greatly to the interest of the State to encourage the erection of Schools and. Colleges for the dissemination of Knowledge and Education, Therefore. Section 1. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Ten- nessee: That a Corporation is hereby constituted and established under the name and style of the East Tennessee Wesleyan College, and in that name capable of suing and being sued, pleading and be impleaded, and of buying, holding improving, disposing of, governing and protecting suitable grounds and buildings for higher educational pur- poses, in or near the Town of Athens, McMinn County State of Tennessee: and also capable of collecting gifts, grants on bequests made to the purposes of Education in said institution. Section 2. Be it further enacted. That Thomas H. Pearne, J. Albert Hyden, L. F. Drake, John T. Spence, W. C. Daily, James Hornsby, Geo. W. Ross, Milton S. Phillips, M. A. Helm, E. A. Allen, C. W. Vincent, William G. Brownlow, James Turner, James Baker, R. R. Butler, N. A. Patterson, Samuel Hutsell, John W. Mann, and J. B. Little and their Suc- cessors in Office shall constitute the aforesaid corporation and they shall have power to create by receiving gifts, grants or bequests and to preserve a fund or funds to an amount not exceeding five hundred thousand dollars, for the endow- ment and maintenance of said East Tennessee Wesleyan College, procure libraries and apparatus suitable therefor, fix the course of studies for pupils engage, or discharge professors, confer degrees and do all other things necessary In the Wesleyan Tradition 29 to be done for the maintenance and prosperity of a col- legiate or University Institution. Section 3. Be it further enacted, That said Trustees when called to- gether by the first above named Trustees, and their succes- sors from year to year thereafter, shall organize by electing a President, Secretary and Treasurer out of their own body : and they may adopt a corporate seal and such by-laws and regulations as they find necessary, provided they are not inconsistent with the constitution of the State of Tennessee and of the United States, nor with the special objects of this Act, and provided also, that not less than a majority shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business, at meetings of the Board. Section 4. Be it further enacted: That the above named Trustees shall have succession as follows: At the first meeting of the said Trustees, after the passage of this Act, they shall pro- ceed by ballot, to devide themselves into three classes, num- bered. One, Two, and Three, respectively as follows: Class no one to consist of seven persons whose first term of Office shall continue until October 1st A. D. 1867, and each succeeding term of said class three years: Class no. two to consist of six persons, whose first term of Office shall con- tinue until October 1st 1868. and each succeeding term of said class, three years: Class number three, to consist of six persons whose first term of office shall continue until October 1st 1869. and each succeeding term of said class, three years: at which several times, the Holston Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church shall have power to fill said vacancies or others which may occur and thence forward from year to year, the several classes being respectively elected for three years. 30 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College Section 5. Be it further enacted, That the said Trustees and their Successors, as well in the obtaining and preservation of grounds, buildings, endowments, or other funds as in the General direction and government of the said College shall observe and carry out the Expressed will and pleasure of the aforesaid Holston Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, so far as the same shall be communi- cated to them and not be in conflict with the special object of this Act. Section 12. Be it further enacted, That this Act shall take effect from and after its passage. Passed March 9th 1867. J. S. Mulloy, Speaker Protem of the H. of R. Joshua B. Frierson Speaker of the Senate. I, ANDREW J. FLETCHER, Secretary of State of the State of Tennessee, do Certify that the foregoing is a copy of So much of An Act of the General Assembly of the State of Tennessee, as relates to the East Tennessee Wesley- an College at Athens, Tennessee, the original of which is now on file in my office. In Testimony Thereof, I have hereunto subscribed my Official Signature, and by order of the Governor, affixed the Great Seal of the State of Tennessee; at the Department in the City of Nashville, this 13 day of April A. D., 1867. A. J. Fletcher Secretary of State. Due to business interests Professor Wilson did not de- sire to continue as the head of East Tennessee Wesleyan College although his interest in the school and in the later In the Wesleyan Tradition 31 established institution in Chattanooga was to be continued during the remainder of his Hfe. Concerning the abiHty of Professor Wilson, Doctor John J. Manker wrote as follows: "Possessed of intellectual faculties of a high order, fine business qualities and untiring energy, he rendered a service of great value to the Church." The Board of Trustees and the Holston Conference considered they were fortunate to secure the leadership of the Reverend Nelson E. Cobleigh, already recognized nationally as one of the distinguished leaders of the Metho- dist Episcopal Church, who became president in 1867. Cobleigh was born in Littleton, New Hampshire, Nov- ember 24, 1814. He was the youngest of eleven children. He began his preparatory studies in Newbury, Vermont, in 1838. In 1839 he entered Wesleyan University, in Middle- town, Connecticut, where for four years he struggled against poverty but graduated in 1843 with first honors. In 1844 Mr. Cobleigh joined the New England Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church and continued in the pastorate for nine years. In 1853 he accepted the Chair of Ancient Languages in McKendree College, in Lebanon, Illinois. The following year he was elected to a professorship in Law- rence College, in Appleton, Wisconsin. In 1857 he was elected the president of McKendree College and entered upon his responsibilities in 1858. In this position he revealed qualities of mind and heart which enabled him to bring McKendree College from a state of bankruptcy to a solvent condition. In 1863 Doctor Cobleigh was elected to the Editorship of Zion's Herald in Boston, Massachusetts, which he re- signed to accept the invitation to become the President of East Tennessee Wesleyan University. President Cobleigh realized that he had accepted a responsibility which would demand courage, conviction and 32 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College heroism. The situation which President Cobleigh faced was also reaHstically acknowledged by the Holston Confer- ence Committee on Education. The Committee realized that it was beginning a college in a small way, but it took comfort in referring to the first ten years of the history of Yale College and declared that by comparison East Tennessee Wesleyan University had within it the potential of becoming a strong institution. This faith was expressed in the following sentence: "Though the things of to-day be small with us, not so our expectations." The Conference adopted the following resolution: "WHEREAS, The labor of building up an Institution of the character this is designed to be is not the work of a day or year; but a work requiring time, money and per- severing effort. And "WHEREAS, In other localities several annual con- ferences combine in building up one institution, it appears to your Committee of the highest importance that this Con- ference should be fully impressed with the idea of unity of feeling and action in this great enterprise. Therefore, "Resolved 1, That as a Conference we pledge our- selves, individually and collectively, to give our united in- fluence to the work of building up, sustaining and amply endowing the East Tennessee Wesleyan College. "Resolved 2, That we will promptly discourage and oppose any attempt to divide the interests of the Church, by any movement whatever to establish another Institution of the same grade for males, within the bounds of the Conference." The College apparently was made co-educational in 1868 and the name of the school was authorized by the State Legislature to read East Tennessee Wesleyan Univer- sity, its third name in two years. JOHN FLETCHER SPENCE Sixth President of the College In the Wesleyan Tradition 33 The report listed the resources of the College : Assets — Buildings and Eleven Acres of Land $20,000.00 Library (1,000 volumes) 1,200.00 Organ for Chapel 300.00 Apparatus and Furniture 200.00 Total $21,700.00 liabilities — Balance due on purchase of property 131.50 Balance due to teachers 678.65 Total $ 810.15 By 1869 financial problems had begun to make them- selves felt in the thinking of the Conference, and the Com- mittee on Education reported: "Your Committee, in view of the fact that our literary institutions are more or less embarrassed, financially, would recommend that steps be taken at once to control but few institutions, and make these few self-supporting if possible." The following resolutions were adopted: "Resolved, That we request the presiding Bishop to appoint an agent for our literary institutions for the ensu- ing year. "Resolved, That we most affectionately request and urge upon all the ministers of the Conference, upon reach- ing their respective charges, to present the claims of the East Tennessee Wesleyan University to the consideration of our people ; and that they each raise as much as ten dollars to the charge, upon the average, if possible, and forward the same to James H. Hornsby, Treasurer, Athens, McMinn county, Tennessee; and that they each endeavor to send at least one additional student to our University." The Committee faced a problem which proved to be perennial in the life of the college, and that had to do with 34 A Hi<:torv of Tennessee Wesleyan College its financing. The Committee on Education acknowledged that there was much progress but added that there is a single drawback which has to do with the financial structure of the institution, saying that the amounts that come from tuition are insufficient to carry the expenses of operating the university. Trustees see the situation, and feel the embar- rassment, and ask what is to be done. "The present in- debtedness is $2,478, due only to the Faculty," The expenses for the year were estimated at $4,050, and the income from tuition at $3,000, leaving a deficit of $1,050. This added to previous indebtedness w^ould in- crease the debt to $3,800. It was the judgment of the Trustees and of the committee that this Conference should at its present session, devise some plan and make provision : "First, to meet the annual deficiency in current expenses, and, secondly, to pay off the indebtedness." A special committee was appointed to deal with methods of covering the deficit and the obligations, and for the first time the districts of the Conference were appor- tioned amounts to be raised for the College during the year as follows : Knox\illc District $ 300 Athens District 200 Chattanooga District 200 Morristo\\'n District 125 Jonesboro District 125 Ashe\'ille District 50 Total $1,000 The Presiding Elders (District Superintendents) of the Districts were invited to call educational meetings at their First Quarterly Conference, if practicable, for the purpose of raising or devising the means of securing the amount apportioned to the Districts, and to urge upon his people In the Wesleyan Tradition 35 the importance of sending qualified students to the Uni- versity. In 1871 the Board of Trustees authorized the opening of a theological department in the University and directed the President to give a substantial amount of his time to the development of this department, which enrolled about a dozen students, who had decided to study for the Christian ministry. The Executive Committee, the same year, authorized the opening of a law department and the responsibility for developing this department was placed in the hands of the Honorable N. A. Patterson. The first graduating class, that of 1871, included the following persons : Edwin Augustus Atlee, John Henry Clay Foster, Joseph Leander Gaston, Wiley S. Gaston, Josephine Gaston Hale, Cornelia Atlee Hutsell, John Jenkins Manker, William Elbert Franklin Milburn, Susan Lizzie Moore, and Mary J. Mason Presnell. It was announced in 1872 that the Board of Trustees had adopted a policy of providing free tuition to all students needing aid, a policy which was to provide encouragement to many poor students but was to begin a tradition which continued to cause embarrassment to the institution for many generations, as it created an assumption in the think- ing of successive classes of students that a college education could be received without financial sacrifice on the part of the student and his family. President Cobleigh served with devotion for five years. At the General Conference of 1872 he accepted election as the editor of the Methodist Advocate, published in At- lanta, Georgia. Doctor Cobleigh was a man of great versatility, excel- ling as preacher, administrator, writer and teacher. As President, he carried a heavy responsibility as a teaching 36 ' A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College member of the faculty. He gave instruction in Latin, Greek, History, Rhetoric, Ethics and Psychology. David A. Bolton was devoted to him, as apparently were all the students of the University. Bolton writes that he required each member of the class to bring a good translation of the previous day's Greek lesson. His assignments seemed too demanding. Bol- ton recalls Cobleigh's comment concerning his heavy re- quirements, "Young men, if you can endure this pressure now, you need not fear what may come to you later." Doctor Cobleigh returned to Athens to keep an important preaching appointment, became ill, and died in Atlanta, February 1, 1874. Doctor Cobleigh had been more than a local leader in New England or in Tennessee. He had served as a member of the General Conferences of 1864, 1868, and 1872. Following his death, resolutions com- mending his great contribution to the Church were passed by the Ne\v York preachers' meeting, the Boston preachers' meeting, the Book Committee of the Methodist Episcopal Church at its annual meeting arid the 1874 session of the Holston Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church. The University turned to another graduate of Wesley- an University and secured the services of the Reverend James A. Dean. Dean was born in Hubbardton, Vermont, April 3, 1823. He spent his boyhood years at Ogdenburg, New York. He was graduated from Wesleyan University, in Middletown, Connecticut, in 1847. He spent seven years teaching in North Carolina and Virginia and later joined the Ne\v England Southern Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church. In 1872 he was elected President of East Tennessee Wesleyan University, where he remained until 1875. He then returned to the New York East Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church and was later elected President of New Orleans University. He received the Doc- < I o >- O o In the Wesleyan Tradition 37 tor of Divinity Degree from Illinois Wesleyan University. He was known for his accurate scholarship and habits of study. In 1872 it was reported that the efforts to meet the expenses of the university had failed. Although through the efforts of Reverend R. D. Black who had been appointed as financial agent, substantial amounts had been raised a deficit of $2,000 still remained unpaid. The financial situation accentuated partly by the eco- nomic panic of 1872 continued to be a major problem and President Dean resigned at the end of three years to return to the pastoral ministry. Following his administration here, Doctor Dean pub- lished an abridgement in two volumes of "The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire" which was said to have received a very generous reception. He died March 29, 1884, in New Brunswick, New Jersey. The Board of Trustees turned to Doctor John J. Man- ker for presidential leadership. Doctor Manker served from June until October. Appointment to the presidency re- quired the approval of the presiding Bishop and this could not be given until the October session of the Annual Con- ference. Doctor Manker announced at that time that he preferred not to be given a permanent assignment as the head of the institution. John J. Manker was born December 24, 1839, at Fin- castle, Ohio. He received an A.B. degree from East Tennes- see Wesleyan University in 1871 and a Master of Arts de- gree from Ohio Wesleyan University in 1874. The Univers- ity of Tennessee conferred the honorary Doctor of Divinity degree upon him in 1883. After service in the United States Army during the Civil War, Mr. Manker decided to identify himself with the Methodist Episcopal Church in the 38 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College Holston Conference. He served as a member of the faculty of East Tennessee Wesleyan University, as presiding elder, as minister of leading churches, as a professor in Chatta- nooga University, as a professor in the School of Theology of Grant University, and as editor of The Methodist Advo- cate Journal. Doctor Manker released creative educational interests which found their expression in the great contri- butions of John A. Patten, Mrs. John A. Patten, Mrs. Alexander Guerry, Manker Patten, and Lupton Patten, now president of the Board of Trustees of the Univ^ersity of Chattanooga. Doctor Manker was to prove one of the foundation stones in the maintenance of the institutions both at Athens and Chattanooga. In September 1875 the Holston Conference reported that East Tennessee Wesleyan University had been required to execute a Deed of Trust in the amount of $5,000, which could be closed out at any time. The Conference had committed itself at the first ses- sion to the building of a strong institution. Its aspirations had ended in frustration but the Conference was not willing to relinquish its efforts to stabilize the university and to secure adequate financial undergirding. In the light of the urgent needs of the university the Conference turned to the Reverend J. F. Spcnce, who had served as a member of the Board of Trustees and had been successful in securing funds for the college, to serve as its President, and the Conference requested the Presiding Bishop to appoint Doctor Spence to the presidency of East Tennessee Wesleyan University, and appealed to the Methodists of Georgia, Alabama, and Tennessee to set aside their Centennial Year ofTerings to be designated for the strengthening of the institution at Athens. John Fletcher Spence was born in Greenville, Ohio, February 3, 1828. He received his education at Ohio Wes- In the Wesleyan Tradition 39 leyan University from which he received the Bachelor of Arts degree in 1856, and the Master of Arts degree in 1880. Mr. Spence united with the Cincinnati Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1853 and served churches in that Conference until 1862 when he became a chaplain in the United States Army. At the close of the Civil War, Mr. Spence located in Knoxville after transferring his mem- bership to the reorganized Holston Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1865 of which he was sec- retary. Later he was appointed presiding elder of the Knox- ville District where he served from 1869 until 1872. Doctor Spence, as he became with honorary degrees from Mount Union College and Scioto College, was one of the founders of Tennessee Wesleyan College, had much to do with the charter which was secured, and from the beginning of his residence in East Tennessee took an active part in the establishment of educational institutions. He was successful in securing funds in the North and East for the College and is credited with securing funds in sufficient amounts to pay the indebtedness on the institution after it was bought in 1867. Doctor Spence served the institution in many capac- ities over a twenty-six year period, as financial agent, as president, and as chancellor. It was during his administra- tion that the name of the school was changed first to Grant Memorial University, and then three years later to U. S. Grant University at the time of its consolidation with Chattanooga University. Because of a disagreement with the Board of Trustees, Doctor Spence left the institution in 1893 and established a competitive institution in Harriman, Tennessee, known as American Temperance University. Doctor Spence's estrangement was of short duration. In later years he became a trustee again and was generous in providing financial assistance for the institution. During his administration Doctor Spence went into the 40 A History of Teyinessee Wesleyan Colle^ie mountain sections of the South and appealed to young men to get an education. Then he went into the North to secure funds to provide the resources to enable the institution to provide the training. In an address in Troy, New York, he said, "The close of the Civdl War saw such poverties as never before known. The poor became poorer and the ignorant more ignorant. We are training the illiterate, non- slave holding portion of the South for the leaders of the future." The contribution which the university made to East Tennesse during Doctor Spence's administration cannot be measured. For instance, from 1886 to 1889 there were sixty-seven graduates of the school. Of this number, four became physicians, ten became judges or lawyers, twenty became teachers, and sixteen became ministers. The confidence of the Conference in President Spence's resourcefulness was not without foundation as his leadership during the first year of his administration clearly revealed. By October 1876 it was reported that the entire indebted- ness of the University had been liquidated and that addi- tional funds for repairs and equipment had been secured. The Committee refused to place education in a secondary position and insisted that it was of primary significance in the life of the Church. The report reads, in part, as follows: "In direct returns and benefits, the college is far su- perior to the missionary cause. One is home, the other foreign — one our o^vn household, the other a stranger's. "Money given to the college is not a pebble thrown into the sea, but a dyke against the raging waves. The col- lege is not an ornament but an arsenal. It is not a cancer on the body, but a vital function in it. It is not a burden of useless freight, but a rich cargo; not barnacles on the keel, but wind in the sails of the ship. In helping the college we In the Wesleyan Tradition 41 are feeding, clothing, training our child; that child will give us back love, a strong arm and brain, and vigorous labor for the improvement of the original estate; and will be constantly dropping golden fruit into the bosom of her who gave it birth. "The East Tennessee Wesleyan University is the child of this Conference; born in 1867. Scarcely ten years of age; has been feeble most of her life; came nigh unto death one year ago, has recovered ; is now convalescent, has received a new suit of clothes from her friends in the North — in this new dress and hearty state she presents herself before her mother this day, claiming recognition, love and attention." President Spence's administration was the second long- est in the history of the institution. A number of outstanding achievements are credited to his leadership. Among the advances made and the changes effected during his admini- stration the following are of special significance : In 1878 a gift was made which seemed to be a solution of many of the university's problems. Colonel H. G. Bixby, of California, it was reported, has given the University a large interest in eight rich silver mines near Globe City, Arizona. Through the efforts of President Spence and Pro- fessor Caldwell a mill costing $40,000 had been erected and paid for. It was anticipated that by December 10, 1878, the University would receive a dividend of $7,000. The Conference expressed its gratitude in the following resolution : "That we gratefully acknowledge the munificent gift of Colonel H. G. Bixby to the University, and recognize in him a friend to humanity, and a real benefactor to our Church, whom we shall ever delight to respect and honor." A year later it was reported that "the Trustees are not 42 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College realizing on the Arizona mineral interest as soon as was an- ticipated ; nevertheless, it is full of promise, and all are con- fident of success in the near future." Apparently that was the end of Colonel Bixby and we find no evidence that the University received any income from this gift and the sub- stantial investment which the University had made in pro- viding the facilities for the operation of the mines. The failure of Colonel Bixby's contribution to materialize did not defeat the institution. In 1880 it was reported by the Conference that "the report of its trustees shows the institution to be free of debt. The income from tuition is wholly inadequate to support the University. But through the efforts of its President its income has been largely supplemented by donations and collections from churches and friends in the North." Included among these friends in the North there is reference to a Mrs. Clark, of Cleveland, Ohio, \vho had provided a bequest of $1,000 for the establishment of a scholarship. In 1882 the construction of a Chapel located on the site of the present Townsend Memorial Hall was begun. This building served for assembly programs and chapel services, and as a place of worship for the Methodist Episco- pal Church, of Athens, from the time of its construction until the erection of the present Trinity Methodist Church, in Athens, erected under the leadership of the Reverend Burton M. Martin in 1909, the Church selling its share of the Chapel to the University at that time. The institution continued to use the Chapel until 1924 \vhen it was razed to provide an area for the construction of \\hat is no\v Townsend Memorial Hall. The spirit of the President in his leadership is indicated by a report in 1882 that a debt of $3,000 had accumulated, $2,500 of it was back salary and advances made by Presi- In the Weslcyan Tradition 43 dent Spence. The President generously proposed that if the Trustees would pay $500 he would donate $2,500. The Trustees accepted the proposition and "we report with gladness the institution entirely free of debt." President Spence was not only interested in the finan- cial solvency of the institution and interested enough to put his own resources into the University, but he was especially concerned with the curriculum. In 1883 the Conference stated in its report, "the Uni- versity Curriculum, as laid down in the Catalog, compares favorably with any in the land." From 1867 until 1906 the University required four years of residence for the awarding of the baccalaureate degree, one of the first in the South to establish the four- year curriculum. As late as 1911 no southern state univer- sity required four years of residence work for the A.B. degree. In 1913 only seven colleges or universities in the South required four years of residence work for the Bache- lor's degree and the University of Chattanooga, by that time parent of the institution organized in Athens, was among those requiring four years. Throughout the reports it was mentioned frequently that East Tennessee Wesleyan University was at a disad- vantage in increasing its student body because students could go to other institutions and receive a degree for less than four years of residence work. The catalog of 1882-1883 listed three curricula. Classi- cal, Latin Scientific, and Scientific, in addition to the normal curriculum which required less than four years but did not lead to a degree. 44 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College The curricula were as follows: CLASSICAL First Term Latin — Livy. Greek — Odyssey. Trigonometry. Mineralogy. Second Term Latin — Livy. Greek — Memorabilia. General Geometry. Orator's Manual. Third Term Latin — Germania. Greek — Thucydides. General Geometry. Physiology. First Term Latin — Horace's Odes. Greek — Plato's Apology. Land Surveying. Physics. Second Term Latin — Agricola. Greek — Plato's Crito. Differential Calculus. Civil Government. Physics. Third Term Latin — Terence. Greek — Euripides. Integral Calculus. Botany. Physics. First Term Latin — Satires and Epistles of Horace. Greek — Demosthenes or German. Mechanics. Chemistry. Second Term Latin — Juvenal. Greek — Demosthenes or German. Astronomy. Chemistry. FRESHMAN YEAR LATIN SCIENTIFIC Latin — Aeneid Latin Prose. History' of Rome. Plane Geometry. Complete Algebra. Physics. Latin — Cicero. Solid 6? Spherical Geometry. Complete Algebra. Orator's Manual. Civil Government. Physics. Latin — Cicero. Advanced Geometry. Botany. Physics. SOPHOMORE YEAR Latin — Livy. Odes of Horace. Trigonometry. Mineralogy. Latin — Livy. General Geometry. Zoology. Latin — Germania. General Geometry. Political Econom}'. JUNIOR YEAR Latin — Satires and Epistles of Horace. Land Surveying. Science of Rhetoric. Chemistry. Latin — Agricola. Differential Calculus. Logic. Chemistry. SCIENTIFIC History of Rome. Plane Geometry. Complete Algebra. Physics. Solid 6? Spherical Geometry. Complete Algebra. Orator's Manual. Civil Government. Physics. Advanced Geometry. Botany. Physics. Chemistry. Trigonometry Mineralogy. Chemistr\'. General Geometry. Zoology. Chemistry. General Geometry. Political Economy. Geology. Land Surveying. Science of Rhetoric. French — Elective. Differential Calculus. Logic. Astronomy. French — Elective. 1 Catalog I882-'83. In the Wesleyan Tradition 45 Third Term Latin — Seneca's Epistles Essay. Greek — Acts of Apostles or German. Political Economy. Chemistry. First Term Latin — Cicero De Natura Deorum. Science of Rhetoric. Moral Science. Geology. Second Term Logic. Butler's Analogy. English Literature. Zoology. Intellectual Science. Third Term Kame's Elements of Criticism. International Law. Intellectual Science. Latin — Terence. Integral Calculus. International Law. Chemistry. SENIOR YEAR Latin — Cicero De Natura Deorum. Mechanics. Moral Science. Geology. Latin — Juvenal. Astronomy. Butler's Analogy. Intellectual Science. Latin — Seneca's Essay. Kame's Elements of Criticism. Intellectual Science. International Law. Integral Calculus. History of Philosophy. French — Elective. Constitutional History. Mechanics. Moral Science. English Literature. Butler's Analogy. Intellectual Science. Kame's Elements of Criticism. Evidences of Christianity. Intellectual Science. Student handbooks were apparently unknown at that time. The regulations governing student conduct were known as "By-Laws" and were listed in the University catalog. Students who achieved a degree by the way of Greek, Latin, physics, chemistry, botany and history had little time for social life, athletics or fun. The catalog for 1882-1883 describes the Spartan requirements. BY-LAWS ' 1. Students are expected to rise at 5 o'clock in the morn- ing and retire by 10 p.m. 2. Recitations, prayers in the morning and other regular exercises shall be punctually attended by each student. 3. During study hours, students are not allowed to visit each other's rooms nor visit about the village. 4. Students will obtain permission of one of the teachers before leaving town. iCatalog 1882''83. 46 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan Colle^^e 5. Students are required to be orderly and quiet in and about the buildings. 6. Profane or obscene language will not be tolerated un- der any circumstances. 7. The use of any intoxicating beverage and the playing of cards are absolutely forbidden. 8. No student will be permitted to attend balls, dancing parties, circuses or operatic shows. 9. A strict observance of the Sabbath, and attendance upon public worship will be required. 10. Young ladies may not receive calls from gentlemen, except of friends from a distance. 1 1 . Young gentlemen are not permitted to visit young ladies at their own rooms. 12. The escorting of young ladies by young gentlemen is not allowed without especial permission from the Faculty. 13. Students will be held responsible for any injuries done to their rooms or other parts of the building. 14. Students will not be allowed to use tobacco within the buildings. 15. Absence from recitation \\ithout satisfactory excuse, as well as insubordination in the class-room, shall be reckoned and bear upon the student's grade. 16. Any student desiring to sever his connection with the University before the close of the term must inform the Faculty in writing of his intention, and obtain their consent. Any student habitually violating the above rules will not be allowed to remain in the University. It must have been reassuring to President Spence to hear the Holston Conference report of 1884: "The passed year has been one of unprecedented pros- perity and material growth. The annual catalogue shows In the Wesleyan Tradition 47 an enrollment of 279 students, 30 of whom were in perpara- tion for the ministry. During the year nine southern states were represented in the halls of the University, also two northern states. "The Hatfield Boarding Hall, a beautiful structure, 74 feet long by 32 feet wide, three stories high, with a capacity to accommodate 40 students, has just been completed at a cost of $3,000, every dollar of which has been paid. 'The Chapel and Church, a splendid building of mod- ern style, has been completed and dedicated with every dollar of indebtedness provided for. "The moral and religious status of the school during the past year has been unusually good. "This school was never more full of promise than at the present. The Trustees continue the free tuition system, simply charging an incidential fee of $5 per term. ''Resolved, That we are greatly gratified with the prosperity of the University during the past year, and we hereby pledge our cordial support for the year to come." In 1885 it was reported that there had been another year of prosperity, that the enrollment had averaged 250 during preceding five years, and that some nine to eleven states had been represented in the student body. It was also reported that 24 young men were preparing for the Chris- tian ministry and that in cooperation with the University Y.M.C.A. a corps of Christian workers had been organized so effectively that a revival of the preceding winter had re- sulted in fifty conversions. The trustees had purchased during the year the Wilson property consisting of two acres and a building of eight rooms to be used as a boarding house for young ladies. A summary indicated that the campus consisted of 18 acres, six buildings with a capacity to accommodate 400 stu- dents, and that the property if located in Knoxville \\ ould be w^orth $50,000. Ill As a Memorial to Grant To labor constantly for the world with no thought of self, to find indifference and opposition where you ought to find active assistance, to meet criticism with patience and the open attacks of ignorance without resentment, to plead with others for their own good, to follow sleepless nights with days of incessant toil, to strive continually without ever attaining — this is to be a college president. But this is only half the truth. To be associated with ambitious youth and high-minded men, to live in an atmosphere charged with thoughts of the world's greatest thinkers, to dream of a golden age not in the past but in the future, to build 4ip a great kingdom of material conquest and make life richer and fuller, to spiritualize wealth and convert it into weal, to enrich personal character and elevate all human rela- tionships, to leave the impress of one's life on a great and immortal institution — this, too, is to be a college president. — James H. Kirkland 48 As a Memorial to Grant 49 President Spence's background and success inspired by the influence of President Grant who had died July 23, 1885, led him to suggest naming East Tennessee Wesleyan University in memory of the former President. Grant had been solicited in April 1867 for a contribu- tion towards the establishment of East Tennessee Wesleyan College. He had agreed to head the list of contributors giving his approval in these words: "I want to help the class of people for which the school is being established, for I believe a Christian education among the masses in the CENTRAL SOUTH is now a necessity." President Spence in a piece of promotional material paid tribute to General Grant and made an appeal for support in these words: "We are now laboring to successfully build this living monument to the memory of this GREAT MAN — a monu- ment in which there shall be no displacement of capstone or foundation, but standing an intellectual and moral light- house to the nation, upon the heights of which Grant's exalted character shall be transfigured for ever. "We close this brief statement by appealing to you in the name of 750,000 WHITE men living South of Mason and Dixon's line that cannot read the ballots they cast, and on behalf of 3,000,000 more of WHITES in the same territory, over ten years of age,* groping in the darkness of intellectual illiteracy. "If humanly possible, aid us in this great undertaking. Place at least to your name "one brick" in this living monu- ment, and help to wreathe it with your love of patriotism and Christian education. No other human instrumentality can do so much toward brushing away the bitter thoughts of the past, of harmonizing the discordant elements, and cementing into one great bond of fraternity this whole nation." 50 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College President Spence apparently was well acquainted in Washington. He was able to secure the endorsement of a representative group of members of the United States House of Representatives and of the United States Senate who formed their approval in an endorsement headed by the President of the Senate. "United States Senate, March 5, 1886 "To whom it may concern: "We have learned of the recent action of the Board of Regents of the East Tennessee Wesleyan University, in changing the name of that institution to the "Grant Me- morial University," thus establishing a living and durable monument to the name of the greatest of American soldiers. "This institution has already accomplished a great work in training thousands of the youths of the Central South for usefulness and leadership among the masses. "The importance of Grant University in the South cannot be overestimated. "We give it our unqualified indorsement, and com- mend it to the favorable consideration of the friends of a liberal education. "The results that have already been accomplished, the number and character of those who have been educated for the various occupations of life, and the general favor with which the school is now regarded in its patronizing territory, should satisfy the most critical of its merits, and command the respect and material aid of all patriotic citizens. JOHN SHERMAN, President of the Senate J. Don Cameron, U.S.S., Pa. Howell E. Jackson, U.S.S., Tenn. Warner Miller, U.S.S., N.Y. Philetus Sawyer, U.S.S., Wisconsin Wm. Mahone, U.S.S., Va. Henry W. Blair, U.S.S., N.H. As a Memorial to Grant 51 Charles F. Manderson, U.S.S., Neb. Nelson W. Aldrich, U.S.S., R.I. John D. Long, M.C., Mass. E. B. Taylor, M.C., Ohio James S. Negley, M.C., Pa. Wm. M. Evarts, U.S.S., N.Y. P. B. Plumb, U.S.S., Kansas H. M. Teller, U.S.S., Colorado John C. Spooner, U.S.S., Wis. Geo. F. Hoar, U.S.S., Mass. John J. Ingalls, U.S.S., Kan. Joseph E. Brown, U.S.S., Ga. Frank Hiscock, M.C., N.Y. John Litde, M.C., Ohio Wm. D. Kelley, M.C., Pa. C. H. Grosvenor, M.C., Ohio" A celebration of Grant's sixty-fourth anniversary pro- vided an opportunity to publicize the new name of the University and to appeal for general support. The cele- bration was held in the Metropolitan Church, Washington, D.C., April 27, 1866. The Commander-in-Chief of the Grand Army of the Republic, unable to attend, addressed a letter of approval to Chief Justice Morrison R. Waite, Chairman of the Celebration: Headquarters Grand Army of the Republic.^ Washington, D. C, April 27, 1886. Hon. Morrison R. Waite, Chairman, etc.: Dear Sir: ■ — I find, to my very great regret, that I shall be unable to be present to-night at the meeting over which you are to preside, and which, called on the sixty-fourth an- niversary of the birth of General Grant, is intended, whilst giving occasion for patriotic and affectionate revival of 1 Grant Memorial University, page 12. 52 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College memories of him and of his great work for his country, has also the purpose to bring into notice and helpful sympathy the educational institution, which, planted in the South, has taken his loved name ; and so in the fit place of your meeting proposes that this bestowal of a new name shall have the certificate of a public baptism. * * * * Considered in the light only of a monument to his memory, the affixing of his name to a school of learning is a happy thought. Enduring memories are not such as in form of mere stone or brass run the race against all- destroy- ing time. Beneficient purpose alone gives promise of those unfading qualities with which, for all time, we would en- dow the monuments reared to those we hold in chief honor. Mutilated images and nameless piles are found on all the plains and beside all the seas; there is no memory of those for whom they were reared; but, though the Alexandrian Library perished by the torch of the destroyer, Ptolemy Philadelphus lives to be named forever as its founder. A thousand names, great in achievement and in honors won, will have passed out of the shelter of our mother tongue whilst yet the founders and patrons for whom are called some of the colleges which constitute the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge are fresh of memory. In our own short history the diligence of search alone brings out of the shadows names which were great on yesterady; but Harvard and Yale are household words, and with Oberlin and Cor- nell, and now with Grant, will march with steady step in the array of things to be forever named. It will be a great work well done, if the fitness of this day's occasion shall help to broaden the foundations of education and liberty; and the Grand Army will not only rejoice in a work so wrought out, but all the more because done under a name which, to its membership, is an inspiration to patriotism, and seems a sure promise of the perpetuation of those institutions of As a Memorial to Grant 53 liberty his valor and faithfulness so much helped to rescue from the ruin which they were lately threatened. Faithfully yours, S. S. BURDETT Commander-in-Chief, G.A.R. Addresses were given by representative leaders from Georgia, Massachusetts, New York and Ohio. Excerpts from these addresses are printed below: From the Address of Senator Joseph E. Brown, ^ of Georgia. ****** On a beautiful eminence, in a picturesque valley in East Tennessee, an institution of learning, bearing the name of General Grant, has been established for the education of poor boys, and this celebration, as I understand it, is partly for the benefit of Grant University. I cordially approve the objects of the founders of this institution. I believe it is well and ably conducted, and trust it may ac- complish great results in the future. I fully indorse the enterprise, and commend it to the favorable consideration, not only of those who have attended this celebration, but of a generous public. May it grow as the fame of the great man whose name it bears grew, until its character is known and its benefits felt by the whole American people. From the Address of Ex-Govcrnor John D. Long, ^ of Mass. ****** My fellow-citizens, if any poor word of mine can avail anything, I desire to utter it, not in eulogy of Gen- eral Grant, who needs none, but in aid of the Grant University of East Tennessee, which does need the helping hand and word of every one of us, and which honors the name it bears by the good work it is doing for the cause of education in the South, There is something in a new uni- versity, limited in its resources, devoted to the education of ^ Grant Memorial University, page 8. 2 Grant Memorial University, pp. 10, 11. 54 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College young men of scant means, plowing the first deep furrows in a virgin soil, that appeals to the heart with a very pathos, and that awakens an interest which our older seats of learn- ing, venerable with age and fame, and rich in resources, can never arouse. When they tell me of a poor boy in Georgia or from the Tennessee hills, already well along in years, going day after day and week after week almost in actual want, living on little else than that divine fire of the scholar's ambition and the freeman's instinct of the posses- sion of undeveloped and untrained intellectual power; when they tell me of that boy's sacrifice and self-denials, of his fulfilling his course in spite of all obstacles, of his eloquence flaming out on commencement-day, and of his later going forth into the communities of the new South to be a power- ful element for good, for growth, and for the republic; when they multiply such an instance a hundred fold, aye, a thousand fold, aye, three thousand fold; when I see such men as this sent out by such a university in solid battalions to fight the battles of the whole country, its battles of truth, for happiness, for equal rights, for freedom, for humanity, for the settlement of the great social questions which to-day depend upon a difTused education of the people up to the idea of doing right by choice and not by force; when I see them thus solving all problems of race and of our social and democratic civilization, then am I reminded of the earlier and the heroic days of our elder colleges; I am reminded of the days when Hiram and Williams equipped Garfield to fight and win the victories of the battle-field and the greater victories of the forum (applause) ; I am reminded of the days when Dartmouth sent out Webster, whose heart, the heart of a poor boy, had almost broken at his father's sacri- fices to give him an education — sent out Webster to fix and confirm the foundations of the Constitution and the Union (applause) ; and remembering these things, knowing what As a Memorial to Grant 55 such a college as this on the hills of East Tennessee means in that reclaimed section of our Union, knowing what it means for the republic, knowing what it means for humanity, knowing what in its influences it means for the future of my country, I say God bless it, and God put it into your hearts to help the Grant University of East Tennessee and give it means to do its great and needed work in the education of the South and thereby for the republic of which we are citizens. (Applause.) From the Address of Senator Wm. M. Evarts,^ of New York. It is with great pleasure that I take part in this birth- day-t:elebration of the illustrious soldier, statesman, general and President, whose recent loss we lament, whose per- petual fame we shall always desire to celebrate. And not less it gives me pleasure to have a share in bestowing proper encomiums upon this Grant Memorial University, and ex- pressing for its future our well-wishes that attend it. It has been said by the wisest of men that a good name is rather to be chosen than great riches; and the framers of your new progressive establishment, your University, have dis- played that wisdom when you have chosen the great and good name of Grant. (Applause.) It is better, if you can- not have both, than the great riches. But there is nothing to dissuade us, in the Scriptures, from hoping that, starting with a good name, we may also come, in our endowments, to great riches, and that we hope for in this new Grant Memorial University. ******* Now, for education, which Senator Sherman has so properly emphasized in three repetitions. Why is education this great matter in human affairs? Why, especially, is it of vital importance in this free nation, and this free and equal society upon which the greatness of our nation has ] Grant Memorial University, pp. 9, 10. 56 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College been built? The wisest ancient philosopher, the one most quoted for wisdom in its application to our own time so remote from his own, Aristotle, said: "It is by education that I learn to do by choice what other men do from force." That, indeed, is the vital and central point for this im- mense population, this immense development of interest and intelligence: that we should do by choice what less favored nations must do through force. (Applause.) But education, when it is to be applied to great masses of population, is not to end with the school children, nor with the college graduates. ***** Education, indeed, means in the strict sense, developing the mind, forming the heart, opening the receptives of nature. * * Thus we see that when we plan either in the philanthropy of George Peabody or in the wise name that has been given to this nascent great University, we are consulting for the welfare, not of the South nor of the North, but of the people of the whole country, by education in that portion of the land that needs most to be brought up in fair rela- tions with the rest of the country. We may talk about an Old South and a New South, but the true prospect and hope is that there will be no South and no North. (Ap- plause.) When of one heart and of one mind, and per- meated equally in all parts by these great vital impulses that I have indicated, we have no South, no North, no East, no West, but one heart and one mind, the heart and mind of the American people. (Applause.) And now, gentlemen and ladies, I have said that in the endowment of this University with the name of the illustrious Grant the University was fortunate. Let me say, also, that no monument more noble, more permanent, or more secure in the reverence of this people, could be chosen on which to inscribe the name of General Grant than this University to bear on its front this illustrious name. This As a Memorial to Grant 57 name shall be written in many forms on marble and on brass, on arches and on mausoleums. But here this name shall be engraven on the fleshy tablets of the hearts of all the scholars of this University, and will be written in characters of living light all over the conduct and the careers, the names and the fame of all these educated men that shall issue from Grant University, as the impulse and the energy of their lives. (Applause.) From the Address of Senator John Shermann, ^ of Ohio. ***** *What the new South wants now more than all else is education ! education ! ! education ! ! ! The statistics with which we have been made familiar recently in the debate in the Senate of illiteracy in the South, are appalling, but not much more so than was the condition of the Western States fifty years ago. The negroes being slaves were, of necessity, without education. The great mass of the white people were in the same condition, not because it was desired in the South, but because from the sparseness of the population and the existence of planta- tions instead of farms, it was difficult to establish a system of public schools. A change in this respect cannot be brought about suddenly ; but it is apparent that every South- ern State appreciates the importance of education of both white and black. It is the bounden duty of the National Government to extend the aid of its large resources. If the action of the Senate is sanctioned by the House, and fairly and justly executed by the people of the Southern States, there need be no danger from the ignorance of the next generation. I believe that these conditions will be the solu- tion of the troubles of the South, and make a great step on the road to prosperity and union in the South. (Applause.) iGrant Memorial University, pp. 8, 9. 58 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College Now, but a few words in conclusion. It is not merely common school education in the South that is needed, but it is higher education. It is all the learning of the schools, all that science has taught, all that religion teaches, all that medicine has found in its alchemy, all the justice which the law points out and seeks to administer; the South wants opportunity for that higher education which cannot be obtained from common schools, but which exists in no country except where common schools abound. It wants in its midst the places where the active leading young men of the South can gather in colleges and universities, and there gain that higher education which prepares them to be leaders among men. I congratulate you, my countrymen, here in Washington, that, under the authority of the Meth- odist Episcopal Church, a Christian denomination, under the name of the illustrious hero General Grant, there has been founded in the mountains of Tennessee, away up among the clouds and in the pure air of heaven, in the midst of a loyal and patriotic population, an institution of learning which will be a blessing to all the people of the South, and I trust to all the people of the North. Every aid possible should be showered from the North and South alike. Let them light their fires at this modern Athens upon the mountain top and they will shine forth all over our land. Here the young men of the South will fit themselves to lead in the march of progress and improvement. They will learn to vary their production, to develop their re- sources, to advance every race and generation in education, intelligence and patriotism, and with charity broad enough to secure all their people of every race and tribe the peaceful and unquestioned enjoyment of their civil and political rights. The organization of a college in Chattanooga under the auspices of the Methodist Episcopal Church dates back As a Memorial to Grant 59 to at least August 7, 1872, when a meeting was held at the Pine Street Methodist Church, of Chattanooga, to consider the organization of a college in that city. At various meet- ings of the Holston Annual Conference and the General Conference following that date, the designation of Chatta- nooga as the location for a university for the Central South was considered. During these years it was debated whether such an institution should be located in Athens, the seat of East Tennessee Wesleyan University, in Knoxville, in competi- tion with the University of Tennessee, or in Chattanooga, where there was no recognized college and which was anxious to have a college. The press of Chattanooga gave encouragement to the efforts of those who wanted the insti- tution located in Chattanooga contending that Chattanooga needed "a college of the first class worse than she needed more railroads." In October 1881 the Mayor of Chattanooga presided over a meeting of citizens of the City to discuss the possibil- ity of the organization of a college. Committees were ap- pointed, other meetings were held, and the press of the City gave its support to a financial campaign. The officers of the Freedman's Aid Society visited the City and gave encour- agement to this project. The Chattanooga Times took an aggressive position concerning the establishment of a college in Chattanooga. A mass meeting was held April 19, 1883, and new committees were selected "to solicit land, money and other donations." The Freedman's Aid Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church made the final decision that the institution would be organized. The citizens of Chatta- nooga had already raised $15,000 to assist in this project. Govan and Livingood sum up the details of this final decision in these words: "Eleven years of planning had been necessary to bring 60 A History of Tennessee Wesley an College the idea of a central university this far. Devoted labor in conference and committee had secured the support of the national organization of the Methodist Episcopal Church for the vision Chattanooga had held of a college in their community. But in arriving at this cooperation the seeds had been planted for a bitter rivalry between the supporters of the Chattanooga institution and those of East Tennessee Wesleyan University at Athens." In July, 1883, property was bought on McCallie Ave- nue at a cost of $31,000 as the location for a college. On January 18, 1884, a contract was awarded for the construction of a building to cost $40,000. A charter for Chattanooga University was applied for on June 24, 1886. Be It Known: That D. M. Key, H. S. Chamberlain, J. W. Adams, J. F. Loomis, D. E. Rees, J. H. Van Deman, Creed F. Bates, S. D. Wester, D. Woodworth, Jr., A. J. Gahagan, J. J. Manker, T. C. Warner, J. R. Rathmell, T. C. Carter, J. W. Mann, Jno. W. Ramsey, H. C. Beck, Alvin Hawkins, Wm. Rule, J. T. Wilder, J. B. Hoxsie, Wm. H. Rogers, James Mitchell, E. H. Vaughan, J. L. Freeman, J. D. Roberson, R. S. Rust and J. M. Walden are hereby constituted a body politic and corporate by the name and style of THE CHATTANOOGA UNIVERSITY. The general purposes and objects of the said corpora- tion being the support of a literary and scientific under- taking as a University in the city of Chattanooga, Hamilton County, Tennessee, for the general diffusion of knowledge, with power to confer degrees, etc. The general powers of the said corporation shall be to sue and be sued by the corporate name, to have and use a common seal which it may alter at pleasure; if no com- mon seal, then the signature of the name of the corpora- As a Memorial to Grant 61 tion, by any duly authorized officer, shall be legal and binding; to purchase and hold or receive by gift, bequest or devise, in addition to the personal property owned by the corporation, real estate necessary or convenient for the transaction of the corporate business, and also to purchase or accept any real estate in payment or in part payment of any debt due the corporation, and sell the same; to establish by-laws and make rules and regulations, not in- consistent with the laws and constitution and this Charter, deemed necessary or expedient for the management of the corporate affairs, or required by the religious denomination establishing the same. The term of all officers may be fixed by the by-laws, the said term not, however to exceed three years. The powers of said corporation shall also be to keep and maintain any, all and every department of a University in the property owned and held for that purpose in said city of Chattanooga, Hamilton County, Tennessee, by the Freedman's Aid Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church, on such terms and conditions as may be agreed upon by the two corporations; to take charge of and protect said University buildings, property and grounds; to adopt rules governing the admission of pupils and students in said Uni- versity; the rates of tuition and course of study therefor, to purchase libraries and apparatus and employ and control professors and other teachers, tutors and instructors for said University, and when necessary discharge the same; with power to define their duties, to confer any and all degrees, and award diplomas usually conferred or awarded by a university, in all branches of study that may be pursued therein; to confer honorary degrees, to have, possess and exercise all such other and further rights and privileges as shall and may be necessary to the successful maintenance of any and every department of a first class university in 62 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College the property named, to be under the auspices and control of the Methodist Episcopal Church; subject, by agreement of the parties hereto, and as a part of this act of incorpora- tion, to the following fundamental conditions, namely: First. Said University shall be and remain under the auspices of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and be under its control, and be governed by a board of trustees, and the corporate authority of this corporation shall be exercised by a board of trustees, as hereinafter provided. Second. The first board of trustees shall consist of the corporators hereinabove named, who shall hold their office until their successors are elected and enter upon the discharge of their respective duties. The President and Corresponding Secretary of the said, The Freedmen's Aid Society and the President of the Faculty of the University, shall also be members ex-officio, of said first board of trustees, and of all succeeding boards, and without election. Third. Upon acceptance of the Charter and organi- zation under it the trustees who are corporators shall divide their body by lot into three equal classes, the first class to hold their oflfice three years, the second class two years, and the third class one year. Fourth. The term of all trustees elected to fill vacan- cies or expired terms, shall be for three years, and so arranged as that one third of them shall go out of office every year; provided, that when an election is made to fill an unexpired term it shall only be for the unexpired period of said term. Fifth. All vacancies in the Board of Trustees herein- before provided for by expiration of term of office or other cause shall be filled by election by the Freedmen's Aid Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church; but this rela- tion of the Freedmen's Aid Society to this corporation shall in no event be construed or held to clothe the corporation As a Memorial to Grant 63 with power or authority to act for or as an agent of the said, The Freedmen's Aid Society, nor to authorize the corporation to contract any debt or other Habiiity for or on account of said Society. Sixth. But in addition to the foregoing members, the Board of Trustees shall also consist of three members of the Holston Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and two members each of the Virginia, Blue Ridge, Georgia, Alabama and Central Tennessee Annual Confer- ences of the said Methodist Episcopal Church, elected an- nually by the conferences respectfully, to be elected at the first annual meeting thereof, and to hold their offices as follows : Those of the Holston Conference one for one year, one for two years, and the other for three years; those of each of the other conferences one to hold for one year and the other for two years. The alumni of the University, when they shall num- ber forty, shall have a representation in the Board of Trustees under such provisions as the said Board shall prescribe. Seventh. After the above named conferences shall have elected trustees, as provided, all future elections shall be so arranged that a majority of the whole board shall be members of the Methodist Episcopal Church; any num- ber of said Board of Trustees, not less than eleven shall constitute a quorum to do business. Eighth. The Board of Trustees shall have power and authority to elect at each annual meeting ten of its own members to be known as the Executive Committee, to have the supervision of the affairs of the University between the meetings of the said Board, and transact ad interim all necessary business under such rules and restrictions as the Board of Trustees may prescribe. 64 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College The President and corresponding Secretary of the said Freedmen's Aid Society and the President of the Uni- versity shall also be members ex officio of said Executive Committee and at least seven members of said Executive Committee shall be members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Ninth. If at any time, or for any reason, this corpora- tion shall fail, or ceases to maintain or keep a University in said property, or if a dissolution of this corporation shall occur, all its assets and property shall revert to and become the property of the said Freedmen's Aid Society, subject to its control. The general welfare of society and not individual profit being the object of this organization, the members and trustees thereof are not stockholders in the legal sense of the term. Tenth. The number of trustees may be increased or diminished from time to time as may be deemed expedient, but only with the consent of the Freedmen's Aid Society, and only at an annual meeting of the board, and due notice having been given for that purpose. We, the undersigned, apply to the State of Tennessee, by virtue of the laws of the land, for a Charter of Incorpora- tion for the purposes and with the powers declared in the foregoing instrument. Witness our hands the 24th day of June, 1886. H. S. Chamberlain D. E. Rees S. D. Wester J. J. Manker T. C. Carter H. C. Beck J. M. Walden J. W. Adams As a Memorial to Grant 65 Creed F. Bates David Woodworth, Jr. T. C. Warner J. T. Wilder Wm. Rule James Mitchell J. F. Loomis J. H. Van Deman A. J. Gahagan J. R. Rathmell J. B. Hoxsie R. S. Rust W. H. Rogers STATE OF TENNESSEE County of Hamilton. Personally appeared before me, J. H. Messick, Deputy Clerk of the County Court of said County, H. S, Chamber- lain, J. W. Adams, J. F. Loomis, D. E. Rees, Creed F. Bates, J. H. Van Deman, S. D. Wester, David Woodworth, Jr., A. J. Gahagan, J. J. Manker, T. C. Warner, J. R. Rathmell, T. C. Carter, J. T. Wilder, H. C. Beck, R. S. Rust and J. M. Walden, the within named bargainors, with whom I am personally acquainted, and who acknowledged that they executed the within instrument for the purpose therein contained. Witness of my hand and seal of said County Court at office this 2d day of July, 1886. (SEAL) J. H. MESSICK, Deputy Clerk. I, JOHN ALLISON, Secretary of State of the State of Tennessee, do certify that the foregoing instrument, with certificate of acknowledgment of Probate and Registration, was filed in my office for registration on the 8th day of July, 1886, and recorded on the 8th day of July 1886, in 66 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College Corporation Record Book K, in said office, pages 534, 535, 536 and 537. In Testimony Whereof I have hereunto subscribed my Official Signature, and by the order of the Governor, affixed the Great Seal of the State of Tennessee, at the Department in the City of Nashville, this 8th day of July, A.D. 1886. (SEAL) JOHN ALLISON, Secretary of State. STATE OT TENNESSEE, HAMILTON COUNTY, The foregoing Charter and Certificate of Registration in this County, and of Registration in the office of the Sec- retary of State, ^vith the Great Seal of the State impressed thereon, was returned to me this 9th day of July, 1886, at 8 A.M., and said Secretary's certificate and seal by me recorded in Book V, volume 2, page 253. Witness my hand at office in Chattanooga. H. C. BECK, Register. This Agreement, made this day of , 1886, between the Freedmen's Aid Society of the M.E. Church, a corporation under the laws of Ohio, and the Chattanooga L^niversity, a corporation under the laws of Tennessee : WITNESSETH, That whereas the ground, buildings, furniture, etc., on and in which the L^niversity is about to be established and opened, belong to the said, the Freed- men's Aid Society, and are exclusively owned by it, and the said, the Chattanooga L^niversity is to occupy the same for the purpose of establishing, opening and carrying on a university according to its charter, Now, therefore, in consideration of the premises it is agreed as follows: First. The said, the Chattanooga LIniversity shall As a Memorial to Grant G7 hold, use and occupy the said property as aforesaid so long as the parties herein named shall agree thereto; but this arrangement shall not be determined except upon a notice of either one to the other in writing for one year previous to such termination; and on its part, the said, the Chatta- nooga University, shall not waste or suffer to be wasted, any of the said property, and shall keep the said property in good repair and condition. Second. The income of the said, the Chattanooga University, arising from all sources, shall be administered by the said, the Chattanooga University, but a statement and full report thereof, and of all expenditures shall be made to the said Freedmen's Aid Society at the close of each term of the school year. But no extraordinary ex- penditures shall be incurred by the said University except with the approval of the Freedmen's Aid Society. Third. The officers and members of the faculty shall be appointed by the Freedmen's Aid Society, subject to the approval of or election by the said University. The salaries of the faculty shall be fixed by the University, sub- ject to the approval of the Freedmen's Aid Society, and these salaries, with all other current expenses, shall be paid out of the current income of the University ; the Freedmen's Aid Society, however, to pay from its own treasury any deficit that may occur in the expenditures made with its consent or approval. Fourth. Any funds that may be contributed for the endowment of the said University shall be under the control and management of the Freedmen's Aid Society, but it shall advise with reference thereto with the said University. It is further agreed that should the University secure an endowment sufficient for its maintenance the Freedmen's Aid Society shall transfer its right in the property to the 68 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College University on condition that it refund all monies expended by the said society. Fifth. In case this contract be terminated as herein- tofore provided, all the property of every description, good \\ ill and endowment funds are to be the sole and exclusive property of the Freedmen's Aid Society, as provided in the charter of the said University, and the said society shall be entitled to the immediate possession and control thereof. Sixth. The Freedmen's Aid Society shall not be re- sponsible for, nor holden for any contracts made or obliga- tions assumed, or expenditures of any kind made by the University, without the consent and approval of the said society. J. M. WALDEN On July 26, 1886, Edward Samuel Lewis was con- firmed as Dean of the College and acting President of Chattanooga University. Doctor Lewis was a graduate of Boston University where he had received graduation honors and election to Phi Beta Kappa. He had served as a pro- fessor at Cincinnati Wesleyan College and had become President of Little Rock University, which was also under the supervision of the Freedman's Aid Society. President Lewis was only thirty-one years of age but his scholarly attainments and achievements in college teaching and ad- ministration seemed to fit him admirably for becoming the head of this new college in Chattanooga. The school year opened with considerable enthusiasm. The Holston Annual Conference joined Chattanooga in a commendation of the organization of Chattanooga University in the following statement: "The completion and occupancy of the Chattanooga University is a fact that we note with great satisfaction. The establishment by the Freedman's Aid Society, of a property so substantial and valuable, at a point so com- As a Memorial to Grant 69 manding in the Central South, to strengthen our educa- tional work in our Conferences of this -section, is a most important fact, full of encouragement to our people, and indicative of the growing power and enduring character of the work to which we are providentially called. "The first year in its scholastic history opens with a full and competent corps of instructors, and an attendance already of 171 students. The facts named are the earnest of a career of great usefulness. Its success will be of vast importance to our Methodism in its entire patronizing territory." It was not long until problems developed which re- sulted in that enthusiasm being dissipated. The problems had largely to do with whether Chattanooga University would accept Negro students. The decision of the Board of Trustees was an instruction to the faculty that no Negroes were to be enrolled in the College. By September 1887, the enthusiasm which had characterized the opening of the new college was absent. It was recorded in The Chattanooga Times that "the college was not flourishing as it should." There followed much agitation to bring about the consolidation of Chattanooga University and Grant Me- morial University, of Athens. Doctor Joseph C. Hartzell attended the annual Conference Session held in October and made a "strong speech," according to The Chattanooga Times, in favor of the consolidation of the two institutions. The Holston Conference, after discussion, voted unani- mously for the resolution which endorsed the unification of Chattanooga University and Grant Memorial University. The unanimity of the Holston Conference in approv- ing the merger was expressed by the Holston Conference in 1889 in this report: "It is with great joy that we report that the move- ment to unify Grant Memorial and Chattanooga Univer- 70 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College sity, discussed and commended at the last session of the Conference, has been crowned with success. The two insti- tutions are now one, with one Chancellor and Board of Trustees. "The consummation of this union has been heartily approved by the whole church through the voice of the Bishops and the press. It came as the result of many and prayerful consultations between the Society at Cincinnati, under the leadership of Doctor J. C. Hartzell as Corres- ponding Secretary, and the Boards of Trustees at Chatta- nooga and Athens. No educational event in the history of the church in the South promises more for the future spiritual and intellectual welfare of the church than does this Central University, with a system of affiliated academies in the central South. "Under the present status of things the schools at Athens and Chattanooga are permitted to continue their work largely as heretofore." The merger called for another charter which was applied for to the State of Tennessee on March 26, 1889: CHARTER BE IT KNOWN, that Isaac W. Joyce, John M. Wal- den, Joseph C. Hartzell, D. M. Key, Halbert B. Case, Earl Cranston, J. H. BayHss, M. D. Cone, A. J. Gahagan, T. C. Carter, J. K. P. Marshall, E. H. Matthews, John F. Spence, J. D. Walsh, Amos Shinkle, L. B. Caldwell and J. W. Adams are hereby constituted a body politic and corporate by the name and style of "U. S. Grant University,"* for the following purposes, namely: The maintenance of a university of Christian learning under the patronage, con- trol and regulation of the Methodist Episcopal Church, as represented in the General Conference of said Church, with various colleges, academics, normal and preparatory schools, *Legally changed from Grant Memorial University June 7, 1892. As a Memorial to Grant 71 societies, lyceums, libraries, and schools of art, law, and medicine, normal, training, trade, and such other schools as may from time to time be organized by the Board of Trustees; with power to confer degrees; with authority to create Boards of Visitors, prescribe the mode of election and define their duties ; such board or boards to be separate from, and in addition to, the Board of Trustees. 2. The property owned, or to be owned, or held by the corporation hereby created shall be so held and owned in the name of said corporation for the use and benefit of the Methodist Episcopal Church, under such trust clause, or clauses, as may be provided in the book of Discipline of said Church. And the government and management of said corporation, and the teachings in its several schools, shall forever be conducted in harmony and consonance with, and in the interest of, the said Methodist Episcopal Church, as set forth, or declared from time to time, by the General Conference of said Church. 3. Said corporation shall be self-perpetuating, sub- ject only to the policy above stated. Any departure from the objects and policy of said corporation as above limited shall be good ground for removal of the Board of Trustees upon cause properly shown in the court of equity having jurisdiction, but shall not work a forfeiture of this charter. 4. The general powers of said corporation shall be to sue and be sued by the corporate name; to have and use a common seal, which it may alter at pleasure; if no common seal, then the signature of the name of the cor- poration by any duly authorized officer shall be legal and binding; to purchase and hold, or receive by gift, bequest, or devise, in addition to the personal property owned by the corporation, real estate necessary for the transaction of the corporate business, and also such property, real and personal, or special trusts, as may be deemed needful for 72 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College special purposes; and also to purchase and accept any real estate in payment, or in part payment, of any debt due to the incorporation, and sell the same; to establish By-laws, and make all rules and regulations, not inconsistent with the laws and constitution, deemed expedient for the man- agement of corporate affairs; and to appoint such subor- dinate officers and agents, in addition to the president, secretary and treasurer, as the business of the corporation may require; elect such teachers, professors, and faculties of the various schools of the university as they shall deem best and fix the salaries of the same. The School of Theol- ogy, the School of Law, the School of Medicine, and the School of Technology shall be located at Chattanooga, Tennessee. The College of Liberal Arts shall be located at Athens, Tennessee; with academic departments of equal grade at each place, and such other departments at either place as may hereafter be determined upon by the Board of Trustees.* 5. The said corporation shall within a convenient time after the registration of this charter in the office of the Secretary of State, elect from their number a president, secretary and treasurer, or the last two officers may be combined into one ; said officers and the other incorporators to constitute the first Board of Trustees. In all elections each member present shall be entitled to one vote, and the result shall be determined by a majority of the vote cast. Due notice of any election must be given by advertisement in a newspaper, personal notice to the members, or a day stated on the minutes of the board six months preceding the election. The Board of Trustees shall keep a record of all their proceedings, which shall be at all times subject to the inspection of any member. The corporation may *Amendment of June 7, 1892. L. O <D C 1- o o c (A o _c 2 _c o E -a o E C _</> "c -D '0 C E IZ o -C u t- 3 <D-E u: o >^ ~<5 ^ O ^" O o vt 00 'a. ^ uu c .,_ "~ (/> -D T3 O . -♦- -C t- u H- 0) 0) (D t i_ :^ -♦- a: _l <u .£ — 1 _c -t- < -1- M- ■ o N UJ m 1— 1— 'o o • ■^ As a Memorial to Grant 73 establish branches or affiHated schools in any other county in the State. 6. This corporation shall have power to increase the number of trustees; to regulate the mode and manner of appointments of the same on expiration of terms of service ; to remove any trustee from the said corporation when in their judgment he shall be rendered incapable, by age or otherwise of discharging the duties of his office, or shall neglect or refuse to perform the same; to regulate the number, duties, and manner of election of officers, either actual or ex officio; to appoint executive agencies, and to pass all other by-laws for the government of said institution, as may be required by the Methodist Episcopal Church: Provided, said by-laws are not inconsistent with the consti- tution and laws of this State. At least two-thirds of the trustees shall be members in good standing of the Methodist Episcopal Church. The terms of all officers may be fixed by the by-laws; the said term not, however, to exceed three years. All officers and trustees shall hold over until their successors are elected and qualified. 7. The members may at any time voluntarily dissolve the corporation, by the conveyance of its assets and property to any other corporation holding a charter from this State not for purposes of individual profit, first providing for incorporate debts: Provided, the objects and aims of said corporation shall be the same and in harmony with those contained in this charter. A violation of any of the pro- visions of this charter shall subject the corporation to dis- solution at the instance of the State, in which event its property and effects shall revert to the Trustees of the Methodist Episcopal Church, a corporate body existing under, and by virtue of, the laws of the State of Ohio. This charter is subject to modification or amendment by the Legislature, and in case said modification or amend- 74 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College ment is not accepted, corporate business is to cease, and the assets and property, after payment of debts, are to be conveyed, as aforesaid, to some other corporation holding a charter for purposes not connected with individual profit, and for the same objects and benefit of, and revert to, the aforesaid Trustees of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Acquiescence in any ^modification thus declared shall be determined in a meeting of the members specially called for that purpose, and only those voting in favor of the modification shall thereafter compose the corporation. 8. The means, assets, income, or other property of the corporation shall not be employed, directly or indirectly, for any purpose whatever than to accomplish the legitimate objects of its creation, and by no implication or construction shall it possess the power to issue notes or coin, buy or sell products, or engage in any kind of trading operation, nor holding more real estate than is necessary for its legitimate purposes, and in no event shall the trustees permit any part of the principal of the endowment fund, or funds, or any portion of the real estate of the corporation, to be used for the payment of the current expenses. 9. We, the undersigned, hereby apply to the State of Tennessee, by virtue of the laws of the land, for a charter of incorporation for the purpose and with the powers and privileges, etc., declared in the foregoing instrument. Witness our hands the 26th day of March, A.D., 1889. Isaac W. Joyce, D. M. Key, J. C. Hartzell, J. H. Bayliss M. D. Cone, A. J. Gahagan, Earl Cranston, J. K. P. Marshall, As a Memorial to Grant 75 T. C. Carter, J. W. Adams, E. H. Matthews J. D. Walsh, John F. Spence, L. B. Caldwell, J. M. Walden, A. Shinkle, Halbert B. Case. There was reluctance on the part of the student body and the citizens of Chattanooga to lose the appropriate name of Chattanooga University for the institution, but the University Lookout, publication of the student body of Chattanooga, expressed its approval in an editorial and The Chattanooga Times also expressed approval even as to the name. "This name is favored as a monument to General Grant, deceased. It was in this section that he fought his decisive battles and as no one objects to a college in his honor it is thought fitting to continue the title of the Athens institution." The approval of the Times concluded with the assertion that Grant Memorial University "will be the grandest University in the South and one of the grandest in the Methodist Episcopal Church." The first meeting of the new Board was held May 2, 1889, for the purpose of electing a President of the combined institutions. Four persons were placed in nomination including Doctor J. F. Spence. Doctor Spence received ten of the thirteen votes. Commenting on this election The Chattanooga Times headlined the story "Spence Gobbled It." These editorial sentences evaluated the election. "Athens and President Spence now have possession of Chattanooga and the Chattanooga University property. The game has been remarkably well played. The men who built the university have been shoved aside . . ." The Board elected Captain 76 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College H. S. Chamberlain as President of the Board, changed the title of President to Chancellor, and changed the name of the institution to satisfy the desire of Chattanooga citizens from Grant Memorial University to U. S. Grant University. Govan and Livingood completed their recital of this story with these words: "Thus, Chattanooga University, after only three years of troubled existence, disappeared as an official entity, and the administrative offices of the institution were moved to Athens." ^ The report for 1890 indicated a total enrollment in Athens and Chattanooga of 524, with 41 faculty members, a School of Theology in Athens with 29 students, whose object was to "train young men in every branch of theologi- cal science for effective work as preachers of the gospel. The general culture of our age, and the widening of christian thought, demands a well-trained ministry." Associated with U. S. Grant University there were several academies whose enrollment exceeded 1,500. It was estimated that the value of the property in Chattanooga and Athens including endowment totaled $300,000. Another Pennsylvanian had become interested in the division at Athens. Bennett Hall was completed at a cost of $8,000 providing thirty-three rooms through the generosity of Mrs. P. L. Bennett. A building referred to as the New University Building, purchased the previous April, was being slowly finished. Chancellor Spence had been able to raise $6,000 toward this project during the preceding year. Attendance at Athens had increased 30% and Chatta- nooga 50% over the previous year. One of the most significant contributions of Chancellor Spence's administration was his encouragement of the ^Quotations from Govan and Livingood by permission of authors and President David A. Lockmiller. As a Memorial to Grant 77 establishment of Elizabeth Ritter Hall, an institution sup- ported by the Woman's Home Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Shortly after the organization of the Woman's Home Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1880, the Society became interested in the establishment of a school which would serve the young women of the mountains of the South. No funds were available for such an undertaking, but the enthusiasm of the Society was contagious and interest was maintained until funds were made available. At the annual meeting of the Central Ohio Conference Woman's Home Missionary Society, held in Lakeside, Ohio, in 1886, Mrs. Elizabeth Ritter, of Na- poleon, Ohio, gave $1,000. In recognition of this, the larg- est gift up to that date, the Society decided to name the Home (later changed to Hall) for Mrs. Elizabeth Ritter. With this generous gift as a stimulus sufficient funds were soon made available. After considering several available localities, Athens, Tennessee, was chosen because of its close proximity to the mountain areas of Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama and North Carolina, and because of the Christian influences and high ideals of the faculty members and student body in Grant University. To assist in this program of service to young women, the Trustees of Grant University deeded a part of its campus to the Woman's Home Missionary Society, and here the Elizabeth Ritter Home, accommodating forty girls, was opened September 1891. Mrs. Delia Williams, of Delaware, Ohio, Correspond- ing Secretary of the Woman's Home Missionary Society, provided much of the aggressive leadership necessary to secure the funds for the construction of Ritter Hall. The purposes of Ritter Home and its relationship to 78 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College U. S. Grant University were set forth in the Yearbook for 1891-92: RITTER INDUSTRIAL HOME and School for Young Women.* This department of Grant University, located at Athens, will be opened in September. The plan of instruc- tion will be modeled after the best features of the world- famous Mount Holyoke School, founded by Mary Lyon, the most eminent teacher of her age. The Department of Domestic Instruction is now be- coming the most popular of any branch in Vassar, N. Y., and Auburndale, Mass. Grant L^niversity proposes to be as progressive in this phase of its work as it has been in other departments. The Ritter Home will be under the auspices of the Woman's Home Missionary Society of the Methodist Epis- copal Church. The ladies who are directing this important enterprise will spare neither labor nor money in making this one of the best schools of the kind in the South. The object of this school is to train the hand as well as the head. To teach each young lady how to perform most skillfully all the duties that pertain to a woman as the head of a house or home. It is training in Domestic Economy; sewing, the cutting and making of a garment; house-keeping, cooking, market- ing, keeping domestic accounts, and such other duties as devolve upon a wife, sister or mother. The Home will accommodate fifty girls, and is in itself the Practice School for all the theoretic instruction. The boarding expenses can be greatly reduced by taking this course. The idea of the Home will be the family idea, each pupil contributing her share of service, which, divided *YEAR BOOK, U. S. GRANT UNIVERSITY — 1891-92. As a Memorial to Grant 79 among so many, will not be burdensome, besides getting the benefit of her work in reduction of expenses. By a hearty cooperation of all the members of the household the total expenses of living can be reduced to even less than $2 per week. The amount of expense will be largely under the control of the pupils themselves, for after a little experience they will be able to adjust their daily bills of fare to any scale of prices they may choose to adopt. The expenses of the Home will be adjusted on the co-operative plan. The Society will furnish the Home and pay the teach- ers. The running expenses of the houses will be equally divided among the members of the household. The Society will extend the helping hand to such as are worthy, and unable to meet the necessary expense themselves. We are confident our people will manifest their ap- preciation of this school by filling the halls of our splendid new building with earnest, ambitious young women. Thus, side by side in Grant University, brother and sister can be trained not only in letters, but applied sciences, and become skilled mechanics and home-makers. A conflict developed between President Spence and members of the Board of Trustees in Chattanooga which resulted in his leaving U. S. Grant University and establish- ing the American Temperance University, in Harriman, Tennessee. Doctor Spence's relationship to the institution had begun at the reorganization conference of which he was secretary which established as one of its goals the establish- ment of a university. The Holston Conference was not un- mindful of his significant contributions and aggressive leadership and expressed its gratitude at the Annual Session in 1893 in the following resolution of appreciation: "WHEREAS, Dr. John F. Spence has been for many years the leader of the educational forces in the Holston 80 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College Conference, and has heroically struggled to secure oppor- tunities to the thousands of youth in this section for a liberal education, toiling through these weary years to build up a central University with its affiliated seminaries and academies, and, "WHEREAS, He is no longer connected with this great and cherished work in the school which he has labored so diligently to found in our midst, and has been called to the chancellorship of the American Temperance University, therefore, "Resolved, That we highly appreciate the great work which Dr. Spence has accomplished for this Conference and territory." Doctor Spence had been made president in 1890 and Bishop Joyce had become the chancellor of the University. Isaac \\'ilson Joyce was born in Colerain Township, Hamilton County, Ohio, October 11, 1836. He received his education at Hartsville College and united with the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1858. He was admitted to the North\vest Indiana Conference in 1859. In 1866 he was appointed to what was later Trinity Methodist Episco- pal Church, of Lafayette, Indiana, where he continued for a period of ten years. In 1876 he was forced because of illness to take the supernumerary relationship. From 1877 to 1880, he was pastor of Roberts Chapel, in Greencastle, Indiana, the scat of Indiana Asbury University, later De- Pauw University. From 1880 to 1888, he was minister of leading Methodist churches in Cincinnati. In 1888 he was elected a Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church and assigned to the episcopal residence in Chattanooga, Tennessee. Bishop Jo)'ce continued as head of the university until 1896. For a period of a year the institution was managed BURTON McMAHAN MARTIN Theology 1895, College Pastor and Trustee As a Memorial to Grant 81 by the deans at Chattanooga and at Athens, with Dr. Richard J. Cooke as acting chancellor. John H. Race was born at Paupack, Pennsylvania, March 10, 1862. He was graduated from Princeton Univer- sity with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1890 and received a Master of Arts degree from Princeton in 1894. He was a member of Phi Beta Kappa. Ordained to the ministry of the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1890, he served as a teacher of Greek at Wyoming Seminary, in Kingston, Pennsylvania, 1890-94, and was minister of the Centenary Church, of Binghamton, New York, 1894-98. Mr. Race had been chosen as the president of U. S. Grant University in 1897, and he met the faculty at Athens November 15, 1897. He continued his ministerial responsibilities in Bing- hamton until the summer of 1898. He and Mrs. Race moved to Athens and lived in Bennett Hall until he de- cided that it would be preferable to have the administra- tive offices of the president located in Chattanooga rather than in Athens. Doctor Race identified himself with all the interests of the Holston Conference and was highly regarded by the laymen and ministers of the Conference. He was con- sidered an illustrious citizen of Chattanooga and in recogni- tion of the City's appreciation a magnificent home for him was built and presented to the University. Doctor Race resigned the presidency of the University in 1913 to accept election as one of the publishing agents of the Methodist Episcopal Church and as treasurer of the Methodist Book Concern, where he served until his retire- ment in 1936. Doctor Joy, the editor of The Christian Advocate, paid this tribute to the outstanding ability of Doctor Race at the time of his retirement from this position at the age of 74: 82 A History of Tenrrrssce Wesleyan College A GREAT SERVANT OF ALL Dr. JOHN H. RACE, at seventy-four, is retiring as Publishing Agent at New York. Born in a Wyoming par- sonage, trained in Methodist schools and at Princeton, he was summoned from a thriving pastorate in Binghamton, to lead a forlorn educational hope in Tennessee, where in the years following the Civil War a fatuous group had set up a loose-jointed Methodist college and burdened it with the name of U. S. Grant University — and that in a border state! Facing extreme discouragements he persevered until the University of Chattanooga rewarded his efforts, a liberal arts college fashioned on the model of Nassau Hall, strongly established in the good will of the community and in the esteem of the educational world. Elected Publishing Agent in 1913, his co-operative spirit helped to forward the unification of the publishing business, and greatly improved the "team work" of the Cincinnati House. Transferred to Ne\v York after the death of E. R. Graham in 1921, he made the same policies effective here. As treasurer of the Episcopal Fund, he has known both how to be abased and how to abound. In the difficult years since 1929 he has managed Episcopal finances so skillfully that the bank- indebtedness of $225,000 has been entirely liquidated. With his colleagues he has maintained the morale of the publish- ing house during six years of unexampled difficulty. Its obligations to the banks has been reduced by one-half, and in the past year it has again shown a profit. His character combines sound judgment, flawless integrity, and broad human sympathy, with simple and unaffected piety. This editor, whose work has at times brought him into close relations with many high officials of the denomination, can recall no one who has met each day's responsibilities with riper wisdom, more resolute mind or firmer faith.^ ITHE CHRISTIAN ADVOCATE — May 28, 1936. As a Memorial to Grant 83 President Race's leadership was revealed early in the administration by holding a conference as a means of evaluating the resources, responsibilities and opportunities of U. S. Grant University. President Race's Educational Conference was held in Athens, December 22-23, 1898.^ The program for this two-day conference was as follows: Thursday, 10:30 a.m. Devotional Exercises conducted by Bishop Goodsell. Introductory Address President Race Organization and appointment of committees. Paper: Historical Sketch of our Educational Work in the South Prof. Joseph H. Ketron, A.M. Reminiscences Led by Prof. D. A. Bolton, A.M. Thursday, 2:00 p.m. Address: The Twentieth Century Offering -Rev. G. E. Ackerman, D.D. Paper: The Relation of the Denominational Institution to the Common School - Prof. John A. Hicks, A.M. Paper: The Relation of the Denominational Institution to the State University Prof. Walter Franklin, A.M. Thursday, 7:00 p.m. Lecture : Methodism in the Centuries ...Rev. R. J. Cooke, D.D. Friday, 9:00 a.m. Devotional Exercises. Symposium, Our University — Liberal Arts..... Dean W. A. Wright Theology... Dean G. T. Newcomb Medicine Dean E. A. Cobleigh Law Dean J. W. Farr, Jr. lEducational Conference Athens, Tennessee December 22-23, 1898 84 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College Paper: Our Academies.. Prof. Alvis Craig, A.B. Paper: Our Field Rev. R. Pierce, D.D. Friday, 2:00 p.m. Address : The Circuit Rider and the School Master Rev. F. M. Cones, Ph. D. Paper: Uniform Course of Study for Our Preparatory Schools Prof. W. W. Hooper, D.D. Paper : How to Secure a More Vital Relation between our University and the Seminaries Prof. M. L. Roark, A.M. Paper: Hopeful Features in Our Work. Prof. M. H. Monroe, A.M. Friday, 7:00 p.m. Lecture: Six Months in Rome... Rev. D. A. Goodsell, LL. D. President Race's first report to the Board of Trustees was dated May 16, 1899. He gave the figures of enrollment as of the preceding December: Professional and Post-Graduate Students.. 227 Collegiate Students 38 Sub-Collegiate 542 Total 765 President Race pointed out what was an apparently obvious fact — that the College of Liberal Arts was the weakest part of the program. "Already notice has been given us that unless we can strengthen our work in English, we shall be rated among the academies of the Church." President Race insisted that attention must be given to instruction in Modern Languages and the sciences. From this report it can be seen that the department which should be strengthened is lamentably weak when we compare what it is with what it should be. Under existing conditions, he felt that this must continue. Remove the conditions was RICHARD JOSEPH COOKE, Class 1880 Teacher, Vice Chancellor, First Book Editor of the Methodist Episcopal Church, elected a Bishop in 1908. As a Memorial to Grant 85 the required solution. After a year's study of the problem he felt justified in suggesting a solution to be worked out as soon as possible. President Race said that during public discussion of the University during the past winter, "when the question of the remission of taxes on the unoccupied campus in Chattanooga was being discussed, various opin- ions seemed to prevail concerning the future of the Univer- sity; and since there is no doubt in my mind as to the future policy I feel justified in presenting my views." President Race then described the present situation as follows: "After thirty-two years of effort we have a col- legiate department this year of thirty-nine students. The result is that the great body of the students in our prepara- tory department are not receiving the consideration that they should receive, because of the attention given to the collegiate students by our professors. Our professional de- partments are stronger than our college of Liberal Arts. We are in a top heavy condition. The remedy is to divorce the college of Liberal Arts from the preparatory depart- ment, remove the college to Chattanooga, concentrate our attention at Athens on the preparatory work; make that department of the institution a seminary in the largest sense of that term. This would mean an increased number of students at Athens and facilities for training that we do not now possess; so that attention would be directed to the fundamentals in a liberal education. It is not necessary to go into details, although these exist in my own mind." President Race's report not only called for strengthen- ing a college of Liberal Arts in Chattanooga and strength- ening a preparatory department in Athens, but also called for the erection of new buildings, the requirements to pro- vide better salaries for faculty members, saying, "we must present the claims of Grant University upon the denomina- tion." President Race insisted that the University must 86 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College press for modern facilities and methods in carrying out its program. The Board reconvened at 8:00 o'clock in the evening and the Committee on Consolidation reported in favor of consolidating "the College of Liberal Arts with the Profes- sional Schools at Chattanooga." In President Race's second annual report, dated June 1, 1900, he refers to his report of the previous year in which he called attention to the fact that "the University Senate, of which body our institution is a member, had notified us that unless our work in English could be strengthened we should be rated among the academies of the Church." President Race faced and discussed the difficulties in- volved, mentioning that "our expenses in connection with the department at Athens already were largely in excess of our receipts." President Race mentioned other problems to be faced, providing laboratory facilities for natural sciences and a dormitory for men at Athens. After thought and prayer, the Board decided "to place a representative of the school in the local field." The Board of Trustees was "convinced that the institution must avail herself of the Twentieth Century movement and place a representa- tive in the local field." Dean W. A. Wright, of Athens, was assigned to this responsibility. He was requested to raise funds to erect greatly needed buildings, including a science building. The Board at this meeting employed a new Latin teacher at a salary of $400 a year and an English teacher at a salary of $375. President Race reported that there had been considerable improvement in the English Department and listed the required readings for English students. President Race had not lost his conviction concerning the College of Liberal Arts. "Necessarily this department must be the vertebral column of the University." He was still As a Memorial to Grant 87 of the opinion that Athens should have a preparatory de- partment that would be "first class in every particular." It would be a modern Methodist seminary, "furnishing at the same time a satisfactory academic program to that body of students unable to go to college." Concerning the Col- lege of Liberal Arts of Chattanooga, President Race said that there should be a college "with a close and reciprocal relation between it and the professional schools, arranging the courses of study in such a manner that the individual having a profession in view may pursue studies that are of especial value to him. The ancient iron-clad college course must go." Referring to the action of the Board of Trustees in submitting the idea of consolidation to the patronizing con- ferences. President Race reported that the Annual Confer- ences had recommended that consolidation be effected as soon as the facilities and equipment were available. The President urged the Board of Trustees to find the means to make this consolidation possible. It was reported that the Board of Trustees of the Freedman's Aid and Southern Education Society had met February 17, 1903, and that the Society had approved the necessary amendments to the charter as follows : "Resolved, That the President and local Executive Committee be au- thorized to open a college of liberal arts in Chattanooga in the fall of 1904 provided that sufficient funds are available." The recommendations of President Race to limit the work at Athens to preparatory work and to establish a College of Liberal Arts in Chattanooga had received the necessary official approval. Friends of the institution in Athens expressed the conviction that the years of contro- versy concerning the future of the Athens Division had 88 A History of Tennessee Wesley an College done much to lessen the interest of the pubhc and the Church in the institution. The assignment of Dean Wright to raise funds for the erection of a science building resulted in the construction of Banfield Hall. Dean Wri^ght had interested William Ban- field, of Beaver, Pennsylvania, in providing $16,400. to pro- vide the cost of construction. In addition to the contribution of Mr. Banfield, whose generosity was directed toward the erection of a memorial for his son, C. H. Banfield, Dean Wright secured a gift of $6,000 from J. W. Fisher, of New- port, to provide the cost of laboratories, a gift of $1,000 from Doctor J. W. Foster, of Athens, for a library, and a member of the faculty, Mrs. A. C. Knight, sister of Bishop Henry W. Warren, and Doctor William F. Warren, first president of Boston University, contributed $1,000. Banfield Hall was formally opened October 7, 1902. Two major addresses were given by Bishop J. M. Walden and Doctor W. P. Thirkield. Excerpts from these addresses follow: Bishop Walden said in part^: "For several days I have given a careful study to the territory of East Tennessee, of which this University is practically the center. The Church as found in the Holston Conference of the Metho- dist Episcopal Church has a very vital relation to this University. The study of the last few days reveals to me the fact that vast changes have taken place within the last few years, and that now nearly every county seat can be reached by some line of railroad, thus bringing within easy reach of this place many who but a few years since could reach it only with difficulty. This fact is significant, as it affects the influence of this school in this region. "The wealth of these hills and valleys will some time be exhausted; but there are hidden stores of wealth which do not lie on the surface. I have been asking the question, ITHE UNIVERSITY LOOKOUT — November 10, 1902. o o 3 O < As a Memorial to Grant 89 'What is the relation of this institution, this new Hall of Science, to the future, when the present stores of wealth shall be exhausted?' "Science in the hands of the scholar can go about over the hidden sources of power and locate it. Only the scien- tifically educated man can reveal these secrets of power in the future. "Young men and women must have as good privileges in our church schools as they can find in the State University if we expect them to come to the church school. "Grant University assures the young men and women of this region of these excellent privileges. A school would not be complete as a Christian school unless it should stand in the very forefront on scientific lines. This will be the aim and purpose of Grant University from this on." Dr. Thirkield's address was in part as follows ^ : "This institution occupies a strategic position in relation to the distinctively American population of this central south. In the 196 counties stretching through the hill and mountain country from Virginia on through Northern Ala- bama is a population of about three millions; here is found a larger percentage of Americans of Anglo-Saxon stock than in any other section of America. They are descendants of the original Scotch-Irish, and English settlers, who in the rush toward the great West became stranded in this mountainous country. Pressed away from the fertile regions of the South through the influence of the old system, with labor regarded as the task of slaves only, here tens of mil- lions of them have lived a separate people — of hardy stock, of virile blood, of large native capacity, yet through lack of opportunity, a belated and undeveloped people. It is said that 97 per cent of these people are sons and daugh- ters of men of the Revolutionary War, the war of 1812, ITHE UNIVERSITY LOOKOUT — November 10, 1902. 90 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College and the Mexican War. They have shown the spirit of patriots, sending into the civil war more soldiers on both sides than any other section of the country. "From these mountain people came Abraham Lincoln, Stonewall Jackson and Cyrus McCormick. What school has larger opportunity in the reaching and uplifting of these people? This Banfield Hall of Science, with its noble equip- ment stands as a living memorial. No monument of marble, however tall and splendid, is comparable with it. What an investment this noble and generous Christian patriot has made ! From this hall, or from its lecture rooms and labora- tories, are to go forth young men thoroughly equipped for service. And what a splendid field for them is there in the development of immense material resources of the South that are now only being uncovered. While cotton was king, this hill and mountain country was left bare, and undevel- oped. But now their untold wealth in coal, iron, timber, marble, and other minerals is being opened up. Think of the tremendous strides forward that the South had made in the last decade, with an increase in population from sixteen to twenty-three millions; railway mileage increasing 150 per cent, and exports 100 per cent; the value of manu- factures more than treble, and coal mined rising from six to fifty million tons. "The call for well equipped men in science and mechan- ics to help in this work of development is imperative. Grant University offers the opportunity. Let young men get ready or the graduates from Northern colleges will take your crown. "This school stands related to the ignorant and irre- ligious condition of the States lying between the foothills of the Blue Ridge on the east and the Cumberland Mountains on the west. "Here in 1900 in a total male population of 870,537 As a Memorial to Grant 91 while, twenty-one years of age, over 142,312, or 16.34 per cent, could not read and write. This means that 50 per cent of the entire white population are without letters. "The call is not merely for better school houses, but for trained teachers who will consecrate themselves to the edu- cation of these belated people. It is startling to realize that in one county of this State, Claiborne, the average of each school property is only $51.72. School keeps on an average sixty-one days; teachers are paid $22.50 per month and the average expenditure for public education per capita of the population is 47 cents. "The religious condition of multitudes of these Ameri- cans calls for trained ministers. O, what whitening fields lie before the consecrated missionary, in the uplifting of the masses of both races in the South. For the sake of America, for the sake of the world, the call for this form of service is urgent and imperative. Here, young men and women, is an urgent call for service in the enlightening and uplifting of a- depressed and belated people. "Here in the splendid equipment of Grant University is an opportunity for the best investment a young man or woman can make. Would that parents also might feel that an investment in the brains of their children offers larger returns than money put in fields or mines." The Hall was formally dedicated May 19, 1903. The program included addresses by President Race, John W. Fisher, Doctor James S. Ramsey, Dean Wright, Doctor William D. Parr, and Bishop Daniel A. Goodsell. Captain H. S. Chamberlain, president of the Board of Trustees, presided. In 1905 Mr. and Mrs. C. S. Blakeslee, of Macksburg, Ohio, presented the brick residence on the corner of North Jackson and Robeson Streets to the University to be used as a dormitory for men. The announcement indicated the 92 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College Standards which the administration of the University hoped the atmosphere of Blakeslee Hall might produce. "An education that does not lead to good manners is a failure. Train a boy until he is polite unconsciously, otherwise he is handicapped for life. It is our hope, therefore, more and more to throw around all our students the refining influ- ences, such as prevail in a well regulated home, and Blakes- lee Hall is to be just such a place." The action of the Board of Trustees to discontinue college work in Athens met w^ith two vigorous protests. The alumni assembled in Banfield Hall and presented a four- page document supporting the retention of the College of Liberal Arts in Athens, and a petition signed by sixteen leaders, including Dean Wright and Professor Bolton, was presented to the Board protesting the reducing of the Athens Division to academy rank. Mrs. A. C. Knight who had served the College since 1880 was completing her last year of service in 1905. It was appropriate that one of her two distinguished brothers, Doctor William F. Warren, should be invited to give the Baccalaureate Sermon and the Commencement Address. Doctor Warren's sermon has been preserved and is being included in this volume as a symbol of a unique and distinguished Methodist family. BACCALAUREATE SERMON Delivered by Rev. William F. Warren, LL. D., Dean of the School of Theology, Boston University In the University Chapel, Athens, Tenn. May 14, 1905 THE POWER THAT WORKETH IN US. Your prayerful attention is invited to a striking ex- pression found in Paul's letter to the Ephesians, in the third As a Memorial to Grant 93 chapter and twentieth verse: "The power that worketh in us." One day as I was travehng by railway in France, I chanced to pass through the university town in which but a short time before Professor and Madame Curie had made their world-famous discoveries respecting radium. It chanced that a gentleman in our coupe had with him a tiny specimen of the newly discovered element. At his invitation we constructed with our two overcoats a kind of tent to serve as a camera obscura, under the roof of which our little party then had the pleasure of watching the radio- active process as the mysterious element gave off its quickly succeeding points of light in one incessant bombardment of the immensities in every direction from its centre. It was a spectacle before which my heart well nigh stood still in awe and wonder. It was as if I had violated the privacy of nature's most secret laboratory, and had suddenly come upon one of the hidden motors of the universe. In my amazement the question rose to my lips: "Whence, O ye thaumaturgic atoms, whence have ye this unwearying, wasteless, exhaustless energy?" Then from out of the fath- omless silence I seemed to hear the answer: "We can not tell. It is a power that worketh in us." Last summer I was riding along a highway in the country. As I was looking up into the tall elms that over- arched me, I remembered the day when years before I saw them planted as slender, almost branchless, saplings by the roadside. How wonderful seemed the change! Then rose a new question to my lips, and I said: "How is it, ye thaumaturgic trees, how is it that ye have been adding all these cubits to your stature? You have been doing what no man can do." The oracular answer quickly came, and it was this : "We have done nothing. A mysterious interior force takes up the soil beneath your feet, lifts it through 94 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College liquid pipes yard after yard, and builds and builds our tops into the upper air. It is the power that worketh in us." Today let us look for a little at the world of men. Here is the planet we occupy, a solid earth wrapt round with oceanic waters that seem immeasurable. But men are navigating the stormiest seas; they have actually weighed the earth; they are measuring the innumerable stars. A few geologic years ago not one representative of our human family ^vas here. When the first of the kind appeared they seemed the least promising of all the animate tribes. They \vere at birth the weakest of all; they were the slowest of all in reaching individual maturity. Their chances for bare survival in the struggle for existence seemed the poorest of all. Despite this unpromising beginning, however, they have long since taken possession of one of the ripest worlds in the solar system, inclosed its every acre of land and water in a vast net of meridians and parrallels from whose meshes it can nowhere escape. They have plucked from the clouds the thunderbolts and bid fair to be soon sending their wire- less messages from planet to planet. Remembering the feebleness of our beginnings and contrasting with them our ever-gro\\ing approaches to world sovereignty, must we not join with the radio-active elements, and with the towering elms, in the confession: "There is a power that worketh in us." This thought that in each one of us there is at work a po\ver distinguishable from ourselves, a power not our own, is one of the most startling imaginable. Our minds habitually think of themselves as capable of being acted upon only from points without. We hear continually about our environment, and about the potent, the well-nigh all- decisive, effect of the forces that act upon us from our en- vironment. The idea that besides all these exterior forces, As a Memorial to Grant 95 there is another, a force within, one central to our central self, yet not our own, is at first almost alarming. It seems as if it carried with it a betrayal of the inner citadel of our very personality. If a force not our own is at work at our very centre, and at the same time forces not our own are pressing in from without from every point in our environ- ing sphere, what earthly chance have we to rise superior to alien forces, to triumph over predetermined influences, to give decisive effect to any noble spontaneous purpose? In- deed what are we but empty vortical atoms kept in existence simply by the equilibrium of forces that exactly counterpoise each other? Startling, however, as the thought may be, alarming though it may seem, I think all truly thoughtful men sooner or later reach the conclusion that it is in strict accord with reality. In the realm of our bodily life there seems no possibility of doubting it. It was by no plan or effort of mine that my physical frame took on the form and features of a human being. Within my breast I find the central power-house of my physical life, but I am certain that it was not fitted by me. In it a power not my own set in operation the throbbing dynamo of my heart. A power not my own determined its permissible rates of motion and pre- established its term of normal operation. Each one of us is an animated onrushing automobile, whose driving engine we have never seen, whose fuel supply we have no means of estimating, and whose stop at the goal will not be at our personal word of command. Truly the pre-conditioning, the sustentation, and the abiding issues of our physical life, are not our own; they are from the power that worketh in us. Not less evident is a similar working in our intellectual and moral life. The real originator of our spiritual faculties, the determiner of their actions and interactions, the author 96 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College of the conditions of their sane and normal exercise, the giver of their possibihties of improvement and abuse, was in each case not ourselves. It must have been one whose being and whose agency antedates our own. And if a power capable of all this did all this for us in advance, it would be the height of unreason to imagine that his operations myste- riously ceased the moment of infant powers had once been set in motion. The very heathen never fall into so gross an error as that. You who have studied Plato and the great tragedians of pre-Christian ages know that even there men found within themselves illuminations, and quickenings, and uplifts, which they recognized as from some power other than their own, some power that was working in them. To Socrates, no less than to us, the voice of conscience was a divine voice. Centuries before the Christian era, lawgivers like Hammurabi, and poets like Homer, felt spiritual im- pulsions which led to deeds and words immortal. Surely none of us are willing to be more blind than the heathen of those distant ages. Surely, Epictetus and Plutarch, we will confess that there is within us a light not of our own kindling, a power not ourselves that makes for righteousness. Moreover, as Plato and Epictetus and Plutarch hesitated not to identify this personal interior worker with the in- visible Sovereign of the universe, — the Creator and right- ful Lord of all men — we too will not hesitate to unite with them in the confession: "It is God that worketh in us both to will and to do of his own good pleasure." A properly vivid realization of this inward working of the inner Worker is something wonderfully inspiring. Would that each one of us might possess it and possess it uninter- mittently! It affects one's total world-view. It communi- cates a courage and a confidence which nothing else can give. Whenever we fully possess it we can not doubt that despite all conflicts and set-backs and discomfitures, we are WILLIAM A. WRIGHT, Class of 1878 Teacher and Dean As a Memorial to Grant 97 equipped for ultimate and certain victory. We clearly see that the power within is the ground and the governor of all the powers without; and consequently that all the im- pulses within us toward the harmony, order and perfection of our being have allies in the corresponding forces which are at work in the outer world, - — forces evermore making for harmony and order and perfection in the broadest reaches of our total world-environment. We can not give way to weak despondencies and impotent despairs, for be- fore our very eyes we note these adjusted and mated forces at work through all the longitudes of time and through all the latitudes of space, — working, working, forever working with wasteless energy for ends precisely answering to those for which the power within us is working. The vision lifts us at once above the gloom of our disappointments and the bitterness of our defeats; it causes us to cry out in sudden exultation, "If God be for us who can be against us!" It so identifies us with God's very life that we are ready to pray : Breathe within our breathing. Thou; Beat within our pulses now; Conscience of our conscience be. Soul of souls eternally. If any person now listening to me has never yet at- tended to this deepest and highest activity within him, I would ask, Why not? Why not? Perhaps you say, "I have always had the idea that only deluded mystics, or at least, dreamy, mystically con- stituted persons, could have experiences such as the apostle, and even some lofty spirits among the heathen, have claimed to have. And really, is there not something border- ing on the pathologic in all such experiences?" In answer to your question I might cite you the langu- age of Seneca, the Stoic, who certainly was far enough 98 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College from being a mystic, or a dreamer; yet who says: "There is within us a holy spirit who treats us as we treat him." But you would prefer, perhaps, to hear a modern, a man of broad intelligence and ripe experience in the world. I will select you one. Shall he be a child of Greater Boston? Very good. Must he be an author known and honored wherever the literature of the English tongue is studied? Very good. Must he be versed in other great modern literatures? Yes, he shall be a man \vho for long years was a University Professor of two of them. Must he have abounding humor and great powers of burlesque? Be it so. He shall be one who holds a front rank among our greatest American satirists. Shall he have in him the fire of a politi- cal reformer? Quite right. He shall be the man who in the old anti-slavery times Edgar Allen Poe branded as the most fanatical of all the Abolitionists. Shall he yet have such cool and excellent judgment and such knowledge of men that he can be entrusted with a public office? O yes, he shall be a man of such eminent qualifications for public service that the whole American people were proud to see him, during more than one administration, serving as our ambassador and minister plenipotentiary at the Court of St. James. And now what does this scholar, this reformer, this wide-awake modern man of affairs say in response to your question? Turn to the closing lines of "The Cathe- dral," written by James Russell Lowell, and you have his answer. Speaking from the depths of his own experience he begins: "O Power more near my life than life itself, Oh what seems life to us in sense immersed." This is the way in which he addresses the power that worketh in us. He represents this power as knowable intui- tively, knowable by men. He claims for his own soul an inward surety of God's presence \vithin him. More than As a Memorial to Grant 99 this, he goes on to affirm that only through this personal divine Power within does his soul feel and self-realize her- self. Surely if the author of the Biglow Papers, this many- sided ambassador at the Court of St. James can thus speak of the central realities of his own personal experience, you may well reconsider your notion that only mystics and dreamers and dupes of unregulated imagination ever per- suade themselves that God is working within them. May it not turn out that you are the dreamer, and that this very notion of yours is part of a baseless dream? Thus far I have spoken of certain analogies that war- rant us in expecting to find a divine working within ourselves. Next, of the recognition of its existence by the more intelligent among heathen thinkers. Next, of the matchless inspiration and help of such a working when fully recognized by us. Next, of the sanity and wholesome- ness of a life conscious of this inward working. Now, ad- vancing a further step I come to a question which more than any other challenges our interest and our action. It is this: To what degree, if any, can we control, direct, or modify the working of this superhuman power that worketh in us? In answer to this question I must first of all say that according to the agreeing testimony of all witnesses, heathen or Christian, the interior divine working as a matter of fact antedates all expectation and seeking on the part of the human will. It is, therefore, in the first instance, not a divine response to some forth-putting of human energy that serves as a procuring cause. As the stars give illumination to the midnight landscape without being asked to do so, so over the night of our infant souls there is shed from the beginning a heavenly illumination. Better than that, the source of this celestial light takes up his abode in the centre of our darkness and becomes the light that lighteth every man that cometh into the world. 100 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College So far, then, it is not ours to control the power that worketh in us. It is, however, ours to modify, and so far forth to control, this power in all further workings. These are psychologically conditioned on personal human response to personal divine solicitation. The unconditionally given light is sufficient to reveal evidences of the presence of Him whom all responsive souls recognize as "The Great Com- panion." But it is in our power so to turn our eyes away from their evidences to things visible and tangible, and so to set our affections on our own selfish schemes and our own selfish selves as to have no place for thoughts of God, no capacity for affections such as are due toward Him. It is in this condition that the unmitigated worldling lives. In comparison with the man he might be, he is more to be pitied than the man who is blind of eye and utterly void of tactual sensibility. The visions he is missing surpass all that keenest eye has ever seen. The delights that he has forfeited are beyond all that bounding heart or tingling nerve has ever reported. Even the Bramin and the Budd- hist unite with the Christian in pronouncing such a man a spiritual bankrupt, — a being who has utterly missed his true life and all that ecstacy of conscious self-realization claimed by Russell Lowell and claimed by every soul conscious of its indwelling God. The action of the Board of Trustees of 1904 was not easily accepted by alumni, trustees, and friends of the Col- lege in Athens, and in order to prevent President Race ai;id the Board of Trustees from continuing this policy, John W, Bayless '81, of Athens, and a member of the Board of Trustees, and Robert J. Fisher, a prominent citizen of Athens, caused to be filed on August 15, 1904, in Athens, a bill of injunction, enjoining the President of the Univer- sity from control of the affairs of the Division at Athens and also from interferring in its management by officers JAMES W. FISHER Trustee, Donor of Fisher Laboratories As a Memorial to Grant 101 residing in McMinn County. Judge McConnell decided in favor of Bayless and Fisher, granting the chief elements sought in the injunction. This case was appealed and taken to the Chancery Court of Appeals. Judge J. F. Wilson, of the Chancery Court of Appeals, reversed the decision of Judge McConnell and the case was then appealed to the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court, in its session in Knoxville in September — November, 1904, handed down no decision. The Supreme Court gave its decision in November 1905 through Judge W. K. McAlister. This action reversed the action of Judge McConnell and concludes with this statement: "The Chattanooga and Athens institutions, in 1892, were merged into one institution, by an act of the Legisla- ture by and with the consent of the Trustees of both institu- tions. The new corporation accepted a trust, and has since that time been conducting and operating same. The decree of the Court of Chancery Appeals sustained demurrer, therefore affirmed, and the bill dismissed." Apparently, during the period of litigation President Race had not felt welcome in Athens and had had little to do with the institution and had objected to signing the diplomas which were to be awarded in June 1905. Following the action of the Supreme Court of the State of Tennessee, designating the Board of Trustees as being in control of the university, Doctor Race, accompanied by J. E. Annis, visited Athens, dining at Blakeslee Hall, and meeting in Banfield Hall of Science. The meeting was attended also by John W. Bayless, John W. Foster, Dean Wright and Professor David A. Bolton. President Race reported that inasmuch as the con- duct of the University had been restored to the Board of Trustees and to himself as President, he and Mr. Annis had come to Athens to discover what financial obligations had 102 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College been entered into by the local Trustees and the Dean of the College. President Race accepted financial responsi- bility and said that all obligations would be paid in full. There was discussion concerning the conditions upon which the Freedman's Aid and Southern Education Society of Cincinnati would resume payment for the maintenance of current operations at Athens. The President and Mr. Annis said that they believed that the Society would resume its payment if the authorities at Athens would work in harmony with the policy of the Society. John W. Foster said that as long as he was a member of the Board of Trus- tees he would do everything in his power to prevent the College of Liberal Arts, in Athens, from being discontinued. His sentiments were seconded by John W. Bayless. The meeting, although frank discussion was participated in, was reported to be "harmonious in its conclusions." President Race reported that he was having success in securing $200,000 to be added to the endowment of the University to meet the challenge of Doctor John Pearson, of Chicago, who had pledged $50,000 on condition that the University raise an additional $150,000.00. The local Executive Com- mittee met with Dean Wright and President Race at com- mencement time in 1906. The financial budget for the coming year was considered and the members of the faculty were approved for election, and Dean Wright and Professor Bolton, who had taken some interest in the injunction proceedings of the preceding two years, were re-elected. At the meeting of the Board of Trustees June 14, 1906 in Chattanooga, Bishop J. W. Walden objected to the election of certain members of the faculty at Athens. The Board of Trustees declared the Dean's place vacant and the Chair of Mathematics vacant. The Board of Trustees adopted the report, not a member voting against it, but As a Memorial to Grant 103 John W. Bayless, of Athens, and James A. Fowler, of Knoxville, did not vote. Dean Wright was selected a Professor of Latin at a reduced salary. This he declined to accept. The Chair of Mathematics, which had been occupied by D. A. Bolton for 33 consecutive years, was left vacant. The failure to re-elect Wright as Dean and Bolton as Professor created considerable opposition and on June 16, 1906, James A. Fowler, '84, who had failed to vote at the meeting two days before sent the following letter to each member of the Executive Committee which consisted of President Race, H. S. Chamberlain, J. E. Annis, William Banfield, Bishop Luther B. Wilson, John A. Patten, John W. Fisher, C. L. Parham, W. P. Thirkield, G. T. Francisco and John W. F. Foster. "Dear Sir: — On reflection I have concluded that it would not be inappropriate, but that it is probably my duty to express to you my views with reference to the action of the Board of Trustees on the 14th inst. in regard to Professors Wright and Bolton. "I said nothing at the time, because I was fearful that something might be said that would mar the good feeling that appeared to prevail among the entire membership of the Board. I have the utmost confidence in every member of the Committee who submitted the report in question, and, of course, I know that they, as well as all other mem- bers of the Board, have the very best interest of the institu- tion at heart, and would carefully avoid doing anything that might jeopardize that interest; and I am sure that all have the liberality to permit me to dissent from the view that the action taken is calculated to best promote the wel- fare of the school. This action was, of course, the result of the litigation which terminated at the last term of the Supreme Court at Knoxville, and whether or not that liti- 104 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College gation was in any respect justifiable, is not a matter which I shall discuss. However, I will suggest, that if something of that kind had not occurred, there might have been radi- cal steps taken, before conditions had so adjusted them- selves as to prevent serious friction. But let us concede that it was ill-advised, then will it not be admitted that all persons are liable to err, and that a mere error in judgment which involves no improper motive should be overlooked? There can be no doubt that the statement of Dr. Wright (Dean) to the Board that his conscience was clear, and that he had done nothing but what he believed to be right, was absolutely true; and there can be no doubt that Prof. Bolton could, with equal truth, make the same statement. It is difficult for some of the Board to put themselves in their position. The Athens School was their Alma Mater. They had witnessed its early years of struggle, and had given the energies of the best years of their lives to lifting it from obscurity to a position of respectability, and natur- ally they resented what they conceived to be an effort to cripple its usefulness. You, who were opposed to their views, of course, believe you had a broader vision than they, and had no such purpose as they supposed, but you ought to be kind enough to overlook the words and acts of us who adhere to Athens, when they are the outgrowth, not only of our best judgments, but also of the memories that surround, and the love that binds us to that institution. "Now if the conduct of these two gentlemen does not show that their motives were impure and unworthy of men who teach the youth of our land, what reason can there be for removing them from the Faculty, or attempting to administer a rebuke to them? "I was led to believe that the Board had determined to sufTer the past to remain behind them and to turn their faces to the future, and to do that which would best sub- As a Memorial to Grant 105 serve the future interests of the entire institution, both the departments at Chattanooga and those at Athens. With this in mind I had no thought of any action being taken that would reflect upon Professors Wright and Bolton, or that might in the least estrange their feelings and sympa- thies from the work, because neither their efficiency, nor their Christian character has ever been questioned, and I imagine that there is hardly a student who attended at Athens during the past year, or an alumnus of that school, who would not feel that an irreparable loss had befallen the institution on account of their absence. "In addition to this, no active Professors of the institu- tion are so well known to, or so well understand, the people of the patronizing territory as they. They are native born and reared and have spent their lives in educating this very people and in this very institution, and must, therefore, have many scores of influential friends among the alumni and former and present students, scattered throughout this entire territory. Are all these advantages to be thrown away, and these men who have devoted so much and valu- able service to our school and church, and who have past that period of life when they can readily turn to some other avocation, to be sacrificed? And if so, for what? For some- thing which I submit, no business man should consider for a moment, if action upon it would materially interfere with the success of his business. "As I understand, the whole matter is now in the hands of the Executive Committee, and it is for this reason that I have taken the liberty of thus addressing you. You will please pardon me for also taking the liberty of sending a copy of this communication to each member of the com- mittee. I think that it is a matter that deserves of them the most careful and prayerful consideration, and knowing the personnel of that Committee, and their anxiety to do 106 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College under all the circumstances the best thing, I do not doubt that it will receive the consideration that it deserves. "Pardon me for also suggesting that in justice to the institution, the Committee should take this matter under advisement and act upon it at the earliest convenient date. .^ Sincerely yours, James A. Fowler" William Banfield, who largely because of his friend- ship with Dean Wright, had erected C. H. Banfield Memo- rial Hall received a communication from Dean Wright relating to him the acts of the Board concerning Professor Bolton and himself. Mr. Banfield wrote the following letter to President Race: "I am in receipt of a newspaper clipping from Dean Wright, giving an account of the business transacted at the last Trustee's meeting. "I find that Dr. Bolton was dropped and that the Deanship was taken from Mr. Wright. I infer that this is a punishment for the part they took in the litigation. If this is so, I sincerely protest against the course taken by the Trustees. I have endeavored not to take sides in the unpleasant controversy, feeling that I was not fully posted in the history of the institution and its original agreement made between the branch at Athens and Chattanooga. I am of the opinion, however, that these people have a per- fect right to stand up for the original agreement. I do not for a minute question the loyalty of Dr. Bolton or Dean Wright to the institution. "For the sake of peace and harmony and the good of the institution, I think they should be restored to their former positions. If they have been removed for inefficiency or for a lack of loyalty to the institution or the work, then I have nothing to say. I am of the opinion that both sides As a Memorial to Grant 107 made mistakes in the unpleasant controversy. It is my opinion that if these men are reinstated the matter will soon be forgotten and the good done in the past at Athens will be continued. "I would very much like to be at the meeting of the Executive Committee, but I find that I have so much work on hand that it will be impossible. "With best wishes, I remain Yours truly, William Banfield" On June 29th Dean Wright was invited to go to Chat- tanooga for a conference with President Race. President Race was joined by J. E. Annis and John A. Patten. They discussed the problems involved in the running of the insti- tution. Dean Wright returned to Athens that evening en- couraged that he would be continued as Dean and that D. A. Bolton would be restored to his position as Professor of Mathematics at Athens. "This was all, however, based on the condition that these men work in harmony with the administration au- thorities of the University. President Race requested each write a letter stating as much." "Wright and Bolton thought that further opposition against the decision of the majority of the Board would be useless and each one wrote a personal letter to President Race admitting the reasonableness of his request and ex- pressing their purpose of fidelity to the President and Board of Trustees in the carrying out of their policy so long as they may be teachers in the University." A conference was held in Athens, July 6, 1906, at- tended by President Race, John A. Patten, J. E. Annis, W. A. Wright, and D. A. Bolton. "In this conference at Athens all present agreed that the strife and contention about the departments of the 108 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College University should be ended as soon as possible, and, if possible, a satisfactory agreement reached by which the Board could carry out its policy without disturbance." President Race recommended to the Committee that four years of preparatory work in the Scientific and Classi- cal Curricula be continued and that two years beyond prep- aratory school leading to the awarding of a diploma which would carry the title of Literary Scientific and a normal diploma course. Wright and Bolton made additional sug- gestions which were apparently acceptable to other members of the Committee. "This Conference at Athens recommended the courses mentioned for Athens for the following year 1906-1907, and that W. A. Wright be elected Dean of the Department at Athens, and that David A. Bolton be elected Professor of Mathematics — they concurring in the said courses of study, and the men from Chattanooga declaring to care for the work at Athens and to develop it to a greater extent." John A. Patten was to carry the above recommenda- tions to the meeting of the Cincinnati Board and to make a plea for their adoption on July 10, 1906. "The society met in Cincinnati on July 10, 1906, and took action approving the suggestions made at Banfield Hall on July 6, 1906. President Race soon notified Wright that he and Bolton were restored to their former positions." And, so the college program which began in 1857 with the awarding of degrees came to an end, and the members of the last graduating class in 1906 were as follows: Ellis E. Crabtree, John Jennings, Walter F. Williams, Isabelle Gettys, and J. Howard Jarvis. IV As The Athens School of the University of Chattanooga Unless those who beheve in a Christian civihzation are willing to sacrifice of their good, hard-earned cash to educate Christian leaders, they will find in a few genera- tions that their dream has vanished, that tyranny with its hard and fast ruthless rules of life will be substituted for the good life. It is not a question so much of churches and preachers alone as it is of these and colleges that will make leaders who will create a world in which churches can thrive, leaders in all walks of life, and in all callings and professions. If American churchmen fail to support the kinds of colleges that turn out Christian leaders, American life under another leadership soon will close the church. — William Allen White. 109 110 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College The Board of Trustees petitioned the State of Tennes- see on June 11, 1907, "for an amendment to its charter of incorporation, for the purpose of changing the name of said corporation from the U. S. Grant University to Uni- versity of Chattanooga," and the Athens Division of U. S. Grant University became The Athens School of the University of Chattanooga. President Race as previously reported in conference with Dean Wright and Professor Bolton had agreed upon a two-year post-high school program. The following curricula were offered: CLASSICAL DIPLOMA COURSES* SCHEDULE A. JUNIOR YEAR First Term. College Algebra 5 Latin, De Senectute 5 English Prose 5 Greek, Herodotus 5 Third Term. College Algebra 5 Latin, Tacitus 5 Advanced Rhetoric 5 Greek, Memorabilia 5 Second Term. Botany 5 Latin, Livy 5 Political Institutions 5 Greek, Herodotus 5 SENIOR YEAR First Term. Trigonometry 5 German or French 5 American History 5 Physics 5 Third Term. European HistOiy 5 German or French 5 Economics 5 Physics 5 Second Term. Sociology 5 German or French 5 19th Century 5 SCHEDULE B. JUNIOR YEAR First Term. College Algebra 5 Latin, De Senectute 5 English Prose 5 German or French 5 Third Term. College Algebra 5 Latin, Tacitus 5 Advanced Rhetoric 5 German or French 5 Second Term. Botany 5 Latin, Livy 5 Political Institutions 5 German or French 5 SENIOR YEAR First Term. Trigonometry 5 German or French 5 American History 5 Physics 5 Third Term. European History 5 German or French 5 Economics 5 Physics 5 Second Term. Sociology 5 German or French 5 19th Century Literature 5 Phvsics 5 *Catalogue 1907 As T he Athens S chool of the University of Chattanooga 111 DIPLOMA COURSES. SCIENTIFIC COURSE JUNIOR YEAR First Term. Chemistry-Qualitative German or French 5 Analysis 5 Chemistry-Qualitative English Prose 5 Analysis 5 Third Term. College Algebra 5 German or French 5 Advanced Rhetoric 5 Chemistry-Qualitative Second Term. Analysis 5 German or French 5 Botany 5 College Algebra 5 Political Institutions 5 SENIOR YEAR First Term Physics 5 French 5 Zoology 5 Physics 5 Third Term. European History 5 French 5 Economics 5 Physics 5 Second Term. Geology 5 French 5 Trigonometry and Trigonometry 5 Mensuration 5 NORMAL COURSE. JUNIOR YEAR First Term. Education 5 Latin, German or French 5 English Prose 5 Physics 5 Third' Term. Pedagogy-Psychology 5 Latin, German or French 5 Advanced Rhetoric 5 Physics 5 Second Term. Pedagogy-Principles of Latin, German or French 5 Education 5 Physics 5 Political Institutions 5 Pedagogy-History of SENIOR YEAR First Term. Zoology 5 Latin, German or French 5 American History 5 Philosophy of Education 5 Third Term. European History 5 Latin, German or French 5 Economics 5 Educational Problems 5 Second Term. Botany 5 Latin, German or French 5 Sociology 5 Pedagogy — Child Study 5 Dean W. A. Wright, who had served the University with such great devotion and integrity, decided to leave his alma mater and became the president of Grayson College in Whitewright, Texas. The Board of Trustees changed the title of dean to vice-president, and Doctor William S. Bovard, member of one of the most distinguished educational families in Methodism, was appointed Vice-President of the Univer- 112 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College sity and he and his family took up residence in Blakeslee Hall. In 1911, President Race initiated a financial cam- paign for $500,000, $150,000 of which was to come from the General Board of Education, endowed by John D. Rockefeller. The Holston Conference called upon Method- ists and other friends of the University of Chattanooga and The Athens School to assist in securing by November 1, 1912, the $350,000 necessary to secure the Rockefeller gift. It will be recalled that President Race had suggested in one of his earlier reports the urgent need of a science building and an adequate dormitory for men in Athens. The dedication of the dormitory to be known as Petty- Manker Hall, took place November 20, 1913. This building was erected during the summer of 1913 at a cost of $25,000. John A. Patten, of Chattanooga, ofi"ered to give $10,000 toward the erection of a residence hall for young men if the citizens of Athens \vould secure an additional $10,000. This proposition \\as accepted by the community of Athens and under the leadership of Bishop R. J. Cooke, '80, and others, the campaign met with success. This building \vas named by the Trustees as Petty- Manker Hall honoring Doctor J. J. Manker and Doctor J. S. Petty, personal friends and leaders of Holston Methodism. On the day established for the dedication services the program had to be delayed for several hours because the Chattanooga train was three hours late. The program began at 3 : 30 in the Chapel of The Athens School. The Reverend Doctor Robert B. Stansell, Vice-President of the University and acting President for the year, presided; the Reverend Albert E. Wallace, minis- As The At hens School of the University of Chattanooga 113 ter of the Mars Hill Presbyterian Church, in Athens, gave the invocation. Doctor Stansell introduced Captain H. C. Chamber- lain, of Chattanooga, President of the Board of Trustees, who gave the opening address. At the conclusion of his address Captain Chamberlain became the Master of Cere- monies and introduced the following persons who gave addresses: The Honorable T. C. Thompson, Mayor of the City of Chattanooga, Bishop R. J. Cooke, the Honorable John H. Early, '86, of Chattanooga, Doctor John A. Patten, and Frank F. Hooper, '97, member of the faculty of the University of Chattanooga. The program was concluded with a prayer by Doctor J. J. Manker. President Race continued as acting President of the University of Chattanooga and The Athens School of the University until the election of Doctor Fred Whitlo Hixson who took office in 1914. Fred Whitlo Hixson was born November 24, 1874, at Doverhill, Indiana. At sixteen years of age, Mr. Hixson entered the preparatory school of DePauw University. He was graduated from DePauw University, June, 1889, with a Bachelor of Arts Degree and entered the ministry of the Methodist Episcopal Church. From September, 1899, to 1914 he was pastor of leading churches in Indiana. In 1914, Doctor Hixson became president of the University of Chattanooga. He was inaugurated October 22, 1914, in services held in the City Auditorium of Chattanooga. The faculty and students of The Athens School attended in a body. Bishop Theodore S. Henderson, the resident Bishop of the Chattanooga area, presided. Addresses were given by President William A. Shanklin, of Wesleyan University, President George R. Grose, of DePauw University, Bishop William F. McDowell and by President Hixson. Doctor Hixson continued as president of the University of Chatta- 114 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College nooga and The Athens School of the University until June 1920, when he was elected the eleventh president of Allegheny College, at Meadville, Pennsylvania, where he served for four years. Doctor Hixson died in his 49th year after giving himself unremittingly as the president of the University of Chattanooga and The Athens School and Allegheny College. It was during President Hixson's ad- ministrations that restrictions on post-high school \\ork were further imposed on The Athens School. One year of academic work was offered, designed to assist in the preparation of elementary school teachers. ONE-YEAR ACADEMIC COURSE* (Open to graduates of first'class high schools.) First Term. Second Term. General Psychology (5) General Psychology (5) Primary Methods (5) General Methods (5) Rhetoric (5) Grammar Grade Methods (5) Teachers' Arithmetic (3) Rhetoric (5) Expression (2) Teachers' Geography (3) Drawing (2) Third Term. School Management or School Administration (5) Observation and Practice Teaching (3) Teaching of Literature (3) Public School Music (2) Drawing (2) A two-year pre-medical course was included in the curriculum. PRE-MEDICAL COURSE* (Open to graduates of high schools.) FIRST YEAR Rhetoric Chemistry French, Spanish, or Latin Solid Geometry or History (Advanced Ale;ebra in Third Term.) SECOND YEAR First Term. Second Term. Physics Physics Organic Chemistry Psychology Psychology Bible Literature French, Spanish, or Latin French, Spanish, or Latin Third Term. Physics Psychology Bible Literature French, Spanish, or Latin ^Catalogue 1919-1920 As The At hens School of the University of Chattanooga 115 It was during President Hixson's administration that the University of Chattanooga and The Athens School of the University of Chattanooga suffered an irreparable loss. The death of Doctor John A. Patten occurred on April 26, 1916. The Gold and Blue expressed the respect of faculty and students in the following manner: On Wednesday, April 26, the whole city of Athens was shocked and a great gloom cast over the school when the news of John A. Patten's death swept into our midst. We have never sustained such a loss — one so wholly irreparable, so keenly felt and so deeply mourned. Mr. Patten has done more for this school than any other one man. He has given liberally of his time and money — more than that — he put his whole soul into it ; its interests were his interests. Petty-Manker Hall, our splendid boys' dormitory was made possible by his generous giving and untiring efforts. Every year he paid the expenses of some two or three students to the Southern Students' Conference at Black Mountain, N. C, and gave many confidential gifts to the various enterprises of the school. He Sounded No Trumpet. Mr. Patten did not do his alms before men to be seen of them, neither did he sound a trumpet that others might know of his wonderful work. He gave his gifts confidenti- ally and did his work for the love of it. He has helped scores of young men to get an education, and he always said, "This is confidential." He did not want the praises of men, nor the newspaper's publicity but desired to con- tinue in the even tenor of his way, doing unto others as he would have them do unto him. His Last Visit Here, The students of this school will never forget his last 116 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College visit to Athens. On the evening of February 24th he at- tended a banquet at Ritter Home, where he deHvered an address, and the next morning at the chapel, we were privileged to hear him deliver a most excellent address. Mr. Patten said in substance, that we, as students were enjoying a rare privilege — that of attending such a splen- did school. He urged Xis to make the most of the golden hours. He said that we ought to go from this institution, unselfish, and willing to impart to others some of the great things we had learned here.^ Dean Frank F. Hooper, dean of the College of Liberal Arts, in Chattanooga, was designated as acting president for the year 1920-21. Doctor Arlo Ayres Brown was elected President of the University of Chattanooga and The Athens School June 7, 1921. Doctor Brown's education and experience fitted him admirably to assume the dual responsibility of administration. Doctor Brown was born in Sunbeam, Mercer County, Illinois, on April 15, 1883. He was educated at North- western University, Drew Theological Seminary, and Union Theological Seminary, in New York. He received honorary degrees from Cornell College, Iowa, Syracuse University, University of Chattanooga, Northwestern University and Boston University. Doctor Brown was ordained in the Meth- odist ministry in 1907 and served as associate pastor of Mad- ison Avenue Church, in New York, and as pastor of Mount Hope Church, in New York. In 1912 he represented the Board of Foreign Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Jerusalem. This service was followed by assign- ment as Executive Secretary of the Newark, New Jersey, District Church Society. In 1914 he was appointed Super- intendent of teacher training for the Board of Sunday iThe Gold and Blue — May 1916 As The Athens School of the University of Chattanooga 117 Schools of the Methodist Episcopal Church. He assumed the presidency of the University of Chattanooga and The Athens School of the University in 1921. Following the separation of The Athens School from the University of Chattanooga in 1925, Doctor Brown continued his respon- sibility in Chattanooga until 1929 when he was elected president of Drew University. The honors which came to Doctor Brown revealed his leadership in education and the Church. Among them were the following: Chairman, International Council of Religious Education; president, the American Association of Theological Schools; presi- dent, Methodist Educational Association; member, the Commission on Conference Courses of Study of The Meth- odist Church; member, the Board of Education of The Methodist Church; member, the Methodist Commission on Chaplains; member. Appraisal Commission of Laymen's Foreign Missions Inquiry, which enabled him and Mrs. Brown to join Professor Hocking's Committee in 1931-32 for a year's visit to the mission stations of the world; mem- ber, the International Committee of the International Board of the Army and Navy Commission; member of the Public Relations Committee of the Y.M.C.A. Doctor Brown, a member of Phi Beta Kappa, is the author of the fol- lowing books : Studies in Christian Living, Primer of Teach- er Training, Life in the Making, A History of Religious Education, Education in Recent Times and Youth and Christian Living. At the time of Doctor Brown's retirement at Drew University in 1948, Dean John Keith Benton, of Vanderbilt University described him as "one of the genuinely dis- tinguished leaders in education and Methodism in this century." His interest in Tennessee Wesleyan has been continued, and he has been immeasurably helpful in recent years in providing valuable counsel in the transition to the 118 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College senior college program at Wesleyan. Early in President Brown's administration the Execu- tive Committee of the University of Chattanooga responded to the requests of The Athens School for more autonomous leadership and responsibility to be exercised by Trustees primarily interested in the success of The Athens School. In the response to this demand and to provide in- terested leadership in both Chattanooga and Athens, the Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees of the Uni- versity of Chattanooga unanimously approved the following resolution on July 11, 1921, presented by John S. Fletcher, and seconded by W. E. Brock: "Be it resolved by the Executive Committee of the Trustees of the University of Chattanooga that the depart- ments of the University of Chattanooga shall be operated in so far as local matters are concerned by the members of the Committee residing in Chattanooga, viz: Z. E. Whel- and, F. M. Bristol, M. Chamberlain, C. N. Woodworth, Z. C. Patten, Jr., J. S. Fletcher, A. A. Brown and W. E. Brock; and the departments of the University located at Athens shall, in so far as local affairs are concerned, be operated by a sub-committee consisting of A. A. Brown, chairman, and ex-officio member, J. W. Fisher, G. F. Lock- miller and J. W. Bayless. All matters pertaining to the general policy and government of the institution as a whole shall be acted upon by the Executive Committee as a whole, and the Executive Committee as a whole shall have author- ity in the matter of purchase of additional buildings and grounds, or the contraction of any debts not included in the budget." President Brown led in a major financial campaign for the University of Chattanooga and The Athens School. This campaign was highly successful, and it added a total of $750,000 to the assets of the University. As The Athens School of the University of Chattanooga 119 In President Brown's report to the Board of Trustees July 6, 1922, he stated that at The Athens School there had been "almost a capacity attendance." President Brown gave considerable attention to the endowment campaign and paid tribute to the excellent response which the com- munity of Athens had provided. He stated, "In the re- markable success of the campaign at Athens, we are especially indebted to Dean Robb, Professors Craig and Goforth, with other faculty members, the student body, and the Kiwanis Club." President Brown advised the Board that the campaign had enabled the University to pay debts, provide expendi- tures for repairs, and stated that other things will be done for Athens. He promised that "the model school building and gymnasium will be erected." Concerning the future of the school in Athens, President Brown stated that the Uni- versity is committed to developing the best possible second- ary school and normal department to meet needs of the Church, State and nation. The normal, he continued, will provide two years of high school work "but it is not ex- pected that students who are planning to take a Bachelor's degree will take their first two years in Athens and then go on to a College of Liberal Arts." If students complete the normal course and decide to work toward the Bachelor's degree usually three additional years will be required "be- cause of the very nature of the normal course curriculum." President Brown also promised that "we will give training in Athens to rural preachers who are taking the high school and normal courses." The commitments of President Brown to The Athens School vvere carried out at an early date. On August 11, 1922, a committee consisting of Doctor J. M. Melear, who had been added to the Athens committee, G. F. Lockmiller and J. W. Fisher, was authorized to supervise the construe- 120 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College tion of a practice school to be used in the training of school teachers. September 6, 1922, the bid of L. S. Large for $3,895.48 was accepted for the construction of the practice school, and Dean James L. Robb was authorized to sign the contract. The students of the institution had been petitioning for a gymnasium for twenty-five years. At last the needs of the institution in this respect were to be met. On February 12, 1923, the Athens Committee met to consider the con- struction of the building to provide for the gymnasium and other facilities to be incorporated into the building. Dean James L. Robb was authorized to invite various architects to submit preliminary sketches for a building which would provide a gymnasium, dressing room, shower rooms, an auditorium to seat 600 on the main floor, and a balcony to seat 200, and also to provide administrative offices and classrooms. On motion of Doctor J. M. Melear, the Com- mittee decided that the proposed gymnasium-auditorium would occupy the site of the college chapel, constructed in 1882, and that the old chapel would be razed and materials used in the construction of the new building. Adhering to the requirements and traditions of economy, the Com- mittee, on April 2, 1923, decided to eliminate the swimming pool originally planned to be incorporated in the gymnas- ium area. On August 21, 1923, the firm of Manley, Young & Meyer, of Knoxville, was selected as the architects, and it was announced that bids would be opened September 12, 1923. On December 12, D. C. Young, of Sweetwater, was awarded the contract for the construction of the new building. A program for the laying of the corner stone was held May 28, 1924, with President Arlo Ayres Brown presiding. JOHN ALANSON PATTEN Industrialist, Devoted Churchman and Trustee As The Athens School of the University of Chattanooga 121 The program was as follows: School Song Prof. Alvis Craig, leading Prayer Prof. R. A. Kilburn Address Mr. C. N. Woodworth Chairman, Executive Committee, Board of Trustees Reading List of Contents of Box Dean James L, Robb Laying of Corner Stone .Mr. Z. W. Wheland President, Board of Trustees The auditorium-gymnasium was completed at a cost of $75,619.31. President Brown's administration was to provide a difficult and momentous decision for the future of The Athens School, a proposal for its separation from the Uni- versity of Chattanooga which for twenty years had pro- vided creative leadership and financial support for the institution in Athens. Two distinguished leaders, both of whom had long been related to the divisions in Chattanooga and Athens, provided the leadership and understanding required to effect the separation and to provide new beginnings for The Athens School. Mrs. John A. Patten, daughter of Doctor John J. Manker, '71, faculty member, trustee, and president, had continued active interest in the University of Chattanooga and The Athens School of the University of Chattanooga following the death of her distinguished husband in 1916. At the request of the writer Doctor Arlo Ayres Brown has provided a tribute to one of the most remarkable women associated with educational and Methodist Church activities in Tennessee in the history of the State: "She was one of the greatest Christian laymen that it has ever been my privilege to know. Bishop Thirkield once described her as "a true Christian aristocrat in the highest sense." Her's was a deep and abiding interest in Tennessee 122 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College Wcslcyan. She was the daughter of a distinguished Metho- dist preacher and the wife of an outstanding layman who gave generously of his time and money to the development of Methodist institutions in this area. After her husband's death in 1916 she not only carried forward his plans but developed her o\vn program of Christian service, "When she faced a problem she took the pains to be- come \vell informed about the situation. Her keen insight, sound judgment, and farseeing vision made her advice as eagerly sought as her gifts. Modestly she sought no recog- nition for herself but all who worked with her kne\v ho^v constructive and far reaching were her contributions to Christian causes around the world. Church leaders eagerly sought her counsel. She was in her quiet way the leading personal influence in the decision which gave The Athens School of the University of Chattanooga an independent status as Tennessee Wesleyan College. As a trustee, she was a constant and generous supporter of the institutions' highest interests. "To be in her home was a treasured experience. She was a great mother and her devotion to the needs of the younger generation \vas tireless. "We will not soon see her like again, but her influence abides. As Tennessee Wesleyan and the University of Chattanooga continue to grow their development will owe much to the generous warmhearted support to this states- manlike Christian lady." The other leader in the movement to provide indepen- dence for The Athens School was Bishop W^ilbur P. Thir- kield, the resident Bishop of the Chattanooga area of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Wilbur P. Thirkield was born September 25, 1854, in Franklin, Ohio. He was graduated \vith a Bachelor of Arts degree from Ohio Wesleyan University in 1876 and received AsT he Athens School of the University of Chattanooga 123 a Master of Arts degree in 1879. He was graduated from Boston University School of Theology with the Bachelor of Systematic Theology degree in 1881 and received a Doctor of Divinity degree from Emory College, of Oxford, in 1889. He entered the ministry of the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1878 and was president of Gammon Theological Semi- nary of Atlanta from 1883 until 1899. He received the Doctor of Divinity degree from Ohio Wesleyan in 1899 and the Doctor of Laws in 1906. He served as General Secretary of the Epworth League from 1899 to 1900 and then became General Secretary of the Freedman's Aid and Southern Educational Society, which office he held from 1900 until 1906. It was during this period that Doctor Thirkield had an unusual opportunity to become acquainted with U. S. Grant University, operating in Athens and Chattanooga. Doctor Thirkield gave the major address at the dedication of Banfield Hall in 1901. Doctor Thirkield became president of Howard University, in Washington, D. C, in 1906 and served until 1912. He was elected a bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1912. Bishop Thirkield was a member of Phi Beta Kappa, the author of a number of books, and was particularly creative in en- couraging high standards for the conducting of services of worship. His background, educationally, culturally, with a large understanding of the South, fitted him in an unusual degree to assume leadership in the Chattanooga area and to aid in the separation of The Athens School from the University of Chattanooga and to assist in preserving the opportunities for both institutions to grow and serve the State and the Church. A joint committee of trustees representing the Univer- sity of Chattanooga and The Athens School was held June 2, 1925. The meeting was called to order by Bishop Thir- kield. The following persons were present: President 124 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College Brown, Z. C. Patten, Jr., C. N. Woodworth, John S. Fletcher, Doctor J. M. Melear, Judge S. C. Brown, G. F. Lockmiller and Dean James L. Robb, who was designated as Secretary. Bishop Thirkield stated that the object of the meeting was to consider the adjustment of relations between the University of Chattanooga and The Athens School in the University with a view to the separation of the two institu- tions. Apparently considerable thought had been given to this proposal before the meeting was held. The following resolution was adopted: "Be it resolved, that we recommend to the Trustees of the University of Chattanooga that the properties of The Athens School be transferred to a new and indepen- dent educational corporation with the following incorpora- tors, viz: G. F. Lockmiller, S. C. Brown, J. M. Melear, J. W. Fisher, W. B. Townsend, C. N. Woodworth, Mrs. John A. Patten, who shall determine the name and scope of the new organization, except that its charter shall include the provisions set forth in the Charter of the University of Chattanooga as required before it can transfer its property to any other corporation. Said charter shall be applied for and the corporation organized as soon as practicable but not later than May 1926. The University of Chattanooga shall assign to the new corporation $144,000 as subscription notes resulting from the 1921 campaign, pay it $50,000.00 in cash or acceptable securities on or before three years from the date of organization of the new corporation with interest at six per cent per annum until paid; the new cor- poration to assume nine thousand due by the University of Chattanooga to the banks of Athens, Tennessee and the new corporation to pay the University of Chattanooga $10,000 from said $144,000 toward the expense incurred in securing same which shall be paid from the collections at the rate of 8 per cent of collections as made after the said nine thousand indebtedness shall have become paid." ARLO AYRES BROWN Tenth President of the College EDITH MANKER PATTEN Trustee, Generous Benefactor, and leader in securing of new charter in 1925. V As Tennessee Wesleyan College The small colleges will be fortunate if they appreciate their own advantages; if they do not fall into the naturalis- tic fallacy of confusing growth in the human sense \vith mere expansion ; if they do not allow themselves to be over- awed by size and quantity, or hypnotized by numbers: Even though the whole world seem bent on living the quantitative life, the college should remember that its busi- ness is to make of its graduates men of quality in the real and not the conventional meaning of the term. In this way it will do its share toward creating that aristocracy of character and intelligence that is needed in a community like ours to take the place of an aristocracy of birth, and to counteract the tendency toward an aristocracy of money. A great deal is said nowadays about the democratic spirit that should prevade our colleges. This is true if it means that the college should be in profound sympathy with what is best in democracy. It is false if it means, as it often does, that the college should level down and suit itself to the point of view of the average individual. Some of the arguments advanced in favor of a three years' course imply that we can afford to lower the standard of the degree, provided we thereby put it within reach of a larger number of students. But from the standpoint of the college one thor- oughly cultivated person should be more to the purpose than a hundred persons who are only partially cultivated. The final test of democracy, as Tocqueville has said, will be its power to produce and encourage the superior indi- vidual. Because the claims of the average man have been slighted in times past, does it therefore follow that we must now slight the claims of the superior man? We cannot help thinking once more of Luther's comparison. The col- lege can only gain by close and sympathetic contact \\ ith 125 126 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College the graduate school on the one hand, and the lower schools on the other, provided it does not forget that its function is different from either. The lower schools should make abundant provision for the education of the average citizen, and the graduate school should offer ample opportunity for specialization and advanced study; the prevailing spirit of the college, however, should be neither humanitarian nor scientific, — though these elements may be largely repre- sented, — but humane, and, in the right sense of the word, aristocratic. — Irving Babbitt. As Tennessee Wesleyan College 127 Following the action of Bishop Thirkield's committee, the resolution was referred to the Trustees of the Univer- sity of Chattanooga meeting on June 9, 1925. The basis of separation was adopted by the Board of Trustees on that date. A charter for Tennessee Wesleyan College was ap- plied for June 26, 1925. The original charter was as follows : Be it known that G. F. Lockmiller, S. C. Brown, J. M. Melear, J. W. Fisher, W. B. Townsend, C. N. Woodworth and Mrs. John A. Patten are hereby constituted a body politic and corporate by the name and style of the Tennes- see Wesleyan College for the purpose of founding, main- taining and conducting a college of liberal arts at Athens, Tennessee, under the auspices of the Methodist Episcopal Church as represented in the general conference of said church wherein may be taught the courses of study usually taught in said colleges or institutions, including literary, scientific, theological, normal and commercial courses with preparatory and academic departments; also music, art and elocution or expression with power to confer appro- priate degrees and to issue diplomas and certificates to those entitled thereto under the standards, rules and regu- lations of said college as fixed by its Board of Trustees; to maintain libraries and recreational grounds and equipment ; to provide for and preserve an endowment fund for the support and maintenance of said college by taking, receiv- ing and holding any moneys, choses in action, real estate, personal or mixed property, by gift, devise or otherwise. 2. The property owned, or to be owned, or held by the corporation hereby created shall be so held and owned in the name of said corporation for the use and benefit of the Methodist Episcopal Church, under such trust clause, 128 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College or clauses, as may be provided in the book of Discipline of said Church. The government and management of said corporation and the teachings in its several courses or de- partments, shall forever be conducted in harmony and con- sonance with, and in the interest of, the said Methodist Episcopal Church, as set forth, or declared from time to time, by the General Conference of said Church. 3. Said corporation shall be self-perpetuating, sub- ject only to the policy above stated. Any departure from the objects and policy of said corporation as above limits shall be good ground for removal of the Board of Trustees upon cause properly shown in the court of equity having jurisdiction, but shall not work a forfeiture of this charter. 4. The general powers of said corporation shall be: (a) To sue and be sued by the corporate name. (b) To have and use a common seal, which it may alter at pleasure; if no common seal, then the signature of the name of the corporation, by any duly authorized officer, shall be legal and binding. (c) To purchase and hold, or receive by gift, bequest, or devise, in addition to the personal property owned by the corporation, real estate necessary for the transaction of the corporate business, and also to purchase or accept any real estate in payment, or in part payment, of any debt due to the corporation, and sell the same. (d) To establish by-laws, and make all rules and regulations not inconsistent with the laws and constitution, deemed expedient for the management of corporate affairs. WILBUR PATTERSON THIRKIELD Trustee, Resident Bishop of the Chattanooga Area at time of reorganization in 1925 As Tennessee Wesleyan College 129 (e) To appoint such subordinate officers and agents, in addition to a president and secretary, or treasurer, as the business of the corporation may require. (f) To designate the name of the office, and fix the compensation of the officer. (g) To borrow money to be used in payment of property bought by it, and for erecting buildings, making improvements, and for other purposes germane to the objects of its creation, and secure the repayment of the money thus borrowed by mortgage, pledge, or deed of trust, upon such property, real, personal, or mixed, as may be owned by it; and it may, in like manner, secure by mortgage, pledge or deed of trust, any existing indebtedness which it may have lawfully contracted. (h) To elect a president, a dean or other necessary officers or agents in the management of said college, to prescribe the studies and texts for the various courses or departments therein, to elect a faculty of such teachers- and instructors as may be deemed proper and to fix the salaries of such officers and teachers. 5. The said incorporators shall within a convenient time after the registration of the charter in the office of the Secretary of State, elect from their number a chairman, secretary and treasurer; said officers and the other incor- porators shall constitute the first Board of Trustees. In all elections each member present shall be entitled to one vote, and the result shall be determined by a majority of the vote cast. Due notice of any election must be given by advertisement in a newspaper, personal notice to the mem- bers, or a day stated on the minutes of the board six months preceding the election. The Board of Trustees shall keep 130 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College a record of all their proceedings, which shall be at all times subject to the inspection of any member. 6. The number of trustees shall be fixed by the by- laws not to exceed thirty-three nor less than twenty-one, and at the first election one third of the number to be elected for one year, one third for two years, one third for three years, and thereafter each trustee to be elected for three years. Each trustee shall be a person twenty-one years of age and two-thirds of the total number shall be members of the Methodist Episcopal Church in good standing. There shall be elected to the said Board of Trustees one member from each of the following annual conferences, viz: Alabama, Blue Ridge-Atlantic, Central Tennessee, Georgia and St. Johns River, and each of said conferences may at the first annual session thereof after such election, confirm or reject the trustee so elected. The remaining number of trustees may be elected from the Holston Con- ference or else\vhere and said conference may, at the first annual session thereof after such election, likewise confirm or reject the trustees so elected. And should any trustee be rejected by any of said annual conferences a vacancy shall then exist and such rejection shall be certified by such con- ferences to the Board of Trustees, the vacancy to be filled by said Board at its next meeting, either regular or called, and may be confirmed or rejected as aforesaid. 7. The Board of Trustees may appoint executive agencies, and pass all necessary by-laws for the govern- ment of said institution, as may be required by the Meth- odist Episcopal Church, provided said by-laws are not in- consistent with the constitution and laws of this State. The terms of all officers shall be fixed by the by-laws, the term not to exceed three years and all officers shall hold over until their successors are duly elected and qualified. 8. The members may at any time voluntarily dissolve As Tennessee Wesleyan College 131 the corporation, by the conveyance of its assets and prop- erty to any other corporation holding a charter from this State not for purposes of individual profit, first providing for incorporate debts: Provided, the objects and aims of said corporation shall be the same and in harmony with those contained in this charter. A violation of any of the provisions of this charter shall subject the corporation to dissolution at the instance of the State, in which event its property and effects shall revert to the Trustees of the Methodist Episcopal Church, a corporate body existing under, and by virtue of, the laws of the State of Ohio. This charter is subject to modification or amendment by the Legislature, and in case said modification or amend- ment is not accepted, corporate business is to cease, and the assets and property, after payment of debts, are to be conveyed, as aforesaid, to some other corporation holding a charter for purposes not connected with individual profit and for the same objects and benefit of, and revert to, the aforesaid Trustees of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Acquiescence in any modification thus declared shall be determined in a meeting of the Trustees specially called for that purpose, and only those voting in favor of the modification shall thereafter compose the corporation. 9. The means, assets, income, or other property of the corporation shall be employed, directly or indirectly, for any other purpose whatever than to accomplish the legitimate objects of its creation, and by no implication or construction shall it possess the power to issue notes or coin, buy or sell products, or engage in any kind of trading operation, nor holding more real estate than is necessary for its legitimate purposes, and in no event shall the trustees permit any part of the principal of the endowment fund or any portion of the real estate of the corporation, to be used for the payment of the current expenses. 132 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 10. We, the undersigned, hereby apply to the State of Tennessee, by virtue of the laws of the land, for a charter of incorporation for the purpose and with the powers and privileges, etc., declared in the foregoing instrument. Witness our hands the 26th day of June, A.D., 1925. Signed, G. F. Lockmiller S. C. Brown J. W. Fisher J. M. Melear W. B. Townsend C. N. Woodworth Mrs. John A. Patten Doctor James L. Robb who had served as the admini- strative head of The Athens School since 1918 was appointed acting president. The choice of a name for the new institution was not easily made. There were members of the Committee who were anxious to perpetuate the name of Athens in the title; others were convinced that an approximation of the original name adopted in 1867 should be used. The wishes of those who accepted the allegiance to the Wesleyan tradi- tion prevailed and The Athens School of the University of Chattanooga became Tennessee Wesleyan College. James L. Robb was fitted admirably for the heavy responsibility as head of Tennessee Wesleyan College. Doctor Robb was born in Atlanta, Georgia, January 21, 1884. He had been a student in the Athens Division of Grant University and had received the A.B. degree from the University of Chattanooga in 1906. He was later to receive an A.M. from Northwestern University in 1926, and his leadership in educational circles was recognized by Illinois Wesleyan University in 1943 when he \vas given an honorary LL.D. degree. President Robb had served as JAMES LINDSAY ROBB Eleventh President As Tennessee Wesleyan College 133 principal of Mt. Zion Seminary, government supervisor of schools in the Philippine Islands, as superintendent of schools and president of Bowdon College in Bowdon, Georgia, and as high school principal in Gainesville, Georgia, before his election as dean of The Athens School of the University of Chattanooga in 1918. He guided the school during the difficult war years. President Robb was later to serve as a member of the Ecumenical Conference in 1930, General Conference in 1932, 36, 40, and the Uniting Conference of 1939. President Robb had the distinction of serving as a member of the University Senate from 1932 to 1948, and in 1934 served as the president of the National Association of Methodist Colleges and Universities. Ten- nessee recognized him in 1936 in electing him the president of the Tennessee College Association. President Robb was also active in the Southeastern Athletic Association of Junior Colleges and the Southern Association of Junior Colleges. He is a member of Phi Delta Kappa. Mrs. James L. Robb served as a member of the faculty, teaching voice and public school music from 1921 until 1939. Although chartered as a College of Liberal Arts with authority to give baccalaureate degrees, President Robb discouraged the inauguration of a senior college program, strongly favored by David A. Bolton, and instituted a two- year junior college program. The catalog for the initiation of this program lists the curriculum as follows: The two years of college \\'ork entitled Diploma Courses required the following for graduation: (15 High School units required for entrance; 100 term hours required for graduation.) 1. Major Subject 24 hours 2. Minor Subject 12 hours 134 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College Other Required subjects, if not included in Major or Minor. (a), (b) (c). (d English Composition 12 hours Social Science 12 hours Foreign Language 12 or 21 hours (depending upon amount of entrance credit). Mathematics, Science or Home Economics ....12 hours Elective Subjects to total ...100 hours to be selected from the following list: Subjects Hours Algebra, College 8 Arithmetic, Teacher's 4 Business Law 4 Biology, Advanced 12 Chemistry, Advanced 15 Chemistry, Analytical 15 Child Study 5 Civics, Constitutional Law 4 Domestic Art 15 Domestic Science 15 Educational Sociology 4 Economics 4 Economic History 4 French 21 Geography and Methods 4 Geometry, Analytic 5 Grammar and Method 4 General Sociolog}^ 4 History, Advanced American 8 History, Advanced European 8 History, English 9 History, Spanish-American 4 Wesleyan also offered a two-year Normal Diploma Course, two years in Pre-Engineering, Pre-Medical, Pre- Law, and Pre-Ministerial. Four years of college preparatory work were also offered. Following a year as acting president. Doctor Robb was elected president of the College and was inaugurated on October 25, 1926. The inauguration was reported by the press as follows: James Lindscy Robb, A.M., was inaugu- rated president of Tennessee Wesleyan College, Athens, Tcnn., October 25, 1926. A large crowd of friends and Subjects Hours History and Methods 4 History of Education 4 Latin, Advanced 4 Methods 8 Money and Banking 4 Physical Education 6 Play Production 3 Play Directing 2 Practice Teaching 4 Psychology, Elementary 4 Psychology, General 4 Public School Drawing 6 Public School Music 6 Public Speaking 9 Religious Education 12 Rural Economics 5 Rural Sociology 5 School Administration 4 School Hygiene 4 School Management 4 Trigonometry 5 As Tennessee Wesleyan College 135 Students assembled in the beautiful auditorium for the impressive exercises, which were opened with prayer by Bishop R. J. Cooke, '80. The presentation was by Professor David A. Bolton, '72, and the installation by Bishop W. P. Thirkield. Greetings for the Methodist Episcopal Church were presented by Bishop W. O. Shepard; for Tennessee, by President H. A. Morgan, of the University of Tennessee ; for the Board of Education of the Methodist Episcopal Church, by Secretary William S. Bovard, formerly vice president of the University of Chattanooga; for denomina- tional colleges, by President Wilson, of Maryville College; for Holston and other Conferences, by the Reverend R. M. Millard, formerly Dean of The Athens School; for friends in general, by Doctor John H. Race, former president. The benediction was by President Arlo Ayres Brown, of the University of Chattanooga. The separation from the University of Chattanooga did not solve the problems facing the institution. Doctor Robb was to know throughout his long administration the constant repetition of heavy financial responsibilities. Some of them were created by independence, others by the de- pression, others by World War II, and others by the reluct- ance of the Holston Conference to accept responsibility for providing adequate undergirding of the College. There were periods when the problems seemed almost beyond handling, but President Robb's persistence and courage enabled the College to survive, to grow, and to make a large contribution during his twenty-five years as president of Wesleyan. In his annual report to the Board of Trustees in June, 1927, President Robb discussed the period of transition through which the College was passing and very frankly presented the facts concerning the financial situation of 136 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan Colic fie the College and the need of the Conference and the Board of Trustees to provide adequate financing. Excerpts from President Robb's report reveal his can- didness in dealing with the situation. "I have referred to the fact that the college is in a period of transition follow- ing the separation from the University. Strange to say it has apparently never occurred to some that such a period was necessary and would be one of great difficulty, calling for real eflFort on the part of all concerned. The most dis- couraging feature which has yet been encountered has been the disposition of some to wish to throw up the hands in despair when any real difficulties are encountered. If the institution isn't worth fighting for, it isn't worth surviving." Doctor Robb then discussed the methods by which supplementary financing could be secured. He suggested several ways. Higher rates could be charged which he stated would eliminate many students unable to pay higher rates which the College had long served. A second method was to provide a producing endowment of which $200,000 is needed to take care of the annual deficit. A third was to secure annual funds from the patronizing conferences. The Board of Education of the Methodist Episcopal Church which had contributed generously over a long period could be asked to increase its contribution. Doctor Robb acknowledged that these methods, if ap- proved, would not immediately solve the problem. Presi- dent Robb put the problem up to the Board. "One cannot afford to allow the college to drift into serious financial difficulties thru neglect to face the issue." President Robb saw no other immediate solution than to borrow funds. He stated, "You will need to make some provision for caring for the present indebtedness and for the deficit in operating expenses until such time as the income from these sources is adequate ... I recommend such a loan as a means of JAMES ALEXANDER FOWLER, Class 1884 President of Board of Trustees for nineteen years As Tennessee Wesley an College 137 tiding over the remainder of the period of transition." President Robb attempted to secure larger responsibihty on the part of the Board of Trustee, concluding, "I have noted a disposition to unload the whole burden of finance upon the administrative officers. This is a serious mistake. Unquestionably the responsibility of formulating and adopt- ing a financial program belongs to the Board. The president and others may help and they must carry out the program, but the Board's responsibility must be clearly recognized." The Board was not unmindful of the problems Presi- dent Robb faced. A committee consisting of C. N. Wood- worth, J. G. Lowe, C. R. Kennedy, Colonel W. B. Townsend, and G. F. Lockmiller, had been studying the financial structure of the College and had discovered that $32,000 would be needed before the end of the academic year 1927-28 to pay obligations and to cover an anticipated deficit of $10,000 for that academic year. This committee recommended to the Executive Com- mittee that a campaign for $500,000 be initiated and that the first unit of $250,000 be raised in a campaign beginning January 1, 1928. A year was devoted to the canvas under the direction of M. G. Terry. He reported to the Executive Committee December 14, 1928, that $297,062.00 had been subscribed, and the Executive Committee voted to consider the cam- paign successful and to validate the pledges. This cam- paign had been stimulated by a $25,000 gift from Mrs. John A. Patten, of Chattanooga, and a $25,000 contribution by Colonel W. B. Townsend. The urgency of the situation was evidenced by the necessity of the Board of Trustees to "execute a mortgage or deed of trust" for $40,000 for use in prosecuting the endowment campaign. The only problem about the campaign was that the 138 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College nation fell into a major economic depression and only a small amount of the total subscribed was ever realized. The College continued to draw a substantial enroll- ment, and President Robb reported for the year 1928-29 a total of 519 students of which 127 were in preparatory classes, 285 in college classes, and 29 in the summer school. Judge S. C. Brown communicated a letter from Adolph S. Ochs, publisher of The New York Times, in 1928, con- cerning his desire to recognize his appreciation of Captain William Rule, long distinguished editor of The Knoxville Journal. Mr. Ochs wrote: "If acceptable, I would be pleased to transfer to your institution, in trust, ten (10) shares (par value $100.00 each) of the 8% preferred stock of the New York Times Company yielding $80.00 per an- num; the income to be used as a prize awarded annually to be known as the William Rule Prize. I suggest that it be a prize for an essay on the responsibility of citizenship." In President Robb's report to the Board of Trustees, June 3, 1935, he raised the question concerning the resump- tion of senior college work at Tennessee Wesleyan. His report is as follows: "In view of these circumstances and in consideration of the obvious need of the six conferences of these two areas for at least one institution of senior college rank under Methodist control, I would raise question before this Board if the time has not now arrived when a declaration of policy should be made looking toward the resumption of senior college work in Tennessee Wesleyan College as soon as funds can be secured to qualify for this status. With a constituency of six conferences covering six Southern states, including 353 charges and 100,000 members and with the confidence and loyalty to the school to be found through- out all these conferences it appears that such a step would be fully justified." As Tennessee Wesleyan College 139 In considering the President's recommendation Dr. Everett M. Ellison moved that the recommendations of the President be accepted and that the college resume senior college status. This motion was seconded by Doctor G. T. Francisco. Doctor W. M. Dye concurred in this position saying, "This is the college that we need to con- centrate on for the conference and look very definitely for a four-year college." Doctor W. J. Davidson, of the Board of Education, was present and he cautioned against the inauguration of a senior college program until the college had at least $500,000 endowment with all debts paid. Doctor Davidson said he did not oppose the idea but simply cautioned against going into such a program before the college was prepared for it. He concluded, "Of course, I am not opposed to the idea. Soon Methodists will be one and then we would' have the competition of all Southern Methodists colleges." Following a general discussion in which all members present participated freely, there was general agreement to study the plan and to report at a subsequent meeting of the Board. Surely, one of the great satisfactions of President Robb must have been the response of Mr. and Mrs. Henry Pfeif- fer, of New York City, to support the College. In 1935, Mrs. Pfeiffer agreed to assist in providing funds for current operations and specifically to provide at least a part of the amount needed each year to cover the anticipated deficit. Mrs. Pfeiffer's contribution enabled President Robb to report to the Board in 1935 that there had been no deficit. That was the beginning of an interest which provided facilities and assets which led to a new day for the College. One cannot say that the College could not have existed had it not been for the Pfeiffers' generosity but we can say without question that it would have been greatly crippled 140 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College during the years which followed if Mrs. Pfeiffer's imagina- tion had not been stirred by President Robb's persuasiveness in interpreting the services which Tennessee Wesleyan Col- lege would render if it had adequate facilities and income- producing endowment. President Robb has provided, at our request, a sum- mary of the Pfeiffers' gifts. Aside from funds for current operations, over a decade, and payment of the cost of a sprinkler system in Ritter Hall, Mrs. Pfeiffer contributed a total of $441,666, the largest gift being $133,333, which made possible the construction of the James L. Robb Gymnasium. The first building to be constructed by funds made available by Mrs. Pfeiffer was the Merner-Pfeiffer Library, $100,000 of which she gave, the balance being contributed by friends of the College. The Library was dedicated Wednesday, November 5, 1941. The program for this occasion included the following: President James L. Robb, Presiding America Invocation - Rev. C. E. Lundy Superintendent, Sweetwater District Address of Welcome General J. A. Fowler President of Board of Trustees Address - Honorable Prentice Cooper Governor, State of Tennessee Address Bishop Paul B. Kern Resident Bishop, Nashville Area, Methodist Church Music - - - — -College Chorus Address ...Mrs. Henry Pfeiffer Greetings Dr. Gilbert Govan Librarian, University of Chattanooga Miss Mary E. Baker Librarian, University of Tennessee As Tennessee Wesleyan College 141 Dr. Louis Shores Director of Library School, George Peabody College Introductions Hymn — How Firm A Foundation Dedication Bishop Kern Benediction Dr. John H. Race Corner Stone Laying Annie Pfeiffer Hall Bishop Kern Two years later another building, the total cost of which was provided by Mrs. Pfeiffer, was ready for dedi- cation. In providing Sarah Merner Lawrence Hall Mrs. Pfeiffer perpetuated the name of her sister. This building was dedicated May 9, 1943, with the following program: America Invocation Rev. J. W. Henley Pastor, Centenary Methodist Church, Chattanooga President, Holston Conference Board of Education Address of Welcome General J. A. Fowler President, Board of Trustees Vocal Solo Rev. J. M. Hampton Pastor, Brainerd Methodist Church, Chattanooga Dedicatory Address Rev. Arlo A. Brown, D.D. President, Drew University, Madison, N. J. Music College Chorus Dr. Werner Wolff, Conducting Greetings Dr. H. W. McPherson Executive Secretary, Board of Education Mrs. P. L. Cobb President, Woman's Society of Christian Service, The Holston Conference Dr. James D. Hoskins President, University of Tennessee 142 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College Dr. David A. Lockmiller President, University of Chattanooga Mrs. Henry Pfeiffer Hymn — "O Worship the King" The James L. Robb Gymnasium, named in honor of President Robb, was dedicated Tuesday, February 21, 1950. Among those who participated in the dedication program were: Paul J. Walker, Doctor L. E. Hoppe, Dean Paul Riviere, the Reverend F. M. Dowell, the Reverend Henry C. Dawson, and Harwell Proffitt. The Daily Post-Athenian carried an editorial by C. C. Redfern, excerpts from which w^e quote: "The gymnasium is a great asset to the city, and it pays honor to the school's illustrous president, James L. Robb. The game, featuring TWC and Emory and Henry, will be more than worth the price of admission as Coach Hudson's team has proven to be a high scoring, fast break- ing quintet. The fact that sports fans can see the finest of gymnasiums, complete with the new type glass back- boards, electric timing system and fold-away bleachers, is also worth the price of admission. The seating capacity more than doubles any gym in the county, with room for nearly 1500 fans. The beauty of the gym, along with its 50 x90' hardwood floor has been more than a pleasant sur- prise to every person entering the new structure. Even if you haven't been to a basketball game in years . . . we urge you to take in this formal opening. For many years many basketball fans have stayed at home because there just wasn't room in our gymnasiums. We predict that basket- ball will take on ntw interest in the county now^ that the new James L. Robb Gymnasium is in operation, providing the fans with seating space and players with a modern gym." At the time of the appearance of the Tennessee Wes- As Tennessee Wesleyan College 143 leyan Choir before the General Conference of The Meth- odist Church, meeting in MinneapoHs in the spring of 1956, Bishop John Wesley Lord, presiding, invited the writer to in- troduce the Choir and at that time the contribution of the Pfeiffers was publicly acknowledged and the program dedicated to the memory of two persons whose sense of stewardship led them to give to Methodist institutions a large fortune most of which had been liquidated by the time of the death of Mr. and Mrs. Pfeiffer. In 1936, Wesleyan lost one of its most understanding and generous friends. Colonel W. B. Townsend had as- sisted the College on many occasions and in his will pro- vided that 10% of the residue of his estate would come to Wesleyan at the end of a fifteen-year period. M. S. Tipton reported to President Robb that this bequest would likely amount to from $25,000 to $50,000. The estate was settled in 1951. The College received a settlement of $62,500 which was returned to the endowment fund of the College from which $75,000 had been borrowed to complete the construction of the James L. Robb Gymnasium. A memorial service was held to honor Colonel Town- send, and the Board of Trustees, May 25, 1936, formally expressed its high regard for Colonel Townsend in the following resolution : "The Board of Trustees of Tennessee Wesleyan College records with profound sorrow its sense of loss in the death of Colonel W. B. Townsend, an outstanding member of this body. A man of sterling qualities and character his voice registered plans that usually resulted in constructive action. Devoted to the promotion of Christian Education, he gave liberally of his time, talents and money to promote the interest of this and similar institutions. "Colonel Townsend was far more than an interested colleague — he was an intimate friend and wise counsellor 144 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College who held our full confidence during the period of our personal and official relationship. "Resolved, That we hereby express our high appreci- ation of Colonel Townsend's devotion to Tennessee Wes- leyan College and also as a sympathetic and loyal friend. Firm in conviction, sound in judgment, he brought to every problem clarity and light. We shall greatly miss him in our deliberations. "Resolved, That a copy of this resolution be placed upon our records and one forwarded to the family whose sympathetic interest in Tennessee Wesleyan College is likewise gratefully acknowledged." We have inxited Colonel Townsend's daughter, Mrs. Herbert Blake Nields, to contribute personal recollections of her father for use in this history, and we use her tribute as follo^vs: "In regard to my Father — he was such a wonderful person that its hard to pick out a few things as the "high lights" of his life were many. "He was born March 24th, 1854, at Nickle Mines, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. His "formal" education was almost "nil." The fifth grade in the primary school — yet he was one of the best-read men I have ever known and as \vords \\ ere his hobby • — or one of them — he had an excellent \'ocabulary. I think due to his lack of schooling \vas one of the reasons he had such a keen interest in helping the mountain girls and boys get a good education. That led to his interest in the old Murphy College in Sevierville, Tennessee (which is no more) and to Tennessee \\'^esleyan. "His interests were many and varied and for several years served on The National Board of Home Missions of The Methodist Church. "He loved the Smoky Mts. and he and Gov. Peay had visions of establishing a National Forest. He turned over DR. JAMES M. MELEAR Class 1891 G. F. LOCKMILLER INCDRPDRATDRS 1925 As Tennessee Wesleyan College 145 72,000 acres of cut over land which was the start but Gov. Peay died so the acreage became the nucleus of The Great Smoky Mtn. National Park. He was in the lumber and contract building in Pennsylvania before moving to Tennes- see in 1900. He and his associates purchased 110,000 acres and organized the Little River Lumber Company and The Little River Railroad Co. and he was Pres. and General Manager of both corporations. This was one of the largest hardwood operations in the South and my Father served in this capacity until his death in 1936. "He was connected with banking having served as Pres. of the Bankers Trust Co. in Knoxville and later as Pres. of The Blount National Bank in Maryville. "He was interested in many other enterprises and served as a Director of The Lee Clay Products Co. in Ky. The Fidelity Bankers Trust Co. and The Fireproof Storage and Van Co. of Knoxville, Tennessee. "He was a very dynamic speaker and very influential in the enterprises with which he was connected. "I hope from the foregoing that you will be able to get the things you need or want. So many, many more things I could tell but these are, to me, the "high lights" of a very remarkable and successful man and a self-made one at that."^ Doctor Robb anticipated the coming of unification of the Methodist Episcopal Church and the Methodist Epis- copal Church, South, as early as 1936 and called this possibility to the attention of the Board of Trustees. In 1938, the second phase of the Forward Movement, initiated in 1928, was authorized and a campaign to raise $250,000 was inaugurated. During the years between 1937 and 1940 the Carnegie iMrs. Herbert Blake Nields — February 11, 1957. 146 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College Corporation made contributions to the Library Fund and to the Music Department. Tennessee Wesleyan had not yet recovered from the problems of the depression and found itself in serious liti- gation which eventually went to the Supreme Court of the United States concerning the failure of the Chattanooga National Bank. The Supreme Court ruled against the Col- lege and eventually the College had to borrow funds to liquidate this indebtedness which threatened the future of the College. The problems of peace were serious and the problems of war equally demanding. Early in the war years it was necessary for the College to borrow an amount equal to twice its annual budget, and by 1944 the enrollment had dropped to 141 students, 20 of them were men and most of these \vere persons considered ineligible for military service. The uniting of the two Holston Conferences brought to the Holston Conference of The Methodist Church the responsibility of three institutions, Emory and Henry College, Hiwassee College, and Tennessee Wesleyan College. A study of these three institutions was made in the summer of 1943 by three distinguished educators. The section of the report dealing with Tennessee Wesleyan College follows: REPORT ON A PROGRAM OF HIGHER EDUCATION — JULY 12, 1943 RECOMMENDATIONS B. ^Ve recommend that Tennessee Wesleyan College be continued as the Junior College of liberal arts for men and women in the Conference. C. We recommend that the three institutions retain As Tennessee Wesleyan College 147 separate administrations, and extend the principle among themselves of partially inter-locking Boards of Trustees. FINANCES B. Consideration of the total college program for the Conference in any and all future fund-raising cam- paigns; that is, the elimination of individual college drives for funds. F. Liquidation of the indebtedness on Tennessee Wesleyan College. This amounts, we believe, to something like $51,000.00. INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM C. We recommend that the music and arts depart- ments of Tennessee Wesleyan College be strengthened by offering more courses and by allowing more credit for courses given. PROPERTY A. We recommend that plans be made, with esti- mated costs, for reconditioning or remodeling certain build- ings and with the Boys' Hall and Ritter Hall at Tennessee Wesleyan College. Certain dormitory conditions need to be remedied at Tennessee Wesleyan College. B. We recommend that plans be drawn, with esti- mated costs, for essential new buildings to be added. Such plans would concern themselves with a Student Activities Building at Tennessee Wesleyan College. METHODIST GROUP ASSEMBLIES AND ACTIVITIES We recommend that Methodist group assemblies and activities be centered, where possible, in the Conference colleges. Our Committee was surprised to see an opposite policy in action. If the facilities of these colleges are not adequate for Conference purposes, it is because they are not adequate to fulfill the purposes of the colleges as edu- 148 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan Colleg^e cational institutions, and it is the duty and opportunity, as well, of the Conference to make them so. Methodism should not be satisfied to own, control, and operate colleges for whose physical plants it is forced to apologize and to which it is ashamed to send its sons and daughters to be educated. CAPTURING THE IMAGINATION OF METHODISM We recommend that a Conference-wide program be planned and carried out to recapture for the Conference colleges the imagination of Holston Methodism. The pro- gram should ha\'e one main objective — to impress upon the minds of Holston Methodists the fact that, if they want to keep their ehureh-r elated colleges, they must support them. They must support them by making generous gifts and by sending their sons and daughters to them to be educated. One creative act of tangible, substantial support is worth a thousand pious exhortations concerning the \-ir- tues of one's dear Alma Mater. The time has arrived ^vhen Methodism should stop the business of depending upon secular agencies for the support and development of its colleges. Methodism must give substantial exidence of ^vhether its asserted belief in Christian Education is a living belief or merely dead dogma. The only belief worth having is a belief that translates itself into life and conduct. \ II. REPORTS ON FINANCES, INSTURCTIONAL PROGRAM, AND PROPERTY OF THE RESPECTIVE COLLEGES \\ e request the Special Commission created by the Holston Conference, together with the Conference Board of Education, to take cognizance of the three separate re- ports, hereto appended, on Finances, Instructional Program, and Property of the respecti\'e colleges, for the purpose of C. N. WOODWORTH JUDGE S. C. BROWN Class 1886 INCDRPDRATDRS 1925 As Tennessee Wesleyan College 149 ascertaining their individual needs and arriving at the ap- proximate amount of funds necessary to provide an ade- quate program of higher education for the Holston Conference. Respectfully submitted by Joseph Roemer John W. Long W. K. Greene, Chairman The Survey Committee. FINANCES GENERAL OBSERVATIONS TENNESSEE WESLEYAN COLLEGE The finances of this College are, in the main, in good condition and should be protected against adverse results incident to war. This statement is made in spite of the fact that reduction in enrollment of men has produced an operating deficit. The extent of the resources of the College tends to minimize the possible ill effects of its indebtedness, which seems comparatively small. This debt of approximately $51,000.00 should be liquidated as soon as possible. The addition of the excellent dormitory for women and the Library necessitates an increase in operating funds to take care of increased maintenance costs. Failure to recognize this fact with respect to new buildings has produced unfortunate results in many of our colleges. The annual appropriation of $5,000.00 to the College by the General Board of Education, together with the likeli- hood of its continuance, should be considered when the proportionate distribution of the Conference annual appropriation to all three colleges is made. The favorable financial situation of the College should not militate against this institution's receiving its justly proportionate share of Conference funds, either for 150 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College purposes of operation or for the improvement and enlargement of its physical plant. INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM A rather full instructional program is found in all of the traditional departments. From observation and check- ing, the Committee got the impression that rather high- grade substantial students attend Tennessee Wesleyan. They come from homes that are average or above and are sensi- tive to the cultural influences to be found in the offerings of the liberal arts college. The academic atmosphere and student morale in general at Tennessee Wesleyan were of a high quality and very pleasing to the Committee. GENERAL CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS It is the opinion of the Committee that Tennessee Wesleyan College should pursue its program of general, cultural, liberal education, with emphasis upon music, fine arts, home economics and home-making for the student body it is attempting to serve. PROPERTY TENNESSEE WESLEYAN COLLEGE The Committee was favorably impressed with the college plant at Tennessee Wesleyan. It is centrally located in the beautiful town of Athens, which naturally takes considerable pride in having an institution of this character in the community. On the whole, the buildings are grouped in such a pattern as to enhance the beauty of the campus, contribute to the convenience of faculty and students, and make for economy of operation. Much can be said for Lawrence Hall, the new dormi- tory for girls, and the Merner-Pfeiffer Library, both con- tributed by Mrs. Pfeiffer of New York City. They add As Tennessee Wesleyan College 151 greatly to the beauty of the campus, the living conditions of the girls, and the general cultural atmosphere of the College. Tennessee Wesleyan is fortunate in having these beautiful and useful buildings. The Elizabeth Ritter Hall, owned and operated by the Woman's Society of Christian Service of the Metho- dist Church, is a frame building, but is in excellent condi- tion both within and without. An automatic sprinkler system and outside fire escapes contribute to the factor of safety. The J. W. Fisher Laboratory building offers unusually commodious quarters and satisfactory equipment. This building is in good condition. The Administration Building provides administrative offices, a large auditorium, and a gymnasium. This build- ing was erected in 1924, and is attractive and imposing in appearance. Some repairs, particularly a new roof, are recommended. For efficiency and econom}' of operation the Com- mittee would recommend a new central heating plant, and while the present gymnasium can be made to serve the purposes of physical education, a new building, making possible a separate gymnasium for young men and young women, would add to the greater efficiency of a physical education and athletic program. On the whole. President Robb and the Trustees are to be congratulated on the number, type, condition, and attractiveness of the buildings on their campus. This survey was the beginning of a new interest in the Holston Annual Conference in its colleges. President Robb had reported that the Holston Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1934 had contributed $3,600 and in 1937 $1,634 for current operations. President Robb urged 152 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College the Conference to increase this amount to from $10,000 to $15,000. Doctor Robb had referred almost annually in his re- ports to the small salaries the College was paying, salaries which in 1933 had remained unpaid following an assessment in 1932 of two weeks' salary from each faculty member as a contribution toward an effort to balance the budget. No retirement program existed. In 1944 a retirement pro- gram, approved by the faculty, was introduced. It provided for participation in TIAA with the faculty member paying 5% of his salary and the College paying an equal amount. The TIAA became effective October 1, 1945. Before his retirement Doctor Robb reported to the Board of Trustees that the 5% payment by the College was entirely inade- quate and recommended that this amount be increased to from 7 to 10%. The end of the war brought staggering problems. President Robb anticipated an increase in enrollment but did not anticipate that in 1947 there would be 240 G.I.'s on the campus. This required a rapid expansion of faculty, facilities, and the erection of three temporary buildings, a cafeteria, a dormitory, and a student center. The close of the war brought to the campus Louie Underwood as Superin- tendent of Buildings and Grounds whose dependability has contributed much to the life of the College during the years which followed. During the 40's the interest of the people of Athens in the College grew, and we have reports of Athens raising $5,000 annually toward the operating expenses of the Col- lege with much of the credit for the success of these campaigns going to Frank Dodson and Paul J. Walker. The Kiwanis Club, of Athens, long friendly to the College and a friendship which has grown remarkably in COLONEL W. B. TOWNSEND Industrialist, Trustee, Generous Benefactor As Tennessee Wesleyan College 153 recent years underwrote a Vocations Day in 1941, the first instituted in the State of Tennessee. A comprehensive evaluation of the College was made in 1948 by Doctors John L. Seaton and James W. Reynolds. At the end of this forty-five page evaluation, Reynolds and Seaton make the following suggestions and recommenda- tions concerning means by which the college could be greatly strengthened. SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Throughout the report suggestions and recommenda- tions of a definite character have been made in connection with the discussion. In some cases there are implications which appeared not to warrant direct statement, but which might well be given consideration. As a convenience some of the more obvious needs are here assembled. 1. Revision of the charter and by-laws. 2. Simplification of administrative processes. 3. Better preparation of the faculty; more continuity in service; encouragement of participation in professional meetings and in research suited to the junior college level; also encouragement in writing, particularly articles for professional and other magazines. 4. Simpler organization of the faculty and lessened teaching loads for some of the members. 5. More comprehensive provision for general educa- tion in the curriculum and organization of the curriculum on the divisional plan. 6. Consideration of the status and service of the practice school, and the possibility of having practice conducted in city and county schools. 7. Better balance in the ratio of freshman to sophomore students. 8. Reconsideration of policies in field work of admissions, of counseling, and of personnel organization. 154 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 9. Such improvement of men's dormitories as may be possible and much better supervision. 10. Better lighting of the library and other incentives to increase its use. 1 1 . Some improvements in the laboratories especially the physics laboratory. 12. General and extensive reconditioning of Petty Manker Hall, and simplification of the uses to which it is put. 13. Concentration of the activities in music as soon as suitable quarters can be provided. A building for music, art, and dramatics would be highly desirable. 14. Reconsideration, if and when possible, of the plan to have one director of public relations for the three colleges. 15. Clarification of the accounting and auditing as discussed in the body of this report. 16. Liquidation as soon as possible of all interfund loans and discontinuance of interfund borrowing. 17. Improvements as they may be feasible in purchasing procedures. 18. Establishment of reserves or contingent funds to tide over the readjustment which may be necessary as the tide of veteran students subsides. 19. Plans for a spaced development of the physical plant. 20. Long-range plans for permanent endowment and probably "living endowment."^ Doctor Robb in 1949 announced his desire to the Board of Trustees to retire in 1950. A new president was elected March 24, 1950, and the alumni sponsored a dinner to honor Doctor and Mrs. Robb which was held in the college dining hall on June third. IReport of Survey, April, 1948 Prepared and Presented by James W. Reynolds and John L. Seaton. As Tennessee Wesleyan College 155 All members of Doctor and Mrs. Robb's family were present. At the close of an evening of greetings the Alumni Association of the College expressed its affection for Presi- dent and Mrs. Robb by presenting to them the keys to an automobile, and the new president was introduced to the faculty, alumni, and student body. And so concluded the longest period of administrative leadership in the history of the institution. Doctor James L. Robb had served as dean of The Athens School of the University of Chatta- nooga for seven years, one year as acting president of Tennessee Wesleyan College, and 24 years as the president of the College. He had seen the school move from second- ary school level to a place of regional and national recogni- tion as one of the leading junior colleges in the Church, accredited since 1926 by the Southern Association of Col- leges and Secondary Schools. The Board of Trustees elected Dr. Robb President Emeritus for life, the only president in the history of the college who continued in office until retirement age. When Dr. LeRoy Albert Martin^ was elected president of Tennessee Wesleyan College, Athens welcomed the home-coming of a local boy who had shown his ability and earned recognition in other regions and who now returned to serve and advance his alma mater. Dr. Martin was superintendent of the Paterson district of the Newark Con- ference, a metropolitan area and one of the largest districts in Methodism, when his appointment to the Wesleyan presi- dency was announced in March of 1950. For the eight years which preceded this superintendency he was pastor of the Madison (New Jersey) Methodist Church, just off the campus of Drew University. Bishop Oxnam wrote from New York to the Executive Committee of the Wesleyan 1 Section on present administration written by Enid Parker Bryan, Ph.D., professor of English and Classics at Tennessee Wesleyan College. 156 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College Board of Trustees: "I hold LeRoy A. Martin in the highest esteem . . . He was a most successful college minister. On the district he has revealed unusual administrative ability. . . . He has a most brotherly spirit, wins the loyalty of his fellow workers. He is creative, unafraid of hard work — in a word, is an individual I can recommend without qualification." Dr. Martin was born In Morristown, Tennessee, in 1901, but spent most of his childhood in the Trinity Meth- odist parsonage in Athens. His father, the late Reverend B. M. Martin, noted for his administrative ability through- out the Holston Conference, was a native of McMinn County and a graduate of the theological division of Grant University. LeRoy Martin attended both the Athens Col- lege and the University of Chattanooga, where he took his A.B. in 1924. He did his graduate work at the Boston University School of Theology, where he received an S.T.B. in 1928, and at Drew Universky, where he received hh master's degree in 1931. He was accepted into full mem- bership in the Holston Conference in 1929, and during the succeeding years he rendered extensive and varied services to The Methodist Church in several regions. He was also at one time a member of the faculty of Baylor School in Chattanooga. Dr. Martin's wife, the former Miss Ruth Duckwall of Knoxville, was educated at the University of Tennessee. With unfailing friendliness and charm she capably filled the role of "first lady" at Blakeslee Hall, the president's resi- dence on the campus. Her talent for interior and exterior building decoration enabled her to make many valuable contributions to the college at large. The Martins were accompanied on the move to Athens by their two children; Julia Caroline, better known as Sally, aged sixteen and As Tennessee Wesleyan College 157 soon to enter Wesleyan; and Elizabeth Blackburn, or Betsy, aged six. A frequent and always welcome visitor in the home was Dr. Martin's mother, then living in Chattanooga, who could tell many an interesting story of life in Athens and at Wesleyan in days gone by. President Martin arrived on the Tennessee Wesleyan campus on July 6, 1950, and energetically set himself ^^ cope with the many problems which beset a small junior college in that difficult Korean War period. Financial difficulties alone were enormous; the college had for some years operated at a deficit. Dr. Martin forcefully presented the case for the college to one civic group after another, and within a matter of months he had enlisted strong community support. An editorial in the Daily Post- Athe- nian in 1951 lauded the efforts of volunteer workers in what was called the Tennessee Wesleyan Appreciation Drive; their goal was $20,000. Pointing out that Wesleyan did not have a large endowment to see it through inflation- ary periods, the writer urged all citizens to contribute generously. He declared that all the community enjoyed the blessings already brought to Athens by the college. This drive proved to be only a prelude to the greater efforts that were to follow. Ever since 1925, when Tennessee Wesleyan became a completely independent institution, administrators and sup- porters of the college had from time to time dreamed that it might once again be a four-year college. The actual formulation of this ideal and the steps essential to its realiza- tion were the work of LeRoy A. Martin. Early in 1952 he made public contents of a letter which he had received from General James A. Fowler, '84, of Knoxville, honorary mem- ber of the Board of Trustees and a former chairman of the board. General Fowler's letter contained the following statement : 158 A History of Teiinessee Wesleyan College "Tennessee Wesleyan College occupies an unfavorable position with reference to increasing its student body. It is strictly a junior college, and therefore, its curriculum is limited to the freshman and sophomore college years. As long as that condition exists it will be difficult to procure an attendance sufficient to maintain the school. I have given the matter considerable thought and talked it over with a gentleman who, I think, has had more experience with all grades of educational work than any other person in the State. My judgment is that the curriculum should be extended to a full four-year college course; and the sooner it is done the better the result for the school." This letter strengthened President Martin in a convic- tion that he had held for some time. He and the Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees began several months of intensive study. In his report to the board on May 28, 1952, Dr. Martin set forth in considerable detail the argu- ments in favor of a four-year institution. Supporting his points with statistics, he emphasized the lack of growth in the enrollment of junior colleges of The Methodist Church in recent years, especially those in the South. Coming to the problem of financial support for junior colleges, he presented convincing evidence that government agencies, philanthropic foundations, and even individual alumni do not adequately support junior colleges. A third considera- tion that Dr. Martin brought to the attention of the trustees was the action of the Tennessee Department of Education in requiring four rather than two years of college training for permanent teacher certification. He added that in- creases had likewise been made in the requirements for entering professional schools of medicine, law, and theology. His final point was that the industrial growth of McMinn County, strikingly symbolized in the establishment of the As Tennessee Wesleyan College 159 Bowaters Southern Paper Corporation at Calhoun, indicated a bright economic future for the region. There followed many months filled with committee meetings, conferences, and studies of various kinds. Two years passed before the Holston Conference took the final action which was needed to make Tennessee Wesleyan a four-year, degree-granting college. During this perioa President Martin was in touch with a number of outstand- ing leaders in American higher education, representing both church-related and secular institutions. Several of these persons through their advice and suggestions made signifi- cant contributions to the final realization of Wesleyan's senior college status. Prominent among them were the following: Dr. Myron F, Wicke, associate director, Section of Secondary and Higher Education of the Division of Educational Institutions of the General Board of Educa- tion of The Methodist Church; Dr, Hurst R, Anderson, president of American University, Washington, D, C, and member of the University Senate of The Methodist Church ; Dr. Arlo Ayres Brown, president of Tennessee Wesleyan College from 1921 to 1925; Dr. John O, Gross, executive secretary of the Division of Educational Institutions of the Board of Education of The Methodist Church; and Dr. Edward W. Seay, president of Centenary College in Hac- kettstown, New Jersey, and member of the University Senate of The Methodist Church. Most of these men con- tinued their generous interest long after the four-year program was adopted and put into operation. In October, 1952, President Martin presented to the Executive and the Buildings and Grounds Committees of the trustees a comprehensive report which showed the points at which Tennessee Wesleyan would have to expand its facilities and increase its resources in order to meet the standards for senior colleges as set by the Southern As- 160 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College sociation of Colleges and Secondary Schools. Somewhat later a study committee of the board enlisted the assistance of Dr. Donald Agnew, then financial consultant of the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools, in order to get an estimate of the funds that would be needed during the first several years of a senior college program at Wesleyan. On the basis of Dr. Agnew's find- ings it was estimated that at least $108,900 would have to be secured, over and above the usual support given the college, to cover the increase in operating costs for the first four years. The Board of Trustees considered this information and many other pertinent facts when they met in May, 1953. The Holston Conference had just launched what was called its College Development Program, a long-range fund-rais- ing campaign for the support and improvement of the three colleges owned by the conference. No part of these funds could be used to change the status of Wesleyan. Concerned for the success of this drive, the trustees voted to delay action upon the senior-college proposal. The situation was saved by the courageous action of a group of Athens business and professional men who some years earlier had organized the Tennessee Wesleyan Advis- ory Board for the purpose of strengthening the college. Under the leadership of Mr. Harry L. Hawkins, their chair- man at this time, the Advisory Board agreed to underwrite the needed $108,900 and also pledged itself to specific and continued support far beyond the first four years of the new program. Without the concerted and prompt efforts of this group and the generous contributions of the citizens of Athens, the four-year program would not have materialized when it did. The following members have served on this Board: C. A. Anderson, Charles W. Bellows, Frank N. Bratton, Dr. T. J. Burton, R. Frank Buttram, ■ <0 o u O U -4- c fO *5.-(- LU -1- y> O >- ^ Q- o -1- -•- */> (U TJ 2 O _c (U -4- :s 0) 3-D O to o O u — <> *-f- <D rrt o Q-o o c o u 'q. CM o kjj CO ^^ JT> « Q. _c o < 02b As Tennessee Wesley an College 161 William P. Chesnutt, Ralph W. Duggan, J. Neal Ensminger, William Biddle, Dr. W. E. Force, Joe T. Frye, T. D. Gambill, Junius G. Graves, William D. Hairrell, Rhea Hammer, Felix Harrod, Harry L. Hawkins, Kenneth D. Higgins, Wallace D. Hitch, Harry Johnson, George R. Koons, C. Scott Mayfield, Thomas B. Mayfield, H. F. Mc- Millan, Harwell W. Profitt, Dr. E. B. Ranck, Joe W. Rice, Frank Riggs, Edgar R. Self, H. A. Smith, Paul J. Walker, R. A. Wall, W. F. Whitaker, James H. Willson and Marvin Shadel. The Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees immediately renewed its request that the board make Wesleyan a four-year, degree-granting institution at the earliest possible date. The following reasons were adduced : 1. The action of the Advisory Board in underwriting the necessary funds. It was pointed out that all pledges were conditional upon the adoption of the four-year program in the near future. 2. The expected increase in college enrollments all over the nation within the next few years. The committee foresaw that if the conversion should be completed by 1957, Wesleyan would by the time of the influx be in a good position to compete for students and render service in the name of The Methodist Church as a strong, small liberal arts college with a select student body. 3. The fact that the Tennessee Board of Education had already authorized Tennessee Wesleyan to give three years in elementary teacher training, with the understand- ing that the college would move to four-year status at an early date. If it did not do so, the privilege would be re- voked. The committee stated their conviction that many of the finest teachers in America were produced by church- related colleges and that Wesleyan could make a valuable contribution in this field. Furthermore, it was advisable 162 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College that the college enter upon the teacher-training program right away, since a new curriculum for prospective teachers was then being initiated in Tennessee institutions. 4. The fact that the professional schools at the Uni- versity of Tennessee had approved a three-year program in pre-law and pre-medicine at Wesleyan with the under- standing that the college would soon have senior college status. If the change did not take place, the college v/ould have to relinquish its work in these two fields. On May 11, 1954, the Board of Trustees approved the initiation of a senior college program at Tennessee Wesleyan. The decision was unanimously approved by the Holston Annual Conference on June 3. Only a change in the by-laws of the board was necessary, for the college charter of 1925 had established a college of liberal arts with the authority to confer appropriate baccalaureate degrees. A new chapter in the history of Tennessee Wesleyan College began forthwith. President Martin now shouldered enormous and pressing responsibilities. The selection of additional competent faculty and staff members, the ex- pansion and improvement — almost the complete remodel- ing — of the physical plant of the college, and the promo- tion of the Holston Conference College Development Program were among his major problems. With respect to faculty, Dr. Martin had already made several notable additions, including the appointment of Dr. F. Heisse Johnson, formerly of Brothers College of Drew University, as C. O. Jones professor of religion. Up- on adoption of the senior college program, Dr. Johnson be- came dean of the college, with primary responsibility for the academic program. Dean Paul Riviere was made dean of admissions and registrar succeeding C. O. Douglass. Others of President Martin's appointments in the 1950-57 As Tennessee Wesleyan College 163 period included: Dr. Alf H. Walle, professor of education and director of the Evening College; Dr. John M. Martin, associate professor of history and director of the Summer School; Dr. Enid P. Bryan, professor of English and classics; Dr. L. C. Jordy, professor of chemistry and physics; Carl B. Honaker, associate professor of chemistry and physics; Richard M. Johnson, associate professor of biology; M. Clifton Smith, associate professor of education and basketball coach; Dr. T. G. Richner, associate professor of modern languages; B, T. Hutson, associate professor of business administration; Miss Reva Puett, assistant profes- sor of home economics; William M. McGill, assistant pro- fessor of English; John J. McCoy, assistant professor of biology and chemistry; Miss Mary L. Greenhoe, instructor in piano and organ; Miss Frances J. Biddle, instructor in physical education; Harry W. Coble, instructor in speech and drama; Fred Puett, instructor in business administra- tion; Mrs. Claryse D. Myers, librarian; and Rabbi Abra- ham Feinstein, visiting instructor in the history of Judaism. No list of new personnel for this period would be complete without mention of Mrs. Mary Nelle Jackson, administra- tive secretary, whose bright smile added much to the pleasantness of life at Wesleyan. It was with keenly felt regret that faculty and students saw that retirement of Dr. James W. Baldwin and Professor Arthur H. Myers, in 1956. Dr. Baldwin, a native Tennes- seean, had for two years assisted in establishing the teacher- training program at Wesleyan on a senior college basis. Mr. Myers, professor of philosophy and psychology, retired after twenty-two years at Wesleyan but continued to teach on a part-time basis in 1956-57. Professor Myers' calm, cheery manner and his deep personal interest in his students made him a great favorite, and returning alumni were certain to ask for and about him. 164 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College As for the physical plant, many of the older college buildings were badly in need of repair in the early 1950's. Almost $100,000 was spent during the summer of 1954 on additions to the campus, renovations, and redecorating, and the work continued in succeeding years. Every build- ing on the campus received some attention. Petty-Manker Hall underwent complete renovation in 1954, and a tele- vision lounge and an infirmary were added to its facilities. Banfield Hall, which now housed the science departments, was provided with new lighting and additional equipment. Townsend Memorial Hall, erected in 1924, was rededi- cated in 1951 in memory of the late Colonel W. B. Town- send, one of Wesleyan's most generous benefactors. Town- send Hall now provided an auditorium which seated ap- proximately eight hundred, another auditorium which seated three hundred, a student recreational center, a snack bar, a post office, and offices for the president and other administrative personnel. As the enrollment of men students by 1954 was far greater than it had ever been before, several additional residence halls for men were opened. Fowler Hall, formerly a motel, was purchased in 1954 and was named in honor of General James A. Fowler, '84, and Mrs. Fowler. Estab- lished somewhat later, Bolton Hall was named in memory of Professor David A. Bolton, '72, and Wright Hall was named for Dean W. A. Wright, '78. Elizabeth Ritter Hall, owned and supported as a woman's residence hall by the Woman's Division of Christ- ian Service of The Methodist Church, was extensively renovated during the summer of 1954. The dining hall area was increased to a seating capacity of three hundred, and a cafeteria and automatic dishwashing equipment were installed. This dining hall, which served the entire college, was named in honor of Mrs. H. C. Black, for many years As Tennessee Wesleyan College 165 a trustee of the college. In addition, provision was made in one wing of Ritter for the department of home econom- ics, with electrically equipped unit kitchens, a private din- ing room, and a textile laboratory. An automatic sprinkler system, the gift of Mrs. Henry PfeiflFer, and fire escapes were installed throughout Ritter Hall. Late in 1955 it was announced that Mr. Tom Sher- man, Athens business man and an honorary member of the Tennessee Wesleyan Board of Trustees, had presented the college a check with which to buy a choice site for a fine arts building. The money was used for the purchase of the Bolton property, on the corner of North Jackson and College Streets, a piece of property that the college had long desired to have within its holdings. The Board of Trustees authorized the erection there of a building to contain music, speech, drama, and radio classrooms and studios, as well as a small auditorium for recitals and little theater productions, as soon as sufficient funds should be available. Blueprints were drawn and approved in 1956. It was noted that the excellent central location of the projected building would assist in serving both the college and the entire community of Athens. Meanwhile, a site was cleared late in 1956 for another much needed building, a modern brick dormitory to house over one hundred men. The new $300,000 structure was to be at the corner of Robeson and Green Streets, across from what was the original college campus. Necessary financing was secured, and construction was planned for the summer of 1957. As has been mentioned, Tennessee Wesleyan had an active interest and share in the success of the College Development Program which the Holston Conference con- ducted in the early 1950's for the improvement of its three 166 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College colleges. Early in 1955 the conference successfully completed this $1,750,000 drive. Faculty and administration, plus buildings and other facilities, add up to classes, as every college student well knows. Many new courses were added to the Tennessee Wesleyan curriculum in the three years that followed the change to a senior college program. In most departments several third-year courses were added in the school year 1955-56, and fourth-year courses the following year. By 1956 a student could choose any of the following as his field of major emphasis: English, biology, chemistry, social science, history and government, religion and philosophy, education, and business administration and economics. The field of minor emphasis could be chosen from these, plus music, mathematics, physical education, and speech and drama. For the present the College plans to award the Bache- lor of Arts degree and the Bachelor of Science degree. Requirements for the Bachelor's degree are as follows: 1. A minimum of 18 hours of English 2. A minimum of 18 hours of a foreign language (For Bachelor of Arts only) 3. A minimum of 9 hours of religion, including R400 4. A minimum of 9 hours in history or American Government and Politics 5. A minimum of 9 hours in sociology, psychology, economics or geography (Education majors must take the course in The Family as 3 of the 9 hours required.) 6. A minimum of 12 hours of laboratory science for the Bachelor of Arts Degree or A minimum of 24 hours in two difTerent laboratory sciences or 12 hours in a laboratory science plus 10 hours of mathematics for the Bachelor of Science Degree As Tennessee Wesleyan College 167 7. A minimum of 3 hours in speech or dramatics 8. A minimum of 6 hours in physical education 9. The completion of the requirements in one major and one minor field of emphasis. A minimum of 36 hours is required in the major field and a minimum of 27 hours is required in the minor field. One half of the work in both the major and minor must be in upper level courses. No student will receive credit for more than 51 hours toward his major. 10. The completion of 192 hours of college work with a cumulative average of 1.00 or C of which the senior year (the last 45 hours) must be taken at Tennessee Wesleyan College. In terms of enrollment, the expansion to a senior col- lege program soon fulfilled the expectations of President Martin, Dean Johnson, Dean Riviere, and the many others who had advocated the change. Total enrollment in the regular session of the school year 1953-54 was 237; in the following year, the first on the new program, it was 305, including 30 students in the Evening College. In the fall of 1956 the enrollment was 572, including 96 students in the Evening College. Evening classes had been held at Tennessee Wesleyan College intermittently for several years, but the inaugura- tion of the four-year program brought a great increase of interest. The Evening College now constituted an import- ant area in which Wesleyan could render a special service to Athens and the surrounding region. Under the direction of Dr. Alf H. Walle, the Evening College opened in the fall of 1954 with an enrollment of thirty students, mostly in the fields of education and business administration. This enrollment increased through the year and had more than doubled by the following fall. In 1956-1957 the Evening College had an enrollment of ninety-six. Most of these 168 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College were teachers and business people who had previously done some portion of their college work, at Wesleyan or else- where. Some were able to qualify for degrees at the 1957 commencement. Courses in education and busines sadmin- istration continued to be in the greatest demand, but work was given in many fields, including English and American literature, mathematics, religion, history, engineering draw- ing, and the natural sciences. Some classes were taught by the regular faculty of the college, and others were handled by visiting instructors. Among the latter were Harold N. Powers, Paul Rowland, Dr. William H. Joubert, John I. Foster, James C. Guffey, Bernard H. Zellner, Eugene Sadler, and Marvis Cunningham. For the young people regularly enrolled at Wesleyan, however, life was not altogether made up of classes and study. Like college students everywhere, they organized a number of clubs and interest groups of various kinds. The student body had the Student Council as its executive agent. Other active organizations on the campus included the Wesleyan Chapter of the Future Business Leaders of America; the Life Service Volunteers, composed of those planning to enter the ministry or go to a mission field; Alpha Beta, honorary scholastic fraternity of the college; the Veterans' Club; the Wesleyan College Chapter of the Tennessee Poetry Society; the staflFs of the Bulldog, student newspaper, and the Nocatula, the Wesleyan yearbook; the Student Christian Association ; and the Tennessee Wesleyan Choir. The Student Christian Association, with faculty sponsorship, met once a week for study and services of worship. This weekly service, held on Wednesday evenings and known as Wesleyan Worship, had come to be a rich and meaningful tradition of the college. The S.C.A. also sponsored several social events each year. All college ROY HUNTER SHORT Trustee, Bishop of the Nashville Area and Secretary of the Council of Bishops of The Methodist Church. As Tennessee Wesley an College 169 Students were eligible to participate in the work and activities of this group. In the fall of 1956 it was announced that eight Ten- nessee Wesleyan students had been selected to represent the college in the forthcoming issue of Who's Who Among Students in American Universities and Colleges, a distinc- tion for which Wesleyan students were now eligible. These outstanding students, who were chosen on the basis of leadership, service to the college, and academic achieve- ment, were the following: Billy Akins, of Athens; Patricia DeLozier, of Maryville ; Richard Gilbert, of Dover, New Jersey; Billie Dean Haley, of Athens; Dolores Mynatt, of Chattanooga; Barbara Pickel, of Pigeon Forge; Charles Seepe, of Knoxville; and Paul Starnes, of Chattanooga. All were seniors slated to receive degrees at the Centennial Commencement the following spring. Much of the social life at Wesleyan continued to be organized and stimulated by the Greek-letter social groups which had been organized in the days of the junior college. Sororities active on the campus in the 1950-1957 period were Sigma Iota Chi, Eta Upsilon Gamma, Zeta Mu Ep- silon, and Kappa Delta Phi; and active fraternities were Eta Iota Tau, Theta Sigma Chi, and Phi Sigma Nu. Stu- dents were invited to become members of the organizations through a system of preferential bidding, but the system was so administered that every student received a "bid" if he had indicated a desire to join a Greek-letter group. Sororities and fraternities had faculty sponsors and were regulated and coordinated by a student-faculty Panhellenic Council. In 1956-57 a plan was worked out whereby two large dances, open to the entire student body, were held during the year, each sponsored by a combination of three social groups. Athletics and physical training had always been an 170 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College important part of the program at Wesleyan. But the change to senior college status naturally brought with it several problems in the matter of inter-college sports participation. President Martin acted to strengthen both the football and the basketball programs. Coach Rankin Hudson continued as mentor of the football squad, which in 1956 played a senior college schedule with fair success. M. Clifton Smith was added to the college staff as associate professor of education and basketball c©ach. Coach "Tip" Smith came to Wesleyan with an enviable record in high school work, including basketball coaching, in Southeastern Tennessee. Wesleyan was admitted to the Smoky Mountain Athletic Conference in 1956-1957; the basketball team played a reasonably stiff schedule and came through with seventeen wins and seven losses. Concurrent with these major sports was a strong program of physical education and intramural sports for all students, both men and women. Tennis, volleyball, baseball, archery, soccer, and field hockey, as well as football and basketball, found many enthusiasts. Interest in music, especially in the Tennessee Wesleyan College Choir, was at least as great as interest in athletics. Choir Director Jack Houts, who came to Wesleyan in 1946, during President Robb's administration, constantly devoted his energy and ability to the service of the college and the community. Foremost among Professor Houts' community activities was the training of the Athens Male Chorus, a group that greatly enriched the cultural life of the region." In 1955 the Athens Rotary Club presented him with a plaque bearing the inscription "To Jack Houts, for Outstanding Contribution in Community Service." During Houts' second year at Wesleyan, several churches of the Holston Conference asked the college choir to present a one-hour program of sacred music. As the reputation of the choir gradually spread, more and more As Tennessee Wesleyan College 171 requests were received from churches in several Southern states. By 1950 the choir was arranging a schedule of Sun- day and week-end concerts that filled most of the calendar from February through May, with appearances in churches from West Virginia to Florida. This development and expansion came to a fitting climax in April, 1956, when the Wesleyan Choir was priv- ileged to sing at the General Conference of The Methodist Church held that year in Minneapolis. Seventeen choirs representing Methodist colleges were invited to sing at the 1956 meeting of the General Conference, a world body which meets only every four years. It was, then, a great honor and distinction for the Tennessee Wesleyan Choir to appear on this occasion. In particular, great credit was due President Martin for the preliminary arrangements that made the invitation and the trip possible. The forty- five voice choir sang three times at various sessions and groups of the conference, and their performance won high commendation. TJie choir early formed the habit of turning to secular music in the late spring and producing a show which was called the Spring Festival. The popular musical The Red Mill was chosen for production in 1950, followed by The Desert Song, Rose Marie, Naughty Marietta, The Vagabond King, Oklahoma! and The Three Musketeers in succeed-* ing years. It was decided that the 1957 Spring Festival should be integrated with the centennial celebration of the college. A musical dramatization of the Cherokee Indian legend of Nocatula, ^ part of Wesleyan's heritage from the earliest days, was scheduled for production during Centennial Week. The entire drama was written and ar- ranged by Wesleyan College personnel: Harry Coble, in- ■<^ructor in speech and drama; Miss Mary Greenhoe, 172 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College instructor in piano and organ; and Professor and Mrs. Houts. Early spring of 1957 found the Tennessee Wesleyan campus a busy place indeed. Regular college activities went on as usual. The Holston Conference conducted a Vocations Clinic for students interested in various fields of religious work. In March the Chattanooga Symphony Orchestra, under the direction of Julius Hegyi, gave a "pops" concert in Townsend Auditorium. A little later, Religion in Life Week brought Dr. George C. Baker of Southern Methodist University to the campus, along with several other competent leaders of seminars and discussion groups. The college then prepared for Vocations Day, an annual event which had the co-sponsorship of the Athens Kiwanis Club, when several hundred high school seniors from the surrounding region would visit the campus to get information from leaders in business and professional fields. But a great deal more than the usual activity of a college campus was in evidence at Wesleyan in 1957. Ad- ministrators and faculty had long been busy with adjust- ments and improvements in the entire college program; and now, with a view to meeting senior college accredita- tion standards in the near future, they accelerated their efforts. Students were aware of the challenge and in most cases responded with increased interest and application. Above all, everyone connected with the college looked forward to the events of Centennial Week and the com- mencement at which Tennessee Wesleyan w ould once again confer degrees and so reclaim her heritage as a senior college. Speaking of the history of the college and the outlook for the future, President Martin made this statement: One hundred years of struggle — poverty, debts, de- As Tennessee Wesleyan College 173 prsssions, wars — all these facts made their impact, yet presidents held on, convinced that days of greater service would dawn — and now as a second century begins, it can be said that 1957 could be the dawn of a nobler and more creative day, and for these reasons: The vast and varied economy of East Tennessee, at- tributable to many factors, is gaining steadily. The poverty which followed Reconstruction is now a minority move- ment; the Old South has become the New South. There is wealth in this area to provide adequate support. The Methodist Church has nurtured the college for a century, sometimes providing a lean diet, with the most substantial support for a long period coming from general funds of the Board of Education and from Methodists of the North and East; but with the growing interest of the Holston Conference of The Methodist Church as manifested since unification of Methodism there is now assurance that the support will grow as the years pass, the college being strengthened materially as a result. The community of Athens has benefited greatly by the college but has often been indifferent towards its needs; the community now manifests a warm and generous spirit, this stimulated by an Advisory Board of Athenians. These three facts made possible and imperative the resumption of senior college work. In the light of these facts I dare to make a prophecy: within twenty-five years or less, if adequate church and community support continues and large gifts for buildings and endow7nent are made, Wesleyan will become as dis- tinguished a college as two well-known Methodist institu- tions located in towns of comparable size — DePauw and Ohio Wesleyan. I am grateful to the Board of Trustees, the Holston Conference of The Methodist Church, the community of 174 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College Athens, the alumni and the many other friends who have brought us to the new day which warrants the confidence in the future seriously expressed above. TENNESSEE WESLEYAN COLLEGE CHARTER OF INCORPORATION AS AMENDED MAY 14, 1954 Be it known that G. F. Lockmiller, S. C. Brown, J. M. Melear, J. W. Fisher, W. B. Townsend, C. N. Woodworth and Mrs. John A. Patten are hereby constituted a body politic and corporate by the name and style of Tennessee Wesleyan College for the purpose of founding, maintaining and conducting a college of liberal arts at Athens, Tennes- see, under the auspices of The Methodist Church as repre- sented in the General Conference of said Church wherein may be taught the courses of study usually taught in said colleges or institutions, including literary, scientific, theo- logical, normal and elocution or expression with power to confer appropriate degrees and to issue diplomas and certificates to those entitled thereto under the stand- ards, rules and regulations of said college as fixed by its Board of Trustees; to maintain libraries and recreational grounds, and equipment; to provide for and preserve an endowment fund for the support and maintenance of said college by taking, receiving and holding any monies, choses in action, real estate, personal or mixed property by gift, devise or otherwise. 2. The property owned, or to be owned, or held by the corporation hereby created shall be so held and owned in the name of said corporation for the use and benefit of The Methodist Church, under such trust clause, or clauses, as may be provided in the book of Discipline of said Church. The government and management of said cor- poration and the teachings in its several courses or depart- ments, shall forever be conducted in harmony and conson- As Tennessee Wesleyan College 175 ance with, and in the interest of, the said Methodist Church, as set forth, or declared from time to time, by the General Conference of said Church. 3. Said corporation shall be self-perpetuating, subject only to the policy above stated. Any departure from the objects and policy of said corporation as above limited shall be good ground for removal of the Board of Trustees upon cause properly shown in the court of equity having jurisdiction, but shall not work a forfeiture of this charter. 4. The general powers of the said corporation shall be: (a) To sue and be sued by the corporate name. (b) To have and use a common seal, which it may alter at pleasure; if no common seal, then the signature of the name of the cor- poration, by any duly authorized officer, shall be legal and binding. (c) To purchase and hold, or receive by gift, be- quest, or devise in addition to the personal property owned by the corporation, real estate necessary for the transaction of the corporate business, and also to purchase or accept any real estate in payment, of any debt due the corporation, and sell the same. (d) To establish by-laws, and make all rules and regulations not inconsistent with the laws and constitution, deemed expedient for the man- agement of corporate affairs. (e) To appoint such subordinate officers and agents, in addition to a president and secre- tary, or treasurer, as the business of the cor- poration may require. (f) To designate the name of the office, and fix the compensation of the officer. 176 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College (g) To borrow money to be used in payment of property bought by it, and for erecting build- ings, making improvements, and for other purposes germane to the object of its creation, and secure the repayment of the money thus borrowed by mortgage, pledge, or deed of trust, upon such property, real, personal, or mixed, as may be owned by it; and it may, in like manner, secure by mortgage, pledge, or deed of trust, any existing indebtedness which it may have lawfully contracted. (h)To elect a president, a dean or other necessary officers or agents in the management of said college, to prescribe the studies and texts for the various courses or departments therein, to elect a faculty of such teachers and in- structors as may be deemed proper and to fix the salaries of such officers and teachers. 5. The said corporators shall within a convenient time after the registration of the charter in the office of the Secretary of State, elect from their number a chairman, secretary and treasurer; said officers and the other incor- porators shall constitute the first Board of Trustees. In all elections each member present shall be entitled to one vote, and the result shall be determined by a majority of the vote cast. Due notice of any election must be given by advertise- ment in a newspaper, personal notice to the members or a day stated on the minutes of the board six months preced- ing the election. The Board of Trustees shall keep a record of all their proceedings, which shall be at all times subject to the inspection of any member. 6. That the number of Trustees shall be forty in addi- tion to the president, who shall be an ex-officio member of % *^.: .^P(^ i*'^Wt t TOM SHERMAN Donor of site for fine arts center As Tennessee Wesleyan College 111 the board of trustees. The trustees shall hold office as follows : The Board of Trustees at its annual meeting shall each year elect one-fourth of the number of Trustees to serve for a term of four years from the date of such meeting and until their successors are duly elected as herein provided. The said Trustees shall be elected from nominations by the Holston Annual Conference of The Methodist Church, on recommendation of the Board of Education of the said Conference. In case the Holston Annual Conference of The Meth- odist Church fails to nominate a Trustee to fill any vacancy as hereinbefore provided, then such nomination may be made by the Bishop having in charge the Holston Annual Conference at that time until such a vacancy is filled. Any vacancy or vacancies, in the Board of Trustees occasioned by death, resignation, removal or other causes than those stated above, shall be supplied in the same manner as pro- vided in this section for the election of a trustee. Any mem- ber of said Board of Trustees shall be eligible to re-election indefinitely. The thirty-two members of the present Board of Trustees shall serve out their respective terms. At the 1953 session of the Holston Annual Conference a sufficient num- ber of new trustees shall be nominated to make the total number of trustees forty, exclusive of the president. At the next annual meeting of the Board of Trustees, after the 1953 session of the Holston Annual Conference, it shall elect eight new trustees; two of the new trustees shall be elected for a term of one year; two of said new trustees shall be elected for a term of two years; two of said new trustees shall be elected for a term of three years, and two of said new trustees shall be elected for a term of four years. Each year after 1953 the Board of Trustees, at its regular 178 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College annual meeting, shall elect ten members of the Board of Trustees for a term of four years. 7. The Board of Trustees may appoint executive agencies, and pass all necessary by-laws for the government of said institution, as may be required by The Methodist Church, provided said by-laws are not inconsistent with the constitution and laws of this State. The terms of all officers shall be fixed by the by-laws, the term not to exceed three years and all officers shall hold over until their successors are duly elected and qualified. 8. The members may at any time voluntarily dissolve the corporation by the conveyance of its assets and property to any other corporation holding a charter from this State not for purposes of individual profit, first providing for incorporate debts; provided, the objects and aims of said corporation shall be the same and in harmony with those contained in this charter. A violation of any of the provis- ions of this charter shall subject the corporation to dissolu- tion at the instance of the State, in which event its property and effects shall revert to the Holston Annual Conference, Inc., a corporation. This charter is subject to modification or amendment by the Legislature, and in case said modifi- cation or amendment is not accepted, corporate business is to cease, and the assets and property, after payment of debts, are to be conveyed, as aforesaid, to some other cor- poration holding a charter for purposes not connected with individual profit and for the same objects and benefit of, and revert to, the aforesaid Holston Annual Conference, Inc. Acquiescence in any modification thus declared shall be determined in a meeting of the Trustees specially called for that purpose, and only those voting in favor of the modification shall thereafter compose the corporation. 9. The means, assets, income, or other property of the corporation shall not be employed, directly or indirectly, As Tennessee Wesleyan College 179 for any purpose whatever than to accompHsh the legitimate objects of its creation, and by no imphcation or construc- tion shall it possess the power to issue notes or coin, buy or sell products, or engage in any kind of trading operation, nor holding more real estate than is necessary for its legiti- mate purposes, and in no event shall the trustees permit any part of the principal of the endowment fund, or any portion of the real estate of the corporation, to be used for the payment of the current expenses. 10. We, the undersigned, hereby apply to the State of Tennessee, by virtue of the laws of the land, for a charter of incorporation for the purpose and with the powers and privileges, etc., declared in the foregoing instrument. Witness our hands the 26th day of June, A.D., 1925. G. F. Lockmiller S. C. Brown J. W. Fisher J. M. Melear W. B. Townsend C. N. Woodworth Mrs. John A. Patten State of Tennessee County of McMinn Personally appeared before me, Tom M. Frye, Clerk of the County Court for the County aforesaid, G. F. Lock- miller, S. C. Brown, J. M. Melear, J. W. Fisher, W. B. Townsend, C. N. Woodworth and Mrs. John A. Patten, the incorporators and signers of the within Charter of Incorporation, with whom I am personally acquainted and who acknowledged that they executed the same for the purpose therein contained. Witness my hand and seal of office at Athens, McMinn County, Tennessee, this the 26th day of June, 1925. ^^^ j^ P^^^ County Court Clerk VI Student Activities I. 1895-1907 The year 1895 was highlighted by the dynamic interest of the students in the school. (U. S. Grant University with the College of Liberal Arts located at Athens, Tennessee.) This interest was manifested in many varying fields. There was a resurgence of enthusiasm toward academic and social aspects of student life. The voice of this enthusiasm was the University Ex- ponent, a proposed monthly, under the editorship of Alvis Craig, Juliette Everett, Frank F. Hooper, W. Fay Roeder, Charles F. Van DeWater, and Olle M. West. The purpose of the paper was stated in the Salutatory as "To convince the people of Athens and the South the importance of Grant University and her paper and of their DUTY in supporting the former, and thus supporting the latter . . ." The editors explained that the idea of a paper was an old one and defended its establishment by enumerating the benefits that the student body might derive from such a publication. The establishment of a University paper is by no means a young idea, but on the contrary has long been contemplated by our students. A school of the size and character of Grant University ought not and cannot succeed properly without some publication devoted to its interest. •5f * * A college paper should bring its students together, stimulate them in their desire for education and make them more loyal to their college and give them a livelier interest in the same. 180 Student Activities 181 In 1895, as in every year before World War I, the majority of student activity centered around the programs of the various "literary societies." There were four of these societies which corresponded to Greek letter organizations on other campuses. They were the Athenian and Philo- mathean for men and Sapphonian and Knightonian for women. The Athenian was the oldest of these. It was organized on January 19, 1867, as the Athenian Literary Society of East Tennessee Wesleyan University. Professor P. C. Wilson was elected president, and J. V. Love was elected recording secretary. The Society had a publication entitled the Athenaeum and a private library for the use of its members. The Philomathean was organized on March 1, 1868, because the increased enrollment prevented many students from participating in the activities of the Athenians. The Sapphonian Society was organized in the winter of 1878-79, with Agnes Byington, President, and Emma Rule, Secretary. It was organized as a protest by "ladies who felt that they were without the literary advantages which, the existing societies furnish to the young gentlemen." By 1895 the functions of these societies were predomi- nately social. The open meetings, oratorical contests, socials and outings were a sanctioned method of contact between men and women. One notices a contrast between a typical week's activity in 1882 and that of one in 1895. ACTIVITIES IN 1882 Sunday afternoon, College lecture, weekly 2:00 p.m. College Prayer meeting, weekly, with Y.M.C.A. Weds. 6:30 p.m. Y.M.C.A. holds its Social and Bible meetings alter- nately every Sunday afternoon, immediately after the College Sunday Lecture. Pres., Ed. S. Patterson, Secty., J. W. P. Massey. 182 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College Theological Society meets semi-monthly on Saturday, 2:00 p.m. Pres., Dr. John F. Spence, Sect., C. H. Jennings, Athenian Literary Society meetings are held weekly on Friday, 6 : 30 p.m. Pres. J. J. Robinette, Rec. Secty., C. M. Gillenwaters. Editor Athenaeum, F. L. Mans- field. Philomathean Literary Society meets weekly on Satur- day, 6:30 p.m. Pres., W. A. Long, Rec. Secty., J. A. Denton, editor, Philomathean, James F. Swingle. Sapphonian Literary Society meets weekly on Monday at 4:00 p.m. Pres., Miss Eugenia Long, Rec. Secty., Miss Telia Kelley, editress Sapphonian Journal, Miss Mary Trevethan. The advent of Professor Joel S. Barlow and his family brought music to the campus. Professor Barlow, late of the Great Band of England (Queen Victoria's Band) , had later given lessons in New York and Chicago. His daughter, Grace, also gave voice and piano lessons. The Barlow daughters, Anna and Ethel, were always active on any musical occasion. A Ladies Orchestra and a string band called the "Vio- lin Case" were formed. The students even proposed organizing a glee club. Although there was no official organization that year, the members of the literary clubs had their individual singing groups. -' CONCERT BY UNIVERSITY ORCHESTRA, DECEMBER 14, 1897 PROGRAM True music is the natural expression of a lofty passion for a right cause. — Ruskin. Music is well said to be the speech of angels; it brings us near to the infinite. — - Thomas Carlyle. Student Activities 183 Here we will sit, and let the sound of music creep in our ears. — Shakespeare. 1. Orchestra — "Forget Me Not" .....Popp 2. Part Song — "Cuckoo" Macfarren Miss Ophie Bolton, Miss Anna Taite, Mr. Howard Burke and Mr. Parker Sizer. The man that hath no music in himself, Nor is not moved with concord of sweet sounds, Is fit for treasons, stratagems and spoils. — Shakespeare. 3. Violin Solo — "Adieu" Beethoven Miss Margaret Wright. Song — "September" — Mr. John C. Lusk. 4. Orchestra — "Sirenes Valse" Waldteufe 5. Song — "The Alpine Horn" Proch Mr. Howard Burke. "Were it nor for sound and song. Life would lose its pleasure." 6. Piano Solo — Cachoucha Caprice.... Raff Miss Mildred Marston. 7. Orchestra — - "Love in May" ....Weiad It is little rift within the lute That by and by will make the music mute. And ever widening slowly silence all. — Tennyson. 8. Piano and Organ, Overture — "Norma" .Bellini Miss Blanche Sheffler, Miss Nellie Young and Prof. J. S. Barlow. They laid their hands upon the pallid keys. Straightway the notes began to throb and thrill. — Owen Innsly 184 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 9. Song — "The Flower Girl" Bevignani Miss Grace Barlow. Sing on, thou soul of melody, sing on, Till we forget our sorrows and our wrongs. — David Bates. 10. Vocal Trio- — Selected — Mr. Howard Burke, Mr. John'Lusk and Mr. E. S. Oaks. 11. Violin Solo — "Stradella" ..Flotow Miss Grace Barlow. 12. Orchestra — Selection from the Opera of "Martha" Flotow The soul of music sleeps on the string, And the spirit of harmony closes her wing. — Ed. L. Swift. The organization of the band was a result, to some extent, of the increased interest in the military school. The military school program had originated with a drill line of students carrying their own guns. In 1895 drill was com- pulsory for students between the ages of 16-21. Captain Charles F. Van DeWater was in charge of the cadets. He and Bishop Isaac Joyce felt that "the boys" should have a band. After receiving a letter from Bishop Joyce, Dr. C. G. Conn, manufacturer of band instruments, personally selected fourteen band instruments and presented them as a gift to the school. The University Exponent commented that "the band is progressing nicely and in short time we expect to hear some good music from it." Evidently the band made some progress since we read of it greeting visiting dignitaries at the Southern Railway station later in the year. Many members of the band gave solos for their Societies' enter- tainments and for commencement and class day. We read of piccolo and trombone solos rendered by members of the University Band. Student Activities 185 The students at U. S. Grant University had in com- mon with students all over the nation a predilection for poker, Frat pins, celluloid collars, complaints about food, candy pulls, and measles. They were also seriously inter- ested in the Christian tradition and the future of their nation. They felt through education that they could per- petuate the former and secure the latter. Articles appeared in the school paper defending military training. They felt that this training was not incompatible with the spirit of Christianity. A typical editorial stated that: The great work of the University is not to make lawyers or doctors or mechanics or merchants but a work infinitely higher, that of developing men. When its work is done the schools of various professions have materials of the most excellent calibre with which to fill the vacancies they are expected to supply. Their idea of America was expressed in a similar manner. Alvis Craig visualized "the American Republic not only a land of wealth, beauty and power, but one of culture and justice as well." In the interest of culture the students proposed the organization of an Art Literature Club such as Syracuse University's. They wished a reading room accessible to the faculty, students, and refined citizens from the town. In this same interest they realized the importance of the professional schools at Chattanooga. Chattanooga is undoubtedly the place where a great university will grow up. Let us have a closer union in the work of our departments, and a strong unanimity of purpose to embrace the opportunity of filling a great need today. Throughout the year the students showed interest in the idea of an athletic program. The tennis club cleaned 186 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan CoUege the courts in the spring and encouraged the student body to beautify the campus. The students were clamoring for a gymnasium. As one editorial stated, "One department in which our school is lacking is Athletics ... A gymnasium, modestly, but properly equipped, with an instructor to oversee the work of the students . . . would be a valuable addition to the school. Can some one start a gym movement?" The Epworth League, the Y.M.C.A. and the Y.W.C.A. were Christian organizations that had entertainments or socials on the campus. The students and faculty frequently had joint entertainments, usually in Bennett Hall, where cookies and ice cream were served. An off-campus social event was the annual reception of Kappa Sigma Fraternity, the only national fraternity at Grant University. On Feb. 8, 1895, the fraternity held its reception at the Euclid Hotel. The rainy evening did not dampen the young people's spirits. The fact that this was an evening entertainment and refreshments were served at the late hour of 9:30 p.m. was exciting. Those present were: Misses Olphie Bolton, Annie McKeldin, Louise Ma- gill, Ruby Simonds, Cora Mann, Mary French, Lotta Ulrey, Grace Barlow, and Messrs. L. W. Cass, S. E. Miller, W. F. Hufhne, F. F. Hooper, Alvis Craig, Wm. T. Cooper, J. M. Rutherford, M. S. Oakes, Guy H. Lemon, John C. Lusk, and F. Parker Sizer. The commencement exercises culminated a year of vigorous student activity at U. S. Grant University. The three honor students who delivered orations at commence- ment were Annie B. McKeldin, Lewis W. Cass, and Alvis Craig. David A, Bolton assumed the editorship of the Univer- sity Exponent for the year 1896-97. The student associates were Albert S. Humphrey, John C. Lusk, Cora B. Mann, Student Activities 187 Louise Roeder, Henry M. Foster. The paper no longer showed the revolutionary spirit of the preceding year, but it still reported the activities of the students diligently. The Grant University Athletic Association was founded early in 1897. There were fifty members who started work- ing on fields for track and baseball. The first officers were F. E. Fuller, president, M. S. Oakes, vice-president, F. Parker Sizer, secretary, H. M. Cass, treasurer. The mem- bers of the advisory board were Noyes Matteson, W. M. Caldwell, F. F. Hooper. In the spring issue of the Exponent a picture of the newly organized baseball team appeared. One would little suspect that these indolent young men would be nimble, sometime violent and profane ball players. The members of this team were Hooper, Davis, Horton, Ira Bolton, Harris, W. M. Caldwell, Fuller (Mgr.), Denton, H. R. Caldwell, and Hornsby. This was the year that the enrollment filled the Y.M.C.A. Sunday meetings, and their ice cream and oyster suppers swelled their treasury. In order to provide for the increase in numbers and to have a place for benefits, this organization had to find new facilities. The usual tempo of student activities was kept at the University in 1897. The Literary Societies gave orations on Washington's birthday and Arbor Day. One of the im- portant debates at the Athenian Hall was "Should the U. S. Recognize the Belligerency of Cuba?" The classes gave receptions, the Beethoven Music Club entertained, Ritter Home had a reception, a field trip was taken to the Fisher Typewriter Factory, and Dr. J. W. Hamilton, secre- tary of the Freedmen's Aid Society and Southern Education was the featured speaker at the dedication of Parker College. Miss Nellie Maupin a student at Athens received a prize of a gold ring in elocution at an inter-collegiate con- 188 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College test held at Chattanooga. Five other persons competed in this contest. It was felt that the bi-monthly recitals of the students of Elocution held at the Athenian Hall benefited Miss Maupin. One of the most interesting comments concerning ath- letics was made in 1898. "The brutal football game does not disturb our peace, nor check our intellectual and moral growth." Little did they realize that football was to be an activity enthusiastically welcomed by the students, if not the faculty. Student activities then as now included some social contact between young men and women. Evidently there was too much contact on occasions, at least for a Christian college. Several students were denied "social privileges" and their parents notified. The reason was rarely recorded. Often students denied these "privileges" could not partici- pate in such activities as the school choir. The denial of this privilege was an especially harsh one, since the choir was the most popular activity on the campus. Also in 1898 the members of the literary societies in association with Dr. W. W. Hooper organized to improve the college grounds. The Athenian and Philomatheans voted two days' work a week from each member plus a cash contribution of $.10 to $.25 per member. A prize of ten dollars was offered for the best oration from competing literary societies on Washington's Birthday. The contest was later carried on by a gift from John A. Patten of Chattanooga. The year 1898-99 is not an outstanding one in the field of student activity. The Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. partici- pated in the annual observance of College Day of prayer. A new era was being ushered in by the faculty announce- ment that any student might play tennis or croquet on the campus on Saturday from 2:30 to 5:00 p.m. Student Activities 189 There are evidences that the student baseball team was active in 1899. It had usurped the croquet players' grounds and practiced every afternoon. The faculty, how- ever, refused the team permission to play Sweetwater, deeming the trip "unwise." From 1900 to 1907 the usual student activities con- tinued. The Annual Athenian chestnut hunt was enjoyed. There were means of evading the regulations of : ( 1 ) no pairing off (2) a chaperon and (3) returning before dark. Socials, ice cream suppers, and joint meetings of the literary groups were held. During these years a subtle change took place. There seems to be a gradual disintegration of self-discipline and enthusiasm in the students. In order to stimulate superior academic work, various "prizes" were offered for excellence in scholarship and oratory. Among these are the Patten Prize Oratorical Contest held annually on Washington's Birthday, the Annis Prize Debate Contest, and the University Scholarship Awards presented annually at Commencement. PATTEN PRIZE ORATORICAL CONTEST WINNERS 1900-1907 FIRST PRIZE $15.00 — SECOND PRIZE $10.00 Year 1st Place 2nd Place 1900 Mary Harris Leila W. Hunt 1901 John Jennings, Jr. Wilma Dean PafFord 1902 Margaret Wright . Ellis E. Crabtree 1903 Ethel Southard Charles M. Newcomb (tie) 1904 Edward E. Lewis Ada Hawley 1905 Ellis E. Crabtree W. C. McCarty 1906 Isabelle Gettys J. H. Howard Jarvis 1907 N. Alvin Steadman Aure Lea ANNIS PRIZE DEBATE CONTEST WINNERS 1900-1906 (Same prize amount as Patten) Year 1st Place 2nd Place 1900 Robert B. Stansell Lena R. Morgan 1901 John Jennings, Jr. Shelby L. Burdeshaw 1902 Margaret Crowder Margaret Marston 1903 Flora Matney George Stansell 1904 Mary J. Stone Margaret Gettys Marston 1905 Jessie Ferguson J. H. Jarvis 1906 Alvin F. White Muza McCarron 190 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan Collef^e UNIVERSITY SCHOLARSHIP PRIZES 1901-1905 Year 3rd Preparatory 4th Preparatory Freshman Sophomore 1901 Edna Borchering Margaret G. Marston 1902 Foss Smith Lena Morgan 1903 John F. Owen Mary J. Stone Ray Prentiss Mabel R. Hooper 1904 Wallace Sutton Alfred Stickney James Hampton Jessie Ferguson 1903 Joyce Amis Annis Matssey Ethel Southard In the year 1900-01 certain types of student activity were restricted by school regulations forbidding drinking, dancing, playing cards, using profanity, frequenting saloons, and leaving town without the permission of the dean. In turn, regular church attendance, punctuality and attention in class recitations and school exercises were encouraged. The contention that year as today, that regulations ^vere made to be broken, seemed to be held. Various students \\ere given demerits and campused, or required to stay off campus for, smoking, "use of intoxicants," use of profanity, visiting saloons, and disrespect for teachers. The main interest of the year 1901-02 was what will James F. Cooke do next. Cooke, Owen Mahery, May- nard Ellis, and Boyd Nankivell kept the faculty guessing. (10 demerits were each giv^en to James F. Cooke and R. Lim Henderson for going into Bennett Hall on the evening of Feb. 12, and securing an organ and benches and placing them as an obstruction outside the chapel door while Dr. C. M. Hall of Knoxville, Tennessee, \\as lecturing on Abraham Lincoln.) In 1901-02 more young women were substituting stenography and typewriting for languages. Box suppers and tacky parties enlivened the campus. The Reverend J. Richard Boyle, D.D., of Philadelphia was the commencement sjDcaker. 1902-03 Banfield Hall \vas dedicated. The students were most entertained on that occasion, however, by a quartette composed of Dr. Nankivell, Prof. Stone. Miss Carter, Mrs. Allgood, and Miss Frances Mofhtt at the piano. Many of the students made the two hour trip on Student Activities 191 the Southern to see the Grant team from Athens play the teams of the professional schools at Chattanooga. Football appeared on the scene at U. S. Grant University in Athens in 1903. That year the team played Sweetwater, Lincoln Memorial Law School at Lebanon, and the team of the professional schools at Chattanooga. The team was vic- torious over Sweetwater 11-0, but defeated by Lebanon and Chattanooga. Football was prohibited to any student making a grade below 70. Some changes were made in the conduct of the literary societies. A charge of admission ($.10) to the annual en- tertainments of the societies was allowed. Also the con- testants in oratorical contests had to swear to the originality of their "pieces." In the spring of 1904 the baseball team played Jeffer- son City, Fountain City, Maryville, and Knoxville. Mem- bers of the team were: James F. Cooke, Maynard Ellis, W. W. Durand, O. F. Whittle, J. L. Robb, Curtis George, Frank Shelton, W. R. Miller, and Charles F. Heastly. The town was so interested in the team that suppers were given at the Court House to benefit it. Students from the college attended these affairs. 1904-05 was a year of firsts and lasts. The first evening social was begun. The socials were held once a month in the different halls. Persimmon hunts were instigated. Had the Chestnut Blight hit Grant? If so, do not underestimate the ingenuity of young people with the benefit of higher education! Boyd Nankivell received permission to drill students free of charge, but it was clearly designated that this was not to be a military company. Commencement that year featured two friends of the University. The Reverend B. M. Martin of Maryville addressed the religious organizations and the Reverend William F. Warren, ex-president of Boston University and 192 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College brother of Mrs. A. C. Knight, gave the Baccalaureate sermon and the Commencement Address. In 1906 certain restrictions were placed on the base- ball team. Games had to be played on the home field. Outsiders were not allowed to participate in the games. Former members were allowed to play with the exception of one, a player who had used public profanity toward the umpire. The home team was not permitted to travel. These restrictions did not extinguish the ardor of the team or their fans among the young ladies of the campus and the citizens of Athens. The interest in music had surrendered to enthusiasm for sports on the campus, but the department of music was still "carrying on." A recital was given in the spring by the Department of Music and Elocution. Among those performing were : Margaret Farrell, Lena Hoback, Florence Law, and Walter Williams. Commencement of 1906 was a sad yet proud occasion. Bishop Henry Spellmeyer gave the address. Isabelle Gettys and John Jennings, Jr., gave orations. The class of 1906 was the last class to be graduated from the four year course at Athens. The members of that graduating class were: Ellis E. Crabtree, Isabelle Gettys, Howard J. Jarvis, John Jennings, Jr., and Walter F. Williams. The program of student activity was reorganized in 1906-07 to fit the needs of the school. A dime social was given at Bennett Hall in the interest of a women's basket- ball team. The Y.M.C.A. sponsored a Reading Room. Some of the students contributed articles to the University Echo which was published at Chattanooga. From 1907 to 1916, as the whole school at Athens underwent a change, so did certain phases of the student activities. On the whole, the students were still interested to some varying degrees in athletics, music, academic excellence, fun, social and political competition, and love. Student Activities 193 II. 1907-1916 Although U. S. Grant University at Athens was called The Athens School of the University of Chattanooga after 1907, the patrons, alumni, and students remained devoted to her endeavors. To a non-educator the ability of an insti- tution to endure wars, depressions, floods, and famines, and carry on the business of education as long as there remain one student, one instructor, and one building, is perhaps incredible. Nevertheless this gift of schools seems an unalterable truth. The Athens School was no exception. In the academic year 1907-08, the students rallied to hear J. O. Randall, of the Commission of Aggressive Evangelism speak in October. Many souls were saved, only to be lost again at the local pool hall. The Athletic Association gave Saturday night socials above Morton's Drug store. Through much petitioning they also were alloted $25.00 for cinders for the athletic track. The young men were so robust on the baseball diamond that Dean Wright secured from the Board of Aldermen the services of a marshall on days of a match game. Pro- fessor W. W. Phelan was the sponsor for the Athletic As- sociation and the Y.M.C.A. He submitted a typical report to faculty on the use of funds of those organizations : Item Amount Muscilage $ 0.05 Football 4.50 Football trousers 4.50 Social 1.25 Books for Y.M.C.A. 1.75 Goal post 0.95 Trip to Washington, D. C. Y.M.C.A. delegates 10.25 $23.25 194 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College That year the Y.M.C.A. sent delegates to Washington and received a new floor covering for the Reading Room which it sponsored. When the students were not cheering the baseball team on to victory, attending prayer meetings, open debates of the literary societies, or playing tennis, they attended the recitals given by the department of music. The program of a recital for 1907 follows: RECITAL Given by Students of Musical Department GRANT UNIVERSITY CHAPEL Athens, Tennessee FRIDAY, MAY 10, 1907 7:30 P.M. Two Little Melodies — Catherine Keith Melody — James Brient First Waltz — Lena Boggess Ride a Cock Horse and Waltz — Joy Bayless Valse and Bobolink — Susannah Brient Dollie Lost — Dollie Madison Spanish Souvenir — Richard Bayless and Catherine Colston AVhims — F. Trula Belle Long Golden Sunbeams — Jeanette Dodson Czardas No. 6 — Nora Childress Adieu to the Piano — Estelle Rodgers Valse Lente — Margaret Fawrell and Phoebe Horton The Green Gnome — Grace Morton Spanish Dance No. 1 — Mayme Milligan and Lula Melton Valse Impromptu — Louise Keith A May Morning — Adda Wylie Valse Stryrrienne — Gillie Myers Scarf Dance — Katherine Smythe and Jessie Jones In 1908-09 the student interest in school activities was boosted by generous gifts to the school. The previous year Mr. E. Stagg Whitin of Ne\v York had offered a prize of $10.00 for the best essay by a female student. Mr. L. M. Student Activities 195 Southard of Athens matched this interest in the women students by offering prizes connected with the "domestic arts." $15.00 and $10.00 were offered for first and second prizes respectively for the best essays on some phase of homemaking. In addition a prize of $5.00 was offered to the Ritter girl who excelled in cooking. Another contribu- tion that year was made by F. A. Loveland of Carry, Pa., who had given $25.00 for the Reading Room. The students at the Athens School witnessed 1909- 1910 as a year of changes. Professor William A. Wright assumed the presidency of Grayson College at Whitewright, Texas, and Professor W. W. Phelan left to teach at Baylor University, Waco, Texas. One member of the faculty was taken by death. Dr. E. C. Walden, professor of science, became seriously ill on a return trip from Chattanooga. Over one hundred people from Athens had traveled to view the football game between The Athens School and Chattanooga at Chamberlain field. Dr. Walden was returned to Chattanooga, where he died at Erlanger Hospital, October 19, 1909. His father was Bishop J. M. Walden of Cincinnati, a devoted friend of The Athens School. The school was fortunate in procuring Dr. Edward J. Mueller to succeed Dr. Walden. Dr. Mueller had been graduated from German Wallace College in Berea, Ohio. From there he had gone to Berlin, studying four years at the University of Berlin, from which institution he received his doctorate. The students at The Athens School were sparked by Dr. Mueller's enthusiasm for many activities. We read of his coaching the athletic teams, singing solos for musical entertainments, assisting in the organization of a German Club called Der Deutsche Bund, and using sharp repartee to encourage students to excel academically. His "aw Bugs" would guillotine any idle student's excuses. 196 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College Miss Frances Cullcn Moffitt returned from Europe where she had been studying. Miss Moffitt undertook singiehanded the challenge of providing CULTURE for the students. At her own expense she arranged for plays, recitals, and performances of visiting artists that were held in the University Chapel. The students were the first on any campus to participate in what Miss Moffitt called "Musical Sterioptics."' This consisted of showing slides and listening to recordings on the phonograph simultaneously. Later Miss Moffitt purchased a phonograph for the use of the students. Miss Moffitt received national recognition for her \\ork in music. In 1913 she was listed in WHO'S ^VHO AMONG WOMEN OF AMERICA. In 1909-10 the students became interested in field sports. Young men could be seen between classes playing "leap-frog," jumping over obstacles like bicycles and garb- age cans in preparation for hurdle racing, pole vaulting, and jumping events. These field sports became so contagi- ous that the rest of the campus, less expert, voted to join. Consequently, The Athens School celebrated its first May Day May 2, 1910. The students welcomed Rev. W. S. Bovard who filled the newly-created office of the vice-president of the Univer- sity of Chattanooga. Dr. Bovard and his family moved to Athens. They resided at Blakeslee Hall. Dr. Bovard ably assumed administrative duties of The Athens School. The year 1910-11 was very similar to that of 1895 in the amount of student acti\'ity. Another school paper was organized. This organ was called the Exponent. Dr. E, C. Ferguson w as editor-in-chief, Cecil McDo\vell was the stu- dent business manager. The paper voiced the feeling of the students in decrying "Knocking,'' and "Boosting'-' was the order of the day. The enrollment was the largest on record (341) and the students wanted to be heard! Their loyalty CO 1— O Z LU 9 to E LU 0£. o 'c _l 3 _l < -D I 0) '5 Q^ o- LU (U Student Activities 197 is expressed in the School Song printed in the Exponent, 1911. ATHENS Here's to old Athens The pride of Tennessee. May she stand forever, In my sacred memory. She has been here ages, She has stood the test. Many who have dwelt here. Are quietly at rest. Of all the schools of Tennessee, The one that is most dear to me, Goes by the name of U. of C. Altho I know there's old Central High, And also Dear Old T. M. I., But in Athens we wish to die. — Russell Haskew Articles appeared in the Exponent illustrating the need of a gym. One of these reported that U. T.'s second basketball team came to play on Saturday, Feb. 11, 1911, but that a rain and snow storm prevented play on the out- door court. The U. T. team picked up their gear and went to play T. M. I. instead — INSIDE. Another instance which showed the advantages of practicing in a gym was given when the basketball team made a trip to Chattanooga to play Central and Chattanooga High Schools. The team consisted of Bayless, Daves, Vernon, Keith, B. Bovard, G. Bovard, E. Wills, and B. Wills. This was the team's first practice that season on an inside court. The score was 44-18 in favor of Central. The next day, however, Athens defeated Chattanooga High School 25-24. Despite student urging, the erection of a gym was an undertaking that the school did not attempt to tackle for some years. 198 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College That unfathomable phenomenon pecuHar to campus life, college humor, had a place in the pages of the Exponent. . Examples such as these kept the students laughing. "While Fred Bertram was standing in a corner of the Magill Hotel recently, he was roughly seized by an old gentleman who had took him for a gold head cane." Dr. Mueller: "Of what does blood consist?" Guy Williford: "Blood consists of two kinds of CORKSCREWS, red and white." Miss Selby organized a French Club, LeCercle Francias, that year. The officers were Margaret Farrell, president, Gladys Moody, secretary, Emma Sue Mayfield, treasurer, M. Burton Bovard, Sgt.-at-Arms, and Daphne Morris, pianist. This organization frequently met with the German Club. The baseball team's schedule had changed from the days the faculty had felt it "unwise" to play Sweetwater. In 1911 the season opened by playing the Deaf and Dumb School at Knoxville. Other schools on the schedule were Milligan, Maryville, Washington, Carson-Newman, T. M. I., Sweetwater, Baylor, City, and Central. Members of the team were: Frank Cook, "Dandy" Keith, Frank Daves, Frank Dodson, Norton, Bales, B. Wills, Dick Bayless, Moore, Will Cooke, Blansitt. The year 1911-12 saw no particular new phase of student activity. The Exponent was printed monthly, the Athletic Association was still petitioning for a gym, the Tennis Club was re-organized and cleared ofT the courts. Mrs. Chapman, the superintendent at Ritter for many years, died in Cincinnati. A memorial service was held at the Methodist Episcopal Church. Students, faculty, and prom- inent citizens of Athens took part. The football team — Student Activities 199 Keith, Bales, Martin, Norton, Bayless, Smyth, Goforth, Wills, and Hunt — was victorious over Knoxville — 47-0. Petty-Manker Dormitory for Men was opened Novem- ber 20, 1913. The train bearing the members of the Board of Trustees from Chattanooga was three hours late. (This seemed to be an omen of ill-fortune. Later there was trouble at Petty-Manker continually — food, order, super- visor, etc.) Capt. Hiram Chamberlain, Doctor John A. Patten, and T. C. Thompson, Mayor of Chattanooga, were present. Athens was represented by John W. Bayless, mem- ber of the Board, and Dr. J. J. Manker, Editor of the Methodist Advocate Journal. PATTEN PRIZE Year 1st 2nd 1909 Clarence Pafford Willie Daniel 1910 Thomas I. Magill John W. May 1911 Eva M. Earnest Martha L. Henderson 1912 1913 Florence Brown Bertram F. Presson 1914 Voll- ANNIS 1st R. M. Millard PRIZE I ear 1908 Willie Callen 1909 John W. May Grace Lasater 1910 Louise Keith Fred B. Stone 1911 Randolph St. John Annie Haskew 1912 H. C. Green Mabel Lamons 1913 F. L. Bradley Ethel Davis 1914 F. L. Callender Joy Bayless *Both these prizes were discontinued in 1915. That year the Athenian Literary Society first declined to participate in either. The other societies de- clined also. Mr. Annis withdrew his prize, and the faculty decided against holding the Patten Prize Oratorical Contest. Although far from the rumble of European guns in 1914, The Athens School witnessed a brand of warfare of its own. The Athenians were accused of sabotaging a Philo meeting. Stones were thrown, wires cut, the campus and Philo hall were in darkness — all were aspects of this con- flict. Thomas Hunt, Rollo Emert, Roy Johnson, Paul Nor- ton, and Dick Bayless were a group of suspected Athenians who had been seen lurking around the campus in the vicin- ity of the disturbance. Nothing was ever proved. The 200 A History of Tennessee Wesley an College faculty found no basis for action. The Philos informed the faculty that they would find redress themselves if the school took no action. The moving picture shows became very popular with the students in 1914. They were a means of penetrating the isolation of the college campus from the events of the world at large. The faculty became so anxious over the increased interest in the cinema versus a decrease of interest in studies that it asked the Board of Aldermen to pass an ordinance regulating movies. The Exponent admonished the students to USE YOUR BRAINS. Members of the editorial staff were D. T. Starnes and Sarah Campbell, editors, Raphael Rice, busi- ness manager, and Juno Grigsby, Lucile Johnson, Kiker ^\^eems, and B. F. Presson, associates. The paper reported that excursions to the Ingleside Dairy were popular with the students. Dr. Schulman allowed girls on the basketball team to use the Armory for open games. Sadie Magill was the coach. Ruth Miller, Joy Bayless, forwards, Jessie Smith, Lillie Ross Hornsby, guards, and Margaret Rowan, center. Later Carl Rowan took Miss Magill's place. The team played Tellico Plains, Knoxville High, Park City High, and Lenoir City. The x\thens girls won all games. Commencement 1914 was exciting. The Class of '14 had given a concrete arch for the front of the campus. The seniors marched through it to listen to the Commence- ment Address and receive their diplomas in the Chapel. James A. Fo\vler, class of 1884, and former assistant At- torney General of the L^^nited States, gave the address. The new president of the L^niversity of Chattanooga, Fred- ric Whitlo Hixson, performed his first official act in conferring the diplomas. 1914 and 1915 campuses all over the nation \vere feel- Student Activities 201 ing the repercussions of international tension and domestic unrest. The enrollment at The Athens School and the Uni- versity of Chattanooga had dropped. The literary societies felt it best not to enter oratorical or debating contests, the payment of salaries for the faculty was in arrears, and the students postponed Field Day. Professor J. Howard Jarvis, Dean of The Athens School, expressed his appreciation to the pastors of the Holston Conference for their support. His letter was also one commending students of The Athens School who had become better leaders in their respective communities because of the training they had received at Athens. AUGUST 7, 1915 Judging from the reports of faithful and loyal ministers concerning the work they are doing in the interest of our institution in the different communities where they are at work, I beheve, that DESPITE THE FINANCIAL CON- DITION OF THE COUNTRY, we are going to have a large enrollment in The Athens School in September. I have never known of more and better co-operation among our ministers in the interest and cause of Christian educa- tion. It would seem from the encouraging things we are hearing that our ministers are now determined that all our communities shall be reached and Christian education preached to the end that every charge shall be represented in this institution in the coming session. Dear pastors, we believe in you, in your loyalty to every institution of the church which you represent; hence we are not surprised to see such unity of purpose and great- ness of spirit shown in the cause which we directly represent. I have previously asked for your loyal support and co- operation, and I know now that I have it. The list of names which you are sending us and the work that we hear you are doing means much to us. Really it is very encourag- 202 A History of Tennessee Wesley an College ing to know of these things. We are not going to forget the pastors who are helping us so much. We are not surprised, however, that you are working so loyally. This is one of the institutions of our church and deserves the co-operation of all those who wish to build up the Christian life of the communities represented. The young people who attend school here return to their homes better prepared to take up the activities of the church. The great need in most of the communities where our church has been established is that of capable LEADERSHIP. This school prepares the young life to take up leadership in the church. In several communities visited recently, I have witnessed the fine church work done by the young people who have recently attended this institution. They are relieving the pastors of sojiie of the work that they would have to do had it not been for the special training the young people received here October 13-18, 1915, the Students of The Athens School filled the balcony of Methodist Episcopal Church. The Methodist Episcopal Church was celebrating the 50th anniversary of the reorganization of the Holston Conference in Athens June 1-5, 1865. The members of the church and the pastors of the area had rallied behind the school, for in 1915-16 there was an increase in enrollment. The Gold and Blue, the student publication which supplanted the Exponent, re- ported a flow of student activity. Tangible proof of their activity was the painting of the Y.M.C.A. room and the presentation of a play by the senior class to raise funds for erecting a memorial on the campus. The class selected the play. The Elopment of Ellen. The cast consisted of Frank Scruggs, Lucile John- son, Carey Force, Bertram M. Larson, Ann Kennedy, and T. Clinton Lingerfelt. Student Activities 203 The students held a mass meeting in which they re- quested that the school levy an athletic fee and grant admission to games free of a door charge. The culmination of a twenty-year campaign for a gymnasium came when the faculty petitioned the Board of Trustees for a gym. Musical recitals, faculty dinners, socials, and student escapades continued to enliven the campus scene in 1916. A closer feeling between The Athens School and Chattanooga was being sought by the students. The Uni- versity Echo, published in Chattanooga, and The Gold and Blue exchanged articles. Members of the boosters club from Chattanooga were entertained by Miss Annie Haskew and the girls at Bennett Hall. In April 1916 two shadows fell upon The Athens School. President Woodrow Wilson asked the Congress of the United States that a state of war be declared between this country and the Central Powers of Europe. Many young men from the school enlisted, some to die, some to be wounded, some to live and fight again. The other occurrence was the death of John A. Patten. In a tribute to Mr. Patten, the faculty of The Athens School observed that he was the "institution's greatest benefactor on points of finance, service, and interest." Mr. Patten had been a frequent visitor to the campus and the students included him in their activities whether it was a ball game or social at Ritter or Bennett. 1916-1920 College publications during World War I were at a minimum. The Athens School ran at a very low ebb. Mc- Minn County furnished more soldiers for the War than any other county in the United States on a per capita basis. McMinn County lived up to the Volunteer State tradition. 1921 The New Exponent, a paper for the students, pub- 204 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College Ifshed a Farewell Number for 1920-21. It was dedicated to Professor David A. Bolton and Doctor E. C. Ferguson. The editor-in-chief was Don G. Henshaw. The literary societies reported the following presidents for the year: Philomathean, Curtiss Mauldin; Knightonian, Cleo Ealy; Sapphonian, Billy Swafford; Athenian, F. E. Jillson. Other organizations listed for the year were the Y.M.C.A., which designated C. G. Rann, J. M. Dew, and Roscoe E. Glenn to represent the School at the annual Southern Student Conference at Blue Ridge to be held in June, the Y.W.C.A. with Miss Ruth Harmon as president, an Athletic Associa- tion, and a Tennis Club. The New Exponent took recogni- tion of the new Department of Religious Education of Rural Leadership which was being sponsored by the Board of Home Missions and Church Extension of the Methodist Episcopal Church. The Reverend W. L. Ledford, A.B., B.D., had been selected as Head of this Department. Its purpose was to provide special training for rural leadership. The Knightonian and Philomathean Literary Societies gave their annual party before the Christmas vacation. An operetta entitled "The Feast and the Little Lanterns" in which Miss Nelle Ziegler had one of the leading roles "delighted the audience with her rich sweet voice" ... A chapel service included speakers from the Board of Educa- tion of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Mark Moore provided a thoughtful article on "The Year Ahead." The athletic prophecy included that under Professor Goforth that most of the players from '21 would be back and ready for membership on the football squad in 1922. An editorial by J. Curtiss Mauldin attacked the radicalism of the Presi- dent of Bryn Mawr asserted the conservative thinking of the students in the Athens School. Bishop Herbert Welch, in charge of Methodist work in Japan and Korea, delivered a lecture on Korea at a Student Activities 205 chapel service. The Y.M.C.A. was addressed by Dr. Cul- pepper. A Christmas party had been held at Ritter for students spending the vacation on the campus, "games were played, jokes told, and a general good time enjoyed by all. The girls served large juicy, fresh Florida oranges. The young men reported that the party was the best they had ever attended at Ritter and that they had a big place in their hearts for Miss Wilson who made the affau possible." The girls at Bennett also held a Christmas party, a measuring party. A short program was given after which a social hour and refreshments were enjoyed. The money received from the party was invested in a large mirror to be put on the first floor at Bennett Hall. The girls wonder now how they ever did without it! 1922 The New Exponent announced an endowment cam- paign for the University of Chattanooga and The Athens School of the University of Chattanooga. The Athens division would be able to construct a gymnasium and a modern practice school if funds from this campaign for $750,000 were pledged and paid. Emory L. Aycock contributed an editorial concerning the importance of the endowment campaign for The Athens School. He concluded his editorial with this tribute: "To many of us the Athens School was the best if not the only place we could continue our education. Public secondary schools for this section of the South are very inadequate. Some come here from the rural sections and the small towns where there are no high schools or very poor ones. Some have found their need of education late in life, too late to attend a public high school, but Athens welcomes old as well as young. Only the large cities can or do furnish facilities as competent as ours and often these 206 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College large high schools are organizations destroying rather than developing individuality." The name of Coach Stewart appears. It was an- nounced that the first game for the year would be with Tennessee Military Institute. The Moffitt Music Club gave a recital in the college chapel for the benefit of the new grand piano recently purchased for the college. A circus visited Athens, the troop including a light weight wrestler, Young Herman. The manager of the circus offered $5.00 to the man who could stay with him for five minutes without being de- feated. Fred Reed, a resident of Petty-Manker, won $5.00. \Villiam B. Mauldin contributed an article on "The Aim of Life," referring to the many excellent talks which had been made at Chapel during the time he had been at The Athens School. He summed them up by saying, "They point to us the fundamental of success and say that we must have an aim in life and that our lives are not a success in every sense unless they are rendering service to our fellowman and helping to make the world a better place in which to live. Result of this service is happiness." 1923 The May number for that year reports the annual field day with The Athens School playing a double-header \\'ith Maryville Poly. The pitching of Weisner and Smith did not give the Maryville men a chance to try their luck on the bases. Between the two games a group of girls with Miss Joy Bayless as leader gave a graceful Scot dance while the beautiful Maypole dance was performed after the last game reflecting much credit on the artistic ability of Miss Bayless. Miss Maude Weidner was the editor of the New Exponent. A successful year in the Y.M.C.A. \vas reported. The officers included: Rex Weisner, President, H. B. John- Student Activities 207 son, Vice-President, and William B. Mauldin, Secretary. The officers of the Y.M.C.A. expressed the desire that they be able to help in the athletic program of the School dur- ing the following year, and to assist the whole student body in providing a victorious athletic season. A program by the Spanish students entertaining the French students was given in April. At that time Dean Robb was head of the Spanish Department. Dean Hoskins of the University of Tennessee gave an address at Chapel. He said, "I find the young person of the college freshman age very interesting. It is then that he begins to assume responsibilities of a man. He is neither boy nor man at that stage and is misunderstood by every- one, even his own family. He seems to think he is smarter than anyone else. In some institutions they try to take this out of him. They tell him he should be seen and not heard, but just fit in and help form the landscape of the campus. Give him a chance, the Dean continued, to express his opin- ions for his problems are just as great as anybody's. The experience will temper him and he will come out a man if properly guided." The Homecoming and Reunion Program was an- nounced to be held May 20-23. It was anticipated that a large number of former students would be here for these activities. The program committee consisted of: Professor R. W. Goforth, Miss Eda Selby, and Miss Joy Bayless. The classes of 1913 and 1914 were planning to compete to see which would have a larger attendance. Dr. Morgan, presi- dent of the University of Tennessee, gave a chapel address. The students expressed surprise at the nature of his address which was entitled "The Appreciation of Life" which was described as scholarly and clear with Christian implications which the students did not expect to be emphasized by the President of the State University. President Morgan con- 208 A History of Teyinessee Wesleyan College eluded as follows: "The great obstaele in the appreciation of the meaning of life is the lack of appreciation of God as a never ceasing benefactor and most of all a lack of appreciation of Christ. God and Christ are always giving and the nearer we approach to the ideal of Christ the more we will give and the less we shall take, thereby gaining happiness in our climb of the hill of life and our proper appreciation of its meaning." The French Society met at the home of Miss Selby in April and after the two-hour program ice cream, cake, coffee and mints were served. Athens wallops T. M. I. again. "The Athens squad journeyed to Sweetwater April 24 and trimmed T. M. I. Cadets 15-2. Left Brown led the offensive for Athens and did fine work in the box. Torbett hit a home run and many other long hits were given up by the Cadet moundsmen." A Queen Esther Society was organized at Ritter Hall with Miss Mary Lee Terry as president. A faculty reception honoring new members of the faculty including Miss Mabel Sorman, Miss Florence Clark, Miss Eileen Faulkner, Mr. CO. Douglass, and Mr. Morris Stubbs, was held in Octo- ber at Ritter Hall. Miss Mabel Metzger, superintendent of Ritter Hall, headed the receiving line and acted as host- ess for the evening. Dean James L. Robb presented the new instructors of the School and President Arlo Ayres Brown gave an address and also rendered a vocal solo. Bishop R. J. Cooke delivered an address at Chapel on "The Constitution of the LInited States." The football squad for 1923 included: Noel Creighton, Meddlin Crowder, W Hornsby, Robb, E. Mauldin, Joe Mauldin, Julian, Hatcher, Durham, Jones, Graves, Smith, Cooke, Proudfoot, Lowry, Clark, Wilson, Bivens, Strange, Norton, Slagle, Boyer, Simmons, Foster, and C. Hornsby. Dr. Frank G. Lankard of the University of Chattanoo- Student Activities 209 ga spoke at Chapel basing his talk on four well-known lines of Henry Van Dyke. Miss Grace Lee Scott, representing the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, gave a Chapel address on "The Double Standard of Morals." A vigorous editorial was contributed by J. Curtiss Mauldin on "A Tobaccoless School." President Brown gave a chapel talk in which he listed four factors enabling a student to complete a college education. "First, those who have ambition; Second, those who possess good health; Third, those who have a thorough high school preparation ; Fourth, those young people who have a capacity for hard work and sacrifice." President David A. Bolton gave one of his appreciated talks at chapel service. 1924 Much interest was expressed in the persons who might be nominated for the presidency and speeches were made at assembly favoring Senator Underwood, Calvin Coolidge and William G. McAdoo. A page of poetry was included with poems by Nessmith Malone, Maude Weidner, Dixie Craig, Vaughn Smathers and J. M. Mauldin. The prize going to Nessmith Malone. "The Thanksgiving Football Game, Fight, Athens, Fight." It was reported that four games had been played and three of them won including Bradley, unbeaten for many years. The new gym had been opened and there was much enthusiasm expressed concerning the quality of basketball w^hich the college would be able to enjoy. At the dedication of the auditorium-gymnasium an offering was taken and more than a thousand dollars re- ceived toward the construction of the building. The faculty reception was held at Ritter Hall with the following persons in the receiving line : President and Mrs. Arlo Ayres Brown, Bishop and Mrs. W. P. Thirkield, Dean and Mrs. James L. Robb. Mrs. Richard Bayless sang and addresses were given 210 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College by Dr. William S. Bovard, Bishop W. P. Thirkield, Judge Clem Jones, and Dr. William F. Pitts. 1925 The annual debate was held in February 1925 as re- ported in The Exponent with Ruth Barnett as editor-in- chief. The subject for debate was "Resolved that the Legis- lature of the State of Tennessee should ratify the proposed child labor amendment." A special week devoted to Religion Emphasis was announced with the addresses to be given by Dr. Earnest, of Knoxville. The Athenians elected officers which included: James Robb, President, Gaylord Knight, Vice President, J. Mitchell Durham, Secretary, Edwin Joseph, Treasurer, Doc Wilson, Ambassador, M. Curtiss, Chaplain, Fred McKay, Sergeant-at-Arms. Other Society news recorded: A meeting of the Philo- mathean Society under the leadership of Howard Dennis, its President, with addresses given by Professor Craig, Professor Douglass. The Y.W.C.A. was meeting on Thursday nights at the Ritter Hall study hall with Miss Maude Weidner as President. The football games for the year and the scores were reported at the end of the season. Wesleyan 61^ — Copperhill 28 Wesleyan 36 — Notre Dame 30 Wesleyan 29 — Bradley 30 Wesleyan 33 — Hiwassee 12 Wesleyan 42 — Decatur 32 Wesleyan 23 — Porter High 27 Wesleyan 28 — Bradley 13 Wesleyan 34 — Tusculum 21 Wesleyan 28 — Notre Dame 42 Student Activities 211 Wesleyan 42 — State Normal 27 Wesleyan 19 — Milligan College 25 Wesleyan 29 — Tusculum 42 Wesleyan 22 — Milligan College 27 Wesleyan 42 — U. T. Rats 41 Wesleyan 28 — Chattanooga High School 3 1 For the first time a college directory was included in the New Exponent. It was as follows for 1925: James L. Robb, Acting President, Frank U. Lockmiller, Bursar, Louise Tuell, Secretary. Student Council: Victor Watts, Student President, Zaidee Ledbetter, Secretary. Y.M.C.A. : Carmel Ketron, President, Wilsie Wilder, Secretary. Y.W. C.A. : Ruth Bird, President, Fleetwood Jones, Secretary. Wesleyan Brotherhood: Carl Thomas, Bishop. Queen Esther Circle: Gladys Love, President, Blanche Kestner, Secretary. Moffitt Music Club: Verna Gibson, President. Athletics: Charles W. Parsons, Head Coach, George F. Stewart, Assistant Coach. Philomathean Society: Victor Watts, President, Charles Holliday, Secretary. Athenian Society : Gaylord Knight, President, James Robb, Secretary. Knightonian Society: Anna Mae Coldwell, President, Fleetwood Jones, Secretary. Sapphonian Society: Mary Childress, President, Zaidee Ledbetter, Secretary. Senior Class: James Robb, President, Pearl Leslie, Secretary. Junior Class: Anna Lou Miller, President, Bernice Knight, Secretary. New Exponent: Joe Mauldin, Editor, Ralph Cardwell, Business Manager. For the first time the Strand Theatre was referred to and Mary Pickford was being featured in "Little Annie Rooney." Admission 10 and 25 cents. 1926 An address was given by Bishop Edgar Blake at chapel. The Philomathean Literary Society issued a declara- tion of independence which read as follows: "We, the 212 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College members of Philomathean Society, realizing that our Society is able to rely upon its own strength and that we are capable of directing it in the best way possible, do hereby declare that we are no longer in the race for a cup because we think it is a barrier to our progress instead of a help. We furthermore declare that we have the right to enter or not enter any debating, oratorical, or declamatory contests ac- cording to our will. Furthermore, we wish to extend to each faculty member an invitation to visit us at any time he so desires to come as a visitor and not as a judge." Carl Thomas contributed the following concerning the Wesleyan Brotherhood. "The purpose of the Wesleyan Brotherhood is to train young men for the Christian ministry. Prayer meeting is held regularly once a week and on Monday evening of each week a preaching service is held. These sermons are deliv- ered by members of the Brotherhood. Many Sunday after- noons are devoted to missionary work in town and in the country. In this way, leaders of Christianity are trained. Perhaps only one might become a Bishop, probably only two missionaries, but each has his own place to fill, and no matter how small this may be the Wesleyan Brotherhood will help him." In October the lead editorial was entitled "Our Col- lege," referring to the transition from the status of The Athens School of the University of Chattanooga to the re- cently reorganized and rechartered Tennessee Wesleyan College. The editorial called upon the students to take pride in their new college membership and to assist in producing a school which will become better than the one before. Under Social Activities it was announced that on Sep- tember 24 the B.Y.P.U. of the First Baptist Church had entertained the Epworth League with a social. The pro- The Hackberry and Oak trees, long center of the Nocatula Legend. Student Activities 213 gram was in charge of Dewey Creasman and Marie Kinser. The students recorded the inauguration of President Robb who, at the end of one year as Acting President, had been elected President of Tennessee Wesleyan College. The inauguration took place in the auditorium Monday, October 9, 1926 at 10:00 o'clock. The installation address was given by Bishop W. P. Thirkield and the inaugural address by Dr. James L. Robb. Greetings were given by Bishop William O. Shepard, Dr. H. A. Morgan, President of the University of Tennessee, Dr. William S. Bovard, Secretary of the Board of Education of the Methodist Episcopal Church, Dr. Richard M. Millard, on behalf of the Holston and other patronizing Conferences, and Dr. Samuel P. Wilson, President of Maryville College. The address by President Wilson was carried in its entirety in the New Exponent. President Wilson said in part, "And now the Tennessee Wesleyan College has taken its place on the foundation of successive institutions of other names but of a historic continuity; and it is doing business at the old stand in a new way. And the friends of the old young college have gathered on this October morning to congratu- late the institution on its present, its past and its future and to gather in congratulation around the good men to whom by the confidence of the Church has been entrusted the pilot's job for the voyage upon which the College has now launched." The benediction was given by Dr. Arlo Ayres Brown, President of the University of Chattanooga. In 1926 the annual football banquet for the Wesleyan "Bulldogs" was held at the Robert E. Lee Hotel with Pro- fessor J. A. Jones as Toastmaster. Awarded letters to 18 and managers' letters to 2. Those who received letters were: Ira Strange, E. Alley, G. Lewis, B. Boyer, Doc Wil- son, F. Thomas, W. Hornsby, R. McCray, R. Westfall, A. Grant, F. Whitehead, D. Whitehead, J. Sewell, V. Metz- 214 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College gcr, T. Pupo, W. Wilder, C. Lindsay, William Whitaker, and James Atha and Paul Phelps. 1927 Tennessee Wesleyan beat the University of Tennessee "Vols" 22-20. Wesleyan was beaten by the Maryville Col- lege "Highlanders" by a score of 31-30. The Y.M.C.A. announced the election of officers for the year which included: President, Charlie Mehaffey, Vice-President, Hebron Ketron, Secretary, Doc Whitehead, and Treasurer, Frank Rollins. The New Expo?ient for the year included on its staff: Editor, Jack Atha, Business Manager, H, L. Jenkins, As- sociate Editors, Gladys Love, Ray Painter, Osmond Sprad- ling, Cecil Brock, Bernice Knight. The Junior Senior Banquet was held in Trinity Methodist Episcopal Church Dining Hall on May 1 1 . Joe Mauldin served as Toast- master. President Robb spoke on "Wesleyan Echoes" listing the advances of the college. The Athenian under the date of Thursday, June 2, 1927, records much of interest concerning the College. Ten students had received diplomas from the college depart- ment and twenty-four from the preparatory at the 1927 Commencement Exercises, the second as Tennessee Wesleyan College. C. E. Rogers, Superintendent of Schools of Johnson City, was elected president of the Alumni Association with R. W. Goforth as Vice-President, and Miss Maude Smith was re-elected as Secretary-Treasurer of the Association. Mrs. Juno Grigsby Altom, of Rogersville, retiring president of the Association, presided at the dinner. Addresses were given by W. L Stookesbury, C. ^V. Lester, W. A. Burnett, J. J. Graham, Judge S. C. Brown, and D. A, Bolton. Wesleyan defeats Mars Hill by the score of 18 to Student Activities 215 6 and the University of Chattanooga Freshmen were de- feated by 6 in football. 1927 the reference to a Glee Club is related indicating that it had sung at the First Methodist Church, in Knoxville, on October 20 in connection with the session of the Holston Annual Conference. Professor Fisher, of the Wesleyan faculty, in charge. Fisher had come from Ohio Wesleyan where for three years he had been a member of the Ohio Wesleyan Glee Club. The Philomatheans had won the Burnett first prize and the Knightonians second. Prizes were $100.00 for the first place and $50.00 for second. The Tarheel Club was organized with students from North Carolina eligible for membership. Doris Weld was elected President. Wesleyan beat Tennessee Tech 19-0 and Hiwassee 40-0. In an article on Who's Who Professor M. F. Stubbs, referred to many times because of his active partici- pation in college life, is described as follows: "The best teacher on the campus is no one but Professor M. F. Stubbs. We are sure no one will feel bad about the fact for it is true. He is the teacher that every studerjt likes. Why? Because although he sometimes gets hard he is always friendly and cheerful, and he is very efficient in his work. His classes are not boresome because he is so interested in the subject which he is teaching it becomes fascinating." The New Exponent carried an article under the title of "Student Council" as follows: "Student Council meets each Thursday for the purpose of upholding the student body in all school activities. The Student Council needs the cooperation of each student to make it a success." "For the past few meetings the Council had devoted their time in discussing the good of sororities and fraterni- 216 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College ties here at Tennessee Wesleyan. It was decided that this was not the best for Tennessee Wesleyan to undertake now. "Much time and work is being put into forming and revising a constitution for the Council. Any suggestions as to this from any of the students will be greatly appreciated by the Council." (Signed by the Secretary) Pat Cowden seemed to be the Editor at this time. Pat Cowden is recorded as president of the Gamma Gammas, a group of congenial girls striving to improve themselves as well as to be helpful to others. In 1928 the New Exponent expressed regret that there were not as many Student Activities in the College as there should be. The editorial listed the Literary Societies, Y.M. C.A., Y.W.C.A., the Ministerial Association', Debating Club, but implied that other organizations were needed. In 1928 the Nocatula takes over as the college news- paper. The Nocatula which was to be published semi- monthly by the students of Tennessee Wesleyan College under date of November 15, 1928, provides the following editorial membership: Editor-in-Chief, W. D. Johnston, Literary Editor, Chelsea Laws, Sports Editor, Tom Cash, Alumni Editor, Maude Wagner, Religious Editor, J. F. Wyatt, Faculty Adviser, Gladys Dejournette, Joke Editor, Charles Weaver, Staff Artist, Mouzon Peters. Business Staff consisted of: Business Manager W. D. Johnston, Ad- vertising Manager, Emily Johnson, Assistant Advertising Manager, Wilsie Wilder, and Circulation Manager, Thomas Phillips. In the editorial it was asserted "The South has a wonderful future and the progress of some of the states is beginning to give us some idea of just how wonderful that future is." Articles discussed the companionship of a good book, the Athenian Literary Society, the Knightonian Literary Society, athletics, Halloween, the music department, and CAPTAIN WILLIAM RULE Trustee, long-time Editor of The Knoxville Journal, honored by Adolph S. Ochs of The New York Times who established trust in his memory. Student Activities 217 for the first time a section entitled "Literary" provided articles concerning Theodore Roosevelt as a writer and reader, Abraham Lincoln and what books meant to him, written by Mary Louise Melear. Wesleyan lost to the University of Tennessee "Rats." Literary society Presidents for 1928 were as follows: Philomathean, Charlie Mehaffey; Knightonian, Valeria Ogle; Athenian, Thompson Weese. A new organization had its annual banquet on November 30. It was called Wesleyan Brotherhood and Service Club. Rudolph Baker served as Toastmaster for the evening. An address was given by Dean Miller on "The Brotherhood and Its Purpose." 1929 The lure of Ritter had been constant and three students at Petty - Manker, Tom Bean, Carlos and John King, found the desire to search for pies at Ritter, to be irresistible, and they approached the building only to be scared by a campus police and they revealed their skill in track. The Gamma Gammas are now referred to as Gamma Gamma Sorority. Their guests were honored by their pledges at a Valentine Party given at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Stubbs January 26, 1929. 1930 The Nocatula for 1930 lists John Earl Sims as Editor- in-Chief. Alpha Gamma Sorority makes its appearance with Edyth Finnel as President. The "Hits" are also referred to as being the Brother fraternity of the Alpha Gamma. Coach McCray provided a tribute to the Tennessee Wesleyan "Bulldogs." He lists each member of the team and gives an evaluation of each man's ability in football. 218 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College At the end he says to the team as a whole, "Boys, for one time instead of giving you the... , or I should say raking you over the coals, I am going to take time to thank you for your cooperation and the splendid work you gave me." 1931 Bishop Keeney, formerly Bishop to China and now Resident Bishop of the Atlanta area of the Methodist Episcopal Church, spoke at chapel on "Changing China." The "Bulldogs" had beaten the University of Chatta- nooga Freshmen team. The Epworth League and the Ladies Aid Society of the First Methodist Church gave a party for Tennessee Wesleyan students. The 1931 debating season was perhaps one of the most successful seasons ever enjoyed by a Tennessee Wesleyan College team, either forensic or athletic. The affirmative team composed of Clyde Bearden, Fred Puett and William Bates debated at home and made a very creditable show- ing to support the traveling team. The latter was made up of J. Neal Ensiminger and Sam Adkins and brought back from their first tour the Junior College Championship of Tennessee and North Carolina and by winning from Milli- gan College took a high standing in the Smoky Mountain Conference. Miss Lillian Danielson, the coach, then entered her team in the Southern Tournament of the Southern Associa- tion of Colleges held in Atlanta, Georgia. Although the only junior college in the Tournament, and by far the smallest school represented, Wesleyan annexed second place by eliminating three southern inter-collegiate conference teams namely, Louisiana State University, University of Florida and University of North Carolina. The four Literary Societies met on September 1 1 for a joint meeting. Student Activities 219 Harold Gassman is listed as Editor-in-Chief of the Nocatula. We find reference to Eta Iota Tau Fraternity and Sigma Tau Sigma Sorority. The Sapphonian Literary Society had met November 29 and had elected Mary Louise Melear as President. The Phi Pi Deltas reported "sure, we're still alive. We expect to move mountains sometime in the near future." The Phi Mu Lambdas gave a party at Bennett Hall to honor pledges — Cecile Cox, Gona Dorsey, Helen Shaw, and Ara Knox. The Queen Esther Circle met in Ritter and an address was given by Dr. Psieh of China, on "Present Conditions in China." 1932 The annual Panhellenic Banquet was given Saturday, February 6, with all fraternities and sororities well repre- sented. Impromptu speeches were given by Dean Stubbs and Neal Ensminger with Fred Puett acting as Toast- master. The officers of the Panhellenic Union were: Presi- dent, Fred Mitchell, Vice President, Fred Puett, Secretary- Treasurer, Evelyn Edwards. Under basketball it was written that the Wesleyan Basketeers are experiencing one of its best seasons possible. Under a well coached system of defense work they have been able to overpower nearly every contestant they have been up against. Their losses have been only at the hands of senior colleges but had taken their share of victories from there. In the junior college games the team has always won by a large margin. The Drama Department gave "The Doll's House" by Ibsen in February. Washington's birthday was celebrated \vith the main address being given by Mr. Harry T. Burn. 220 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College The Sigma Iota Chi and the Pi Phi Delta pledges were entertained at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Robert J. Fisher. The Dean's Honor Roll included Robert Abernathy, Hartley Ashley, Leona Clark, Nell Finnell, Martha Martin, Catherine Neil, Ruby Arrants, Buell Charles, Margaret Fillers, Sara Large, Margaret MacMurray, Helen Shaw, Grant Ashley, Myrtle Brewer, Ruby Donald, Marguerite Gantt, Wilma Headrick, Margaret Hoback, Marjorie Law- son, Grace Poulston, Thelma Baker, Ruby Brown, Mattie Griffies, Eneid Higgs, Nat Kuikendall, Ruth Ousley, and Betty Powell. 1933 Religious Emphasis Week with the Reverend W. H. Lewis, pastor of Trinity Methodist Church, announced to be the leader for the week. The popularity contest was held on February 16, the pictures to be placed in the Senior Edition of the Nocatula. A chapel program announced Louis Lytton, formerly of the Peruchi Players, who would give a Shakespearean program, Huck Mitchell was elected Captain of the foot- ball squad. Editor-in-Chief, Drannan Elliott. The Knightonian Society discussed Shelly and Keats. Richard H. Haliburton, author of Royal Road to Ro- mance, later to disappear on a trip by himself from China toward the United States, spoke at a chapel service. Thomas Edds contributed an article on "School Spirit" which said, "Someone has said that Wesleyan does not have any school spirit. Do you believe this? Of course not. We are going to show our team and the whole school that the students are not lacking in school spirit." The Religious Council had charge of the evening serv- ice at Trinity Methodist Church, with Astor Jenkins presid- ing. David Denton spoke on "Thy Will Be Done." Charles Student Activities 221 Gorst, a leading ornithologist, spoke at an assembly in the college auditorium. 1934 The Reverend W. D. Wilkerson, a graduate of Ten- nessee Wesleyan, superintendent of the Bristol District of the Methodist Episcopal Church, provided leadership for Religious Emphasis Week. Dr. W. M. Dye showed his pictures in Ritter Study Hall of his travels in Palestine and Dr. James Nankivell gave an address at Bennett Hall on the general topic of "Disease." Bishop Wallace E. Brown, of Chattanooga, spoke in chapel on Wednesday, January 17. The students expressed their congratulations to Presi- dent Robb upon his election to the Presidency of the Meth- odist Educational Association which had its annual meeting in St. Louis. Revival services being conducted by W. H.' Lewis and the Reverend W. D. Wilkerson received unusual attention in the Nocatula. The juniors entertained the seniors with a Rainbow Banquet. Astor Jenkins, president of the Junior Class, served as Toastmaster and Don Chance, president of the Senior Class, gave the response. Miss Wilma Headrick, a senior, member of Alpha Gamma Sorority, Phi Theta Kappa, Y.M.C.A., Glee Club, Queen Esthers, member of the Staff of the Nocatula, was elected Queen for the May Day program. Don Chance wrote concerning the tennis courts. The Dean's Honor Roll for the year included Grant Ashley, Myrtle Brewer, Ruby Donald, Thomas Edds, Mar- guerite Gantt, Nelle Harmon, Wilma Headrick, Marjorie Lawson, Beulah Melton, Louise Shaefer, Karl Boyd, Hugh Carney, Catherine Collins, Helen Donaldson, Hoyle Epper- son, Gladys McCallie, Nancy Roberts, Frances Forrester, Ethel Redden, Marion Robb, Elizabeth Spahr, Annabel Spangle, Jeanette Wickham. 222 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 1935 Bobby and Gwcn Robertson crow ned King and Queen. Professor Myers took his Religious Education classes to visit the churches of Chattanooga including the First Methodist, Centenary Methodist Episcopal Church, South, First Christian, First Presbyterian, and First Baptist. Dr. J. ^V. Broyles conducted the Religious Emphasis Week beginning February 4. For 1935 Karl Boyd was Editor-in-Chief of the Nocatida. The Sigma Tau Sigmas announced the following new members for the year: Virginia McCay, Adra Stott, Ella Mae Russell, Ellen Hurst, Margie Moser, Eleanor Dougherty, Lolita Alley. The Nocatida recognized the interest of Mrs. Henry Pfeiffer, of New York City, in ofTering to give $2,500 to match a similar amount to be raised by the college to assist in supplying scholarships for needy students. Class favorites were elected from the senior class. Miss Senior, Jeanctte Wickham; Mr. Senior, Karl Boyd; Most Athletic Girl, Geneva ^Vhitaker; Most Athletic Boy, Lewis Young Keith ; Most Ideal Senior Couple, Miss Becky Dixon and Bobby Robertson. On March 23 a local chapter of Phi Rho Pi, debating fraternity, was organized on the Wesleyan campus with Edwin Graves as President, Carsie Turner, Secretary- Treasurer. The Knoxville College Quartet presented a program in the auditorium. The Y.M.C.A. installed new officers including: Presi- dent, Cecil Thornton, Vice-President, Edwin Graves, Sec- retary-Treasurer, Fred Miller, Chaplain, \V. I. Farmer. The following were pledged to Phi Theta Kappa: Ozell Huff, Julia Sellers, Lorene Duckworth, Jessie Sherlin, Student Activities 223 Iva Lewis, Jeanette Wickham, Elizabeth Parris, Edwin Graves, and James Gantt. Professor C. O. Douglass was the sponsor. The Nocatula for September 13, 1937, reported en- rollment at 222, an opening address by Judge Clem J. Jones, the placing of Alden E. Eddy in the field as repre- sentative of the College to be responsible for student enroll- ment and securing of funds for the College. Y.M.C.A. and the Y.W.C.A. had decided to merge and become the Christian Service Club. There was much speculation as to the caliber of the football team for 1937. The successes in '36 had been so phenomenal there was great interest in what the achievements might be. Johnny Gate wrote an article saying, "If serious injuries do not invade the Tennes see Wesleyan Bulldogs camp, they will be in there ready to win the King game at Bristol Saturday night. The Tornadoes boast of a strong aggregation this year." . . . The outlook for the coming season is good. There are eleven lettermen from last year's National Junior College Champ- ionship returning, namely, Captain Hollingsworth, Huddles- ton, Henderson, Bacon, Ramsey, Thorpe, Turner, Hudson, D. Simpson, B. Simpson and Bowery. . . . "Among the new- comers are several who have shown that they can really play football. "Speedy" Burchfield, who hails from Town- send High, is a triple-threat man, good enough to make almost anybody's ball team. Watch him, girls. Fred Dock- ery, the Cleveland flash, is one more sweet back. . . . "In the line is Ray Graves from Knoxville. He looks good enough for center. Willard Bacon and Hook Ramsey will be right in there in the guard position. Huddleston and Thorpe head the list of tackles. . . . "One of the worries of Coach McCray is the end positions. "Long" John Hender- son and Doug Simpson are outstanding candidates for these places. . . . "Come on, students, let's get behind this team. 224 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College It can be as great as the 1936 champions with your support." Mrs. Annie M. Pfeiffer, of New York, and her travel- ing companion, Mrs. Annie K. Rule, visited the campus on December 9 and were given an enthusiastic welcome. Mrs. Pfeiffer spoke briefly at a chapel service saying concerning her generosity, "I enjoy doing it." The Dean's list for the first quarter included Rhoda \Vitt, Johanna Banks, Doris Cooper, Betty Varnell, Iva Roderick, Jeanette Slagel, Eula Thomas, Mary Ann Wat- kins, Margaret Lawson, Fred Wankan, Jr., Wilma Better- ton, Lorene LeVan, Helen Patton, Helen Slack, Bertha Dean Upshaw. On May 12 an address was given at chapel by Colonel Julius Ochs Adler, Vice-President and General Manager of The New York Thiies. The address as quoted in The New York Times May 13 is as f ollo\\ s : "In the newspaper profession there exists an especially good opportunity to appraise citizenship. From the first page to the last news deals with citizenship in all of its mani- festations. Newspapers, for example, report the words and acts of statesmen and persons in authority, of men and \\ omen whom the voters have elected \vith the expectation of sound government, and so are afforded an opportunity to display the highest citizenship. "Further, some stories recall failures in citizenship, such as crimes against the public welfare. Other news stories which are pleasanter to record tell of the efforts of high- minded men and women to correct abuses, to improve li\ing conditions and to plan generally for the betterment of humanity. The tiniest news item concerning the humb- lest person in the community may reflect an attribute of citizenship, good or bad." TRINITY METHODIST CHURCH, erected 1909 S^A#3&3faa Cornerstone Laying, Merner-Pfeiffer Library, Tennessee Wesleyan College, Athens, Tennessee, November 20, 1940. Right to left: Bishop Paul B. Kern, G. F. Lockmiller, President J. L. Robb, Judge Xen Hicks, District Superintendent J. A. Bays and Rev. J. M. Hampton. Student Activities ' 225 Warning that people today are far too prone to take the rights of citizenship for granted, Colonel Adler said that the news of the world today "must make any intelligent reader value the more the blessings of citizenship of our nation." Millions who live under communism or fascism have suffered appalling losses of liberty, he said. Opinions may differ with respect to the powers of the three great branches of our national government. Colonel Adler said, but, he added: "There can and will be no real difference of opinion concerning those liberties which are guaranteed to citizens under the Bill of Rights. "Guard well these precious rights guaranteed to the humblest citizen of our country, and recall them constantly as you read the news which comes from those nations where democracy is only a pretense and freedom of the individual is a hideous sham." Colonel Adler said that as a native Tennessean he was astonished a few months ago when the Tennessee Senate passed the so-called Morgan gag bill, and that he was relieved and gratified at the outburst of public opinion which doomed it to "an ignominious death." "Permit me to remind you that the freedom of the press is only trusted to newspaper owners, publishers and editors," he declared. "That freedom itself belongs solely to the people. The first amendment gives the citizens of our country the right to enjoy the blessings of a free press. The editor merely holds a position of trust. He must be vigilant to see that this freedom is preserved and that his trust is deserved. "The editor has great responsibilities as a citizen to other citizens, and because Captain Rule and Mr. Ochs were called upon to discharge said responsibilities I feel free to speak to you a moment about newspapers generally. 226 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College "A worthy editor, conscious of his responsibility of citizenship, beh'eves he has a paramount obhgation to pre- sent to his readers an unbiased report of events, especially of public affairs. "A newspaper should, of course, espouse certain poli- cies and political principles, and argue for them as ably as it can in its editorial columns. But good newspaper citizen- ship demands that the editor present an unbiased, accurate news report, so that readers may form their own opinions. "To suppress news, to distort it or color it, is thorough- ly bad newspaper citizenship, and any editor who is worthy of the name condemns the barest suggestion of indifference towards these high principles of his profession." Colonel Adler closed his address with an appeal to his auditors not to permit their conception of citizenship to become narrow or self-satisfied. "We must not think of citizenship as ending at the frontiers of our country," he said. "The world is too closely bound together today and the interdependence of nations too firmly knit for any government to withdraw within itself and to ignore the problems of other peoples. Far from being an isolationist, I believe that^merica should take its place among the nations of the world in settling those problems which can and must be solved by international action. "Be first a good citizen of your community, of your State and of your nation, but be prepared in your mind to be a citizen of the world." Commencement was held June 1 with diplomas being given to 78 members of the graduating class. It was reported that the Carnegie Corporation had contributed $4,500.00 for the purchase of additional books for the library for general reading. Student Activities 227 On June 3 Mr. and Mrs. Harry T. Burn entertained the faculty at the James Monroe Hotel in Sweetwater. 1938 Phi Theta Kappa met at the home of Betty Varnell, in Charleston, and the following officers were elected: President, Jeanette Slagle, Vice-President, Eula Thomas. The Nocatula reported a meeting at the Robert E. Lee Hotel for the purpose of raising $10,000.00 for the College. Mr. Tom Sherman was reported saying, "I know of nothing in my travels worth more to Athens than the College." Other persons who spoke in favor of the community sup- porting the College were Mayor Paul J. Walker, Mrs. Rosabel Boyd, and G. F. Lockmiller. Students gave con- siderable attention in their publications to the rehabilitation of Old College. The Eta Iota Taus, the Sigma Iota Chis, and the Alpha Gammas all reported social activities of a formal nature during February. At the Sigma Iota Chi Carnival Sammye Arrants and John L. Henderson were acclaimed queen and king. The plans for the remodeling of Old College had been completed and Bishop Wallace E. Brown, of the Chattanooga Area of the Methodist Episcopal Church, Judge Clem Jones, Judge S. C. Brown, '86 and Dr. J. M. Melear participated in the ceremony of rededication. The fall reception was given September 27. Those in the receiving line were President and Mrs. James L. Robb, Dean and Mrs. M. F. Stubbs, Mrs. E. A. Brubaker, Profes- sor and Mrs. C. O. Douglass, Professor and Mrs. G. A. Yates, Professor and Mrs. John W. Overby, Professor S. C. Evins, Professor and Mrs. A. J. Peters, Professor and Mrs. A. H. Myers, Dr. and Mrs. James M. Melear, Professor Don Chance, Miss Margie Alderfer, Mrs. Martha Hale, Miss Mary E. Delaney, Miss Fannye Mackey, Miss Ethel 228 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College Prior, Coach R. H. McCray, Mrs. Ralph Knight, Mrs. Esta Vestal, Mr. and Mrs. J. Rogers Carroll, Mrs, A. B. Collins and Miss Frances Moffitt. Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church approved $150,000.00 campaign for Tennessee Wesleyan College. A Founders' Day Program was inaugurated and held on Thursday, November 17th. General Carey F. Spence, of Knoxville, son of Dr. John F. Spence, one-time President of the instution, gave the address and presented a picture of his father to the College. Dr. John M. Versteeg, minister of the Walnut Hill Methodist Church of Cincinnati, was on the campus in November for a series of addresses on "Christian Living." Rudolph Hoppe contributed an article concerning the organization of a campus council for the purpose of super- vising extra-curricular activities. This committee from the faculty working with the students on these plans included Mr. Myers, Mrs. Brubaker, Mrs. Melear, Miss Delaney, and Coach McCray. FEW reported "For the seventh consecutive time Ten- nessee Wesleyan College beat back all odds to come through with the Junior College Championship laurels tucked under their arms at the end of a tough and wooly season by defeating Middle Georgia College, of Cochran, Georgia, 19-0." 1939 Coach McCray, who had provided such spectacular leadership for the Bulldogs, accepted an invitation to join the staff at William and Mary. Hooper Eblen was secured to assume the responsibilities of coach. Eblen had attended Wesleyan, the University of Tennessee, and fol- lowing his graduation from U. T. had been coach at Whit- well High School, Carter High School, in Knoxville. Student Activities 229 President Robb said in introducing him, "Mr. Eblen is a good coach, will fit into our scheme of things splendidly. While at Wesleyan he was not only an outstanding athlete, but was President of the Study Body, President of YMCA, an honor student and well liked by all." Dr. E. C. Dewey, of Atlanta, provided leadership for Religious Emphasis Week, with the cooperation of the YM-YW and the Christian Service Club. In February Dr. H. H. Holt, Charlottesville, Virginia, spent some time on the campus as a part of the Youth Crusade of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. The Post Athenian reported the activity of Dr. E. M. Ellison, Rhea Hammer, and Dr. J. M. Mclear in stimulating the Forward Movement Program. Dr. Archie M. Palmer, President of the University of Chattanooga, addressed the students in March saying, "A Liberal Education is not and cannot be a series of studies over a definite period of time. A college can merely furnish an introduction to a Liberal Education, teach its students the meaning and importance of such an education. Educa- tion is a process of slow maturity and takes place in the individual alone." Chicago Little Philharmonic Orchestra under the leadership of Dr. Eric Sorantin was presented in March. Miss Grace Leigh Scott, National Field Secretary to W.C.T.U., gave a chapel address. It was reported that the largest student body Wesleyan had ever seen attended the first chapel service on Wednesday, September 6. The address was given by the Reverend W. H. Harrison. Dr. and Mrs. Werner Wolfe were introduced and Mrs. Wolfe sang Schubert's "Ave Maria." Others participating in this service were the Rev- erend Joe Hampton, Judge S. C. Brown, Dr. Miles Riddle, and Dr. J. M. Melear. Dr. Melear announced that the 230 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan Collei^e enrollment was 600% above the first year of President Robb's administration. Jack A. Bell was introduced as president of the student body and Ida Mae Kilgore as vice-president. The Forward Movement issue of the Bulletin an- nounced Holston Conference unification, carrying a photo- graph taken Friday, October 6, 1939, at 9:55, when Bishop Paul Kern, Dr. James C. Orr, Dr. J. M. M. Gray of Washington, and Bishop W. N. Ainsworth took part in a service in Central Methodist Church of Knoxville which declared the Holston Conference a part of the recently united Methodist Church. President Robb announced a gift of $100,000 from Mrs. Pfeiffer toward the construction of a long needed library. G. F. Lockmiller, Chairman of the Forward Movement Program of Tennessee Wesleyan College, declared the campaign to secure other funds to make the library possible as "Wesleyan's big opportunity." General James A. Fowler gave the address at the Founders' Day service. Thirty-two students were on the Dean's List: seniors: Elizabeth Allen, Gladys Andes, Freddie Boggess, C. M. Boyer, James Burn, Martha Cavaleri, Evelyn Craig, Irene Elrod, Irene Hall, Rudolph Hoppe, Clifford Ingram, L. G. Jaco, Jr., Thomas Mackey, Briscoe Staley, Mary Evelyn Stinnette, Mrs. Josephine Stone, Mary Lou Yates, Newell Morris; juniors; Lawrence Amburgy, Richard Cooke, Frank Dodson, Charles Neil Gibbs, Roy Godsey, Laura Evelyn Goforth, Ernestine Grant, Ruth Hines, Allie Marie Jenkins, William R. Selden, James Wilson, Mary Witt, Orinda Wood, Muriel Milton. Janet Marson and Carl Anderson had the lead roles in "The Night of January 16." 1940 Tennessee Wesleyan was host to the Southeastern Junior College Tournament which was held at Wesleyan, Student Activities 231 March 7-9. Eleven colleges participated. Dr. D. D. Holt spent a week on the campus discussing the general theme "Christianity: A Way of Life." Mrs. Henry Pfeiffer visited the campus. Pianist Jerold Frederick gave a concert in February. Dr. and Mrs. W. M. Dye contributed $10,000 toward the campaign for funds for the Merner-PfeifTer Library. "Our Town" was presented by the Tewesco Players, the leading roles being carried by Martha Cavaleri and Buddy Maltby. Dr. Edwin C. Lewis, of Drew Theological Seminary, spoke at chapel. A College Chorus has been organized under the direction of Dr. Werner Wolfe; it included Gladys Andes, Jean Douglass, Virginia Swanson, Mary Fay Kennedy, Virginia Quinn, Louise Fritts, Bertha Chastain, Norma Stonecipher, Irene Hall, Ernestine Grant, Carolyn Bishop, Fred Jenkins, Felix Harrod, Bill Selden, and Bill Scott. Commencement plans for 1940 were announced in April, the following persons to take part: Dr. W. F. Black- ard, of Church Street Methodist Church, Knoxville, the Reverend A. K. Wilson, First Methodist Church, Ports- mouth, Ohio, Charles M. Newcomb, Candler, North Carolina. The students announced with pride the election of President Robb to head the Southern Association of Junior Colleges. Owen Snodderly and Clifford Ingram were designated to represent the Wesleyan Chapter of Phi Rho at the regional convention. The fall reception was held in September at Ritter Hall. Those participating in the program were Mrs. Werner Wolfe, Norma Stonecipher, Sophia Brown, Ernestine Grant, Mrs. Morgan Watkins and Felix Harrod. The Homecoming Game, which drew 750, provided a victory for Wesleyan over South Georgia, 6-0. Christine Langley was crowned Homecoming Queen. Dr. James M. Melear, who had been in the hospital in Knox- 232 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College ville, was reported back in Athens much to the deHght of the Wesleyan students. Judge Xen Hicks gave the Found- ers' Day Address in November and the cornerstone for the new Hbrary was laid by Bishop Paul B. Kern, his first visit to the Wesleyan campus. In December the Bulldogs were announced as Southeastern Jurisdictional Title winners for the ninth time. The squad included Austin McDonald, J. O. Kimsey, Ralph Nelson, James Brake, Spence Renfro, James Trotter, Richard LaFrance, Horace Knox, Felix Harrod, Hobart Jones, Ab Swan, J, D. Pack, Jerry Ayers, Walter Sherrod, Charles Forrester, Otis Meredith, Melman Stroud, Pat Sharpe, Charles Brickie, Hugh Anderson, Edgar Ruth- erford, Lynn Lomell, Albert Maltby, Emmert Robertson, Frank Clay. Miles Proudfoot was the manager and Thomas Hopkins, assistant manager. 1941 Doctor T. D. Holt, of Centenery Church, Lynch- burg, Virginia, whose visits to the campus during the years had proved especially popular, visited the campus again. A formal was announced to be given by the seniors. . . . The Wesleyan "Netters" were announced. They were Glen Michaels, Spence Renfro, Bill Headrick and Charles Pangle. . . . President Robb, in February, had completed personal interviews with all members of the freshman class. . . . Thirty-five members of the Tennessee Wesleyan chorus participated in programs under the direction of Doctor Wolfe. . . . Andrew J. Peters, member of the faculty, was given a write-up. . . . Wesleyan basketball champions were Jack Thames, Bill Headrick, James Brake, Charles Pangle, Pat Sharp, Jim Trotter, Millman Stroud, Ralph Nelson, Glenn Michaels, Spence Renfro, Charles Brickel and Winston Kirksey. Miles Proudfoot was the student manager. . . . Mildred Hampton was crowned Homecom- ing Queen. . . . The Sigma Iota Chis presented floodlights Student Activities 233 for the barbecue pit area. . . . The Avon players presented "Hamlet." . . . Robert Nicholson, baritone of New York, presented a program in December. . . . Doctor Hugh C. Stuntz, of Nashville, spent two days on the campus. . . . Women's and Men's Councils were organized in 1941. 1942 Coach Hutsell had left Wesleyan to become a Cadet in the Air Force. . . . The Reverend Marquis Tripplett, of Knoxville, conducted the services during Re- ligious Emphasis Week. . . . Phi Theta Kappa, honorary scholastic fraternity, initiated eight new members. They were Margaret Sue Ballew, Oleta Williams, Margaret Lee Hale, Ann Moore, June Margaret Jo Shipley, Clarence Barnett and George Oliphant. . . . Elections in 1942 pro- vided the following leaders : President of the Student Coun- cil, Calvin Rector, Vice-President, Katherine Wheeler, and J. Elmo Greene, Editor of the college newspaper and the annual, both of which at that time were called the Noca- tula. . . . James P. Pope, director of the Tennessee Valley Authority, was announced to give the commencement ad- dress. . . . Alfred D. Mynders, editor of the Chattanooga Times, gave an address at the time of the awarding of the William Rule Prize Essay Contest. . . . Miser R. Richmond was designated as dean to succeed M. F. Stubbs, w^ho had resigned to become head of the Chemistry Department of Carthage College. . . . Coach Frank Chaney announced that twenty-four men had agreed to work on near-by farms on Saturday to assist in supplying labor during the war. . . . The Wesleyan students and faculty collected 5,000 pounds of scrap. . . . Carolyn Banfield, of Youngstown, Ohio, granddaughter of T. H. Banfield, for whom Banfield Hall was named, enrolled as a student at Wesleyan. . . . Doctor L. H. Colloms, native of Athens and McMinn County, became the minister of Trinity Methodist Church. 234 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College He was described by J. Elmo Greene as "a personable, sportsloving man." . . . Wesleyan students were entering the Army and Navy in large numbers. . . . Dean Richmond announced the Dean's List which included Betty Chase, Evelyn Cooke, Margaret Lee Hale, Catherine Hooper, Wanda McConnell, Anna Louise Moore, George Oliphant, Calvin Rector, Frances Rowland, Bernice Scott, Mary Jo Shipley, Janie Tompkins, Louise Wetzel, Katherine Wheel- er, Oleta Williams, J. R. Bohannon, Elsie Click, Anna Belle Craig, Catherine Douglass, Donald Flynn, Bessie Headrick, Mildred Kennedy, Margaret Long, Emily Low- rey, Alice Myers, Marjorie Patching, Brownie Patton, Louise Roberts, Frances Stafford, Fritts Thomas, Clark Welch, George Anna Yates. 1943 Apparently, no student publications were produced during that year. 1944 Phi Theta Kappa initiates new members: Helen Chastain, Frances Cunningham, Elizabeth Selden, Edna Hicks Miller and Evelyn Meadows. . . . An effort had been made to make Wesleyan a woman's college but the Nocatula announced in October 1944 that Wesleyan keeps independent status and will remain a co-educational institution. Credit for the victory going to General James A. Fowler, president of the Board of Trustees, to Paul J. Walker, and to C. E. Rogers. 1945 J. E. Milburn, minister of the First Methodist Church, of Knoxville, was announced as Religious Empha- sis Week leader. . . . Mrs. Ruth Bryan Owen spoke on "After Peace — What?" . . . 1945 Vocation Day sets rec- ord with 1100 attending. . . . Participating in the service were Doctor J. M. Melear, Mayor Paul J. Walker, and Student Activities 235 Doctor T. Otto Nail, managing editor of The Christian Advocate, of Chicago. . . . Bishop Schuyler E. Garth, of the Wisconsin area of The Methodist Church, spent three days on the campus. . . . The 1945 Commencement Program included Doctor C. E. Lundy, Doctor M. S. Kincheloe, Doctor E. E. Lewis, of Ohio State University, who had at one time been a student at Wesleyan. . . . Two students had been elected to Phi Theta Kappa: Carolyn Lockname and Agnes Howell. . . . Doctor Bachman G. Hodge, minister of Centenary Methodist Church, of Chattanooga, gave a chapel address. . . . Wesleyan welcomes "Vets": the head- line in the Nocatula. ... A college quartet was organized. Its members were Jerry Grubb, Carolyn Scruggs, Alice Ann Ayres and Janie Beals. ... J. Neal Ensminger spoke at chapel on Courtesy. . . . Edgar Miller and Helen Erwin were crowned King and Queen of Hearts. . . . The Rever- end Sterling L. Price, minister of the First Baptist Church, of Athens, spoke to the students on "You're neither too young nor too old." 1946 Doctor Luibuld Wallick, Rabbi of Beth - el Temple, Knoxville, spent two days on the campus. . . . Chapel address was given by Doctor King Vivion, of M'c- Kendree Methodist Church, in Nashville. . . . Vocations Day drew 750 students to the Wesleyan campus. Charles Montgomery and Linnie Miller were the winners in the Rule Essay contest. The prizes were awarded by Doctor F. Howard Callihan, of New York. . . . The Gammas depicted the life of President and Mrs. Robb. ... It was announced July 1946 that T.W.C. has record enrollment. 471 were registered for the fall. Of these, 208 were G.I.'s. . . . Bulldogs are Junior College champions again . . . Chap- lain George Naff presented his first article entitled "The Chaplain's Corner." 236 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College 1947 The Reverend Earl G. Hunt, Jr., provided leader- ship for ReHgious Emphasis Week. . . . The football queen was Anne McCamy. . . . Neal Ensminger spoke at chapel on "The Choice of a Vocation." . . . The Reverend Ralph W. Mohney, minister of the Manker Memorial Methodist Church, of Chattanooga, was announced as Religious Emphasis Week speaker. 1948 Percy Chambers, the blind pianist, gave a pro- gram in Chapel. . . . The Reverend Henry Dawson, minister of the Keith Memorial Church, of Athens, was introduced by Chaplain George E. Naff. . . . The Choir, under the direction of Alfred Jack Houts, sang in the Vestal Methodist Church and the Epworth Methodist Church in Knoxville, on February 11. . . . Doctor C. P. Hardin, superintendent of the Johnson City District, gave a chapel address in March. . . . The Union College Choir gave an a capella program in the auditorium. . . . Jack Houts was selected to have a part in La Boheme to be given under the direction of Doctor Werner Wolfe, in Chattanooga. . . . Paul Riviere began his work as Dean of the College, suc- ceeding Dean Richmond who had accepted a position as professor of Anatomy and Embryology at Tennessee Poly- technic Institute. . . . Sara Jo Emert and Olen Cole were designated as T.W.C. Personalities. . . . Doctor Arlo Ayres Brown, President of Drew University, Madison, New Jersey, and formerly president of The Athens School of the Univer- sity of Chattanooga, spoke at chapel and paid particular honor to the Athens Kiwanis Club for its interest in the development of Wesleyan. ... A contract was let to Fred E. Hicks and Company, of Knoxville, for the construction of a new gymnasium. . . . Officers for Phi Theta Kappa were: President, James Parton, Vice-President, Earl Cope- Student Activities Til land, Secretary, Helen Jackman, Treasurer, Betty Jones, Corresponding Secretary, Dean Banks, Reporter Hilda Gentry. . . . Tennessee Wesleyan suffered its first defeat by a junior college in ten years when it was beaten by South Georgia College 18-12. 3,000 persons attended the game in Douglas, Georgia. . . . Rankin Hudson joined the Wes- leyan staff. . . . The football team for '48 included Alex Williams, J. L. Hitson, Arturo Suarez, John Hanks, James Hoggatt, Alex Cook, Bill Blair, R. E. Ballew, Grady Gow- ens, J. D. Ahrend, A. J. Reeves, Ed McBroom, Jimmy Rawls, Charles Lanier, James Pangle, Bill Knox, Dave Wood, Arthur Farford, Kenneth Dixon, Tommy Coleman, Bill Knaffle, Russell Clements, John Heitz, Dick Rosen- baum, James Heath, Billy Miller, Bob Allen, Joe Douglas, Carl Porter, Jack Moneyhun, Carl Burnette, John Taylor, Billy Rob Hutson, Ted McDonald and Buck Mitchell. Mil- ton Hale was manager and James Fellman trainer. Coach Hudson was assisted by line coach Bob Matthews. A Wesleyan student, Farnum Rand, of Newark, New Jersey, was killed in a motorcycle accident. 1949 Rabbi Abraham Feinstein, of Ochs Memorial Tem- ple, of Chattanooga, gave an address on Brotherhood. . . . Despite unfavorable weather it was reported that the new gymnasium was making fairly good headway. . . . George Collins and Carol Covington were elected King and Queen of Hearts. The Reverend Paul Worley, minister of the Munsey Memorial Methodist Church, of Johnson City, and Chairman of the Inter-Board Council of the Holston Conference, conducted Religious Emphasis Week, January 31 -February 4. . . . Horace McFarland, baritone, gave a recital May 12. . . . The Commerce Club held its last meet- ing for the year May 8 with Neal Ensminger as the guest speaker. . . . On June 6, the cornerstone for the James L. 238 A History of Temiessee Wesleyan College Robb Gymnasium \vas laid. This building was made pos- sible by the United College Movement of the Holston Conference and Mrs. Annie Pfeiffer. Those taking part in- cluded Dr. James L. Robb, Dr. J. M. Melear, the Tennes- see Wesleyan Choir, under the direction of Professor Jack Houts, Dr. C. E. Lundy, Judge R. A. Davis, who laid the cornerstone. . . . Reverend J. Woodford Stone, public rela- tions director for the Holston Conference Colleges, spoke at chapel September 16. Dr. Myron F. Wicke, Secretary of the Department of Educational Institutions of the Meth- odist Board of Education, spent a day on the campus. . . . Henry Stamey, Helen Vestal, and Edell Hearn were desig- nated as T.W.C. personalities in recognition of outstanding leadership. . . . William L. Schirer participated in the Artist Series program. . . . \Vesleyan ^\'on the homecoming tilt and defeated St. Bernard 33-6. Betty Inman was cro\vncd football queen. 1950 The Reverend T. F. Chilcote, Jr., minister of the First Methodist Church, of Chattanooga, provided leadership for Religious Emphasis Week. . . . The Chatta- nooga Symphony under the leadership of Joseph Hawthorne ga\'e a program in December. . . . The Boston University Singers, under direction of Dr. James B. Houghton, visited the campus in January. . . . Mildred Kelley, Cecil McFar- land and Nancy Bailey were recognized in the personality parade. . . . Phi Theta Kappa elected Evelyn Hudgins, Bernola Melborn, Harry Norton, Mr. and Mrs. Spurgeon Davis and Jack MacKie as members. . . . The Home Ec Club with 22 members was organized. . . . Louis Freyre and Alma Martin were elected King and Queen of Hearts at the Valentine Party. ... At a successful football banquet with an address by Coach Ray, of Vanderbilt, Wade Hub- bard and Ed Sparks were designated as Co-Captains for Student Activities 239 1950. . . . Launa Sutherland, Amos Callihan and Helen Hinds were included in the Personality recognition, . . . Mrs. W. A. Cook, president of the Alumni Association, an- nounced June 3, 1950, at 7 o'clock, as the time when all alumni would meet to pay special honor to President and Mrs. James L. Robb and to meet the president-elect. ... A dream of many years became a reality Tuesday, February 21, when the James L. Robb Gymnasium, named in honor of President Robb in recognition of his thirty-two years of service to the College, seven as dean and twenty-five as president, was opened to the public and formally dedicated. . . . Miss Mary Shadow, head of the History Department at Wesleyan and Floterial Representative of Meigs and Rhea Counties spoke at the annual meeting of the General Board of Education May 1-4, in Cincinnati. . . . The Wesleyan Choir took a trip which included appearances at South Georgia College, Wayne Memorial Church, Jacksonville, Florida, Community Methodist Church, Daytona Beach, Bethune-Cookman College, Daytona Beach, New Smyrna Methodist Church, New Smyrna, Melbourne Methodist Church, Melbourne, Florida Southern College, and Le- Grange College. . . . The Boston University Singers, with David Giles, Wesleyan graduate, as the organist, visited the campus . . . Mary Alice Dennis, Bruce Sandin and Evelyn Hudgins were recognized for outstanding student leadership. . . . Members of the 1950 basketball team were Stephenson, Partain, Smith, Rutledge, Hogatt, Shorter, Ethel, White, Rosenbaum, Richardson, Inzer, Pangle, Pruner, Gate, with Rankin Hudson as the Coach. . . . Commencement activi- ties in 1950 included the giving of "The Red Mill" by the College Choir, under direction of A. J. Houts, Mrs. Houts and Levis Hampton. . . . The Commencement Address, on Monday, June 5, was given by the Honorable Gordon Browning, Governor of the State of Tennessee. . . . Kenneth 240 A History of Ten?iessee Wesleyan College Toombs and Bill Knox won the Rule Essay prizes. . . . Kathcrine Mason and Buck Mitchell were designated May Queen and King. . . . Joe Whalen, Katherine Mason and Carl Porter were recognized for student leadership. . . . Dean Coe had a tennis team which included Samples, Van Nostrand, Hudson, Whalen, MacKie with Poole as mana- ger. , . . James P. Wilson joined the faculty as a member of the Music Department. . . . Marilyn Hunt, Harold Young and Norma Picard were accorded recognition for student leadership. . . . The biggest homecoming celebration in many years was celebrated. . . . Helen Pelleaux was designated as football queen. . . . Patsy Boggess, Janie Fowler and Vaughn Kuykendall were recognized as student leaders. 1951 Personality Parade included Lois Perry, Ken Harris and Ann Bogart. . . . Chapel speakers during the Spring Quarter included the Reverend Walter A. Smith, Doctor J. Homer Slutz, Reverend W. Mervin Seymour, Bishop Paul B. Kern, the Reverend Glenn F. Lippse, Doctor E. D. Worley, Reverend Frank Y. Jackson, Jr., Bob W^all- ace. Sue Hart and Gene Mehaffy were designated as out- standing personalities. Ann Hicks was the Phi Sig Sweet- heart. . . . Senior Class Superlatives were: Best Personality — Jane Martin and Bob Irwin, Most Athletic — Lois Kim- sey and Dale Carnes, Best Dressed — Lis Tropp and Hu- bert Blackburn, Best All Around — Noveita Trotter and Scotty Tinney, Most Likely to Succeed — Eugene Mehaffy and Marion Essary, Most Friendly — Alice Jo Gilliam and Bob Dail, Most Talented — Margaret Kesterson and Jimmy King, Most Popular — Ann Hicks and Philip Watkins. . . . Wayne Allen, Alice Jo Gilliam and Philip Watkins received recognition for student leadership. . . . The "Bull- Student Activities 241 dogs" ended the football season with five victories and two defeats. 1952 Debbie Smail wrote that homecoming was a big success and that many alumni returned. . . . The Phi Sigma Nu gave a Homecoming Party. . . . Kaye Margrave was designated as Phi Sig Dream Girl. . . . Senior Class Superlatives were : Senior Beauty — Sara Barnett, Senior Handsome — Frank Henson, Best Personality — Jean Sharp and Ralph White, Most Athletic — Jean Guinn and Charles Stone, Best Dressed — Betty Lou Neal and Osiris Martines, Best All Around — Betty Haney and Don Mc- Elroy, Most Likely to Succeed — Hilda Remine and Johnny McKenzie, Friendliest — Pat Isenhower and Danny Hayes, Most Talented — Carolyn Robertson and Bill Adams, Most Popular — Kaye Margrave and Lee Asbury. . . . The annual reception held in October in Ritter Hall included the following in the receiving line: Lee Asbury, President and Mrs. Martin, Dean and Mrs. Riviere, Mrs. Richard Millard, Mrs. T. B. Donner, Mrs. C. D. Mehaffy, Charles O'Reilly, Mrs. and Mrs. Marvin Shadel. . . . Per- sonality winners in '51 were Debbie Smail, Danny Hayes, Janice Hixson. "Rose Marie" given under the leadership of Mr. Jack Houts, with Don Wolford having a leading part, was considered an outstanding success. . . . Student officers included: President of the Student Body, Lee As- bury, Editor of the Nocatula, Bill Adams, Vice-President of the Student Body, Jean Guinn, and Editor of the "Bull- dog," Danny Hayes. . . . Miss Margaret Kesterson won the Grace Moore Scholarship at the University of Tennessee. ... At commencement time "The Man Who Came to Dinner" was given by Delta Psi Omega, dramatic fraternity. . . . The 60th anniversary of the organization of Elizabeth Ritter Hall was recognized by a special service at Trinity 242 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College Methodist Church. . . . Mrs. J. N. Rhodeheaver, of Indiana, was the speaker. . . . The baccalaureate sermon was given by the Reverend Earl G. Hunt, Jr., of Morristown, and the commencement address by Doctor John O. Gross, Secretary of the Board of Education of Nashville. . . . Personalities for the year included Scotty Tinney, Bob Irwin, Jimmy King and Ann DcLozier. 1953 Tennessee Wesleyan Choir began its annual tour January 25. . . . Rabbi Feinstein visited the campus. . . . The organization of the Advisory Board was reported. . . . The Reverend Ben B. St. Clair was the speaker for Religion in Life Week. . , . Doris Weary, Jim McQuain and Kaye Margrave were recognized as student leaders. Reeves Bingham and Jean Sharp were designated as King and Queen of Hearts. . . . Johnny McKenzie, Faye Templin and Lawrence Clark received recognition for student lead- ership. . . . Don Patrick \vas elected captain of basketball for '52-'53. Don had scored 302 points during the season. . . . T.W.C. cagers were Ralph White, Johnny Atha, Don Patrick, Bob Alien, Bill Wilson, Chun Philhps, "Fud" Bur- ris, Lee Asbury, Lloyd Daugherty, David Kirk and Bob Gibson. . . . Charles Inzer was manager with Coach Rankin Hudson as mentor. . . . T.W.C. Choir gave "Naughty Marietta'' \\ ith Don Wolford in the lead. . . . Dallas Ander- son was elected president of the student body for '53-'54. . . . "Beanie" Anderson was elected vice-president, Chris Mackey as Bulldog editor, and Bob Hawk as editor of the Nocatula. . . . Jean Sharp, Bill Crump and Virginia Patrick had the honors of personality leadership. Tennessee Wesle- yan to Become A Four- Year School: the headlines for the issue Monday, November 30, 1953. . . . An editorial on the Long Range Development Program and Its Implications for the future of Tennessee Wesleyan was also headlined. Student Activities 243 . . . Regenia Lawson wrote an article on another outstand- ing Homecoming. Ann Hutcheson, of Chattanooga, was crowned football queen. 1954 Doctor F. H. Johnson, after six months at Wesleyan, writes on "What Wesleyan Means to Me" in the light of his experience here. . . . Dallas Anderson, Anne Hutcheson, and Raymond McQuain were considered the outstanding personalities on the campus. . . . $109,000 goal for the Four- Year Program was reached. ... It was an- nounced the funds being provided by local citizens to make possible the transition to the senior college program. . . . Gus Gregory and Nadien Trotter were designated as King and Queen of Hearts. . . . The Reverend Elton Jones, of Asbury Methodist Church, in Greeneville, spent the week on the campus as the leader for Religion in Life Week. . . . Betty Jean Anderson, Marvin Webb and Edith Smalley joined in the Personality Parade. . . . Recognition was also given to Jean Riddle, Gus Gregory and Theresa Chappe- lear, for contributions to the life of the college. . . . Dr. Eric Baker, of England, gave the convocation address September 20. Tom Sherman, of Athens, was honored by a surprise testimonial banquet in the college dining hall. The Presi- dent-Emeritus and leading citizens of Athens gathered to honor a local citizen who had given the substantial contri- bution to make possible the securing of the funds for the transition to the senior college. . . . Nadien Trotter was crowned queen for the football homecoming game. . . . President's Reception was given October 21 at Ritter. Those in the receiving line were George Flint, president of the student body. President and Mrs. Martin, Dean and Mrs. F. Heisse Johnson, Doctor Baldwin, Doctor and Mrs. Walle, Dean Neal, Miss Reba Parsons, Miss Mary Green- hoe, William McGill, Miss Catherine Baker, and Mr. and 244 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College Mrs. Paul J. Walker, Jr. . . . Personality Parade included Barbara Akers and Ray Robinson. 1955 Three former students of Wesleyan now attending East Tennessee State were included in Who's Who Among Stu- dents in American Colleges and Universities. They were Lois Kimsey, Don McElroy and Doris Weary. ... At the football banquet, with Doctor T. J. Burton as the speaker and sponsored by the Athens Jaycees, it was announced that Virgil Whitlock and Wayne Swartout were elected CO - captains for 1955. . . . "Oklahoma!" was given by the Wesleyan Choir. . . . Doctor F. B. Shelton, Chairman of the Board of Trustees, was the first non-alumnus ever given the Alumni Key. President Martin presented this Key in recognition of the outstanding leadership which Doctor Shelton had provided as Director of Public Relations for the Holston Conference Colleges during the Long Range Development Program. . . . Mrs. H. C. Black, of Johnson City, long a friend of Wesleyan and former trustee, was recognized by having the remodeled dining hall of Ritter Hall dedicated in her honor. ... It was announced that Coach Clifton "Tip" Smith, from Bradley High School, had been employed as Basketball Coach as Wesleyan. . . . Doctor George Y. Flint, minister of the First Methodist Church, of \Varren, Ohio, and Doctor David A. Lockmiller, President of the L^niversity of Chattanooga, were the speak- ers at the commencement exercises. ... It was announced in October 1955 that the enrollment had hit a new high of 405 with students from Tennessee, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Louisiana, Virginia, Kentucky, Florida, Connecticut, Massachusetts, North and South Carolina, and Iran, Malaya and Columbia. . . . Cheerleaders who had done such an outstanding job during the football season were recognized. They were Delores Ingram, Roma Faye MR. AND MRS. HENRY PFEIFFER The College's most generous benefactors Student Activities 245 Harris, Jo Ann Clayton, Delores Mynatt, Rita Pearson and Barbara Akers. . . . President Martin announced in chapel that the Tennessee Wesleyan Choir has been invited to sing at the General Conference of The Methodist Church, Friday, April 27, 1956. . . . Bolton Hall received first prize for dormitory decorations at the Homecoming game. . . . The Vets Club presented an attractive bulletin board. . . . The Jaycees sponsored the football banquet with William Walkup, member of the Board of Trustees, of Knoxville, as speaker. 1956 Dwain Farmer was elected president and Jim Mc- Quain vice-president of the student body. . . . The Rev. erend Arthur H. Jones, of First Methodist Church, of Chattanooga, led Religion in Life Week. . . . Carol Ann Kennedy and Ronnie Knight were elected Miss T.W.C. and Mr. T.W.C. for 1956. . . . The Honor Society changed its name and became Alpha Beta with Richard Gilbert as president. . . . Floyd Simpson, father of a Tennessee Wesleyan graduate who lost his life on the battlefield in Normandy in 1944, presented the college with a flag. The presentation was made by Captain Richard L. Ray, of the Athens National Guard. . . . The basketball team ended a highly successful season. The team included Jim Shelby, Elbert Prewitt, Pat Gorman, Ronnie Knight, Joe Crabtree, Dwain Farmer, Doyle Fowler, Boyd Woody, Von Cook, Dick Mendenhall, Sam Craig, Hugh Reynolds, Ed Cart- wright, with Frank Duckworth as manager and Coach Smith as Mentor. . . . The Wesleyan Choir made several appearances during the General Conference of The Meth- odist Church in Minneapolis. . . . "The Three Musketeers" was presented by the Choir, on May 25-26. . . . Wesleyan was admitted as a member of the Smoky Mountain Confer- ence. . . . Coach Hudson was assisted in football by LeRoy 246 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College Anderson and Junie Graves, assistant coaches. Claude Ca- tron served as captain. . . . Tennessee Wesleyan for the first time in its history, was recognized by including representa- tive students in Who's Who Among Students in American Colleges and Universities. Those recognized included Billy Aikens, Billie Dean Haley, Dortha Patricia DeLozier, Rich- ard Gilbert, Charles Seepe, Dolores Mynatt, Paul Starnes and Barbara Pickel. . . . Homecoming received the attention of the Alumni Association and attracted a large crowd and included a successful parade. . . . The Chapter of the Ten- nessee Poetry Society was organized. , . . Marilyn Williams, of Athens, was elected Sweetheart of the Veterans Club. . . . Howard College was the victim of the Wesleyan football power. . . . Mrs. Mary Nelle Jackson was recognized by the "Bulldog" for her outstanding contributions to Wes- leyan and her friendly understanding of Wesleyan students. . . . King Ensminger was elected president of the Freshman Class. 1957 As a part of the senior college program, the De- partment of Education of the College in cooperation with the City and McMinn County Schools initiated the Teacher-Training Program, under the direction of Doctor Alf Walle. . . . The sixty-five voice choir of Bowling Green State University under the direction of Doctor Paul Ken- nedy visited the campus January 31 and gave one of the most successful musical programs ever given on the Wesley- an campus. ... It was announced that the Wesleyan Choir would begin its concert tours February 3. . . . Coach Smith's "Bulldogs" continued at the high level of achieve- ment laid down the preceding year. . . . The Senior Girl Scouts of Athens replanted the hackberry and the oak on the Wesleyan campus. . . . Bowaters initiated scholarship program and presented a check for library enrichment. . . . Student Activities 247 Louie Underwood was saluted by the "Bulldog" staff as was Mrs. Vera Coe, who has worked in the Library for several years. . . . Nancy Holman, of Randolph, Vermont, received recognition for her poem, "Night." It is to be published in Annual Anthology of College Poetry. . . . Pro- fessor and Mrs. A. H. Myers were recognized in February by the "Bulldog" staff. . . . John Withers was elected presi- dent of the Future Business Leaders of America. . . . Rabbi Meyer H. Marx, of Temple Beth-el, in Knoxville, provided the leadership for Brotherhood Week. . . . Student body officers for the year included: President, James McQuain; Vice-President, Ronnie Knight; Secretary, Dolores Mynatt; Treasurer, Billie Dean Haley; Editor of Nocatula, John Withers; Editor of Bulldog, Harold Hook. VII David A. Bolton An Autobiography Early Life My parents were Joseph Bokon, the only child of his parents, and Saraphina Willett Bolton, the first born of her parents, Joseph Willett and Susan Stout Willett. My parents were married in Washington County, Tennessee, May 1, 1845, and ever after, as long as each lived, made their home in that of my father's parents. My mother said that I began my earthly career in a very early hour of January 1st, 1847, in the home of my father and his parents. My paternal ancestors included the large families of Bowmans and Byerleys, who lived in Old Virginia, many of them reading and conversing in the German language. My maternal ancestors were pioneers of East Tennes- see, were of Scotch-Irish descent, as represented by the Willetts, Stouts and Broyleses. The first sixteen and a half years of my life were spent upon the farm — doing such chores and other work as fell to the lot of a boy in those days. The first school I attended was at McAllister's log school house, taught by my mother's uncle, Montgomery Stout. Later a two-story brick school- building was erected, much nearer my home, called Frank- lin Academy. Here, during a number of years, a good school was conducted by Misses Nan and Lou Telford. I well remember the first small handsewing machine, and the first cookstove brought into my Mother's home. I watched with much eagerness the building near-by my father's farm of the East Tennessee and Virginia Rail Road now the Southern Railway. Not long afterwards, I was one of a great company of farm-folks who assembled in Jones- 248 David A. Bolton 249 boro — the oldest town of Tennessee — to see the railway train come into the old town from Virginia. It was a great delight and revelation for a gawky and awkward country boy in that day to pass through the "Passenger Coaches," and note their provisions for conveniences and comfort to travellers. But it was more marvelous to look upon the steam engine and meditate upon its intricate machinery and its mighty power. The two sets of parents in my boyhood home were early risers. Their custom was, "Early to bed, and early to rise." This enabled me to be up soon enough to hear, as I often did, the blowing of the long college tin horn at 5 o'clock in the morning at old Washington College. That gave me some idea of the work that was done for young men of the South in that famous College in the decade before the Civil War, In my home in early life there were but few books, or papers, nothing of fiction, story, or literature. My father had a book of tables used for computing interest. Beside this there was Fox's, Book of Martyrs, and a large and illustrated Bible in German — Also an English Bible. My uncles, Elbert Whitfield, and Washington Willett — living a mile from my house — were students in Washington College. Now and then I received from them texts on mental and moral science which I read in part at too early an age. Yet I have often thought that they formed the basis of a desire and delight I experienced later in studying books on Ethics and Philosophy. During a long life I have often felt the lack in early boyhood of books and the formation of the habit of read- ing. My heart goes out in sympathy for the multitudes of children who grow to manhood and womanhood without good books and a strong desire to read them. The Civil War between the States began in 1861. Ad- 250 A History of Temiessee Wesleyan College herents to the Federal and Confederate factions were about equal then in East Tennessee. The common civic condi- tions were not much changed during the first two years. No forces of opposing soldiery had crossed its soil, or for- aged on its productions. Farms, towns and homes had not been made desolate by hostile marauding troops. But in the early Fall of 1863, conditions became very different. The Confederate General Buckner, who for some time past had with a small force held Knoxville, vacated that City on the approach of a larger body of soldiers under Federal General A. E. Burnside, who later held that place against a superior force. During many months small hostile forces foraged back and forth over upper East Tennessee — occasionally engaging in skirmishes. A small force of infantry was sent out by Burnside on a railway train and very nearly approached Jonesboro. There a superior force of Confederates encountered it, and in pushing it back toward Limestone Station, where it was captured, a skirmish was engaged in along the railroad, just north of and visible from the elevation on which was Frank- lin Academy. This was in October, 1863, when many young people had assembled at the Academy on that day for the opening of school. That school never gathered again. I was there then — in my seventeenth year. Other young men were there who were about my age. They were loyal to the United States, and for a time went to hiding themselves from fear of being conscripted into the Southern Army. The Union people of East Tennessee had great hopes that General Burnside would soon take permanent possession of the eastern Section of the State. Weeks were passed by them cherishing the anticipation which was not made real until in December 1864. General Hood's defeat in the battle at Nashville freed Tennessee from the control David A. Bolton 251 of the Confederate Army. Guerrillas, in some places, continued their depredations. Following the disruption of the school at Franklin Academy, as previously related, I kept myself, a short time, in concealment in my father's home, except when my broth- er John and myself, when no enemy seemed nigh, would go forth to hide a few good horses we highly prized. Our efforts were not successful. About this time a feeling of unrest possessed certain men of the community and their friends. Such men were Theopolus Britton, Haze and Harv Huffman, all in middle life and Rev, John Rubush, a good preacher in the United Brethren Church — and his only child, Paul, and myself. The preacher and his son — a little younger than myself — were my near neighbors. My parents specially requested — if the men left the community - — that I should be put in charge of minister Rubush. We soon decided to leave our homes — we bade our friends adieu — believing that such changes would occur in the Civil War that we would not go far from our homes, or be gone a long time. But such was not true as the sequel will show. We went our way stealthily, in October 1863, to the home of a Union man in the Southwestern part of Greene County, where we remained quietly for near two weeks. Departure for Kentucky The small company of Union men, leaving their friends in Greene County, passed in a North westerly direction through the counties of Hamblen, Jefferson, Grainger, and Claiborne, going by night through Talbott on the Southern Railway, and Tazewell, and in the route crossing the rivers, Holston, Clinch, Powell, Cumberland Gap, we arrived late one evening at Barboursville, Kentucky, where we spent the night — occupied one small room — part sleeping as best 252 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College they could on the floor. Our meals were served, in that mountain town, in a distinct log structure, with no filling in the chinks, a large open-fire place, an eneven dirt-floor, and thereon a calf and many hounds. This journey was unusually successful, and without any disturbance. We passed through an enemy's country, where loyal Union men on their way to the North had been made prisoners or shot for their fealty to the Government of the United States. Some experiences on the route were new to men who had been reared on the farm where life was quiet and of uniform character. They had not been used to night travel, and sleeping on floors, or in the open. Crossing in the chilly autumn, the mountains and swollen creeks and rivers, was a novelty but not always a pleasing one. Once in fording a swollen stream, I was on horseback with Haze HuflFman who was in the saddle, carrying me behind him on the same horse. On arriving near the opposite bank, the hind legs of the horse sank deep into the water and mud. So deep, that I slid off his rump, fortunately landing on the bank, but carrying in my hands part of an old overcoat worn by the man riding in the saddle. My rider-companion, who was of very jovial nature, and others, often laughed heartily over that incident, congratulating me on landing on solid ground. Later we crossed the Cumberland River when a full tide was on carrying drift wood now and then. This cross- ing was in an obscure place — heavy wooded on each side of the stream. Our only way to cross over was to unsaddle the horses and have them swim, and put the saddles and several men at one time in a long but narrow skiff formed from the trunk of a tree. In the first load over the men held, or lead, two horses on the upper side of the small boat. Before the landing was made one horse touched the bottom David A. Bolton 253 of the river with his rear feet and gave a lunge against the vessel which nearly upset it — greatly frightening the men. The other loads were taken over by placing the horses below the boat, and if they pulled too strong on the halter they were turned loose — as several were — reaching the farther bank much below the place of landing. It has long been a matter of thankfulness that I was not in that first load going over. I could not swim; I es- caped some fright. To Cincinnati and Indianapolis Leaving Barboursville the small company passed by foot and horseback through Corbin, London, Richmond, and on to Lexington, Kentucky. However, only Reverend Rubush, his son Paul and myself, made the run from Rich- mond, the others going to Crab Orchard then a center of supplies and soldiers of the Federal Army. Rev. Rubush, his son, and the writer spent a day in Lexington sight seeing, and then went by railway to Cin- cinnati, Ohio, our first visit in that City, stopping during a Sabbath day at the Gibson Hotel. The weather was cold, and now and then the wind was scattering snow flakes in the air. During the afternoon, Paul and myself went stroll- ing on the streets of the City. Once when turning a corner we came suddenly face to face with a group of City boys from twelve to fifteen years of age. They were well dressed, and had on overcoats. Paul and myself were very different- ly attired. I wore coarse, rough looking shoes, had a suit of homewoven jeans of unusual color, a straw-hat made from wheat straw by a lady artist of Tennessee. So when the City chaps laid eyes on us, it is no wonder that they in one voice cried out to us, "Butternuts! Butternuts!" They hollowed and laughed, while Paul and myself passed on quietly-smiling as best we could. I shall never forget that experience. 254 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College "Butternut" was, in that time of 1863, a word applied to refugees from the South, seeking the protection of the Federal government. While in Cincinnati on Saturday night I had my first experience in a barber's shop, where my long hair was trimmed, and I was given a general clean up, paying for it fifty cents. On Monday we left Cincinnati for Indianapolis where we met some friends of Tennessee who had preceded us, they \vere John Bowen, Adam Andes, our former neighbors, who had left East Tennessee about one year before to avoid conscription into the Confederate Army. That was a joy- ous meeting. They and their acquaintances were very good to us as late refugees from Tennessee. My experience in Indianapolis I remained in the City about one month. I had no money, having spent all of the small amount which I had on leaving my home in Washington County, East Tennes- see. I had not the needed supply of clothing for the rig- orous winter. It was necessary for me to find work. I hired to a man who kept a wood-yard, to drive a span of gray horses and deliver wood, for my board and a little money. I delivered wood to the State College in the City, and to homes. To Muncie and a Country Home Mr. Adam Andes, knowing that I was not doing very \vell hauling wood, and being well acquainted with my father and family, secured for me — just before Christmas, 1863, a place in a Country home in Delaware County, about ten miles South of Muncie, Indiana, He had pre- viously spent a short time in this same home, and knew the family, which consisted of Joseph Shirey, his wife and two small children, and his wife's mother whom we called Grandmother Bowers ■ — a widow of fine Christian spirit David A. Bolton 255 and character — Mr. and Mrs. Shirey were such also ~- all having come from Old Virginia, I arrived at Muncie in the forenoon. It was a thawing day and chilly. Some snow was on the ground, and the road was wet and muddy for a footman wearing worn brogans — but I walked alone out ten miles to my new home, arriving there about noon. The Shireys were looking for me. I told them who I was, and that Mr. Andes had sent me to them. After look- ing me over, Grandmother Bowers asked me if my feet were wet. I replied, "Yes." She, rightly decided that I had no change of socks, at once provided me with dry ones, and my feet were soon more comfortable. From that moment on for more than a year. Grand- mother Bowers and Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Shirey were as kind and loving toward me as my nearest kindred could have been. They and Adam Andes proved themselves "Friends indeed to me in need." With Shireys — December, 1863 to September, 1-864 I remained with the Shirey family from just before Christmas 1863 to September 1864. From the iron mineral spring on their premises I drank water in abundance, I ate from their table which was always well supplied with a variety of good food. During a few months my weight went from 156 pounds to 184 pounds, the greatest weight I ever had before or since that time. During the unusually cold weather, I did many chores, such as preparing fuel, feeding and caring for horses, hogs and cattle, with the temperature sometimes 25 degrees to 30 degrees below zero. In the spring and summer, I performed all kinds of labor on the farm, and for several weeks was with a wheat thrasher in the neigborhood where much wheat was grown. Mr. Shirey gave me board and lodging paying me during 256 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College the winter twelve dollars a month, and in the summer sixteen dollars. I went to school a short time, attended church services, and as many patriotic functions as possible. The Blue Uniform in that day was captivating, especially to a Ten- nessean who had never before seen so many of them. Soldier in the Civil War In the Spring of 1864, Paul Rubush came from In- dianapolis to work on a farm near where I was employed. I did not afterwards get so lonely probably home-sick. Paul remained during the summer. The war was still being waged, without any indication that it would terminate soon. Excitement throughout the North was high during 1864. Calls were made for more Federal Soldiers. To obtain them bounty-money was paid by Counties to secure their quota. Delaware County paid each man who was accepted on examination Five Hundred Dollars. While many young men of Indiana were enlisting, Paul and myself could not refrain from doing so. Many influences conspired to sweep us into the Army. So we and our good friend Michael Bowers, went to Indianapolis, where on September 13 th, 1864, A. D., we were enlisted in the 25th Battery of Light Artillery Indiana Volunteers to serve one year, or during the war. My age then was 1 7 years 8 months 1 2 days, and I was enrolled as David Bolton. The captain of the Battery was Frederick C. Strum, then an experienced soldier. I remained in camp at Indianapolis for about one month. Up to this time the company had not received equipment, or uniforms, nor had it been drilled. Soon it had all supplies, was drilled, and hurried off to Nashville, Tennessee to join the army of Gen. George H. Thomas who was then preparing to meet the attack of Gen. John Bell Hood's Confederate Army, then approaching that city. David A. Bolton 257 The 25th Battery was composed mainly of veterans — men who had served in the Federal Army as infantry-men, or the department of cavalry, or artillery. We arrived at Nashville in the last of November, 1 864, and encamped hard by the State penitentiary where we remained about fifteen days. Battle of Nashville In November 1864, the Confederate Army under Gen. John B. Hood re-entered Tennessee, crossed the Tennessee river, November 21, 1864, and marched for Nashville. An estimate of the strength of the armies at this time was Confederate, 33,393; Federal, 75,153. In Hood's march toward Nashville, the battle of Franklin was fought. Gen. Schoefield was sent to oppose Gen. Hood. After skirmishing at Spring Hill, Schofield retreated to Franklin where, on November 30, 1864, was fought one of the hardest and most fatal battles of the Civil War. Federal loss 2,326, Confederate loss 4,500. Schofield retreated, followed by Hood who established his army about two miles from Nashville on December 2nd, 1864. Gen. George H. Thomas had assembled a great force of Federals at Nashville, and on December 15th, says a his- torian, assaulted the Confederate lines, and was repulsed. The next day the assault was renewed and the Federal forces were victorious, and Gen. Hood retreated on the Franklin road. During this battle the 25th Indiana Battery was placed on a high ridge from which its long-ranged guns were used in throwing shells upon the enemy which replied causing shells to explode near the position of the Battery. No mem- bers of it were killed, or wounded. This was the only en- gagement the Battery had while in the services. 258 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College On the March The Battle of Nashville on December 16th, 1864, from about noon to the middle of the afternoon was fierce and bloody. Late on that day, Hood began his retreat to- ward Franklin, and the forces of Gen. Thomas pursued him, not stopping to camp until near midnight. The weather was cold, and for days the slopes near the City were covered with sleet and ice, and all that section covered for the earlier hours with a very dense fog. Late at night following the battle, the 25th Battery stopped for camp and rest. All along the road that night the bodies of dead soldiers could be seen under the light in the hands of an officer. As we were preparing for camp that night, the army bands gave cheering music, all in the darkness. The next day we passed through Franklin, and noted some incidents of the bloody battle fought there on Novem- ber 30th, 1864. Many dead horses were on the grounds, while forests and houses revealed the hailstorm of the missiles of war. In a short time the Battery arrived at Duck River, just beyond which was Columbia, "Tennessee. The river bridge at this place had been destroyed and the Army was delayed in crossing on a pontoon bridge. The weather was very cold and soldiers suflFered much while waiting. Men \\'ho were riding the horses of the Battery had their feet frozen in the stirrups. The descent on the north bank of the river was dangerous both to horses and men. A heavy rope-cable was placed around a large post on the top of the bank and one end of it attached to the rear of a caisson, or a cannon to hold it off the six horses and the three men in front. It was difficult for the horses to keep on foot, down the steep incline. By and by, all were safely over Duck River, and the David A. Bolton 259 march was continued through Columbia, Lynnville and Pulaski, Tennessee. From Pulaski on the road was much worse than we had experienced since leaving Nashville. It was made almost impassable by the train of wagons carrying various supplies for the army. We camped one night just beyond Pulaski, in lo ground, protecting ourselves as best we could, from the chill and the falling rain. The next day we renewed our march, and at some point in Giles County, December 25th, 1864, overtook us. The stock of food for the men had been consumed, and no renewal was then to be had. So part of this Christmas Day was spent in foraging, and in camp preparing something to eat. The main meal was taken without bread of any kind, and consisted chiefly of coffee, and goosemeat and soup. Resuming the march, it was continued, without any unusual incidents, towards Huntsville, Alabama. The Stay at Huntsville The 25th Battery arrived at Huntsville early in Jan- uary 1865, and remained there about one month probably. Huntsville in that day was a small and beautiful town, having a very large spring of water gushing out from the base of cliff in the City. The banks of the stream for some distance were made of rock making a fine place for water- ing stock. We often took the horses of the Battery there for water. It was a beautiful and abundant supply of water coming out of the ridge and foothills near by. Near the close of our stay in Huntsville, the orders came to take the horses away, and place the Battery on garrison duty at old Decatur, Alabama. So the change was made, perhaps, in February, and the men and guns and supplies were sent by railway to Decatur, situated on 260 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College the South bank of the Tennessee River. There the Battery with a few other forces remained until peace was declared, bringing to a close the Civil War. The sojourn of a few months at Decatur was monoto- nous except as broken by contests in swimming across the river, and by the news of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States of America, in Ford's Theater, Washington, D. C, on the evening of April 14, 1865, by Wilkes Booth, "an actor and fanatical secessionist." Lincoln was shot and died the next morning. The Lincoln tragedy cast an indescribable gloom over the people of the northern states, and the entire Federal Army yet in service. The forces at Decatur were almost prostrate with grief by the sudden cut off of a President whom the entire soldiery greatly loved. Some soldiers were enraged ; others were humiliated and despondent. It seemed to me the greatest sadness that ever came into my young manhood. I had never seen Lincoln yet I admired him. The Civil War "The actual outbreak of the war is dated from April 12, 1861; Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated for Second term as President of United States on March 4, 1865; Gen. Lee surrendered to Gen. Grant at Appomattox on April 26, 1865; within two months more all the Confederate forces had laid down their arms." Homeward Bound Soon after the declaration of peace the 25th Battery received orders to return to Indianapolis, Indiana, to be discharged from the service. This was probably the last of June 1865. This prospect brought much joy to all, but to none quite so much as to myself and Paul Rubush, the only Tennesseans, who now had hope of getting back to their homes in Eastern Tennessee. On leaving Decatur the Battery went to Nashville, DAVID ALEXANDER BOLTON, Class 1872 Teacher, Trustee, College Historian David A. Bolton 261 Tennessee, by railroad, and there deposited all equipment of war. From there it went to Indianapolis, where, on July 20, 1865, each man received his discharge as a soldier from the Federal Army. After purchasing some clothing for use by an American citizen, I soon left on train for Muncie, Indiana, and in due time was in my adopted home with Mr. Joseph Shirey and family, whom I was glad to meet again for their kindness to me. I had loaned Shirey some money, and desired to collect same before starting for my home in Tennessee. It was now about last of July 1865, and while in the Shirey home I was taken with chills and ague, incident to that country, and was detained there for a fortnight. This was my first experience with chills. I had seen babies chill, and soldiers chill and shake while on the march, and wondered how they kept their place in the army. About August 5, 1865, I bade adieu to the Shirey family, and by way of Muncie returned to Indianapolis, where I was joined by Paul Rubush. Then he and I soon left that city for our respective parental homes in the Vol- unteer State, passing through Louisville, Kentucky, Nash- ville, Chattanooga, and Knoxville, Tennessee, arriving at Telford on August 9, 1865, late in the afternoon. The ride from Nashville was long and rough. The railway track and cars were in need of repair. We and others rode most of the route in a box-car with no accommodation except a few rickety old benches. We were from ten p.m. August 8th to four p.m. August 9th in making the run from Chattanoo- ga to Telford on the East Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia Rail Road. That which most engaged our thought was getting to our homes among the hills, which now seemed higher than ordinary. 262 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College On the afternoon of my leaving the train, I walked down the Little Limestone Creek valley, about two miles to my old home, the home of my boyhood and manhood — which, under very peculiar circumstances, I had left twenty- two months before. I had enjoyed during that time good health, having no sickness except the chills and ague. God had been good to me, and all the dear ones at home, from whom, during long periods, no letters reached me, and mine could not get to them, because of the hostile armies between us. But I was at home once more ! My Mother first met me between the spring and the old home with its white walls and green shutters. Blessed Home ! Happy meeting of par- ents, brothers and sisters — all there ! John Ho\\ard Payne blessed many hearts when he sang, "Home, Sweet Home," saying, '"Mid pleasures and palaces though we may roam. Be it ever so humble, there's no place like home; A charm from the skies seems to hallow us there, Which, seek through the world, is ne'er met with elsewhere. Home, home, sweet, sweet, home, Be it ever so humble, there's no place like home." Desolation Due to Civil War The waste and ruin to homes and farms in East Ten- nessee was very great. The Bolton farm at the beginning of the Civil War was very productive and well supplied for that day with sheep, hogs, cattle and horses. Before I left home, each army foraged over a large portion of the eastern part of the State. My brother John and myself in the Fall of 1863, made every effort to save from Confederate forces, six good horses, especially two which we prized very highly, and thought one day we had them safely concealed. But David A. Bolton 263 in short time a few cavalry men passed the home leading our favorite horses. We felt keenly our loss. At the close of the War the farm was wholly without live stock. By slow processes and sacrifice that most needed for support of the family was soon secured. During two years the usual crops had not been produced. People were short of provisions — some of which could not be secured, such as sugar, coffee, tea and other articles which could not be grown there. Many citizens grew sugar cane and made sarghum, and devised a so-called substitute for coffee from parched wheat, or particles of sweet potatoes. Poor makeshifts for the genuine goods! While I had a great va- riety of good food in Indiana, my home-folks and others in East Tennessee were subsisting on scanty rations. No one knows the privations and sufferings of those war-time-years in East Tennessee, except those who experi- enced them. The foregoing lines but vaguely describe the conditions when I returned home. The country had been wasted by forces of opposing armies into which many boys, young men and old men, had gone to fight against each other. Families and communities often had representatives in each army, while at home were scouts, or marauding bands on each side. These conditions made civic life tense, critical, and unfriendly, which did not cease when the war ended. The material surroundings and the spiritual influences about my old home were not as favorable as they were be- fore the beginning of hostilities. The fact was, I was at home. What should I do? What could I do? During the years of my absence, I had saved a few hundred dollars in Federal money. That was needed by my parents, and it served them. I was just a little past eighteen and a half years of age, and desired to resume my education, but being the oldest 264 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College child of my parents, my first duty was to aid them in their time of need, which I did in both labor and money. Desire for an Education Why I desired, at an early age, an education I do not know. It may be I did not, I may have attributed impres- sions of later years to those sooner gone by. Any way, here are a few facts. My home was not supplied with books, or literature adapted to a growing boy. My mother had three brothers, Elbert, Whitfield, and Washington Willett, whose home \\'as near mine, and who \v(^yc students in Washington Col- lege which could be seen in part from my father's farm. I now and then, \vhen a boy, met them in their place of study at home with books and papers. As soon as I could write and knew a little arithmetic, I kept the accounts of an old blacksmith, near my home, who could neither read nor write. ^Vhilc in the army, I was often requested, by soldiers older than myself, to write letters to their friends. The foregoing truths, and influences lead me to this conclusion, "If I ever get home, I will seek more training and education." At Laurel Hill Academy On September 4, 1865, I entered Laurel Hill Academy which was about five miles from my father's home, and vSouth east therefrom not far from the mountains. The principal. Professor Henderson Presnell, a brother of my class-mate, in 1872, Alexander Mathes Presnell, had taught there before the Civil War. In later years, he was superin- tendent of schools of Washington County, and died in Washington, D. C, where he had long been in the Educa- tional Department of the LInited States. He ^vas a gradu- ate of Emory and Henry College in Virginia, a Christian gentleman and an exemplary teacher. He \vas born a teacher, wide awake, kind, genial, much interested in his David A. Bolton 265 pupils. When students were slow in replies, he often cried out, what I never forgot, "Tempus Fugit!" Tempus Fugit!" "Time Flys!" "Time Flys!" There were in this school in 1865-1866, the following young men, beside myself, who had served, as soldiers in Federal Army. W. Calvin Keezle, Adam Broyles, W. E. F. Milburn. During this year I was a student in Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry, English and Chemistry. On March 1, 1866, I was forced to leave school because of another attack of chills, and a failing in my eyes. I returned home and spent the spring and summer of 1866 in recuperation and work on the farm. In September 1866 I again entered the same school, where I remained the full year, I began the study of Latin at Laurel Hill. During the two years at Laurel Hill, the writer and the following, Cal and Jake Keezle, David Miller and Adam Broyles kept "Bachelor's Hall," we lived in a cottage and prepared our own meals, except what was brought ready for use, from our respective homes. Those were days of work and study, yet were full of joys of life. I passed the summer of 1867 at home, and at work on the farm, still feeling that I ought to go to school longer. At Franklin Academy Professor Presnell retirccf from school at Laurel Hill and taught some years in Jonesboro. His former students separated to various places. At the opening of the scholastic year of 1867-1868, I put myself in the Franklin Academy, near my home on a hill overlooking the old Earnest Chapel of the Methodist Episcopal Church in the bend of the Little Limestone creek. I remained in school here the entire year. The school was large , and well conducted by the principal Reverend Professor, A. R. Bennick, who had recently taught a few^ 266 A History of Tennessee yVesleyan College years at Johnson City, and because of his popularity there many of his students follov/ed him to FrankHn. I there continued the study of Latin, reading the writ- ings of Cicero and Horace, and began the study of Greek. The instruction, fellowship, and interest in the work of the literary society was encouraging and helpful. I spent part of the summer of 1868 on the farm. I was impressed that I should do something to help support my- self, and not go to school next year. So I canvassed for sale of books, but did not succeed. Then I decided to secure a position to teach school. My First Experience in Teaching During the fall and winter of 1868-1869, I made an effort to teach my first schools. I taught first a five-month school in Miller's church on Jockey Creek, one and a half miles from where it empties into Big Limestone creek. This was a subscription school. I boarded with my father's uncle, Henry Bolton, who lived near the Church. One night about 2 A. M. this good uncle called me out of my bed and sleep to witness my first meteoric shower in the northern heavens. I never before had seen anything equal to it. My second school was taught in the early months of 1869 in Williams school house on the east slope of the ridge north-east of my boarding place. These schools were of primary grade, yet I presumed to teach one pupil in Practical Arithmetic, and another in Mental Science. However, I was not discouraged in my hrst experience in teaching school, but found interest in the text-books, the pupils, and the government of them. I found in each hard tasks, and amusements. Eventful Summer of 1869 I was again on the old farm which always gave its events of labor, food, service and good will, and good fellow- ship. Many times during a long life have I been thankful David A. Bolton 267 for the lessons on work and helpfulness taught on the farm and in the home, during boyhood and early manhood. Eventful! Yes, Much So! During this summer, my mother's oldest brother, a graduate of Emory and Henry College, Virginia, late a Colonel in the Confederate Army, now a lawyer in Carrol- ton, Alabama, Elbert Decatur Willett - — visited my mother in Washington County, Tennessee. He and I were horseback riding one day to his old home about one mile away. He in- troduced and continued a talk on education, and asked me what I aimed to do. I was not decided, really had no plan for my life. I replied, "I must quit going to school, and take up farming." He soon said, "You ought not to do that, you have a good start for college." We rode on a short time in silence, when he said, "Get ready to go to college until you are graduated and I will loan you the money you need, and you can have all the time you desire in which to pay it back." This was a difficult problem to a young man who had been reared to avoid making a debt. I said to him, I will consider your advice and offer of a loan. Eventful ! Yes, in- tensely so. I stood at the divide of two roads, one leading to the farm, the other to college. Which should I take? In the meantime, two visitors came to the home of my parents in my behalf, each having for my 'life the same goal. One was W. E. F. Milburn who had been in school with me at Laurel Hill, and was the preceding year in the college at Athens, Tennessee, the other was Rev. W. H. Rogers, an aged member of the Holston Annual Conference, and the financial agent of .the East Tennessee Wesleyan University, founded there in 1866 by the Methodist Episcopal Church. The advice of these two friends and that of my good uncle combined in bringing me to a decision to enter the Univer- sity at Athens. 268 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College So I supplied myself with clothing and money for a year and late in August 1868 went to Athens for purpose of entering the University. A Student at Athens from August 1869 to June 19, 1872 I remained a few days in the family of Mitchel Gaston on Washington Street nearly opposite the old Methodist Church. Then, W. E. F. Milburn, Alexander M. Presnell and myself went to the home of William Howard, adjacent to the Cedar Grove Cemetery, where we boarded until June 1870. The residence was a two-story brick situated on a knoll with a spring and large oaks hard by. In our room each evening, by turns, a selection of the Scriptures was read and prayer was offered. During this first year, I applied myself diligently to the proper activities of the college, such as study of text books and work in the literary society; so much so that I lost near thirty pounds in my weight. I continued the classical course of study, reading both Latin and Greek. But the subjects which greatly interested me, as taught by that great teacher and ripe scholar, Rev. Nelson E. Cobliegh, D.D., the President, was Mark Hop- kins, "Law of Love and Love as a Law," and Noah Porter's "Human Intellect." I highly prize these books, and have gone to them often during the fifty-six years they have been in my small library. "I love my books! they are companions dear, Sterling in worth, in friendship most sincere." While a student , I spent the Christmas holidays in Athens, and the summer vacation on the old farm. The summer of 1870 gave me great concern on two points, first about my return to college, second, what should I take up for my life work. From a diary kept that summer, I give the following quotations ; David A. Bolton 269 Sunday, June 25, 1870 — I have thought today about my future Hfe. My great desire is to do some good. My want of means is an embarrassment. If I was only through college ! Monday, August 1, 1870 — I took my horse (one my father and his father gave me) to Limestone and sold him to J. B. Barkley for $140 cash and returned home on foot. I think now I am prepared for another year in college. — My hopes grow brighter. Tuesday, August 30, 1870 — I leave home this morn- ing with $156 for Athens. My father and grandfather are affected. This is a drawback to me. Monday, September 12, 1870 — Athens. I received a short letter from my uncle, E. D. Willett, Carrolton, Ala., saying, "I am glad you have gone to college again, that is the place to lay the foundation for future usefulness." On my arrival in Athens I found the teachers of the last year in their places, — Dr. N. E. Cobleigh, President, Rev. J. C. Barb, Mathematics; Rev. J. J. Manker, Greek; Edwin A. Atlee, Latin; Miss Helen Bosworth, music; Miss Margarita M. Hauschild, English; (now Jan. 12, 1926, all dead, except Miss Hauschild who is now the widow of the late Rev. E. M. Smith, D.D., and living with her daughter at 1669 Overton Park Ave., Memphis, Tennessee.) Many former students were students again. All my classmates returned. During years 1870-1871, and 1871-1872, I boarded in the home of Mrs. Atlee, the widow of the late Rev. Edwin A. Atlee, and her widowed daughter Mrs. S. C. Luter, and sons B. G. and Edwin A. Junior, a most excellent Christian family. No peculiar incident came into my second year in college except one noted in connection with the close of my last and third year in college. 270 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College Methodist Convention at the University This convention met June 15-19, 1871. It was com- posed of representatives from Methodist Episcopal Churches in the middle west, the eastern states and specially from the Southern States. The purpose was to advance the in- terests of the Church and its education in the South. Per- haps the ablest paper read to the convention was that by Rev. E. Q. Fuller, D. D., then editor of "The Methodist Advocate," published at Atlanta, Ga., on "The Relations of the East Tennessee Wesleyan University to the Pros- perity of our Work in the South." The author and the convention favored only one University in the South for white people and that one the University at Athens, Ten- nessee. — See Pamphlet of published proceedings of Convention. First Class — 1871 — Graduated One of the most interesting functions of the University was the graduation of its first class on June 14, 1871, com- posed as follows: Edwin A. Atlee, John Henry Clay Foster, Joseph L. Gaston, Wiley S. Gaston, Josephine Gaston, Cornelia Atlee, John J. Manker, Mary J. Mason, W. E. F. Milburn, Susan Lizzie Moore. 1871 — Junior Class David Alexander Bolton, Marshall Monroe Callen, Samuel Silas Curry, Alexander Mathes Presnell, John O. Schorn. Last Year in University This year opened August 31, 1871, myself and all mem- bers of my class present. Their determination to complete the course encouraged me, as did also the loan of money tendered by my worthy uncle. The Faculty was unchanged. During part of this year I taught a class in Greek to pay my tuition. During this year I kept a more complete diary of incidents and experiences in my personal career. David A. Bolton 271 On May 8, 1872, I received a letter from my old home with a request from my grand-father, David Bolton, to come to his bedside as he was sick and did not expect to recover. I was by his bed early next morning. He died May 12th; funeral next day and interment made in Lime- stone Cemetery of the Dunkard Church of which he had been a member for many years. I remained until May 25th when I returned to Athens to complete my senior year, now so near its close, on June 19, 1872. The commencement exercises. Dr. N. E. Cobleigh, President presiding, were held during the forenoon on the third floor of the first -and only building at that day on the campus. The places of honor on the program were "Saluta- tory" and "Valedictory," given to the two members of the class having the highest grades during the collegiate years, the highest determining who should give the valedictory oration, which now fell to S. S. Curry. The Salutatory went to D. A. Bolton. The class of 1872 was made up as follows: — David Alexander Bolton, Telford, Washington County; Marshall Monroe Callen, Thorn Grove, Knox County; Samuel Silas Curry, Chatata, Bradley County; James Milton Patterson, Ten Mile, Meigs County; Alexander Mathes Presnell, Brownsboro, Washington County. All were from homes of good common people in East Tennessee ; each received the degree of A.B. — Bachelor of Arts ; each was, and had been for years, an active Christian in the Methodist Episcopal Church. Immediately following an alumni address, in the col- lege chapel of that day, before a large audience, occurred the marriage of David Alexander Bolton and Miss Ann Eliza- beth Hornsby; Dr. Nelson E. Cobleigh officiating, assisted by Rev. John W. Mann, D.D. The special attendants were by couples, Prof. Edwin A. Atlee and Miss Nannie Gibson ; 272 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College Joseph L. Gaston and Miss Mattie Rider; Marshall M. Callcn and Miss Helen Bosworth; Alexander M. Presnell and Miss Mary Mason; M. Mack Fitzgerald and Miss Florence Fisher; Prof. W. E. F. Milburn and Miss Mar- garita M. Hanschild. The marriage ceremony being concluded, the bridal party and a fe\v friends, went to the corner of Green and Gollege Streets, the home of the bride's parents. Major and Mrs. James H. Hornsby, for a supper. Near midnight the bride and groom boarded a train for Telford, Tennessee, \vhere we arrived in the early morning, and met that day in the old home a large number of friends and neighbors, and appreciated their congratulations. The Year in Washington County On June 20, 1872, myself and wife, with the consent of my parents, took our places as members of their family. My father and mother were then living, as were my three brothers, John F., Elbert V., Henry W., and two sisters, Susan Caroline, and Alice Florine, none of them married. During the year peace, love and happiness prevailed. In August I began teaching a school at Franklin Acad- emy, nearby, where I had been a student in other years. Tw enty-six pupils were enrolled at first, which number was increased during the winter. The school was never satis- factory, cither in attendance, or salary. So after its close in April 1873, myself and wife were prospecting for another position but I had not accepted any offer. In the meantime our first child was born on May 15, 1873, and named Ophie May. At the meeting of the Board of Trustees of the Univer- sity at Athens, on May 28, 1873, I was elected a member of the Faculty for the next year at a salary of $600 of which I was promptly notified by my good friend Jacob S. Mat- thews, Secretary of the Board. As I had made no applica- David A. Bolton 273 tion, this election to teach in my Alma Mater came as a great surprise to me and my dear wife. Her father, a trustee, was doubtless a great factor in my election, which brought great joy to me and to her. To her it meant going back to home-folks and many dear friends ; to me it was the solution of a perplexing problem in my life by taking me back among friends, who knew my reputation and character for righteous living. So our hearts were gladdened with the decision of returning to Athens. The call seemed provi- dential. Major James H. Hornsby kindly offered us a home in his family without expense for one year. Therefore, on July 9, 1873, my wife with our first born babe, returned to her parental home, while I remained making a few col- lections on my subscription school accounts. Places Where Myself and Family Resided: In Athens, Tennessee. In 1873-1874, with the family of my father-in-law. Major James Hornsby, at corner of Green and College Streets. We began housekeeping near corner of Church and Bank Streets, in old log structure West of a new brick house erected by William Turner, in August 1874, and remained there until November 1874. Then we moved to North Hill Street about middle of block north of Washington Street on the West side. This was an inferior structure, not by any means attractive, or comfortable in cold weather. The winter while here, in 1876-1877, was very cold, once about 24 degrees below zero. There our twin boys were born, July 19, 1877. In August 1877, we rented the widow Urey property eastern corner of College Street and Black Alley, later named Long Street, and the family soon occupied it — placing me near the University and my wife near her par- 274 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College ents home. We remained there four years ; have lived seven years in very inferior rented property. In October 1881, my wife and I contracted for and purchased our first and only earthly home of Rev. John W. Mann, D. D., and his wife, a lot fronting near 132 feet on Jackson Avenue, and about 270 feet on South side of College Street, lying South of College Campus. On this lot was a two-room one story brick with three small rooms in the rear made of boards placed vertically. Into this the father and mother with five children moved in November 1881, There the family resided until the summer of 1889, when the Grant Memorial University at Athens, and the Chattanooga University were united and placed under the same management. I was elected Professor of Mathematics in the department at Chattanooga. At this time I had secured and paid for an architect's plans for a nice home on the Mann lot. I sacrificed all, and in summer of 1889 took my family to Chattanooga where we lived in low-rent prop- erty on Vine Street on Fort Wood for three years before be- ing sent back to Athens 1892 to resume my work there as Professor of Mathematics. Parents and children were glad to go back to the old home-place, and into a new cottage on corner of College and Long Streets, built while we lived in Chattanooga. There the family dwelt until the fall of 1898, when it occupied the new two-story ten-room frame house, built during late spring and summer of 1898, on the site of the old house on the Mann-lot when it was pur- chased. Keeping Boarders Upon the insistence of my good and faithful wife, the family furnished board and lodging, or only meals, at each place it resided in Athens, generally to students or teachers before the time of boarding halls on the college campus. David A. Bolton 275 After getting into the large new home, rooms and meals were given during a few years to a limited number of transient, or travelling men. In this way some money was saved to pay in part a small debt made in building. The Call to Teach — Continuance Therein In May 1873, the Board of Trustees elected me to teach Matematics in my Alma Mater, the East Tennessee Wesleyan University, at Athens, Tennessee. I accepted, and taught Mathematics in year 1873-1874. During the next two years, by appointment, I taught Latin and Greek. Then by election, I taught Mathematics from 1876 to 1889, a total of thirteen years. Then following the union of the two Universities, I was transferred to Chattanooga where I taught the same subject during three years. From September 1892 to June 1920 — 28 years — at Athens, I taught Mathematics, chiefly, sometimes I taught classes in Ethics and History of Philosophy. I have taught, consecutively, forty-seven years in the same institution. In June 1920, I was put in Emeritus Relation, with no classes to teach, but retained a member of Faculty at Athens during five years on a small pension, thus giving me the relation of teaching in the same Institution during a period of fifty-two years, preceded by three years of experience as a student, beginning at Athens in August 1869, a grand total of fifty-five years, including many years as Secretary of the Faculty, and some years as a trustee and secretary of the Board of Trustees of the University at Athens. Relationship to My Teachers and to Faculties One of the good experiences of a student is his pleasant relations to his teachers. During my early years when a student in the public schools or the Academy, I cherished a 276 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College proper regard and respect for my instructors, believing they were my helpers toward a better and higher way of living. This was specially true when I entered the University at Athens. There I had a high appreciation of my teachers. True, the lessons were hard, and the requirements of teach- ers often seemed exacting. This was particularly true of work required by Dr. N. E. Cobleigh, President of the Uni- versity, when in reading Homer, he required each member of the class to bring each day a good written translation of the previous lesson. Then his assignment for lessons in Latin and in Greek seemed great. One day he spoke of it before the class, saying, "Young men, if you can endure this pressure now, you need not fear work that may come to you later." During my long service as a teacher at Athens and Chattanooga, it was one of my greatest pleasures to be associated with about one hundred Professors — probably sixty men and forty women, — each one, as I believe earnestly engaged in doing the best possible things for those who were their pupils. I was much helped by the associa- tion and fellowship of my fellow teachers. I especially appreciated their counsel, during the years at Athens, when as Vice President of the University, or acting Dean, it was my duty to act as Chairman of the Faculty and keep watch on the discipline of the students. During many years I have held in grateful memory the wisdom and support of the good men and "noble women" of those times so greatly worthwhile to the lives of young men and women. Experience and Importance of Teaching Early in my experience as a teacher I saw the import- ance of knowmg well the subject being taught, the pupil to be taught, and what makes the teaching process effectual. Here are three essentials of the true teacher — himself, his David A. Bolton 277 pupil and what it is to teach. These lead me to a diligent study of books on teaching from which I obtained more valuable information than I received from teachers' institutes. I was much helped by a definition of teaching given by the author of a book I read when he said "Teaching is causing another to know;" and then adding, in substance, telling a thing, or talking is not at all times teaching. The teacher in the act of teaching is a mediator, or middleman — between the subject being taught, and the student to be taught. The teacher must know what he is trying to teach, and the necessary activities of the learner that he may be taught. Thus equipped the teacher's efforts bring into a state of fusion the thoughts of the pupil and the thought in the subject being taught. Such is teaching, a condition of paramount importance. The duly exacting teacher in the class-room is often unpopular with students who think his requirements are too rigid, although they may not be more so than truth and life demand. This demand arises generally from the fact that the teaching process calls the student to a higher and an unusual mental activity. Three Great Fields of Activity and Service During many years, my life and energies were devoted to three regions of activities — 1, My Family, 2, The Church, 3, The College. I served the College, the cause of education, as here- in previously related — for more than fifty years, laboring earnestly and devotedly for the cause of Christian Educa- tion, by teaching, by character, and by daily life endeavor- ing to enrich and equip the lives of young men and young women for much worth while service in later years. During more than half a century, I was interested in 278 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College the welfare of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Athens, Tennessee, often failing to do my full duty due it. This Church, its membership, worshipped, from 1863 to 1910, in five different buildings, three of them being rented for Church services. In October 1910, the members of said church and its friends first found a permanent home and place of worship in the new, beautiful, and commodi- ous temple at corner of Jackson Avenue and College Street, located adjacent to and South East of the Campus of the College of said Church. I served for many years as Secretary of the Board of Trustees of the Church; and was for thirty-five years Superintendent of its Sunday School. Since March 1924, I have been teacher of the Judge Brown Men's Bible Class. 4f * * My Marriage During my first year in college at Athens as a student, I devoted myself studiously to rank high as a student. The primary purpose was good scholarship. I was regular in attendance upon Sunday School and Church services, and the public activities of the university and of the Athenian Literary Society, I did not call upon any young lady or frequent social functions in the homes in that day. I noted the regular attendance on services in the church of a certain young woman of beautiful carriage and form with very praise-worthy conduct. Near the beginning of my second year in the university, I sought and found her company in the home of her parents. Major James H. Hornsby and his wife, at corner of Green and College Streets. This was the beginning of an association which grew into real love of each for the other, and later into courtship and marriage of David A. Bolton and Ann David A. Bolton 279 Elizabeth Hornsby, each being the first born of their respective parents. The marriage was a pubHc one, and occurred on the third floor of the Old Administration Hall of the university before a large audience, following the first address to Alumni given by Professor Edwin A. Atlee, A.B., Class of 1871, first class from University. The second class consist- ing of five young men from East Tennessee, each a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, the writer being one of them, was graduated, during forenoon of June 19, 1872. The marriage ceremony was performed by Rev. Nelson E. Cobleigh, D.D., LL. D., closing a four year period as President of East Tennessee Wesleyan University, assisted by Rev. John W. Mann, D.D., my personal friend, who was during many years, a member of the Holston Confer- ence which was instrumental in founding the University at Athens. After a special supper in the home of Major Hornsby with a few friends, the bride and groom boarded a train on Southern Railway for the home of the groom's parents in Washington County, East Tennessee, where the newly married ones spent a very happy year, his wife helping in the work of a farmer's home, and the husband doing many kinds of work on the farm during the summer and teaching school near by during the winter of 1872-1873. While passing through a period of uncertainty as to where I would teach another year, the call came to me to teach in my Alma Mater. I and my dear wife, who was now mother of our first-born, very joyfully accepted, and before the summer was ended we were, by invitation, in the home of her parents, where we continued during the scholastic year 1873-1874. We have here another year of happiness together — 280 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College she with her father and family and friends and I starting in what turned out to be a long period of teaching in the same institution, from 1873 to 1920, 47 years in active work as a teacher. Appendix 281 A. BOARD OF TRUSTEES PANEL OF 1957 Earl Blazer Maryville, Tennessee C. A. Brabston Newport, Tennessee Fred C. Buck Abingdon, Virginia Grover C. Graves Athens, Tennessee Fred B. Greear Norton, Virginia H. D. Hart Oak Ridge, Tennessee Mark M. Moore Elizabethton, Tennessee Roy H. Short.-.- Nashville, Tennessee George H. Smith Knoxville, Tennessee W. D. Sullins - Athens, Tennessee PANEL OF 1958 J. A. Bays Oak Ridge, Tennessee R. A. Brock Chattanooga, Tennessee C. E. Lundy Chattanooga, Tennessee E. V. Richardson Marion, Virginia S. B. R)'mer, Jr - Cleveland, Tennessee W. M. Seymour Chattanooga, Tennessee Lynn Sheeley Morristown, Tennessee Charles C. Sherrod Johnson City, Tennessee W. S. Steele - Johnson City, Tennessee William C. Walkup Knoxville, Tennessee PANEL OF 1959 Robert C. Burton Kingsport, Tennessee R. H. Duncan Knoxville, Tennessee D. Trigg James -Johnson City, Tennessee Carrie R. Kirk Greeneville, Tennessee R. R. Kramer Maryville, Tennessee John A. Messer, Jr Galax, Virginia Mrs. H. M. Russell Tazewell, Virginia *F. B. Shelton Emory, Virginia R. G. Waterhouse Knoxville, Tennessee W. Paul Worley Atlanta, Georgia PANEL OF 1960 Robert W. Flegal. - Rossville, Georgia Harley Fowler Knoxville, Tennessee C. P. Hardin Chattanooga, Tennessee H. Olin Troy.-- Bristol, Virginia Hebron Ketron Athens, Tennessee Carroll H. Long Johnson City, Tennessee W. N. Neff --- Abingdon, Virginia R. O. VanDyke Tazewell, Virginia E. E. Wiley, Jr Kingsport, Tennessee E. D. Worley- Johnson City, Tennessee *Deceased April 28, 1957 282 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College EX-OFFICIO MEMBER LeRoy A. Martin Athens, Tennessee HONORARY MEMBERS Herbert G. Stone Kingsport, Tennessee M. C. Weikel Cleveland, Tennessee Rhea Hammer Athens, Tennessee Tom SheiTnan Athens, Tennessee OFFICERS OF THE BOARD *F. B. Shelton Chairman Hebron Ketron Vice-Chairman Harley Fowler Secretary EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE Hebron Ketron, Chairman Carroll H. Long Harley Fowler, Secretary Mark M. Moore J. A. Bays Mrs. H. M. Russell R. H. Duncan Roy H. Short Grover C. Graves W. D. Sullins C. P. Hardin *F. B. Shelton R. R. Kramer William C. Walkup Miss Muriel Day EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS LeRoy A. Martin DEVELOPMENT AND FUNDS COMMITTEE LeRoy A. Martin, Chaimian Harry Hawkins Scott Mayfield, Secretary R. R. Kramer Ralph Duggan Carroll H. Long Harley Fowler W. D. Sullins \V. D. Hairrell W. C. Walkup ONE HUNDREDTH ANNIVERSARY COMMITTEE Grover C. Graves, Chairman Ralph Duggan, Secretary W. P. Chestnutt Ncal Ensminger Harley Fowler ^Deceased April 28, 1957 Hebron Ketron George Koons Mark M. Moore E. E. Wiley, Jr. James H. Willson Appendix 283 B. PRESIDENTS OF BOARD OF TRUSTEES 1857-1866 WilHam H. Ballew 1867 - 1869 The Reverend Thomas H. Pearne, D.D. 1870- 1871 Theodore Richmond 1872 - 1873 The Reverend N. E. Cobleigh, D.D., LL. D. 1874 - 1875 The Reverend J. Albert Hyden 1876- 1880 J. W. Ramsey 1881 - 1882 The Reverend E. Q. Fuller, D.D. 1882 - 1885 Bishop Henry W. Warren, D.D. 1886 - 1890 Bishop J. M. Walden, D.D., LL.D. 1891-1897 Captain H. S. Chamberlain 1898 - 1899 Bishop D. A. Goodsell, D.D., LL.D. 1899- 1916 Captain H. S. Chamberlain 1917- 1921 Bishop T. S. Henderson, D.D., LL.D. 1922 - 1925 Z. W. Wheland 1925 - 1928 Judge Xenophon Hicks 1929 - 1948 General James A. Fowler 1949-1957 *The Reverend F. B. Shelton, D. D. C. FACULTY AND STAFF OFFICERS OF ADMINISTRATION LeRoy A. Martin, D.D President F. Heisse Johnson, Ph.D Dean Paul Riviere, B.D Dean of Admissions and Registrar *F. B. Shelton, D.D Director of Public Relations Mary Nelle Jackson Administrative Secretary R. E. Branham, C.P.A Bursar FACULTY Enid Parker Bryan, Ph. D Professor of English and Classics F. Heisse Johnson, Ph. D C. O. Jones Professor of Religion Louis C. Jordy, Ph.D Professor of Chemistry and Physics A. H. Walle, Ed.D Professor of Education G. A. Yates, M.A Professor of Mathematics J. Van B. Coe, M.A Associate Professor of Economics and Sociology **Carl Boggess Honaker, M.S Associate Professor of Chemistry and Physics Alfred Jack Houts, M.M Associate Professor of Music and Choral Director *Deceased April 28, 1957 **On Leave 284 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College B. T. Hutson, M.S Associate Professor of Business Administration Richard Mann Johnson, M.S Associate Professor of Biology John M. Martin, Ph.D ..Associate Professor of History Claryse D. Myers, B.S. in L.S Librarian T. G. Richner, Ph.D Associate Professor of Modem Languages Paul Riviere, B.D.. Associate Professor of History E. G. Rogers, M.A , ..Associate Professor of English M. Clifton Smith, M.S Associate Professor of Education John J. McCoy, M.S Assistant Professor of Biology and Chemistry William M. McGill, M.A ...Assistant Professor of English Reva Puett, M.A Assistant Professor of Home Economics Frances J. Biddle, A.M Instructor in Physical Education Harry W. Coble, M.A Instructor in Speech and Dramatics Mary L. Greenhoe, M.M Instructor in Piano and Organ Rankin Hudson, B.S Instructor in Physical Education Fred Puett, LL.B Instructor in Commercial Subjects RETIRED James L. Robb, A.M., LL.D ..President C. O. Douglass, M.A Registrar — Associate Professor of Education A. H. Myers, B.D Professor of Philosophy PART-TIME Mands Cunningham, B.S Instructor in Science and History Abraham Feinstein, D.D Visiting Instructor in History of Judaism John I. Foster, Jr., LL.B Instructor in Business Administration James C. GufTey, B.S Instructor in Business Administration Frances S. Graves, B.A Instructor in Art Martha B. Hale Instructor in Art *William Harry Joubert, Ph.D Instructor in Economics and Government George R. Koons, B.A Instructor in Business Administration James Pikl, M.A ..Instructor in Business Administration Harold N. Powers, M.S Instructor in Education Wilmer B. Robbins, B.D Instructor in Bible Paul Rowland, B.D Visiting Professor of English Helen M. Richards, M.D ....Assistant Professor of Biology ErUgene Sadler, B.S Instructor in Business Administration William R. Smith III, B.D Instructor in Bible Bernard H. Zellner, M.S Instructor in Mechanical Drawing *On Leave Appendix 285 STAFF MEMBERS Una F. Akins Secretary to the Dean LeRoy B. Anderson, B.S Assistant to the Football Coach Vera Goe Assistant to the Librarian Sue Davis, R.N Nurse Robbie J. Ensminger, A. A Secretary to the President Junius G. Graves, B.A Assistant to the Football Coach Patricia Hooper Stenographer to Registrar Marilyn S. Johnson Clerical Assistant Virginia King Bookkeeper Ida Ruth Lewis Head Resident, Lawrence Hall Eddie McMillan Assistant to the Basketball Coach Reba Parsons Head Resident, Ritter Hall Edith Walker Dietitian Nancy W. White, A.A Secretary to the Registrar Louie Underwood Superintendent of Buildings and Grounds 286 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College D. CANDIDATES FOR GRADUATION JUNE 1, 1957 B.S. Degree Billy Lee Akins Bobby Edd Allen *Dallas Anderson Charles Dillard Bamett Robert Carrett Bledsoe, Jr. Warren Gill Brewster John Martin Calhoun Claude Frank Catron, Jr. Dan Kenning Choat William Alfred Gofer, Jr. James Edward Davis Dortha Patricia DeLozier Lucy Ann Dosser Ralph Owens Dunn Oran David Elrod Ruba Jones Enochs Bob Charles Erwin Billie Dean Haley Robert Daniel Hays Joe Philip Honey Frank George Hughes Viola Huskey Gretchen Denton Keim Lewis Edwin King Louise Orr King Norma Jean Kyle Randolph Lee Teck Seng Lian Marjorie Rose Lowe George A. Lusk Herlien Elizabeth McCamy Hugh Douglas McMurray James Davis McQuain Fannie Taylor Maddox Jimmy Anderson Mason Harry Lane Moore Gwendolyn Woody Morrison Dolores Elaine Mynatt Clifford McKinley O'Dell James Bernard Patterson Barbara Sue Pickel Ruth Jarvis Pickens William J. Quirk Sara Exum Ranck Richard Lafayette Ray Hugh Miller Reynolds Ruby Bryan Richardson Jack Coogan Ritchie Dorothy Henley Runyan LaVeme Owenby Schultz Charles Richard Seepe Eddie J. Stansell Phyllis Mae Williams George Wilson Hugh Oscar Wilson Robert Jerry Wilson Elmer Boyd Woody Kenneth Leabow Wynn *To be awarded posthumously. Appendix 287 F. Max Allison Wesley Lee Asbury Mildred Humberd Ball Mary Sue Barnes Grace Whitaker Barnett William Larry Borden Carmelia Jo Bryant Margaret Virginia Clark Charlotte M. Cupp Florence Bell Edwards Phyllis Anne Fox Albert Llewellyn Galloway, Jr. William Shepard Gamble B.A. Degree Dorothy Marie Frick Gilbert Richard Clark Gilbert Elizabeth Jones Gilliland William Perry Legg Burhl Frank McCracken Anna Perkinson Puett Catherine Collins Ray Ray Edwin Robinson Paul Malvine Starnes Jack Preston Thacker Betty Frances Trew Richard Ralph Webb Hugh Layman Wilson John Marshall Withers CANDIDATES FOR GRADUATION AUGUST 17, 1957 B.S. Degree Najeeb'Namock Al-Orfali Mary Louise Bolen Iva Lou Crisp Charles H. Gorman Helen Howard Hale Robert Eugene Jackson Sushil Nath Khosla Bob G. Killen Clyde Alexander Kyle, Jr. Henry Lee Lenoir Laura Blair Lillard Glena Martin Moses Ralph Jackson Nunley Jefferson Barrington O'Connor Doran Craig Sharp Benson Andrew Spurling Harry Rexford Sutton Mary Lyde Swafford Katherine Hines Thomas John Houston Williams, Jr. B.A. Degree Donald Richard Hoback Ray Aileen Watkins Mary Wade Kimbrough Rhea Dail Watkins 288 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College E. THE HIGHER EDUCATION EMPHASIS (Adopted by the General Conference of The Methodist Church, Minneapolis, Minnesota, April-May, 1956) The Church Universal lives and labors under the compulsion of the Great Commission: "Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have com- manded you." The commission carries with it the persuasive authority of Him whom we confess to be the Head of the Church. Our Lord's words are timeless — as pertinent to this era and the tasks that challenge us as to the first century. The Church is in the world to capture the hearts of men and to make them faithful disciples of the Nazarene and also to capture their minds and established them in the truth that leads to abundant and unending life. By missions and evangelism we extend the frontiers of the Kingdom. By educa- tion we build the City of God. These are two' phases of one magnificent enterprise. An organized church-wide effort to expand and strengthen the educational program of The Methodist Church in the United States of America is long overdue. The following plan is adopted for high- lighting the mission of the church in the field of higher education and for strengthening our institutions of learning for more effective service. The same task of strengthening our institutions of higher learning in other lands where the demand also is imperative and the urgency pressing is entrusted to the Central Conferences in which they are located, with the assistance of the Board of Missions through the Division of World Missions and the Department of Work in Foreign Fields of the Woman's Division of Christian Service. 1. a) There shall be constituted a Quadrennial Commission on Christian Higher Education, which shall have general direction and supervision of the quadrennial higher education emphasis in accord- ance with the directives hereinafter contained. It shall be composed as follows: the effective bishops resident in the United States, and two bishops from Central Conferences elected by the Council of Bishops from those who are in the United States when the commis- sion icets; four ministers and six laymen from each jurisdiction, elected by the General Conference on nomination of the Council of Bishops; the president, vice-presidents, and twelve other members of the General Board of Education, elected by the board or its executive committee; the general secretaries of the three divisions of the Board Appendix 289 of Education and of the Division of World Missions of the Board of Missions; and twenty members at large elected by the commission on account of their experience and ability in the field of education. The commission at its discretion may elect advisory members without vote. It shall elect its own officers for the quadrennium. b) The expenses of the commission shall be provided from the World Service Fund according to the schedule of distribution recommended by the Council on World Service and Finance and voted by the General Conference. Its annual budget shall be subjec. to approval by the General Board of Education. Its headquarters shall be in Nashville, Tennessee. It may employ such executive and clerical assistance as it may judge to be necessary for the effective promotion of its work within the limits of its budget. The Commis- sion on Promotion and Cultivation shall have such responsibility in this field as may be mutually agreed on by the two commissions. 2. There are few precedents to guide us in a church-wide emphasis on Christian higher education over a period of time. New trails must be blazed and techniques developed. Accordingly, certain specific directives are given in this subsection, and to these are ap- pended below (par. 3) certain suggested procedures which are not mandatory. The commission should be given considerable liberty to find its way and to determine its methods. a) The over-all task committed to the commission- is to strengthen the bonds that bind our institutions of learning to the church, to lead our schools and colleges to a thorough commitment to Christian standards and ideals, and to lead the church in an effort to undergird them with adequate moral and financial support. The commission's program shall include the institutions of learning related to the Division of Educational Institutions of the General Board of Education, including theological schools and Wesley Foundations. The commission shall work in co-operation with the Division of Edu- cational Institutions, the Boards of Education of the respective Annual Conferences, and the Boards of Trustees of the respective educational institutions. b) The commission shall, by such procedures as it may deter- mine, and in co-operation with the Division of Educational Institu- tions and with local foundations, promote the work of the Wesley Foundations, assisting local foundations in raising funds and making their work effective on college campuses. c) If the distinctive service which our schools and colleges 290 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College render the church and society were made clear and convincing, the moral and financial support they now receive would be materially increased. The commission shall therefore especially address itself to the basic task of interpretation, to wit: ( 1 ) To interpret to our church-related colleges and universities their place and function in the life of the church and the obligation of these institutions to be Christian in teaching and in practice, and in their policies of serving the youth of the local churches, conferences, and areas from which they receive support. (2) To interpret to our people of The Methodist Church the distinctive function of our institutions of learning in the church and in society. The church must continue to look principally to her own educational institutions for trained leadership. These institutions, dedicated to Christian ideals, must as heretofore be evangelists in the field of higher education, to the end that the Christian concept of God and man may become the dominant element in American cul- ture. The commission shall, as far as practicable, make use of our existing church organization in the prosecution of this task, setting up, with the aid of bishops, district superintendents, conference secre- taries of education, college administrators, Wesley Foundation ad- ministrators, and others, educational conferences on the district and Annual Conference level; supplying speakers at conferences, pastors' schools, convocations, and other church gatherings; and producing appropriate materials for our church-school publications, conference and area papers, and the secular press. It is suggested that the com- mission give consideration to the preparation of a popular study book on the chutxh and its institutions of learning for use in leadership training schools, pastors' schools, church schools, men's clubs, and elsewhere. d) The commission shall study the financial status of our church-related institutions of learning and lead the church in an effort so to undergird them that their efficiency, academic standards, per- manence, and support of Christian ideals shall be assured. It shall devise such methods of credit for the local church as it may determine. It shall not undertake a single nationwide financial campaign for the benefit of all our educational institutions. It is patent that in the main these institutions must find support on a conference area, or regional basis. The commission shall therefore encourage individual institu- tions, conferences, areas, or jurisdictions to assume leadership in pro- viding adequate support for our schools of all grades, and for Wesley Appendix 291 Foundations, and shall supply expert advice, possible plans of pro- cedure, personal leadership, and other assistance as the need may require and as the commission may determine. 3. To the specific directives above named (par. 2) certain pos- sible procedures are hereunder appended for the guidance of the commission, the same being for the commission's consideration with- out the force of a mandate: a) It is necessary that on the Annual Conference level there be a Quadriennial Committee on Christian Higher Education, for the purpose of initiating and implementing any proposed campaign or policy. It is recommended that this committee be constituted by the Annual Conference and that representation from the Conference Board of Education be included in its membership. If two or more Annual Conferences co-operate in an undertaking or appeal, the committees of the participating Annual Conferences should be jointly the implementing body. b) The commission may constitute from its membership a committee to examine the charters of the respective institutions of learning related to The Methodist Church to determine the actual status of relationship. The bonds connecting a number of our educa- tional institutions with the church should be strengthened. It is recommended that in instances where such strengthening is desirable the commission encourage the trustees of the institutions concerned to take appropriate steps to alter their charters accordingly. c) In an appeal to the membership of the church for the support of our institutions of learning at least two approaches are possible: (1) a financial campaign and /or (2) an apportionment transmitted annually by the respective Annual Conferences to local churches and accepted by the respective Quarterly Conferences, as in the case of world service and conference benevolences. The nature of the appeal and the financial goals and apportionments shall be determined by the Annual Conference concerned in each undertak- ing, and the commission shall adjust its procedures accordingly. In many cases special financial campaigns are advisable and will be undertaken. It does not appear, however, that periodic appeals will provide for the continuing financial needs of our educational institu- tions. It is highly important that we develop in our whole constit- uency a conscience concerning the continuing support of our institutions of learning and that a procedure be established in all our 292 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College conferences by which our people will contribute annually per member an average of not less than one dollar for the support of educational institutions related to the respective conferences, and not less than thirty cents for Wesley Foundations. If such a program can be made effective among nine and a half million Methodists in the United States, we will witness the dawn of a new day in Christian higher education. d) The commission shall give consideration to requesting the several Annual Conferences to set aside a certain percentage of the sums received for their schools and colleges, such percentage to be remitted to the Division of Education Institutions and administered by it for educational institutions where there is special need, with due recognition of the needs of those historically operated for Negroes. e) The commission shall give consideration to recommending to all our educational institutions that each set aside out of funds received from the church a certain portion for permanent endowment, thus establishing a backlog of security. f) The commission shall give consideration to constituting a committee to work out a procedure whereby an appeal may go to our people in every local church to leave in their wills a bequest in some amount for some institution of learning in the church. g) The commission shall give consideration to constituting a committee to promote a plan of appeal to the alumni of all our insti- tutions of learning. If, for example, each alumnus should recognize his obligation to the college or university at which he received his training and should resolve to return to her, either by gift during his lifetime or by bequest, the cost of his education over and above the fees he paid, a new loyalty would appear and a continuing avenue of support would be opened. 4. For more than two centuries the Methodist movement has been a stalwart patron of education. Its beginning may be traced to Oxford University. John Wesley, our spiritual father, was a scholar as well as an evangelist. His spiritual zeal would hardly have changed the religious climate of England and America in the eighteenth cen- tury had there not been coupled with it a trained and discerning mind. As the Methodist movement pushed westward over the Ameri- can continent, it left in its wake schools as well as churches. The circuit riders were pioneers in building colleges and universities. Many of them remain, and they are the church's indispensable asset. Such is our heritage. Appendix 293 The perils and opportunities of the present challenge us more insistently than the heritage of yesterday. We live in an age of moral confusion. Materialism and Communism defy the Christian concept of God and man. The centuries prove that the Christian Church builds itself into the culture of a people through its institutions of learning. We look forward to the day when our institutions of learn- ing, committed to the Christian ideal, shall occupy as pivotal a posi- tion in the total program of The Methodist Church as missions and evangelism.* *HOLSTON CONFERENCE Quadrennial Commission on Higher Education Earl Blazer Richard A. Brock R. C. Burton Gabe Clark Harley Fowler Prof. H. C. Graybeal Mrs. C. P. Hardin Leo Jackson Bishop Roy H. Short Herschel Abshire W. F. Blackard T. F. Chilcote W. Kyle Cregger Edgar A. Eldridge J. A. Hardin D. Trigg James C. E. Lundy C. D. MehafTy Ralph W. Mohney LAYMEN: Hebron Ketron W. N. Neff Mrs. J. L. Patterson Mrs. H. M. Russell Bud Schaerer Dr. C. C. Sherrod George H. Smith Hubert Wheeler MINISTERS: E. H. Ogle W. L. Pickering Amos Rogers H. M. Russell Frank A. Settle Ben B. St. Clair W. S. Steele J. W. Stone M. C. Weikel James S. Wilder E. E. Wiley, Jr. A. B. Wing COLLEGE PRESIDENTS: Horace N. Barker Earl G. Hunt, Jr. LeRoy A. Martin *Discipline of The Methodist Church, 1956, pp 696-702. 294 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC RELATIONS: *Dr. F. B. Shelton DIRECTORS OF WESLEY FOUNDATIONS: Sam Dodson R. D. McGee Donald L. Hughes Glen Otis Martin BIBLIOGRAPHY Bolton, David A. Memoirs. Manuscript. - ' Chattanooga University. Book I. 1886-1887. Newspaper clippings. Book II. 1890- Record of the Alumni, U. S. Grant University, 1886-1896. Knoxville: Ogden Bros, and Co., 1896. The Red Book, University at Athens, Tennessee, during Injunction Period, June 1904 - December 1905. Manuscript. Class Records, 1871-1918, Manuscript. List of degree graduates, 1866-1906; Diploma graduates, 1907-1918. Historical Sketches. Manuscript. Tributes and Memorials. Manuscript. Caldwell, John C. China Coast Family. Chicago: Henry Regner\', 1953. " Catalogue: Athens Female College. 1859-1860. Catalogues: East Tennessee Wesleyan College. 1866-1867. East Tennessee Wesleyan University. 1867-1886. Grant Memorial University. 1886-1889. U. S. Grant University. 1889-1909. Athens School of the University of Chattanooga. 1909-1925. Tennessee Wesleyan College. 1926-1957. College Newspapers, 1896-1957. CiH'ts, Lewis. The General Conferences of the Methodist Episcopal Church from J 792-1 896. New York: Cranston and Mains, 1900. Dabney, Charles William. Universal Education in the South. 2 vols. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1936. Discipline of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Nashville: J. B. MTerrin, 1858. Faculty Minutes, East Tennessee Wesleyan University. March 1, 1869-December 1, 1881. Book II. *Dcceased April 28, 1957. Appendix 295 Faculty Minutes, Grant Memorial University. August 1886- June 1889. Book IV. Faculty Minutes, U. S. Grant University. September 1889-December 21, 1896. Book V. Faculty Minutes, University and The Athens School, Jan. 1, 1897 to May 1907. Book VI. Faculty Minutes, The Athens School. September 1907-June 1918. Book VII. Faculty Mmutes, The Athens School. July 1918-January 1920. Book VIII. Faculty Minutes, Tennessee Wesleyan College. 1925-1927, 1927- 1930, 1930-1934, 1935-1940, 1940-1947, 1947-1950, 1950-1957. Godbold, Albea. The Church College of the Old South. Durham: Duke University Press^ 1944. Govan and Livingood. University of Chattanooga, Sixty Years. Chattanooga: University of Chattanooga, 1947. Grant Memorial University, Its History, and the Commendations of Leading Statesmen and Divines. Philadelphia: A. T. Zeising and Co., 1896. Greene, Roemer and Long. A Report on a Program of Higher Edu- cation for the Holston Conference of The Methodist Church, 1943, Mimeographed. Journals of the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 1876-1904. Journals of the Holston Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 1865-1956. Ketron, McCarron, Robinette. Grant University Paper Adopted by Alumni Association. 1905. Minutes of the Holston Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. 1862. Patten, Cartter. A Tennessee Chronicle. 1953. Presidents' Reports, 1897-1957. Price, R. N. Holston Methodism. 4 vols. Nashville and Dallas: Smith and Lamarr, 1903. Reynolds, James W. and Seaton, John L., Tennessee Wesleyan College, Report of Survey, 1948, Mimeographed. Simpson, Matthew. Encyclopedia of Methodism. Philadelphia: Lewis Heverts, 1892. Snavely, Guy E. A Short History of the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. 1945. 296 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College Snavely, Guy E. The Church and the Four-Year College. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1955. Sweet, William Warren. Methodists iii American History. New York, Cincinnati, and Chicago: The Methodist Book Concern, 1933. The Methodist Advocate Journal, 1902-1924. The University of Chattanooga Alumni Directory 1866-1922. Chattanooga: 1922. About the Author President Martin claims no technical com- petence as a historian^ but his personal background fits him to compile this his- tory. Born in East Tennessee, son of a graduate of The School of Theology of U. S. Grant University of the class of 1895, President Martin traces his paternal ancestry to pioneer families in McMinn County, where his father was bom in 1866; educated at Tennessee Wesleyan, the University of Chattanooga, Boston University and Drew University, he has served as President of Tennessee Wesleyan since 1950. As a boy he lived near the campus, where his father served as col- lege pastor, and he has known many of Wesleyan's presidents, teachers, students, alumni and trustees. He has attempted to allow the records of a centuiy to tell their story of failure, success, tragedy and triumph, all ingredients in the century of sen-ice which trained a multitude of doc- tors, judges, lawyers, teachers and min- isters whose contributions cannot be measured even in words. CAMPUS SCENE 1885 OLD COLLEGE, HATFIELD HALL UNIVERSITY CHAPEL iig-T ri..