A History of Tennessee
By LeRoy Albert Martin
Tennessee Wesleyan College owes its be-
ginnings to an academy located on the
present site of the Wesleyan campus which
burned in the early 1850's. The Odd
Fellows Lodge, sponsor of several colleges
in Tennessee and Virginia, secured a
charter for a college January 2, 1854. The
Old College building of today was started,
but financial problems prompted the
Trustees to seek the support of the Holston
Cotiference of the Methodist Episcopal
Church, South, in 1857.
Evidence reveals Wesleyan to be the only
college which became officially related to
Methodism in 1857; the only college to
serve under the Methodist Episcopal
Church, South, the Methodist Episcopal
Church, and The Methodist Church.
The College has felt the impact of wars,
panics, depressions, many changes in char-
ter and name, the unpopularity of a
"Northern" school in a Southern com-
munity, demotion in status from university
to preparatory school, return to junior
college program, and finally as a senior
college since 1954. It has sui-vived, and
is now in a position to render service
during its second century.
A HISTORY OF
1857 - 1957
LeROY a. MARTIN
LeRoy a. Martin
PRINTED IN THE U.S.A.
John Alanson Patten^ LL.D.
Edith Manker Patten
The Reverend Burton McMahan Martin^ D.D.
Julia Haggard Martin
The idea of responsibility contains the essence
of morality. — Charles W. Hendel
Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2011 with funding from
LYRASIS IVIembers and Sloan Foundation
A Personal Preface
Tennessee Wesleyan College owes its early beginnings
to McMinn Lodge No. 54 of the Independent Order of
Odd Fellows which chartered a college January 2, 1854
to take the place of a private school which had burned.
An excellent building — Old College — was started, but
the Trustees in charge in 1857 felt the need of a larger
support and turned to the Holston Conference of the
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, for sponsorship.
For 100 years beginning in 1857 the institution has
been related to Methodism — the Methodist Episcopal
Church, South, the Methodist Episcopal Church, The
Many names, many charters, innumerable problems —
this institution has survived all of them and now concludes
its first century and prepares for the future.
My relationship to the college is more personal than
My paternal ancestors — Blackburns and McMahans
— were pioneer families in McMinn County; my grand-
mother's brother was secretary of the convention held in
St. John's Protestant Episcopal Church in Knoxville July
7, 1864 which initiated the reorganization of the Methodist
Episcopal Church in Athens June 1-5, 1865, (called by
Hodding Carter a great tragedy) ; my father, Burton Mc-
Mahan Martin, was a native of McMinn County. Follow-
ing theological training at U. S. Grant University, '95, he
served as a member of the Board of Visitors, as college
pastor for five years, and as a trustee for the eight years
preceding his death in 1924.
I have known or seen six of my eleven predecessors,
many of the institution's graduates, their children and
grandchildren, trustees, faculty, and twelve of the seventeen
vice-presidents, vice-chancellors, acting presidents and
vi A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
I have gone through thousands of pages of books, cata-
logues, Annual and General Conference Journals, memoirs,
alumni records, magazines, student publications, school
records, minutes of faculties and trustees and Executive
Committees, church papers, and chosen documents and
materials to tell their own story — readers may miss refer-
ence to events or persons especially meaningful personally;
that is unavoidable — as factually as possible by an amateur
The history could not have been compiled without the
availability of the materials collected and written by David
Alexander Bolton, '72, whose relationship to the institution
covered the years from 1869 to 1931. Bolton recorded its
history as student, faculty member, secretary of the faculty,
trustee and professor emeritus.
In recognition of a devotion to alma mater beyond
imitation, we include excerpts from his unpublished auto-
biography which reveals the teacher, trustee and church-
man known to thousands of students and friends, and as a
tribute to faculty members from the leading colleges of the
North and East who served on the faculties with unchang-
ing commitment to Liberal Arts, traditionally at salaries
too meager for anything but the plainest living.
I have had the generous assistance of many — Mrs.
A. H. Myers, resourceful librarian at Wesleyan; Miss Mary
Agnes Bayless, granddaughter of J. W. Bayless, '81, and
Agnes Byington Bayless, '81, for research in student activi-
ties for the years 1896-1906; to Dr. Enid Parker Bryan, for
study of materials in files of the University of Chattanooga,
graciously arranged by President David A. Lockmiller, son
of G. Frank Lockmiller, one of the seven incorporators of
1925, and Lotta Ulrey Lockmiller, '97, and /or her writing
of the section covering the years 1950-1957; to Gilbert
Govan and James W. Livingood for their excellent history
A Personal Preface vii
of the University of Chattanooga which contains much
relevant material which has been followed as authentic
and authoritative; to Dan M, Robinson, State Librarian
and Archivist, and Mrs. Gertrude Morton Parsley, Refer-
ence Librarian, of the Tennessee State Library and Arch-
ives, for copies of charters; and to Mrs. Frank Y. Jackson,
Jr., Misses Robbie Jean Ensminger and Doris Ann Crowell
for typing and retyping the manuscript — to all of these
persons I am deeply indebted and consider it a privilege to
express my appreciation for their assistance.
L. A. M.
McMinn County, Tennessee,
March 23, 1957.
A PERSONAL PREFACE
AS ATHENS FEMALE COLLEGE
Formation of Methodist Episcopal Church, South . . . Holston
Conference accepts Athens Female College in 1857 . . . the charter
. . . an early catalogue . . . President Rowley . . . Holston Conference
Education reports . . . life in the Confederacy . . . Northern victories
. . . Rowley litigation . . . sale of property.
~ Chapter II
IN THE WESLEYAN TRADITION
The reorganization of the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1865
. . . President Wilson . . . life during Reconstruction . . . the Methodist
Episcopal Church buys Athens Female College property . . . the
charter . . . President Cohleigh . . . faith of the Holston Conference
. , . financial problems . . . class of 1871 . . . President Dean t . .
President Manker . . . President Spence . . . debts paid . . . Bixby
. . . chapel . . . high academic standards . . . Spartan college life . . .
property valued at $50,000.00.
AS A MEMORIAL TO GRANT
Spence secures political endorsement to recognize Grant . . .
Chattanooga University . . . its charter . . . President Lewis . . . merger
of Chattanooga University and Grant Memorial . . . charter of U. S.
Grant University . . . Bennett Hall . . . Ritter Hall . . . Spence leaves
. . . Joyce as Chancellor . . . President Race . . . Educational Confer-
ence of 1898 . . . Race's reports . . . strengthens College of Liberal
Arts . . . Banfield.Hall . . . Blakeslee Hall . . . Warren's sermon . . .
injunction and results . . . 1906 class.
AS THE ATHENS SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY
Two-year college program . . . Wright resigns . . . Bovard . . .
$500,000 campaign . . . Petty Manker . . . President Hixson . . . offer-
ings restricted . . . death of Dr. John A. Patten . . . Hooper acting
president . . . President Brown . . . local autonomy . . . $750,000 cam-
paign . . . practice school . . . gymnasium and auditorium . . .
separation from University of Chattanooga . . . Mrs. John A. Patten
. . . Bishop Thirkield . . . proposal accepted.
AS TENNESSEE WESLEYAN COLLEGE
Charter . . . President Robb . . . the name . . . the academic
program . . . an inauguration . . . period of transition . . . campaign
of 1928 . . . Ochs remembers Rule . . . senior college status . . . the
Pfeiffers and their gifts . . . Townsend bequest . . . a daughter's
tribute . . . Forward Movement of 1938 . . . unification . . . survey
of 1943 . . . T. I. A. A. . . . war . . . survey of 1948 . . . retirement
of Robb and his election to office of President Emeritus . . . President
Martin elected in 1950 . . . four-year consideration . . . Fowler's
letter . . . Athens Advisory Board . . . approval af senior college
program in 1954 . . . faculty changes . . . physical improvements
. . . Fowlers . . . Black . . . Tom Sherman . . . construction plans
. . . Long Range Development of Holston Conference . . . enroll-
ment . . . majors and requirements for graduation . . . athletics . . .
the choir . . . 100th anniversary and awarding of Bachelor's Degrees
. . . the future? . . . charter of today.
DAVID A. BOLTON
Early Life . . . Departure for Kentucky . . . To Cincinnati and
Indianapolis . . . My Experience in Indianapolis . . . To Muncie and
a Country Home . . . With Shireys . . . December 1863 to September,
1864 . . . Soldier in the Civil War . . . Battle of Nashville . . . On the
March . . .The Stay at Huntsville . . . The Civil War . . . Homeward
Bound . . . Desolation Due to Civil War . . . .Desire for an Education
. . . At Laurel Hill Academy . . . At Franklin Academy . . . My First
Experience in Teaching . . . Eventful summer of 1869 . . . A Student
at Athens From August 1869 to June 19, 1872 . . . Methodist Con-
vention at the University . . . First Class . . . 1871 . . . Graduated
. . . 1871 . . . Junior Class . . . Last Year in University . . . The Year
in Washington Comity . . . Places Where Myself and Family Resided
. . . Keeping Boarders . . . The Call to Teach . . . Continuance
Therein . . . Relationship to My Teachers and to Faculties . . . Ex-
perience and Importance of Teaching . . . Three Great Fields of
Activity and Service . . . My Marriage.
a. Board of Trustees
b. Presidents of Board
d. Seruor Class
f. Quadrennial Program on Higher Education of The Methodist
A HISTORY OF
As Athens Female College
The churches were moved by several motives and
ideals in establishing colleges. Without doubt the primary
aim in the founding of these institutions was the education
of ministers. Second, they considered education a function
of the church. Third, they desired to lower the cost of
education and bring it within reach of the common man.
Fourth, they felt that the church as a strong and important
part of the body politic was in a position to render, and
ought to render, service in the field of education. Fifth,
church colleges were considered vital factors in keeping
students loyal to their respective denominations. Sixth,
colleges were important and strategic agencies for the
building of denominational prestige and the extension of
denominational views. Seventh, colleges were made to serve
the interests of denominational rivalry. Eighth, colleges
were an important means of evangelism. Ninth, to some
extent colleges in the South served sectional interests.
Tenth, the churches built colleges to offset and rival the
influence of state universities in the old South. ^
1 Godbold, Albea, The Church College of The Old South — Duke University Press,
Durham, N. C. 1944, p.p. 186, 187, used by permission.
4 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
Following long and often bitter debate in the General
Conferences of the Methodist Episcopal Church concern-
ing slavery, the Methodists of the South decided to with-
draw on the basis of the General Conference "Plan of
Separation" adopted by the General Conference in 1844.
The spirit of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South
as organized May 1, 1845, is succinctly set forth in the Pre-
amble to the Doctrines and Discipline of the Methodist
Episcopal Church, South.
"In the judgment of the delegates of the several An-
nual Conferences in the slaveholding States, the continued
agitation of the subject of slavery and abolition in a portion
of the Church, the frequent action on that subject in the
General Conference, and especially the proceedings of the
General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church
of 1844, in the case of the Rev. James O. Andrew, D.D.,
one of the Bishops, who had become connected with slavery
by marriage, produced a state of things in the South which
rendered a continuance of the jurisdiction of that General
Conference over the Conferences aforesaid, inconsistent
with the success of the ministry in their proper calling.
This conviction they declared in solemn form to the General
Conference, accompanied with a protest against the action
referred to, assured that public opinion in the slaveholding
States would demand, and that a due regard to the vital
interests of Christ's kingdom would justify, a separate and
independent organization. The developments of a few
months vindicated their anticipations. The Church in the
South and South-west, in her primary assemblies, her
Quarterly and Aimual Conferences, with a unaminity un-
paralleled in ecclesiastical history, approved the course of
the delegates, and declared her conviction that a separate
jurisdiction was necessary to her existence and prosperity.
The General Conference of 1844 having adopted a "Plan
As Athens Female College 5
of Separation" provided for the erection of the Annual
Conferences in the slaveholding States into a separate
ecclesiastical connection, under the jurisdiction of a South-
ern General Conference, the delegates of the aforemen-
tioned Conferences, in a published address, recommended
that a convention of delegates from the said Conferences,
duly instructed as to the wishes of the ministry and laity,
should assemble at Louisville, Ky., on the first day of May,
"Tlie convention met, delegates having been formally
appointed in pursuance of this recommendation; and after
a full and minute representation of all the facts in the
premises, acting under the provisional "Plan of Separa-
tion," declared, by solemn resolution, the jurisdiction hith-
erto exercised by the General Conference of the Methodist
Episcopal Church over the Conferences in the slaveholding
States entirely dissolved^ and erected the said Annual Con-
ferences into a separate ecclesiastical connection, under the
style and title of The Methodist Episcopal Church, South;
the first General Conference of which was held in the
town of Petersburg, Va., on the first day of May, 1846." ^
The Holston Annual Conference of the Methodist
Episcopal Church, South met in Marion, Virginia, October
22, 1857, with Bishop John Early as the President. At this
session the Trustees of the Athens Female College, of
Athens, Tennessee, offered to transfer the property of the
College to the Holston Conference of the Methodist Episco-
pal Church, South. The Trustees in possession of the
college at that time had secured the property from the
McMinn County Lodge of the Odd Fellows for $3,500.00,
which had been chartered as a college by the State of
Tennessee January 2, 1854, for McMinn Lodge No. 54
of Independent Order of Odd Fellows to operate under
'The Doctrines and Discipline of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 1SS8,
Section II, pages 13' 16
6 ■ A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
the name of Odd Fellows Female College. At that time
the college campus consisted of two acres of ground in
the town of Athens and a three story brick building,
60 X 40 feet, which was incomplete, known today as Old
College. The Trustees did not ask the Holston Conference
to accept any financial responsibility but requested the
Conference to appoint a President and an Agent to raise
$2,000.00 for the completion of the building. It was further
recommended that two additional acres be purchased which
would be used as the site for a dining hall. This was the
beginning in church affiliation of an institution which has
existed under one of the branches of the Methodist Church
from 1857 to this date.
The Charter was passed at the first session of the
Thirty-Second General Assembly of the State of Tennessee.
Chapter 92. (An Act to amend the charter of Bethel
College, and for other purposes. . . .) Sec. 4. Be it further
enacted. That there shall be established in the town of
Athens, I'ennessee, an institution of learning for young
ladies, and the same shall be known and designated by the
style of the "Athens Female College."
Sec. 5. Be it further enacted. That John F. Slover,
William M. Sehorn, R. M. Fisher, William H. Ballew,
Alexander H. Keith, R. C. Jackson, Geo. W. Bridges, M. L.
Phelps, T. Sullins, Thomas L. Hoyle, W. E. Hall, S. K.
Reeder, Willie Lowry, Andrew Hutsell, John L. Bridges,
and Samuel P. Ivins, Trustees of said College, appointed
and confirmed by the Holston Conference of the Methodist
Episcopal Church, South, are hereby constituted a body
corporate and politic, in deed and in law, with perpetual
succession, by the name and style of the "Athens Female
College," by which name and style, they, the said Trustees,
and their successors in office, shall be capable, in law and
As Athens Female College 7
in equity, to take to themselves and their successors, for the
use and benefit of said College, any estate in lands, tene-
ments, hereditaments, goods, chattels, moneys, or other
effects, by gift, grant, bargain, sale, will, devise or bequest
of any person or persons, or bodies politic and corporate,
and the same lands, tenements, hereditaments, goods, chat-
tels, moneys, or other effects, to grant, bargain, sell, convey,
devise, or place out at interest, or otherwise dispose of, for
the use of said College, in such manner as they may deem
most beneficial, and by the same name may sue and be
sued, plead and be impleaded, in any court of law or equity,
in all manner of suits or actions whatever; and by and in
the same manner may do and transact all and every, the
business touching and concerning the premises, not herein-
after provided for, as fully and effectually as any natural
person or body corporate in this State, have power to
manage their own concerns or business.
Sec. 6. Be it further enacted. That said "Athens
Female College," and Trustees herein named, and their
successors in office shall be under the control and patron-
age of the Holston Conference of the Methodist Episcopal
Church South, and that said Conference shall have power
to appoint the President and Professors of said College, and
the Board of Trustees shall confirm the same by ballot;
and that all vacancies in the Board of Trustees, or in the
faculty, shall be filled by said Conference, but if any vac-
ancy shall occur before the annual meeting of said Con-
ference, said Board of Trustees may fill such vacancy until
the annual meeting of the next conference thereafter.
Sec. 7. Be it further enacted, That no misnomer of
said Corporation, shall defeat any gift, grant or bequest
to or from said Corporation, nor shall any misuser or non-
user of the rights, liberties or privileges hereby granted to
said Corporation, create or cause a forfeiture of the same,
8 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
and the lands, lots and grounds belonging to said College
buildings, together with the buildings, school fixtures, and
appurtenaces of said Corporation shall be exempt from
taxation for State or county purposes, and all and every
taxation whatever. ^
Sec. 8. Be it further enacted. That said Board of
Trustees, by the recommendation of the Professors and
Teachers of said College, shall grant to such students, as
they may deem worthy of the same, all and every, the mark
of distinction usual in other Colleges; and all and every
literary degree or degrees, usual in any college or institution
of learning in this State, that of graduate or other degrees,
and full power is here given and granted to said Board of
Trustees to make such needful rules and regulations in the
conferring such honorary degrees and honors as they may
think most advisable and most to the interest of said Col-
lege, that the certificates, honorary cards and diplomas
granted, shall be signed by the President of the College and
Professors and Secretary of the Board of Trustees, with the
seal of the Corporation affixed, and when so signed and
sealed, shall have all the authority and rights, influence
and respectability, which is secured by law, to the certifi-
cate, diploma, &c., of any other institution of learning in
Sec. 9. Be it further enacted. That said Board of
Trustees shall cause to be made for their use, one common
seal, with such device and inscription as they may think
proper to engrave thereon, under and by which, all deeds,
diplomas, certificates, honorary cards and acts of said Cor-
poration shall pass and be authenticated, and that a copy
of this charter, granted by the Legislature of Tennessee,
be copied on parchment, and filed in the archives of said
Historic Print, Old College, Tennessee Wesleyan
BENNETT HALL AND UNIVERSITY CHAPEL, 1917
As Athens Female College 9
College, with the signatures of the Board of Trustees
thereon . . . . ^
The records of the early days of Athens Female Col-
lege are extremely limited. Only one copy of a catalog is
known to exist, the second annual catalog dated July 5,
1860, which gives these facts.
The Board of Trustees consisted of William H. Ballew,
President, John F. Slover, Secretary, Stephen K. Reeder,
Treasurer, Alexander H. Keith, Richard M. Fisher, Wil-
liam N. Sehorn, Milton L. Phillips, George W. Bridges,
Esq., Reverend Timothy SuUins, R. C. Jackson, Sam P.
Ivins, W. E. Hall, M.D., John L. Bridges, Willie Lowry,
Esq., Andrew Hutsell.
The Board of Visitors appointed by the Holston An-
nual Conference for 1860-61 included: Reverend J. H.
Bruner, A.M., Hiwassee College, Reverend R. M. Stevens,
Knox County, Reverend E. F. Sevier, Chattanooga, Rev-
erend R. M. Hickey, Wytheville, Virginia, Colonel J. M.
Brett, Sweetwater, W. F. Lenoir, Esq., Philadelphia, and
Reverend W. H. Kelley, Philadelphia.
The President of the College was the Reverend Erastus
Rowley, A.M., D.D. Dr. Rowley was born in Richmond,
Massachusetts. He prepared for college at Wilbraham
Academy and was graduated from Union College, Sche-
nectady, New York, in 1834. (The father of William and
Henry James was a student at Union College at the same
time.) After graduation he served as principal of the Lan-
sinburg Academy, as a member of the faculty of the Epis-
copal Institute of Troy in New York, and as head of
institutes in South Carolina and in North Carolina. He
was elected president of Athens Female College in 1858.
He remained here until 1865 when he accepted the position
1 Public Acts of the State of Tennessee, passed at the first session of the
ThirtySecond General Assembly, for the years 1857'8. Nashville, G. G. Torbett
y Company, printers, 1858. pp. 210'211.
10 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
of president of De Pauw College in New Albany, Indiana,
where he served until 1879. We have no record of his life
after that date.
Several pages were devoted to General Remarks.
This Institution, under the charge of the Holston
Conference, opened its second annual session the 28th,
August, 1859, the second annual catalog, which its trustees
now present to the public, manifesting results as favorable
as the most ardent friends of the Institution could have
This College is located in the pleasant village of
Athens; a village unsurpassed for its health, and for the
intelligence and morality of its citizens.
The College Building, a magnificent edifice, contain-
ing seven rooms, besides a spacious Chapel, occupies a
commanding eminence, affording a full view of the village
and the surrounding beautiful scenery.
There will hereafter be two Sessions in the year, the
Fall Session beginning the first Monday in September,
and the Spring Session commencing the first Monday of
There will be two vacations: one of two weeks, after
the 23rd of December; and the other of eight weeks, after
the close of the Spring Session.
The Annual Public Examination will be held the two
days preceding Commencement, which will hereafter be
the last Thursday in June.
As Athens Female College 11
This Institution having been chartered with full Col-
lege privileges, will grant Diplomas, thereby conferring the
degree of Mistress of Arts on those pupils who complete
the Scientific course, and the higher degree of Mistress of
Arts and Classical Literature on those who also complete
the Classical course.
While Literary Branches will claim preeminence, spe-
cial attention will be paid to Drawing and Painting, Em-
broidery, and Vocal and Instrumental Music.
Five Pianos and one Superior Melodeon, are in daily
use for Instruction and Practice.
The government of the Institution is of a mild and
parental character, administered with mildness and effici-
ency, equally removed from weakness on one hand, and
from austerity and rashness on the other.
METHOD OF INSTRUCTION
Every valuable improvement in the method of in-
struction will be adopted, and the great aim will be to
develop the mental and moral powers of the pupil, and
to educate the mind to habits of thinking, with clearness
The exercises of each day will be conducted by read-
ing the Bible and prayer. Every pupil will be required to
attend public worship, at least once on the Sabbath, at
the church designated by the parent or guardian.
VISITING AND CORRESPONDENCE
Young ladies boarding with the President cannot be
allowed to visit, except among their near relatives. - Neither
12 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
will any correspondence be allowed between them and
gentlemen, unauthorized by their parents or guardians. We
cannot hold ourselves responsible to parents unless their
daughters are subjected to these regulations.
We urge upon parents the propriety of supplying their
daughters with plain, substantial clothing, retaining all
gaudy and costly decorations and jewelry at home. - Such
things are a source of great trouble to the Faculty and
injury to the pupil.
Every pupil boarding at the College should have every
article of clothing distinctly marked, and should be sup-
plied with an umbrella, a pair of rubber overshoes, and a
thick shawl or cloak.
The most rigid economy will be encouraged, and all
purchases at the stores will hereafter be made through
someone designated by the President. Young Ladies, in
the future cannot be allowed to visit the stores.
No pupil hereafter will be received for a less time than
the unexpired session after admission.
Every pupil, previous to admission, must subscribe
her name to the rules and regulations of the College, as an
expression of her desire to obtain its benefits, and a desire
to conform to its law.
The Holston Conference of the Methodist Episcopal
Church, South, met in Athens, Tennessee, in October 1862.
The Report of the Committee on Education, the most
complete report given at the Session, is as follows:
"The Committee on Education report, that the in-
terests of education, within the bounds of our Conference,
have suffered greatly in consequence of our national troubles
is a fact but too well known to the Conference as well as to
As Athens Female College 13
your Committee. But from the facts which the Committee
have been able to ehcit, they are led to believe that these
great interests have not been undervalued nor have they
been lost sight of, but are only temporarily obscured by
others more absorbing in their character.
"The report from the Holston Conference Female Col-
lege represents that institution in a condition even more
favorable than the circumstances of the times might allow
us to expect. The last collegiate year closed with about 70
pupils, and the present session is progressing with the pros-
pect of even a larger number. The Board of Instruction
has been necessarily diminished to suit the number of pupils
in attendance, and the charges for board and tuition have
been somewhat increased, yet we feel satisfied that the Insti-
tution is prudently managed, that its interests are in safe
hands, and that with the return of peace it will quickly
regain its former prosperity.
"The report from the Athens Female College is en-
couraging; 85 pupils were in attendance during the year
June 27th, about 40 are now attending, with a good pros-
pect of an increase in the number after the adjournment
of Conference. We commend this school as well deserving
the fostering care of Conference.
"In the absence of any formal report from Martha
Washington Female College, we beg leave to state that
from representations made by its President to members
of this Committee, it appears that the school is progressing
under the management of President Harris, with about 40
pupils in attendance. The receipts, as we are informed,
have hitherto been rather more than sufficient to meet the
current expenses. We cannot learn, however, that anything
has been done towards liquidating the debt incurred in the
purchase of the buildings. — The notes executed for the
property have passed from the original owner into the
14 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
hands of Messrs. Stewart, Buchanan, & Co., who are not
only not sohcitous about their present collection provided
the interest be paid, but express a perfect willingness to
receive back the property in lieu of the bond, both principal
and interest if the trustees desire it, a fact indicating that
the purchase of the property has not been injudicious.
"Your Committee regret to state that the school at
Emory and Henry College has of necessity been entirely
suspended during the past year. The students have left its
halls and are gone to fight the battles of the country. Efforts
have been made to reopen the school but without success,
and we are unwillingly forced to the conclusion that its
operations must remain suspended until the return of peace
and the successful establishment of our independence.
"During the greater part of the past year the college
buildings have been used as a hospital for sick and wounded
soldiers, for which the Confederate Authorities pay the
Trustees an annual rent of $2500. The farm is rented to
other parties for $500. per annum, making an aggregate
annual income of $3000. — The buildings and grounds have
been carefully protected from injury while occupied by the
"Your Committee recommend that the communication
from the Trustees of Shoal Creek Academy be received
with favor, but prefer that the question of appointing the
Rev. Wm. Hicks as Principal be left with the authority to
which it properly belongs.
"In conclusion your Committee would most earnestly
recommend the members of the Holston Annual Conference
to give all the encouragement and support to the cause of
education that these times of darkness will admit of: a
As Athens Female College 15
cause on which the future success and power of our Con-
federacy must greatly depend.
JAS. A. DAVIS
Chairman of Committee"^
The following Board of Visitors was appointed in
1862 for Athens Female College: Rev'ds T. Sullins, J. H.
Burnett, G. Taylor, J. Atkins, A. G. Worley, J. F. Woodfin.
The same Conference Minutes announced that Rev-
erend Erastus Rowley, D.D., had been appointed to preach
the annual sermon on the first day of the Conference to
be held in 1863.
The Daily Post, an Athens newspaper, under date of
Friday, April 10, 1863, contains information concerning the
College and refers to the general optimism of the South
concerning the success of the Confederacy.
The Athens Female College was reported to be "nearly
full to its capacity." This fact was followed by this state-
ment: "The larger and better portion of the young men
of the country are in the Army, fighting the battles of
freedom and independence. And whatever else you leave
undone, don't neglect to educate your daughters."
An editorial entitled "Confederate Bonds" revealed
the confidence of the Confederacy.
"We are gratified to learn that so many persons are
disposed to invest their surplus money in Confederate
Bonds. It is the safest, best, and most profitable disposition
that can be made of it at present. — The interest, eight per
cent, will be paid promptly semi-annually, and there can
be no reasonable doubt of the redemption of the Bonds at
maturity. Whenever the war closes, which is certain by
the expiration of the present year at least, no matter how
iMinutes of Holston Annual Conference,
16 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
the wiseacres may shake their heads and carpers emit their
doleful predictions, Confederate Bonds will command a
heavy premium. Suppose a man invests ten thousand dol-
lars in Bonds, he secures to himself the snug little sum of
eight hundred dollars — enough in ordinary times to sup-
port a good sized family quite genteely in this country. It
will be remembered that the Bonds are exempt from the
tax which Government levies upon other credits and prop-
erty; and by this investment the purchaser helps himself
and helps to relieve the public treasury from some of the
difficulties which surround it in carrying on the war. Sus-
taining the currency is essential to a successful termination
of the struggle — a fact too palpable to admit of argument.
Invest your surplus in Bonds, by all means, and when grim
visaged war shall smoothe his wrinkled front and peace
once more beam upon the land, they will be better to you
than so many hoarded dollars, or lands and negroes, besides
the satisfaction of having assisted your country in its hour
of greatest need."
Six months later the situation had changed consider-
ably. The successes of General Grant, in Chattanooga, and
General Sherman had enabled the Federal forces to con-
trol East Tennessee. General Sherman records in Decem-
ber of 1863 that he had ordered General Howard to Athens
and later reports that he had ordered General Ewing's
division to Athens. General Sherman's forces had been
marched from Chattanooga to Knoxville and returned. He
says that "by the ninth all our troops \vere in position, and
we held the rich country between the Little Tennessee and
The Methodists of Tennessee who had aligned them-
selves with Union loyalties had become restive in the Meth-
odist Episcopal Church, South following the conference
session held in Athens in 1862. The successes of Grant and
PERCIVAL C. WILSON
Second President of the College
As Athens Female College 17
Sherman released their loyalties and provided them with
a spirit of agitation to reorganize the Methodist Episcopal
Church in Tennessee as soon as hostilities ceased.
The subsequent reorganization of the Methodist Epis-
copal Church resulted in the property of Athens Female
College being purchased from President Rowley. It was
natural that the Holston Conference of the Methodist
Episcopal Church, South was reluctant to lose this property
and the Journals of the annual conference sessions in
1865 and 1866 contain reports on the situation of the
College. In 1865 the following action was taken:
"The Athens Female College is represented as em-
barrassed by conflicting claims. Doctor Rowley, its Presi-
dent, has upon a personal claim against the institution filed
a bill in chancery asking that a sale of the property be
made in thirty days without redemption. Your Committee
would recommend that immediate steps be taken by this
Conference to induce the Trustees of the College to demand
an investigation of the claims of Doctor Rowley and to file
a cross bill asking that the right of redemption be reserved
to them in the case the property is sold. The Committee
would further recommend that the Reverend C. Long and
Reverend James Atkins be appointed as Agents to see the
wishes of this Conference be carried into immediate effect."
President Rowley was represented in Chancery Court
by H. Blizard. Chancellor D. C. Trewhitt decreed that
President Rowley's claims against the College were valid;
it being brought out in the petition that Rowley with his
own funds had bought additional acreage for the College
and provided repairs and equipment during his administra-
tion and held notes against the College totaling about
$6,000. The court ordered a chancery sale of the Athens
Female College to satisfy these claims. M. L. Phillips
advertised the sale for August 10, 1866.
In the Wesleyan Tradition
Summing up the activities of the college president of
a hundred fifty, or a hundred, yes even of seventy-five years
ago we can conclude that these are the things he did:
solicited funds for the operation of the college, recruited
students, prepared the budget, supervised expenditures,
purchased such materials and supplies as were used, recom-
mended policies to trustees, corresponded with those inter-
ested in the institution, admitted students and gave guid-
ance to them, administered discipline, taught what we
would regard today as a full load, conducted the chapel
programs, preached every Sunday, carried on a public rela-
tions program, participated in community and state affairs,
prepared the curriculum, employed teachers and all other
help. In other words the president of former time was not
only the president but he was also, the vice-president, the
registrar or dean of admission, the dean of the college, the
comptroller, the superintendent of buildings and grounds,
the chaplain, the director of guidance, personnel director,
director of public relations and teacher. What a man!
Today the college president of former years would be
referred to by our faculties as a dictator; undoubtedly he
was one. His authority was rarely if ever challenged, and
— H. L. DONOVAN
20 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
As the federal forces triumphed, the Methodists of
East Tennessee, friendly to the Union cause, began to hold
services, organize Sunday Schools, and issued through the
Knoxville Whig May 27, 1864 an invitation to a convention
of those termed "Loyal Methodists" to decide what course
they would pursue. A call issued for the Convention was as
"The undersigned, members and ministers of the
Methodist Church, respectfully invite Methodist preachers
and laymen, who are loyal to the government of the United
States, within the bounds of the Holston Conference, to
meet them in Convention at Knoxville, on the first Thurs-
day in July, to take into consideration the troubles, wants
and interests of our Church; and also the action of the
late General Conference at Philadelphia in regard to our
wants and our condition growing out of the rebellion.
W. G. Brownlow
J. A. Hyden
E. E. Gillenwaters
W. T. Dowell
William H. Rogers"
The Convention met in St. John's Protestant Episcopal
Church, Knoxville, Tennessee, July 7, 1864. The following
persons were present as delegates:
Messrs. James Murphy, James S. Hunt, F. Rule, D. B.
Hunt, J. A. Ruble, Sr., A. R. Byington, Andrew Hutsell,
J. W. Gibson, Elias Gibson, Dr. James Mahoney, James
Baker, Alex. Kennedy, Wm. H. Hawk, G. G. Hawk, J. B.
Sharp, James Plumley, W. W. Hawes, Daniel P. Gass,
W. H. Finley, Jacob French, Michael French, Henry Har-
rison, William Cheney, W. H. Carter, J. H. Howell, Solo-
In the Wesleyan Tradition 21
mon Clapp, James Curry, James Grigsby, V. S. Lotspeich,
A. C. E. Callen, J. C. Hankins, Benjamin Wells.
The following ministers, traveling and local: Revs.
E. E. Gillenwaters, W. G. Brownlow, J. Albert Hyden,
W. H. Rogers, W. C. Daily, E. Still, John Bower, W. T.
Dowell, E. A. Adee, T. P. Rutherford, T. A. Cass, E. Stock-
bridge, J. F. Morrison, T. H, Russell, Henry Walker, Wm.
Crutchfield, Joseph Milburn, Spencer Henry, P. H. Reed,
John Cox, James Gumming, Wm. Cureton, R. G. Black-
The Convention was organized by the election of E. E.
Gillenwaters, both a minister and a lawyer, as chairman,
and R. G. Blackburn, as secretary. It was reported that
Governor Brownlow had recently visited Bishop Matthew
Simpson at Philadelphia and Bishop Davis W. Clark at
Cincinnati, and that Rev. W. C. Daily had been direct-
ing the work of reorganization in a tentative way in
Bradley and other counties in lower East Tennessee. It
was also made known that a canvas was being made to
ascertain the number of ministers in East Tennessee who
were in sympathy with the movement, and it was reported
in the Convention that sixty ordained ministers, traveling
and local, were ready to enter the ranks of the proposed
organized movement, and sixty-five others unordained. It
was asserted that about forty others whom it had not
been possible to see, could be counted on. Several com-
mittees were appointed, and among them one of eleven
representative men, called the General Committee, whose
particular duty it was to consider and report as to the line
of action to be chosen.
REPORT OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE.
This committee reported, in part, as follows:
"Pursuant to public notice, a Convention of loyal
Methodist laymen and preachers, local and traveling, con-
22 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
vened in the City of Knoxville, Tennessee, on the 7th of
July, 1864, to take into consideration the wants, prospects
and interests of the Methodist Church within the bounds
of the Holston Annual Conference. The General Com-
mittee, to whom this subject was referred, have had the
matter under serious and prayerful consideration, and beg
leave to submit the following brief report:
"At an early period in this wicked rebellion the Meth-
odist Episcopal Church, South, took her stand upon the
treasonable and therefore false foundation of secession; her
pulpits bellowed with more terrific thunder on the side of
disunion than those of almost any other church, hurling
fiery invectives at the Union and the North — carrying the
most of her leading and influential ministers and members
into the unhallowed embrace of treason. Under the ad-
ministration of this, our former church, some of our min-
isters have been proscribed, some refused circuits and
stations, and others expelled — all for opinion's sake, and
because they were loyal to the United States. We have
determined, therefore, no longer to live under the iron rule
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, or to be associ-
ated in our Church relations with the men who control the
interest of said church and are likely to direct her future
"It, therefore, remains for us and the loyal thousands
of our brethren similarly situated, to do one of three things
— either to remain in the wilderness (not of Judea, but of
Dixie) and wander off into the mountains of sin and un-
belief, whence we came; or, next, to form ourselves into a
separate and independent organization; or, last of all, to
seek a reunion with the Methodist Episcopal Church in the
United States, whose doctrine, usages and faith are in ac-
cord with ours, and in the enjoyment and practice of which
we desire to live and die.
In the Wesleyan Tradition 23
"We, therefore, report in favor of returning to the
Methodist Episcopal Church, and asking, most respectfully,
to be recognized by her and provided for, as the Holston
Annual Conference, giving our loyal preachers the lead in
our new organization, subject to the control and authority
of the appointed heads of our church in the United States
and to her Discipline.
"1. Resolved, That the rebeUion of the Southern
States against the government of the United States was
without any just and sufficient cause, and therefore what
has followed is without any foundation in right, justice, or
laws of the land, or in the wants and necessities of the
people in this or any other country.
"2. Resolved, That all who willingly engaged in this
rebellion, have, in the eyes of the Supreme Laws of the
land, in the judgment of all enlightened nations, and
especially in the feelings of every loyal heart of this vast
continent, forfeited all the rights, privileges and immunities
of the government of the United States.
"3. Resolved, That the loyal members and ministers
of the Holston Conference are entitled in law to all prop-
erty belonging to said ecclesiastical organization, and vvdth
the Divine Blessing we intend to claim and hold the same,
and rebuild the waste places of Zion.
"4. Resolved, That the loyal people and preachers of
the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, within the bounds
of the Holston Conference, constitute said Church, and
this convention, acting for said church and people, hereby
propose at the earliest day practicable, to transfer the same
to the Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States,
and that a committee be appointed to complete the
negotiations, subject to the approval of those transferred.
"5. Resolved, That ministers having charge of Cir-
cuits, Stations and Missions, and all who may have in the
24 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
future, be instructed to propose to the churches in their
respective charges to change their church relations from
the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, by going en masse
to the Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States."
The report was unanimously adopted.
Following the Convention in Knoxville the work of
reorganizing Sunday schools and classes, circuits and sta-
tions, under the general direction of Rev. W. C. Daily,
was continued in anticipation of an early reorganization of
Patriotism and religion are two of the basic emotional
allegiances of the human mind. Patriotism can cause un-
dying love for one's country and great commitment to its
preservation. Religion has been characterized by equal
emotional devotion and strangely enough bitterness and
hatred have issued from religious professions.
The years which followed the end of the Civil War in
East Tennessee were made even more difficult by the com-
petition between the established Methodist Episcopal
Church, South and the Methodist Episcopal Church which
was reorganized in Athens, June 1-5, 1865, with Bishop
Davis W. Clark, of Cincinnati, presiding, which declared
itself favoring the organization of a college for the Central
Under the principalship of Percival Clark Wilson the
educational goal of the Holston Conference came to early
fruition in Athens, Tennessee.
Percival Clark Wilson was born at Thornville, Ohio,
October 20, 1830. Wilson was graduated from Ohio Wes-
leyan University with a Bachelor of Arts Degree in 1855,
and with a Master of Arts Degree in 1858. Following
travels in Europe Wilson joined the Faculty of Ohio
Wilson refused a commission and entered the United
JOHN JENKINS MANKER, Class 1871
Teacher, Trustee, and Fifth President
In the Wesleyan Tradition 25
States Army as a private in the second Ohio Heavy Artil-
lery and attained the rank of Second Lieutenant. While in
Tennessee during the War, he became impressed by the
scenery, climate and economic opportunities in East Ten-
nessee, and at the close of the War he located in Athens
and became a merchant. He was married to Letitia Smith
Atlee, the daughter of Reverend and Mrs. Edwin A. Atlee,
a Pennsylvania family. The facilities of Athens Female
College were used by Wilson for the organization of a
school which opened late in 1866 or in January 1867.
Eighty-six students were enrolled, fifty-two males and thirty-
four females, only three of this number were listed as col-
lege students, the remainder were enrolled in the prepara-
tory department. The opening of school in this area faced
many problems. The East Tennessee area having been
devastated by contending military forces, the supplies of
the people were limited, and primary attention had to be
given to economic recovery rather than to providing
education for the young people of the area.
David A. Bolton in his Memoirs describes the prob-
lems East Tennessee families faced at the close of the Civil
War and during the years of Reconstruction.
"The waste and ruin to homes and farms in East
Tennessee was very great. The Bolton farm at the be-
ginning of the Civil War was very productive and well
supplied for that day with sheep, hogs, cattle and horses.
Before I left home each Army forged over a large portion
of the Eastern part of the State. My brother John and
myself in the Fall of 1863 made every effort to save from
Confederate forces six good horses, especially two which we
prized very highly, and felt one day we had them safely
concealed, but in short time a few Calvarymen passed the
home leading our favorite horses. We felt keenly our loss.
"At the close of the War the farm was fully without
26 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
livestock. By slow processes and sacrifice the most needed
for support of the family was soon secured. During two
years the usual crops had not been produced. People were
short of provisions — some of which could not be secured
such as sugar, coffee, tea and other articles which could
not be grown there. Many citizens grew sugar cane and
made sorghum and devised a so-called substitute for coffee
from parched \vheat or particles of sweet potatoes, poor
makeshifts for the genuine goods. While I had a great
variety of good food in Indiana, my home folks and others
in East Tennessee were subsisting on scanty rations.
"No one knows the privations and sufferings of those
war time years in East Tennessee except those who
"The foregoing lines but vaguely describe the condi-
tions when I returned home. The country had been wasted
by the forces of opposing armies into which many boys,
young men and old men had gone to fight against each
other. Families and communities often had representatives
in each army. These conditions made civic life tense,
critical and unfriendly when the War ended.
"The material surroundings and the spiritual influences
about my old home were not as favorable as they were
before the beginning of hostilities."
Preceding the organization of a school by Professor
Wilson, President Rowley, of Athens Female College, had
transferred his conference membership from the Methodist
Episcopal Church, South to the reorganized Holston Con-
ference of the Methodist Episcopal Church and had been
appointed by Bishop Davis as President and Financial
Agent of Athens Female College at the session June 1-5,
The Conference Journal of 1867 refers to a report sub-
mitted by Professor P. C. Wilson, Chairman of the Confer-
In the Wesleyan Tradition 27
ence Committee which had been appointed in 1866 and
given the power to select and locate a college, and the
Committee on Education made the following roport:
The Committee reported that the Reverend Doctor
T. H. Pearne, who had transferred to the Holston Confer-
ence from the Oregon Conference, was serving as the
President of the Board of Trustees of this institution and
that he had been able to secure a Charter from the Legis-
lature of the State of Tennessee, "giving to the institution
University powers and privileges," and also reporting that
a flourishing preparatory department had been in operation
during the past year, under the supervision of Professor
The Conference expressed its gratification that the
Committee had been able to secure property worth $15,000
to $20,000 in the town of Athens, McMinn County, with a
good title, and with funds available to meet existing obliga-
tions, purchased through the bidding of the Reverend
Edwin A. Atlee, on June 4, 1867, in settlement of President
Rowley's claims against the Board of Trustees.
A Charter was passed March 9, 1867, by the General
Assembly of the State of Tennessee and signed by the Sec-
retary of State on April 13, 1867. The Charter for East
Tennessee Wesleyan College read as follows:
An Act Incorporating the East Tennessee Wesleyan College
at Athens Tennessee : and for other purposes.
Whereas sundry citizens of Tennessee have purchased suit-
able bjildings and grounds near Athens, Tennessee, in
McMinn County, State of Tennessee, for the purpose of
establishing and conducting therein, a first class College for
Males, which College is to be under the government and
control of the Holston Annual Conference of the Methodist
Episcopal Church, subject to such rules and restrictions as
are therein after set forth: and Whereas, The security of
28 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
society, the supremacy of the Laws, the preservation of our
civil and rehgious Hberties the perpetuation of our Institu-
tions and of the Union are materially dependant upon the
intelligence and virtue of the people: and Whereas it is
greatly to the interest of the State to encourage the erection
of Schools and. Colleges for the dissemination of Knowledge
and Education, Therefore.
Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Ten-
nessee: That a Corporation is hereby constituted and
established under the name and style of the East Tennessee
Wesleyan College, and in that name capable of suing and
being sued, pleading and be impleaded, and of buying,
holding improving, disposing of, governing and protecting
suitable grounds and buildings for higher educational pur-
poses, in or near the Town of Athens, McMinn County
State of Tennessee: and also capable of collecting gifts,
grants on bequests made to the purposes of Education in
Be it further enacted. That Thomas H. Pearne, J. Albert
Hyden, L. F. Drake, John T. Spence, W. C. Daily, James
Hornsby, Geo. W. Ross, Milton S. Phillips, M. A. Helm,
E. A. Allen, C. W. Vincent, William G. Brownlow, James
Turner, James Baker, R. R. Butler, N. A. Patterson, Samuel
Hutsell, John W. Mann, and J. B. Little and their Suc-
cessors in Office shall constitute the aforesaid corporation
and they shall have power to create by receiving gifts, grants
or bequests and to preserve a fund or funds to an amount
not exceeding five hundred thousand dollars, for the endow-
ment and maintenance of said East Tennessee Wesleyan
College, procure libraries and apparatus suitable therefor,
fix the course of studies for pupils engage, or discharge
professors, confer degrees and do all other things necessary
In the Wesleyan Tradition 29
to be done for the maintenance and prosperity of a col-
legiate or University Institution.
Be it further enacted, That said Trustees when called to-
gether by the first above named Trustees, and their succes-
sors from year to year thereafter, shall organize by electing
a President, Secretary and Treasurer out of their own body :
and they may adopt a corporate seal and such by-laws and
regulations as they find necessary, provided they are not
inconsistent with the constitution of the State of Tennessee
and of the United States, nor with the special objects of
this Act, and provided also, that not less than a majority
shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business, at
meetings of the Board.
Be it further enacted: That the above named Trustees
shall have succession as follows: At the first meeting of the
said Trustees, after the passage of this Act, they shall pro-
ceed by ballot, to devide themselves into three classes, num-
bered. One, Two, and Three, respectively as follows: Class
no one to consist of seven persons whose first term of Office
shall continue until October 1st A. D. 1867, and each
succeeding term of said class three years: Class no. two to
consist of six persons, whose first term of Office shall con-
tinue until October 1st 1868. and each succeeding term of
said class, three years: Class number three, to consist of
six persons whose first term of office shall continue until
October 1st 1869. and each succeeding term of said class,
three years: at which several times, the Holston Annual
Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church shall have
power to fill said vacancies or others which may occur and
thence forward from year to year, the several classes being
respectively elected for three years.
30 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
Be it further enacted, That the said Trustees and their
Successors, as well in the obtaining and preservation of
grounds, buildings, endowments, or other funds as in the
General direction and government of the said College shall
observe and carry out the Expressed will and pleasure of
the aforesaid Holston Annual Conference of the Methodist
Episcopal Church, so far as the same shall be communi-
cated to them and not be in conflict with the special object
of this Act.
Be it further enacted, That this Act shall take effect from
and after its passage. Passed March 9th 1867.
J. S. Mulloy,
Speaker Protem of the H. of R.
Joshua B. Frierson
Speaker of the Senate.
I, ANDREW J. FLETCHER, Secretary of State of
the State of Tennessee, do Certify that the foregoing is a
copy of So much of An Act of the General Assembly of the
State of Tennessee, as relates to the East Tennessee Wesley-
an College at Athens, Tennessee, the original of which is
now on file in my office.
In Testimony Thereof, I have hereunto subscribed my
Official Signature, and by order of the Governor,
affixed the Great Seal of the State of Tennessee;
at the Department in the City of Nashville, this
13 day of April A. D., 1867.
A. J. Fletcher
Secretary of State.
Due to business interests Professor Wilson did not de-
sire to continue as the head of East Tennessee Wesleyan
College although his interest in the school and in the later
In the Wesleyan Tradition 31
established institution in Chattanooga was to be continued
during the remainder of his Hfe.
Concerning the abiHty of Professor Wilson, Doctor
John J. Manker wrote as follows: "Possessed of intellectual
faculties of a high order, fine business qualities and untiring
energy, he rendered a service of great value to the Church."
The Board of Trustees and the Holston Conference
considered they were fortunate to secure the leadership of
the Reverend Nelson E. Cobleigh, already recognized
nationally as one of the distinguished leaders of the Metho-
dist Episcopal Church, who became president in 1867.
Cobleigh was born in Littleton, New Hampshire, Nov-
ember 24, 1814. He was the youngest of eleven children.
He began his preparatory studies in Newbury, Vermont, in
1838. In 1839 he entered Wesleyan University, in Middle-
town, Connecticut, where for four years he struggled against
poverty but graduated in 1843 with first honors. In 1844
Mr. Cobleigh joined the New England Conference of the
Methodist Episcopal Church and continued in the pastorate
for nine years. In 1853 he accepted the Chair of Ancient
Languages in McKendree College, in Lebanon, Illinois. The
following year he was elected to a professorship in Law-
rence College, in Appleton, Wisconsin. In 1857 he was
elected the president of McKendree College and entered
upon his responsibilities in 1858. In this position he revealed
qualities of mind and heart which enabled him to bring
McKendree College from a state of bankruptcy to a solvent
In 1863 Doctor Cobleigh was elected to the Editorship
of Zion's Herald in Boston, Massachusetts, which he re-
signed to accept the invitation to become the President of
East Tennessee Wesleyan University.
President Cobleigh realized that he had accepted a
responsibility which would demand courage, conviction and
32 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
heroism. The situation which President Cobleigh faced
was also reaHstically acknowledged by the Holston Confer-
ence Committee on Education.
The Committee realized that it was beginning a college
in a small way, but it took comfort in referring to the first
ten years of the history of Yale College and declared that
by comparison East Tennessee Wesleyan University had
within it the potential of becoming a strong institution.
This faith was expressed in the following sentence:
"Though the things of to-day be small with us, not so
The Conference adopted the following resolution:
"WHEREAS, The labor of building up an Institution
of the character this is designed to be is not the work of a
day or year; but a work requiring time, money and per-
severing effort. And
"WHEREAS, In other localities several annual con-
ferences combine in building up one institution, it appears
to your Committee of the highest importance that this Con-
ference should be fully impressed with the idea of unity of
feeling and action in this great enterprise. Therefore,
"Resolved 1, That as a Conference we pledge our-
selves, individually and collectively, to give our united in-
fluence to the work of building up, sustaining and amply
endowing the East Tennessee Wesleyan College.
"Resolved 2, That we will promptly discourage and
oppose any attempt to divide the interests of the Church,
by any movement whatever to establish another Institution
of the same grade for males, within the bounds of the
The College apparently was made co-educational in
1868 and the name of the school was authorized by the
State Legislature to read East Tennessee Wesleyan Univer-
sity, its third name in two years.
JOHN FLETCHER SPENCE
Sixth President of the College
In the Wesleyan Tradition 33
The report listed the resources of the College :
Assets — Buildings and Eleven Acres of Land $20,000.00
Library (1,000 volumes) 1,200.00
Organ for Chapel 300.00
Apparatus and Furniture 200.00
liabilities — Balance due on purchase
Balance due to teachers
Total $ 810.15
By 1869 financial problems had begun to make them-
selves felt in the thinking of the Conference, and the Com-
mittee on Education reported:
"Your Committee, in view of the fact that our literary
institutions are more or less embarrassed, financially, would
recommend that steps be taken at once to control but few
institutions, and make these few self-supporting if possible."
The following resolutions were adopted:
"Resolved, That we request the presiding Bishop to
appoint an agent for our literary institutions for the ensu-
"Resolved, That we most affectionately request and
urge upon all the ministers of the Conference, upon reach-
ing their respective charges, to present the claims of the
East Tennessee Wesleyan University to the consideration of
our people ; and that they each raise as much as ten dollars
to the charge, upon the average, if possible, and forward the
same to James H. Hornsby, Treasurer, Athens, McMinn
county, Tennessee; and that they each endeavor to send at
least one additional student to our University."
The Committee faced a problem which proved to be
perennial in the life of the college, and that had to do with
34 A Hi<:torv of Tennessee Wesleyan College
its financing. The Committee on Education acknowledged
that there was much progress but added that there is a
single drawback which has to do with the financial structure
of the institution, saying that the amounts that come from
tuition are insufficient to carry the expenses of operating the
university. Trustees see the situation, and feel the embar-
rassment, and ask what is to be done. "The present in-
debtedness is $2,478, due only to the Faculty,"
The expenses for the year were estimated at $4,050,
and the income from tuition at $3,000, leaving a deficit of
$1,050. This added to previous indebtedness w^ould in-
crease the debt to $3,800. It was the judgment of the
Trustees and of the committee that this Conference should
at its present session, devise some plan and make provision :
"First, to meet the annual deficiency in current expenses,
and, secondly, to pay off the indebtedness."
A special committee was appointed to deal with
methods of covering the deficit and the obligations, and for
the first time the districts of the Conference were appor-
tioned amounts to be raised for the College during the year
as follows :
Knox\illc District $ 300
Athens District 200
Chattanooga District 200
Morristo\\'n District 125
Jonesboro District 125
Ashe\'ille District 50
The Presiding Elders (District Superintendents) of the
Districts were invited to call educational meetings at their
First Quarterly Conference, if practicable, for the purpose
of raising or devising the means of securing the amount
apportioned to the Districts, and to urge upon his people
In the Wesleyan Tradition 35
the importance of sending qualified students to the Uni-
In 1871 the Board of Trustees authorized the opening
of a theological department in the University and directed
the President to give a substantial amount of his time to
the development of this department, which enrolled about
a dozen students, who had decided to study for the Christian
The Executive Committee, the same year, authorized
the opening of a law department and the responsibility for
developing this department was placed in the hands of the
Honorable N. A. Patterson.
The first graduating class, that of 1871, included the
following persons : Edwin Augustus Atlee, John Henry Clay
Foster, Joseph Leander Gaston, Wiley S. Gaston, Josephine
Gaston Hale, Cornelia Atlee Hutsell, John Jenkins Manker,
William Elbert Franklin Milburn, Susan Lizzie Moore, and
Mary J. Mason Presnell.
It was announced in 1872 that the Board of Trustees
had adopted a policy of providing free tuition to all students
needing aid, a policy which was to provide encouragement
to many poor students but was to begin a tradition which
continued to cause embarrassment to the institution for
many generations, as it created an assumption in the think-
ing of successive classes of students that a college education
could be received without financial sacrifice on the part of
the student and his family.
President Cobleigh served with devotion for five years.
At the General Conference of 1872 he accepted election
as the editor of the Methodist Advocate, published in At-
Doctor Cobleigh was a man of great versatility, excel-
ling as preacher, administrator, writer and teacher. As
President, he carried a heavy responsibility as a teaching
36 ' A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
member of the faculty. He gave instruction in Latin, Greek,
History, Rhetoric, Ethics and Psychology. David A. Bolton
was devoted to him, as apparently were all the students of
the University. Bolton writes that he required each member
of the class to bring a good translation of the previous day's
Greek lesson. His assignments seemed too demanding. Bol-
ton recalls Cobleigh's comment concerning his heavy re-
quirements, "Young men, if you can endure this pressure
now, you need not fear what may come to you later."
Doctor Cobleigh returned to Athens to keep an important
preaching appointment, became ill, and died in Atlanta,
February 1, 1874. Doctor Cobleigh had been more than a
local leader in New England or in Tennessee. He had
served as a member of the General Conferences of 1864,
1868, and 1872. Following his death, resolutions com-
mending his great contribution to the Church were passed
by the Ne\v York preachers' meeting, the Boston preachers'
meeting, the Book Committee of the Methodist Episcopal
Church at its annual meeting arid the 1874 session of the
Holston Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church.
The University turned to another graduate of Wesley-
an University and secured the services of the Reverend
James A. Dean.
Dean was born in Hubbardton, Vermont, April 3,
1823. He spent his boyhood years at Ogdenburg, New
York. He was graduated from Wesleyan University, in
Middletown, Connecticut, in 1847. He spent seven years
teaching in North Carolina and Virginia and later joined
the Ne\v England Southern Conference of the Methodist
Episcopal Church. In 1872 he was elected President of East
Tennessee Wesleyan University, where he remained until
1875. He then returned to the New York East Conference
of the Methodist Episcopal Church and was later elected
President of New Orleans University. He received the Doc-
In the Wesleyan Tradition 37
tor of Divinity Degree from Illinois Wesleyan University.
He was known for his accurate scholarship and habits of
In 1872 it was reported that the efforts to meet the
expenses of the university had failed. Although through the
efforts of Reverend R. D. Black who had been appointed
as financial agent, substantial amounts had been raised a
deficit of $2,000 still remained unpaid.
The financial situation accentuated partly by the eco-
nomic panic of 1872 continued to be a major problem and
President Dean resigned at the end of three years to return
to the pastoral ministry.
Following his administration here, Doctor Dean pub-
lished an abridgement in two volumes of "The Decline and
Fall of the Roman Empire" which was said to have received
a very generous reception.
He died March 29, 1884, in New Brunswick, New
The Board of Trustees turned to Doctor John J. Man-
ker for presidential leadership. Doctor Manker served from
June until October. Appointment to the presidency re-
quired the approval of the presiding Bishop and this could
not be given until the October session of the Annual Con-
ference. Doctor Manker announced at that time that he
preferred not to be given a permanent assignment as the
head of the institution.
John J. Manker was born December 24, 1839, at Fin-
castle, Ohio. He received an A.B. degree from East Tennes-
see Wesleyan University in 1871 and a Master of Arts de-
gree from Ohio Wesleyan University in 1874. The Univers-
ity of Tennessee conferred the honorary Doctor of Divinity
degree upon him in 1883. After service in the United
States Army during the Civil War, Mr. Manker decided to
identify himself with the Methodist Episcopal Church in the
38 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
Holston Conference. He served as a member of the faculty
of East Tennessee Wesleyan University, as presiding elder,
as minister of leading churches, as a professor in Chatta-
nooga University, as a professor in the School of Theology
of Grant University, and as editor of The Methodist Advo-
cate Journal. Doctor Manker released creative educational
interests which found their expression in the great contri-
butions of John A. Patten, Mrs. John A. Patten, Mrs.
Alexander Guerry, Manker Patten, and Lupton Patten,
now president of the Board of Trustees of the Univ^ersity
Doctor Manker was to prove one of the foundation
stones in the maintenance of the institutions both at Athens
In September 1875 the Holston Conference reported
that East Tennessee Wesleyan University had been required
to execute a Deed of Trust in the amount of $5,000, which
could be closed out at any time.
The Conference had committed itself at the first ses-
sion to the building of a strong institution. Its aspirations
had ended in frustration but the Conference was not willing
to relinquish its efforts to stabilize the university and to
secure adequate financial undergirding. In the light of the
urgent needs of the university the Conference turned to the
Reverend J. F. Spcnce, who had served as a member of the
Board of Trustees and had been successful in securing funds
for the college, to serve as its President, and the Conference
requested the Presiding Bishop to appoint Doctor Spence
to the presidency of East Tennessee Wesleyan University,
and appealed to the Methodists of Georgia, Alabama, and
Tennessee to set aside their Centennial Year ofTerings to be
designated for the strengthening of the institution at Athens.
John Fletcher Spence was born in Greenville, Ohio,
February 3, 1828. He received his education at Ohio Wes-
In the Wesleyan Tradition 39
leyan University from which he received the Bachelor of
Arts degree in 1856, and the Master of Arts degree in 1880.
Mr. Spence united with the Cincinnati Conference of the
Methodist Episcopal Church in 1853 and served churches
in that Conference until 1862 when he became a chaplain
in the United States Army. At the close of the Civil War,
Mr. Spence located in Knoxville after transferring his mem-
bership to the reorganized Holston Conference of the
Methodist Episcopal Church in 1865 of which he was sec-
retary. Later he was appointed presiding elder of the Knox-
ville District where he served from 1869 until 1872. Doctor
Spence, as he became with honorary degrees from Mount
Union College and Scioto College, was one of the founders
of Tennessee Wesleyan College, had much to do with the
charter which was secured, and from the beginning of his
residence in East Tennessee took an active part in the
establishment of educational institutions. He was successful
in securing funds in the North and East for the College and
is credited with securing funds in sufficient amounts to pay
the indebtedness on the institution after it was bought in
1867. Doctor Spence served the institution in many capac-
ities over a twenty-six year period, as financial agent, as
president, and as chancellor. It was during his administra-
tion that the name of the school was changed first to Grant
Memorial University, and then three years later to U. S.
Grant University at the time of its consolidation with
Chattanooga University. Because of a disagreement with
the Board of Trustees, Doctor Spence left the institution in
1893 and established a competitive institution in Harriman,
Tennessee, known as American Temperance University.
Doctor Spence's estrangement was of short duration. In
later years he became a trustee again and was generous in
providing financial assistance for the institution.
During his administration Doctor Spence went into the
40 A History of Teyinessee Wesleyan Colle^ie
mountain sections of the South and appealed to young men
to get an education. Then he went into the North to secure
funds to provide the resources to enable the institution to
provide the training. In an address in Troy, New York, he
said, "The close of the Civdl War saw such poverties as
never before known. The poor became poorer and the
ignorant more ignorant. We are training the illiterate, non-
slave holding portion of the South for the leaders of the
The contribution which the university made to East
Tennesse during Doctor Spence's administration cannot be
measured. For instance, from 1886 to 1889 there were
sixty-seven graduates of the school. Of this number, four
became physicians, ten became judges or lawyers, twenty
became teachers, and sixteen became ministers.
The confidence of the Conference in President Spence's
resourcefulness was not without foundation as his leadership
during the first year of his administration clearly revealed.
By October 1876 it was reported that the entire indebted-
ness of the University had been liquidated and that addi-
tional funds for repairs and equipment had been secured.
The Committee refused to place education in a
secondary position and insisted that it was of primary
significance in the life of the Church.
The report reads, in part, as follows:
"In direct returns and benefits, the college is far su-
perior to the missionary cause. One is home, the other
foreign — one our o^vn household, the other a stranger's.
"Money given to the college is not a pebble thrown
into the sea, but a dyke against the raging waves. The col-
lege is not an ornament but an arsenal. It is not a cancer
on the body, but a vital function in it. It is not a burden of
useless freight, but a rich cargo; not barnacles on the keel,
but wind in the sails of the ship. In helping the college we
In the Wesleyan Tradition 41
are feeding, clothing, training our child; that child will
give us back love, a strong arm and brain, and vigorous
labor for the improvement of the original estate; and will
be constantly dropping golden fruit into the bosom of her
who gave it birth.
"The East Tennessee Wesleyan University is the child
of this Conference; born in 1867. Scarcely ten years of age;
has been feeble most of her life; came nigh unto death one
year ago, has recovered ; is now convalescent, has received a
new suit of clothes from her friends in the North — in this
new dress and hearty state she presents herself before her
mother this day, claiming recognition, love and attention."
President Spence's administration was the second long-
est in the history of the institution. A number of outstanding
achievements are credited to his leadership. Among the
advances made and the changes effected during his admini-
stration the following are of special significance :
In 1878 a gift was made which seemed to be a solution
of many of the university's problems. Colonel H. G. Bixby,
of California, it was reported, has given the University a
large interest in eight rich silver mines near Globe City,
Arizona. Through the efforts of President Spence and Pro-
fessor Caldwell a mill costing $40,000 had been erected
and paid for. It was anticipated that by December 10,
1878, the University would receive a dividend of $7,000.
The Conference expressed its gratitude in the following
"That we gratefully acknowledge the munificent gift of
Colonel H. G. Bixby to the University, and recognize in him
a friend to humanity, and a real benefactor to our Church,
whom we shall ever delight to respect and honor."
A year later it was reported that "the Trustees are not
42 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
realizing on the Arizona mineral interest as soon as was an-
ticipated ; nevertheless, it is full of promise, and all are con-
fident of success in the near future." Apparently that was
the end of Colonel Bixby and we find no evidence that the
University received any income from this gift and the sub-
stantial investment which the University had made in pro-
viding the facilities for the operation of the mines.
The failure of Colonel Bixby's contribution to
materialize did not defeat the institution. In 1880 it was
reported by the Conference that "the report of its trustees
shows the institution to be free of debt. The income from
tuition is wholly inadequate to support the University. But
through the efforts of its President its income has been
largely supplemented by donations and collections from
churches and friends in the North." Included among these
friends in the North there is reference to a Mrs. Clark, of
Cleveland, Ohio, \vho had provided a bequest of $1,000
for the establishment of a scholarship.
In 1882 the construction of a Chapel located on the
site of the present Townsend Memorial Hall was begun.
This building served for assembly programs and chapel
services, and as a place of worship for the Methodist Episco-
pal Church, of Athens, from the time of its construction
until the erection of the present Trinity Methodist Church,
in Athens, erected under the leadership of the Reverend
Burton M. Martin in 1909, the Church selling its share of
the Chapel to the University at that time. The institution
continued to use the Chapel until 1924 \vhen it was razed
to provide an area for the construction of \\hat is no\v
Townsend Memorial Hall.
The spirit of the President in his leadership is indicated
by a report in 1882 that a debt of $3,000 had accumulated,
$2,500 of it was back salary and advances made by Presi-
In the Weslcyan Tradition 43
dent Spence. The President generously proposed that if the
Trustees would pay $500 he would donate $2,500. The
Trustees accepted the proposition and "we report with
gladness the institution entirely free of debt."
President Spence was not only interested in the finan-
cial solvency of the institution and interested enough to put
his own resources into the University, but he was especially
concerned with the curriculum.
In 1883 the Conference stated in its report, "the Uni-
versity Curriculum, as laid down in the Catalog, compares
favorably with any in the land."
From 1867 until 1906 the University required four
years of residence for the awarding of the baccalaureate
degree, one of the first in the South to establish the four-
year curriculum. As late as 1911 no southern state univer-
sity required four years of residence work for the A.B.
degree. In 1913 only seven colleges or universities in the
South required four years of residence work for the Bache-
lor's degree and the University of Chattanooga, by that
time parent of the institution organized in Athens, was
among those requiring four years.
Throughout the reports it was mentioned frequently
that East Tennessee Wesleyan University was at a disad-
vantage in increasing its student body because students
could go to other institutions and receive a degree for less
than four years of residence work.
The catalog of 1882-1883 listed three curricula. Classi-
cal, Latin Scientific, and Scientific, in addition to the
normal curriculum which required less than four years but
did not lead to a degree.
44 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
The curricula were as follows:
Latin — Livy.
Greek — Odyssey.
Latin — Livy.
Greek — Memorabilia.
Latin — Germania.
Greek — Thucydides.
Latin — Horace's Odes.
Greek — Plato's Apology.
Latin — Agricola.
Greek — Plato's Crito.
Latin — Terence.
Greek — Euripides.
Latin — Satires and
Epistles of Horace.
Greek — Demosthenes
Latin — Juvenal.
Greek — Demosthenes
Latin — Aeneid
History' of Rome.
Latin — Cicero.
Solid 6? Spherical
Latin — Cicero.
Latin — Livy.
Odes of Horace.
Latin — Livy.
Latin — Germania.
Latin — Satires and
Epistles of Horace.
Science of Rhetoric.
Latin — Agricola.
History of Rome.
Solid 6? Spherical
Science of Rhetoric.
French — Elective.
French — Elective.
1 Catalog I882-'83.
In the Wesleyan Tradition
Latin — Seneca's Epistles
Greek — Acts of Apostles
Latin — Cicero De
Science of Rhetoric.
Kame's Elements of
Latin — Terence.
Latin — Cicero De
Latin — Juvenal.
Latin — Seneca's Essay.
Kame's Elements of
History of Philosophy.
French — Elective.
Kame's Elements of
Evidences of Christianity.
Student handbooks were apparently unknown at that
time. The regulations governing student conduct were
known as "By-Laws" and were listed in the University
Students who achieved a degree by the way of Greek,
Latin, physics, chemistry, botany and history had little time
for social life, athletics or fun.
The catalog for 1882-1883 describes the Spartan
1. Students are expected to rise at 5 o'clock in the morn-
ing and retire by 10 p.m.
2. Recitations, prayers in the morning and other regular
exercises shall be punctually attended by each student.
3. During study hours, students are not allowed to visit
each other's rooms nor visit about the village.
4. Students will obtain permission of one of the teachers
before leaving town.
46 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan Colle^^e
5. Students are required to be orderly and quiet in and
about the buildings.
6. Profane or obscene language will not be tolerated un-
der any circumstances.
7. The use of any intoxicating beverage and the playing
of cards are absolutely forbidden.
8. No student will be permitted to attend balls, dancing
parties, circuses or operatic shows.
9. A strict observance of the Sabbath, and attendance
upon public worship will be required.
10. Young ladies may not receive calls from gentlemen,
except of friends from a distance.
1 1 . Young gentlemen are not permitted to visit young
ladies at their own rooms.
12. The escorting of young ladies by young gentlemen is
not allowed without especial permission from the
13. Students will be held responsible for any injuries done
to their rooms or other parts of the building.
14. Students will not be allowed to use tobacco within the
15. Absence from recitation \\ithout satisfactory excuse, as
well as insubordination in the class-room, shall be
reckoned and bear upon the student's grade.
16. Any student desiring to sever his connection with the
University before the close of the term must inform
the Faculty in writing of his intention, and obtain their
Any student habitually violating the above rules will not be
allowed to remain in the University.
It must have been reassuring to President Spence to
hear the Holston Conference report of 1884:
"The passed year has been one of unprecedented pros-
perity and material growth. The annual catalogue shows
In the Wesleyan Tradition 47
an enrollment of 279 students, 30 of whom were in perpara-
tion for the ministry. During the year nine southern states
were represented in the halls of the University, also two
"The Hatfield Boarding Hall, a beautiful structure, 74
feet long by 32 feet wide, three stories high, with a capacity
to accommodate 40 students, has just been completed at a
cost of $3,000, every dollar of which has been paid.
'The Chapel and Church, a splendid building of mod-
ern style, has been completed and dedicated with every
dollar of indebtedness provided for.
"The moral and religious status of the school during
the past year has been unusually good.
"This school was never more full of promise than at
the present. The Trustees continue the free tuition system,
simply charging an incidential fee of $5 per term.
''Resolved, That we are greatly gratified with the
prosperity of the University during the past year, and we
hereby pledge our cordial support for the year to come."
In 1885 it was reported that there had been another
year of prosperity, that the enrollment had averaged 250
during preceding five years, and that some nine to eleven
states had been represented in the student body. It was also
reported that 24 young men were preparing for the Chris-
tian ministry and that in cooperation with the University
Y.M.C.A. a corps of Christian workers had been organized
so effectively that a revival of the preceding winter had re-
sulted in fifty conversions.
The trustees had purchased during the year the Wilson
property consisting of two acres and a building of eight
rooms to be used as a boarding house for young ladies.
A summary indicated that the campus consisted of 18
acres, six buildings with a capacity to accommodate 400 stu-
dents, and that the property if located in Knoxville \\ ould
be w^orth $50,000.
As a Memorial to Grant
To labor constantly for the world with no thought of
self, to find indifference and opposition where you ought to
find active assistance, to meet criticism with patience and
the open attacks of ignorance without resentment, to plead
with others for their own good, to follow sleepless nights
with days of incessant toil, to strive continually without ever
attaining — this is to be a college president. But this is only
half the truth. To be associated with ambitious youth and
high-minded men, to live in an atmosphere charged with
thoughts of the world's greatest thinkers, to dream of a
golden age not in the past but in the future, to build 4ip a
great kingdom of material conquest and make life richer
and fuller, to spiritualize wealth and convert it into weal,
to enrich personal character and elevate all human rela-
tionships, to leave the impress of one's life on a great and
immortal institution — this, too, is to be a college president.
— James H. Kirkland
As a Memorial to Grant 49
President Spence's background and success inspired by
the influence of President Grant who had died July 23,
1885, led him to suggest naming East Tennessee Wesleyan
University in memory of the former President.
Grant had been solicited in April 1867 for a contribu-
tion towards the establishment of East Tennessee Wesleyan
College. He had agreed to head the list of contributors
giving his approval in these words: "I want to help the
class of people for which the school is being established, for
I believe a Christian education among the masses in the
CENTRAL SOUTH is now a necessity."
President Spence in a piece of promotional material
paid tribute to General Grant and made an appeal for
support in these words:
"We are now laboring to successfully build this living
monument to the memory of this GREAT MAN — a monu-
ment in which there shall be no displacement of capstone
or foundation, but standing an intellectual and moral light-
house to the nation, upon the heights of which Grant's
exalted character shall be transfigured for ever.
"We close this brief statement by appealing to you in
the name of 750,000 WHITE men living South of Mason
and Dixon's line that cannot read the ballots they cast, and
on behalf of 3,000,000 more of WHITES in the same
territory, over ten years of age,* groping in the darkness of
"If humanly possible, aid us in this great undertaking.
Place at least to your name "one brick" in this living monu-
ment, and help to wreathe it with your love of patriotism
and Christian education. No other human instrumentality
can do so much toward brushing away the bitter thoughts of
the past, of harmonizing the discordant elements, and
cementing into one great bond of fraternity this whole
50 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
President Spence apparently was well acquainted in
Washington. He was able to secure the endorsement of a
representative group of members of the United States House
of Representatives and of the United States Senate who
formed their approval in an endorsement headed by the
President of the Senate.
"United States Senate, March 5, 1886
"To whom it may concern:
"We have learned of the recent action of the Board of
Regents of the East Tennessee Wesleyan University, in
changing the name of that institution to the "Grant Me-
morial University," thus establishing a living and durable
monument to the name of the greatest of American soldiers.
"This institution has already accomplished a great
work in training thousands of the youths of the Central
South for usefulness and leadership among the masses.
"The importance of Grant University in the South
cannot be overestimated.
"We give it our unqualified indorsement, and com-
mend it to the favorable consideration of the friends of a
"The results that have already been accomplished, the
number and character of those who have been educated for
the various occupations of life, and the general favor with
which the school is now regarded in its patronizing territory,
should satisfy the most critical of its merits, and command
the respect and material aid of all patriotic citizens.
JOHN SHERMAN, President of the Senate
J. Don Cameron, U.S.S., Pa.
Howell E. Jackson, U.S.S., Tenn.
Warner Miller, U.S.S., N.Y.
Philetus Sawyer, U.S.S., Wisconsin
Wm. Mahone, U.S.S., Va.
Henry W. Blair, U.S.S., N.H.
As a Memorial to Grant 51
Charles F. Manderson, U.S.S., Neb.
Nelson W. Aldrich, U.S.S., R.I.
John D. Long, M.C., Mass.
E. B. Taylor, M.C., Ohio
James S. Negley, M.C., Pa.
Wm. M. Evarts, U.S.S., N.Y.
P. B. Plumb, U.S.S., Kansas
H. M. Teller, U.S.S., Colorado
John C. Spooner, U.S.S., Wis.
Geo. F. Hoar, U.S.S., Mass.
John J. Ingalls, U.S.S., Kan.
Joseph E. Brown, U.S.S., Ga.
Frank Hiscock, M.C., N.Y.
John Litde, M.C., Ohio
Wm. D. Kelley, M.C., Pa.
C. H. Grosvenor, M.C., Ohio"
A celebration of Grant's sixty-fourth anniversary pro-
vided an opportunity to publicize the new name of the
University and to appeal for general support. The cele-
bration was held in the Metropolitan Church, Washington,
D.C., April 27, 1866.
The Commander-in-Chief of the Grand Army of the
Republic, unable to attend, addressed a letter of approval
to Chief Justice Morrison R. Waite, Chairman of the
Headquarters Grand Army of the Republic.^
Washington, D. C, April 27, 1886.
Hon. Morrison R. Waite, Chairman, etc.:
Dear Sir: ■ — I find, to my very great regret, that I shall
be unable to be present to-night at the meeting over which
you are to preside, and which, called on the sixty-fourth an-
niversary of the birth of General Grant, is intended, whilst
giving occasion for patriotic and affectionate revival of
1 Grant Memorial University, page 12.
52 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
memories of him and of his great work for his country, has
also the purpose to bring into notice and helpful sympathy
the educational institution, which, planted in the South, has
taken his loved name ; and so in the fit place of your meeting
proposes that this bestowal of a new name shall have the
certificate of a public baptism. * * * *
Considered in the light only of a monument to his
memory, the affixing of his name to a school of learning is
a happy thought. Enduring memories are not such as in
form of mere stone or brass run the race against all- destroy-
ing time. Beneficient purpose alone gives promise of those
unfading qualities with which, for all time, we would en-
dow the monuments reared to those we hold in chief honor.
Mutilated images and nameless piles are found on all the
plains and beside all the seas; there is no memory of those
for whom they were reared; but, though the Alexandrian
Library perished by the torch of the destroyer, Ptolemy
Philadelphus lives to be named forever as its founder. A
thousand names, great in achievement and in honors won,
will have passed out of the shelter of our mother tongue
whilst yet the founders and patrons for whom are called
some of the colleges which constitute the Universities of
Oxford and Cambridge are fresh of memory. In our own
short history the diligence of search alone brings out of the
shadows names which were great on yesterady; but Harvard
and Yale are household words, and with Oberlin and Cor-
nell, and now with Grant, will march with steady step in the
array of things to be forever named. It will be a great work
well done, if the fitness of this day's occasion shall help to
broaden the foundations of education and liberty; and the
Grand Army will not only rejoice in a work so wrought
out, but all the more because done under a name which, to
its membership, is an inspiration to patriotism, and seems a
sure promise of the perpetuation of those institutions of
As a Memorial to Grant 53
liberty his valor and faithfulness so much helped to rescue
from the ruin which they were lately threatened.
S. S. BURDETT
Addresses were given by representative leaders from
Georgia, Massachusetts, New York and Ohio. Excerpts
from these addresses are printed below:
From the Address of Senator Joseph E. Brown, ^ of
****** On a beautiful eminence, in a picturesque
valley in East Tennessee, an institution of learning, bearing
the name of General Grant, has been established for the
education of poor boys, and this celebration, as I understand
it, is partly for the benefit of Grant University. I cordially
approve the objects of the founders of this institution. I
believe it is well and ably conducted, and trust it may ac-
complish great results in the future. I fully indorse the
enterprise, and commend it to the favorable consideration,
not only of those who have attended this celebration, but of
a generous public. May it grow as the fame of the great
man whose name it bears grew, until its character is known
and its benefits felt by the whole American people.
From the Address of Ex-Govcrnor John D. Long, ^
****** My fellow-citizens, if any poor word of mine
can avail anything, I desire to utter it, not in eulogy of Gen-
eral Grant, who needs none, but in aid of the Grant
University of East Tennessee, which does need the helping
hand and word of every one of us, and which honors the
name it bears by the good work it is doing for the cause of
education in the South, There is something in a new uni-
versity, limited in its resources, devoted to the education of
^ Grant Memorial University, page 8.
2 Grant Memorial University, pp. 10, 11.
54 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
young men of scant means, plowing the first deep furrows
in a virgin soil, that appeals to the heart with a very pathos,
and that awakens an interest which our older seats of learn-
ing, venerable with age and fame, and rich in resources,
can never arouse. When they tell me of a poor boy in
Georgia or from the Tennessee hills, already well along in
years, going day after day and week after week almost in
actual want, living on little else than that divine fire of the
scholar's ambition and the freeman's instinct of the posses-
sion of undeveloped and untrained intellectual power; when
they tell me of that boy's sacrifice and self-denials, of his
fulfilling his course in spite of all obstacles, of his eloquence
flaming out on commencement-day, and of his later going
forth into the communities of the new South to be a power-
ful element for good, for growth, and for the republic; when
they multiply such an instance a hundred fold, aye, a
thousand fold, aye, three thousand fold; when I see such
men as this sent out by such a university in solid battalions
to fight the battles of the whole country, its battles of truth,
for happiness, for equal rights, for freedom, for humanity,
for the settlement of the great social questions which to-day
depend upon a difTused education of the people up to the
idea of doing right by choice and not by force; when I see
them thus solving all problems of race and of our social and
democratic civilization, then am I reminded of the earlier
and the heroic days of our elder colleges; I am reminded of
the days when Hiram and Williams equipped Garfield to
fight and win the victories of the battle-field and the greater
victories of the forum (applause) ; I am reminded of the
days when Dartmouth sent out Webster, whose heart, the
heart of a poor boy, had almost broken at his father's sacri-
fices to give him an education — sent out Webster to fix and
confirm the foundations of the Constitution and the Union
(applause) ; and remembering these things, knowing what
As a Memorial to Grant 55
such a college as this on the hills of East Tennessee means
in that reclaimed section of our Union, knowing what
it means for the republic, knowing what it means for
humanity, knowing what in its influences it means for the
future of my country, I say God bless it, and God put it
into your hearts to help the Grant University of East
Tennessee and give it means to do its great and needed
work in the education of the South and thereby for the
republic of which we are citizens. (Applause.)
From the Address of Senator Wm. M. Evarts,^ of
It is with great pleasure that I take part in this birth-
day-t:elebration of the illustrious soldier, statesman, general
and President, whose recent loss we lament, whose per-
petual fame we shall always desire to celebrate. And not
less it gives me pleasure to have a share in bestowing proper
encomiums upon this Grant Memorial University, and ex-
pressing for its future our well-wishes that attend it. It has
been said by the wisest of men that a good name is rather
to be chosen than great riches; and the framers of your
new progressive establishment, your University, have dis-
played that wisdom when you have chosen the great and
good name of Grant. (Applause.) It is better, if you can-
not have both, than the great riches. But there is nothing
to dissuade us, in the Scriptures, from hoping that, starting
with a good name, we may also come, in our endowments,
to great riches, and that we hope for in this new Grant
Memorial University. *******
Now, for education, which Senator Sherman has so
properly emphasized in three repetitions. Why is education
this great matter in human affairs? Why, especially, is it
of vital importance in this free nation, and this free and
equal society upon which the greatness of our nation has
] Grant Memorial University, pp. 9, 10.
56 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
been built? The wisest ancient philosopher, the one most
quoted for wisdom in its application to our own time so
remote from his own, Aristotle, said: "It is by education
that I learn to do by choice what other men do from force."
That, indeed, is the vital and central point for this im-
mense population, this immense development of interest
and intelligence: that we should do by choice what less
favored nations must do through force. (Applause.)
But education, when it is to be applied to great masses
of population, is not to end with the school children, nor
with the college graduates. ***** Education, indeed,
means in the strict sense, developing the mind, forming
the heart, opening the receptives of nature. * * Thus
we see that when we plan either in the philanthropy of
George Peabody or in the wise name that has been given
to this nascent great University, we are consulting for the
welfare, not of the South nor of the North, but of the
people of the whole country, by education in that portion
of the land that needs most to be brought up in fair rela-
tions with the rest of the country. We may talk about an
Old South and a New South, but the true prospect and
hope is that there will be no South and no North. (Ap-
plause.) When of one heart and of one mind, and per-
meated equally in all parts by these great vital impulses
that I have indicated, we have no South, no North, no
East, no West, but one heart and one mind, the heart and
mind of the American people. (Applause.)
And now, gentlemen and ladies, I have said that in
the endowment of this University with the name of the
illustrious Grant the University was fortunate. Let me say,
also, that no monument more noble, more permanent, or
more secure in the reverence of this people, could be chosen
on which to inscribe the name of General Grant than this
University to bear on its front this illustrious name. This
As a Memorial to Grant 57
name shall be written in many forms on marble and on
brass, on arches and on mausoleums. But here this name
shall be engraven on the fleshy tablets of the hearts of all
the scholars of this University, and will be written in
characters of living light all over the conduct and the
careers, the names and the fame of all these educated men
that shall issue from Grant University, as the impulse and
the energy of their lives. (Applause.)
From the Address of Senator John Shermann, ^ of
***** *What the new South wants now more
than all else is education ! education ! ! education ! ! ! The
statistics with which we have been made familiar recently
in the debate in the Senate of illiteracy in the South, are
appalling, but not much more so than was the condition
of the Western States fifty years ago. The negroes being
slaves were, of necessity, without education. The great
mass of the white people were in the same condition, not
because it was desired in the South, but because from the
sparseness of the population and the existence of planta-
tions instead of farms, it was difficult to establish a system
of public schools. A change in this respect cannot be
brought about suddenly ; but it is apparent that every South-
ern State appreciates the importance of education of both
white and black. It is the bounden duty of the National
Government to extend the aid of its large resources. If the
action of the Senate is sanctioned by the House, and fairly
and justly executed by the people of the Southern States,
there need be no danger from the ignorance of the next
generation. I believe that these conditions will be the solu-
tion of the troubles of the South, and make a great step
on the road to prosperity and union in the South.
iGrant Memorial University, pp. 8, 9.
58 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
Now, but a few words in conclusion. It is not merely
common school education in the South that is needed, but
it is higher education. It is all the learning of the schools,
all that science has taught, all that religion teaches, all
that medicine has found in its alchemy, all the justice
which the law points out and seeks to administer; the South
wants opportunity for that higher education which cannot
be obtained from common schools, but which exists in no
country except where common schools abound. It wants
in its midst the places where the active leading young men
of the South can gather in colleges and universities, and
there gain that higher education which prepares them to be
leaders among men. I congratulate you, my countrymen,
here in Washington, that, under the authority of the Meth-
odist Episcopal Church, a Christian denomination, under
the name of the illustrious hero General Grant, there has
been founded in the mountains of Tennessee, away up
among the clouds and in the pure air of heaven, in the
midst of a loyal and patriotic population, an institution of
learning which will be a blessing to all the people of the
South, and I trust to all the people of the North. Every
aid possible should be showered from the North and South
alike. Let them light their fires at this modern Athens upon
the mountain top and they will shine forth all over our
land. Here the young men of the South will fit themselves
to lead in the march of progress and improvement. They
will learn to vary their production, to develop their re-
sources, to advance every race and generation in education,
intelligence and patriotism, and with charity broad enough
to secure all their people of every race and tribe the
peaceful and unquestioned enjoyment of their civil and
The organization of a college in Chattanooga under
the auspices of the Methodist Episcopal Church dates back
As a Memorial to Grant 59
to at least August 7, 1872, when a meeting was held at the
Pine Street Methodist Church, of Chattanooga, to consider
the organization of a college in that city. At various meet-
ings of the Holston Annual Conference and the General
Conference following that date, the designation of Chatta-
nooga as the location for a university for the Central South
During these years it was debated whether such an
institution should be located in Athens, the seat of East
Tennessee Wesleyan University, in Knoxville, in competi-
tion with the University of Tennessee, or in Chattanooga,
where there was no recognized college and which was
anxious to have a college. The press of Chattanooga gave
encouragement to the efforts of those who wanted the insti-
tution located in Chattanooga contending that Chattanooga
needed "a college of the first class worse than she needed
In October 1881 the Mayor of Chattanooga presided
over a meeting of citizens of the City to discuss the possibil-
ity of the organization of a college. Committees were ap-
pointed, other meetings were held, and the press of the City
gave its support to a financial campaign. The officers of the
Freedman's Aid Society visited the City and gave encour-
agement to this project. The Chattanooga Times took an
aggressive position concerning the establishment of a college
in Chattanooga. A mass meeting was held April 19, 1883,
and new committees were selected "to solicit land, money
and other donations." The Freedman's Aid Society of the
Methodist Episcopal Church made the final decision that
the institution would be organized. The citizens of Chatta-
nooga had already raised $15,000 to assist in this project.
Govan and Livingood sum up the details of this final
decision in these words:
"Eleven years of planning had been necessary to bring
60 A History of Tennessee Wesley an College
the idea of a central university this far. Devoted labor in
conference and committee had secured the support of the
national organization of the Methodist Episcopal Church
for the vision Chattanooga had held of a college in their
community. But in arriving at this cooperation the seeds
had been planted for a bitter rivalry between the supporters
of the Chattanooga institution and those of East Tennessee
Wesleyan University at Athens."
In July, 1883, property was bought on McCallie Ave-
nue at a cost of $31,000 as the location for a college. On
January 18, 1884, a contract was awarded for the
construction of a building to cost $40,000.
A charter for Chattanooga University was applied for
on June 24, 1886.
Be It Known: That D. M. Key, H. S. Chamberlain,
J. W. Adams, J. F. Loomis, D. E. Rees, J. H. Van Deman,
Creed F. Bates, S. D. Wester, D. Woodworth, Jr., A. J.
Gahagan, J. J. Manker, T. C. Warner, J. R. Rathmell,
T. C. Carter, J. W. Mann, Jno. W. Ramsey, H. C. Beck,
Alvin Hawkins, Wm. Rule, J. T. Wilder, J. B. Hoxsie,
Wm. H. Rogers, James Mitchell, E. H. Vaughan, J. L.
Freeman, J. D. Roberson, R. S. Rust and J. M. Walden
are hereby constituted a body politic and corporate by the
name and style of
THE CHATTANOOGA UNIVERSITY.
The general purposes and objects of the said corpora-
tion being the support of a literary and scientific under-
taking as a University in the city of Chattanooga, Hamilton
County, Tennessee, for the general diffusion of knowledge,
with power to confer degrees, etc.
The general powers of the said corporation shall be
to sue and be sued by the corporate name, to have and use
a common seal which it may alter at pleasure; if no com-
mon seal, then the signature of the name of the corpora-
As a Memorial to Grant 61
tion, by any duly authorized officer, shall be legal and
binding; to purchase and hold or receive by gift, bequest
or devise, in addition to the personal property owned by
the corporation, real estate necessary or convenient for the
transaction of the corporate business, and also to purchase
or accept any real estate in payment or in part payment
of any debt due the corporation, and sell the same; to
establish by-laws and make rules and regulations, not in-
consistent with the laws and constitution and this Charter,
deemed necessary or expedient for the management of the
corporate affairs, or required by the religious denomination
establishing the same. The term of all officers may be fixed
by the by-laws, the said term not, however to exceed three
The powers of said corporation shall also be to keep
and maintain any, all and every department of a University
in the property owned and held for that purpose in said
city of Chattanooga, Hamilton County, Tennessee, by the
Freedman's Aid Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church,
on such terms and conditions as may be agreed upon by
the two corporations; to take charge of and protect said
University buildings, property and grounds; to adopt rules
governing the admission of pupils and students in said Uni-
versity; the rates of tuition and course of study therefor,
to purchase libraries and apparatus and employ and control
professors and other teachers, tutors and instructors for
said University, and when necessary discharge the same;
with power to define their duties, to confer any and all
degrees, and award diplomas usually conferred or awarded
by a university, in all branches of study that may be pursued
therein; to confer honorary degrees, to have, possess and
exercise all such other and further rights and privileges as
shall and may be necessary to the successful maintenance
of any and every department of a first class university in
62 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
the property named, to be under the auspices and control
of the Methodist Episcopal Church; subject, by agreement
of the parties hereto, and as a part of this act of incorpora-
tion, to the following fundamental conditions, namely:
First. Said University shall be and remain under the
auspices of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and be under
its control, and be governed by a board of trustees, and
the corporate authority of this corporation shall be exercised
by a board of trustees, as hereinafter provided.
Second. The first board of trustees shall consist of
the corporators hereinabove named, who shall hold their
office until their successors are elected and enter upon the
discharge of their respective duties. The President and
Corresponding Secretary of the said, The Freedmen's Aid
Society and the President of the Faculty of the University,
shall also be members ex-officio, of said first board of
trustees, and of all succeeding boards, and without election.
Third. Upon acceptance of the Charter and organi-
zation under it the trustees who are corporators shall divide
their body by lot into three equal classes, the first class to
hold their oflfice three years, the second class two years,
and the third class one year.
Fourth. The term of all trustees elected to fill vacan-
cies or expired terms, shall be for three years, and so
arranged as that one third of them shall go out of office
every year; provided, that when an election is made to fill
an unexpired term it shall only be for the unexpired period
of said term.
Fifth. All vacancies in the Board of Trustees herein-
before provided for by expiration of term of office or other
cause shall be filled by election by the Freedmen's Aid
Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church; but this rela-
tion of the Freedmen's Aid Society to this corporation shall
in no event be construed or held to clothe the corporation
As a Memorial to Grant 63
with power or authority to act for or as an agent of the
said, The Freedmen's Aid Society, nor to authorize the
corporation to contract any debt or other Habiiity for or
on account of said Society.
Sixth. But in addition to the foregoing members, the
Board of Trustees shall also consist of three members of
the Holston Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal
Church, and two members each of the Virginia, Blue Ridge,
Georgia, Alabama and Central Tennessee Annual Confer-
ences of the said Methodist Episcopal Church, elected an-
nually by the conferences respectfully, to be elected at the
first annual meeting thereof, and to hold their offices as
Those of the Holston Conference one for one year,
one for two years, and the other for three years; those of
each of the other conferences one to hold for one year and
the other for two years.
The alumni of the University, when they shall num-
ber forty, shall have a representation in the Board of
Trustees under such provisions as the said Board shall
Seventh. After the above named conferences shall
have elected trustees, as provided, all future elections shall
be so arranged that a majority of the whole board shall
be members of the Methodist Episcopal Church; any num-
ber of said Board of Trustees, not less than eleven shall
constitute a quorum to do business.
Eighth. The Board of Trustees shall have power and
authority to elect at each annual meeting ten of its own
members to be known as the Executive Committee, to have
the supervision of the affairs of the University between the
meetings of the said Board, and transact ad interim all
necessary business under such rules and restrictions as the
Board of Trustees may prescribe.
64 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
The President and corresponding Secretary of the
said Freedmen's Aid Society and the President of the Uni-
versity shall also be members ex officio of said Executive
Committee and at least seven members of said Executive
Committee shall be members of the Methodist Episcopal
Ninth. If at any time, or for any reason, this corpora-
tion shall fail, or ceases to maintain or keep a University
in said property, or if a dissolution of this corporation shall
occur, all its assets and property shall revert to and become
the property of the said Freedmen's Aid Society, subject to
The general welfare of society and not individual
profit being the object of this organization, the members
and trustees thereof are not stockholders in the legal sense
of the term.
Tenth. The number of trustees may be increased or
diminished from time to time as may be deemed expedient,
but only with the consent of the Freedmen's Aid Society,
and only at an annual meeting of the board, and due notice
having been given for that purpose.
We, the undersigned, apply to the State of Tennessee,
by virtue of the laws of the land, for a Charter of Incorpora-
tion for the purposes and with the powers declared in the
Witness our hands the 24th day of June, 1886.
H. S. Chamberlain
D. E. Rees
S. D. Wester
J. J. Manker
T. C. Carter
H. C. Beck
J. M. Walden
J. W. Adams
As a Memorial to Grant 65
Creed F. Bates
David Woodworth, Jr.
T. C. Warner
J. T. Wilder
J. F. Loomis
J. H. Van Deman
A. J. Gahagan
J. R. Rathmell
J. B. Hoxsie
R. S. Rust
W. H. Rogers
STATE OF TENNESSEE
County of Hamilton.
Personally appeared before me, J. H. Messick, Deputy
Clerk of the County Court of said County, H. S, Chamber-
lain, J. W. Adams, J. F. Loomis, D. E. Rees, Creed F.
Bates, J. H. Van Deman, S. D. Wester, David Woodworth,
Jr., A. J. Gahagan, J. J. Manker, T. C. Warner, J. R.
Rathmell, T. C. Carter, J. T. Wilder, H. C. Beck, R. S.
Rust and J. M. Walden, the within named bargainors, with
whom I am personally acquainted, and who acknowledged
that they executed the within instrument for the purpose
Witness of my hand and seal of said County Court at
office this 2d day of July, 1886.
J. H. MESSICK, Deputy Clerk.
I, JOHN ALLISON, Secretary of State of the State
of Tennessee, do certify that the foregoing instrument, with
certificate of acknowledgment of Probate and Registration,
was filed in my office for registration on the 8th day of
July, 1886, and recorded on the 8th day of July 1886, in
66 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
Corporation Record Book K, in said office, pages 534, 535,
536 and 537.
In Testimony Whereof I have hereunto subscribed my
Official Signature, and by the order of the Governor, affixed
the Great Seal of the State of Tennessee, at the Department
in the City of Nashville, this 8th day of July, A.D. 1886.
Secretary of State.
STATE OT TENNESSEE,
The foregoing Charter and Certificate of Registration
in this County, and of Registration in the office of the Sec-
retary of State, ^vith the Great Seal of the State impressed
thereon, was returned to me this 9th day of July, 1886, at
8 A.M., and said Secretary's certificate and seal by me
recorded in Book V, volume 2, page 253.
Witness my hand at office in Chattanooga.
H. C. BECK, Register.
This Agreement, made this day of ,
1886, between the Freedmen's Aid Society of the M.E.
Church, a corporation under the laws of Ohio, and the
Chattanooga L^niversity, a corporation under the laws of
WITNESSETH, That whereas the ground, buildings,
furniture, etc., on and in which the L^niversity is about to
be established and opened, belong to the said, the Freed-
men's Aid Society, and are exclusively owned by it, and the
said, the Chattanooga L^niversity is to occupy the same for
the purpose of establishing, opening and carrying on a
university according to its charter,
Now, therefore, in consideration of the premises it
is agreed as follows:
First. The said, the Chattanooga LIniversity shall
As a Memorial to Grant G7
hold, use and occupy the said property as aforesaid so long
as the parties herein named shall agree thereto; but this
arrangement shall not be determined except upon a notice
of either one to the other in writing for one year previous
to such termination; and on its part, the said, the Chatta-
nooga University, shall not waste or suffer to be wasted,
any of the said property, and shall keep the said property
in good repair and condition.
Second. The income of the said, the Chattanooga
University, arising from all sources, shall be administered
by the said, the Chattanooga University, but a statement
and full report thereof, and of all expenditures shall be
made to the said Freedmen's Aid Society at the close of
each term of the school year. But no extraordinary ex-
penditures shall be incurred by the said University except
with the approval of the Freedmen's Aid Society.
Third. The officers and members of the faculty shall
be appointed by the Freedmen's Aid Society, subject to
the approval of or election by the said University. The
salaries of the faculty shall be fixed by the University, sub-
ject to the approval of the Freedmen's Aid Society, and
these salaries, with all other current expenses, shall be paid
out of the current income of the University ; the Freedmen's
Aid Society, however, to pay from its own treasury any
deficit that may occur in the expenditures made with its
consent or approval.
Fourth. Any funds that may be contributed for the
endowment of the said University shall be under the control
and management of the Freedmen's Aid Society, but it
shall advise with reference thereto with the said University.
It is further agreed that should the University secure an
endowment sufficient for its maintenance the Freedmen's
Aid Society shall transfer its right in the property to the
68 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
University on condition that it refund all monies expended
by the said society.
Fifth. In case this contract be terminated as herein-
tofore provided, all the property of every description, good
\\ ill and endowment funds are to be the sole and exclusive
property of the Freedmen's Aid Society, as provided in the
charter of the said University, and the said society shall
be entitled to the immediate possession and control thereof.
Sixth. The Freedmen's Aid Society shall not be re-
sponsible for, nor holden for any contracts made or obliga-
tions assumed, or expenditures of any kind made by the
University, without the consent and approval of the said
J. M. WALDEN
On July 26, 1886, Edward Samuel Lewis was con-
firmed as Dean of the College and acting President of
Chattanooga University. Doctor Lewis was a graduate of
Boston University where he had received graduation honors
and election to Phi Beta Kappa. He had served as a pro-
fessor at Cincinnati Wesleyan College and had become
President of Little Rock University, which was also under
the supervision of the Freedman's Aid Society. President
Lewis was only thirty-one years of age but his scholarly
attainments and achievements in college teaching and ad-
ministration seemed to fit him admirably for becoming the
head of this new college in Chattanooga.
The school year opened with considerable enthusiasm.
The Holston Annual Conference joined Chattanooga in
a commendation of the organization of Chattanooga
University in the following statement:
"The completion and occupancy of the Chattanooga
University is a fact that we note with great satisfaction.
The establishment by the Freedman's Aid Society, of a
property so substantial and valuable, at a point so com-
As a Memorial to Grant 69
manding in the Central South, to strengthen our educa-
tional work in our Conferences of this -section, is a most
important fact, full of encouragement to our people, and
indicative of the growing power and enduring character
of the work to which we are providentially called.
"The first year in its scholastic history opens with a
full and competent corps of instructors, and an attendance
already of 171 students. The facts named are the earnest
of a career of great usefulness. Its success will be of vast
importance to our Methodism in its entire patronizing
It was not long until problems developed which re-
sulted in that enthusiasm being dissipated. The problems
had largely to do with whether Chattanooga University
would accept Negro students. The decision of the Board
of Trustees was an instruction to the faculty that no Negroes
were to be enrolled in the College. By September 1887, the
enthusiasm which had characterized the opening of the new
college was absent. It was recorded in The Chattanooga
Times that "the college was not flourishing as it should."
There followed much agitation to bring about the
consolidation of Chattanooga University and Grant Me-
morial University, of Athens. Doctor Joseph C. Hartzell
attended the annual Conference Session held in October
and made a "strong speech," according to The Chattanooga
Times, in favor of the consolidation of the two institutions.
The Holston Conference, after discussion, voted unani-
mously for the resolution which endorsed the unification of
Chattanooga University and Grant Memorial University.
The unanimity of the Holston Conference in approv-
ing the merger was expressed by the Holston Conference
in 1889 in this report:
"It is with great joy that we report that the move-
ment to unify Grant Memorial and Chattanooga Univer-
70 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
sity, discussed and commended at the last session of the
Conference, has been crowned with success. The two insti-
tutions are now one, with one Chancellor and Board of
"The consummation of this union has been heartily
approved by the whole church through the voice of the
Bishops and the press. It came as the result of many and
prayerful consultations between the Society at Cincinnati,
under the leadership of Doctor J. C. Hartzell as Corres-
ponding Secretary, and the Boards of Trustees at Chatta-
nooga and Athens. No educational event in the history of
the church in the South promises more for the future
spiritual and intellectual welfare of the church than does
this Central University, with a system of affiliated
academies in the central South.
"Under the present status of things the schools at
Athens and Chattanooga are permitted to continue their
work largely as heretofore."
The merger called for another charter which was
applied for to the State of Tennessee on March 26, 1889:
BE IT KNOWN, that Isaac W. Joyce, John M. Wal-
den, Joseph C. Hartzell, D. M. Key, Halbert B. Case, Earl
Cranston, J. H. BayHss, M. D. Cone, A. J. Gahagan, T. C.
Carter, J. K. P. Marshall, E. H. Matthews, John F. Spence,
J. D. Walsh, Amos Shinkle, L. B. Caldwell and J. W.
Adams are hereby constituted a body politic and corporate
by the name and style of "U. S. Grant University,"* for
the following purposes, namely: The maintenance of a
university of Christian learning under the patronage, con-
trol and regulation of the Methodist Episcopal Church, as
represented in the General Conference of said Church, with
various colleges, academics, normal and preparatory schools,
*Legally changed from Grant Memorial University June 7, 1892.
As a Memorial to Grant 71
societies, lyceums, libraries, and schools of art, law, and
medicine, normal, training, trade, and such other schools
as may from time to time be organized by the Board of
Trustees; with power to confer degrees; with authority to
create Boards of Visitors, prescribe the mode of election
and define their duties ; such board or boards to be separate
from, and in addition to, the Board of Trustees.
2. The property owned, or to be owned, or held by
the corporation hereby created shall be so held and owned
in the name of said corporation for the use and benefit of
the Methodist Episcopal Church, under such trust clause,
or clauses, as may be provided in the book of Discipline of
said Church. And the government and management of
said corporation, and the teachings in its several schools,
shall forever be conducted in harmony and consonance
with, and in the interest of, the said Methodist Episcopal
Church, as set forth, or declared from time to time, by the
General Conference of said Church.
3. Said corporation shall be self-perpetuating, sub-
ject only to the policy above stated. Any departure from
the objects and policy of said corporation as above limited
shall be good ground for removal of the Board of Trustees
upon cause properly shown in the court of equity having
jurisdiction, but shall not work a forfeiture of this charter.
4. The general powers of said corporation shall be
to sue and be sued by the corporate name; to have and
use a common seal, which it may alter at pleasure; if no
common seal, then the signature of the name of the cor-
poration by any duly authorized officer shall be legal and
binding; to purchase and hold, or receive by gift, bequest,
or devise, in addition to the personal property owned by
the corporation, real estate necessary for the transaction
of the corporate business, and also such property, real and
personal, or special trusts, as may be deemed needful for
72 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
special purposes; and also to purchase and accept any real
estate in payment, or in part payment, of any debt due to
the incorporation, and sell the same; to establish By-laws,
and make all rules and regulations, not inconsistent with
the laws and constitution, deemed expedient for the man-
agement of corporate affairs; and to appoint such subor-
dinate officers and agents, in addition to the president,
secretary and treasurer, as the business of the corporation
may require; elect such teachers, professors, and faculties
of the various schools of the university as they shall deem
best and fix the salaries of the same. The School of Theol-
ogy, the School of Law, the School of Medicine, and the
School of Technology shall be located at Chattanooga,
Tennessee. The College of Liberal Arts shall be located
at Athens, Tennessee; with academic departments of equal
grade at each place, and such other departments at either
place as may hereafter be determined upon by the Board
5. The said corporation shall within a convenient
time after the registration of this charter in the office of
the Secretary of State, elect from their number a president,
secretary and treasurer, or the last two officers may be
combined into one ; said officers and the other incorporators
to constitute the first Board of Trustees. In all elections
each member present shall be entitled to one vote, and the
result shall be determined by a majority of the vote cast.
Due notice of any election must be given by advertisement
in a newspaper, personal notice to the members, or a day
stated on the minutes of the board six months preceding
the election. The Board of Trustees shall keep a record of
all their proceedings, which shall be at all times subject
to the inspection of any member. The corporation may
*Amendment of June 7, 1892.
As a Memorial to Grant 73
establish branches or affiHated schools in any other county
in the State.
6. This corporation shall have power to increase the
number of trustees; to regulate the mode and manner of
appointments of the same on expiration of terms of service ;
to remove any trustee from the said corporation when in
their judgment he shall be rendered incapable, by age or
otherwise of discharging the duties of his office, or shall
neglect or refuse to perform the same; to regulate the
number, duties, and manner of election of officers, either
actual or ex officio; to appoint executive agencies, and to
pass all other by-laws for the government of said institution,
as may be required by the Methodist Episcopal Church:
Provided, said by-laws are not inconsistent with the consti-
tution and laws of this State. At least two-thirds of the
trustees shall be members in good standing of the Methodist
Episcopal Church. The terms of all officers may be fixed by
the by-laws; the said term not, however, to exceed three
years. All officers and trustees shall hold over until their
successors are elected and qualified.
7. The members may at any time voluntarily dissolve
the corporation, by the conveyance of its assets and property
to any other corporation holding a charter from this State
not for purposes of individual profit, first providing for
incorporate debts: Provided, the objects and aims of said
corporation shall be the same and in harmony with those
contained in this charter. A violation of any of the pro-
visions of this charter shall subject the corporation to dis-
solution at the instance of the State, in which event its
property and effects shall revert to the Trustees of the
Methodist Episcopal Church, a corporate body existing
under, and by virtue of, the laws of the State of Ohio.
This charter is subject to modification or amendment by
the Legislature, and in case said modification or amend-
74 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
ment is not accepted, corporate business is to cease, and
the assets and property, after payment of debts, are to be
conveyed, as aforesaid, to some other corporation holding
a charter for purposes not connected with individual profit,
and for the same objects and benefit of, and revert to, the
aforesaid Trustees of the Methodist Episcopal Church.
Acquiescence in any ^modification thus declared shall be
determined in a meeting of the members specially called
for that purpose, and only those voting in favor of the
modification shall thereafter compose the corporation.
8. The means, assets, income, or other property of
the corporation shall not be employed, directly or indirectly,
for any purpose whatever than to accomplish the legitimate
objects of its creation, and by no implication or construction
shall it possess the power to issue notes or coin, buy or sell
products, or engage in any kind of trading operation, nor
holding more real estate than is necessary for its legitimate
purposes, and in no event shall the trustees permit any
part of the principal of the endowment fund, or funds, or
any portion of the real estate of the corporation, to be
used for the payment of the current expenses.
9. We, the undersigned, hereby apply to the State
of Tennessee, by virtue of the laws of the land, for a charter
of incorporation for the purpose and with the powers and
privileges, etc., declared in the foregoing instrument.
Witness our hands the 26th day of March, A.D., 1889.
Isaac W. Joyce,
D. M. Key,
J. C. Hartzell,
J. H. Bayliss
M. D. Cone,
A. J. Gahagan,
J. K. P. Marshall,
As a Memorial to Grant 75
T. C. Carter,
J. W. Adams,
E. H. Matthews
J. D. Walsh,
John F. Spence,
L. B. Caldwell,
J. M. Walden,
Halbert B. Case.
There was reluctance on the part of the student body
and the citizens of Chattanooga to lose the appropriate
name of Chattanooga University for the institution, but
the University Lookout, publication of the student body of
Chattanooga, expressed its approval in an editorial and
The Chattanooga Times also expressed approval even as
to the name. "This name is favored as a monument to
General Grant, deceased. It was in this section that he
fought his decisive battles and as no one objects to a college
in his honor it is thought fitting to continue the title of the
Athens institution." The approval of the Times concluded
with the assertion that Grant Memorial University "will
be the grandest University in the South and one of the
grandest in the Methodist Episcopal Church." The first
meeting of the new Board was held May 2, 1889, for the
purpose of electing a President of the combined institutions.
Four persons were placed in nomination including Doctor
J. F. Spence. Doctor Spence received ten of the thirteen
votes. Commenting on this election The Chattanooga
Times headlined the story "Spence Gobbled It." These
editorial sentences evaluated the election. "Athens and
President Spence now have possession of Chattanooga and
the Chattanooga University property. The game has been
remarkably well played. The men who built the university
have been shoved aside . . ." The Board elected Captain
76 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
H. S. Chamberlain as President of the Board, changed the
title of President to Chancellor, and changed the name of
the institution to satisfy the desire of Chattanooga citizens
from Grant Memorial University to U. S. Grant University.
Govan and Livingood completed their recital of this story
with these words: "Thus, Chattanooga University, after
only three years of troubled existence, disappeared as an
official entity, and the administrative offices of the
institution were moved to Athens." ^
The report for 1890 indicated a total enrollment in
Athens and Chattanooga of 524, with 41 faculty members,
a School of Theology in Athens with 29 students, whose
object was to "train young men in every branch of theologi-
cal science for effective work as preachers of the gospel.
The general culture of our age, and the widening of
christian thought, demands a well-trained ministry."
Associated with U. S. Grant University there were
several academies whose enrollment exceeded 1,500.
It was estimated that the value of the property in
Chattanooga and Athens including endowment totaled
Another Pennsylvanian had become interested in the
division at Athens. Bennett Hall was completed at a cost
of $8,000 providing thirty-three rooms through the
generosity of Mrs. P. L. Bennett.
A building referred to as the New University Building,
purchased the previous April, was being slowly finished.
Chancellor Spence had been able to raise $6,000 toward
this project during the preceding year.
Attendance at Athens had increased 30% and Chatta-
nooga 50% over the previous year.
One of the most significant contributions of Chancellor
Spence's administration was his encouragement of the
^Quotations from Govan and Livingood by permission of authors and President
David A. Lockmiller.
As a Memorial to Grant 77
establishment of Elizabeth Ritter Hall, an institution sup-
ported by the Woman's Home Missionary Society of the
Methodist Episcopal Church.
Shortly after the organization of the Woman's Home
Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church in
1880, the Society became interested in the establishment
of a school which would serve the young women of the
mountains of the South. No funds were available for such
an undertaking, but the enthusiasm of the Society was
contagious and interest was maintained until funds were
made available. At the annual meeting of the Central
Ohio Conference Woman's Home Missionary Society, held
in Lakeside, Ohio, in 1886, Mrs. Elizabeth Ritter, of Na-
poleon, Ohio, gave $1,000. In recognition of this, the larg-
est gift up to that date, the Society decided to name the
Home (later changed to Hall) for Mrs. Elizabeth Ritter.
With this generous gift as a stimulus sufficient funds were
soon made available.
After considering several available localities, Athens,
Tennessee, was chosen because of its close proximity to the
mountain areas of Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama and North
Carolina, and because of the Christian influences and high
ideals of the faculty members and student body in Grant
University. To assist in this program of service to young
women, the Trustees of Grant University deeded a part of
its campus to the Woman's Home Missionary Society, and
here the Elizabeth Ritter Home, accommodating forty
girls, was opened September 1891.
Mrs. Delia Williams, of Delaware, Ohio, Correspond-
ing Secretary of the Woman's Home Missionary Society,
provided much of the aggressive leadership necessary to
secure the funds for the construction of Ritter Hall.
The purposes of Ritter Home and its relationship to
78 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
U. S. Grant University were set forth in the Yearbook
RITTER INDUSTRIAL HOME
and School for Young Women.*
This department of Grant University, located at
Athens, will be opened in September. The plan of instruc-
tion will be modeled after the best features of the world-
famous Mount Holyoke School, founded by Mary Lyon, the
most eminent teacher of her age.
The Department of Domestic Instruction is now be-
coming the most popular of any branch in Vassar, N. Y.,
and Auburndale, Mass.
Grant L^niversity proposes to be as progressive in this
phase of its work as it has been in other departments.
The Ritter Home will be under the auspices of the
Woman's Home Missionary Society of the Methodist Epis-
copal Church. The ladies who are directing this important
enterprise will spare neither labor nor money in making
this one of the best schools of the kind in the South.
The object of this school is to train the hand as well
as the head. To teach each young lady how to perform
most skillfully all the duties that pertain to a woman as
the head of a house or home.
It is training in Domestic Economy; sewing, the cutting
and making of a garment; house-keeping, cooking, market-
ing, keeping domestic accounts, and such other duties as
devolve upon a wife, sister or mother.
The Home will accommodate fifty girls, and is in itself
the Practice School for all the theoretic instruction. The
boarding expenses can be greatly reduced by taking this
The idea of the Home will be the family idea, each
pupil contributing her share of service, which, divided
*YEAR BOOK, U. S. GRANT UNIVERSITY — 1891-92.
As a Memorial to Grant 79
among so many, will not be burdensome, besides getting the
benefit of her work in reduction of expenses. By a hearty
cooperation of all the members of the household the total
expenses of living can be reduced to even less than $2 per
week. The amount of expense will be largely under the
control of the pupils themselves, for after a little experience
they will be able to adjust their daily bills of fare to any
scale of prices they may choose to adopt. The expenses of
the Home will be adjusted on the co-operative plan.
The Society will furnish the Home and pay the teach-
ers. The running expenses of the houses will be equally
divided among the members of the household. The Society
will extend the helping hand to such as are worthy, and
unable to meet the necessary expense themselves.
We are confident our people will manifest their ap-
preciation of this school by filling the halls of our splendid
new building with earnest, ambitious young women. Thus,
side by side in Grant University, brother and sister can be
trained not only in letters, but applied sciences, and become
skilled mechanics and home-makers.
A conflict developed between President Spence and
members of the Board of Trustees in Chattanooga which
resulted in his leaving U. S. Grant University and establish-
ing the American Temperance University, in Harriman,
Doctor Spence's relationship to the institution had
begun at the reorganization conference of which he was
secretary which established as one of its goals the establish-
ment of a university. The Holston Conference was not un-
mindful of his significant contributions and aggressive
leadership and expressed its gratitude at the Annual Session
in 1893 in the following resolution of appreciation:
"WHEREAS, Dr. John F. Spence has been for many
years the leader of the educational forces in the Holston
80 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
Conference, and has heroically struggled to secure oppor-
tunities to the thousands of youth in this section for a liberal
education, toiling through these weary years to build up a
central University with its affiliated seminaries and
"WHEREAS, He is no longer connected with this
great and cherished work in the school which he has labored
so diligently to found in our midst, and has been called to
the chancellorship of the American Temperance University,
"Resolved, That we highly appreciate the great work
which Dr. Spence has accomplished for this Conference
Doctor Spence had been made president in 1890 and
Bishop Joyce had become the chancellor of the University.
Isaac \\'ilson Joyce was born in Colerain Township,
Hamilton County, Ohio, October 11, 1836. He received
his education at Hartsville College and united with the
Methodist Episcopal Church in 1858. He was admitted to
the North\vest Indiana Conference in 1859. In 1866 he
was appointed to what was later Trinity Methodist Episco-
pal Church, of Lafayette, Indiana, where he continued for
a period of ten years. In 1876 he was forced because of
illness to take the supernumerary relationship. From 1877
to 1880, he was pastor of Roberts Chapel, in Greencastle,
Indiana, the scat of Indiana Asbury University, later De-
Pauw University. From 1880 to 1888, he was minister of
leading Methodist churches in Cincinnati. In 1888 he was
elected a Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church and
assigned to the episcopal residence in Chattanooga,
Bishop Jo)'ce continued as head of the university until
1896. For a period of a year the institution was managed
BURTON McMAHAN MARTIN
Theology 1895, College Pastor and Trustee
As a Memorial to Grant 81
by the deans at Chattanooga and at Athens, with Dr.
Richard J. Cooke as acting chancellor.
John H. Race was born at Paupack, Pennsylvania,
March 10, 1862. He was graduated from Princeton Univer-
sity with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1890 and received a
Master of Arts degree from Princeton in 1894. He was a
member of Phi Beta Kappa. Ordained to the ministry of
the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1890, he served as a
teacher of Greek at Wyoming Seminary, in Kingston,
Pennsylvania, 1890-94, and was minister of the Centenary
Church, of Binghamton, New York, 1894-98. Mr. Race
had been chosen as the president of U. S. Grant University
in 1897, and he met the faculty at Athens November 15,
1897. He continued his ministerial responsibilities in Bing-
hamton until the summer of 1898. He and Mrs. Race
moved to Athens and lived in Bennett Hall until he de-
cided that it would be preferable to have the administra-
tive offices of the president located in Chattanooga rather
than in Athens.
Doctor Race identified himself with all the interests
of the Holston Conference and was highly regarded by the
laymen and ministers of the Conference. He was con-
sidered an illustrious citizen of Chattanooga and in recogni-
tion of the City's appreciation a magnificent home for him
was built and presented to the University.
Doctor Race resigned the presidency of the University
in 1913 to accept election as one of the publishing agents
of the Methodist Episcopal Church and as treasurer of the
Methodist Book Concern, where he served until his retire-
ment in 1936. Doctor Joy, the editor of The Christian
Advocate, paid this tribute to the outstanding ability of
Doctor Race at the time of his retirement from this position
at the age of 74:
82 A History of Tenrrrssce Wesleyan College
A GREAT SERVANT OF ALL
Dr. JOHN H. RACE, at seventy-four, is retiring as
Publishing Agent at New York. Born in a Wyoming par-
sonage, trained in Methodist schools and at Princeton, he
was summoned from a thriving pastorate in Binghamton,
to lead a forlorn educational hope in Tennessee, where in
the years following the Civil War a fatuous group had set
up a loose-jointed Methodist college and burdened it with
the name of U. S. Grant University — and that in a border
state! Facing extreme discouragements he persevered until
the University of Chattanooga rewarded his efforts, a
liberal arts college fashioned on the model of Nassau Hall,
strongly established in the good will of the community and
in the esteem of the educational world. Elected Publishing
Agent in 1913, his co-operative spirit helped to forward the
unification of the publishing business, and greatly improved
the "team work" of the Cincinnati House. Transferred to
Ne\v York after the death of E. R. Graham in 1921, he
made the same policies effective here. As treasurer of the
Episcopal Fund, he has known both how to be abased and
how to abound. In the difficult years since 1929 he has
managed Episcopal finances so skillfully that the bank-
indebtedness of $225,000 has been entirely liquidated. With
his colleagues he has maintained the morale of the publish-
ing house during six years of unexampled difficulty. Its
obligations to the banks has been reduced by one-half, and
in the past year it has again shown a profit. His character
combines sound judgment, flawless integrity, and broad
human sympathy, with simple and unaffected piety. This
editor, whose work has at times brought him into close
relations with many high officials of the denomination, can
recall no one who has met each day's responsibilities with
riper wisdom, more resolute mind or firmer faith.^
ITHE CHRISTIAN ADVOCATE — May 28, 1936.
As a Memorial to Grant 83
President Race's leadership was revealed early in the
administration by holding a conference as a means of
evaluating the resources, responsibilities and opportunities
of U. S. Grant University. President Race's Educational
Conference was held in Athens, December 22-23, 1898.^
The program for this two-day conference was as follows:
Thursday, 10:30 a.m.
Devotional Exercises conducted by Bishop Goodsell.
Introductory Address President Race
Organization and appointment of committees.
Paper: Historical Sketch of our Educational
Work in the South Prof. Joseph H. Ketron, A.M.
Reminiscences Led by Prof. D. A. Bolton, A.M.
Thursday, 2:00 p.m.
Address: The Twentieth Century Offering
-Rev. G. E. Ackerman, D.D.
Paper: The Relation of the Denominational
Institution to the Common
School - Prof. John A. Hicks, A.M.
Paper: The Relation of the Denominational
Institution to the State
University Prof. Walter Franklin, A.M.
Thursday, 7:00 p.m.
Methodism in the Centuries ...Rev. R. J. Cooke, D.D.
Friday, 9:00 a.m.
Symposium, Our University —
Liberal Arts..... Dean W. A. Wright
Theology... Dean G. T. Newcomb
Medicine Dean E. A. Cobleigh
Law Dean J. W. Farr, Jr.
December 22-23, 1898
84 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
Paper: Our Academies.. Prof. Alvis Craig, A.B.
Paper: Our Field Rev. R. Pierce, D.D.
Friday, 2:00 p.m.
Address : The Circuit Rider and the
School Master Rev. F. M. Cones, Ph. D.
Paper: Uniform Course of Study for
Our Preparatory Schools Prof. W. W. Hooper, D.D.
Paper : How to Secure a More Vital Relation
between our University and the
Seminaries Prof. M. L. Roark, A.M.
Paper: Hopeful Features in
Our Work. Prof. M. H. Monroe, A.M.
Friday, 7:00 p.m.
Lecture: Six Months in
Rome... Rev. D. A. Goodsell, LL. D.
President Race's first report to the Board of Trustees
was dated May 16, 1899. He gave the figures of enrollment
as of the preceding December:
Professional and Post-Graduate Students.. 227
Collegiate Students 38
President Race pointed out what was an apparently
obvious fact — that the College of Liberal Arts was the
weakest part of the program. "Already notice has been
given us that unless we can strengthen our work in English,
we shall be rated among the academies of the Church."
President Race insisted that attention must be given to
instruction in Modern Languages and the sciences. From
this report it can be seen that the department which should
be strengthened is lamentably weak when we compare what
it is with what it should be. Under existing conditions, he
felt that this must continue. Remove the conditions was
RICHARD JOSEPH COOKE, Class 1880
Teacher, Vice Chancellor, First Book Editor of the
Methodist Episcopal Church, elected a Bishop in
As a Memorial to Grant 85
the required solution. After a year's study of the problem
he felt justified in suggesting a solution to be worked out
as soon as possible. President Race said that during public
discussion of the University during the past winter, "when
the question of the remission of taxes on the unoccupied
campus in Chattanooga was being discussed, various opin-
ions seemed to prevail concerning the future of the Univer-
sity; and since there is no doubt in my mind as to the
future policy I feel justified in presenting my views."
President Race then described the present situation as
follows: "After thirty-two years of effort we have a col-
legiate department this year of thirty-nine students. The
result is that the great body of the students in our prepara-
tory department are not receiving the consideration that
they should receive, because of the attention given to the
collegiate students by our professors. Our professional de-
partments are stronger than our college of Liberal Arts.
We are in a top heavy condition. The remedy is to divorce
the college of Liberal Arts from the preparatory depart-
ment, remove the college to Chattanooga, concentrate our
attention at Athens on the preparatory work; make that
department of the institution a seminary in the largest
sense of that term. This would mean an increased number
of students at Athens and facilities for training that we do
not now possess; so that attention would be directed to the
fundamentals in a liberal education. It is not necessary to
go into details, although these exist in my own mind."
President Race's report not only called for strengthen-
ing a college of Liberal Arts in Chattanooga and strength-
ening a preparatory department in Athens, but also called
for the erection of new buildings, the requirements to pro-
vide better salaries for faculty members, saying, "we must
present the claims of Grant University upon the denomina-
tion." President Race insisted that the University must
86 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
press for modern facilities and methods in carrying out its
The Board reconvened at 8:00 o'clock in the evening
and the Committee on Consolidation reported in favor of
consolidating "the College of Liberal Arts with the Profes-
sional Schools at Chattanooga." In President Race's second
annual report, dated June 1, 1900, he refers to his report
of the previous year in which he called attention to the fact
that "the University Senate, of which body our institution
is a member, had notified us that unless our work in English
could be strengthened we should be rated among the
academies of the Church."
President Race faced and discussed the difficulties in-
volved, mentioning that "our expenses in connection with
the department at Athens already were largely in excess
of our receipts." President Race mentioned other problems
to be faced, providing laboratory facilities for natural
sciences and a dormitory for men at Athens. After thought
and prayer, the Board decided "to place a representative
of the school in the local field." The Board of Trustees
was "convinced that the institution must avail herself of
the Twentieth Century movement and place a representa-
tive in the local field."
Dean W. A. Wright, of Athens, was assigned to this
responsibility. He was requested to raise funds to erect
greatly needed buildings, including a science building.
The Board at this meeting employed a new Latin
teacher at a salary of $400 a year and an English teacher
at a salary of $375. President Race reported that there had
been considerable improvement in the English Department
and listed the required readings for English students.
President Race had not lost his conviction concerning the
College of Liberal Arts. "Necessarily this department must
be the vertebral column of the University." He was still
As a Memorial to Grant 87
of the opinion that Athens should have a preparatory de-
partment that would be "first class in every particular."
It would be a modern Methodist seminary, "furnishing at
the same time a satisfactory academic program to that body
of students unable to go to college." Concerning the Col-
lege of Liberal Arts of Chattanooga, President Race said
that there should be a college "with a close and reciprocal
relation between it and the professional schools, arranging
the courses of study in such a manner that the individual
having a profession in view may pursue studies that are
of especial value to him. The ancient iron-clad college
course must go."
Referring to the action of the Board of Trustees in
submitting the idea of consolidation to the patronizing con-
ferences. President Race reported that the Annual Confer-
ences had recommended that consolidation be effected as
soon as the facilities and equipment were available. The
President urged the Board of Trustees to find the means
to make this consolidation possible.
It was reported that the Board of Trustees of the
Freedman's Aid and Southern Education Society had met
February 17, 1903, and that the Society had approved the
necessary amendments to the charter as follows : "Resolved,
That the President and local Executive Committee be au-
thorized to open a college of liberal arts in Chattanooga
in the fall of 1904 provided that sufficient funds are
The recommendations of President Race to limit the
work at Athens to preparatory work and to establish a
College of Liberal Arts in Chattanooga had received the
necessary official approval. Friends of the institution in
Athens expressed the conviction that the years of contro-
versy concerning the future of the Athens Division had
88 A History of Tennessee Wesley an College
done much to lessen the interest of the pubhc and the
Church in the institution.
The assignment of Dean Wright to raise funds for the
erection of a science building resulted in the construction
of Banfield Hall. Dean Wri^ght had interested William Ban-
field, of Beaver, Pennsylvania, in providing $16,400. to pro-
vide the cost of construction. In addition to the contribution
of Mr. Banfield, whose generosity was directed toward the
erection of a memorial for his son, C. H. Banfield, Dean
Wright secured a gift of $6,000 from J. W. Fisher, of New-
port, to provide the cost of laboratories, a gift of $1,000
from Doctor J. W. Foster, of Athens, for a library, and a
member of the faculty, Mrs. A. C. Knight, sister of Bishop
Henry W. Warren, and Doctor William F. Warren, first
president of Boston University, contributed $1,000. Banfield
Hall was formally opened October 7, 1902. Two major
addresses were given by Bishop J. M. Walden and Doctor
W. P. Thirkield. Excerpts from these addresses follow:
Bishop Walden said in part^: "For several days I have
given a careful study to the territory of East Tennessee, of
which this University is practically the center. The
Church as found in the Holston Conference of the Metho-
dist Episcopal Church has a very vital relation to this
University. The study of the last few days reveals to me
the fact that vast changes have taken place within the last
few years, and that now nearly every county seat can be
reached by some line of railroad, thus bringing within easy
reach of this place many who but a few years since could
reach it only with difficulty. This fact is significant, as it
affects the influence of this school in this region.
"The wealth of these hills and valleys will some time
be exhausted; but there are hidden stores of wealth which
do not lie on the surface. I have been asking the question,
ITHE UNIVERSITY LOOKOUT — November 10, 1902.
As a Memorial to Grant 89
'What is the relation of this institution, this new Hall of
Science, to the future, when the present stores of wealth
shall be exhausted?'
"Science in the hands of the scholar can go about over
the hidden sources of power and locate it. Only the scien-
tifically educated man can reveal these secrets of power in
"Young men and women must have as good privileges
in our church schools as they can find in the State
University if we expect them to come to the church school.
"Grant University assures the young men and women
of this region of these excellent privileges. A school would
not be complete as a Christian school unless it should stand
in the very forefront on scientific lines. This will be the aim
and purpose of Grant University from this on."
Dr. Thirkield's address was in part as follows ^ :
"This institution occupies a strategic position in relation
to the distinctively American population of this central
south. In the 196 counties stretching through the hill and
mountain country from Virginia on through Northern Ala-
bama is a population of about three millions; here is found
a larger percentage of Americans of Anglo-Saxon stock
than in any other section of America. They are descendants
of the original Scotch-Irish, and English settlers, who in
the rush toward the great West became stranded in this
mountainous country. Pressed away from the fertile regions
of the South through the influence of the old system, with
labor regarded as the task of slaves only, here tens of mil-
lions of them have lived a separate people — of hardy
stock, of virile blood, of large native capacity, yet through
lack of opportunity, a belated and undeveloped people. It
is said that 97 per cent of these people are sons and daugh-
ters of men of the Revolutionary War, the war of 1812,
ITHE UNIVERSITY LOOKOUT — November 10, 1902.
90 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
and the Mexican War. They have shown the spirit of
patriots, sending into the civil war more soldiers on both
sides than any other section of the country.
"From these mountain people came Abraham Lincoln,
Stonewall Jackson and Cyrus McCormick. What school has
larger opportunity in the reaching and uplifting of these
people? This Banfield Hall of Science, with its noble equip-
ment stands as a living memorial. No monument of marble,
however tall and splendid, is comparable with it. What
an investment this noble and generous Christian patriot has
made ! From this hall, or from its lecture rooms and labora-
tories, are to go forth young men thoroughly equipped for
service. And what a splendid field for them is there in the
development of immense material resources of the South
that are now only being uncovered. While cotton was king,
this hill and mountain country was left bare, and undevel-
oped. But now their untold wealth in coal, iron, timber,
marble, and other minerals is being opened up. Think of
the tremendous strides forward that the South had made
in the last decade, with an increase in population from
sixteen to twenty-three millions; railway mileage increasing
150 per cent, and exports 100 per cent; the value of manu-
factures more than treble, and coal mined rising from six
to fifty million tons.
"The call for well equipped men in science and mechan-
ics to help in this work of development is imperative. Grant
University offers the opportunity. Let young men get ready
or the graduates from Northern colleges will take your
"This school stands related to the ignorant and irre-
ligious condition of the States lying between the foothills
of the Blue Ridge on the east and the Cumberland
Mountains on the west.
"Here in 1900 in a total male population of 870,537
As a Memorial to Grant 91
while, twenty-one years of age, over 142,312, or 16.34 per
cent, could not read and write. This means that 50 per cent
of the entire white population are without letters.
"The call is not merely for better school houses, but for
trained teachers who will consecrate themselves to the edu-
cation of these belated people. It is startling to realize that
in one county of this State, Claiborne, the average of each
school property is only $51.72. School keeps on an average
sixty-one days; teachers are paid $22.50 per month and
the average expenditure for public education per capita
of the population is 47 cents.
"The religious condition of multitudes of these Ameri-
cans calls for trained ministers. O, what whitening fields
lie before the consecrated missionary, in the uplifting of
the masses of both races in the South. For the sake of
America, for the sake of the world, the call for this form
of service is urgent and imperative. Here, young men and
women, is an urgent call for service in the enlightening and
uplifting of a- depressed and belated people.
"Here in the splendid equipment of Grant University
is an opportunity for the best investment a young man or
woman can make. Would that parents also might feel that
an investment in the brains of their children offers larger
returns than money put in fields or mines."
The Hall was formally dedicated May 19, 1903. The
program included addresses by President Race, John W.
Fisher, Doctor James S. Ramsey, Dean Wright, Doctor
William D. Parr, and Bishop Daniel A. Goodsell. Captain
H. S. Chamberlain, president of the Board of Trustees,
In 1905 Mr. and Mrs. C. S. Blakeslee, of Macksburg,
Ohio, presented the brick residence on the corner of North
Jackson and Robeson Streets to the University to be used
as a dormitory for men. The announcement indicated the
92 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
Standards which the administration of the University hoped
the atmosphere of Blakeslee Hall might produce. "An
education that does not lead to good manners is a failure.
Train a boy until he is polite unconsciously, otherwise he
is handicapped for life. It is our hope, therefore, more and
more to throw around all our students the refining influ-
ences, such as prevail in a well regulated home, and Blakes-
lee Hall is to be just such a place."
The action of the Board of Trustees to discontinue
college work in Athens met w^ith two vigorous protests. The
alumni assembled in Banfield Hall and presented a four-
page document supporting the retention of the College of
Liberal Arts in Athens, and a petition signed by sixteen
leaders, including Dean Wright and Professor Bolton, was
presented to the Board protesting the reducing of the Athens
Division to academy rank.
Mrs. A. C. Knight who had served the College since
1880 was completing her last year of service in 1905. It
was appropriate that one of her two distinguished brothers,
Doctor William F. Warren, should be invited to give the
Baccalaureate Sermon and the Commencement Address.
Doctor Warren's sermon has been preserved and is
being included in this volume as a symbol of a unique and
distinguished Methodist family.
Rev. William F. Warren, LL. D.,
Dean of the School of Theology, Boston University
In the University Chapel, Athens, Tenn.
May 14, 1905
THE POWER THAT WORKETH IN US.
Your prayerful attention is invited to a striking ex-
pression found in Paul's letter to the Ephesians, in the third
As a Memorial to Grant 93
chapter and twentieth verse: "The power that worketh
One day as I was travehng by railway in France, I
chanced to pass through the university town in which but
a short time before Professor and Madame Curie had made
their world-famous discoveries respecting radium. It
chanced that a gentleman in our coupe had with him a
tiny specimen of the newly discovered element. At his
invitation we constructed with our two overcoats a kind
of tent to serve as a camera obscura, under the roof of which
our little party then had the pleasure of watching the radio-
active process as the mysterious element gave off its quickly
succeeding points of light in one incessant bombardment of
the immensities in every direction from its centre. It was
a spectacle before which my heart well nigh stood still in
awe and wonder. It was as if I had violated the privacy
of nature's most secret laboratory, and had suddenly come
upon one of the hidden motors of the universe. In my
amazement the question rose to my lips: "Whence, O ye
thaumaturgic atoms, whence have ye this unwearying,
wasteless, exhaustless energy?" Then from out of the fath-
omless silence I seemed to hear the answer: "We can not
tell. It is a power that worketh in us."
Last summer I was riding along a highway in the
country. As I was looking up into the tall elms that over-
arched me, I remembered the day when years before I
saw them planted as slender, almost branchless, saplings by
the roadside. How wonderful seemed the change! Then
rose a new question to my lips, and I said: "How is it, ye
thaumaturgic trees, how is it that ye have been adding all
these cubits to your stature? You have been doing what
no man can do." The oracular answer quickly came, and
it was this : "We have done nothing. A mysterious interior
force takes up the soil beneath your feet, lifts it through
94 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
liquid pipes yard after yard, and builds and builds our
tops into the upper air. It is the power that worketh in
Today let us look for a little at the world of men.
Here is the planet we occupy, a solid earth wrapt round
with oceanic waters that seem immeasurable. But men are
navigating the stormiest seas; they have actually weighed
the earth; they are measuring the innumerable stars. A
few geologic years ago not one representative of our human
family ^vas here. When the first of the kind appeared they
seemed the least promising of all the animate tribes. They
\vere at birth the weakest of all; they were the slowest of
all in reaching individual maturity. Their chances for bare
survival in the struggle for existence seemed the poorest of
all. Despite this unpromising beginning, however, they have
long since taken possession of one of the ripest worlds in the
solar system, inclosed its every acre of land and water in a
vast net of meridians and parrallels from whose meshes it
can nowhere escape. They have plucked from the clouds
the thunderbolts and bid fair to be soon sending their wire-
less messages from planet to planet. Remembering the
feebleness of our beginnings and contrasting with them our
ever-gro\\ing approaches to world sovereignty, must we not
join with the radio-active elements, and with the towering
elms, in the confession: "There is a power that worketh
This thought that in each one of us there is at work
a po\ver distinguishable from ourselves, a power not our
own, is one of the most startling imaginable. Our minds
habitually think of themselves as capable of being acted
upon only from points without. We hear continually about
our environment, and about the potent, the well-nigh all-
decisive, effect of the forces that act upon us from our en-
vironment. The idea that besides all these exterior forces,
As a Memorial to Grant 95
there is another, a force within, one central to our central
self, yet not our own, is at first almost alarming. It seems
as if it carried with it a betrayal of the inner citadel of our
very personality. If a force not our own is at work at our
very centre, and at the same time forces not our own are
pressing in from without from every point in our environ-
ing sphere, what earthly chance have we to rise superior to
alien forces, to triumph over predetermined influences, to
give decisive effect to any noble spontaneous purpose? In-
deed what are we but empty vortical atoms kept in existence
simply by the equilibrium of forces that exactly counterpoise
Startling, however, as the thought may be, alarming
though it may seem, I think all truly thoughtful men sooner
or later reach the conclusion that it is in strict accord with
reality. In the realm of our bodily life there seems no
possibility of doubting it. It was by no plan or effort of
mine that my physical frame took on the form and features
of a human being. Within my breast I find the central
power-house of my physical life, but I am certain that it
was not fitted by me. In it a power not my own set in
operation the throbbing dynamo of my heart. A power not
my own determined its permissible rates of motion and pre-
established its term of normal operation. Each one of us
is an animated onrushing automobile, whose driving engine
we have never seen, whose fuel supply we have no means of
estimating, and whose stop at the goal will not be at our
personal word of command. Truly the pre-conditioning,
the sustentation, and the abiding issues of our physical life,
are not our own; they are from the power that worketh
Not less evident is a similar working in our intellectual
and moral life. The real originator of our spiritual faculties,
the determiner of their actions and interactions, the author
96 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
of the conditions of their sane and normal exercise, the
giver of their possibihties of improvement and abuse, was
in each case not ourselves. It must have been one whose
being and whose agency antedates our own. And if a power
capable of all this did all this for us in advance, it would be
the height of unreason to imagine that his operations myste-
riously ceased the moment of infant powers had once been
set in motion. The very heathen never fall into so gross
an error as that. You who have studied Plato and the great
tragedians of pre-Christian ages know that even there men
found within themselves illuminations, and quickenings, and
uplifts, which they recognized as from some power other
than their own, some power that was working in them. To
Socrates, no less than to us, the voice of conscience was a
divine voice. Centuries before the Christian era, lawgivers
like Hammurabi, and poets like Homer, felt spiritual im-
pulsions which led to deeds and words immortal. Surely
none of us are willing to be more blind than the heathen
of those distant ages. Surely, Epictetus and Plutarch, we
will confess that there is within us a light not of our own
kindling, a power not ourselves that makes for righteousness.
Moreover, as Plato and Epictetus and Plutarch hesitated
not to identify this personal interior worker with the in-
visible Sovereign of the universe, — the Creator and right-
ful Lord of all men — we too will not hesitate to unite
with them in the confession: "It is God that worketh in us
both to will and to do of his own good pleasure."
A properly vivid realization of this inward working of
the inner Worker is something wonderfully inspiring. Would
that each one of us might possess it and possess it uninter-
mittently! It affects one's total world-view. It communi-
cates a courage and a confidence which nothing else can
give. Whenever we fully possess it we can not doubt that
despite all conflicts and set-backs and discomfitures, we are
WILLIAM A. WRIGHT, Class of 1878
Teacher and Dean
As a Memorial to Grant 97
equipped for ultimate and certain victory. We clearly see
that the power within is the ground and the governor of
all the powers without; and consequently that all the im-
pulses within us toward the harmony, order and perfection
of our being have allies in the corresponding forces which
are at work in the outer world, - — forces evermore making
for harmony and order and perfection in the broadest
reaches of our total world-environment. We can not give
way to weak despondencies and impotent despairs, for be-
fore our very eyes we note these adjusted and mated forces
at work through all the longitudes of time and through all
the latitudes of space, — working, working, forever working
with wasteless energy for ends precisely answering to those
for which the power within us is working. The vision lifts
us at once above the gloom of our disappointments and the
bitterness of our defeats; it causes us to cry out in sudden
exultation, "If God be for us who can be against us!" It
so identifies us with God's very life that we are ready to
Breathe within our breathing. Thou;
Beat within our pulses now;
Conscience of our conscience be.
Soul of souls eternally.
If any person now listening to me has never yet at-
tended to this deepest and highest activity within him, I
would ask, Why not? Why not?
Perhaps you say, "I have always had the idea that
only deluded mystics, or at least, dreamy, mystically con-
stituted persons, could have experiences such as the apostle,
and even some lofty spirits among the heathen, have
claimed to have. And really, is there not something border-
ing on the pathologic in all such experiences?"
In answer to your question I might cite you the langu-
age of Seneca, the Stoic, who certainly was far enough
98 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
from being a mystic, or a dreamer; yet who says: "There
is within us a holy spirit who treats us as we treat him."
But you would prefer, perhaps, to hear a modern, a man
of broad intelligence and ripe experience in the world. I
will select you one. Shall he be a child of Greater Boston?
Very good. Must he be an author known and honored
wherever the literature of the English tongue is studied?
Very good. Must he be versed in other great modern
literatures? Yes, he shall be a man \vho for long years was
a University Professor of two of them. Must he have
abounding humor and great powers of burlesque? Be it so.
He shall be one who holds a front rank among our greatest
American satirists. Shall he have in him the fire of a politi-
cal reformer? Quite right. He shall be the man who in the
old anti-slavery times Edgar Allen Poe branded as the most
fanatical of all the Abolitionists. Shall he yet have such
cool and excellent judgment and such knowledge of men
that he can be entrusted with a public office? O yes, he
shall be a man of such eminent qualifications for public
service that the whole American people were proud to see
him, during more than one administration, serving as our
ambassador and minister plenipotentiary at the Court of
St. James. And now what does this scholar, this reformer,
this wide-awake modern man of affairs say in response to
your question? Turn to the closing lines of "The Cathe-
dral," written by James Russell Lowell, and you have his
answer. Speaking from the depths of his own experience
"O Power more near my life than life itself,
Oh what seems life to us in sense immersed."
This is the way in which he addresses the power that
worketh in us. He represents this power as knowable intui-
tively, knowable by men. He claims for his own soul an
inward surety of God's presence \vithin him. More than
As a Memorial to Grant 99
this, he goes on to affirm that only through this personal
divine Power within does his soul feel and self-realize her-
self. Surely if the author of the Biglow Papers, this many-
sided ambassador at the Court of St. James can thus speak
of the central realities of his own personal experience, you
may well reconsider your notion that only mystics and
dreamers and dupes of unregulated imagination ever per-
suade themselves that God is working within them. May
it not turn out that you are the dreamer, and that this very
notion of yours is part of a baseless dream?
Thus far I have spoken of certain analogies that war-
rant us in expecting to find a divine working within
ourselves. Next, of the recognition of its existence by the
more intelligent among heathen thinkers. Next, of the
matchless inspiration and help of such a working when
fully recognized by us. Next, of the sanity and wholesome-
ness of a life conscious of this inward working. Now, ad-
vancing a further step I come to a question which more
than any other challenges our interest and our action. It
is this: To what degree, if any, can we control, direct, or
modify the working of this superhuman power that worketh
in us? In answer to this question I must first of all say that
according to the agreeing testimony of all witnesses, heathen
or Christian, the interior divine working as a matter of fact
antedates all expectation and seeking on the part of the
human will. It is, therefore, in the first instance, not a
divine response to some forth-putting of human energy that
serves as a procuring cause. As the stars give illumination
to the midnight landscape without being asked to do so, so
over the night of our infant souls there is shed from the
beginning a heavenly illumination. Better than that, the
source of this celestial light takes up his abode in the centre
of our darkness and becomes the light that lighteth every
man that cometh into the world.
100 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
So far, then, it is not ours to control the power that
worketh in us. It is, however, ours to modify, and so far
forth to control, this power in all further workings. These
are psychologically conditioned on personal human response
to personal divine solicitation. The unconditionally given
light is sufficient to reveal evidences of the presence of Him
whom all responsive souls recognize as "The Great Com-
panion." But it is in our power so to turn our eyes away
from their evidences to things visible and tangible, and so
to set our affections on our own selfish schemes and our own
selfish selves as to have no place for thoughts of God, no
capacity for affections such as are due toward Him. It is
in this condition that the unmitigated worldling lives. In
comparison with the man he might be, he is more to be
pitied than the man who is blind of eye and utterly void
of tactual sensibility. The visions he is missing surpass all
that keenest eye has ever seen. The delights that he has
forfeited are beyond all that bounding heart or tingling
nerve has ever reported. Even the Bramin and the Budd-
hist unite with the Christian in pronouncing such a man a
spiritual bankrupt, — a being who has utterly missed his
true life and all that ecstacy of conscious self-realization
claimed by Russell Lowell and claimed by every soul
conscious of its indwelling God.
The action of the Board of Trustees of 1904 was not
easily accepted by alumni, trustees, and friends of the Col-
lege in Athens, and in order to prevent President Race ai;id
the Board of Trustees from continuing this policy, John W,
Bayless '81, of Athens, and a member of the Board of
Trustees, and Robert J. Fisher, a prominent citizen of
Athens, caused to be filed on August 15, 1904, in Athens,
a bill of injunction, enjoining the President of the Univer-
sity from control of the affairs of the Division at Athens
and also from interferring in its management by officers
JAMES W. FISHER
Trustee, Donor of Fisher Laboratories
As a Memorial to Grant 101
residing in McMinn County. Judge McConnell decided
in favor of Bayless and Fisher, granting the chief elements
sought in the injunction. This case was appealed and taken
to the Chancery Court of Appeals. Judge J. F. Wilson, of
the Chancery Court of Appeals, reversed the decision of
Judge McConnell and the case was then appealed to the
Supreme Court. The Supreme Court, in its session in
Knoxville in September — November, 1904, handed down
no decision. The Supreme Court gave its decision in
November 1905 through Judge W. K. McAlister. This
action reversed the action of Judge McConnell and
concludes with this statement:
"The Chattanooga and Athens institutions, in 1892,
were merged into one institution, by an act of the Legisla-
ture by and with the consent of the Trustees of both institu-
tions. The new corporation accepted a trust, and has since
that time been conducting and operating same. The decree
of the Court of Chancery Appeals sustained demurrer,
therefore affirmed, and the bill dismissed."
Apparently, during the period of litigation President
Race had not felt welcome in Athens and had had little
to do with the institution and had objected to signing the
diplomas which were to be awarded in June 1905.
Following the action of the Supreme Court of the State
of Tennessee, designating the Board of Trustees as being in
control of the university, Doctor Race, accompanied by
J. E. Annis, visited Athens, dining at Blakeslee Hall, and
meeting in Banfield Hall of Science.
The meeting was attended also by John W. Bayless,
John W. Foster, Dean Wright and Professor David A.
Bolton. President Race reported that inasmuch as the con-
duct of the University had been restored to the Board of
Trustees and to himself as President, he and Mr. Annis had
come to Athens to discover what financial obligations had
102 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
been entered into by the local Trustees and the Dean of
the College. President Race accepted financial responsi-
bility and said that all obligations would be paid in full.
There was discussion concerning the conditions upon
which the Freedman's Aid and Southern Education Society
of Cincinnati would resume payment for the maintenance
of current operations at Athens. The President and Mr.
Annis said that they believed that the Society would resume
its payment if the authorities at Athens would work in
harmony with the policy of the Society. John W. Foster
said that as long as he was a member of the Board of Trus-
tees he would do everything in his power to prevent the
College of Liberal Arts, in Athens, from being discontinued.
His sentiments were seconded by John W. Bayless. The
meeting, although frank discussion was participated in, was
reported to be "harmonious in its conclusions." President
Race reported that he was having success in securing
$200,000 to be added to the endowment of the University
to meet the challenge of Doctor John Pearson, of Chicago,
who had pledged $50,000 on condition that the University
raise an additional $150,000.00. The local Executive Com-
mittee met with Dean Wright and President Race at com-
mencement time in 1906. The financial budget for the
coming year was considered and the members of the faculty
were approved for election, and Dean Wright and Professor
Bolton, who had taken some interest in the injunction
proceedings of the preceding two years, were re-elected.
At the meeting of the Board of Trustees June 14, 1906
in Chattanooga, Bishop J. W. Walden objected to the
election of certain members of the faculty at Athens. The
Board of Trustees declared the Dean's place vacant and the
Chair of Mathematics vacant. The Board of Trustees
adopted the report, not a member voting against it, but
As a Memorial to Grant 103
John W. Bayless, of Athens, and James A. Fowler, of
Knoxville, did not vote.
Dean Wright was selected a Professor of Latin at a
reduced salary. This he declined to accept. The Chair
of Mathematics, which had been occupied by D. A. Bolton
for 33 consecutive years, was left vacant.
The failure to re-elect Wright as Dean and Bolton as
Professor created considerable opposition and on June 16,
1906, James A. Fowler, '84, who had failed to vote at the
meeting two days before sent the following letter to each
member of the Executive Committee which consisted of
President Race, H. S. Chamberlain, J. E. Annis, William
Banfield, Bishop Luther B. Wilson, John A. Patten, John
W. Fisher, C. L. Parham, W. P. Thirkield, G. T. Francisco
and John W. F. Foster.
"Dear Sir: — On reflection I have concluded that it
would not be inappropriate, but that it is probably my duty
to express to you my views with reference to the action of
the Board of Trustees on the 14th inst. in regard to
Professors Wright and Bolton.
"I said nothing at the time, because I was fearful that
something might be said that would mar the good feeling
that appeared to prevail among the entire membership of
the Board. I have the utmost confidence in every member
of the Committee who submitted the report in question,
and, of course, I know that they, as well as all other mem-
bers of the Board, have the very best interest of the institu-
tion at heart, and would carefully avoid doing anything
that might jeopardize that interest; and I am sure that all
have the liberality to permit me to dissent from the view
that the action taken is calculated to best promote the wel-
fare of the school. This action was, of course, the result
of the litigation which terminated at the last term of the
Supreme Court at Knoxville, and whether or not that liti-
104 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
gation was in any respect justifiable, is not a matter which
I shall discuss. However, I will suggest, that if something
of that kind had not occurred, there might have been radi-
cal steps taken, before conditions had so adjusted them-
selves as to prevent serious friction. But let us concede that
it was ill-advised, then will it not be admitted that all
persons are liable to err, and that a mere error in judgment
which involves no improper motive should be overlooked?
There can be no doubt that the statement of Dr. Wright
(Dean) to the Board that his conscience was clear, and
that he had done nothing but what he believed to be right,
was absolutely true; and there can be no doubt that Prof.
Bolton could, with equal truth, make the same statement.
It is difficult for some of the Board to put themselves in
their position. The Athens School was their Alma Mater.
They had witnessed its early years of struggle, and had
given the energies of the best years of their lives to lifting
it from obscurity to a position of respectability, and natur-
ally they resented what they conceived to be an effort to
cripple its usefulness. You, who were opposed to their
views, of course, believe you had a broader vision than they,
and had no such purpose as they supposed, but you ought
to be kind enough to overlook the words and acts of us who
adhere to Athens, when they are the outgrowth, not only
of our best judgments, but also of the memories that
surround, and the love that binds us to that institution.
"Now if the conduct of these two gentlemen does not
show that their motives were impure and unworthy of men
who teach the youth of our land, what reason can there
be for removing them from the Faculty, or attempting to
administer a rebuke to them?
"I was led to believe that the Board had determined
to sufTer the past to remain behind them and to turn their
faces to the future, and to do that which would best sub-
As a Memorial to Grant 105
serve the future interests of the entire institution, both the
departments at Chattanooga and those at Athens. With
this in mind I had no thought of any action being taken
that would reflect upon Professors Wright and Bolton, or
that might in the least estrange their feelings and sympa-
thies from the work, because neither their efficiency, nor
their Christian character has ever been questioned, and I
imagine that there is hardly a student who attended at
Athens during the past year, or an alumnus of that school,
who would not feel that an irreparable loss had befallen
the institution on account of their absence.
"In addition to this, no active Professors of the institu-
tion are so well known to, or so well understand, the people
of the patronizing territory as they. They are native born
and reared and have spent their lives in educating this very
people and in this very institution, and must, therefore,
have many scores of influential friends among the alumni
and former and present students, scattered throughout this
entire territory. Are all these advantages to be thrown
away, and these men who have devoted so much and valu-
able service to our school and church, and who have past
that period of life when they can readily turn to some other
avocation, to be sacrificed? And if so, for what? For some-
thing which I submit, no business man should consider for
a moment, if action upon it would materially interfere with
the success of his business.
"As I understand, the whole matter is now in the
hands of the Executive Committee, and it is for this reason
that I have taken the liberty of thus addressing you. You
will please pardon me for also taking the liberty of sending
a copy of this communication to each member of the com-
mittee. I think that it is a matter that deserves of them
the most careful and prayerful consideration, and knowing
the personnel of that Committee, and their anxiety to do
106 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
under all the circumstances the best thing, I do not doubt
that it will receive the consideration that it deserves.
"Pardon me for also suggesting that in justice to the
institution, the Committee should take this matter under
advisement and act upon it at the earliest convenient date.
.^ Sincerely yours,
James A. Fowler"
William Banfield, who largely because of his friend-
ship with Dean Wright, had erected C. H. Banfield Memo-
rial Hall received a communication from Dean Wright
relating to him the acts of the Board concerning Professor
Bolton and himself.
Mr. Banfield wrote the following letter to President
"I am in receipt of a newspaper clipping from Dean
Wright, giving an account of the business transacted at the
last Trustee's meeting.
"I find that Dr. Bolton was dropped and that the
Deanship was taken from Mr. Wright. I infer that this is
a punishment for the part they took in the litigation. If
this is so, I sincerely protest against the course taken by
the Trustees. I have endeavored not to take sides in the
unpleasant controversy, feeling that I was not fully posted
in the history of the institution and its original agreement
made between the branch at Athens and Chattanooga. I
am of the opinion, however, that these people have a per-
fect right to stand up for the original agreement. I do not
for a minute question the loyalty of Dr. Bolton or Dean
Wright to the institution.
"For the sake of peace and harmony and the good of
the institution, I think they should be restored to their
former positions. If they have been removed for inefficiency
or for a lack of loyalty to the institution or the work, then
I have nothing to say. I am of the opinion that both sides
As a Memorial to Grant 107
made mistakes in the unpleasant controversy. It is my
opinion that if these men are reinstated the matter will
soon be forgotten and the good done in the past at Athens
will be continued.
"I would very much like to be at the meeting of the
Executive Committee, but I find that I have so much work
on hand that it will be impossible.
"With best wishes, I remain
On June 29th Dean Wright was invited to go to Chat-
tanooga for a conference with President Race. President
Race was joined by J. E. Annis and John A. Patten. They
discussed the problems involved in the running of the insti-
tution. Dean Wright returned to Athens that evening en-
couraged that he would be continued as Dean and that
D. A. Bolton would be restored to his position as Professor
of Mathematics at Athens.
"This was all, however, based on the condition that
these men work in harmony with the administration au-
thorities of the University. President Race requested each
write a letter stating as much."
"Wright and Bolton thought that further opposition
against the decision of the majority of the Board would
be useless and each one wrote a personal letter to President
Race admitting the reasonableness of his request and ex-
pressing their purpose of fidelity to the President and Board
of Trustees in the carrying out of their policy so long as
they may be teachers in the University."
A conference was held in Athens, July 6, 1906, at-
tended by President Race, John A. Patten, J. E. Annis,
W. A. Wright, and D. A. Bolton.
"In this conference at Athens all present agreed that
the strife and contention about the departments of the
108 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
University should be ended as soon as possible, and, if
possible, a satisfactory agreement reached by which the
Board could carry out its policy without disturbance."
President Race recommended to the Committee that
four years of preparatory work in the Scientific and Classi-
cal Curricula be continued and that two years beyond prep-
aratory school leading to the awarding of a diploma which
would carry the title of Literary Scientific and a normal
diploma course. Wright and Bolton made additional sug-
gestions which were apparently acceptable to other
members of the Committee.
"This Conference at Athens recommended the courses
mentioned for Athens for the following year 1906-1907,
and that W. A. Wright be elected Dean of the Department
at Athens, and that David A. Bolton be elected Professor
of Mathematics — they concurring in the said courses of
study, and the men from Chattanooga declaring to care
for the work at Athens and to develop it to a greater
John A. Patten was to carry the above recommenda-
tions to the meeting of the Cincinnati Board and to make
a plea for their adoption on July 10, 1906.
"The society met in Cincinnati on July 10, 1906, and
took action approving the suggestions made at Banfield
Hall on July 6, 1906. President Race soon notified Wright
that he and Bolton were restored to their former positions."
And, so the college program which began in 1857 with
the awarding of degrees came to an end, and the members
of the last graduating class in 1906 were as follows:
Ellis E. Crabtree, John Jennings, Walter F. Williams,
Isabelle Gettys, and J. Howard Jarvis.
As The Athens School of the University
Unless those who beheve in a Christian civihzation
are willing to sacrifice of their good, hard-earned cash to
educate Christian leaders, they will find in a few genera-
tions that their dream has vanished, that tyranny with its
hard and fast ruthless rules of life will be substituted for
the good life. It is not a question so much of churches and
preachers alone as it is of these and colleges that will make
leaders who will create a world in which churches can
thrive, leaders in all walks of life, and in all callings and
professions. If American churchmen fail to support the
kinds of colleges that turn out Christian leaders, American
life under another leadership soon will close the church.
— William Allen White.
110 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
The Board of Trustees petitioned the State of Tennes-
see on June 11, 1907, "for an amendment to its charter of
incorporation, for the purpose of changing the name of
said corporation from the U. S. Grant University to Uni-
versity of Chattanooga," and the Athens Division of U. S.
Grant University became The Athens School of the
University of Chattanooga.
President Race as previously reported in conference
with Dean Wright and Professor Bolton had agreed upon
a two-year post-high school program. The following
curricula were offered:
CLASSICAL DIPLOMA COURSES*
First Term. College Algebra 5
Latin, De Senectute 5 English Prose 5
Greek, Herodotus 5 Third Term.
College Algebra 5 Latin, Tacitus 5
Advanced Rhetoric 5 Greek, Memorabilia 5
Second Term. Botany 5
Latin, Livy 5 Political Institutions 5
Greek, Herodotus 5
First Term. Trigonometry 5
German or French 5 American History 5
Physics 5 Third Term.
European HistOiy 5 German or French 5
Economics 5 Physics 5
Second Term. Sociology 5
German or French 5 19th Century 5
First Term. College Algebra 5
Latin, De Senectute 5 English Prose 5
German or French 5 Third Term.
College Algebra 5 Latin, Tacitus 5
Advanced Rhetoric 5 German or French 5
Second Term. Botany 5
Latin, Livy 5 Political Institutions 5
German or French 5
First Term. Trigonometry 5
German or French 5 American History 5
Physics 5 Third Term.
European History 5 German or French 5
Economics 5 Physics 5
Second Term. Sociology 5
German or French 5 19th Century Literature 5
As T he Athens S chool of the University of Chattanooga 111
First Term. Chemistry-Qualitative
German or French 5 Analysis 5
Chemistry-Qualitative English Prose 5
Analysis 5 Third Term.
College Algebra 5 German or French 5
Advanced Rhetoric 5 Chemistry-Qualitative
Second Term. Analysis 5
German or French 5 Botany 5
College Algebra 5 Political Institutions 5
First Term Physics 5
French 5 Zoology 5
Physics 5 Third Term.
European History 5 French 5
Economics 5 Physics 5
Second Term. Geology 5
French 5 Trigonometry and
Trigonometry 5 Mensuration 5
First Term. Education 5
Latin, German or French 5 English Prose 5
Physics 5 Third' Term.
Pedagogy-Psychology 5 Latin, German or French 5
Advanced Rhetoric 5 Physics 5
Second Term. Pedagogy-Principles of
Latin, German or French 5 Education 5
Physics 5 Political Institutions 5
First Term. Zoology 5
Latin, German or French 5 American History 5
Philosophy of Education 5 Third Term.
European History 5 Latin, German or French 5
Economics 5 Educational Problems 5
Second Term. Botany 5
Latin, German or French 5 Sociology 5
Pedagogy — Child Study 5
Dean W. A. Wright, who had served the University
with such great devotion and integrity, decided to leave
his alma mater and became the president of Grayson
College in Whitewright, Texas.
The Board of Trustees changed the title of dean to
vice-president, and Doctor William S. Bovard, member of
one of the most distinguished educational families in
Methodism, was appointed Vice-President of the Univer-
112 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
sity and he and his family took up residence in Blakeslee
Hall. In 1911, President Race initiated a financial cam-
paign for $500,000, $150,000 of which was to come from
the General Board of Education, endowed by John D.
Rockefeller. The Holston Conference called upon Method-
ists and other friends of the University of Chattanooga and
The Athens School to assist in securing by November 1,
1912, the $350,000 necessary to secure the Rockefeller
It will be recalled that President Race had suggested
in one of his earlier reports the urgent need of a science
building and an adequate dormitory for men in Athens.
The dedication of the dormitory to be known as Petty-
Manker Hall, took place November 20, 1913.
This building was erected during the summer of 1913
at a cost of $25,000. John A. Patten, of Chattanooga,
ofi"ered to give $10,000 toward the erection of a residence
hall for young men if the citizens of Athens \vould secure
an additional $10,000. This proposition \\as accepted by
the community of Athens and under the leadership of
Bishop R. J. Cooke, '80, and others, the campaign met
This building \vas named by the Trustees as Petty-
Manker Hall honoring Doctor J. J. Manker and Doctor
J. S. Petty, personal friends and leaders of Holston
On the day established for the dedication services the
program had to be delayed for several hours because the
Chattanooga train was three hours late.
The program began at 3 : 30 in the Chapel of The
Athens School. The Reverend Doctor Robert B. Stansell,
Vice-President of the University and acting President for
the year, presided; the Reverend Albert E. Wallace, minis-
As The At hens School of the University of Chattanooga 113
ter of the Mars Hill Presbyterian Church, in Athens, gave
Doctor Stansell introduced Captain H. C. Chamber-
lain, of Chattanooga, President of the Board of Trustees,
who gave the opening address. At the conclusion of his
address Captain Chamberlain became the Master of Cere-
monies and introduced the following persons who gave
addresses: The Honorable T. C. Thompson, Mayor of the
City of Chattanooga, Bishop R. J. Cooke, the Honorable
John H. Early, '86, of Chattanooga, Doctor John A. Patten,
and Frank F. Hooper, '97, member of the faculty of the
University of Chattanooga. The program was concluded
with a prayer by Doctor J. J. Manker.
President Race continued as acting President of the
University of Chattanooga and The Athens School of the
University until the election of Doctor Fred Whitlo Hixson
who took office in 1914.
Fred Whitlo Hixson was born November 24, 1874, at
Doverhill, Indiana. At sixteen years of age, Mr. Hixson
entered the preparatory school of DePauw University. He
was graduated from DePauw University, June, 1889, with
a Bachelor of Arts Degree and entered the ministry of the
Methodist Episcopal Church. From September, 1899, to
1914 he was pastor of leading churches in Indiana. In
1914, Doctor Hixson became president of the University of
Chattanooga. He was inaugurated October 22, 1914, in
services held in the City Auditorium of Chattanooga. The
faculty and students of The Athens School attended in a
body. Bishop Theodore S. Henderson, the resident Bishop
of the Chattanooga area, presided. Addresses were given
by President William A. Shanklin, of Wesleyan University,
President George R. Grose, of DePauw University, Bishop
William F. McDowell and by President Hixson. Doctor
Hixson continued as president of the University of Chatta-
114 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
nooga and The Athens School of the University until June
1920, when he was elected the eleventh president of
Allegheny College, at Meadville, Pennsylvania, where he
served for four years. Doctor Hixson died in his 49th year
after giving himself unremittingly as the president of the
University of Chattanooga and The Athens School and
Allegheny College. It was during President Hixson's ad-
ministrations that restrictions on post-high school \\ork were
further imposed on The Athens School. One year of
academic work was offered, designed to assist in the
preparation of elementary school teachers.
ONE-YEAR ACADEMIC COURSE*
(Open to graduates of first'class high schools.)
First Term. Second Term.
General Psychology (5) General Psychology (5)
Primary Methods (5) General Methods (5)
Rhetoric (5) Grammar Grade Methods (5)
Teachers' Arithmetic (3) Rhetoric (5)
Expression (2) Teachers' Geography (3)
School Management or School Administration (5)
Observation and Practice Teaching (3)
Teaching of Literature (3)
Public School Music (2)
A two-year pre-medical course was included in the
(Open to graduates of high schools.)
French, Spanish, or Latin
Solid Geometry or History
(Advanced Ale;ebra in Third Term.)
First Term. Second Term.
Organic Chemistry Psychology
Psychology Bible Literature
French, Spanish, or Latin French, Spanish, or Latin
French, Spanish, or Latin
As The At hens School of the University of Chattanooga 115
It was during President Hixson's administration that
the University of Chattanooga and The Athens School of
the University of Chattanooga suffered an irreparable loss.
The death of Doctor John A. Patten occurred on April
The Gold and Blue expressed the respect of faculty
and students in the following manner:
On Wednesday, April 26, the whole city of Athens
was shocked and a great gloom cast over the school when
the news of John A. Patten's death swept into our midst.
We have never sustained such a loss — one so wholly
irreparable, so keenly felt and so deeply mourned.
Mr. Patten has done more for this school than any
other one man. He has given liberally of his time and
money — more than that — he put his whole soul into it ;
its interests were his interests.
Petty-Manker Hall, our splendid boys' dormitory was
made possible by his generous giving and untiring efforts.
Every year he paid the expenses of some two or three
students to the Southern Students' Conference at Black
Mountain, N. C, and gave many confidential gifts to the
various enterprises of the school.
He Sounded No Trumpet.
Mr. Patten did not do his alms before men to be seen
of them, neither did he sound a trumpet that others might
know of his wonderful work. He gave his gifts confidenti-
ally and did his work for the love of it. He has helped
scores of young men to get an education, and he always
said, "This is confidential." He did not want the praises
of men, nor the newspaper's publicity but desired to con-
tinue in the even tenor of his way, doing unto others as he
would have them do unto him.
His Last Visit Here,
The students of this school will never forget his last
116 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
visit to Athens. On the evening of February 24th he at-
tended a banquet at Ritter Home, where he deHvered an
address, and the next morning at the chapel, we were
privileged to hear him deliver a most excellent address.
Mr. Patten said in substance, that we, as students were
enjoying a rare privilege — that of attending such a splen-
did school. He urged Xis to make the most of the golden
hours. He said that we ought to go from this institution,
unselfish, and willing to impart to others some of the great
things we had learned here.^
Dean Frank F. Hooper, dean of the College of Liberal
Arts, in Chattanooga, was designated as acting president
for the year 1920-21.
Doctor Arlo Ayres Brown was elected President of
the University of Chattanooga and The Athens School
June 7, 1921. Doctor Brown's education and experience
fitted him admirably to assume the dual responsibility of
Doctor Brown was born in Sunbeam, Mercer County,
Illinois, on April 15, 1883. He was educated at North-
western University, Drew Theological Seminary, and Union
Theological Seminary, in New York. He received honorary
degrees from Cornell College, Iowa, Syracuse University,
University of Chattanooga, Northwestern University and
Boston University. Doctor Brown was ordained in the Meth-
odist ministry in 1907 and served as associate pastor of Mad-
ison Avenue Church, in New York, and as pastor of Mount
Hope Church, in New York. In 1912 he represented the
Board of Foreign Missions of the Methodist Episcopal
Church in Jerusalem. This service was followed by assign-
ment as Executive Secretary of the Newark, New Jersey,
District Church Society. In 1914 he was appointed Super-
intendent of teacher training for the Board of Sunday
iThe Gold and Blue — May 1916
As The Athens School of the University of Chattanooga 117
Schools of the Methodist Episcopal Church. He assumed
the presidency of the University of Chattanooga and The
Athens School of the University in 1921. Following the
separation of The Athens School from the University of
Chattanooga in 1925, Doctor Brown continued his respon-
sibility in Chattanooga until 1929 when he was elected
president of Drew University. The honors which came to
Doctor Brown revealed his leadership in education and
the Church. Among them were the following: Chairman,
International Council of Religious Education; president,
the American Association of Theological Schools; presi-
dent, Methodist Educational Association; member, the
Commission on Conference Courses of Study of The Meth-
odist Church; member, the Board of Education of The
Methodist Church; member, the Methodist Commission on
Chaplains; member. Appraisal Commission of Laymen's
Foreign Missions Inquiry, which enabled him and Mrs.
Brown to join Professor Hocking's Committee in 1931-32
for a year's visit to the mission stations of the world; mem-
ber, the International Committee of the International Board
of the Army and Navy Commission; member of the Public
Relations Committee of the Y.M.C.A. Doctor Brown,
a member of Phi Beta Kappa, is the author of the fol-
lowing books : Studies in Christian Living, Primer of Teach-
er Training, Life in the Making, A History of Religious
Education, Education in Recent Times and Youth and
At the time of Doctor Brown's retirement at Drew
University in 1948, Dean John Keith Benton, of Vanderbilt
University described him as "one of the genuinely dis-
tinguished leaders in education and Methodism in this
century." His interest in Tennessee Wesleyan has been
continued, and he has been immeasurably helpful in recent
years in providing valuable counsel in the transition to the
118 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
senior college program at Wesleyan.
Early in President Brown's administration the Execu-
tive Committee of the University of Chattanooga responded
to the requests of The Athens School for more autonomous
leadership and responsibility to be exercised by Trustees
primarily interested in the success of The Athens School.
In the response to this demand and to provide in-
terested leadership in both Chattanooga and Athens, the
Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees of the Uni-
versity of Chattanooga unanimously approved the following
resolution on July 11, 1921, presented by John S. Fletcher,
and seconded by W. E. Brock:
"Be it resolved by the Executive Committee of the
Trustees of the University of Chattanooga that the depart-
ments of the University of Chattanooga shall be operated
in so far as local matters are concerned by the members of
the Committee residing in Chattanooga, viz: Z. E. Whel-
and, F. M. Bristol, M. Chamberlain, C. N. Woodworth,
Z. C. Patten, Jr., J. S. Fletcher, A. A. Brown and W. E.
Brock; and the departments of the University located at
Athens shall, in so far as local affairs are concerned, be
operated by a sub-committee consisting of A. A. Brown,
chairman, and ex-officio member, J. W. Fisher, G. F. Lock-
miller and J. W. Bayless. All matters pertaining to the
general policy and government of the institution as a whole
shall be acted upon by the Executive Committee as a whole,
and the Executive Committee as a whole shall have author-
ity in the matter of purchase of additional buildings and
grounds, or the contraction of any debts not included in
President Brown led in a major financial campaign
for the University of Chattanooga and The Athens School.
This campaign was highly successful, and it added a total
of $750,000 to the assets of the University.
As The Athens School of the University of Chattanooga 119
In President Brown's report to the Board of Trustees
July 6, 1922, he stated that at The Athens School there had
been "almost a capacity attendance." President Brown
gave considerable attention to the endowment campaign
and paid tribute to the excellent response which the com-
munity of Athens had provided. He stated, "In the re-
markable success of the campaign at Athens, we are
especially indebted to Dean Robb, Professors Craig and
Goforth, with other faculty members, the student body,
and the Kiwanis Club."
President Brown advised the Board that the campaign
had enabled the University to pay debts, provide expendi-
tures for repairs, and stated that other things will be done
for Athens. He promised that "the model school building
and gymnasium will be erected." Concerning the future of
the school in Athens, President Brown stated that the Uni-
versity is committed to developing the best possible second-
ary school and normal department to meet needs of the
Church, State and nation. The normal, he continued, will
provide two years of high school work "but it is not ex-
pected that students who are planning to take a Bachelor's
degree will take their first two years in Athens and then
go on to a College of Liberal Arts." If students complete
the normal course and decide to work toward the Bachelor's
degree usually three additional years will be required "be-
cause of the very nature of the normal course curriculum."
President Brown also promised that "we will give training
in Athens to rural preachers who are taking the high school
and normal courses."
The commitments of President Brown to The Athens
School vvere carried out at an early date. On August 11,
1922, a committee consisting of Doctor J. M. Melear, who
had been added to the Athens committee, G. F. Lockmiller
and J. W. Fisher, was authorized to supervise the construe-
120 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
tion of a practice school to be used in the training of school
teachers. September 6, 1922, the bid of L. S. Large for
$3,895.48 was accepted for the construction of the practice
school, and Dean James L. Robb was authorized to sign
The students of the institution had been petitioning for
a gymnasium for twenty-five years. At last the needs of
the institution in this respect were to be met. On February
12, 1923, the Athens Committee met to consider the con-
struction of the building to provide for the gymnasium and
other facilities to be incorporated into the building. Dean
James L. Robb was authorized to invite various architects
to submit preliminary sketches for a building which would
provide a gymnasium, dressing room, shower rooms, an
auditorium to seat 600 on the main floor, and a balcony
to seat 200, and also to provide administrative offices and
classrooms. On motion of Doctor J. M. Melear, the Com-
mittee decided that the proposed gymnasium-auditorium
would occupy the site of the college chapel, constructed in
1882, and that the old chapel would be razed and materials
used in the construction of the new building. Adhering to
the requirements and traditions of economy, the Com-
mittee, on April 2, 1923, decided to eliminate the swimming
pool originally planned to be incorporated in the gymnas-
ium area. On August 21, 1923, the firm of Manley, Young
& Meyer, of Knoxville, was selected as the architects, and
it was announced that bids would be opened September
12, 1923. On December 12, D. C. Young, of Sweetwater,
was awarded the contract for the construction of the new
A program for the laying of the corner stone was held
May 28, 1924, with President Arlo Ayres Brown presiding.
JOHN ALANSON PATTEN
Industrialist, Devoted Churchman and Trustee
As The Athens School of the University of Chattanooga 121
The program was as follows:
School Song Prof. Alvis Craig, leading
Prayer Prof. R. A. Kilburn
Address Mr. C. N. Woodworth
Chairman, Executive Committee, Board of Trustees
Reading List of Contents of Box Dean James L, Robb
Laying of Corner Stone .Mr. Z. W. Wheland
President, Board of Trustees
The auditorium-gymnasium was completed at a cost
President Brown's administration was to provide a
difficult and momentous decision for the future of The
Athens School, a proposal for its separation from the Uni-
versity of Chattanooga which for twenty years had pro-
vided creative leadership and financial support for the
institution in Athens.
Two distinguished leaders, both of whom had long
been related to the divisions in Chattanooga and Athens,
provided the leadership and understanding required to
effect the separation and to provide new beginnings for
The Athens School.
Mrs. John A. Patten, daughter of Doctor John J.
Manker, '71, faculty member, trustee, and president, had
continued active interest in the University of Chattanooga
and The Athens School of the University of Chattanooga
following the death of her distinguished husband in 1916.
At the request of the writer Doctor Arlo Ayres Brown
has provided a tribute to one of the most remarkable
women associated with educational and Methodist Church
activities in Tennessee in the history of the State:
"She was one of the greatest Christian laymen that it
has ever been my privilege to know. Bishop Thirkield once
described her as "a true Christian aristocrat in the highest
sense." Her's was a deep and abiding interest in Tennessee
122 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
Wcslcyan. She was the daughter of a distinguished Metho-
dist preacher and the wife of an outstanding layman who
gave generously of his time and money to the development
of Methodist institutions in this area. After her husband's
death in 1916 she not only carried forward his plans but
developed her o\vn program of Christian service,
"When she faced a problem she took the pains to be-
come \vell informed about the situation. Her keen insight,
sound judgment, and farseeing vision made her advice as
eagerly sought as her gifts. Modestly she sought no recog-
nition for herself but all who worked with her kne\v ho^v
constructive and far reaching were her contributions to
Christian causes around the world. Church leaders eagerly
sought her counsel. She was in her quiet way the leading
personal influence in the decision which gave The Athens
School of the University of Chattanooga an independent
status as Tennessee Wesleyan College. As a trustee, she
was a constant and generous supporter of the institutions'
"To be in her home was a treasured experience. She
was a great mother and her devotion to the needs of the
younger generation \vas tireless.
"We will not soon see her like again, but her influence
abides. As Tennessee Wesleyan and the University of
Chattanooga continue to grow their development will owe
much to the generous warmhearted support to this states-
manlike Christian lady."
The other leader in the movement to provide indepen-
dence for The Athens School was Bishop W^ilbur P. Thir-
kield, the resident Bishop of the Chattanooga area of the
Methodist Episcopal Church.
Wilbur P. Thirkield was born September 25, 1854, in
Franklin, Ohio. He was graduated \vith a Bachelor of Arts
degree from Ohio Wesleyan University in 1876 and received
AsT he Athens School of the University of Chattanooga 123
a Master of Arts degree in 1879. He was graduated from
Boston University School of Theology with the Bachelor of
Systematic Theology degree in 1881 and received a Doctor
of Divinity degree from Emory College, of Oxford, in 1889.
He entered the ministry of the Methodist Episcopal Church
in 1878 and was president of Gammon Theological Semi-
nary of Atlanta from 1883 until 1899. He received the
Doctor of Divinity degree from Ohio Wesleyan in 1899
and the Doctor of Laws in 1906. He served as General
Secretary of the Epworth League from 1899 to 1900 and
then became General Secretary of the Freedman's Aid and
Southern Educational Society, which office he held from
1900 until 1906. It was during this period that Doctor
Thirkield had an unusual opportunity to become acquainted
with U. S. Grant University, operating in Athens and
Chattanooga. Doctor Thirkield gave the major address at
the dedication of Banfield Hall in 1901. Doctor Thirkield
became president of Howard University, in Washington,
D. C, in 1906 and served until 1912. He was elected a
bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1912. Bishop
Thirkield was a member of Phi Beta Kappa, the author of
a number of books, and was particularly creative in en-
couraging high standards for the conducting of services of
worship. His background, educationally, culturally, with a
large understanding of the South, fitted him in an unusual
degree to assume leadership in the Chattanooga area and
to aid in the separation of The Athens School from the
University of Chattanooga and to assist in preserving the
opportunities for both institutions to grow and serve the
State and the Church.
A joint committee of trustees representing the Univer-
sity of Chattanooga and The Athens School was held June
2, 1925. The meeting was called to order by Bishop Thir-
kield. The following persons were present: President
124 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
Brown, Z. C. Patten, Jr., C. N. Woodworth, John S.
Fletcher, Doctor J. M. Melear, Judge S. C. Brown, G. F.
Lockmiller and Dean James L. Robb, who was designated
Bishop Thirkield stated that the object of the meeting
was to consider the adjustment of relations between the
University of Chattanooga and The Athens School in the
University with a view to the separation of the two institu-
tions. Apparently considerable thought had been given to
this proposal before the meeting was held. The following
resolution was adopted:
"Be it resolved, that we recommend to the Trustees
of the University of Chattanooga that the properties of
The Athens School be transferred to a new and indepen-
dent educational corporation with the following incorpora-
tors, viz: G. F. Lockmiller, S. C. Brown, J. M. Melear,
J. W. Fisher, W. B. Townsend, C. N. Woodworth, Mrs.
John A. Patten, who shall determine the name and scope
of the new organization, except that its charter shall include
the provisions set forth in the Charter of the University of
Chattanooga as required before it can transfer its property
to any other corporation. Said charter shall be applied for
and the corporation organized as soon as practicable but
not later than May 1926. The University of Chattanooga
shall assign to the new corporation $144,000 as subscription
notes resulting from the 1921 campaign, pay it $50,000.00
in cash or acceptable securities on or before three years
from the date of organization of the new corporation with
interest at six per cent per annum until paid; the new cor-
poration to assume nine thousand due by the University of
Chattanooga to the banks of Athens, Tennessee and the
new corporation to pay the University of Chattanooga
$10,000 from said $144,000 toward the expense incurred
in securing same which shall be paid from the collections
at the rate of 8 per cent of collections as made after the
said nine thousand indebtedness shall have become paid."
ARLO AYRES BROWN
Tenth President of the College
EDITH MANKER PATTEN
Trustee, Generous Benefactor, and leader in
securing of new charter in 1925.
As Tennessee Wesleyan College
The small colleges will be fortunate if they appreciate
their own advantages; if they do not fall into the naturalis-
tic fallacy of confusing growth in the human sense \vith
mere expansion ; if they do not allow themselves to be over-
awed by size and quantity, or hypnotized by numbers:
Even though the whole world seem bent on living the
quantitative life, the college should remember that its busi-
ness is to make of its graduates men of quality in the real
and not the conventional meaning of the term. In this way
it will do its share toward creating that aristocracy of
character and intelligence that is needed in a community
like ours to take the place of an aristocracy of birth, and
to counteract the tendency toward an aristocracy of money.
A great deal is said nowadays about the democratic spirit
that should prevade our colleges. This is true if it means
that the college should be in profound sympathy with what
is best in democracy. It is false if it means, as it often does,
that the college should level down and suit itself to the point
of view of the average individual. Some of the arguments
advanced in favor of a three years' course imply that we
can afford to lower the standard of the degree, provided
we thereby put it within reach of a larger number of
students. But from the standpoint of the college one thor-
oughly cultivated person should be more to the purpose
than a hundred persons who are only partially cultivated.
The final test of democracy, as Tocqueville has said, will
be its power to produce and encourage the superior indi-
vidual. Because the claims of the average man have been
slighted in times past, does it therefore follow that we must
now slight the claims of the superior man? We cannot
help thinking once more of Luther's comparison. The col-
lege can only gain by close and sympathetic contact \\ ith
126 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
the graduate school on the one hand, and the lower schools
on the other, provided it does not forget that its function is
different from either. The lower schools should make
abundant provision for the education of the average citizen,
and the graduate school should offer ample opportunity for
specialization and advanced study; the prevailing spirit of
the college, however, should be neither humanitarian nor
scientific, — though these elements may be largely repre-
sented, — but humane, and, in the right sense of the word,
aristocratic. — Irving Babbitt.
As Tennessee Wesleyan College 127
Following the action of Bishop Thirkield's committee,
the resolution was referred to the Trustees of the Univer-
sity of Chattanooga meeting on June 9, 1925. The basis
of separation was adopted by the Board of Trustees on that
date. A charter for Tennessee Wesleyan College was ap-
plied for June 26, 1925. The original charter was as
Be it known that G. F. Lockmiller, S. C. Brown, J. M.
Melear, J. W. Fisher, W. B. Townsend, C. N. Woodworth
and Mrs. John A. Patten are hereby constituted a body
politic and corporate by the name and style of the Tennes-
see Wesleyan College for the purpose of founding, main-
taining and conducting a college of liberal arts at Athens,
Tennessee, under the auspices of the Methodist Episcopal
Church as represented in the general conference of said
church wherein may be taught the courses of study usually
taught in said colleges or institutions, including literary,
scientific, theological, normal and commercial courses with
preparatory and academic departments; also music, art
and elocution or expression with power to confer appro-
priate degrees and to issue diplomas and certificates to
those entitled thereto under the standards, rules and regu-
lations of said college as fixed by its Board of Trustees; to
maintain libraries and recreational grounds and equipment ;
to provide for and preserve an endowment fund for the
support and maintenance of said college by taking, receiv-
ing and holding any moneys, choses in action, real estate,
personal or mixed property, by gift, devise or otherwise.
2. The property owned, or to be owned, or held by
the corporation hereby created shall be so held and owned
in the name of said corporation for the use and benefit of
the Methodist Episcopal Church, under such trust clause,
128 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
or clauses, as may be provided in the book of Discipline of
said Church. The government and management of said
corporation and the teachings in its several courses or de-
partments, shall forever be conducted in harmony and con-
sonance with, and in the interest of, the said Methodist
Episcopal Church, as set forth, or declared from time to
time, by the General Conference of said Church.
3. Said corporation shall be self-perpetuating, sub-
ject only to the policy above stated. Any departure from
the objects and policy of said corporation as above limits
shall be good ground for removal of the Board of Trustees
upon cause properly shown in the court of equity having
jurisdiction, but shall not work a forfeiture of this charter.
4. The general powers of said corporation shall be:
(a) To sue and be sued by the corporate name.
(b) To have and use a common seal, which it may
alter at pleasure; if no common seal, then the signature of
the name of the corporation, by any duly authorized officer,
shall be legal and binding.
(c) To purchase and hold, or receive by gift, bequest,
or devise, in addition to the personal property owned by
the corporation, real estate necessary for the transaction of
the corporate business, and also to purchase or accept any
real estate in payment, or in part payment, of any debt
due to the corporation, and sell the same.
(d) To establish by-laws, and make all rules and
regulations not inconsistent with the laws and constitution,
deemed expedient for the management of corporate affairs.
WILBUR PATTERSON THIRKIELD
Trustee, Resident Bishop of the Chattanooga Area
at time of reorganization in 1925
As Tennessee Wesleyan College 129
(e) To appoint such subordinate officers and agents,
in addition to a president and secretary, or treasurer, as
the business of the corporation may require.
(f) To designate the name of the office, and fix the
compensation of the officer.
(g) To borrow money to be used in payment of
property bought by it, and for erecting buildings, making
improvements, and for other purposes germane to the
objects of its creation, and secure the repayment of the
money thus borrowed by mortgage, pledge, or deed of
trust, upon such property, real, personal, or mixed, as may
be owned by it; and it may, in like manner, secure by
mortgage, pledge or deed of trust, any existing indebtedness
which it may have lawfully contracted.
(h) To elect a president, a dean or other necessary
officers or agents in the management of said college, to
prescribe the studies and texts for the various courses or
departments therein, to elect a faculty of such teachers- and
instructors as may be deemed proper and to fix the salaries
of such officers and teachers.
5. The said incorporators shall within a convenient
time after the registration of the charter in the office of
the Secretary of State, elect from their number a chairman,
secretary and treasurer; said officers and the other incor-
porators shall constitute the first Board of Trustees. In all
elections each member present shall be entitled to one vote,
and the result shall be determined by a majority of the
vote cast. Due notice of any election must be given by
advertisement in a newspaper, personal notice to the mem-
bers, or a day stated on the minutes of the board six months
preceding the election. The Board of Trustees shall keep
130 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
a record of all their proceedings, which shall be at all times
subject to the inspection of any member.
6. The number of trustees shall be fixed by the by-
laws not to exceed thirty-three nor less than twenty-one, and
at the first election one third of the number to be elected
for one year, one third for two years, one third for three
years, and thereafter each trustee to be elected for three
years. Each trustee shall be a person twenty-one years of
age and two-thirds of the total number shall be members of
the Methodist Episcopal Church in good standing.
There shall be elected to the said Board of Trustees
one member from each of the following annual conferences,
viz: Alabama, Blue Ridge-Atlantic, Central Tennessee,
Georgia and St. Johns River, and each of said conferences
may at the first annual session thereof after such election,
confirm or reject the trustee so elected. The remaining
number of trustees may be elected from the Holston Con-
ference or else\vhere and said conference may, at the first
annual session thereof after such election, likewise confirm
or reject the trustees so elected. And should any trustee be
rejected by any of said annual conferences a vacancy shall
then exist and such rejection shall be certified by such con-
ferences to the Board of Trustees, the vacancy to be filled
by said Board at its next meeting, either regular or called,
and may be confirmed or rejected as aforesaid.
7. The Board of Trustees may appoint executive
agencies, and pass all necessary by-laws for the govern-
ment of said institution, as may be required by the Meth-
odist Episcopal Church, provided said by-laws are not in-
consistent with the constitution and laws of this State. The
terms of all officers shall be fixed by the by-laws, the term
not to exceed three years and all officers shall hold over
until their successors are duly elected and qualified.
8. The members may at any time voluntarily dissolve
As Tennessee Wesleyan College 131
the corporation, by the conveyance of its assets and prop-
erty to any other corporation holding a charter from this
State not for purposes of individual profit, first providing
for incorporate debts: Provided, the objects and aims of
said corporation shall be the same and in harmony with
those contained in this charter. A violation of any of the
provisions of this charter shall subject the corporation to
dissolution at the instance of the State, in which event its
property and effects shall revert to the Trustees of the
Methodist Episcopal Church, a corporate body existing
under, and by virtue of, the laws of the State of Ohio.
This charter is subject to modification or amendment by
the Legislature, and in case said modification or amend-
ment is not accepted, corporate business is to cease, and
the assets and property, after payment of debts, are to be
conveyed, as aforesaid, to some other corporation holding
a charter for purposes not connected with individual profit
and for the same objects and benefit of, and revert to, the
aforesaid Trustees of the Methodist Episcopal Church.
Acquiescence in any modification thus declared shall be
determined in a meeting of the Trustees specially called
for that purpose, and only those voting in favor of the
modification shall thereafter compose the corporation.
9. The means, assets, income, or other property of
the corporation shall be employed, directly or indirectly,
for any other purpose whatever than to accomplish the
legitimate objects of its creation, and by no implication or
construction shall it possess the power to issue notes or
coin, buy or sell products, or engage in any kind of trading
operation, nor holding more real estate than is necessary
for its legitimate purposes, and in no event shall the trustees
permit any part of the principal of the endowment fund or
any portion of the real estate of the corporation, to be used
for the payment of the current expenses.
132 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
10. We, the undersigned, hereby apply to the State
of Tennessee, by virtue of the laws of the land, for a charter
of incorporation for the purpose and with the powers and
privileges, etc., declared in the foregoing instrument.
Witness our hands the 26th day of June, A.D., 1925.
G. F. Lockmiller
S. C. Brown
J. W. Fisher
J. M. Melear
W. B. Townsend
C. N. Woodworth
Mrs. John A. Patten
Doctor James L. Robb who had served as the admini-
strative head of The Athens School since 1918 was
appointed acting president.
The choice of a name for the new institution was not
easily made. There were members of the Committee who
were anxious to perpetuate the name of Athens in the
title; others were convinced that an approximation of the
original name adopted in 1867 should be used. The wishes
of those who accepted the allegiance to the Wesleyan tradi-
tion prevailed and The Athens School of the University of
Chattanooga became Tennessee Wesleyan College.
James L. Robb was fitted admirably for the heavy
responsibility as head of Tennessee Wesleyan College.
Doctor Robb was born in Atlanta, Georgia, January 21,
1884. He had been a student in the Athens Division of
Grant University and had received the A.B. degree from
the University of Chattanooga in 1906. He was later to
receive an A.M. from Northwestern University in 1926,
and his leadership in educational circles was recognized by
Illinois Wesleyan University in 1943 when he \vas given an
honorary LL.D. degree. President Robb had served as
JAMES LINDSAY ROBB
As Tennessee Wesleyan College 133
principal of Mt. Zion Seminary, government supervisor of
schools in the Philippine Islands, as superintendent of
schools and president of Bowdon College in Bowdon,
Georgia, and as high school principal in Gainesville,
Georgia, before his election as dean of The Athens School
of the University of Chattanooga in 1918. He guided the
school during the difficult war years. President Robb was
later to serve as a member of the Ecumenical Conference in
1930, General Conference in 1932, 36, 40, and the Uniting
Conference of 1939. President Robb had the distinction of
serving as a member of the University Senate from 1932
to 1948, and in 1934 served as the president of the National
Association of Methodist Colleges and Universities. Ten-
nessee recognized him in 1936 in electing him the president
of the Tennessee College Association. President Robb was
also active in the Southeastern Athletic Association of
Junior Colleges and the Southern Association of Junior
Colleges. He is a member of Phi Delta Kappa.
Mrs. James L. Robb served as a member of the faculty,
teaching voice and public school music from 1921 until
Although chartered as a College of Liberal Arts with
authority to give baccalaureate degrees, President Robb
discouraged the inauguration of a senior college program,
strongly favored by David A. Bolton, and instituted a two-
year junior college program. The catalog for the initiation
of this program lists the curriculum as follows:
The two years of college \\'ork entitled Diploma
Courses required the following for graduation:
(15 High School units required for entrance; 100
term hours required for graduation.)
1. Major Subject 24 hours
2. Minor Subject 12 hours
A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
Other Required subjects, if not included in Major
English Composition 12 hours
Social Science 12 hours
Foreign Language 12 or 21 hours
(depending upon amount of entrance
Mathematics, Science or
Home Economics ....12 hours
Elective Subjects to total ...100 hours
to be selected from the following list:
Algebra, College 8
Arithmetic, Teacher's 4
Business Law 4
Biology, Advanced 12
Chemistry, Advanced 15
Chemistry, Analytical 15
Child Study 5
Civics, Constitutional Law 4
Domestic Art 15
Domestic Science 15
Educational Sociology 4
Economic History 4
Geography and Methods 4
Geometry, Analytic 5
Grammar and Method 4
General Sociolog}^ 4
History, Advanced American 8
History, Advanced European 8
History, English 9
History, Spanish-American 4
Wesleyan also offered a two-year Normal Diploma
Course, two years in Pre-Engineering, Pre-Medical, Pre-
Law, and Pre-Ministerial. Four years of college preparatory
work were also offered.
Following a year as acting president. Doctor Robb was
elected president of the College and was inaugurated on
October 25, 1926. The inauguration was reported by the
press as follows: James Lindscy Robb, A.M., was inaugu-
rated president of Tennessee Wesleyan College, Athens,
Tcnn., October 25, 1926. A large crowd of friends and
History and Methods 4
History of Education 4
Latin, Advanced 4
Money and Banking 4
Physical Education 6
Play Production 3
Play Directing 2
Practice Teaching 4
Psychology, Elementary 4
Psychology, General 4
Public School Drawing 6
Public School Music 6
Public Speaking 9
Religious Education 12
Rural Economics 5
Rural Sociology 5
School Administration 4
School Hygiene 4
School Management 4
As Tennessee Wesleyan College 135
Students assembled in the beautiful auditorium for the
impressive exercises, which were opened with prayer by
Bishop R. J. Cooke, '80. The presentation was by Professor
David A. Bolton, '72, and the installation by Bishop W. P.
Thirkield. Greetings for the Methodist Episcopal Church
were presented by Bishop W. O. Shepard; for Tennessee,
by President H. A. Morgan, of the University of Tennessee ;
for the Board of Education of the Methodist Episcopal
Church, by Secretary William S. Bovard, formerly vice
president of the University of Chattanooga; for denomina-
tional colleges, by President Wilson, of Maryville College;
for Holston and other Conferences, by the Reverend R. M.
Millard, formerly Dean of The Athens School; for friends
in general, by Doctor John H. Race, former president. The
benediction was by President Arlo Ayres Brown, of the
University of Chattanooga.
The separation from the University of Chattanooga
did not solve the problems facing the institution. Doctor
Robb was to know throughout his long administration the
constant repetition of heavy financial responsibilities. Some
of them were created by independence, others by the de-
pression, others by World War II, and others by the reluct-
ance of the Holston Conference to accept responsibility for
providing adequate undergirding of the College. There
were periods when the problems seemed almost beyond
handling, but President Robb's persistence and courage
enabled the College to survive, to grow, and to make a
large contribution during his twenty-five years as president
In his annual report to the Board of Trustees in June,
1927, President Robb discussed the period of transition
through which the College was passing and very frankly
presented the facts concerning the financial situation of
136 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan Colic fie
the College and the need of the Conference and the Board
of Trustees to provide adequate financing.
Excerpts from President Robb's report reveal his can-
didness in dealing with the situation. "I have referred to
the fact that the college is in a period of transition follow-
ing the separation from the University. Strange to say it
has apparently never occurred to some that such a period
was necessary and would be one of great difficulty, calling
for real eflFort on the part of all concerned. The most dis-
couraging feature which has yet been encountered has been
the disposition of some to wish to throw up the hands in
despair when any real difficulties are encountered. If the
institution isn't worth fighting for, it isn't worth surviving."
Doctor Robb then discussed the methods by which
supplementary financing could be secured. He suggested
several ways. Higher rates could be charged which he
stated would eliminate many students unable to pay higher
rates which the College had long served. A second method
was to provide a producing endowment of which $200,000
is needed to take care of the annual deficit. A third was
to secure annual funds from the patronizing conferences.
The Board of Education of the Methodist Episcopal Church
which had contributed generously over a long period could
be asked to increase its contribution.
Doctor Robb acknowledged that these methods, if ap-
proved, would not immediately solve the problem. Presi-
dent Robb put the problem up to the Board. "One cannot
afford to allow the college to drift into serious financial
difficulties thru neglect to face the issue." President Robb
saw no other immediate solution than to borrow funds. He
stated, "You will need to make some provision for caring
for the present indebtedness and for the deficit in operating
expenses until such time as the income from these sources
is adequate ... I recommend such a loan as a means of
JAMES ALEXANDER FOWLER, Class 1884
President of Board of Trustees for nineteen years
As Tennessee Wesley an College 137
tiding over the remainder of the period of transition."
President Robb attempted to secure larger responsibihty on
the part of the Board of Trustee, concluding, "I have
noted a disposition to unload the whole burden of finance
upon the administrative officers. This is a serious mistake.
Unquestionably the responsibility of formulating and adopt-
ing a financial program belongs to the Board. The president
and others may help and they must carry out the program,
but the Board's responsibility must be clearly recognized."
The Board was not unmindful of the problems Presi-
dent Robb faced. A committee consisting of C. N. Wood-
worth, J. G. Lowe, C. R. Kennedy, Colonel W. B.
Townsend, and G. F. Lockmiller, had been studying the
financial structure of the College and had discovered that
$32,000 would be needed before the end of the academic
year 1927-28 to pay obligations and to cover an anticipated
deficit of $10,000 for that academic year.
This committee recommended to the Executive Com-
mittee that a campaign for $500,000 be initiated and that
the first unit of $250,000 be raised in a campaign beginning
January 1, 1928.
A year was devoted to the canvas under the direction
of M. G. Terry. He reported to the Executive Committee
December 14, 1928, that $297,062.00 had been subscribed,
and the Executive Committee voted to consider the cam-
paign successful and to validate the pledges. This cam-
paign had been stimulated by a $25,000 gift from Mrs.
John A. Patten, of Chattanooga, and a $25,000 contribution
by Colonel W. B. Townsend.
The urgency of the situation was evidenced by the
necessity of the Board of Trustees to "execute a mortgage
or deed of trust" for $40,000 for use in prosecuting the
The only problem about the campaign was that the
138 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
nation fell into a major economic depression and only a
small amount of the total subscribed was ever realized.
The College continued to draw a substantial enroll-
ment, and President Robb reported for the year 1928-29
a total of 519 students of which 127 were in preparatory
classes, 285 in college classes, and 29 in the summer school.
Judge S. C. Brown communicated a letter from Adolph
S. Ochs, publisher of The New York Times, in 1928, con-
cerning his desire to recognize his appreciation of Captain
William Rule, long distinguished editor of The Knoxville
Journal. Mr. Ochs wrote: "If acceptable, I would be
pleased to transfer to your institution, in trust, ten (10)
shares (par value $100.00 each) of the 8% preferred stock
of the New York Times Company yielding $80.00 per an-
num; the income to be used as a prize awarded annually
to be known as the William Rule Prize. I suggest that it
be a prize for an essay on the responsibility of citizenship."
In President Robb's report to the Board of Trustees,
June 3, 1935, he raised the question concerning the resump-
tion of senior college work at Tennessee Wesleyan. His
report is as follows:
"In view of these circumstances and in consideration
of the obvious need of the six conferences of these two areas
for at least one institution of senior college rank under
Methodist control, I would raise question before this Board
if the time has not now arrived when a declaration of
policy should be made looking toward the resumption of
senior college work in Tennessee Wesleyan College as soon
as funds can be secured to qualify for this status. With a
constituency of six conferences covering six Southern states,
including 353 charges and 100,000 members and with the
confidence and loyalty to the school to be found through-
out all these conferences it appears that such a step would
be fully justified."
As Tennessee Wesleyan College 139
In considering the President's recommendation Dr.
Everett M. Ellison moved that the recommendations of
the President be accepted and that the college resume
senior college status. This motion was seconded by Doctor
G. T. Francisco. Doctor W. M. Dye concurred in this
position saying, "This is the college that we need to con-
centrate on for the conference and look very definitely for
a four-year college." Doctor W. J. Davidson, of the Board
of Education, was present and he cautioned against the
inauguration of a senior college program until the college
had at least $500,000 endowment with all debts paid.
Doctor Davidson said he did not oppose the idea but simply
cautioned against going into such a program before the
college was prepared for it. He concluded, "Of course, I
am not opposed to the idea. Soon Methodists will be one
and then we would' have the competition of all Southern
Following a general discussion in which all members
present participated freely, there was general agreement
to study the plan and to report at a subsequent meeting
of the Board.
Surely, one of the great satisfactions of President Robb
must have been the response of Mr. and Mrs. Henry Pfeif-
fer, of New York City, to support the College. In 1935,
Mrs. Pfeiffer agreed to assist in providing funds for current
operations and specifically to provide at least a part of the
amount needed each year to cover the anticipated deficit.
Mrs. Pfeiffer's contribution enabled President Robb to
report to the Board in 1935 that there had been no deficit.
That was the beginning of an interest which provided
facilities and assets which led to a new day for the College.
One cannot say that the College could not have existed had
it not been for the Pfeiffers' generosity but we can say
without question that it would have been greatly crippled
140 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
during the years which followed if Mrs. Pfeiffer's imagina-
tion had not been stirred by President Robb's persuasiveness
in interpreting the services which Tennessee Wesleyan Col-
lege would render if it had adequate facilities and income-
President Robb has provided, at our request, a sum-
mary of the Pfeiffers' gifts. Aside from funds for current
operations, over a decade, and payment of the cost of a
sprinkler system in Ritter Hall, Mrs. Pfeiffer contributed
a total of $441,666, the largest gift being $133,333, which
made possible the construction of the James L. Robb
The first building to be constructed by funds made
available by Mrs. Pfeiffer was the Merner-Pfeiffer Library,
$100,000 of which she gave, the balance being contributed
by friends of the College. The Library was dedicated
Wednesday, November 5, 1941. The program for this
occasion included the following:
President James L. Robb, Presiding
Invocation - Rev. C. E. Lundy
Superintendent, Sweetwater District
Address of Welcome General J. A. Fowler
President of Board of Trustees
Address - Honorable Prentice Cooper
Governor, State of Tennessee
Address Bishop Paul B. Kern
Resident Bishop, Nashville Area, Methodist Church
Music - - - — -College Chorus
Address ...Mrs. Henry Pfeiffer
Greetings Dr. Gilbert Govan
Librarian, University of Chattanooga
Miss Mary E. Baker
Librarian, University of Tennessee
As Tennessee Wesleyan College 141
Dr. Louis Shores
Director of Library School, George Peabody College
Hymn — How Firm A Foundation
Dedication Bishop Kern
Benediction Dr. John H. Race
Corner Stone Laying
Annie Pfeiffer Hall Bishop Kern
Two years later another building, the total cost of
which was provided by Mrs. Pfeiffer, was ready for dedi-
cation. In providing Sarah Merner Lawrence Hall Mrs.
Pfeiffer perpetuated the name of her sister. This building
was dedicated May 9, 1943, with the following program:
Invocation Rev. J. W. Henley
Pastor, Centenary Methodist Church, Chattanooga
President, Holston Conference Board of Education
Address of Welcome General J. A. Fowler
President, Board of Trustees
Vocal Solo Rev. J. M. Hampton
Pastor, Brainerd Methodist Church, Chattanooga
Dedicatory Address Rev. Arlo A. Brown, D.D.
President, Drew University, Madison, N. J.
Music College Chorus
Dr. Werner Wolff, Conducting
Greetings Dr. H. W. McPherson
Executive Secretary, Board of Education
Mrs. P. L. Cobb
President, Woman's Society of Christian
Service, The Holston Conference
Dr. James D. Hoskins
President, University of Tennessee
142 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
Dr. David A. Lockmiller
President, University of Chattanooga
Mrs. Henry Pfeiffer
Hymn — "O Worship the King"
The James L. Robb Gymnasium, named in honor of
President Robb, was dedicated Tuesday, February 21, 1950.
Among those who participated in the dedication program
were: Paul J. Walker, Doctor L. E. Hoppe, Dean Paul
Riviere, the Reverend F. M. Dowell, the Reverend Henry
C. Dawson, and Harwell Proffitt.
The Daily Post-Athenian carried an editorial by C. C.
Redfern, excerpts from which w^e quote:
"The gymnasium is a great asset to the city, and it
pays honor to the school's illustrous president, James L.
Robb. The game, featuring TWC and Emory and Henry,
will be more than worth the price of admission as Coach
Hudson's team has proven to be a high scoring, fast break-
ing quintet. The fact that sports fans can see the finest
of gymnasiums, complete with the new type glass back-
boards, electric timing system and fold-away bleachers, is
also worth the price of admission. The seating capacity
more than doubles any gym in the county, with room for
nearly 1500 fans. The beauty of the gym, along with its
50 x90' hardwood floor has been more than a pleasant sur-
prise to every person entering the new structure. Even if
you haven't been to a basketball game in years . . . we urge
you to take in this formal opening. For many years many
basketball fans have stayed at home because there just
wasn't room in our gymnasiums. We predict that basket-
ball will take on ntw interest in the county now^ that the
new James L. Robb Gymnasium is in operation, providing
the fans with seating space and players with a modern
At the time of the appearance of the Tennessee Wes-
As Tennessee Wesleyan College 143
leyan Choir before the General Conference of The Meth-
odist Church, meeting in MinneapoHs in the spring of 1956,
Bishop John Wesley Lord, presiding, invited the writer to in-
troduce the Choir and at that time the contribution of the
Pfeiffers was publicly acknowledged and the program
dedicated to the memory of two persons whose sense of
stewardship led them to give to Methodist institutions a
large fortune most of which had been liquidated by the
time of the death of Mr. and Mrs. Pfeiffer.
In 1936, Wesleyan lost one of its most understanding
and generous friends. Colonel W. B. Townsend had as-
sisted the College on many occasions and in his will pro-
vided that 10% of the residue of his estate would come to
Wesleyan at the end of a fifteen-year period. M. S. Tipton
reported to President Robb that this bequest would likely
amount to from $25,000 to $50,000. The estate was settled
in 1951. The College received a settlement of $62,500
which was returned to the endowment fund of the College
from which $75,000 had been borrowed to complete the
construction of the James L. Robb Gymnasium.
A memorial service was held to honor Colonel Town-
send, and the Board of Trustees, May 25, 1936, formally
expressed its high regard for Colonel Townsend in the
following resolution :
"The Board of Trustees of Tennessee Wesleyan College
records with profound sorrow its sense of loss in the death
of Colonel W. B. Townsend, an outstanding member of this
body. A man of sterling qualities and character his voice
registered plans that usually resulted in constructive action.
Devoted to the promotion of Christian Education, he gave
liberally of his time, talents and money to promote the
interest of this and similar institutions.
"Colonel Townsend was far more than an interested
colleague — he was an intimate friend and wise counsellor
144 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
who held our full confidence during the period of our
personal and official relationship.
"Resolved, That we hereby express our high appreci-
ation of Colonel Townsend's devotion to Tennessee Wes-
leyan College and also as a sympathetic and loyal friend.
Firm in conviction, sound in judgment, he brought to every
problem clarity and light. We shall greatly miss him in
"Resolved, That a copy of this resolution be placed
upon our records and one forwarded to the family whose
sympathetic interest in Tennessee Wesleyan College is
likewise gratefully acknowledged."
We have inxited Colonel Townsend's daughter, Mrs.
Herbert Blake Nields, to contribute personal recollections
of her father for use in this history, and we use her tribute
"In regard to my Father — he was such a wonderful
person that its hard to pick out a few things as the "high
lights" of his life were many.
"He was born March 24th, 1854, at Nickle Mines,
Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. His "formal" education
was almost "nil." The fifth grade in the primary school —
yet he was one of the best-read men I have ever known and
as \vords \\ ere his hobby • — or one of them — he had an
excellent \'ocabulary. I think due to his lack of schooling
\vas one of the reasons he had such a keen interest in helping
the mountain girls and boys get a good education. That
led to his interest in the old Murphy College in Sevierville,
Tennessee (which is no more) and to Tennessee \\'^esleyan.
"His interests were many and varied and for several
years served on The National Board of Home Missions of
The Methodist Church.
"He loved the Smoky Mts. and he and Gov. Peay had
visions of establishing a National Forest. He turned over
DR. JAMES M. MELEAR
G. F. LOCKMILLER
As Tennessee Wesleyan College 145
72,000 acres of cut over land which was the start but Gov.
Peay died so the acreage became the nucleus of The Great
Smoky Mtn. National Park. He was in the lumber and
contract building in Pennsylvania before moving to Tennes-
see in 1900. He and his associates purchased 110,000 acres
and organized the Little River Lumber Company and The
Little River Railroad Co. and he was Pres. and General
Manager of both corporations. This was one of the largest
hardwood operations in the South and my Father served
in this capacity until his death in 1936.
"He was connected with banking having served as
Pres. of the Bankers Trust Co. in Knoxville and later as
Pres. of The Blount National Bank in Maryville.
"He was interested in many other enterprises and
served as a Director of The Lee Clay Products Co. in Ky.
The Fidelity Bankers Trust Co. and The Fireproof Storage
and Van Co. of Knoxville, Tennessee.
"He was a very dynamic speaker and very influential
in the enterprises with which he was connected.
"I hope from the foregoing that you will be able to
get the things you need or want. So many, many more
things I could tell but these are, to me, the "high lights"
of a very remarkable and successful man and a self-made
one at that."^
Doctor Robb anticipated the coming of unification of
the Methodist Episcopal Church and the Methodist Epis-
copal Church, South, as early as 1936 and called this
possibility to the attention of the Board of Trustees.
In 1938, the second phase of the Forward Movement,
initiated in 1928, was authorized and a campaign to raise
$250,000 was inaugurated.
During the years between 1937 and 1940 the Carnegie
iMrs. Herbert Blake Nields — February 11, 1957.
146 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
Corporation made contributions to the Library Fund and
to the Music Department.
Tennessee Wesleyan had not yet recovered from the
problems of the depression and found itself in serious liti-
gation which eventually went to the Supreme Court of the
United States concerning the failure of the Chattanooga
National Bank. The Supreme Court ruled against the Col-
lege and eventually the College had to borrow funds to
liquidate this indebtedness which threatened the future of
The problems of peace were serious and the problems
of war equally demanding. Early in the war years it was
necessary for the College to borrow an amount equal to
twice its annual budget, and by 1944 the enrollment had
dropped to 141 students, 20 of them were men and most
of these \vere persons considered ineligible for military
The uniting of the two Holston Conferences brought
to the Holston Conference of The Methodist Church the
responsibility of three institutions, Emory and Henry
College, Hiwassee College, and Tennessee Wesleyan
A study of these three institutions was made in the
summer of 1943 by three distinguished educators.
The section of the report dealing with Tennessee
Wesleyan College follows:
REPORT ON A PROGRAM OF HIGHER
EDUCATION — JULY 12, 1943
B. ^Ve recommend that Tennessee Wesleyan College
be continued as the Junior College of liberal arts for men
and women in the Conference.
C. We recommend that the three institutions retain
As Tennessee Wesleyan College 147
separate administrations, and extend the principle among
themselves of partially inter-locking Boards of Trustees.
B. Consideration of the total college program for
the Conference in any and all future fund-raising cam-
paigns; that is, the elimination of individual college drives
F. Liquidation of the indebtedness on Tennessee
Wesleyan College. This amounts, we believe, to something
C. We recommend that the music and arts depart-
ments of Tennessee Wesleyan College be strengthened by
offering more courses and by allowing more credit for
A. We recommend that plans be made, with esti-
mated costs, for reconditioning or remodeling certain build-
ings and with the Boys' Hall and Ritter Hall at Tennessee
Wesleyan College. Certain dormitory conditions need to
be remedied at Tennessee Wesleyan College.
B. We recommend that plans be drawn, with esti-
mated costs, for essential new buildings to be added. Such
plans would concern themselves with a Student Activities
Building at Tennessee Wesleyan College.
METHODIST GROUP ASSEMBLIES AND
We recommend that Methodist group assemblies and
activities be centered, where possible, in the Conference
colleges. Our Committee was surprised to see an opposite
policy in action. If the facilities of these colleges are not
adequate for Conference purposes, it is because they are
not adequate to fulfill the purposes of the colleges as edu-
148 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan Colleg^e
cational institutions, and it is the duty and opportunity, as
well, of the Conference to make them so.
Methodism should not be satisfied to own, control,
and operate colleges for whose physical plants it is forced
to apologize and to which it is ashamed to send its sons
and daughters to be educated.
CAPTURING THE IMAGINATION
We recommend that a Conference-wide program be
planned and carried out to recapture for the Conference
colleges the imagination of Holston Methodism. The pro-
gram should ha\'e one main objective — to impress upon
the minds of Holston Methodists the fact that, if they want
to keep their ehureh-r elated colleges, they must support
them. They must support them by making generous gifts
and by sending their sons and daughters to them to be
educated. One creative act of tangible, substantial support
is worth a thousand pious exhortations concerning the \-ir-
tues of one's dear Alma Mater. The time has arrived ^vhen
Methodism should stop the business of depending upon
secular agencies for the support and development of its
Methodism must give substantial exidence of ^vhether
its asserted belief in Christian Education is a living belief
or merely dead dogma. The only belief worth having is a
belief that translates itself into life and conduct.
\ II. REPORTS ON FINANCES, INSTURCTIONAL
PROGRAM, AND PROPERTY OF THE
\\ e request the Special Commission created by the
Holston Conference, together with the Conference Board
of Education, to take cognizance of the three separate re-
ports, hereto appended, on Finances, Instructional Program,
and Property of the respecti\'e colleges, for the purpose of
C. N. WOODWORTH
JUDGE S. C. BROWN
As Tennessee Wesleyan College 149
ascertaining their individual needs and arriving at the ap-
proximate amount of funds necessary to provide an ade-
quate program of higher education for the Holston
Respectfully submitted by
John W. Long
W. K. Greene, Chairman
The Survey Committee.
TENNESSEE WESLEYAN COLLEGE
The finances of this College are, in the main, in good
condition and should be protected against adverse results
incident to war. This statement is made in spite of the
fact that reduction in enrollment of men has produced an
The extent of the resources of the College tends to
minimize the possible ill effects of its indebtedness, which
seems comparatively small. This debt of approximately
$51,000.00 should be liquidated as soon as possible.
The addition of the excellent dormitory for women
and the Library necessitates an increase in operating funds
to take care of increased maintenance costs. Failure to
recognize this fact with respect to new buildings has
produced unfortunate results in many of our colleges.
The annual appropriation of $5,000.00 to the College
by the General Board of Education, together with the likeli-
hood of its continuance, should be considered when the
proportionate distribution of the Conference annual
appropriation to all three colleges is made.
The favorable financial situation of the College
should not militate against this institution's receiving its
justly proportionate share of Conference funds, either for
150 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
purposes of operation or for the improvement and
enlargement of its physical plant.
A rather full instructional program is found in all of
the traditional departments. From observation and check-
ing, the Committee got the impression that rather high-
grade substantial students attend Tennessee Wesleyan. They
come from homes that are average or above and are sensi-
tive to the cultural influences to be found in the offerings
of the liberal arts college. The academic atmosphere and
student morale in general at Tennessee Wesleyan were of
a high quality and very pleasing to the Committee.
It is the opinion of the Committee that Tennessee
Wesleyan College should pursue its program of general,
cultural, liberal education, with emphasis upon music, fine
arts, home economics and home-making for the student
body it is attempting to serve.
TENNESSEE WESLEYAN COLLEGE
The Committee was favorably impressed with the
college plant at Tennessee Wesleyan. It is centrally located
in the beautiful town of Athens, which naturally takes
considerable pride in having an institution of this
character in the community.
On the whole, the buildings are grouped in such a
pattern as to enhance the beauty of the campus, contribute
to the convenience of faculty and students, and make for
economy of operation.
Much can be said for Lawrence Hall, the new dormi-
tory for girls, and the Merner-Pfeiffer Library, both con-
tributed by Mrs. Pfeiffer of New York City. They add
As Tennessee Wesleyan College 151
greatly to the beauty of the campus, the living conditions
of the girls, and the general cultural atmosphere of the
College. Tennessee Wesleyan is fortunate in having these
beautiful and useful buildings.
The Elizabeth Ritter Hall, owned and operated by
the Woman's Society of Christian Service of the Metho-
dist Church, is a frame building, but is in excellent condi-
tion both within and without. An automatic sprinkler
system and outside fire escapes contribute to the factor of
The J. W. Fisher Laboratory building offers unusually
commodious quarters and satisfactory equipment. This
building is in good condition.
The Administration Building provides administrative
offices, a large auditorium, and a gymnasium. This build-
ing was erected in 1924, and is attractive and imposing in
appearance. Some repairs, particularly a new roof, are
For efficiency and econom}' of operation the Com-
mittee would recommend a new central heating plant, and
while the present gymnasium can be made to serve the
purposes of physical education, a new building, making
possible a separate gymnasium for young men and young
women, would add to the greater efficiency of a physical
education and athletic program. On the whole. President
Robb and the Trustees are to be congratulated on the
number, type, condition, and attractiveness of the buildings
on their campus.
This survey was the beginning of a new interest in the
Holston Annual Conference in its colleges. President Robb
had reported that the Holston Conference of the Methodist
Episcopal Church in 1934 had contributed $3,600 and in
1937 $1,634 for current operations. President Robb urged
152 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
the Conference to increase this amount to from $10,000
Doctor Robb had referred almost annually in his re-
ports to the small salaries the College was paying, salaries
which in 1933 had remained unpaid following an assessment
in 1932 of two weeks' salary from each faculty member
as a contribution toward an effort to balance the budget.
No retirement program existed. In 1944 a retirement pro-
gram, approved by the faculty, was introduced. It provided
for participation in TIAA with the faculty member paying
5% of his salary and the College paying an equal amount.
The TIAA became effective October 1, 1945. Before his
retirement Doctor Robb reported to the Board of Trustees
that the 5% payment by the College was entirely inade-
quate and recommended that this amount be increased to
from 7 to 10%.
The end of the war brought staggering problems.
President Robb anticipated an increase in enrollment but
did not anticipate that in 1947 there would be 240 G.I.'s
on the campus. This required a rapid expansion of faculty,
facilities, and the erection of three temporary buildings, a
cafeteria, a dormitory, and a student center. The close of the
war brought to the campus Louie Underwood as Superin-
tendent of Buildings and Grounds whose dependability has
contributed much to the life of the College during the
years which followed.
During the 40's the interest of the people of Athens
in the College grew, and we have reports of Athens raising
$5,000 annually toward the operating expenses of the Col-
lege with much of the credit for the success of these
campaigns going to Frank Dodson and Paul J. Walker.
The Kiwanis Club, of Athens, long friendly to the
College and a friendship which has grown remarkably in
COLONEL W. B. TOWNSEND
Industrialist, Trustee, Generous Benefactor
As Tennessee Wesleyan College 153
recent years underwrote a Vocations Day in 1941, the first
instituted in the State of Tennessee.
A comprehensive evaluation of the College was made
in 1948 by Doctors John L. Seaton and James W. Reynolds.
At the end of this forty-five page evaluation, Reynolds and
Seaton make the following suggestions and recommenda-
tions concerning means by which the college could be
SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Throughout the report suggestions and recommenda-
tions of a definite character have been made in connection
with the discussion. In some cases there are implications
which appeared not to warrant direct statement, but which
might well be given consideration. As a convenience some
of the more obvious needs are here assembled.
1. Revision of the charter and by-laws.
2. Simplification of administrative processes.
3. Better preparation of the faculty; more continuity
in service; encouragement of participation in professional
meetings and in research suited to the junior college level;
also encouragement in writing, particularly articles for
professional and other magazines.
4. Simpler organization of the faculty and lessened
teaching loads for some of the members.
5. More comprehensive provision for general educa-
tion in the curriculum and organization of the curriculum
on the divisional plan.
6. Consideration of the status and service of the
practice school, and the possibility of having practice
conducted in city and county schools.
7. Better balance in the ratio of freshman to
8. Reconsideration of policies in field work of
admissions, of counseling, and of personnel organization.
154 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
9. Such improvement of men's dormitories as may
be possible and much better supervision.
10. Better lighting of the library and other incentives
to increase its use.
1 1 . Some improvements in the laboratories especially
the physics laboratory.
12. General and extensive reconditioning of Petty
Manker Hall, and simplification of the uses to which it is
13. Concentration of the activities in music as soon
as suitable quarters can be provided. A building for music,
art, and dramatics would be highly desirable.
14. Reconsideration, if and when possible, of the
plan to have one director of public relations for the three
15. Clarification of the accounting and auditing as
discussed in the body of this report.
16. Liquidation as soon as possible of all interfund
loans and discontinuance of interfund borrowing.
17. Improvements as they may be feasible in
18. Establishment of reserves or contingent funds to
tide over the readjustment which may be necessary as the
tide of veteran students subsides.
19. Plans for a spaced development of the physical
20. Long-range plans for permanent endowment and
probably "living endowment."^
Doctor Robb in 1949 announced his desire to the
Board of Trustees to retire in 1950.
A new president was elected March 24, 1950, and the
alumni sponsored a dinner to honor Doctor and Mrs. Robb
which was held in the college dining hall on June third.
IReport of Survey, April, 1948
Prepared and Presented by James W. Reynolds and John L. Seaton.
As Tennessee Wesleyan College 155
All members of Doctor and Mrs. Robb's family were
present. At the close of an evening of greetings the Alumni
Association of the College expressed its affection for Presi-
dent and Mrs. Robb by presenting to them the keys to an
automobile, and the new president was introduced to the
faculty, alumni, and student body. And so concluded the
longest period of administrative leadership in the history
of the institution. Doctor James L. Robb had served as
dean of The Athens School of the University of Chatta-
nooga for seven years, one year as acting president of
Tennessee Wesleyan College, and 24 years as the president
of the College. He had seen the school move from second-
ary school level to a place of regional and national recogni-
tion as one of the leading junior colleges in the Church,
accredited since 1926 by the Southern Association of Col-
leges and Secondary Schools. The Board of Trustees elected
Dr. Robb President Emeritus for life, the only president in
the history of the college who continued in office until
When Dr. LeRoy Albert Martin^ was elected president
of Tennessee Wesleyan College, Athens welcomed the
home-coming of a local boy who had shown his ability and
earned recognition in other regions and who now returned
to serve and advance his alma mater. Dr. Martin was
superintendent of the Paterson district of the Newark Con-
ference, a metropolitan area and one of the largest districts
in Methodism, when his appointment to the Wesleyan presi-
dency was announced in March of 1950. For the eight
years which preceded this superintendency he was pastor
of the Madison (New Jersey) Methodist Church, just off
the campus of Drew University. Bishop Oxnam wrote from
New York to the Executive Committee of the Wesleyan
1 Section on present administration written by Enid Parker Bryan, Ph.D.,
professor of English and Classics at Tennessee Wesleyan College.
156 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
Board of Trustees: "I hold LeRoy A. Martin in the highest
esteem . . . He was a most successful college minister. On
the district he has revealed unusual administrative ability.
. . . He has a most brotherly spirit, wins the loyalty of his
fellow workers. He is creative, unafraid of hard work —
in a word, is an individual I can recommend without
Dr. Martin was born In Morristown, Tennessee, in
1901, but spent most of his childhood in the Trinity Meth-
odist parsonage in Athens. His father, the late Reverend
B. M. Martin, noted for his administrative ability through-
out the Holston Conference, was a native of McMinn
County and a graduate of the theological division of Grant
University. LeRoy Martin attended both the Athens Col-
lege and the University of Chattanooga, where he took his
A.B. in 1924. He did his graduate work at the Boston
University School of Theology, where he received an S.T.B.
in 1928, and at Drew Universky, where he received hh
master's degree in 1931. He was accepted into full mem-
bership in the Holston Conference in 1929, and during
the succeeding years he rendered extensive and varied
services to The Methodist Church in several regions. He
was also at one time a member of the faculty of Baylor
School in Chattanooga.
Dr. Martin's wife, the former Miss Ruth Duckwall
of Knoxville, was educated at the University of Tennessee.
With unfailing friendliness and charm she capably filled the
role of "first lady" at Blakeslee Hall, the president's resi-
dence on the campus. Her talent for interior and exterior
building decoration enabled her to make many valuable
contributions to the college at large. The Martins were
accompanied on the move to Athens by their two children;
Julia Caroline, better known as Sally, aged sixteen and
As Tennessee Wesleyan College 157
soon to enter Wesleyan; and Elizabeth Blackburn, or Betsy,
aged six. A frequent and always welcome visitor in the
home was Dr. Martin's mother, then living in Chattanooga,
who could tell many an interesting story of life in Athens
and at Wesleyan in days gone by.
President Martin arrived on the Tennessee Wesleyan
campus on July 6, 1950, and energetically set himself ^^
cope with the many problems which beset a small junior
college in that difficult Korean War period. Financial
difficulties alone were enormous; the college had for some
years operated at a deficit. Dr. Martin forcefully presented
the case for the college to one civic group after another,
and within a matter of months he had enlisted strong
community support. An editorial in the Daily Post- Athe-
nian in 1951 lauded the efforts of volunteer workers in
what was called the Tennessee Wesleyan Appreciation
Drive; their goal was $20,000. Pointing out that Wesleyan
did not have a large endowment to see it through inflation-
ary periods, the writer urged all citizens to contribute
generously. He declared that all the community enjoyed
the blessings already brought to Athens by the college. This
drive proved to be only a prelude to the greater efforts that
were to follow.
Ever since 1925, when Tennessee Wesleyan became a
completely independent institution, administrators and sup-
porters of the college had from time to time dreamed that
it might once again be a four-year college. The actual
formulation of this ideal and the steps essential to its realiza-
tion were the work of LeRoy A. Martin. Early in 1952 he
made public contents of a letter which he had received from
General James A. Fowler, '84, of Knoxville, honorary mem-
ber of the Board of Trustees and a former chairman of the
board. General Fowler's letter contained the following
158 A History of Teiinessee Wesleyan College
"Tennessee Wesleyan College occupies an unfavorable
position with reference to increasing its student body. It
is strictly a junior college, and therefore, its curriculum is
limited to the freshman and sophomore college years. As
long as that condition exists it will be difficult to procure
an attendance sufficient to maintain the school. I have
given the matter considerable thought and talked it over
with a gentleman who, I think, has had more experience
with all grades of educational work than any other person
in the State. My judgment is that the curriculum should
be extended to a full four-year college course; and the
sooner it is done the better the result for the school."
This letter strengthened President Martin in a convic-
tion that he had held for some time. He and the Executive
Committee of the Board of Trustees began several months
of intensive study. In his report to the board on May 28,
1952, Dr. Martin set forth in considerable detail the argu-
ments in favor of a four-year institution. Supporting his
points with statistics, he emphasized the lack of growth in
the enrollment of junior colleges of The Methodist Church
in recent years, especially those in the South. Coming to
the problem of financial support for junior colleges, he
presented convincing evidence that government agencies,
philanthropic foundations, and even individual alumni do
not adequately support junior colleges. A third considera-
tion that Dr. Martin brought to the attention of the trustees
was the action of the Tennessee Department of Education
in requiring four rather than two years of college training
for permanent teacher certification. He added that in-
creases had likewise been made in the requirements for
entering professional schools of medicine, law, and theology.
His final point was that the industrial growth of McMinn
County, strikingly symbolized in the establishment of the
As Tennessee Wesleyan College 159
Bowaters Southern Paper Corporation at Calhoun,
indicated a bright economic future for the region.
There followed many months filled with committee
meetings, conferences, and studies of various kinds. Two
years passed before the Holston Conference took the final
action which was needed to make Tennessee Wesleyan a
four-year, degree-granting college. During this perioa
President Martin was in touch with a number of outstand-
ing leaders in American higher education, representing both
church-related and secular institutions. Several of these
persons through their advice and suggestions made signifi-
cant contributions to the final realization of Wesleyan's
senior college status. Prominent among them were the
following: Dr. Myron F, Wicke, associate director, Section
of Secondary and Higher Education of the Division of
Educational Institutions of the General Board of Educa-
tion of The Methodist Church; Dr, Hurst R, Anderson,
president of American University, Washington, D, C, and
member of the University Senate of The Methodist Church ;
Dr. Arlo Ayres Brown, president of Tennessee Wesleyan
College from 1921 to 1925; Dr. John O, Gross, executive
secretary of the Division of Educational Institutions of the
Board of Education of The Methodist Church; and Dr.
Edward W. Seay, president of Centenary College in Hac-
kettstown, New Jersey, and member of the University
Senate of The Methodist Church. Most of these men con-
tinued their generous interest long after the four-year
program was adopted and put into operation.
In October, 1952, President Martin presented to the
Executive and the Buildings and Grounds Committees of
the trustees a comprehensive report which showed the
points at which Tennessee Wesleyan would have to expand
its facilities and increase its resources in order to meet the
standards for senior colleges as set by the Southern As-
160 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
sociation of Colleges and Secondary Schools. Somewhat
later a study committee of the board enlisted the assistance
of Dr. Donald Agnew, then financial consultant of the
Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools,
in order to get an estimate of the funds that would be
needed during the first several years of a senior college
program at Wesleyan. On the basis of Dr. Agnew's find-
ings it was estimated that at least $108,900 would have to
be secured, over and above the usual support given the
college, to cover the increase in operating costs for the
first four years.
The Board of Trustees considered this information and
many other pertinent facts when they met in May, 1953.
The Holston Conference had just launched what was called
its College Development Program, a long-range fund-rais-
ing campaign for the support and improvement of the three
colleges owned by the conference. No part of these funds
could be used to change the status of Wesleyan. Concerned
for the success of this drive, the trustees voted to delay
action upon the senior-college proposal.
The situation was saved by the courageous action of
a group of Athens business and professional men who some
years earlier had organized the Tennessee Wesleyan Advis-
ory Board for the purpose of strengthening the college.
Under the leadership of Mr. Harry L. Hawkins, their chair-
man at this time, the Advisory Board agreed to underwrite
the needed $108,900 and also pledged itself to specific
and continued support far beyond the first four years of
the new program. Without the concerted and prompt
efforts of this group and the generous contributions of the
citizens of Athens, the four-year program would not have
materialized when it did. The following members have
served on this Board: C. A. Anderson, Charles W. Bellows,
Frank N. Bratton, Dr. T. J. Burton, R. Frank Buttram,
As Tennessee Wesley an College 161
William P. Chesnutt, Ralph W. Duggan, J. Neal Ensminger,
William Biddle, Dr. W. E. Force, Joe T. Frye, T. D.
Gambill, Junius G. Graves, William D. Hairrell, Rhea
Hammer, Felix Harrod, Harry L. Hawkins, Kenneth D.
Higgins, Wallace D. Hitch, Harry Johnson, George R.
Koons, C. Scott Mayfield, Thomas B. Mayfield, H. F. Mc-
Millan, Harwell W. Profitt, Dr. E. B. Ranck, Joe W. Rice,
Frank Riggs, Edgar R. Self, H. A. Smith, Paul J. Walker,
R. A. Wall, W. F. Whitaker, James H. Willson and Marvin
The Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees
immediately renewed its request that the board make
Wesleyan a four-year, degree-granting institution at the
earliest possible date. The following reasons were adduced :
1. The action of the Advisory Board in underwriting
the necessary funds. It was pointed out that all pledges
were conditional upon the adoption of the four-year
program in the near future.
2. The expected increase in college enrollments all
over the nation within the next few years. The committee
foresaw that if the conversion should be completed by 1957,
Wesleyan would by the time of the influx be in a good
position to compete for students and render service in the
name of The Methodist Church as a strong, small liberal
arts college with a select student body.
3. The fact that the Tennessee Board of Education
had already authorized Tennessee Wesleyan to give three
years in elementary teacher training, with the understand-
ing that the college would move to four-year status at an
early date. If it did not do so, the privilege would be re-
voked. The committee stated their conviction that many
of the finest teachers in America were produced by church-
related colleges and that Wesleyan could make a valuable
contribution in this field. Furthermore, it was advisable
162 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
that the college enter upon the teacher-training program
right away, since a new curriculum for prospective teachers
was then being initiated in Tennessee institutions.
4. The fact that the professional schools at the Uni-
versity of Tennessee had approved a three-year program in
pre-law and pre-medicine at Wesleyan with the under-
standing that the college would soon have senior college
status. If the change did not take place, the college v/ould
have to relinquish its work in these two fields.
On May 11, 1954, the Board of Trustees approved
the initiation of a senior college program at Tennessee
Wesleyan. The decision was unanimously approved by the
Holston Annual Conference on June 3. Only a change in
the by-laws of the board was necessary, for the college
charter of 1925 had established a college of liberal arts
with the authority to confer appropriate baccalaureate
A new chapter in the history of Tennessee Wesleyan
College began forthwith. President Martin now shouldered
enormous and pressing responsibilities. The selection of
additional competent faculty and staff members, the ex-
pansion and improvement — almost the complete remodel-
ing — of the physical plant of the college, and the promo-
tion of the Holston Conference College Development
Program were among his major problems.
With respect to faculty, Dr. Martin had already made
several notable additions, including the appointment of
Dr. F. Heisse Johnson, formerly of Brothers College of
Drew University, as C. O. Jones professor of religion. Up-
on adoption of the senior college program, Dr. Johnson be-
came dean of the college, with primary responsibility for
the academic program. Dean Paul Riviere was made dean
of admissions and registrar succeeding C. O. Douglass.
Others of President Martin's appointments in the 1950-57
As Tennessee Wesleyan College 163
period included: Dr. Alf H. Walle, professor of education
and director of the Evening College; Dr. John M. Martin,
associate professor of history and director of the Summer
School; Dr. Enid P. Bryan, professor of English and
classics; Dr. L. C. Jordy, professor of chemistry and physics;
Carl B. Honaker, associate professor of chemistry and
physics; Richard M. Johnson, associate professor of biology;
M. Clifton Smith, associate professor of education and
basketball coach; Dr. T. G. Richner, associate professor of
modern languages; B, T. Hutson, associate professor of
business administration; Miss Reva Puett, assistant profes-
sor of home economics; William M. McGill, assistant pro-
fessor of English; John J. McCoy, assistant professor of
biology and chemistry; Miss Mary L. Greenhoe, instructor
in piano and organ; Miss Frances J. Biddle, instructor in
physical education; Harry W. Coble, instructor in speech
and drama; Fred Puett, instructor in business administra-
tion; Mrs. Claryse D. Myers, librarian; and Rabbi Abra-
ham Feinstein, visiting instructor in the history of Judaism.
No list of new personnel for this period would be complete
without mention of Mrs. Mary Nelle Jackson, administra-
tive secretary, whose bright smile added much to the
pleasantness of life at Wesleyan.
It was with keenly felt regret that faculty and students
saw that retirement of Dr. James W. Baldwin and Professor
Arthur H. Myers, in 1956. Dr. Baldwin, a native Tennes-
seean, had for two years assisted in establishing the teacher-
training program at Wesleyan on a senior college basis.
Mr. Myers, professor of philosophy and psychology, retired
after twenty-two years at Wesleyan but continued to teach
on a part-time basis in 1956-57. Professor Myers' calm,
cheery manner and his deep personal interest in his students
made him a great favorite, and returning alumni were
certain to ask for and about him.
164 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
As for the physical plant, many of the older college
buildings were badly in need of repair in the early 1950's.
Almost $100,000 was spent during the summer of 1954 on
additions to the campus, renovations, and redecorating,
and the work continued in succeeding years. Every build-
ing on the campus received some attention. Petty-Manker
Hall underwent complete renovation in 1954, and a tele-
vision lounge and an infirmary were added to its facilities.
Banfield Hall, which now housed the science departments,
was provided with new lighting and additional equipment.
Townsend Memorial Hall, erected in 1924, was rededi-
cated in 1951 in memory of the late Colonel W. B. Town-
send, one of Wesleyan's most generous benefactors. Town-
send Hall now provided an auditorium which seated ap-
proximately eight hundred, another auditorium which
seated three hundred, a student recreational center, a snack
bar, a post office, and offices for the president and other
As the enrollment of men students by 1954 was far
greater than it had ever been before, several additional
residence halls for men were opened. Fowler Hall, formerly
a motel, was purchased in 1954 and was named in honor
of General James A. Fowler, '84, and Mrs. Fowler. Estab-
lished somewhat later, Bolton Hall was named in memory
of Professor David A. Bolton, '72, and Wright Hall was
named for Dean W. A. Wright, '78.
Elizabeth Ritter Hall, owned and supported as a
woman's residence hall by the Woman's Division of Christ-
ian Service of The Methodist Church, was extensively
renovated during the summer of 1954. The dining hall
area was increased to a seating capacity of three hundred,
and a cafeteria and automatic dishwashing equipment were
installed. This dining hall, which served the entire college,
was named in honor of Mrs. H. C. Black, for many years
As Tennessee Wesleyan College 165
a trustee of the college. In addition, provision was made
in one wing of Ritter for the department of home econom-
ics, with electrically equipped unit kitchens, a private din-
ing room, and a textile laboratory. An automatic sprinkler
system, the gift of Mrs. Henry PfeiflFer, and fire escapes
were installed throughout Ritter Hall.
Late in 1955 it was announced that Mr. Tom Sher-
man, Athens business man and an honorary member of
the Tennessee Wesleyan Board of Trustees, had presented
the college a check with which to buy a choice site for a
fine arts building. The money was used for the purchase
of the Bolton property, on the corner of North Jackson
and College Streets, a piece of property that the college
had long desired to have within its holdings. The Board
of Trustees authorized the erection there of a building to
contain music, speech, drama, and radio classrooms and
studios, as well as a small auditorium for recitals and little
theater productions, as soon as sufficient funds should be
available. Blueprints were drawn and approved in 1956.
It was noted that the excellent central location of the
projected building would assist in serving both the college
and the entire community of Athens.
Meanwhile, a site was cleared late in 1956 for another
much needed building, a modern brick dormitory to house
over one hundred men. The new $300,000 structure was
to be at the corner of Robeson and Green Streets, across
from what was the original college campus. Necessary
financing was secured, and construction was planned for
the summer of 1957.
As has been mentioned, Tennessee Wesleyan had an
active interest and share in the success of the College
Development Program which the Holston Conference con-
ducted in the early 1950's for the improvement of its three
166 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
colleges. Early in 1955 the conference successfully
completed this $1,750,000 drive.
Faculty and administration, plus buildings and other
facilities, add up to classes, as every college student well
knows. Many new courses were added to the Tennessee
Wesleyan curriculum in the three years that followed the
change to a senior college program. In most departments
several third-year courses were added in the school year
1955-56, and fourth-year courses the following year. By
1956 a student could choose any of the following as his
field of major emphasis: English, biology, chemistry, social
science, history and government, religion and philosophy,
education, and business administration and economics. The
field of minor emphasis could be chosen from these, plus
music, mathematics, physical education, and speech and
For the present the College plans to award the Bache-
lor of Arts degree and the Bachelor of Science degree.
Requirements for the Bachelor's degree are as follows:
1. A minimum of 18 hours of English
2. A minimum of 18 hours of a foreign language
(For Bachelor of Arts only)
3. A minimum of 9 hours of religion, including R400
4. A minimum of 9 hours in history or American
Government and Politics
5. A minimum of 9 hours in sociology, psychology,
economics or geography (Education majors must take the
course in The Family as 3 of the 9 hours required.)
6. A minimum of 12 hours of laboratory science for
the Bachelor of Arts Degree
A minimum of 24 hours in two difTerent laboratory
sciences or 12 hours in a laboratory science plus 10 hours
of mathematics for the Bachelor of Science Degree
As Tennessee Wesleyan College 167
7. A minimum of 3 hours in speech or dramatics
8. A minimum of 6 hours in physical education
9. The completion of the requirements in one major
and one minor field of emphasis. A minimum of 36 hours
is required in the major field and a minimum of 27 hours
is required in the minor field. One half of the work in
both the major and minor must be in upper level courses.
No student will receive credit for more than 51 hours
toward his major.
10. The completion of 192 hours of college work with
a cumulative average of 1.00 or C of which the senior year
(the last 45 hours) must be taken at Tennessee Wesleyan
In terms of enrollment, the expansion to a senior col-
lege program soon fulfilled the expectations of President
Martin, Dean Johnson, Dean Riviere, and the many others
who had advocated the change. Total enrollment in the
regular session of the school year 1953-54 was 237; in the
following year, the first on the new program, it was 305,
including 30 students in the Evening College. In the fall
of 1956 the enrollment was 572, including 96 students in
the Evening College.
Evening classes had been held at Tennessee Wesleyan
College intermittently for several years, but the inaugura-
tion of the four-year program brought a great increase of
interest. The Evening College now constituted an import-
ant area in which Wesleyan could render a special service
to Athens and the surrounding region. Under the direction
of Dr. Alf H. Walle, the Evening College opened in the
fall of 1954 with an enrollment of thirty students, mostly
in the fields of education and business administration. This
enrollment increased through the year and had more than
doubled by the following fall. In 1956-1957 the Evening
College had an enrollment of ninety-six. Most of these
168 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
were teachers and business people who had previously done
some portion of their college work, at Wesleyan or else-
where. Some were able to qualify for degrees at the 1957
commencement. Courses in education and busines sadmin-
istration continued to be in the greatest demand, but work
was given in many fields, including English and American
literature, mathematics, religion, history, engineering draw-
ing, and the natural sciences. Some classes were taught by
the regular faculty of the college, and others were handled
by visiting instructors. Among the latter were Harold N.
Powers, Paul Rowland, Dr. William H. Joubert, John I.
Foster, James C. Guffey, Bernard H. Zellner, Eugene
Sadler, and Marvis Cunningham.
For the young people regularly enrolled at Wesleyan,
however, life was not altogether made up of classes and
study. Like college students everywhere, they organized a
number of clubs and interest groups of various kinds. The
student body had the Student Council as its executive
agent. Other active organizations on the campus included
the Wesleyan Chapter of the Future Business Leaders of
America; the Life Service Volunteers, composed of those
planning to enter the ministry or go to a mission field;
Alpha Beta, honorary scholastic fraternity of the college;
the Veterans' Club; the Wesleyan College Chapter of the
Tennessee Poetry Society; the staflFs of the Bulldog, student
newspaper, and the Nocatula, the Wesleyan yearbook; the
Student Christian Association ; and the Tennessee Wesleyan
Choir. The Student Christian Association, with faculty
sponsorship, met once a week for study and services of
worship. This weekly service, held on Wednesday evenings
and known as Wesleyan Worship, had come to be a rich
and meaningful tradition of the college. The S.C.A. also
sponsored several social events each year. All college
ROY HUNTER SHORT
Trustee, Bishop of the Nashville Area and Secretary
of the Council of Bishops of The Methodist Church.
As Tennessee Wesley an College 169
Students were eligible to participate in the work and
activities of this group.
In the fall of 1956 it was announced that eight Ten-
nessee Wesleyan students had been selected to represent
the college in the forthcoming issue of Who's Who Among
Students in American Universities and Colleges, a distinc-
tion for which Wesleyan students were now eligible. These
outstanding students, who were chosen on the basis of
leadership, service to the college, and academic achieve-
ment, were the following: Billy Akins, of Athens; Patricia
DeLozier, of Maryville ; Richard Gilbert, of Dover, New
Jersey; Billie Dean Haley, of Athens; Dolores Mynatt, of
Chattanooga; Barbara Pickel, of Pigeon Forge; Charles
Seepe, of Knoxville; and Paul Starnes, of Chattanooga.
All were seniors slated to receive degrees at the Centennial
Commencement the following spring.
Much of the social life at Wesleyan continued to be
organized and stimulated by the Greek-letter social groups
which had been organized in the days of the junior college.
Sororities active on the campus in the 1950-1957 period
were Sigma Iota Chi, Eta Upsilon Gamma, Zeta Mu Ep-
silon, and Kappa Delta Phi; and active fraternities were
Eta Iota Tau, Theta Sigma Chi, and Phi Sigma Nu. Stu-
dents were invited to become members of the organizations
through a system of preferential bidding, but the system
was so administered that every student received a "bid"
if he had indicated a desire to join a Greek-letter group.
Sororities and fraternities had faculty sponsors and were
regulated and coordinated by a student-faculty Panhellenic
Council. In 1956-57 a plan was worked out whereby two
large dances, open to the entire student body, were held
during the year, each sponsored by a combination of three
Athletics and physical training had always been an
170 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
important part of the program at Wesleyan. But the change
to senior college status naturally brought with it several
problems in the matter of inter-college sports participation.
President Martin acted to strengthen both the football and
the basketball programs. Coach Rankin Hudson continued
as mentor of the football squad, which in 1956 played a
senior college schedule with fair success. M. Clifton Smith
was added to the college staff as associate professor of
education and basketball c©ach. Coach "Tip" Smith came
to Wesleyan with an enviable record in high school work,
including basketball coaching, in Southeastern Tennessee.
Wesleyan was admitted to the Smoky Mountain Athletic
Conference in 1956-1957; the basketball team played a
reasonably stiff schedule and came through with seventeen
wins and seven losses. Concurrent with these major sports
was a strong program of physical education and intramural
sports for all students, both men and women. Tennis,
volleyball, baseball, archery, soccer, and field hockey, as
well as football and basketball, found many enthusiasts.
Interest in music, especially in the Tennessee Wesleyan
College Choir, was at least as great as interest in athletics.
Choir Director Jack Houts, who came to Wesleyan in
1946, during President Robb's administration, constantly
devoted his energy and ability to the service of the college
and the community. Foremost among Professor Houts'
community activities was the training of the Athens Male
Chorus, a group that greatly enriched the cultural life of
the region." In 1955 the Athens Rotary Club presented him
with a plaque bearing the inscription "To Jack Houts, for
Outstanding Contribution in Community Service."
During Houts' second year at Wesleyan, several
churches of the Holston Conference asked the college choir
to present a one-hour program of sacred music. As the
reputation of the choir gradually spread, more and more
As Tennessee Wesleyan College 171
requests were received from churches in several Southern
states. By 1950 the choir was arranging a schedule of Sun-
day and week-end concerts that filled most of the calendar
from February through May, with appearances in churches
from West Virginia to Florida.
This development and expansion came to a fitting
climax in April, 1956, when the Wesleyan Choir was priv-
ileged to sing at the General Conference of The Methodist
Church held that year in Minneapolis. Seventeen choirs
representing Methodist colleges were invited to sing at the
1956 meeting of the General Conference, a world body
which meets only every four years. It was, then, a great
honor and distinction for the Tennessee Wesleyan Choir
to appear on this occasion. In particular, great credit was
due President Martin for the preliminary arrangements
that made the invitation and the trip possible. The forty-
five voice choir sang three times at various sessions and
groups of the conference, and their performance won high
TJie choir early formed the habit of turning to secular
music in the late spring and producing a show which was
called the Spring Festival. The popular musical The Red
Mill was chosen for production in 1950, followed by The
Desert Song, Rose Marie, Naughty Marietta, The Vagabond
King, Oklahoma! and The Three Musketeers in succeed-*
ing years. It was decided that the 1957 Spring Festival
should be integrated with the centennial celebration of the
college. A musical dramatization of the Cherokee Indian
legend of Nocatula, ^ part of Wesleyan's heritage from
the earliest days, was scheduled for production during
Centennial Week. The entire drama was written and ar-
ranged by Wesleyan College personnel: Harry Coble, in-
■<^ructor in speech and drama; Miss Mary Greenhoe,
172 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
instructor in piano and organ; and Professor and Mrs.
Early spring of 1957 found the Tennessee Wesleyan
campus a busy place indeed. Regular college activities
went on as usual. The Holston Conference conducted a
Vocations Clinic for students interested in various fields
of religious work. In March the Chattanooga Symphony
Orchestra, under the direction of Julius Hegyi, gave a
"pops" concert in Townsend Auditorium. A little later,
Religion in Life Week brought Dr. George C. Baker of
Southern Methodist University to the campus, along with
several other competent leaders of seminars and discussion
groups. The college then prepared for Vocations Day, an
annual event which had the co-sponsorship of the Athens
Kiwanis Club, when several hundred high school seniors
from the surrounding region would visit the campus to
get information from leaders in business and professional
But a great deal more than the usual activity of a
college campus was in evidence at Wesleyan in 1957. Ad-
ministrators and faculty had long been busy with adjust-
ments and improvements in the entire college program;
and now, with a view to meeting senior college accredita-
tion standards in the near future, they accelerated their
efforts. Students were aware of the challenge and in most
cases responded with increased interest and application.
Above all, everyone connected with the college looked
forward to the events of Centennial Week and the com-
mencement at which Tennessee Wesleyan w ould once again
confer degrees and so reclaim her heritage as a senior
Speaking of the history of the college and the outlook
for the future, President Martin made this statement:
One hundred years of struggle — poverty, debts, de-
As Tennessee Wesleyan College 173
prsssions, wars — all these facts made their impact, yet
presidents held on, convinced that days of greater service
would dawn — and now as a second century begins, it can
be said that 1957 could be the dawn of a nobler and more
creative day, and for these reasons:
The vast and varied economy of East Tennessee, at-
tributable to many factors, is gaining steadily. The poverty
which followed Reconstruction is now a minority move-
ment; the Old South has become the New South. There
is wealth in this area to provide adequate support.
The Methodist Church has nurtured the college for a
century, sometimes providing a lean diet, with the most
substantial support for a long period coming from general
funds of the Board of Education and from Methodists of
the North and East; but with the growing interest of the
Holston Conference of The Methodist Church as manifested
since unification of Methodism there is now assurance that
the support will grow as the years pass, the college being
strengthened materially as a result.
The community of Athens has benefited greatly by
the college but has often been indifferent towards its needs;
the community now manifests a warm and generous spirit,
this stimulated by an Advisory Board of Athenians.
These three facts made possible and imperative the
resumption of senior college work.
In the light of these facts I dare to make a prophecy:
within twenty-five years or less, if adequate church and
community support continues and large gifts for buildings
and endow7nent are made, Wesleyan will become as dis-
tinguished a college as two well-known Methodist institu-
tions located in towns of comparable size — DePauw and
I am grateful to the Board of Trustees, the Holston
Conference of The Methodist Church, the community of
174 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
Athens, the alumni and the many other friends who have
brought us to the new day which warrants the confidence
in the future seriously expressed above.
TENNESSEE WESLEYAN COLLEGE
CHARTER OF INCORPORATION
AS AMENDED MAY 14, 1954
Be it known that G. F. Lockmiller, S. C. Brown, J. M.
Melear, J. W. Fisher, W. B. Townsend, C. N. Woodworth
and Mrs. John A. Patten are hereby constituted a body
politic and corporate by the name and style of Tennessee
Wesleyan College for the purpose of founding, maintaining
and conducting a college of liberal arts at Athens, Tennes-
see, under the auspices of The Methodist Church as repre-
sented in the General Conference of said Church wherein
may be taught the courses of study usually taught in said
colleges or institutions, including literary, scientific, theo-
logical, normal and elocution or expression with
power to confer appropriate degrees and to issue diplomas
and certificates to those entitled thereto under the stand-
ards, rules and regulations of said college as fixed by its
Board of Trustees; to maintain libraries and recreational
grounds, and equipment; to provide for and preserve an
endowment fund for the support and maintenance of said
college by taking, receiving and holding any monies, choses
in action, real estate, personal or mixed property by gift,
devise or otherwise.
2. The property owned, or to be owned, or held by
the corporation hereby created shall be so held and owned
in the name of said corporation for the use and benefit of
The Methodist Church, under such trust clause, or clauses,
as may be provided in the book of Discipline of said
Church. The government and management of said cor-
poration and the teachings in its several courses or depart-
ments, shall forever be conducted in harmony and conson-
As Tennessee Wesleyan College 175
ance with, and in the interest of, the said Methodist
Church, as set forth, or declared from time to time, by the
General Conference of said Church.
3. Said corporation shall be self-perpetuating, subject
only to the policy above stated. Any departure from the
objects and policy of said corporation as above limited shall
be good ground for removal of the Board of Trustees upon
cause properly shown in the court of equity having
jurisdiction, but shall not work a forfeiture of this charter.
4. The general powers of the said corporation shall
(a) To sue and be sued by the corporate name.
(b) To have and use a common seal, which it
may alter at pleasure; if no common seal,
then the signature of the name of the cor-
poration, by any duly authorized officer, shall
be legal and binding.
(c) To purchase and hold, or receive by gift, be-
quest, or devise in addition to the personal
property owned by the corporation, real estate
necessary for the transaction of the corporate
business, and also to purchase or accept any
real estate in payment, of any debt due the
corporation, and sell the same.
(d) To establish by-laws, and make all rules and
regulations not inconsistent with the laws and
constitution, deemed expedient for the man-
agement of corporate affairs.
(e) To appoint such subordinate officers and
agents, in addition to a president and secre-
tary, or treasurer, as the business of the cor-
poration may require.
(f) To designate the name of the office, and fix
the compensation of the officer.
176 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
(g) To borrow money to be used in payment of
property bought by it, and for erecting build-
ings, making improvements, and for other
purposes germane to the object of its creation,
and secure the repayment of the money thus
borrowed by mortgage, pledge, or deed of
trust, upon such property, real, personal, or
mixed, as may be owned by it; and it may,
in like manner, secure by mortgage, pledge,
or deed of trust, any existing indebtedness
which it may have lawfully contracted.
(h)To elect a president, a dean or other necessary
officers or agents in the management of said
college, to prescribe the studies and texts for
the various courses or departments therein,
to elect a faculty of such teachers and in-
structors as may be deemed proper and to fix
the salaries of such officers and teachers.
5. The said corporators shall within a convenient
time after the registration of the charter in the office of
the Secretary of State, elect from their number a chairman,
secretary and treasurer; said officers and the other incor-
porators shall constitute the first Board of Trustees. In all
elections each member present shall be entitled to one vote,
and the result shall be determined by a majority of the vote
cast. Due notice of any election must be given by advertise-
ment in a newspaper, personal notice to the members or a
day stated on the minutes of the board six months preced-
ing the election. The Board of Trustees shall keep a record
of all their proceedings, which shall be at all times subject
to the inspection of any member.
6. That the number of Trustees shall be forty in addi-
tion to the president, who shall be an ex-officio member of
Donor of site for fine arts center
As Tennessee Wesleyan College 111
the board of trustees. The trustees shall hold office as
The Board of Trustees at its annual meeting shall each
year elect one-fourth of the number of Trustees to serve
for a term of four years from the date of such meeting and
until their successors are duly elected as herein provided.
The said Trustees shall be elected from nominations by the
Holston Annual Conference of The Methodist Church, on
recommendation of the Board of Education of the said
In case the Holston Annual Conference of The Meth-
odist Church fails to nominate a Trustee to fill any vacancy
as hereinbefore provided, then such nomination may be
made by the Bishop having in charge the Holston Annual
Conference at that time until such a vacancy is filled. Any
vacancy or vacancies, in the Board of Trustees occasioned
by death, resignation, removal or other causes than those
stated above, shall be supplied in the same manner as pro-
vided in this section for the election of a trustee. Any mem-
ber of said Board of Trustees shall be eligible to re-election
The thirty-two members of the present Board of
Trustees shall serve out their respective terms. At the 1953
session of the Holston Annual Conference a sufficient num-
ber of new trustees shall be nominated to make the total
number of trustees forty, exclusive of the president. At the
next annual meeting of the Board of Trustees, after the
1953 session of the Holston Annual Conference, it shall
elect eight new trustees; two of the new trustees shall be
elected for a term of one year; two of said new trustees
shall be elected for a term of two years; two of said new
trustees shall be elected for a term of three years, and two
of said new trustees shall be elected for a term of four years.
Each year after 1953 the Board of Trustees, at its regular
178 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
annual meeting, shall elect ten members of the Board of
Trustees for a term of four years.
7. The Board of Trustees may appoint executive
agencies, and pass all necessary by-laws for the government
of said institution, as may be required by The Methodist
Church, provided said by-laws are not inconsistent with
the constitution and laws of this State. The terms of all
officers shall be fixed by the by-laws, the term not to exceed
three years and all officers shall hold over until their
successors are duly elected and qualified.
8. The members may at any time voluntarily dissolve
the corporation by the conveyance of its assets and property
to any other corporation holding a charter from this State
not for purposes of individual profit, first providing for
incorporate debts; provided, the objects and aims of said
corporation shall be the same and in harmony with those
contained in this charter. A violation of any of the provis-
ions of this charter shall subject the corporation to dissolu-
tion at the instance of the State, in which event its property
and effects shall revert to the Holston Annual Conference,
Inc., a corporation. This charter is subject to modification
or amendment by the Legislature, and in case said modifi-
cation or amendment is not accepted, corporate business
is to cease, and the assets and property, after payment of
debts, are to be conveyed, as aforesaid, to some other cor-
poration holding a charter for purposes not connected with
individual profit and for the same objects and benefit of,
and revert to, the aforesaid Holston Annual Conference,
Inc. Acquiescence in any modification thus declared shall
be determined in a meeting of the Trustees specially called
for that purpose, and only those voting in favor of the
modification shall thereafter compose the corporation.
9. The means, assets, income, or other property of
the corporation shall not be employed, directly or indirectly,
As Tennessee Wesleyan College 179
for any purpose whatever than to accompHsh the legitimate
objects of its creation, and by no imphcation or construc-
tion shall it possess the power to issue notes or coin, buy or
sell products, or engage in any kind of trading operation,
nor holding more real estate than is necessary for its legiti-
mate purposes, and in no event shall the trustees permit
any part of the principal of the endowment fund, or any
portion of the real estate of the corporation, to be used for
the payment of the current expenses.
10. We, the undersigned, hereby apply to the State
of Tennessee, by virtue of the laws of the land, for a charter
of incorporation for the purpose and with the powers and
privileges, etc., declared in the foregoing instrument.
Witness our hands the 26th day of June, A.D., 1925.
G. F. Lockmiller
S. C. Brown
J. W. Fisher
J. M. Melear
W. B. Townsend
C. N. Woodworth
Mrs. John A. Patten
State of Tennessee
County of McMinn
Personally appeared before me, Tom M. Frye, Clerk
of the County Court for the County aforesaid, G. F. Lock-
miller, S. C. Brown, J. M. Melear, J. W. Fisher, W. B.
Townsend, C. N. Woodworth and Mrs. John A. Patten,
the incorporators and signers of the within Charter of
Incorporation, with whom I am personally acquainted and
who acknowledged that they executed the same for the
purpose therein contained. Witness my hand and seal of
office at Athens, McMinn County, Tennessee, this the 26th
day of June, 1925. ^^^ j^ P^^^
County Court Clerk
The year 1895 was highlighted by the dynamic interest
of the students in the school. (U. S. Grant University with
the College of Liberal Arts located at Athens, Tennessee.)
This interest was manifested in many varying fields. There
was a resurgence of enthusiasm toward academic and social
aspects of student life.
The voice of this enthusiasm was the University Ex-
ponent, a proposed monthly, under the editorship of Alvis
Craig, Juliette Everett, Frank F. Hooper, W. Fay Roeder,
Charles F. Van DeWater, and Olle M. West. The purpose
of the paper was stated in the Salutatory as "To convince
the people of Athens and the South the importance of
Grant University and her paper and of their DUTY in
supporting the former, and thus supporting the latter . . ."
The editors explained that the idea of a paper was
an old one and defended its establishment by enumerating
the benefits that the student body might derive from such
The establishment of a University paper is by no
means a young idea, but on the contrary has long been
contemplated by our students. A school of the size and
character of Grant University ought not and cannot
succeed properly without some publication devoted to
•5f * *
A college paper should bring its students together,
stimulate them in their desire for education and make
them more loyal to their college and give them a livelier
interest in the same.
Student Activities 181
In 1895, as in every year before World War I, the
majority of student activity centered around the programs
of the various "literary societies." There were four of these
societies which corresponded to Greek letter organizations
on other campuses. They were the Athenian and Philo-
mathean for men and Sapphonian and Knightonian for
women. The Athenian was the oldest of these. It was
organized on January 19, 1867, as the Athenian Literary
Society of East Tennessee Wesleyan University. Professor
P. C. Wilson was elected president, and J. V. Love was
elected recording secretary. The Society had a publication
entitled the Athenaeum and a private library for the use
of its members. The Philomathean was organized on March
1, 1868, because the increased enrollment prevented many
students from participating in the activities of the
The Sapphonian Society was organized in the winter
of 1878-79, with Agnes Byington, President, and Emma
Rule, Secretary. It was organized as a protest by "ladies
who felt that they were without the literary advantages
which, the existing societies furnish to the young gentlemen."
By 1895 the functions of these societies were predomi-
nately social. The open meetings, oratorical contests, socials
and outings were a sanctioned method of contact between
men and women. One notices a contrast between a typical
week's activity in 1882 and that of one in 1895.
ACTIVITIES IN 1882
Sunday afternoon, College lecture, weekly 2:00 p.m.
College Prayer meeting, weekly, with Y.M.C.A. Weds.
Y.M.C.A. holds its Social and Bible meetings alter-
nately every Sunday afternoon, immediately after the
College Sunday Lecture. Pres., Ed. S. Patterson,
Secty., J. W. P. Massey.
182 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
Theological Society meets semi-monthly on Saturday,
2:00 p.m. Pres., Dr. John F. Spence, Sect., C. H.
Athenian Literary Society meetings are held weekly
on Friday, 6 : 30 p.m. Pres. J. J. Robinette, Rec. Secty.,
C. M. Gillenwaters. Editor Athenaeum, F. L. Mans-
Philomathean Literary Society meets weekly on Satur-
day, 6:30 p.m. Pres., W. A. Long, Rec. Secty., J. A.
Denton, editor, Philomathean, James F. Swingle.
Sapphonian Literary Society meets weekly on Monday
at 4:00 p.m. Pres., Miss Eugenia Long, Rec. Secty.,
Miss Telia Kelley, editress Sapphonian Journal, Miss
The advent of Professor Joel S. Barlow and his family
brought music to the campus. Professor Barlow, late of the
Great Band of England (Queen Victoria's Band) , had later
given lessons in New York and Chicago. His daughter,
Grace, also gave voice and piano lessons. The Barlow
daughters, Anna and Ethel, were always active on any
A Ladies Orchestra and a string band called the "Vio-
lin Case" were formed. The students even proposed
organizing a glee club. Although there was no official
organization that year, the members of the literary clubs
had their individual singing groups. -'
CONCERT BY UNIVERSITY ORCHESTRA,
DECEMBER 14, 1897
True music is the natural expression of a lofty passion
for a right cause. — Ruskin.
Music is well said to be the speech of angels; it brings
us near to the infinite. — - Thomas Carlyle.
Student Activities 183
Here we will sit, and let the sound of music creep in
our ears. — Shakespeare.
1. Orchestra — "Forget Me Not" .....Popp
2. Part Song — "Cuckoo" Macfarren
Miss Ophie Bolton, Miss Anna Taite, Mr. Howard Burke
and Mr. Parker Sizer.
The man that hath no music in himself,
Nor is not moved with concord of sweet sounds,
Is fit for treasons, stratagems and spoils.
3. Violin Solo — "Adieu" Beethoven
Miss Margaret Wright.
Song — "September" — Mr. John C. Lusk.
4. Orchestra — "Sirenes Valse" Waldteufe
5. Song — "The Alpine Horn" Proch
Mr. Howard Burke.
"Were it nor for sound and song.
Life would lose its pleasure."
6. Piano Solo — Cachoucha Caprice.... Raff
Miss Mildred Marston.
7. Orchestra — - "Love in May" ....Weiad
It is little rift within the lute
That by and by will make the music mute.
And ever widening slowly silence all.
8. Piano and Organ, Overture — "Norma" .Bellini
Miss Blanche Sheffler, Miss Nellie Young
and Prof. J. S. Barlow.
They laid their hands upon the pallid keys.
Straightway the notes began to throb and thrill.
— Owen Innsly
184 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
9. Song — "The Flower Girl" Bevignani
Miss Grace Barlow.
Sing on, thou soul of melody, sing on,
Till we forget our sorrows and our wrongs.
— David Bates.
10. Vocal Trio- — Selected — Mr. Howard Burke,
Mr. John'Lusk and Mr. E. S. Oaks.
11. Violin Solo — "Stradella" ..Flotow
Miss Grace Barlow.
12. Orchestra — Selection from the Opera of
The soul of music sleeps on the string,
And the spirit of harmony closes her wing.
— Ed. L. Swift.
The organization of the band was a result, to some
extent, of the increased interest in the military school. The
military school program had originated with a drill line of
students carrying their own guns. In 1895 drill was com-
pulsory for students between the ages of 16-21. Captain
Charles F. Van DeWater was in charge of the cadets. He
and Bishop Isaac Joyce felt that "the boys" should have a
band. After receiving a letter from Bishop Joyce, Dr. C. G.
Conn, manufacturer of band instruments, personally
selected fourteen band instruments and presented them as
a gift to the school.
The University Exponent commented that "the band
is progressing nicely and in short time we expect to hear
some good music from it." Evidently the band made some
progress since we read of it greeting visiting dignitaries at
the Southern Railway station later in the year. Many
members of the band gave solos for their Societies' enter-
tainments and for commencement and class day. We read
of piccolo and trombone solos rendered by members of the
Student Activities 185
The students at U. S. Grant University had in com-
mon with students all over the nation a predilection for
poker, Frat pins, celluloid collars, complaints about food,
candy pulls, and measles. They were also seriously inter-
ested in the Christian tradition and the future of their
nation. They felt through education that they could per-
petuate the former and secure the latter. Articles appeared
in the school paper defending military training. They felt
that this training was not incompatible with the spirit of
A typical editorial stated that:
The great work of the University is not to make
lawyers or doctors or mechanics or merchants but a
work infinitely higher, that of developing men. When
its work is done the schools of various professions have
materials of the most excellent calibre with which to
fill the vacancies they are expected to supply.
Their idea of America was expressed in a similar
manner. Alvis Craig visualized "the American Republic
not only a land of wealth, beauty and power, but one of
culture and justice as well."
In the interest of culture the students proposed the
organization of an Art Literature Club such as Syracuse
University's. They wished a reading room accessible to the
faculty, students, and refined citizens from the town. In
this same interest they realized the importance of the
professional schools at Chattanooga.
Chattanooga is undoubtedly the place where a
great university will grow up. Let us have a closer
union in the work of our departments, and a strong
unanimity of purpose to embrace the opportunity of
filling a great need today.
Throughout the year the students showed interest in
the idea of an athletic program. The tennis club cleaned
186 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan CoUege
the courts in the spring and encouraged the student body
to beautify the campus. The students were clamoring for
a gymnasium. As one editorial stated, "One department
in which our school is lacking is Athletics ... A gymnasium,
modestly, but properly equipped, with an instructor to
oversee the work of the students . . . would be a valuable
addition to the school. Can some one start a gym
The Epworth League, the Y.M.C.A. and the Y.W.C.A.
were Christian organizations that had entertainments or
socials on the campus. The students and faculty frequently
had joint entertainments, usually in Bennett Hall, where
cookies and ice cream were served.
An off-campus social event was the annual reception
of Kappa Sigma Fraternity, the only national fraternity at
Grant University. On Feb. 8, 1895, the fraternity held its
reception at the Euclid Hotel. The rainy evening did not
dampen the young people's spirits. The fact that this was
an evening entertainment and refreshments were served at
the late hour of 9:30 p.m. was exciting. Those present
were: Misses Olphie Bolton, Annie McKeldin, Louise Ma-
gill, Ruby Simonds, Cora Mann, Mary French, Lotta Ulrey,
Grace Barlow, and Messrs. L. W. Cass, S. E. Miller, W. F.
Hufhne, F. F. Hooper, Alvis Craig, Wm. T. Cooper, J. M.
Rutherford, M. S. Oakes, Guy H. Lemon, John C. Lusk,
and F. Parker Sizer.
The commencement exercises culminated a year of
vigorous student activity at U. S. Grant University. The
three honor students who delivered orations at commence-
ment were Annie B. McKeldin, Lewis W. Cass, and Alvis
David A, Bolton assumed the editorship of the Univer-
sity Exponent for the year 1896-97. The student associates
were Albert S. Humphrey, John C. Lusk, Cora B. Mann,
Student Activities 187
Louise Roeder, Henry M. Foster. The paper no longer
showed the revolutionary spirit of the preceding year, but
it still reported the activities of the students diligently.
The Grant University Athletic Association was founded
early in 1897. There were fifty members who started work-
ing on fields for track and baseball. The first officers were
F. E. Fuller, president, M. S. Oakes, vice-president, F.
Parker Sizer, secretary, H. M. Cass, treasurer. The mem-
bers of the advisory board were Noyes Matteson, W. M.
Caldwell, F. F. Hooper. In the spring issue of the Exponent
a picture of the newly organized baseball team appeared.
One would little suspect that these indolent young men
would be nimble, sometime violent and profane ball players.
The members of this team were Hooper, Davis, Horton,
Ira Bolton, Harris, W. M. Caldwell, Fuller (Mgr.), Denton,
H. R. Caldwell, and Hornsby.
This was the year that the enrollment filled the
Y.M.C.A. Sunday meetings, and their ice cream and oyster
suppers swelled their treasury. In order to provide for the
increase in numbers and to have a place for benefits, this
organization had to find new facilities.
The usual tempo of student activities was kept at the
University in 1897. The Literary Societies gave orations on
Washington's birthday and Arbor Day. One of the im-
portant debates at the Athenian Hall was "Should the
U. S. Recognize the Belligerency of Cuba?" The classes
gave receptions, the Beethoven Music Club entertained,
Ritter Home had a reception, a field trip was taken to the
Fisher Typewriter Factory, and Dr. J. W. Hamilton, secre-
tary of the Freedmen's Aid Society and Southern Education
was the featured speaker at the dedication of Parker
Miss Nellie Maupin a student at Athens received a
prize of a gold ring in elocution at an inter-collegiate con-
188 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
test held at Chattanooga. Five other persons competed in
this contest. It was felt that the bi-monthly recitals of the
students of Elocution held at the Athenian Hall benefited
One of the most interesting comments concerning ath-
letics was made in 1898. "The brutal football game does
not disturb our peace, nor check our intellectual and moral
growth." Little did they realize that football was to be an
activity enthusiastically welcomed by the students, if not
Student activities then as now included some social
contact between young men and women. Evidently there
was too much contact on occasions, at least for a Christian
college. Several students were denied "social privileges"
and their parents notified. The reason was rarely recorded.
Often students denied these "privileges" could not partici-
pate in such activities as the school choir. The denial of
this privilege was an especially harsh one, since the choir
was the most popular activity on the campus.
Also in 1898 the members of the literary societies in
association with Dr. W. W. Hooper organized to improve
the college grounds. The Athenian and Philomatheans
voted two days' work a week from each member plus a
cash contribution of $.10 to $.25 per member.
A prize of ten dollars was offered for the best oration
from competing literary societies on Washington's Birthday.
The contest was later carried on by a gift from John A.
Patten of Chattanooga.
The year 1898-99 is not an outstanding one in the field
of student activity. The Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. partici-
pated in the annual observance of College Day of prayer.
A new era was being ushered in by the faculty announce-
ment that any student might play tennis or croquet on the
campus on Saturday from 2:30 to 5:00 p.m.
Student Activities 189
There are evidences that the student baseball team
was active in 1899. It had usurped the croquet players'
grounds and practiced every afternoon. The faculty, how-
ever, refused the team permission to play Sweetwater,
deeming the trip "unwise."
From 1900 to 1907 the usual student activities con-
tinued. The Annual Athenian chestnut hunt was enjoyed.
There were means of evading the regulations of : ( 1 ) no
pairing off (2) a chaperon and (3) returning before dark.
Socials, ice cream suppers, and joint meetings of the
literary groups were held.
During these years a subtle change took place. There
seems to be a gradual disintegration of self-discipline and
enthusiasm in the students. In order to stimulate superior
academic work, various "prizes" were offered for excellence
in scholarship and oratory. Among these are the Patten
Prize Oratorical Contest held annually on Washington's
Birthday, the Annis Prize Debate Contest, and the
University Scholarship Awards presented annually at
PATTEN PRIZE ORATORICAL CONTEST WINNERS 1900-1907
FIRST PRIZE $15.00 — SECOND PRIZE $10.00
Year 1st Place 2nd Place
1900 Mary Harris Leila W. Hunt
1901 John Jennings, Jr. Wilma Dean PafFord
1902 Margaret Wright . Ellis E. Crabtree
1903 Ethel Southard Charles M. Newcomb
1904 Edward E. Lewis Ada Hawley
1905 Ellis E. Crabtree W. C. McCarty
1906 Isabelle Gettys J. H. Howard Jarvis
1907 N. Alvin Steadman Aure Lea
ANNIS PRIZE DEBATE CONTEST WINNERS 1900-1906
(Same prize amount as Patten)
Year 1st Place 2nd Place
1900 Robert B. Stansell Lena R. Morgan
1901 John Jennings, Jr. Shelby L. Burdeshaw
1902 Margaret Crowder Margaret Marston
1903 Flora Matney George Stansell
1904 Mary J. Stone Margaret Gettys Marston
1905 Jessie Ferguson J. H. Jarvis
1906 Alvin F. White Muza McCarron
190 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan Collef^e
UNIVERSITY SCHOLARSHIP PRIZES 1901-1905
Year 3rd Preparatory 4th Preparatory Freshman Sophomore
1901 Edna Borchering Margaret G. Marston
1902 Foss Smith Lena Morgan
1903 John F. Owen Mary J. Stone Ray Prentiss Mabel R. Hooper
1904 Wallace Sutton Alfred Stickney James Hampton Jessie Ferguson
1903 Joyce Amis Annis Matssey Ethel Southard
In the year 1900-01 certain types of student activity
were restricted by school regulations forbidding drinking,
dancing, playing cards, using profanity, frequenting saloons,
and leaving town without the permission of the dean. In
turn, regular church attendance, punctuality and attention
in class recitations and school exercises were encouraged.
The contention that year as today, that regulations ^vere
made to be broken, seemed to be held. Various students
\\ere given demerits and campused, or required to stay off
campus for, smoking, "use of intoxicants," use of profanity,
visiting saloons, and disrespect for teachers.
The main interest of the year 1901-02 was what will
James F. Cooke do next. Cooke, Owen Mahery, May-
nard Ellis, and Boyd Nankivell kept the faculty guessing.
(10 demerits were each giv^en to James F. Cooke and R.
Lim Henderson for going into Bennett Hall on the evening
of Feb. 12, and securing an organ and benches and placing
them as an obstruction outside the chapel door while Dr.
C. M. Hall of Knoxville, Tennessee, \\as lecturing on
In 1901-02 more young women were substituting
stenography and typewriting for languages. Box suppers
and tacky parties enlivened the campus. The Reverend
J. Richard Boyle, D.D., of Philadelphia was the
1902-03 Banfield Hall \vas dedicated. The students
were most entertained on that occasion, however, by a
quartette composed of Dr. Nankivell, Prof. Stone. Miss
Carter, Mrs. Allgood, and Miss Frances Mofhtt at the
piano. Many of the students made the two hour trip on
Student Activities 191
the Southern to see the Grant team from Athens play the
teams of the professional schools at Chattanooga. Football
appeared on the scene at U. S. Grant University in Athens
in 1903. That year the team played Sweetwater, Lincoln
Memorial Law School at Lebanon, and the team of the
professional schools at Chattanooga. The team was vic-
torious over Sweetwater 11-0, but defeated by Lebanon
and Chattanooga. Football was prohibited to any student
making a grade below 70.
Some changes were made in the conduct of the literary
societies. A charge of admission ($.10) to the annual en-
tertainments of the societies was allowed. Also the con-
testants in oratorical contests had to swear to the originality
of their "pieces."
In the spring of 1904 the baseball team played Jeffer-
son City, Fountain City, Maryville, and Knoxville. Mem-
bers of the team were: James F. Cooke, Maynard Ellis,
W. W. Durand, O. F. Whittle, J. L. Robb, Curtis George,
Frank Shelton, W. R. Miller, and Charles F. Heastly. The
town was so interested in the team that suppers were given
at the Court House to benefit it. Students from the college
attended these affairs.
1904-05 was a year of firsts and lasts. The first evening
social was begun. The socials were held once a month in
the different halls. Persimmon hunts were instigated. Had
the Chestnut Blight hit Grant? If so, do not underestimate
the ingenuity of young people with the benefit of higher
education! Boyd Nankivell received permission to drill
students free of charge, but it was clearly designated that
this was not to be a military company.
Commencement that year featured two friends of the
University. The Reverend B. M. Martin of Maryville
addressed the religious organizations and the Reverend
William F. Warren, ex-president of Boston University and
192 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
brother of Mrs. A. C. Knight, gave the Baccalaureate
sermon and the Commencement Address.
In 1906 certain restrictions were placed on the base-
ball team. Games had to be played on the home field.
Outsiders were not allowed to participate in the games.
Former members were allowed to play with the exception
of one, a player who had used public profanity toward the
umpire. The home team was not permitted to travel. These
restrictions did not extinguish the ardor of the team or their
fans among the young ladies of the campus and the citizens
The interest in music had surrendered to enthusiasm
for sports on the campus, but the department of music was
still "carrying on." A recital was given in the spring by
the Department of Music and Elocution. Among those
performing were : Margaret Farrell, Lena Hoback, Florence
Law, and Walter Williams.
Commencement of 1906 was a sad yet proud occasion.
Bishop Henry Spellmeyer gave the address. Isabelle Gettys
and John Jennings, Jr., gave orations. The class of 1906
was the last class to be graduated from the four year course
at Athens. The members of that graduating class were:
Ellis E. Crabtree, Isabelle Gettys, Howard J. Jarvis, John
Jennings, Jr., and Walter F. Williams.
The program of student activity was reorganized in
1906-07 to fit the needs of the school. A dime social was
given at Bennett Hall in the interest of a women's basket-
ball team. The Y.M.C.A. sponsored a Reading Room.
Some of the students contributed articles to the University
Echo which was published at Chattanooga. From 1907 to
1916, as the whole school at Athens underwent a change,
so did certain phases of the student activities. On the
whole, the students were still interested to some varying
degrees in athletics, music, academic excellence, fun, social
and political competition, and love.
Student Activities 193
Although U. S. Grant University at Athens was called
The Athens School of the University of Chattanooga after
1907, the patrons, alumni, and students remained devoted
to her endeavors. To a non-educator the ability of an insti-
tution to endure wars, depressions, floods, and famines, and
carry on the business of education as long as there remain
one student, one instructor, and one building, is perhaps
incredible. Nevertheless this gift of schools seems an
The Athens School was no exception. In the academic
year 1907-08, the students rallied to hear J. O. Randall,
of the Commission of Aggressive Evangelism speak in
October. Many souls were saved, only to be lost again at
the local pool hall.
The Athletic Association gave Saturday night socials
above Morton's Drug store. Through much petitioning they
also were alloted $25.00 for cinders for the athletic track.
The young men were so robust on the baseball diamond
that Dean Wright secured from the Board of Aldermen
the services of a marshall on days of a match game. Pro-
fessor W. W. Phelan was the sponsor for the Athletic As-
sociation and the Y.M.C.A. He submitted a typical report
to faculty on the use of funds of those organizations :
Books for Y.M.C.A.
Trip to Washington, D. C.
194 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
That year the Y.M.C.A. sent delegates to Washington
and received a new floor covering for the Reading Room
which it sponsored. When the students were not cheering
the baseball team on to victory, attending prayer meetings,
open debates of the literary societies, or playing tennis, they
attended the recitals given by the department of music.
The program of a recital for 1907 follows:
Given by Students of Musical Department
GRANT UNIVERSITY CHAPEL
FRIDAY, MAY 10, 1907 7:30 P.M.
Two Little Melodies — Catherine Keith
Melody — James Brient
First Waltz — Lena Boggess
Ride a Cock Horse and Waltz — Joy Bayless
Valse and Bobolink — Susannah Brient
Dollie Lost — Dollie Madison
Spanish Souvenir — Richard Bayless and Catherine Colston
AVhims — F. Trula Belle Long
Golden Sunbeams — Jeanette Dodson
Czardas No. 6 — Nora Childress
Adieu to the Piano — Estelle Rodgers
Valse Lente — Margaret Fawrell and Phoebe Horton
The Green Gnome — Grace Morton
Spanish Dance No. 1 — Mayme Milligan and Lula Melton
Valse Impromptu — Louise Keith
A May Morning — Adda Wylie
Valse Stryrrienne — Gillie Myers
Scarf Dance — Katherine Smythe and Jessie Jones
In 1908-09 the student interest in school activities was
boosted by generous gifts to the school. The previous year
Mr. E. Stagg Whitin of Ne\v York had offered a prize of
$10.00 for the best essay by a female student. Mr. L. M.
Student Activities 195
Southard of Athens matched this interest in the women
students by offering prizes connected with the "domestic
arts." $15.00 and $10.00 were offered for first and second
prizes respectively for the best essays on some phase of
homemaking. In addition a prize of $5.00 was offered to
the Ritter girl who excelled in cooking. Another contribu-
tion that year was made by F. A. Loveland of Carry, Pa.,
who had given $25.00 for the Reading Room.
The students at the Athens School witnessed 1909-
1910 as a year of changes. Professor William A. Wright
assumed the presidency of Grayson College at Whitewright,
Texas, and Professor W. W. Phelan left to teach at Baylor
University, Waco, Texas.
One member of the faculty was taken by death. Dr.
E. C. Walden, professor of science, became seriously ill on
a return trip from Chattanooga. Over one hundred people
from Athens had traveled to view the football game between
The Athens School and Chattanooga at Chamberlain field.
Dr. Walden was returned to Chattanooga, where he died
at Erlanger Hospital, October 19, 1909. His father was
Bishop J. M. Walden of Cincinnati, a devoted friend of The
The school was fortunate in procuring Dr. Edward J.
Mueller to succeed Dr. Walden. Dr. Mueller had been
graduated from German Wallace College in Berea, Ohio.
From there he had gone to Berlin, studying four years at
the University of Berlin, from which institution he received
his doctorate. The students at The Athens School were
sparked by Dr. Mueller's enthusiasm for many activities.
We read of his coaching the athletic teams, singing solos
for musical entertainments, assisting in the organization of
a German Club called Der Deutsche Bund, and using sharp
repartee to encourage students to excel academically. His
"aw Bugs" would guillotine any idle student's excuses.
196 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
Miss Frances Cullcn Moffitt returned from Europe
where she had been studying. Miss Moffitt undertook
singiehanded the challenge of providing CULTURE for
the students. At her own expense she arranged for plays,
recitals, and performances of visiting artists that were held
in the University Chapel. The students were the first on
any campus to participate in what Miss Moffitt called
"Musical Sterioptics."' This consisted of showing slides and
listening to recordings on the phonograph simultaneously.
Later Miss Moffitt purchased a phonograph for the use
of the students. Miss Moffitt received national recognition
for her \\ork in music. In 1913 she was listed in WHO'S
^VHO AMONG WOMEN OF AMERICA.
In 1909-10 the students became interested in field
sports. Young men could be seen between classes playing
"leap-frog," jumping over obstacles like bicycles and garb-
age cans in preparation for hurdle racing, pole vaulting,
and jumping events. These field sports became so contagi-
ous that the rest of the campus, less expert, voted to join.
Consequently, The Athens School celebrated its first May
Day May 2, 1910.
The students welcomed Rev. W. S. Bovard who filled
the newly-created office of the vice-president of the Univer-
sity of Chattanooga. Dr. Bovard and his family moved to
Athens. They resided at Blakeslee Hall. Dr. Bovard ably
assumed administrative duties of The Athens School.
The year 1910-11 was very similar to that of 1895 in
the amount of student acti\'ity. Another school paper was
organized. This organ was called the Exponent. Dr. E, C.
Ferguson w as editor-in-chief, Cecil McDo\vell was the stu-
dent business manager. The paper voiced the feeling of the
students in decrying "Knocking,'' and "Boosting'-' was the
order of the day. The enrollment was the largest on record
(341) and the students wanted to be heard! Their loyalty
Student Activities 197
is expressed in the School Song printed in the Exponent,
Here's to old Athens
The pride of Tennessee.
May she stand forever,
In my sacred memory.
She has been here ages,
She has stood the test.
Many who have dwelt here.
Are quietly at rest.
Of all the schools of Tennessee,
The one that is most dear to me,
Goes by the name of U. of C.
Altho I know there's old Central High,
And also Dear Old T. M. I.,
But in Athens we wish to die.
— Russell Haskew
Articles appeared in the Exponent illustrating the
need of a gym. One of these reported that U. T.'s second
basketball team came to play on Saturday, Feb. 11, 1911,
but that a rain and snow storm prevented play on the out-
door court. The U. T. team picked up their gear and went
to play T. M. I. instead — INSIDE. Another instance
which showed the advantages of practicing in a gym was
given when the basketball team made a trip to Chattanooga
to play Central and Chattanooga High Schools. The team
consisted of Bayless, Daves, Vernon, Keith, B. Bovard, G.
Bovard, E. Wills, and B. Wills. This was the team's first
practice that season on an inside court. The score was
44-18 in favor of Central. The next day, however, Athens
defeated Chattanooga High School 25-24. Despite student
urging, the erection of a gym was an undertaking that the
school did not attempt to tackle for some years.
198 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
That unfathomable phenomenon pecuHar to campus
life, college humor, had a place in the pages of the
Exponent. . Examples such as these kept the students
"While Fred Bertram was standing in a corner
of the Magill Hotel recently, he was roughly seized
by an old gentleman who had took him for a gold
Dr. Mueller: "Of what does blood consist?"
Guy Williford: "Blood consists of two kinds of
CORKSCREWS, red and white."
Miss Selby organized a French Club, LeCercle
Francias, that year. The officers were Margaret Farrell,
president, Gladys Moody, secretary, Emma Sue Mayfield,
treasurer, M. Burton Bovard, Sgt.-at-Arms, and Daphne
Morris, pianist. This organization frequently met with the
The baseball team's schedule had changed from the
days the faculty had felt it "unwise" to play Sweetwater.
In 1911 the season opened by playing the Deaf and Dumb
School at Knoxville. Other schools on the schedule were
Milligan, Maryville, Washington, Carson-Newman, T. M.
I., Sweetwater, Baylor, City, and Central. Members of the
team were: Frank Cook, "Dandy" Keith, Frank Daves,
Frank Dodson, Norton, Bales, B. Wills, Dick Bayless, Moore,
Will Cooke, Blansitt.
The year 1911-12 saw no particular new phase of
student activity. The Exponent was printed monthly, the
Athletic Association was still petitioning for a gym, the
Tennis Club was re-organized and cleared ofT the courts.
Mrs. Chapman, the superintendent at Ritter for many years,
died in Cincinnati. A memorial service was held at the
Methodist Episcopal Church. Students, faculty, and prom-
inent citizens of Athens took part. The football team —
Student Activities 199
Keith, Bales, Martin, Norton, Bayless, Smyth, Goforth,
Wills, and Hunt — was victorious over Knoxville — 47-0.
Petty-Manker Dormitory for Men was opened Novem-
ber 20, 1913. The train bearing the members of the Board
of Trustees from Chattanooga was three hours late. (This
seemed to be an omen of ill-fortune. Later there was
trouble at Petty-Manker continually — food, order, super-
visor, etc.) Capt. Hiram Chamberlain, Doctor John A.
Patten, and T. C. Thompson, Mayor of Chattanooga, were
present. Athens was represented by John W. Bayless, mem-
ber of the Board, and Dr. J. J. Manker, Editor of the
Methodist Advocate Journal.
Thomas I. Magill
John W. May
Eva M. Earnest
Martha L. Henderson
Bertram F. Presson
R. M. Millard
John W. May
Fred B. Stone
Randolph St. John
H. C. Green
F. L. Bradley
F. L. Callender
*Both these prizes were discontinued in 1915. That year the Athenian
Literary Society first declined to participate in either. The other societies de-
clined also. Mr. Annis withdrew his prize, and the faculty decided against
holding the Patten Prize Oratorical Contest.
Although far from the rumble of European guns in
1914, The Athens School witnessed a brand of warfare of
its own. The Athenians were accused of sabotaging a Philo
meeting. Stones were thrown, wires cut, the campus and
Philo hall were in darkness — all were aspects of this con-
flict. Thomas Hunt, Rollo Emert, Roy Johnson, Paul Nor-
ton, and Dick Bayless were a group of suspected Athenians
who had been seen lurking around the campus in the vicin-
ity of the disturbance. Nothing was ever proved. The
200 A History of Tennessee Wesley an College
faculty found no basis for action. The Philos informed the
faculty that they would find redress themselves if the school
took no action.
The moving picture shows became very popular with
the students in 1914. They were a means of penetrating
the isolation of the college campus from the events of the
world at large. The faculty became so anxious over the
increased interest in the cinema versus a decrease of interest
in studies that it asked the Board of Aldermen to pass an
ordinance regulating movies.
The Exponent admonished the students to USE YOUR
BRAINS. Members of the editorial staff were D. T.
Starnes and Sarah Campbell, editors, Raphael Rice, busi-
ness manager, and Juno Grigsby, Lucile Johnson, Kiker
^\^eems, and B. F. Presson, associates. The paper reported
that excursions to the Ingleside Dairy were popular with
Dr. Schulman allowed girls on the basketball team to
use the Armory for open games. Sadie Magill was the
coach. Ruth Miller, Joy Bayless, forwards, Jessie Smith,
Lillie Ross Hornsby, guards, and Margaret Rowan, center.
Later Carl Rowan took Miss Magill's place. The team
played Tellico Plains, Knoxville High, Park City High, and
Lenoir City. The x\thens girls won all games.
Commencement 1914 was exciting. The Class of '14
had given a concrete arch for the front of the campus.
The seniors marched through it to listen to the Commence-
ment Address and receive their diplomas in the Chapel.
James A. Fo\vler, class of 1884, and former assistant At-
torney General of the L^^nited States, gave the address.
The new president of the L^niversity of Chattanooga, Fred-
ric Whitlo Hixson, performed his first official act in
conferring the diplomas.
1914 and 1915 campuses all over the nation \vere feel-
Student Activities 201
ing the repercussions of international tension and domestic
unrest. The enrollment at The Athens School and the Uni-
versity of Chattanooga had dropped. The literary societies
felt it best not to enter oratorical or debating contests, the
payment of salaries for the faculty was in arrears, and the
students postponed Field Day.
Professor J. Howard Jarvis, Dean of The Athens
School, expressed his appreciation to the pastors of the
Holston Conference for their support. His letter was also
one commending students of The Athens School who had
become better leaders in their respective communities
because of the training they had received at Athens.
AUGUST 7, 1915
Judging from the reports of faithful and loyal ministers
concerning the work they are doing in the interest of our
institution in the different communities where they are at
work, I beheve, that DESPITE THE FINANCIAL CON-
DITION OF THE COUNTRY, we are going to have a
large enrollment in The Athens School in September. I
have never known of more and better co-operation among
our ministers in the interest and cause of Christian educa-
tion. It would seem from the encouraging things we are
hearing that our ministers are now determined that all our
communities shall be reached and Christian education
preached to the end that every charge shall be represented
in this institution in the coming session.
Dear pastors, we believe in you, in your loyalty to
every institution of the church which you represent; hence
we are not surprised to see such unity of purpose and great-
ness of spirit shown in the cause which we directly represent.
I have previously asked for your loyal support and co-
operation, and I know now that I have it. The list of
names which you are sending us and the work that we hear
you are doing means much to us. Really it is very encourag-
202 A History of Tennessee Wesley an College
ing to know of these things. We are not going to forget the
pastors who are helping us so much.
We are not surprised, however, that you are working
so loyally. This is one of the institutions of our church
and deserves the co-operation of all those who wish to build
up the Christian life of the communities represented. The
young people who attend school here return to their homes
better prepared to take up the activities of the church. The
great need in most of the communities where our church
has been established is that of capable LEADERSHIP.
This school prepares the young life to take up leadership
in the church. In several communities visited recently, I
have witnessed the fine church work done by the young
people who have recently attended this institution. They
are relieving the pastors of sojiie of the work that they would
have to do had it not been for the special training the young
people received here
October 13-18, 1915, the Students of The Athens
School filled the balcony of Methodist Episcopal Church.
The Methodist Episcopal Church was celebrating the 50th
anniversary of the reorganization of the Holston Conference
in Athens June 1-5, 1865.
The members of the church and the pastors of the
area had rallied behind the school, for in 1915-16 there
was an increase in enrollment. The Gold and Blue, the
student publication which supplanted the Exponent, re-
ported a flow of student activity.
Tangible proof of their activity was the painting of
the Y.M.C.A. room and the presentation of a play by the
senior class to raise funds for erecting a memorial on the
campus. The class selected the play. The Elopment of
Ellen. The cast consisted of Frank Scruggs, Lucile John-
son, Carey Force, Bertram M. Larson, Ann Kennedy, and
T. Clinton Lingerfelt.
Student Activities 203
The students held a mass meeting in which they re-
quested that the school levy an athletic fee and grant
admission to games free of a door charge. The culmination
of a twenty-year campaign for a gymnasium came when
the faculty petitioned the Board of Trustees for a gym.
Musical recitals, faculty dinners, socials, and student
escapades continued to enliven the campus scene in 1916.
A closer feeling between The Athens School and
Chattanooga was being sought by the students. The Uni-
versity Echo, published in Chattanooga, and The Gold and
Blue exchanged articles. Members of the boosters club
from Chattanooga were entertained by Miss Annie Haskew
and the girls at Bennett Hall.
In April 1916 two shadows fell upon The Athens
School. President Woodrow Wilson asked the Congress of
the United States that a state of war be declared between
this country and the Central Powers of Europe. Many
young men from the school enlisted, some to die, some to
be wounded, some to live and fight again. The other
occurrence was the death of John A. Patten. In a tribute
to Mr. Patten, the faculty of The Athens School observed
that he was the "institution's greatest benefactor on points
of finance, service, and interest." Mr. Patten had been a
frequent visitor to the campus and the students included
him in their activities whether it was a ball game or social
at Ritter or Bennett.
College publications during World War I were at a
minimum. The Athens School ran at a very low ebb. Mc-
Minn County furnished more soldiers for the War than any
other county in the United States on a per capita basis.
McMinn County lived up to the Volunteer State tradition.
The New Exponent, a paper for the students, pub-
204 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
Ifshed a Farewell Number for 1920-21. It was dedicated
to Professor David A. Bolton and Doctor E. C. Ferguson.
The editor-in-chief was Don G. Henshaw. The literary
societies reported the following presidents for the year:
Philomathean, Curtiss Mauldin; Knightonian, Cleo Ealy;
Sapphonian, Billy Swafford; Athenian, F. E. Jillson. Other
organizations listed for the year were the Y.M.C.A., which
designated C. G. Rann, J. M. Dew, and Roscoe E. Glenn
to represent the School at the annual Southern Student
Conference at Blue Ridge to be held in June, the Y.W.C.A.
with Miss Ruth Harmon as president, an Athletic Associa-
tion, and a Tennis Club. The New Exponent took recogni-
tion of the new Department of Religious Education of
Rural Leadership which was being sponsored by the Board
of Home Missions and Church Extension of the Methodist
Episcopal Church. The Reverend W. L. Ledford, A.B.,
B.D., had been selected as Head of this Department. Its
purpose was to provide special training for rural leadership.
The Knightonian and Philomathean Literary Societies
gave their annual party before the Christmas vacation. An
operetta entitled "The Feast and the Little Lanterns" in
which Miss Nelle Ziegler had one of the leading roles
"delighted the audience with her rich sweet voice" ... A
chapel service included speakers from the Board of Educa-
tion of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Mark Moore
provided a thoughtful article on "The Year Ahead." The
athletic prophecy included that under Professor Goforth
that most of the players from '21 would be back and ready
for membership on the football squad in 1922. An editorial
by J. Curtiss Mauldin attacked the radicalism of the Presi-
dent of Bryn Mawr asserted the conservative thinking of
the students in the Athens School.
Bishop Herbert Welch, in charge of Methodist work
in Japan and Korea, delivered a lecture on Korea at a
Student Activities 205
chapel service. The Y.M.C.A. was addressed by Dr. Cul-
pepper. A Christmas party had been held at Ritter for
students spending the vacation on the campus, "games
were played, jokes told, and a general good time enjoyed
by all. The girls served large juicy, fresh Florida oranges.
The young men reported that the party was the best they
had ever attended at Ritter and that they had a big place
in their hearts for Miss Wilson who made the affau
The girls at Bennett also held a Christmas party, a
measuring party. A short program was given after which a
social hour and refreshments were enjoyed. The money
received from the party was invested in a large mirror to
be put on the first floor at Bennett Hall. The girls wonder
now how they ever did without it!
The New Exponent announced an endowment cam-
paign for the University of Chattanooga and The Athens
School of the University of Chattanooga. The Athens
division would be able to construct a gymnasium and a
modern practice school if funds from this campaign for
$750,000 were pledged and paid. Emory L. Aycock
contributed an editorial concerning the importance of the
endowment campaign for The Athens School. He concluded
his editorial with this tribute:
"To many of us the Athens School was the best if not
the only place we could continue our education. Public
secondary schools for this section of the South are very
inadequate. Some come here from the rural sections and
the small towns where there are no high schools or very
poor ones. Some have found their need of education late
in life, too late to attend a public high school, but Athens
welcomes old as well as young. Only the large cities can
or do furnish facilities as competent as ours and often these
206 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
large high schools are organizations destroying rather than
The name of Coach Stewart appears. It was an-
nounced that the first game for the year would be with
Tennessee Military Institute.
The Moffitt Music Club gave a recital in the college
chapel for the benefit of the new grand piano recently
purchased for the college. A circus visited Athens, the
troop including a light weight wrestler, Young Herman.
The manager of the circus offered $5.00 to the man who
could stay with him for five minutes without being de-
feated. Fred Reed, a resident of Petty-Manker, won
\Villiam B. Mauldin contributed an article on "The
Aim of Life," referring to the many excellent talks which
had been made at Chapel during the time he had been at
The Athens School. He summed them up by saying, "They
point to us the fundamental of success and say that we
must have an aim in life and that our lives are not a success
in every sense unless they are rendering service to our
fellowman and helping to make the world a better place
in which to live. Result of this service is happiness."
The May number for that year reports the annual field
day with The Athens School playing a double-header \\'ith
Maryville Poly. The pitching of Weisner and Smith did
not give the Maryville men a chance to try their luck on
the bases. Between the two games a group of girls with
Miss Joy Bayless as leader gave a graceful Scot dance while
the beautiful Maypole dance was performed after the last
game reflecting much credit on the artistic ability of Miss
Bayless. Miss Maude Weidner was the editor of the New
Exponent. A successful year in the Y.M.C.A. \vas reported.
The officers included: Rex Weisner, President, H. B. John-
Student Activities 207
son, Vice-President, and William B. Mauldin, Secretary.
The officers of the Y.M.C.A. expressed the desire that they
be able to help in the athletic program of the School dur-
ing the following year, and to assist the whole student body
in providing a victorious athletic season. A program by
the Spanish students entertaining the French students was
given in April. At that time Dean Robb was head of the
Dean Hoskins of the University of Tennessee gave an
address at Chapel. He said, "I find the young person of
the college freshman age very interesting. It is then that
he begins to assume responsibilities of a man. He is neither
boy nor man at that stage and is misunderstood by every-
one, even his own family. He seems to think he is smarter
than anyone else. In some institutions they try to take this
out of him. They tell him he should be seen and not heard,
but just fit in and help form the landscape of the campus.
Give him a chance, the Dean continued, to express his opin-
ions for his problems are just as great as anybody's. The
experience will temper him and he will come out a man
if properly guided."
The Homecoming and Reunion Program was an-
nounced to be held May 20-23. It was anticipated that a
large number of former students would be here for these
activities. The program committee consisted of: Professor
R. W. Goforth, Miss Eda Selby, and Miss Joy Bayless. The
classes of 1913 and 1914 were planning to compete to see
which would have a larger attendance. Dr. Morgan, presi-
dent of the University of Tennessee, gave a chapel address.
The students expressed surprise at the nature of his address
which was entitled "The Appreciation of Life" which was
described as scholarly and clear with Christian implications
which the students did not expect to be emphasized by the
President of the State University. President Morgan con-
208 A History of Teyinessee Wesleyan College
eluded as follows: "The great obstaele in the appreciation
of the meaning of life is the lack of appreciation of God
as a never ceasing benefactor and most of all a lack of
appreciation of Christ. God and Christ are always giving
and the nearer we approach to the ideal of Christ the more
we will give and the less we shall take, thereby gaining
happiness in our climb of the hill of life and our proper
appreciation of its meaning."
The French Society met at the home of Miss Selby in
April and after the two-hour program ice cream, cake,
coffee and mints were served.
Athens wallops T. M. I. again. "The Athens squad
journeyed to Sweetwater April 24 and trimmed T. M. I.
Cadets 15-2. Left Brown led the offensive for Athens and
did fine work in the box. Torbett hit a home run and many
other long hits were given up by the Cadet moundsmen."
A Queen Esther Society was organized at Ritter Hall
with Miss Mary Lee Terry as president. A faculty reception
honoring new members of the faculty including Miss Mabel
Sorman, Miss Florence Clark, Miss Eileen Faulkner, Mr.
CO. Douglass, and Mr. Morris Stubbs, was held in Octo-
ber at Ritter Hall. Miss Mabel Metzger, superintendent
of Ritter Hall, headed the receiving line and acted as host-
ess for the evening. Dean James L. Robb presented the
new instructors of the School and President Arlo Ayres
Brown gave an address and also rendered a vocal solo.
Bishop R. J. Cooke delivered an address at Chapel on "The
Constitution of the LInited States."
The football squad for 1923 included: Noel Creighton,
Meddlin Crowder, W Hornsby, Robb, E. Mauldin, Joe
Mauldin, Julian, Hatcher, Durham, Jones, Graves, Smith,
Cooke, Proudfoot, Lowry, Clark, Wilson, Bivens, Strange,
Norton, Slagle, Boyer, Simmons, Foster, and C. Hornsby.
Dr. Frank G. Lankard of the University of Chattanoo-
Student Activities 209
ga spoke at Chapel basing his talk on four well-known lines
of Henry Van Dyke. Miss Grace Lee Scott, representing
the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, gave a Chapel
address on "The Double Standard of Morals."
A vigorous editorial was contributed by J. Curtiss
Mauldin on "A Tobaccoless School." President Brown gave
a chapel talk in which he listed four factors enabling a
student to complete a college education. "First, those who
have ambition; Second, those who possess good health;
Third, those who have a thorough high school preparation ;
Fourth, those young people who have a capacity for hard
work and sacrifice." President David A. Bolton gave one
of his appreciated talks at chapel service.
Much interest was expressed in the persons who might
be nominated for the presidency and speeches were made
at assembly favoring Senator Underwood, Calvin Coolidge
and William G. McAdoo.
A page of poetry was included with poems by Nessmith
Malone, Maude Weidner, Dixie Craig, Vaughn Smathers
and J. M. Mauldin. The prize going to Nessmith Malone.
"The Thanksgiving Football Game, Fight, Athens,
Fight." It was reported that four games had been
played and three of them won including Bradley, unbeaten
for many years. The new gym had been opened and there
was much enthusiasm expressed concerning the quality of
basketball w^hich the college would be able to enjoy.
At the dedication of the auditorium-gymnasium an
offering was taken and more than a thousand dollars re-
ceived toward the construction of the building. The faculty
reception was held at Ritter Hall with the following persons
in the receiving line : President and Mrs. Arlo Ayres Brown,
Bishop and Mrs. W. P. Thirkield, Dean and Mrs. James L.
Robb. Mrs. Richard Bayless sang and addresses were given
210 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
by Dr. William S. Bovard, Bishop W. P. Thirkield, Judge
Clem Jones, and Dr. William F. Pitts.
The annual debate was held in February 1925 as re-
ported in The Exponent with Ruth Barnett as editor-in-
chief. The subject for debate was "Resolved that the Legis-
lature of the State of Tennessee should ratify the proposed
child labor amendment."
A special week devoted to Religion Emphasis was
announced with the addresses to be given by Dr. Earnest,
The Athenians elected officers which included: James
Robb, President, Gaylord Knight, Vice President, J.
Mitchell Durham, Secretary, Edwin Joseph, Treasurer,
Doc Wilson, Ambassador, M. Curtiss, Chaplain, Fred
Other Society news recorded: A meeting of the Philo-
mathean Society under the leadership of Howard Dennis,
its President, with addresses given by Professor Craig,
The Y.W.C.A. was meeting on Thursday nights at the
Ritter Hall study hall with Miss Maude Weidner as
The football games for the year and the scores were
reported at the end of the season.
Wesleyan 61^ — Copperhill 28
Wesleyan 36 — Notre Dame 30
Wesleyan 29 — Bradley 30
Wesleyan 33 — Hiwassee 12
Wesleyan 42 — Decatur 32
Wesleyan 23 — Porter High 27
Wesleyan 28 — Bradley 13
Wesleyan 34 — Tusculum 21
Wesleyan 28 — Notre Dame 42
Student Activities 211
Wesleyan 42 — State Normal 27
Wesleyan 19 — Milligan College 25
Wesleyan 29 — Tusculum 42
Wesleyan 22 — Milligan College 27
Wesleyan 42 — U. T. Rats 41
Wesleyan 28 — Chattanooga High School 3 1
For the first time a college directory was included in
the New Exponent. It was as follows for 1925: James L.
Robb, Acting President, Frank U. Lockmiller, Bursar,
Louise Tuell, Secretary. Student Council: Victor Watts,
Student President, Zaidee Ledbetter, Secretary. Y.M.C.A. :
Carmel Ketron, President, Wilsie Wilder, Secretary. Y.W.
C.A. : Ruth Bird, President, Fleetwood Jones, Secretary.
Wesleyan Brotherhood: Carl Thomas, Bishop. Queen
Esther Circle: Gladys Love, President, Blanche Kestner,
Secretary. Moffitt Music Club: Verna Gibson, President.
Athletics: Charles W. Parsons, Head Coach, George F.
Stewart, Assistant Coach. Philomathean Society: Victor
Watts, President, Charles Holliday, Secretary. Athenian
Society : Gaylord Knight, President, James Robb, Secretary.
Knightonian Society: Anna Mae Coldwell, President,
Fleetwood Jones, Secretary. Sapphonian Society: Mary
Childress, President, Zaidee Ledbetter, Secretary. Senior
Class: James Robb, President, Pearl Leslie, Secretary.
Junior Class: Anna Lou Miller, President, Bernice Knight,
Secretary. New Exponent: Joe Mauldin, Editor, Ralph
Cardwell, Business Manager.
For the first time the Strand Theatre was referred to
and Mary Pickford was being featured in "Little Annie
Rooney." Admission 10 and 25 cents.
An address was given by Bishop Edgar Blake at chapel.
The Philomathean Literary Society issued a declara-
tion of independence which read as follows: "We, the
212 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
members of Philomathean Society, realizing that our Society
is able to rely upon its own strength and that we are capable
of directing it in the best way possible, do hereby declare
that we are no longer in the race for a cup because we
think it is a barrier to our progress instead of a help. We
furthermore declare that we have the right to enter or not
enter any debating, oratorical, or declamatory contests ac-
cording to our will. Furthermore, we wish to extend to
each faculty member an invitation to visit us at any time
he so desires to come as a visitor and not as a judge."
Carl Thomas contributed the following concerning
the Wesleyan Brotherhood.
"The purpose of the Wesleyan Brotherhood is to train
young men for the Christian ministry. Prayer meeting is
held regularly once a week and on Monday evening of each
week a preaching service is held. These sermons are deliv-
ered by members of the Brotherhood. Many Sunday after-
noons are devoted to missionary work in town and in the
country. In this way, leaders of Christianity are trained.
Perhaps only one might become a Bishop, probably only
two missionaries, but each has his own place to fill, and no
matter how small this may be the Wesleyan Brotherhood
will help him."
In October the lead editorial was entitled "Our Col-
lege," referring to the transition from the status of The
Athens School of the University of Chattanooga to the re-
cently reorganized and rechartered Tennessee Wesleyan
College. The editorial called upon the students to take
pride in their new college membership and to assist in
producing a school which will become better than the one
Under Social Activities it was announced that on Sep-
tember 24 the B.Y.P.U. of the First Baptist Church had
entertained the Epworth League with a social. The pro-
The Hackberry and Oak trees, long center of the
Student Activities 213
gram was in charge of Dewey Creasman and Marie Kinser.
The students recorded the inauguration of President Robb
who, at the end of one year as Acting President, had been
elected President of Tennessee Wesleyan College. The
inauguration took place in the auditorium Monday,
October 9, 1926 at 10:00 o'clock. The installation address
was given by Bishop W. P. Thirkield and the inaugural
address by Dr. James L. Robb. Greetings were given by
Bishop William O. Shepard, Dr. H. A. Morgan, President
of the University of Tennessee, Dr. William S. Bovard,
Secretary of the Board of Education of the Methodist
Episcopal Church, Dr. Richard M. Millard, on behalf of
the Holston and other patronizing Conferences, and Dr.
Samuel P. Wilson, President of Maryville College. The
address by President Wilson was carried in its entirety in
the New Exponent. President Wilson said in part, "And
now the Tennessee Wesleyan College has taken its place
on the foundation of successive institutions of other names
but of a historic continuity; and it is doing business at the
old stand in a new way. And the friends of the old young
college have gathered on this October morning to congratu-
late the institution on its present, its past and its future and
to gather in congratulation around the good men to whom
by the confidence of the Church has been entrusted the
pilot's job for the voyage upon which the College has now
launched." The benediction was given by Dr. Arlo Ayres
Brown, President of the University of Chattanooga.
In 1926 the annual football banquet for the Wesleyan
"Bulldogs" was held at the Robert E. Lee Hotel with Pro-
fessor J. A. Jones as Toastmaster. Awarded letters to 18
and managers' letters to 2. Those who received letters
were: Ira Strange, E. Alley, G. Lewis, B. Boyer, Doc Wil-
son, F. Thomas, W. Hornsby, R. McCray, R. Westfall, A.
Grant, F. Whitehead, D. Whitehead, J. Sewell, V. Metz-
214 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
gcr, T. Pupo, W. Wilder, C. Lindsay, William Whitaker,
and James Atha and Paul Phelps.
Tennessee Wesleyan beat the University of Tennessee
"Vols" 22-20. Wesleyan was beaten by the Maryville Col-
lege "Highlanders" by a score of 31-30.
The Y.M.C.A. announced the election of officers
for the year which included: President, Charlie Mehaffey,
Vice-President, Hebron Ketron, Secretary, Doc Whitehead,
and Treasurer, Frank Rollins.
The New Expo?ient for the year included on its staff:
Editor, Jack Atha, Business Manager, H, L. Jenkins, As-
sociate Editors, Gladys Love, Ray Painter, Osmond Sprad-
ling, Cecil Brock, Bernice Knight. The Junior Senior
Banquet was held in Trinity Methodist Episcopal Church
Dining Hall on May 1 1 . Joe Mauldin served as Toast-
master. President Robb spoke on "Wesleyan Echoes"
listing the advances of the college.
The Athenian under the date of Thursday, June 2,
1927, records much of interest concerning the College. Ten
students had received diplomas from the college depart-
ment and twenty-four from the preparatory at the
1927 Commencement Exercises, the second as Tennessee
C. E. Rogers, Superintendent of Schools of Johnson
City, was elected president of the Alumni Association with
R. W. Goforth as Vice-President, and Miss Maude Smith
was re-elected as Secretary-Treasurer of the Association.
Mrs. Juno Grigsby Altom, of Rogersville, retiring president
of the Association, presided at the dinner. Addresses were
given by W. L Stookesbury, C. ^V. Lester, W. A. Burnett,
J. J. Graham, Judge S. C. Brown, and D. A, Bolton.
Wesleyan defeats Mars Hill by the score of 18 to
Student Activities 215
6 and the University of Chattanooga Freshmen were de-
feated by 6 in football. 1927 the reference to a Glee Club
is related indicating that it had sung at the First Methodist
Church, in Knoxville, on October 20 in connection with
the session of the Holston Annual Conference. Professor
Fisher, of the Wesleyan faculty, in charge. Fisher had come
from Ohio Wesleyan where for three years he had been
a member of the Ohio Wesleyan Glee Club.
The Philomatheans had won the Burnett first prize and
the Knightonians second. Prizes were $100.00 for the first
place and $50.00 for second.
The Tarheel Club was organized with students from
North Carolina eligible for membership. Doris Weld was
Wesleyan beat Tennessee Tech 19-0 and Hiwassee
In an article on Who's Who Professor M. F. Stubbs,
referred to many times because of his active partici-
pation in college life, is described as follows: "The best
teacher on the campus is no one but Professor M. F. Stubbs.
We are sure no one will feel bad about the fact for it is
true. He is the teacher that every studerjt likes. Why?
Because although he sometimes gets hard he is always
friendly and cheerful, and he is very efficient in his work.
His classes are not boresome because he is so interested in
the subject which he is teaching it becomes fascinating."
The New Exponent carried an article under the
title of "Student Council" as follows: "Student Council
meets each Thursday for the purpose of upholding the
student body in all school activities. The Student Council
needs the cooperation of each student to make it a success."
"For the past few meetings the Council had devoted
their time in discussing the good of sororities and fraterni-
216 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
ties here at Tennessee Wesleyan. It was decided that this
was not the best for Tennessee Wesleyan to undertake now.
"Much time and work is being put into forming and
revising a constitution for the Council. Any suggestions as
to this from any of the students will be greatly appreciated
by the Council." (Signed by the Secretary) Pat Cowden
seemed to be the Editor at this time.
Pat Cowden is recorded as president of the Gamma
Gammas, a group of congenial girls striving to improve
themselves as well as to be helpful to others.
In 1928 the New Exponent expressed regret that there
were not as many Student Activities in the College as there
should be. The editorial listed the Literary Societies, Y.M.
C.A., Y.W.C.A., the Ministerial Association', Debating
Club, but implied that other organizations were needed.
In 1928 the Nocatula takes over as the college news-
paper. The Nocatula which was to be published semi-
monthly by the students of Tennessee Wesleyan College
under date of November 15, 1928, provides the following
editorial membership: Editor-in-Chief, W. D. Johnston,
Literary Editor, Chelsea Laws, Sports Editor, Tom Cash,
Alumni Editor, Maude Wagner, Religious Editor, J. F.
Wyatt, Faculty Adviser, Gladys Dejournette, Joke Editor,
Charles Weaver, Staff Artist, Mouzon Peters. Business
Staff consisted of: Business Manager W. D. Johnston, Ad-
vertising Manager, Emily Johnson, Assistant Advertising
Manager, Wilsie Wilder, and Circulation Manager,
Thomas Phillips. In the editorial it was asserted "The
South has a wonderful future and the progress of some of
the states is beginning to give us some idea of just how
wonderful that future is."
Articles discussed the companionship of a good book,
the Athenian Literary Society, the Knightonian Literary
Society, athletics, Halloween, the music department, and
CAPTAIN WILLIAM RULE
Trustee, long-time Editor of The Knoxville Journal,
honored by Adolph S. Ochs of The New York
Times who established trust in his memory.
Student Activities 217
for the first time a section entitled "Literary" provided
articles concerning Theodore Roosevelt as a writer and
reader, Abraham Lincoln and what books meant to him,
written by Mary Louise Melear.
Wesleyan lost to the University of Tennessee "Rats."
Literary society Presidents for 1928 were as follows:
Philomathean, Charlie Mehaffey; Knightonian, Valeria
Ogle; Athenian, Thompson Weese. A new organization
had its annual banquet on November 30. It was called
Wesleyan Brotherhood and Service Club. Rudolph Baker
served as Toastmaster for the evening. An address was
given by Dean Miller on "The Brotherhood and Its
The lure of Ritter had been constant and three
students at Petty - Manker, Tom Bean, Carlos and John
King, found the desire to search for pies at Ritter,
to be irresistible, and they approached the building only
to be scared by a campus police and they revealed their
skill in track.
The Gamma Gammas are now referred to as Gamma
Gamma Sorority. Their guests were honored by their
pledges at a Valentine Party given at the home of Mr. and
Mrs. Stubbs January 26, 1929.
The Nocatula for 1930 lists John Earl Sims as Editor-
Alpha Gamma Sorority makes its appearance with
Edyth Finnel as President.
The "Hits" are also referred to as being the Brother
fraternity of the Alpha Gamma.
Coach McCray provided a tribute to the Tennessee
Wesleyan "Bulldogs." He lists each member of the team
and gives an evaluation of each man's ability in football.
218 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
At the end he says to the team as a whole, "Boys, for one
time instead of giving you the... , or I should say raking
you over the coals, I am going to take time to thank you
for your cooperation and the splendid work you gave me."
Bishop Keeney, formerly Bishop to China and now
Resident Bishop of the Atlanta area of the Methodist
Episcopal Church, spoke at chapel on "Changing China."
The "Bulldogs" had beaten the University of Chatta-
nooga Freshmen team.
The Epworth League and the Ladies Aid Society of
the First Methodist Church gave a party for Tennessee
The 1931 debating season was perhaps one of the most
successful seasons ever enjoyed by a Tennessee Wesleyan
College team, either forensic or athletic. The affirmative
team composed of Clyde Bearden, Fred Puett and William
Bates debated at home and made a very creditable show-
ing to support the traveling team. The latter was made up
of J. Neal Ensiminger and Sam Adkins and brought back
from their first tour the Junior College Championship of
Tennessee and North Carolina and by winning from Milli-
gan College took a high standing in the Smoky Mountain
Miss Lillian Danielson, the coach, then entered her
team in the Southern Tournament of the Southern Associa-
tion of Colleges held in Atlanta, Georgia. Although the
only junior college in the Tournament, and by far the
smallest school represented, Wesleyan annexed second place
by eliminating three southern inter-collegiate conference
teams namely, Louisiana State University, University of
Florida and University of North Carolina.
The four Literary Societies met on September 1 1 for
a joint meeting.
Student Activities 219
Harold Gassman is listed as Editor-in-Chief of the
We find reference to Eta Iota Tau Fraternity and
Sigma Tau Sigma Sorority. The Sapphonian Literary
Society had met November 29 and had elected Mary Louise
Melear as President.
The Phi Pi Deltas reported "sure, we're still alive.
We expect to move mountains sometime in the near future."
The Phi Mu Lambdas gave a party at Bennett Hall
to honor pledges — Cecile Cox, Gona Dorsey, Helen Shaw,
and Ara Knox.
The Queen Esther Circle met in Ritter and an address
was given by Dr. Psieh of China, on "Present Conditions
The annual Panhellenic Banquet was given Saturday,
February 6, with all fraternities and sororities well repre-
sented. Impromptu speeches were given by Dean Stubbs
and Neal Ensminger with Fred Puett acting as Toast-
master. The officers of the Panhellenic Union were: Presi-
dent, Fred Mitchell, Vice President, Fred Puett, Secretary-
Treasurer, Evelyn Edwards.
Under basketball it was written that the Wesleyan
Basketeers are experiencing one of its best seasons possible.
Under a well coached system of defense work they have
been able to overpower nearly every contestant they have
been up against. Their losses have been only at the hands of
senior colleges but had taken their share of victories from
there. In the junior college games the team has always
won by a large margin.
The Drama Department gave "The Doll's House" by
Ibsen in February.
Washington's birthday was celebrated \vith the main
address being given by Mr. Harry T. Burn.
220 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
The Sigma Iota Chi and the Pi Phi Delta pledges
were entertained at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Robert J.
The Dean's Honor Roll included Robert Abernathy,
Hartley Ashley, Leona Clark, Nell Finnell, Martha Martin,
Catherine Neil, Ruby Arrants, Buell Charles, Margaret
Fillers, Sara Large, Margaret MacMurray, Helen Shaw,
Grant Ashley, Myrtle Brewer, Ruby Donald, Marguerite
Gantt, Wilma Headrick, Margaret Hoback, Marjorie Law-
son, Grace Poulston, Thelma Baker, Ruby Brown, Mattie
Griffies, Eneid Higgs, Nat Kuikendall, Ruth Ousley, and
Religious Emphasis Week with the Reverend W. H.
Lewis, pastor of Trinity Methodist Church, announced to
be the leader for the week.
The popularity contest was held on February 16, the
pictures to be placed in the Senior Edition of the Nocatula.
A chapel program announced Louis Lytton, formerly
of the Peruchi Players, who would give a Shakespearean
program, Huck Mitchell was elected Captain of the foot-
ball squad. Editor-in-Chief, Drannan Elliott. The
Knightonian Society discussed Shelly and Keats.
Richard H. Haliburton, author of Royal Road to Ro-
mance, later to disappear on a trip by himself from China
toward the United States, spoke at a chapel service.
Thomas Edds contributed an article on "School
Spirit" which said, "Someone has said that Wesleyan does
not have any school spirit. Do you believe this? Of course
not. We are going to show our team and the whole school
that the students are not lacking in school spirit."
The Religious Council had charge of the evening serv-
ice at Trinity Methodist Church, with Astor Jenkins presid-
ing. David Denton spoke on "Thy Will Be Done." Charles
Student Activities 221
Gorst, a leading ornithologist, spoke at an assembly in the
The Reverend W. D. Wilkerson, a graduate of Ten-
nessee Wesleyan, superintendent of the Bristol District of
the Methodist Episcopal Church, provided leadership for
Religious Emphasis Week. Dr. W. M. Dye showed his
pictures in Ritter Study Hall of his travels in Palestine and
Dr. James Nankivell gave an address at Bennett Hall on
the general topic of "Disease." Bishop Wallace E. Brown,
of Chattanooga, spoke in chapel on Wednesday, January
17. The students expressed their congratulations to Presi-
dent Robb upon his election to the Presidency of the Meth-
odist Educational Association which had its annual meeting
in St. Louis. Revival services being conducted by W. H.'
Lewis and the Reverend W. D. Wilkerson received unusual
attention in the Nocatula.
The juniors entertained the seniors with a Rainbow
Banquet. Astor Jenkins, president of the Junior Class,
served as Toastmaster and Don Chance, president of the
Senior Class, gave the response.
Miss Wilma Headrick, a senior, member of Alpha
Gamma Sorority, Phi Theta Kappa, Y.M.C.A., Glee Club,
Queen Esthers, member of the Staff of the Nocatula, was
elected Queen for the May Day program.
Don Chance wrote concerning the tennis courts.
The Dean's Honor Roll for the year included Grant
Ashley, Myrtle Brewer, Ruby Donald, Thomas Edds, Mar-
guerite Gantt, Nelle Harmon, Wilma Headrick, Marjorie
Lawson, Beulah Melton, Louise Shaefer, Karl Boyd, Hugh
Carney, Catherine Collins, Helen Donaldson, Hoyle Epper-
son, Gladys McCallie, Nancy Roberts, Frances Forrester,
Ethel Redden, Marion Robb, Elizabeth Spahr, Annabel
Spangle, Jeanette Wickham.
222 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
Bobby and Gwcn Robertson crow ned King and Queen.
Professor Myers took his Religious Education classes
to visit the churches of Chattanooga including the First
Methodist, Centenary Methodist Episcopal Church, South,
First Christian, First Presbyterian, and First Baptist.
Dr. J. ^V. Broyles conducted the Religious Emphasis
Week beginning February 4.
For 1935 Karl Boyd was Editor-in-Chief of the
The Sigma Tau Sigmas announced the following new
members for the year: Virginia McCay, Adra Stott, Ella
Mae Russell, Ellen Hurst, Margie Moser, Eleanor
Dougherty, Lolita Alley.
The Nocatida recognized the interest of Mrs. Henry
Pfeiffer, of New York City, in ofTering to give $2,500 to
match a similar amount to be raised by the college to assist
in supplying scholarships for needy students.
Class favorites were elected from the senior class. Miss
Senior, Jeanctte Wickham; Mr. Senior, Karl Boyd; Most
Athletic Girl, Geneva ^Vhitaker; Most Athletic Boy, Lewis
Young Keith ; Most Ideal Senior Couple, Miss Becky Dixon
and Bobby Robertson.
On March 23 a local chapter of Phi Rho Pi, debating
fraternity, was organized on the Wesleyan campus with
Edwin Graves as President, Carsie Turner, Secretary-
The Knoxville College Quartet presented a program
in the auditorium.
The Y.M.C.A. installed new officers including: Presi-
dent, Cecil Thornton, Vice-President, Edwin Graves, Sec-
retary-Treasurer, Fred Miller, Chaplain, \V. I. Farmer.
The following were pledged to Phi Theta Kappa:
Ozell Huff, Julia Sellers, Lorene Duckworth, Jessie Sherlin,
Student Activities 223
Iva Lewis, Jeanette Wickham, Elizabeth Parris, Edwin
Graves, and James Gantt. Professor C. O. Douglass was
The Nocatula for September 13, 1937, reported en-
rollment at 222, an opening address by Judge Clem J.
Jones, the placing of Alden E. Eddy in the field as repre-
sentative of the College to be responsible for student enroll-
ment and securing of funds for the College. Y.M.C.A.
and the Y.W.C.A. had decided to merge and become the
Christian Service Club. There was much speculation as to
the caliber of the football team for 1937. The successes in
'36 had been so phenomenal there was great interest in
what the achievements might be. Johnny Gate wrote an
article saying, "If serious injuries do not invade the Tennes
see Wesleyan Bulldogs camp, they will be in there ready
to win the King game at Bristol Saturday night. The
Tornadoes boast of a strong aggregation this year." . . . The
outlook for the coming season is good. There are eleven
lettermen from last year's National Junior College Champ-
ionship returning, namely, Captain Hollingsworth, Huddles-
ton, Henderson, Bacon, Ramsey, Thorpe, Turner, Hudson,
D. Simpson, B. Simpson and Bowery. . . . "Among the new-
comers are several who have shown that they can really
play football. "Speedy" Burchfield, who hails from Town-
send High, is a triple-threat man, good enough to make
almost anybody's ball team. Watch him, girls. Fred Dock-
ery, the Cleveland flash, is one more sweet back. . . . "In
the line is Ray Graves from Knoxville. He looks good
enough for center. Willard Bacon and Hook Ramsey will
be right in there in the guard position. Huddleston and
Thorpe head the list of tackles. . . . "One of the worries of
Coach McCray is the end positions. "Long" John Hender-
son and Doug Simpson are outstanding candidates for these
places. . . . "Come on, students, let's get behind this team.
224 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
It can be as great as the 1936 champions with your
Mrs. Annie M. Pfeiffer, of New York, and her travel-
ing companion, Mrs. Annie K. Rule, visited the campus
on December 9 and were given an enthusiastic welcome.
Mrs. Pfeiffer spoke briefly at a chapel service saying
concerning her generosity, "I enjoy doing it."
The Dean's list for the first quarter included Rhoda
\Vitt, Johanna Banks, Doris Cooper, Betty Varnell, Iva
Roderick, Jeanette Slagel, Eula Thomas, Mary Ann Wat-
kins, Margaret Lawson, Fred Wankan, Jr., Wilma Better-
ton, Lorene LeVan, Helen Patton, Helen Slack, Bertha
On May 12 an address was given at chapel by Colonel
Julius Ochs Adler, Vice-President and General Manager
of The New York Thiies.
The address as quoted in The New York Times May
13 is as f ollo\\ s :
"In the newspaper profession there exists an especially
good opportunity to appraise citizenship. From the first
page to the last news deals with citizenship in all of its mani-
festations. Newspapers, for example, report the words and
acts of statesmen and persons in authority, of men and
\\ omen whom the voters have elected \vith the expectation
of sound government, and so are afforded an opportunity
to display the highest citizenship.
"Further, some stories recall failures in citizenship, such
as crimes against the public welfare. Other news stories
which are pleasanter to record tell of the efforts of high-
minded men and women to correct abuses, to improve
li\ing conditions and to plan generally for the betterment
of humanity. The tiniest news item concerning the humb-
lest person in the community may reflect an attribute of
citizenship, good or bad."
TRINITY METHODIST CHURCH, erected 1909
Cornerstone Laying, Merner-Pfeiffer Library, Tennessee Wesleyan
College, Athens, Tennessee, November 20, 1940. Right to left:
Bishop Paul B. Kern, G. F. Lockmiller, President J. L. Robb, Judge
Xen Hicks, District Superintendent J. A. Bays and Rev. J. M.
Student Activities ' 225
Warning that people today are far too prone to take
the rights of citizenship for granted, Colonel Adler said
that the news of the world today "must make any intelligent
reader value the more the blessings of citizenship of our
nation." Millions who live under communism or fascism
have suffered appalling losses of liberty, he said.
Opinions may differ with respect to the powers of the
three great branches of our national government. Colonel
Adler said, but, he added:
"There can and will be no real difference of opinion
concerning those liberties which are guaranteed to citizens
under the Bill of Rights.
"Guard well these precious rights guaranteed to the
humblest citizen of our country, and recall them constantly
as you read the news which comes from those nations where
democracy is only a pretense and freedom of the individual
is a hideous sham."
Colonel Adler said that as a native Tennessean he was
astonished a few months ago when the Tennessee Senate
passed the so-called Morgan gag bill, and that he was
relieved and gratified at the outburst of public opinion
which doomed it to "an ignominious death."
"Permit me to remind you that the freedom of the
press is only trusted to newspaper owners, publishers and
editors," he declared. "That freedom itself belongs solely
to the people. The first amendment gives the citizens of
our country the right to enjoy the blessings of a free press.
The editor merely holds a position of trust. He must be
vigilant to see that this freedom is preserved and that his
trust is deserved.
"The editor has great responsibilities as a citizen to
other citizens, and because Captain Rule and Mr. Ochs
were called upon to discharge said responsibilities I feel
free to speak to you a moment about newspapers generally.
226 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
"A worthy editor, conscious of his responsibility of
citizenship, beh'eves he has a paramount obhgation to pre-
sent to his readers an unbiased report of events, especially
of public affairs.
"A newspaper should, of course, espouse certain poli-
cies and political principles, and argue for them as ably as
it can in its editorial columns. But good newspaper citizen-
ship demands that the editor present an unbiased, accurate
news report, so that readers may form their own opinions.
"To suppress news, to distort it or color it, is thorough-
ly bad newspaper citizenship, and any editor who is worthy
of the name condemns the barest suggestion of indifference
towards these high principles of his profession."
Colonel Adler closed his address with an appeal to his
auditors not to permit their conception of citizenship to
become narrow or self-satisfied.
"We must not think of citizenship as ending at the
frontiers of our country," he said. "The world is too closely
bound together today and the interdependence of nations
too firmly knit for any government to withdraw within
itself and to ignore the problems of other peoples. Far
from being an isolationist, I believe that^merica should
take its place among the nations of the world in settling
those problems which can and must be solved by
"Be first a good citizen of your community, of your
State and of your nation, but be prepared in your mind to
be a citizen of the world."
Commencement was held June 1 with diplomas being
given to 78 members of the graduating class.
It was reported that the Carnegie Corporation had
contributed $4,500.00 for the purchase of additional books
for the library for general reading.
Student Activities 227
On June 3 Mr. and Mrs. Harry T. Burn entertained
the faculty at the James Monroe Hotel in Sweetwater.
Phi Theta Kappa met at the home of Betty Varnell,
in Charleston, and the following officers were elected:
President, Jeanette Slagle, Vice-President, Eula Thomas.
The Nocatula reported a meeting at the Robert E. Lee
Hotel for the purpose of raising $10,000.00 for the College.
Mr. Tom Sherman was reported saying, "I know of nothing
in my travels worth more to Athens than the College."
Other persons who spoke in favor of the community sup-
porting the College were Mayor Paul J. Walker, Mrs.
Rosabel Boyd, and G. F. Lockmiller. Students gave con-
siderable attention in their publications to the rehabilitation
of Old College.
The Eta Iota Taus, the Sigma Iota Chis, and the
Alpha Gammas all reported social activities of a formal
nature during February. At the Sigma Iota Chi Carnival
Sammye Arrants and John L. Henderson were acclaimed
queen and king. The plans for the remodeling of Old
College had been completed and Bishop Wallace E. Brown,
of the Chattanooga Area of the Methodist Episcopal
Church, Judge Clem Jones, Judge S. C. Brown, '86 and
Dr. J. M. Melear participated in the ceremony of
The fall reception was given September 27. Those in
the receiving line were President and Mrs. James L. Robb,
Dean and Mrs. M. F. Stubbs, Mrs. E. A. Brubaker, Profes-
sor and Mrs. C. O. Douglass, Professor and Mrs. G. A.
Yates, Professor and Mrs. John W. Overby, Professor S. C.
Evins, Professor and Mrs. A. J. Peters, Professor and Mrs.
A. H. Myers, Dr. and Mrs. James M. Melear, Professor
Don Chance, Miss Margie Alderfer, Mrs. Martha Hale,
Miss Mary E. Delaney, Miss Fannye Mackey, Miss Ethel
228 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
Prior, Coach R. H. McCray, Mrs. Ralph Knight, Mrs.
Esta Vestal, Mr. and Mrs. J. Rogers Carroll, Mrs, A. B.
Collins and Miss Frances Moffitt.
Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church
approved $150,000.00 campaign for Tennessee Wesleyan
A Founders' Day Program was inaugurated and held
on Thursday, November 17th. General Carey F. Spence,
of Knoxville, son of Dr. John F. Spence, one-time President
of the instution, gave the address and presented a picture
of his father to the College.
Dr. John M. Versteeg, minister of the Walnut Hill
Methodist Church of Cincinnati, was on the campus in
November for a series of addresses on "Christian Living."
Rudolph Hoppe contributed an article concerning the
organization of a campus council for the purpose of super-
vising extra-curricular activities. This committee from the
faculty working with the students on these plans included
Mr. Myers, Mrs. Brubaker, Mrs. Melear, Miss Delaney,
and Coach McCray.
FEW reported "For the seventh consecutive time Ten-
nessee Wesleyan College beat back all odds to come through
with the Junior College Championship laurels tucked under
their arms at the end of a tough and wooly season by
defeating Middle Georgia College, of Cochran, Georgia,
Coach McCray, who had provided such spectacular
leadership for the Bulldogs, accepted an invitation to
join the staff at William and Mary. Hooper Eblen was
secured to assume the responsibilities of coach. Eblen had
attended Wesleyan, the University of Tennessee, and fol-
lowing his graduation from U. T. had been coach at Whit-
well High School, Carter High School, in Knoxville.
Student Activities 229
President Robb said in introducing him, "Mr. Eblen is a
good coach, will fit into our scheme of things splendidly.
While at Wesleyan he was not only an outstanding athlete,
but was President of the Study Body, President of YMCA,
an honor student and well liked by all."
Dr. E. C. Dewey, of Atlanta, provided leadership for
Religious Emphasis Week, with the cooperation of the
YM-YW and the Christian Service Club.
In February Dr. H. H. Holt, Charlottesville, Virginia,
spent some time on the campus as a part of the Youth
Crusade of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South.
The Post Athenian reported the activity of Dr. E. M.
Ellison, Rhea Hammer, and Dr. J. M. Mclear in stimulating
the Forward Movement Program.
Dr. Archie M. Palmer, President of the University of
Chattanooga, addressed the students in March saying, "A
Liberal Education is not and cannot be a series of studies
over a definite period of time. A college can merely furnish
an introduction to a Liberal Education, teach its students
the meaning and importance of such an education. Educa-
tion is a process of slow maturity and takes place in the
Chicago Little Philharmonic Orchestra under the
leadership of Dr. Eric Sorantin was presented in March.
Miss Grace Leigh Scott, National Field Secretary to
W.C.T.U., gave a chapel address.
It was reported that the largest student body
Wesleyan had ever seen attended the first chapel service
on Wednesday, September 6. The address was given by
the Reverend W. H. Harrison. Dr. and Mrs. Werner Wolfe
were introduced and Mrs. Wolfe sang Schubert's "Ave
Maria." Others participating in this service were the Rev-
erend Joe Hampton, Judge S. C. Brown, Dr. Miles Riddle,
and Dr. J. M. Melear. Dr. Melear announced that the
230 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan Collei^e
enrollment was 600% above the first year of President
Robb's administration. Jack A. Bell was introduced as
president of the student body and Ida Mae Kilgore as
The Forward Movement issue of the Bulletin an-
nounced Holston Conference unification, carrying a photo-
graph taken Friday, October 6, 1939, at 9:55, when Bishop
Paul Kern, Dr. James C. Orr, Dr. J. M. M. Gray of
Washington, and Bishop W. N. Ainsworth took part in a
service in Central Methodist Church of Knoxville which
declared the Holston Conference a part of the recently
united Methodist Church. President Robb announced a
gift of $100,000 from Mrs. Pfeiffer toward the construction
of a long needed library. G. F. Lockmiller, Chairman of
the Forward Movement Program of Tennessee Wesleyan
College, declared the campaign to secure other funds to
make the library possible as "Wesleyan's big opportunity."
General James A. Fowler gave the address at the Founders'
Day service. Thirty-two students were on the Dean's List:
seniors: Elizabeth Allen, Gladys Andes, Freddie Boggess,
C. M. Boyer, James Burn, Martha Cavaleri, Evelyn Craig,
Irene Elrod, Irene Hall, Rudolph Hoppe, Clifford Ingram,
L. G. Jaco, Jr., Thomas Mackey, Briscoe Staley, Mary
Evelyn Stinnette, Mrs. Josephine Stone, Mary Lou Yates,
Newell Morris; juniors; Lawrence Amburgy, Richard
Cooke, Frank Dodson, Charles Neil Gibbs, Roy Godsey,
Laura Evelyn Goforth, Ernestine Grant, Ruth Hines, Allie
Marie Jenkins, William R. Selden, James Wilson, Mary
Witt, Orinda Wood, Muriel Milton.
Janet Marson and Carl Anderson had the lead roles
in "The Night of January 16."
Tennessee Wesleyan was host to the Southeastern
Junior College Tournament which was held at Wesleyan,
Student Activities 231
March 7-9. Eleven colleges participated. Dr. D. D. Holt
spent a week on the campus discussing the general theme
"Christianity: A Way of Life."
Mrs. Henry Pfeiffer visited the campus.
Pianist Jerold Frederick gave a concert in February.
Dr. and Mrs. W. M. Dye contributed $10,000 toward
the campaign for funds for the Merner-PfeifTer Library.
"Our Town" was presented by the Tewesco Players,
the leading roles being carried by Martha Cavaleri and
Dr. Edwin C. Lewis, of Drew Theological Seminary,
spoke at chapel. A College Chorus has been organized
under the direction of Dr. Werner Wolfe; it included
Gladys Andes, Jean Douglass, Virginia Swanson, Mary Fay
Kennedy, Virginia Quinn, Louise Fritts, Bertha Chastain,
Norma Stonecipher, Irene Hall, Ernestine Grant, Carolyn
Bishop, Fred Jenkins, Felix Harrod, Bill Selden, and Bill
Scott. Commencement plans for 1940 were announced in
April, the following persons to take part: Dr. W. F. Black-
ard, of Church Street Methodist Church, Knoxville, the
Reverend A. K. Wilson, First Methodist Church, Ports-
mouth, Ohio, Charles M. Newcomb, Candler, North
Carolina. The students announced with pride the election
of President Robb to head the Southern Association of
Junior Colleges. Owen Snodderly and Clifford Ingram
were designated to represent the Wesleyan Chapter of Phi
Rho at the regional convention. The fall reception was
held in September at Ritter Hall. Those participating in
the program were Mrs. Werner Wolfe, Norma Stonecipher,
Sophia Brown, Ernestine Grant, Mrs. Morgan Watkins and
Felix Harrod. The Homecoming Game, which drew 750,
provided a victory for Wesleyan over South Georgia, 6-0.
Christine Langley was crowned Homecoming Queen. Dr.
James M. Melear, who had been in the hospital in Knox-
232 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
ville, was reported back in Athens much to the deHght of
the Wesleyan students. Judge Xen Hicks gave the Found-
ers' Day Address in November and the cornerstone for the
new Hbrary was laid by Bishop Paul B. Kern, his first visit
to the Wesleyan campus. In December the Bulldogs were
announced as Southeastern Jurisdictional Title winners for
the ninth time. The squad included Austin McDonald, J. O.
Kimsey, Ralph Nelson, James Brake, Spence Renfro, James
Trotter, Richard LaFrance, Horace Knox, Felix Harrod,
Hobart Jones, Ab Swan, J, D. Pack, Jerry Ayers, Walter
Sherrod, Charles Forrester, Otis Meredith, Melman Stroud,
Pat Sharpe, Charles Brickie, Hugh Anderson, Edgar Ruth-
erford, Lynn Lomell, Albert Maltby, Emmert Robertson,
Frank Clay. Miles Proudfoot was the manager and Thomas
Hopkins, assistant manager.
Doctor T. D. Holt, of Centenery Church, Lynch-
burg, Virginia, whose visits to the campus during the
years had proved especially popular, visited the campus
again. A formal was announced to be given by the seniors.
. . . The Wesleyan "Netters" were announced. They were
Glen Michaels, Spence Renfro, Bill Headrick and Charles
Pangle. . . . President Robb, in February, had completed
personal interviews with all members of the freshman
class. . . . Thirty-five members of the Tennessee Wesleyan
chorus participated in programs under the direction of
Doctor Wolfe. . . . Andrew J. Peters, member of the faculty,
was given a write-up. . . . Wesleyan basketball champions
were Jack Thames, Bill Headrick, James Brake, Charles
Pangle, Pat Sharp, Jim Trotter, Millman Stroud, Ralph
Nelson, Glenn Michaels, Spence Renfro, Charles Brickel
and Winston Kirksey. Miles Proudfoot was the student
manager. . . . Mildred Hampton was crowned Homecom-
ing Queen. . . . The Sigma Iota Chis presented floodlights
Student Activities 233
for the barbecue pit area. . . . The Avon players presented
"Hamlet." . . . Robert Nicholson, baritone of New York,
presented a program in December. . . . Doctor Hugh C.
Stuntz, of Nashville, spent two days on the campus. . . .
Women's and Men's Councils were organized in 1941.
Coach Hutsell had left Wesleyan to become a
Cadet in the Air Force. . . . The Reverend Marquis
Tripplett, of Knoxville, conducted the services during Re-
ligious Emphasis Week. . . . Phi Theta Kappa, honorary
scholastic fraternity, initiated eight new members. They
were Margaret Sue Ballew, Oleta Williams, Margaret Lee
Hale, Ann Moore, June Margaret Jo Shipley, Clarence
Barnett and George Oliphant. . . . Elections in 1942 pro-
vided the following leaders : President of the Student Coun-
cil, Calvin Rector, Vice-President, Katherine Wheeler, and
J. Elmo Greene, Editor of the college newspaper and the
annual, both of which at that time were called the Noca-
tula. . . . James P. Pope, director of the Tennessee Valley
Authority, was announced to give the commencement ad-
dress. . . . Alfred D. Mynders, editor of the Chattanooga
Times, gave an address at the time of the awarding of the
William Rule Prize Essay Contest. . . . Miser R. Richmond
was designated as dean to succeed M. F. Stubbs, w^ho had
resigned to become head of the Chemistry Department of
Carthage College. . . . Coach Frank Chaney announced
that twenty-four men had agreed to work on near-by farms
on Saturday to assist in supplying labor during the war.
. . . The Wesleyan students and faculty collected 5,000
pounds of scrap. . . . Carolyn Banfield, of Youngstown,
Ohio, granddaughter of T. H. Banfield, for whom Banfield
Hall was named, enrolled as a student at Wesleyan. . . .
Doctor L. H. Colloms, native of Athens and McMinn
County, became the minister of Trinity Methodist Church.
234 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
He was described by J. Elmo Greene as "a personable,
sportsloving man." . . . Wesleyan students were entering
the Army and Navy in large numbers. . . . Dean Richmond
announced the Dean's List which included Betty Chase,
Evelyn Cooke, Margaret Lee Hale, Catherine Hooper,
Wanda McConnell, Anna Louise Moore, George Oliphant,
Calvin Rector, Frances Rowland, Bernice Scott, Mary Jo
Shipley, Janie Tompkins, Louise Wetzel, Katherine Wheel-
er, Oleta Williams, J. R. Bohannon, Elsie Click, Anna
Belle Craig, Catherine Douglass, Donald Flynn, Bessie
Headrick, Mildred Kennedy, Margaret Long, Emily Low-
rey, Alice Myers, Marjorie Patching, Brownie Patton,
Louise Roberts, Frances Stafford, Fritts Thomas, Clark
Welch, George Anna Yates.
Apparently, no student publications were produced
during that year.
Phi Theta Kappa initiates new members: Helen
Chastain, Frances Cunningham, Elizabeth Selden, Edna
Hicks Miller and Evelyn Meadows. . . . An effort had
been made to make Wesleyan a woman's college but
the Nocatula announced in October 1944 that Wesleyan
keeps independent status and will remain a co-educational
institution. Credit for the victory going to General James
A. Fowler, president of the Board of Trustees, to Paul J.
Walker, and to C. E. Rogers.
J. E. Milburn, minister of the First Methodist
Church, of Knoxville, was announced as Religious Empha-
sis Week leader. . . . Mrs. Ruth Bryan Owen spoke on
"After Peace — What?" . . . 1945 Vocation Day sets rec-
ord with 1100 attending. . . . Participating in the service
were Doctor J. M. Melear, Mayor Paul J. Walker, and
Student Activities 235
Doctor T. Otto Nail, managing editor of The Christian
Advocate, of Chicago. . . . Bishop Schuyler E. Garth, of the
Wisconsin area of The Methodist Church, spent three days
on the campus. . . . The 1945 Commencement Program
included Doctor C. E. Lundy, Doctor M. S. Kincheloe,
Doctor E. E. Lewis, of Ohio State University, who had at
one time been a student at Wesleyan. . . . Two students
had been elected to Phi Theta Kappa: Carolyn Lockname
and Agnes Howell. . . . Doctor Bachman G. Hodge, minister
of Centenary Methodist Church, of Chattanooga, gave a
chapel address. . . . Wesleyan welcomes "Vets": the head-
line in the Nocatula. ... A college quartet was organized.
Its members were Jerry Grubb, Carolyn Scruggs, Alice Ann
Ayres and Janie Beals. ... J. Neal Ensminger spoke at
chapel on Courtesy. . . . Edgar Miller and Helen Erwin
were crowned King and Queen of Hearts. . . . The Rever-
end Sterling L. Price, minister of the First Baptist Church,
of Athens, spoke to the students on "You're neither too
young nor too old."
Doctor Luibuld Wallick, Rabbi of Beth - el Temple,
Knoxville, spent two days on the campus. . . . Chapel
address was given by Doctor King Vivion, of M'c-
Kendree Methodist Church, in Nashville. . . . Vocations
Day drew 750 students to the Wesleyan campus. Charles
Montgomery and Linnie Miller were the winners in the
Rule Essay contest. The prizes were awarded by Doctor
F. Howard Callihan, of New York. . . . The Gammas
depicted the life of President and Mrs. Robb. ... It was
announced July 1946 that T.W.C. has record enrollment.
471 were registered for the fall. Of these, 208 were G.I.'s.
. . . Bulldogs are Junior College champions again . . . Chap-
lain George Naff presented his first article entitled "The
236 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
The Reverend Earl G. Hunt, Jr., provided leader-
ship for ReHgious Emphasis Week. . . . The football queen
was Anne McCamy. . . . Neal Ensminger spoke at chapel
on "The Choice of a Vocation." . . . The Reverend Ralph
W. Mohney, minister of the Manker Memorial Methodist
Church, of Chattanooga, was announced as Religious
Emphasis Week speaker.
Percy Chambers, the blind pianist, gave a pro-
gram in Chapel. . . . The Reverend Henry Dawson,
minister of the Keith Memorial Church, of Athens, was
introduced by Chaplain George E. Naff. . . . The Choir,
under the direction of Alfred Jack Houts, sang in the Vestal
Methodist Church and the Epworth Methodist Church in
Knoxville, on February 11. . . . Doctor C. P. Hardin,
superintendent of the Johnson City District, gave a chapel
address in March. . . . The Union College Choir gave an a
capella program in the auditorium. . . . Jack Houts was
selected to have a part in La Boheme to be given under the
direction of Doctor Werner Wolfe, in Chattanooga. . . .
Paul Riviere began his work as Dean of the College, suc-
ceeding Dean Richmond who had accepted a position as
professor of Anatomy and Embryology at Tennessee Poly-
technic Institute. . . . Sara Jo Emert and Olen Cole were
designated as T.W.C. Personalities. . . . Doctor Arlo Ayres
Brown, President of Drew University, Madison, New Jersey,
and formerly president of The Athens School of the Univer-
sity of Chattanooga, spoke at chapel and paid particular
honor to the Athens Kiwanis Club for its interest in the
development of Wesleyan. ... A contract was let to Fred
E. Hicks and Company, of Knoxville, for the construction
of a new gymnasium. . . . Officers for Phi Theta Kappa
were: President, James Parton, Vice-President, Earl Cope-
Student Activities Til
land, Secretary, Helen Jackman, Treasurer, Betty Jones,
Corresponding Secretary, Dean Banks, Reporter Hilda
Gentry. . . . Tennessee Wesleyan suffered its first defeat by
a junior college in ten years when it was beaten by South
Georgia College 18-12. 3,000 persons attended the game
in Douglas, Georgia. . . . Rankin Hudson joined the Wes-
leyan staff. . . . The football team for '48 included Alex
Williams, J. L. Hitson, Arturo Suarez, John Hanks, James
Hoggatt, Alex Cook, Bill Blair, R. E. Ballew, Grady Gow-
ens, J. D. Ahrend, A. J. Reeves, Ed McBroom, Jimmy
Rawls, Charles Lanier, James Pangle, Bill Knox, Dave
Wood, Arthur Farford, Kenneth Dixon, Tommy Coleman,
Bill Knaffle, Russell Clements, John Heitz, Dick Rosen-
baum, James Heath, Billy Miller, Bob Allen, Joe Douglas,
Carl Porter, Jack Moneyhun, Carl Burnette, John Taylor,
Billy Rob Hutson, Ted McDonald and Buck Mitchell. Mil-
ton Hale was manager and James Fellman trainer. Coach
Hudson was assisted by line coach Bob Matthews. A
Wesleyan student, Farnum Rand, of Newark, New Jersey,
was killed in a motorcycle accident.
Rabbi Abraham Feinstein, of Ochs Memorial Tem-
ple, of Chattanooga, gave an address on Brotherhood.
. . . Despite unfavorable weather it was reported that the
new gymnasium was making fairly good headway. . . .
George Collins and Carol Covington were elected King and
Queen of Hearts. The Reverend Paul Worley, minister of
the Munsey Memorial Methodist Church, of Johnson City,
and Chairman of the Inter-Board Council of the Holston
Conference, conducted Religious Emphasis Week, January
31 -February 4. . . . Horace McFarland, baritone, gave a
recital May 12. . . . The Commerce Club held its last meet-
ing for the year May 8 with Neal Ensminger as the guest
speaker. . . . On June 6, the cornerstone for the James L.
238 A History of Temiessee Wesleyan College
Robb Gymnasium \vas laid. This building was made pos-
sible by the United College Movement of the Holston
Conference and Mrs. Annie Pfeiffer. Those taking part in-
cluded Dr. James L. Robb, Dr. J. M. Melear, the Tennes-
see Wesleyan Choir, under the direction of Professor Jack
Houts, Dr. C. E. Lundy, Judge R. A. Davis, who laid the
cornerstone. . . . Reverend J. Woodford Stone, public rela-
tions director for the Holston Conference Colleges, spoke
at chapel September 16. Dr. Myron F. Wicke, Secretary
of the Department of Educational Institutions of the Meth-
odist Board of Education, spent a day on the campus. . . .
Henry Stamey, Helen Vestal, and Edell Hearn were desig-
nated as T.W.C. personalities in recognition of outstanding
leadership. . . . William L. Schirer participated in the
Artist Series program. . . . \Vesleyan ^\'on the homecoming
tilt and defeated St. Bernard 33-6. Betty Inman was
cro\vncd football queen.
The Reverend T. F. Chilcote, Jr., minister of the
First Methodist Church, of Chattanooga, provided
leadership for Religious Emphasis Week. . . . The Chatta-
nooga Symphony under the leadership of Joseph Hawthorne
ga\'e a program in December. . . . The Boston University
Singers, under direction of Dr. James B. Houghton, visited
the campus in January. . . . Mildred Kelley, Cecil McFar-
land and Nancy Bailey were recognized in the personality
parade. . . . Phi Theta Kappa elected Evelyn Hudgins,
Bernola Melborn, Harry Norton, Mr. and Mrs. Spurgeon
Davis and Jack MacKie as members. . . . The Home Ec
Club with 22 members was organized. . . . Louis Freyre
and Alma Martin were elected King and Queen of Hearts
at the Valentine Party. ... At a successful football banquet
with an address by Coach Ray, of Vanderbilt, Wade Hub-
bard and Ed Sparks were designated as Co-Captains for
Student Activities 239
1950. . . . Launa Sutherland, Amos Callihan and Helen
Hinds were included in the Personality recognition, . . . Mrs.
W. A. Cook, president of the Alumni Association, an-
nounced June 3, 1950, at 7 o'clock, as the time when all
alumni would meet to pay special honor to President and
Mrs. James L. Robb and to meet the president-elect. ... A
dream of many years became a reality Tuesday, February
21, when the James L. Robb Gymnasium, named in honor
of President Robb in recognition of his thirty-two years of
service to the College, seven as dean and twenty-five as
president, was opened to the public and formally dedicated.
. . . Miss Mary Shadow, head of the History Department at
Wesleyan and Floterial Representative of Meigs and Rhea
Counties spoke at the annual meeting of the General Board
of Education May 1-4, in Cincinnati. . . . The Wesleyan
Choir took a trip which included appearances at South
Georgia College, Wayne Memorial Church, Jacksonville,
Florida, Community Methodist Church, Daytona Beach,
Bethune-Cookman College, Daytona Beach, New Smyrna
Methodist Church, New Smyrna, Melbourne Methodist
Church, Melbourne, Florida Southern College, and Le-
Grange College. . . . The Boston University Singers, with
David Giles, Wesleyan graduate, as the organist, visited the
campus . . . Mary Alice Dennis, Bruce Sandin and Evelyn
Hudgins were recognized for outstanding student leadership.
. . . Members of the 1950 basketball team were Stephenson,
Partain, Smith, Rutledge, Hogatt, Shorter, Ethel, White,
Rosenbaum, Richardson, Inzer, Pangle, Pruner, Gate, with
Rankin Hudson as the Coach. . . . Commencement activi-
ties in 1950 included the giving of "The Red Mill" by the
College Choir, under direction of A. J. Houts, Mrs. Houts
and Levis Hampton. . . . The Commencement Address, on
Monday, June 5, was given by the Honorable Gordon
Browning, Governor of the State of Tennessee. . . . Kenneth
240 A History of Ten?iessee Wesleyan College
Toombs and Bill Knox won the Rule Essay prizes. . . .
Kathcrine Mason and Buck Mitchell were designated May
Queen and King. . . . Joe Whalen, Katherine Mason and
Carl Porter were recognized for student leadership. . . .
Dean Coe had a tennis team which included Samples, Van
Nostrand, Hudson, Whalen, MacKie with Poole as mana-
ger. , . . James P. Wilson joined the faculty as a member
of the Music Department. . . . Marilyn Hunt, Harold
Young and Norma Picard were accorded recognition for
student leadership. . . . The biggest homecoming celebration
in many years was celebrated. . . . Helen Pelleaux was
designated as football queen. . . . Patsy Boggess, Janie
Fowler and Vaughn Kuykendall were recognized as student
Personality Parade included Lois Perry, Ken Harris
and Ann Bogart. . . . Chapel speakers during the
Spring Quarter included the Reverend Walter A. Smith,
Doctor J. Homer Slutz, Reverend W. Mervin Seymour,
Bishop Paul B. Kern, the Reverend Glenn F. Lippse, Doctor
E. D. Worley, Reverend Frank Y. Jackson, Jr., Bob W^all-
ace. Sue Hart and Gene Mehaffy were designated as out-
standing personalities. Ann Hicks was the Phi Sig Sweet-
heart. . . . Senior Class Superlatives were: Best Personality
— Jane Martin and Bob Irwin, Most Athletic — Lois Kim-
sey and Dale Carnes, Best Dressed — Lis Tropp and Hu-
bert Blackburn, Best All Around — Noveita Trotter and
Scotty Tinney, Most Likely to Succeed — Eugene Mehaffy
and Marion Essary, Most Friendly — Alice Jo Gilliam and
Bob Dail, Most Talented — Margaret Kesterson and Jimmy
King, Most Popular — Ann Hicks and Philip Watkins.
. . . Wayne Allen, Alice Jo Gilliam and Philip Watkins
received recognition for student leadership. . . . The "Bull-
Student Activities 241
dogs" ended the football season with five victories and two
Debbie Smail wrote that homecoming was a big
success and that many alumni returned. . . . The Phi
Sigma Nu gave a Homecoming Party. . . . Kaye Margrave
was designated as Phi Sig Dream Girl. . . . Senior Class
Superlatives were : Senior Beauty — Sara Barnett, Senior
Handsome — Frank Henson, Best Personality — Jean Sharp
and Ralph White, Most Athletic — Jean Guinn and
Charles Stone, Best Dressed — Betty Lou Neal and Osiris
Martines, Best All Around — Betty Haney and Don Mc-
Elroy, Most Likely to Succeed — Hilda Remine and
Johnny McKenzie, Friendliest — Pat Isenhower and Danny
Hayes, Most Talented — Carolyn Robertson and Bill
Adams, Most Popular — Kaye Margrave and Lee Asbury.
. . . The annual reception held in October in Ritter Hall
included the following in the receiving line: Lee Asbury,
President and Mrs. Martin, Dean and Mrs. Riviere, Mrs.
Richard Millard, Mrs. T. B. Donner, Mrs. C. D. Mehaffy,
Charles O'Reilly, Mrs. and Mrs. Marvin Shadel. . . . Per-
sonality winners in '51 were Debbie Smail, Danny Hayes,
Janice Hixson. "Rose Marie" given under the leadership
of Mr. Jack Houts, with Don Wolford having a leading
part, was considered an outstanding success. . . . Student
officers included: President of the Student Body, Lee As-
bury, Editor of the Nocatula, Bill Adams, Vice-President
of the Student Body, Jean Guinn, and Editor of the "Bull-
dog," Danny Hayes. . . . Miss Margaret Kesterson won the
Grace Moore Scholarship at the University of Tennessee.
... At commencement time "The Man Who Came to
Dinner" was given by Delta Psi Omega, dramatic fraternity.
. . . The 60th anniversary of the organization of Elizabeth
Ritter Hall was recognized by a special service at Trinity
242 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
Methodist Church. . . . Mrs. J. N. Rhodeheaver, of Indiana,
was the speaker. . . . The baccalaureate sermon was given
by the Reverend Earl G. Hunt, Jr., of Morristown, and the
commencement address by Doctor John O. Gross, Secretary
of the Board of Education of Nashville. . . . Personalities for
the year included Scotty Tinney, Bob Irwin, Jimmy King
and Ann DcLozier.
Tennessee Wesleyan Choir began its annual tour
January 25. . . . Rabbi Feinstein visited the campus.
. . . The organization of the Advisory Board was reported.
. . . The Reverend Ben B. St. Clair was the speaker for
Religion in Life Week. . , . Doris Weary, Jim McQuain and
Kaye Margrave were recognized as student leaders. Reeves
Bingham and Jean Sharp were designated as King and
Queen of Hearts. . . . Johnny McKenzie, Faye Templin
and Lawrence Clark received recognition for student lead-
ership. . . . Don Patrick \vas elected captain of basketball
for '52-'53. Don had scored 302 points during the season.
. . . T.W.C. cagers were Ralph White, Johnny Atha, Don
Patrick, Bob Alien, Bill Wilson, Chun Philhps, "Fud" Bur-
ris, Lee Asbury, Lloyd Daugherty, David Kirk and Bob
Gibson. . . . Charles Inzer was manager with Coach Rankin
Hudson as mentor. . . . T.W.C. Choir gave "Naughty
Marietta'' \\ ith Don Wolford in the lead. . . . Dallas Ander-
son was elected president of the student body for '53-'54.
. . . "Beanie" Anderson was elected vice-president, Chris
Mackey as Bulldog editor, and Bob Hawk as editor of the
Nocatula. . . . Jean Sharp, Bill Crump and Virginia Patrick
had the honors of personality leadership. Tennessee Wesle-
yan to Become A Four- Year School: the headlines for the
issue Monday, November 30, 1953. . . . An editorial on the
Long Range Development Program and Its Implications
for the future of Tennessee Wesleyan was also headlined.
Student Activities 243
. . . Regenia Lawson wrote an article on another outstand-
ing Homecoming. Ann Hutcheson, of Chattanooga, was
crowned football queen.
Doctor F. H. Johnson, after six months at Wesleyan,
writes on "What Wesleyan Means to Me" in the
light of his experience here. . . . Dallas Anderson, Anne
Hutcheson, and Raymond McQuain were considered the
outstanding personalities on the campus. . . . $109,000 goal
for the Four- Year Program was reached. ... It was an-
nounced the funds being provided by local citizens to make
possible the transition to the senior college program. . . .
Gus Gregory and Nadien Trotter were designated as King
and Queen of Hearts. . . . The Reverend Elton Jones, of
Asbury Methodist Church, in Greeneville, spent the week
on the campus as the leader for Religion in Life Week.
. . . Betty Jean Anderson, Marvin Webb and Edith Smalley
joined in the Personality Parade. . . . Recognition was also
given to Jean Riddle, Gus Gregory and Theresa Chappe-
lear, for contributions to the life of the college. . . . Dr. Eric
Baker, of England, gave the convocation address September
20. Tom Sherman, of Athens, was honored by a surprise
testimonial banquet in the college dining hall. The Presi-
dent-Emeritus and leading citizens of Athens gathered to
honor a local citizen who had given the substantial contri-
bution to make possible the securing of the funds for the
transition to the senior college. . . . Nadien Trotter was
crowned queen for the football homecoming game. . . .
President's Reception was given October 21 at Ritter.
Those in the receiving line were George Flint, president of
the student body. President and Mrs. Martin, Dean and
Mrs. F. Heisse Johnson, Doctor Baldwin, Doctor and Mrs.
Walle, Dean Neal, Miss Reba Parsons, Miss Mary Green-
hoe, William McGill, Miss Catherine Baker, and Mr. and
244 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
Mrs. Paul J. Walker, Jr. . . . Personality Parade included
Barbara Akers and Ray Robinson.
Three former students of Wesleyan now attending East
Tennessee State were included in Who's Who Among Stu-
dents in American Colleges and Universities. They were
Lois Kimsey, Don McElroy and Doris Weary. ... At the
football banquet, with Doctor T. J. Burton as the speaker
and sponsored by the Athens Jaycees, it was announced
that Virgil Whitlock and Wayne Swartout were elected
CO - captains for 1955. . . . "Oklahoma!" was given
by the Wesleyan Choir. . . . Doctor F. B. Shelton, Chairman
of the Board of Trustees, was the first non-alumnus ever
given the Alumni Key. President Martin presented this Key
in recognition of the outstanding leadership which Doctor
Shelton had provided as Director of Public Relations for
the Holston Conference Colleges during the Long Range
Development Program. . . . Mrs. H. C. Black, of Johnson
City, long a friend of Wesleyan and former trustee, was
recognized by having the remodeled dining hall of Ritter
Hall dedicated in her honor. ... It was announced that
Coach Clifton "Tip" Smith, from Bradley High School,
had been employed as Basketball Coach as Wesleyan. . . .
Doctor George Y. Flint, minister of the First Methodist
Church, of \Varren, Ohio, and Doctor David A. Lockmiller,
President of the L^niversity of Chattanooga, were the speak-
ers at the commencement exercises. ... It was announced
in October 1955 that the enrollment had hit a new high
of 405 with students from Tennessee, Maryland, New
Jersey, New York, Louisiana, Virginia, Kentucky, Florida,
Connecticut, Massachusetts, North and South Carolina,
and Iran, Malaya and Columbia. . . . Cheerleaders who
had done such an outstanding job during the football season
were recognized. They were Delores Ingram, Roma Faye
MR. AND MRS. HENRY PFEIFFER
The College's most generous benefactors
Student Activities 245
Harris, Jo Ann Clayton, Delores Mynatt, Rita Pearson and
Barbara Akers. . . . President Martin announced in chapel
that the Tennessee Wesleyan Choir has been invited to sing
at the General Conference of The Methodist Church,
Friday, April 27, 1956. . . . Bolton Hall received first prize
for dormitory decorations at the Homecoming game. . . .
The Vets Club presented an attractive bulletin board. . . .
The Jaycees sponsored the football banquet with William
Walkup, member of the Board of Trustees, of Knoxville,
Dwain Farmer was elected president and Jim Mc-
Quain vice-president of the student body. . . . The Rev.
erend Arthur H. Jones, of First Methodist Church, of
Chattanooga, led Religion in Life Week. . . . Carol Ann
Kennedy and Ronnie Knight were elected Miss T.W.C.
and Mr. T.W.C. for 1956. . . . The Honor Society changed
its name and became Alpha Beta with Richard Gilbert
as president. . . . Floyd Simpson, father of a Tennessee
Wesleyan graduate who lost his life on the battlefield in
Normandy in 1944, presented the college with a flag. The
presentation was made by Captain Richard L. Ray, of the
Athens National Guard. . . . The basketball team ended a
highly successful season. The team included Jim Shelby,
Elbert Prewitt, Pat Gorman, Ronnie Knight, Joe Crabtree,
Dwain Farmer, Doyle Fowler, Boyd Woody, Von Cook,
Dick Mendenhall, Sam Craig, Hugh Reynolds, Ed Cart-
wright, with Frank Duckworth as manager and Coach
Smith as Mentor. . . . The Wesleyan Choir made several
appearances during the General Conference of The Meth-
odist Church in Minneapolis. . . . "The Three Musketeers"
was presented by the Choir, on May 25-26. . . . Wesleyan
was admitted as a member of the Smoky Mountain Confer-
ence. . . . Coach Hudson was assisted in football by LeRoy
246 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
Anderson and Junie Graves, assistant coaches. Claude Ca-
tron served as captain. . . . Tennessee Wesleyan for the first
time in its history, was recognized by including representa-
tive students in Who's Who Among Students in American
Colleges and Universities. Those recognized included Billy
Aikens, Billie Dean Haley, Dortha Patricia DeLozier, Rich-
ard Gilbert, Charles Seepe, Dolores Mynatt, Paul Starnes
and Barbara Pickel. . . . Homecoming received the attention
of the Alumni Association and attracted a large crowd and
included a successful parade. . . . The Chapter of the Ten-
nessee Poetry Society was organized. , . . Marilyn Williams,
of Athens, was elected Sweetheart of the Veterans Club. . . .
Howard College was the victim of the Wesleyan football
power. . . . Mrs. Mary Nelle Jackson was recognized by
the "Bulldog" for her outstanding contributions to Wes-
leyan and her friendly understanding of Wesleyan students.
. . . King Ensminger was elected president of the
As a part of the senior college program, the De-
partment of Education of the College in cooperation
with the City and McMinn County Schools initiated the
Teacher-Training Program, under the direction of Doctor
Alf Walle. . . . The sixty-five voice choir of Bowling Green
State University under the direction of Doctor Paul Ken-
nedy visited the campus January 31 and gave one of the
most successful musical programs ever given on the Wesley-
an campus. ... It was announced that the Wesleyan Choir
would begin its concert tours February 3. . . . Coach
Smith's "Bulldogs" continued at the high level of achieve-
ment laid down the preceding year. . . . The Senior Girl
Scouts of Athens replanted the hackberry and the oak on
the Wesleyan campus. . . . Bowaters initiated scholarship
program and presented a check for library enrichment. . . .
Student Activities 247
Louie Underwood was saluted by the "Bulldog" staff as
was Mrs. Vera Coe, who has worked in the Library for
several years. . . . Nancy Holman, of Randolph, Vermont,
received recognition for her poem, "Night." It is to be
published in Annual Anthology of College Poetry. . . . Pro-
fessor and Mrs. A. H. Myers were recognized in February
by the "Bulldog" staff. . . . John Withers was elected presi-
dent of the Future Business Leaders of America. . . . Rabbi
Meyer H. Marx, of Temple Beth-el, in Knoxville, provided
the leadership for Brotherhood Week. . . . Student body
officers for the year included: President, James McQuain;
Vice-President, Ronnie Knight; Secretary, Dolores Mynatt;
Treasurer, Billie Dean Haley; Editor of Nocatula, John
Withers; Editor of Bulldog, Harold Hook.
David A. Bolton
My parents were Joseph Bokon, the only child of his
parents, and Saraphina Willett Bolton, the first born of her
parents, Joseph Willett and Susan Stout Willett.
My parents were married in Washington County,
Tennessee, May 1, 1845, and ever after, as long as each
lived, made their home in that of my father's parents.
My mother said that I began my earthly career in a
very early hour of January 1st, 1847, in the home of my
father and his parents.
My paternal ancestors included the large families of
Bowmans and Byerleys, who lived in Old Virginia, many
of them reading and conversing in the German language.
My maternal ancestors were pioneers of East Tennes-
see, were of Scotch-Irish descent, as represented by the
Willetts, Stouts and Broyleses.
The first sixteen and a half years of my life were spent
upon the farm — doing such chores and other work as fell
to the lot of a boy in those days. The first school I attended
was at McAllister's log school house, taught by my mother's
uncle, Montgomery Stout. Later a two-story brick school-
building was erected, much nearer my home, called Frank-
lin Academy. Here, during a number of years, a good
school was conducted by Misses Nan and Lou Telford.
I well remember the first small handsewing machine,
and the first cookstove brought into my Mother's home.
I watched with much eagerness the building near-by my
father's farm of the East Tennessee and Virginia Rail Road
now the Southern Railway. Not long afterwards, I was one
of a great company of farm-folks who assembled in Jones-
David A. Bolton 249
boro — the oldest town of Tennessee — to see the railway
train come into the old town from Virginia. It was a great
delight and revelation for a gawky and awkward country
boy in that day to pass through the "Passenger Coaches,"
and note their provisions for conveniences and comfort to
travellers. But it was more marvelous to look upon the
steam engine and meditate upon its intricate machinery
and its mighty power.
The two sets of parents in my boyhood home were
early risers. Their custom was, "Early to bed, and early
to rise." This enabled me to be up soon enough to hear,
as I often did, the blowing of the long college tin horn at
5 o'clock in the morning at old Washington College.
That gave me some idea of the work that was done
for young men of the South in that famous College in the
decade before the Civil War,
In my home in early life there were but few books, or
papers, nothing of fiction, story, or literature. My father
had a book of tables used for computing interest. Beside
this there was Fox's, Book of Martyrs, and a large and
illustrated Bible in German — Also an English Bible. My
uncles, Elbert Whitfield, and Washington Willett — living
a mile from my house — were students in Washington
College. Now and then I received from them texts on
mental and moral science which I read in part at too early
an age. Yet I have often thought that they formed the
basis of a desire and delight I experienced later in studying
books on Ethics and Philosophy.
During a long life I have often felt the lack in early
boyhood of books and the formation of the habit of read-
ing. My heart goes out in sympathy for the multitudes of
children who grow to manhood and womanhood without
good books and a strong desire to read them.
The Civil War between the States began in 1861. Ad-
250 A History of Temiessee Wesleyan College
herents to the Federal and Confederate factions were about
equal then in East Tennessee. The common civic condi-
tions were not much changed during the first two years.
No forces of opposing soldiery had crossed its soil, or for-
aged on its productions. Farms, towns and homes had not
been made desolate by hostile marauding troops.
But in the early Fall of 1863, conditions became very
different. The Confederate General Buckner, who for some
time past had with a small force held Knoxville, vacated
that City on the approach of a larger body of soldiers under
Federal General A. E. Burnside, who later held that place
against a superior force.
During many months small hostile forces foraged back
and forth over upper East Tennessee — occasionally
engaging in skirmishes.
A small force of infantry was sent out by Burnside on a
railway train and very nearly approached Jonesboro. There
a superior force of Confederates encountered it, and in
pushing it back toward Limestone Station, where it was
captured, a skirmish was engaged in along the railroad, just
north of and visible from the elevation on which was Frank-
lin Academy. This was in October, 1863, when many
young people had assembled at the Academy on that day
for the opening of school. That school never gathered
again. I was there then — in my seventeenth year. Other
young men were there who were about my age. They were
loyal to the United States, and for a time went to hiding
themselves from fear of being conscripted into the Southern
Army. The Union people of East Tennessee had great
hopes that General Burnside would soon take permanent
possession of the eastern Section of the State. Weeks were
passed by them cherishing the anticipation which was not
made real until in December 1864. General Hood's defeat
in the battle at Nashville freed Tennessee from the control
David A. Bolton 251
of the Confederate Army. Guerrillas, in some places,
continued their depredations.
Following the disruption of the school at Franklin
Academy, as previously related, I kept myself, a short time,
in concealment in my father's home, except when my broth-
er John and myself, when no enemy seemed nigh, would go
forth to hide a few good horses we highly prized. Our
efforts were not successful.
About this time a feeling of unrest possessed certain
men of the community and their friends. Such men were
Theopolus Britton, Haze and Harv Huffman, all in middle
life and Rev, John Rubush, a good preacher in the United
Brethren Church — and his only child, Paul, and myself.
The preacher and his son — a little younger than myself —
were my near neighbors. My parents specially requested
— if the men left the community - — that I should be put in
charge of minister Rubush.
We soon decided to leave our homes — we bade our
friends adieu — believing that such changes would occur in
the Civil War that we would not go far from our homes, or
be gone a long time. But such was not true as the sequel
will show. We went our way stealthily, in October 1863, to
the home of a Union man in the Southwestern part of
Greene County, where we remained quietly for near two
Departure for Kentucky
The small company of Union men, leaving their friends
in Greene County, passed in a North westerly direction
through the counties of Hamblen, Jefferson, Grainger, and
Claiborne, going by night through Talbott on the Southern
Railway, and Tazewell, and in the route crossing the rivers,
Holston, Clinch, Powell, Cumberland Gap, we arrived late
one evening at Barboursville, Kentucky, where we spent the
night — occupied one small room — part sleeping as best
252 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
they could on the floor. Our meals were served, in that
mountain town, in a distinct log structure, with no filling
in the chinks, a large open-fire place, an eneven dirt-floor,
and thereon a calf and many hounds.
This journey was unusually successful, and without
any disturbance. We passed through an enemy's country,
where loyal Union men on their way to the North had been
made prisoners or shot for their fealty to the Government of
the United States.
Some experiences on the route were new to men who
had been reared on the farm where life was quiet and of
uniform character. They had not been used to night travel,
and sleeping on floors, or in the open. Crossing in the chilly
autumn, the mountains and swollen creeks and rivers, was
a novelty but not always a pleasing one. Once in fording a
swollen stream, I was on horseback with Haze HuflFman
who was in the saddle, carrying me behind him on the same
horse. On arriving near the opposite bank, the hind legs
of the horse sank deep into the water and mud. So deep,
that I slid off his rump, fortunately landing on the bank, but
carrying in my hands part of an old overcoat worn by the
man riding in the saddle. My rider-companion, who was
of very jovial nature, and others, often laughed heartily
over that incident, congratulating me on landing on solid
Later we crossed the Cumberland River when a full
tide was on carrying drift wood now and then. This cross-
ing was in an obscure place — heavy wooded on each side
of the stream. Our only way to cross over was to unsaddle
the horses and have them swim, and put the saddles and
several men at one time in a long but narrow skiff formed
from the trunk of a tree. In the first load over the men
held, or lead, two horses on the upper side of the small boat.
Before the landing was made one horse touched the bottom
David A. Bolton 253
of the river with his rear feet and gave a lunge against the
vessel which nearly upset it — greatly frightening the men.
The other loads were taken over by placing the horses below
the boat, and if they pulled too strong on the halter they
were turned loose — as several were — reaching the farther
bank much below the place of landing.
It has long been a matter of thankfulness that I was
not in that first load going over. I could not swim; I es-
caped some fright.
To Cincinnati and Indianapolis
Leaving Barboursville the small company passed by
foot and horseback through Corbin, London, Richmond,
and on to Lexington, Kentucky. However, only Reverend
Rubush, his son Paul and myself, made the run from Rich-
mond, the others going to Crab Orchard then a center of
supplies and soldiers of the Federal Army.
Rev. Rubush, his son, and the writer spent a day in
Lexington sight seeing, and then went by railway to Cin-
cinnati, Ohio, our first visit in that City, stopping during
a Sabbath day at the Gibson Hotel. The weather was cold,
and now and then the wind was scattering snow flakes in
the air. During the afternoon, Paul and myself went stroll-
ing on the streets of the City. Once when turning a corner
we came suddenly face to face with a group of City boys
from twelve to fifteen years of age. They were well dressed,
and had on overcoats. Paul and myself were very different-
ly attired. I wore coarse, rough looking shoes, had a suit
of homewoven jeans of unusual color, a straw-hat made
from wheat straw by a lady artist of Tennessee. So when
the City chaps laid eyes on us, it is no wonder that they in
one voice cried out to us, "Butternuts! Butternuts!" They
hollowed and laughed, while Paul and myself passed on
quietly-smiling as best we could. I shall never forget that
254 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
"Butternut" was, in that time of 1863, a word applied
to refugees from the South, seeking the protection of the
While in Cincinnati on Saturday night I had my first
experience in a barber's shop, where my long hair was
trimmed, and I was given a general clean up, paying for it
On Monday we left Cincinnati for Indianapolis where
we met some friends of Tennessee who had preceded us,
they \vere John Bowen, Adam Andes, our former neighbors,
who had left East Tennessee about one year before to avoid
conscription into the Confederate Army. That was a joy-
ous meeting. They and their acquaintances were very good
to us as late refugees from Tennessee.
My experience in Indianapolis
I remained in the City about one month. I had no
money, having spent all of the small amount which I had
on leaving my home in Washington County, East Tennes-
see. I had not the needed supply of clothing for the rig-
orous winter. It was necessary for me to find work. I hired
to a man who kept a wood-yard, to drive a span of gray
horses and deliver wood, for my board and a little money.
I delivered wood to the State College in the City, and to
To Muncie and a Country Home
Mr. Adam Andes, knowing that I was not doing very
\vell hauling wood, and being well acquainted with my
father and family, secured for me — just before Christmas,
1863, a place in a Country home in Delaware County,
about ten miles South of Muncie, Indiana, He had pre-
viously spent a short time in this same home, and knew the
family, which consisted of Joseph Shirey, his wife and two
small children, and his wife's mother whom we called
Grandmother Bowers ■ — a widow of fine Christian spirit
David A. Bolton 255
and character — Mr. and Mrs. Shirey were such also ~-
all having come from Old Virginia,
I arrived at Muncie in the forenoon. It was a thawing
day and chilly. Some snow was on the ground, and the
road was wet and muddy for a footman wearing worn
brogans — but I walked alone out ten miles to my new
home, arriving there about noon.
The Shireys were looking for me. I told them who I
was, and that Mr. Andes had sent me to them. After look-
ing me over, Grandmother Bowers asked me if my feet
were wet. I replied, "Yes." She, rightly decided that I had
no change of socks, at once provided me with dry ones, and
my feet were soon more comfortable.
From that moment on for more than a year. Grand-
mother Bowers and Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Shirey were as
kind and loving toward me as my nearest kindred could
have been. They and Adam Andes proved themselves
"Friends indeed to me in need."
With Shireys — December, 1863 to September, 1-864
I remained with the Shirey family from just before
Christmas 1863 to September 1864. From the iron mineral
spring on their premises I drank water in abundance, I
ate from their table which was always well supplied with
a variety of good food. During a few months my weight
went from 156 pounds to 184 pounds, the greatest weight
I ever had before or since that time.
During the unusually cold weather, I did many chores,
such as preparing fuel, feeding and caring for horses, hogs
and cattle, with the temperature sometimes 25 degrees
to 30 degrees below zero.
In the spring and summer, I performed all kinds of
labor on the farm, and for several weeks was with a wheat
thrasher in the neigborhood where much wheat was grown.
Mr. Shirey gave me board and lodging paying me during
256 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
the winter twelve dollars a month, and in the summer
I went to school a short time, attended church services,
and as many patriotic functions as possible. The Blue
Uniform in that day was captivating, especially to a Ten-
nessean who had never before seen so many of them.
Soldier in the Civil War
In the Spring of 1864, Paul Rubush came from In-
dianapolis to work on a farm near where I was employed.
I did not afterwards get so lonely probably home-sick.
Paul remained during the summer. The war was still being
waged, without any indication that it would terminate soon.
Excitement throughout the North was high during 1864.
Calls were made for more Federal Soldiers. To obtain them
bounty-money was paid by Counties to secure their quota.
Delaware County paid each man who was accepted on
examination Five Hundred Dollars. While many young
men of Indiana were enlisting, Paul and myself could not
refrain from doing so. Many influences conspired to sweep
us into the Army. So we and our good friend Michael
Bowers, went to Indianapolis, where on September 13 th,
1864, A. D., we were enlisted in the 25th Battery of Light
Artillery Indiana Volunteers to serve one year, or during
the war. My age then was 1 7 years 8 months 1 2 days, and
I was enrolled as David Bolton.
The captain of the Battery was Frederick C. Strum,
then an experienced soldier.
I remained in camp at Indianapolis for about one
month. Up to this time the company had not received
equipment, or uniforms, nor had it been drilled. Soon it
had all supplies, was drilled, and hurried off to Nashville,
Tennessee to join the army of Gen. George H. Thomas who
was then preparing to meet the attack of Gen. John Bell
Hood's Confederate Army, then approaching that city.
David A. Bolton 257
The 25th Battery was composed mainly of veterans —
men who had served in the Federal Army as infantry-men,
or the department of cavalry, or artillery.
We arrived at Nashville in the last of November, 1 864,
and encamped hard by the State penitentiary where we
remained about fifteen days.
Battle of Nashville
In November 1864, the Confederate Army under Gen.
John B. Hood re-entered Tennessee, crossed the Tennessee
river, November 21, 1864, and marched for Nashville. An
estimate of the strength of the armies at this time was
Confederate, 33,393; Federal, 75,153.
In Hood's march toward Nashville, the battle of
Franklin was fought. Gen. Schoefield was sent to oppose
Gen. Hood. After skirmishing at Spring Hill, Schofield
retreated to Franklin where, on November 30, 1864, was
fought one of the hardest and most fatal battles of the
Civil War. Federal loss 2,326, Confederate loss 4,500.
Schofield retreated, followed by Hood who established his
army about two miles from Nashville on December 2nd,
Gen. George H. Thomas had assembled a great force
of Federals at Nashville, and on December 15th, says a his-
torian, assaulted the Confederate lines, and was repulsed.
The next day the assault was renewed and the Federal
forces were victorious, and Gen. Hood retreated on the
During this battle the 25th Indiana Battery was placed
on a high ridge from which its long-ranged guns were used
in throwing shells upon the enemy which replied causing
shells to explode near the position of the Battery. No mem-
bers of it were killed, or wounded. This was the only en-
gagement the Battery had while in the services.
258 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
On the March
The Battle of Nashville on December 16th, 1864,
from about noon to the middle of the afternoon was fierce
and bloody. Late on that day, Hood began his retreat to-
ward Franklin, and the forces of Gen. Thomas pursued
him, not stopping to camp until near midnight. The
weather was cold, and for days the slopes near the City
were covered with sleet and ice, and all that section covered
for the earlier hours with a very dense fog. Late at night
following the battle, the 25th Battery stopped for camp and
rest. All along the road that night the bodies of dead
soldiers could be seen under the light in the hands of an
As we were preparing for camp that night, the army
bands gave cheering music, all in the darkness.
The next day we passed through Franklin, and noted
some incidents of the bloody battle fought there on Novem-
ber 30th, 1864. Many dead horses were on the grounds,
while forests and houses revealed the hailstorm of the
missiles of war.
In a short time the Battery arrived at Duck River,
just beyond which was Columbia, "Tennessee. The river
bridge at this place had been destroyed and the Army was
delayed in crossing on a pontoon bridge. The weather was
very cold and soldiers suflFered much while waiting. Men
\\'ho were riding the horses of the Battery had their feet
frozen in the stirrups. The descent on the north bank of the
river was dangerous both to horses and men. A heavy
rope-cable was placed around a large post on the top of
the bank and one end of it attached to the rear of a caisson,
or a cannon to hold it off the six horses and the three men
in front. It was difficult for the horses to keep on foot,
down the steep incline.
By and by, all were safely over Duck River, and the
David A. Bolton 259
march was continued through Columbia, Lynnville and
From Pulaski on the road was much worse than we had
experienced since leaving Nashville. It was made almost
impassable by the train of wagons carrying various supplies
for the army.
We camped one night just beyond Pulaski, in lo
ground, protecting ourselves as best we could, from the
chill and the falling rain.
The next day we renewed our march, and at some
point in Giles County, December 25th, 1864, overtook us.
The stock of food for the men had been consumed, and no
renewal was then to be had. So part of this Christmas Day
was spent in foraging, and in camp preparing something
to eat. The main meal was taken without bread of any
kind, and consisted chiefly of coffee, and goosemeat and
Resuming the march, it was continued, without any
unusual incidents, towards Huntsville, Alabama.
The Stay at Huntsville
The 25th Battery arrived at Huntsville early in Jan-
uary 1865, and remained there about one month probably.
Huntsville in that day was a small and beautiful town,
having a very large spring of water gushing out from the
base of cliff in the City. The banks of the stream for some
distance were made of rock making a fine place for water-
ing stock. We often took the horses of the Battery there
for water. It was a beautiful and abundant supply of water
coming out of the ridge and foothills near by.
Near the close of our stay in Huntsville, the orders
came to take the horses away, and place the Battery on
garrison duty at old Decatur, Alabama. So the change
was made, perhaps, in February, and the men and guns
and supplies were sent by railway to Decatur, situated on
260 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
the South bank of the Tennessee River. There the Battery
with a few other forces remained until peace was declared,
bringing to a close the Civil War.
The sojourn of a few months at Decatur was monoto-
nous except as broken by contests in swimming across the
river, and by the news of the assassination of Abraham
Lincoln, President of the United States of America, in
Ford's Theater, Washington, D. C, on the evening of
April 14, 1865, by Wilkes Booth, "an actor and fanatical
secessionist." Lincoln was shot and died the next morning.
The Lincoln tragedy cast an indescribable gloom over
the people of the northern states, and the entire Federal
Army yet in service. The forces at Decatur were almost
prostrate with grief by the sudden cut off of a President
whom the entire soldiery greatly loved. Some soldiers were
enraged ; others were humiliated and despondent. It seemed
to me the greatest sadness that ever came into my young
manhood. I had never seen Lincoln yet I admired him.
The Civil War
"The actual outbreak of the war is dated from April
12, 1861; Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated for Second
term as President of United States on March 4, 1865; Gen.
Lee surrendered to Gen. Grant at Appomattox on April
26, 1865; within two months more all the Confederate
forces had laid down their arms."
Soon after the declaration of peace the 25th Battery
received orders to return to Indianapolis, Indiana, to be
discharged from the service. This was probably the last
of June 1865. This prospect brought much joy to all, but
to none quite so much as to myself and Paul Rubush, the
only Tennesseans, who now had hope of getting back to
their homes in Eastern Tennessee.
On leaving Decatur the Battery went to Nashville,
DAVID ALEXANDER BOLTON, Class 1872
Teacher, Trustee, College Historian
David A. Bolton 261
Tennessee, by railroad, and there deposited all equipment
of war. From there it went to Indianapolis, where, on
July 20, 1865, each man received his discharge as a soldier
from the Federal Army.
After purchasing some clothing for use by an American
citizen, I soon left on train for Muncie, Indiana, and in due
time was in my adopted home with Mr. Joseph Shirey and
family, whom I was glad to meet again for their kindness
I had loaned Shirey some money, and desired to collect
same before starting for my home in Tennessee. It was now
about last of July 1865, and while in the Shirey home I
was taken with chills and ague, incident to that country,
and was detained there for a fortnight. This was my first
experience with chills. I had seen babies chill, and soldiers
chill and shake while on the march, and wondered how
they kept their place in the army.
About August 5, 1865, I bade adieu to the Shirey
family, and by way of Muncie returned to Indianapolis,
where I was joined by Paul Rubush. Then he and I soon
left that city for our respective parental homes in the Vol-
unteer State, passing through Louisville, Kentucky, Nash-
ville, Chattanooga, and Knoxville, Tennessee, arriving at
Telford on August 9, 1865, late in the afternoon. The ride
from Nashville was long and rough. The railway track and
cars were in need of repair. We and others rode most of
the route in a box-car with no accommodation except a few
rickety old benches. We were from ten p.m. August 8th
to four p.m. August 9th in making the run from Chattanoo-
ga to Telford on the East Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia
That which most engaged our thought was getting to
our homes among the hills, which now seemed higher than
262 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
On the afternoon of my leaving the train, I walked
down the Little Limestone Creek valley, about two miles to
my old home, the home of my boyhood and manhood —
which, under very peculiar circumstances, I had left twenty-
two months before. I had enjoyed during that time good
health, having no sickness except the chills and ague. God
had been good to me, and all the dear ones at home, from
whom, during long periods, no letters reached me, and mine
could not get to them, because of the hostile armies between
But I was at home once more ! My Mother first met me
between the spring and the old home with its white walls
and green shutters. Blessed Home ! Happy meeting of par-
ents, brothers and sisters — all there !
John Ho\\ard Payne blessed many hearts when he
sang, "Home, Sweet Home," saying,
'"Mid pleasures and palaces though we may roam.
Be it ever so humble, there's no place like home;
A charm from the skies seems to hallow us there,
Which, seek through the world, is ne'er met with
Home, home, sweet, sweet, home,
Be it ever so humble, there's no place like home."
Desolation Due to Civil War
The waste and ruin to homes and farms in East Ten-
nessee was very great. The Bolton farm at the beginning of
the Civil War was very productive and well supplied for
that day with sheep, hogs, cattle and horses. Before I left
home, each army foraged over a large portion of the eastern
part of the State. My brother John and myself in the Fall
of 1863, made every effort to save from Confederate forces,
six good horses, especially two which we prized very highly,
and thought one day we had them safely concealed. But
David A. Bolton 263
in short time a few cavalry men passed the home leading
our favorite horses. We felt keenly our loss.
At the close of the War the farm was wholly without
live stock. By slow processes and sacrifice that most needed
for support of the family was soon secured. During two
years the usual crops had not been produced. People were
short of provisions — some of which could not be secured,
such as sugar, coffee, tea and other articles which could
not be grown there. Many citizens grew sugar cane and
made sarghum, and devised a so-called substitute for coffee
from parched wheat, or particles of sweet potatoes. Poor
makeshifts for the genuine goods! While I had a great va-
riety of good food in Indiana, my home-folks and others in
East Tennessee were subsisting on scanty rations.
No one knows the privations and sufferings of those
war-time-years in East Tennessee, except those who experi-
The foregoing lines but vaguely describe the conditions
when I returned home. The country had been wasted by
forces of opposing armies into which many boys, young
men and old men, had gone to fight against each other.
Families and communities often had representatives in each
army, while at home were scouts, or marauding bands on
each side. These conditions made civic life tense, critical,
and unfriendly, which did not cease when the war ended.
The material surroundings and the spiritual influences
about my old home were not as favorable as they were be-
fore the beginning of hostilities.
The fact was, I was at home. What should I do? What
could I do? During the years of my absence, I had saved
a few hundred dollars in Federal money. That was needed
by my parents, and it served them.
I was just a little past eighteen and a half years of age,
and desired to resume my education, but being the oldest
264 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
child of my parents, my first duty was to aid them in their
time of need, which I did in both labor and money.
Desire for an Education
Why I desired, at an early age, an education I do not
know. It may be I did not, I may have attributed impres-
sions of later years to those sooner gone by. Any way, here
are a few facts.
My home was not supplied with books, or literature
adapted to a growing boy. My mother had three brothers,
Elbert, Whitfield, and Washington Willett, whose home
\\'as near mine, and who \v(^yc students in Washington Col-
lege which could be seen in part from my father's farm. I
now and then, \vhen a boy, met them in their place of study
at home with books and papers. As soon as I could write
and knew a little arithmetic, I kept the accounts of an old
blacksmith, near my home, who could neither read nor
write. ^Vhilc in the army, I was often requested, by soldiers
older than myself, to write letters to their friends.
The foregoing truths, and influences lead me to this
conclusion, "If I ever get home, I will seek more training
At Laurel Hill Academy
On September 4, 1865, I entered Laurel Hill Academy
which was about five miles from my father's home, and
vSouth east therefrom not far from the mountains. The
principal. Professor Henderson Presnell, a brother of my
class-mate, in 1872, Alexander Mathes Presnell, had taught
there before the Civil War. In later years, he was superin-
tendent of schools of Washington County, and died in
Washington, D. C, where he had long been in the Educa-
tional Department of the LInited States. He ^vas a gradu-
ate of Emory and Henry College in Virginia, a Christian
gentleman and an exemplary teacher. He \vas born a
teacher, wide awake, kind, genial, much interested in his
David A. Bolton 265
pupils. When students were slow in replies, he often cried
out, what I never forgot, "Tempus Fugit!" Tempus
Fugit!" "Time Flys!" "Time Flys!"
There were in this school in 1865-1866, the following
young men, beside myself, who had served, as soldiers in
Federal Army. W. Calvin Keezle, Adam Broyles, W. E.
F. Milburn. During this year I was a student in Arithmetic,
Algebra, Geometry, English and Chemistry. On March 1,
1866, I was forced to leave school because of another attack
of chills, and a failing in my eyes. I returned home and
spent the spring and summer of 1866 in recuperation and
work on the farm. In September 1866 I again entered the
same school, where I remained the full year, I began the
study of Latin at Laurel Hill.
During the two years at Laurel Hill, the writer and the
following, Cal and Jake Keezle, David Miller and Adam
Broyles kept "Bachelor's Hall," we lived in a cottage and
prepared our own meals, except what was brought ready for
use, from our respective homes. Those were days of work
and study, yet were full of joys of life.
I passed the summer of 1867 at home, and at work on
the farm, still feeling that I ought to go to school longer.
At Franklin Academy
Professor Presnell retirccf from school at Laurel Hill
and taught some years in Jonesboro. His former students
separated to various places.
At the opening of the scholastic year of 1867-1868, I
put myself in the Franklin Academy, near my home on a
hill overlooking the old Earnest Chapel of the Methodist
Episcopal Church in the bend of the Little Limestone
creek. I remained in school here the entire year. The school
was large , and well conducted by the principal Reverend
Professor, A. R. Bennick, who had recently taught a few^
266 A History of Tennessee yVesleyan College
years at Johnson City, and because of his popularity there
many of his students follov/ed him to FrankHn.
I there continued the study of Latin, reading the writ-
ings of Cicero and Horace, and began the study of Greek.
The instruction, fellowship, and interest in the work of the
literary society was encouraging and helpful.
I spent part of the summer of 1868 on the farm. I was
impressed that I should do something to help support my-
self, and not go to school next year. So I canvassed for sale
of books, but did not succeed. Then I decided to secure a
position to teach school.
My First Experience in Teaching
During the fall and winter of 1868-1869, I made an
effort to teach my first schools. I taught first a five-month
school in Miller's church on Jockey Creek, one and a half
miles from where it empties into Big Limestone creek. This
was a subscription school. I boarded with my father's
uncle, Henry Bolton, who lived near the Church. One night
about 2 A. M. this good uncle called me out of my bed and
sleep to witness my first meteoric shower in the northern
heavens. I never before had seen anything equal to it.
My second school was taught in the early months of
1869 in Williams school house on the east slope of the
ridge north-east of my boarding place. These schools were
of primary grade, yet I presumed to teach one pupil in
Practical Arithmetic, and another in Mental Science.
However, I was not discouraged in my hrst experience
in teaching school, but found interest in the text-books,
the pupils, and the government of them. I found in each
hard tasks, and amusements.
Eventful Summer of 1869
I was again on the old farm which always gave its
events of labor, food, service and good will, and good fellow-
ship. Many times during a long life have I been thankful
David A. Bolton 267
for the lessons on work and helpfulness taught on the farm
and in the home, during boyhood and early manhood.
Eventful! Yes, Much So!
During this summer, my mother's oldest brother, a
graduate of Emory and Henry College, Virginia, late a
Colonel in the Confederate Army, now a lawyer in Carrol-
ton, Alabama, Elbert Decatur Willett - — visited my mother
in Washington County, Tennessee. He and I were horseback
riding one day to his old home about one mile away. He in-
troduced and continued a talk on education, and asked me
what I aimed to do. I was not decided, really had no plan
for my life. I replied, "I must quit going to school, and take
up farming." He soon said, "You ought not to do that, you
have a good start for college." We rode on a short time in
silence, when he said, "Get ready to go to college until you
are graduated and I will loan you the money you need, and
you can have all the time you desire in which to pay it
This was a difficult problem to a young man who had
been reared to avoid making a debt. I said to him, I will
consider your advice and offer of a loan. Eventful ! Yes, in-
tensely so. I stood at the divide of two roads, one leading
to the farm, the other to college. Which should I take? In
the meantime, two visitors came to the home of my parents
in my behalf, each having for my 'life the same goal. One
was W. E. F. Milburn who had been in school with me at
Laurel Hill, and was the preceding year in the college at
Athens, Tennessee, the other was Rev. W. H. Rogers, an
aged member of the Holston Annual Conference, and the
financial agent of .the East Tennessee Wesleyan University,
founded there in 1866 by the Methodist Episcopal Church.
The advice of these two friends and that of my good uncle
combined in bringing me to a decision to enter the Univer-
sity at Athens.
268 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
So I supplied myself with clothing and money for a
year and late in August 1868 went to Athens for purpose of
entering the University.
A Student at Athens from August 1869 to June 19, 1872
I remained a few days in the family of Mitchel Gaston
on Washington Street nearly opposite the old Methodist
Church. Then, W. E. F. Milburn, Alexander M. Presnell
and myself went to the home of William Howard, adjacent
to the Cedar Grove Cemetery, where we boarded until
June 1870. The residence was a two-story brick situated on
a knoll with a spring and large oaks hard by. In our room
each evening, by turns, a selection of the Scriptures was
read and prayer was offered.
During this first year, I applied myself diligently to the
proper activities of the college, such as study of text books
and work in the literary society; so much so that I lost near
thirty pounds in my weight.
I continued the classical course of study, reading both
Latin and Greek. But the subjects which greatly interested
me, as taught by that great teacher and ripe scholar, Rev.
Nelson E. Cobliegh, D.D., the President, was Mark Hop-
kins, "Law of Love and Love as a Law," and Noah Porter's
"Human Intellect." I highly prize these books, and have
gone to them often during the fifty-six years they have been
in my small library.
"I love my books! they are companions dear,
Sterling in worth, in friendship most sincere."
While a student , I spent the Christmas holidays in
Athens, and the summer vacation on the old farm.
The summer of 1870 gave me great concern on two
points, first about my return to college, second, what should
I take up for my life work.
From a diary kept that summer, I give the following
David A. Bolton 269
Sunday, June 25, 1870 — I have thought today about
my future Hfe. My great desire is to do some good. My
want of means is an embarrassment. If I was only through
Monday, August 1, 1870 — I took my horse (one my
father and his father gave me) to Limestone and sold him
to J. B. Barkley for $140 cash and returned home on foot.
I think now I am prepared for another year in college. —
My hopes grow brighter.
Tuesday, August 30, 1870 — I leave home this morn-
ing with $156 for Athens. My father and grandfather are
affected. This is a drawback to me.
Monday, September 12, 1870 — Athens. I received a
short letter from my uncle, E. D. Willett, Carrolton, Ala.,
saying, "I am glad you have gone to college again, that is
the place to lay the foundation for future usefulness."
On my arrival in Athens I found the teachers of the
last year in their places, — Dr. N. E. Cobleigh, President,
Rev. J. C. Barb, Mathematics; Rev. J. J. Manker, Greek;
Edwin A. Atlee, Latin; Miss Helen Bosworth, music; Miss
Margarita M. Hauschild, English; (now Jan. 12, 1926, all
dead, except Miss Hauschild who is now the widow of the
late Rev. E. M. Smith, D.D., and living with her daughter
at 1669 Overton Park Ave., Memphis, Tennessee.)
Many former students were students again. All my
During years 1870-1871, and 1871-1872, I boarded in
the home of Mrs. Atlee, the widow of the late Rev. Edwin
A. Atlee, and her widowed daughter Mrs. S. C. Luter, and
sons B. G. and Edwin A. Junior, a most excellent Christian
family. No peculiar incident came into my second year in
college except one noted in connection with the close of my
last and third year in college.
270 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
Methodist Convention at the University
This convention met June 15-19, 1871. It was com-
posed of representatives from Methodist Episcopal Churches
in the middle west, the eastern states and specially from
the Southern States. The purpose was to advance the in-
terests of the Church and its education in the South. Per-
haps the ablest paper read to the convention was that by
Rev. E. Q. Fuller, D. D., then editor of "The Methodist
Advocate," published at Atlanta, Ga., on "The Relations
of the East Tennessee Wesleyan University to the Pros-
perity of our Work in the South." The author and the
convention favored only one University in the South for
white people and that one the University at Athens, Ten-
— See Pamphlet of published proceedings of Convention.
First Class — 1871 — Graduated
One of the most interesting functions of the University
was the graduation of its first class on June 14, 1871, com-
posed as follows: Edwin A. Atlee, John Henry Clay Foster,
Joseph L. Gaston, Wiley S. Gaston, Josephine Gaston,
Cornelia Atlee, John J. Manker, Mary J. Mason, W. E. F.
Milburn, Susan Lizzie Moore.
1871 — Junior Class
David Alexander Bolton, Marshall Monroe Callen,
Samuel Silas Curry, Alexander Mathes Presnell, John O.
Last Year in University
This year opened August 31, 1871, myself and all mem-
bers of my class present. Their determination to complete
the course encouraged me, as did also the loan of money
tendered by my worthy uncle. The Faculty was unchanged.
During part of this year I taught a class in Greek to pay
my tuition. During this year I kept a more complete diary
of incidents and experiences in my personal career.
David A. Bolton 271
On May 8, 1872, I received a letter from my old
home with a request from my grand-father, David Bolton,
to come to his bedside as he was sick and did not expect
to recover. I was by his bed early next morning. He died
May 12th; funeral next day and interment made in Lime-
stone Cemetery of the Dunkard Church of which he had
been a member for many years. I remained until May 25th
when I returned to Athens to complete my senior year, now
so near its close, on June 19, 1872.
The commencement exercises. Dr. N. E. Cobleigh,
President presiding, were held during the forenoon on the
third floor of the first -and only building at that day on the
campus. The places of honor on the program were "Saluta-
tory" and "Valedictory," given to the two members of the
class having the highest grades during the collegiate years,
the highest determining who should give the valedictory
oration, which now fell to S. S. Curry. The Salutatory went
to D. A. Bolton.
The class of 1872 was made up as follows: — David
Alexander Bolton, Telford, Washington County; Marshall
Monroe Callen, Thorn Grove, Knox County; Samuel Silas
Curry, Chatata, Bradley County; James Milton Patterson,
Ten Mile, Meigs County; Alexander Mathes Presnell,
Brownsboro, Washington County.
All were from homes of good common people in East
Tennessee ; each received the degree of A.B. — Bachelor of
Arts ; each was, and had been for years, an active Christian
in the Methodist Episcopal Church.
Immediately following an alumni address, in the col-
lege chapel of that day, before a large audience, occurred the
marriage of David Alexander Bolton and Miss Ann Eliza-
beth Hornsby; Dr. Nelson E. Cobleigh officiating, assisted
by Rev. John W. Mann, D.D. The special attendants were
by couples, Prof. Edwin A. Atlee and Miss Nannie Gibson ;
272 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
Joseph L. Gaston and Miss Mattie Rider; Marshall M.
Callcn and Miss Helen Bosworth; Alexander M. Presnell
and Miss Mary Mason; M. Mack Fitzgerald and Miss
Florence Fisher; Prof. W. E. F. Milburn and Miss Mar-
garita M. Hanschild.
The marriage ceremony being concluded, the bridal
party and a fe\v friends, went to the corner of Green and
Gollege Streets, the home of the bride's parents. Major and
Mrs. James H. Hornsby, for a supper. Near midnight the
bride and groom boarded a train for Telford, Tennessee,
\vhere we arrived in the early morning, and met that day
in the old home a large number of friends and neighbors,
and appreciated their congratulations.
The Year in Washington County
On June 20, 1872, myself and wife, with the consent of
my parents, took our places as members of their family.
My father and mother were then living, as were my three
brothers, John F., Elbert V., Henry W., and two sisters,
Susan Caroline, and Alice Florine, none of them married.
During the year peace, love and happiness prevailed.
In August I began teaching a school at Franklin Acad-
emy, nearby, where I had been a student in other years.
Tw enty-six pupils were enrolled at first, which number was
increased during the winter. The school was never satis-
factory, cither in attendance, or salary. So after its close
in April 1873, myself and wife were prospecting for another
position but I had not accepted any offer.
In the meantime our first child was born on May 15, 1873,
and named Ophie May.
At the meeting of the Board of Trustees of the Univer-
sity at Athens, on May 28, 1873, I was elected a member
of the Faculty for the next year at a salary of $600 of which
I was promptly notified by my good friend Jacob S. Mat-
thews, Secretary of the Board. As I had made no applica-
David A. Bolton 273
tion, this election to teach in my Alma Mater came as a
great surprise to me and my dear wife. Her father, a trustee,
was doubtless a great factor in my election, which brought
great joy to me and to her. To her it meant going back to
home-folks and many dear friends ; to me it was the solution
of a perplexing problem in my life by taking me back
among friends, who knew my reputation and character for
righteous living. So our hearts were gladdened with the
decision of returning to Athens. The call seemed provi-
Major James H. Hornsby kindly offered us a home
in his family without expense for one year. Therefore, on
July 9, 1873, my wife with our first born babe, returned to
her parental home, while I remained making a few col-
lections on my subscription school accounts.
Places Where Myself and Family Resided:
In Athens, Tennessee.
In 1873-1874, with the family of my father-in-law.
Major James Hornsby, at corner of Green and College
We began housekeeping near corner of Church and
Bank Streets, in old log structure West of a new brick house
erected by William Turner, in August 1874, and remained
there until November 1874.
Then we moved to North Hill Street about middle
of block north of Washington Street on the West side.
This was an inferior structure, not by any means attractive,
or comfortable in cold weather. The winter while here, in
1876-1877, was very cold, once about 24 degrees below
zero. There our twin boys were born, July 19, 1877.
In August 1877, we rented the widow Urey property
eastern corner of College Street and Black Alley, later
named Long Street, and the family soon occupied it —
placing me near the University and my wife near her par-
274 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
ents home. We remained there four years ; have lived seven
years in very inferior rented property.
In October 1881, my wife and I contracted for and
purchased our first and only earthly home of Rev. John
W. Mann, D. D., and his wife, a lot fronting near 132 feet
on Jackson Avenue, and about 270 feet on South side of
College Street, lying South of College Campus. On this lot
was a two-room one story brick with three small rooms in
the rear made of boards placed vertically. Into this the
father and mother with five children moved in November
There the family resided until the summer of 1889,
when the Grant Memorial University at Athens, and the
Chattanooga University were united and placed under the
same management. I was elected Professor of Mathematics
in the department at Chattanooga. At this time I had
secured and paid for an architect's plans for a nice home on
the Mann lot. I sacrificed all, and in summer of 1889 took
my family to Chattanooga where we lived in low-rent prop-
erty on Vine Street on Fort Wood for three years before be-
ing sent back to Athens 1892 to resume my work there as
Professor of Mathematics. Parents and children were glad to
go back to the old home-place, and into a new cottage on
corner of College and Long Streets, built while we lived in
Chattanooga. There the family dwelt until the fall of
1898, when it occupied the new two-story ten-room frame
house, built during late spring and summer of 1898, on the
site of the old house on the Mann-lot when it was pur-
Upon the insistence of my good and faithful wife, the
family furnished board and lodging, or only meals, at each
place it resided in Athens, generally to students or teachers
before the time of boarding halls on the college campus.
David A. Bolton 275
After getting into the large new home, rooms and
meals were given during a few years to a limited number
of transient, or travelling men. In this way some money was
saved to pay in part a small debt made in building.
The Call to Teach — Continuance Therein
In May 1873, the Board of Trustees elected me to
teach Matematics in my Alma Mater, the East Tennessee
Wesleyan University, at Athens, Tennessee. I accepted,
and taught Mathematics in year 1873-1874.
During the next two years, by appointment, I taught
Latin and Greek.
Then by election, I taught Mathematics from 1876
to 1889, a total of thirteen years.
Then following the union of the two Universities, I
was transferred to Chattanooga where I taught the same
subject during three years.
From September 1892 to June 1920 — 28 years — at
Athens, I taught Mathematics, chiefly, sometimes I taught
classes in Ethics and History of Philosophy.
I have taught, consecutively, forty-seven years in the
In June 1920, I was put in Emeritus Relation, with no
classes to teach, but retained a member of Faculty at Athens
during five years on a small pension, thus giving me the
relation of teaching in the same Institution during a period
of fifty-two years, preceded by three years of experience as
a student, beginning at Athens in August 1869, a grand
total of fifty-five years, including many years as Secretary
of the Faculty, and some years as a trustee and secretary
of the Board of Trustees of the University at Athens.
Relationship to My Teachers and to Faculties
One of the good experiences of a student is his pleasant
relations to his teachers. During my early years when a
student in the public schools or the Academy, I cherished a
276 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
proper regard and respect for my instructors, believing they
were my helpers toward a better and higher way of living.
This was specially true when I entered the University
at Athens. There I had a high appreciation of my teachers.
True, the lessons were hard, and the requirements of teach-
ers often seemed exacting. This was particularly true of
work required by Dr. N. E. Cobleigh, President of the Uni-
versity, when in reading Homer, he required each member
of the class to bring each day a good written translation of
the previous lesson. Then his assignment for lessons in
Latin and in Greek seemed great. One day he spoke of it
before the class, saying, "Young men, if you can endure
this pressure now, you need not fear work that may come to
During my long service as a teacher at Athens and
Chattanooga, it was one of my greatest pleasures to be
associated with about one hundred Professors — probably
sixty men and forty women, — each one, as I believe
earnestly engaged in doing the best possible things for those
who were their pupils. I was much helped by the associa-
tion and fellowship of my fellow teachers.
I especially appreciated their counsel, during the years
at Athens, when as Vice President of the University, or
acting Dean, it was my duty to act as Chairman of the
Faculty and keep watch on the discipline of the students.
During many years I have held in grateful memory
the wisdom and support of the good men and "noble
women" of those times so greatly worthwhile to the lives of
young men and women.
Experience and Importance of Teaching
Early in my experience as a teacher I saw the import-
ance of knowmg well the subject being taught, the pupil
to be taught, and what makes the teaching process effectual.
Here are three essentials of the true teacher — himself, his
David A. Bolton 277
pupil and what it is to teach. These lead me to a diligent
study of books on teaching from which I obtained more
valuable information than I received from teachers'
I was much helped by a definition of teaching given
by the author of a book I read when he said "Teaching is
causing another to know;" and then adding, in substance,
telling a thing, or talking is not at all times teaching. The
teacher in the act of teaching is a mediator, or middleman
— between the subject being taught, and the student to be
taught. The teacher must know what he is trying to teach,
and the necessary activities of the learner that he may be
taught. Thus equipped the teacher's efforts bring into a
state of fusion the thoughts of the pupil and the thought
in the subject being taught. Such is teaching, a condition
of paramount importance.
The duly exacting teacher in the class-room is often
unpopular with students who think his requirements are too
rigid, although they may not be more so than truth and
life demand. This demand arises generally from the fact
that the teaching process calls the student to a higher and
an unusual mental activity.
Three Great Fields of Activity and Service
During many years, my life and energies were devoted
to three regions of activities — 1, My Family, 2, The
Church, 3, The College.
I served the College, the cause of education, as here-
in previously related — for more than fifty years, laboring
earnestly and devotedly for the cause of Christian Educa-
tion, by teaching, by character, and by daily life endeavor-
ing to enrich and equip the lives of young men and young
women for much worth while service in later years.
During more than half a century, I was interested in
278 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
the welfare of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Athens,
Tennessee, often failing to do my full duty due it.
This Church, its membership, worshipped, from 1863
to 1910, in five different buildings, three of them being
rented for Church services. In October 1910, the members
of said church and its friends first found a permanent home
and place of worship in the new, beautiful, and commodi-
ous temple at corner of Jackson Avenue and College Street,
located adjacent to and South East of the Campus of the
College of said Church.
I served for many years as Secretary of the Board of
Trustees of the Church; and was for thirty-five years
Superintendent of its Sunday School.
Since March 1924, I have been teacher of the Judge
Brown Men's Bible Class.
4f * *
During my first year in college at Athens as a student,
I devoted myself studiously to rank high as a student. The
primary purpose was good scholarship. I was regular in
attendance upon Sunday School and Church services, and
the public activities of the university and of the Athenian
Literary Society, I did not call upon any young lady or
frequent social functions in the homes in that day.
I noted the regular attendance on services in the church
of a certain young woman of beautiful carriage and form
with very praise-worthy conduct. Near the beginning of
my second year in the university, I sought and found her
company in the home of her parents. Major James H.
Hornsby and his wife, at corner of Green and College
Streets. This was the beginning of an association which
grew into real love of each for the other, and later into
courtship and marriage of David A. Bolton and Ann
David A. Bolton 279
Elizabeth Hornsby, each being the first born of their
The marriage was a pubHc one, and occurred on the
third floor of the Old Administration Hall of the university
before a large audience, following the first address to
Alumni given by Professor Edwin A. Atlee, A.B., Class of
1871, first class from University. The second class consist-
ing of five young men from East Tennessee, each a member
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, the writer being one
of them, was graduated, during forenoon of June 19, 1872.
The marriage ceremony was performed by Rev. Nelson
E. Cobleigh, D.D., LL. D., closing a four year period as
President of East Tennessee Wesleyan University, assisted
by Rev. John W. Mann, D.D., my personal friend, who
was during many years, a member of the Holston Confer-
ence which was instrumental in founding the University
After a special supper in the home of Major Hornsby
with a few friends, the bride and groom boarded a train on
Southern Railway for the home of the groom's parents in
Washington County, East Tennessee, where the newly
married ones spent a very happy year, his wife helping in
the work of a farmer's home, and the husband doing many
kinds of work on the farm during the summer and teaching
school near by during the winter of 1872-1873.
While passing through a period of uncertainty as to
where I would teach another year, the call came to me to
teach in my Alma Mater. I and my dear wife, who was
now mother of our first-born, very joyfully accepted, and
before the summer was ended we were, by invitation, in
the home of her parents, where we continued during the
scholastic year 1873-1874.
We have here another year of happiness together —
280 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
she with her father and family and friends and I starting in
what turned out to be a long period of teaching in the same
institution, from 1873 to 1920, 47 years in active work as a
A. BOARD OF TRUSTEES
PANEL OF 1957
Earl Blazer Maryville, Tennessee
C. A. Brabston Newport, Tennessee
Fred C. Buck Abingdon, Virginia
Grover C. Graves Athens, Tennessee
Fred B. Greear Norton, Virginia
H. D. Hart Oak Ridge, Tennessee
Mark M. Moore Elizabethton, Tennessee
Roy H. Short.-.- Nashville, Tennessee
George H. Smith Knoxville, Tennessee
W. D. Sullins - Athens, Tennessee
PANEL OF 1958
J. A. Bays Oak Ridge, Tennessee
R. A. Brock Chattanooga, Tennessee
C. E. Lundy Chattanooga, Tennessee
E. V. Richardson Marion, Virginia
S. B. R)'mer, Jr - Cleveland, Tennessee
W. M. Seymour Chattanooga, Tennessee
Lynn Sheeley Morristown, Tennessee
Charles C. Sherrod Johnson City, Tennessee
W. S. Steele - Johnson City, Tennessee
William C. Walkup Knoxville, Tennessee
PANEL OF 1959
Robert C. Burton Kingsport, Tennessee
R. H. Duncan Knoxville, Tennessee
D. Trigg James -Johnson City, Tennessee
Carrie R. Kirk Greeneville, Tennessee
R. R. Kramer Maryville, Tennessee
John A. Messer, Jr Galax, Virginia
Mrs. H. M. Russell Tazewell, Virginia
*F. B. Shelton Emory, Virginia
R. G. Waterhouse Knoxville, Tennessee
W. Paul Worley Atlanta, Georgia
PANEL OF 1960
Robert W. Flegal. - Rossville, Georgia
Harley Fowler Knoxville, Tennessee
C. P. Hardin Chattanooga, Tennessee
H. Olin Troy.-- Bristol, Virginia
Hebron Ketron Athens, Tennessee
Carroll H. Long Johnson City, Tennessee
W. N. Neff --- Abingdon, Virginia
R. O. VanDyke Tazewell, Virginia
E. E. Wiley, Jr Kingsport, Tennessee
E. D. Worley- Johnson City, Tennessee
*Deceased April 28, 1957
282 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
LeRoy A. Martin Athens, Tennessee
Herbert G. Stone Kingsport, Tennessee
M. C. Weikel Cleveland, Tennessee
Rhea Hammer Athens, Tennessee
Tom SheiTnan Athens, Tennessee
OFFICERS OF THE BOARD
*F. B. Shelton Chairman
Hebron Ketron Vice-Chairman
Harley Fowler Secretary
Hebron Ketron, Chairman Carroll H. Long
Harley Fowler, Secretary Mark M. Moore
J. A. Bays Mrs. H. M. Russell
R. H. Duncan Roy H. Short
Grover C. Graves W. D. Sullins
C. P. Hardin *F. B. Shelton
R. R. Kramer William C. Walkup
Miss Muriel Day
LeRoy A. Martin
DEVELOPMENT AND FUNDS COMMITTEE
LeRoy A. Martin, Chaimian Harry Hawkins
Scott Mayfield, Secretary R. R. Kramer
Ralph Duggan Carroll H. Long
Harley Fowler W. D. Sullins
\V. D. Hairrell W. C. Walkup
ONE HUNDREDTH ANNIVERSARY COMMITTEE
Grover C. Graves, Chairman
Ralph Duggan, Secretary
W. P. Chestnutt
^Deceased April 28, 1957
Mark M. Moore
E. E. Wiley, Jr.
James H. Willson
B. PRESIDENTS OF BOARD OF TRUSTEES
1857-1866 WilHam H. Ballew
1867 - 1869 The Reverend Thomas H. Pearne, D.D.
1870- 1871 Theodore Richmond
1872 - 1873 The Reverend N. E. Cobleigh, D.D., LL. D.
1874 - 1875 The Reverend J. Albert Hyden
1876- 1880 J. W. Ramsey
1881 - 1882 The Reverend E. Q. Fuller, D.D.
1882 - 1885 Bishop Henry W. Warren, D.D.
1886 - 1890 Bishop J. M. Walden, D.D., LL.D.
1891-1897 Captain H. S. Chamberlain
1898 - 1899 Bishop D. A. Goodsell, D.D., LL.D.
1899- 1916 Captain H. S. Chamberlain
1917- 1921 Bishop T. S. Henderson, D.D., LL.D.
1922 - 1925 Z. W. Wheland
1925 - 1928 Judge Xenophon Hicks
1929 - 1948 General James A. Fowler
1949-1957 *The Reverend F. B. Shelton, D. D.
C. FACULTY AND STAFF
OFFICERS OF ADMINISTRATION
LeRoy A. Martin, D.D President
F. Heisse Johnson, Ph.D Dean
Paul Riviere, B.D Dean of Admissions and Registrar
*F. B. Shelton, D.D Director of Public Relations
Mary Nelle Jackson Administrative Secretary
R. E. Branham, C.P.A Bursar
Enid Parker Bryan, Ph. D Professor of English and Classics
F. Heisse Johnson, Ph. D C. O. Jones Professor of Religion
Louis C. Jordy, Ph.D Professor of Chemistry and Physics
A. H. Walle, Ed.D Professor of Education
G. A. Yates, M.A Professor of Mathematics
J. Van B. Coe, M.A Associate Professor of Economics and Sociology
**Carl Boggess Honaker, M.S Associate Professor of Chemistry
Alfred Jack Houts, M.M Associate Professor of Music
and Choral Director
*Deceased April 28, 1957
284 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
B. T. Hutson, M.S Associate Professor of Business Administration
Richard Mann Johnson, M.S Associate Professor of Biology
John M. Martin, Ph.D ..Associate Professor of History
Claryse D. Myers, B.S. in L.S Librarian
T. G. Richner, Ph.D Associate Professor of Modem Languages
Paul Riviere, B.D.. Associate Professor of History
E. G. Rogers, M.A , ..Associate Professor of English
M. Clifton Smith, M.S Associate Professor of Education
John J. McCoy, M.S Assistant Professor of Biology and Chemistry
William M. McGill, M.A ...Assistant Professor of English
Reva Puett, M.A Assistant Professor of Home Economics
Frances J. Biddle, A.M Instructor in Physical Education
Harry W. Coble, M.A Instructor in Speech and Dramatics
Mary L. Greenhoe, M.M Instructor in Piano and Organ
Rankin Hudson, B.S Instructor in Physical Education
Fred Puett, LL.B Instructor in Commercial Subjects
James L. Robb, A.M., LL.D ..President
C. O. Douglass, M.A Registrar — Associate Professor of Education
A. H. Myers, B.D Professor of Philosophy
Mands Cunningham, B.S Instructor in Science and History
Abraham Feinstein, D.D Visiting Instructor in History of Judaism
John I. Foster, Jr., LL.B Instructor in Business Administration
James C. GufTey, B.S Instructor in Business Administration
Frances S. Graves, B.A Instructor in Art
Martha B. Hale Instructor in Art
*William Harry Joubert, Ph.D Instructor in Economics
George R. Koons, B.A Instructor in Business Administration
James Pikl, M.A ..Instructor in Business Administration
Harold N. Powers, M.S Instructor in Education
Wilmer B. Robbins, B.D Instructor in Bible
Paul Rowland, B.D Visiting Professor of English
Helen M. Richards, M.D ....Assistant Professor of Biology
ErUgene Sadler, B.S Instructor in Business Administration
William R. Smith III, B.D Instructor in Bible
Bernard H. Zellner, M.S Instructor in Mechanical Drawing
Una F. Akins Secretary to the Dean
LeRoy B. Anderson, B.S Assistant to the Football Coach
Vera Goe Assistant to the Librarian
Sue Davis, R.N Nurse
Robbie J. Ensminger, A. A Secretary to the President
Junius G. Graves, B.A Assistant to the Football Coach
Patricia Hooper Stenographer to Registrar
Marilyn S. Johnson Clerical Assistant
Virginia King Bookkeeper
Ida Ruth Lewis Head Resident, Lawrence Hall
Eddie McMillan Assistant to the Basketball Coach
Reba Parsons Head Resident, Ritter Hall
Edith Walker Dietitian
Nancy W. White, A.A Secretary to the Registrar
Louie Underwood Superintendent of Buildings and Grounds
A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
D. CANDIDATES FOR GRADUATION JUNE 1, 1957
Billy Lee Akins
Bobby Edd Allen
Charles Dillard Bamett
Robert Carrett Bledsoe, Jr.
Warren Gill Brewster
John Martin Calhoun
Claude Frank Catron, Jr.
Dan Kenning Choat
William Alfred Gofer, Jr.
James Edward Davis
Dortha Patricia DeLozier
Lucy Ann Dosser
Ralph Owens Dunn
Oran David Elrod
Ruba Jones Enochs
Bob Charles Erwin
Billie Dean Haley
Robert Daniel Hays
Joe Philip Honey
Frank George Hughes
Gretchen Denton Keim
Lewis Edwin King
Louise Orr King
Norma Jean Kyle
Teck Seng Lian
Marjorie Rose Lowe
George A. Lusk
Herlien Elizabeth McCamy
Hugh Douglas McMurray
James Davis McQuain
Fannie Taylor Maddox
Jimmy Anderson Mason
Harry Lane Moore
Gwendolyn Woody Morrison
Dolores Elaine Mynatt
Clifford McKinley O'Dell
James Bernard Patterson
Barbara Sue Pickel
Ruth Jarvis Pickens
William J. Quirk
Sara Exum Ranck
Richard Lafayette Ray
Hugh Miller Reynolds
Ruby Bryan Richardson
Jack Coogan Ritchie
Dorothy Henley Runyan
LaVeme Owenby Schultz
Charles Richard Seepe
Eddie J. Stansell
Phyllis Mae Williams
Hugh Oscar Wilson
Robert Jerry Wilson
Elmer Boyd Woody
Kenneth Leabow Wynn
*To be awarded posthumously.
F. Max Allison
Wesley Lee Asbury
Mildred Humberd Ball
Mary Sue Barnes
Grace Whitaker Barnett
William Larry Borden
Carmelia Jo Bryant
Margaret Virginia Clark
Charlotte M. Cupp
Florence Bell Edwards
Phyllis Anne Fox
Albert Llewellyn Galloway, Jr.
William Shepard Gamble
Dorothy Marie Frick Gilbert
Richard Clark Gilbert
Elizabeth Jones Gilliland
William Perry Legg
Burhl Frank McCracken
Anna Perkinson Puett
Catherine Collins Ray
Ray Edwin Robinson
Paul Malvine Starnes
Jack Preston Thacker
Betty Frances Trew
Richard Ralph Webb
Hugh Layman Wilson
John Marshall Withers
CANDIDATES FOR GRADUATION AUGUST 17, 1957
Mary Louise Bolen
Iva Lou Crisp
Charles H. Gorman
Helen Howard Hale
Robert Eugene Jackson
Sushil Nath Khosla
Bob G. Killen
Clyde Alexander Kyle, Jr.
Henry Lee Lenoir
Laura Blair Lillard
Glena Martin Moses
Ralph Jackson Nunley
Jefferson Barrington O'Connor
Doran Craig Sharp
Benson Andrew Spurling
Harry Rexford Sutton
Mary Lyde Swafford
Katherine Hines Thomas
John Houston Williams, Jr.
Donald Richard Hoback Ray Aileen Watkins
Mary Wade Kimbrough Rhea Dail Watkins
288 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
E. THE HIGHER EDUCATION EMPHASIS
(Adopted by the General Conference of The Methodist Church,
Minneapolis, Minnesota, April-May, 1956)
The Church Universal lives and labors under the compulsion of
the Great Commission: "Go therefore and make disciples of all
nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and
of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have com-
manded you." The commission carries with it the persuasive authority
of Him whom we confess to be the Head of the Church.
Our Lord's words are timeless — as pertinent to this era and the
tasks that challenge us as to the first century. The Church is in the
world to capture the hearts of men and to make them faithful disciples
of the Nazarene and also to capture their minds and established them
in the truth that leads to abundant and unending life. By missions
and evangelism we extend the frontiers of the Kingdom. By educa-
tion we build the City of God. These are two' phases of one
An organized church-wide effort to expand and strengthen the
educational program of The Methodist Church in the United States
of America is long overdue. The following plan is adopted for high-
lighting the mission of the church in the field of higher education and
for strengthening our institutions of learning for more effective service.
The same task of strengthening our institutions of higher learning in
other lands where the demand also is imperative and the urgency
pressing is entrusted to the Central Conferences in which they are
located, with the assistance of the Board of Missions through the
Division of World Missions and the Department of Work in Foreign
Fields of the Woman's Division of Christian Service.
1. a) There shall be constituted a Quadrennial Commission on
Christian Higher Education, which shall have general direction and
supervision of the quadrennial higher education emphasis in accord-
ance with the directives hereinafter contained. It shall be composed
as follows: the effective bishops resident in the United States, and
two bishops from Central Conferences elected by the Council of
Bishops from those who are in the United States when the commis-
sion icets; four ministers and six laymen from each jurisdiction,
elected by the General Conference on nomination of the Council of
Bishops; the president, vice-presidents, and twelve other members of
the General Board of Education, elected by the board or its executive
committee; the general secretaries of the three divisions of the Board
of Education and of the Division of World Missions of the Board of
Missions; and twenty members at large elected by the commission on
account of their experience and ability in the field of education. The
commission at its discretion may elect advisory members without vote.
It shall elect its own officers for the quadrennium.
b) The expenses of the commission shall be provided from
the World Service Fund according to the schedule of distribution
recommended by the Council on World Service and Finance and
voted by the General Conference. Its annual budget shall be subjec.
to approval by the General Board of Education. Its headquarters
shall be in Nashville, Tennessee. It may employ such executive and
clerical assistance as it may judge to be necessary for the effective
promotion of its work within the limits of its budget. The Commis-
sion on Promotion and Cultivation shall have such responsibility in
this field as may be mutually agreed on by the two commissions.
2. There are few precedents to guide us in a church-wide
emphasis on Christian higher education over a period of time. New
trails must be blazed and techniques developed. Accordingly, certain
specific directives are given in this subsection, and to these are ap-
pended below (par. 3) certain suggested procedures which are not
mandatory. The commission should be given considerable liberty to
find its way and to determine its methods.
a) The over-all task committed to the commission- is to
strengthen the bonds that bind our institutions of learning to the
church, to lead our schools and colleges to a thorough commitment
to Christian standards and ideals, and to lead the church in an effort
to undergird them with adequate moral and financial support. The
commission's program shall include the institutions of learning related
to the Division of Educational Institutions of the General Board of
Education, including theological schools and Wesley Foundations.
The commission shall work in co-operation with the Division of Edu-
cational Institutions, the Boards of Education of the respective Annual
Conferences, and the Boards of Trustees of the respective educational
b) The commission shall, by such procedures as it may deter-
mine, and in co-operation with the Division of Educational Institu-
tions and with local foundations, promote the work of the Wesley
Foundations, assisting local foundations in raising funds and making
their work effective on college campuses.
c) If the distinctive service which our schools and colleges
290 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
render the church and society were made clear and convincing, the
moral and financial support they now receive would be materially
increased. The commission shall therefore especially address itself
to the basic task of interpretation, to wit:
( 1 ) To interpret to our church-related colleges and universities
their place and function in the life of the church and the obligation
of these institutions to be Christian in teaching and in practice, and
in their policies of serving the youth of the local churches, conferences,
and areas from which they receive support.
(2) To interpret to our people of The Methodist Church the
distinctive function of our institutions of learning in the church and
in society. The church must continue to look principally to her own
educational institutions for trained leadership. These institutions,
dedicated to Christian ideals, must as heretofore be evangelists in the
field of higher education, to the end that the Christian concept of
God and man may become the dominant element in American cul-
ture. The commission shall, as far as practicable, make use of our
existing church organization in the prosecution of this task, setting
up, with the aid of bishops, district superintendents, conference secre-
taries of education, college administrators, Wesley Foundation ad-
ministrators, and others, educational conferences on the district and
Annual Conference level; supplying speakers at conferences, pastors'
schools, convocations, and other church gatherings; and producing
appropriate materials for our church-school publications, conference
and area papers, and the secular press. It is suggested that the com-
mission give consideration to the preparation of a popular study book
on the chutxh and its institutions of learning for use in leadership
training schools, pastors' schools, church schools, men's clubs, and
d) The commission shall study the financial status of our
church-related institutions of learning and lead the church in an effort
so to undergird them that their efficiency, academic standards, per-
manence, and support of Christian ideals shall be assured. It shall
devise such methods of credit for the local church as it may determine.
It shall not undertake a single nationwide financial campaign for the
benefit of all our educational institutions. It is patent that in the main
these institutions must find support on a conference area, or regional
basis. The commission shall therefore encourage individual institu-
tions, conferences, areas, or jurisdictions to assume leadership in pro-
viding adequate support for our schools of all grades, and for Wesley
Foundations, and shall supply expert advice, possible plans of pro-
cedure, personal leadership, and other assistance as the need may
require and as the commission may determine.
3. To the specific directives above named (par. 2) certain pos-
sible procedures are hereunder appended for the guidance of the
commission, the same being for the commission's consideration with-
out the force of a mandate:
a) It is necessary that on the Annual Conference level there
be a Quadriennial Committee on Christian Higher Education, for the
purpose of initiating and implementing any proposed campaign or
policy. It is recommended that this committee be constituted by the
Annual Conference and that representation from the Conference
Board of Education be included in its membership. If two or more
Annual Conferences co-operate in an undertaking or appeal, the
committees of the participating Annual Conferences should be jointly
the implementing body.
b) The commission may constitute from its membership a
committee to examine the charters of the respective institutions of
learning related to The Methodist Church to determine the actual
status of relationship. The bonds connecting a number of our educa-
tional institutions with the church should be strengthened. It is
recommended that in instances where such strengthening is desirable
the commission encourage the trustees of the institutions concerned
to take appropriate steps to alter their charters accordingly.
c) In an appeal to the membership of the church for the
support of our institutions of learning at least two approaches are
possible: (1) a financial campaign and /or (2) an apportionment
transmitted annually by the respective Annual Conferences to local
churches and accepted by the respective Quarterly Conferences, as
in the case of world service and conference benevolences. The nature
of the appeal and the financial goals and apportionments shall be
determined by the Annual Conference concerned in each undertak-
ing, and the commission shall adjust its procedures accordingly. In
many cases special financial campaigns are advisable and will be
undertaken. It does not appear, however, that periodic appeals will
provide for the continuing financial needs of our educational institu-
tions. It is highly important that we develop in our whole constit-
uency a conscience concerning the continuing support of our
institutions of learning and that a procedure be established in all our
292 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
conferences by which our people will contribute annually per member
an average of not less than one dollar for the support of educational
institutions related to the respective conferences, and not less than
thirty cents for Wesley Foundations. If such a program can be made
effective among nine and a half million Methodists in the United
States, we will witness the dawn of a new day in Christian higher
d) The commission shall give consideration to requesting the
several Annual Conferences to set aside a certain percentage of the
sums received for their schools and colleges, such percentage to be
remitted to the Division of Education Institutions and administered
by it for educational institutions where there is special need, with due
recognition of the needs of those historically operated for Negroes.
e) The commission shall give consideration to recommending
to all our educational institutions that each set aside out of funds
received from the church a certain portion for permanent endowment,
thus establishing a backlog of security.
f) The commission shall give consideration to constituting a
committee to work out a procedure whereby an appeal may go to
our people in every local church to leave in their wills a bequest in
some amount for some institution of learning in the church.
g) The commission shall give consideration to constituting a
committee to promote a plan of appeal to the alumni of all our insti-
tutions of learning. If, for example, each alumnus should recognize
his obligation to the college or university at which he received his
training and should resolve to return to her, either by gift during his
lifetime or by bequest, the cost of his education over and above the
fees he paid, a new loyalty would appear and a continuing avenue
of support would be opened.
4. For more than two centuries the Methodist movement has
been a stalwart patron of education. Its beginning may be traced to
Oxford University. John Wesley, our spiritual father, was a scholar
as well as an evangelist. His spiritual zeal would hardly have changed
the religious climate of England and America in the eighteenth cen-
tury had there not been coupled with it a trained and discerning
mind. As the Methodist movement pushed westward over the Ameri-
can continent, it left in its wake schools as well as churches. The
circuit riders were pioneers in building colleges and universities. Many
of them remain, and they are the church's indispensable asset. Such
is our heritage.
The perils and opportunities of the present challenge us more
insistently than the heritage of yesterday. We live in an age of moral
confusion. Materialism and Communism defy the Christian concept
of God and man. The centuries prove that the Christian Church
builds itself into the culture of a people through its institutions of
learning. We look forward to the day when our institutions of learn-
ing, committed to the Christian ideal, shall occupy as pivotal a posi-
tion in the total program of The Methodist Church as missions and
Quadrennial Commission on Higher
Richard A. Brock
R. C. Burton
Prof. H. C. Graybeal
Mrs. C. P. Hardin
Bishop Roy H. Short
W. F. Blackard
T. F. Chilcote
W. Kyle Cregger
Edgar A. Eldridge
J. A. Hardin
D. Trigg James
C. E. Lundy
C. D. MehafTy
Ralph W. Mohney
W. N. Neff
Mrs. J. L. Patterson
Mrs. H. M. Russell
Dr. C. C. Sherrod
George H. Smith
E. H. Ogle
W. L. Pickering
H. M. Russell
Frank A. Settle
Ben B. St. Clair
W. S. Steele
J. W. Stone
M. C. Weikel
James S. Wilder
E. E. Wiley, Jr.
A. B. Wing
Horace N. Barker Earl G. Hunt, Jr.
LeRoy A. Martin
*Discipline of The Methodist Church, 1956, pp 696-702.
294 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC RELATIONS:
*Dr. F. B. Shelton
DIRECTORS OF WESLEY FOUNDATIONS:
Sam Dodson R. D. McGee
Donald L. Hughes Glen Otis Martin
Bolton, David A. Memoirs. Manuscript. - '
Chattanooga University. Book I. 1886-1887.
Newspaper clippings. Book II. 1890-
Record of the Alumni, U. S. Grant University, 1886-1896.
Knoxville: Ogden Bros, and Co., 1896.
The Red Book, University at Athens, Tennessee, during
Injunction Period, June 1904 - December 1905. Manuscript.
Class Records, 1871-1918, Manuscript.
List of degree graduates, 1866-1906; Diploma graduates,
Historical Sketches. Manuscript.
Tributes and Memorials. Manuscript.
Caldwell, John C. China Coast Family. Chicago: Henry Regner\',
Catalogue: Athens Female College. 1859-1860.
Catalogues: East Tennessee Wesleyan College. 1866-1867.
East Tennessee Wesleyan University. 1867-1886.
Grant Memorial University. 1886-1889.
U. S. Grant University. 1889-1909.
Athens School of the University of Chattanooga.
Tennessee Wesleyan College. 1926-1957.
College Newspapers, 1896-1957.
CiH'ts, Lewis. The General Conferences of the Methodist Episcopal
Church from J 792-1 896. New York: Cranston and Mains, 1900.
Dabney, Charles William. Universal Education in the South. 2 vols.
Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1936.
Discipline of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Nashville:
J. B. MTerrin, 1858.
Faculty Minutes, East Tennessee Wesleyan University. March 1,
1869-December 1, 1881. Book II.
*Dcceased April 28, 1957.
Faculty Minutes, Grant Memorial University. August 1886- June
1889. Book IV.
Faculty Minutes, U. S. Grant University. September 1889-December
21, 1896. Book V.
Faculty Minutes, University and The Athens School, Jan. 1, 1897
to May 1907. Book VI.
Faculty Minutes, The Athens School. September 1907-June 1918.
Faculty Mmutes, The Athens School. July 1918-January 1920.
Faculty Minutes, Tennessee Wesleyan College. 1925-1927, 1927-
1930, 1930-1934, 1935-1940, 1940-1947, 1947-1950, 1950-1957.
Godbold, Albea. The Church College of the Old South. Durham:
Duke University Press^ 1944.
Govan and Livingood. University of Chattanooga, Sixty Years.
Chattanooga: University of Chattanooga, 1947.
Grant Memorial University, Its History, and the Commendations of
Leading Statesmen and Divines. Philadelphia: A. T. Zeising
and Co., 1896.
Greene, Roemer and Long. A Report on a Program of Higher Edu-
cation for the Holston Conference of The Methodist Church,
Journals of the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal
Journals of the Holston Conference of the Methodist Episcopal
Ketron, McCarron, Robinette. Grant University Paper Adopted by
Alumni Association. 1905.
Minutes of the Holston Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal
Church, South. 1862.
Patten, Cartter. A Tennessee Chronicle. 1953.
Presidents' Reports, 1897-1957.
Price, R. N. Holston Methodism. 4 vols. Nashville and Dallas:
Smith and Lamarr, 1903.
Reynolds, James W. and Seaton, John L., Tennessee Wesleyan
College, Report of Survey, 1948, Mimeographed.
Simpson, Matthew. Encyclopedia of Methodism. Philadelphia: Lewis
Snavely, Guy E. A Short History of the Southern Association of
Colleges and Secondary Schools. 1945.
296 A History of Tennessee Wesleyan College
Snavely, Guy E. The Church and the Four-Year College. New York:
Harper and Brothers, 1955.
Sweet, William Warren. Methodists iii American History. New York,
Cincinnati, and Chicago: The Methodist Book Concern, 1933.
The Methodist Advocate Journal, 1902-1924.
The University of Chattanooga Alumni Directory 1866-1922.
About the Author
President Martin claims no technical com-
petence as a historian^ but his personal
background fits him to compile this his-
tory. Born in East Tennessee, son of a
graduate of The School of Theology of
U. S. Grant University of the class of
1895, President Martin traces his paternal
ancestry to pioneer families in McMinn
County, where his father was bom in
1866; educated at Tennessee Wesleyan,
the University of Chattanooga, Boston
University and Drew University, he has
served as President of Tennessee Wesleyan
since 1950. As a boy he lived near the
campus, where his father served as col-
lege pastor, and he has known many of
Wesleyan's presidents, teachers, students,
alumni and trustees. He has attempted
to allow the records of a centuiy to tell
their story of failure, success, tragedy and
triumph, all ingredients in the century of
sen-ice which trained a multitude of doc-
tors, judges, lawyers, teachers and min-
isters whose contributions cannot be
measured even in words.
CAMPUS SCENE 1885
OLD COLLEGE, HATFIELD HALL