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Full text of "The history of the Tenth Cavalry, 1866-1921"

University of California Berkeley 

Purchased from 

THOMAS W. STREETER 
BEQUEST 




COMPILED AND EDITED 

BY 

MAJOR E. L. N. GLASS, 10TH CAV. 
COPYRIGHT, 1921 



Of tlj 



1866 



1921 








COLONEL EDWIN B. WIN AN S 



to one foljo inspires ttje respect of ifyose 
fotfo knout tjim, fafyose qualities of djaract 
botfy affection anh personal logaltg, 
to one unber felfom it is a 
anfr a privilege to 



t0 book is fobttateh as a sltgtjt tribute 
of tte r^ar^ tn hii|tcl| \\t t 
command 




JOHN J. PERSHING 
GENERAL OF THE ARMIES 



The record of the phenomenal growth and expan- 
sion of our country is resplendent with the contribu- 
tory and glorious achievements of its Army. From 
the pioneer days when our forefathers carved their 
way into the wilds and dangers of the west to the 
present, the Army has played a most important part in 
shaping the destiny of tins country. It lias been an 
honor, which I am proud to claim, to have been at one 
time a member of that intre/n'd organization of the 
Army which lias always added glory to the military 
history of America The wth Cavalry. 

Several years of my early military life were spent 
with that organization, and as I look back I can but 
fee! that the associations with the splendid officers and 
men of the loth Cavalry were of the greatest value to 
me. The Army and the country must assuredly have 
a glorious sense of pride when they review through 
these pages the stirring deeds and honorable history of 
this Regiment. 

It is a pleasure to have this opportunity of record- 
ing my congratulations to the officers and men who 
have been or arc members of the wth Cavalry, not 
onlv on their contribution to the Army during the 
past but also on their present high state of efficiency 
and organization. My best wishes go with you in the 
full confidence that you will meet every call which 
falls to you in the days to come with the same spirit of 
patriotism and sense of duty as you have in the past. 





J. G. HARBORD 
MAJOR GENERAL, U. S. A. 



Thirty years ago the Old Army, whose traditions we inherit, was the Indian-fighting 
army which had zvon the west for our civilisation. After the Spanish-American war it was 
the service of the period just preceding that conflict. Now a new generation is talking of 
the Old Army, meaning the regular service as we knew and loved it in the first sixteen 
years of the century. 

But for anyone now in the American uniform, the Tenth Cavalry has always been -of 
the Old Army. It probably has more veterans in its ranks than any other regiment in the 
service. The traditions of oilier days cluster round it guidons, and the brave stories of 
the frontier are still told before its camp-fires. 

Organised in 1866, w///; officers and men fresh from the fields of the Civil War, it 
bore an honorable part in the hard riding and fighting of the Indian wars. Thirty- four 
years ago it was scouting the cactus-covered hills of Arizona near where its guidons 
flutter today, hunting the Apache Kid and Geronimo of the zvily Apaches. 

A period of garrison life in Montana, enlivened by occasional contact with the ghost- 
dancing warriors of the North, and the regiment w<as brought to Tampa in June, 1898, 
from three different stations. How well it bore its part in the fighting before Santiago is 
told in every history of the Cuban campaign. From Montauk to Huntsville, thence to 
Texas, and back to Cuba in April, 1899, kept the regiment busy in the months that followed 
the surrender of Santiago. 

A squadron of the Tenth fought in Samar in the last days of the Philippine insurrec- 
tion, the remainder of the regiment returning to Texas from Cuba. It followed Pershing 
into Mexico after the Columbus raid and there zvere men in it who remembered when the 
general had been a lieutenant in the regiment. The years 1917-19 found the Tenth Cavalry 
along our Mexican frontier exemplifying the fact that no matter what the remainder of the 
army may be doing, our southern border is as much the responsibility of our cavalry as the 
defense of our harbors is the duty of the coast artillery, or the ocean is the battlefield and 
maneuver ground of our army. 

In these days of unrest and uncertainty, inevitable after such a war as nearly wrecked 
our civilisation, the rallying points in our service must be in the study of our military history 
and the preservation of our ancient traditions. There are few regiments in any service 
rvhich can point to a half century of better history than can the Tenth United States Cavalry, 
of which the writer is proud that he zvas once an officer. 

Camp Travis, Texas, May 20th, 1921. 




M^ajor General, U. S. Army. 



This volume contains the history of the Tenth Cav- 
alry from its organization to present date, so far as can 
be gleaned from reports, records and personal recol- 
lections. No effort has been made to elaborate on in- 
cidents, the aim being merely to present an accurate 
and brief record of the regiment. 

The editor desires to express his thanks and appre- 
ciation for the contributions and memoranda received 
from General John 3 . Pershing, Major General James 
G. Harbord, Brigadier General S. L. Woodivard, 
Lieutenant Colonel Frederick J. Herman, Lieutenant 
Colonel C. A. Romeyn, and Lieutenant Colonel E. 
Phillips, and for the valuable assistance rendered bv 
Staff Sergeants James F. Booker and Andrew Lewis. 



jltrtlf of % mtl| ffla&alrg 

27? <? sterling worth of the colored soldier was 
proved on many battle-fields of the Civil War. 
Congress was eminently right in providing for 
four regiments of colored soldiers, in the reor- 
ganization bill of 1866. 

Section III of an "Act to Increase and Fix 
the Military Peace Establishment of the United 
States", provided "that to the six regiments of 
cavalry now in service, there shall be added 
four regiments, two of which sliall be com- 
posed of colored men". These two became the 
Ninth and Tenth Regiments of Cavalry. 

The Tenth Cavalry on the 28th day of July, 
1866, thus came into being, to join her sister 
regiments among the elite of the army, and in 
the years that followed, created for itself a 
record which cedes primac\ to none. 



CHAPTER I. 




ORGANIZATION AND COMPOSITION 

NTIL Colonel Benjamin H. Grierson arrived at Fort Leavenworth, Kan- 
has, to organize the regiment, the Tenth Cavalry existed only in the 
statute books. The Adjutant General of the Army was apprised of its 
existence upon the receipt of its initial regimental return, dated Septem- 
ber 30, 1866. 

This return shows the total strength of the regiment to consist of 
Colonel Grierson, present for duty, and Lieut. Colonel Charles C. Walcutt, 
absent on recruiting service. The only other entry is "Recruits required, 1092." Recruiting 
for the regiment, however, was actually carried en throughout the Departments of the 
Missouri, Arkansas and Platte. Officers were detailed to canvass the colored troops of 
those departments, and secured re-enlistments for the new regiments. In those days the 
enlistment period was five years for cavalry service, three years for infantry ; an early 
criterion for the argument that a longer time is required to develop the cavalry soldier. 

As regards the officers, Congress had passed a proviso regulating the commissions 
granted in these new regiments : 

"That no person shall be commissioned in any of the regiments authorized by this Act 
until he shall have passed a satisfactory examination before a board to be composed of 
officers of that arm of the service in which the applicant is to serve, to be convened under 
the direction of the Secretary of War, which shall inquire into the services rendered during 
the war, capacity and qualifications of the applicant ; and every such appointment, when 
made, shall be without regard to previous rank, but with sole regard to qualifications and 
meritorious services." 

There can be no doubt that the above enactment permitted men of only the highest 
caliber to be commissioned in these regiments. This insured for the infant Tenth Cavalry 
a splendid body of officers, who gave it a good start in life. The regimental commander, 
as a corollary, also set a high enlistment standard. So high, in fact, that by the close of 
the year (1866) but sixty-four recruits had been accepted. 

A unique feature of trie recruiting was the fact that it was mainly regimental. Officers 
of the regiment would not wait at headquarters for the recruits to come in ; on the contrary, 
they were sent out to do their own recruiting. In this way applicants for enlistment would 
see at the start the kind of officer they were to soldier under. Likewise, the officer could 
see what kind of men he was taking into his regiment, or troop. 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 13 

The return for December, 1866, shows two field officers, one company officer and sixty- 
four unassigned recruits. There was as yet no staff, nor any clerks. To remedy the lack 
of material for the non-commissioned grades, etc.. Colonel Grierson had Captain Louis H. 
Carpenter sent to Philadelphia, Pa., writing him : 

''I requested you to be sent there to recruit colored men sufficiently educated to fill the 
positions of non-commissioned officers, clerks and mechanics in the regiment. You will 
use the greatest care in your selection of recruits. Although sent to recruit men for the 
positions specified above, you will also enlist all superior men you can who will do credit 
to the regiment." 

In July the regiment comprised : 
Field and Staff- 
Colonel B. H. Grierson, 
Lt. Col. J. W. Davidson, 
Major J. W. Forsyth, 
Major M. H. Kidd, 
Chaplain W. M. Grimes, 
Captain Henry E. Alvord, Adjutant. 

Company A Color, bay. Organized February 18, 1867. 
Captain Nicholas Nolan, 
Lieut. G. W. Graham, 
Lieut. G. F. Raulston. 

Company B Color, bay. Organized April 1, 1867. 
Captain J. B. Vande Wiele, 
Lieut. J. D. Myrick, 
Lieut. J. W. Myers. 

Company C Color, bay. Organized May 15, 1867. 
Captain Edward Byrne, 
Lieut. T. C. Lebo, 
Lieut. T. J. Spencer. 

Company D Color, bay. Organized June 1, 1867, at Fort Gibson, I. T. 
Captain J. W. Walsh, 
Lieut. Robert Gray, 
Lieut. R. H. Pratt. 

Company E Color, bay. Organized June 15, 1867. 
Captain G. T. Robinson, 
Lieut. J. T. Morrison. 

Company F Color, gray. Organized June 21, 1867. 
Captain G. A. Armes, 
Lieut. P. L. Lee, 
Lieut. J. A. Bodamer. 

Company G Color, bay. Organized July 5, 1867. 
Captain H. T. Davis, 
Lieut. W. B. Kennedy, 
Lieut. M. J. Amick. 

Company H Color, black. Organized July 21, 1867. 
Captain L. H. Carpenter, 
Lieut. T. J. Spencer, 
Lieut. L. H. Orleman. 



14 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 



Aggregate strength, 25 officers and 702 men. 

On August 6, 1867, regimental headquarters moved to Fort Riley, Kansas, where the 
remaining four troops were organized, as follows : 

Company I Color, bay. Organized August 15, 1867. 
Captain G. W. Graham, 
Lieut. Silas Pepoon. 

Company K Color, bay. Organized September 1, 1867. 
Captain C. G. Cox, 
Lieut. R. G. Smithers, 
Lieut. B. F. Bell. 

Company L Color, sorrel. Organized September 2,1 1867. 
Captain R. Gray, 
Lieut. C. E. Nordstrom. 

Company M Color, mixed. Organized October 15, 1867. 
Captain H. E. Alvord, 
Lieut. P. L. Lee, 
Lieut. W. R. Harmon. 

(Company M got all the horses that would not match any other troop and was called 
the "Calico"' company). 

The last original vacancies in the field and staff were filled by the assignment of Major 
J. E. Yard, and the appointment of 1st Lieut. W. H. Beck as regimental quartermaster. 
The chaplain's duties included instructing the enlisted men in common school subjects. 
He was a "regimental chaplain' ; ; outside the colored regiments they were "army chaplains." 






CHAPTER II. 
EARLY FIELD SERVICE 

ITTLE time was lost in placing the regiment in the field. The 1st and 2nd 
Squadrons were detailed on the list of the Kansas Pacific Railroad, 
guarding it and protecting the working parties. Fort Hays, Fort Harker, 
and other posts along the Smoky Hill River, Kansas, were the outposts of 
civilization. Beyond lay the hunting grounds of the Indians, and they 
looked with dread and anger at the advancement of civilization westward. 
The colors of the regiment first came under fire on August 2, 1867, 
about forty miles northeast of Fort Hays, near the Saline River. Company F, patrolling the 
railroad, was attacked by a band of three hundred Indians. The troop comprised two officers 
and thirty-four men. The fight lasted six hours. The troop, badly outnumbered, was in the 
end forced to retire, after inflicting heavy losses on the hostiles. Captain Armes was 
wounded, and Sergeant William Christy killed. 

On the 21st of the same months the second baptism of fire was had. Captain Armes 
with forty of his men, together with ninety men of the 18th Kansas Volunteers, engaged 
some thousand hostiles in> about the same locality as the first fight. They were hampered 
by a large wagon train loaded with supplies. The engagement lasted all the afternoon, with 
severe losses on both sides. One private of F Company was killed and nineteen wounded. 
The volunteers lost fifteen wounded. Fifteen horses were killed and many wounded. A first 
hand account of this engagement would be most valuable ; unfortunately, it is doubtful if 
there survives today any participant. 

On September 15th, 1868, a detachment of Company G, Sergeant Davis and nine men, 
was attacked by sixty Cheyennes. The Indians were badly beaten, with the loss of one 
private wounded and two laborers killed. 

The headquarters of the regiment remained at Fort Riley until April 17, 1868. The 
regiment was scattered throughout Kansas and Indian Territory (Oklahoma) ; the troops 
were very much occupied learning their drill, patrolling the Union Pacific Railroad and 
protecting the far-flung settlements. 

The winter of 1867-68 found the regiment engaged in General Sheridan's winter cam- 
paign against Black Kettle's band of Cheyennes. This tribe bore one of the worst repu- 



16 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

tations of any of the plains Indians. They were not confined to reservations, but came 
in to designated agencies to draw rations, blankets and other supplies. Black Kettle was a 
wily chief, and much hard riding and scouting was required before his band was broken 
up and their capacity to commit depredations ruined. This winter campaign taught them 
that the troopers could and would follow them to any length, and the Tenth Cavalry did 
an equal share in wiping out their menace. In one march the regiment was caught in a 
terrible blizzard and lost over a hundred horses through starvation and freezing. 

In the fall of 1868 actual service was seen again. Company I fought a drawn battle 
with one hundred Cheyennes at Big Sandy Creek on September 15th, losing ten horses, but 
killing seven hostiles. 

In the same month Companies H and I formed part of the relief party to the rescue 
of Lieutenant Colonel George A. Forsyth, who, with a party of scouts, was attacked and 
"corralled'' by a force of about 700 Indians on an island in the Republican River. Two of 
Forsyth's scouts stole through the Indian lines and brought word of the perilous situation 
of the command to Fort Wallace. Parties were soon on the way to its relief. First and 
last the following troops were started toward it from different points: Captain Bankhead 
with about one hundred men of the 5th Infantry, Captain Carpenter with Co. H, Captain 
Graham with Co. I of the 10th Cavalry, and two companies of the 2nd Cavalry under Major 
Brisbin. 

Captain Carpenter's company was the first of these commands to arrive upon the 
scene. It found Forsyth's command out of rations, living on horse flesh without salt or 
pepper. All its officers had been killed or wounded. Every horse and mule, too, had been 
killed. Forsyth, who had been twice wounded, was lying in a square hole scooped out in 
the sand within a few feet of the line of dead horses which half encircled the hole and 
impregnated the air with a terrible stench. Captain Carpenter immediately pitched a 
number of tents in a suitable place nearby, had the wounded men carried to them, and the 
rest removed to a more salubrious air. 

Twenty-six hours later Captain Bankhead arrived bringing with him the companies of 
the 2nd Cavalry. 

On October 14th, 1868, two weeks after he had returned to Fort Wallace with the 
wounded of Forsyth's command, Captain Carpenter was ordered to take his own company, 
H, and Co. I of the 10th Cavalry, and escort Major Carr, of the 5th Cavalry, to his com- 
mand, supposed to be on Beaver Creek. On the march he was attacked by a force of 
about five hundred Indians. After proceeding, regardless of the enemy's firing and yelling, 
far enough to gain a suitable position, he halted his command, had the wagons corralled 
close together and rushed his men inside at a gallop. He had them dismount, tie their 
horses to the wagons, and form on the outside around the corral. Then followed a volley 
of Spencers which drove the Indians back as though they were thrown from a cannon. 

A number of the warriors, showing more bravery than the others, undertook to stand 
their ground. Nearly all of these, together with their ponies, were killed. Three dead 
warriors lay within fifty yards of the wagons. The Indians were so demoralized by these 
results that they did not renew the attack and the troops accomplished their march without 
further molestation. They were back at Fort Wallace on the 21st, having traveled 230 
miles in about seven days. 

For their gallantry in the fight, which took place on Beaver Creek, the officers and men 
were thanked by General Sheridan in a general field order ; Captain Carpenter was breveted 
Colonel and awarded a Medal of Honor. 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 



17 




BENJAMIN H. GRIERSON 
THE REGIMENT'S FIRST COLONEL 

In April, 1869, headquarters and troops moved to Camp Wichita, in Indian Territory. 

Camp Wichita was established on the flat directly northeast of the site selected for the 
post, on the bank of the Medicine Bluff Creek near its junction with Cache Creek. 

The only shelter they had was the tentage which they brought with them, much of which 
had been condemned. An old saw mill was moved up from Fort Arbuckle, fatigue parties 
were detailed to cut logs in the Wichita Mountains west of the camp, rock quarries were 
opened in the vicinity and the erection of temporary shelter for men and animals commenced. 
These were "jackal" buildings with mud roofs and floors. 

Very few of the recruits assigned to the regiment could read or write, many of them 
being plantation hands from the South. Seldom could one be found capable of clerical 



18 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

duty, so that the officers were obliged to do most of their paper work. Quite a number of 
the recruits had served in the colored regiments during the Civil War, and these furnished 
the non-commissioned officers. On the whole the men were obedient, amenable to dis- 
cipline and anxious to learn, besides being proud of their uniform. 

Even the band was organized, not from musicians, but by selecting men who could read 
and write and teaching them music. General Grierson, who was himself an accomplished 
musician, gave them his personal attention and soon succeeded in having a competent leader 
enlisted and assigned to the regiment. 

With this handicap in the way of skilled men, the erection of the permanent post was 
commenced, principally with the labor of the troops. The government was very penurious 
in the matter of furnishing skilled labor and material. Very few skilled mechanics were 
allowed and these only for superintendents and overseers. The soldiers ran the saw mill, 
quarried rock, burned lime and dressed and laid the stone in the walls. In this way a post 
for ten troops of cavalry, officers' quarters, barracks, stables and storehouses were built. 

In the summer of 1872, General Sherman, then in command of the Army, made a tour 
of inspection of the posts in the Department of Texas. When between Forts Griffin anil 
Richardson they met a contractor's mule train hauling supplies to Fort Griffin. Soon after 
General Sherman and his party arrived at Fort Richardson a teamster from this train 
arrived at the post with information that the train had been captured by a party of Indians, 
the teamsters, except this one, who had escaped, were killed, the wagons burned and the 
mules driven off. The General and his party continued their journey to Fort Sill. The 
day after their arrival, being ration day, the Kiowas and Comanches in large numbers, 
probably seven or eight thousand, men, women and children, came into the agency, which 
was on the military reservation about half a mile from the post. "Satanta," a chief of the- 
Kiowas, openly boasted that he was the leader of the band which had captured the train. 
The Indian agent sent a note to the post commander requesting that he be arrested, also 
"Satank," another influential chief, and a young Indian named "Big Tree." In the mean- 
time, Satanta and Satank came into the post to see the "Big Chief," who, they learned, was 
at the commanding officer's house. 

The troops had orders to "saddle up" and remain in the stables where they could not 
be seen. While the conversation between General Sherman and the two chiefs was being 
conducted on the commanding officer's portico, "Big Tree" rode by on his way to the 
trader's store. The adjutant was directed to take a detachment and arrest him. He was 
found in the rear of the store, and upon seeing the guard pulled his blanket about his head 
and jumped through a window, carrying sash and glass with him, vaulted over a high 
stockade fence and ran like a deer through the troop gardens toward a thicket. The guard 
fired several shots at him, and the adjutant (Lt. Woodward) mounted, pursued and caught 
him just as he was about to enter the thicket, bound him with a lariat and took him to 
the commanding officer's quarters. In anticipation of the final decision to confine Satanta 
and Satank, a dismounted detachment had been secretly sent, one by one, to enter the com- 
manding officer's house by the rear and was concealed in a front room ready for an 
emergency. When the general indicated that he wished them arrested, the guard filed out 
and surrounded the porch. At this juncture, Lone Wolf, a vicious and desperate Kiowa 
chief, rode up, dismounted and came on the porch, smiling and ejaculating the familiar 
Indian greeting, "How, How," threw aside his blanket and disclosed two loaded carbines, 
one of which he passed to another Indian. With an almost superhuman effort, General 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 19 

Grierson sprang upon the two Indians, seized the muzzles of the carbines, and sat both 
Indians squat upon the porch floor. The guard levelled their carbines, but General Grierson's 
action prevented what, for a moment, threatened a serious tragedy. 

Indians were passing through the post and exhibited much excitement. As a precau- 
tion, a small detaching of mounted troops was placed at each of the four corners of the 
parade. Some Indians riding into the post from the southeast, perceiving the commotion 
on the porch, fired upon one detachment, wounding a horse, and fled. This detachment 
pursued and fired upon them and killed one, his companion closing in on him and carrying 
him off mounted. The firing was heard by the Indians at the agency and a wild stampede 
occurred. 

Satanta, Satank and Big Tree were confined in the guard house and a short time 
afterwards were turned over to General MacKenzie, colonel of the Fourth Cavalry who 
came through the post with a detachment of his regiment, with orders to turn them over 
to the civil authorities of Texas to be tried for murder. As the three Indians were brought 
from the guard house to be put in a wagon, Satank started a wierd chant, which we after- 
wards learned was his "death song." No one understood him except the other two Indians, 
who, fearing the consequences of an outbreak by him, caught him and put him forcibly 
into a wagon, taking the precaution to get in another wagon themselves. In the wagon 
with Satank was a soldier of the Fourth Cavalry who was unable to ride his horse. A short 
distance from the post, Satank, who had concealed a knife about his person, attacked and 
stabbed the soldier and seized his carbine, which was loaded. The soldier rolled out of 
the wagon, and the Indian attempted to fire on the guard which surrounded the wagon, but 
a shot broke his wrist and others soon ended his earthly career. 

During the seven years the regiment was at Fort Sill, besides watching and controlling 
the Indians, it was largely engaged in suppressing horse and cattle thieves, and whiskey 
peddlers. 

After establishing and building a post there, this camp was named Fort Sill. Life at 
Sill was not a picnic. More than once the garrison stood to arms in apprehension of an 
attack. Scouting parties were continually in the field running down marauders, desperadoes, 
outlaws, hostiles on the war path, and many times only a demonstration in force succeeded 
in keeping the Red Men within their bounds. 

An example of the manifold duties falling to the troops during this period, is the entry 
in the regimental return : "Company D February 25th. Left Fort Arbuckle for Cotton- 
wood Grove to assist Indian agent in reclaiming white children held captives by Indians." 

On the llth of June, 1871, Camp Supply was charged by a horde of Comanches, who 
endeavored to pursue their favorite tactics of stampeding the horses and stock. The Indians 
were promptly driven off and pursued by Companies A, F, H, I, K, and three companies 
of the Third Infantry. In the ficht that ensued three soldiers were wounded and several 
horses killed. The Indians lost six killed and ten wounded. 

It was about this time that the colored troopers became known among the Indians as 
the "Buffalo Soldiers." Years later, when a design for the regimental coat of arms was 
being prepared, the buffalo was adopted as a crest. The Indians of that day learned a 
wholesome respect for the tireless troopers who, once on the trail, could not be shaken off. 

Among the stations garrisoned by the regiment in this period were Forts Dodge, Gibson 
and Arbuckle; Camp Supply and the Cheyenne agency, in the Indian Territory. 

A pitched battle was staged in August, 1874, between the hostiles and the defenders 
of the Wichita agency. The Kiowas and Naconees strongly resented the establishment of 



20 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

the post, and had planned a coup to wipe out the settlers, soldiers and every building. The 
hostiles numbered some five hundred. Companied C, E, H and L of the Tenth Cavalry com- 
prised the garrison. 

The attack was launched from all sides by the determined Red Men. The surrounding 
prairie was fired at many points, with the purpose of burning the defenders out, stampeding 
horses, and burning the buildings. The soldiers had their hands full fighting the fires and 
repulsing the repeated attacks by the encircling Indians, which were delivered with great 
courage. Affairs were about to become serious, when Captain Carpenter mounted his com- 
pany (H) and charged through their center. This charge broke the spirit of the attackers, 
who fell back in confusion, leaving on the field a large amount of booty. 

In April, 1873, a part of the regiment made the acquaintance of Texas. Companies 
E, I and L were stationed at Fort Richardson ; C at Fort Griffin ; F at Fort Concho. Head- 
quarters remained at Fort Sill until March, 1875. The troops remaining in Indian Territory 
took part in the campaign of 1874-75 against the Kiowas and Comanches. In this campaign. 
Companies D and M, with one company of the Eleventh Infantry, commanded by Major 
Schofield, captured a band of more than 300 hostiles and 1500 ponies at Elk Creek, Indian 
Territory, October 25, 1874. 

Among the prisoners were a number of irreconcilables "bad Injuns." These were 
closely confined at Fort Sill and later transferred to Fort Marion in far off Florida, for 
restriction. Captain Pratt went in charge of this party, and never rejoined the regiment. 
He was a fine officer and very sympathetic towards the Indians. As Superintendent of the 
Carlisle Indian School he gained wide fame. 

On the 6th of April, 1875, occurred the chase after Black Horse's band. He was at the 
Cheyenne agency awaiting transportation to Fort Marion. Knocking down his guard, he 
escaped and ran for the camp of his tribe nearby. He was killed as he ran by Captain 
Bennett, Fifth Infantry. This was the signal for an exodus. Practically the whole tribe 
abandoned camp that night and took to the hills, but not before engaging in a brisk 
skirmish with Companies D and M, in which one soldier was killed and twelve wounded. 
The Indians lost eight killed. Tenth Cavalry marksmanship was improving with practice. 
After a ten day chase most of the Indians returned to the agency. 

Headquarters was established at Fort Concho, Texas, on April 17, 1875. The May 
return shows the troops stationed as follows : 

Companies A, D, F, G, I and L at Fort Concho. 
Companies B and E at Fort Griffin. 
Companies C and K at Fort McKavett. 
Company H at Fort Davis. 
Company M at Fort Stockton. 

In the next seven years that headquarters remained at Fort Concho, the troops were 
scattered all over west Texas, as occasion demanded, and added to their reputation as 
Indian fighters when they met the Apaches. Their work was a long succession of hikes 
and pursuits, with now and then a consoling skirmish with Indians or desperadoes. Their 
trails led them far into Mexico; into and over the grim fastness of the Guadalupe Moun- 
tains; across the deserts of the Staked Plains, the Bad Lands of the Rio Grande and the 
Big Bend. 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 21 

Regard a few bald entries in the regimental returns of 1876 and 1877, picked at random : 

1876 
"Co. C Fort McKavett, Texas. 

The company returned from scout duty in field against hostiles after absence 
of six months and seven days." 
"Co. G Fort Griffin, Texas. 

Corporal John Robinson and four men pursued Mexican horse thieves, returned 
November 28, 1876; captured 10 Mexicans, 15 horses. Distance marched 770 
miles." 

1877 
"Co. A 

Private Dcrwin died July 30th from want of water. Private Gordon died July 
31st, being without water for 86 hours. Privates Bond and Isaacs missing 
since July 30th on account of straggling." 
''Headquarters 

"1st Lt. R. G. Smither, Adjutant, with effective force of band, (16 men) started 
on scout August 3rd to Bull Creek, Texas, distance of 140 miles, in 41 hours, 
for relief of Captain Nolan's command which was reported in suffering con- 
dition on Staked Plains. Men and horses dying from lack of water. Re- 
turned to Fort Concho August 14th." 
"Co. F Camp on the Rio Grande, Texas. 

Since last report the company has been engaged in scouting after hostile In- 
dians. Distance marched 1500 miles." 
"Co. G May 4th, Fort Griffin, Texas. 

Captain Lee, Lieut. Jones, and 42 men, left post April 9, 1877, in pursuit 
hostile Indians. Surprised Comanche village at Lake Quemado, Texas, killed 
four Indians, captured six squaws, and 69 horses. 1st Sergeant Charles Baker 
killed in action. Distance marched 750 miles." 
"Co. I Fort Richardson, Texas. 

2d Lieutenant Jewett and 24 enlisted men returned from a scout on the Staked 
Plains. One public horse, Captain Baldwin responsible, died on Staked Plains 
October 25th. Distance marched 1360 miles." 

Those were the days that tried men's souls, and welded the organizations into bands of 
true and tried veterans. Captain Bourke,. of the Third Cavalry, has written of those days : 
"To march into battle with banners flying, drums beating, and the pulse throbbing high 
with the piomptings of honorable ambition and enthusiasm, in unison with the roar of 
artillery, does not call for half the nerve and determination that must be daily exercised 
to pursue, mile after mile, in such terrible weather, over rugged mountains and through 
unknown canons, a foe whose habits of warfare are repugnant to every principle of 
humanity, and whose presence can be determined solely by the flash of the rifle which lays 
some poor sentry low, or the whoop and yell which stampeded our stock from the grazing 
grounds. The life of a soldier, in time of war, has scarcely a compensating feature ; but 
he ordinarily expects palatable food whenever obtainable, and good, warm quarters during 
the winter season. In campaigning against the Indians, if anxious to gain success, he 
must lay aside every idea of good food and comfortable lodgings, and make up his mind 
to undergo with cheerfulness privations from which other soldiers would shrink back dis- 
mayed. His sole object should be to strike the enemy and to strike him hard, and this 
accomplished should be full compensation for all privations undergone. With all its dis- 
advantages this system of Indian warfare is a grand school for the cavalrymen of the 



22 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

future, teaching them fortitude, vigilance, self-reliance, and dexterity, besides that instruction 
in handling, marching, feeding, and righting troops which no school can impart in text- 
books." 

The frontier was an imaginary line when pursuing marauders. A picked detachment 
of Company B, under Lieut. Evans, and two Seminole scouts, surprised a camp of the Lipans 
and Kickapoos near Saragossa, Mexico, on July 30, 1876, after a forced nrirch of 110 miles 
in twenty-five hours. Ten Indians were killed, 93 captured, with the loss cf one horse. 
Twenty- three lodges were destroyed. Captain Lebo also led Companies B, E and K into 
the Pinto Mountains of Mexico and destroyed a village on August 12, 1876. 

The Victoria campaign of 1880 resulted in the breaking up of that wily chieftain's 
band, teaching it such a lesson that he never again came north of the Rio Grande. 

In July of that year, Victoria and all his band broke out from the Mescalero reserva- 
tion in New Mexico and started through Texas on a reign of terror, murder and pillage. 

Colonel Gi ierson, on a scout with only six men, was attacked by this band near Eagle 
Springs, and was barely rescned by a reinforcement from Company C, of Lieut. Finley with 
15 men. Later, Companies A and C came up, driving the Apaches on after a four-hour 
light. The pursuit was carried to the Rio Grande. 

The bad reputation these Apaches bore did not feaze the troopers of the Tenth Cavalry. 
A detachment from Company H, under Corporal Asa Weaver, out on patrol, did not 
hesitate to head off the band in its retreat after it had crossed the river into Mexico, 
but joined in a running fight of 15 miles. Near El Alamo, the horse of Private Tockes 
became unmanageable, being wounded with an arrow. It bucked and stampeded into the 
midst of the Indian rear guard. When last seen, this brave man was discerned to have 
dropped his reins, drawn his carbine, and was selling his life dearly. Months later his 
SKeleton was found. 

Corporal Weaver was promoted on the spot to a sergeantcy for his gallantry and 
qualities of leadership. 

Colonel Grierson personally led the column that, by a forced march of 65 miles, inter- 
cepted Victoria's retreat and forced him to cross into Mexico, whence he never returned 
to raid. He was later killed by Mexican soldiery near Lake Guzman. 
Under the "Record of Events," the following are typical : 
"Co. K Sculptured Tanks, Guadalupe Mountains, N. M., April, 1880. 

Left Salada Water Holes, Texas, April 1st, arrived at Black River Falls, 
N. M. Marched thence northward through the Guadalupe Mountains by way of 
Guadalupe Creek to the Rio Panasco in the Sacramento Mountains, thence to 
the agency and took part in the disarming and dismounting the Mescalero 
Indians. April 9th struck the camp of a small party of Mescaleros at Shake- 
hand Springs, N. M. Killed one buck, captured four squaws and one child, 
released from captivity a small Mexican boy (Cayetana Segura) aged 11. 
Captured 21 head of horses and mules, and destroyed their camp. Distance 
marched, 417 1 / 2 miles." 
"Company A Near old Fort Quitman, Texas, August, 1880. 

Left Eagle Springs, Texas, August 2nd and marched to Van Horn's Wells. 
August 3rd, marched to Devil's Race Course. August 4th, marched to Rattle 
Snake Springs ; 6th, 7th and 8th, engaged in scouting and picketing the passes 
of the Sierra Diablo. August 10th, marched to Ash Springs. August llth, 
discovered and followed trail of Victoria's band of Apaches from 8:00 p. m. 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 23 

until 11 :45 a. m. of the 12th, when, after marching and reaching the Rio 
Grande, the pursuit ended by reason of the enemy crossing the river into 
Mexico. Distance marched by company and detachments, 748 miles." 
"Company G Sulphur Water Hole, Texas, August, 1880. 

Left Eagle Springs, Texas, August 3rd, arriving at Van Horn, Texas, the 
same night ; August 4th, 5th, marched to Rattle Snake Springs, Texas. August 
6th, engaged with hostile Indians near Rattlesnake Springs. No casualties. 
August 7th, marched to Sulphur Water Hole, Texas. August 3rd, Private 
Julius London, one of the party of scouts, was engaged and wounded in 
action with hostile Apaches near Eagle Springs, Texas. Distance marched 
1256 miles." 
"Company H Near Hot Springs, Texas, August, 1880. 

August 1st, engaged in furnishing pickets and scouts from Eagle Springs, 
Texas. August 3rd, Corporal A. Weaver, with Pvt. Brent of H Company, and 
a small detail from other companies, while on picket at Alamo Springs, dis- 
covered Victoria's band of Indians after they had crossed the Rio Grande 
and had an engagement and running fight for 15 miles. August 3rd, left 
Eagle Springs in pursuit of Victoria's band. Marched to Van Horn and thence 
to Devil's Race Course, thence across to the Rattle Snake Springs. August 
6th, participated in an engagement with Victoria's band with Companies B, C 
and G, under command of Capt. L. H. Carpenter, the Indians being repulsed 
and fleeing to the mountains. Pvt. Wesley Hardy missing in action. Distance 
marched by company and detachments, 1250 miles." 

On January 1, 1881, the designation was changed from "Company" to "Troop." 
Regimental headquarters moved to Fort Davis in July, 1882, and remained until March. 
1885. In these three years the troops performed the same old dismal frontier service, with 
few comforts, and no luxuries. But they were close to being a perfect cavalry fighting 
machine ; they were lean and hard and grizzled, and loved a fight. This entry appears in 
Troop M's records : 

"Jan., '84, Pina-Colorado, Texas. Saddler Ross mortally wounded. Sgt. Winfield Scott 
and Pvt. Augustus Dover slightly wounded, while arresting a desperado on the military 
reservation. The desperado, W. A. Alexander, was killed while resisting arrest." 






CHAPTER III 

THE BUFFALO SOLDIERS IN ARIZONA 

N THE Spring of 1885, the regiment moved westward into the Depart- 
ment of Arizona, where the Apaches held sway. Geronimo, the Kid, 
Mangus, Cochise, Alchise, Aklenni, Natsin, Eskiltie and other chieftains 
had dotted the plains and canons of Arizona with the graves of thousands 
of emigrants, settlers and prospectors. The department was commanded 
by that famous Indian fighter and administrator, General Crook. 

Marching along the Southern Pacific Railroad, the column was 
joined at Camp Rice hy Troop 1. For the first time in its history the regiment was gathered 
together. The twelve troops, headquarters and hand, continued together to Bowie Station, 
Arizona, in the Chiricahua Mountains. Here the troops again separated to go to their 
posts, as follows : 

Headquarters and Troop B, Whipplc Barracks ; A, Fort Apache ; C, F and G, Fort 
Thomas; D. E. H. K and L, Fort Grant; I and M, Fort Verde. Lieut. Colonel Wade took 
station at Apache; Major Mills at Thomas; Major McClellan at Verde, and Major Van 
Vliet at Grant. The chaplain held out at Apache. 

The Geronimo campaign was under way, and immediately a squadron composed of 
Troops D, E, H and K was put in the field under Major Van Vliet. They ransacked every 
trail in the Mogollon Mountains, even as far as Fort Bayard, New Mexico, but were evi- 
dently on the wrong trail. All the troops of the regiment were in the field in this campaign. 
Several officers used pull and had themselves detailed with the Indian scouts, hoping 
in that way to get to the front of the front. Lieut. Shipp was thus with Captain Crawford 
in his tragic expedition way down in Mexico. Lieut. Finley accompanied Captain Lawton. 
Fourth Cavalry, when he forced the surrender of Geronimo and his band. 

The second Medal of Honor in the .regiment was won by Lieut. Powhatan H. Clarke, 
who had accompanied Captain Lebo's troop (K) from Calabasas into Mexico. On May 
3rd, 1886, the troop, after a remarkable march of over two hundred miles, came up with 
Geronimo's band in the Pinito Mountains. The fighting was of a most desperate character ; 
the Indians were in their own chosen positions, in gorges and on inaccessible oliffs. Cor- 
poral Scott was wounded seriously, and lying exposed to the enemy's fire. Lieut. Clarke 
ran, without hesitation, to his aid. picked him up and carried him to safety through a 
hail of missiles. 

In October, Chief Mangus and his band were run down by Troop H in the White 
Mountains, east of Fort Apache, after a running fight of 45 miles over almost impassable 
country. Captain Cooper then had H Troop. 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 



25 




LIEUT. POWHATAX H. CLARKE WINNING MEDAL OF HONOR 
(FROM PAINTING PRESENTED BY THE ARTIST, T. HOLROYD LAMBERT) 



26 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 




CAPTAIN T. C. LEBO 



For most of the troops there was little glory in this campaign. Their's was the 
harder duty, to prevent outbreaks, rath'er than chase the renegades back onto their reser- 
vations. Their's was the dismal duty to guard mountain passes, water holes, and trails 
that did not lead to glorious lighting. 

In 1887, about half the regiment pursued the "Kid," one of Geronimo's disciples. It 
was a hard campaign, but unsuccessful. He was never caught ; he may still be running. 
Lieut. Carter P. Johnson gained commendation by the skill, energy and endurance with 
which his outfit pursued this outlaw. 

Headquarters move to Fort Grant in July, 1886, thence to Santa Fe, New Mexico, in 
November of the same year. 

The following order was published to the troops in Arizona : 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 27 

"HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF ARIZONA, 

"Willcox, A. T., October 7, 1886. 
"General Field Orders No. 12 : 

"It is gratifying to the Commanding General to announce to the troops serving in this 
Department the close of the Indian campaign, and the establishment of permanent peace 
and security against future depredations of the hostile Apaches, as the result of the fortitude 
and endurance of the troops in the field. 

"You have effected the subjugation of the hostiles under Geronimo and Natchez, and, 
with the exception of one small thieving party now in Chihuahua, Mexico, all have been 
removed to a place of safe custody. At the same time the entire tribe of Chiricahua and 
Warm Springs Indians, whose presence has been a menace to the settlements and whose 
camps have for years been the. rendezvous, the source of supplies, and the safe refuge of 
the hostile element, have been entirely removed from these territories. 

For centuries the warlike Apaches have been a terror to this country. Neither Indian 
nor Spaniard have been able to successfully cope with them in their peculiar methods of 
savage warfare, and for years they have retarded the progress of civilization and industry. 
It was against such an enemy a.s this, and in a wild, arid country, traversed by a series of 
rugged and almost impassable mountain ranges, with great scarcity of water, that the 
troops, already worn and tired, re-entered the field. 

"In the early days of April last, the hostiles, then in Sonora, Mexico, began their 
depredations, and on the 27th of that month invaded the territory of Arizona. They at 
once met active opposition ; Captain T. C. Lebo, Tenth Cavalry, true to his reputation as a 
gallant and successful cavalry leader, moving first against them. He followed the hostiles 
rapidly for over two hundred miles, and finally, on May 3rd, forced them to an encounter. 
During this spirited engagement the officers and men evinced great bravery, contending 
against an enemy on ground of their own choosing, among rugged cliffs almost inaccessible. 
During the engagement, Corporal Scott, a brave soldier, lay disabled with a serious wound, 
exposed to the enemy's fire, and Lieut. P. H. Clarke, Tenth Cavalry, rushed to his assist- 
ance, carrying him to a place of safety. Such acts of heroism are worthy of great praise. 
After the engagement the hostiles continued their flight, and for nearly a fortnight the 
troops, under Lieut. Benson, Captains Lebo and Lawton, continued the pursuit without 
cessation. * * * 

"* * * Subsequently the trail of the hostiles was taken up by several other detach- 
ments acting in concert, each commanded by energetic and capable officers, until Captain 
J. T. Morrison, Tenth Cavalry, near Fort Apache, captured all their horses.and they took 
flight on foot south and were driven across the Mexican boundary. The other band, mean- 
while, had been pursued by other commands through the Santa Rita, Whetstone, Santa 
Catalina and Rincon Mountains, and on the evening of June Sth, when in the Patagonia 
Mountains, were surrounded and much of their stock and equipment captured by Lieut. 
R. D. Wash, Fourth Cavalry. 

The march of Lebo's troop, 20 miles in two hours ; Benson's ride of 90 miles 
in 19 hours, and Dr. Wood's* skill and remarkable marches with a detachment of infantry, 
are worthy of mention. 

Now that all his been accomplished, the troops in this Department will duly 
appreciate the feeling of relief as expressed by the people of Sonora, Mexico, through their 
governor, Louis E. Torres, the resolution of thanks for your heroic services offered by all 
parties in every section of Arizona and New Mexico ; the approval of General Sheridan 
and Secretary Endicott, all of which are most gratifying, but you will regard higher than 
all praise, the deep and lasting gratitude which comes from the thousands of homes 
scattered over this vast area to which you have given security and happiness. 

"By command of Brigadier General Miles : 

"WM. A. THOMPSON, 

"Captain Fourth Cavalry, A. A. A. G. 
"OFFICIAL : 

"G. B. RUSSELL, 

"Acting Assistant Adjutant General." 



*Now Major General Leonard Wood. (Editor). 



28 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

The regiment was now to lose its colonel, who relieved General Nelson A. Miles in 
command of the Department of Arizona. His last official act was a farewell to the regiment : 

"HEADQUARTERS TENTH CAVALRY, 

"Santa Fe, New Mexico, December 1st, 1888. 
"Orders No. 51 : 

"In pursuance of General Orders No. 97, ' current series, Headquarters of the Army, 
announcing his assignment to the command of the Department of Arizona, the undersigned 
relinquishes command of the Tenth U. S. Cavalry. 

"in doing so he desires to express his deep regret at being thus separated l.o.., i^ 
regiment he organized and has so long commanded, but he is gratified to be able, at this 
time, to refer, even briefly, to its splendid record of nearly twenty-two years service to the 
Government, while under his command; rendered, as it has been, in the field and at the 
most isolated posts on the frontier ; always in the vanguard of civilization and in contact 
with the most warlike and savage Indians of the plains. 

"The officers and enlisted men have cheerfully endured many hardships and privations, 
arid in the midst of great dangers steadfastly maintained a most gallant and zealous devo- 
tion to duty, and they may well be proud of the record made, and rest assured that the 
hard work undergone in the accomplishment of such important and valuable service to 
their country, is well understood and appreciated, and that it cannot fail, sooner or later, 
to meet with due recognition and reward. 

"That the high standard of excellence gained by the regiment for discipline and 
efficiency in the past will be fully sustained in the future ; that the most signal success will 
ever attend the officers and soldiers of the Tenth Cavalry in all their noble efforts and 
undertakings, official or otherwise, is the heartfelt wish of their old commander. 

(Signed) "BENJAMIN H. GRIERSON, 
"Colonel Tenth U. S. Cavalry, Brevet Major-General." 

Colonel Grierson was promoted to Brigadier in April, 1890, and retired July 8, in the 
same year, dearly beloved by every man in the regiment. 

Colonel J. K. Mizner was next assigned to command, and joined in August, 1890, at 
Fort Apache. Lieut. Colonel George C. Hunt was commanding in the meanwhile. The 
field and staff then comprised in addition: Majors C. B. McClellan, Van Vliet and Norveil; 
1st Lieut. T. W. Jones, Adjutant; 1st Lieut. L. Finley, Quartermaster; F. H. Weaver, 
Chaplain. 

The Indians were by now fairly well settled down to farming en their reservations, 
and except for sporadic outbreaks by a few of the worst, there was little field service. 
Lieut. Clarke, with a detachment of picked men and scouts, had a roving commission to 
run down the few hostiles still "out," and did excellent work. 

In 1891 there were two expeditions sent into the Moki country. General Corbin accom- 
panied the latter expedition of Troops B and E. 

Colonel Mizner wrote to the Adjutant General in August, 1891, drawing attention to the 
fact that for twenty consecutive years the Tenth Cavalry had served south of the 36th 
latitude, in the most undesirable stations known to any branch of the service, and with 
fewer accommodations as to quarters or barracks, and requested a gradual change to a 
northern climate, preferably not further than Kansas. With characteristic kindness, orders 
came to move at once to Montana, detraining there in midwinter, in a blizzard. The regi- 
ment left Arizona in the southern spring. 

Relieving the First Cavalry, the Tenth Cavalry took over their horses, troop for troop. 
Troop A of the First was in Virginia, so to mount our own A troop, Montana horses 
were secured, brand new to military service. The regiment took stations in the Depart- 
ment of Dakota as follows : 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 



29 




COLONEL J. K. MIZNER 

Headquarters and Band, Fort Custer, Montana. 

Troop A, Fort Custer, Montana. 

Troop B, Fort Custer, Montana. 

Troop C, Fort Assinniboine, Montana. 

Troop D, Fort Keogh, Montana. 

Troop E, Fort Custer, Montana. 

Troop F, Fort Assinniboine, Montana. 

Troop G, Fort Custer, Montana. 

Troop H, Fort Buford, North Dakota. 

Troop I, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. 

Troop K, Fort Custer, Montana. 

Troops L and M, which were skeletonized, were considered at headquarters. 
Life in Montana and North Dakota was a great relaxation for our veterans after their 
strenuous work in Arizona. They enjoyed the hunting and change of scenery and became 
acquainted with the country, making long practice marches, sometimes in the dead of 
winter, through blizzards. Forts Keogh and Buford earned the reputation of being the 
coldest stations in the country. 

The regiment lost Lieut. Clarke, who was drowned in the Little Big Horn River on 
July 21, 1893. His death was keenly felt by his comrades. In February, 1894, Lieut. 



30 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

Finley was injured at drill when his horse fell and crushed his leg. He failed to recover 
from the amputation ; thus in less than a year two well loved officers came to an untimely end. 

Troops B, E, G and K had some relaxation when they were called out in April, 1894, 
to suppress a part of "Coxey's Commonwealers." These had held up a Northern Pacific 
train and were generally obnoxious. Parts of the regiment were called out this summer 
on strike duty to protect the railroad from strikers. 

Headquarters moved to Fort Assinniboine November 20, 1894. 

Troop I mourned the loss of First Sergeant James Brown, who was frozen to death 
in a blizzard February 5, 1895. One of the best types of old soldier, his death was grieved 
throughout the regiment. 

In the summer of 1896 the whole regiment was in the field rounding up Cree Indians, 
who were still off their reservations in Canada, and had been stealing and committing 
minor depredations since 1877. Great bands of Indians were gathered in and turned over to 
the Canadians at the border. Lieut. Pershing, commanding Troop D, was out all summer, 
marching over 600 miles. 

Colonel Mizner was promoted to be Brigadier General in June, 1897. His farewell to 
the regiment is expressed in the following : 

"HEADQUARTERS TENTH U. S. CAVALRY, 

"Fort Assiniboine, Montana, June 7th, 1897. 
"General Orders No. 1 : 

"The President having been pleased to advance the undersigned to the grade of 
Brigadier General, he hereby relinquishes command of the Tenth Cavalry and of the post 
of Fort Assinniboine, Montana. 

"In severing his connection with the Tenth U. S. Cavalry, of which he has been Colonel 
for more than seven years, it affords him unbounded pleasure to commend both officers and 
men for their loyalty to their country and for their devotion to every duty, however trying 
and arduous. 

"For efficiency and discipline and valuable service the regiment has a history of which 
it may j'ustly be proud. 

"With a sense of deep obligation to the officers for their zealous support and generous 
courtesies and high appreciation of the excellent soldierly conduct and good behavior of 
the men, he wishes for each a prosperous and happv future and bids them all farewell. 

(Signed) J. K. MIZNER. 
"Brigadier General, U. S. Army." 

Lieut. Colonel Baldwin commanded until the arrival of Colonel Guy V. Henry on 
October 29, 1S97. 

During this summer. Troops A, E and K were called out under Major Nor veil to 
arrest several "bad Injuns" near the Tongue River Agency. Trouble was anticipated in 
arresting the buc^s, "Whirlwind," "Shoulder Blade," "Yellow Hair," and "Sam Crow/' on 
account, of the attitude of the rest of ihe Cheyenne tribe. However, owing to the skill and 
diplomacy of Major Norvell and Captain Read, and not a little to the respect of the 
Cheyennes for their old friends the "Buffalo Soldiers," the arrests were made without 
untoward incident, and the troops were recalled. 

The War Department saw fit to order the abandonment of Fort Custer this winter 
(1897) and the garrison moved to other posts. The change was made in December, with 
the thermometer flirting around the 40 mark below zero. 

January 1st, 1898, found the regiment assembled at Fort Assinniboine, less Troops A, 
B and E, at Fort Keogh, Montana. 





CHAPTER IV. 

CUBA AND THE PHILIPPINES 
1898-1902 

HE destruction of the Maine in Havana Harbor raised the excitement in 
the regiment to fever pitch. The big chance to show its real mettle had 
come, and every man was ready and eager for the test of battle, and for 
the opportunity to fight shoulder to shoulder alongside the white regi- 
ments. Every officer felt confident of his men, and anxious to put them 
in the "Big Show." 

Orders to concentrate at Chickamauga Park, Georgia, were received 
in the middle of April. On April 25th, the regiment was camped in Dyer's Field, near the 
position made famous by General Thomas' stand at the Battle Above the Clouds, where he 
earned the appellation of the "Rock of Chickamauga." 

Busy days followed, drills and more drills. The skeleton .Troops L and M were reor- 
ganized by drafts from the other troops. Great was the day when Colonel Henry assembled 
the officers after a final review and said "They'll do." Colonel Henry became a Brigadier 
General of Volunteers and was fated never to rejoin the regiment. Lieut. Colonel T. A. 
Baldwin assumed command. 

Marching on May 14th to Rossville, the regiment entrained there for Tampa, but was 
diverted to Lakeland, arriving there the 16th. 

On June 7th, two squadrons left for Tampa : Major Norvell with Troops A, B, E and I ; 
Major Wint with Troops C, D, F and G. It was a trial to have to bid the hoises goodbye, 
but cavalrymen have to show that they can fight as infantry also, and as well as. The 
feelings of the other troops at having to stay at Lakeland in charge of baggage and horses 
can be well imagined. 



32 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 




COLONEL GUY V. HENRY 

The troops embarked on tlie S. S. "Leona" with the First Cavalry, with the exception 
of Troops C and F which sailed on the "Alamo." For seven days the steamers floated at 
Tampa ; travel rations only were furnished. 

Joy came to the old soldiers of Troop M, when Lieut. C. P. Johnson was given a 
detachment from it and from the other oufits at Lakeland; they were to perform a "special 
mission" in Cuba. Better, they were mounted With them went General Munez and staff, 
375 assorted Cubans, and a great quantity of arms and munitions for General Gomez. They 
sailed on the Florida, convoyed by the Peoria, on June 21st. 

A landing was attempted near Tunas, but the Florida ran aground ; Spanish troops 
rapidly assembled and poured a hot fire on the two ships. The little gunboat Peoria was 
quite insufficient. Fortunately the larger gunboat Helena came along, towed the Florida 
off the sandbar, and gave the Spaniards a few whiffs of shrapnel. The landing was 
effected at Palo Alto, and made a junction with General Gomez July 3rd. The records cast 
little light on the doings of this detachment, but they "cooperated" with the Cubans, with- 
out casualties, and the M troopers rejoined the regiment at Montauk in September. 

To go back to our two squadrons : 

Disembarkation was effected at Daiquiri on June 22nd by Major Norvell's squadron, 
and on the 23rd by Major Wint's. The first deaths of the campaign resulted from the over- 
turning of a boat. Corporal Edward T. Cobb and Private George English, of B Troop, were 
unable to swim, and were drowned. 

Always in the van, Major Norvell's squadron was part of the first column towards 
Siboney, which comprised in addition one squadron of the First Cavalry, and two squad- 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 33 

rons of the Rough Riders. Captain Watson, Tenth Cavalry, commanded the four Hotchkiss 
guns that went along with this column. 

The next day (24th) this force was ordered by General Wheeler to take the heights 
of Las Guasimas, strongly held by the Spaniards. Contact was made at 7 :30 a. m., when 
volleys were fired from the heights. The Rough Riders were on the left flank of the 
advance. Deployment was difficult owing to the high jungle-like grass and vegetation. 
There was difficulty in maintaining any kind of skirmish line. The men needed no leading, 
however. They could tell where the Spaniards were from the direction of the firing, and 
they crawled in that direction individually. The defenders had a great advantage through 
the use of smokeless powder and their naturally strong position was strengthened by a rock 
wall erected on the crest. 

The First and Tenth moved up the hill side by side, while the Routh Riders attacked 
the right flank. With a rush the top was gained and only dead and dying Spaniards were 
seen. The rest had "fled precipitately towards Santiago." Corporal George Smith of 
I Troop, now Master Sergeant of the regiment, was the first man on the crest, and followed 
immediately by Farrier Sherman Harris, same troop. 

Major Norvell's squadron, 220 strong, lost in this engagement one corporal killed and 
seven men wounded. (See reports of Major Norvcl and those of troop commanders, in 
Appendix l 'B"). Lieut. Vidmer, Corporal Johnson, Privates Neal, Nelson, Wally, White, 
Jones, Farrier Harris and Wagoner Boland won commendations for conspicuous bravery 
in this action. 

Victory perched on the colors of the Tenth in its first real modern battle. 
Comparative strength of forces engaged : 

American, 964. Spanish, 1500. 

The rest of the brigade came up too late for participation in this engagement. Camp 
was made on the battlefield until the 26th, when the troops moved to Seville, in the direc- 
tion of Santiago. On the 30th of June the brigade arrived at El Poso, just outside of the 
fortifications of Santiago. 

Between El Poso and Santiago lay the San Juan range of hills elevated about one 
hundred and twenty-five feet, with the San Juan River at its eastern base, flowing southward. 
The summit of Little San Juan Hill, or Kettle Hill, is about one-half mile from the highest 
point of San Juan Hill, and separated from it by an oval lake about three hundred yards 
long. The approach to the San Juan River from El Poso w r as through the densest varieties 
of vegetation, cactus and prickly grass. The slopes of the hills were quite barren all the 
way to the river. 

The advance against Santiago started early on the morning of July 1st Grimes's bat- 
tery opened the ball by a bombardment of the enemy's entrenchments and block-houses. Law- 
ton's brigade was attacking from the direction of El Caney, and the Second Cavalry brigade 
was to attack in conjunction, linking up with its left. While waiting orders to attack, an 
observation balloon of the Signal Corps was towed down the road to the assembly point of 
the brigade, 50 feet above the men of the First and Tenth Cavalry, lying beneath. This 
immediately drew the fire of every Spaniard, no matter what his armament. Naturally the 
casualties beneath the balloon were great. It is unfortunate there are no phonographic 
records of the comments of the troopers suffering beneath it. Fortunately, and to their 
great delight, it was shot down, after affording a thrilling experience to its occupant, Lieut. 
Colonel Derby. He was unhurt, except as to his feelings. 



34 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

The infantry regiments on the brigade's left were having a terrible time advancing in 
the face of the converging Hre from Kettle and San Juan Hills. Urgent orders came from 
General McClernand "to take Kettle Hill at all costs." The job given to the First, Ninth, 
Tenth and Rough Rider Cavalry was a tough one. 

The famous little red-roofed house on the summit was indicated as the objective; and 
the troops started, waded through the San Juan River, and crawling, running, stumbling, 
crossed the bare ground up the slope of the hill in the terrific heat, all in the face of a 
galling fire from the entrenchments on the crest. Reaching the objective, the Spaniards were 
seen fleeing to safety into the trenches beyond, on San Juan Hill. 

The regiment formed in two lines, Troops A, B, E and I in front, led by Major Norvell. 
Troops C, F and G were in the second line, under Major Wint. Troop D, which had forded 
the river further down stream, was temporarily separated from the squadron. 

Nothing could stop the rush of our men. The two lines became merged into one a line 
of cheering, yelling heroes whom bullets could not stop. 

1st Lieutenants W. H. Shipp and W. E. Smith were killed while leading their men. 
They had graduated from West Point together, fell at the same time, and were buried in 
the same grave on San Juan Hill. 

Captain A. L. Mills was shot in the head while reforming his men for the second charge. 
2nd Lieutenant F. R. McCoy was severely wounded while in the van of his platoon, and was 
commended for gallantry. First Lieutenant Livermore, same troop, was commended for gal- 
lantry in taking No. 1 blockhouse, where he was wounded. Captain Anderson was struck 
by a shell burst and received two wounds, but continued with his troop. Captain Bigelow was 
struck three times when only 75 yards from the blockhouse. Lieutenants Roberts, Barnum, 
Whitehead and Willard also were wounded. 

It is not generally known that the colors of the Third Cavalry were planted on the crest 
of San Juan by a soldier of the Tenth Cavalry. It happened in this manner : About half 
way up the slope the colors of the Third were seen to stop and fall, the color bearer sinking 
to the ground, shot through the body ; Sergeant George Berry, color bearer of the Tenth, 
dashed over to where the colors lay, raised them high, and waving both flags, planted them 
on the crest side by side. This act won for Sergeant Berry high commendation, and is no 
doubt the only instance in our military history where the colors of one regiment were carried 
to the final objective by a member of a rival regiment. 

Corporal Walker and Pvt. Luschious Smith were with Lieut. Ord of the Sixth Infantry, 
and were "the head and front of the assault." These troopers were awarded Certificates of 
Merit for their gallantry on this day. Since Pvt. Smith exchanged the Certificate of Merit 
for a Distinguished Service Medal he is the only man now in the regiment, excepting Colonel 
Winans, who wears the D. S. M. 

The famous old hill being taken, the regiment in the most advanced position, commenced 
to dig in, and that night was occupying rifle pits extending some 800 yards to the right of the 
Santiago road. Repeated counter attacks were made throughout the night, and rifle firing 
continued all night. Major Wint was severely wounded while encouraging his men during 
a night counter attack. 

The victory was won, but not without its price. Eleven of the twenty-two officers of 
the regiment were casualties, and 16^> per cent of the enlisted strength. It was a proud day 
for the regiment. 

Sergeant Graham's heroic action was the subject of two letters from commissioned 



HISTORY OF-TENTH CAVALRY 



35 




LT. COL. T. A. BALDWIN 






MAT. S. T. NORVELL 



V 







MAJ. THEO. J. WINT 



CAPT. C. G. AYRES 



36 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

officers, recommending him for a Medal of Honor. He was on duty with the Catling Gun 
Battery, and performed the hazardous duty of bringing up ammunition across a fire-swept 
zone. A shell from the enemy's artillery landed near Lieut. Parker. Without hesitation, 
Sergeant Graham leaped to Lieut. Parker's side and covered his body with his own. Luckily, 
the shell fragments struck neither. See Appendix "C' for the letters in full. 

General Wheeler specially recommended the following men for a Medal of Honor for 
their gallantry and coolness under fire : 
Troop A 

Corporal John Anderson. 
Private R. A. Parker. 
Troop C 

Sergeant Adam Houston. 
Troop E 

1st Sergeant Peter McCann. 
Sergeant Benjamin Fasit. 
Sergeant O. G. Gaither. 
Sergeant William Payne. 
Corporal Thomas H. Herbert. 
Troop I 

Private Elsie Jones. (Previously recommended). 

Many enlisted men of the Ninth and Tenth Cavalry won commendations for gal- 
lantry and were commissioned in the Volunteers. Among those were Sergeant Major Edward 
L. Baker, Q. M. Sergeant Alfred M. Ray. 1st Sergeant William H. Givens, Sergeant Saint 
Foster, Sergeant John Buck, and Saddler Sergeant Jacob C. Smith. 

Lieutenant Pershing, the Regimental Quartermaster, rendered valuable service in the 
hazardous duty of conducting the troops to their sectors of attack and defense, and was com- 
mended by Colonel Baldwin. 

The reports of Lieut. Colonel Baldwin, Major Norvell and the troop commanders throw 
most interesting sidelights on the battle. These appear in Appendix "D." 

Colonel Leonard Wood in his report on the conduct of the Second Cavalry Brigade, 
wrote : 

"That dismounted cavalry should have been able to charge regular infantry in strong 
position, supported by artillery, entanglements and the general lay of the land, seems almost 
incredible, yet that is exactly what these troops did, passing over a long zone of fire and 
charging steep hills topped with works and blockhouses. I can only say that their work 
was superb." 

The thin American lines on San Juan Heights was now within cannon shot range of 
Santiago, but the situation was one that gave our high command grave anxiety. General 
Wheeler was the recipient of unsolicited advice to withdraw, as was General Shafer. At 
3 :00 a. m. of July 2nd, heavy firing broke out, and at 5 :30 was general all along the line. 
Two officers and five men of the Tenth were wounded in this engagement between the 
trenches; at 10:00 p. m., our men had to beat off a determined attack, supported by artillery. 
Work on the entrenchments continued without pause, as there was a possibility that the 
"war of movement" was to degenerate into trench warfare, or a siege. 

On July 2nd, in the evening, a conference was held between Generals Shatter, Wheeler, 
Lawton, Kent and Bates, to decide, upon a course of action. It developed that the plan of 
action was to rest on the reply of General Toral to the demand for the surrender of Santiago, 
sent under flag of truce on July 3rd at noon. 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 



37 





1ST LT. CARTER P. JOHNSON 1 ST LT. MALVERN-HILL BARNUM 





2ND LT. FRANK R. McCOY 



2ND LT. GEORGE VIDMER 



38 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

July 3rd dawned to the accompaniment of heavy artillery and musketry fire. About 
9:00 a. m., the booming of heavy guns off the Harbor of Santiago told the men in the 
trenches that "Cervera was out," and that our Navy was taking care of the Spanish fleet. 
Hostilities ceased at noon, when the flag of truce went over, but not before two more men of 
the Tenth had been wounded. Bomb-proofs were constructed, and the troops started to 
prepare for a long stay in their trenches. 

At noon of the 4th of July, the truce continuing, the men were assembled to hear General 
Miles' congratulatory telegram referring to their work of July 1st. The bands played, and 
a real celebration was held, but this party was small compared to the jubilee held next day 
when the news came of the destruction of the Spanish fleet. 

The next four days were spent in strengthening the trenches, and speculating on the 
chances for a renewal of the fight. 

Firing commenced again at 4:30 p. m. of the 10th, but died out about 7:15 p. m. Early 
next morning the pickets tried to start something, and by 6:00 a. m. the firing spread all 
down the line. It took forty minutes of frantic bugling to "Cease firing" for the firing to 
cease. A tropical thunderstorm that night added to the general discomfort of the trenches. 
General Miles, riding down the lines, caught one regiment stark naked, while they were drying 
their clothing on trees and bushes. Every man stood at attention while he passed. He said 
later that it was the strangest review he ever had. 

Early on the 14th a warning order came to the effect that the attack would be launched 
at noon. In the midse of preparations for it, however, General Toral indicated his surrender, 
and the chances for another battle were lost. 

On the 17th the parapets were manned to witness the formal surrender of General Toral 
at 9 :30 a. m. At noon the Stars and Stripes climbed the flag staff over Santiago, and the 
campaign was over. 

The regiment marched to camp grounds at El Caney on the 18th, and remained there 
until it embarked for Montauk Point, L. I., on August 13th. The trip to Montauk Point 
required eight days, and then our veterans endured the famous Detention Camp until 
October 6th, a period of six weeks. The "out of luck" troops at Lakeside, in the meanwhile, 
had brought up the horses and baggage, so that they could be brought right back to Alabama. 
Anyway, there was a great reunion on the 21st, and much swapping of yarns. There was no 
argument the Tenth had won the war. 

The regiment was slated for a temporary stay in Huntsville, Alabama. As a special com- 
pliment, President McKinley reviewed the regiment in Washington, D. C., ordering it de- 
trained for the purpose. The President was most complimentary in his remarks to Colonel 
Baldwin, who agreed with him perfectly. 

Camp in Huntsville was made October llth, and our veterans had no trouble making 
friends and getting married. The citizens of this city were most cordial, and their hos- 
pitality unbounded. 

The band and the two veteran squadrons took part in the Peace Jubilee in Philadelphia 
in October. Here they were presented with a beautiful stand of colors, a gift of the colored 
citizens of Philadelphia. It will be remembered that Philadelphia, twenty-two years previous, 
had furnished Captain Carpenter the high class recruits wjio were to become the backbone 
of the regiment. 

On the 22nd of November the regiment received its new colonel, S. M. Whitside. 

The border was calling again, and it was "Back to Texas" on January 29th, 1899. The 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 39 

men were reluctant to leave Huntsville. As a token of the respect they had won there the 
citizens presented to the regiment a beautiful silk color. 

Back in Texas, the troops took station as follows : Headquarters, A, G, H and L at 
Fort Sam Houston ; C, D and M at Fort Clark ; B at Fort Ringold ; E at Fort Mclntosh ; 
F at Eagle Pass ; I at Fort Clark, and K at Fort Brown. 

General Orders, No. 40, War Department, 1898, caused the discharge of 494 "for the 
duration" men. This in February. When the news unofficial, at first arrived that the 
regiment was to return to Cuba nearly all of these men reenlisted. Sure enough, orders did 
come, and the Tenth was slated to relieve a volunteer regiment. 

Half the troops landed at Manzanillo on May 7, the remainder arrived at Gibara on 
the 21st. Headquarters A, C and H took station at Manzanillo, L at Bayamo, M at Jighuani, 
G at Campechuela, B at Gibara, D, E and I at Holguin, F at Banes, and K at Porto Padre. 
These places will never be forgotten by those who served there. The Cubans were most 
friendly and obliging, and not a few marriages were celebrated. The sentiment in the regi- 
ment was that the stations and service in Cuba were the finest it had ever had. 

Field service against insurrectos and bandits was enjoyed for several months, although 
in the rainy season the difficulties of chasing them down through the jungles were manifold. 
Lieutenant Walter C. Short made one brilliant capture of a band of eleven outlaws after a 
hard chase. One of these was the famous bandit, Troncon, who won to freedom by acting as 
executioner for the Province of Santiago. He received credit for five years' imprisonment 
for every man garroted. It is not known how many men he had to garrote to equal a term 
of life imprisonment. 

Except for a slight epidemic of yellow fever which broke out in H Troop, the troops 
enjoyed good health. 

In January, 1900, the Second Squadron returned to the States Texas, of course to 
function as Depot, or "Home Squadron." Their stay on the Rio Grande lasted just a year, 
for in April, 1901, they moved to Frisco, thence to Manila, landing on May 13th. A week 
later they took station in Samar. E Troop, Captain C. G. Ayres, at Oquendo ; F, Captain 
P. E. THppe and 2nd Lieut. C. A. Romeyn, at Calbayog ; G, Captain Guy Carleton, at Gandara ; 
H, Captain Robert D. Read and 1st Lieutenant Thos. A. Roberts, at Mao. 

Samar was full of Samaritans, but not any good ones, quoting (now) Lieut. Colonel 
Romeyn. Field service in Samar was very difficult, and to our men, unused to the best 
method of warfare against insurrectos, had many interesting experiences. Colonel Romeyn 
writes of one hike : "A few days later E was sent up the Bibotan, G went vip the Gandara, 
H went up on the northwest coast, and F stayed in Calbayog. However, a few days later 
General Hughes (R. P.) sent us out, to try us out. We took three days' rations (no carga- 
dores.officcrs and men carried their own stuff) and a guide and making quite a detour on 
starting headed for the interior and Luk-Ban. 

On the second day we gobbled an outpost and "persuaded" him to lead us to camp. 
He led us all right. We were soon fired on by another outguard, but he (the prisoner) said 
the main body was further along. 

I had the point and was pushing on when the captain (Trippe) came up and cussed 
me out for not going after the outpost. I tried to explain, but I went after the outpost and 
the captain took the guide and went after the main body and found them. They were waiting 
for him, and had their aim been as good as their intentions F troop would have had some 
heavy losses, but their bullets flew high and none of our men were hit. We killed two (one 
being our prisoner, who bolted). 



40 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

We found and destroyed a lot of bamboo cannon loaded with home-made powder and 
iron slugs. A very good weapon, by the way, at fifty yards, but usually fired at about 500 
yards. I had a nice climb up a hill about one hundred feet high and came down on my 
reinforcements. Of course it rained, and that night we had a nice wet camp and marched 
back the next day to camp. 

F troop or detachments made three other hikes but had not other actions except a small 
one under a sergeant whose name I have forgotten, but a fine man. He was one of the 
captains of the 48th or 94th, I believe, and he and some scouts marched about thirty miles 
and had a fight, all in about twenty-four hours. And thirty miles in Samar was some hike. 
No roads, and you could not go a mile without using your hands to help you along. One 
trooper expressed his feelings : "Gee, but I wish I was a cavalry horse in these war times." 
The Navy one night saw an H troop fire on shore and dropped their second shell on it ; 
the first went high, and by the time the second arrived all 100-yard records had been beaten. 
Roberts made the Navy "set 'em up" for that. 

E, G and H had a terrible time up in the interior. I was Q. M. at Calbayog and did 
my best to feed them, but it was a poor bunch of feed I fear. 

Finally in September (we landed in May) the squadron left for Panay. I had received 
orders for the States and stayed at Calbayog long enough to clear up some of my account- 
ability and then came home. 

I only remember one good anecdote, but in those days of the "new army" I believe it 
well worth repeating. 

One evening Bobby Read was sitting in front of his tent in not the most pleasant frame 
of mind when a private came up. Here is the dialogue as I remember it : 
Pvt. Sah, I'd like permission to speak to the captain. 
Bobby Well, what is it? (rather grouchily). 

Pvt. Well, sah, I has a complaint to make agains de fust sergeant. 
Bobby (More grouchily) Well, what is it? 

Pvt. Well, sah, de fust sergenat done call me , and I don like dat sort of thing. 
Bobby (More grouchily) Well, ain't you 
Pvt. (Cheerfully) Yas, sah! yas, sah! If de captain says so. 

General Chaffee came down to inspect us. We received him with a salute of shrapnel 
fired in the direction of the last reported insurrectos (we got a good echo), and his inspector 
general (Johnston, I believe) criticised the uniforms. After he had gone General Hughes 
remarked, "Well, if they do their work they can be in their shirt tails for all I care." And 
we did the work. 

The squadron remained in Samar until August, when it was moved over to Panay. 
Here the troopers were furnished with remounts, of which many died of Surra. Next June 
(1902) the squadron was slated for a return to the States to join the regiment again. It 
sailed from Manila July 6th and landed at Frisco August 1st, sailing via Nagasaki, Japan. 
Later in the same month E took station at Fort D. A. Russell, F went to Fort Washakie, G 
and H garrisoned Fort Mackenzie, all in Wyoming. 

To return to the troops in Cuba. Under the governorship of General Leonard Wood 
outlawry was abolished and conditions were such that the sub-stations in the interior were 
reduced in number and the regiment was occupying but two stations, Manzanillo and Holguin. 
In the spring of 1902 several practice marches were taken. B and D covered 800 miles, cross- 
ing the island twice ; A and L covered 525 miles. Pack transportation only was taken. 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 



41 



Continuing its policy of moving the Tenth Cavalry around the map, the regiment was 
ordered back to the States, this time to the northern stations requested by Colonel Mizner 
long ago. Manzanillo was evacuated April 24th, the troops arriving at Fort Robinson, Ne- 
braska, May 4, via Newport News. The troops at Holguin left that place on May 4, followed 
the trail and arrived at Robinson May 16th. 

Tenth Cavalry colonels continued their popularity with the War Department, for once 
again the regiment was called on to furnish a brigadier. Colonel Whitside received his 
star May 29, 1902, and was succeeded by Colonel J. A. Augur, who joined in October. 




42 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 



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CHAPTER V. 
SERVICE AT HOME 

ROM May, 1902, to March, 1907, Fort Robinson, Nebraska, remained 
the headquarters of the regiment, with the 2nd squadron in Wyoming. 
During this period there was little to record, excepting the expedition in 
1906, when the troops were called out to put down the Utes in Montana. 
For the first time in its history, our men had the leisure and oppor- 
tunity to take up athletics. From the start the regiment made good 
records. In the words of one old non-com: "What it took to win, 
we had nothing else but." 

1903 

TARGET PRACTICE 

Regimental order in Army No. 6 

Troop K, order in Army No. 3 

Troop I, order in Army No. 4 

Troop M, order in Army No. 6 

Troop K, order in Cavalry No. 1 

Army Cavalry competition 

Corporal Logan, Troop K, 3rd medal (Silver). 

Captain Cavenaugh, 4th medal (Silver). 
Army pistol competition 

Corporal Reese, Troop M, 9th (Bronze). 
Department Cavalry competition 
(Departments of Missouri and Texas). 

Captain Cavenaugh, 1st medal (Gold). 

Corporal Logan, Troop K, 2nd medal (Silver). 

Captain Hay, 5th medal (Bronze). 

Q. M. Sergeant Anderson, 8th medal (Bronze). 

Corporal Williams, Troop A, 10th medal (Bronze). 
Department pistol competition 
(Departments of Missouri and Texas). 

Corporal Reese, Troop M, 3rd medal (Silver). 

Corporal Davis, Troop L, 8th medal (Bronze). 



44 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

ATHLETICS 

Winner of Field Day contests (Headquarters, Band, 1st and 3rd Squadrons;, Troop I. 

Winner of baseball championship, (Headquarters, Band, 1st and 3rd Squadrons), Band. 
Great interest was displayed in athletics during the year and the results of monthly contests, 
as published in Department General Orders, show that Fort Robinson (Headquarters, Band, 
1st and 3rd Squadrons) stood first in the Department. 

1904 

TARGET PRACTICE 

Regimental order in Army 14 

Troop 1, order in Army 3 

Troop K, order in Army 14 

Troop A, order in Army 3/ 

In the expert rifleman's test ten (10) qualified four officers and six enlisted men. 
Army competition, Cavalry 

Regimental Quartermaster Sergeant B. A. Anderson, distinguished marksman, 1st 

medal (Gold). 

1st Sergeant Robert Johnson, Troop K, 7th medal (Silver). 

Captain William H. Hay, 8th medal (Silver). 
Army pistol competition 

Sergeant Wm. H. Hamilton, Troop D, 12th medal (Silver). 
Northern Division Cavalry competition 

Captain H. La T. Cavenaugh, 1st medal (Gold). 

Captain William H. Hay, 9th medal (Bronze). 

Sergeant Jesse Baker, Troop H, 12th medal (Bronze). 

Sergeant Robert Glover, Troop I, 14th medal (Bronze). 
Northern Division pistol competition 

Sergeant Wm. H. Hamilton, Troop D, 10th medal (Bronze). 

Cook William Floyd, Troop K, llth medal (Bronze). 

Q. M. Sergeant Otho J. Woodward, Troop C, 13th medal (Bronze). 

ATHLETICS 

Winner of gymnasium contest, Troop B. 
Winner of field day contest, Troop I. 
Winner of baseball championship, Troop I. 
Winner of football championship, Troop B. 

These contests were participated in by the 1st and 3rd squadrons. 

1905 

TARGET PRACTICE 

Regimental order in Army 13 

Troop K, order in Army 22 

Troop I, order in Army 44 

Troop A, order in Army 52 

In the expert riflemen test, 20 qualified four officers and 16 enlisted men. 
Army Cavalry competition 

Captain W. H. Hay, distinguished marksman, 10th medal (Silver). 
Army pistol competition 

2nd Lieut. H. S. Dilworth, 10th medal (Silver). 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 45 

Northern Division Cavalry competition 

1st Lieut. Bruce Palmer, 2nd medal (Gold). 

Sergeant Jesse Baker, Troop H, 10th medal (Bronze). 

Cook William Floyd, Troop K, llth medal (Bronze). 

Captain R. J. Fleming, 12th medal (Bronze). 

Sqdn. Sgt. Maj. E. P. Frierson, 16th medal (Bronze). 
Northern Division pistol competition 

Sergeant William H. Hamilton, Troop D, 1st medal (Gold). 

2nd Lieut. H. S. Dilworth, 6th medal (Silver). 

ATHLETICS 

Strict attention was paid to athletic training throughout the year in the line of 
gymnasium and outdoor drills, contests and games. 

Winner of indoor contests, Troop B. 

Winner of field day contests, Troop I. 

Winner of baseball championship Headquarters, 1st and 3rd Squadrons, 9 teams 
Troop K. 

Winner of football championship 1st and 3rd Squadrons, 8 teams Troop K. 

1906 

TARGET PRACTICE 

Regimental order in Army 7 

Troop I, order in Army 12 

Troop L, order in Army _ 46 

Troop K, order in Army 47 

In the expert riflemen test, 49 qualified eight officers and 41 enlisted men. 
Army rifle competition 

1st Lieut. Bruce Palmer, 5th medal (Gold). 
Army pistol competition 

Sergeant William H. Hamilton, Troop D, 6th medal (Silver). 
Northern Division rifle competition 

1st Lieut. Bruce Palmer, 1st medal (Gold). 

Sergeant Benjamin Bettis, Troop A, 14th medal (Bronze). 

1st Sergt. Isaac Bailey, Troop B, 23rd medal (Bronze). 
Northern Division pistol competition 

Trumpeter Revere N. Still, Troop K, 1st medal (Gold). 

Corporal Manning H. Reese, Troop M, llth medal (Bronze). 

2nd Lieut. H. S. Dilworth, 12th medal (Bronze). 

ATHLETICS 

Winner of field day contests (Headquarters, Band, 1st and 3rd Squadron), Troop I. 

Winner of baseball championship (Headquarters, Band, 1st and 3rd squadron), Troop K. 

The Tenth Cavalry seems to have been the Father of Army Polo. Lieutenants Palmer, 
Muller, Cook and Graham were responsible for the phenomenal success of the team, and it 
was their excellence in this sport that made the Army, for the first time, a factor to be 
considered in tournaments where civilian teams competed. In 1906, Lieutenants Cook and 
Graham played on the team which won the international championship in England. 

A short resume of the polo seasons follow : 



46 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

1903 

At Fort Logan, Colorado, June 23rd. 
Score : 

Tenth Cavalry 5 goals 

14th Cavalry 4^> goals 

HANDICAPS 

At Colorado Springs, Colorado, June 25, 27 and 29. 
Score : 

Colorado Springs 9]/ 2 goals 

Tenth Cavalry 8 goals 

(Handicap of three allowed Tenth Cavalry). 
Score : 

Tentli Cavalry 6 goals 

Denver 5 goals 

Score : 

Glenwood 6% go^j 

Tenth Cavalry 5^4 goals 

(Handicap of four allowed Tenth Cavalry). 
At Glenwood, Colorado, September. 

A series of games, results not obtainable, was played for the Rocky Mountain 
championship. 
At Fort Riley, Kansas, October. 

A game was played with a team of officers from Fort Riley for the polo champion- 
ship, Department of the Missouri, and a cup put up by the management of the 
Department Athletic Contest. 
Score : 

Tenth Cavalry 18 goals 

Fort Riley 1 goal 

1904 

Polo was practiced by the officers of Headquarters, 1st and 3rd Squadrons, throughout 
the open season, and great improvement over the previous year's work was shown. 

The following are the results of match games participated in by the regimental team : 
1 Rocky Mountain Championship, under the auspices of the Glenwood Polo Club, 
Glenwood, Colorado, September, 1904 : 
Preliminary : 

Tenth Cavalry 12 goals 

Colorado Springs, second '. 1^4 goals 

Finals : 

Tenth Cavalry 4 goals 

Glenwood 12 goals 

2 The Scudder Handicap, under the auspices of the Cheyenne Mountain Country Club, 
at Colorado Springs, September, 1904. 
First Game : 

Tenth Cavalry 9 goals 

Colorado Springs, second 5 goals 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 47 

Second Game : 

Tenth Cavalry 5 goals 

Colorado Springs goals 

Third Game: 

Tenth Cavalry 3 goals 

Glenwood 2^ goals 

1905 

Polo had been encouraged and practiced by a large number of officers of Headquarters, 
1st and 3rd Squadrons, throughout the open season with great benefit to their physical con- 
dition and their skill in all branches of equitation. 

The following are the results of the open championship contests participated in by the 
regimental team during the year. 

Tenth Cavalry Challenge Cup, under the auspices of the Officers' Club, Fort Robinson, 
Nebraska, June, 1905 : 

First Game : 

Tenth Cavalry 9 goals 

Colorado . 4 goals 

Second Game : 

Tenth Cavalry 1 goal 

Colorado 3^4 goals 

Third Game : 

Tenth Cavalry 5 goals 

Colorado , 4^4 goals 

Rocky Mountain Championship, under the auspices of the Glenwood Polo Club, Glen- 
wood, Colorado, September, 1905. 

Preliminary : 

Tenth Cavalry 10 goals 

Colorado Springs 4 goals 

Finals : 

Tenth Cavalry 7^. goals 

Glenwood 6^2 goals 

Western Championship, under the auspices of the Cheyenne Mountain Country Club, 
Colorado Springs, Colorado, September, 1905. 

Preliminary : 

Tenth Cavalry 8 goals 

Denver 6 goals 

Finals : 

Tenth Cavalry 8 goals 

Colorado Springs 1^4 goals 

Interstate Championship, under the auspices of the Denver Country Club, Denver, 
Colorado. September, 1905. 

Preliminary : 

Tenth Cavalry 12 goals 

Denver 5 goals 

Finals : 

Tenth Cavalry 9?4 goals 

Colorado Springs 7 goals 



48 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

Black Hills Championship, under the auspices of the Minnekato Club, Hot Springs, 
South Dakota, October, 1905. 
Preliminary : 

Tenth Cavalry 17 goals 

Sheridan Y$ goal 

Finals : 

Tenth Cavalry 8 goals 

Sheridan '. 3 goals 

The foregoing shows a brilliant season for the regiment in polo, five open champion- 
ships won, with the unquestioned supremacy of the middle west. The officers most dis 
tinguished in polo were Lieutenants Palmer, Muller, Cook and Graham. 

1906 

Owing to the marked success of the regimental polo team in the preceding year (1905), 
four notable players of the East and West, Mr. Foxhall Keene, of New York; Mr. Bulkley 
Wells and Bryant Turner,of Denver, and Mr. Frank Gilpin, of Colorado Springs, invited 
the Tenth Cavalry to play a series of polo games at Colorado Springs for the best two 
out of three games. Our team consisted of Lieutenants Muller, Cook, Palmer and Graham, 
with Captain Paxton and Lieut. Cartmell as substitutes. 

The results of the games were as follows : 
April 24th, 1906: 

Tenth Cavalry 4j^ goals 

Colorado 3?4 goals 

April 27th, 1906 : 

Tenth Cavalry 10^ goals 

Colorado 3 goals 

The third game being rendered unnecessary by the success of the Tenth Cavalry, and 
some of the members of the Tenth Cavalry team having been called away, a handicap game 
was arranged for which was won by Colorado by a score of 8 to 2^4. 

Preparation for the autumn tournament was impeded by a tour in a Camp of Instruc- 
tion for two months immediately preceding the games. In fact it was not believed that the 
regiment would be able to participate until just before the games began. The regiment was 
further handicapped by the absence of Lieutenants Palmer and Adair, the latter who had 
become first substitute. In spite of these difficulties the team participated in all the finals 
and won a number of notable games. 

The team consisted of Lieutenants Muller and Cook, Captain Kromer and Lieut. Graham, 
with Captain Paxton as substitute. 

Following are the results : 

Rocky Mountain Championship, at Glenwood, Colorado. 

Finals : 

Colorado Springs 9V 2 goals 

Tenth Cavalry 6 goals 

Interstate Championship, at Denver, Colorado. 

Preliminary : 

Tenth Cavalry 6 goals 

Denver 1 goal 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 49 

Finals : 

Colorado Springs 12 goals 

Tenth Cavalry 5 goals 

Western Championship, at Colorado Springs. 
Preliminary : 

Tenth Cavalry 8 goals 

Colorado Springs : , 3)4 goals 

Finals : 

Sheridan 8^4 goals 

Tenth Cavalry 5 goals 

United States Army vs. Civilians. 

Civilians 9 goals 

Army 6 goals 

America vs British Isles. (Lieutenants Cook and Graham on American team). 

America 6 goals 

British Isles 4 goals 

Woodward Handicaps. 
Preliminaries : 

Tenth Cavalry ...13 goals 

Colorado Springs 3)4 goals 

(Handicap of five allowed Tenth Cavalry). 

Denver won preliminary from Sheridan, which allowed three goals handicap. On 
account of the enforced absence of many players the finals were postponed to some future 
date. 

A match game was played with the Sixth Cavalry at Fort Robinson, 1906. 
The Tenth Cavalry team consisted of Lieutenants Cook, Adair, and Captain Paxton, 
with Captain Kromer and Lieutenant Cartmell each playing two periods. 
Score: Tenth Cavalry, 12; Sixth Cavalry, 1. 






CHAPTER VI. 

PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

ANUARY, 1907, found the troops still in Nebraska and Wyoming. 
Headquarters, Band, A, B, C, D, I, K, L and M were in Fort Robinson, 
v E and F were still at Washakie, G and H at D. A. Russell. Preparations 
'were being male for a move to the Philippine Islands, so in February 
|E and F joined G and H at D. A. Russell. 

March 1st, Headquarters, Band, and Troops A, C, D, K and L en- 
hrained for San Francisco, where it was joined March 5th by Major 
Wint's squadron from D. A. Russell. No time was available to "see the sights'" of Frisco. 
The Transport Thomas was waiting at the dock and received our warriors and steamed 
away, bound for the land of the Caribao and the festive Filipino. This trip was the second 
voyage for the Second Squadron, whose veterans put on no end of airs at being seasoned 
travelers. Honolulu and Guam were touched at, while the troops looked forward to 
another big reunion. 

Manila was reached April 2nd. and the Headquarters, Band, Second Squadron and K 
and L took station next day at Fort William McKinley. Major Grierson took station at 
Camp Wallace Union, April 6th, with A, C and D. 

Of the troops still at Robinson, Troops B and I entrained May 31st and, following the 
trail, joined their squadrons in July. 

Out of luck, Troop M moved to Fort Riley, Kansas, May 19th and remained until the 
return of the regiment to the States in 1909, constituting the detachment for the Mounted 
Service School. 

In the Islands the Tenth kept up its record in athletics and military sports against 
keen competition. 

PHILIPPINES DIVISION PISTOI, COMPETITION 

Corporal Revere N. Still, Troop K, 7th medal (Bronze). 
Sergeant Vodrey Henry, Troop H, 10th medal (Bronze). 

DEPARTMENT MEET EVENTS 

The regiment won the following events at the Annual Athletic Meet of the Department 
of Luzon which was held in Manila from December 9th to December 14th, competing against 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 51 

two cavalry regiments, three infantry regiments, one artillery regiment, one company of 
engineers, and the hospital corps. 

GENERAL EVENTS 

1. Running high jump. 

Private Johnson, Troop B, 1st place. Height 5 feet 6 inches. 

Private Miller, Troop I, 3rd place. 
2. Putting 12-lb. shot. 

Sergeant Washington, Troop G, 2nd place. Distance 36 feet. 
3. Baseball throwing contest. 

Private Thompson, Troop B, 1st place. Distance 321 feet 6 inches. 
4. Running broad jump. 

Private Davis, Troop F, 1st place. Distance 19 feet 2J/2 inches. 
5. Relay race. 

Regimental team, 3rd place. 
6. Pole vaulting. 

Sergeant Michie, Troop H, 3rd place. Height 9 feet 4 inches. 
7. 100-yard dash. 

Private Loud, Troop 1, 1st place. Time 10 1/5 seconds. 
8. 120-yard hurdles. 

Private Collins, Troop L, 1st place. Time 18 seconds. 
9 Tug of War. 

Regimental team, 3rd place. 

CAVALRY EVENTS 

1. Mounted wrestling. 

Regimental team, 1st place. 
2. Tent pegging contest. 

Regimental team, 1st place. 
3 Training of the Squad. 

Regimental team, 2nd place. 

BASEBALL 

When the regiment arrived in the islands, April 2nd, 1907, Fort William McKinley 
was represented in the Manila Baseball League by a post team. 1st Sergeant Thompson 
of G troop was signed by the post team as a pitcher, and proved to be of great assistance 
in winning for the post the Manila Baseball League pennant for the season 1906-1907. 

No games between regimental teams of the post were played until the rainy season. 

As a part of the department meet in December a competition between regimental teams 
took place. In this competition the Tenth Cavalry team was tied for second place with 
four other teams, being beaten by three teams of Fort William McKinley, which they had 
beaten several times before the meet. 

In November a post lea.pue was formed, consisting of one team from each of the five 
garrisons at Fort William McKinley. At the end of December the Tenth Cavalry team was 
leading the league, having won all the games played up to that time. 

1908" 

January 7th and 17th to April 8th, Troops E and F, respectively, were stationed in the 
Mariquina River Valley; and September llth to October llth, Troop G; October llth to 
November llth, Troop H; November llth to 28th, Troop K, was stationed at San Mateo, 



52 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

Rizal, P. I., being engaged in patrolling the Mariquina River Valley, guarding the Manila 
water supply from infection of cholera. 

MARCHES 

January 21-26, Troop D, Captain John Ryan, commanding, marched from Camp Wallace 
Union, P. I., to Camp John Hay and Trinidad, Benguet, and return. Distance marched 
lS?y 2 miles. 

February 10-16, Troop B, 1st Lieutenant William W. Edwards, commanding, marched 
from Camp Wallace Union, P. I., to Camp John Hay and Trinidad, Benguet, and return. 
Distance marched 115 miles. 

February 23-26, Troops H, I, K and L, under command of Major Robert D. Read, 
marched through Rizal and Cavite provinces and return. Distance of march 60 miles. 

April 18th to May 13th, the Band, under command of 2nd Lieutenant Henry R. Adair, 
went to Camp Wallace Union, P. I., and Camp John Hay, P. L, and return. Distance 
traveled about 449 miles. 

April 24th to June llth, Troop I, Captain Henry C. Whitehead, commanding, marched 
to Camp Wallace Union, P. I., via Camp John Hay, P. L, and return. Arrived at Camp 
Wallace Union May 13th, where it remained until May 25th. Distance marched 484 miles. 

December 30-31, Troop A, 1st Lieutenant Carl H. Muller, commanding, was en route to 
and stationed at Camp Pasay, near Manila, P. L, representing the regiment at the Philippines 
Division Annual Military Tournament. Distance traveled 175 miles. 

PHILIPPINE DIVISION PISTOL COMPETITION 

1st Sergeant Isaac Bailey, Troop B, 23rd medal (Bronze). 
Squadron Sergt. Major E. P. Frierson, 31st medal (Bronze). 

PHILIPPINE. DIVISION RIFLE COMPETITION 

Corporal William E. Andrews, Troop A. 9th medal (Bronze). 

PHILIPPINES DIVISION MEET EVENTS 

The regiment won the following events at the Annual Military Meet, Philippines 
Division, held at Pasay, near Manila, January 13-18. 
Steeple chase (2 miles). 

Winner, Captain Robert R. Wallach. Time 4:21 1/5. 
Officers' flat race (1 mile). 

1st 2nd Lieutenant Emmett Addis. 
2nd 2id Lieutenant James S. Greene. 
3rd 2nd Lieutenant Henry R. Adair. 

Time 1 :55 2/5. 
Soldiers' flat race (1 mile). 

1st Private J. J. Prather, Troop H. 
3rd Sergeant Ether Beattie, Troop C. 
Time 1 :55 2/5. 

MILITARY EVENTS (Cavalry) 
Fencing, mounted. 

Sergeant Richard E. Robinson, Troop K, 2nd. 
Bending race. 

1st Corporal Richard P. Parham, Troop K. 

2nd Trumpeter William Trent, Troop K. 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 53 

Time 31 seconds. 
Reaching contest. 

1st Private Felix Page, Troop K. 

2nd Corporal William A. McDowell, Troop K. 

Time 1 minute 2 seconds. 
Individual scouting. 

2nd Sergent William L. Davis and Corporal Alf Williams, Troop K. 
Troop K, Captain Harry La T. Cavanaugh, commanding, represented the regiment with 
great credit at this meet, standing second with 940.69 points. 

DEPARTMENT MEET EVENTS 

The regiment won the following events at the Annual Athletic Meet of the Department 
of Luzon, which was held in Manila from December 8th to December 24th, competing against 
two cavalry regiments, three infantry regiments and one artillery regiment. 

FIELD AND TRACK EVENTS 
1. 100-yard dash. 

1st place, Private E. T. Loud, Troop I. Time 10 1/5 seconds. 
2. Running high jump. 

1st place, Private G. W. Johnson, Troop B. Height 5 feet 5 inches. 

3rd place, Corporal George Lee, Troop G. 
3. Running broad jump. 

1st place, Private Lee Edwards, Troop E. Distance 20 feet 3 inches. 
4. Putting 16-lb. shot. 

1st place, Private Leslie White, Troop H. Distance 37 feet 3 inches. 
5. 120- yard hurdles. 

3rd place, Corporal D. S. Collins, Troop L. 
6. 800-yard relay race. 

1st place, Regimental Team. Time 1 :29 1/5. 

CAVALRY EVENTS 

7. Broad sword contest. 

1st place, Private G. Coleman, Troop H. 
8. Horse training contest. 

1st place, Regimental Team. 
9. Pistol and saber contest. 

1st place, Sergeant William Rose, Troop B. 
10. Tent pegging contest. 

1st place, Sergeant Arthur Baker, Troop D. 
11. Relay race. 

2nd place, Regimental team. 
12. Exhibition drill. 

2nd place, Troop G, (Captain Wallach). 
13. Machine gun contest (Cavalry). 

(a) To go into action. 

1st place, Tenth Cavalry, 93%. Time 2.27 1/5. 

(b) Call to arms. 

1st place, Tenth Cavalry, 90%. Time 3:31 4/5. 

(c) Retiring from action. 

1st place, Tenth Cavalry. (No .record). 



54 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

(d) Mounted drill. 

2nd place, Tenth Cavalry, 87%. 

GENERAL EVENTS 

1. Tug of war. 

3rd place, Regimental Team. 
2. Sparring contest. (Middleweight class). 

Winner, Corporal John Henderson, Troop C. 

NOVELTY EVENTS 

1. Egg and cigar race. 

1st place, Corporal J. J. Prather, Troop H. Time 1 :19 1/5. 

RECAPITULATION : 

Field and track events. 

Tenth Cavalry 42 points, I st place 

Cavalry Events. 

Tenth Cavalry 72 points, 3rd place 

Machine Gun Platoon Contest (Cavalry). 

Tenth Cavalry 52 points, 1st place 

BASEBALL 

In the Fort William McKinley League, consisting of one team from each of the five 
garrisons, for the season 1907-1908. the regimental team stood second. 

In the Department of Luzon Baseball Tournament, consisting of seven teams, held at 
Manila, commencing on the 23rd of November, the regimental team stood second, with a 
percentage of .666. 

Leading players 

Best catcher : Q. M. Sergeant S. B. Barrows, Troop B. 

Best pitcher, fewest hits: 1st Sergt. W. W. Thompson, Troop G. (7 hits, 4 games). 

In the Post League at Fort Riley, Kansas, consisting of 15 teams, season 1908, Troop 
M stood first, having won 27 games out of 29 games played. 

HORSE SHOW 

The regiment won the following events in the First Manila Horse Show, held at Manila 
in March. 
POLO CLASS. 

Captain R. G. Paxton's black gelding, "Crook," ridden by 2nd Lieut. H. R. Adair. 

Blue ribbon. 
JUMPING CLASSES. 

Over 8 jumps, 4 feet 6 inches high. 

Cliquot, Troop G, ridden by Captain R. R. Wallach. Blue ribbon. 
Chico, Troop I, ridden by Blacksmith Marts, Troop I. Red ribbon. 
Over 6 jumps, 4 feet 6 inches high. 

Cliquot, Troop G, ridden by Private Martin, Troop G. Blue ribbon. 
Jim vStar, ridden by Private Pleasant, Troop G. Red ribbon. 
High jump, horse of any country. 

Chico, Troop I, ridden by Blacksmith Marts, Troop I. Blue ribbon. Height 6 

feet Y-2. inch. 
Cliquot, Troop G, ridden by Private Martin, Troop 'G. Red ribbon. 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 



55 



Troopers' high jump. 

Phil, Troop G, ridden by Private Pleasant, Troop G. Blue ribbon. 
Cliquot, Troop G, ridden by Private Martin, Troop G. Red ribbon. 
Troopers' jump, over 8 jumps, 4 feet 2 inches high. 

Phil, Troop G, ridden by Private Pleasant, Troop G. Blue ribbon. 
Chico, Troop I, ridden by Blacksmith Marts, Troop I. Red ribbon. 
Teams of two horses, over 6 jumps, 4 feet 2 inches high. 

Cliquot and Phil, Troop G, ridden by Captain Wallach and Private Pleasant, Troop 

G. Blue ribbon. 
Best trained cavalry horse. 

Guapo, Troop F, ridden by Corporal Alexander, Troop F. Red ribbon. 
Gentlemen's saddle class 15-1 and over. 

Lieut. Emmett Addis, "The Montanan," ridden by Lieut. Addis. Blue ribbon. 
Breeding class, stallions 14 to 15-1. 

Captain Whitehead's chestnut stallion, "Padre," ridden by Captain Whitehead. 

Blue ribbon. 
Breeding class, mares 14 to 15-1. 

Captain Whitehead's bay mare, "Louise/' ridden by Captain Whitehead. Blue 

ribbon. 
Gentlemen's saddle class 14 to 15. 

Captain Whitehead's chestnut stallion, "Padre," ridden by Captain Whitehead. 

Blueribbon. 
Ladies' saddle class 14 to 15-1. 

Captain Whitehead's chestnut stallion, "Padre," ridden by Miss Louise Dunn. 

Blue ribbon. 
Tandem class. 

Captain Whitehead's "Foxy"' and "Padre," driven by Lieut. Mayo. Blue ribbon. 
The regiment did not take any part in the competitions in 1909. 

The regiment won the following events at the Annual Military Meet, Philippine Division, 
held at Pasay, near Manila, January 4-16. 

SPECIAL EVENTS 
Enlisted men's flat race 1 mile. 

Winner, Sergeant Richard M. Norris, Troop A. Time 2 minutes 3 1/5 seconds. 
Boxing. (Sixth bout). 

Private Frank Wagner, Troop A. Four-round draw. 

ATHLETIC EVENTS 

100-yard dash. 

3rd, Private Deward T. Loud, Troop I. 
Running high jump. 

Winner, Private Guy W. Johnson, Troop B. Height 5 feet 4 inches. 
Putting 16-lb shot. 

Winner, Private Leslie White, Troop H. Distance 38 feet 8^ inches. 
120-yard hurdles. 

3rd, Corporal Daniel S. Collins, Troop L. 
Relay race. 

Winner, Team from Department of Luzon. (Tenth Cavalry had one man on team). 



56 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

INDIVIDUAL ORGANIZATION EVENTS ( CAVALRY) 

Tent pegging. 

2nd, Saddler James N. Hines, Troop A. 
Rescue race. 

2nd, Sergeant Lucius Lemare, Troop A. 
Relay race (Mounted). 

Winners, Squad, Troop A. 

POLO TOURNAMENT 

Winners, Tenth Cavalry. 

Team 1st Lieut. Bruce Palmer. (Field captain). 
Captain Robert G. Paxton. 
2nd Lieut. Seth W. Cook. 
2nd Lieut. E. F. Graham. 
2nd Lieut. Henry R. Adair. 
Cavalry Troops. 

3rd, Troop A, Tenth Cavalry, 749%. 
Machine gun platoon. 

2nd, Machine Gun Platoon, Tenth Cavalry, 491.66%. 

The following events were won by members of the regiment at Albany, New York, 
during the Hudson-Fulton celebration, October 4-9, 1909. 
Steeplechase (Two miles). 

Winner, Captain R. R. Wallach, Tenth Cavalry. 
Mounted wrestling. 

Winners, Corporal Moss, Troop G, and Private Lee Edwards, Troop E. 
Rescue race. 

Winners, Corporals Williams and Prather, Troop H. 

Second, Corporals Moss and Griffin, Troop G. 
Relay race. 

Winners, Sergeant Sibert, Corporal Malone and Privates Little and Coleman, Troop F. 

Second, Sergeant Mickie, Corporal Prather and Privates Harrison and Upton, Troop H. 
Tent pegging. 

Winner, Private Coleman, Troop H. 
Jumping to form. 

Winner, Private Little, Troop F. 
High jump. 

Winner, Private Little, Troop F. 
Flat race (One mile). 

Winner, Corporal Malone, Troop F. 
Hippodrome. 

Winner, Corporal Berrien, Troop E. 

Second, Private Sanders, Troop E. 
Individual horsemanship. 

Winner, Private Coleman, Troop H. 
Shelter tent pitching. 

Winner, Troop H. 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 57 

MACHINE GUN PLATOON EVENTS 

Machine gun platoon drill and exhibition. 

Winner, Machine Gun Platoon, Tenth Cavalry. 
Best and most sanitary camp during the week. 

Winner, Machine Gun Platoon, Tenth Cavalry. 

BASEBALL 

In the Fort William McKinley, Rizal, P. I., League, consisting of one team from each 
of the five garrisons, for the season 1908-1909, the regimental team stood first. 

POLO 

The following are the results of an inter-regimental polo tournament which constituted a 
part of the division meet for the Philippines Division Cup, presented by the Army and Navy 
Club of Manila. The lineup of teams was from the First, Sixth, Ninth and Tenth Regi- 
ments of Cavalry. 
SUMMARY : 

First event, Tuesday, January 5, 1919, Tenth Cavalry vs. Ninth Cavalry. 
Tenth Cavalry Goals earned, 12; lost by penalties, 0; total score, 12. 
Ninth Cavalry Goals earned, 2; lost by penalties, 1 ; total score, 1. 
Fourth event, Thursday, January 7, 1909, Tenth Cavalry vs. Sixth Cavalry. 
Tenth Cavalry Goals earned, 8 ; lost by penalties, *4 ! tot al score, 7)4. 
Sixth Cavalry Goals earned, 3 ; lost by penalties, jtotal score, 3. 
Sixth event, Saturday, January 9, 1909, Tenth Cavalry vs. First Cavalry. 
Tenth Cavalry Goals earned, 9 ; lost by penalties, J/2 ; total score, Sy 2 . 
First Cavalry Goals earned, 3 ; lost by penalties, % ; total score, 2^4. 
Recapitulation : 

Tenth Cavalry Won 3, lost 0. Percent 100. 
First Cavalry Won 1, lost 2. Percent 33. 
Ninth Cavalry Won 0, lost 3. Percent 00. 

The following are the results of two match games played by our Army against a team 
of English Army officers from Hong Kong, and constituted a part of the Philippines carnival. 
First event. Played at Manila, P. I., Wednesday, February 3, 1909. 
Second Manila team vs. Hong Kong team. 
Hong Kong 

Commander Campbell, Royal Navy, No. 1. 
Lieutenant Crookenden, Buffs, No. 2. 
Major Findley, Buffs, No. 3. 
Lieutenant Green, Buffs, back. 
Second Manila 

Lieutenant Adair, Tenth Cavalry, No. 1. 
Lieutenant Koch, Sixth Cavalry, No. 2. 
Captain Babcock, First Cavalry, No. 3. 
Lieutenant Wainwright, First Cavalry, back. 
SUMMARY : 

Second Manila Goals earned, 6 ; lost by penalties, ; total score, 6. 
Hong Kong Goals earned, 1; lost by penalties, 0; total score, 1. 
Second event. Played at Manila, P. T., Sunday, February 7, 1909. 
First team vs. Hong Kong team. 



58 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

Hong Kong 

Commander Campbell, Royal Navy, No. 1. 

Lieutenant Crookenden, Buffs, No. 2. 

Captain Briefly, Royal Artillery, No. 3. 

Lieutenant Green, Buffs, back. 
First Manila 

W. Cameron Forbes, No. 1. 

Lieutenant Cook, Tenth Cavalry, No. 2. 

Lieutenant Palmer, Tenth Cavalry, No. 3. 

Lieutenant Graham, Tenth Cavalry, back. 

SUMMARY: 

First Manila Goals earned, 9 ; lost by penalties, ; total score, 9. 
Hong Kong Goals earned, 0; lost by penalties, 0; total score, 0. 

On leaving Manila for the United States, May 15, 1909, it became necessary to dispose 
of all polo ponies. Among those disposed of, Black Crook (Captain Paxton), had won the 
first prize, polo pony Icass, in the Manila Horse Show both in 1908 and 1909. On arriving 
at Cairo, Egypt, the Seventh Dragoon Guards offered to furnish mounts and challenged the 
Tenth Cavalry team to a match game. The game was played at the Gizeh grounds June 
24th, a team being selected from those officers who happened to be in Cairo. 
Lineup and results 

Lieutenant Watson, Seventh Dragoon Guards, No. 1. 
Lieutenant Schreiber, Twentieth Hussars, No. 2. 
Captain Holland, Seventh Dragoon Guards, No. 3. 
Major Clay, Seventh Dragoon Guards, back. 

British goals, 7. 
Lieutenant Castleman, No. 1. 
Lieutenant Adair, No. 2. 
Lieutenant Muller, No. 3. 
Lieutenant 'Graham, back. 

Tenth Cavalry goals, 1. 

On arriving at Gibraltar the team hired a sufficient number of ponies and accepted a 
challenge from the British garrison. Although the ponies secured were extremely poor, 
being employed rather as hunting hacks than as polo ponies, the Tenth Cavalry team man- 
aged to make the game fairly interesting. 
Lineup and results 

Lieutenant Horner, Norfolks, -No. 1. 
Lieutenant Russell, Gunners, No. 2. 
Captain Crookson, Bedfords, No. 3. 
Lieutenant Matthews, Gunners, back. 

British goals, 5. 
LieutenantMuller, No. 1. 
Lieutenant Cook, No. 2. 
Lieutenant Palmer, No. 3. 
Lieutenant Graham, back. 

Tenth Cavalry goals, 1. 
On the 18th of April, 1909, the regiment was shocked by the sudden death of its beloved 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 59 

commander, Colonel J. A. Augur. It was thought that a tradition had been broken ; here- 
tofore every colonel had won promotion to a brigadier generalcy. But alas, Colonel Augur's 
appointment was en ruote to him at the time of his untimely demise, and the cablegrams 
congratulating him on his star were impossible of delivery. Lieutenant Colonel G. H. G. Gale 
succeeded to command and remained as such until September 23, 1909, on which date he 
was relieved by Colonel Thaddeus W. Jones. 

On May 14th, First Squadron, Major Charles H. Grierson, commanding, and on May 
15th, Headquarters, Band, and Troops E, F, G, H, I, K and L, Lieutenant Colonel G. H. G. 
Gale, commanding, left their respective stations, pursuant to General Orders No. 213, War 
Department, 1908, and General Orders, No. 14, Philippines Division, 1909, for Marivels, 
P. I., en route to the United States. 

First Squadron arrived at Marivels aboard the U. S. A. T. Liscum and disembarked 
about 1 :00 p. m. May 15th. 

Headquarters, Band, and Troops E, F, G, H. I. K and L arrived at Manila, P. I. and 
embarked on the U. S. A. T. Kilpatrick abput 1 :00 p. m. May 15th, disembarking at 
Marivels, P. L, about 4 :00 p. m., same date. 

About 1 :20 p. m. May 16th the entire command, Lieutenant Colonel G. H. G. Gale, 
commanding, embarked on the U. S. A. T. Kilpatrick en route to New York City via the 
Suez Canal, for station at Fort Ethan Allen, Vermont. Arrived at Singapore, Straits 
Settlements, May 21st. Left Singapore May 24th and arrived at Colombo, Ceylon, May 
31st. Left Colombo June 3rd and arrived at Aden, Arabia, June 15th. Left Aden June 
]6tli and arrived at Suez, Egypt, June 22nd. Left Suez, Egypt, and proceeded through the 
Suez Canal same date, and arrived at Port Said, Egypt, June 23rd. Left Port Said June 
25th and arrived at Alexandria, Egypt, June 26th. Left Alexandria same date and arrived 
at Valletta, Malta, June 30th. Left Malta July 2nd and arrived at Gibraltar July 6th. Left 
Gibraltar July 10th and arrived in New York harbor about 2 :00 a. m. July 25th. Total 
distance traveled, 10,729 miles. 

The regiment remained at New York until July 27th, participating in a civil street 
parade on July 26th. 

Left New York July 27th and arrived at station, Fort Ethan Allen, Vermont, about 
2 :00 a. m. July 28th. Distance traveled, about 309 miles. 

Pursuant to paragraph II, General Orders, No. 137, War Department, 1909, and General 
Orders, No. 54, Department of Missouri, 1909, Troop M, 2nd Lieutenant Joseph F. Taulbee, 
Second Cavalry, commanding, left Fort Riley, Kansas, July 15th, en route to its station, 
Fort Ethan Allen, Vermont. Arrived at Fort Ethan Allen, Vermont. Arrived at Fort Ethan 
Allen July 18th. Total distance traveled, 1,465 miles. 

August 7th to September 6th, Machine Gun Platoon and Troops A, B, C, D, F and K, 
Major Charles H. Grierson, commanding, were participating in the Massachusetts maneuvers. 
Total distance traveled, 381 miles. 

September 20th to October, Machine Gun Platoon, and Troops E, F, G and H, Major 
George H. Sands, commanding, were en route to and from, and in camp at Camp R. S. 
Oliver, New York, participating in the Hudson-Fulton celebration. Total distance traveled, 
30 miles. 




FORT HUACHUCA, 1920 

CHAPTER VII. 
ETHAN ALLEN AND HUACHUCA 

HE first winter in Ethan Allen was a long, hard grind, with guard tours 
walked in blizzards, full pack inspection in weather that caused much 
comment from our men, who had just come from the neighborhood of 
of the Equator. 

Spring, 1910, brought practice marches into vogue, and the men soon 
came to know the beautiful country around the post. In July the entire 
regiment, less D Troop, marched to Pine Camp, N. Y., and until August 
30 participated in maneuvers, returning by rail August 31. 

Several athletic meets were held, and advantage was taken of the splendid riding hall, 
a luxury which tha regiment had not enjoyed before. The Machine Gun Platoon won the 
meet held therein in February, 1910; the riding hall events were worr by Troop L, while in 
the gymnasium events Troop A carried off the honors. Field day meets were held during 
the months of June and September, both being won by Troop I. 

Indoor polo was taken up, and in July a team met the West Point team at that place, 
losing 4 to 1. The West Point team comprised Captains Henry and Long, Twelfth Cavalry; 
Lieutenants Allen and De Armond, Field Artillery ; Lieutenant Zell, Seventh Cavalry, and 
Lieutenant Cooper, Twelfth Cavalry. Our team was composed of Lieutenants Graham, 
Adair, O'Donnell, Colley and Van Deusen. 




HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 61 

For the first time, the regiment sent representatives to race meets for the army events. 
The results follow: 

At Pimlico, Maryland, May 28th, Army Service Race, one mile flat. 

Captain Paxton's mare, "Martha Jane," ridden by Lieut. O'Donnell. Third place. 

At Saratoga Springs, N. Y., August 13th, Army Service Race, one mile flat. 

Captain Paxton's mare, "Colored Lady," ridden by Lieut. Graham. Third place. 
At Pimlico, Maryland, September 1st, Army Service Race, one and one-half miles flat. 

Lieut. Scott's mare, "May Lee," ridden by Lieut. Whiting. Third place. 
At Pimlico, Maryland, September 3rd, Army Steeplechase, about two miles. 
Lieut. Whiting's horse, "Graustark," ridden by Lieut. Whiting. Second place. 
At Belmont Park, Long Island, November 8th, Army Service Race, one and one-half 
miles flat. 

Lieut. Scott's mare, "May Lee," ridden by Lieut. Adair. Second place. 

BASEBALL 

In the Post League, consisting of one team from each organization, Troop A stood first. 

The regimental baseball team played a number of games with outside teams both at 
the post and in towns in the State, winning the majority of the games played. 

Nineteen-eleven saw the "usual garrison duties," with the usual practice marches. In 
September the Inspector General of the Eastern Division, Lieut. Colonel Slocum, took the 
regiment out for a six-day maneuver around Shelbourne Farms, Vermont. General Bliss 
camped five days with the regiment at this time. 

POST ATHLETIC EVENTS 

Indoor Meet February. 

Winner in the meet, Machine Gun Platoon. 
Field Day June. 

Winner in the meet, Troop I. 
Field Day October. 

Winner in the meet, Troop H. 

The following events were won by members of the regiment at Rutland, Vermont, or 
Governor's Day, September 6th: 

Best single horse work. Prize, cup. 

Won by Private Weisiger, Troop H. 
Best two-horse work. (Team). Prize, cup. 

Won by Privates Strawder, Troop L, and Hoge, Troop 1. , 

Best three-horse work. (Team). Prize, cup. 

Won by Trumpeter Berry and Private Franklin, TroQp A. 
Roman Race. (Two horses). Prize, cup. 

Won by Private Marts, Troop I. 

RACES 

The following races were run by horses belonging to officers of the regiment : 
At Pimlico, Maryland, May 30th, Officers' Flat Race, one mile : 

Lieut. Scott's mare, "May Lee," ridden by Lieut. Adair, first place. 

Major Paxton's mare, "Colored Lady," ridden by Lieut. Greene, third place. 
At Brookline, Mass., June 17th, Lexington Plate: 

Major Paxton's mare, '"Colored Lady," ridden by Lieut. Greene, third place. 
At Marlboro, Maryland, November 4th, Southern Maryland State Fair, flat race, 
1 1/16 miles. 



02 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 




COLONEL THADDEUS W. JONES 

Lieut. Scott's mare, "May Lee," ridden by Lieut. Hartwell, second place. 
Lieut. Henry R. Adair, riding Troop A's horse, "Anco," won first prize in the Inter- 
national Military jumping event at the Montreal Horse Show in May. 

Rutland Horse Show, September 3rd and 4th, high jump won by "Bertie,"' Troop F. 
Jumping competition won by "Bertie," Troop F. 
Charger class won by "Jack," Troop F. 
All ridden by Lieutenant Hartwell. 

BASEBALL 

In the Post League, consisting of one team from each organization, the Machine Gun 
Platoon stood first. 

The Regimental Baseball Team played a number of games with outside teams both at 
the post and in towns in the State, winning the majority of the games played. 

BASKET BALL 

In the Post League for 1910-1911, ending February 20th, the Machine Gun Platoon stood 
first, having won all the games it played. 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 63 

A Post Basket Ball League, consisting of one team from each organization, was organ- 
ized in November. At the end of the year Troop A stood first, having won all the games 
it played. 

On February 28, 1912, Colonel Thaddeus W. Jones was retired after more than fo.rty 
years' service. Colonel John C. Gresham was assigned April 3rd but did not join until 
October 9th. 

The regiment had two pretentious marches in 1912 in the Connecticut maneuver "cam- 
paign," camping near Berkshire, Conn. This march covered 550 miles. 

Major W. A. Holbrook took the Third Squadron and Band to participate in the Rutland 
Agricultural Fair September 3-5. 

In October the First Squadron and Band helped dedicate the Saratoga battle monument 
at Schuylerville, N. Y. 

Continued interest was maintained in sports, as shown by the following : 
Indoor Meet February. 

Winner in meet, Machine Gun Platoon. 
Athletic Meet May. 

Winner in the meet, Troop A. 

RACES 

The following races were run by horses belonging to officers of the regiment : 

At Bennings, D. C., May, 1912, Remount Steeple Chase, Lieutenant Whiting's "Fico,'' 

ridden by Lieut. Whiting, finished unplaced. 

At Bennings, D. C., May, 1912, Captain Wallach's horse, "Steptoe," ridden by Captain 

Wallach, and Lieutenant Whiting riding Troop C's horse, "Colorado," finished unplaced 

in the fourteen-mile service test. 

At the National Horse Show, Madison Square Garden, November 20, 1912, Lieutenant 

Whiting's "Fico," ridden by Lieutenant Adair, won first place in the broad water jump. 

BASEBALL 

In the Post League, consisting of one team from each organization, Troop A stood first. 

BASKETBALL 

In Ihe Post League for 1911-1912, ending March 18, 1912, Troop A stood first, having 
won all the games it played. 

A Post Basketball League, consisting one one team from each organization, was organ- 
ized in November. At the end of the year Troops A and E and Machine Gun Platoon were 
tied for first place. 

In June, 1913, the regiment left for Winchester, Va., under command of Colonel J. C. 
Gresham. It arrived July 19th after a march of 720 miles, and camped until September 29 
at the Cavalry Camp of Instruction. The Cavalry Brigade did much drilling, marching and 
peace-time campaigning. On September 30 a move was made to Fort Myer, Va., where 
the Cavalry Brigade drilled some more and worked out the Tentative Drill Regulations. 
On the 7th of October the regiment drilled at Potomac Park for two hours and a half for 
the edification of the War Department. Again on October 9 the Brigade "Stunted" for the 
President, the Secretary of War, the Chief of Staff and members of Congress. 

On October 11 the regiment entrained at Roslyn, Va., and next day was back again at 
Ethan Allen. 

The regiment lived in peace and quiet until November, when rumors grew to a cer- 



64 

tainty, and the orders arrived placing the Tenth back in the Arizona sector, to practically 
the same old water holes guarded so zealously way hack in the 80's. 

Troop L, under Captain O. P. Hazzard, was the first to leave ; it departed November 
27 and arrived at Fort Apache December 6, 1913. Fort Ethan Allen was evacuated by the 
regiment on December 5, en route for Fort Huachuca, via the Transport Kilpatrick at 
Weehawken. Galvcston, Lewis Springs, Buena and Overton. Huachuca was reached on 
December 19th, and the regiment found itself a permanent home, or at least a home station. 
The Mexican border was in a more than usual turmoil, so five troops were sent out at 
once for stations. Troop E went to Naco, G, H and M to Nogales, K to Forrest. A de- 
tachment from A troop was put at Yuma. 

Colonel Daniel H. Boughton was attached to the regiment, and joined July 22, 1914. 
He commanded from August 1st to llth. Unfortunately he died August 24, 1914. 
Colonel W. C. Brown was assigned September 2nd and joined six days later. 
The border stations were not at all attractive. The poor little shacks and 'dobes were 
eagerly sought for by officers and their wives. Naco was about as it is now, only more 
so. The usual border patrols were made along the line, enforcing neutrality, and keep 
ing down gun-running. Every troop, during 1914, had a tour at Naco; Nogales was garri- 
soned by Troops A, E, G, H, M and the Machine Gun Platoon at different times during 
1914. C troop was at Yuma April 23rd to September 6th; K and D took care of Forrest 
and Osborne. 

The siege of Naco, between the Constitutionalistas and Carrancistas, under General 
Benjamin Hill and General Maytorena, was being fought out in October, and our Head 
quarters moved there October 7th. 

An aerial observer would have had difficulty picking out which side was defending. 
At times it looked like a three-cornered fight was due. Our men were in trenches and 
rifle pits all along the line, with machine guns all set for action. The Mexicans fought with 
their customary "sang froid," and enjoyed themselves potshooting across the line. The 
Ninth Cavalry was stationed also in camp at Naco, and they as well as we, suffered casualties 
from the promiscuous shooting of the warring factions. Luckily for us, we had but eight 
men wounded. The Ninth had some killed and wounded. The following of "ours" were 
Private Howard Wilson, Troop G, October 4th, shot through body, serious. Re- 
covered. 

Private Leroy Bradford, Troop B, October 6th, shot through body, serious. Dis- 
charged on surgeon's certificate of disability as result of wound. 
Sergeant Nathan Stich, Machine Gun Troop, (Troop M), October 17th, flesh wound, 

hip, slight. Recovered. . 
Cook George J. Henson, Troop D, November 18th, back of knee, flesh wound, slight. 

Recovered. 
Cassious Clay, private, Troop B, November 27th, right wrist, flesh wound, slight. 

Recovered. 

Private John W. Miller, Troop H, December 4th, flesh wound four inches below 
groin. Moderate severe. Discharged on surgeon's certificate of disability as 
result of wound. 

Sergeant Charles Smart. Troop H, December 6th, left toes, slight. Recovered. 
Private Walter Patterson, Machine Gun Troop (Troop A), December 7th, flesh 
wound left leg, slight. Recovered. 



65 

During this siege a number of horses and mules pertaining to the regiment were shot 
from stray bullets and killed. 

The town of Naco suffered more or less from the artillery fire of the besiegers, several 
houses being pierced by shells, and buildings near the "line"' still bear the marks of many 
stray bullets. Great difficulty was had in holding back the crowds of visitors from Bisbee 
and Douglas who flocked to see the "battles," in automobiles,wagons and horseback. 

The provocation to retaliate on the Mexicans for the losses sustained while on duty 
which forbade them to return the fire, was at times almost overpowering. Our men could 
draw small comfort from the delightful apologies submitted to our commanding officers for 
the killing and wounding of their comrades, always accompanied by promises that no more 
shooting would occur. Finally the "siege"' drew to a close, and the troops were given a rest 
and a chance to see what Huachuca looked like. Some of the men, after ten months' service 
on the border, had not yet seen their home station. 

The President was moved to compliment the regiment on its conduct at Naco, in a 
letter to the regimental commander. 

"War Department, Washington, April 7, 1915. 
"The Commanding Officer, 

"Tenth U. S. Cavalry, 

"Fort Huachuca, Arizona. 
"Dear Sir : 

"By direction of the President, I take great pleasure in expressing to the officers and 
enlisted men of the Tenth Cavalry his appreciation of their splendid conduct and efficient 
service in the enforcement of the United States neutrality laws at Naco, Arizona, during 
November, December and January, last. 

"Very respectfully, 
(Signed) "LINDLEY M. GARRISON, 

"Secretary of War." 

Nineteen-fifteen saw a repetition of the work of 1914. The troops rotated on their tours 
at Naco, Nogales and Lochiel. There were sub-stations at Harrison's Ranch, in the Pata- 
gonia Range, and at Arivaca, Sasabe, La Osa, San Fernando soon became well known to 
our patrols. There was always a chance for a skirmish with the bandits and rebels from 
across the line, which was quite satisfactory. 

On November 21st two privates of Troop F, on observation post near Monument 117, 
were fired on by Mexicans, and Private Willie Norman was wounded. On November 22nd 
five armed Mexicans rode into camp at Santa Cruz River and fired upon a detachment of 
of Troop F, who replied with pistol fire. Mexican casualties believed to be two. On 
November 25th Mexicans crossed the line and attacked an outpost of Troop F at hill 
opposite Mascarena's Ranch ; one Mexican wounded and made prisoner. On November 
25th part of Troop F occupied the western outskirts of the town of Nogales, Arizona, 
during the seige of Nogales, Sonora, by Carranza forces and were fired on by Carranzistas 
from Arizpe Hill, Nogales, Sonora, to which fire the troops replied, killing two and wounding 
others of the Carranza forces. 

Troop H was under fire of contending Mexican forces during siege of Nogales, Sonora. 
November 26th. No casualties. 

Troop K, at Lochiel, Arizona, encountered a band of Mexican soldiers who had come 
across the boundary on August 22nd, rounded up some cattle near the line and was attempting 
to herd them across to the Mexican side of the line. This was prevented by the prompt 
action of patrols, who exchanged about 100 shots with Mexican forces. No casualties. 



66 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

Troops B, E, G and M, under command of Colonel Brown, were at Douglas, Arizona, 
November 3rd and 4th, during the siege of Agua Prieta, Mexico. 

Troops A, B, D, E, M and G, under command of Colonel Brown, rejoined post from 
Naco on November 24th, and proceeded on November 25th to Nogales, Arizona, arriving 
there just after the siege of Nogales, Sonora, on November 25th, although Colonel Brown, 
having preceeded the command, arrived when the engagement was half finished, assumed 
and retained command until the arrival of Brigadier General Geo. Bell the following morning. 

The regiment, except Troops K and L, was inspected by the brigade commander, 
Colonel Dodd, December 29th and 30th, who reported : "This command seems to be in 
excellent working condition * * * * officers are very active and much alive to the interest 
and efficiency of the regiment." 

Sergeant Ernest S. Washington, Troop G, graduated at the head of the Non-Com- 
missioned Officers' Class at the Mounted Service School and was highly commended by 
the commandant of the school. 

During the summer months systematic instruction to enlisted men in swimming was 
given, and an average of about forty-three men per troop taught to swim for short distances. 

During August a team of selected men and horses from the Cavalry Division was 
assembled at Fort Huachuca and trained under the supervision of Captain Babcock, Tenth 
Cavalry. It took part in the Horse Show at the Panama- Pacific Exposition, and won 57 
of the prizes awarded, and $1,165.00 in cash prizes. 

During September and October instruction in lire control and approved methods of 
advancing to the attack was held under Lieut. Colonel Cabell. The results of the final 
problem, having been submitted for the criticism of the School of Musketry, brought forth 
a very handsome compliment to the effect that "this regiment is to be congratulated upon 
attaining the state of training which permitted it to attain such excellent results." 

During August, September and October, Regimental Sergeant Major Frierson established 
a School for Clerks with Regimental and Squadron N. C. O. staff officers as issistant in- 
structors, namely : Reg. Q. M. Sgt. Hugh C. Scott, Reg. Com. Sgt. William W. Thompson, 
Sqdn. Sgt. Maj. James F. Booker, Sqdn, Sgt. Maj. William F. Scott. 

The Department Inspector in his report of the Annual Inspection of the regiment re- 
ported : "The Tenth Cavalry is in excellent condition as regards to training and equipment." 
He also commended Captain Hazzard, commanding at Fort Apache, for "zeal and efficiency 
in keeping up the post with a depleted garrison." 





off 






CHAPTER VIII. 
THE PUNITIVE EXPEDITION 

EXT books and manuals treating of cavalry operations frequently allude 
to "living on the country" and acting as independent cavalry, but it is 
rare that our cavalry has actually but put to such a test. This, however, 
did occur with the Tenth Cavalry in the Punitive Expedition from 
March 20th to April 20th, 1916. It was, with the exception of two 
days' rations carried in the saddle bags, practically without one mouthful 
of government rations, a grain or spear of government forage, or a cent 
of government money, and there had been no picking of men or horses for the trip. 

On March 8, 1916, the country was startled by the raiding of Columbus, New Mexico, 
by a strong party of Villistas, led by the famous Pancho himself. Numbers of buildings 
were wrecked or burned, and in spite of gallant resistance of the Thirteenth Cavalry, which 
was surprised, severe casualties occurred among the civilian population and the troopers. 
The Villistas were driven off and pursued by several troops of the Thirteenth. Scores of 
dead and wounded Villistas in and around Columbus and on their trail southward testified 
to the ferocity of the engagement. 

About 11:30 a. m. March 9th, the regimental commander, Colonel W. C. Brown, and 
Adjutant Captain S. McP. Rutherford were going over routine work in the old amusement 
room that served as an office, when the telephone rang and the hard working adjutant 
picked up the receiver with a bored expression which soon changed to one of intense interest 
as he called back : "Call up Douglas and see if you can get any further details" ; then turning 
to the commanding officer he said : "Colonel, the telegraph operator phones that an Asso- 
ciated Press dispatch has just gone over the wires saying that Villa attacked Columbus 
early this morning, burned half the town, and killed a lot of civilians and solders." It was 



68 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

now the commanding officer's turn to wake up, and he ordered : ''Get that word around 
to troop commanders at once and tell them to hold their troops in readiness for orders," 
adding, "We'll get them soon enough." These came about thirty minutes later from Cavalry 
Brigade Headquarters at Douglas, directing that the command proceed to Douglas at once 
equipped for field service. 

The wheels were thus set to turning in earnest. The entire command, less Troops 
L, M and the Band, started at 4 p. m., equipped for the field with equipment "A" and two 
wagons per troop, and with the regimental pack train, for which last they were in the next 
four months to thank the guardian angel of the Tenth Cavalry. The regiment was escorted 
to the limits of the post by the band and by a following of the non-combatants who were 
left behind. Little did they know at this time that the regiment would not return for a 
year, and some of its members never ! 

The War Department and Congress were for once in complete accord regarding an 
expedition to follow the bandits into Mexico, and bring back "Villa, dead or alive." General 
Pershing was named Commanding General of the Punitive Expedition, to the delight of 
the Tenth. Little time was lost organizing the columns for their chase into Chihuahua. 

Culberson's Ranch, New Mexico, was designated as the rendezvous for the Second 
Cavalry Brigade, to consist of the Seventh Cavalry, Tenth Cavalry, and Battery B of the 
Sixth Field Artillery. That night the regiment made the first camp at Hereford, twenty- 
five miles out. Culberson's ranch was readied on March 13th, via Douglas, Forrest, 
Slaughter's Ranch and Hood's Ranch, picking up Troops D and G en route. 

The 14th and 15th was spent in getting rid of most of the equipment brought along. 
Everybody was to travel "very light." With Villa's trail a week old, and getting colder 
every hour, there were wiseacres who predicted that the expedition would never even get 
in touch, with his band, much less catch him in his chosen haunts among the mountains of 
Chihuahua. Much remained to be seen. It was the Cavalry's "day out." 

Even at Douglas men did not know what was ' the ultimate destination, which was 
safeguarded with more than customary success. The brigade commander could not state 
positively whether it was intended fo cross the line, although he felt ver5 r sure that it 
would be done. 

Naturally each troop quartermaster sergeant had loaded his troop wagons with more 
plunder than Noah would have carried, and equally naturally they almost wept when they 
saw it remorselessly thrown over and stored at Douglas. The space on the wagons thus 
made was filled with extra ammunition of which the regiment had all too little for a long 
campaign. At this place Captain C. B. Babcock was taken seriously ill with appendicitis 
and was left behind to undergo an operation. 

Lieut. Colonel D. R. Cabell was also detached here under orders to report as Chief of 
Staff to General Pershing. 

On March 15th the following orders issued in quick succession: 

HEADQUARTERS SECOND CAVALRY BRIGADE. 

Culberson's, N. M., March 15, 1916. 
Field Orders, 
No. 1. 

1. This command will be prepared to move at once on the receipt of orders. 

2. Pack transportation only will be used. Five days' rations will be carried. All 
ammunition and forage for which transportation is available will be carried. 

3. The guard to be left in this camp will consist of dismounted men only. All trans- 
portation and stores left in this camp will, on the departure of the command, be assembled 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 



69 



m the vicinity of the present Brigade Headquarters. An officer to command the dismounted 
guard will be designated by the commanding officer, Tenth Cavalry. 
By order of Colonel Dodd : 

E. W. EVANS, 

Major, Tenth Cavalry, Adjutant. 
Copies furnished : 

Co. Tenth Cavalry. 
Co. Seventh Cavalry. 
Co. Baty. B, 6th F. A. 



Field Orders, 
No. 2. 

Advance Guard. 

Troops A and B, 

7th Cav. 

Lt. Col. Tompkins, 
Commanding. 
Main Body. 

Colonel Dodd, 
Commanding. 

7th Cav. less 3 troops ; 

10th Cav. less 4 troops. 

Batty B, 6th F. A. 

Battery Guard. 
1 Tp. 10th Cav. 

Rear Guard. 
1 Tp. 10th Cav. 



HEADQUARTERS SECOND CAVALRY BRIGADE. 

Slaughter's Ranch, New Mexico, March 15, 1916. 

1. The location of the enemy is unknown. 

2. Some of our troops have crossed the line into Mexico in 
the vicinity of Columbus, New Mexico. This command will 
proceed at 12 :30 a. m. March 16th in an endeavor to meet the 
enemy. 

3. (a) The advance guard will leave their camp at 12:30 
a. m. March 16th. 

(b) The main body will follow the advance guard at a 
distance of five hundred yards. 

4. The outpost will be relieved as the command passes, 
joining the organization to which they pertain. 

5. The pack trains will follow immediately in rear of the 
command. 

6. The hospital ambulances with sanitary wagons will fol- 
low in rear of the regiments to which attached. 

7. The commanding officer, .Tenth Cavalry, will supply a rear 
guard of one troop, which will march in rear of the pack trains 
at a distance of SO yards. 

8. The commanding officer will be found at the head of the 
main boclv. 



By order of Colonel Dodd : 



E. W. EVANS, 

Major, Tenth Cavalry, Adjutant. 



Copies furnished : 

Comdg. Genl. P. E. U. S. A. 
Regimental Comdrs. 
Commander of Artillery. 

At 1 :15 a. m. March 16th, the command crossed the line south of Culberson's Ranch, 
and was fully committed to the task. There was no moon and the night was bitterly cold ; 
the road was choked with clouds of white alkali dust that obscured everything so that the 
pack train got lost in the darkness and did not rejoin the column until it had camped at 
Carriza Springs about 6 a. m., where a little water was found. Page one of the War 
Diary shows that the command halted at 6 a. m., to water, groom and feed, resuming the 
march at noon. Three day's rations was carried on saddle. By 6:30 p. m., Ojitas was 
reached, fifty-eight miles from Culberson's. 

In view of the experiences of the next four months it will perhaps be interesting to 
know that at Culberson's Ranch the wagons were ordered to proceed to Columbus, and that 
before leaving the wagons, all the curb bits were removed and packed and left with the 
wagons, as were also the overcoats and other bulky articles of clothing and equipment, 



70 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

and on the subsequent hard marches it was often wished that the sabers had likewise been 
dropped. There were no cooking utensils except five nested sheet iron buckets that by a 
fortunate mistake on the part of someone were packed on the pack train. 

Colonia Dublan was reached the next day after a hard march of fifty-two miles over 
rough trails. Several horses fell behind, but the stragglers all arrived by late in the night. 
The 18th was spent in camp near Colonia Dublan on El Rio Casas Grandes. This camp 
was made in the dark in a great field of dry grass that was nearly four feet high and so 
dry that the troop commanders did not dare to allow a fire. The men were so tired and 
sleepy that no one dared take a chance of a grass fire that would certainly stampede the 
horses. Accordingly camp was made on the bank of a stream. The rest of the three days' 
grain carried on saddles was consumed this date. The three days' ration of bacon carried 
on the pack train was turned over to the Seventh Cavalry who were moving south that 
night, and from this date until April 20th no government chow was forthcoming. (Efforts 
were made later to allow the organizations to get ration credits for their abstinence ; with- 
out avail. Naturally.) 

On the 19th, the unfit men and horses of the First and Second Squadrons were left at 
Colonia Dublan with Troops I and K. The squadrons proper entrained for points south 
on the M. N. W. R. R. (See Appendix "F.") The train for the two squadrons arrived 
about 10 a. m., and from the assortment of rolling stock available it was found that twenty- 
five box and cattle cars and three flat cars were either barely serviceable or could be made bo. 
This would transport the First and Second Squadrons, Machine Gun Troop and Pack Train 
only, leaving I and M troops behind. One locomotive only was on hand. 

Previous occupants of many of the cars had deliberately built fires on the floors so 
that holes two feet or more in diameter had burned through and had to be patched over. 
Box cars had to have ventilators cut in the ends before the animals could be loaded. Doors 
n some cases being missing had to be replaced by nailing boards across the open spaces. 

The conductor and engineer spoke no English, and talk with them was only through 
the interpreter. To effect repairs, camp hatchets, a few axes and a couple of saws only 
were available. 

By 5 p. m., however, the squadrons were loaded, and left at 5 :30 p. m., with the animals 
in the cattle and box cars, impediamenta and as many men as could stick on them on the 
flat cars, while the remainder rode on the car roofs where they were barricaded from a 
possible fall by bales of hay along the edge of the roofs. They traveled in truly Mexican 
style. 

While loading, it was discovered that there was no fuel for the wood -burning engine, 
so a part of the corral for which the government later paid $1,900.00 was loaded on the 
tender. The conductor intended to stop at Casas Grandes for more fuel and water, but 
reflecting that the natives there were probably hostile, concluded to go on to Don Luis 
where everybody turned out and loaded fuel from another corral. Five times in ten hours 
the engine ran out of either water or fuel and troops had to detrain and "rustle" for 
telegraph poles, mesquite, old ties, parts of corrals and anything else that would burn. 
One man would have been left in his search for fuel but he was a good sprinter and easily 
caught up with the train. 

At Kilometer No. 282, No. 41 American airplane was found wrecked, and from data 
thereon it was discovered that the pilot had been R. H. Willis, Jr. The engine having 
stalled here, the train was parted and the First Squadron sent two miles further south to 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 71 

Rucio, the engine returning for the remainder of the train. In seventeen hours after 
leaving Colonia Dublan the train, by most strenuous efforts, had made twenty-seven miles. 

Colonel Brown took the Second Squadron and the Machine Gun Troop, detrained at 
El Rucio and camped in the mountains twenty-four miles away, en route to San Miguel. 
Major Evans with the First Squadron continued the rail trip southward. The "foraging" 
brought beef and corn. San Miguel was reached, but the expected meeting with Villa was 
postponed. It was the usual type of Mexican ranch ; a huge central building of stone and 
adobe. All the rooms opened on a central patio, doors occasionally loop-holed for rifle 
fire, and a high breast wall so placed that the establishment could be defended if necessary. 
A few yards from the central building a stone wall surrounded the corral so that it, too, 
could be defended from the house. 

Not only were no signs of Villa discovered, but he evidently had not been near here, 
though the man in charge of the ranch reported that Villa had been in the vicinity of 
El Valle on the Sunday preceding. 

On the 23rd, at El Toro, the First Squadron joined Headquarters. Theirs had not 
only been a fruitless chase, but their train had been wrecked, injuring about sixteen men 
of Troops A and B. The next camp was at La Osa, via Namiquipa. A Mexican cavalry 
regiment joined the column at Namiquipa to cooperate, but these turned back after a short 
stay. They had a hunch. 

Lieutenant Nicholson, Seventh Cavalry, came into camp carrying dispatches, and 
unfortunately had taken from their bearers and brought back to the commanding officer 
Tenth Cavalry, two dispatches which had been sent out by the latter. Weather warm in 
day time, but ice a quarter inch thick on streams at night. 

Viewed in the light of subsequent events it is probably a fact that too much confidence 
was placed in the so-called Carrancista forces cooperating with the expedition. Villa, 
bandit though he was, had many qualities which' made him a hero in the eyes of the 
Mexican peon. The rapid advance into Mexico and sudden appearance at their very doors 
with troops, mounted, armed and equipped in a manner which few of these people had 
ever seen, probably dumfounded them and created in their simple minds a feeling that 
against this Colossus of the North they must make common cause, and, while ostensibly 
friendly, were actually shielding Villa. 

On the 27th information was received that Villistas occupied Sta. Catarina Ranch a 
few miles eastward of La Osa. Starting at 3 :30 a. m. on the 28th, a fine surprise attack 
was delivered, but as no resistance was offered, something was wrong. Villistas the 
inhabitants undoubtedly were, but proof was lacking. Information was given, however, 
that he surely was to be found at Rubio. At Quemada, en route, it was learned that Villa 
and a large command had passed through there but three days previous. Several Thirteenth 
Cavalry horses captured at Columbus were picked up here, having been ridden nearly to 
death by the fleeing bandits. 

The inhabitants of Quemada were manifestly unfriendly ; available provisions and forage 
were hidden away upon the approach of our troops and the announcement made that there 
was none to be had anywhere. San Diego del Monte was the next camp. A severe snow 
storm on the 31st caused great suffering. On April 1st the First Squadron was left behind 
at San Diego del Monte, the other troops marching to Aguas Calientes. Here the first 
engagement was had. 

The advance guard surprised the Villistas, ISO strong, under a chief named Beltran. 



72 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

A dismounted fight ensued resulting in their retreat to a wooded ridge in ihe rear of the 
settlement. Under cover of the overhead fire of the Machine Gun Troop, Troops F and H 
assaulted the ridge, and drove the band off in confusion. A running fight of seven miles 
ensued, when night fell. The horses were in such poor shape that there was no chance 
to overtake the bandits, who were provided with fresh mounts. Three Villistas were killed 
and several captured. They abandoned a machine gun pack outfit in their flight. Although 
the trail was picked up early next morning, and followed for two days, it soon became 
impossible to follow, the bandits scattering in ones and two in many different directions. 
(See Appendix "G.") San Antonio was reached on the 3rd of April. The question of lack 
of funds had now become serious. The securing of supplies by means of receipts was 
clearly not a workable arrangement, and sooner or later was likely to bring on open 
hostilities with the civilian population. A Cusi citizen described the receipt method as 
follows : 

"You Americans pay for food all right, but you give receipts only. Now you buy a 
cow from a man who lives a hundred miles from any railroad. Even if that railroad were 
operating, it would be six months before he gets his mail. You take that cow and you 
kill it and give him a receipt. He mails that receipt to the quartermaster at San Antonio 
in Texas. It takes, maybe, six months for it to get there, if it gets there at all. When 
the quartermaster gets it, he cannot pay for it. He returns duplicate vouchers to be signed. 
They take another six months to reach the man, and then he cannot write and cannot read 
English. If he can do all of these and signs in the proper place even then he gets, about 
eighteen months later, a check that he cannot cash." 

Here the regiment learned that the Seventh Cavalry had had a big fight with Villistas 
at Guerrero on the 29th day of March. Villa, severely wounded in the leg, had left the 
place the night before the attack. He had been shot by some natives impressed into his 
service. 

On the 6th orders arrived via airplane directing a move on Parral, with a view to 
cutting off Villa's retreat through that place. It was said that Villa was carried on a 
stretcher and by carriage. (See Appendix "B.") The march was taken up through 
Cusihuirachic, where much needed supplies were secured from the mining company there. 
Carranza soldiers were attached as scouts and guides. La Joya was reached via Cieneguita 
on the 7th. An informer brought the news that Pablo Lopez, a lieutenant of Villa's, was 
hidden in the town. Arrangements were made to seize him, but at the last minute the 
informer disappeared, and in the darkness it was not possible to locate the hiding place. 
The inhabitants were most unfriendly. No local guides could be induced to serve. 

While in Satevo the commanding officer and guide, the former with a quantity of 
Mexican silver, hunted up the principal inhabitant of the little village asking for corn and 
fodder, at the same time displaying the silver with some ostentation, saying, "Nosotros 
pagamos por todos." (We pay for everything). The place, it seems, had been raided in 
turn by contending Mexican factions (Carrancistas taking even women's clothing) until 
there was but little left, and that little was kept well hidden. 

When they learned that the accursed "Gringos" were actually paying for supplies, their 
astonishment knew no bounds ; one native telling the interpreter, "Why, it's like seeing 
Christ come down from heaven, to see you paying for what you want !" We were taken 
across the creek to a little adobe hut, and on the door being unlocked a sight met their 
eyes which caused them for the moment to forget all their troubles two rooms filled with 
corn fodder ! It is needless to say that for once the hungry, tired horses got a good feed. 



SKETCH MAP 

OF 

ROUTE OF IO T -* CAVALRY TROOPS 

PUNITIVE EXPEDITION 
/3/6 




74 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 







CAPTAIN CHARLES T. BOYD 
KILLED AT CARRIZAL, MEXICO, JUNE 21, 1916 



75 

The news of their paying for the things spread, and in the course of a couple of hour:, 
they had more eggs and chickens offered for sale than they could buy. 

The natives crowded into camp intent on seeing and examining everything carried and 
worn by the Soldado Americano ; in fact they got so chummy that some one borrowed 
Lieut. Adair's field glasses and forgot to return them. 

On this march, as at other times, the road passed through and by whole square miles 
of fields formerly under cultivation, and although this was the planting season, no 
preparations were being made, save in the gardens about the houses, for raising a season's 
crop. The reason was apparent ; the better the crop the surer it was to be levied on by 
one or the other of the contending factions. So what was the use ! 

On the llth, marched eighteen miles to Valle de Zaragoza where camp was made in a 
grove (the town park) in the edge of town on the banks of a fine stream. Twenty Villistas 
were in town yesterday and were raiding a cloth factory when Major Tompkins' arrival 
compelled them to drop their loot and run. This part of the regiment had now lost twenty- 
eight animals. Natives here were unusually curious and friendly and, dressed in their 
best, crowded into camp. Captain Mesa, a Carranza officer, was very helpful in securing 
supplies. 

Sapien was reached on the 12th, via Tres Hermanos, El Suaz and Valle de Zaragoza. 
While in camp at Sapien word was brought by three Thirteenth Cavalry troopers that 
their squadron (two troops) had had an engagement with the Parral garrison and was 
retreating. They had been cut off in the pursuit. 

Camp was immediately broken, and the command moved at once to the support of 
Major Tompkins' squadron, which was found in a defensive position at the Santa Cruz de 
Villegas. Upon the arrival of Colonel Brown's force (the Second Squadron and Machine 
Gun Troop) the Carrancistas withdrew from their menacing position. (See Appendix "I.") 
The situation remained very tense. Parral was about ten miles distant to the south. 
Those in the expedition did not realize the storm of protest and indignation that swept the 
country when the news was brought that Carrancistas had made such an unprovoked 
attack. It had been assumed that cooperation, not antagonism, was to be met in the pursuit 
of the bandit who was menacing the Carranza government. Read General Pershing's 
letter to Colonel Brown. (Appendix "J-") 

Supplies were very short, and foraging for same was very discouraging. On the 15th, 
Lieutenant Troxel and a detachment of twenty men were held up while on a hunt for a 
camp site on the railway and informed that they were prisoners ; that they must accompany 
the Carrancistas to a camp southeast of Parral. Lieutenant Troxel couldn't see this at all, 
and returned to his camp at Santa Cruz without incident. Reinforcements under Lieut. 
Colonel Allen and Major Howze arrived on the 15th, but the promised supplies from 
Parral were held up. In the face of this, a proposal was received from General Lozano 
to move Mexican troops through Santa Cruz to reinforce the Parral garrison. The bodies 
of the dead troopers of the Thirteenth Cavalry were buried in the village cemetery with 
honors. 

Colonel Brown in a report to General Pershing writes : 

"The greatest care has been taken to do no injustice to natives of the country. The 
chief difficulty from the outset has been to do this and still to secure the necessary supplies 
from a country which has been raided in turn by Villistas and Carrancistas. To maintain 
my command on this expedition I have already advanced the government over $1,453.00 of 



76 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 




FIRST LIEUT. HEXRY R. AD AIR 
KILLED AT CARRIZAL, MEXICO, JUNE 21, 1916 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 



77 




l^l^S^ 

'.;* _;*... .** . Ti^* -j-Tt ' * 

' .- iv .A'*\ -> t ^ib v rSt^ 




CAMP AT COLON I A DUEL AN 

personal funds. Other officers have advanced several hundred dollars. How' or when we 
will ever be reimbursed is problematical. 

"One thing, in my opinion, is certain, and that is that to seize supplies whether the 
owner is willing or not will sooner or later result in hostilities. Major Tompkins agrees 
with me most emphatically. 

"I hope it will not be taken amiss that I am putting this matter strongly, but I do so 
with a feeling that it is perhaps not thoroughly understood. The condition of this com- 
mand at this date is such that if Villa were known to be within say thirty miles we could 
doubtless march there and defeat him, but to attempt any further marches without addi- 
tional remounts may be regarded as impracticable. 

"When we left Casas Grandes March 19th everything pointed to our ability to capture 
Villa in about five (5) days, and the orders were such that we took no forage for the 
squadron and have but one saddler's kit for the command. From the commanding officer 
down, all baggage has been carried on our horses. I am so short even as to paper that it 
has been no little embarrassment, and I am writing this letter on paper given me by a 
native, and writing it fine to economize in material. 

"Upon questioning yesterday the presidente of Parral as to Villa's whereabouts I got 
but little satisfaction. He was thought to be in the Guerrero district they said one report 
at Sta. Ana and another at Concepsion. They either do not know, or if they do they give 
evasive replies. People who have recently been looted of horses and goods show the most 
discouraging apathy in trying to rid the country of this bandit." 

On April 18th two wagonloads of supplies arrived from Parral, including a lot of 
civilian trousers. These were much needed, for many of the men were by this time in rags. 
Dr. McMurdo graphically described the situation in a wire which he sent to Fort Huachuca, 
viz: "Send me a pair of trousers. Am getting sunburned." Captains Rutherford and 
Pritchard with Troop C arrived on the 20th with a train of 36 pack mules, $2,300.00 (coin) 
for purchase of supplies, and the mail. (The first received since entering Mexico). 



78 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 



After a period of watchful waiting, at the end of which it was ordered that no further 
move would be made southward, the command left Santa Cruz for station at the Satevo 
base. There were now present : 34 officers, 606 enlisted men, 702 horses, 149 mules, re- 
quiring six tons of hay and over 9000 pounds of grain a day. To supply a command of 
that size required a base on a railroad, and the regiment was now some 350 miles, as the 
crow flies, from Culberson's Ranch over one-third the distance from there to the City of 
Mexico. 

M troop joined here on the 25th. Later orders directed a move tc San Antonio, which 
was reached by easy stages on May 1st. The command remained here until the 5th, resting 
and recuperating, then moved on to Lake Itascatc. Headquarters, M and Machine Gun 
Troop went on to Namiquipa, Major Charles Young commanding, in the absence of Colonel 
Brown, sick. Xamiquipa was reached on the 8th. The First Squadron and Troops I and 
K joined here. On the 12th the Second Squadron rejoined Headquarters at Namiquipa. 
Civilized tobacco was available for the first time. 

On the 15th, Namiquipa was evacuated except for Troop E, left as escort for the 
artillery, and the march for Colonia Dublan taken up via the river road, said road crossing 
tiie river seventy-one times between Namiquipa and El Valle. Troop L joined here on 
the 17th. Camp was made at Colonia Dublan two days later. A camp site was assigned 
and the place was no sooner occupied than it was changed in a terrible wind storm to a 
new site. After two more moves it was found that the new site was the worst that they 
had yet been in, so they were permanently assigned to it and the men set to work to 
build adobe walls on which to pitch their shelter tents. Considerable ingenuity was shown 
in making cots of poles and other devices for camp comfort. While at this place the 
wagons arrived, but every bed roll and field desk had been looted by every one through 




1. Col. Evans; 2. Gen. Dodd ; 3. Capt. Kromer : 4. Col. Dade : 5. Capt. Kennington ; 6. 
Maj. Lindsey; 7. Dr. Porter; 8. Capt. Smith; 9. Lt. King; 10. Capt. Rodney; 11. Dr. Barber; 
12. Capt. Trozel; 13. Maj. Cavenaugh ; 14. Capt. Lohn ; 15. Lt. Hoge; 16. Capt. McCornack ; 
17. Dr. Demmer; 18. Lt. Migdalski ; 19. Lt. Abbey; 20. Maj. Pritchard. 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 79 

whose hands they had passed, so that nothing remained except those things that had long 
since been discarded as useless. 

Now began the long, tedius routine of camp life in Mexico, with but outpost duty and 
scouting to relieve the monotony. The Eleventh Cavalry was camped alongside the Tenth. 
Remounts were secured from Columbus in June. 

In the middle of June the Third Squadron took outpost stations at Corralitas Ranch, 
Ojo Federico and Vado de Fusiles. 

Reports of activities of the Mexicans became more and more disturbing. Word was 
given out that the Carranza government had announced that no opposition would be made 
to Amercian troops retiring to the northward, but that any troops venturing to move in 
any other direction would be opposed. Several brushes with native troops had occurred as 
a result of these orders and affairs were becoming daily more strained when the Carrizal 
incident occurred. On June 22nd, four men of Troop C arrived in camp bearing the news 
that Troops C and K had clashed with Carrancistas at Carrizal the day previous, and that 
Captain Boyd and Lieutenant Adair were among the casualties. Later in the day men from 
K troop straggled in, confirming the news. 

When reports of the opposition of the Mexicans to the movements of American troops 
in any direction except toward the north became current, two troops of the Tenth were 
ordered out from Colonia Dublan on a scout. Troop B, under command of Captain Gar- 
denhire, was directed to move out to Ojitas, the ranch where we made our second camp 
in March on the way into Mexico, to ascertain whether there were any troops in that 
vicinity. Troop C at the same time was ordered to the northeast to go through a town 
called Carrizal to Ahumada. Troop C, Captain Charles T. Boyd commanding, with First 
Lieut. Henry Rodney Adair and thirty-nine enlisted men, left camp on the morning of 
Tune 20th on what was to be the last ride for many of them. 

Boyd was a man of unusual force and a natural leader ; Adair was one of the finest 
horsemen in the regiment and had acted as Regimental Adjutant in March and April. 

The trail took them over a rough country to the northeast. After they had marched 
about eighty-five miles they reached the San Domingo ranch which was in charge of an 
American. Along with them went an American guide, Lon Spillsbury, a reliable man and 
a first class interpreter. At San Domingo ranch, Troop K, under Captain Lewis Morey, 
was met with and the troop accompanied Troop C under the command of Captain Boyd. 
Carrizal lay about eight miles to the east of San Domingo ranch and Villa Ahumada lay 
about eight miles to the northeast of Carrizal. After camping for the night at the ranch 
the march of the two troops was resumed. The land toward Carrizal was open grass land 
varied with a few swales. It was not timbered and there was no cover. The trail lay 
across an open mesa that was fringed to the front at the edge of the town of Carrizal 
with a few cottonwoods along a stream bed, and across which a barbed wire fence ran 
quite close to the town. Approaching the town the column first came to an irrigating ditch 
that was filled with water. As they drew close to the town it was seen to be occupied, 
and on a nearer approach being made a party of Mexican officers rode out to meet the 
approaching troops. The Mexican commander told Captain Boyd that he could not allow 
passage through the town of American troops. To him Captain Boyd replied that his orders 
required him to go through the town and that he must do it. A long discussion ensued, 
the Mexicans opposing the entry of the troops, the American commander insisting on his 
orders. It is reported that finally the Mexican commander offered to allow the two troops 



80 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

to pass through the town in column of fours, but fearing a trap this was declined. At 
any rate the discussion closed by the Mexican returning to the town and the prompt dis 
position for attack by the two troops whose combined strength was less than eighty men. 
The led horses were sent to the rear and the troops were formed in line of skirmishers, 
Troop K being well to the right, with orders to protect the right flank. With this dis- 
position the line moved forward. 

As the line drew closer to the edge of the mesa where a barbed-wire fence edged the 
creek, fire was opened on them from two machine guns that the Mexicans had cleverly 
disposed under cover. The fire was returned, but the machine gun fire had already played 
havoc with the horses, stampeding several of them. C troop, charging forward, lost 
Captain Boycl, who was shot first in the hand, then in the shoulder, and then as he sprang 
out of the irrigation ditch to lead his men he was shot in the head and instantly killed. 
Lieutenant Adair took the troop and carried it forward, storming the town. The two 
machine guns had previously been put out of action by the hot fire from Troop C. At 
this stage of the fight Troop K, on the right flank, came under a heavy flanking fire from 
some Mexican soldiers in a cottonwood grove, and a party of Mexican cavalry appearing 
at that moment on the right flank of Troop K, that troop fell back, leaving the right flank 
of Troop C exposed to the hostile fire. Lieutenant Adair, having advanced to the line of 
the houses in the town, found that his men were short of ammunition and went back to 
get the belts from the wounded, of whom there were quite a few. As he came back he was 
shot while crossing the irrigation ditch. The bullet struck him just above the heart and 
he died a few minutes later. The troop having no officers with it, the men became confused 
and realizing that they were opposed by tremendous odds, and that they had no support, 
for K troop had retired, they retreated, but not until they had inflicted a loss of about 
eighty on the enemy, including their commanding general. 

The horses of both troops, stampeded by the bullets that went into the herds, did not 
stop till they came to the San Domingo ranch where the men found them later. The two 
troops, losing all cohesion, dropped back to the ranch and got the horses. There were no 
officers for the men, for both of the Troop C officers had been killed and Captain Morey 
had been wounded. 

The losses were as follows : Killed two officers, seven enlisted men. Wounded one 
officer, ten enlisted men. 

Twenty-one enlisted men were made prisoners, but were returned June 29 at El Paso, 
Texas, after many privations. 

The results of this skirmish were widespread, and all the forces longed for an oppor- 
tunity to come to real hand-grips with the Mexicans, but this was not the intention of the 
authorities. Only the State and War Departments know what amount of diplomatic cor- 
respondence ensued. It seemed for a time as if a casus belli had been brought about ; 
perhaps our impending entrance into the World War was the main consideration. It is 
not the purpose of this history to register surmises on mysteries. 

Camp at Colonia Dublan lasted all summer; yea, even to fall. Bets were made that 
the election had something to do with the duration of camp. The work at the camp at 
Dublan was again taken up and the rest of the summer and fall was spent in perfecting 
equipment of the regiment and in training, for by this time it was pretty well realized 
that the time would soon come when America would enter the World War. The autumn 
was cold and windy and men were set to work building adobe houses and kitchens. At 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 



81 



this work they showed remarkable aptitude and in a few weeks the entire regiment was in 
comfortable winter quarters. By this time a remarkably satisfactory service with the border 
had been established and frequent truck trains brought supplies and mail at regular intervals. 

While in camp at Dublan the regiment celebrated its fiftieth birthday by a very clever 
program that was gotten up by Major Charles Young, assisted by the sergeant major and 
some of the first sergeants. 

During the summer months Major Evans was promoted and took command of the 
regiment, and Captain W. L. Luhn was appointed adjutant. 

Christmas was ushered in by a cold norther and the Christmas dinner and its accom- 
panying festivities, which had long been planned, was entirely spoiled by the tremendous 
wind storm that will be long remembered by every one who was in Mexico at that time. 
Whole steers that were being barbecued were so covered by the clouds of dust that they 
were uneatable, and the troops had to seek what shelter they could. Very few men ate 
at all for twenty-four hours. 

The slogan of "Villa, dead or alive," was heard no more in Mexico. In January, word 
at last came that the troops were to withdraw from Mexico, and the march homeward be- 
gan on January 30th, 1917. The regiment marched with the rest of the column to Columbus, 
reaching there on February 5th, and took up the march for its home station at Fort 
Huachuca, where it arrived on February 14, 1917. 





CHAPTER IX. 
1917-1921 

ACK in Huachuca, it was but a short time until the declaration of war 
against Germany. Persistent rumors existed throughout the summer 
that a cavalry division was to he organized and sent over, but later 
events indicated that our role was not to be an active one abroad. 

The call for officers for the National Army came straight to the 
veterans of the Tenth Cavalry. A total of sixty-two non-commissioned 
officers were commissioned twenty captains, twenty-three first lieuten- 
ants, and nineteen second lieutenants. See Appendix "M" for the complete list. In all, 
the regiment sent 600 of its old men to form a nucleus for organizations, who were 
appointed First, Mess, and Supply Sergeants. 

The National Army drew also from the officers of the regiment. Practically all the 
older officers were promoted to field rank, and several won their stars. The new officers 
from the training camps were good material, and the regiment "carried on." Officers 
gained, 50; lost, 39, during the year. 

Eight hundred and fifty recruits joined between April and June. A recruit detachment 
was organized and the men fully instructed before assignment to troops. 

Hope for overseas service was not lost ; a trench system was constructed "up the 
canyon," and all the doughboy stunts were practiced. Gas masks and grenades were 
startlingly new for self-respecting cavalrymen. 

The Headquarters Troop baseball team won the championship trophy cup without losing 
a single game. In the Liberty Bond Drive this troop also won the cup for the highest 
subscription with a total of $17,800.00, a per capita of $214.56. 

The border patrol kept on the job as usual. The First and Second Squadrons took 
tours garrisoning Nogales, Lochiel and Arivaca, while the Third Squadron kept one troop 
at a time at Naco. Troop L remained at Fort Apache, where it had been stationed previous 
to the Punitive Expedition, and where it returned after coming out of Mexico. 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 83 

At Nogales were two troops, and one each at Lochiel and Arivaca, when, in August, 
1918, German activities, working in the fertile soil of the Mexican mind, began to take 
aggressive shape in this quarter of the world. 

About August 15, 1918, the Intelligence Division reported the presence of strange 
Mexicans, plentifully supplied with arms, ammunition, food and clothing, gathering in 
increasing numbers in and about Nogales, Sonora ; also the presence of several strange 
white men, apparently Germans, at times engaged in addressing gatherings of Mexicans, 
explaining military terms, movements and methods. At about this time an anonymous 
letter was received, written by a person who claimed to have been a major in Villa's forces, 
who was sickened and disgusted at the atrocities committed by Villa and his men, and at 
the lack of pay or reward, and who claimed a feeling of friendly respect for the American 
troops, warning them of the German influences at work near and in Nogales, advising of 
the financial activities of the German agents, and of a contemplated attack on Nogales 
about August 25, 1918. This letter rang so true that it became a subject of investigation 
by Lieutenant Colonel Frederick J. Herman, Tenth Cavalry, then acting Sub-District Com- 
mander at Nogales, and Lieutenant Robert Scott Israel, Infantry Intelligence Officer at 
Nogales, and so many points of the letter were verified that it was given more than ordinary 
weight. 

Shortly after the receipt of the warning letter, daily and nightly activity on the part 
of the Mexicans was observed on the hills overlooking the American city of Nogales, 
Arizona, and commanding the roads traversing the gulch in which the city lies, where 
trenches were being constructed. 

At this time the Thirty-fifth Infantry, under orders for a change of station to Camp 
Travis and France, was leaving Nogales in detachments of a few companies at a time, 
and on the morning of August 27, 1918, it was generally believed in Nogales, Sonora, that 
the infantry had all gone, leaving the garrison of the camps but two troops of the Tenth 
Cavalry. 

About ten days prior to August 27th, Colonel Herman requested reinforcements, includ- 
ing the Machine Gun Troop of the Tenth Cavalry, advising the district commander at 
Douglas. Arizona, of the situation at Nogales. Two troops were sent, with the injunction 
to send one to Arivaca. 

About 4 p. m. of August 27, 1918, the infantry line guard at the customs gates on 
International Avenue became involved in a fight with armed Mexicans, either customs 
guards or Mexican soldiers probably the latter and within a few minutes the whole 
infantry was engaged, every hill-top on the Mexican side showed its intrenchments filled 
with armed men, and the fight was on. 

Lieutenant Colonel Herman, on the way to Nogales from his camp two miles west of 
the town, stopped a truck roaring toward camp, and learning the facts telephoned his 
cavalry camp and then instantly drove back to take command of the troops. By the time 
his car had raced over the two miles the three troops of the Tenth were mounting and at 
once proceeded to Nogales at a gallop. The squadron consisted of Troop A, Captain Roy 
V. Moreledge ; Troop C, Captain Joseph D. Hungerford, and Troop F, Captain Henry C. 
Caron. In the meanwhile the three companies of infantry under Captain Marshburn were 
being assembled and brought to town in motor trucks by the quartermaster: 

The Tenth Cavalry was dismounted and the led horses sheltered in the side streets. 
Troop F, Captain Caron, was assigned to Titcomb Hill and the west end of International 



84 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

Avenue. Colonel Herman took charge of the infantry in the center at the railway depot. 
Troop A, Captain Moreleclge, was sent to Morley Avenue, ready to advance across the 
line, if necessary. Captain Hun^erford, with Troop C, was placed in reserve near Reservoir 
Hill, and the infantry ordered to move up Reservoir Hill, preparatory to clearing the 
heights to the south of their position. Some difficulty arose here, and the infantry not 
moving forward as desired, were withdrawn and held in reserve, and Troop C moved up 
into place. During this movement, Companies G. F and H, Thirty-fiftn Infantry, were 
coming into positions assigned them, as fast as they arrived from camp, and extend along 
the American front. Company F on Reservoir Hill, Company G on Titcomb Hill, and 
Company H as a reserve, with a detachment at the Southern Pacific station. During the 
distribution of the American troops they fired but little, but the Mexican fire was very 
heavy. Several civilians, in the Amentan city were hit, and a number of soldiers wounded 
and one killed. It became necessary to return the Mexican fire as a measure of self- 
defense. The sheriff of Santa Cruz County Sheriff Earhart was directed by Lieutenant 
Colonel Herman to round up and confine all armed citizens in the City Hall, as they were 
getting in the way and complicating matters. 

The Mexican fire now grew heavier, and Lieutenant Colonel Herman decided to clear 
the line of houses on the Mexican side of International Avenue of the numerous snipers 
operating from the doors and windows, particularly in and near the Concordia Club, and 
Captain Moreledge, with Troop A, was directed to clear this terrain and gain a commanding 
position among the rocks overlooking the Mexican town, which was done promptly and in 
a most creditable manner. Simultaneously, Captain Hungerford was directed to advance 
from Reservoir Hill across the line and clear the heights in his front, then holding intrench- 
ments filled with Mexicans. After crossing the line and while moving forward in frontal 
attack, Captain Hungerford was shot through the heart and instantly killed. Several of 
his men were wounded at this time, but the advance never faltered, led by the first 
sergeant, until the crest was gained and the rifle pits and trenches cleared of dead Mexicans. 

At 4 :45 p. m. Lieutenant Colonel Herman received a gunshot wound in the right leg 
while directing the advance across International Avenue by a sniper from a building nearby. 
At about the same time, Captain Caron, moving his men from point to point toward the 
Mexican side, was shot through the right arm. Both of the wounded officers, after a .first 
aid treatment, resumed their places with their troops. Lieutenant L. W. Loftus, Thirty- 
fifth Infantry, was also fatally wounded about this time. 

U. S. Consul E. M. Lawton and Sheriff Earhart at 5 :50 p. m. delivered a message 
from the Mexican Consulate requesting the U. S. troops to put up a white flag and to cease 
firing and that the Mexicans would also. Colonel Herman's reply was that if firing from 
the Mexican side did not cease within ten minutes he would come over the line with the 
balance of his forces and burn Nogales, Sonora, to the ground. 

The American fire from the captured hillsides, and the rocky position of Troop A, 
and from the buildings in Nogales, Arizona, had become very effective and the Mexicans 
were losing heavily. Assisted by Lieutenant Israel, of the Intelligence Division, and the 
Sub-District Adjutant, Lieutenant James B. Potter, Tenth Cavalry, Lieutenant Colonel 
Herman was pushing the fighting at all points, when at 6 :00 p. m. the Mexicans ran up a 
white flag at the Custom House, without ceasing their fire, however. 

At 6:15 p. m., Colonel Herman, accompanied by U. S. Consul Lawton and Lieutenant 
Israel and a bugler, proceeded to the U. S. Consulate in Nogales, Sonora, under a constant, 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 85 

heavy tire directed upon this group, although the U. S. Consul displayed a white flag 
made of his handkerchief. At the Consulate the Mexican representative met the party and 
arranged for the cessation of fire and the restoration of normal conditions. Once, during 
the conference, the Mexican commandant demanded the weapons of Colonel Herman and 
Lieutenant Israel. He was told they might try to take them. A rather tense moment 
ensued, but the alert position of a detachment of the Tenth Cavalry rifles covering the 
group in from of the Consulate, some one hundred feet away, prompted the Mexican com- 
mandant to think better of the proposition. The American fire ceased at command when 
the conference hegan, and after some delay the Mexican fire ceased also. 

It was agreed to suspend hostilities until 7 o'clock the following morning, by which 
time it was hoped matters would adjust themselves, the Mexican officials denying par- 
ticipation of government forces in the battle and insisting that it was the work of inde- 
pendent and irresponsible Mexicans, strangers in the town. 

After the conference. American headquarters were established at the National Hotel, 
to which Colonel Herman repaired after having his wound dressed, and where he remained 
until 5 :30 of the following morning, when relieved by Brigadier General Cabell. During 
the evening the positions of the troops were strengthened, rations and forage and ammuni- 
tion distributed, and preparations made to finish the affair in the morning. During the 
night a trainload of armed Mexicans arrived from Hermosillo, but no disturbances occurred 
during the night. 

The arrival of the Machine Gun Troop and several other troops of the Tenth Cavalry, 
and some artillery from El Paso on the following day, settled all disturbances for the 
time being. 

In this action the infantry was commanded by Captain R. J. Marshburn. Colonel 
Herman, during the engagement, received the voluntary offer of the services of Major H. B. 
Cheadle, infantry, on leave at Nogales, Arizona, and of Captain James T. Duke and 
Lieutenant Scott. Tenth Cavalry, which were duly accepted. 

The forces engaged were the Tenth U. S. Cavalry, Troop A, 86 men ; Troop C, 82 
men ; Troop F, 90 men, with 587 eilisted men and 12 officers of the Thirty-fifth Infantry, 
and one officer and 30 men of the Q. M. Corps. 

The officers of the Tenth Cavalry engaged were : 

Lieutenant Colonel Frederick J. Herman. 

Captain Joseph D. Hungerford. 

Captain H. C. Caron. 

Captain Roy V. Moreledge. 

Captain James T. Dnke. 

Lieutenant Wm. Scott. 

Lieutenant James B. Porter. 

Lieutenant S. M. Lockwood. 

First Sergeants Thomas F. Jordan, Troop F, and James T. Penny, Troop C, were 
specially commended by Colonel Herman for their promptness, intelligence and efficiency 
in assuming command of their respective troops, and carrying on the work when their 
officers were shot down. 

The total losses in the American forces were two officers, three enlisted men and two 
civilians killed, and two officers and twenty-nine enlisted men wounded. On September 
15, 1918, the Intelligence Department had reported a total of 129 Mexicans buried as a 



86 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

result of gunshot wounds received August 27, 1918, also two Germans, presumably officers, 
who were shot while directing Mexican troops (?) armed men, acting as troops and 
an estimate of 300 Mexicans wounded. 

The final estimate of the Mexicans engaged was 2400 men. 

The losses of the Tenth Cavalry were : 

Killed Captain Joseph D. Hungerford, Troop C. 

Wounded Lieutenant Colonel Fred J. Herman ; Captain H. C. Caron, Troop F ; Ser- 
geant Arthur E. Green, Troop A ; Private Ulysses S. G. Clayton, Troop C ; Private Van 
Gibson, Troop F ; Private J. E. Harris, Troop C ; Private Charley T. Johnson, Troop A ; 
Private Wallace Reynolds, Troop A ; Private Orvel Walls, Troop A. 

During this entire engagement the discipline and conduct of the Tenth Cavalry was 
excellent, the most careful regard to existing orders and the laws of civilized warfare being 
exercised, and hostilities ceased when no longer necessary. 

The Headquarters Troop team won the 1918 baseball championship cup. The football 
cup was won by Troop F from the Machine Gun Troop team after an exciting Thanks 
giving Day game. Boxing was greatly stimulated by the Y. M. C. A., and McDuncan of 
the Machine Gun Troop was recognized as the champion in the "manly art." Three 
desultory games of polo were played with the First Cavalry, all of which the Tenth won. 
The Regimental Baseball Team in 1919 won eight games out of ten played, but lost a 
series of three games to the Twenty-fifth Infantry, losing two. In the District Field Meet 
our team won from the Twenty-fifth Infantry, Nineteenth Infantry, First Cavalry, with 
a score of 45 ; Twenty-fifth Infantry, 34 ; the others combined, 9. 

POLO 

February, 1920, saw the revival of polo, a large turnout starting practice. A shipment 
of ponies arrived via Fort Bliss, but after being picked over by the five teams there the 
remainder were not superior to the best troop mounts. An average of eighteen players 
turned out for games every Wednesday and Sunday. Major John A. Robenson was 
designated as polo manager during the summer, and much is due his able and energetic 
organizing. A separate polo stable was established, with picked men from each troop. 
As a result the ponies were carefully trained, their exercise supervised, and the equipment 
kept in top notch condition. 

In the elimination tests for the Eighth Corps Area, the Tenth won from the First 
Cavalry in two games. 

Lineup, Tenth Cavalry. Lineup, First Cavalry. 

1. Major J. A. Robenson. 1. Lieutenant Duffy. 

2. Captain L. G. Hefrerman. 2, Lieutenant Holt. 

3. Lieutenant H. S. Stanton. 3. Captain Snider. 

4. Captain E. L. N. Glass. 4. Lieutenant Robinett. 
Score : First game, 12-1 ; second game, 9-4. 

Play at El Paso was under very adverse conditions. Captain Hefferman had his shin 
laid open by a kick in play at Douglas, and played with a football shin guard. Major 
Robenson and Lieutenant Stanton collided in practice, the former suffering a brain con- 
cussion and Lieutenant Stanton receiving a blow on the back which required him to play 
standing in his stirrups. The two ponies, our best, were also laid up. The team had to 
play the Seventh Cavalry, winners of the Fort Bliss tournament, and was swamped by the 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 87 

scores of 29-1 and 15-2. Some consolation was derived from heating the Eighth Cavalry 
6-2 in six periods. 

In January and February, 1921, four games were played with the First Cavalry. 

Lineup, Tenth Cavalry. Lineup, First Cavalry. 

1. Major Robenson. 1. Lieut. Robinett, Major Briscoe. 

2. Lieut. Healy, Lieut. Holt. 2. Lieutenant Holt. 

3. Major Glass. 3. Lieutenant Colonel Win. Scott. 

4. Colonel Winans. 4. Colonel F. Le J. Parker. 

Score: First game, 8-7 (won); second game, 2-9 (lost); third game, 8-6 (won); 

fourth game, 10-7 (won). 

In April, 1921, the Eighth Cavalry was invited to come up to Fort Huachuca to play, 
we furnishing the mounts. Each team won a game. 

Lineup, Tenth Cavalry. Lineup, Eighth Cavalry. 

1. Major Robenson. 1. Captain Finley, Goodier. 

2. Major Menoher. 2. Captain Smith. 

3. Captain Lawrence. 3. Captain Upton, Carl. 

4. Major Glass. 4. Colonel Langhorne, captain. 

Score: First game, 6-2 (won) ; second game, 8-9 (lost). 

In a return tournament at El Paso the Eighth Cavalry mounted our team ; the team 
won from a picked team 10-1, and defeated the Eighth by the score of 6-5. The prospects 
for a good showing in the coming Corps Area Tournament appear bright. 

The "Buffalo Bulletin" was started May 5, 1920, as a small five-paged mimeographed 
news sheet. Later, the Regimental Press furnished an attractive cover and ran twelve 
pages. Its circulation expanded from two hundred to twelve hundred, and had a mailing 
list of over two hundred. It carried the doings of the regiment to its many ex-officers, 
retired men and friends. The letters received proved that their affection for the old regiment 
was still lively. The Bulletin ran until May 12, 1921, when it was ordered discontinued, 
having run foul of the rulings of the Committee on Public Printing, that no paid adver- 
tising could be carried in any official or semi-official publication. It was necessary to carry 
ads to cover the cost of the cuts, photos, and the yellow paper for the cover. 

In June, 1920, the Arizona District Athletic Team, composed principally of men from 
the Tenth Cavalry and the Twenty-fifth Infantry, won the Southern Department meet, a 
tryout for the Army Olympic entrants. This team scored 160 points, all other teams 
combined, 45. The Tenth Cavalry was strong in the track events, the Twenty-fifth Infantry 
predominant in the field events. 

Troop V, Captain Duke commanding, left the post June 2, 1921, to garrison Fort 
Apache. Troop I, our last organization there, was relieved in April, 1919, by a troop of the 
First Cavalry. 

The Eighth Corps Area Rifle and Pistol Competition was held at Camp Bullis, Texas, 
in July. Our competitors upheld the reputation of the Tenth Horse in fine style. 

The Pistol Team won the Championship Trophy Cup from the fourteen competitors, 
with a score of 7904, sixty-nine points ahead of the runnerup, the Fifteenth Field Artillery. 

THE TEAM 

Staff Sergeant William T. Wright, Headquarters Troop. (Gold Medal). 
Sergeant Marcus Nelson, Troop M. (Gold Medal). 
Corporal William R. Thomas, Troop A. (Silver Aledal). 
Private Allen Peterson, Troop K. (Silver Medal). 
Corporal Pryor Sharp, Troop I. 



88 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 



Private Abbey Anderson, Troop L. 
Sergeant William Johnson, Troop B. 

Major J. V. Knznik ranked thirteen in the pistol competition and won a silver medal. 

The Rifle Team finished third among nineteen entries, four points behind second place, 
and only fourteen points behind the winner, the Twenty-third Infantry Team. The nearest 
cavalry competitor was the Eighth Cavalry in eighth place. Officers were not eligible to 
shoot on regimental rifle or pistol teams. 

Private William F. Tillman, Troop D, led all competitors in the rapid fire scoring, 
but due to extremely adverse conditions in shooting at 1000 yards, causing fine shots to turn 
in scores such as four to six, or even total misses, he scored but a ten and eighteen. An 
average score by him or a team-mate at 1000 yards would have won the trophy. 

Private Tillman finished in eighth place (Gold Medal), Corporal James W. Powell. 
Troop E, in fifteenth place (Silver Medal), First Sergeant Clifford A. Sandridge, Troop H, 
in twentieth place (Silver Medal), Corporal John A. Jeter, Troop C, in thirty-fourth place 
(Bronze Medal), out of 254 competitors. 

General Dickman, Corps Area Commander, complimented the regiment in the following 
letter : 

HEADQUARTERS EIGHTH CORPS AREA 

Fort Sam Houston, Texas, July 16, 1921. 
From : Commanding General. 

To : Commanding Officer, Tenth Cavalry, Fort Huachuca, Ariz. 
Subject: Commendation. 

1. It gives me great pleasure to congratulate you upon the excellent showing made by 
your regiment in the Corps Area Rifle and Pistol Competition. 




HISTORY OF TENTH CAVAI,RY 



89 



2. The fact that the Pistol Team, representing your regiment, won the trophy by out- 
shooting all other pistol teams in this corps area, indicates a high degree of training and 
morale in your command. 

(Signed) J. T. DICKMAN, 

Major General, Commanding. 

Two polo games were played with the First Cavalry on July 3rd and 17th. The first 
game at Douglas, Arizona, (on their ponies) was halted after four chukkcrs because of 
rain. Score : Four to three in favor of the Tenth Cavalry. 

THE TEAMS 
Tenth Cavalry. First Cavalry. 

No. 1 Lieutenant Sampson. No. 1 Lieutenant Jackson. 

No. 2 Captain Holt. No. 2 Captain Duffy. 

No. 3 Captain MacNabb. No. 3 Lieutenant Colonel Scott. 

No. 4 Captain Kenahan. No. 4 Captain Holt. 

Lieutenant Healy. 

The same teams lined up on our home field on our ponies July 17th; Major Clifford, 
fresh from Riley, playing No. 1 for the visitors. The game was fast and exciting, but our 
team came out on top with the long end of a 9 to 8 score. 






CHAPTER X. 
THE MACHINE GUN TROOP 

HE machine gun was born of American inventive genius many years before 
1906 but it was not until that year that our army commenced to appre- 
ciate the weapon by providing a temporary organization of a platoon in 
each regiment of cavalry and infantry. The platoon consisted of one 
officer and twenty-one men detailed from the first three troops of the 
regiment. 

The organization was effected in July, 1906, at Fort Robinson, Ne- 
braska, with First Lieutenant Albert E. Phillips detailed to organize and command the 
unit. Starting with a clean slate and a new mechanical weapon it was a simple matter to 
arouse enthusiasm among the men. 

In March, 1907, the platoon sailed with the regiment for the Philippine Islands, remain- 
ing there until 1909, when it returned to the States via the Suez Canal for station at Fort 
Ethan Allen, Vermont. 

THE DEVELOPMENT OK INDIRECT MACHINE GUN FIRE 

It is perhaps not generally known that indirect machine gun fire originated and was 
developed in the Machine Gun Platoon of the Tenth Cavalry. The European war Is 
credited with the development of machine gunnery. Six years before this war, during the 
1908 training season in the Philippines, the Machine Gun Platoon demonstrated the 
feasibility and practicability of direct overhead and indirect machine gun fire. This work 
of the Tenth Cavalry platoon was discussed in Europe and printed in service journals from 
England to Australia. 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 91 

At a meeting of the Aldershot Society held in England, Major General Cosgrove 
presiding, after an extended discussion of the machine gun development in the Tenth 
Cavalry, dismissed the meeting with the remark : "Gentlemen, we may all go home, 
believing as the American does, (referring to First Lieutenant Albert E. Phillips, Tenth 
Cavalry) that the successful handling of machine guns requires hard study and patient 
experiment.'' 

From this beginning in 1908, the platoon, and later the troop, continued the develop- 
ment of machine gunnery, having perfected many methods of fire supposed to have originated 
during the European war. 

The overhead employment of machine guns to protect troops the "barrage" of the 
war was actually employed in tactical exercises by the machine guns of the Tenth Cavalry 
several years before the war. 

There are methods of fire to this day known only by a few of the old Tenth Cavalry- 
men who belonged to the organization during the years 1908 to 1917. 

The Machine Gun Troop used overhead fire during the engagement at Aguas Calientes, 
Mexico, April 1, 1916, to advance a detachment going forward to capture Mexicans firing 
from an adobe hut. 

The 1915 edition of Applin's British Machine Gun Tactics (one year after the be- 
ginning of the war) carried an article on Indirect Machine Gun Fire by the Tenth Cavalry. 

The original platoon of 1906 was enlarged and reorganized as a provisional troop in 
1914, with Captain Albert E. Phillips detailed as its commander. 

THE MACHINE GUN TROOP IN THE PERSHING EXPEDITION IN MEXICO 1916-1917 

The troop, under command of Captain Phillips, marched six days from Fort Huachuca, 
Arizona, to Culberson's Ranch, New Mexico, before crossing the border. It crossed at 
midnight of March 16th, 1916, making the forced march with the regiment of one hundred 
twenty (120) miles to Colonia Dublan, arriving on the evening of the 18th. The march 
southward was resumed the evening of the 19th, the troop being attached to the squadron 
under Colonel Brown. It participated in the action at Aguas Calientes the morning of 
April 1, 1916. 

The assembly of the cavalry on the outskirts of Parral, Mexico, found only the Tenth 
Cavalry with machine guns ; all other machine gun troops having fallen out and being left 
behind. 

Every soldier that left Colonia Dublan with the troop was present at Parral. 

The troop marched over eleven hundred (1100) miles before settling down in camp 
on the return to Colonia Dublan. 

The reorganization of cavalry by eliminating machine gun units from the regimental 
organization disorganized and breaks up a troop whose record for machine gunnery as well 
as other lines is believed to be second to none in the United States Army. This brief 
history would not be complete without quoting the remarkable record established from 
1906 to 1912: 

HEADQUARTERS TENTH CAVALRY. 

Fort Ethan Allen, Vermont, December 22, 1912. 
General Orders, 

No. 23. 

Six years ago the Machine Gun Platoon, Tenth Cavalry, was organized at Fort Robin- 
son, Nebraska, with First Lieutenant Albert E. Phillips detailed as its commander. Since 
that time its record has been an uninterrupted series of victories whenever it entered into 



92 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

competition with other organizations. Some of its records are so remarkable that they 
cannot fail to stir the pride of every officer and soldier in the regiment. 

It was not until 1908 that contests with other organizations began, and this is the result : 

In 1908 First place; prize, silver cup; Machine Gun Competition Military Meet, De- 
partment Luzon. Winning 52 out of 60 points, with two cavalry and three infantry 
regiments entered. 

In 1909 First place ; prize, silver cup ; Machine Gun Drill U. S. Military Tournament 
during the Hudson-Fulton celebration at Albany, N. Y. ; two infantry regiments competing. 
First place ; prize, silver and gold shield for "Best and most sanitary camp for entire week," 
eleven organizations contesting for it. 

In 1910 First place, Tenth Cavalry, Indoor Meet, (Gymnasium and Riding Hall) ; 
prize, banner. , 

In 1911 First place, Regimental Indoor Meet; prize, banner. First place, Regimental 
Baseball League ; prize, silver cup. First place, Basketball League ; prize, banner. 

In 1912 First place, Regimental Indoor Meet ; prize, banner. 

The world's recognized record for speed in machine gun work is accorded the Machine 
Gun Platoon, Tenth Cavalry, in : "Machine Gun Tactics, Applin, England." 

1st Platoon in line at halt, moved forward in section column at gallop for 200 yards, 
went into action and fired in 31 seconds. Military Meet Department Luzon, Manila, P. I., 
1908. 

2nd Platoon in shelter tent camp, animals on picket line 15 yards in front. At signal, 
horses were saddled, mules packed, platoon formed and moved over an irregular course 
for 500 yards, went into action and fired in 3 minutes and 21 seconds. Military Tourna- 
ment and Athletic Meet, Department Luzon, Manila, P. I., 1908. 

3rd With guns packed on mules and gun squads dismounted, the guns were unpacked, 
set up, loaded and fired, barrels exchanged, reloaded and fired the second itme, in 25 1/5 
seconds, both guns firing simultaneously. Nearest competitor, 52 seconds. Philippine 
Division Military Meet, Manila, P. I., 1909. 

Lieutenant Phillips, prompted by a keen desire to develop the Machine Gun Platoon as 
a potent factor in warfare, has contributed a valuable chapter on "Indirect Fire With 
Machine Guns" to Captain Applin's book, England, bearing the title of "Machine Gun 
Tactics." 

The regimental commander makes of record the splendid achievements of Lieutenant 
Phillips and commends them to the consideration of his comrades now that his service with 
the Machine Gun Platoon, by operation of detached service law, is ended. 

By order of Colonel Gresham : 

G. J. ODEN, 
Captain and Adjutant, Tenth Cavalry, Adjutant. 



<d!L 



In 1915 Baseball champions of the regiment; prize, silver cup. 

In 1918 Baseball champions of the regiment; prize, silver cup. 

In 1919 Baseball and football chimpions of the regiment ; prizes, silver cup for each. 

Sergeant S. C. Williamson of this troop won the championship 100 and 220 yard dashes 
in the Arizona District Meet on July 27, 1919; won the championship cup of the Southern 
Department in the 100 and 220 yard dashes on June 8, 1920, at Camp Travis. Texas, and 
won the Championship of the Army in the 100 and 220 yard dashes at the Army Meet held 
in St. Louis, Mo., July 5, 1920. 






HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 



93 



The regiment is now awaiting the reorganization, which requires a consolidation to 
six troops, and headquarters and service troop. Many non-commissioned officers will lose 
their warrants, being surplus over the new Tables of Organization. But this is all in the 
game, and the regiment has lived through many reorganizations in the past. 

************ 

So ends the written history of the Tenth Cavalry in so far as printed words can 
briefly and succintly set forth the facts concerning acts which called for courage, endur- 
ance and self-sacrifice. 

The regiment is proud to have had upon its rolls the names of the officers and men 
who fought the savage tribes of the Southwest, who participated in the Cuban and 
Philippine Campaigns, and who went across our southern border in the Punitive Expedition. 

The stirring days of the pioneer are gone, the hostile Indian is no more, but the 
traditions of the regiment, the spirit of cooperation between officer and man, the comrade- 
ship of the Tenth and the loyalty to the Buffalo Standard these still exist. 

Knowing these things, we look forward with confidence to the future, and predict that 
the record of the Tenth Horse will be continued unblemished and untarnished, and that, 
when the old regiment is again put to test, they will be found true to their motto, "READY 
AND FORWARD." 




94 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 



(Mftcers, entt{ (Ea&alrg 



Colonel Benjamin H. Grierson .......................................................... Organization, 1856; Dec. 1, 1888 

Lieut. Colonel Geo. C. Hunt ........................................................................ Dec. 2, 1888; Aug. 20, 1890 

Colonel J. K. Mizner ..... . ............................................................................... Aug. 21, 1890; Jun. 7, 1897 

Lieut. Colonel T. A. Baldwin ........................................................................ Jun. 8, 1897; Oct. 28, 1897 

Colonel Guy V. Henry .................................................................................... Oct. 29, 1897; May 9, 1898 

Lieut. Colonel T. A. Baldwin .................................................................... May 10, 1898; Nov. 21. 1898 

Colonel S. M. Whitside ................................................................................ Nov. 22, 1898; May 29, 1902 

Lieut. Colonel T. A. Baldwin ...................................................................... May 30, 1902; Oct. 27, 1902 

Colonel J. A. Augur ........................................................................................ Oct. 28, 1902; Apr. 18, 1909 

Lieut. Colonel G. H. G. Gale ...................................................................... Apr. 19, 1909; Sept. 22. 1909 

Colonel Thaddeus W. Jones ........................................................................ Sept. 23, 1909; Feb. 28, 1912 

Lieut. Colonel and Colonel G. H. G. Gale .................................................. Mar. 1, 1912; Oct. 8, 1912 

Colonel John C. Gresham ........................... . .................................................. Oct. 9, 1912; July 31, 1914 

Colonel Daniel' H. Broughton (attached) ................................................ Aug. 1, 1914: Aug. 11, 1914 

Major G. L. Bryam ....... . .............................................................................. Aug. 12, 1914; Sept. 7. 1914 

Colonel W. C. Brown ...................................................................................... Sept. 8, 1914; May 3, 1916 

Major Ellwood W. Evans .............................................................................. May 4, 1916; Aug. 4, 1916 

Major Charles Young ...................................................................................... Aug. 5, 1916; Aug. 9, 1916 

Colonel Ellwood W. Evans ..................................................................... Aug. 10. 1916; Sept. 14, 1916 

Lieut. Colonel Charles Young .................................................................. Sept. 15, 1916; Sept. 28, 1916 

Colonel Ellwood W. Evans .......................................................................... Sept. 29, 1916; Feb. 5, 1917 

Colonel DeRosey C. Cabell ........................................................................... Feb. 6, 1917; May 23, 1917 

Lieut. Colonel Charles Young ...................................................................... May 24, 1917; June 2, 1917 

Colonel DeRosey C. Cabell .......................................................................... June 3, 1917; Aug. 21, 1917 

Captain George B. Rodney .......................................................................... Aug. 22, 1917; Aug. 25, 1917 

Captain Varion D. Dixon .............................................................................. Aug. 26, 1917; Oct. 28, 1917 

Captain George B. Rodney ............................................................................ Oct. 29, 1917; Dec. 24, 1917 

Colonel DeRosey C. Cabell .......................................................................... Dec. 25, 1917; Dec. 26, 1917 

Major George B. Rodney ................................................................................ Dec. 27. 1917; Jan. 25, 1918 

Colonel DeRosey C. Cabell .......................................................................... Jan. 26, 1918; Feb. 15, 1918 

Lieut. Colonel George B. Rodney ................................................................ Feb. 16, 1918; Feb. 28, 1918 

Colonel Frederick T. Arnold ........................................................................ Mar. 1, 1918; July 10, 1918 

Colonel George B. Rodney .......................... _ ................................................ July 11, 1918; Oct. 29, 1918 

Colonel Cornelius C. Smith .......................................................................... Oct. 30, 1918; Feb. 22, 1919 

Colonel William A. Cornell ....................................................................... Feb. 23, 1919; Mar. 28, 1919 

Lieut. Colonel Frederick S. Snyder ........................................................ Mar. 29, 1919; April 12, 1919 

Colonel George P. White .......................................................................... April 13, 1919; Aug. 21, 1919 

Colonel Guy Carleton .................................................................................... Aug. 22, 1919; Oct. 23, 1919 

Colonel George P. White ............................................................................. Oct. 24, 1919; Nov. 13, 1919 

Colonel Oren B. Meyer ................................................ .................................. Nov. 14, 1919; May 1. 1920 

Colonel Francis C. Marshall ............................................................................ May 2, 1920; Aug. 3, 1920 

Lieut. Colonel Selwyn D. Smith ................................................................ Aug. 4. 1920; Aug. 22, 1920 

Colonel Edwin B. Winans ..... ....Aug. 23, 1920 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 



95 




n jetton, 



Sergeant William Christy, Company F, Saline River, Kansas, August 2, 1867. 
Private Thomas Smith, Company F, near Fort Hays, Kansas, August 21, 1867. 
Wagoner Larkin Foster, Company B, Foster Springs, Texas, September 19, 1871. 
Private Clark Young, Company M, Cheyenne Agency, T. T., April 12, 1875. 
First Sergeant Charles Butler, (Company G, Lake Quemado, Texas, May 4, 1877. 
Private Martin Davis, Company C, Eagle Springs, Texas, July 30, 1880. 
Private William Tayler, Company F, Camp Safford, Texas, August 4, 1880. 
Private Wesley Hardy, Campany H, Rattlesnake Springs, Texas, August 6, 1880. 
Private George Locks, Company C, Eagle Springs, Texas, August 30, 1880. 
Private Carter Burns, Company B, Ojo Caliente, Texas, October 28, 1880. 
Private George Mills, Company B, Ojo Caliente, Texas, October 28, 1880. 
Corporal William Backers, Company K, Ojo Caliente, Texas, October 28, 1880. 
Private J. K. Griffin, Company K, Ojo Caliente, Texas, October 28, 1880. 
Private James Stanley, Company K, Ojo Caliente, Texas, October 28, 1880. 
Private J. Follis, Troop K. Pinito Mountains, Texas, May 3, 1886. 
Sergeant Robert Evans, Troop C, Gaileyville Canyon, A. T., June 3, 1886. 
. Corporal William L- White, Troop E, Las Guasimas, Cuba, June 24, 1898. 
First Lieutenant W. E. Shipp, Tenth Cavalry, San Juan, Cuba, July 1, 1898. 
First Lieutenant W. H. Smith, Tenth Cavalry, San Juan, Cuba, July 1, 1898. 
Private John H. Smoot, Troop A, San Juan, Cuba, July 1, 1898. 
Corporal William F. Johnson, Troop B, San Juan, Cuba, July 1, 1898. 
Private John H. Dodson, Troop C, San Juan. Cuba. July 1, 1898. 
Private George Stovall, Troop D, San Juan, Cuba, July 1, 1898. 
Private Wm. H. Slaughter, Troop G, San Juan, Cuba, July 1, 1898. 
Captain Charles T. Boyd, Tenth Cavalry, Carrizal, Mexico, June 21, 1916. 
First Lieutenant Henry R. Adair, Tenth Cavalry, Carrizal, Mexico, June 21, 1816. 
First Sergeant William Winrow, Troop C, Carrizal, Mexico, June 21, 1916. 
Sergeant Will Hines, Troop C, Carrizal, Mexico, June 21. 1916. 
Private Thomas Moses, Troop C, Carrizal, Mexico, June 21, 1916. 
Horseshoer Lee Talbott, Troop C, Carrizal, Mexico. June 21, 1916. 
Private DeWitt Rucker, Troop K, Carrizal, Mexico, June 21, 1916. 
Private Charlie Mathews. Troop K. Carrizal, Mexico, June 21. 1916. 

Private James E. Day, Troop K, Carrizal, Mexico, June 21, 1916. 

Captain Joseph D. Hungerford, Tenth Cavalry, Nogales, Arizona, August 27, 1918. 



96 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 



i\\t 



SALINE RIVER, Kansas, August 2, 1867. Co. F. Cheyennes. 
Near SALINE RIVER, Kansas, August 21, 1867. Co. F. Cheyennes. 
FORT HAYS, Kansas, September 15, 1867. Co. G. Cheyennes. 
BIG SANDY CREEK, Kansas, September 15, 1867. Co. I. Cheyennes. 
BEAVER CREEK, Kansas, October 18, 1867. Cos. H and I. Comanches. 
CAMP SUPPLY, I. T., June 11, 1871. Cos. A, F, H, I and K. Comanches. 
DOUBLE MOUNTAIN, I. T., February 5, 1874. Cos. D and G. Comanches. 
WICHITA, I. T., August 22-23, 1874. Hqrs., Cos. C, E, H and L. Kiowas and 
Comanches. 

BUFFALO SPRINGS, I. T., April 6, 1875. Co. M. Cheyennes. 

SULPHUR SPRINGS, Texas, July 6, 1875. Co. A. Comanches. 

SARAGOSSA, Mexico, July 30, 1876. Co. B. Apaches. 

PINTO MOUNTAINS, Mexico, August 12, 1876. Cos. B and K. Apaches. 

PECOS SPRINGS, Texas, September 13, 1876. Co. G. Comanches. 

PECOS RIVER, Texas, October 2, 1876. Co. G. Comanches. 

Near FORT GRIFFIN, Texas, May 4, 1877. Co. G. Comanches. 

In MEXICO, September 29, 1877. Co. C. Comanches. 

SIERRA CANNEL, Mexico, November 29, 1877. Co. B. Alsatti's Apaches. 

SALT LAKES, Texas, July 29, 1879. Co. H. Comanches. 

PECOS RIVER, Texas, April 2, 1880. Co. L. Comanches. 

SHAKEHAND SPRINGS, Texas, April 30, 1880. Co. K. Comanches. 

TINAJA DE LAS PALMAS, July 30, 1880. Hqrs. and Band. Apaches. 

EAGLE SPRINGS, Texas, July 30, 1880. Cos. C and G. Apaches. 

ALAMO SPRINGS, Texas, August 3, 1880. Co. H. Apaches. 

Near CAMP S AFFORD, Texas, August 7, 1880. Cos. F and L. Apaches. 

RATTLESNAKS SPRINGS, Texas, August 7, 1880. Cos. B, C, G and H. Apaches. 

OJO CALIENTE, Texas, October 28, 1880. Co. B. Comanches. 

PINTO MOUNTAINS, Mexico, May 3. 1886. Troop G. Geronimo's Apaches. 

WHITE MOUNTAINS, Ariz., September 18, 1886. Troop H. Capture of Mangus. 

LAS GUASIMAS, Cuba, June 24, 1898. Troops A. B. E and I. 

SANTIAGO, Cuba, July 1, 2, 3, 1898. Troops A, B, C, D, E, F, G and I. 

CARRIZAL, Mexico, June 21, 1916. Troops C and K. 

NOGALES, Arizona, August 27, 1918. Troops A, C and F. 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 97 

APPENDIX "A." 

Brief extracts from the Regimental Returns, selected at random. These short accounts 
of service on the Old Frontier tell of days that are gone forever, to the sorrow of the old 
school trooper. The cavalry was the school for courage, daring, endurance. 

1868 

.Company D : Cottonwood Grove, Indian Territory, February 25th. Left Fort Arbuckle 
for Cottonwood Grove to assist Indian Agent in reclaiming white children held captive 
by Indians. 

1876 

Company C : Fort McKavett, Texis. The company returned from scout duty in field 
against hostiles after absence of six months and seven days. 

Company G : Fort Griffin, Texas. Corporal John Robinson and four men pursued 
Mexican horse thieves, returned November 28, 1876; captured ten Mexicans, fifteen horses. 
Distance marched 770 miles. 

1877 

Company A : Private Derwin died July 30th from want of water. Private Gordon 
died July 31st, being without water for 104 hours. Privates Bond and Isaacs missing since 
July 30th on account of straggling. 

Headquarters : First Lieutenant R. G. Smither, Adjutant, with effective force of Band 
(16 men), started on scout August 3rd to Bull Creek, Texas, distance of 140 miles in forty- 
one hours, for relief of Captain Nolan's command which was reported in suffering condition 
on Staked Plains, men and horses dying from lack of water. Returned to Fort Concho 
August 14th. 

Company F : Camp on the Rio Grande, Texas. Since last report the company has 
been engaged in scouting after hostile Indians. Distance marched 1500 miles. 

JANUARY, 1878 

Troop H : Station Fort Davis, Texas. Troop left Toleta, Texas, January 18, 1878, 
where the company had been sent to suppress an insurrection, arrived Fort Davis January 
27, 1878. Distance marched 220 miles. 

Troop L : Station Fort Concho, Texas. Lieutenant Esterly and ten enlisted men left 
company January 17, 1878, in pursuit of hostile Indians, returned January 29, 1878. Lieu- 
tenant Maxon and twenty-four enlisted men left the post January 18, 1878, in pursuit of 
hostile Indians, returned January 30, 1878. Distance marched by detachments 350 miles. 

FEBRUARY, 1878 

Troop F: In the field, camp on Palo Blanco, Texas. Doing patrol and escort duty 
along the Rio Grande. Distance marched 955 miles. 

Company H : Station Fort Davis, Texas. Lieutenant Ayres and twelve enlisted men 
left company February 17th in pursuit of Indians to Barilla Springs, thence west, returning 
to post February 19th. 

MARCH, 1878 

Company H': On March 13, 1878, Captain L. H. Carpenter, Tenth Cavalry; Lieutenant 
Ayres, and forty enlisted men, left on scout to Russell's ranch, Texas, and adjacent country. 
Marched to Davis' ranch, Smith's ranch, Ferris' ranch, Presidio and Russet's ranch and 
scouted up the Rio Grande, returning to Russel's ranch. Distance marched 256 miles. 

Company K : The company left Fort Davis, Texas. March 14, 1878, on scout in search 
of hostile Indians, and proceeded in the direction of the mouth of San Francisco Creek, 
Texas, southeast of Fort Davis. Distance marched 192 miles. 



98 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

APRIL, 1878 

Company B : Lieutenant John Bigelow, Jr., and twenty-five men left Fort Stockton, 
Texas, April 15, 1878, in pursuit of hostile Indians, marched a southeast course, returning 
to post April 24, 1878. Distance marched 350 miles. 

Company H : Captain L. H. Carpenter and Second Lieutenant C. G. Ayres, and forty 
enlisted men, returned from Russel's ranch and vicinity. Distance marched 175 miles. 

Company K: The company left Pinto Blanco April 1, 1878, and continued on scout in 
search of hostile Indians, returning to post April 15, 1878. Distance marched 427 miles. 
April 21, 1878, a detachment of the company, consisting of one N. 'C. O and nine privates, 
under command of Lieutenant Geddes, Twenty-fifth Infantry, left post in search of hostile 
Indians and returned April 30, 1878. Distance marched 270 miles. 

JUNE, 1878 

Company B : Lieutenant Beck, with twenty enlisted men, left company on June 29, 
1878, in search of parties of Indians who had attacked stage near Pecos Station. 

Lieutenant Bigelow and fifteen enlisted men returned to post June 3, 1878, from pursuit 
of hostile Indians, and left the post June 7, 1878, to watch the approach of marauding 
Indians from direction of Concho, Texas, returning June 14, 1878. Distance marched by 
detachments 620 miles. 

Company F: Company lefr Fort Concho, Texas, June 26, 1878, on scout for marauding 
Indians. No trail found ; bad weather during scout causing much suffering to men and 
horses. Returned to post June 27, 1878. Distance marched 510 miles. 

JULY, 1878 

Company B : Lieutenant Beck with twenty enlisted men returned to post July 4, 1878, 
having been scouting for stage robbers since June 28, 1878. 

Company E: Company left San Felipe, Texas, July 25, 1878, on a fresh trail in pursuit 
of cattle thieves, marched to San Vincente, Mexico, and returned to and recrossed the Rio 
Grande River into Texas the same day, having captured most of the stolen stock, and 
returned to post July 26, 1878. 

Company K : Captain Lebo and twenty enlisted men left Fort Davis, Texas, July 12, 
1878, in pursuit of hostile Indians and returned July 24, 1878. Second Lieutenant Read and 
ten enlisted men left the company July 7, 1878, in pursuit of hostile Indians and returned 
July 16, 1878. Distance marched by these detachments 493 miles. 

AUGUST, 1878 

Company E: San Felipe, Texas. The company left post August 15th and crossed 
the Rio Grande into Mexico in pursuit of Mexican murderers, and returned to post August 
18, 1878. 

Company G : Fort Sill, I. T. The company left the post on detached service August 
11, 1878, per S. O. 174, c. s., Ft. Sill, I. T., to enforce the return of Big Bow (Chief) with 
his band of Kiowas, and returned with the Indians August 22, 1878. Distance marched 202 
miles. 

MAY, 1879 

Company A : In the field, Canon Blanco, Texas. Company left -Fort Elliott, Texas, 
May 18, 1879, in pursuit of fugitive Comanche Indians. Distance marched 219 miles. 

Company K : Fort Davis, Texas. Second Lieutenant R. D. Read, Jr., left the post 
May 6, 1879, with a detachment of eight enlisted men in search of hostile Indians. Re- 
turned to post May 10, 1879. Distance marched 145 miles. 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 



99 




JOHN J. PERSHING 
1ST LIEUT., 10TH CAV. 



Company L : In the field, Santa Rosa, Texas. Company scouted from the Pecos 
toward the Sand Hills, to Victoria Mountains and Seven Springs, Toyah Creek, Ropes 
Wells, Texas, and crossing Delaware River, N. M. ; Black River, N. M. ; Seven River, and 
near the Guadalupe Mountains, back to Santa Rosa, Texas, making three dry camps, which 
caused several animals to fag somewhat, but not a horse or mule was lost, every man and 
animal being able to make the same march in three days' less time than was consumed in 
the present one, without injury to man or beast. Several new crossings on the Pecos River 
were made. Only a few old signs of Indians were discovered. Distance marched by com- 
pany and detachments 1426 miles. 



100 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

JUNE, 1879 

Company A : The company was in the field since May 18, 1879, in pursuit of fugitive 
Comanches from Fort Sill, I. T. 

JULY, 1879 

Company C : In the field, Texas. The company has heen engaged in scouting and in 
pursuit of hostile Indians during the month. Distance marched by company 1050 miles. 

AUGUST, 1879 

Company H : Fort Davis, Texas. July 19, 1879, a detachment of twelve men under 
the command of Captain M. L. Courtney, Twenty-fifth Infantry, on scout from Eagle 
Springs, Texas, engaged a party of hostile Indians near Salt Lakes, Texas, in which fight 
Corporal William J. Webb and Private Geo. W. Foster, Company H, were wounded, and 
one horse was killed. 

SEPTEMBER, 1879 

Company B : In the field, Texas. The company left Camp Santa Rosa, Texas, Septem- 
ber 17, 1879, and scouting in the Sand Hills along the Pocos and over the country between 
camp and Emigrant Crossing. Returned to post September 20th. Lieutenant McMartin 
returned to camp September 7, 1879, with his detachment, having inarched 742 miles in 
pursuit of hostile Indians and recovered twenty-nine stolen horses. Distance marched by 
detachments 963J/2 miles. 

MARCH, 1880 

Headquarters : At the falls of the Pecos River, Texas. Colonel B. H. Grierson, com- 
manding District of the Pecos ; First Lieutenant R. G. Smither, A. A. A. G., and detach- 
ment of N. C. S., and Band Tenth Cavalry, left post March 23, 1880, with a view of organ- 
izing an expedition consisting of Companies D, E, F, K and L, Tenth Cavalry, and detach- 
ment of Twenty-fifth Infantry, as train guard to operate against and to assist in the dis- 
arming and dismounting the Mcscalero Apache Indians at Mcscalero Agency, X. M. 
Distance marched 203 miles. 

APRIL, 1880 

Headquarters : Near Guadalupe Creek Canon, X. M. Left Pecos Falls, Texas, April 
1st and arrived at Mescalero Agency, X. M., April 12, 1880, from the southeast and 
reported to Colonel Edward Hatch, Xinth Cavalry, commanding District of X T ew Mexico. 
Left the agency April 20th and scouted the Sacramento and Guadalupe Mountains in all 
directions in a thorough manner. Participated in several small skirmishes with the Indians 
April 2nd, 9th, 16th and 20th, and assisted in the disarming and dismounting of Indians at 
agency on the 10th, conducting Indian stock to Fort Stanton, and guarding Indian prisoners. 
Distance marched 564 miles. 

Company K : Sculptured Tanks, Guadalupe Mountains, X T . M. Left Agua Salada 
Water Holes, Texas, April 1st, arrived at Black River Falls, N. M., inarched thence north- 
ward through the Guadalupe Mountains by way of Guadalupe Creek to the Rio Panasco 
in the Sacramento Mountains, thence to the agency and took part in the disarming and 
dismounting the Mescalero Indians. April 9th struck the camp of a small party of Mes- 
caleros at Shakehand Springs, N. M. Killed one buck, captured four squaws and one child, 
released from captivity a small Mexican boy (Cayetena Segura) aged 11. Captured twenty- 
one head of horses and mules and destroyed their camp. Distance marched 4l7 l / 2 miles. 

Company L: In the field, Gardener's Ranch, X. M. Lieutenant Esterly and detach- 
ment rejoined April 5, 1880, overtook Indians with stolen horses on April 2nd half way 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 101 

between White Sand Hills and Pecos River ; wounded one Indian, captured and abandoned 
eight horses, lost one pack mule, and was forty-eight hours without water. Company 
arrived at Mescalero Agency April 12th. April 16th took part in affairs against Mescalero 
Apaches. One Indian supposed to have been killed or wounded ; four horses killed, and 
two horses and three mules captured. Left agency April 20th for Silver Springs on fresh 
trail overtook party of four or five in number same afternoon and killed one Indian and 
captured five horses. Distance maiched by company 440 miles; detachments 220 miles. 

JULY, 1880 

Company C: In the field, Texas. Left Fort Davis, Texas, July 25, 1880; arrived at 
Eagle Springs, Texas, July 29th. Engaged party of hostile Indians on Quitman Road July 
30th ; lost one man, and five horses killed and one horse and one pack mule wounded. 
Distance marched 138 miles. 

Company G: Eagle Springs, Texas. Left Camp Charlotte, Texas, July 1, 1880, arrived 
at Fort Stockton, Texas, July 6th. Engaged with hostile Apaches July 30th at Rocky Ridge 
near Eagle Springs, Texas. Lieutenant Colladay and Private Samuel Prescott wounded, 
and five horses lost, killed and wounded. Distance marched 333 miles. 

AUGUST, 1880 

Company A : Near old Fort Quitman, Texas. Left Eagle Springs, Texas, August 2nd 
and marched to Van Horn's Wells ; August 3rd, marched to Devil's Race Course ; August 
4th, marched to Rattle Snaks Springs ; 6th, 7th and 8th, engaged in scouting and picketing 
the passes of the Sierra Diablo; August 10th, marched to Ash Springs; August llth, dis 
covered and followed trail of Victoria's band of Apaches from 8 p. m. until 1 1 :45 a. m. of 
the 10th, when, after marching and reaching the Rio Grande, the pursuit ended by reason 
of the enemy crossing the river into Mexico. Distance marched by company and detach- 
ments 748 miles. 

Company F : Camp Safford, Texas. Detachment of company under Sergeant Richard- 
son in action with Indians on August 4th in which Private William Taylor was killed. The 
detachment being repulsed and driven from their horses, causing the abandonment of some 
five horses completely caparisoned and equipped, all of which fell into the hands of the 
Indians. On August 6th, while Captain Kennedy with command was in pursuit of the other 
Indians, a small party consisting of two bucks and one or two squaws was encountered 
and in the firing at the Indians which ensued one of the squaws was shot and killed, one 
pony killed and one taken with command. Distance inarched by company and detachments 
735 miles. 

Company G : Sulphur Water Hole, Texas. Left Eagle Springs, Texas, August 3rd, 
arrived at Van Horn, Texas, the same night ; August 4th, 5th marched to Rattle Snaks 
Springs, Texas ; August 6th engaged with hostile Indians near Rattle Snake Springs. No 
casualties. August 7th marched to Sulphur Water Hole, Texas. August 3rd Private Julius 
London, one of a party of scouts, was engaged and wounded in action with hostile Apaches 
near Eagle Springs, Texas. Distance marched 1256 miles. 

Company II : Near Hot Springs, Texas. August 1st engaged in furnishing pickets and 
scouts from Eagle Springs, Texas. August 3rd Corporal A. Weaver, with Private Brent 
of H company and a small detail from other companies, while on picket at Alamo Springs 
discovered Victoria's band of Indians after they had crossed the Rio Grande and had an 
engagement and running fight for fifteen miles. August 3rd left Eagle Springs in pursuit 
of Victoria's band ; marched to Van Horn and thence to Devil's Race Course, thence across 



102 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

to the Rattle Snake Springs; August 6th participated in an engagement with Victoria's band 
with Companies B, C and G, under command of Captain L. H. Carpenter, the Indians being 
repulsed and fleeing to the mountains. Private Wesley Hardy missing in action. Distance 
inarched by company and detachments 1250 miles. 

Company K: Near Ojo Caliente, Texas. From August 1st to 7th was engaged in 
scouting in and about the Sierra Diablo. On learning that Victoria was making at attempt 
to cross the Rio Grande near Ojo Caliente, August 1st discovered fresh trail of a party of 
Indians in the Sierra Diablo, followed it about six miles to the eastern slope of the moun- 
tains and found their camp, which they had evidently abandoned in great haste, leaving 
behind a number of ponies and cattle, also a great quantity of slaughtered beef (twelve or 
fifteen head) which was being prepared for drying, all of which was captured or destroyed. 
Followed their trail August 2nd and 3rd, finding several ponies and pack mules with their 
equipment and cargo of fresh beef, etc., abandoned on the trail. The Indians, being on the 
alert, had taken to flight in due time and made good their escape to the Guadalupe Moun- 
tains during the night of the 1st. This was, without doubt, the advance supply camp for 
Victoria's band of Apaches, who were then making endeavors to reach this point. Distance 
marched by company and detachments 1442 miles. 

SEPTEMBER, 1880 

Headquarters : Fort Concho, Texas. Colonel Grierson, with four men of N. C. S. and 
Band, has been operating in the field against Victoria and his band of Indians since July 
10, 1380. They were driven across the Rio Grande twice. In the fight at Tenaja del Las 
Palomas July 30th Colonel Grierson, his son Robert, Lieutenant Beck and seven men 
fought about seventy-five Indians. 

Company A : During the month the company marched 900 miles. 

Company B: During the month the company and detachments marched 1242 miles. 

Company H : During the month the company and detachments marched 1281 miles. 

Company I: During the month the company and detachments marched 1004 miles. 

OCTOBER, 1880 

Company B : In the field on Rio Grande below Ojo Caliente, Texas, engaged in 
patrolling and scouting the Rio Grande. October 28th, before daybreak at Ojo Caliente, 
while on picket duty Privates Carter Burns and George Mills, with a detachment com- 
manded by Sergeant Charles Perry, were surprised and killed by Indians supposed to be 
thirty-five or forty strong. Distance marched by company and detachments 1097 miles. 

Company E : During the month the company and detachments marched 1480 miles. 

Company H : During the month the company and detachments marched 2958 miles. 

JANUARY, 1884 

Troop M : Pena Colorado, Texas. Saddler Leve Ross mortally wounded, Sergeant 
\Vinfield Scott and Private Augustus Dover slightly wounded while under command of 
Lieutenant Eggleston attempting to arrest a desperado on the military reservation. The 
desperado, W. A. Alexander, was killed while resisting arrest. 

MAY, 1886 

Troop K: Pantana, A. T., in the field. Left Calabasas May 1st in pursuit of hostile 
Indians, and on the 3rd had an engagement with Geronimo's band of hostile Apaches in 
the Pinto Mountains, Mexico. Killed two bucks, and another supposed to be badly wounded. 
Private Follis killed, Corporal Scott badly wounded, two horses killed, one wounded and 
four missing while following the trail. On the 2nd and 3rd the Indians shot and aban- 
doned about thirty head of horses, ponies and mules. 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 103 

OCTOBER, 1886 

Troop H : Fort Apache, A. T. Captain Cooper in command of twenty men of. the 
troop left post on September 14, 1886, and on the 18th found trail of hostile Indians about 
twenty-five miles east of Thomas Peak of White Mountains, Arizona; pursued them for 
forty-five miles over a rugged and almost inaccessible country, overtook them and after a 
running fight of fifteen miles captured the entire band, consisting of Chief Mangus, two 
bucks, three squaws, two boys, rations, blankets, and everything they possessed, turned over 
to the C. O., Fort Apache. 



APPENDIX "B" 
Reports on the action at Las Cuasimas, Cuba, June 24, 1898: 

CAMP TENTH CAVALRY 

Near Santiago de Cuba, June 28, 1898. 
The Adjutant General, Second Brigade, Cavalry Division, Fifth Army Corps. 

Sir : In connection with the action that took place on the 24th instant at Las Guasimas 

between troops of the brigade and Spaniards, I have the honor to submit the following. 

to accompany the reports of the troop commanders of the First Squadron, Tenth Cavalry: 

The reports referred to cover the part taken by each organization, and attention "is 

respectfully invited to the same. 

As the fight took place under the eyes and direction of the brigade commander, I will 
only testify to the good and brave conduct of every officer and enlisted man belonging to 
the four troops of the First Squadron, Tenth Cavalry. 

The designations of the troops, together with the names of the officers belonging to 
the same, who took part in the action, are as follows : 

Troop A, Captain William H. Beck and Second Lieutenant F. R. McCoy. 
Troop B, Captain J. W. Watson and Second Lieutenant H. O. Williard. 
Troop E, Captain C. G. Ayres and Second Lieutenant George Viclmer. 
Troop I, First Lieutenant R. J. Fleming and Second Lieutenant A. M. Miller. 
Attached to the squadron as medical officer was First Lieutenant L. A. Fuller, Assistant 
Surgean, United States Army. 

Very respectfully, 

S. T. NORVELL, 

Major, Tenth Cavalry, 
Commanding First Squadron. 



In the Field, near Santiago de Cuba, June 27, 1898. 
The Adjutant, Tenth Cavalry. 

Sir In obedience to verbal instructions of this date, I report as follows relative to 
the affair of June 24 with the Spaniards at Las Guasimas : 

Shortly after the Hotchkiss guns, under Captain Watson's direction, opened fire upon 
the Spanish position and the squadron of the First United States Cavalry had been 
deployed in front of the works occupied by vhem, I was directed to take my troop (A. 
Tenth Cavalry) and proceed to the left of Captain Galbraith's troop of the First Cavalry, 
which was on the left of the First Cavalry Squadron, and support him. This I immediately 
proceeded to do. 1 found Captain Galbraith's troop, and after a short consultation with 
him extended his line with my troop and pushed the line parallel to the hill upon which 
the Spaniards were located. The First Cavalry Squadron was pushing its line forward in 
their front. I judged this by their firing. My line was at right angle, approximately, to 
that of the First Cavalry as I proceeded on the extension of Galbraith's line. 

Finding that the hill to the south of that upon which the Spaniards were located was, 
in my judgment, too far for effective carbine firing, I moved steadily on, deflecting to the 
right, and proceeding on the southern slope of the hill upon which the Spaniards were 
entrenched, nearly reaching the summit, when I discovered the First United States Vol- 
unteers on my left and communicated with them, stating what troop I commanded. This 
made the line continuous from the right of the First United States Cavalry Squadron to 
the left of the First United States Volunteers. I continued my line of march until I 



104 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

reached the summit of the hill upon which the Spaniards were intrenched, to the south and 
west of their works. I sent Lieutenant McCoy, of my troop, along the ridge to discover 
if the Spaniards still occupied their works. He returned, reporting that they had left. 

While I was proceeding as above stated I heard heavy firing in the direction in which 
I was pushing, which I ascertained afterwards was the firing occasioned by the attack of 
the First United States Volunteers upon the Spaniards in their front. 

During my entire march I received the fire from the enemy at times, but could not 
see him, and reached the point at which I was aiming to intercept the Spaniards on their 
retreat but a few moments after they had fled. 

The side of the hill was extremely rough, covered with Spanish daggers, dense chaparral 
of all kinds, and rocky, making it impossible to see for any distance. 

After receiving Mr. McCoy's report I crossed the summit of the hill and marched 
down the north side, thus completely covering the ground occupied by the Spaniards in our 
immediate front. 

I found toward the eastern part of the summit a wounded man of B Troop, Tenth 
Cavalry, and a number of stragglers from the First Cavalry, and troops of the Tenth 
Cavalry, whom I brought in. 

I will add that the enlisted men of A Troop, Tenth Cavalry, behaved well, silently and 
alertly obeying orders, and without becoming excited when the fire of the enemy reached 
them. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

WM. H. BECK, 
Captain, Tenth Cavalry, Commanding Troop A. 



Sevilla, Santiago de Cuba, June 27, 1898. 
The Adjutant, Tenth United States Cavalry, Headquarters of Regiment in Field. 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report : 

At about 7:15 to 7:20 a. in., June 24, 1898, Troop B, Tenth Cavalry, was marching along 
the road or trail, leading from Altares to Santiago de Cuba. A few minutes after I heard 
several shots, and directly the squadron of the Tenth Cavalry was halted, my troop being 
about twenty yards from a little creek directly in front and thick brush on the left, the 
right being slightly more open. About this time a volley from the Spanish was fired ; the 
iirst I heard at about 7:30 a. m., 1 should judge. I cautioned the men to lie down on the 
left side of the road and keep in the shelter as much as possible. A few minutes after this 
Troop A, Tenth Cavalry, was ordered to the left of the line, and I was ordered by Major 
Norvell, Tenth Cavalry, to report to Brigadier General Young, U. S. Volunteers, for 
instructions. I did so immediately. The general was standing in a most exposed position, 
about thirty to forty yards beyong the creek already spoken of, slightly in rear of the 
flotchkiss gun battery. The general ordered me to move my troop out in the extreme 
right at once, prolonging the line of the .birst United States Cavalry, already there. I 
ordered the truop forward at once, telling them to take advantage of all cover available, 
in the meantime the volleys from the Spanish were coming in quite frequently and striking 
the ground on all sides near where we were. I found it very difficult to move the men 
forward after having found cover, and ran back to a portion of the troop near an old brick 
wall, and ordered them forward at once. They then made a dash forward, and in doing 
so three or four men were wounded, 'Private Russel severely. Who the others were I do 
not know. We encountered a severe fire directly after this move forward, and Private 
Wheeler was wounded in the left leg. There was a wire fence on our right, and such thick 
underbrush that we were unable to get through right there, so had to follow along the 
fence for some distance before being able to penetrate. Finally, was able to get the 
greater portion of my men through, and about this time T met Lieutenants Fleming and 
Miller, Tenth Cavalry, moving through the thicket on my left. I there heard the order 
passed on "not to fire ahead," as there was danger of firing into our own forces. In the 
meantime there was shouting from the First Cavalry in our front, "Don't fire on us in the 
rear." My troop had not fired a shot to my knowledge, nor the knowledge of any non- 
commissioned officers in the troop. About this time I found I was unable to keep the 
troop deployed, as they would huddle up behind one rock or tree, so I gave all sergeants 
orders to move out on the extreme right and to keep in touch with those on their left. 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 105 

Then, with a squad of about five men, I moved to the right front, and was unfortunate 
enough to lose the troop, i. e., 1 could see nothing of them except the men with me. Bur 
as I had given explicit instructions to my sergeants, in case I was lost from them, to 
continue to advance until halted by some one in authority, I moved ahead myself, hoping 
to find them later on. In making a rush forward three men of my squad were lost from 
me in some way. I still had two men with me, Privates Combs and Jackson, and in the 
next advance made 1 picked up a First Cavalry sergeant who had fallen out from ex- 
haustion. After a terrible climb up the ridge in front of me, and a very regular though 
effective fire from the enemy kept up until we were about sixty yards from the summit of 
hill, we reached the advance line of the First United States Cavalry, under command of 
Captain Waimvright. 1 then reported to him for orders, and moved forward when he 
next advanced. The firing had ceased, and no more shots were fired, to my knowledge, 
after this time. With the First Cavalry, Troop G, we followed along the right of the 
ridge and down to the right front, encountering no opposition or fire from the enemy, 
but finding the enemy's breastworks in confusion, ammunition and articles of clothing scat- 
tered around ; also one dead Spaniard and two Mauser rifles. At the foot of the ridge we 
met some of the First Volunteer Cavalry, and, being utterly exhausted, I was obliged to 
lie down. Soon after, Captain Mills, Adjutant General of the Second Brigade, Cavalry 
Division, came up to where I was and placed me in command of Troop K, First United 
States Cavalry, whose officers were wounded. 1 then marched them forward on the road 
to where General Wheeler was sitting, and received orders from Colonel Wood, First 
Volunteer Cavalry, to remain until further orders and make no further advance. Directly 
afterwards, learing the action was over, I reported back to General Young, and received 
orders to remain camped with the First Cavalry Squadron, where the action had closed. 
In the meantime, I should have stated that I had found the principal part of my troop, 
and collected them and left them under the first sergeant, when I went back to receive 
orders. So far as I know, and to the best of my knowledge, the men of my troop acted 
with the greatest bravery, advancing on an enemy who could not be seen, and subjected to 
a severe and heavy fire at each step, which was only rendered ineffective to a great degree 
by the poor marksmanship of the enemy, as many times we were in sight of them, (I dis- 
covered this by observation after the engagement), while we could see nothing. We were 
also subjected to a severe reverse fire from the hills in our right rear, several men being 
wounded by this tire. Throughout the fight the men acted with exceptional coolness, in 
my judgment. 

The casualties were: Privates Russell, Braxton, and Morris, severely wounded; Pri- 
vates F. A. Miller, Grice, Wheeler, and Gaines, slightly wounded, i. e., less severely. None 
killed. 

Very respectfully, 

HARRY O. WILLIARD, 

Second Lieutenant, Tenth United States Cavalry, Commanding Troop B, Tenth Cavalry, 
during action near Las Guasimas, June 24, 1898. 



The Assistant Adjutant General, Young's Brigade. (Through Squadron Commander). 

Sir : I have the honor to report that on the 24th instant two commissioned officers and 
fifty-three enlisted men of Troop E, Tenth Cavalry, went into action, with other troops of 
the brigade, against the regular Spanish infantry, and were placed by General Young in 
person in support of Captain J. W. Watson's (Tenth Cavalry), two Hotchkiss guns, and 
also to support the troops in our front should they need it. The position of the troop was 
in plain view of the Spaniards, who occupied a high ridge and had the exact range ; but 
pursuant to their instructions they held their positions one hour and a quarter without 
tiring a shot, for fear of firing upon our own men. Their coolness and fine discipline were 
superb. 

In connection herewith, it gives me great pleasure to call attention to the great gal^- 
lantry of Second Lieutenant George Vidmer, Tenth Cavalry, and Privates Burr Neal, W. 
B. Nelson, Augustus Wally, and A. C. White, who, under a very heavy fire, came to my 



106 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

assistance in carrying Major Bell, First Cavalry, to a place of safety, he being shot through 
the leg below the knee and his leg broken. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

CHARLES G. AYERS, 

Captain, Tenth Cavalry, Commanding Troop E. 

One corporal, W. S. White, Rilled, and Trumpeter W. H. Johnson slightly wounded. 

C. G. AYRES, 

Captain Tenth Cavalry. 

Second Brigade, Cavalry Division. 
(Through Military Channels.) 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations of Troop I, 
Tenth Cavalry, under my command in the action of the 24th of June : 

Strength of troop : Officers First Lieutenant R. J. Fleming, Tenth Cavalry, command- 
ing Troop 1 ; Second Lieutenant A. M. Miller, Tenth Cavalry. Enlisted men Sergeants, 
7 ; corporals, 6 ; privates, 37 ; total, 50. Aggregate, 52. 

The troop was on road leading out into space where action commenced, and was the 
third t r oop in the Tenth Cavalry Squadron. In this position the troop was well protected 
by high banks on either side of the road. I heard an order from the brigade commander 
to the squadron commander, Major Norvell, to send forward two troops of the Tenth 
Cavalry. Not knowing that Captain Beck's troop had already gone forward, I did not 
immediately move out, until B troop, in my front, had gone about thirty yards. Then the 
squadron commander informed me that I should also go forward. I moved out, with 
troop inclined to the right, into the thick underbrush on the right of road, then moved 
forward until left of my troop rested against old fence where the hospital was afterwards 
placed. In this movement to the right I passed beyond B troop, which I found posted just 
as 1 entered woods on right of road. This troop, as we moved forward, inclined to the 
right, and during the remainder of action was on my right. Up to this time I had no 
knowledge of the position of the enemy. 

While the troop was in this position, with left against wooden fence, I moved out into 
the open space on the left and met Major Bell, First Cavalry, who informed me that the 
First Cavalry was in front of my left and cautioned me not to fire to the front. By this 
time I discovered that the enemy was posted on the high ridge immediately in front and 
to the right. I moved back to the troop, moved them to the right so as to uncover the 
First Cavalry as much as possible, and then moved directly for the hill, seeking cover 
wherever possible, and advancing on the run across open spaces. On account of not knowing 
the position of First Cavalry my men were cautioned not to fire unless by order of an 
officer. After arriving at the steep part of the ridge the ascent was very difficult. The 
underbrush was impenetrable in most places, the side of the ridge being covered, in addition, 
by thick prickly weed, through which paths had always to be cut with knives and sabers. 

In only two cases did I see any of the enemy, when I allowed part of my men to halt 
and fire ; but with these two exceptions we advanced steadily, as the cover was perfect. 
The advance, however, was very slow owing to the difficulty of getting through. Just 
before we struck the first fortification of the Spaniards the left of my line caught up with 
the right of Captain Wainwriglit's troop of the First, under command of Lieutenant Whit- 
man, who reached the top of the hill ' immediately before my troop. I passed along the 
top of the ridge until I reached the descent on the other end. The detachment of Firsi 
Cavalry passed down and joined the troop, and I posted outposts on the ridge in order to 
protect the right of our line in the valley below. 

Shortly after Colonel Wood of the First Volunteer Cavalry came to my position and 
ordered me to establish outposts. When he learned I had already done so he told me 
to remain until relieved. I was relieved shortly after, but remained in position until 3 :30 
p. m., when I marched back to camp. 

Three men (privates) were wounded in troop, all while in position near wooden fence 
at commencement of advance. 

Wounded Kelley Mayberry, Amos B. Reed, sent to hospital ship ; Wesley Jones, shot 
in hand, but remained during the fight ; slight wound. 

The entire troop behaved with great coolness and obeyed every order. Owing to the 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 107 

underbrush it was impossible for me to see but very few men at a time, but as they all 
arrived on the crest about the time I did, or shortly after, they certainly advanced steadily. 
I would especially like to mention the conduct of three men who were under my 
personal observation : Farrier Sherman Harris, for unusual coolness and gallantry. He 
kept in advance and picked out the best cover for the men in his immediate rear. Wagoner 
John Boland, for coolness in action. I think he killed the Spaniard found on the crest, as 
we could see one man standing behind tree about four hundred yards from us, and Boland 
coolly iixed his sight and took careful aim and fired, although the bullets were falling very 
thickly around us, as the enemy had apparently discovered our position. Immediately after 
he fired the Spaniard either jumped or fell, but he looked as though he fell. Boland 
remained there until the firing ceased. Private Elsie Jones, for unusual coolness and gallan- 
try. He has been only two months in the service, but behaved like a veteran. I would also 
like to mention the conduct of Second Lieutenant A. M. Miller, of my troop. He displayed 
great coolness and gallantry and used the best judgment in directing the movements of 
the men under his command. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

R. J. FLEMING, 
First Lieutenant, Tenth Cavalry, Commanding Troop. 



TROOP B, TENTH CAVALRY 

Six Miles from Santiago, Cuba, June 27, 1898. 
Adjutant, Tenth Cavalry. 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report of part taken in the engagement 
on the 24th instant by the Tenth Cavalry detachment temporarily in charge of four Hotch- 
kiss mountain guns : 

I put the guns in position under the personal direction of the brigade commander. 
The distance was estimated at 1000 yards. This being found a little high, the sights were 
lowered to 900 yards and kept at that range during the engagement. Great difficulty was 
experienced in observing the effect of the shots, owing to the smoke, which hung in front of 
them, and the brush on each side, but two of the first 900 yards were seen to go to the 
right spot, and it was presumed the others were going right. The shells were used 
sparingly, as I could bring only one box (fifty rounds) of ammunition. Twenty-two shots 
were fired. The fire was directed mainly at a rock fortifications held by the Spaniards, 
but sometimes at a thick clump of bushes on a high point near the fortification. In looking 
over this part of the field after the fight I found where three shells had struck ; one had 
struck the center of the rock fort, another had cut off a small tree 18 inches above the 
top of the fort, a third had exploded 20 feet in front of a line of ten or twelve Spaniards 
(as shown by the line of empty cartridge shells which they used). Nearly all the others 
undoubtedly struck in the near vicinity of these three, and" it is hoped contributed to the 
success of the day. 

Casualties Corporal Love, Troop B, left arm grazed by bullet ; Private Gaines, same 
troop, shot in finger, left hand. 

Corporal W. F. Johnson, Troop B, deserves special mention for his efficiency and 
perfect coolness under fire. He was non-commissioned officer in charge, and the Hotchkiss 
battery was, apparently, on account of the smoke from it, a special target for the enemy's 
fire. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. W. WATSON, 
Captain Tenth Cavalry, Temporarily Commanding Battery. 



108 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 



APPP:NDIX "C" 

The following report was submitted through channels, recommending Seigeant Graham 
for gallantry : 

Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 5th of January, 1899. 
Captain Charles Ayres, Tenth Cavalry, Huntsville, Alabama. 

Sir : I have the honor to submit to you the following remarks concerning the service 
of Sergeant John Graham, of your troop, who was detailed by you for temporary duty 
with gatling guns under my command at the battle of the 1st of July, 1898, with a view 
that the same may be forwarded with the soldier's record, and such recommendations as 
you may care to make, by way of his regimental headquarters for consideration by the 
board of officers appointed at Washington to consider meritorious services during the 
Spanish-American war. 

Sergeant Graham particularly distinguished himself by coolness and courage about 
sundown on July 1st, at a time when the gatling battery, with which he \va? serving, had 
become a target for the Spanish artillery fire. He rendered particularly valuable service 
in keeping the ammunition supply up at this time, and at one time, when a shell was 
about to explode in the battery, endeavored to shield his commanding officer, myself, with 
his own body. His services at this time, in keeping the ammunition going, were particularly 
dangerous as it had to be carried some distance exposed to the view and fire of the enemy, 
but he so well performed this work that the gatlings were enabled to drive the enemy's 
gunne.s away from their guns by directing a steady and continuous fire upon their pieces. 

For these distinguished services it is my opinion that Sergeant Graham should receive 
the Medal of Honor, and I respectfully ask that you concur in such recommendation, and 
cause this to be forwarded with suitable remarks for the action of the proper board of 
officers. 



Very respectfully, 
(Signe< 

Late commanding Gatling Gun Detachment, Fifth Army Corps. 



(Signed) JOHN H. PARKER, 

First Lieutenant, Thirteenth Infantry. 



First endorsement on L. R. No. 45, dated January 10, 1898, relative to recommendation 
of Sergeant John Graham, Troop E, Tenth Cavalry, for Medal of Honor, by Lieutenant 
John Parker, First Lieutenant, Thirteenth Infantry. 

CAMP OF TENTH CAVALRY 

Huntsville, Ala., January 10, 1899. 

Respectfully forwarded to the Adjutant General, U. S. Army, through regimental head- 
quarters. 

I saw this sergeant while on duty with this gatling gun battery July 1st at sundown, 
and I know that there was no more daring man in Cuba, and for endeavoring to shield 
his commanding officer, Lieutenant Parker, by trying to cover him with his own body to 
prevent an exploding shell from striking him, he is under the law entitled to the Medal 
of Honor. 

(Signed) CHARLES G. AYRES, 

Captain Tenth Cavalry, Commanding Troop E. 

A true copy : S. D. Rockerbach, First Lieutenant, Tenth Cavalry, Adjutant. 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 109 

APPENDIX "D" 
Report of Lieutenant Colonel T. A. Baldwin on the Battle of Santiago : 

HEADQUARTERS TENTH U. S. CAVALRY 

Before Santiago de Cuba, July 8, 1898. 
The Adjutant General, Second Brigade, Cavalry Division. 

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report of the part taken by the Tenth 
U. S. Cavalry in the battle of July 1st, 2nd and 3rd, 1898, before Santiago de Cuba: 

On the morning of July 1st the regiment, consisting of Troops A, B, C, D, E, F, G 
and I, and Field and Staff, occupied a position on the left of the Second Brigade, Cavalry 
Division, this line extending nearly north and south on a ridge some three or four miles 
from Santiago. At about 6:30 a. m., a battery of artillery posted a short distance from my 
right opened fire upon the works of Santiago, the regiment being exposed to much of the 
return fire of the enemy's batteries. After the artillery firing had ceased the regiment 
moved to the right, passed the sugar mill, and proceeded in rear of the brigade down the 
road leading towards Santiago. The movement was delayed as we approached the San 
Juan River and the regiment came within the range of fire about one-half mile from the 
crossing. Upon reaching the river I found that the Seventy-first New York Volunteers were 
at the crossing and that the regiment preceding mine had a converging artillery and infantry 
lire from the three block houses and entrenchments in front, and the works further to the 
left and nearer to Santiago. This fire was probably drawn by a balloon which preceded the 
regiment to a p*oint near the ford, where it was held. I was directed to take a position to 
the right behind the river bank for protection. While moving to this position, and while 
there, the regiment suffered considerable loss. After an interval of twenty or thirty minutes, 
I was directed to form line of battle in a partially open field, facing toward the block houses 
and strong entrenchments to the north occupied by the enemy. Much difficulty was found 
on account of the dense undergrowth, crossed in several directions by wire fences. As a 
part of the cavalry division under General Sumner. the regiment was formed in two lines, 
the first squadron under Major S. T. Norvell, consisting of Troops A, B, E and I leading; 
the second line under Major T. J. Wint. consisting of Troops C, F, G. Troop D, having 
crossed further down the river, attached itself to a command of infantry and moved with 
that command on the two block houses. The regiment advanced in this formation under a 
heavy converging fire from the enemy's position, proceeding but a short distance when the 
two lines were united into one. The advance was rapidly continued in an irregular line 
toward the block houses and entrenchments to the right front. During this advance the line 
passed some troops of the First Cavalry, which T think had previously been formed on 
our right. 

Several losses occurred before reaching the top of the hill, First Lieutenant Wm. H. 
Smith being killed as he arrived on its crest. 

The enemy having retreated toward the northwest, the second and third block houses, 
new lines were formed and a rapid advance was made upon these new positions. The 
regiment assisted in capturing these Works from the enemy and, with the exception of 
Troops C and D who in the meantime had joined the First Volunteer Cavalry, then took 
up a position to the north of the second block house, remaining there dimng the night. 
With some chanees in the position of troops they held this line on the 2nd and 3rd under 
a very heavy and continuous fire from the enemy's entrenchments in front, and the regiment 
now occupies a part of the most advanced entrenched position. Some troops lost their 
relative positions in line during the first dav of the battle, but attached themselves to 
others and continued to move forward. During the entire engagement the regiment acted 
with extraordinary coolness and bravery It held its position at the ford and moved for- 
ward unflinchingly after deployment through the dense brush under the heavy fire from 
the enemy's works. 

The officers and men in general throughout exhibited great bravery, obeying orders 
with unflinching alacrity while attacking with small arms an enemy strongly posted in 
entrenchments and block houses and supported by artillery. Words cannot express my 
gratification at such conduct, and T would request that such service receive some special 
recognition. It is difficult to distinguish between officers and men, all of whom are so 
deserving, but of the officers whcse conduct on the field came under mv clitect personal 
observation, I would especially mention Major S. T. Norvell and Major T. J. Wint, squadron 



110 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

commanders; First Lieutenant John J. Pershing, quartermaster; First Lieutenant M. H. 
Barnum, adjutant, for their untiring energy, faithfulness and gallantry during this engage 
merit, and would recommend the officers named for brevet commissions. 

I desire to recommend the following medical officers, attached to the Tenth U. S. 
Cavalry : Captain, Assistant Surgeon M. M. Brown ; First Lieutenant, Assistant Surgeon 
L. A. Fuller, for their untiring zeal and fearless energy in their attendance under fire 
of wounded officers and men of my own and other commands during the entire day of 
July. 1st and succeeding clays of the engagement. 

I would invite attention to the following list of men especially recommended in the 
enclosed reports forwarded herewith : 

Troop A Corporal Jno. Anderson and Private R. A. Parker. 

Troop C First Sergeant Adam Houston. 

Troop E First Sergeant Peter McCann ; Sergeants Benj. Fasit, Ozran Gaither and 
Wm. Payne, and Corporal Thos. E. Herbert. 

Troop I Private Elsie Jones, previously recommended. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

(Signed) T. A. BALDWIN, 
Lieutenant Colonel, Tenth Cavalry, Commanding Regiment. 



HEADQUARTERS TENTH CAVALRY 

Near Santiago de Cuba, July 8th, 1898. 
To the Adjutant General, Second Brigade, Cavalry Division. 

Sir : I have the honor to state that owing to my desire to submit my report of the 
actions taken part in by my regiment on July 1st, 2nd and 3rd at San Juan, Cuba, at as 
early date as possible under the instructions received, I was unable to make a complete 
report on the 6th inst., and therefore submit this supplementary report of the actions 
referred to. 

After a thorough investigation of the conduct of the officers of my regiment in the 
battle of the 1st inst., and the actions of the 2nd and part of the 3rd, I make recommenda- 
tions that the following named officers be brevetted to the highest rank which the War 
Department may deem proper to bestow in each case or honorably mentioned. 

Captain Wm. H. Beck, Tenth Cavalry, for conspicuous gallantry, good judgment, and 
endurance. T urgently and respectfully recommend him for a brevet. 

Captain T. W. Jones. Tenth Cavalry. For conspicuous gallantry, good judgment, and 
endurance. T urgently and respectfully recommend him for a brevet. 

Captain Chas. G. Ayres, Tenth Cavalry. For conspicuous gallantry, good judgment, and 
endurance. T urgently and respectfully recommend him for a brevet. 

Captain J. W. Watson. Tenth Cavalry. For conspicuous gallantry, good judgment, and 
endurance. I urgently and respectfully recommend him for honorable mention. 

Captain John Bigelow. I earnestly and respectfully recommend him for honorable 
mention. 

First Lieutenant J. B. Huges. For conspicuous gallantry and endurance. 

F'irst Lieutenant R. L. Livermore. For conspicuous gallantry and endurance. 

First Lieutenant E. D. Anderson. For conspicuous gallantry and endurance. 

First Lieutenant R. T. Fleming. For conspicuous gallantry and endurance. 

Second Lieutenant Geo. Vidmer. For conspicuous gallantry and endurance. 

Second Lieutenant A. M. Miller. For conspicuous gallantry and endurance. 

Second Lieutenant H. O. Williard. For conspicuous gallantry and endurance. 

Second Lieutenant H. C. Whitehead. For conspicuous gallantry and endurance. 

Second Lieutenant F. R. McCoy. For conspicuous gallantry and endurance. 

Second Lieutenant T. A. Roberts. For conspicuous gallantry and endurance. 

Second Lieutenant A. E. Kennington. For conspicuous gallantry and endurance. 

I make these recommendations as in each individual case the gallantry displayed in 
leading men to the assault of .entrenched works who were armed with the carbine and 
which works were defended by men armed with the Mauser rifle, who used them well, 
prevents any possible question as to the term applied. 

I feel that if there is anv further recognition which can be bestowed upon the officers 
named it should be done, and I have recommended them for a brevet only because I do 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 111 

not know what additional honor can he given them at this time by the Government for 
their splendid conduct by which they have shown not only "nigh courage but their ability 
to command men upon the Held of battle. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

(Signed) T. A. BALDWIN, 
Lieutenant Colonel, Tenth Cavalry, Commanding Regiment. 



Report by Major Norvell, including ids troop commanders, on the Battle of Santiago, 
July 1, 2, 3, 1898. 

Before Santiago de Cuba, July 5, 1898. 
Adjutant, Tenth United States Cavalry. 

Sir : The following is a report of the part taken by the First Squadron, Tenth Cavalry, 
consisting of Troops A, B, E and I, in action with the Spaniards on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd 
instant : 

On the evening of June 30th the regiment, as a part of the Second Brigade, Cavalry 
Division, took position on the extreme left of the line, about five miles from Santiago. 

On the morning of the 1st, after an artillery duel of short duration between Grimes's 
battery and the artillery of the enemy, the regiment moved forward toward the town to 
the crossing of the San Juan River, when it immediately became engaged. The regiment 
took position in a wood, and here suffered considerable loss, due to the fact that the whole 
of the enemy's fire appeared to be directed to this point. In a short time we moved out of 
the wood by the right flank and then deployed to the left, being then directly in fr nit of 
the enemy and about one mile distant from his works, marked h} r three houses about half 
a mile from one another. The enemy were strongly entrenched in front of these houses. 
The line, consisting of the cavalry division, under direction of Brigadier General Sumner, 
moved i'oi ward in double time, under a terrific nre of the enemy. We had a very heavy 
jungle to march through, besides the river (San Juan) to cross, and during our progress 
many men were killed and wounded. The troops became separated from one another, 
though the general line was pretty v/ell preserved. The works of the enemy were carried 
in succession by the troops and the Spaniards were steadily driven back toward the town 
to their last ditches. We now found ourselves about half a mile from the city, but the 
troops being by this time nearly exhausted, here entrenched themselves for the night under 
fire. By dark this line was occupied by all the troops engaged during the day. 

Julv 2 we changed our position to about 600 yards to the right, and were under a 
heavy fire during the whole day until dark, when we were again changed to about half a 
mile to the right and a little nearer to the works of the enemy. 

July 2 and until noon we were engaged with the enemy. At noon firing was suspended 
on both sides by reason of a flag of truce being sent forward, presumably to give notice of 
the bombardment of the city. 

The conduct of the officers and enlisted men of my squadron was simply superb. 

The following is a list of the killed and wounded: Killed Troop A, Private John H. 
Smart: Troop P. Corporal William P. Johnson. Wounded Troop A, First Lieutenant 
R. L. Livermore, Second Lieutenant F. R. McCoy, Sergeant Smith Johnson, Corporal Toseph 
C. Mitchell. Trumpeter Nathan Wyatt, Privates William A. Cooper, Benjamin Franklin, 
Wiley Hipsher, Richard James. Daniel Flue. All Tuly 1. July 2, Private Luther D. Gould. 
July 3, William H. Brown. Troon B. July 1, Privates John Prim and William Gregory; 
July 2. Second Lieutenant Harry O. Williard. Missing Saddler John H. Ubanks. George 
Berry and William Jackson. Tfooo E, Julv 1. Sergeant William Payne, Blacksmith Lewis 
L. Anderson; Privates Henry McCormick, Gilmore Givens, Hillv Brown. Troop I. July 1, 
First Sergeant Robert Millbrown, Sergeant W. G. Gunter, Privates Frank D. Bennett. 
Thornton Berkley, Thomas H. Hardy, Wesley Jones, Houston Riddle. Missing Private 
John F. Chinn. 

Respectfully submitted, 

S. T. NORVELL. 
Major, Tenth Cavalry, Commanding First Squadron. 



112 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

TROOP A, TENTH CAVALRY 

Near Santiago, July 5, 1898. 
The Adjutant, Tenth Cavalry. 

Sir : I have the honor to report, in accordance with instructions from your office of this 
date, the following relative to the part taken by Troop A, Tenth Cavalry, in the actions 
against the Spaniards of July 1, 2 and 3, 1898: 

On the morning of July 1 the troop formed part of the support to a battery of artillery 
on the extreme front of the line of troops. After the battery removed from the action the 
troop was ordered out on the road leading toward Santiago and in the direction of the 
entrenchments and block houses occupied by the Spaniards. The troop was on the right 
of the First Squadron, Tenth Cavalry. After proceeding for probably a mile and a half, 
the latter part of which march was under heavy fire from the enemy, the troop was directed 
to take its place in line on the left of the First United States Cavalry. In accomplishing 
this the troop passed under a heavy fire of shell and of musketry. Shortly after this for- 
mation the troop, in connection with the others on its right and left, was ordered to 
change its front and move in line against the Spanish block houses. The fire from the 
enemy at this time was very heavy. I had lost two men wounded in forming line upon 
the creek bank, and in this movement forward the troop was much impeded by heavv 
thickets and dense chaparral. The rush forward was continued within intermission. A 
portion of the right platoon, under Lieutenant Livermore, became separated in one of the 
thickets, and under instructions received personally from the brigadier general commanding, 
continued up the slope toward his right and toward the first block house. The balance of 
the troop, with Lieutenant McCoy and myself, also moved in that direction, but, observing 
that a large number of troops had succeeded in reaching the slope on account of their 
shorter line, I continued my march at a rapid gait to a point nearer the second block house, 
swinging the troop in a diagonal direction and advancing, firing, and receiving fire, until I 
reached the summit of the hills between the second and third block houses. Upon this 
crest I was directed by an aide of the brigadier general commanding to hold the ridge. 
At this juncture Lieutenant Livermore arrived, having come by way of block house No. 1. 
During his march he had been subjected to a heavy fire, losing several men wounded. 

The troop held the crest referred to for about an hour, at times being subjected to an 
extremely heavy fire from about 150 Spaniards, who were in line in front of their barracks, 
and others in the timber who had retreated from the block houses and were continuing 
the fight. The fire at one time became so heavy and the line of Spaniards appeared so 
regular that I was apprehensive that my force might be too small to hold the ridge. 
Lieutenant H. G. Lyon, Twenty-fourth Infantry, appeared at this juncture and offered to 
submit himself to my orders. I had just previously discovered Lieutenant J. B. Hughes' 
Hotchkiss Mountain Battery approaching the position. I requested him to place one of 
his guns in action, which he promptly did. Lieutenant Lyons forming on the left of the 
gun and opening fire, A Troop being on the right of the gun. I held the position until 
the arrival of a light battery and other troops, among them the Seventy-first New York, 
when I placed my men parallel to the position on the opposite side of the road, and in 
contact with the squadron of the Tenth Cavalry, to which I belonged, which had in the 
meantime arrived at that point. During this time Lieutenant F. R. McCoy was severely 
wounded while actively directing the fire of this platoon. I had lost, up to this time, one 
enlisted man killed, and several wounded. While in the position above referred to, and in 
contact with the squadron, the troop lying below the ridge. Major Wint directed that the 
crest be occupied, as the enemy had increased his fire on our lines. Troop A immediately 
moved forward and opened fire, having one man wounded at this point, and one man killed 
in the line, a straggler from the infantry. The fire ceased about dark and the troop lay 
under arms in its place under the bill. A detail from the troop assisted in building earth- 
works during the night. 

On the morning of July 2 the troop moved with the squadron up into the rifle pits, 
a short distance to the right of the previous position, where details from the troop engaged 
the enemy during the entire day, one man of the troop beiner wounded while in the rifle 
pits. On the evening of the 2nd the troops moved to a point still farther to the right, assist- 
ing in digging rifle pits within 500 yards of the advanced works of the enemy. During 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 113 

the 3rd the firing between the lines of rifle pits was continuous until about noon. The 
troop is now occupying this position. 

During the series of close fights on the 1st, and in the engagements in the rifle pits 
up to the 3rd at noon, the troop lost one officer wounded, one enlisted man killed, and 
eleven enlisted men wounded. 

I respectfully invite attention of the regimental commander to the fact that, in my 
judgment, the conduct of the officers of Troop A, First Lieutenant R. L. Livermore and 
Second Lieutenant F. R. McCoy, could not be surpassed for coolness and the skillful per- 
formance of duty under heavy fire, and I recommend that proper recognition of their 
gallant service be bestowed by proper authority. The behavior of the enlisted men was 
magnificent, paying studious attention to orders while on the firing line, and generally 
exhibiting an intrepidity which marks the first-class soldier. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

WM. H. BECK, 
Captain, Tenth Cavalry, Commanding Troop A. 

TROOP B, TENTH CAVALRY 

One mile from Santiago de Cuba, July 5, 1898. 
The Adjutant, Tenth Cavalry. 

Sir: 1 have the honor to report the part taken by B Troop in actions of the 1st, 2nd 
and 3rd instant : 

B Troop was on right and advanced as skirmishers, guide center. Being informed 
by General Suniner that the objective was the house ahead, I advanced by two rushes and 
then double time. The country advanced over was covered with thick brush, and on 
emerging in the open near the house I could find only seven men of the troop. With these 
I advanced to the house, arriving in rear of and along with Colonel Victor's line, which I 
found deployed in front of mine on beginning the advance. Without stopping, I followed 
with the seven men of my troop the retreating enemy to the most advanced position 
occupied at this present time. After helping to hold this position an hour or so, I went 
back, as soon as it was reinforced, to find my troop. On 2nd and 3rd my troop, with 
others, held the position gained. Casualties : One officer wounded, one corporal killed, two 
privates wounded. 

Very respectfully, 

J. W. WATSON, 
Captain, Tenth Cavalry, Commanding Troop. 



July 5, 1898. 

Report of operations of Troop I, Tenth Cavalry, on July 1, 2 and 3, 1898: 
Adjutant General, Second Brigade, Cavalry Division. 

About 3 :30 p. m., June 30, 1898, troop received orders to move. About 4 :00 p. m. 
troop started with regiment, but owing to delay did not get into position until after dark. 
Troop bivouacked alongside of road with regiment. Remained there during bombardment of 
next morning. Returned with regiment ; left packs alongside' of road under charge of 
guard, and lay down under such cover as possible. Two men in troop were wounded here 
while troop was marching along road. Troop remained here about five minutes, when I 
received orders to move to right of road. We moved to the right, crossed creek, and 
moved alongside of creek to fairly good cover. Remained here for about half an hour, 
exposed to a pretty heavy artillery fire. Then received orders to move forward and form 
skirmish line on edge of creek, perpendicular to last position. Troop moved forward from 
this position by successive movements until the second creek was reached, when troop 
moved to right and crossed creek. The left of troop, under command of Lieutenant A. M. 
Miller, moved directly up the hill and participated in attack on block house on right of 
enemy's position. This part, under Lieutenant Miller, afterwards crossed the valley between 
the block houses and was in the attack on the block house on left of enemy's position. Tt 
then moved forward with the First Regular Cavalry and First Volunteer Cavalry until it 
reached the position now held by First Volunteer Cavalry, the latter being on left and 
regular cavalry on right. The right of troop, under my command, passed creek, bore to 
right, crossed fence into road, and moved down road about thirty yards, crossed through 






114 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

fence ; from this position advanced through swampy ground to right of pond directly on 
trench between two block houses. In this charge the troop had caught up with preceding 
troops and was well up to the front. Troop occupied ground in front of this trench and 
fired volleys at enemy's next line of entrenchments, while the nemy was maiming them. 
Troop then advanced through wire fence, and advanced to extreme edge of hill, now 
occupied by entrenchments of First Volunteer Cavalry. There was First Volunteer Cavalry 
and Tenth Cavalry in this position in all, about one hundred men. Lieutenant Anderson, 
of the Tenth Cavalry, here joined me. Remained here about an hour, when was informed 
line was being formed in the rear. Went back and formed on left of First Volunteer Cavalry. 
Troop assisted in digging trenches that night. 

July 2. Part of troop in trenches; remainder about twenty yards in rear until about 
2 p. m., when it was ordered down to base of hill. Men in trenches relieved at 6 p. m. 
At night attack troop formed line, under orders, near crest of hill, near position in camp. 

July 3. Remained in camp until 3 p. m., when troop was ordered to right and joined 
rest of regiment. 

Losses : Wounded First Sergeant Robert Millbrown, Sergeant Gunter, Private Ben- 
nett, Private Burkley, Private Hardy, Private Wesley Jones, Private Riddell. Missing 
Private J. F. Chinn, Jr. 

The entire troop behaved with great gallantry. I have no special recommendation to 
make. One recruit, Private Elsie Jones, particularly distinguished himself. I have recom- 
mended him before, in fight of June 2. 

Lieutenant Miller conducted himself with great coolness and used good judgment in 
giving orders. 

Very respectfully, 

R. J. FLEMING, 
First Lieutenant, Tenth Cavalry, Commanding Troop I. 

Reports of Major Wint and his troop commanders on the Battle of Santiago, July 
1, 2, 3, 1898. 

Philadelphia, Nov. 28th, 1898. 
The Adjutant, Tenth Cavalry, Huntsville, Ala. 

In compliance with your request of the 22nd inst., I have the honor to submit the 
following report of the action of Second Squadron, Tenth Cavalry Troops C, D, F and G 
on July 1st, 1898, at San Juan Hill: 

The Second Squadron, following the First, marched to near crossing of the creek at 
foot of hills, where, after a short halt, packs were deposited and the marching continued 
to crossing, and then up creek about seventy-five yards, where the troops were placed under 
the best shelter to be found, but which was not sufficient to prevent quite a heavy loss 
from the enemy's fire, which opened immediately after the packs were deposited, and was 
quite heavy during the march, and for half an hour after taking a new position. 

Upon halting, I found one of my troops, Troop D, absent, and reported its absence to 
the Regimental Commander, who sent his staff officer and others to find it, but without 
success. At about 2 p. m.'the second squadron was formed in support of first squadrnr., 
and advanced in direction of Sugar House Ridge between the two block houses, keeping a 
distance of twenty-five yards in rear of first squadron. After advancing a short distance, 
came in view of troops to our right front at sugar house, and on left front troops were 
advancing on block house. From this point a strip of thick woods continued to San Juan 
Hills, with open ground to the right in the direction of sugar house, with a slight ridge 
running from house to near the woods. 

Finding vacant ground at lower part of the ridge, near woods, the Second Squadron, 
three troops, took position, there connecting with other troops on its right, and opened 
fire on the earthworks located between the block houses, and on the block house to the 
left of it, against which troops were advancing. For a time the enemy's fire was very 
heavy on our position, but our fire soon had effect ; as the enemy's fire slackened, the 
squadron advanced without check to crest of San Juan Hills. Two of my troops, C and F, 
going to the right of a body of water in our front, and G troop through the left end of 
it with myself. The troop commander, Lieutenant Smith, as was Lieutenant Shipp, bein^ 
killed at last position. C and F troops arrived on the hill to the right of the road, and G 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 115 

troop to the left of it at earthworks. I sent, for C and F troops to join me on left of 
road, as there were no other troops at that point at that time, but before the order was 
complied with other troops of the regiment came up and my two troops were ordered to 
remain to right of road. 

Captain Beck with his troop joined on my left, and Captain Ayres with his troop joined 
about twenty minutes later from the direction of the woods to our left and rear. (A few 
men of Troop D also came on line.) He reported his arrival to Colonel Wood and was 
placed on line to left of road ; later I was ordered by Regimental Commander to take charge 
of troops on that part of line and open fire, which continued about ten minutes, when 
tiring ceased and line was withdrawn behind crest of hill t at which time I was wounded, 
about 5 :45 p. m., and taken to the rear. 

During the action up to this time, the officers and men of the troops with me behaved 
in a manner to entitle them to the highest praise. Officers were cool and quick to carry 
out orders, and the men prompt and fearless in obeying. Captain Jones, Lieutenants Smith, 
Anderson, Roberts and Whitehead came specially under my notice and conducted them- 
selves in a most satisfactory manner. Lieutenant Pershing, R. Q. M., was with the second 
squadron when posted on Sugar House Hill, and during its advance on San Juan Hills ; he 
conducted himself in a most gallant and efficient manner. 

I would like to mention several enlisted men of Troop G for their coolness and daring, 
but am not sufficiently acquainted with them to state their names positively and without 
reference to records. Among the number was the first sergeant, a trumpeter, I believe 
Whiteby name, two men who came to my assistance in dragging Lieutenant Smith from 
under fire after he was hit, and two men who dragged myself from under fire after being 
wounded. The first sergeant was very active .and efficient in commanding troop after the 
death of Lieutenant Smith, and the trumpeter kept with me and was prompt in sounding 
calls, as ordered. By inquiry, no doubt, all these men can be identified and proper credit 
given them. 

I remain, very respectfully, 

(Signed) THEO. J. WINT, 

Major Tenth Cavalry. 

TROOP C, TENTH CAVALRY 

In camp in front of Santiago de Cuba, July 5, 1898. 
The Adjutant, Tenth Cavalry. 

Sir : Pursuant to instructions, I have the honor to report the part taken by Troop C, 
Tenth Cavalry, in the engagement in front of Santiago on July 1 and 2, 1898 : 

The troop, with one officer and fifty-one men, left its camp (with the regiment) at 
4 :30 p. m., June 30, and bivouacked that night on the road about four hundred yards south 
of the sugar mill, and after the artillery engagement on July 1 left at 9 :20 a. m. for the line 
of block houses held by the enemy. 

About 10 :30 a. m., while on the road, the enemy opened fire. Packs were dropped and 
left under guard, and the troop ordered into the river bottom, where it remained about half 
an hour, for protection from fire until it could deploy. While here a shell burst over the 
troop and I was struck by a small fragment in the left side above the point of the hip 
and received a slight flesh wound. My troop cut the wire fence to the right of the creek 
and deployed into the woods in rear of the front line of the regiment, and lay under cover 
in support on the right of the Second Squadron until the command to advance was given. 

While advancing, and near the road. Colonel Wood, the brigade commander, came by 
and told me to move my troop to the right and toward the block house. I had one man 
killed and seven wounded in reaching the top of the hill. Captain Jones came up with 
Troop F, Tenth Cavalry, soon after I reached the block house, and I reported my troop tr> 
him and formed, with his, a skirmish line and moved on to the block house and entrench- 
ments on the next hill. Here my troop got separated from Captain Jones's, but with 
eighteen men of my own and several from other organizations moved forward about four 
hundred yards when the fire became very severe and I had two men wounded,and halted. 

After passing the entrenchments on the second hill my line joined that of Lieutenants 
Fleming and Miller of Troop I, Tenth Cavalry, which was" on my right, and from then our 
line was continuous. Shortly, Colonel Roosevelt and part of his regiment joined our right 



116 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

and I reported to him with my troop. His command took position behind the crest which 
we now occupied, and that night my troop and Troop I entrenched and held the trenches 
during July 2 and 3 and joined the regiment July 4. 

Casualties : Killed One man. Wounded One officer, nine men. 

Very respectfully, 

EDWARD D. ANDERSON, 
First Lieutenant, Tenth Cavalry, Commanding Troop. 



Before Santiago de Cuba, July 5. 1898. 
The Adjutant, Tenth United States Cavalry. 

Sir : In compliance with instructions from your office I have the honor to submit the 
following report concerning the part taken by Troop D, Tenth Cavalry, while in action 
against the Spaniards July 1, 2 and 3: 

On the morning of July 1, Troop D, under command of Captain John Bigelow, Jr., 
occupied the line of outposts and performed this duty until withdrawn preparatory to the 
forward movement. While advancing along the road, and in close proximity to the balloon, 
the troop was subjected to a very severe artillery and small-arms fire, but remained orderly 
and unshaken. Sergeant Hatcher was wounded at this time. The tire becoming more 
severe, the troop was ordered to take cover, which they retained only a few minutes. The 
deployment was made to the left and occupied considerable time owing to the great 
difficulty met with in getting through the dense underbrush and chaparral. The line being 
formed, Troop D, occupying the extreme left, crossed creek and moved toward block house 
on left of road leading to Santiago. Two wire fences were met with, which, owing to the 
absence of wire nippers, held the troop unnecessarily long under a well-directed and 
deadly lire. At the first fence one private is believed to have been killed ; at the second 
one was severely wounded. Beyond the fence the troop advanced under a heavy fire and 
charged the block house on the hill. When at a distance of about seventy-five yards from 
the block house, Captain Bigelow received three wounds and was removed to the rear by 
Privates Henderson and Boarman, Troop D. This removal took place under a heavy fire. 

Corporal J. Walker was probably the first soldier to reach the top of the hill and is 
believed to have shot the Spaniard who killed Lieutenant O/d. The troop remained in the 
vicinity of the block house until ordered to join the regiment to the right of block house 
and were under fire, then under command of Major Wint. A portion of the troop under 
my command became separated during some turning movement, and as soon as I learned 
that contact with the troop was lost I moved on block house near ford. From this point I 
marched my detachment, under heavy fire, at a double time across field between two block 
houses, intending to connect with what appeared to be troops of the Tenth Cavalry, who 
were to my left and front. When part way across, I was halted by General Sumner and 
ordered to place my men in position and to act as a part of his reserve. On July 2 and 3 
the troop took up position in the line of investment. 

Very respectfully. 

A. E. KENNINGTON, 
Lieutenant, Tenth Cavalry, Commanding Troop D. 

Camp A. G. Forse, Huntsville. Ala.. December 19, 1898. 
Adjutant General, U. S. A., Washington, D. C. (Through military channels). 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report of the part taken by Troop D, 
Tenth Cavalry, in the engagements before Santiago de Cuba, so far as it is known to me : 

On the 30th of June the troop marched with the second squadron of the Tenth Cavalry, 
Major Wint's, from Sevilla, and encamped a few hundred yards beyond El Poso on an 
eminence overlooking the basin of the San Juan river, or creek. My troop served as sup- 
port to Lieutenant Smith's, which was on picket about one hundred yards to its front. In 
the morning it was placed on picket, relieving Lieutenant Smith's troop. Soon after my 
sentinels were posted I was ordered to withdraw my troop and prepare to march. Having 
done so, I took my place with my troop in the column and, after waiting half an hour to an 
hour for the column to move, marched with the column past El Poso and the division 
military hospital in the direction of San Juan. The military balloon passed over our regi- 
ment from rear to front while we were at a halt. At a halt made soon afterwards I was 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 117 

ordered to have my men strip themselves of everything but arms and ammunition. The 
rolls, haversacks, and canteens of my men were taken off and laid on the ground near the 
road and two men detailed to remain with them as guard. About this time our balloon 
commenced coming down near the head of our regiment. When about one hundred feet 
from the ground it was fired at by the enemy's artillery. About the same time we received 
a volley of infantry fire coming down the road over our heads too high to strike anyone. 
The troop ahead of mine started to the rear, but was soon checked. I understand that, the 
impulse to break to the rear was imparted to it by the Seventy-first New York. My men 
were lying down in the road facing the left, by order of the squadron commander, Major 
Wint. The enemy's fire, delivered in volleys, kept raking the road and riddling the dense 
foliage about us. I thought that the enemy had the range of our position, or at least the 
direction of this road, and that the situation demanded that the troops be moved off the 
road cither to the right or left, or formed so as to face in the direction from which the fire 
was coming. I looked around for the squadron commander to get his permission to move 
my troop off the road, or to make a change of front with it to the right. He was not any- 
where in sight. I had seen him some time before going toward the right of our line, or 
head of our column. After waiting some time for him to return, I acted on my own respon- 
sibility by bringing my troop around at right angle to the road, its right resting on the road, 
its left lying in the wood. In this position I was free from the troop on my right, in case 
it should again break to the rear. I was under the impression that we were much nearer 
the enemy than afterwards proved to be the case, and expected the regiment to deploy 
across the road at any minute. 

From my studying of tactics and the drill regulations, together with my limited ex- 
perience in field exercises, 1 knew that in dismounted fighting, especially in a densely wooded 
country, the time comes when the direction of operations is necessarily left to the company 
commanders, and I judged that this time had come or could not be far off. I did not know- 
but that the squadron commander was disabled, and I was determined that my men should 
not be decimated without doing any execution through fear of responsibility or lack of 
initiative on my part. I felt that it would be erring on the right side to anticipate slightly 
the proper time for independent action on the part of company commanders. After waiting 
a minute or two in my new position, the enemy's fire not abating and no superior officer 
appearing, I faced my troop to the left and pushed into the wood far enough to clear the road 
by about ten or twenty yards with the rear of my column, when I came upon a line of 
infantry skirmishers apparently without officers. I had my troop face to the right, or in 
the general direction in which the road ran, and prepared to advance. In anticipation of 
the difficulty of penetrating the dense undergrowth I took immediate charge of one platoon 
and gave my lieutenant, Second Lieutenant A. E. Kenningtpn, Tenth Cavalry, charge of the 
other, with instructions to keep his platoon in touch with mine. I then proceeded to advance 
in a direction generally parallel to the road which I had just left. I expected that by the 
time I arrived abreast of the head of my regiment I would find it deployed or deploying. 
Under the enemy's unaimed fire we pushed through the dense wood and undergrowth, 
waded a creek about knee deep, and a short distance beyond it came upon a line of troops 
lying in a road ; but it was not our regiment. Here I received word from my lieutenant 
that he, with his platoon, was some distance to my right. He inquired whether he should 
join me. As there was a heavy fire coming down the road, and I did not wish to expose 
his men unnecessarily, I answered in the negative. The bearer of the message to and from 
me was Sergeant George Dyals, of my troop, who was afterwards wounded so that_ he lost 
the sight of one eye. He has since been discharged for physical disability. 

The wood terminated: in a thin belt just beyond this road. After lying a few minutes 
in the road 1 proceeded with my platoon through this belt of wood and came upon open 
ground overgrown with tall grass reaching nearly to the waist. Here the enemy's fire 
seemed to come principally from our left. I accordingly faced my men to the left, and 
filed off in that direction. As a number of bullets dropped near us, Sergeant John Elliott 
of my troop came up to me, and pointing to a tree on our right, said that he saw something 
stirring in it ; that it looked like a Spaniard, and that he would like my permission to fire 
at it. 1 looked at the tree, but it was so dense that I could not see into it. I had been 
cautioned by troops whom I had passed against firing, as there were troops in front. 
Remarking that it might be a Cuban or one of our own men, I refused the permission. 



118 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

Soon afterwards, while we were lying down, Private George Stovall of my troop was shot 
through the heart and killed ; the same shot wounded Private Wade Bledsoe in the thigh. 
About one hundred yards farther on we came upon a squad of infantrymen sitting under 
some trees on the edge of the aforementioned belt of wood, around an officer who was 
lying on his back bleeding from the face, and who died while we were there. I believe that 
this officer and Privates Stovall and P>ledsoe were shot by the sharpshooter whom Sergeant 
Elliott wanted to fire at. The infantrymen stated that our men were falling back and the 
Spaniards advancing. We could not see any enemy. On our left was a stream which I 
took to be the one we had crossed. From the other side of it came sounds of voices and 
loud reports of firing. We could not tell whether they were Spaniards or American, but I 
thought it was best to take our chances on their being American. We accordingly waded 
the stream, and pushing into the wood on the opposite bank, found oursedves among the 
men of General Hawkins' brigade. They were lying in a road on the edge of the wood. 
Beyond them stretched a plain about six hundred yards wide, overgrown with tall grass 
like that through which we had just passed. At the farther edge of the plain was a hill 
about 150 feet high, now known to our troops at San Juan Hill, or a part of it. On the 
top of this hill was a block house and a structure that looked like a shed. Here and there 
puffs of light smoke indicated that the position was manned by infantry firing at the enemy 
on the hill. It seemed to be falling back on the main line. There was no firing in the 
latter. My men and myself lay down in this road with the infantry. Everybody whom I 
could then see was lying down except one officer of infantry, who was walking up and down 
the road in the rear of the line exposed to a fire which raked the road. From conversation 
with officers of the Sixteenth Infantry I understand that this was Captain George H. Palmer 
of that regiment. I asked him whether it was not about time to advance to the support of 
the line out in the plain which seemed to me to be falling back. He replied that he supposed 
it would be pretty soon, and kept on walking as before. 

Sergeant Elliott of my troop asked permission to go up to the fence and do some firing, 
i replied, "Go ahead, sergeant, if you think you can do any good." He accordingly stood 
up by the fence and fired seven shots, when, having attracted the enemy's fire, he fell back 
and lay down. 

Immediately in front of us, beyond the road, ran a barbed wire fence. There were no 
wire nippers in my troop. With a view to an advance through this fence, I dug with mv 
hands at one of the fence posts, but soon concluded that I could not accomplish anything 
in that way. 1 then stood up and pulled and pushed at the post, but made no appreciable 
impression on it. So I lay down again and continued looking out on the plain for signs 
of an advance. After a while I observed near the edge of the open plain on our left a 
swarm of men breaking forward from the road. I went up to the top of the wire fence by 
stepping from wire to wire near a post, and jumped off the top, calling to my men as I 
struck the ground to come on. Corporal John Walker of my troop got a bayonet and cut 
the wire. My men and a number of infantrymen went through the opening thus made. 
I struck out as fast as the tall grass would permit me toward the common objective of the 
mass of men which I now saw surging forward on my right and left San Juan Hill. The 
men kept up a steady double time, and commenced firing of their own accord over one 
another's heads and the heads of the officers, who were well out in front of the men. I 
tried to stop the firing, as I thought it would seriously retard the advance, and the officers 
near me tried to do it ; but a constant stream of bullets went over our heads, the men halting 
in an erect position to fire. The men covered, I should say, about fifty yards from front to 
rear. They formed a swarm rather than a line. When they were not firing they seemed 
to be all cheering and yelling. Our firing, though wild, was not altogether ineffective, and 
retarded the advance less than I had thought it would. I could see the side of the hill 
dotted with little clouds of dust thrown up by our bullets. We evidently peppered it pretty 
hotly from top to bottom, and I learned since then that many dead and wounded Spaniards 
were found in the trenches on top of the hill. These casualties, however, were caused in 
part, perhaps mostly, by the fire of our small advance line prior to the assault. This line 
was composed, I understand, mostly of classified marksmen and sharpshooters. 

As we approached the foot of the hill our artillery commenced firing over our heads at 
the enemy on top of it. This caused a slowing up in the general advance. When I was 
about half way up the hill I was disabled by three bullet wounds received simultaneously. 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 



119 



I had already received one, but did not know it. What took place subsequent to my dis- 
ablement, in the direction of the enemy, is known to me only through the statements of my 
men and others, substantiated by the depositions inclosed herewith. My platoon went to 
the top of the hill with the infantry, and was soon afterwards conducted by Lieutenant J. J. 
Pershing, regimental quartermaster, Tenth Cavalry, to the line of the Tenth Cavalry, a 
short distance to the right. 

The following men of the platoon especially distinguished themselves : Sergeant James 
Elliott, Corporal John Walker, and Private (now Corporal) Luchious Smith. Sergeant 
Elliott and Private Smith were, during the ascent of the hill, constantly among the bolder 
few who voluntarily made themselves ground scouts, drawing the attention of the enemy 
from the main line upon themselves. Corporal Walker was with the handful of fearless 
spirits who accompanied Lieutenant Ord, one of the Sixth United States Infantry, forming 
with that splendid young soldier the point of General Hawkins's gallant brigade, the head 




MAJ. GEN. WILLARD A. HOLBROOK 
CHIEF OF CAVALRY 



120 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

and front of the assault ;and it was Corporal Walker who avenged the death of Lieutenant 
Ord. 

First Sergeant William H. Givens was with the platoon which I commanded. When- 
ever 1 observed him he was at his post exercising a steadying or encouraging influence 
upon the men, and conducting himself like the thorough soldier which I have long known 
him to be. I understand, to my great satisfaction, that he has been rewarded by an appoint- 
ment to a lieutenancy in an immune regiment. 

I think it due to the other men of my troop to say that, with one exception, they 
proved themselves ready to follow me wherever I would lead them. Their conduct made 
me prouder than ever of being an officer in the American Army, and of wearing the insignia 
of the Tenth United States Cavalry. 

The movements of the plaloon commanded by Lieutenant Kennington have, I believe, 
been reported to you by that officer. 

I took into action, including Lieutenant Kennington's platoon, but not including the 
two men left to guard the packs, two officers and 48 men. My losses were as follows : 

Killed Private George Stovall. Wounded Captain John Bigelow, Jr., Sergeant George 
Dyals, Sergeant Willis Hatcher, Private J. H. Campbell, Private Henry Fearn, Private Fred 
Shockley, Private Harry Sturgis, and Private James F. Taylor. Missing Private Tames 
Clay. 

The accompanying map, marked D, is intended to show roughly the course taken by 
my troop after it left the regiment, and the general direction of the attack made by the 
regiment. 

Very respectfully, 

JOHN BIGELOW, JR., 
Captain, Tenth Cavalry, Commanding Troop D. 



Near Santiago, Cuba, July 5, 1898. 
Adjutant Tenth Cavalry. 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report of the action which took place 
on this field July 1, 2 and 3, 1898: 

Troop F, Tenth Cavalry, which I commanded, was in column of twos in the road at a 
halt awaiting the passage of a column of infantry when fire from the Spanish entrenchments 
opened. The troop came under a very dense fire musketry and artillery at once, with no 
means of determining from whence the tire came, as all view was entirely cut off by the 
densest underbrush which lined the road, and no effective cover to get to. After something 
like half an hour of this fire the squadron was put in the attacking line as support and 
moved forward. In the brush and amid the roar of guns all sight of the firing line and 
touch of adjoining troops was lost. Lieutenant Whitehead, with a part of the second 
platoon, were also separated from the troop, and I think passed in front of the troop from 
left to right during the advance. Lieutenant Wnitehead joined his detachment to the first 
command he met and advanced with it. The troop advanced at double time on the enemy's 
works as soon as out of the brush and in sight of the works. On arriving on the hill on 
which the works stood it was found that the works were carried and the Spaniards were 
retreated to the next crest. The troops had become mixed up in a crowd of disorganized 
soldiers at the works. It was at once assembled, line of skirmish was formed, the advance 
taken up in the direction of the retreat of the enemy. While at the first works Lieutenant 
Anderson, with a part of Troop C, reported to me as the senior officer of the regiment 
present and was put on the skirmish line on the right of my troops. We advanced together 
over the next ridge and down it to within about five hundred yards of the works at present 
occupied by the enemy. Here we remained for some time exchanging fire with the enemy 
in the works. My left was on the road. There were troops on my left, and a little less 
advanced, and troops on my right a little more advanced, but their firing was not strong. 
Being, so far as I know, unsupported, I sent word back to the squadron commander describ- 
ing my position, and was ordered to return to the crest of the hill which our troops now 
occupy on the road. Here I received word that the hill was to be held at all hazards. The 
troop occupied the crest, exchanging (ire with the enemy, until dark. During the night a 
trench was dug and occupied at daylight, the morning of the 2nd. The troop remained in 
this trench until late in the afternoon, every exposure at the trench drawing fire from the 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 121 

enemy. The fire was returned only when several of the enemy exposed themselves at once. 
On the night of the 2nd the troop was joined with the regiment and moved farther to the 
right on the general line, where it was again entrenched, and has remained in the trenches 
to the present time. 

Lieutenant Whitehead, who was separated from the troop at the commencement of the 
advance, returned to it soon after it reached its most advanced position, bringing his detach- 
ment with him. 

1 wish to mention both Lieutenant Anderson, who was with me from the termination 
of the first assault, and Lieutenant Whitehead for their coolness and bravery. I could only 
do justice to the troop by mentioning by name all who were engaged, not only for their 
bravery, but for their splendid discipline under the most demoralizing fire. 

Killed First Lieutenant W. E. Shipp, on temporary staff duty. Wounded Second 
Lieutenant H. C. Whitehead, slightly, and continued in action ; Sergeant Amos Elliston, 
Sergeant Frank Rankin, Corporal Allen Jones, Blacksmith Charles Robertson, Private Ison 
Taylor, Private Benjamin West. 

Very respectfully, 

T. W. JONES, 
Captain, Tenth Cavalry, Commanding Troop F. 



Report of Gun Detachment, Second Cavalry Brigade, composed of Tenth Cavalry, on 
July 1 : 

Before Santiago de Cuba, July 1, 1898. 
Adjutant General Second Cavalry Brigade. 

Sir: I have the honor to report that on July 1, 1898, this detachment went into action 
on the road about one hundred yards beyond the first crossing of the San Juan Creek and 
opened up on the blcck house and entrenchment about six hundred yards to the right of 
the road and did some effective work with eight or ten shots, and, not having any cover, 
was forced to retire, having two men wounded in a very few minutes Sergeant J. G. L. 
Taylor, Troop E, Tenth Cavalry, and Private Peter Saunders, Troop B, Tenth Cavalry. 
1 later opened fire with one gun on hill at second block house nearest town, on an entrench- 
ment occupied by Spanish troops, and forced them to leave the same. After a few shots 
1 was relieved by a light battery and retired. Shortly after, with two Hotchkiss guns and 
a machine gun, I took position on crest occupied by a troop of the First United States 
Cavalry, (Captain Galbraith's), and with the Hotchkiss guns did some effective work on a 
blockhouse in our immediate front, about eight hundred or nine hundred yards distant. The 
machine gun did good work on an entrenchment. 

T wish to mention as particularly meritorious and gallant. Sergeant Watson and Private 
Saunders, both of Troop B, Tenth Cavalry, in aiding a wounded corporal of the Third 
Cavalry to a hospital under a heavy artillery fire, he being deserted by everyone else. The 
same men deserve special mention for their magnificent behavior during the entire time 
they were in action. Private Saunders was wounded in the first action and taken to the 
rear. I also want to mention Private Daniels of Troop F for gallant behavior in the first 
action. 

Very respectfully, 

JAMES B. HUGHES, 
First Lieutenant, Tenth Cavalry, Commanding Detachment, 



TROOP G, TENTH CAVALRY 

Camp Albert G. Forse, Ala., November 30th, 1898. 
The Adjutant General, Fourth Army Corps. 

Sir: In compliance with request of Major General Wheeler, I have the honor to 
submit the following report of the action of this troop from the morning of July 1st until 
1 p. m. of the same day. 

The troop was drawn in from outpost duty about 6:30 a. m. July 1st, and about 9 a. m. 
moved from El Poso down the road toward the Spanish position. While in the road they 
were passed by a balloon, which shortly afterward drew a heavy fire from the Spanish. 

A short distance from the point where the road crosses the river we were halted and 
ordered to lie down, and remained in that place until orders were -brought to move to the 



122 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

right into the bed of the river. This we accomplished with some delay owing to a strong 
fence of harhed wire through the undergrowth along the river. 

After reforming in the river bed we moved up stream a few hundred yards and took 
such shelter as was afforded by the river bank. The fire at this time was very heavy, 
projectiles from both artillery and small arms falling around and among the troops. 

At about 12 :30 p. m. the troop moved up the bed of a small creek that flowed in from 
our right, and by direction of Major VVint came into an open space in sight of and facing 
what 1 have since heard called the Sugar House Ridge. Here the troop was deployed and 
just as the first advance was ordered I received a wound through the body that prevented 
my advancing with the troop. When 1 last saw them they were advancing in good order 
at the double time toward the two block houses in our front. 

The conduct of the men was good and I saw no inclination to hesitate or to straggle. 

I desire to especially mention the conduct of Private William J. Davis and Trumpeter 
James Cooper of this troop, who assisted me from the spot where I fell back to the river 
under a very sharp fire and rendered much assistance in trying circumstances both to myself 
and to Acting Assistant Surgeon Delgado, into whose hospital 1 was taken and which had 
to be broken up on account of its becoming too much exposed to the enemy's fire. The con- 
duct of these two men, in my opinion, entitles them to the medal of honor for rescuing 
wounded at the risk of their own lives. 

Referring to the report of Major T. J. Wint, Tenth Cavalry, I have the honor to state 
that the trumpeter of Troop G, to whom he refers, is Trumpeter Zachariah Steward, whose 
conduct I have heard highly spoken of. 

1 regret that I am not able to give a more complete and definite account of this action, 
but I did not get far enough before being wounded to get a very clear idea of our position 
with reference to other troops or to the Spanish works. 

Very respectfully, 

T. A. ROBERTS, 
Second Lieutenant, Tenth U. S. Cavalry, Commanding Troop G. 



APPENDIX "E" 

COMMENDATORY LETTER BY MAJOR GENERAL JOE WHEELER. 

Headquarters Cavalry Division, Camp Wikoff, L. I., September 20, 1898. 
To the Officers and Soldiers of the Cavalry Division, Army of Santiago : 

The duties for which the troops comprising the Cavalry Division were brought together 
have been accomplished. 

On June 14th we sailed from Tampa, Florida, to encounter in the sickly season the 
diseases of the tropical island of Cuba, and to face and attack the historic legions of Spain 
in positions chosen by them and which for years they had been strengthening by every art 
and contrivance known to the skillful military engineers of Europe. 

On the 23rd, one squadron each of the First and Tenth Regular Cavalry and two 
squadrons of the First Volunteer Cavalry, in all 964 officers and men, landed on Cuban 
soil. These troops marched on foot fourteen miles, and, early on the morning of the 24th, 
attacked and defeated double their number of regular Spanish soldiers under the command 
of Lieutenant General Linares. Eagerly and cheerfully you pushed onward, and on July 
1st the First, Third, Sixth, Ninth and Tenth Cavalry and the First Volunteer Cavalry, 
forded the San Juan River and gallantly swept over San Juan Hill, driving the enemy from 
its crest. Without a moment's halt you formed, aligning the division upon the First Infantry 
Division under General Kent, and, together with these troops, you bravely charged and 
carried the formidable entrenchments of Fort San Juan. The entire force which fought 
and won this great victory was less than seven thousand men. 

The astonished enemy, though still protected by the strong works to which he had 
made his retreat, was so stunned by your determined valor that his only thought was to 
devise the quickest means of saving himself from further battle. The great Spanish fleet 
hastily sought escape from the harbor and was destroyed by our matchless Navy. 

After seizing the fortifications of San Juan Ridge, you, in the darkness of night, strongly 
entrenched the position your valor had won. Reinforced by Bates' Brigade on your left 
and Lawton's Division jon your right, you continued the combat until the Spanish Army of 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 123 

Santiago Province succumbed to the superb prowess and courage of American arms. Peace 
promptly followed, and you return to receive the plaudits of seventy millions of people. 

The valor displayed by you was not without sacrifice. Eighteen per cent, or nearly one 
in five, of the Cavalry Division fell on the field either killed or wounded. We mourn the 
loss of these heroic dead, and a grateful country will always revere your memory. 

Whatever may be my fate, wherever my steps may lead, my heart will always burn with 
increasing admiration for your courage in action, your fortitude under privation and your 
contant devotion to duty in its highest sense, whether in battle, in bivouac or upon the march 

JOE WHEELER, 
Major General, U. S. V., Commanding. 

APPENDIX "F" 

Camp at Casas Grandes, Mexico, March 19, 1916. 
Colonel W. C. Brown, Tenth U. S. Cavalry. 

Sir : Information has been received that Villa bandits, consisting of about two hundred 
men, are in the vicinity of San Miguel, where they are probably gathering horses and sup- 
plies. You will entrain two squadrons of your regiment at once and proceed south, disem- 
barking one squadron at Cuevitas, sending the other squadron, under Major Evans, to 
disembark at Las Varas. 

You will proceed with the squadron which disembarks at Cuevitas to the edge of the 
woods surrounding the San Miguel plains on the Cuevitas trail. From this point you will 
proceed to the San Migt'el Ranch so as to reach there just before dawn March 20, 1916. 
You will destroy or capture any forces or supplies of Villa that may be found there. In 
case of flight you will follow bandits, sending information of direction taken to the columns 
under Major Evans and Colonel Erwin. 

Colonel Erwin with the Seventh Cavalry will reach a point west of El Valle tonight to 
cooperate with your column. He will advance on San Miguel via the Cerrillo Canyon and 
reach the edge of the San Miguel plain at daylight March 20th, there await the result of 
your attack, ready to act as circumstances may require. 

Major Evans on disembarking at Las Veras will remain there to close the trail leading 
southwest from San Miguel. 

In case of pursuit the commanders of all columns will cooperate to accomplish this 
mission. 

By command of General Pershing. 

J. A. RYAN, 
Major Thirteenth Cavalry, Acting Chief of Staff. 



APPENDIX "G" 

From : W. C. Brown, Tenth Cavalry, at Cusi, April 5, '16, noon. 

To : General Pershing by aeroplane. 

April 1st having received no reply from message sent to Colonel Dodd March 30th, 
and having sent to the R. R., San Antonio, to communicate with division headquarters, left 
Major Evans April 1st at San Juan del Monte to guard that pass and road, and proceeded 
with Young's squadron on road to Guerrero expecting to meet Colonel Dodd there. 

About twelve miles out, at a place called Aguas Calientes, where there are four or five 
ranches, we were fired on by Mexicans who, it was later found, was Beltran's band of about 
one hundred and fifty (estimated roughly), of Villistas. After a few minutes' firing they 
retreated over a rough wooded ridge to our left. Major Young sent Troops H and F to 
attack them in flank, which proved a good move. The enemey made a precipitate retreat 
at once. Killed three ; so reported by escaped Carranza prisoners, who saw them shot. We 
saw but two. No casualties on our side except an F Troop horse, which died on 3rd. 

The enemy left the pack outfit of a machine gun, and we learned next day that they 
still had one machine gun which was out of order. The running fight conducted mainly by 
H and F Troops in wooded mountains to southeast of Aguas Calientes and the command 
assembled after dark at small ranch called El Mestiha. 



124 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

April 2nd I took the southermost and largest trail, with H and G Troops and two 
machine guns; Major Young, E and F, and two machine guns. Young soon lost his 
smaller trail and camped at Napa Veche Ranch on edge of Bostill's plain. I followed my 
trail for six or seven miles when it seemed to go out on the plain where tracks scattered 
and trail was lost. Its general direction was east by south and over mountains so exceed- 
ingly rough and rocky that it was barely passable by leading the mounts. I camped that 
night at Napa Veche. 

As we left camp (two miles out) two natives approached and said that they were 
Carrancistas who had been impressed by Villa. Said Beltran was short of ammunition. 
We sent to their camp and got four rifles, three mules and one pony, and two more men, 
one of whom is thought to be a Villista and is sent back with the pack train. The others 
were, on the 3rd inst., released at the suggestion of one of the Carranza officers with us. 

April 3rd marched thirteen miles to San Antonio. We followed the trail the most of 
the way but it soon diminished to a few tracks. I am now of the opinion that the main 
trail went nearly due south of Napa Veche and crossed the R. R. some five to eight miles 
west of San Antonio. 

A Mr. Locke, an American hotel keeper of Minaca, came into our camp and told of the 
attack at Minaca at 4 a. m. some days previous. Two of his companions were killed but 
he escaped. 

N. B. Late April 1st 1 sent two native guides (pacificos) on two of our mules to 
Major Evans, advising him of our fight and to look out for enemy debouching on the big 
plain. Have not heard whether he got the message. Sent another to him from Napa Veche 
April 2nd. Same result. 

Guides and messengers are hard to get as they fear retaliation by Villa for serving 
the Americans. To send a message on night of 1st inst. to me had' to deposit his watch 
and diamcr.d ring as security for return of messenger. At San Antonio we found it impos- 
sible to send telegrams unless prepaid, though urgency of matter was represented. I sold 
a $2.50 knife to a soldier for fifty cents to get money to send one short official telegram. 
This condition has become so intolerable that at Cusi today I found I could get Mexican 
coin and checks on my personal check. 

I have drawn my personal check today for $1,100.00 gold to loan to officers and the 
quartermaster to purchase supplies, forage and rations. I had previously spent my last 
cent for this purpose and drawn personal checks for $160.00 for same purpose. 

Since leaving the railroad on 20th we have had hay or fodder three times, and about 
one-third of the allowance each time. Have lost about four or five horses from corn colic. 

We have practically no horseshoes left, and from now on shoes lost will leave horses 
unshod. Men have lived on fresh beef, tortillas made from corn meal which we have ground 
ourselves, and in the main in good health. We left one man sick at San Antonio this 
morning. We have men afoot, but for fact that I got six Villa mounts at La Temada, 
bought several and captured several. I think I can go another week and am marching on 
S. Boria where I expect to get in touch again with Carranza troops and put this squadron 
and machine gun troop where it will be most effective. My personal opinion is, however, 
that the various demoralized Villa bands will soon (if not now) be so scattered that it will 
prove fruitless to follow them. 

One F trooper, who was walking on punishment given by Captain Valentine for dis- 
obedience of orders, deserted April 1. I understand Major Tompkins' command saw him 
at a ranch. 

Don't know where Evans is, but he is enterprising and I am satisfied that if he got 
my message of the 1st he is doing all possible. 

We should have a wireless outfit for each squadron. Captain Foulois has given me a 
map much needed, and Lieutenant Deuel is mapping the country as we go along. 

W. C. BROWN, 

Colonel, Tenth Cavalry. 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 



125 



APPENDIX "H" 

Camp at San Geronimo, April 5. 1916. 
Colonel W. C. Brown, 
Tenth Cavalry, 

Enroute South from Cnsi. 
Sir: 

1. Colonel Dodd, with Seventh Cavalry, is near Santa Tomas. Major Evans arrived 
at Namiquipa today. Major Howze is near Guerrero and moving southeast toward San 
Borja. Lieutenant Colonel Allen, Eleventh Cavalry, leaves here tomorrow for San Antonio 
and points south. 

2. From all information received it is believed that Villa, with an escort, is going to 
Parral, being carried in a stretcher or carriage. 

The Commanding General directs that in order to cut Villa off that you proceed from 
Cusi to Parral via Bananoleva, Satevo, Valle de Zargosa-Sapien. You are reminded that 
Colonel Cano has moved in that direction and from him guides may be procured who will 
be of great assistance. 

Your movement may also shield movements of Major Tompkins and Major Howze. 
who are following Villa's trail. 

3. On arrival at Parral you will be guided by the information you secure. 

4. An advance sub-base will be established at San Antonio, on the railroad, from which 
a pack train will be sent you carrying horseshoes, nails, salt, money, and other supplies. 

5. Exhausted men and worn out animals will be sent to San Antonio where they will 
be cared for until tit for service. 

6. Every effort possible should be made to reach Parral without delay. 

7. It is not understood why you have not been able to send reports of your column, 
and the Commanding General directs that his orders on this subject be strictly complied with. 

8. You are authorized to employ guides, interpreters, secret service men, or other indi- 
viduals who may be of service to you, and to purchase all kinds of supplies that you may 
need. Money will be furnished you from here and an effort will also be made to send you 
money through the American Consul at Chihuahua. 

9. You will make every effort to cooperate with our own columns and those of the 
Carranza forces operating in your vicinity with a view to accomplish the object of your 
mission. 

10. Send reports to San Antonio. 

J. A. RYAN, 
Major, Thirteenth Cavalry, I. O. Acting Chief of Staff. 



APPENDIX "I" 

From : Colonel W. C. Brown, Tenth Cavalry, Santa Cruz, April 12th, 8 p. m. 

To : General Pershing. 

Subject: Engagement of Major Tompkins' command with Carranza troops at Parral 
April 12. 

I desire to report that while in camp near Sapien about 6 :30 p. m., three Thirteenth 
Cavalrymen of Major Tompkins' Squadron came to our camp with word that the squadron 
had been attacked by Carrancista-; in Parral and had retreated to this place where they had 
made a stand and that several men had been killed and that fighting was going on when 
they left the command. Leaving our two pack mules and led horses with a small guard at 
the little ranch where we were camped, we were in saddle in ten minutes and reached this 
place, eight miles south, in one hour ; arriving after dark and some two hours after the 
Carranza forces had ceased firing. 

1 found Tompkins' squadron here, where the ranch buildings afforded a fine defensive 
position. Tompkins and Lieutenant Ord were slightly wounded, the former in the left 
breast and the latter in the left ear. Four (4) troopers were wounded, and Sergeant Ridgley. 
Troop M, Thirteenth Cavalrv, and Private Ledford, Troom M, Thirteenth Cavalry, killed. 
The names of the wounded are Corporal McGee, Troop M, shot in mouth ; Corporal 
Wiilingham, Troop K, leg; Corporal Tannous, Troop K, right forearm; Private Schon- 



126 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

burger, slight wound in left hip; Private Eichenberger, Troop M, with rear guard, is 
missing. 

From Major Tompkins and his officers the following particulars of the fight and events 
leading up to it were gathered : 

When Major Tompkins camped at Valle de Zaragosa (Concho) General Lozano, of the 
Carrancista forces at Parral, sent a captain and lieutenant to Concho where they arrived 
late at night lor consultation with Major Tompkins. They appeared to be very much 
pleased with the appearance of American troops in this district, a fact that I noticed on 
the part of people generally when I arrived twenty-four hours later. 

These officers announced that they were subject to Major Tompkins' orders. The 
captain stated that Tompkins would be well received in Parral and that he (Tompkins) 
should reach Parral about 11 a. m. April 12th. The march was planned accordingly arid 
the command arrived at the designated time. 

He entered the town with the advance guard as an escort, proceeded to General Lozano's 
house where a conference was held. No new information of Villa could be obtained other 
than that he was not south of Parral. The General then said he would conduct Tompkins 
to a camping place, which he did, riding at the head of the column. As the rear of the 
column was leaving the outskirts of town for the camp it was fired upon by persons in 
the town. 

This was reported to the General, and he at once returned to town to prevent further 
firing. Shortly after his departure a man in civilian dress, who seemed to be an official, 
came to Tompkins and begged him to withdraw in order to avoid a conflict. Tompkins 
explained at some length that his mission in Mexico was a peacable one and that he would 
do all in his power to prevent a conflict with Carranza troops, and as soon as the supplies, 
which had been ordered of one of the American merchants, arrived he (Tompkins) would 
march north. This man returned to a hill occupied by Mexican troops about seven hundred 
yards distant and held a conference with some of these troops, which immediately began to 
change their position to Tompkins' left flank. This move was checked by placing men or. 
a more commanding position on our left. 

The Carrancistas at once began firing from the front and left flank, and advancing at 
the same time from those directions. As a matter of self-preservation Tompkins was forced 
to return this fire, using but sixteen (16) men for this purpose, while the pack train and 
balance of the command withdrew to the north. The fire of the Mexicans was well aimed 
and heavy. They killed Sergeant Ridgely, and wounded Private Ledford in the left lung. 
The squadron withdrew slowly and in good order, finally reaching the main road, proceed- 
ing north to this place. Sta Cruz. 

The pursuit was at first feeble and timid but gradually grew bolder as the numbers of 
the pursuers increased, which eventually was estimated at three hundred men. When about 
eight miles out of Parral the pursuit was so persistent that Tompkins took the rear guard 
of eight men and made a stand behind a stone wall, checking the pursuit and enabling the 
main body to get well clear of the pursuers. It was at this place that Tompkins and Ord 
were wounded and Private Chas. Eichenberg, Troop M, was missing, and three horses 
badly wounded. Another stand by the whole command was made four miles further on, 
and again, with half of Troop M, about one mile south of Sta Cruz. 

This last stand appeared to be a surprise to the enemy and it is thought that ten or 
more were killed. The village of Sta Cruz was entered quietly and prepared for defense. 
The roofs of the buildings were manned by riflemen and the enemy kept at 1200 yards 
range. At 7:55 I arrived with Major Young's Squadron and the Machine Gun Troop, 
Tenth Cavalry, and assumed command. The enemy was still on the hill to the south when 
we arrived, as was shown by the sounding of their busies after ours had been sounded. 

For exceptional bravery in returning for a wounded man (Ledford) under a hot lire. 
Major Tompkins will recommend Lieutenant Ord for a Medal of Honor. This while Ord 
himself was wounded. 

W. C. BROWN. 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 127 

APPENDIX "J" 

Colonel W. C. Brown, Tenth U. S. Cavalry. 

Sir : News of the unprovoked assault upon your men in the town of Parral has just 
reached me at Satevo through Chihuahua. Ascertain if possible whether attack was 
directed by the local military commander of the de facto government, demanding of him a 
disavowal of this base act. If the attack was directed by the local civil authorities demand 
the immediate arrest of the responsible parties. 

I am sending Lieutenant Colonel Allen with two troops to reinforce you. He should 
reach you tomorrow morning. Send word if possible to the columns under Major Tompkins 
and Major Howze of your situation. 

Unless a satisfactory understanding has been reached by the time this message arrives, 
send word to Major Tompkins and Major Howze to join you at once. Place your command 
in a position of security and assume the defensive only so far as it is necessary to insure 
your safety. 

The supply question may now become a serious one and you will be expected to meet 
your needs from the country round about. 

Supplies will l)e sent you as soon as possible. Confer fully and confidentially with 
Captain Reed, who commands the escort bearing this message. 

PERSHING. 
Official : 

J. A. RYAN, 

Major, Thirteenth Cavalry I. O., Acting Chief of Staff. 



APPENDIX "K" 

The following letter from the citizens of Winooski, Vermont, serves to tell of the respect 
gained by the regiment during its tour of duty at Fort Ethan Allen, Vermont : 

Winooski, Vt., June 29, 1916. 
To General Funston, Commanding U. S. Army in Mexico : 

As neighbors of Fort Ethan Allen, we, citizens of Winooski, Vermont, have a peculiar 
and personal interest in the welfare of the officers and men of the Tenth Regiment of U. S. 
Cavalry, who were stationed at this post for four years. 

It was, therefore, with the deepest emotion that we read the dispatches telling of the 
treacherous ambush and attack on two troops of this gallant regiment by the Mexicans of 
Carranza's army at Carri/:al in northern Mexico, in which Captain Boyd and Lieutenant 
Adair and a large number of their men were slain and Captain Morey desperately wounded 
and twenty or more men taken prisoners. 

The valor displayed by officers and men in the face of almost certain death is in keeping 
with American traditions and unsurpassed in the annals of heroic deeds of all ages. 

At a mass meeting of the citizens of Winooski, Vermont, held June 27th, 1916, and 
called to give recognition and support to the men who have responded to the call of the 
President, especially Company G of the Vermont National Guard, whose headquarters are 
at Winooski, and who left for the frontier on that day, speeches were made referring 
feelingly to these gallant officers and men of the Tenth U. S. Cavalry who so heroically 
met the treacherous attack of the Mexicans and shed the first American blood in the 
impending war between this country and the recognized government of Mexico. 

A committee of seven were appointed to convey to the regiment through General 
Funslon the deep and poignant grief of our citizens at the loss of these brave defenders, 
our pride because of their unsurpassed heroism and our appreciation of their undaunted 
courage and unexcelled patriotism displayed in such glorious deeds. 

Therefore, through you to the commander of the Tenth U. S. Cavalry we express the 
sympathy, gratitude and appreciation of all of the citizens of this community because of 
these achievements of men who were our neighbors and friends and who met this supreme 
test and sacrifice in a manner to thrill and inspire every true American. 

CHARLES S. LORD, Chairman. C. C. KELLOGG, C. Vt. Ry. 

JAMES TIMMONS, Pres. Village. REV. R. H. WASHBURNE. 

H. A. BAILEY, Ex-Pres. Village. HENRY COULIN, Judge. 

JOHN BEN GARY. 



128 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

APPENDIX "L" 

ROSTER OK REGIMENTAL OFFICERS, START OF PUNITIVE EXPEDITION 

Field and Staff: 

Colonel W. C. Brown, Commanding. 
Major E. W. Evans, First Squadron. 
Major Charles Young, Second Squadron. 
Captain W. H. McCornick, Regimental Quartermaster. 
1st Lieut. H. R. Adair, Acting Adjutant. 
Captain John R. Barber, M. C., Surgeon. 
Captain C. C. Demmer, M. C., Asst. Surgeon. 
Veterinarian C. D. McMurdo. 
Non-Commissioned Staff : 

Regimental Quartermaster Sergeant Hugh C. Scott. 
Squadron Sergeant Major James F. Booker. 
Squadron Sergeant Major William F. Scott. 
Sergeant James T. Penney, Troop C, Acting Color Sergeant. 
Corporal Will Green, Troop C, Acting Color Sergeant. 
Troop A 1st Lieutenant Emmet Addis, Commanding Troop. 
2nd Lieutenant Eustis L. Huhbard. 
1st Sergeant Walter R. Sanders. 

Troop B Captain William C. Gardenhire, Commanding Troop. 
2nd Lieutenant Norman J. Boots. 
1st Sergeant Samuel H. Alexander. 

Troop C Captain George B. Pritchard, Commanding Troop. 
2nd Lieutenant Benjamin F. Hoge. 
1st Sergeant William Winrow. 

Troop D Captain Alfred E. Kennington, Commanding Troop. 
1st Lieutenant Reynold F. Migdalski. 
2nd Lieutenant Andrew L. Walton. 
1st Sergeant Reuben Horner. 

Troop E 1st Lieutenant Selwyn D. Smith, Commanding Troop. 
2nd Lieutenant Henry Abbey, Jr. 
1st Sergeant (Acting) Buck Lane. 

Troop F Captain Wm. S. Valentine, Commanding Troop. 
2nd Lieutenant John Kennard. 
1st Sergeant James Allen. 

Troop G Captain George B. Rodney, Commanding Troop. 
2nd Lieutenant Thome Deuel, Jr. 
1st Sergeant Andrew J. Hale. 

Troop H Captain Charles T. Boyd, Commanding Troop. 
1st Lieutenant Orlando C. Troxel. 
2nd Lieutenant Joseph F. Richmond. 
1st Sergeant Clifford A. Sandridge. 

Troop I Captain William L. Luhn, Commanding Troop. 
2nd Lieutenant Ray W. Barker. 
1st Sergeant Charles Dade. 
Troop K 1st Lieutenant Albert B. Dockery, Commanding Troop. 

1st Sergeant Allan Peterson. 
M. G. Troop Captain Albert E. Phillips, Commanding Troop. 

1st Sergeant John H. Pappy. 

Pursuant to telegraphic instructions from Commanding General, Punitive Expedition, 
March 14, 1916, Troop M, entrained at Nogales, Arizona, and proceeded by rail to Columbus. 
N. M., arriving March 16, 1916, and entered Mexico same date. 

Troop M 1st Lieutenant Henrv A. Mever, Commanding Troop. 
2nd Lieutenant William B. Peebles. 
1st Sergeant Alonzo J. Day. 
Pursuant to telegraphic instructions from Department Commander April 19. 1916, 






HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 129 

Troop L left Fort Apache, Arizona, April 21, 1916, and reported to Commanding General, 
Punitive Expedition, at Columbus, N. M., April 24, 1916. Entered Mexico April 28, 1916. 
Troop L Captain Oliver P. M. Hazzard, Commanding Troop. 

1st Lieutenant Robert Elaine. 

1st Sergeant Charles H. Key. 



APPENDIX "M" 

ENLISTED MEN OF THE TENTH CAVALRY COMMISSIONED AS OFFICERS FROM THE DES MOINES 
TRAINING CAMP, OCTOBER 15, 1917. 

Sergeant Miles M. Green, M. G. Troop, 10th Cavalry Captain 

Sergeant William Gillum, M. G. Troop, 10th Cavalry Captain 

1st Sgt. James Cranson, Troop E, 10th Cavalry Captain 

Reg. Q. M. Sgt. William W. Thompson, 10th Cavalry : Captain 

1st Sgt. Walter R. Sanders, Troop A, 10th Cavalry...." Captain 

1st Sgt. Henry Houston, Troop K, 10th Cavalry Captain 

1st Sgt. William D. Peeks, Troop D. 10th Cavalry Captain 

Sergeant Howard D. Queen, Troop K, 10th Cavalry Captain 

Sergeant Edgar O. Malone, Troop F, 10th Cavalry Captain 

Q. M. Sgt. Fletcher Sewell, Troop A, 10th Cavalry Captain 

Sergeant Vance H. Marchbanks, Troop C, 10th Cavalry Captain 

1st Sgt. Clifford A. Sandridge, Troop H, 10th Cavalry Captain 

Sergeant Reuben Homer, Hq. Troop, 10th Cavalry Captain 

1st Sgt. Daniel Smith, Troop C, 10th Cavalry Captain 

Sq. Sgt. Major James F. Booker, 10th Cavalry Captain 

Sq. Sgt. Major William F. Scott. 10th Cavalry Captain 

Sergeant Hanson Johnson, Supplv Troop, 10th Cavalry Captain 

Sergeant George C. Hall, Troop L, 10th Cavalry Captain 

Sq. Set. Major Edward W. Spearman, 10th Cavalry Captain 

Reg. Q. M. Sgt. William H. Williams, 10th Cavalry Captain 

Sergeant Robert T. Shobe, Troop C, 10th Cavalry 1st Lieutenant 

Sergeant James E. Beard, M. G. Troop, 10th Cavalry 1st Lieutenant 

Sergeant John Combs, Troop L, 10th Cavalry 1st Lieutenant 

Sergeant Richard M. Norris, Troop A, 10th Cavalry 1st Lieutenant 

Sergeant William T. Johnson, Troop A, 10th Cavalry 1st Lieutenant 

Sergeant John Q. Lindsey, Hq. Troop, 10th Cavalry 1st Lieutenant 

Sergeant John P. Walker, Troop E. 10th Cavalry 1st Lieutenant 

Sergeant Floyd Gilmer, Troop A, 10th Cavalry 1st Lieutenant 

Corporal Waddell C. Steele, Troop E. 10th Cavalry 1st Lieutenant 

Sergeant Carey McLane, Troop L. 10th Cavalry 1st Lieutenant 

Sergeant Walter Lyons, Troop C, 10th Cavalry 1st Lieutenant 

Corporal William H. Brown, Jr., Troop D, 10th Cayalry 1st Lieutenant 

Sergeant Hazel L. Raine, Troop F, 10th Cavalry 1st Lieutenant 

Sergeant Rosen T. Brown, Troop D, 10th Cavalry 1st Lieutenant 

Sergeant Russell Smith, Troop B, 10th Cavalry '. 1st Lieutenant 

Sergeant Frank M. Goodner, Troop M, 10th Cavalry 1st Lieutenant 

Sergeant Cleveland Morrow, Troop B, 10th Cavalry 1st Lieutenant 

Sergeant Gus Williams, Troop D, 10th Cavalry 1st Lieutenant 

Sergeant Vest Douglas, M. G. Troop, 10th Cavalry 1st Lieutenant 

Sergeant Almando Henderson, Troop K, 10th Cavalry 1st Lieutenant 

Sergeant George E. Edwards, Troop H, 10th Cavalry 1st Lieutenant 

Sergeant William A. Stith, Troop M, 10th Cavalry 1st Lieutenant 

Corporal William T. Burns, Troop D ; 10th Cavalry 1st Lieutenant 

Sergeant Stephen B. Barrow, Troop B, 10th Cavalry 2nd Lieutenant 

Sergeant Clyde Roberts. Troop G. 10th Cavalrv 2nd Lieutenant 

Sergeant Benjamin Bettis, Troop A, 10th Cavalry 2nd Lieutenant 

Sergeant William Collier, Troop B, 10th Cavalry 2nd Lieutenant 

Sergeant Edgar F. Malone, Troop F, 10th Cavalry 2nd Lieutenant 



130 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 



Out of a total of fifty-seven non-commissioned officers sent to the training camp, forty- 
eight obtained commissions. 

COMMISSIONED FROM TRAINING CAMP AT LEON SPRINGS, TEXAS. 

Reg. Sgt. Major Eugene P. Frierson, 10th Cavalry 2nd Lieutenant 

Sq. Sgt. Major John Coleman, 10th Cavalry 2nd Lieutenant 

COMMISSIONED AS 2ND LIEUTENANTS OF CAVALRY, SEPTEMBER 27, 1918. 

Sergeant William H. Marshall, Troop D, 10th Cavalry 2nd Lieutenant 

Sergeant John C. Sanders, Troop D, 10th Cavalry 2nd Lieutenant 

Sergeant Arthur Chambliss, Troop E, 10th Cavalry 2nd Lieutenant 

Corporal James Everett, Troop E, 10th Cavalry 2nd Lieutenant 

Corporal General Lee Grant, Troop H, 10th Cavalry 2nd Lieutenant 

Sergeant Howard W. Fields, Troop L, 10th Cavalry 2nd Lieutenant 

Sergeant Livingston J. Williams, Troop L, 10th Cavalry 2nd Lieutenant 

Band Corporal John Clarke, Hq. Troop, 10th Cavalry 2nd Lieutenant 

Sq. Sgt. Major Benjamin F. Preston, 10th Cavalry 2nd Lieutenant 

Sergeant John A. Ford, Machine Gun Troop, 10th Cavalry 2nd Lieutenant 

Sergeant Henry Clay Bennett, Supply Troop, 10th Cavalry 2nd Lieutenant 

Band Leader William H. Lewis, 10th Cavalry 2nd Lieutenant 




HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 131 



HEADQUARTERS TENTH CAVALRY, 

Colonia Dublan, Mexico, July 1, 1916. 
GENERAL ORDERS 
No.l 

It becomes the sad duty of the Regimental Commander to 
announce the death in action with troops of the De Facto Gov- 
ernment of Mexico at Carrizal, Chihuahua, Mexico, June 21, 
1916, of 

CAPTAIN CHARLES T. BOYD and 

FIRST LIEUTENANT HENRY R. ADAIR 

Tenth Cavalry 

Capt. Boyd was born in Iowa October 29, 1970. 

Was appointed to the Military Academy June 15, 1892, and 
graduated June 12, 1896. Was assigned to the 7th Cavalry same 
date as an additional 2d Lieutenant and on Januarv 14, 1897, to 
the 4th Cavalry as a 2d Lieutenant. Was promoted to 1st Lieu- 
tenant on February 2cl, 1901, and assigned to the 7th Cavalry. 
Transferred to the 4th Cavalry, May 2d, 1901. Promoted Capt. 
January 16, 1903, and assigned to the 10th Cavalry. 

While a 2d Lieut, he was appointed Major 37th U. S. Infantry, 
and served as such from July 12, 1899, to Feb. 20, 1901. 

He served with the 4th Cavalry and the 37th U. S. Infantry 
during the Philippine Insurrection. 

Was Regimental Adjutant for four years. 

Was a distinguished graduate of the School of the Line, 1912. 
and of the Army Staff College in 1916. 

Lieut. Adair was born in Oregon April 13th, 1882. 

Was appointed to the Military Academy August 1, 1900, grad- 
uated and assigned to the 10th Cavalry June 15, 1904. 

Was promoted 1st Lieut, and reassigned to same regiment 
June 26, 1911. 

Was a graduate of the Mounted Service School, first year's 
course, 1912, and second year's course, 1915. 

During his service, all of which has been with the regiment, 
he has been Squadron Q. M. and Commissary, Squadron Adjutant 
and Acting Regtl. Adjutant at different time. 

These officers met their death like the soldiers they were, 
leading their troopers under a heavy fire from a superior force. 
Capt. Boyd, although wounded twice, continued to lead the ad- 
vance until he was felled by another bullet. 

Lieut. Adair took command after Capt. Boyd's death and con- 
tinued to direct the fire until he, too, was killed. They gallantly- 
upheld the traditions of the 10th Cavalry. 

The intrepid bravery and utter disregard of personal injury 
are characteristic of the military spirit and sense of duty of the 
two officers and afford an example worthy of emulation of every 
officer and man of the regiment. 

The Regimental Commander voices the sentiment of the regi- 
ment in extending to the families and relatives of the deceased 
officers his heartfelt sympathy. 

By order of Major" Evans : S. McP. RUTHERFORD, 

Capt. and Adjt, 10th Cavalry. 
Official: S. McP. RUTHERFORD, 

Capt., and Adjt., 10th Cavalry. 



132 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

APPENDIX "O" 

Fort Sheridan, Illinois, December 28, 1920. 

Dear Colonel Winans : 

Your letter of the twenty-third received, in which you ask me to write something of my 
service at Huachuca. 

When I reported for duty on July 4th, 1885, the post was garrisoned by four troops 
of the Fourth Cavalry and one company of the First Infantry Brevet Brigadier General 
George A. Forsythe, a former aide to General Sheridan, an officer of distinguished record 
during the Civil War and in the Indian campaigns, was in command. A month or so later 
Colonel William B. Royall, Colonel of the Fourth Cavalry, also a veteran of the Civil War 
and of the Mexican War, arrived and assumed command. 

The four troops of cavalry were commanded by Wirt Davis, A. E. Wood, Henry W. 
Lawton and C. A. P. Hatfield. The infantry was commanded by Captain William N. 
Tisdall. They were a rugged, sturdy lot. All of them had had Civil War experience and 
long experience in the Indian campaigns in different parts of the western country. 

General George Crook was in command of the department. We were in the midst of 
the Apache campaign, known as the Geronimo campaign, and were engaged in that phase 
of it which was commonly spoken of as the "Water-hole Campaign." The troops were 
stretched all along the frontier from the Whetstone Mountains east well into Mexico, 
guarding water-holes and passes. Communication was principally by telegraph or courier, 
with a certain number of heliograph stations. 

The post was new and consisted of the old row of officers' quarters, which ran down 
to about the tip of the canyon on the east side. Opposite were the old cavalry barracks 
and stables. Enclosing the parade below was the post hospital, with its outbuildings. The 
trees were only a few feet high. The water all came from the springs up to the post canyon. 
We had plenty of it in rainy weather ; often times it was short during the summer. There 
was a snug little hotel just across the creek up near where Sam the Chinaman (who was 
there at that time) now has his laundry. 

The Tenth and the Fourth were in close cooperation during this campaign. The troops 
of the Tenth, under Lebo, Bill Davis, Carter Johnson, Ward, Grierson and others, were hold- 
ing stations at Mescal Sorings in the Whetstones ; at Calabasas, under the Santa Ritas ; at 
Crhtenden ; at Tempest Mine, just over the line in Sonora, and at La Noria. The Fourth 
had stations on the south side of the Huachucas, at Bisbee, at Skeleton Canyon and to the 
east, with a few troops at Camp Bowie. 

The infantry was generally held in garrison, to take care of the post, although when 
the hard drive after Geronimo came in '86 about the hardest work of the whole campaign 
was done by organizations made up of selected officers and men from the Eighth Infantry. 

Transportation was pack. The mounts in those days were better than any we have 
had since ; and there was a knowledge of how to handle horses on the march which is 
lacking in our cavalry service, as a whole, today. Most of the officers then had seen service 
in the Civil War. They knew how to get mounted commands over great stretches of 
country, and to bring in their animals in good condition. 

The country was full of alarms and troops were scurrying hither and thither in an at- 
tempt to pick up the trail of smalt raiding groups of Apaches. It was a hard-working, 
wholesome and interesting life. There was an excellent regimental esprit and pride in the 
scivice. It was the beginning of the end of our hard Indian work in the southwest. In 
those strenuous days the Tenth Cavalry played a fine part, a part highly creditable to 
officers and men. 

The Tenth was in my brigade (the first dismounted cavalry brigade) at Santiago; it 
was made up of the First and Tenth Regulars and the First Volunteer Cavalry, commonly 
known as the Rough Riders. This brigade constituted the American force at the fight at 
Las Guasimas. Additional cavalry and infantry came up just after we had dislodged the 
Spanish. At the big fight, which was a big one, as it was the determining battle of the 
campaign, on July 1st at San Juan Ridge, just outside the city of Santiago, the brigade 
made an excellent record, it and the Second Cavalry Brigade carrying and holding a long 
section of the enemy's lines. In both actions the work of the Tenth Cavalry was excellent. 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 



133 



The relations between the Tenth Cavalry and the Fourth were excellent and were char- 
acterized by a friendly rivalry. The permanent station of most of the Tenth at that time 
was Camp Grant, with a troop or two at Camp Thomas. Transportation was via the old 
Guaymas railroad, and everything came up from what was known as The Siding. The 
present railroad was not built into the post until about 1911 or '12, and the Post Gardens 
were principally in Garden Canyon, from which most of the water now comes. The 
reservation had approximately its present limits. 

The service at Huachuca and in the field in the old days was a good school for officers 
and men. It was a healthy, vigorous life. I feel sure the Tenth Cavalry has in it today 
men who were in it in the eighties, and that you will find Huachuca a pleasant post to serve 
at, with excellent opportunities for training. 

The Tenth is a fine regiment and I congratulate you on being in command of it. 

Very sincerely yours, 
(Signed) LEONARD WOOD. 




"THROUGH THE CHAPARRAL AND SAND' 



134 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

APPENDIX "P" 

General Pershing contributed this valuable letter for a special number of the regi- 
mental weekly, the "Buffalo Bulletin :'' 

GENERAL OF THE ARMIES, WASHINGTON 

January 8, 1921. 
Colonel Edwin B. Winans, 

Commanding Tenth U. S. Cavalry, 
Fort Huachuca, Arizona. 

My Dear Colonel Winans : 

1 am glad and honored to contribute something for a special number of the Tenth 
Cavalry Bulletin. Many years have passed twenty-two, to be exact since my last service 
in the Tenth, but my mind is filled with recollections of those days in the Old Army, days 
of as much excitement as in the new, and possibly more variety. 

The regiment was at Fort Assiniboine in October, 1895, when I first joined and reported 
for duty with D Troop. The Pine Ridge campaign a few years before had closed the era 
of Indian warfare on the plains, and the scattered units of the little Regular Army awaited 
in their frontier posts of their late campaign, the next phase of our national development, 
which was to carry them overseas to battle with a European power. 

Meanwhile, in the summer of 1896, several troops of the regiment were sent to round 
up a number of bands of Cree Indians who had crossed the international boundary follow- 
ing the suppression of their rebellion in Canada. Troop D, under my command, took a 
leading part in this task, doing some hard riding to overtake or surprise bands located in 
Montana and Idaho, sending some by rail to Canada, and finally escorting a band of some 
six hundred across the border. 

My troop required little of its officers. The ranks were filled with veterans and the 
power and prestige of the old top sergeant was sufficient to maintain rigid discipline and 
manage the minor details of administration. Almost perfect at drill, most of our interest 
centered in keen competition on the rifle range and in hunting. 

I recall a visit of General Nelson A. Miles, then Commander of the Army, which was 
largely spent in hunting the game which abounded in the vicinity of the post. As a result 
of this visit I was soon afterwards relieved from duty with the regiment and assigned to 
his office in Washington. 

The concentration of troops for the Spanish-American War in 1898 carried the Tenth 
to Chickamauga, where 1 joined as Regimental Quartermaster, and thence to Tampa. 
Landing at Siboney on June 23rcl, we were almost immediately involved in the preliminary 
skirmish of the war, in company with the Rough Riders. The following days were stren- 
uous and exciting, culminating in the charge up San Juan Hill. Here I rejoined my old 
troop, D, which had covered itself with glory in the heaviest of the fighting. 

The Battle of Santiago was a small affair, a mere skirmish in comparison with out 
recent experiences, but it tried the valor and endurance of the strongest men, and our 
casualties were very heavy. The splendid discipline of the Regular Army made possible 
the success gained despite inconceivable confusion, lack of preparation and material, and 
the old veterans of the Tenth became famous throughout the country for their fine per- 
formance on that battlefield. 

This terminated my association with the regiment, but I have never forgotten the 
valuable lessons learned at the time, and I shall always look back with affection and 
pleasure to my days in the Tenth Cavalry. 

To you and your officers and men I send my warmest regards and best wishes for the 
New Year. 

Very sincerely yours, 

JOHN J. PERSHING. 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 135 

THE TENTH CAVALRY IN MEXICO 

From U. S. Cavalry Journal of October, 1917. 

BY CAPTAIN O. C. TROXEL, TENTH CAVALRY. 

There have appeared in the Service Journals at various times, articles dealing with 
special phases of our experiences in Mexico, covering some action in which a particular 
troop or troops were engaged, equipment of troops, sanitation, or what not, but I have 
seen none that dealt in any way with the work of cavalry along its broader lines that of 
pushing well out to the front, separating itself from its friendly troops, continuing its work 
while relying absolutely on the country for its sustenance, and operating in name and in 
fact as Independent Cavalry. Whatever phases of cavalry work our cavalry in Mexico did 
not get, certainly none will deny that we did get the part mentioned above. In this article, 
however, I purpose limiting myself to the one phase of how we "lived on the country," and 
certainly no cavalryman who served in Mexico is more justified in saying that he did ALL 
the things mentioned above than the members of the Tenth Cavalry who composed the 
expedition to near Parral under Colonel W. C. Brown, then in command of the regiment. 

I speak of the Second Squadron and Machine Gun Troop, Tenth Cavalry, which served 
in Mexico from March 20th to April 22nd without one mouthful of Government rations, 
one grain or spear of Government forage, one cent of Government money, no Government 
clothing, nor aid of any kind; and when on May 1st, 1916, it arrived back at San Antonio, 
Mexico, from the south, it was truly a case of survival of the fittest, for there had been no 
picking of officers, men or horses for any part of the expedition. 

We had, from 6 p. m. March 9th to about 7 :45 p. m. April 12th, passed over 750 miles 
of road space from Fort Huachuca, Arizona, to Santa Cruz de Villegas, near Parral, in 
twenty-eight marching days. This of course does not measure the extra work done by 
those men and horses on advance, rear and flank guards, patrols, foraging parties, etc. 
They were what remained of the same troops that had left Fort Huachuca on March 9th 
w ith wagon and pack trains. There had, however, been certain changes in personnel over 
which we had no control. Our wagons were left at Culberson's ranch, the sick men and 
horses were left at Colonia Dublan, our pack train was, on April 5th, ordered back to 
Namiquipa to procure supplies for us, and we continued south, retaining one mule per 
troop. Our sick men and sick animals at that time were sent north with the pack train. 
There were no further changes in personnel, except for the occasional buying of a horse 
or mule to keep the command mounted. 

Our march overland to Culberson's ranch was in no sense severe, but the weather was 
hot ; only now and then did we have hay, watering facilities were always poor, the supply 
insufficient, and frequently none except at our nightly camps, and the country was sandy 
and devoid of grazing. We thus marched 160 miles before we entered Mexico. We lost 
several horses from sand colic and all horses had begun to feel the effects of the march. 

At this place we were joined by the Seventh Cavalry, and Battery B, Fifth Field 
Artillery, and with packed saddles for officers and men, five days' rations and three pack 
trains, made the march to Colonia Dublan, a distance of something over 100 miles, from 
shortly after midnight of March 15-16 to the evening of the 17th. On the evening of the 
18th the Tenth Cavalry received orders to turn over to the Seventh Cavalry all of its 
remaining rations, and the Seventh left camp at 3 a. m. At about 6 a. m. March 19th we 
received orders to receive rations in the hands of Battery B and entrain for the south. 
This battery had already eaten half of their five days' rations for three and two-thirds days. 
As there were not enough freight cars for Troops I and K, only Regimental Headquarters, 
First and Second Squadrons, Machine Gun Troop and the Pack Train were entrained. 
Troops L and M had not joined. 

Our troubles in patching and nailing up the cars, getting material for camps, collecting 
wood for the wood-burning engine and getting started late in the afternoon with the 
animals inside the freight cars and the officers and men on top in truly Mexican style, 
were exceeded, if possible, only by the troubles in keeping the engine going by having the 
men get off and chop mesquite to burn in it, only to find that the wood must be used to 
send the engine some place for water, and so on ad infinitum. 



136 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

As a result, all but the First Squadron detrained at about 11 a. m. M-.nch 20th at El 
Rucio, about twenty-seven miles out of Dublan. For this noon meal we ate the last of our 
Government rations, except perhaps some flour, and our pack train carried only oats. 
From this day on we were to be "on the country." Each officer had a snr.li amount of 
money. Personally 1 had something less than $10, but I had fortilied myself with a check 
book which was to prove of no use to me as we were to strike only one place (Cusi) 
where money could be obtained for checks. At first we had not much trouble in getting 
supplies in exchange lor receipts given by the quartermaster, but as we went further south 
the natives became poorer and more reluctant to part with their supplies for a possible 
"scrap of paper," and one cannot blame them. 

Considering all the varied circumstances of our being in Mexico, what should we do? 
To further embitter the Mexican people by taking away almost their last food and forage 
and not replace it with currency which they knew to be good and with which they could 
replace the stores taken, seemed to be the action to be taken only as a last resort. It was 
then that Colonel Brown began giving his personal checks for supplies taken, and continued 
doing so until his totals aggregated something like $1,680.00. We were so entirely dependent 
on the country, especially as we had to depend each night on the supplies where we happened 
to be, since we had no pack train, that I do not believe we could have continued south as 
we did had it not been for this assistance. 

As to rations and cooking after leaving Colonia Dublan : We entered Mexico with no 
other cooking utensils than three camp kettles per squadron, and, with five troops (we 
separated from the First Squadron on the morning of April 1st) this gave each troop a 
kettle three days out of five. This was run by roster among the mess sergeants. Later, 
as we were able to find them, kerosene oil cans were purchased at $1.00 apiece, which 
helped materially. 

The only articles of food that we could get regularly were beef and frijoles very 
seldom could \ve get even a poor quality of flour or corn meal. However, when we conld 
get corn in sufficient quantities to justify us in taking it from the horses. I made a practice 
of sending out scouts to locate little hand-mills about the size of coffee-mills, and had corn 
ground up tor n'eal. The details often worked way into the night, but the great tendency 
was to grind too coarsely and thus get quantity instead of quality, with resultant cramps 
and diarrhoeal eftects among the men. This, ground, was mixed with water and fried into 
cakes, which the men generally made too thick, and, therefore, not being well cooked, were 
very indigestible. We were seldom able to get lard or salt, and when we got the latter it 
was common dirty stock salt (rock) and little chunks of it would appear in the eating. 
Baking powder was impossible either on account of its absence or cost. Sugar and coffee 
were practically out of the question. Individuals could at times obtain a small quantity of 
burnt Mexican coffee, and were glad to have it even without the sugar. There were a few 
eggs, but they were expensive, and the difficult part was in making change for small pur- 
chases as there seemed to be no change in the country. We were always crazy for fruits, 
jams and sweets of any kind, and practically nothing of this kind was to be had. When on 
the few occasions sugar was obtainable, one could always see men eating it just so. I never 
allowed meat bones to be thrown away. After cutting off the meat as best we could with 
pocket knives or mess knives for individual cooking, the bones would be carried to the next 
camp, and if we were to have the kettle that night they would be put on to boil, and boiled 
all night over the fire kept up by the picket line guard. About an hour before reveille the 
cooks would be awakened and they would add from three to five cups (three was sufficient) 
of ground corn, and then just before serving, scrape off all meat from the bones, stir up 
well and serve. This breakfast was fit for a king, to our minds, and was much enjoyed 
by all. I have eaten nothing equal to it either before or since and I hope I never have to, 
out it was good then. 

We generally had our beans (frijoles) for breakfast as there was not time in camp 
to prepare them for any other meal. Even then the altitude was so high that they could 
not be thoroughly cooked, and so there were' more digestive troubles. We tried grinding 
up wheat for use in making bread, but it did not seem to serve as well. Personally 1 am 
very fond of parched corn and nearly always started out in the morning with a pocket full 
and would have nothing else to eat till night. "Parched corn coffee" also was much better 
than water. 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 137 

As to clothing : Each man started with the authorized allowance in his pack. Unfor- 
tunately the men had gotten so used to going out lor border duty and wearing their oldest 
clothes that many did the same thing this time. This made conditions worse than they 
should have been. Hoods of stirrups were used to tack on as half-soles of shoes, when 
tacks were available. Breeches were patched so long as patches would hold together, the 
men gambling to see whose shelter half was to be cut up for the purpose. Occasionally 
the quartermaster bought and issued civilian clothing of all descriptions, and for hats the 
men took the lining of the saddle bags, in the cases where hats were lost or completely 
torn up. I got my patches from the lining of my overcoat. 

As to horses : Fodder was often unobtainable and when at hand was generally insufficient 
in quantity. There was practically no grazing except the dry grass as it lay dead on the 
ground. The horses would eat this for about half an hour and then stand with hanging 
heads or lie down. No oats was in the country, and corn was generally insufficient. Instead 
of getting about twelve cups per day they had often for -days at a time only three or four 
per horse. Occasionally we had to feed wheat, which seemed to cause flatulency, but I do 
not remember any bad case of colic in my troop due to it. At one camp we had only corn 
ground on the cob,and mostly cob, to feed. We lost a number of horses the following day 
from inability to keep up. At all halts I had my horse unbridled and led to the best place 
in the vicinity for grazing. Every opportunity was taken to water them, and often the 
distances between watering places were so great that one was hard put to it to decide 
whether to let them drink the strong alkali water met with or wait hoping for something 
better. I, personally, saw to it that at least twice a week the horses were held for a time 
in the water for the purpose of soaking and cooling their feet. I also found it necessary 
to pick out the places for and supervise the grazing, and I do not care to answer the 
criticisms of officers whom I have heard condemn this as being the work of a non-com- 
missioned officer. It is shorter and more to the point to say that such officers are simply 
too lazy to do it. 

As for horseshoes, the horseshoer had his emergency equipment and each man had one 
fore and one hind shoe (fitted). I learned afterwards what I probably would not have 
approved at the time, and that is that my horseshoer (a new man, too) had taken sixteen 
extra shoes in his saddle bags. These latter came in handy. At each halt the horseshoer 
and his assistant, one assigned to each platoon, stood ready to tighten shoes as called for 
by the riders, whose first duty at each halt was to examine their horses shoes with that 
object in view. 

I made each man feel that I would do my utmost to prevent his walking so long 
as his horse was not laid up through being barefooted or having a sore back, and impressed 
it on them that I would do nothing for them in such cases, if investigation showed them to 
have been neglectful, and that in any case the individual whose horse became unservice- 
able from any cause was out of luck. The result was that grooming and saddling became 
of very great importance to them and each squad leader inspected the horses of his squad 
and reported to me that they were or were not in such and such condition and pointed 
the individual horses out to me that needed attention. This was in addition to the inspection 
that both the farrier and myself made. Also no cast-off horseshoe was ever passed by when 
marching at a walk. That was one thing for which I always granted permission to fall 
out, and the only other time when I gave this permission was after I had personally had a 
detailed explanation of the necessity therefor. The men soon stopped asking. There was, 
however, one article that we could not make up and that was the horseshoe nail, but, 
thanks to the high, dry altitude, we were troubled little, if any, by rust, as each man carried 
them in a greasy rag. 

On April 10th we were ordered to turn all our horseshoes into a common pile for the 
common good of the command. This was heartrending to the men as well as to myself 
to give up our hoarding, but I was proud to see something like thirty-five shoes turned in 
by my troop of forty-three men. One other troop turned in a similar quantity, and one 
troop turned in one shoe. It is easy to determine which troop was the cause of the order 
and which one got the most shoes from the pile, but still it was a necessary thing to do. 
We had no forge and tools for fitting and shoeing, but could occasionally get some assist- 
ance from the very incomplete blacksmith shops at ranches. The first real opportunity for 
fitting shoes and trimming the feet was down near Parral when we were able to borrow an 



138 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

outfit from the troops of the Eleventh Cavalry that joined us there under Colonel Allen and 
Major Howze. Undoubtedly a great deal of the fatigue experienced by our horses was due 
to their long hoof walls, none of which had been trimmed nor to which had shoes been 
properly fitted at least since March 15th one month before. We had the old model equip- 
ment and depended on lariats entirely for the picket line. Broken lariats were never thrown 
away but tied together many times for re-use or used for halter tie ropes. 

On our way back from Parral corn was generally plentiful and we had some hay. I 
heard much comment as to the advisability of putting the animals on full feed at once. 
For me that was decided by my stable sergeant. The horses had had a full feed at night 
and were to have a full feed in the morning, but in addition to these feeds of corn there 
was some wheat for which we would have no transportation the following day. He, in 
disobedience to my orders, got up at 2 a. m. and fed the wheat rather than leave it. I 
wanted to try him by court-martial but awaited results. The result was .that I became a 
convert to the Indian's method of "eating all you can while you have it, and starve when 
you have to," when it comes to feeding hard working horses. I also adopted the same 
motto for the pale face. 

During the return march north from San Antonio a very curious thing developed. 
Prior to May 1st I had rot had a sore back in my troop not a man had walked on this 
account. At San Antonio we rested for three or four days, and again at Lake Itascate. 
It was at this latter place that I noticed some of the withers thickening and becoming quite 
hard, eventually requiring the lance, and while the horses were doing absolutely nothing. 
It was a great surprise to me at the time, and if crying could have done any good I think 
I would have tried it. To think that this should have happened after the trouble and pains 
taken ! On sober thought I realized that it was just what I might have expected. However, 
there were only a few of these and none broke out after we started to use the horses again. 

After separating from the First Squadron on April 1st, with whom we did not again 
join until about May 14th at Xaniiquipa, we had a very pretty action against Villistas. We 
stiuck them at about 1:30 p. m. They had undoubtedly already begun to retreat and our 
action was with their rear guard only. They opened up at longe range on Troop E, (Capt. 
S. D. Smith), our advance guard. We could see them leaving the village of Aguas Cali- 
entes and turn to the left around a low mountain peak. Troop F (Capt. W. S. Valentine) 
was sent across the saddle, hoping to head them off on our extreme left ; I, with Troop H, 
was sent up over this peak just to the left of the village, Major Chas. Young accompanying 
me; the Machine Gun Troop (Captain A. E. Phillips) went forward to take care of the 
ridge to the immediate right of the village, and Troop G (Captain Geo. B. Rodney) was 
rear guard and escort for the pack train, was for the moment held until it was learned that 
they were melting, away in our front. Having gained the peak and finding no enemy, 1 got 
word from Captain Valentine that he was engaged further to my left, and pulled my troop 
oi'f in that direction. My troop remained in line of foragers at the trot and came up on 
Captain Valentine's left rear and continued in the oblique direction so that eventually 
Captain Valentine's front was covered, leaving him free to mount and follow, which he 
promptly did. Troops E, G and machine guns went on through the town. 

When the Mexicans saw my reinforcing troop they scattered and their fire became 
much more diminished. It was all going wild, so that my troop continued at the trot in 
hopes of striking the main body. I finally saw what appeared to be about one hundred and 
fifty men about two miles ahead. I 'assembled my troops on ground favorable for rapid 
movements, sent a message to Colonel Brown and went after them at the gallop, closely 
followed by Captain Valentine. The "cracks" of their rifles began sounding pretty fre- 
quently again, and we formed foragers and later dismounted for fire action, but soon saw 
that that was not the proper thing to do. By this time F Troop was alongside and we pur- 
sued them up to a horseshoe shaped ridge at the top of which they were seemingly to make 
a stand. Captain Valentine went off to the right and I dismounted one platoon under first 
sergeant, and with the other advanced at the gallop under his fire to the end of the horse- 
shoe, by which time the Mexican's fire had ceased and, as we later found out, they dis- 
appeared from the face of the earth to meet us on many occasions afterwards as perfectly 
good, loyal Carrancistas. Having gained the ridge all trace of them was gone. We began 
riding in ever-increasing circles until we found where they assembled in sufficient numbers 
to make a trail. We followed this over the ridge and down to a ranch (Mestcna) on the 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 139 

other side, where the people claimed that about one hundred and fifty Villistas had passed. 
It was then probably about 5 p. m. Messengers were sent to Colonel Brown and Captain 
Valentine, and we prepared to stay there for the night. The other troops came in about 
8 p. m. We never saw these Villistas as opponents again. I made no notes at the time 
and have been unable to get data from others at this late date, so I will not try to give 
any figures. However, none of our men were hit and the horses were the only part of our 
command that had not enjoyed the skirmish. One horse was wounded, one of mine dropped 
exhausted, one died that night, we killed one the next morning, and one could just get 
along by being led. I do not know the loss of the animals in other troops. 

We captured several ponies and mules and a part of their pack train. We know of 
three Mexicans killed, and reports from Mexican sources, as noted in American papers, 
gave their casualties as forty-two, but I doubt the number and do not believe any of our 
officers think we got that many. As they were never out in the open, and as it was a 
running fight, we had no opportunity to look for their casualties nor did we particularly 
care to do so. 

I have wished many times that I had deliberately kept such notes as would have enabled 
me to give real data figures and dates covering our experiences, especially as to horses, 
their forage, shoeing, condition, etc., so that this might have been an article from which 
more valuable information could be gleaned for our future operations such as will un- 
doubtedly come to our cavalry. 

However, should I be ordered out on exactly the same proposition again, and know 
that I had the same problems to face in the same high, dry altitude, and with the same 
strict allowance, I would beg my commanding officer for one more mule per troop (making 
a total of two) and about two mules per squadron to carry such as one forge and one set 
of blacksmith tools and a small quantity of farriers, saddlers and medical supplies. I 
would also want some money, unless I was operating in a hostile country and could take 
full advantage of that fact. This, of course, presupposes that the squadron will stay together, 
and as a matter of fact it need never be so far separated that each troop can not occasionally 
take advantage of the articles on the two squadron mules. 

After returning to Dublan the officers of the regiment were called together and re- 
quired to vote on what cavalry actually needed for just such operations and the transporta- 
tion necessary for this purpose. Again I do not remember figures, but I do remember that 
we could have, by our votes, been divided into three distinct classes, depending on the 
experiences passed through, viz : First, those who did not engage in an)' scouting operations ; 
second, those who mostly made trips from some base, out and back on some special mis- 
sion ; third, those composing the expedition south under Colonel Brown. The first class 
voted for much more plunder and transportation than the other two, and the third class 
the least of all. 



APPENDIX "Q" 

HEAPQUARTERS TENTH CAVALRY 

Fort Huachuca, Arizona, June 24, 1921. 
Memorandum : 

1. The following letter is published for the information of the command: 

HEADQUARTERS EIGHTH CORPS AREA 

Fort Sam Houston, Texas, June 20, 1921. 

From: The Adjutant. 

To: Colonel Edwin B. Winans, Tenth Cavalry, Fort Huachuca, Arizona. 

Subject: Commendation. 

The following extract from report of inspection of Fort Huachuca, Arizona, made by 
Lieut. Colonel W. V. Morris, Inspector General, April 25-May 2, 1921, is furnished you 
under A. R. 20-25 (11). 

Colonel E. B. Winans, Tenth Cavalry, is worthy of commendation for the improvement 
in the condition of the Tenth Cavalry since the last annual inspection. The appearance, 
uniformity and completeness of equipment were excellent. To Colonel Winans is also due 
much of the credit for the excellent morale, and esprit of the regiment. On the whole, I 



140 HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 

consider the Tenth Cavalry to be as good, and in some respects better, than the Thirteenth 
Cavalry, which up to this time, was in the best condition of any regiment I had ever 
inspected. 

By command of Major General Dickman : 

A. E. SAXTON, 

Adjutant. 

2. In publishing this commendation to the regiment, the commanding officer desires to 
say that officers and men are entitled to equal share in the credit, for without their co- 
operation, such a showing would have been impossible. 

EDWIN B. WINANS, 
Colonel, Tenth Cavalry, Commanding. 

APPENDIX "R" 

The following contribution is from the pen of Colonel Frank R. McCoy, ex-Second 
and First Lieutenant, of this regiment. His record in the A. E. F. as Lieutenant Colonel, 
Colonel and Brigadier is well known. 

SPECIAL MISSION TO THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

MalacKiifiJi Palace, Manila, P. I., June llth, 1921. 
Major. E. L- N. Glass, Tenth Cavalry, Fort Huachuca, Arizona. 

Dear Major: For some time I have been enjoying the Buffalo Bulletin with many a 
smile of a good green remembrance, and for all of that time I have been intending to 
write you and express my thanks and continued interest. Just before leaving the States, 
I received your letter asking for some reminiscences, so that now being in a peaceful mood 
for a change, I shall be glad to call up some old friends and incidents of my service in 
Cuba with the Tenth Cavalry. 

The regiment was in camp at Chickamauga Park in April of '98, when Lieutenant T. A. 
Roberts and I, both of the class of '97, and having served in the Seventh and Eighth 
Cavalry, respectively, joined from those regiments left behind, from which we were lucky 
enough to obtain transfers to the Tenth, then on the way to the light in Cuba. I joined 
A Troop, under Lieutenant R. L. Livermore of fragrant memory, and on one of the last 
days Colonel Guy V. Henry was in command. 1 lemember the day of my arrival. We were 
ordered to mount up and call upon the colonels and officers of the other cavalry regiments 
in camp, and I got my first impression of the dash and spirit of the regiment as we went 
over at full gallop to call on the Second, a line, bold lot and full of lighting spirit from 
the Colonel down, and what is more, they looked the part. There wasn't a fat dub in the 
outfit. Even among this lean lot, Colonel Guy V. Henry, Colonel Wint, Jones, Ayres, 
Watson, Pershing, Paxton, Shipp, Smith, Whitehead, Kennington, Vidmer, Livermore, the 
two new lieutenants were referred to and bets laid that they were thinner than Vidmer 
who up to that time held undisputed honors for the best and thinnest cavalry legs, although 
Captain Charles G. Ayres had his opinion as to which were the most shapely and the best 
booted and spurred. 

My first night around the camp fire was a most agreeable one and I shall always look 
back on the associations started there, the high spirit and the wide range of fun and interest. 
Ayres twirled his mustaches and held that his father. General Ayres, was a grand soldier 
and looked the part "even in his shift tail he looked like the God of War," and he 
modestly informed us youngsters that he was very like his father. Not only Charles G. ; 
but all others in the regiment soon proved their worth and wear in the hard campaign in 
Cuba, and have left an abiding pride and pleasure of association. 

Lieutenant Pershing left us after the Santiago campaign and was succeeded as quarter- 
master by Lieutenant Harbord. Many of the other generals of the late war, such as 
Barnum, Hay, Rockenbach, and a number of the most gallant and able colonels, such as 
Bruce Palmer, Whitehead, Vidmer, Whitesides, Short and Gordon Johnson, served with 
the regiment during the military occupation of Cuba, and got their experience in colonial 
and other work there. In recalling all these beloved comrades, I think of my own captain, 
Beck, whom I first saw chasing our transport in Tampa Bay reporting from sick leave 
in spite of orders to stay sick, and climbing a rope tossed overboard the good ship Leona, 
bound for Santiago. He had been a captain of cavalry thirty-five years before and had 



HISTORY OF TENTH CAVALRY 141 

commanded Sherman's bodyguard in the March to the Sea, and he served through the 
Santiago campaign as a captain, but one full of experience and real leadership on the 
battlefield, that 1 for one shall always be grateful for having benefitted by during that 
campaign. The last time I saw the old Colonel was when in the War College he sent for 
me to come to the hospital at Washington Barracks, and I found him propped up in bed 
smoking a pipe, cheerful and cool as ever, and asked me to stand by him while he had his 
leg cut off. Nothing ever feazed that sturdy old soldier, whether on the battlefield or 
under the hack of the surgeon. His only remark to me when I was knocked out on San 
Juan Hill, was a casual glance at my wounded leg and a smile, "Well, McCoy, you are 
safe. The Spaniards are not good enough marksmen to hit you again," and then just as 
casually asked me for my field glasses and pouchful of tobacco as he trudged off to the 
front line where he organized the scattered remnants of various regiments and made dis- 
positions for holding the hill against counter-attacks, Major Stephen Norvell, the Squadron 
Command, was another gallant veteran of the Civil War whom I shall always look back 
on with pride and pleasure. Lieutenant Roberts, my side partner and dearest friend, was 
also knocked out at Santiago by a Mauser bullet through the stomach, and after applying 
first aid to himself, wrote me a little line, a will and farewell, leaving his slicker to Smith 
and his tobacco to me, but, thank Heaven, he pulled through to fight many a good fight 
since and to command another black regiment with distinguished success in France. 
Pendergast was first serpeant of A Troop, then one of the best shots in the Army, and 
did some effective shooting of Spaniards when they were tryine: to reform and reattack 
San Juan Hill on the afternoon of July 1st. Carter Smith, Smith Johnson, Taylor, Saddler 
Adams, Blue, who was wounded at the same time T was and is still a sergeant in the Army 
with an excellent record in France ; Corporal Wiley Hipshur, who was left in charge of 
my Gordon setter and the packs of the trroop thrown off under the balloon near the 
Bloodv Bend, and who walked up and down in the very hottest part of the battlefield all 
that day until wounded ; and Parker, who looked after all the wounded with faithful and 
effective care, all come to my mind with warm feelings of remembrance. Charles A. Lewis, 
who was one of the voung rookies of that campaign, T saw the other day as a sergeant of 
the Ninth Cavalry while we were playing polo at Camp Stotsenburg. The most picturesque 
character in the regiment in those days was Carter Johnson, who remained in it until he 
was retired at Fort Robinson. The regiment will always cherish his memory and fighting 
qualities with many a laugh at his eccentricities, adventures and misadventures. Some day 
the ree-imental history must have the account of his foray in Cuba in the summer of '98 
with the picked troop that took in arms and supplies to Gomez, not forgetting the fieht 
at Arrovo Blanco where he had a fight with General Gomez as well as with the Spaniards, 
and pulled down the Cuban flag from the flagpole, and having no American flag at hand, 
ran up his blue blouse as a sign of capture, and threatened to shoot the first man that 
attempted to lower it. But he would require a whole book to himself. 

I must end these rambling reminiscences with a heart full of thanks to vou and your 
colonel for the reviving of the old time spirit of the regiment and showing it in so many 
soldierly ways. Tf it was the proper time and place. I could spin many a yarn about the 
present colonel of the regiment, for I served alongside of him through those great months 
of September, October and November of 1918, and when we are old enough soldiers to 
turn loose and tell the story of the Great War, General Winans and his Wisconsin brieade 
will touch the high spots when it comes to writing of the hot fisrhting at Juvigny and the 
break through the Kriemhilde Stellung on Le Cote Dame Marie in the Argonne. 

With my best hows and best wishes for you both and good luck to the regiment. 

Very sincerely yours, 

FRANK M'COY. 




CORNER OF OFFICERS' CLUB, FT. HUACHUCA 



to* 




1>KINTKD BY 

ACME PRINTING COMPANY 

TL T CON, ARIZONA. 

1921