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Full text of "The history of that great and renowned monarchy of China. Wherein all the particular provinces are accurately described: as also the dispositions, manners, learning, lawes, militia, government, and religion of the people. Together with the traffick and commodities of that countrey"

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Robert E. Gross 

A Memorial to the Founder 
of the 

,^lj)mwieea S^.C'y€f^^ ^m^/im<^atio?i 

Business Administration Library 
Los Angeles 





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O F 

That Great and Renowned 


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Wherein all the particular Provinces are accurately 
defcribed:as alfothe Difpofitions, Manners, LcarningXawes^ 
Milida^Government, and Religion of the People. 

Together with the Traffick and Commodities 
of that Countrcy. 

Lately written in Italian by F. A l v a r e z S e m e d o, a Portuihefs, 

after he had rcfidcd twenty two yearcs at the Court, 

and other Famous Qcics of that Kingdom. 

Now put into Engli/h by a Pcrfon of quality , and illuftrated 
with feveral M a p p s and Figure s , to fatisfic the curious, 
and advance the Trade oi Great B RITTA IN, 

To which is added the Hiftory of the late Invafion, 
and Conqucft of that flouriffliing Kingdom 
by th€ Tartars. 

Withancxa6l Account of the other affairs oiCHi NA, 
till thefe prcfcnt Times. 


Primed by E.Tyler for lohn Crook ^ and nre to be fold at his Shop at the 
Sign of the Ship in S. Tauls Church-yard, i ^ 5 5. 

The Epiftle to the Reader. i 

Courteous Reader, 

Trejenttheemth that long ex> 
fpeBed, mojl exaU Hijiorj of 
the LaynesJ^oyernmentyMari-^ 
nerSydndprefent Jlate and coti^ 
dition of that great Monarchy 
ofCfhinsi'Jn its circmt little lefi 
then all Europe-^ Heretofore Qas 
jealous of its raretreajures)jhut 
and locked up from the curious eyes ofjtr angers: Jo that 
this bool{e(JirJl^yeilds to thee a full di/cojery thereof 
(^(Idare fay)themoJl valuable, that this our vporld hath 
Been acquainted wth^ftnce that of America; vphereby 
novpthefurthejl Safl^ asvpell as fFeJi, is difclofed^and 
laid open to the prefent age. For^ as for fome former re^ 
tationSy thou mayfth aye feen thereof thou ypilt by this 
difc^hethemto be as fabuloi^^ ^ they are comp^^ 
dious andimperfeB . 

It^asupritten by oney'who, after fr/l, aJiriBeduca^ 

tionin all forts of learning, for tvpoand tvpentyyeares 

Jpace lived in thatKJngdome^xvas re/ident at the (^ourt, 

andinthe greatejt Cities thereof and in all that time 

Jo (^ 

TO the Reader. 

(^asdefigningfucha mr/^e) 'was a diligent Ohfervator 
and (JoUeBor of all their manners and cujloms j as 
li/^mfe (after much paines taken in the Language) 
a great ftudent of their HiJlorieSyand Writings. IVhofe 
laborious mrke^ after it had already bin fkthedin 
many other Languages y bejtdesthe Authors ^ andweP 
comly entertained in mojl ftates of Europe, it ivas 
thought fit no longer to be concealed to a T^ation ^either 
for curiofity ofknon^ledge.or induflry offorraigne com^ 
merce, noway yeildingto her neighbours. 

The 'variety of thefubjeBs handled^therein isfo 
greatQascomprehmding the T(^ho[efabric^flhatnjti^ 
inches, ^S\d^erchandifey(^c.]thatthofe of rphatfoelper 
profefsion,may reap no fmall benefit in reading the de^ 
figneSymanagementsandpraSices therein ^offo ingeni" 
OUS a People. Whofe manners alJo(,as their fite) are fo 
remote and different in mofl things from ours^thatll 
tnayfay) in this piece i s happily united^mtb the truth^f 
M^9^^> ?k^^%^^//^ ^^ance: la^here it mil be 
nofmallpleajuretothee to fee their braines^as rpel[as 
their bodieSyOs itwre of a Jeiper all mould front the^Vi^ 
ropeans, and their inyentions in many things^ to 
ypall^aritj^odestomyandjftinthefe noway'belorp uSy 
butin manyfupriq^r-^qrvphatin them appears lefi com^ 
peat, yet mil the k^on^ledge thereof not be ungratefull 
unto theCyhecaufe tis ner^and /tngular.^Asfor many 
morall yertueSy thou ml t find them fo far to tranfcend 
us thereinythat they may bepropofedas an excellent pat^ 
terne,Qualfothey are a fhame)to Qhriftian flates. 
* LafllyitocorreU andreforme any their defeUsy and 


To the Reader. 

mal^ the nation perfeBly happy ^the light of Qhrifiia^ 
nitji hath of late yifiteJthis people,i»ho/ate indar\nes: 
fo that noKif (after America alfoenligbtned^ there is 
mend of the v^orld left;(i^herinto the found of the (jo^ 
jpel is not gone forth. T he foundation of tnhich being 
(there^already laidythere is great hopes that it mayfoo^ 
nercometo a ful purity ^reformation(^perfeBion^(^the 
indefatigablepains&undauntedcourage ofthoje laho*^ 
rers ypho cult iy ate it in theEaJl^proyok^ a greater dtli^ 
gence andemulation therein ^in our planters in the ^ejl^ 
Kphere the Qo/pel fas foil omng a con^uejl) may be ad-' 
vanced both with much morefafety and authority . 

To the end of this Treatife, I have added the Hijlory 
oUheTartarian invafan ofQhina,much enlarged^ 
freed from diners Err at as of the former Edition; v^hich 
giyes thee an accoun't of the Qhineffe affaires till the 
yeare 16 '^%.(^Reader^thuimuchIthoughtgoodtoad^ 
yertife thee in the front of this "Boo^e^ that thou mayjl 
not be fo great an hinder ance to thyjelfe, as not to heac^ 
quainted wthfo curious andbenefidall a difcourfe, 



The Preface. 

Ho wriceth of things farre 
remorej doth almoft alwaycs 
incurrc the inconvenience of 
many, and thofc no fmall dc;: 
fccfls : hence it is, that we fee 
many Books,whofeAuthours, 
for their perfonal Qualities, 
mightdefcrve more credit than 
may /uftly be given to their 
writings. As forthofe, who 
have written of China,! have perufed lome of thcm,who lea- 
ving in obHvion almoft all Truths,takc the liberty to wander 
in difcourfes altogether fabulous : for this Kingdome being 
forcmotc^and having alwayes with much Care avoided all 
Communication with Strangers, rcferving onely to them- 
fclvs the knowledge of their own Af&irs,with a moft parti- 
cular Caution : hence it followcs,that nothing is knownc 
without the Confines thereof, but what doth, as it were, 
overflow into the skirts of the Country of Qantom, (a 
part of this Empire, whither the Portughefcs have been fiife 
fered to come)fo that the moft internall and fecret knowledge 
thereof hath been refer ved,either for the Natives of the Coun- 
try, who know well enough how to conceale it j or for thofe, 
who^ upon a better Motive, have, to difcovcr it, little leffc 
then forgotten their own nature, their language, their cu- 
flomes , and manner of living , and transformed thcm- 
fclves into the naturall humour of that Country. 

Now this laft hath by divine difpen(ation,fallen to the lott 


The Treface, 

of the Religious of the Company of Jefus-^ who although 
they came late to the Culture of the Church, are^ notwith:^ 
ftanding, arrived to that honour to be reckoned among the 
firft, that after Saint Thomas theApoftle, did cultivate thofe 
remote Confines of the world. 

It is now fifty eight years, that they have laboured under 
thisfo diftant Climate, where direding all their force and 
endeavours, to the converfion of Souls , they account it a 
manifeftThefi,to employ any othcrwife that time which they 
owe to the Service of God, and is of fo much importance 
for the Etetnall Salvation of men. Hence it is, that never 
any yet did> or would it have been permitted him;, if he had 
dcfircd it, to employ himfelle in writing the Relation of this 
Kingdome- except it were Father ISficolaus Trigal^i^ius, after 
he had by permiffion with-drawn himfelf from the culture of 
Chriftianity among the Cfe^w, and palfed from thence in- 
to Europe, 

Vpon the fame occafion I have undertaken to give a 
fariefc account thereof, fufEcient at Icaft for the inftruftion 
of thofe, who defireto be informed concerning thofe parts : 
forbearing CO make a more large diicourleat the prefcnc^ buc 
refcrving it for another timc; which may be, when wee 
(hall returnc to that vaft Country , with new Labourers 
in fo great a number, that fomeof the greateft Author 
rity and Experience among us, may find leifure and conveni- 
ence to undertake a perfe(5l Relation. 

In the meantime, abbreviating, as much as 'tis poflible, 
this Information, without rendring that knowledge confu- 
fed, which wee pretend to gratify the world with, we ftiall di- 
vide the work into two parts. The firft containeth the matc-^ 
riallpartof the Kingdome,- that is^ the Provinces,' Land, and 
Fruits J and in a manner, the formal part too; that is, the 
people, their learning, and cuftomes. Thefecond,the Begin- 
ning of Chriftianity thcrc^ the progreflTe ihercofj the perfes; 
Gutions fuffcred thereinjand finally the condition^ wherein 
I left it, at my departure thence. I hope this worke fliall gain 
fomceftecm and crcdit,if notfor the greatneflc of the Ap:3 
pearance, at Icaft for the certainty of the rcaliry of itj having 


The T re face. 

taken what I write, from the infaUiblc Teftimony of mine 
eyes J which though they may not be of the cjuickeft fighted, 
yet have had the advantage to reiterate very often their fpe- 
culations. Andifhe which viewcth for a long time, zU 
though his fight be not of the beft, doth commonly fee 
more, then he who lookcth in hafte, be his eyes never fo 
good ; I, who, fopthe fpacc of two and twenty years, 
have had the opportunity to obfcrve all Paflages of 
China^ have certainly fcenfomuchwhat Jwrite, and what 
others have written, who have not fcen them iowcU^ that 
J muft neceffarily ipeak of them with more Certainty then 
they, although with lefle Eloquence. 


The Table of all the Chapters contained 
in the firft pare of the Hiftory oi China. 

^^ Chap. 2 . of the Provinces in particular ^ and fir fi oftbofe ef 

-^■' the South. fol. 8. 

Chap. 3 . Of the Northern Provinces. fol . 1 5 . 

- Chap. 4. oftheferfonsoftheChinejfes : of their nature^ ivit^ and inclinatm, 

fol, 22. 
Chap. 5. of the manner of their habit. fol. 29. 

Chap. 5. of their Language and Letters fol 31. 

Chap. 7. of their manner ofpudy.^ and admittance to examination, fol. j 5 . 
Chap, ^ of the manner of their Examinations^ and how their degrees are con- 
f^^r^^' fol, 40. 

Chap. 9. of the degree ofDodour. fol. 45, 

Chap. 10. of the Bookes and Sciences of the ChinefTes. fol .47. 

Chap. 1 1 . oft heir Sciences and liber all Arts in particular, fol .51, 

Chap. 1 2 . of the Courteftes and Civilities of the Chincffcs. fol.5 8. 

Chap. 13 . of their Banquets, fol. 65 , 

Chap* i^.of the Games rvhichtheChlncffcsufc, fol. 68. 

Chap. 1 5 of their Marriage fol, 69, 

Chap. 16. of the Funerals and Sepultures $f the ChinefTes: fol.*73. 

Chap. 1 7 . of the Funcrall of the ^een Mother. fol. 78. 

-Ch^p.i^.ofthefeverallfeas of Religion in China, fol 85. 

Chap. 19 Of their fuperftitions andfacrifices in China. fol. 9^.* 

Chap 2 o . oftJeM llitia and^rmiohhe ChinefTes. fol. 95] 

Chap. 2 1 . ^ the war which the Tmars^made upon China, fol, 100! 

Chz^.zi.ofthe Kings and ^eens of Chmx^ and of the Eunuchs fol.'iots! 

Chap'. 23. Uow the Kings <?/China are married. fol . 1 19. 

Chap. 24. of the Nobility ^/China. fol . 1 2 1 .' 

* Chap. 25 . of the Government o/China, and of the officers- fol. 1 24^ 

C hap. 26. of the Government oft he thirteen Provinces, fol 1 2 8. 

Chap. 27 0/^^^ Badge of honour.^ or Enfigns of the Mandarines, fol. 1^2.' 

Chap. 28. of the Prifons^ Sentences, and Punijhments of the ChinefTes. 

fol. 135. 

Chap. 2p, Offome particular things, which doe facilitate and reBify the Go- 
venment in China. fQJ ^^. 

Chap. 30. of the KjMoors, lews, and other Nations which are in China. 

foL 151. 
Gnap. 3 1 . Ofthe Chriftun Religipp planted many agesftnce in Ch ina: and of 
a very ancient fione lately difcovered there, which is an admirable teMmony 
^^''''f^ fol. 154. 


A Table of the contents of the Chapters in 
the fecond Pare of the Hiftory oi China. 
Chap.i./^i^ thefrfibegmningcof the fredching cfthe Gofpd in Chini 

Chap 2. Ofthefroceedings and Perfecutiom .jlfhe Fathers before they 

arrived at Nank'^m. ■'-■ -^"i . ,. * ^^}' ^7*-' 

Cap ^ ofivhathappened after, till the Fathers entred mo Pehm, fol. 177. 

Chap '4 The Fathers enter into fekim and fettle there. fol. 183. 

Chap. 5. f the proceedings andrtiin of their Boufe at Xaocheu. fol. 187, 

Ch£- 6 of the pr ogre gf'e^o ft he Chrip an Religion at the tm Reftdencies at 

Nanc/jamandNankim^andofthe de^tth of Father LMatthms Riccius. 

io\, 192. 

Chap. 7. of the 'Mrying place, which was heflewedupontts by the King^ and of 

thTproireffeofthe Chriflian Religion^ imtill the time of the perfectitton at 

Nankim^ ' ^ ^ fol 197. 

Chap. 8. A fierce perfcctition is raifed againft the Chriftians tn Nanhm, 

^0\, 20). 

Chav.9.Thecontinu.ition of the Perfcctition and the Banifhment of the Fa* 

ther.< out of Chin^. F0L214, 

ChBp.ioMorv thi}igs began to be cdmcd again after the perfecution^mdof 

the foundation of fever all Eejidencies. iol,2 20. 

C\i2i'0.ii. of the fecond perfccutionai "H-^rnVm^and of the warty dome of 4 

Chrifi:an named Andrew . f<^' 'i 2 6^ 

Ctiz^^ii.Howthings bcgantohe quiet and fetled, and how the Fathers were 

fent for to Court by orde r of the Mandarines > fol 252. 

Ch^Xi.iX.'the life and death of T>x. Lqo :andthe concltifm of this Wdory. 

^* ^' fol. 239. 

^ After which follows the fupjlement to thefe prefent times, wherein J5 

rnntalnedij}eJjC7>/;?g//gi mo ff warre w ith the T^^rtjtrs^ 

b^yJ^hnm theyjrcn ow^ conquered . Fol. 24^. 









Of the Temporall State of 


C H A P« !• 

Of the Kingdom in ^enerall, 

JJina in its extent is one great continued 
Continent, without having any thing 
which devides it : and taking it from the* 
latitude of, Hajnam (which is not farte 
diftant from the continent, and lyeth 
in nineteen degrees ) it extends it felf 
twenty fowre degrees, inclining towards 
the Eafl: • and ending in fourty three de- 
grees, it comes to make a circuite fo much 
the more fpacious, by how much the 
coafts thereof run along in various and un- 
equal! windings ; and fo comes to be the 
cheifeft kinodome of the world in greatneOe and almoft equallto all Eu- 
rope. On the weft fide thereof are many fmall lilands, but foe neere to- 
gether, that they feem all to Compofe bur,as it were, one body. 

All this Monarchy is divided into fifteen Provinces-, each of which 
is a fpacious Kingdome, and fo they were all anciently ; each having a 
King of its own. Of thofe nine, which they call the Southern Provinces, 
the greateft part of them are watered with large rivers, and fome of thole, 
having fo great plenty of water, that in many places the oppofite banks are 
out of fight , one of the other -and elfewhere , that which appcareth , is 
hardly to be diftinguiflied what it is. They are all navigable and are 
frequented wirh fo a great concourfe of divers forts of vcffcls , that what 
might be faid upon this occafion, will hardly feem credible : I (hall oneiy 

The Hiftory of CBi^^- Pa r t.i. 

ray,that in this, they do exceed all other rivers of the world. In an Armc 
ot the river of Nanchim^\s\\\c\-\ with a moderate breadth runneth down to 
Bamchen^l ftayed eight dayes for a palTage through that wonderful con- 
courfeofveflels.-andvvhileftan houre-glaflTc of fandwas running outj 
counted three hundred fmall Hi ps, reckoning only thofe which came up 
the is a marvellous thing,there being fo many,that all are fo vvcli 
accommodated for Mcrchandize,and fo convenient for paffengers-They 
are all covered and kept very near, and fome of them fb beautified and 
adorned with pidureSjthat they feem rather made for the recreation^than 
the traffick of Merchants. 

The manner, after which they are governd is very notable : for the 
Marriners keep all without the place, where the paffengers make their a- 
bode, there being fpace enough without for them to run up and down, 
that trim the Sayles and guide the Bark, without any difturbance 
of the others, who enjoy a pleafant cafe and reft .In which the Barks of the 
pr ovince of Hancee exceed the reft. 

The fix Northern provinces, as they come nearcft to our latitude, do 
raoft refemblc our climate, and are more dry and healthfull than the reft. 
But in all of them (more or leflfej there arc noc wanting many of a long 
and happy life •, there being to be found many, and very vigorous and 

Of the fame more farticularlj . 

This Kingdom is fo populous,that not only the Villages, but evcnihe 
Cities are in fight one of another j.and in fome placcs,where the rivers arc 
moft frequented jthe habitations are almoft continued. Of thefe there are 
foure fortS;great Cities which they call Fu: the lefTer, which they call 
C^«,(concerning thefe, Writers have fomewhat differed in their Rclati-^ 
ons:)Townes, which they call Hierf-, and Caftles, which they call 
Cid, Befides thefe, there are Villages and Hamlets almoft innumera- 
ble. Of all thefe the Walls are kept n^ht and day with a four-fold 
Guard at the found of a Bell, even to the innermoft City of the King- 
dom,asifthey werealwayesina condition of Warre: fbewing, that to 
prevent the leaft imaginable danger, which may fal out in anhoure; it 
isfgoodtoftandjduringlife, upon our guard; for ordinarily all fudden 
mines proceed from a long confidence. Theftreets are kept by Courts 
of Guard andSentinels,with fo much rigour^that if they find them afleep, 
^ or ftragled from their Poft,or that they do not fpeedily anfwer, they are 
piefendy condemned to the Baftinado^ which is immediately executed in 
the fame place. The publick gates are fhut every night with great care.and 
if there fall out any accident, they are not opened,til they are far isficd, 
how the Fad was done. In the year one thoufand fix hundred thirty 
four,! was in the City of A'mwj/, where thirty theeves broke prifon , and 
having routed the guardSjWounding fome and killing others, fet them-, 
felvs at liberty .The Fa(5l was known- and the opening 'of the gates be- 
ing fufperded according to their inviolable cuftome, before next night 
the Malefactors were all taken^nor could thegreatneffe of the City hide 
any one of them. 


Chap .i. The Hi/lory of QUl^A. 3 

This Kingdom is fo exceeding populous, that I having lived there two 
and twenty years, v^ras in no lefTe amazement at my coming away, than [ 
was in the beginning , at the multitude of the people; certainly, the truth 
^xceedeth all Hyperboles., not onely in the Cities, Towncs, and pub- 
lick places, (infomeofwhich one cannot walk without great vrolencc 
ofthiufting and crowding.) but alfo in the High-wayes, there is as 
great a concourfe, as is tifually in Europe at fomc great feaftival], or pub'« 
lick meeting. And ifwe will referre our fclves to the generall rcoffttt 
book, wherein only the common men are enrolled and matricuhtcd^ lea- 
ving out women^ children ^ eunuchs, pmfeflburs of armes and letters, (al- 
moft an infinite number)there are reckoned of them to be fifty eight miili- 
ons,and fifty five tlioufand, one hundred ar^d fourcfcore. 

The houfes, where they inhabite, are not fo fumptuous and laflfng, as 
ours : yet are they more convenient for the good contrivance, and more 
pleafant for their exquifite neatnefle. They ufe much in their houfes 
Charam^ an excellent vernifli, and painting of an accurate diligcnce.They 
build them not very high, efteeming them more convenient for bein^-^ 
Iow,as well for habiration^as for good accommodation. The ridier fort o^ 
people doe plant the courts and approaches to their houfes withflowrel 
and fmall trees ^ and, towards the North, they ufe fruit trees. Inlik^ 
manner, where they have roome enough, they fet greater trees, and rai(b 
artificiall mountaines -, to which end they bring from farre, great pieces of 
rocks : They keep there feverall forts of fowl •, as Cranes and Swannes, 
and other beautifull birds: and alfo wild beafts, as Sragges, and fallow 
Dearc : They make many fifb- ponds, where are to be feen gliding up and 
downe painted fifli with gilded finns, and other things likewife of ciirio- 
fitie and delight. 

Their way of building is in this manner. They frame firft exaaiy the 
roofcof the houfe, which they fct upon pillars of wood, the which by 
how much the bigger they are, are fo much the more cfteemcdrafter they 
fit up the walls with brick, or fome fuch like matter.There is a Tradition, 
that^anciently^tbey made their buildings according toexad: rules of mca- 
fure and proportion -, of which Art there are yet fome bookes remaining ; 
but thofc rules are now only obfetvcd in theKings palaccs^and in publick 
workcs^ as,towresof Cities and Townes, which they make of feverall 
formes -, as round ., fquarc ., odiangular •, very beautifull, with ftaires, 
fome winding, fome plaine, and Balanfters on the out-fide. 

InthevcfTclsand utenfilesof their houfethey arc both very curious 
and ex^enfive ., ufing much the abovefaid Charam, a fort of vcrniQi, 
which IS taken fromcertaine trees, proper only to that, and the neigh- 
bouring, Countries.- and in truth it is an excellent thing, as well for the 
perfedion of the matter, (as may be kth in the workes which come from 
thence) as for the cafinelTc in working it, as well in making new things, as 
IQ rctrimming the old,and reducing them to their former beauty. 

As for plenty • whereas this kingdome, byreafon of its large extent, 
doih participate of diverfe latitudes and climates, it produceth and enjoy- 
cthfo great varictie of fruits, that nature feems there to have laid upon 
hcapes, what (bee but fcattcrs through the reft of the world. It hath 

B 2 within 

7he Hiftory of QtHU^A, Part.i. 

within its owne doores all that is ncceffary for mans life, together with all 
fupcrfluity of delicacies : whence it hath, not only no need to take almes 
of other Countries^but, with what it is able to fpare, (which is both much 
and very good j it fatisfieth the defircs of the neighbouring and remote 
jkingdomes, who have always a longing defirc to fee and enjoy it. Its 
chiefe fuftenance is that which is moft ufed throughout the world,to wit, 
wheat and ricc; fome Countries making moft ufe of the one, andfome 
of the other. China produceth both in fo great plenty, that a Pi€oo£ 
each (zPic0 containcs 125 pound of our weight) is commonly worth 
five Reals,(that is, about halfc a crowne of Englifh mony) and if it com- 
meth to feaven and a halfe 'tis counted a dearth. 

The Northern Provinces ufe for their proper fuftenance Whcate,Bar- 
ly.andMaiz^ eating Rice but feldome, as we doe in Europe^ leaving it 
fortheSouthernProvinces^ Which although they have Wheat in great 
plenty _, make ufe of it with the fame moderation, as we doe of Rice, or a- 
ny other fort of fruit. They have Pulfeofdiverfekindes,thereliefe of 
the pootcr fort of people, and the ordinary provinder, in ftcad of Barly, 
for the Beafts of Burthen.They ufe Herbes machjthey being the food of 
ihe ordinary people, almoft all the year throughout ; & the chiefe Inven- 
torie of their Apothecaries ftiops,for their phyficke-, which is founded only 
upon Herbes and very fafe phyfick. Yet they want both Endive and Car- 
duus, but have in ftead thereof others, which we want. 

Flefh they have every where plentifully, even in fmall villages- That 
which they ufe moft conftantly throughout the yeare, isHogs-flefh, 
Bcefe is fold there without any bones, they taking them alwayes out,firft. 
Vemfon they have not fo plentifuU.-nor doe they much afFedi it- although 
they have there the fame which here afford us fo much recreation • as, 
wild Boares, Stagges, fallow Deare and Hares, but no Conies. Of fowle 
there is great plenty, they have all ours in great abundance; Partridges 
of two forts, one whereof differeth not from ours, but only in their call. 
The Nightingales, though they are bigger than ours, have the fame voice 
and manner of finging. Other birds there are which we have not here, 
and are in great efteeme, as well for their beauty to the eye, as for their 
excellent tafte fo pleafe the Palat.The birds which we fee painted in their 
Workes that come into Europe have,without doubt, for the moft part, the 
refcmblance of thofe there. Art alwaies favouring nature, or but little al- 
tering from her. They are excellent in bringing up of tame fowle, and 
have of every fort without number 5 Geefe they have in fo gteat quanti- 
ty, that they feed up and downe the fields in huge flocks. That which 
is reported of their hatching egges by art, is very certaine^ but it is only in 
the fpring time, and then they havc'no need of the dam. 

Wild Beafts, as Tigers and Wolves there are in abundance through- 
out the kingdome, though they doe not much hurt. There are Elephants 
alwaies to be feen at court, but they are brought from other Countries^ 
For tame creatures they have all ours, as well for burthen (without ufing 
Oxen for this, as they are faine to doe throughout all India; as alfo for til- 
lage of their iand,in which they make ufe of Oxen. In the Southern parts 
the ^'(/^/f'Vundcrgoc the chiefe labour* They havcftoreof horfes, but 


Chap.i. The Hijlory of CHI3\(j1. 

without mettle, and little worth. Coaches were formeily much in ufe 
with them, and growing out of fafliion there, we tooke them up, beincr 
firft iikd^ in Italy and Spain^in the yeare 1 54^^, Since they have only ufed 
Chaires and Sedans, finding them of le{Te pompc andexpence, and of 
greater convenience ^ wherefore to this day in all their journics they fervc 
themfelves with litters carried by Mules, or Chairc s borne by 4, 6, or 8, 
men,according to the quality of the perfons. Thofe which they ufe moft 
in Cities are in forme not unlike unto ourS* Thofe in which the women 
are carried, are bigger, more convenient, and more beautified • and alfo 
the manner of carrying them is different. In the two Cities of Pcmkin 
and Nayickin , where there is a greater concourfe of all forts of people, 
they have in all publick places a good quantity of Korfcs and Mules, with 
handfome furniture,and very well fitted with bridles and faddles, land- 
ing ready to be hired by fuch perfons, as are defiious^ with more eafe 
and kde cxpence, to travell up and downc the City upon their occa- 

In the Northern provinces, they have but little fifh/fejccept it be at the 
Court; which, for being fuch, wants nothing J Thereafonis, becaufe 
in thofe parts there are no: many Rivers .- yet they caufe great ftore of 
fifli to be brought from the Southern Provinces, (which very much a- 
bound therein, taking them on the fea coafts, in lakes, and in pooles in 
great plenty) dried and accommodated in diverfe manners, fo much as is 
fufficient* In the River of iV^w)^/;; there is every yeareafifhing for the 
Kings ufe -, and rill that be done, there is a prohibition upon a rigorous 
penalty for any other perfon to fifh : and the voyage being between five 
and fourty and threefcore daies journy, yet it is brought f refli and fweet, 
without faking it. Troutes are not there fo much cfteemed as with us^buc 
Sturgeon every whit as much ^ which, when it is fold at the deareft, doth 
not exceed five-pence the pound: By which you may perceive the cheap- 
ncffe of all other things. 

Among fruits- Cherries, and Mulberries have there no efteeme,'for 
their taft is not very good •, they ufe the greateft part of thofe fruits we 
have in Europe .- but they are not comparable to ours, neither in quantity 
nor quality, except it be the Oranges oi Cant one ^vihich may well be called 
the Salens of Oranges : and are by fome cfteemed to beg not fo much 
Oranges as MufcateU Grapes . difguifed in that forme and habit. The 
Southern provinces have the beft fruit of aillndia-, particularly C4;?^^;?^/or 
they have Anms^Mmgh^ts ^Bananas ^ GiachaSjdx.Giambai'^ & above all, there 
are fome fruits proper to them of a particular excellency, fuch as in Can' 
tone are ^ the Licie ^ (fothe Portnghefs cdWihcm-^huttht Chine fes^ Lici.j 
Thcfe on the outfide are of an Orange colour, and when they are ripe doe 
very much beautify the trees they grow on. They are made like chaft- 
nuts, in the forme of an heart : when the fhell is pilled of, which is only 
contiguous to it, the fruit remaines like a pearl in colour, very plea- 
fing to the fight, but more to the tafte. 

There is likewife a fruit called Longans^ named by the chine fes^ Lu- 
mien, that is, Dragons eye, they are in figure and greatneffe not much un- 
like a fraall nut, but the Pulpe is wery little, and different • but between 

B 3 ' the 

The Hijlory of CBl^d. Pabt.i. 

the {hell and the ftone it is fwect and whokfomc: this fruit is found in 

Cantenc and Fokien. 

Throughout the kingdome there are red ngges/a name put upon them 
by the Portughefes : for in the Chimfe tongue they are called ^»^» ; ) it 
is a fruit very different from figges in colour, figure and tafte •, the colour 
on the outfide is red, on the infide like gold •, the figure is of the bignelle 
of an Orange, bigger or lefTer •, for there is as muchdivcrfitie of them, as 
there is among us of figges. The rinde is very thinne, and is of fo extra- 
ordinary good tafle, that in my opinion it may be reckoned among the 
chiefeft in the world. They have one or two feeds, which are like unto 
blanched Almonds : the bed are in the cold Countries. The provinces 
Borjau, Xianfiy Xenfi^ ^ndXantum enjoy the beft in quality, and in great 
quantity; and dry enough ofthem to fcrve the whole kingdome. When 
they are dry, they are better than our dried figges, to which they have 
fom^ kind of refemblancc. 

The province of Hamcheu produceth a particular fruit, which they 
call ^mmoi^ asbiggeasa plumbe, round, and in colour and tafte like 
unto the beft Mulberries : but the tree is very different. 

Peaches there are none, unleffe it be in the Province of Xe^(t, whcvQ 
there are fome of a notable blgneffe : fome are red both within and with- 
out 5 others of a yellow colour, of the fame figure and tafte with ours. 

There are Melons every where in great abundance : but the beft are not 
to be compared to our good ones ; there are water melons in great plenty 
and very good. 

Grapes are very rare and fcarce, and grow only in Arbours, andclofe 
walkcs, except it be in the Province of Xefjjl, where they are in abun- 
dance, and where they alfo dry them in great plenty. They make not their 
wine of Grapes, but of Barly, and in the Northern parts, of Rice -, where 
they alfo make it of Apples, but in the Southern parts of Rice only ^ yet 
this is not ordinary Rice, but a certaine kind of it proper to them^ which 
ferveth only to make this liquor, being ufed in diverfe manners. 

Vineger they make of the fame ingredients as theirwine 5 and, in the 
Wefternc Provinces, oi Millet 5 which notwithftanding is ftiarp and well 

The wine ufed by the common people, although it will make them 
drunke, is not very ftrong nor lafting, 'tis made at all times of they care: 
but the beft only in the winter; It hath a colour very plea/ing to the fight; 
nor is the fmcU lelTe pleafing to thefent^or the Savour thereof,to the fafte; 
take altogether, it is a vehement occafion, that there never want drun- 
kards-, but without any muld of ftiame 5 for they have not yet placed it in 
that con fiderat ion. Winter and Summer they drink it warm. 

Flowers are in fingular efteeme with thefe people* and they have fome 
exceeding beautifull and different from ours-, which Cyct) they doe not 
want. They have Clove-gilleflovvres, which have no fmell at all. They 
endeavour to have, the ycare throughout, flowers for every feafon in their 
gardens, in which they are very curious. They have fome flowres,which 
in their duration exceed the ordinary ftile of nature -, in which they fceme 
to be exempt from their common tribute of a fhort life. For when thefe 


Chap.1. ThsHijlory of QHIJ^J, ~ j 

plantshaveno moyfture left for the nouriflimcnt of their leaves, and ex- 
pofed ro the cold, thefe do fall off, then do new flowres fprout againe, & 
thofethemoft odoriferous, during the greatcft inclemency ofthefroft 
and fnow. Thefe are called Lamui^ more pleafing to the fent than the eye 5 
their colour being not unlike that of Bees wax. They have other floweis 
like Tillies, c2L\\cdTiaohoa^ which they keep inthehoufe, becaufethat 
being carefully taken up with their roots entire and well cleanfedfrom 
earth, they live and flouriih in rhe ayre. 

Their Garments, asalfo the furniture of their chambers andhoufes, 
they make of wooll, Linnen, Silke and Cotton, which they make^reat 
life of and weave thereof many faire and curious ftufifs. 

The riches of that kingdom is admirable : for befides that the earth is 
fo fruitfull in allkinde of fuftenance, and what ever is neceffary for mans 
life , as may be perceived by what hath been already faid • they do 
vend unto ftrangers the beft and richeft merchandife of all the Eaft 5 fuch 
as are Gold-threed 5 Gold in the leafe and Ingot-, Rubics^Saphires- fmall 
Pearle-, Muske-, raw filke ; and wrought filk quick-filver. Copper, tin, 
7'ommga^^\\\ch\s2^]dvi& of mettall more fine, and as hardasTinj Ver- 
milion, SaIt-nitrc,Brimflone,Sugar,and other things of IclTe importance. 

Their guilded workes for houfliold-ftuffe, ornaments and Jewells for ' 
women, both fornecelTity and curiofitie, are fufficiently known to the 
world ; nor doth all this iflTue out at one port, but by many in a great and 
perpetuall commerce. In all this abundant riches of the Country, in- 
duflry of the inhabitants, Arts and means of gaining their living to an ex- 
ccfTive plenty , they doe not let pafTe any other thing,that can bring them a- 
ny profit; and notwithftanding the fight of fo great afluence of noble 
commodities, they make a profit of their Beefe-bones5Hogges-haires-,and 
ofthefmallefl: ragge, that is throne into the ffreefes. There raigneth a- 
mong them that only pledge & furetie of the duration of Empires-, that is, 
that the publike is rich, and no particulars. They are not To rich there a^ 
in Burofe ; nor fo many which can properly defervc that name.- nor are the 
poor here fo many, nor fo poor •, as thofe there. The people is infinite, nor 
can they have a capitall, or flock, fufficient for fo many 5 ormonytofill 
fo many purfes.Hence it comes to paflfc, that the partition among them is 
fuch, that much comes to few,a mediocrity to not many, and a little to al- 
mofl infinite . Their mony is much atone ftay, which may be perceived 
by the fame low price of things, falary of fervants, pay of workmanfhip, 
and flipend of publick Miniflers. 

So that even to this day, at Icafl in diverfe of thefe countries they live, 
as they did formerly in Portugall-^ when a Maraved /V, which is worth a 
farthing and a half, divided into fix blanes, would buy fix feverall things. 
So was it alfo in Cafiile^ not only in ancient times, but even to the raign of 
Don fohn the firflrthe records of which are flill prcfervedrbut fuch tem- 
perance and plenty long fince are gone out of the world. From hence itis 
manifefl, how much that admirable duration of the Empire of Chim de- 
pendeth on obferving its lawes and ancient cuftomes, without ever, ope^ 
ningagate (that the great ones might fecme greater, and the fmall one?, 
great) to luxurie in apparel; and cxcclTe in diet 5 which are the irreparable 


8 The Hiftory of QHIU\C.A. Part.i. 

ruine of Common wealths. 

A pound of mutton is worth a penny, a pigeon a farthing and a halfe^ 
thehireofaman-fervant forayear,two hundred farthings,and his dyt^ 
and lodging.But there is a great difFc^rence betwixt fome places and o- 
thers,thore of the South,as they have the advantage in commerce, fo ihey 
exceed the reft in money-, and the price of things-, which continually 
rifeth,as we find every day by experience: but even there to this day, the 
rate is very moderate. 

Chap. 2. 

Ojthe T^roVmces in particular ^an^jirjl 
ofthofe ojthe South. 

^ I ^his kingdome is divided into two parts,South and North-, and both 
J_ thefefubdivided into fifteen provinces, as is above-faid. To this 
Southern part belong nine;which are Cantctte^X^amfi^rmmfn^ Fukien^ Ki- 
amfi^SttchuemMH^^^^i^^^^^^^i^^^^^^:)^^ vvil treate of thefe in this chap- 
ter, and of the reft in the next. That we may proceede diftiniflly^fpeaking 
of them in the fame order that we have named them. 

C^»?(7;;ns the firft, and lyeth in that part of the South, that is properly 
named Quantum It is in the latitude of twenty three degrees, it is large, 
rich^and abounding in wheat and rice-, of thefe it propuccth each yeare 
two harvefts though for the moft part they are of a feverall graine. 
There is ftore of fuger,copper and tin, materials, which they worlce5WTth 
great variety, into innumerable forts of veffels; as alfo, workes made 
with CW</w,an excellent vernifh, and with guilding, fome whereof are 

tranfported into £//rflf^. 

Thcjefuits in this province had two refidencies with their Churches 

andlioufes, which perifhedby reafon of Severall perfecutions, as you 
ftiall find hereafter. 

The people are able Mechanicks, and though of fmall invention, vet 
they imitate excellently whatfoever they find invented^ To the City 
called alfo Cantone(ihoi\g\i the proper name thereof bee G^^wr/'f///// j 
the Fertugeffes go twice every year with their mar chandice .It is diflanc 
fmm Macao an hundred and five miles : and U.acao is diftant from the 
firft lflands,and from the greater Cicyesofthat Empire fifty four: The 
circumference thereof is 15 good miles. Theconcourfc of merchants 
thither is very great^ and therefore it is more peopled than many of the 
other Cityes. The moft and beft comodities of that Kingdomeare 
brought thither, becaufe it is the moft open and free feat of trade in that 
nation. And ro fay nothing of the fix neighbouring kingdomes,from 
whence all forts of merchandife is brought thither, as well by natives as 
ftrangers: only that which the Portugejfes iskc in for /W///, Giappone 
and Manila, cometh ore year with another to five thoufand three hun- 
dred chcfts of feverall filkc ftuffes-,each chcft. including 100 peiccs of the 


Chap.z. The Hipry of CHl^A. p, 

moft fubftantial {ilks,as velvet damask and fattiniof the {lighter ftuffcs ai 
halfe-daaiasks, painted and fingle taffiries 2 50 pcices of gold 2200 In- 
gots ot 12 ounces weight a peece; of musk, feaven Pick: which is more 
then ^$ Arrovas cvtxy Arrova^ti^m^ 25 pound, of <5 ounces to the 
pound-, befidesfmall pearle-, fugar; Force Ham diQies-, Chim wood- Rheu- 
^<ir^^', and fe vera 11 curious guildcd woikes^ and many other things of 
lefTeimportance-jit being hard to name them all even in a longer relation. 

To this Province belongeth the Ifland of Apan, where pearls are fiHi- 
ed in great plenty. It is fuificiently populous, by one city,it hath Several 
villages on the North part thereof: toowards the South there ly- 
cth a barbarous people, which admit the Chwefes only to trafficke and 
^commerce, without fubmitting to their dominion. It produceth that 
precious wood of tAquiU and that fvveet wood, which the Portngefes 
call rofe- wood, and the natives, Hoalim-^ and other things of lefTc im- 
On the North fide of Cantom the Prov ince oiQ/iamft extendeth it felfc 
to the latitude of 2 5 degrees .- it en/oyes the fame climate without any 
confiderable difference ; f fo that it hath nothing particular, which is no- 
table- ) and is counted the fccond Province, 

Tunnamh the third 5 and lycth in the latitude of 24 degrees, and is the 
f urtheft diftant of any from the Centre of C^/;24;itis a great countrie, 
but hath litdemerchandife, I know not any thing is brought from thence, 
unlcfle it bee that matter, whereof they make the beads for chapplets, 
which in P(?r/«^4// they call Alambras-^'znd in CapHe, Ambares; and arc 
like Amber, they are counted good againft the cararre-,it is digged out of 
mines, and fometimes in great peices : it is redder than our Amber, but 
not fo cleane. In this province is violated that cuftome of the Kingdome 
that women do not goto the market to buy or fell, asinothcrcoun* 
tries of the world, ; 

On the other fide o^Cantone is the fourth Province called Fftkietty or by 
another name Chincheo^ in the latitude of 25 degrees : it is for the greatcft 
part Mountanous. and therefore not fo well inhabited. Contrary to the 
lawes of the Kingdom,the Natives of this Province do go into the coun- 
tries of the neighbouring ftrangers,which are upon the fea-coafts Jt yecl- 
deth gold, good fugar in great quantitie,good Canvas-cloath-, for other 
Hnncn there is none in C^/>4. There is made excellent paper of diverfe 
kindeSjWhich for plenty ,goodnefIe, and cheapnelTe, is very remarkable. 
They make ufe of printing no lefie conveniently , and (as it appear- 
eth) more anciently, than in Europe^ although not in the very fame man- 
nenfor here,afcer the printing of each (heet, the letters are taken afunder / 
there they carve what they would print upon boards or place, fo that the 
bookes are ft ill preferved entire in their work-houfes-, and therefore as of- 
ten as there is occafion,they can reprint any book , without the expence 
of new fctting the letters. This country is fcituated upon the Sea-fide, 
and is another eminent port,from whence arc ilTued out of that Kingdom, 
infinite Merchandife, which are carried by the people of this country, 
that are induftrious,and brought up to it,to Mam lajGiappom j^nd particu- 
larly to thMmdF ormofajwhkh is even in the fight of the land^for with a 

C good 


The Hi/lory of QiUHj^^ P^b t.i. 

a good wind it is not above 24 houres voyage thither) where they trade 
with the JJellanders, 

There are two houfes and Churches there belonging to our company; 
under whofe Government and dircdion are a grcar number of very good 
Chriftians •, who have about ten Churches belonging to them, the which 
are vifited by us very diligently at fet times. Two of their chiefe Chur- 
ches are in the City of -Fw/^^r^ which is their Metropolis : another in the 
City ofCieumchu, the left in other Cities. There are (befidcs j many par- 
jcicular Oratories. , ^ 1 • • ^ 

" The iflan4/^r^/i^ lyeth in the Latitude of 22 degrees, it is fituated 
between the Kingdomesof C^/;^4 and Guff one : before you come thither 
you muft paflfe by a great number of Illands named Ltqueu : the length of 
this Ifland isjjp miles , the bread th 75 • ^ 

The Hollanders have there a fort placed in a fandy vale, under which 
lyeth the Port, which is encompalTed with bankes of fand,and if it were 
not diftinguiflied and fecured by certainc pofts fet up in the water, the en- 
france would be very difficult even to thofe of the Countrie. On the o- 
ther fide of the Ifland toward the Eaft, the Sfanyards have a fore, diftanc 
fram that of the Hollanders 90 miles by fea,and by land 45,35 is reported. 
The foyle of the Ifland is fo f ruitfull, that it produceth grarfe nine or tea 
palmes high (a palme is nine inches, Englifli mcafure; where the HoUait^ 
ders feed their cattell. Thereis fo great abundance of Stagges, that jt 
feemeth incredible to him that hath not feen it .fatlier tAlhertus Micefchi^ 
(who lived there in the condition of a flavej relatcth, that, riding to the 
next woods with leave from the Governour, to gather fomc mcdicinall 
hearbes, he faw by the way fo great a multitude of Stagges, that he judg- 
ed them to be the herds belonging to the people of theCountry,difperfed 
up and downe the fields, till coming nccrcr he found with his eyes the 
contrary. There are alfo many of thofe ^ntmds called Alces or ElkeSy 
the which, I did hitherto belceve, were only to be found in Lituanh and 
the adjacent Countries. There are alfo many other x^nirnds wholly 
differing from ours, and altogether ftrange to us. It js the likeft Country 
to Eur Of e of all India. -It enjoyeth an healthfull ay re, and cold Jike our§. It 
produceth fome fpices, but not in great plenty •, as Pepper in the woods, 
and Cynamon on themountaines,& Camphire trees of a notable bigncfle, 
China roots, 2,x\dSalfafarigliaj^ in great quantitie. There are alfo gold 
mines, but the Hollanders have not yet open'dthem. 

The people of the Countrie weare no manner of cloathes ♦, neverthe- 
leffe both men and women doe cover that, which in all the India s ufeth to 
be hidden from fightjby the inflind of nature. They dwell in round hou - 
fesmade with BulruQiesoffeverall colours, beautif uU to behold a farre 
off. Their ordinary food is Stagges flcfh as fatasporke-, and Rice; of 
- which alfo they make very flrong wine," Many of them dog turne Pro* • 
teftants by the perfwafion of the Holland Minifters,andjive vcrteoufly. 
They arc tall and adlive of body, fo fleet in running that they are able to 
fingleout, and run downea Staggc in their hunting. Tlicir Lords doc 
weare a Crowne of dead mens skulls, ff itched together and embellifhed 
with fiike : and thefe are the heads of their enemies killed by themfelves. 


Ch A p.2^ The Hijlory of CHIU^A. iT 

Their King wearcth two wings of various feathers upon his head : others 
crownethemfelves with apples of gold, others make themfelvcsjiorn^s 
ofacertaineftraw, made up with ^5///^/^'^ haire .♦ They gird themfclvcs 
alfo about with a girdle of young Buh'ufl-iescurioully woven. Thipitar- 
ry hanging at their breafttwo Tortoifes anda woodden maJlet, which 
fcrvethem inftead otadrum. There is likewife another Ifland neere to 
ir, inhabited by fierce favage people^ who kill, whofoever goeth thither^ 
rhe above-named father Micefchi favv one of them taken by the Hol- 
landers, who was fifteen palmes high, as it feemed to him. 

The fift place we will give to the Province of AV^;»/?, which is contigu- 
ous to that of C4;?/f>;?^ toward the North, in the latitude of 2^ degrees. 
It rakes its beginning fiom a great ridge of mountaines, which reare thcm- 
fclves upon the confines of C4»?tf;?f, fromthefe Mountaines ttvo Rivers 
have their original!-,one',which runneth toward the South,and is prefently 
navigable-, the other towards the North-, which after it hath watreda 
good part of this Province receiveth into his channell another large Ri- 
ver of the Province of Huqaam^ and then runneth forward v^ith the name 
of the famous Nad'im, Theskirtsofthefe Mountaines arc confiderable 
for the good Cities that are fcituated thereon-, very convenient for the 
paffage ofttavailers,and for the conduct of Merchandifc -, which for the 
moff part pafleth upon the backs of menandboyes, according to the a- 
bilitics of each, learning this trade from their youth, which is the moft 
ufuall imployment of that Countries The voyage is but of one whole 
day, and it is very much to fee what pafTcth by in it. For there being no 
other bridge -, and thefe Rivers being the moft frequented pafles of all 
China^Ws almofl incredible, how great a concourfe of people there is, and 
what amuhitude of commodities, which goe and come without inter- 
miifion. The Merchandife is all put in one ftore-houfe, and is received 
by weight into another with fo much fidclitie, that it is not neceffary the 
owner ihould beprefent,becaufe upon all accidents the Hoftes are bound 
to make good whatfoever is wanting.They are obliged alfoto give to eve- 
ry gueft of qualitie, or Merchant two banquets, or one at leaft, as alfo to 
their fervants ; and if they be not fatisfied therewith, they tell them of it, 
expoftulate, and threaten not to frequent any more their Inne, there not 
wanting many others. 

By this Government they make their covetousHoffes very fumptuous 
and bountiful!. The Hoffes'are alfo obliged, as foone, as their guefts are 
embarqucd, (for if they goe by land this priviledge ceafcth) to (end them 
aprefent of two things, or of one at leaft, as fruit, two fifhes, a little 
flclh, a coupk of pullets-, and this without paying, cither at your entrance, 
abode, or departure -, for there is nothing to be payd, cither for the lodg- 
ing or bedftead J fay bedftead,becaufetheHofte allowes you no bed but 
every one carrieth one with him at his backe,when he hath no other con- 
venience -, but they are not fo big as our beds, but much lighter. The pro- 
fit of the Hofte confifteth in fo much percent, which is payd them by the 
Boateman for fuch perfons, or goods as are carried by water 5 and by the 
poiters for fuch as paffe by land-, and as the concourfe is great, the profit 
cannot be little. Every thing pafTeth through the hands of Infurers, fo 

C 2 that 

'^ 7he Htftory of QWU^A. ~Part.i. 

that if any thing be wanting, they fupply it and make it up. 
^IniteCuftome-houfefforthereisavery famous one liere) there is not 
To much honour done the Merchant, but more favour. There is no houfe 
whfiitthe Merchandife is depofited, weighed or vifited-, neither is it ta- 
ken out of the barke-, but only a moderate rate is payed for itbythecye, 
and according to the Merchants booke of accounts. If the paffcnger be 
no Merchant, although he goe alone in a Barkc with his fervants, and car- 
ry five or fix chefts, and fcverall other things, which are ufualiy tranfpor* 
ttdi from one Country to anotherjthey are not fearchcd nor opened, nei- 
ther doe they pay any cuftome. A good example for the Cuftome and 
Gabell'houfes of H//ropf , where a poore traveller is fobeaRly and bar- 
baroufly, robbed and fpoiled; when' all he carrieth with him is not 
worth fo much as they aske him for cuftome . 

For ftrangers fhips,\vhich come into the Port o^Ma^ao^ as foone as any 
arriveth, they unlade their Mcrchandife as they pleafe, without any hin- 
derance • and when the cuftomers come, they pay them according to the 
content of the veffel, without making any enquiry into the qualitie of the 

But to returne to the Province oiKiamfi^ f of which we were difcour- 
fing-,) ic particularly aboundeth in Rice and fifii, but moft of all in people. 
So that the Chimfjes call them Laochu, that is to fay, Rats. Whereof, we 
havearefemblancein Vorttigdl^ in the Country thatlyeth between the 
Rivers T>utrQ and Uigno • which,where it confineth upon Gullitia hath fo 
great multitude of people, that it is therefore called by the fame name • 
although learned men doc derive it from Rates, an ancient part of that 

Now this people running over the whole kingdom, like fwarmes of 
Bees, do fill it withfeverall Trades whcrcunto they apply them felves, 
andforthegreateftparttncy leada mifcrable life, and are therefore fo 
penurious, niggardly, and drie in their prefentSjthat they pafie, in ridicu- 
lous proverbs, through the reft of the Provinces, 

It is famous for Sturgeon, which it hath of very great bignefle-, and 
more for the Porcellane difties (indeed the only work in the world of this 
kinde) which are made only in one of its Townes : So that all that is ufed 
jntheKingdomjand difperfed through the whole world, arc brought 
from this place .-although the earth, whereof they are made commeth 
fromandther place; but there only is the water, wherewith precifely 
they are to be wrought to come to their perfedion, for if they be 
wrought with other water the worke will not have fo much glofte and 
luftre. In this worke there are not thofe my fteries that are reported of ic 
here, neither in the matter, the form, nor the manner of working5 they 
are made abfolutely of earth, but of a neateand excellent quality. They 
are made in thefame time, and the fame manner, as our earthen veftcls- 
only they make them with more diligence and accurateneffe. The Blew, 
■wherewith they paint the Porcellane^ \s Anill^ whereof they have abun- 
dance, fome do paint them with Vermiliony and (for the King J with 

This Province, and that oS-OnmheQ and C4;i/^;;«, which border one 


Chap.z. The Htpry of Cm3\CA. j^, 

uponcinother, dounire,as itwere,inan angle^, with many Mountaines 
between them : In the middle of which Mountaines there is a fmall 
Kingdome, which hath a particular King of its own without any Tub- 
jedion to the Chwejfes-^ from whom he doth defend himfelfe,if they pre- 
tend to a0ault him-, nor is the defence difficult, there being but one en- 
trance into that kingdorae. They admit of the Chimffe- Phyfttians in their 
infirmitics^butnocoftheir learned men into the adminiftration of their 
government. If they have an ill Harveft,and that there is like to be a fcar- 
fity they go out, and rob in a millitary order, to the found of the drum. 
So in the year 1632 they gave no fmall trouble to this province of i<:z- 

The laft account fliall be concerning the Chriftianify there, which 
hath profpered very well, being alfo beneficed with. two Churches 
and houfes which we have in that Province, the one in the City of Nan- 
ftojwhich is the Metropolis-, The other in the City of Nauhhim, 

The fix:Province is called Smhmn^ in the fame paralcl with that of /<'/- 
amf^znd in the faraelntitudeof 29 degrees, nor hath it any thing in parti- 
cular differing from the former, worthy the relation. 

The Province of Buquam is the feventh in Scituation, it lyeth more to 
the North, in the heighth of 3 1 degrees, it exceeds the whole Kingdom 
for the abundance of Rice. The chimjfes fay, that that whole Kingdom 
is able to give but a breakfafi: in refpe(5l o^Bnquam, which provideth for 
the whole yeare* It hath (lore of oyle, and no leffe Fifli, by reafon of 
the rivers,which it enjoyeth, and the lakes, which fcem rather Seas. In 
the Metropolis of this Province there was a Refidencie begun at the rime 
of my arrival. 

The province of c^X'/^Jw, which is the eighth,Iyeth in the Latitude of 
30 degrees : it is for the moft part fcituaced by the Sea.{idc,fertile, plain, 
and almoft all divided by feverali rivers, fome whereof run through their 
Cities and Townes. In riches it exceeds many of the Provinces,as being, 
the Fountain, from whence the bed Commodities of that Monarchic 
doe flow : it is fingular in filke, which it diftributeth through every parr, 
whether it be raw, or wrought; in Balls or in Stuffe. All that goeth out of 
the Kingdome any way, comcth from this Province: though all Chma 
hath the benefit of the Silk- worme,yet all the reft would not ferve them, 
to make them Scarfes*. the name of the Metropolis is Hamcheu. Here we 
havetwo houfes, which upon certain good confiderations are redixed 
to one-, where there is cultivated a copious and good Chriftianity, 
and alfo much honoured, by reafon ofthc number of people of quality 
that are in it, 

Finally.this Province is famous for many things, but particularly for 
three. The firft is a lake called Sihu^ which is one of the rarcfl in the 
woild. ItisincircuiteThirty Z/V, which are fix miles.- itisfet about 
with excellent Palaces, and thefc environed by pleafant Mountaines 
cloathed with graffe, plants, and trees : the water is alwayes running, for 
there comming in a current at one fide, & ifTuing out at the other-,it is 
fo cleere, that it inviteth one to behold it with great delight, the fraallefl 
fand, that lyeth at the bottome, being to be difcovered. There arc cer- 

C 3 taine 

1^ The Hipry of C^^K^- Part.i. 

taine waves paved with ftone,that do crofTe over it, offering paffnge to 
thofethat travell over it, either upon their occafions or curiofitie : there 
ftandreadyfmallBaikesofa confidcrable burden which are made for 
recreation and banquets ., the kit chin is in the ftf crage, or the forccaftle, 
and the middle fpace ferveth for a hall. Above higher, there is a place for 
the women, covered with lattices, thatthey might nor be feen. Thefe 
Barkes are painted and guilded after a curious and various manner.and are 
provided in great abundance with all things neceffary for the navigation 
which is (hort and free from wracks of water, but not fo well from thofe 
of wine •, there happening many.- as alfo ihipwrackes of eftates very often-, 
there being fcarce any in the whole kingdome that hath any thing, that 
doth not come to fpend in thefe delights, either part or the whole 5 and 
fometimcs more than his whole ftock is worth. 

The fecond is, the excellency of the {ilkc,as well for the plenty above- 
faid as for the curiofitie of the Art, with which a good part of it is 
wroughtjCnf'rayling it with precious and beautifull workes of- gold. This 
is only ^fter their manner and gufto 5 and is not fcnt out of the kingdome, 
but as a finf^ular worke is referved for the Kings Palaces, who every yeare 
buyeth up all that is made of this fort. 

The third is, the worlhipping of their Idols; in which is particularly 
to be perceived whence the fabrick of their Temples proceeds, which arc 
without doubt very famous. 

The lafl of thefe nine Southerly Provinces is iV4;?^/w, fcituated in 3 s 
degrees of latitude, and is one of the beft Provinces of the kingdome, and 
the perfection of the whole realm. It fendeth abroade its commodities, 
or workes of importance, to no part •, as if they were unworthy, to parti- 
cipate of its perfedion ; which is mofl rare in all fort of varietie, and fo 
much exceeding all the reft, that every one, to fell his commodities the 
better, pretendeth, that they are of Nankim^ and fo pafleth them off^ at a 

greater price. 

That part which is towards the Weftjis the moft rich, and makethfo 
much Cot ton- wool, that thofe of the Country affirme, that there is only 
in the townc of Xamchi and the precind thereof, which is large, 200000 
Loomes for thisftuffc •, fothat from that place only the King draweth 
1 50000 cro wnes yearly. 

fnbnehoufe there ufeth to be many of them for they are narrow, as 
the ftuffe is. Almoft all the women are employed in this work. 

The Court did refide in this Province for a long time ^ and even to this 
day all the Courts of jufticc and priviledges thereof are conferved in the 
City o^Nankim, whofe right mmeisUmthiefifU'^ anditfecmeth tome 
to be the beft and greateft City of the whole Kingdome, both for the 
form of the building, the largeneffe of the ftreets, the manners and deal- 
ing of the people, and for the plentie and excellency of all things. 

It hath admirable places of recreation, and is fo populous through its 
confines, that the villages fucceed one another, in a manner, from three 
miles to three miles • although at this day, by reafon it wants the prefence 
of the King it is, in its felfe leffe populous t, neverthelelTc in diverfe parts 
thereof it is yet troublefomc to walkc the ftreets for the crowde of people 


Chap.?. The Hifiorj of QBI^J^A. 15 

that one meereth. Befidc?, the many Palaces, Temples, Towers, and 
Bridges doe render it very confiderable. In the wall thereof there are 
twelve gates, barr'd with Iron, and guarded with Artillery : a good way 
wichout runneth another wall with no fmallruines. The circuit thereof 
(fori was <lefirous to know the meafure of itj istvvodaies journey on 
horfe-back; That ofthe inner wall is eighteen miles 5 both the one and 
die other have within them many populations, gardens, and fields which 
arc tilled, the bread whereof ufeth to be applied to the ufc of the foul- 
diery within the City, to the number of fourty thoufand. 

In one part thereof there is caft up an arcificiall Mount,on the top where- 
of there is feen a wooden fpheare, not armed, although the circles thereof 
are placed at the latitude of the fame City, which is 32 degrees- afmall 
latitude inrefped of the great colds, but a very large one, for the great 
heate which it fufferethiThe fpheare is in circumference of a notable big- 
neffe, and is a very com pleat piece of work. 

It hath moreover a Tower divided into feaven ftories of fingular beau- 
ty for the workemanfliip thereof, it being full of figures, and wrought like 
Fercdlane : an edifice, which might be ranked among the moft famous 
of ancient Mome. The river cometh to kilfe the feet of this City, and 
fendeth up fome armes of it felfe into it. The name ofthe river is famhtt- 
kiamy that is to fay ,the Sonne ofthe fea 5 nor vainly is it fo called, it being 
the moft aboundant in water, of any that is knowne in the world. There 
is alfo great plenty of fifli. 

We have foure Churches in this Province, the firfl in Nankim, with a 
houfcof y/?/«/>fj, and is of a very ancient, and exercifed, Chriftianity: 
having fuffered foure perfecutions, and come of from each of them with 
more vigour. The fecond, in the Towne of Xnmhai^ with a great number 
of beleevers. The third in the City of Xamkiam. The fourth in the 
Towne of Kiatim : befide thefe Churches there are many Oratories. 
And fo much (liall fufUce concerning the nine Southern Provinces, 

Chap. 3^ 
Of the 3\(orthern ^royinces. 

CIx are the Provinces, which are called Northern, and their names are 
^Homm.Xemfi^Kimft^Xanttim^Pekim.imd. Leaotum. The firft lyethin 
the latitudeof 3 5 degrees, as centre ofthe Kingdome5and produceth moft 
gallant frujts, as well thofe that are proper to the Countrie, as ours in Ett. 
rope ♦, nor is the cheapnefTe of them lefle : I bought for a farthing and a 
halfe 88 Apricocks^ it hath nothing elfe notable, except a Son of the 
Kings called Fovamj the laft of thofe which came out ofthe Palace. He 
liveth with fo great fplendour and authoritie of a King, that to be fuch, he 
only wanteth the name and jurifdidion. In Caiftmj the Metropolis there- 
of, we have had onely for thefe few yeares, a Church and houfe^ but a 
good plenty of Chriftians. 
The fecond is Xcmft ., it lyeth in 3 ^ degrees, and more, to the Weft .• 


i6 7he Hifiory of CHIJ^^. Part.i: 

it is very largc,but dry for want of alfo are the three neighbouring 
Provinces: notwirhftanding it doth abound in Wheate, Barly and Maize^ 
ot Rice they have but little. All v^rinrer long they give wheat to their 
BeaftSi which are many; particularly their Hiecp, which they Iheare three 
times a year-, once in the Spring, another time in the Summer,a third in the 
Autumc-,but thefirfttimeoffhearingyeeldeththebeft wool. 

From hence cometh all the wooll, ot which are made the felts and o- 
ther things ufedjcither in this Province or elf where. TheymaVe there of 
no fort of cloath, not ufing to fpin wool, but only Goats-hair^of which 
they weave certain StufFcs for the hanging of their roomcsjin fo great 
perfcdion that the moft ordinary are better than ours ,and the Beft are e- 
fteemcd more precious thanfilk. They make likewifeof Goats-hairca 
very fine Felt, which they callTum^znd is made ufe of for garments ; But 
this is not made of every fort of Goats-hair, but of a very fine haire 
which lycth under the firft. They pull it out with great care,and make it 
up in certain balsof the bignclle of an ordinary loafejand then put it out to 
be wrought with (i- gular skill. 

Musk is proper to this Province- and becaufe it is inqueflion, after 
what manner this excellent perfume is made; I will give you account of 
it according to the moft diligent enquir y I have made concerning it. It is 
the Navel of an Animal about the bigneffe of a fraall Stagge^whofe fle/h 
is very good meate^ and only that part is taken containing that preci ous 
matter : but all thofc Cods, which are brought hither to us, are not true 
and perfeia Navellsj for the Chinejfes have learnt to falfifie them, by 
fluffing fome peices of the skin of that Animall with musk,that is vitia- 
ted, and mingled, with fome other things. 

Here is alfo Gold found,but not in Minesffor though there be Mines 
both of Gold and Silver, the King doth not fuffcr them, to be opened > 
but out of Rivers and Eddies : and although it be found only in fmal pei- 
ces and graines, yet being put together, it amounts to a great quantity, 
there being Infinite people both young and old , which go in fearch 

There is Rubarhe and Profumo , which are not found in any other part; 
for that which cometh from JP^r/Jrf doth not fecm to be naturall, to that 
place-, for, of as many as have travelled through that countrie, there is 
not any that gives an account to have feen there that healthfull plant. It 
is fomething tall,with leaves bigger than Cole- worts : it doth not grow 
wilde, as fome have imagined, but is Cultivated in gardens with a great 
deale of care. 

In this Province is opened the third Gate,the which^as I fayd above, is 
a feare of much Merchandife; for it hath two Cities in the borders there- 
o^^Gaacheu and Sucheu toward the Weft, (as Machao is in the Province of 
C^?;?/^;?^ toward the Southj from whence come numerous Caravans of 
above a thoufand in company, of feva'all Nations and Provinces, but for 
the moft part Moores,Thus far came Brother BencdiB- Gees to feck for the 
Kingdom of C4;%4( which is no other than China, it fci/c^ whofc voyage 
we will here breefly relate. 
He departed in lent, the year 1603 for to find out the truth of what 


Chaf.?. The Hifiory of CHID\(j1. 17" 

vvasrcportcdoftheKingdomeof C^/Z^j/T^, by order of the fiiperiors of 
/WM,from the Kingdome of iv/(?^^r and the royal City oi Laor in the Ha- 
bit of an L^r»?m4w carrying Merchandife, as well to live, as to pallb 
with the more facility. The whole C^r^i/^;? corfifted of 500 Pcrfons 
(for the mofl part Sarafens;and ufed to go every year from this royall Ci- 
ty to another in another Kingdom named Cafcar, After a months voy- 
age he arrived at a City named Athu^oi the fame province with Laor : 
thence in two months and a half, to p4//4«r ; and after another month 
and a half, fometimes travelling, and fometimes refting, he came to the 
City of Ghideli, where he wanted little to have been (lain bv theeves: 
And finally after 2 o dayes more he came to the City oiCabu \ the raofl 
noble Merchant-to wne of all the countries fubjedcd to the Mogor , from 
hence after fome (lay, he pniTcd to Parvamfi\c laft City of the Kingdom 
of M9gor-^i\\m travelling forio.daies over veryhigh Mountains he came to 
C4/(r/4,acountricoffaire-hayred people-, and in other 2 5 dayes to Chemay 
where he was forced to ftay a month by reafon of Civill broils^and after 
many troubles and dangers of theeves and Banditti, and having palfcd ma- 
ny countries of the Kings olSdmarhan, they came into the country of Ten- 
go, and at length he entred into the Metropolitan City of the Kingdom of 
Cafc/ir,C3\kdTanghefir^m the month of November, in the fame year. 

At this City, which is, a noble feate of Mcrchandife for thofe King- 
domes, the Caravan of Merchants which come from Cah/I^ ended their 
voyage, and a new Caravan fetteth forth from thence to go to Cljina. But 
our Brother remained here(firftj many months, expeding the time of 
their departure, and having in the meane time made himfelfe known to 
the King of the country, he obtained letters of favour and recommendati- 
ons, to all places whither he fliould go. 

The time therefore being come, he departed with ten horfes, for to 
carry himfelf, his companion and his goods in company of the whole 
• Caravan toward Chathaja^ that is China, in the moneth of November the 
year following- and having travelled 25 dayes with a great deale of diffi- 
cultie, over flones and fand, he came to the City oi ^efu, part of the 
Kingdom oiCafcdr: after having pafTed a defart, called Caracathai^ that is. 
Black-earth-, and gone through many Cities, at length he came to a City 
called Cialis in the fame Kingdom o^Cafcdr, Here whileft he fitted him- 
felf for his journey, there arrived Merchants which came from C/S^/w, 
of whom Brother Benedi£i learned fometydings of the City of Pekimi 
and ofour Fathers, which had been there fcen by thefe Sarafen Mer- 
chants Sothathe wasflitisfied,thatC4^^/«)i4was nothing elfe bur Chi- 
na-, and the royall City, named by the Saracens Gamhaltl, was Pekim* 
From this City of Cialis, Bemdi^ departing With a few in company, 
came in twenty dayes to Pucian, and afterwards to Turphan, Aramuth^anA 
C4w>«/ the laft City of the Kingdome of Cialis. From Camul after nine 
dayes journey, they came to the wall of China j at a place called Chiacma: 
and fo had entrance into China, which he fought under the name of Ca- 
thaya. Excepting therefore eleven dayes journey, which was through a 
country peopled by Tartars, all the reft of his voyage was through coun- 
tries inhabited by MoorSjOr Mahurtntans^ 

D |<ow 

rg 1 he Bifiory of CHLKA. Part.i. 

Now to return to our ftory .- with thele Caravans come Emballndours, 
which the Princes of the Moors fend to the King of China^ making every 
three yeares a fmall EmbalTie, in refped both of the Perfons and the 
prefents •, and every five years a great one. The moft part of the Caravan 
remaine in the two above-named Cities-, (which are upon the Frontiers) 
traffickincf there with their Mcrchandife, The others go to comply with 
their charge, and to offer the prefem in the name of five Kings, which are 
the Kings oiRftme^ Arabia^ Camul^ Eamarcan^ Turfan • The firft four know 
nothing of this ErabaflTyithc fifth, although he know of it, doth not make 
the prefent,nor fend the EmbafTy-but hath only this advantagc,that he na- 
meth theEmbafTadors.The prefent is made by theMerchantsamongthem- 
felvs,& thefe coming to theVice-roy of thofe parts,the King hath advice 
oiven him of their arrival by a paper, called a memoriallot petitioma'i foone 
as they have leave from the Court,and that their names are inrolled,there 
depart 40. or 50. of them, befidesmany more added to them; who, to 
have leave to enter into the kingdome to trade, & to eate at the Kings ex- 
penfes,g1ve the captaine a Bribe of about a hundred or fix-fcore cro w nes 
a man. There goeth a long with them a Mandarine^ who entertaineth 
them of freecofl, while they travell: But if they make any ftay (as they 
did'mthe Metropolis of the province,for more than three monthes fpace) 
the Kings cxpcnfe ccafeth, but not the benefit of their traffique, for all 
that while they follow their Merchandi/c. 

The Merchandife which they bring, are S3\t-Armomakfine Azure,fine 
linncn,carpet5,called Raifins, knives, and other fmall things.The beft and 
greateflCommoditie is a ceitain ftone,called 7>f^, which they bring from 
thcKingdom of Tauken-^the worfl is of a whitifh coIour,thefineft is green, 
it hath been ofgreat price formerly in C^/^4, and is fl^ill of good value. 
They make thereof diverfe forts of Jewels for the ornament of the head, 
and it is much ufed in the palaccs:the girdlc,which the King giveth to the 
folai is embrodered with the finefl fort therof-, which no other is allowed 
to ufe in this ornament. That which they carry back in exchange of their 
commodities is PorcelUne^ Rubies^ Musk , raw-filk, (ilk-fluffes, diverfe 
' other rarities and medicinall drugges, as iJ^^^r^^ And this I do imagine 
is the fame which is tranfported from Verfia to thefe parts. 

The EmbafTadours being arrived, they oflfer their prefent, which con- 
fiflcthofathoufand ^rrAbas of this precious flone '(whereof we have 
fpoken)which maketh 1333. Italian pounds,whereof 300. pounds are of 
the fincfl fort,34o.horfcs,which are to be left upon the frontier,3oo. fmall 
poynted Diamonds^twelve Cattes of fine Azure,which is about loo.Itali- 
an pounds-,6oo.knives,&as many files.The lafl: prefent feeming to me im- 
properto be prefented toaKingjIenquird whatufe thcKing made ofthem, 
but I could not meet any one was able to inform .• only a Captain told me, 
that it was a very ancient thing for that prefent to be compofed of fuch 
things, with fo much infallibility they durfl not make any alteration^ 
Of the refl of the commodities which they bring, if the King defireth a- 
ny thing,hc fendeth to fee and buy it. At their return theKing rewardcth 
them with two pieces of cloth of gold for each horfc 5 30, pieces of yel- 
low filk, 3 o , pound of C^^', ten of Musk; 50. of a medicine called Tienjo^ 


Chap.v The Hijlory of CHID^A. 19 

and as many of Silver, Thcfe Saracins told me, that the prcfent, which 
they gave theKing,was not in their country worth above yoooCrownes, 
but what was given them by the King for their Bmbaific and voyage, 
was noe IcfTc worth then 500C0 Crownes .-a pretty good gayne, but or- 
dinary from thofe Princes. 

From this Province gocth another Caravan for the powerful Kingdom 
of 57^^^; which carryeth diverfethings-,in particuIar,SiIk-ftuffs,P<?r/?//4w Secalargeidif- 
andC/'i.^^iisaleafeofatrecaboutthe bigneile of C^lirile-^ in other courfe of t.he 
Provinces, of the hearbe B^ftly and in others, of the fmall Pomgramt. °h-^sYeah,^/nd 
They dric it over the fire in iron-fives,where it hardens and fticketh togc- of the miny 
ther. There is of many forts of it, as well becaufe the plant is various,as Y'^^^' "^^^ 
alfo that the upper leaves doexceed the other in finencffe-, a property al- voyage "nd*^ 
moft of all plants. There is of it, from a Crown a pound to four far- miflSons ofA- 
things according to the quality of ir, there being fo many differences ll^JJ^^^^'^'lj^^,^ 
thereof. It being thus dryed and*caft into warme water, itgiveth it a co- ac PirJ^leu^ 
Iour,fmcll and taf}, at the firft unpleafing, but cuflome m akes it more ac- } p^«'i5 cap* 
ceptable^ Tis much ufed in Chim and GiafponCj for it ferveth not only y^,", ^ ^ ° 
forordinary drink in fteadofwater, but alfo for entertainment to ftran- 
gets when they vifitthem,as wine doth in the Northern parts-, it being 
throughout all thofe kingdoms efteemed a wretched niggardlinefTe to 
give only good words to thofe that come to their houfe, although they 
be ftrangcrs ; at leafl they mud have C/^i-,and if the vide be any thing 
long, there muft be added fome fruit or fwcet-meates : fometimes they 
lay the cloath for this,and when not, they fct it in two difhes upon a little 
fquare table. Many vertues are related of this leaf: certain it is, that it is 
very wholefomc',and that, neither in Chim nor Giappom^ there is any 
troubled with the (lone; nor is fo much as the name of this difeafe known: 
from whence may be inferred, how great a prefervative againfl this evill 
the ufe of this drink is.- it is alfo certain, that it powerfully delivcrcth 
from the opprefrionoffleep,whofocverdefireth to watch, either for ne- 
cellitie or pleafurc-^for by fupprelTing the fames it eafeth the head without 
any inconvenience: and finally it is a known and admirable help for ftu- 
dents.For the refti have not fo great an afTurance of it that I dare affirm it. 

There is found alfo in this Province a moft evident figne of the ancient 
Chriftianiric, which hath been there, as we fhall relate in its order. 

In the great Metropolis thereof we have a Church and a houfe, with a 
Well founded and fruitfuU Chriftianity ^bywhora alfo many particular 
Oratories are frequented, 

Rianfi is the third of thefe fix Northern Provinces, which we are now 
difcourfingof / Itlyethinthe Latitude of thirty eight degrees- it hath 
many mountaines, which makes their Harveft but poore : there is little 
wheate, lelTe Rice, but moft Maiz : it is fo aboundant in grapes, that it fer- 
veth the whole Kingdome with Raifins, and might furnifh, at leaft it 
felfe, with wine ; as it fucceeds in a Refidence, which we have there, 
where we make now only enough for to ferve the hdajfes^ but fend alfo 
fufficient to the next Refidencies. It hath wells of fire for the ufe of their 
houfes as we have of water in Europe^ they fceme to beMines of fulphuc 
fet on fire j fo that opening a little the mouth of the well/which mulf not 

D z b^ 

zo The Hijlory of CHL^d. Pa b t.i. 

be very large, it fendeth forth fo great a heate, that they roft and boyk 
therewith whatfoever meate they defire. Their ordinary fewell, as like- 
wife in all the confines thereof, Stone-coale, not fm all ones, fuch as are 
found in fome of our Countries of Europe, but of a very confiderablc big- 
nefTe : There are Mines very fruitful! of this matter, which burneth with 
agreatdealeofeafe. In fome parts, z%?ekint and Homm they Jay itro- 
gether in fuch manner, that the fire lafleth day and night 5 They make ufe 
of Bellowes to kindle it. 

We have a houfe and a Churcbin the City of KUmcheii, another in 
that o^Phucheu • which are vifitcd at their fet times •, both the one and the 
other have a good and numerous Chriftianity, and among them, many o£ 
the Nobility. There are not wanting Oratories, (as in other Cities,) by 
which the fcarfity of Churches is fupplied. 

- The fourth Province which is Xantm^ inthe Latitude of 23 ♦degrees, 
lying betwixt Naf^kimand Pekim^ is very poore 5 it fuffereth many times a 
loat hfome and malignant Infeflation by Grillds or field- Crickets, and by 
confeqiteace, the terrible horrour of famine. 

In the yeare 1 6 1 6 a dogge bought to be eaten, was worth more than a 
young man fold for a flaveskproiduccth flore of Cattell,and of our fruits; 
great pearcs, many and good. There groweth here in great number and 
varietie a fruit, which feemed to fome of us to be a peare of a good kind, 
info great aboundance, that filling the Kingdom, they overflow even to 
Macao although it be a great way off 5 and that there are three large Pro- 
vinces betwixt. 

" P^kim i s the fift Aovince, fcituated in the Latitude of fourty de gree s 5 
k enjoyeth the priviledgc of having the Court in a City o f the farncjnamc. 
Though the proper name of it be Xumhienfu^ by the Sarances called, 
LAmbalud, This good fortune befell it, (for fo I may call it) at the death 
ofii/z/wx^^, when a nephew of his, named r«»/<?5 who dwelt in this Pro- 
vince, and was very potent, ufurpcd by violence the crowne againf^ the 
right heire: And fo confiding more in them, with whom he had al- 
waies lived, asalfo to be the better able to make refiflance againfl the 
Tartars which border upon him, he removed the Court from Nankim 
and planted it here. The people are lefTe irgenious, as commonly all Nor- 
thern people are, but more apt for labour and warre. 

The foyle is very drie, and favourable for health, but barren of fruits 
for the common fuflenance .• But this want is fupplyed by that generall 
prerogative of Courts which draw all to them, and overcome in this the 
proper nature of the place. It hath Maiz, Wheate, and little Rice, only 
for the ufe of the people of the Palace, which is very numerous^ the Man^ 
darims and Souldiers being many thoufands. The King keepeth in thofe 
rivers a thoufandvefTels, flat-bottom'd byreafonofthe fhallowneffe of 
the water, which only ferve for the bringing of vidtualls to Court ; which 
rbey lade in the South : And in Nankm there is fowcn a certaine Rice for 
the King in particular, of fuch a quality, that being fodde in water, witli- 
out any other addition it maketh a very favoury diih. 

The City is not fo big as Nankim^ but in tJiat^rcfTe of people muchex- 
ceedethK-jlnawor'd, it is like the Court of fo powerfull a Prince. The 


Chap.;. TheBiflory of QUIU^A, zi 

walls are broad enough for twelve horfcs to go abreaft^They are guarded 
night and day, as well in time of peace, as if there were warre. At every 
gate they keep a continuall watch, which is the profit of the Bumchs^ 
which the Queen alloweth them for their wages-, and they make good 
ftore of crownes of this exercife : For all thofe which enter, and bring any 
thing with them, pay toll •, and thofe o^Cmtom are ufed with moft rigour, 
juft WV^Spanyards in a french Inne .• I know not the reafon of this, but on- 
ly a certaine indignation, which they have againft them. 

The Magiftrates of this Court are quite contrary to thofe of other 
crownes, and Commonwealths of the world, and are therefore a patterne 
of that uprightneiTe, which ought to be found in all : I meane, concerning 
the pompe and equipage of their perfons, which is very moderate. They 
are not allowed to be carried in a Sedan, or Chaire, unleffe it be fome few 
of more particular dignity : The grcateft part ride on horfe-back, and be- 
caufetheyarcillhorfemen, their horfes are guided by twofcrvants, thaC 
go by them, one on each fide the horfe, leafl: their mafter fhould fall. 

Each Judge of a Village, without the precin(51:s of the Court, ufe more 
ftate, than the moft eminent Minifters in the Court -• They walke in the 
ftrcets with their faces cover'd, as well by reafon of the duft, which is 
very much, as alfo for convenience, and to avoid both expence and cere- 
mony with the Mandarineffe •, for not being knowne, they diflemble, as 
if they favv them not,and make no ftay • to verify that Axioms, that where 
one is leaft knowne, there is more plcafure and convenience to be en- 

. The cold, whij:h this Countrie fuffereth, ismuch greater than could 
be^expedted from the Latitude oF^o^ degrees. The rivers and lakes are fo 
hard trozcn over, that they drive Carts over them without any danger; 
thcjrmake ufe of ftoves, that are morc convenient than quls, and waft not 
iomocKTewelf, conveig hing the heatc by^pes laid underground; and 
{q within doorcs enjoy a pleafantTpring in^the heart of wiiiter.* the fame 
heate fupplieth alfo the abfence of the fun,and by meanes thereof the trees 
are clothed with leaves and flowers before their time. 
*• In the Court wchaye^feire Church, built aftcLthe, fafhion oiEurofe^ 
andTRoufe wherein refide 4 fathers by licence from the King, and arein 
much eft ceme with all the Magift rates. 

Eefides the Churches mall the_places we have already fpokenof, Tthe 
greater part whereof are jar^e Cities,) these arealjo many other habitat! . 
ons of Chriftians, which have their Oratories, which are vifited by us at 
fet times, Catechizing and Baptizing the new Chriftians, conferring and 
a dminiftring the Holy Sacraments to the others. 

The fixt and laft Province is Lemum the Northern bound of that 
Kingdome-,it is famous for a roote which it produceth of fo high efteeme, 
that at my^departure from thence it was fold for twice the weight in fil- 
vcr. It is 10 excellent a medicine, that if thofe which are in health doe 
take it, it augments their ftrength and vigour, and if it be given to a fick 
pcrfon it doth marvelloufly comfort and warrae him .• it is called Ginfem, 
This Province being the frontire next Tartarium, is much wafted, and is 
in part pofTcfledby the Tartors: hereisfeen that famous walHo much 

D 3 talked 


zi The Hi/lorj of QHI^I^A. Part.i. 

talked off, which runneth nine hundred miles in length, with more repu- 
tation than effe(5t : for befides that its owne greatneffe and extant is 
enough to make it ruinous, the enemy hath now reduced it to a miferablc 

C H A p. 4. 

Of the perfons of theQ\\\nt{sts : of theirnature, 
mt and inclination. ^ 

THe people o^Chim are, white^ like us in Europe 5 although in the 
IPtovinceoi'Camem, lying fomething within the Tropick they are 
of Tomething a browner colour, and particularly in the Iflands that lie 
neere the maine land. Andbecaufe thofe which come hither are only 
fuch as are borderers upon Macao (the Centre of thofe Iflandsjfome have 
been perfwaded that there were not in all that Kingdome any people very 
white.- but it is certaine, that excepting the confines of Ctf/??^?;;^, where 
they are fomething brown , the reft are all white-, not unlike to the white- 
nefleofthepeopleof £//yf'/^5 and by how much the more Northward 
one goeth, by fo much the more (as is ufually feen) is the whitenelTe the 

They fufFer the haire of their heads to grow as long as it will, both men 
and women^ They are generally all black-haired ^ hence cometh that 
name, by which this Kingdome is called among other Nations the King- 
dome of the black-hair'd people .- they have alfo black eyes, which are 
very little, little nofes, and neither large, nor high ones, as among us-, 
which forme they like not, accounting it a deformity. They have but 
little beard for the moft part, nor doe they care to have much, although 
fome of them have fo. They delight to have it black, which is the moft 
ordinary colour 5 although fome few have red beards -, which although it 
be not abhorred by all as among the Thebams^ yet it is not efteemed ot 
liked among them by any. They clippe not their beard, letting it grow 
according to nature. They will be more troubled to loofe one haire of 
their head, then all the haire of their face.- They doe alfo, in neatneffe and 
curioufnelfe about their haire, exceed all other Nations. They have for 
this purpofc many Barbers, of whom it may properly befaid, that they 
ufurp that name-, it being derived from the beard, which they never 
touch •, employing all their diligence and art in kembing and cleanfing the 

The young children are better proportioned, and have a more plea • 
fing Simmetry of beauty than the reft : and this more particularly in the 
Southern Provinces. But fome places have the advantage in this above 
others • as in the Province ofNankimjiht City o^ Namheu^\vh€vc the wo- 
men are efteemed to have theprchemjnenceofall others in beauty; as 
formerly in Portugall^ thofe of the Towne of Guimarams^ from hence the 
rich men and the Magiftrates provide themfclves withConcubines:and fo 


Ch.4P'4- 1 he Hifiory of CmHA' ^? 

this gift of nature cometh to be of greater efteeme for their fakes, who are 
the great men oft he world. As their age beginneth to decline,from 25 to 
50 yeares old, they loofe not only much of the livelinefTc of their colour, 
bat alfo of the Simmetry and proportion of their fliape: fo that ordinarily 
they become ill-favoured. The difpofuion of their body is good •, their 
ftrength vigor0us-,and they are great pains-takers : hence it cometh, that 
their land, which is very good,is by art brought to be much more fruit- 
full-, and it there be any which is not good jalthough it be never fo little 
fthcre being not a foot of ground, which is unemploycd)by force of in- 
duftry they bring it at length to be fruitful!. 

As I paffed by Bomm^ I faw one ploughing with a plough of 3 Irons, 
or plough- flieares, fo that at one bout he made 3 furrowes : and becaufe 
the ground was good for that feed, which we call here Feazols or Kidny- 
bcancs^ this feed was put as it vvere,in a buflieI.,or fquare difli faftencd up- 
on the upper part of the plough, in fuch manner, that with the motion 
thereof the Ecanesvi^ere gently fcattered upon the earth as corne falleth 
upon the Milftone, at themooving of the Mil hopper; fo atthe fame 
time the land is plowed & fown with hopes of a future crop. Wheat Ear- 
ly and Maiz they fow as we do-,& it is very ordinary for one that driveth 
a bcaft laden,to carry a load himfclf,that none might want employment. 
They are watchfull to make their advantage of every thinc' , not 
fuflfcring any thing 10 be loft, how unprofitable foever it feemeth / you 
may meet often upon a river many veffels of confiderable burthen- laden 
only with weeks for lamps, made ofthe pith of rufhes, taken out with a 
great facility and dexteritie;Others,which carry nothing clfe but paper 
(give me leave to relate it, becaufe it is a notable argument of the Provi- 
dence and application, which they make in the ufe of all thinos)for clcan- 
lineffe in their houfes of office. This is fold in the ftreets^as well as in 
(hops, and may in no manner have any thing written upon it- for if it 
have any letters upon it, it is among ihem accounted facriledge to'imploy 
it to that ufe. But as the number of the people is fo great, there are not 
wanting alfo among them idle perfons and vagabonds, a common and ir- 
remediable plague, 

They are naturally inclined to be Merchants,anditisincredible,the 
Traffick which they make, not only from one Province to another, with 
very great profit(fo that they which tranfport Porfellane within their own 
Kingdom, although they fell it but from one Province to another,cTaine 
thirty per Cent.x.\v\cc a year j but even in the fame City : For almofl what- 
foever is found in t he flioppsjs fold in the ftfeets in a kffer quantity, em- 
ploying in this trade even to little child ren,as far as they are able , as fel- 
ling fruit, herbs, wafb-bals, and fuch like things. 

The rich Merchants are of good credit, and very puncfluall, (as the 
Portitghejfes have had experience for many yeares together-,) but their way 
of bargaining is fuller of craft, and fubtilty, than is to be found any 
where elfein the world: for whereas ftrangers arcnot allowed to enter 
into the Kingdom, they are all neceflitated to treat with ihcCh'weJfes 
in this manner. Firft they agree about the quality of the commodity, 
which each defircth whether it be goId,SiIk,or i'^rr^//4/;f,or any thing 


Z4. The Hiftorj of CHl^Nji. Pabt.i. 

elfe^ when they are agreed of the price, prefcntly the Portughefe config- 
neth to him a fummeof mony, as of if. or ;o. thoufand, (oi* more) 
Crownes. Then the chine fse got\\\ with this money to fuch paits of the 
Kin^dome where the commoditie may bchad, which the other defireth, 
andmiunethwithittoC^/^r^?;?^, where the Port Nghefe ftayeth expeding 
him. This manner ofmerchandifing was pradifed for many yeares with- 
out any fraud ; but a little while fince there hath not been wanting Tome 
who have ufed deceit therein. And at this day the credit thereof is di- 
minifhed ; as I beleeve, through the fault of both Nations. 

Nevenhelerfc^the nature of the people and inclination of the whole 
nation, as well inthofc who fell, asthofewho buy, is much inclined to 
guile and deceit, which they put in execution with admirable lubtletie. 
They will take the flerti from o/t' the breaft of a partridge, and fill up the 
hollow place with fome other thing, and ftitch up the cut, whence it was 
taken out, and all with fo much maftery and skill, that if the buyer be not 
zn<s/^rgfts^ Cand if he were, he fliall finde no remedy) inftead of a par- 
tridge, he (hall buy nothing but feathers and bones. Amongft true Gam- 
mons of Bacon they will foift in others made of wood, bur fo like, that 
they will eafily deceive the fight for good ones. It is an ordinary thing to 
fat up an old horfc, and fell him for a young one •, and what is more, to 
paint him over with beautituU fpotSjfo well done,as if they were natural!, 
choofing forthetimeotfale, the doubtfull light of the day towards the 
dusk of the evening, that the deceit^maybethe hardlier difcovered : 
This cheate was put upon one in i\/4f^^, who notwithftanding was an ex- 
perienced buyer, and of good judgement. 

The bewitching arc of extrading the elements and principles from 
barren ftoncs and hardefl mineralls, which is fpread through all parts of 
the univerfe, hath gained many praditionersin China • They are pailionat- 
ly addidcd to the art o^Akhimj^ with this opinion, that he that harh the 
art of making filver, is in the way to find the receit of prolonging lifcjun* 
toextream old age. And how long will men give themfelves over to 
this fond perfwafion, deceived with a vaine hope of obtaining thefe two 
thingSjfo much defired, fo uncertaine 1 Many take great paines in this art, 
although they lofe much and gaine little j contrary to that which fuc- 
ceeds in all other trades,which is,to gaine much out of a little. Finally,ei- 
ther thefe men deceive themfelves, or find themfelves deceived by the 
profeffours ofthisfcience, who are often uncertaine and varying in their 
Maximes^ which ought to be reall and conftant -fo that the event is alwaies 
dangerous and uncertaine. Many there are, which are followers ofir, 
hoping to make gaine by their dcceit^bccaufethcy dare not rely upon the 
certainty of tl)eir art. 

There was one of thcfe,which in Pckim offered himfelfe to a Magiftrate, 
promifing him great matters from his art. Covetous perfons are ord na- 
rily credulous. He furniflit him with mntei ialls to make his operation, a- 
mongfl: which the other fecrctly conveyed a piece of (ilvcr, which he 
ptivily carryed about him to that intent, the ignorant Magiftrare was well 
pleafed with the produdt of it, he feeming to him a true fonne of art. Then 
the work- man faining to have great occafion to goe to another place, 


Chap.5. The Hijlory of CHlV^A. zj 

^efircd leave of him for fome dayes, which the Magiftrate with much a- 
doe confentcd to, becaufe his covetous defire, being inflamed by that ex- 
periment, could not brooke a long abfence •, But the Alcjhmyftj{\\\zt ufed 
to fiHi in the filver Teas o^ Hjdropkall covetoufneiTe with thofe deceitfuli 
nets, with which he long entertained their hopes, but brought them in 
no profit) was abfcnt three vi^hole yeares: at the end of which being retur- 
ned to P^^i/w, hemakech, as if he knew not the houfe of this his friend, 
though he often paflTed by the doore 5 but being difcovered by the Ma- 
giftrate, he calls him in; whoftill perfifteth in his dillimulationof not 
knowing him. The Mngiilrate queftions him concerning the art, where- 
of he had made him an ej<peiiment : The other confeflTed, that he knew 
the art, but did not remember to have pradifed it in that place •, alledging 
for his excufc, that as he had done it in many places, fo he could not re- 
member them all. But without much intreatie, promifed to doe it acyaine, 
to that intent the Magiftrate giveth him 500. crownes to furniflihim^with 
a fufficient flore of materialls .• Then the Alchym^fl^ tvithout asking leave 
as before, conveyeth himfelfe away , and never appeareth more. But 
forallthefe experiences there are ftill enough, which doe hunt after this 

But returning to our Chinelfes-, they are AfF^blejCourteouSjand of good 
converf ation : and therefore in this particular our men are not to be be- 
Iccved, which dwell only in Macao and Camone^ becaufe they are there,as 
it were, in a continuall vvarr, by reafon of the daily contra(5ts and conten- 
tions, which are betwixt the fervants of the Portugeffes and Chmffes-^ be- 
fides buying and felling produceth frequent difgufts-,and if thofe of -W^- 
r^ do beare with them, becaufe they cannot help it, it is alwayes with 
hope to be paid with interefl: from thole of Cantone^ when they come 
thither by occafion of thefaires .♦ and fo there cannot be a friendly and 
jufl tratfick betwixt them ^ but they do treat one another almofl like ene- 

But in the other Provinces and innermoft parts of the Kingdom, as we 
have faid, they converfe with us with fo much refpe<^ and decorum, that 
in all meetings with them they give us the firft place, upon no other pre- 
tence, bur that we are fl rangers, and as they call us Gtiefls of a remote C//- 
mate. In cafes of necefllty, (which we have many times proved j they 
will not faile to lend us what we aske, although it be more worth than the 
pawnes wc give them 5 and that without interefl. 

I am fure there cannot be a worfer fort of people, than is found in their 
prifons, for thither the dregs of the whole Common-wealth are drained, 
neverthckiTe, we have found courtcfie at the hands of thofe wretches; 
who in fuch places ufe to be very inhumane. Vponoccafion of the perfe- 
cution which we fuffcred in the year 1616, our fathers found in thofe pri- 
fons much rcfpeifl and correfpondence, and when the Officers of the pri- 
fon for fcave of the Tyranr,did bind them and ufe them harflily : it was al* 
waicswith a great rcfentment of the prifoners • who not enduring to fee 
them (treightncd with manacles upon their wrlfts,did make them wider 
for them by burning them (their manacles being madeofwoodj with 
hot irons. 

E' After 

z6 The Hi/lory of CHL^T^d. Part.i. 

After a long time, thefe fathers being to be releafed from one of thefe 
prifons, the prifoncrs confulted among thiemfeives how to fhewthemi 
fome courtcfie.- and collc(^ing what they were able, they entertained 
them with a banquet, which was more acceptable to the fathers, to fee 
fo much Humanity and kindcnefTe towards ftrangcrs among Pagsns, 
which were kept in that place, for the chaftircment of their crimes and 
ill manners, than for the good treatment they received. Thus much will 
fiiflficiently dcmonftratc the naturall courtefieand civility of this Nation. 
Among them,all ads of cruelty are much abhorred •, wherefore among 
their punifliments there is not ufed that ordinary inhumanitie and feverity, 
which is among us, as Quartering •, Tearing with pincers 5 dragging with 
horfes ♦, and racking. He that deferveth death , is cither beheaded, or 

In the yearc the City o^Nankim,zn ordinary fellow with more 
than ordinary infolence did afpire to the Empire. He had already lifted 
much people, and diftributed offices among them, giving order, to cutoS" 
the heads of all the CM andarinesm one day appointed for thdrRmdezvms^ 
When the confpiracy was difcovered by a male-content, that was ilfa- 
tisfied with his allotmentjthere was,upon this occa{ion,imprifon'd almoft 
an infinite companyof people, which wcredifcover'd by the Tyrants own 
book, wherein he kept a lift of the confpiratours : the king having notice 
of it,gave fpeedy order,that no more fhould be imprifonedrbyafecond or- 
der he commandeth, that only thirty of the moft guilty fhould remaine in 
prifon for the fpacc of 30. dales with their heads in the ftocks, and that at 
the end of 30, dales, whofoever of them remained alive fhould not be put 
to death. (There efcaped only two of them 5 ) which is ftrange,that for 
fo enormous a wickcdnefTc , there was appointed no greater punifh- 

When many are condemned to die, they are kept in prifon till the vi- 
fitour of the Province calleth them before him *, and perufing the lift of 
them he appointcth 5,6. or 7. of them to be executed ; ifheexceedeth 
this number, they give him the name oiCruell : The reft arc fcnt back to 

They are inclined to vertue -, I doe not fay they arc exempt from vices, 
proper to all Pagans, and indeed to all Mortalls •, But that they cftceme 
thofe, which make profeffion of vertue^, and particularly of fome vertues, 
which are difpifed by other Gemiles •, as, Humility, Virginity, Chaftity ; 
and this laft is in fuch efteeme, that if a maiden, or young widdow, lead a 
fingle life with ihditCAution and other vertues rcquifite to it,they arc wont 
to cre(5t Triumfhall Arches to them, and celebrate their memorie with 
publick and magnificent prayfes and panegyricks. ' 

Their manner of emertamment and cemplements are fo ^eremcmcuf, 
that there feemesto be no end of them,- and are more proper for di*vm 
worfhip^ than humane converfation. This is to be underftood of their 
vifitcs , and their meetings and incounters, where refpecfi: is to 
be (hewen ; for amongft kindred and friends they treat one another 
more familiarly. They arc fo compofed in their garb^ and wary 
in their words , that nothing can caufe an open difference betwixt 


Chap4- 1 he Hifiorj of CHI^N^A %y 

^ex[ons oi quality one againft the other, although both of them may 
bear a fecret fpleen and grudging. Hence it is, that capitall enemies may 
be feen together at Bdnquets^oi other publick meetings without the lead 
fhevvof enmity^ diflfembhngit dexteroufly and couragioufly under the 
funHiliees of civility and honour. 

They magnifie very freely and readily whatfoever is vertuous in the 
Actions of their neighbours^couragioufly beating down that emulation, 
which in almoft all other nations fuffereth none to be pleafed with any 
but themfelvcs* When they fee any thing which cometli from Eurepe^ 
although there be in it little art or ingenuity, it is by them commended 
with fingular applaule-, and many times with this exprelTionjO, fay they, 
Thefe feople are not like to us^dul andun-ingenious. And fometimes of manu- 
fa(5iurcs made in their own Kingdom, with which by reafon of the vaft- 
neflfe thereof, they are unacquainted, they will fay, that they were not 
made there, but brought from Europe, A modefty indeed worthy to be 
cnvyed^ and fo much the more becaufe it is feen in a people that exceed 
many others in their abilities, to the (hame of thofe Nations, which have 
no eyes to fee, but fuch as arc infected with the difparagcmenc oi whac 
they behold. 

They are not Icfle ingenious Mechanicks^ than the Mamtfa^ures^whkh 
come from thence, fhew them to be, although all which come, are not 
made by the befl: Mafters, 

They are very excellent in workcs oUvor^Ehenj and Amber, cfpeclal- 
ly in Bare- Jewels,pendancs,and gallantries of Gold and Silver j for the or- 
nament of women. They make chaincs to admiration. There was one 
brought from thence to G^4, which confiding of 300 links, weighed not 
3 ounces of goM, and the work was fo fine and fmall, that the links were 
hardly to be difcerned. They have altogether relinquifht to ^^yo/^^ to 
be ferved in platej there being fcarce found among them a veffel of Silver 
ofa confiderablebigneffe^no not in the £;»/>^rtfr//?4W. being content to 
eat in PorcelUne^ which is the only veffclin the world for ncate and de- 
lightfull cleanlineffe. There Gold.thread is of lefTe weight and worth 
than ours-, they have a way oftwiftingofit about paper, which maketh 
It feem, as if it were right and maffie.and is an admirable Artifice. 

The workmanQiip of Enro^e^ which they- mofl admired, were our 
clocks^ but now they make of them fuch as are ^ct upon tables, very good 
ones, and will be able to do the like in fmall oneSjifthe price of them 
there did equall ours. Although they make fome things, whofe price 
would be cxccffive if we (hould caufe them to be made here, Notwith- 
ftanding in the generall we do much exceed them in manufahures and me. 
cbanick Arts, except it be in that fame C/w4w, which is indeed a fingular 

It cannot be denyed, butthat they are a people of an admirable Acute- 
ne{fe-,fo that that may be worthily appropriated to them, that Jrifiotle 
fo freely beftoweth upon all the people o^ Afia-^ l;]ying,thnt Jfia exceeded 
£«ro;>Mn ingenuity; but was exceeded by £»;'^/^ in valour-, this beeing a 
thing fo approved to us by experience. 

There are many, which even to this day do call the Chmejfes^darhri' 
^ E 2 a^S' 

28 TheHiJlory of QHI^A. Part.i. 

am as if they fpake of the Negroes of GupCA^ot the Tafuji oiBrafile-l have 
blufht to hear feme ftile them fo, having been taught the contrary by ma- 
ny years travels among them. Although the fame and manufadures of 
china are fufficient to teach it us-, it beeing now many years that we have 
heard the one-and feen the other.Tis agreat fhame truly: but although 
in this relation there are many things, which might fatif fie us concerning 
the fubtelty of their wit, yet Iwil give you one example in this following 

ActttolnChaqaefj^ (that is, a vifitour of a Province, one of the moft 
important Emp/oymeffts of the Kingdom) receiving of his vifits, after a few 
dales were over , (hut up his gates, and ref ufed to admit any further their 
bufinefleorvifits^pietendingfor hisexcufe,thathe was fick; This acci- 
dent being divulged^ a certain 3/4W,^r/>^, a friend of his, began to be 
much troubled at it-, and with much ado obtained leave to fpeak with him. 
When he was admitted^he gave him notice of the difcontent, that was in 
the Qity, by reafon that bufineffes were not difpatched.the other put him 
off with the fame excufe of his ficknefle : I fee no fignes of it, replied his 
friend^ but if your Lordflnp will be picafed to tell me the true caufe, I will 
ferve you in if, to my utmoft power, conformable to that affcdiion I bear 
you in my heart: know then, replied the Vifiwir^ They have ftollen the 
Kings feale out of the Cabinet where it ufed to be kept,leaving it locked, 
as if it had not been touched ♦, fo that if I would give audience, I have not 
where withall to feale difpatches. If I flvould difcover my negligence 
in the loflfe of the feale I fhallloofe, you know, both my Government and 
my life; fo that I know not what to do, unleffe ii be to (land in fufpence, 
as I dojthe which is but little avail to me, being more fenfible than the 
people thcmfelves, of this delay of juftice. Well perceived the Mandarine 
how terrible the occafion of his retirement was; but prefently making ufb 
of the quickncfs of his wit, asked him if he had never an enemy in thatCi- 
ty :he anfwered him, yes^and that it was the chief Officer of thatCity,that 
is the C/&///< or governour, whicli of a longtime had borne a concealed 
malice againft him. Away then, quoth the Mandarine^ in great haft, let 
your Lordjlnf command that all your goods be removed to the inner- 
moft part of the palace, and let them fet fire on the empty part, and call 
out for help to quench the fire: to which the governour muft of necellity 
repair with the firft, it bdng one of the principall duties of his 
office. As foon as you fee him among the people, call out to him aloud, 
andconfigneto him the C/j^//7e'^,thus (hut as it is^ that it may be fecurcd 
in his policffion from the danger of the fire: for if it be he which hath cau- 
fed the feale to be ftollen, he will put it in his place again, when he re- 
ftorcs you the cabinet-, if it be not he, your Lordftiip ftiallJay the fault up- 
on him for having fo ill kept it-, and your Lordfliip fhall not only be freed 
from this dangcr,but alfo revenged of your encmie. The vifitour follo«' 
wed his councel,and it fucceeded fo well, that the next morning,afrer the 
nightthis fire was, the governour brought him the feale in the cabinet; 
both of them concealing each others fiiulr, equally complying for the 
confervation of both. Now if after this example the chinejfcs muft pafTe 
lOfi^^r^^r/rf^^ as thofc would have it,who have forced me to relate this 





Chap.5. The Hijlory of CHlDs(^A. ip 

ftory, it muft be upon the fame account, on which others have faid as 
much of Mdfes^ 

Chap. 5. 
0/ the manner of their habit, 

THe materials, of which they make fcverall forts of ftufFs and cloaths 
for the fervice cf their perfons, as cloathing, Beds, and other fur- 
niture of their houfes, are wooll, convafe^ (for they have no other fort of 
linnen as I have formerly hinted; filk and cotton : of all which they have 
great abundance. Two hundred years before Chrift they ufed garments 
with (hort (leeves/uch as the Giappomfes ufe at this day • who are defccn - 
ded of tbcm,and liill confcrve this ancient habit. This manner of garmcni: 
continued here, untill the raign oiHom : in the time of this King, who is 
much renowned amongftthem,(about 400 years after Chrift,; that ha- 
bit was altered, as well in the people, as the OfficerSjto that fafhion which 
is worn ac this day: and is the very fame throughout the whole King- 
dom, although it confift of fo many and fo large Provinces : nor can it be 
altered (no more than any other notable cuftome among them) without 
the Kings particular Order. For thefe people, which we call BarbmanSy 
have very well undcrftood, that the changing of fafhionsand cuftomes 
in a Nation for thofe of ft range Countries,is as it wer e,a prefage that that 
Country will at length be brought into fubje(5tion to that other, of whofe 
faftiions and manners they are fo enamoured r and wc might for proofe 
hereof, (if there were occafion) name fome particular Countries among 

Thefe faftiioned garments have been conferved for fo many yeares 5 
and reach from the neck to the feet, being all open before ; Thefe are for 
their under garments, and are made for to fit clofcr to their bodies. Their 
upper garments are large and wider in corapafte. Andbecaufe they ufe 
no butionSjthcy lap them before,one fide over another,as our Ckrgie men 
doe their Cajfocks. Their fleeves arc very wide, and the whole garment 
without any trimming. Apiece of white Taffatic of the length of ones 
hand ferveth them for a band •, when it is foule, they take it off, and put on 
another. This is only to be underftood of the Literati^ or learned men, 
and the people of quality -, for the common fort of people are not fuffered 
to weave it. 

The young men weare indifferently all forts of colours-, but the Ancient 
mendo weare alwaies the moft modeft. The common people for the 
moft part arc cloathed in black • as all fores of fervants, who are bound 
rot to alter that colour. 

Thofe who arc Governours, or have Governed j upon occafion oFFeaJIs, 
do weare garments of the fineft red. The rich men change their garments 
atallthe4feafonsof theyear-, and the inferiour fort, (although poorej 
twice a year, at winter and furamer .- and upon this occafion many pawn 

E 3 that 

go The Hi/iory of CHL'ACA Part.i. 

that garment, which they wearc in one feafon to f urnifli themfelves with a 
garment for the next. ^ ^ . 

Becaufe their haire is their chiefe gallantrie, wewillfpeak here a word 
or two concerning it. Their youth , till feventeen years oFage, leave the 
(horteft part of their haire hanging loofe^the other they combe back to the 
top of their head •, where they tie it up inaknot* After that, age they 
weare a net of horfe-hairc, which is like unto our Cawles, under which 
they gather up all their haire, not fufFering one haire to hang out : on the 
top of this they all weare caps-, the Literati fquarccaps, the reft of the 
people, round ; they are all made of filk, or elfe of horf-haire, which by 
reafon of the workmanfliip come often to be more coftly than the other. 
They are alwaies to be black^unlefTe it be in the winter, when they weare 
them of felr,& are always gray^or elfe of the naturall colour of the wooll. 
At the firft time any one putteth on this Cawle, it is done with a particu- 
lar folemnitie, as we were wont anciently, atthefirft putting on of the 
cloake o^ fword. For (hocs,they know no other materialls, but (ilk of all 
{orts and colours, for the rich-, and for the poore,cotton: they are differing 
from ours in (hape, and in the coft, which is beftowed upon them, having 
many little works wrought on them with the needle. Skins are ufed only 
for bootes, which are rarely feen there. The richer and better fort of the 
people weare hofe o^Damaske or Sattmpx any fort of white filk ^ the reft 
of white Cotton. They weare breeches generally, both men and women. 
This is the habit of this ample Kingdome, being as large almofl as all JEu- 
rope J which hardly keepeth conftant to its ownc fafhions, in any of its 
fmalleft Provinces. 

The women are decently habited with the famecoates, (if I may fo 
call them j which the men ufe -, wearing them clofe about their necks. E- 
ven the ordinary fort of women are very curious in dreffing their heads, 
adorning their haire with flowers, as well naturall as artificiall • having in 
this art a competition with nature 3 and with the varietie of colours, the 
forme and figure of them chey do as happily deceive the eyes of the be- 
holders, as the grapes of Zeuxes, did the fparrowes • or to expreffc it bet- 
ter, as the curtaineof Farrhafim deceived Zeuxes, 

The women of the better quality ufe gold and filver, the Courtefans^ or 
pihliqne women are not fuffered to weare them; and it is a diftindlion to 
know them by, what they are, that they are not allowed to weare any or- 
nament on their heads (contrary to the cuftome of other Countries) not 
to have their houfes within the walls. The reft of their under-garments 
are the fame both in men, and women, only their fhoes are fo little, that 
one might reafonably doubt, whether fo fmall fecte could belong to a 
humane body growen to a full ftature .- The reafon of this is, that from 
their very infancy they fwathe their childrens fcet,fo ftreightning them to 
hinder their growth 5 and not (as we (ay in Europe) becaufe they are not 
fuffered to goe .• and although ic be the common opinion, that it is a great 
part of beauty to have little feet, yet the more underftanding Chine fses do 
hold this effeminacy to be a very great folly. It tooke its originall from 
one of their Queenes, who having ill- fliapen feet, to mend that naturall de- 
fcdl, did fwathe them, to bring them tp a better forme .• fo thar, what was 


Chap.^. TheHifiory of CHIHJ' -V 

ncccfli^ie in hcrf if it inay be called a ncceflitic,to mend fucb feet, as might 
have ferved well enough without it) it came to be a gallantrie in all wo- 
men by imitation of her: fo much ought Princes to avoid the making of 
themfelves t^uthors of ridiculous novelties. 

The retirement of the women is very great. There is not a woman to 
be feen in the ftrects,a!though in yeares •, or never fo blamclede in her life^ 
neither are racn fuffered tovifite them at their houfes. That part of the 
houfc where they inhabit is, as it were, a facred place, for their fakes. Ic 
is enough to tell any one who entereth unwillingly, 7hM then are women . 
there^ to make him ftop prefently. 

The men-fervants may enter thither only while they arc little boyes. 
Info the very chamber where they are, notfo much as their kindred, are 
allowed to come, unlefle they be the younger brethren of ihe husband, of 
very fmall age -, no not the husbands father 5 with ^o much pun6tualitie, 
that if upon fome particular occafion he would chaftife his fon, (for al- 
though they are marticd,their fathers do chaflife them, if they fee caufej 
he retireth prefently to his wives apartment, which is an inviolable Sdm- 
tftary ; the father being not to enter thither. If the women go out to vifite 
their parents, they are carried in Sedans clofe flmt ; and this is the cuftome 
of all their women, even to thofeof the moft ordinary qualities \i they go 
on pilgrimage to any of their Idolls, and that it be neceffary, tha^ they go 
part of the way on foot, they cover their faces with avayle. If they 
goby water in the Barks with their Parents and kindred (as I fawonce 
above 200. upon occafion of a Pilgrimage) they paffe one before ano- 
ther without [peaking a word ^ beleeving that the leaft overture thac 
women give to the converfation of men is a large gate opened to the 
danger of their honour. This , which may be counted a har/h 
Stricfnejfe , is turned into a plcafaunt Sweetmffe by cuflome. fwhich 
maketh all things eafie ) as well for their repofe^as for the peace and con- 
cord of the family. 

Notwithftanding in fo large a Country as C^ina, this cuftome can- 
not equally be obferved every where 5 fo that in fome parts, as I have 
above mentioned, the ordinary women go abroad as among us-, but 
the women of quality al way cs obfctve that ftile of retiredneffe. 

Of their Language and Letters. 

'T'He language which is ufed in China is of fo great Antiquity, that nia- 
-*' ny beleeve it to be one of the 72, which were at the Tower of J?4- 
belAi leaft it is manifeft by their books, that it is more than 5700. years 
in ufe among them. Is is various and different, becaufe there are divcrfe 
'Kingdomsjwhereof this Empire is compofcd at this day-, and anciently 
they did not belong unto this Crown, but were poffeffed by Barbarous 
N itions,as all the Southern Provinces and fome of the Northern; But at 
this day the Languageof C^;;?4 is but one only, which they call Qnonhoa^ 


31 The Hijlory of C H I ^A . Part.i; 

or the language of thei^W4^»/r^, for they at the fame time_, and with 
the lame care and induftrie, that they introduced their government into 
other Kingdomes, brought in likewife their language.'andfo at this day 
it runneth through the whole Country, as Latin doth through all Europe-^ 
but more univcrfally each Province ft ill retaining their naturall fpeech. It 
is a Language much limited-, and as in the multitude of letters it excee- 
dcrhall others.foinfcarcenefTeof the nounes which it ufeth, it is the 
lead copious of any :for it hath not in all aboue 326. and of wordsi which 
in reality are the fame, but only differing in accent and afpiration ) 1 228. 
Almoft all end in vowels,and thofe few, which do not terminate in vow- 
els.end either in M. oriNT. They are all Monofjllahles,-3\\ undeclinedjas wcl 
verbes as nounes, and fo accommodated to their ufe, that many times 
the verbe ferveth for a noun ,and a noun for a verb, and an adverb too, if 
need be. For which reafon it is more eafie to be learn'd than the Latme- 
the Grammar only whereof taketh up a childs whole time. The brevity 
of it makcth it full of sequi vocal words, and for the fame reafon compen- 
dious, n This which would be troublefome to fome, is very pleafing to 
the ci'/V^^jfw-, who are mofl: particular lovers of bicvity in fpcech- being 
either imitatours, or imitated by the Lacedemonians, Ir is rather fvveec 
than haifli,and if it be fpoken perfectly ,(35 it is for the mof\ part^in ^an- 
kimyis very delightfull to the ear. 

To fay a thing v^^ith refpedt, with humility, and in applaufe of anothers 
merits, they ufe many excellent termes and phrafes, (which are the pro- 
prieties alfo of our VortugejfesXmgmgc. ) And ah hough it be a very nar- 
row language, k is fo fweet, that it exceedeth almoft all others that I 
know. To fay among us .- fake a rto^, either with the whole hand, or 
with fomc particular fingers thereof, we are forced ftill to repeat the verb 
take-, but among them it is not fo; each word fignifieth the verb; and 
the manner too. As for example Nien to take with two fingers; 
tzo to take with all the fingers •, Chtia with the whole hand 
turned downwards ^ r^/> with the hand having the fingers turned 
upwards-,fo likewife with the verb {is'] asj he is in the houfe, he is eating, 
or /V fleeping ; they have a word, wherewith at once they expreffe both 
that he is, and, how he is. We, to fay, the foot of a man, the foot of a 
bird or the foot of any beaft, are forced alwaies to fpecifie with the fame 
word /^tf^ but the chineffes do it with one word: as Kio thej^^t ofa man, 
C/jaaihc foot ofa bird-, Thl the foot of any beaft. 

Their ftyle in thcirw^riting is very different -fromtheir difcourfe,although 
the words are the fame ; fo that when one taketh the pen in hand for tg 
write, he had need to raife up his witts; and it would be counted a ridicu- 
lous thing, to write as they fpcak ordinarily. This is the reafon, that all 
their pointed or accented reading, orating, difputing, and perfwading , as 
wcliinpublickasinpriva(e,isalwayesfirftpra(5lifed and exercifed with 
the pen. 

The letters which they ufe, feem to be as Ancient as the people them-^ 
felves, for according to their hiftories it is (ince the Invenfion of them* 
3700. yeaisto thisprcfent year i64o,in which I wrote this relation. I 
wil be bold to fay that this is one of the moft admirable things in that 


Chap.^. TheHijloryofCHIU^C/l. ^5 

Kingdome: for rhe number of their letters being exceflive, almoftall 
have feme skill in them, at leaft as much as is fufficient for the exercif^ of 
their trades • and though they are proper only to China, yet they are ufed 
in all the neighbouring Kingdomes, every one reading them in their owns 
Ianguage-,as among us it is in the figures of numbers&of the ftarres- which 
arc the fime over all Europe-, and yet every nation calleth them by different: 
namts. Thty are very proper for Hmbaflfies, Bills^ and Bookes. Thefe, al- 
though each Province have a different language, are common and iinder- 
ftood of all, as if they had been written in their owne language. 

The Author of thefe is [dd to be FohLont of their firfl Kings. At the 
beginning they were fewer, and more iimple, refembling, in feme re- 
fpe(5i:, the thing that was exprefled by them •, for that which 16 pronoun- 
ced G}^ and iignifieth the Sun, was written with a circle, and a Diametral! 
line through ir. Afterwards the form was lomething varied, changing 
the circle almolliato a fquare, having the fame line through ir, and doth 
ftill fignifytheSun. This variety in making of their letters hathcaufed 
fourc kinds of them. Firfi: the ^ncum^ which remaineih Hill in their 
Libraries, and is underftooJ of all the /i/V/^r4//\ although it be no longer 
in ufe, except in fome titles and feales, which they put in flead of Armes* 
The fecond is called chincu^znd is the moll current, as well in manufcripr, 
as printed bookes. The third they caWraipiCy andanfwereth to the run- 
ning hand ufed among our publick Notaries,not much in ufejUnlcffe it be 
in bills, conirads, pleadings, policies, and fuch like things. The fouith is 
fo different from the reft, as well for the Abbreviations, (which are ma- 
ny J as alfo for the different ftroakes and fliap: of the letters, that it requi- 
reth a particular ftudy to undtrftand them. This word 5/V, which fignifi- 
cth to give thanks, is written after three moft different manners. 

Tlieir letters are in all lixty thoufand, enrolled in their vocduUry^ 
which they call, Haipien^ and nfiay bervndreda^r^.^//?4. They haveo- 
thc rs more briefe •, For to read,write, compofc, and undcrftaiid very well, 
about eight or ten thoufand letters will ferve the turner and when they 
meet with any letters, which they call a ^<?/i /^//fr, they have recourfeto 
their vocahiary , as we do, when we meet with a Laim word that we do 
not underftand. From hence it is cvidcnr,that he is mofl learned amongft 
them, that knoweth moft letters; as amongft us he is the beft Ldt/mft,d-i3.L 
ismoft vcrftin his Calipines-Dixiomrj, To form all thefe multitude of 
letters, they ufe only nine ftrokes, or touches of the pen : but becaufe 
thefe only would not be fufficient for fo great a fabrique, they do joinc 
figures, or perfe^fl: and fignificant letters, one into another •, by which 
means they make other new and different one.s^oimd of a different ilgnifi- 

cation.So this line- fignifieth one : croffed with another line J-^-ren, 

and having another ftroke at the bottome j-j- fignifying the earth, and 
with another ftroke at the top of it -^ ic ftandeth' for King -, adding a 

ftroke on the left fide of it between the tvvp fir ft ftrokes -^ it is taken 

for a precious ftone, and by adding cettaine other lines, it is meant for a 
pearle : And this lafi figure is every letter to have, that muft fignify a pre- 
cious ftone, or any other ftone, that is of price andefteeme, although not 

F counted 

^ The Hijlory of QHIHA' Part.i. 

counted precious. So every letter which fignifieth any tree miift have 
joyned vvith it the letter, which fignifieth wood : and the letter that figni- 
ficth mettall, muft be annexed to the figure which it is put to fignify, as 
Iron, Copper, Steel s yet this is no infallible rule. 

They have airo,in the compofition of their Letters^ had refpecft to their 
figniff cations : and fo that fquare figure, which we fpake of before, to fig- 
nifie the Smne^ joyned with another very little different, (landing for the 
Meom^ is called Min, and fignifieth Brightneire. Another which hath the 
likenelTe of a Portall, called Muen^ fignifieth a gate:there is another which 
fignifieth a heart, to which it hath fome retemblance.^ Now if this letter 
be placed between the two perpendicular lines, which form the letter 
that ftandeth for a Portall, it fignifieth Sadmjfe and Affi't^ion^ that is, a 
heart flreightened and prefl: in a narrov/ doore; and every word o^Sadnefs 
muflhave a heart annexed to it. 

They who write well, are held in great efteeme ; and they make more 
account of a good writing, than of a good pi6ture. And for a fet of anci- 
ent letters well (hapcn and formed, they do not care to fpend a good 
fumme of money ; and letters from being firft efteemed, have come at 
length to be reverenced. They cannot endure to fee a written paper lying 
on the ground, but prefently take it up-,and in the childrens fchooles there 
is a place appoynted for the keeping of them 5 and afterwards they burne 
them at certaine times, not out of religion, or fuperftition,as the Tf^rks do, 
but only out of the reverence they bearc to Letters, 

Their way of writing is from the top of the paper downwards to the 
bottome, and beginning at the right hand of the paper proceed to the left, 
as the Hebreaves and all Eaflern nations do. 

They formerly made ufeofthe inner barkes of fome trees in (lead of 
paper,as other nations have done. For a ftile or pen they ufcd certaine Bod- 
kins oiUon^ with which they dexteroufly formed their Letters^ They 
wrote alfo many things on Lamins or plates of mettall, and alfoon vefTels 
of molten mettall- of which there are yet fome remaining, which are 
held in no fmall efteeme by the owners, & all that fee them. But it is now 
1800 years fince they have had the invention of paper, which is there of fo 
many forts & in fo great plenty ^that I am perfwaded,that,in t\\\s,Chma cx- 
ceedeth the whole world-, & is exceeded by none in the goodnes thereof. 
That which aboundeth moft,& is moft ufed for printing,is made of a cer- 
taine Tree, which is called in Wm, Bombu^ and in China^ po^ the art in 
making of it is like ours^but the bed and whiteft is made of Cotton-cloth. 

In ftead of pens they ufe penfillsmade of thehaire offeverall crea- 
tures: thebeftareofthofeofaii^4r^. They are more eafieand conveni- 
ent to write with than pens: the ordinary onescoft three, foure, or five 
farthings •, thebeft come to fix pence a piece. Hhthjlandifhes are made of 
ftone offeverall formes, and are commonly handfomely wrought, and of 
a fmall price : yet rhey have fome of thirty crownes a piece. In thefe they 
diffoWe the inkc, which is m,ade up in little molds and dried : The beft is 
made of the fmoake of oyle, which they gather by art : it isfold at a fmall 
price commonly, the dearcft being a crownc, or fevcn and fix pence the 
pound •, but the beft of all from ten to twenty crownes. The i/irtez,am 
which make it are net held for Mechanicks^ fo noble is this art cfteemed 


C H A p . 7- The Hifiory of QHl^/i. ^ i 

bychem. They ufe fometimes red ink, efpecially in their iy^nrwtatiofjs 
upon books; and fometimes ( but very feldome) write with it. It is their 
greateft care and ambition tohavealltheirinftrumentsofvvritingtobe 
of rich materials,neat , proper, and in good order, with the fame pride 
and deh'ght,as the moft accurate Cjptain or Souldier among us taketh in 

In printing, it feemetli that China ought to have the precedence of o- 
ther nations : for according to their books they have ufed it this 1600 
years^ but it is not (as I faid before) like unto ours in £/^r^/>f. For their 
Letters are engraven in Tables of wood. The Authour of the book or- 
dereth what kind of letter he will have, either great, little, or middle- 
fized^orrathcrhegivethhismanufcript tothe graver-, who maketl} his 
Tables ofthe fame bignefTe with the fhects that are given him; and pa- 
fting the leaves upon the Tables with the wrong fide outwards.he engra- 
veth the letters as he findeth them- with much facility and exadneffc^and 
without making any Errata-, their writing not being on both fides the pa- 
per, as among us, but on one fide only^ and the reafon, that their 
books feem to be written on both fides is,becaufe the white fide is hidden 
within the fold; 

They print likewife with Tables of flone-, with this difference, that 
then the paper is made all black, and the letters remain white*, becaufe 
when they print thus, they lay the ink upon the Superficies ofthe ftone^but 
in the Tables of wood, they put it only in the hollow ofthe engra- 
ving. This laft manner of printing ferveth only for Epitaphs , PidlureSj 
Trees, Mountains, and fuch like things, whereof they do defire to 
have the memories preferved-, and they have very many prints of this 
kind. The ftones which ferve for this ufe ,are of a proper and particu- 
lar kind ; their wooden Tables are made of the beft Peare-trce. So 
that any work which they prim ( as they do in great numbers ) remai- 
neth alwaies entire in the print of rheT^^/^y, to bee reprinted as often 
as they pleafe , witliout any new cxpencc or trouble in fetting for 
the prefTe, as there is in our printii^. Every one hath the liberty to 
print what he pleafeth , without the Supervifing^Cenfure ^ or Licence , of 
anyone; and with fo fmall charges, that for every hundred letters 
perfectly engraved in the manner abovefaid , they pay no more 
than foure pence half-penny •, and yet every letter confifteth of many 


Of their manner of Jludy^and admittance 
to examination^ 

THey are put to learn from their tender age» They have for beginners 
certain little bookes, containing good rules and precepts of vert ue, 
good manncrSjObedience to their parents and fuperiors,oi forae fuch like 

F 2 matter. 

; tf Ihe Bijlory of CHI-K"^- P a r t a . 

mattcp. A few months after, they give them C/^///r4^ books- which 
they ^tt all by heart, both the Text and the Gldjfe^ as peifed as we do our 
P4?fri\r<?/^r.Afterthis,commeththeMafters explanation. They fay their 
lefibnlikewifeby hcartjthe Scholars back being turned towardsjthe mafter 
with the book lying open upon the table, and they ufe no other phrafe 
for faying their Leflbnjbut only Poixu^which fignifieth,to turn their back 
upon the book, and this is done, that they might not caft their eies upon 
it to help themftlves. They aie kept to their ftudies with fo much ri- 
<'our,(even the youngeft of them) that they are allowed no manner of re- 
creation or divertifcment. 

Every day they write fomething, and their mafiers copy is laid 
under the paper, like the black line among us .♦ and the paper being thinne 
and tranfparent, the letters eafily appear through, which the boy that 
learneth doth eafily imitate, forming other letters like thofe, which hec 
feeth under his paper- and by ufing this for fome fliort time, he becom- 
ethaccuftomedtothefiifhionofhis Matters hand, which he imitateth 
after this manner. Therefore after fome time fpent in this exercife,they 
write one line upon the Matters copy, and another upon the blank pa- 
per by the fide of itjfor, as I have faid, the lines are made from the top of 
the paper tothebottome, till at length, when they can well imitate the 
copy,they give over writing upon it. In fine,they take very much paines 
to gain a good hand in writing; for. in their examinations, where their 
compofitions ate copied, it is fufficient to have their Grace denied, if there 
be but found one ill-ttiapen letter, before their excrcife be readj they 
prefuming-, that no man can be learned, if he read,or write ill; although a- 
mong us there be many examples to the contrary .For it is wel known,that 
the excellent Dodour iV4i;4fr(^ wrought a very ill hand, & our Bartolomeo 
Philffpo^n fingular Scholar, writ fo perfe(5i an ill hand,that to the univer- 
fall grief of all learned men, his moft learned works were loft 5 although 
they were many, and no doubt, full of moft admirable knowIcdge,be- 
caufe there was not found any one, that was able to read them*, as may 
be perceived by thofe workes of his, that have efcaped out of that perni- 
cious chaos. 

Next-,when the Chimffes have learned a good quantity of their letters, 
and have had fome acquaintance with their books, they are inftruded in 
the rules of compofition. Firtt, they give them fome difordered compo- 
fitions, which they are to reduce into order-, then fome abbreviations for 
them to enlarge upon,and afterwards in duetimc they give them only the 
point or Theme-,in like manner they do, at their examinations. And be- 
caufe every three years the moft approved compofitions of thofe, who 
have taken degrees, are put in printvOthers take great paines in them, and 
get as many of them by heart as they are able. 

They have no Umverfiks^whcre they ttudy together; but all, that are 
able, take a Mafter into the houfe for their fonncs, and fometimes two, if 
there be much difference between their childr ens ages,This Mafter is al- 
waies with them without any interruption, and teacheth them not only 
letters and fcienccs, but whatfoever concerncth Civill gcvcrnment^good 
manners^ mralitie.^ and the way how to carry thcmfelves in every thing, 
- If 

Chap.7- 1 he Hiftorj of CHI^A. 37 

Ifthey areperfonsof^^%, the Scholar never goeth abroad without 
his Mafter, who ferveth to inftrud him in all Civilities, and good behavi- 
our-, particularly in vifics-, where, as there arc many Cerewonks ufed, 
there is fomcthing of difficnltie ; and they might eafily commit 
an errour , if their Mafter did not help them. And without 
doubt, this way is moft decent for their reputation , and more 
profitable for their ftudies , and lefTe expofed to thofe venem.ous 
pradtifes and company, which are apt to teach them fuch cuftom.s, as 
infedt their minds- and fpoiie the Decorum of a Gentleman-, and much 
more in Chin^t, vvhere;if any onehave this cvill fame, he cannot be admit- 
ted to examinations. 

There are neverrhelcfTc many Schools for children of a meaner condi« 
tion-, where the Mafters have this good quality, that they receive no 
more than they are well able to teachj that they might nor go from them, 
as if they had never come thither, asitfallethout tooofren in Europe, 
where each Mader endeavcurcth to have many Scholars, rather for his 
own gain than their advancement. For indeed a mm, let him be never fo 
ablcjis but ftill one man- whence itcommech to paflTe, that fome of their 
Schollars know the School, but are not known of it. This inconveni- 
ence is avoided in China : each taketh no greater charge upon him, than 
he is well able to give an account of-, and each IVf after admitteth no more 
Scholars, than he can well teach. He is with them all the day long.^bc- 
having himfelf with much gravities neither do they ever go out of the 
School, unlelfe it be at meales-, and if any one of them doth live far off, 
his dinner is brought to the School . Their play- dales and time of vaca- 
titn are only fifteen dales at the beginning of the new year, and fome few 
daies inthe/J^t and /f'yw?/^* moon: and as there are there no Holy-dates, 
they make all the reft of the year an un-interrupted application to their 
ftudics. Sofenfiblc are they of this truth ; That it is neccffary to take ve- 
ry great paines to bee learned, and, that feldome any one palfeth 
with the reputation of a knowing man, without much labour an^ indu- 

. • tWhen they are grown up and paft thefe rudiments, and their parents 
are not able to provide a raaikr for each in particular; fome of the kin- 
dred and neighbours joyne together, and take a mafter in common, who 
dyets with thtm day by day in courfe,and receiveth his Salary from them 
all, which is not much- but more or lefTc according to the cuftome of the 
Countries, and may amount each year to 40 or 50 Crowns^ the cam- 
moviSilary being from ten to twenty crownes: befides the prcfents which 
they make them ar certaine feafts, confifting of ftockings, fhoes,and fuch 
like things. At meals (although it be in the houfes of perions of the greateft 
quality) they are to fit with the father of the fcholar, or at leaft with the 
fcholar himfelfe. Many times they ftuiynotin their fathers houfe,ha- 
ving others more proper for that occafion, either within or without the 
Git y,but never farr oif : and as much as they can, avoyd their ownc hou- 
fcSjknowing well that the multitude of people, and the refpedl which is 
payd to their quality at home, are capitall enemies to ftudy .-hence it com- 
eth to paife in other Kingdomes, that the fonnes of Lords and great men 


^8 The Wjlory of QBL^Nji. Part.i. 

do for the moft part, prove great Igmrants: As if the greareft Nohilitj did 
notconfift in thegreateft^v;tfrv/^^^^. 

There are ordinary Mafters without number, for there being fo many 
that pretend to the degree of a X/>^r4/o, and fotew that attaine to it, the 
Picateft part are conftrained to take upon them the employment of a 
fchoolmafter ^ fo that to kx. up a fchoole the year following, they go a- 
bout to get fcholars for that time,from the beginning of the prefent year, 
but in great houfes they commonly receive none for Mafters, but fuch as 
have taken the degree of BatcheJour, who continue the courfe of thcit 
ftudies with a defigne to take their other degree. 

When they have taken any degree, although it bebue only of Bmhe^ 
hur , they are then no longer under a Mafter, but forme a kind of 
i_yicademie^ as it were, among themfelves •, where they meet at certainc 
times every month , one of them opencth a book, and giveth a point or 
Theme,upon which all ot them make their Com]?ofitfom ^which they after- 
ward compare among themfelves. 

Although they have no unlverftties and particular fchooles, neverthe- 
leffe they have generall fchooles, which are very capacious and magnifi- 
cent, and moft richly adorned, for the examiners, and thofe that are to be 
examined ; of which there is a wonderful! great number. Thefe fchooles 
are in the Cities and Townes^but the moft ftately ones are in the Metropo- 
lies of the Provinces, where the examination of Lkentiats is held. Thefe 
fabriqucs are of abigneftc proportionable to the multitude of people 
which flock to them. The form is almoft the fameinall. Thofe ofCj;;- 
tone are not bigge •• becaufe they admit not of above foure-fcore, to take 
their degree •, whereas in others, there are admitted from an hundred to a 
hundred and fifteen, which is a great difference* The whole ftrudurc is 
compafted about with a wall, having a faire and fumptuous gate towards 
the South, opening into a large ftreete, where a numerous multitude are 
gathered together. This ftrcete or Fiatza is 150. Geometricall paces 
broade, each pace confifting of five foote : There are no houfes in it, but 
only porches and walks with feats for the captaines and fouldiers, who 
are there aflifting all the time o f the cxamination,and keep a ftrong guard. 
At the firft entrance, there is a great Court, where do ftand the Manda- 
rines of the firft poft, with a Court of guard within the gate •, then pre- 
fently appeareth another wal with a gate,made like thofe of ourChurches, 
and openeth & fliuts in two leaves or pieces,when it is not convenient that 
all ftiould be opened : when you are paft that gate,there appeareth a large 
place, in which there is a pond of water, extending from one tide to ano- 
ther, over which ftandeth a ftone bridge of perfefi Architedure, which 
cndeth at another entrance or gate, guarded by Captaines, which fuffer 
none to go in or out, without expreftc order from the officers. After this 
gate followeth another very fpacious Court, having on each fide rowes 
of little houfes or chambers for the perfons that are to be examined 3 pla- 
ced on the Eaft and Weft fide thereof. Every chamber is foure palmes 
and anhalfe long, Cevery palme is nine inches EnglifhJ and three and a 
halfc broade, and is in height about the ftature of a man: they are covered 
with Tarrafic or Playfter in ftead of Tyle •, within each of them are two 


Chap.7. The Hijlory of CHl^J, ^5, 

boards,the one f aftencd to lit downe on5the other moveable for a Table.* 
which xifrer it hath ferved them to write upon, they make ufe of, when 
time is, to eate on. There is a narrow entrie, which leadcth to themvthat 
admitreth but of one man a breaft, and that hardly too ^ the doores of one 
row open toward the backfide of the other. 

At the time of the examination -, there is a fouldier to afTift in every one 
of thefe little chamber?, to guard and fervc the perfontobe examined 5 
fitting under his little Table ; They fay, he hath a gagge of wood in his 
mouth, that he Ihould not I'peakand trouble the ftudent. But if it be in his 
power to lemedic it, it is not likely, that he doth entirely complic with 
his obligation. 

Attlie end of this narrow entrie I fpake of, is railed a Tower upon 
foure Arches with Balufters wirhouton all fides, within which there is a 
Salome or great Hall, where do aflift fome officers and perfons of refpeiSi:, 
who flay there to give account of what pjffeth in all the little chambers, 
which they have placed in their fight. At the foure corners of this Court 
are foure great Towers, with their Bell cr Drum, which is founded, as 
foone as there happeneth any novcltie or difordcr, to give notice thereof 
to whom it doth concerne. Nigh to thefe Towers are other Buildings 
with a large Hall, furniflicd wirh feats and Tables, and other necclTarics 
for the bufineffe that is to be performed there 5 which is the firfl examina- 
tion of the compofitions •, at which the more ordinary officers do affifl^iit- 

Going through the Hall by the gate which looketh Northward, there 
is to be feen another Court, and prefcntly another Hall of the fame form; 
but the furniture thereof is more rich and coflly, it ferving for the Preji- 
dent^ and more honourable officers. Then follow likewife other ap- 
p.irtaraents and lodgings for the faid perfons, and for all the other officers ^ 
and examiners ^ every appartamcnt hath a Hall, feats and Tables toncgo- ' 
tiateandeatat-, a chamber with a bed, and Canopie of filke, and other 
houlhold' fluff proper to that end they are defignedfor. Thercisalfoa 
walke wi'th little gardens and low Trees.There are alfo joyncd to thefe,o- 
therleffer chambers for Notaries, Secretaries, Pages, and other officers 
of thtir families 5 befides thefe there arc other chambers for the CMandA- 
rines and inferiour officers, and for their ordinary fervants, with Butteries, 
Larders, Kitchins, and whatfoeverisnecelfary for the accommodation 
of fo great a multitude 5 every thing being difpofed and ordered even to 

Anciently the nobilitie and kindred of the King were not admitted to 
any fort of office or publique charge ^ no, nor thofe of them that fludied, 
w^ere allowed to come to the examinations, to take their degrees. About 
20 yeares fince, after many earnefl folicitations made by them.and oppo- 
fitions by the contrary part, they had the priviledge granted them, to be 
admitted to all examinations- and the examiners are obliged to confer 
degrees on fome of them, but not to manj^ The common people of all 
forts and all vocations are admitted, except thofe that are infamous, as 
the f ervants of rh^Mandarms (not their houihold Servants^ but thofe 
which ferve them in their Tribunalls and Courts of juflice^ Sergeants, 


4.0 7 he Hi/lory of CHLT^/^. P a r t . i . 

Bayliffs, Catchpoles, Rogues, Hxecutioners, and guardians of their pub- 
lique women, called Fampa Likewife thofe are not admitted, againll: 
whom lyeth any tax, oraccufation of ill manners, untill there be fatif- 
fadtion given of their amendment. 

They have three forts of degrees Sieueai^ Kiugin^ C'mfu -, and that we 
mit^htthe better underOand them, I might fay, that after their manner 
they arc anfwetablc to our latchelour Licentiate y and Do6iour^ each degree 
having their fevcrall enfigne? and badges of honour. Thofe that are only 
fludents, and have taken no degree, have not any particular priviledge be- 
longingto them, but only are refpedted as Gentlemen,and the people ho- 
nour thcmg as the lights of their Coumry, fo much is knowledge eftee- 
med among them, who know, how to honour that, which doth truly de- 
ferve efteeme^ 

Chap. 8. 

Of the manner of their Sxamwations^ and hovo their 
degrees are conferred. 

THe order and manner, that the Chineffes obferve in their examinati- 
ons of pcrfons that take their degrees, is very curious. It is robe 
fuppofed^ that in thefe examinations, from the firft of the fimple ftudenr, 
tothclaftoftheDo(5tour, confifteththe bufinelTe of the greateft impor- 
tance of this Kingdome ; for on thefe depend the degrees and offices 
both of honour and profit, the only marke^at which mortalls aimc wirh 
their chiefefi: attention. In a word, ifthcre be an employment, wherein 
thefe two are coupled (a conjuncS^ion which the old proverb hath fen- 
tenced to be very difficult) certainly it is this. We will begin at the be- 
ginning, that is what is performed by the meere and fiir pie fludents. 

Before the estamination there is firft Ipread abroad a report, that there 
will be one, till at length it be publiihedby AuthQritie, Bccaufe the de- 
grees which are conferred, and thofe which pretend, arc many, it is not 
convenient that fo great a multitude fhould be admitted to the examinati- 
on of the Chamellotir : and to the end that both the fit and unfit (hould not 
enter at that examinationjthereis an order in theProvince,thar thofe which 
are to enter, fhould be proved firfl by two Antecedent examinations in 
their City or Townc, after this manner. Every Judge in his Territorie 
doth publiili an examination, and appointeth a day for the meeting of all 
the fludents of his Precind. And becaufe fometimes the place of the pub- 
lick univetfitic is not fufficientfor the reception offo great a multitude, 
they fill a large field with feats and Tables ♦, and there the examination is 
held. The Judge giveth the poynt upon which they are to compofe. 
They begin in the morning and are allowed time till night •, They give in 
but one compofition, and when they have finifhcd it, they'configne it to 
the proper officer-, who, putting them together, examincth them all along 
with great diligence •, and chufing out the bcfl, caufeth the name of their 


C H A p . S. The Hiftorj of CUlHj^. 4 1 

compofers to be written: this roll of their names is fttick up upon the 
wall of his Palace^ by which'it cometh to be known, who they are, that 
are allowed to paiTe to the fupream cxamination-and this allowance they 
caW jHav'wg a mme in their Village^ 

The compofirions thus allowed are carried by the Ofiicer,in perfon to 
the Governour of the City : and the fame do all the judges of Townes, 
each within his own jurifdidionrand each City in its Villages, each City 
being divided into twoVillages, with their particular judges, befidcs the 
Governour of theCity.And all thefludentsof theCountry.that have been 
already allowed ofjbeing afTembled together,enrer into the generall place 
of the City-^ where the Governour of the City examines them again, and 
giveth them a new point, after the fame manner, as was given them in 
the Village with this difference- that they ufe more care, rigour, anddili- 
gence,and admiclefTe of the IntercefTion of friends, who are ready in ail 
places to pervert the truth. Of thefe the governour chufcth 200, and 
giveth their names to the Chmcdlonr^ who pntteth them the third time 
upon the fame examination^ almoft in the fame manner-, and chufeth out 
amongft them about 20 or 25, upon whom he conferreth their degree-, fo 
that being fifred three times moft exa6^1y,they come at length to be but 
few in number. Then are given them their enfignes and priviledges, with 
an advertency of their fub ordination, not only to the chancdlonry but al- 
fo to the ?Ytfelis% who arc two in each City^ and are called Hioquon'^ that 
is. Mandarines of the fciences. Their oflfice is to obferve and fpy out the 
deportment of each? and to chaftife thofe, that behave themfelves amifTe-, 
and (which is more) they may examine them a new, if they pleafe, and as 
often, as they think good. :.ioDib. ii! .'r^^nr} 

The ChanccUour is bound by his office to fend through the Province, 
and to afTemble within the Cities all the Ancient Batcklours^ and to exa- 
mine them, to find whether they ff udy^ or elfe addid themfelves to other 
imploy ments different from their profeffion. He rewardeth the diligent, 
and caftifeth tliofe that are idle, in this manner .• when they are all gather- 
ed together in the generall Palace,hc giveth them a point for their com- 
pofitions; the which being ended, their papers are divided into five Decu- 
r/e^ or C/4//"^/^ to thofe ofthefirft he giveth praifc and rewards-, the fam^e 
or little Icffe is done to thofe of the fecond 5 Thofe of the third CUjfe are 
palled by in filence-, thofe of the fourth he chaf^ifeth^ thofe of the lad 
Claffe^ he depriveth of their degrees, priviledges, and enfignes of honour, 
and turneth them back to be rank'd among the coramon people: yet ne- 
verthelclTe with liberty to return again, for their degrees, to their exami- 
nations.Of the firft fore are chofen the abkfl to the number of 40. For 
each City,and 20 for each town-, and although they have not above eight 
Crowns penlion a man, they fland the King, through the whole King- 
dom in 300000. Crowns, This employment is very grear^ for the Ci- 
ties are 444-, the Villages 1 2 50. This is that which a Batchelouris obli- 
ged to do, to obtain his degree; let us now fee, what is required of a Li^ 

Theexamlnition of thefe is held every three years, in the chief City 
of each Province, upon the fame day throughout the v;holeKingdoms 

G ?vhicb 

"^ TheHifiory of QHIH,^. Part.i. 

which ufeth to be in the eighth moone^ and commonly falleth out to bee 
abouctheendofour September, or beginning of Od:ober. The exa- 
mination lafteth about 25 or 30 daies-, although they^that are to be exami- 
ned, are not held to it above three daies only^ and tbofe are the ninth, the 
twelfth and the fifteenth of the aforefaid month. The chief exJ^mincrs 
are the greatefl: Officers of the whole Province, befides others of tet 
precinct who areafliftanttothem : But above all, the Prefident; who 
commcth, even from court, purpofely to his P rovince. Thefe are the 
firft, that do affemble in the general Palace^ and with them their Secre- 
taries, notaries, and other people appointed both for their Guard and 
fcrvice^ and likewifePhyfitians, for fear they might have need of them; 
becaure,whileft this adiion lafi:eth,no perfon is permitted to Come out, or 
Jnjto them. 

Without, there remaineth a vigilant Officer, to provide whaifoever is 
required from within, only the ^hancelor is here excufed from this con^ 
finement, bccaufe he is the common mafter of all the Batchelours. There 
are (ome, which are fo infallibly certain of their knowledge and abilities, 
chat there was one in KUmfi^ who^afrer the ftudenrs were locked up for 
their examinations, made a lift of thofe whom he conceived, fliould re- 
ceive their degrees, and having fet it up in publick, he erred only in {ix,of 
an hundred and fifteen, which were eleded. 

When the Officers are alTembled, the ftudents (which in the larger 
Provinces and Univerfities exceed rhe number of 7000) make their ap- 
pearance, at nine of the clock in the morning, keeping their order, and 
without any contraft-,(as it often happencth at the examination of Batche- 
lours,with fuch confufion, as is often the occafion of undecent and unfor- 
tunate accidents, and fometimes murders, as I once faw in the City of 
Sumkiam in the Province oiNankim^ and in that oiKtamfi .) At their en- 
trance they are all fearched, to find what they carry about them-, and if 
the kaft paper be but found about any one of them, he is prefently ex- 
cluded. And for the lelTe trouble in fearching of them, they are all ob- 
Ifged to wear their hair loofe and hanging down, their leggs naked, and 
flioes made of cord; their garment without lining, or any fold whatfoe- 
ver, wi th their inke-horne and penfels about their necks^ (for as we have 
faid before, they ufe no other pens, but thofej As foon as they are entred, 
they retire into thofe little chambers, we fpake of before-, each into one, 
with his fouldier to watch him, r«ho fitteth at his feet under his little ta ■ 
ble. Then they lock up the gates,fetting their guards of Souldiers-, who 
keep fo {frid and rigorous a watch, that during the examination,they do 
not fuffer any one to paffe through that (trccc-^much IcfTe do they permit 
any one to go out. 

Then prefendy are the points expofed, which the Prefident hath al- 
ready written in large letters on white Tables ofchar/im-, the which hang 
publickly at the four corners of the crofle way between the little 
houfes-, fo that every one may fee them from his own chamber, the 
Points or Theamcs arc feaven- four out of the four lafl books of their Phi- 
lofopher which are common to all^ and three from every Km, that i?, 
out of every part of his books of fciences^ each ftudent neceffarily profef- 
fing only one of them. Vpon 

Chap.8. Ihe H'tflory of QHIV^A. 


Vponcach point the ftudent is to write briefly, EIegantly,and fcntenti- 
Qufly ; fo that every one is to make fcven compofitions, which are to be 
^wiitccn in a faire and well fliap'd letter, without any Abbreviation. If 
they afterwards mend or correct any thing,they are to write underneath, 
in what line that Emendation is made . They make two copies of 
their compofitions^ the one fubfcribed with the name and Sirname of 
their Father and Grand-Father, with the years of their own age,together 
with an Infcription, as feemeth good to each of them. Thefe they fealc 
up with the Infcription only on the outfide .• preftntly they confi^n the 
open copies to the officers appointed to receive them, and then go their 
waies. The fealed copies are kept according to their number in a place 
appointed forthem^ the open copies are given to certain Notaries, who 
copy them out in red letters, that the compofers hand might not be 
known-, and after that,they are given to the Examiners, who diftributing 
them among themfelves, do,the two following d aies^examine and review 
them, with fo much rigour, that the leafterrour is fufficient to exclude 
the ftudent. I fliall give you a pleafant example. 

Among their letters , there is one called i^frf^whichfignifTeth a horfe .• 
this is compofed of a perpendicular line crolTed with three others, 
and underneath hath a ftroke,whichendeth with a concavity like to our 
letter S. In this concavity they put 4 pricks in a row, one after another* 
In ftead of thefe four pricks when they write with Abbreviation^ they 
put only one line. Now there was a ftudent, who in his compofition 
wrote it after this laft manner^ and although his compofition were excel- 
lent,yet becaufe he had not writ this letter after the firft manner, the exa- 
miner fent him away with thefe words, mthoiu four leggs the horfe cm' 

Wiien that is done-, they let up, on the outward wall, a large catalogue 
of the names of fuch, who have made any fault in their compofitions, 
which ferveth for advice to them, to return home to their houfes, which 
they prefently do partly out of fliame, and partly out of neceflityabecaufe 
they will not be fuflTered to enter at the following examinations. 

The fecond time they enter again, on the twelfth day of the month, 
where they are proceeded with as before,excepting that they give them 
only three points,concerning fuch doubts and may occurre 
in matter of government; to undcrftand, how they would behave them- 
felves in it, and how they would advifc the King. Then again upon the 
through examination of thefe fecond compofitions many are fent away 
and excluded from the third examination •• to which they enter on the 
fifteenth day of the month-, and have only three points given them con- 
cerning thelawes and ftatutcs 01 the Realme.When the compofitions of 
this laft examination arc received, they fliutupthegenerall Palace for 
fifteen daies, more or lefte-, and during that time, by comparing and chu- 
fing the be ft, they are reduced to a fmall number, who do really defcrve 
the degree. Then they confign them to the Preftdem^ who maketh the 
h^ fcruting, and ranketh them in their places and order, there being a 
great difference in being of the firft, or of the laftj not only for their repu- 
tation, but alio to be the fooncr provided of fome good place or office. 

G 2 After 

'^ The Hijlory of QHl^d. Part.i. 

After this laft diligence is ended, which is ufed about the copies of the 
compofitions^prefently they open the originallcompofitions, that were 
fealed and laid by, that by the Infcriptions they might find out the names 
oftheAuthours-, which they writedown in certain clafles according to 
their merits. This catalogue ris expofed to the view of innumerable peo- 
ple, who are flaying without to exped it-, Tome for their Son or Brothers 
fakejfome for'theirFather or Friend,(ome for their Mafler or Patronej and 
fome only to fatisfie their curiofitie. 

At the time when thefe names fland expofed, being written in very 
large letters, from the top to the bottom ot a long paper, two palmes and 
a halfe broad, there fland ready without, jiifl: fomany horfes which are 
to carry thofe that receive their degree of Ltcemiate-, each horfe being 
marked with his number, of 1.2. etc. And to every one of thofe fervants, 
who are appointed to lead the Horfes, there is given a ticker, with the 
name ofthe Graduate, and the number of that place, which belongeth 
to him. Who prefently runneth to feek him out (it being not eafie to 
find him,becaure they do yet ftand retired) to give him notice of his e- 
ledion,and to beg fome reward of him, and fo flaies with him to wait 
upon him, till he departeth to go to the Court. 

The fludents having notice given them of their promotion, come all 
on horfe-back to the Palace-general, everyone in his order-, where the 
pyoveditor and Minifler ofthe Kings Exchequer- chamber,ftandeth ready 
expeding them, with the enfigns of their dignitie, as the Cap,Gown,Tip. 
pit, and Boots, which he folemnly put teth upon them, and when they 
are thus adorned, they go prefently to give thanks to the Prefidem of the 
examinations: who receiveththiem on foot, andtreateth them, as his e- 
quals, though he be alwaies to them in the ftead of a Mafler: and they do 
fo depend on him^and bear him fuch extraordinary refpe(5^, that it is a 
thing almofl incredible to be related. Among them is fo much love and if they were really brethren*, for they are called brothers of the 
examination; and like fuch do they refpedt one another. After follow 
diverfe ceremonies, and feverall banquets prefented by the Officers alto- 
gether. They are three in all, as I remember, and are all very fumptu- 
ous, but the third is of fome profit alfo : for in this, there isfet to every 
one of them three tables-,the firft covered with diverfe meates; the fecond 
with hens, fowIe,venifon, and other flefh, which is to be all raw-, the 
third with dryed fruits; and all this is to be fent home to their houfes, 
that they might fpend it there,attheir own pleafure and difcretion. 

Affoon as thefc men have obtained their degree, they become prefent- 
ly great, honoured, nay adored*, and, I know not how, fuddenly rich. 
After this,they go no longer on foot, but cither on horf-back or in a Se> 
dan. And not only the graduate,but his whole family, change their con- 
dition, and he beginneth to think of purchafing his neighbours lx>ufes, 
and to build himTclf a Palace. This will yet feem more wondcrfull to 
hlm^that knoweth, that many of them come out of their countries a very 
great way on foot, carrying at their backs, that habit, which they are to 
wear in the City-,having fometimes their hands daubed with clay, where- 
with they lately were mending up their poor cottages •• of which fort of 
blades I have feen fome come to Nnnkim. Thcfe 

Chap.S). The Hiftory of CHIJ\CJ, '" ^5 

Thefe folemnities being ended,the Graduates prefently prepare to go 
to Court, to be made Dolours •, and if they will take any governrflent up- 
on them, they are prefently provided withfome placeorother .• Bucif 
they accept of any government, they lofe their pretenfion of being ex- 
amined afterward for Dodour. Although there is none who at firft doth 
not attempt it-, But if any one doth not fucceed init,andbegin[o be fome- 
what in years, having a mind to put himfclfe prefently into the world, he 
accepteth of a Government, having only the title of a Licentiate^ but luch 
very feldome come to very high preferments ♦, although there have been 
found fome of them^ who have had the good fortune to be advanced to 
the quality o^VicC'roy. For this journey to Court they have every one of 
them given them 80. crownes, out of the Kings exchequer, to bear their 
charges: and it is very certaine ('as I have been informed by fojne C;^/- 
;?<?j(/^iofcreditJ that the whole expenccs, which every Licentiate (kmds 
the King in/rom the time he taketh his degree, till he cometh to be pla- 
ced in the Court amounteth to 1000, crownes- which throughoutthc 
whole Kingdome,(according to my account, j maketh a million and halfc 
of crownes. So much doth itcoftthe Prince in the forming ot his wife- 
men, and making them capcable of the Government of his crowne .• fo 
great a reward doth he propofe to them , that they might afpive to be fuf • 
ficiently learned. 

The Licentiates^ who are made every three yeare, throughout all the 
Provinces, are about fifteen hundred,more or IclTe-, and this is no great 
nuftiber in refped:of thofe, which procure, their degree in all the generaU 
Palaces. In that of C^;?^^?^^^ which is one of the leaft, having not above 
7500. little chambers in it, the compofltions of the firft day are about 
96i48» from whence mayeafilybe inferred^ how great the number of 
the pretenders is. And now we will give a particular chapter, concerning 
the fupreme degree. 

Chap. 9, 
Of the degree ofDoBour. 

npHe degree oiDeSiour is folemnly'conferred at the Court, in the fecond 
-■• Nfoone of the yeare, which anfwcreth to our month of March. They 
proceed in it according to the fame form, which was obferved in the de- 
gree oi Licentiate •, excepting that the cnfigncs of honour are different, and 
the examiners of greater qualitie-, they being the chiefe of the royall Col- 
ledge called Uanlin, and their Prefident is alvvay the Colao, the greateft 
dignitie, next the King, of this Empire ; although he differently excrci- 
feth the charge of Freftdent-^ for, in this Tranfa<5tion, they of the royall 
Colledge have a definitive vote ; and the compofitions being diftributed 
among them, after the firft eledion, they,who are elected and approved 
by them, cannot be ref ufed or rejcded by the Freftdent, 

Al I the Licentiates of the Kingdome are admitted to this examination, 
as well the old ones, as the new. And anciently there was no precedent 


4<J 1 he Hifiory of CBLK^. Part.i. 

examination to inablethera for this admittance-, becaufe it was accounted 
fufficienttobcaX/c^w^/4;^, to have entrance at the examination of Do- 
Bors'. But becaufe among their compofitions there were many fo ill made, 
that it was time loft to read them, and did render the compofers incape- 
able nor only of the degree o{Do6icur^ but likewife of pretending to it •, 
therefore about 1 5 . years fince, there was introduced another examina- 
tion for the receiv ing of them, which is in pra6tife to this day •• from 
whence it happencth, that many are not received,to their great (hame and 
forrow : which is a wholefome inftru(5tion to others not to fpend their 
time in feafting and recreations. 

In this examination are tobechofcn 550. upon whom the degree of 
D^(J?<?//r is conferred .The enfignes of honour,excepting the Bootes,which 
are the fame in all, are very different from thofe of the Ltcmmei^ both in 
coft and ornament. They have alfo a girdle given them, which they al- 
waies weare in their places of Government, whith are beftowed upon 
them ; but is more rich and precious, according to the offices they aread>^ 
vancedto. When they have received their degree, and put on their en- 
{ignes of honour, they all aflemble, within a Hall of the Kings Palace 
prepared for that purpofe, where they are examined the fecond time in 
one only compofition , the poynt being about the Government and em- 
ployment which they aie to be admitted to. At this examination, in for- 
mer times the King did ufe to aifift in perfon-, but now there affifteth a Co- 
lad in his name. 

The examination being ended, they pafTe into another Hall, where the 
new Dolours do make their reverence to the King, and prefently the O- 
lai prefents to him three of them, which have obtained the firft places - 
then the King with his owne hand beftoweth a reward on each of them. 
He to whom he giveth the fiift gifr, being the chief of all the reft, hath a 
particular name belonging to him ever after -, as alfo, to the fecond and 
the third : The firft they call Chuam, Ttteff^thc next Pham^ Tuen $ the third 
rkan, HoA ; and this name is of fo great eftceme and reputation, that in a 
few dales after the examination,therc is fcarcc any perfon through out the 
whole Kingdom, that doth not knovvthemby thefcnamcs; and not by 
the names of their fathers and Countric 5 which is a wonderfull thing in 
fo vaft a Kingdom as that is. The honour is as great, as that of our Dukes 
and Marquefscs. As well for the refpe^t, which is paid them throughout 
the whole realme -., as for the places of authority and truft, where they are 
put to govern •, being the very famc,which were anciendy conferred upon 
thofe great Lords, whofe authority was in another way, correfpondent 
to that, which now thefe DoBours have. 

Thefe ceremonies beingaccomplifhr, there is yet another examinati- 
on, which although it be voluntarie, there are few that abfent themfclvcs 
from it. A new point is given-, they make their compofitions • and accor- 
ding to them there is an Eledtion made of thofe, who are to be admitted 
to the royall colledge* They fele(5t only 30 of the moft deferving , and 
of them they admit five every year •, who only for being cntrcd in fo final 
a number, are alway providing with profitable places oi government. 
The other twenty five have particular Palaces alfigned them^- where they 

affemble, TheBJloryof CH13^J. 47 

alTcmble, and become as Schalars under the difcipline of a Colao;\vho al- 
mofl: every day,caufeth them to compofe fomevvhar, and exerciie theni- 
felves in all that belongeth to their Iearning,and Ipeculativc government. 
This continueth tii the next examinations5at which new perfonsenterjand 
the other go forth,and according to their degrees and antiquity, are pro- 
vided vvirh the places of greatcft importance at the courts from whence 
riinleffe it be to be Prcfidents of the examinations, or fome other particu- 
lar imployment,thac lafteth but a fliort time,and by the Kings order j they 
never go out- no not to be vice-royes-^ which imployment is accounted be- 
low them, becaufe only thofe of the royal colkdge arc capable of the 
dignity of a Coho. 

All the new Bo^ors are that year put into fome employment, unlcffe 
there be any, that is not of competent years. That which helpeth this 
multitude to imployments,is that the fame year there is held a generall 
vifitation throughout the whole Kingdome-, by which there are fo many 
of the old Mandarmes turned out, that there are many places made void 
for the new ones ; and, as this degree is of high account, the vidts , con- 
gratulatious.Feafts, and Prefents, which are made upon this occafion, are 
almoft incredible. The reward for bringing the firft newes, is many 
timesworth20oCrownesto the MefTenger, but commonly 50, aflfoon 
as the friends and kindred of thofe who are named among the three firft 
above- mentionedjhear oftheir promo ti on, prefently they ered unto them 
triumphall arches in their Cities or Villages, not of wood coverd with 
CanvafTe or paft-bord', but ofpu re Marble fumptuoufly wrought; in the 
front whereofis engraved the name of the Perfon, for' whom they were 
ercded; the place he hath obtained, and the year of his Do^our-fhip-^ in a 
wordjthe world is the fame throughout. It is a vain thing fo bcleeve, that 
he which hath not power,(hould be ad mired, heard or received with ap- 
plaufe-, whether it be done out of zeale to the truth,or out of flattery and 

Ch Ap:io. 

Of the Too^ and Sciences of the 

r^Fthe Sciences of the Chimffis^vjc cannot fpeak fo very diftin(5ily and 
^^clearly-, becaufe really, their Auihours have not been lo fortunate, as 
Arifiotle,fUto^zx\di other Philofophers and wife men, who have methodi- 
cally handled them under their feveral C/^/fw^divifionSjand titles: whereas 
the Chweffes have written little or no thing of mary of the fciences and li- 
beral arts,and of the reft,butfuperficially, except thofe which concern 
good government and policie* 

From the very beginning it hath been their chiefeft aim^ to find out 
the bcft way of government- thefirfl that began this, were the Kings Fo^ 
hf, xinon and Hoamfi, Thefe three at the beginning gave therafclvcs to 


4.8 The Hiftory of CHl^hCd. Pabt.i. 

their morall and fpeculativc Sciences, by way of myfticall, even and odd 
numbers,and other ciphers andnores-, by which they gave law to thek 
♦ fiibjeds : and from hand to hand, t hefc were alway communicated to the 
Kings •, who were the wifcmciipf tlutnrre7and by this means did^ovem 
the King?fome7untilhhc^^^?T^^^ • which began 112:^. years 

lSFore^theIcoraing_gf our Savi^ at v/hich time Vcnmrn^ -SivAchtawn 
hisyoun£eftSonne,publi{lied thde numbers and ancient not e^ "jnd made 
a bookrorthem, intitled fecFim 5 giving iikewife many morall precepts, 
documents and orders to the whole Kingdome •, and following the fteps 
of other Philofophers, which lived according to the Stoick rule: they had 
alway great care of the Government and publique good •, untillthetime 
oiCojifufto j who compofed ^vq bookesjnorder, (called by them Veh'wt) 
which are at this day held as facred. He made alfo other bookes; and of 
his fenrences and fayings there have been (fince j alfo many more bookes 

• This Philof opherJIourifhed about 1 50. yeares b efore tjie coming of 
Chrift • he was a man oTJgoodnature, well inclined to vertue, prudent, 
fcntencious, and a_Ioy« of thipublique good. He had many difciples, 
, whTcli foUowcdThim ; he had a great defirc ro reform the world (which, 
even^t that time, began to loTe its finceritie and veracity^, changingthe 
' ancient manner of living, a ndj n trodiidng modOTej:uffomes'. ) AndTohe 
govci^e~d~^^irrTeyeraIl Kingdomes. ; for when lie faw, that they did noc 
live conform able to his precepts andcounfells in one Kingdom, he went 
to another •, yet not uncenfured by many other Philofophers of that time, 
who feeing the evill courfe, which men tooke, retired themfelves to their 
villages, and becoming husbandmen, in their owne perfons tilled their 
grounds. Now it happened that one day ConfnfiOj paifing along, and be- 
ing to go through a river, whofe ford he was not acquainted withal!, fent 
one to enquire of a man that was labouring thereabouts, who was a Phi- 
-iofopher. He asked th je meflen^ei-, who he was^ and being anfwered,thac ^ 
hewasadifciple of Confufids^ whoTateln his Coach expe(5i:ing his an- , 
fwer ; The Philofophcr replied, let him go in a good houre : h^ knowcth 
the way, and hath no need of a guide •, %nifying thereby, that he went ^ 
from Kingdometo Kingdome, endeavouring to Governe, in a titiie that -> 
was notjpropcr for Philofophers to reigne in. 

Neyerthelefle in aftern_rTies,this^majn^was in fo great favour with the 
chinefses • and the Bookes which he compofed were held in fo much crc- 
dit^asalfo tlqcTayings andjentenc^^hich he left behjndhim ^ that the y 
5ojTOtohlj/^ holdji^^ and a Mafter and Do [four of the whole 

Kingdome;a7id whatfoever is cited of him is efleerried as an Oracle prja- 
credthing \ but alfo, in all the Cities of the Kingdome, he hath publique 
T£m£les Jfuilt to his mcmorie, where aHct times he is vyorfIiipp,ed with 
very great cererapny: and in the year of the examinations, one of the prin- 
cipal! ceremonies is, that all the graduates go together to do him reve- 
rence, and acknowledge him for their Mafter, 

Of thofe that are defccnded from him, hethatisthe'neereftof kin 
hath a competent revenue, andenjoyeth the title o^Chuheu, which is as 
much as Marquis or Duke. The Governour of the City where he was 


G H A p , n . Ihe Hi/lory ofCHI^/1. 45^ 

bornejOUtofrefpe^i; and favour to him, is alwaies one of his family.- and 
finally, all chofe of his linage, affoone as they are borne, have a particular 
privilcdge from the Emperour, and are rerpe(5ted by all, in regard of their 
predeccftbur Confufio. This cuftome continueth to this day, althouoh it 
be iSoo.yeares fincehedied. 

But returning ro the Bookes which he publi(lied,they are thefe follow- 
ing ', The firft is called Yekim^2^nd treat eth of his naturall Philofophie^and 
of the generation and corruption ofthings-,of Fate^or Judiciary Prognofli- 
cation from thefc and other things,and from naturall principles ; Philofo- 
phizing by way of numbers,figures3 and fymboles- applying all to mora- 
litie and good government. The fecond is called Xukim, containing a 
Chronicle ofthe ancient Kings, and their good government. The third 
Xikim, and is of ancient poefie, all under metaphors and poeticall figures, 
concerning the naturall inclinations of mankind, and alio of dlverfe cu- 
ftomes. The fourth^naraed Z?^'/w, treaterh of rites and civill ceremonies 
of the Ancients-, and alfo of thofe that belong to Religion and divine wor- 
fhip. The fifth is called Chuncieu^ the which treateth alfo of the Hiftory 
of their Countrie, and containeth a collcdion of examples of feverall an- 
cient Kings, good and bad, to be imitated or avoided. 

There are alfo foure other bookes, which were made by Co»fuJia and 
another Philofopher called Menfiu -, In thefe nine bookes is contained all 
the naturall and morallPhllofophle, which the whole Kingdorae ffudi- 
cth •, and out of thefe is taken the point,which is propofed to read.or com- 
pofe on, in their examinations for degrees. Upon thefe bookes they have 
feverall commentaries and glolles; But there is one of them, which by the 
law of the Kingdome they are commanded to follow ^ nor are they allow » 
cd to contradiS: it in their publique Adls-, and hath almoft the fame au- 
thority with the text, 

Thefe nine bookes are held, as it were, facrcd, and in them, and their 
Glojfes and commentaries confifteth the great endeavour of their ftudies 5 
getting them by heart, and endeavouring to underffand the difficult pla- 
ces of them ; forming divcrfe fenfes upon thera,whereby, to govern them- 
felves in the pra(5tife of vertue-, & to prefcribe rules for the government of 
the Kingdome, according to thofe wife di(5]:ates and Maximes they finde 
there. And becaufe their examinations are very ftrickt and rigorous, they 
not being fuffered to bring along with them to thofe examinations^not on- 
ly any booke, but alfo not fo much as a fingers breadth of paper, it being 
no eafie thing to be very ready in all thefe bookes, the order is ; That the 
firft examination of J54f^^^/<?«r J be upon the laft foure, and that oiLkenti- 
ates to be upon the fame foure •, as alfo upon one of the other five : for this 
reafon none is obliged to be very perfed in more than one of thofe fci- 
cnccs, which he doth profefTe ; ,and upon that the point is to be given 

But to fpeak more diftindtly to their learning (although in their books 
it is not delivered fo clearcly and orderly j I fay, they conddtr in theuni- 
verfe three things ; that is, the heavens, earthy and man^ and fo according- 
ly they divide their learning into three members, that is, into the fcience 
of the heavens •, the fcience of the earth, and the fcience of man -^ inclu- 

H ding 

The Hijiory of CHl^Nj^. P a b t . i. 

dln<?in therwofirft,all naturall knowledge, andinrhethird.allmcrall. 

In thefcience oi the heavens, tbey treate of the beginning oi all natu- 
rall thir:"s,of the Creation ct the Univcife, and of the Formation of man 
himfelfe .- of univerfall caufes, of generation and corruption • of elements 
and elementary qualities, anfwcrable to the planets ; of celeftiall motions 
and revolutions ; of the tourc feafons of the year t of the ftars and planets, 
o^Jtid^id Aflrologie^ offpirits good and bad what they are •, and other 
like matters. 

In the fcience of the eai th,they treate of the varietie thnt is fecn in her, 
byrcaronofthe4. feafonsof the yeare, of the produaions of things, and 
their differences : of fields and poffelTions, and their divifions in order to 
nmhandrie and Agrkulme : ot the fituation of the 4 parts of the world : 
of their pofition ; andotherparticulars concerning them 5 ofthechoifc 
and building oiCcemeteriesy and burying places for their dead ^ in which 
they are very fuperftitious. 

In the fcience, which treatethof man, they teach all their moralitic; 
and thaUvhich belangeth to man in a fociable and politick capacitic; 
who imitatins: the order, manner and proprietie of heaven and earth, as 
the univerfall Parents, liveth in communitie with the obferving their five 
morallvercues, which are P/>f/^, ^uftke^ Pntdeme^ Folicie zvidFidelitie. 
They create alfo of morall matters, and of the rcfpecfl: which they have to 
the five orders of perfons, into which their Common-wealth is divided ^ 
that is. Father m^ Sonne : Hmbmd and Wife : Kingzxxd. Stibje5is : JElder 
JBm her and Tounger Brother : and Friends among themfelves. 

All their moralitie is divided into two members: The firftthey call 
Divine Moralitie , which treateth only of ceremonies, rites and facrificcs, 
which they make to heaven-, earth 5 the planets • parts of the world ; good 
and bad fpirits of the heaven, and earth, mountaines, rivers, tutelary fpi- 
rits, foules of the dead. Heroes and famous men, c^c. The fecond is their 
Politick and civill Moralitie -, This is divided into Ethiques^ which order- 
ech the manners and actions of niankinde as they arc confidered in relation 
to their owne perfons .• and into Oeconomie^ in order to the government of 
their families •• and into Politiques, in relation ro the Government of the 
Commonwealth, the publick good, and confervation of the Kingdome. 
The Government of a flngle perfon doth put him in a way to the good 
Government of his familie-, andthe good Government ofafamilie to 
that of the Kingdome-, as for example, h father,which doth not well Go- 
verne his houfe, how fliould he governe a City or Province f and he that 
knoweth not how to governe ancl corre(5l himfelfe, according to the duty 
of his fingle perfon, howfhouldhe be able to regulate his families So 
that they lay the firlt foundation of mortalirie, in the good manners and 
behaviour of each particular perfon ♦, from whence proceede well go- 
vern'd families, and publick Governments well adminiftred. 

Under the fame member of the fcience of man, they comprehend the 
Liherdl and all other Arts • which belong to their perfons, families and 
Monarchic ., which Ihall be the fubje(5t of the following chapter. 


Chap.ii. TheHiJloryof CHIS^J. 51 


Of their Sciences and liber all Arts in 

,Rammar^ the gate of the other Sciences, ifwe reduce it only to the 
'terminations ofa language, as C^rrf//jiV^/>^j-, and other grave Au- 
thours have done, is but in little ufe among the Chmffes : for all their 
words being (^Monofjllables and undeclinable, there is not much paines re- 
quired to put them together in/y/^^xv; yet notwithftanding all this, there 
is a great deal of difficulty in compofing-, the which confifteth in placing 
of adverbs and certain termes,which are not fignificant : but if we (hould 
enlarge the Grammar^ asfar as K^ngelus Politimtts^ and fome others have 
ftrctched it, it is certain, that there is great ufe of Grammar among them-, 
for their humane learning is very large and vaft; and although they have 
but few fables or myfteries,yet they have many Hiftories,Say ings,Senten- 
ces, and Appkhegmes^ which rhey muft make ufe of for the ornament of 
their compofitions. 

VoxLogick^ they have no other rules, but what are dictated to them 
by the light of nature. 

Rhetor id is much in ufe among them, although they have no rules be- 
longing to that art-, but rather take it up by way of Imitation^ obferving 
and pradlifing what they find to be good in the compofitions of others. 

C^m^T^mV^' they have in perfe(5tion, for as much as concerneth the 
four Species and kinds thereof; they have alfo their demonftrations, and 
figures, as I have feen in their books. Of t/llgehra they know nothing at 
all, nor do they much pra(5tife the ordinary Arithmetick, The way of 
account through the whole Kingdom,and alfo in the neighbouringCoun- 
triesjis with an inflrument, called by the TortughejfesfiinA^ and of the Chi- 
neffes^Suonpuon^ that is, a Table of account: it is made like a fmall fquare, 
divided into ten parts, with certain little rodds or wyrcs of braflfe, upon 
each of which are threaded feaven little balls or beads,about the bigneffe 
ofthofeweufe in our Chaplets or Rofaries ; five beneath (for the 
wyer is divided into two parts) which fland for njnites-^ two above,which 
fignify tens : aud with this inftrument, moving up and down the little 
balls,they make their accounts with great f acilitie and expedition. 

In Geometrie they have a fufficient knowledge/or although, not being 
acquainted with remote Countries and Kingdomes,they have not been a- 
ble to diftinguifli their bounds-, nor to alfign them their proper confines ; 
yet they have very exadly divided their own country, of which they 
have very perfed map,(Kdd to this-, that anciently all their land was divi- 
ded by very exacftmeafures ; becaufe the King had not his revenue 
then, in that manner, as he hath it now, that is, that every land Ihould 
pay fo much-, but every one divided his land into ten equall paits,and 
one of thofe patt?,which lay nigheft to the middle,rhey tilled and fowed, 
and the profit was the Kings; and even now a daies, in buying and felling 

H 2 of 

51 The Hi/lory of CHLT^J. Part.i. 

of land , they meafure it , if there be occafion. 

The mcafure which they ufe upon this occafion, as likewifc to mea- 
fure any other continued quantity, is in this manner. The lead of all^ 
they call Hufttetjy and is three graines of wheat* Ten of thcfe make the 
fecond meafure, called Hnzum-^ ten /7//z//w^makcaC/?e-and ten Che's 
make their greateft meafure called Hucham^ higger than jan Italian yard* 
Thefe mea{ures,the which they have perfectly divided in the manner 
above-faid, are ufed by all Officers, as alfo by taylours^to make their gar- 
ments, taking meafure by them, as we do in Burofe with a piece of thread, 
or Parchment: fo likwife, the Carpcnders frame a houfe, though never 
fo big, with all its pillars,beames, joyces.etc. Without fo much as trying 
a piece of timber, where it is to ftand, only by meanes of thefe meafurcs5 
and having framed a houfe thus in feverall pieces ; they will on a 
fudden joyn them together and fet it up , without miffing in the leaft. 

Their wayes they meafure by paces, but ftill according to the fame 
meafure, making a Geometricall pace to confift of 6 Chc^ and one Li of 
300 paces-, and of 100 1/ one Stadium^ or dales journey. So that from 
North to South it appeareth that 250 Li make a degree^^ for we allow to 
every league 1 5 Li-, and 16 leagues to every degree. 

To meafure corn, rice,pulfe, and fuch like,the greateft meafure is, that 
which the Pertugheffes call P/V<7, and the Chinejfes 'tan. This is compo* 
k^ of fmaller meafures: the leaft is as much as a man can hold in the hol- 
low of bis hand, ten of thefe meafures make one Xim-^ ( and this of rice is 
the ordinary allowance of a man for a day j ten X/wmake one TV/z^and ten 
Teuv^zVtontTanr^ which cometh to weight about 100 Cattes^ which 
make 125 pound of Portugall-weight ji 6 ounces to the pound. 

Thetfiirdmannerofmeafuring, which is by weight, is divided after 
the fame manner. We will begin with an Hao^ and it is the tenth part of 
a piece of their mony, which the Portttghejfes call Caxa,or Li^ as the 
Chinejfes call it; and anfwerethto our half fulio or three-pence : ten Li 
make one Condrin-^t€n Condrin oncMas-^ten Mas one T^e/jand 16 Tael one 
C4f^^,which is their pound, but biggerthanours; for 16 r4f/ make 20 of 
our pounds: 100 Catte make one F/V(?jor,asthey call itjone Tan. 
In weighing they ufe not the Balance,but thcStiUyard^oYftatera^zs wel for 
littlejas great weights. For great weights, they do not ufe an Iron- beam, 
but of wood, divided into its parts by points or marks of Braffe.orelfe of 
(ilver. In weighing of gold , (ilver, medicines, and the like, they make ufe 
ofcertainlitricweightSjWirhabeamofwhite bone, divided by ftrokes 
of black. They make thefe Stillyards very perfedlly, and of feverall fa- 
fhions ; The middle (ized have three rowes of pricks, and three threads 
necre the Centre in fteadota cord^thc firft row of pricks giveth any 
weight from jounces to fivejthc fecond gocth further,and wcighcth to ten 
ounccs-,the laft row t020.The larger fort of Stiffyards weigh more or Icfs. 
theleaftfort are divided into fo fmal parts,that although thofe ten parrs,in- 
to which a/:? of filvcr is divided,do not ufe to be divided in bralTc-mony, 
(for they coine no mony but of brafr£)neverthelefrc in the weighing of 
(ilver they diftinguifli and divide them very cxadly. 

For the better underftanding whercof,it is to be fuppofed,that through- 

Chap, II. 1 he Hifiorj of CHI^A. 

out all the Kingdome of C^/Vrf, excepting the Province o{rima?t^xh^y ufe 
no other money but of brafle -, and all the filver goeth by weight, (o that if 
I would give a crowne, I give as much (ilvcr, as a crovvnc weigheth^ and 
fo of a fix- pence or three-pence, ^c. And for this caufe there are an in- 
finitie of founders, as alfo mint-houfes for filver ; and to buy fome thinc^Sj 
cfpecially fuch as are of fmall value,{ilver of bafe alloy will fcrve the turn- 
andfobafe, that in fome Provinces, ofonefix-pcnce they make eight or 
ten-, and reape much benefit by it. Other things cannot be bought but 
with fine filver, and fo the poore filver goeth often to the fire, to be other- 
wife quahfied. 

They are great lovers of the Mathematiques^ but to fpeak gcnerally,tiiey 
know very little of them • none being allowed to ftudy them profcircdiv, 
except thofe, who apply themfelvesto this fludy, by the Kings fpeciall 
order ; and thefe are only two throughout the whole Kingdome • The one 
in the Court of M/>», and the other in xhdXo^ Nankim 5 with a traine and 
attendance of iiiW.-rr/»r/, and the Title of the Kings CMa\hematicians % 
Thefe teach their art but only to their fonnes, who always fu cceed them • 
and arc but moderately knowing in their profeffion. HeverthelefTe, they 
have many ancient books of this fcience •, not only of the courfe and moti- 
on of the ftars,planets,and fcverall other things,but alfo oi^udiciall Aftro- 
logic and fiorofcopesy to which they are much addii^ed. By thefe books 
they find out, when the Scclipfes of the fun and moone are to be-, and 
have maps of the ftars^though not in great perfci^ion, yet tolerably good. 
They reckon a greater number offlars than we. They make the elements 
to be five • that is, water, mcttall, fire, wood,and earth. Over thefe they 
afligne five predominant planets: as 3/fyr«ry over the water, Ferns over 
mettall. Mars over fire, fupiter over wood,and Saturn over the earth. They 
are great obfervers of the motions of the heavens; They diftinguifli the 
feafonsoftheyearebythe Aquinoxes andSolfiices, They divide the ^tf- 
Mack in:o 24. figncs, doubling our number. They make the yeare to con- 
fifloftwelvemoones-,and354. dayes, having fix months of thirty days, 
and fix of 2^, and when it is leap-yeare, which falleth out every three 
years, it confifleth of 1 3 moones and 383. dsyes. 

Their yeare beginneth with the new moone, which is neerefl to our 
month of February, From the obfervation of the heavens and their moti- 
on, they proceed to the Judiciall part, referring feverall events to the con- . 
jun(5lions of the planets, and celefiiall appearances of P^r;?^?^^/;^, which 
they diligently obferve : and if there fall out any new or flrange appea- 
rance, they prefently give the King notice of it by a petition ; and to this 
end in both Courts there is a very high place or Tower, furnifhcd with fe- 
verall raathematicall inftruments, which they call ^io» Shm 7haiy\hdX is, 
a place to obferve the flats in. 

Of that in Nankim I have already faid fomething, when I fpake of that 
City. In Pekim the chiefefl inftruments are a fpheare, like that at Nankim 
with all his prcles, K^quator, Zodiack^ Tropicks^ &c, of cafl mettall, 
and excellent workmanfliip. Another inftrument of the fame bignelfe, 
(that is, of 24. foote in circumference,] divided into feverall circles, fome 
fixt, others moveable, a ftile or Gnomon in the middle, and little holes at 


54 TheHi/ory of QHI^K^. Part'.i. 

each end to take the bight oftheftars, the degrees and clevationof the 
ToUy &c. There is moreover a celeftiall Globe of bralTc of the fame big- 
netfe, divided into its degrees, with its c9nftellations,whereof they make 
only 28. They have alfo a .S///g of brarfevery large, divided proporiio- 
nably with which they mcafure the (hadowes of the foure feafons of the 
yeare • that is, of the iS^ quimxes znd Solfiices. There arc befides, many 
other moveable inftruments of bralTe, for feverail ufes, which do fuffici- 
ently demonftrate the curiofitie of their Anccftours, and how much more 
diligent and intelligent they were than the Modernes. 

Mufick was anciently much efteemed in chwa, in fo much that their 
Philofopher Cenfufto, in the Countrie where he governed, oneof th€ 
chiefe things he tookepaines in, was to caufe them to be taught M/*/?f^. 
Now adaies the Chineffis lament and fay^that the true rule thereof is lofl, 
and alraoft all the ancient books that treated oiMufich.So that thatMufkk^ 
which they have atprefent, is not efteemed off by the NobilitU: The 
greateft ufc they make of it, is in their comedies. There are alfo particu- 
lar -Ww^^/^;?;, whoarefent for to their feafts^mariages, and the birth of 
their children •, and of thefe there are fome that may be endured. There 
are not wanting alfo blind men, who go finging about the flreets, and at 
the doores of their houfcs : and as all the Chineffes do make a feaft on their 
birth-daycs, thefe blind men do keep in their memorie the punduall time 
ofallthebirchdayesofperfonsofqualitie, and know their houfcs well 5 
and at thofe times do never faile to go thither to fing. IhcBonzi do ufe 
. Mufick in their offices and mortuaries, the Tone whereof is not much un- 
like our emus firmfts^ or plainfong ^though they have not formally cither 
plain-fong orOrgan notCifor they do not raifc,nor fal their voice immedi- 
ately from a note to the next note or half-note-,but mediately raife and fal 
it to a thirds zfifi^ or an eigk : in which the chimffes do much delight. 

Tliey have twelve Tones, fix to rife, which they call Live, and fix to 
fall, which they call X/«. They have alfo their notes in finging like ours 
of, at, rcy mi •, they are five,and among them is our at : in learning of Mu- 
ftck they make no ufe of figncs, nor of the joints of the fingers ^ nor in 
compofing do they ufe lines, as we do .• it is therefore to be fuppofedjthac 
in their conforts, they have not a Mufick formed of diverfe parts ; for al- 
though many do fing together,all is but is in ufe almofl through- 
out all Jfia, Therefore their Mufick is pleafing only to thofe of their o wnc 
Country, but their befl way of finging is^, one voice only with an Inflru- 
ment. Neither are they delighted with our full Mufick^hut very much with 
a fingle voice. 

They ufe keepi-^g oftime^ but cannot tell how many diverfities it hath, 
and fo in finging ancient fongs^and moderne ones,uponthe fame ayre with 
the old , they hence know the time, when they are to fing, and when they 
arc to flop. Concerning their inftruments, .they fay they have feaven fe- 
verail kinds of tones, befides a mans voice •, and according to thefe they 
have made their Muficall Inftruments, The firff is of mcrtall, and contai- 
neih bells of ail forts, Cimballsy Siftra, &c. The fecond of ftone. They 
make an Inftrument of Jafpetjlike unto the Italian fquadra, excepting that 
the lowcrmofl end is very largc,and they ftrike or play upon it, as ithan^- 
cth up. , The 

Chap. 11. TheEijlory of QRl^A. 55" 

The third is of skins ; here come in our ordinary drums, and thofe of 
the Morefco fafhionjOr kettle drtmS'^ which they make of feverall fafliions : 
and fome To big,that they cannot be plaid upon, unlede they be hung up 
in frames of wood. The fourth is of filke, of which they make firings 
for inftrumcncs as here we make luce- firings of gutts. For firinged in- 
firuments, they have the vyoll almoft like ours .-but it hath only 3 firings, 
and is the ufuall infirumcnt of the blind man. They ufc alfo the violin 
with 3 firings and its bow; they have alfo another with one only firing, 
which they play on, like to our Bow vjollin. The chiefefi firinged in* 
firument which they have, is of feaven firings,and is in more efiecm than 
the reftr, and if the MuficUn be skil-full, it maketh tolerable Mufick. The 
fift is of wcod. Of this kied they make certain thin pieces of board3& hy- 
ing them together,they play upon them all atonce,Iike fnappers or capag- 
nets : the 5^/22./ alfo have a particular way by themfclves, of finking and 
playing upon a piece of wood-, and that with much keeping cftime. 

The fixth is of thole inftruments which are founded with the mouth, 
as flut€S,of which they have 2 or 3 forts,& fo found them very excellently. 
They have alfo another infirument made of feverall pipes,like the fafhion 
ofourO/^4;?, but it is but fmall, and to be carried in ones hand. They 
found it with their mouths-, and the Harmony is excellent. Now fome- 
times all thtfe inftruments are plaid on together , and make a pleafing 

Peefe hath ever been much eftcemed in d/ma-^ and in the time, when 
there were many Kings jF^W^/t'ry to one Em^erour^ vjhcn they came to 
do him homage (as they did every three yeirs) they were obliged each 
ofthem to bring with him out of his Kingdom, the Rythmes and Poe- 
fies which were there moft current and in ufe, that by them he might 
judge of their manners and cuftomes, which truly are much difcovcred in 
fuch compodcions. In this particular, the C^/»f//'f; have a great advan- 
tage over all others, becaufe they are very modeft, in whatfoevcr they 
write^ and it is very rare to find a loofe word in their verfes: and ( what is 
morcjthey have no letters whereby to exprcfle the privj prtsz, nor are 
they to be found written in any part of all their books. 

They have great variety of verfes, and do ufe a confonancie of meeter, 
like ro that in the ^5?;;^/, Ba/Iads^ Sonets^ and Madregals o^ Europe : and they 
put alfo the correfpondency of the RythmcSpatthe end of C3ch;and fo ma- 
ny verfes, as we do in ovitfonets & offaves-^\n which they ufe great variety. 

They compofe like wife verfes by the number of fyllables, the which 
they call words : for as in their language, all words are Momfj Ihbles^ there 
cometh to be no difference betwixt a fyllableand a word, which confifi- 
cth of one only letter, which is likewife pronounced a UonofjlUble. So 
that all letters being thus after the fame manner, the quantity of the verfe 
confifteth in the number ofth£m;fo that as we compofe verfes hereof 
five, fcaven,or clcaven fyllables, fo alfo the Chineffes make theirs of five, 
feaven,or more letters.- whereas among us two words,and fometimes one 
may take up the whole verfe; it can never fall out fo in theirsj becaufe all 
their words ate of one fyllable and one letter. They have not verfes thnr 
anfv/er to our latin verfes, with feet, as Da6iils or Spondees y &c.But are al[ 
made like our Sonets and Ditics, and other verfes in Rythrae-, in which 


55 IheHiJloryofCmU^A, Part.i. 

they ufc many various forms and manners of compofitions . The chiefe 
are eight: it will be fufficicnt to relate one to you, to give you fome knovv- 
Jcdge of the reft. 

In this kind of Foe fie the verfesare to be eight in number, confifting 
each of them of five letters, and the confonancy of rythme to be every o- 
therverfe, in this manner : The firft may have it, ornO; as they pleafe; 
bur the fecond rauft rime to the fourth • Tlie fift with the fixt- the feventh 
tMith the eighth : The third,fift and fcaventh have no confonancy of rime, 
but the letters are ro be correfpondent to one another : as alio the verfes, 
that do obferve a confonancy, are likewife to have their letters to corre- 
fpond to one another •, the firft with the firft, the fecond with the fecond, 
&c. And this corrcfpondency confifteth not in riming, but in the figni- 
iication-, wherefore if the firft letter of the fecond verfe fignifie a moim- 
taine, water, fire, or whatfoeverelfe, the firft letter of the fourth verfe 
muftlikewife fignifie the fame things which is likewife obfervcd in the 
fecond, and in the reft of the letters, of the wihole verfe. This is a very 
ArtificiaU way, but difficult. 

In the conceits of their verfes, and in the figures with which they ex- 
preffc themfelves, theyufealmoft the fame manner with us in Europe. 
They have another kind of verfe, of lefTe cfteeme, like ordinary rimes, 
which are every where in requeft.-but the ]>^ol?ilitm, and particularly thofe 
-of the Kings kindred and blood-royall,are much addidkd unto the eighth 
manner of verfes ab.)ve mentioned, in which they make many feverall 
PoeJJes^ chiefly in commendation of their friends, of famous men, of the 
dead.and of feverall vertues. 

In Painting they have more curiofiticthan perfedion. They know not 
how to make ufe cither ofoyles^ot Shadowing in this Art*, and do therefore 
paint the figures of men without any grace at all : but trees, flowers,birdSj 
and fuch like things,they paint very much to the life. Btit at prefent there 
are fome of them, who have been taught by us, that ufe Ojles, and are 
come to make perfed pictures. 

Medicine, or Phyftck^ is in a very good condition in China, becaufc they 
have abundance of good ancient bookcs of that art, being all their ownc 
authours, for ours arc not yet arrived thither. They do not let blood,nor 
fet on Cupping- GlalTes ; They ufe no firrops, no potions, no pills 5 much 
leffe have they the ufe of Cauteries, or iffucs, a medicine 6f great advan- 
tage- They are only Uerbaltfis^ ufing nothing but herbcs, rootcs, fruits, 
feeds, a'e. and all drie : and for a greater fupply, that which they have 
not in fome Provinces is brought them from others : fo that there arc 
whole Faires only of medicines •, and in the Cities and Townes the Apo- 
thecaries fhops are very well provided, from whence they furnifh them- 
felves. But neither in bottles nor glaffes ; but of all others the Phyficians 
are well provided 5 becaufe they never write any receipt, but give the me- 
dicine themfelves to the patient whom they vifif. And all is done at the 
famcvifit, therefore the Phyfician hath alwayes following him a boy, 
carrying a Cabinet with five drawers, each of them being divided into 
more than fourty little fquarcs •, and all of them f urniflied with medicines 

Kcady ground and prepared. 


C^]^^. TheHiftoryof CH13S(^A. yj 

They are very famous in judging of the Pulfc: never asking the patient, 
whether the pnine be in his head, ihoulders, or belly ^ only they feele the 
pulfewith both their hands, leaned upon a pillow, orfome other fuch 
thing, obfcrving the motion of the pulfe for a good while i and afterwards 
do tell, what the patient ayleth, I do not fay that they hit right, on every 
thing, in all patients: nor that all Phyfitians are able to do it • there being 
many which do not fludy, and know but little •, but the good and learned 
Phyfirians do feldome faile. We had a Father that was fick of a violent 
flitch,inthe Provinceof ii^/4zw//. The Phyfitian by'^feeling of his pulfe 
could tell, whether his paine did increafe or diminifh, and all the changes 
and alterations of his difeafe-, and I have heard fevcrall Portugheffes^ which 
have confirmed the fame by other cafes. Having felt the pulfe, prefently 
they compofe the Medicine. If it be for the King or Prince they make 
loure compofitions, two for them to take, and two to be kept, all of the 
fame medicines, and cquall in number and quantity : The two are kepr, 
till the patient recover . For all other perfons, they mat e two only, one 
for the morningj and the other for the eve/iing. They write upon them 
in what quantity of water they are to be decoded: and how and when 
they are to be taken •, and many times there do.h follow a wonderful! 

I will relate what happened to a Father, who lay fick in prifon in the 
City of Niinkim. At the beginning of his fickneffe they fent prefently for 
a Phyfician, and finding no cfFed of bis medicines, they fent for another •, 
& becaufe the phyfick of the fecond had no better fucceffe, and the mala- 
dy flill encreaied, the Chriff ians fought out for a Phyfitian of more fame 
and reputation •, who although he was very unwilling to make a vifit into 
fuch a place, notwithfl:anding,at length by much intreaty he was pcrfwa- 
ded to vifit the fick man: He felt his pulfe, and performed his ordinary 
ceremonies 5 among the which one was to lay his breaft barc^ which was 
full of fpots •, for indeed he had the Meaz,ills, Prefently he compounded 
three medicines, the firff the patient tooke in the morning : the fecond an 
houre after noone •, (Thefe were a kind of pills, which made him go f ourc 
times to the floole) at night he tooke thethird. The difeafe ft ill encrea-. 
fing,theFather was brought that night to fuch a condition,that he became 
fpeechlefle, and all thought he would have died; nevevthelefTc be held 
out till the morning, when fuddealy he mended fofaf^, that when the 
Phyfitian came and felt his pulfe,he found him to be without any fcvourj 
telling him, that he was cured, and that he fliould only have a care to eatc 
moderately, till he had recovered ftrength ^ which accordingly fell out : 
for in a fhort time the Father was perfedly well. 

They forbid not their patients to drink water, fo it be boyled, orelfc 
C^^-,but they will not allow them to eat ^ but if the patient be hungry he 
may eat lightly and with great caution : if he be not hungry, they do noc * 
much trouble themfelves to perfwade him to cat : for they fay, when iht 
body is fick, the flomack doth not well perform his office,and fo the con- 
co^ion which is then made, is malignant and contrary to health. His Vi- 
fit is prefently rewarded with a moderate fee; nor doth he returne, un» 
Iclfe he be fent for, leaving^by this manner, a liberty to the fick perfon to 

I change 

^i'^ <Ihe Biftory ofCHLK^. Part.i. 

change his Phyfician, if he think fit, and to lend for others •, as many times 
ihey do, till the third or fourth day of their fickncffe, if they fee no cffca 
of the medicines they have taken. 

Chap. 11. 

Of the CoHTteJies and Ciyilities of the 

V Mong the Ch'mejfes to uncover the head, or to Scrape a Icgge is not e* 

*ftecmed any courtefic, but rather contrary to good manners ; efpeci- 
ally to uncover the head ; But to bow thebody5or at lead the head,when 
one can do no more, arc accounted termes o£ Court efie and good manners. 
And to fpeake firft in generall-. Their Courtefies are very low bowings of 
themfclves even to the very gtpund-, as is the ordinary mode in their vifits 
and meetings : They call this Te or Coye : Secondly they ufe the fame re- 
verence, and then fuddenly to fall upon their knees, and in that pofturc to 
bow againe with their head even untothe ground : and in fome cafes they 
rife up againe upon their legges^Sc repeate the fame Ceremony three times 5 
which is the leaft •, foure the moft ordinary 5 nine the moft that can be 5 
and that is performed only to the King.Someti;nes they ihorten it,making 
their firft reverence (landing on their legges-,and prcfently kneeling down, 
they make the three following on their knees. 

The courtefic of the women is the fame which is ufed among us-, cxj 
cepting, that in fome cafes, they alfo kneel-, and in that pofture make an 
obeifance with their bead to the ground three or four times, as civility 
(hal require. 

They have for this purpofc particular garments, which the common 
people do not ufc^ it is alfo true, that among friends they do not ufe 
them-, but never faile to do it with others .-neither dare any one vifit a Pcr^ 
fon of quality without fuch a Veft^ox garment .-But if they meet by chance, 
(not in the flreet, for fuch meetings they carefully avoyd) and both of 
them have not that garment above mentioned, which they call !r4/,both 
the one and the other arc excufed from that (^eremon'j of the Fefl : But if 
one of them hath it on,the other rauft prefently put on his -, which for this 
purpofc is commonly carryed after him by a fervant •, and if by accident 
lie hath not brought it with him, although hefhould be never fo much 
importuned by the other, fwho hath his Veft on,) to accept of the accus* 
flomed Ceremony and Court e fie from him, he may not confent to it, but a- 
voyding the Courtefte^ is to fit down and convcrfe with him. 
<• If one go to vifit another at his houfe, he muft ft ay in the Hall, till the 
other hath put on his Fefi 5 But if he be a friend, he is to come prefently, 
( although he be not ready with his Fefl) and receive his gucft, and 
to nfiake much of him, and after that^he is to retire and put on his Feft. 

Tbis garment of Courtefte^ior fuch as have taken degrees, is the fame 
with the enfigneofhonour, which they wcarc, in their government and 


C^I^ TheHiftorj of CHi:NiA. 59 

the enfigne of their office. They that are noble by bloud and defcenr, do 
wear the enfigne and habit of Z)<?(^^//r/,ahhough they have never ftudicd. 
For Gentlemen and Letter ati, who have not taken any degree, there Is al- 
lowed for them to wear a wide larger^/?, but much differing from that 
which is ordinarily worne. The Minifters and officers of the chMMagi^ 
Jlrates^ as alfo, in all the courts of juftice, thofe who are under the Prefix 
dm ufe this Ceremenk-^ which is/o take ofFthe badgejwhich they weare 
upontheirbreaft,andtoputona girdle of a fmall price; which they ufe 
only fome few daies in the year, when they go about, to make their o- 
beyfance. The young people, if they have not taken a degree^ ufe only 
their ordinary habit. 

The courtefie, which the common people ufe, is to clap their hands one 
upon the other, and lift them up as high as their head. The fame is ufed 
by friends and kindred, when they treat one another freely, and without 
Cfr^wiJ/^^fj and ifthey be equals, they both together do the fame reve- 
rence once-, only he is efteemed to have the advantage, that (lands on the 
right handi as among us, that takes off the hat lafV, though both do unco- 
ver. Among grave people the ordinary Ceremmy ufed in their vifits , in- 
vitations and meetings, is-,thar, ftanding on their feet they make on obei- 
fance even to the ground once, without any more adoc; children to their 
Fathers on certain daics, as New years day^xht Fathers birth-day, and o- 
ther feaftivals, ufe the fecond courtefie of four bowings,ftanding on their 
feet, and four kneelings on their knees, and they to whom it is done, re- 
ceive it fitting. The fame Ceremony do the Scholars pay their MafterS; 
who receive it ftanding.The fame do the inferiour Mandarines ufe to \ht 
Magiftratez, and Idolaters to the Idols, and the Mandarines to the King- 
excepting that thefe laft hold an Ivory Tablet a palm and a half Iong,and 
four fingers broad, before their faces : finally, the King himfelf doth the 
fameinthetemples,andtohismotherj-andwhen he doth it, he holdeth 
the faid Tablet of Ivory before his face. 

The firfl time they fee one another, and are Perfons of an equall con- 
dition, and he that vifiteth,or is vifited, will fhcw an extraordinary aflPedi- 
on and rcfpe6t, he caufcth a Carpet to be brought and fpread before 
them,and after the firft ordinary courtefie^thcy performe the fecond knee- 
ling down four times, and this they do both together. They avoid, as I 
have faid, all meeting abroad, as much as paifibly they caa-, but if they 
cannot decline it,theyfalute one another by turnes out of their Sedans^ 
lifting up their arms to their head, bowed in form of a bow, beginning at 
leaft 20 paces off before they meet, ftill doing the fame very leifurely, 
whilfl the encounter lafteth-, If the one be inferiour to the other, and be 
carried in a Sedan,he caufcth it to be fet down on the ground- if he be on 
horfeback, he alighteth and ftandeth on his feetj and as the other paffeth 
by, he maketh him a profound reverence, even unto the ground : if they 
be not Mandarine fy they perform the ordinary Courtefie to one anotherrif 
they be common people,they hold up their hands,and pafle along. 

Thefervants in great houfes are not to do any reverence unleffc it be 
at certain times and occafions : as, when himfelf or his Lord or Mailer 
Cometh home from abroad,or at the beginning of the new year^^cThey 

I 2 fall ' 

^o The Biftory of C^IXA' Part.k 

fall down on their knees, bowing their head to the ground, once, or 


The ordinary reverence, which they make before their Lords and Ma- 
kers is to (land upright with their armes hanging down. Thofe that 
belonf' to the Tnhmalsymd alfo the fervants and ferjeants of the Manda- 
rines^ in pubhckjalwaiesfpeak to their Mafters upon their knees^ as alfo 
the ?/4/>//jf and I>f/^W4;^^,with their caps off. 

To give or receive a thing with one hand only , is accounted little man- 
ners, among perfons of the fame condition, and if an infcriour doth it to 
his fuperiour,it is an incivilitie. In a word,they are exceffive in their civi^ 
lities and good manners^ which feems rather more proper for divine wor- 
fhip,than civill lefpedt. To be courteous, and outwardly well com- 
pofed, to do things with maturity, circumfpe6tion, gravity and eaven- 
neire,they account among their chiefeft vertues ; all which are expreffed 
in this word X^' .- in which they comprehend alfo the circumftances of 
timc,and habit-, and the r/?/^, with which they are performed, 

The7'^/fisabillor book, with folds within and without, being a- 
bout the breadth of ones hand, and a palm long, and it is of three feve- 
rail fafliions. The largeft hath fix leaves : the midhng three,and the leaft 
one : and all ufe them according to the cuftomeof the Province and the 
quality of the Perfon,that doth vifite,or is vifited.The Colai feldome ufe 
other, than the fmall ones. 

That which is ufed in the ordinary vifits is white with a red ftreak on 
the outfide. If the vifit be for to prefent their rcfpedis, or an invitation to 
a feaft, it is all of red paper ; if it be to condole, or for the death of any 
one, it is accommodated to the colour of mourning : if it come from one 
that is in mourning, the letters are Az^ure^ as alfo the ftreak on the outfide? 
the paper is white, but much differing from the ordinary papcr,being on- 
ly ufed upon this occafion. 

This T^/>containeth no more than one line of writing, which is that 

in the Margin-, if it be a friend, or one that would fliew himfelf fucb, he 
writeththe line quite out .• if he be not fuch, he leaveth out the two firft 
letters,and beginneth at the third place: if he would feem grave or ftatcly, 
befidc the two firft he leaveth out alfo the fourth,and beginneth with the 
the third, going on with the reft, which are never left out. The writing 
importeth thus much in Englifti Tour Lordjhips mofl intimate friend.and the 
ferpetuallfchollar of your learning.N jcommeth to kijfepur hands^ and to do re- 
verence to your Lordpjip, 

This Thie is given to theporter,whoprefentethittohisMafter,and 
giveth him notice of the ft ranger, and who he is. Sometimes the vifit is 
received^but not the Thie-, and then he that receiveththe vifir. is not ob- 
liged to returne it.Bnt it is otherwife,when the Thle is left*, for although 
ic be only given to the porter , becaufe the lord is not at home, or be- 
caufe he will not admit of a vifit, yet he is obliged to return a vifit to 
the other. Infcriours,as$ouldierstotheir Captaines, theleffer Manda- 
rines to the greater, cannot make ufe of a Thie^ but they make another 
kind ofthlng of the fame forme, but much different in paper and ftyle; 
neither may it have a ftroke on the outfide, or fay, that they come to vifit; 


Chap.iz. TheHiftoryof CHID^A. 6i 

but only, vvlio they arejwhat office they bcarejand what their bufineflc is-, 
and it is almoft hke a petition, which they call Fimthie, that is, a bill of 
advice. Thofe of the greater ^Alifj, fuch as are the CoUi, Vice-royes and 
the like, many times vifit not, nor render a vifitj in their own pcrfons ^ 
but only fend a 'Thie from their houfe, or leave it at the gate as they paffe 

They are as free of their vifits, even to ftrnngcrs, as we are to our fami- 
Ihr friends: but with the fame facility and libertie, thattheygotovifit 
they will often excufethemfelves, if they be vifited ; and it is enough to 
fay, they are not at home, unlefle it be to a perfon offome great qualitie 
and refped' 5 or that he hath often come to vifit him ^ then they will hard^ 
\y deny him admittance. By how much the perfon is of a greater and gra- 
ver quality, with fo much the more difficulty doth he admit of vifits : and 
fome to free them fclves, & to avoyd the trouble of thefe Ceremonies, write 
upon a piece of paper in white letters, and clap it over their gate, Thdt they 
/ire retired to their gar den houfe • by which means they are excufed from the 
moleftation of thefe Civilities. 

Thevifitmuftbe, (like that of the Phyfitian,) in the morning- fortO' 
wards the evening it is not efteemed to be of (o much courtefie •, nor muft 
it be a vifit by the tvay, going upon other bufineffc- and if at any time they 
make fuch a vifit, they excufe themfelve.^ faying. They will take anothei* 
lime to fatisfie the intention of their obligation and devoir. 

For ordinarie vifits they have no kt timej there are times neverthelelfe, 
wherein acquaintance, friends and kindred are obliged to pay this Ceremo- 
ny. The chiefe and pi incipall time is the firft day of the newyeare •, wifbing 
one another an happy new yeare : at which time there is a great multitude 
offedansjhorfes, and people up and down theftreets: for then vifits are 
moft frequent. Many times they go not into the houfe, but leave a 'thie^ 
and go their way -, and if they enter, they are obliged to eat and drink, al- 
though it be but a little, Thefccond time is onxhe fifteemh of the fame 
month ; But the vifits are not fo frequent, and the fealling more, becaufe 
it is at the ending of the fifteen days, which they call the feaflivall of Z*4;?- 
thorfjes 5 becaufe during that time they fct many of them up and down the 
ftrcets on gates, and in windowcs 5 and fome of them are very faire and 

The third is theThirdday of the Third moone which is in March^ and is 
called pmnim. They go all then to the fepulchres, to perform there 
their facrificesand other Ceremonies-^ and although they bewaile their 
dead, certaine it is, that the living make good cheere among themfelves. 

The fourth is the jift day ohhefift moone^ which they call TuontK The 
people keep a feftivall at that time in the ftrects and high-ways, and upon 
the rivers-,aIthough fometimes this is forbiddenjby reafon of the difafters, 
whic h often fall out upon the rivers^ 

The fift is upon the Seaventh day of the Seaventh moone, at what time 
they begg abilitie and power of the moone •, as alfo they do the like up- 
on the iV^/W^d ay of the Ninth moone. They vifit one another and fend 
PfefentS',and every feafiivall hath its Prcfents that arc proper to ir. 

Eefide thefe fcaftivalls, they vifit upon occafi on of death,of changing 


6z The Hijlory of Cm^d. Pabt.i. 

their houfcs, of marriage, nt the birth of a fonne, at the promotion to a de- 
gree or office, or higher dignicic, at the taking of a journy, upon the birth 
day, and cfpecially when they enter upon any feaventh year of their age, 
and in thefe cafes they muft not make an empty viiit, but arc always to 

When one iindertakcth alongjourny, all his friends vifithim, and 
fend him prefents. But when he returneth,he is to vifit and prcfent them; 
who performed thofe kind offices to him. 

They vifit likewife the (ick, but only at the gate,who feldomc admit of 
a vifit within, unleflfe it be from an intimate friend. 

In thefe vifits^they are very punduall • fons towards their father • fcho- 
lars towards their Maftcrs-, inferiours toward their fuperiours, and the 
whole Kingdome toward the King ; fo that on his birth-day,at the foiire 
quarters of the year jand at the chiefe feaftivals, the vke^roj together with 
all the CUagiprates oiihQ Province difpatch awayan EmbalTadoiir to 
court to vifit the King in the name of all that Province. They which re- 
fide at the court, as well Letterat'h asCapiaines-,onthefamedaysgo in 
perfon to court, to do their devoirs. 

They have fcverall Hals v/ell accommodated for the receiving of vifits- 
the firft is common to all .• The vifitant may enter thither and fit downe, 
without giving any notice of his being there , And although he find not 
the porter to ufher him in, they have another farther in, which they call 
the private Hall : Hitherto may their kindred and intimate friends come 5 
but no further •, leaft they fhould go into that part of the houfe, which is 
called Huit and is the place where the women are •, whither the fcrving- 
mcn of the houfe are not fuffered to come, unleffe they be very young. In 
the outward Hall they come to receive their vifitants : and after the ordi- 
nary courtefies are performed, the mafter of the houfe with his owne 
hands bringeth a chaire,and fitteth it with a cufiiion, and if they are many, 
hebringethchaires^ and accommodateth them for them all. And after- 
wardjthey al of them accommodate a chaire for him. He leaveth every one 
to take the place that is due to him 5 and if it be not^that fome one of them 
hath a particular refpe(5l, due to his dignity or office, the fonnes, coufins, 
fcholars, (^c, take place according to their age-, and ifthey do not know 
one anothers age, they ask it. The Mafter of the houfe takcth always the 
loweft place. After they are feated, prefently the drink called Cm is 
brought in, which they alfo take according to the fame order of prece- 

In fome Provinces, the often prefenting of this drink is efleemcd the 
greater honour : But in the Province oi Hamchen^iVit be brought the third 
time,it intimateth to the vifitant, that it is time for him to take his leave. If 
the vifitant be a friend, andmakcth anyftay, prefently there is a table fet 
with fweet-meats and fruits : nor do they ever make drie vifits •, which is 
the cuftome almoft of all Aji/i^ contrary to the ufe o^ Europe, 

In exercifing their courtefies, (whether it be a fon before his father, or 
a fcholar before his mafter,) for the moft part they are more hearers, than 
fpeakers • the young people being never forward in fpeaking. The termes 
which they ufe in fpeaking are very honourable, and full of refpe<a to- 

. ward 

Chap. 11. The HiJlorjofCHUhQA. tf^ 

ward others, and humble toward themfelves ; and as it is not Pood 
manners to call any one Touy in Spiin or Italic^ fo neither is it amonj^ 
them to fay /. Wherefore they never ufethis word, but other tcrmcs 
in ftead of h as the Fofter- child, the Scholar, ^r. And the fonne, when 
he fpeakethto his father, namcih himfclfc His foungefl Sonne • although 
he be the eldeft , and is already married : fervants to their mafters 
ftiie themfelves Siaove : and the yoimgeft of them Siaoti: he that pleader h 
ata Tribunall, ftileth himfelfe the delinquent » a Chriftian at his confc/Tioa 
thefwner • the women in the palace (excepting the QueencsJ and the Eu- 
nuchs fpeaking to the King, ukyour majefties flave^ Napor^ every one elfc 
fpeaking to the King namcth himfelfe 'uajfa/l^ chin. If one doth not fpeak 
of his owne pcrfon, but of fuch as belong to him,he is to ufe modeft terms 
and exprefTions, The father faith of his fonne, Myyeung fonne. The (Ua- 
acr^My young fihlar.and the fonne fpeaking of his father, calleth'him. 
The father of the houfe',J\\Q fervant of the Mafler,r/&^ Lordofthehonfc. 

In fpeaking one with another th^y ufe alwaies honourable Titles, as a- 
mongft us rouY mrfl^ip. Your hormr^&chut they have this quality befides, 
that even to mean and inferiour people they give an honourable name, as ' 
to an Hoik yChm, Gin^ Kia^ the wan^ Lord of the houfe. To a barge mzn^The 
cbiefentanoftheveffelL^ To :LmvX\t\tx^The great wand. But if they would 
anger him, they call him by his ordinary name,C4« Kio^ that is, perfecu- 
tour of the feet. To fervants, if they be grave men, The great mader of the 
houfe. To the minifters of the courts of juftice, and "to them which 
waitc on the Mandarines, Man on horfeback or Cavalier ^2i^d yet they always 
goon foote. If they fpeak to a woman, although flit; be notot kin to 
them, they call her rrf/41?, that is, fifter-in-Iaw^ but fometimes it happe- 
ncth, that he which cannot fpeakc the language well, in ftead of fifter in 
law, calleth her Broome, by an equivocation of the Word. 

In fpeaking alfo of fuch things, as beloug to him they fpeak to, it is to 
be done in certaine particular phrafes ; So that if he fpeak of his fonne, or 
fervant he is not to fay,r<7//r Lordlhips fbnne^but the noble fonne, Limhm . if 
he mention the daughter, he faith,7'^^ precious love^ Limgai ., and fo of o- 
thers, even of licknefic and infirmitie he is not to fay fimply, how doth he 
with his maladie f but with his noble indifpofttton, ^ei Tarn i Amon^ the 
common people, (who do not ufe thefe Pundlilios) if they do not know 
one another ^they call Bret hers ^Hiunt, But if^hcy are acquainted / a^id )ou^ 
as they lift, without any ceremony. 

As they are fo punftuall and exccfllve in the manner of their treating 
and naming one another •, fo alfo^are they in the diverfe names which 
they have, and which they take up according to their age. Thefe arc of 
five forts. 

The firft is the Sir- name ^vihkh they take infallibly from their Father, 
and never that of the Mother, or the Mothers Father-, but the Mother 
takes the name of the Husband. 

The fecond is a name which they call,Ti&^ little ot young name^ which 
the Father impofeth^ vvhen they are little ones- and it is commonly the 
name of fome living creature, or flower, or of fome day,&c. and by this 
name only the Father andMother may call them jbut the fervants only by 


the firft, recond,and third, &c. as hath been faid. 

ThethirdiswhenhegoethtofchooyortheMafter givcth him ano- 
ther name, whichjoyncd with the Sir-name^com^okxh. a name, by which 
both his Mafter and Schoole- fellows call him . 

The fourth, when they put on the Nsn or CauU upon their head, of 
which we fpake before.- this is done when they are feavcnteen or eigh- 
teen years of age: for at that time particularly, if one marry a wife, he 
taketh a new name, which they call a letter^ and by this all may call him, 
except the fervants. , , . w- , 

The fifth is at the going out of his youth, when he ailumeth an other 
name,which they cal The great Name or Hao-^y this all may cal him^cxcep- 
tinghirafclfand his parents. 

Now to return to the Hall, where welcfcthegueftsconveifing-,at 
their departure, the Guefts joyning all together make an ordinary reve- 
rence to the Marterofthehoufe, giving him thanks for their good enter- 
tainment-, and he accompanieth them out to the ftreet-, where if they 
came on foor,both parties make ordinary reverence to each other and de- 
part-, if on horfe-back, or in a fedan or coach, then they make three rcve- 
renceSi and the third Congie is made at the gate-, where prcfently the 
Mafter of the Houfe goeth in, and the Gueft taketh horfej for to ride or 
take coach in his prefcnce is not counted good manners. When they are 
on horfeback, or in the fedan, the Mafter of the Houfe commcth out a- 
gain, and they take leave of one another, and when they are gone a few 
paces off,they interchangeably fend a fervant with anembaffie or nicffage 
( To Pai Xam)3ind recommend ations* 

Whenthevifitisthe firft time made, and the Perfon be of quality, 
commonly tis with a prefentjafToon as they are come in : and for the mo ft 
part in China ^hc ordinary and conftant prefents are fome ftuffs,ornaments 
for women, things of ufe-, as Shoes, Stockings,Handkerchieffes,?tfrff//4»^, 
Inke,Pcnfils,and things to catjand they do commonly choofe thofe of the 

be ft fort to prefent. 

ThePrefent,if it beof thingsto cat among friends, it is to be of 4.6.8. 
or more things. With the prefent is fent alfo a Thie^ox bill of vifit, where- 
in is written what they have fent. If he do not accept of ir, it is no dif- 
courtefie; neither if he take part onIy,'and fend back the reft - but he muft 
anfwer him with a thie, giving him thanks, and excufing himfelf, that he 
did not receive it; or if he do take part, he is to write, what he took, and 
what he fent back. Among men of greater quality, and that will (hew re- 
fpe(5t to a Perfon without 3oing much harm to their purfes, they write 
firft,the things which they will fend, and fend the Thie, before they fend 
the prefent^of which,becaufe it ordinarily confifteth of many things,they 
do not receive all-,and he who is prefented maketh a prick at thofe things 
written in the ri/f, which he will receive ; then he, which prefentcth, 
buyeth only the things which the other hath pricked, and letreth alone 
the reft : if he acceptcth of them all , he buyeth them all and fcnd- 
cth them. 

There are fome Imaginarie prefcnts,of which,he that prefentcth them, 
isfecure,that little or nothing of them will be received^ and yet they 


CHTr.i?. TheHiftory of CHl^/i. 6^ 

confiftofmany things in number, as rometimcs oFthiity or fourty: and 
are coftly in their quality-, and pieces of Damask, and other {ilk ftuffe, filk 
(lockings-, and many things to be eaten, as Hens, Ducks, &c. Thefe 
things are many times hired.and that which is received,is paid for>the reft 
are Tent back to the owner, with fome confideration for the loan of them. 

The cuftome is, that he, who receiveth a Prcfent, is to return another 
aequivalent to it. Excepting alway edible things among friends- and that 
which any bringeth^when he comcth from abroad, and from Countries 
where thofe things are particularly to be had.Neither do they remunerate 
thofe, which they call Prefents of dtfendencie-^ as from the inferiour to the 
fuperiour-, from the Maftcr to the Scholar^nor of pretenders and fuitours. 

It is alfo the cuftome to give the Page or Servant, which bringcth the 
Prefentjfome mony, more or lefle, according to the quality of the prc- 
fent. Tnewing great refpe(5l to him that fends it. 

They ofA^^4w//jAS more expert in their expcnccs,and more cunning 
in the Ltfin^t^ot art of thrift, are very fubtic and skilfull in this particular; 
and for a Prefent which is worth a Ci ownejthey fay, they are to give the 
fervant fix pence, and proportionably in the reft. 

Of their Banquets^ 


uch time and money is confumed by the Chinejfes in their Banquets^ 
■by reafon they are almoft continually at them. There is no mee- 
ting, departure, or arrivall, or any profpcrous fuccefle of a friend or kinf- 
man, which is not celebrated with a Banquet -,nor any accident of difguft- 
or grief, for which they do not likewiie make a Banquet of confolation- 
nor any bufineffe of importance, but it is to be treated of at a Banquet' 
neicher without one do they begin any work, or finifli any buildings 
They make many ethers upon no other motive but this, Comedamus^ it 
hibamus^cras mm morkmur\\t\. us eate and drink, for to morrow we (hall 

It is very ordinary among the common peopIe,and particularly among 
officeis of the fame office, to have Co-fraurniues which they call a 
Brotherhood of the month. The Brotherhood confifteth of thirty, ac- 
cording to the number of dales thereinjand in a circle they go every day 
to eat at one anothers houfes by turnes, making a Banquet^ like that of the 
Tonnes of '^oh. If they have not convenience to receive them in their own 
houfcjthcy provide it at another mans, there being at this day many pub- 
lick houfes very wel furnilht for thispurpofe.If he wil have it at home^but 
without any trouble to his Family^ he appointeth, how many mefTcs he 
will have, how many diOies, and what meatj and they are brought home 
to him very well d reft. 

Thofe of the North are very much differentfromthemof the South.- 
forthey of the South are very exa(5]:_, even to the leaft matters in thefe 
courtefics of Banquets, and they do efteem themfelves more friendly and 
courtcous,than the others-, as in truth they a re. 

K Jn 

""^ In their Banquets they arc more careful! to have varietie, and tohave it 
well dreft, than for the quantitie of the meat .♦ and feaft more for conver- 
fation and to treate with one another, than to eat and drink; although they 
do both the one and the other pretty well. They drink at the beginning 
of the fcafl:, and fo continue it with wine and meat, without bread or rice, 
till the guefts fay, they have had wine enough ; Then prefently the rice is 
brought, and the glaifes are fet by, and there is no more drinking. 

In the Northern Countries their cuftome is contrary to this : The ce- 
remonies are but few, the Meffes well furnifht, the difhes large and fuli : 
and when the ordinary ceremonies are performed , which arc ufuall 
through the whole Kingdome, they begin with the meat •, and every one 
takcth that which pleafeth him beft, and as much as he can eat ; mean- 
while without quenching thirft, either with wine or water.- for thea 
they drink neither. They conclude with rice. When the diflies are ta- 
ken away, they difcourfe about an houre 5 and then they fcrve in others, 
only offalt meats, as Gammons of Bacon, t6ngues,andfuch like things, 
which they call Guides, that is, of wine -, and then they begin to drink. 

To fpeak in generall of the whole Kingdome; they do not ufually drink 
wine,neither at dinner, which is in the morning five hours before noone, 
nor at fupper, which is about foure a cloak in the afternoone •, but at night 
before they go to bed, then ufing fait meats, as is abovefaid : and for this 
reafon their Banquets are raoft commonly at night-,making ufc of the day- 
light for their ftudyes and bufincflfej iupplying this light at night with 
candles, of which they have great quantitie, made of acerraine oyle, 
which they harden up with a little waxe •, which ferveth them in the win- 
ter 5 referving for the fummer thofe which are made of waxe-, of which 
they have three forts : The one is Bees waxe 5 the other is taken out of the 
holes of a certain fort of Snakes, much better than the other, and much 
whiter, without any art ufed to it. The third is taken from a tree, whofc 
fruit is like our filberts, and the meat very white. And though this laft, 
be not fo good as our waxe-, yet it is better than fuec:it mclteth very well, 
and makcth very good candles. 

The people of the better qualitie make Banquets of more ftate^ for they 
have houfes of recreation, either in the City, or very neere it for this pur- 
pofe^ adorned with many coflly pidures and other curiofities. And if 
the perfon invited be an Officer, or man of great qualitie,akhough the ufe 
o^Afefirie hanging inChim is very rare,yet for the entertainment of thcfc, 
they hang their houfes with them very curioufly, even the feeling and all. 
The number of their Tables fheweth the greatnefTe of the Banquet, One 
Table for four, or one for two, is ordinary. But for perfons of greater ac- 
count they fet one Tabic for each -, and fometimes two 5 one to eat at, and 
the other to fet the difhes on. The Tables at thefe Banquets have all Fren- 
talls^ot a peice of linnen hanging downe from the edges, but neither Ta- 
ble- cloath nor Napkins, ufing only their Charan, a neate and poli/hed var- 
niOi, with which their Tables are covered. They lay no knives, the meat 
being all carved out before it come fiom the kitchin • nor forke, ufing two 
little flicks, with which they eat very dexteroufly. They ict neither fait, 
pepper, norvineger, but yet rauflerd, and other fauces, of which they 


Ghapj^. IheHijloryofQUlU^A. 6j 

have many and very good. They fcrve inarthe fame Banquet flefhand 
fifli ; boy Id and roaft •, fry'd meat ; and meat in pottage and wh'te- broth 5 
and fe verall other viands d reft after their manner ; and very good. Thty 
life broths much ; but they never ferve up any without flefh or fi{h in it, or 
a kinde of Pafte, hkc that which the ttahans call rermkelli^ 

Anciently they ufed neither Tables nor feats, but according to the cu- 
ftomeof the greateft part of 9/4Jia and Jfrica, they fate and eat upon the 
pavement, covered with mats ^ and to this day, their writings and books 
fpeaking of Tables, ufefor^the fignificative letter ofTablejthat which fig- 
nifieCh a mat. The Giapponeffes, with moft of the neighbouring King- 
domes, even to this day^kcep their ancient cuftome, of fitting and eating 
upon the ground: but the C^mejfes, from the raign of //<?;?, have ufed 
feats and Tables 5 of which they have many beautiful! ones , and of feve- 
rall fa/Iiions, 

Inthedifpofition of their invitations, courtefies, and entertainments 
they have much fuperfluitie •, as well before the coming ohhegue{l:s,as at 
the beginning, profecution, and conckifion of their Bam]ucts,hdoxe they 
begin to eate, the mafter of the houfe inviteth them to fall to. About the 
middle ofthefeafl they change their little cups for greater : they force 
none to drink, butmodeflly invite them. The times, when they moft 
commonly and infallibly make their banquetSjaie the feaftivall daySjboth 
oftheyear,andofeachmanin particular, as marriages, cJ"^, Befides o- 
ther infinitie occafions above mentioned. 

The better fort of people, when one takes a journey, or returns from 
another Countrie, do make a Feafl -, and it falleth out many times, that on 
the fame day they arc faine to go to feavcn or eight invitations, to com- 
ply with their friends. Some daies before the Banquet, (that is when they 
have time enough) they fend a Thicj by which they make their invitation, 
and pray them to accept of it. If they refufe, they excufe themfelves with 
another Thie, But if they accept of it,they fend them another T/^/V- which 
they call the Thie of (olichation. The timeof the^^;«^«f^ being come, 
they commonly (lay, till all are met ; entertaining themfelves in the out- 
ward Hall. When all are come, they enter into the Hall of the Banquet-^ 
and the mafter of the houfe performeth the ufuall ceremonies to them all, 
as well in fitting, as in placing the cups and eating- jiicks. The ceremonies 
beingended, they all feace themfelves in their order-, and the mafter of 
the houfe takcthcare to go up and down, and invite them to eat and drink. 
'Xh^ir Banquets ;ixt very long, and they fpend much time in difcourfing^ 
but the ordinary cuftome is to have Mufick and C^^medies-.^wdi the Comedi- 
ans are obliged to a(5t whatfoever the Guefts command them. At length 
the Banquet endeth,by the importunate entreatie of the Guefts • to which - 
he that inviteth them, ftfll feemeth to make refiftancc. The day after the. 
feaft^all the Guefts fend their Thie to the perfon that invited them-,wh;ch 
containeth partly the praife and commendations of the Banquet, and all 
that they had there, and partly their thanks to him that gave it them. 

K z CHAP, 

'SS The Eijlory of QHlKj^' Pabt.I' 

Chap, 14. 
Ophe (james y^hich the Chinejfes ufe. 

P Laying at Cards, (which are like to ours in form and figures,which are 
all black and without colours j hath penetrated, even to this rcraotefl 
part of the world, and is the common recreation of the meaner fort of peo- 
ple, but is not ufed by the Nobilitic, But the_game of the iV'^^///^^^^^^ 
graver fort of people, as wclIiopafTe the time^as to winne mony, is thatfof 
C)^^^, not altogether unlike ours. ThdxKing can never rem ovc, but into 
the f'oure neereft places to his o\v0Statien 5 which is alfo the la w for the 
two Bijhps, They have no ^een^ but two other men, which they call 
Fafidi P oh ere, or veflfells of duft, very ingenious: Thefe fland before the 
tK^o Knights '^ and before them tvjoPaivms-j the which arc placed in the 
next row before the other Pmnes. Thefe men have a motion like to our 
Rookesy but cannot Check the contrary King^ but only,when between one 
of them and the King,there is another man immediately interpofed, whe- 
ther it be his own man, or an enemy. So that the X/»^mayavoyd that 
check three manner of ways: either by removing into the next place, or 
by intcrpofing another man 5 or elfe by taking atvay that man, that 
flood betwixt him and his enemicj&fojby laying himfelfeopeD,hc is de- 

They have another grave game among them, which is as followeth. • 
On a c2> f//"-^gW of 3oo.pla/:es:tlfcy^play wi.h 2_ooji)en^ a hundred w hitc^ 
and a hundred~FlackTwith thefe, each cndeavourcth to drive the others 
menlnto the middle of the Chejfhard^ that he might be m after of the 
other places : in conclufion he that hath gained hirafelfe raoft places, win- 
neth the game. In this game the officers do paflfe their time with a great 
deale of delight, and often fpend a great part of the day at it -, for between 
thofe that arc skilfull, one game will take up an hours time. Thofe that 
are expert at this game, are well efteemed, though it be only upon this 
account ; and are therefore often called and received, as mafters of this 
Came^ with all ceremonie. 

The Ghtnejfes alfo ufe the game of 2)/^, which have the fame fhape and 
points, as ours, without any difference. 

The common people do much ufe a game called by the Italians Giuoa 
Delia Morra^ caf^ing out their hands, and fingers, as they do at that game 
in Europe. They play moft at it in their Banquets, between two, who (hall 
drink •, and he that lofcth, gainech the drink. 

The Nobilitie, for this purpofe, have a drum placed without the Hall, 
where they eat- and there ftandeth a man, who bcateth on it at adventure 
iis many ftroaks, as he thinks fit 5 and when he beatcth on the drum, they 
begin to count from the firft man of the Banquet . and he at whom the 
drum ftoppeth, is obliged to drink. In the City of Nankim there is ano- 
ther game much pradifed among the common people. They buyacou* 
pie of Capons, the beft they can find, or elfe fifh or Percelianc^ or what o- 
ther thing they pleafe -, but it muft be excellent in its kind to excite an ap- 

Chap. If. TheHiftory cfCHl^^. 69 

petite in others to win it. Then one holdeth in his hand, ten pieces of 
their mony, the which have letters on the one fide, and on the other no- 
thing. This man ofFcreth them to him that will throw, and he throw- 
cththemtcntimes-, andifinanyoi: thefe times all the pieces light with 
the fame fide iipwardjcither written or not writtcn^he gaineth the reward 
that is propofed, if not , he lofeth an halfe-penny. 

There is not wanting in ChittA the game oi Cock-fighting ^\^h\ch is ufed 
alio throughout all /W/4 : they have Cocks bred up for this purpofe. Be- 
fore they fight they faften toeachlegg neare to their fpurs a fmall ra- 
Zpur : then he that keepeth the field, having made the other fly or fall, is 
Conquerour^ and winneth the other cock, and whatfoever was abetted on 
his head. But becaufe many times they wound one another fojuftatthe 
fametime,that they both fall togetheJ| that Cock , which after he is fal- 
lcn,pecks at the other, or crowcth;,is accounted viBour^ 

They combate after the fame manner with Qua/les; and to his purpofe 
they commonly breed up the Cock-^ails with great care. This Game 
is particularly in requefl among the Kings kindred, and the Eunucheso^ 
the Palace-, in which they fpend a great dcaIeofiriony,Thefc birds do 
fight very furioufly and delpcrately. 

They fight Ijkewife with Grillos^ or Cricquets-^ and this fport is much 
ufed in theSprin^ time. They have little houits made of clay very arti- 
ficially to keep them in; when they^fight them» each man pulleth out his putteth him into a Bafon, or other clean vefTell, and, with a 
little flice, or fpattle, they put them to one another, and when they are 
ncere enough to launce at one another , they do it with fuch fury, that 
many times one will fetch offtheotliers kg atthefirftblovir. He that 
conquereth , prefcntly fingeth, and winneth the game. This game is 
much ufed in Pekim^ and particularly by the Eunuchs^ who fpend a great 
deale of money at it. 

They do not permit young children, that ft udy^ to play at any game; 
the bigger fort have games proper to their age, which are very like 
thofc our youth have in Europe. 

They are forbidden to play at carJs or dicC; and if they be taken, or 
accufed for it, they are chaftifed and condemned to a pecuniary mul(5l-, 
and fome are Imprifoned only for fpending too much time at play. For a- 
mong them Tu Ptf',that is,glutton of play,foundeth as ill,as an/bthcr vice, 
which we abhorr here. 

■t ^ CHAP.15. 

Of their Marriage. 

IN the Kingdome ot China, ( as doth plainly appear by their books,and 
;^Chronicles,) formal Marriages and indifToIuble after contra(5l,have been 
in ufe above 2400 yeares- and in ancient time they ufed certain particular 
Ceremonies at the celebration thereof; one of which was^ giving the 
hand. But thefe have been changed by time,fonie being taken away, and 
many others added. Alwayes 

yo Ihe Biftorj ofCBLK^. Part.i. 

Alwaies from that time to this, there hath been among them two kinds 
of Af.4m4g-^iOneatrueone,withamatrimoniall contrad for their whole 
life between the two parties-, and then the woman is called a n?;/<r-, and 
treated as fuch, and received with extraordinary Ceremonies. 

The fccond is rather a Concubinage permitted by their lawe?, in cafe 
they ha\^e no children by their wife-, efpecially fonnes, but now it is grown 
fo common, that although fome do forbear having them upon the ac 
count of vcrtiie-, yet it is very ordinary among rich men, to take Concu- 
hints, although they have childrcn.The manner is very different from the 
true and legitimate Marriage-, for although they contra^ after fome 
fort with the Father of the maiden: and that they treat one another as 
kindred-,yet in truth (he is bought and fold-, and many times by a Perfon 
that hath no relation to her, but only that he bred her up for that pur- 
pofe-, for there are many in Chinas which breed up young maidens, and 
teach them Mufick, and dancing,and other perquifites of womcns bree- 
ding, only to fell them afterwards for Concubines^ at a great price. Ycf 
however it is not accounted a Matrimony-, not hath it the folemnitie of 
Marriage belonging to it-, nor any obligation of perpetuity-, but the man 
may put her away*, and (he may marrie with another-, there being no law 
which prohibits it, in cafe (lie be wholly withdrawn from the company 

ofthefirfl-. • 

The manner of treating them is very different They eat apart by 
themfelves in their own chambers : and are in fubjedion to the true 
w//f, and ferve her in fome things, as her Servants, The children which 
they beare,do not do them reverence as to a mother, but they pay it to 
the true wife, whom alfo they call mother. Hence it is, that if the Con- 
cuhine die that bore them,they are not obliged to three years mourning, 
nor to deprive themfelves of entrance into the examinations, nor (If they 
govern,) to quit their charge-, which^Cas you fhall hear hereafter,)is to be 
done at the death of their parents. Therefore, although he be an only 
fonne, he is not obliged to thefc duties ; but only when his Fathers 
lawfuUw/^dieth, although fhe be not his true mother. When the Huf" 
L/?^dieth,thc government of the eflatc and family falleth to the lawfull 
»'//^,and to the children,whether they be,by her,or by tht Concubine. Y^wl 
when the lawfull vpife dieth, it falleth to the Concubine and her childreOjif 
flue have any. 

Sometimes it falleth out, that they take a Concubine, and keep her on- 
ly, till (he bring them a fonne : for, if the lawfull rvife will not fuffcr her to 
flay, a(ibone as the child is born,they fend her,away,or marry her to ano- 
ther-,& the child which ftaieth behind,never knowcth her who bore him, 
acknowledging only for his Mother his Fathers lawfull wife. It happen- 
cth alfo many times, that a man taketh an exceffivc affection to his Con- 
cubine^ and then all goeth amiffe, but only in what belongeth to the out- 
ward obfervance, which muft not be changed. Widows may marry, if 
they will-but they that are women of qualitie feldomc or never do it ^ no 
although they be young and have no children. They are to live in their 
Father in laws houfe, and are for this reafon much efteemcd; 

In the legitimate Marriage for the mod part,they obferve an equalitic 


GhT^TTT TheHifi oryof CHI 3^ A. " 71 

of cflarc and conditionr^ but in their Concubines ^ they have regard only to 
theirnarurall endowments. They may not marry with any of their kin- 
dred on their Fathers fide, in no degree whatfoever, nor with any of the 
fame 57>-;?4w^^buc they may marry with their kindred on the Mothers 
{ide,if they be in a remote degree-, but that is not fo exadly obferved. A 
youngmaid will hardly many with a widdowcr, which they czWfatch- 
ing nf the houfe^aitd the bed, * 

They never marry^nlthough they be never fo great fi iends, without a 
Mediator , or one that goeth between both partiesjwherefore they chufe 
%vhom thcy pleafe, there being as well men as womenj who perform this 
office. The Bridegroem never feeth the Bnde^ before he entreth the 
doorc to rake her for his wife.-thereFathers marry their fonncs ordinariiie 
very young,6r: promife them in Mar/ age even from little childrcn,& fomc* 
times before they are borne, which promife thefe punflually performe, 
although their Fathers die before the time, or one of the parties fall from 
his honour, or ertate,&c. excepting both parties voluntaiily agreeto break 
off the contrad: & if by chance the fonne for fome refpe6ts will not ftand 
to the contract made by hisfather,they compel him by law to perform it. 

In Ch/aa^ before the Father die, there is no formall portion given, ei- 
ther to fonne or daughter- among the meaner fort of people the ordinarie 
cuflome is, not abfoluteiy to buy their whes, as fome fay, but the huf 
band giveth a certain quantitic of mony to the Father of the maid, with 
which to buy her clothes, and ornaments for her head, fuitable to her 
qualitle. This fumme is alwaies of the largeft for that pur- 
pofe •, but the Fathers fave as much out of it, as they can*, what re- 
maineih, being to accrue to them. Hence it is, that fome have faid, that 
thcChimJfes buy their wives-,there being not wanting fome ground for this 
belecfe.for to this day they agree with theFather of the maid for fo much 
money-, which if it be notgiventhem,they wilnot part with their daughter. 

Among the Nobility there is no talk of giving any moncy,but the Father 
ofthc Bride IS obliged to comply with what the ftile and cuftome of 
ihat Kingdome requireth,each according to their abilitic.-and commonly 
that which he giveth is all neceffary Furniture for her apartment, excep. 
ting the bed-, which,although all things arc very cheap in that Country, 
will fometimes coft fifty Crowns. He giveth her four or two maid fer- 
vants, to wait upon her, and fome moneys and of all this more or leffe, 
according to his ability. But land or poflcilion theyalmoft never give, 
unleffe the Brides Father be very richjOr that he would match her to fome 
principall Perfon-,and that only in cafe he have no fonnes* 

After the contrad is performed betwec n their Fathers, then there fol- 
low many curtefiesand compliments-as firft, the Bride groom fendtth the 
Bride a piefem of things to eate, as flefli, wine, and fruit. Secondly, a 
day is chofen for their Marriage: which, when it is refolved on by advice 
oiAfirologerSy Is celebrated with great Ceremonie. The third is, to fend 
to know the Brides name-, and lafl of all,tiie Bridegroom fendeth the jew- 
els to the Bride^ that is, a ring and eare-pendants,&c. 

The day before the Bride is to be received-, thcy fend from the Bridts 
houfe the HoHJlmdd-jlujfe and Furniture that is given with her^ making a 


71 The miiory of CHl-Kj^' Pabt.i. 

proceffion with them-, which is to be done about noone,that all may fee it; 
Themcntharcany it,gotvvo3nd two, each of rhem bearing a piece of 
hou(hold-ftufFof the fame kind, that the other doth, whether it be Tables, 
Cha/reSj C hefts. Curtains y i'ed^ or what other thing foever. 

The day following, in fome Provinces, the Eridegroome goeth in per- 
fonon Horfe-backjWith hisFatherand neereft kindred,to receive thc5r/<;/f: 
wht> is carried in a fedan with great pompe and ftate. In odier Provinces, 
efpccially towards the South, the Bride- grocme fendeth the fedan toward 
the eveningCthey have fome very curious ones^mide only for this purpofe, 
richly adorned with filk, and the doore to be locked on the outfidej and a 
great dcale of company to waite upon her with lights fet in wooden frams 
like lanthornes. The mother after the Bride hath finiihed the ufuall com- 
pliment, at parting, putteth her into the iedan and locketh the doore, and 
fendeth the key before to her fonne- in-laws mother ^ and fo fhe departcth 
along with the company, who go all before her, excepting the maid-fcr- 
vants, which her Father giveth her, who goby her fide. 

When (he is come to the Bride-greomei houfc, the mother-in-law un- 
locketh the fedan and taking out the ^r/Vu, delivereth \\cx to the Bride- 
groome • Then they go both together to the Chappell,or Oratorie of their 
Idols,where are likewife kept the Images or names of their Predeceffours. 
There they make the ordinarie reverence of bowing themfelves foure 
times upon their knees, and prefently they go forward into the inward 
Hall, where their parents are fitting in Chaires, to whom they make the 
fame reverences!; then the Bride retireth with her Mother-in-law,her way- 
ting maids, and the woman that did negotiate the marriage, to the wo- 
mens apartment 5 where fhe hath a particular chamber for her fclfe and 
her husband •, into which, as is abovefaid, no other man may enter, no not 
their Father or elder brother, fo that if the Father would chaftife the fon 
for any fault, f which is ordinarie there for their Fathers to do, although 
their fonnes be raarriedjif he can get into his wives chamber he is fafe,for 
theFachermaynot enter there, norfpeak with his daughter-in-law, ex- 
cept on Come occaiions, which aredifpenfed with/Socarefulla watch 
do they keep on that precious Gemme of Honour^ T he Bridegroome twhcn he 
doeth not retire, ftayeth with his Father, kindred, and friends, dr^. Who 
fpend many daies together in continuall feafts and banquetting: when the 
firft month is over, the Bride returneth home to her Fathers houfe, which 
they call ^«w>, that is retiring to refl. 

The fonnes do all equally inherit •, although they be but halfe-Bro- 
thcrs, and not begotten on the lawf uil wife, having regard in this only to 
the Father. Thefifters have no more than what is given with them at 
their marriage. If the Father die before he hath married his daughters, 
the brothers are obliged to beftow them in marriage •, and the fonnes that 
are already married, (if the Father in his life time divide his cftarc among 
them,) are bound to maintaine their fifters, till they are married. 

Nevertheleile in Chifta there ^re fome famil'ics^efpecially of the Nobili- 

tie, where the eldeft fonnes do inherit the Majerafgo^ or the rooft confide- 

^rable part of the land^ if they have any that is Co entaild 5 although they 

have other brothers. And thcfc children are called JttteCfm^ Chit^Hm^ 

Hctifcj Chci^ Hei, CHAP. 

ChapkJ. 1 he Hijlory of CHI3^A. 7^ 

Chap. \6. 
Of the Fmeralls and Sepultures oftheQhinefses. 

\ Lthough the Ch:ne(fes^ in many things^ efpecially thofe which con- 
*^cerncrhe government of their life, have been of the fame opinion 
with the Eurofcem Philofophers, yet they arc very different from them in 
that which bclongeth to DeMh, For the others have taken little or no 
care about the Sepulture of the body, whereas thefe efteem nothing more; 
ufing in rheir lifw time all ooirible diligence to leave every thing ready and 
in order for it; and their fonnes do in nothing more (hew their pietie and 
obedience, than by putting it in execution after their Fathers death. 

It is a general! cuftome of the whole Kingdome, not to bury any one 
barely in the earth, although it be a child of two dales old.Every one is 
to have his Chefi, or Coffifj according to his qualitie, and abilitie. Where- 
fore the rich men,( although the Chineffes are very thrifty, and parciraoni- 
ous) do in this exceed all extreames, feeking out wood tor that purpofe, 
of the grearefi: price and effeem, that they polTibly can. 

The £/'»//t/:'^/are the nioftexceflive this way, becaufe they have no 
children to inherit their wealth, giving many times 500 or 1000 Crowns 
for Bords to make a C<?jf/»,thoughin realitie,thefe are not fo much worth. 
For ic happeneth many times, that going to a Merchant, that felleth this 
commodities the Merchant fetteth them a price, asking them five or fix 
hundred Crownes, but telleth them withall, that if they will have Bords 
of a thoufand Crownes, he hath not any at prefent, but that he hath ex- 
pv<5led feme a great while,andlooketh every day, when they fhould ar- 
rive.- and if his Lordftiip hath not extraordinary haft, praieth him to fend 
fome few daies hence, and he (hall be accortimodated, Here,the Merchant 
h ith no more to doy but to change the paper^which is pafted upon thofe 
Bords, and with it the price; and when the Eunuch returneth he findeth 
bords offuch price AS he defireth. When the c/>(/? is made with all fort 
of cxquifire ornament on the oUtfidei^i of gold^ Charm^7ir\d other gallan- 
tries, they keep it in their houfe, and many times in the fame chamber 
where they lie, with much fa isfiKftiorii and contentment. As contrari- 
wife, if, being in yeares, they have not already made it, they are alwayes 
iflfatisfied and difcontented .• and truly it is a great trouble and charge 
to the SonSj if they have ancient Fathers, and their Funerall C^eft be not 
yet prepared/ ■ 

This is the ufu.iU manner of the whole Klngdome-, but, becaufe they 
have taken their religion from the Pagods of M/4,they%ave alfo entertain 
ned fome of their Ceremonies and fupevftitions, who are buried after 
three fcvCrall manners, and that,before they die by the courfe cf nature, 
in the earth, in the water, and in the fire,^ as they do to this day in Giappon) 
fome throwing ihemfelves oflFfrom high places, others drowning theiii- 
felves in r!vers,with ffones tied about th$ir necks,and others,other waycs^ 
which we will not here treat of. The Chwejfes are not fo valiant to do 
thisjwhilethey are living, but being dead, if they are fo poor, that they 
cannot make them a Coffm^xhcy burne them,and bury their aflies. Tn the 

L Province 

74- TheUilloryofCHL^Hji. Pabt.i. 

Province of Smhetl they burn the bodie, and put the afties in earthcrn 
UrreSydo[Q flopped; and then caft them into the rivers. 

After the Chefiy followeth the place o^SefulttirCy which every one pro^ 
videth for himfelf and his pofterity,without the v^als .• for within, it is not 
permitted. Of thefe places they make great account. Some have in 
them very convcnienthoufcs.- they are kept lockt on the out-fide, and 
within are full of C)f/>r^j(/"^/, (which they ufually plant there,) and other 
treesjproper for that place. They arc many times little worth, in refpedt 
of the quantitie of ground they contain-, but do coft them a great deal of 
mony, if their Aflrologer do judge them lucky places, and fortunate 
for the Familie*, for none do make choice of thcm,withOijt his opinion^ 

In Burjing^xhty obferve this order, to lay the chief of the Family in 
the uppcrmoft place, and the reft by his fide according to their degrees. 
On the topp of the Sepdchre^xhty place many ornaments wrought in 
ftone-, and before them they fet Stone-ftatues of feverall ^^;?/>»4//- and 
(above all) Epitaphs-^ and ftoncs graved with elegant compofitions, in 
praifeof thedeceafcd. The great men;, cfpecially the Eunuches ufe ano- 
ther way of more vaft expence. For they build in fuch phces, Sumptuous 
Palaces^ with Halls underneath them like ^cemeteries-^ where there aie Ni- 
fhes fitted to receive the Coffins of the deceafed. Thefe PaUces ferve them 
when they go thither-, and on The day of the dead-^ at which time the whole 
Family is alfembled to make their Sacrifices and Ccremonics.For the 
poorer fort of people, that cannot have a peculiar place ofSepulture^ there 
is ordinariIy,in every City,a common place of Buriall. 

They never faile to bury every one in the place of his Sepulture, al- 
though it be never fo remote from that where he dieth-, which happeneth 
often to the officers, who by reafon they are fent to govern in feverall 
parts of the kingdome,do many times come to die out of their own 
Country, and upon thatoccafion caufe them to be brought home and bu - 
ried there: neither doth it feem a cuftome voide of rearon,/4<:^^ and fofeph 
having ufed the fame diligence upon that account. 

At their death the firft Ceremony is:that before the dying Pcrfon breathe 
his laft,they bring him on a matticfTe,or quilt5into the outward Hall, 
where he is to expire. I do not know, what is the reafon of this cuftomcj 
neither is it generally ufed of all-, for if he be a perlon of qualitic, they 
let him alone in his bed, and afToon as he is dead,his eldeft Son plucketh 
off the Coife and Cap from his head , and pulling down the bed 
without any order overturneth the Beds-Tefter and curtaines; and 
partly by tearing, and partly by breaking, puUeth every thing down, 
and with it covcreth the Corps. It it be a woman, the women ftay ^and 
ifit be a man, the men- prefently walhing the dead Body according to 
their cuftome. When they have waflied it^ they wind it in a finelinnen 
cloth, if he have any^ or elfe in a piece of filk. After that, they cloathe 
him in the beft garment that he hath, and upon him they lay the enfignes 
of his office and degree: andwhenheis,thus adorned .• they lay him 
into the Coffin , which is made of very thick boards, and ftrong- 
ly joyhtcd. On the infidc of the Coffin they beftow two v^^cights, 
which they call Manos of Bitumen^ and after that oncof C^^r^/?; and 


C^IvJd. TheHifioryof CHI 3^ J. yj 

then there is no danger , that any ill fmcll can come through it. 

The Coffift is then brought our, and placed in the outward hall, which 
is all hung with mourning. Onthe top of the CoffinKhcy lay his ftatuc 
made by the life, with his cnfignes of honour, juft as he lieth in the Coffin, 
Before it,they fct a Table and a Carpctj behinde the Coffiriy they hang up 
certiinc curtaines-, behind which,the women ftand. Oneach fide of the 
Coffrt are his fonnes and grand- fonncs/^/;?^ on flraw in very deep mour- 
ning. In the fir fl: open Gallerie fct zhout y^lih BaUnfters , which is before 
the hall, there fland Trumpeters on each fide thereof ; and at the great 
gate of the Palace, on the infidc,in the Court, are two drummers .• with- 
out the gate next the ftreet there is hung out a great flagge, made of pieces 
of paper reaching almoft to theground,and it is a {ignall, that their mour- 
ning is provided, and that now they admit ofvifitants. After that, they 
advifc all their friends and kindred thereof, fending them a Thieoi Mour- 
ning, wherein, with words of much af fli(5tion and humilitie, they give 
them notice of their forrow. 

Then prefently begin their Vifm of Condeling^ which arc done in this 
manner : When the P^ifttant is come into the firfl: Court, prefently he put- 
tahon\)\% Mourning' garment^ which he bringeth with him for that pur- 
pofc. The drummer bcateth his drumme to give notice of his arrivall, and 
while lie paffeth through the Court, the Trumpets found •, affoone as he 
cometh into the Hall, the women behind the Curtaws begin to weep and 
lament. When he cometh up to the Table he layeth thereon a purfe of 
paper • with money in it to the value of twelve pence, or eighteen pence 5 
Cwhich ferveth for an Aideohht cofl,) and fome little perfumes : Then 
upon the Carpet he maketh foure reverences, part kneeling, and part {lan- 
ding on his feet ; When they are ended,prefently tbeSonnes rife up from 
the place where they are, and go and place themfclves on the left hand of 
the Ftfitant, and make him as many reverences, partly kneeling, and part- 
ly on their feet, at which time they are to weep, or at leafl to make as if 
they wept : When this is done, without fpcaking a word, they return to 
their places againe;In the meanetime the rifttant goeth forward, and pre- 
fently one of the remoteft of the kindred, in {lighter mourning, cometh 
to receive him, and leadeth him into another roomc •, where alfoone as 
they are fate,prefently there is brought in fome of their drink, called Chia, 
and dried fruits, or clfe dried fweet meatS; of which for the mo{lpart they 
do not eat, but taking a little, put it into their {leeve, and fo take their 

This courtefie is efleemed fo due, that thofe friends, who are at hand, 
may by no means omit it 5 and they who are farther off, if they dwell in 
neighbouring Cities, come in their own perfon • But if they live very 
farre ofF,they fend one from home to do it in their name^ This ceremonie 
commonly lafleth eight or ten dales. But they who live farre off, may 
come, or fend to do it, at what time they pleafe. 

Wh€nther(/?/jare over, the eldcfl Sonne is obliged to go to all thofe 
of the fame City, that came to ^W<?/^ withhimatliishoufe; but he hath 
no more to do, but to come to the gate 5 where f without j a Carpet is 
fprcad,whcron he maketh his rcvc^encejeaveth aT^/V^and goeth his way» 

L 2 After 

7^ Ihe Hijlorj ofCHLT^A Part.i. 

After thisj they begin to think of the buriaU^ which (if they arc able j is 
performed with a great deale of cxpence •, if not, they leave the Chcfi 
(landing at home, till they are better able -, which is feme times whole 
years firft:^ They give notice of the fumralho their friends, by fending z 
Thte to each, as at the firft : Who being alTembled, come prcfently to the 
place above mentioned. Firft of all,are carried the Pageams^ which are fe- 
verall great ftatues of men, Horfes, Elephants, Lyons, Tigers,, &c. They 
are all made of painted paper,and adorned with gilding. Befides thefc, 
are canied feverall other machines, as Triumphant Chariots, Pyramids, 
and fuch like things; every thing being fet out with various works,in filke, 
and flowres.and rofes ohhc fame materialls •, all which is to be burnt^ if 
the Perfon be of great qualitie ; For otherwife all thefe are buthircd,and 
rsone of them is burnt. 

After thefe Pageants^ followeth the multitude of people which come fo 
lookc on-, then come all their friends cloathed in mourning', after thefe,the 
Bonz>!^ finging out their prayers, and founding their Cymballs-,after them, 
come another fort of Bonz>i^ who weare beards,and long haire,and leading 
a fingle life,live in communitie : Thefe go playing upon feverall muficall 
Inftruments. After thefe,follow another race of Bonzip^z different kOL^ 
Thefe are fhaved,and go along alfo faying their prayers. After thefe,corae 
the more intimate friends •, after them,follov/ all the kinfmen •, afrer thcfe^ 
come the fonnes and grand-fonnes of the dcceafed Perfon, cloathed in a 
very mfiere mournings bare footed, with certainc ftaves in their hand, fa- 
iliioned like thofe which pilgrimes carry •, fo fhorr, that they are lit- 
tle above two palmes long 5 and fo they go along hanging their heads 
' Immediately after thefe cometh the Coffn ; which if it be made of pre- 

cious wood, is uncovered, that it might be feen ; elfe it xs varnifbed over, 
and richly adorned with gold and Charan. It is placed on a very large 
Machm,c2iXi\c6. fometimes by 30,40. or 50, men, which is ftill the grea- 
ter ftate, the more they are. Above it, is fattened a Baldacchino or 
cloath of ftate,which covcreth it all over head, having his rich Talfels and 
firings hanging downe by the fides. Ncete to this on both hands, are car- 
ried many lights in great woodden frames, made like lanthorns ; behind 
the Coffn^mt carried the womcn,crying and lamenting in fedans faft lock- 
ed, and covered all over with mourning, accompanied in the fame man- 
ner by their female- friends and kindred. When they are come to the 
place oi Sepulture^ they performe feverall ceremonies both before and after 
the Coffin is buried : And a fumptuous banquet, (which they make for ^1 
thofe that accompanyed the hcarfe)is none of the worft ceremonies among 
them. And this is oneofthe occafions, wherein they make ufe of thofe 
faire houfes they build in thofe places- 

When they are returned home, then followeth the time of mourningy 
^nd the ceremonies that are then obfcrved; which are thefe that follow. 
The firft and moft univerfall, is to cloath themfelvesin the courfeft and 
heavieft mourning ; the colour thereof is white, not only in thefe King- 
domes, but alfo in Gw/>/>o;?, Cerea, and many other neighbouring King- 
domes: and as it fccmeth to me, this white colour was not chofcn at the 


Chap.kJ. IheHiflorjofCHl^A. 77 

beginning for its one fakcjbut came in,as it were^by confcquence.for they 
thcmfclves cannot give any reafon, why their prede ccflours chofeit-and 
.on theother fide they know,that it is a checreful coloutjand as fuch they 
wcare it at certain times; the reafon therefore of it feemeth to me to be, 
becaufe in China they make no cloath but of Cotton,Silk3 and Hemp. Of 
Silk and Cotton there is no courfe cloath to be made, but of Hempe in- 
deed there is, fuch as would make one afraid to fee it . A nd becaufe in 
its naturall colour it is morcunfightly and horrid, than when it is died 
and coloured, they on purpofe chufe to have it f o .-whence It being natu- 
rally white, by confequence, white came to be the proper colour for 

This Uonrn'wg lafteth three whole years- during which time, the fons 
do never fit on a chaire,but on a little fourm,or ftoo!c,covered with Mour- 
»/>^:they eate not at a Table, nor lie on a Bed-fi:ead,but the bed is laid on 
the floore: they drink no wine, eate no flcfhjnorufe any Baths, (which 
are very common among them.) They go not to Banquets, nor do they 
go out of their doores, but in a Sedan clofe fluit , and covered with 
mourning. They abftainfrom their own wives(as they fay at leafi:) if 
there be any examinations inthat time, they go not to them .- they may 
not hold any publick office; and if, at the time, they do aiftually 
cxercife any, their Father or Mother chance to die, although he be -vice- 
roy or Co/4o,he muft leave his office,and attend to bury them, and to make 
their oh^eqiius^zxi^ when the Mourning is ended,tbey rcturne to their char- 
ges and offices againe, and fometimes to greater. 

This time is accounted fo facred among them, that it admitteth of no 
dhpenfation, except it be in their captaines and officers of warre.And be- 
caufe one of the Province oiCantomi^tmtdi more defirous of his go- 
vernment, than to obferve his Mourning, and computing his time,refol- 
ved to fpend the refi: in hi'., journey, which he wanted to make up his three 
years, when he came to the court, and petitioned for his office, it 
was promifed him upon this condition, that he fiiould returne home to 
his houfe,and fully accomplifii his timeofi*/^«m;i^, and then he ffiould 
come againe to court, and make his demand. 

The number of three years, they fay,.is to give thanks to their Parents 
for the three yeares of their infancie, during which time they were car- 
ried more in their armcs, than on their own legges. And therefore in 
thofe three yeares, in token of reverence, they may not innovate or alter 
any thing in the houfe from that order, which the Father kept in it. 

For a wife they raourne but one year. There is a Slighter Mourning of 
five months and three dales, according to the neernefle of their kindred 
and relation: Friends for their friends obferve only Three daies of Mour- 
ning. They have all Mourning garments lye ready by them-, there 
being fo many occafions to wearethem. 

^This is the manner of their Mourning and Bnriall of the 
Peifonsofthegreateft quality, which isencreafbd and diminiflied, ac- 
cording to the condition and qualitie of the Pcrfon.Atthe Fnncrallsof 
the Kings,and thofe of the royall Familie, the Ceremonies are much grea- 
ter: and that they might the better be conceived?! will fee down what. 


7 8 The H iftory of C'^IHA . Part.i. 

pafled in the year 1614. at the Funcralloi the ^een-Mother:, where I my 
Iclfe was prcfent. 

Chap. 17. 

Of the Funerall of the Queen^ 

THe ^teen-Mother died on the ninth day of the fecond Moon, 
which isthelaftof ourMarch,intheyearei6i4.prefently all the 
Court put on Mournings not only the NohHme,hut even the common peo- 
ple too^ and efpecially the Kings officers and Minifters,who laying afidc 
the enfignes of their dignitie, f which are boih oi Author itie and Orna- 
went to themj do change them for others o[ Mourning and Sorrew.-zs their 
Girdle{ which commonly they weare very rich) into a ro^e of courfe 
Hempe-,and their ^4p (which is of black SilkJ into one made of the 
courfe cloath for Mourning, In this manner they went foure months,till 
the time of the obfequies^ The common people wore only a Mourning 
Cap for foure and twenty daies, withfo much exaiftncffcjthat he that 
negle(5ted it, was puniflicd. 

The fecond day, the King leaving the Palaces where he dwelt, paflfed 
over to thofe of his deceafed Mother-^ which, although they are within 
the fame wall, yet ftandat fome diftance* They cloathed the dead bo- 
dy in white very richly-, and every day till it was put into the Coffin, the 
King went in Pe'rfon, with all the people of his palace to vifit her, and to 
per for me thofe ordinary Reverences and Compliments,ufed by children 
to their parents, putting rich odours and fpices into a perfuming pan, 
which flood before her-,3ll his women,Sons andNephews,as alfo fome of 
the Principall Eunnchss of the Palace did the like with all SoUmnitie. Then 
prefcntly, by the Kings command, the garments, bed and other things 
which the Qfleen ufed,were burned.-judging it an unworthie thing that c- 
ver they (hould be made ufe of by any Perion inferiour to her in dignitit 
and authority. 

On the third day the body was put into the Coffin. The excellency of the 
matter thereof may be eafily imagined by what hath been already faid, 
that even for private perfons the price ofoneamounteth many times to a 
thoufand cro wnes. The boards are very thick,and the Coffin very capaci- 
ous,There the King himfelfe plac't her upon a ^ilt and a PilloWjWhich 
were there laid, ftrewing upon her, pearle^and precious ftones to the va- 
lue of 70000* crownes, and placing by her fide fifty pieces of cloath of 
gold, and fiftie of cloath of filver, which truly would have been enough 
to have maintained a gallant man all his life tinic. The Coffin was ffiut, 
and the King with the reft made their accuftoraedrevcrcnces,and de- 

On the fourth day the ceremonies were continuedjCloathing themf-lves 
in a more auftere and horrid Mourning, for to celebrate the Sacrifices, 


Chap .17. The Hifiory of C Hi:^^. 79 

which in rcalitie are not facrifi ces, but offcrings,and pure ceremonics.The 
Coffin was placed in a fpacious Court, as it were, upon a high Throne^and 
about it ftood fifteen Tables : The firft,that was in the front, was for the 
King-, the reft for his women. Somes and prmi pall Eumches^ who, after 
the King, according to their order, made their offerings with perfumes 
and reverences. 

On the fift day^which was appointed for thofe who dwell without the 
Palace, there was afTembled ail the Nohilitit and TitnUdos^ which they 
call ^e^ Cum^ Cht*^ Cheu^ Beufs^ who do all fucceed by inheritance. Af- 
ter thefe,followcd all thofe that were of Affinitie and Alliance with the 
King, that is,fuch as were married to hisDaughters or Nieces. After thefe, 
i\i^ Magifiratesohhddyi Trihimals : And after thefe, came the wives of 
the great Officers, who have jurifdi6i:ion over the whole Kingdome, fuch 
as are thofe of the fix Trtbrndlsy each in that which appertaineth to him^ 
whether it be concerning the Revenue,or the Militia^ or any other thing. 
All thefe in their order performed the cercmmes abovefaid : and fo there 
was a period putrothefirft part of x\\c ceremonies, which are ufcd in the 
Palace before the Ftmerall-^ for abroad there were many things comman- 
ded, and feverall edids publifhed 5 in which were intimated: 

Firft, that all il/W4r/;i^j, both of the Gorvneand Sword ^ fl^ould make 
their sppearance at the Palace the day following, to bewaile the deceafed 
S^een-, which done, without returning to their houfes, they fhouldgo 
diredtly to their Trihunalls^ there to remain and keep a fafi for three daies, 
without eating flefh, fifb, or eggs, or drinking any wine* That done, for 
the fpace of other three daies, they (hould come all to the gates of the Pa- 
lace, and there in their order, one by one, (hould make foure accuftomcd 
reverences, with fome other extern all (ignes of griefe, and then rcturne 
home to their houfes. 

The fecond; that all the wives of the Mandarines^ from the firft to the 
fourth degree, cloathed from head to foot in clofe mourningfi\ou\d affera- 
bleatthc fame place, and for the fpace of three days lament in the like 
manner : and that afterwards, at their owne houfes, for the fpace of twen- 
ty feaven days, they (hould not put on their Jewells, ornaments, ^r. 

The third 5 that thofe of the Royal! Councell, called Han Lin (hould all 
make Poems, verfes, and compofirions in pralfe of the deceafed ^een. 

The fourth ; that they of the SluanLoSk^ that is, the Officers of the 
Kings exchequer and revenue, (hould, with all diligence and Jibcralitie, 
provide what ever was necefTary, for the facrifices and other expences of 
the funerall. 

The fifth : that all the Bonz.i^^nd minifters of the Idols,fhould ring their 
bells for a long time, as a figoe of forrow and griefe. 

The fixth: that for thirteen daics there fhould be no flefh killed, or fold 
in the (hamblcs : but that all fliould fafl-, as the King did •, who,for the firft 
three days^did eat only a little rice boy led in faire water,and the refl of the 
timc,pulfe only. 

The feaventh •, there was order given to the Prefident of the Councell 
of rites and ceremonies, and to thofe of the chamber, that they (hould pre- 
fcnt momning garments to all the EmbalTadourSjWho did then adually re- 

8o IheUiJloryofCBLKA' Part.i. 

{ide in the Court -, and that they fliould be brought to the Palace and per- 
forme one day the ceremomes and compliments in like the peo- 
ple of r he Country-did. 

The eighth : that all Ma^dnrir/eSj that had finiflied their government, 
and ail new pretenders fliould come for three days to the Palace^to do the 
fame reverences and ceremonies. 

The ninth: that the common people, for a week together, fhoulddo 
the fame, morning and evening, at the Palace of the Govcrnourof the 

Befides this, all the ii/W^nm, difperfed through the Provinces and 
Cities of the Kingdome, were written to •, that at the arrivall of the newcs 
of the ^^^f»-3/£?//^fn deceafe, theyihould give notice thereof to all the 
blood royal] of the Male line, and to their ivives and children • and order, 
that they Hiould make the three accuftomed reverences, and other ceremo- 
mes on their knees ; and immediately to cloac h themfelves in Mourning for 
fcavenand twenty days. This order was given to all the Mandarines of 
the Kir\gdome,as well to thofe that had goverad, as to thofe that did adu- 
ally govcrne, as alfo to all Limrati, of what degree foever, as likcvvife to 
thofe that had not received any degree. 

To the common people there was order given, that they (hould weare 
Mottrmng caps for thirteen dayes. 

Moreover it was ordered,thatas well in the Palaces of the Mandarines^ 
as in the pubjick Innes on the high wayes, and in fmall villages, where tra- 
vellers are lodged at the Kings expcnce, no mufick, either of voice or in- 
ftrument, (liould be fufecd. And this order was divulged by Mandarines 
appointed only for this occafion. And when this order came to the 
CourtofiV4;?)^/>», al J the officers, both of the CJ^n?;^^ znd Sword, went out 
to meet it as farre as the river,all in deep Monrning^cvcn to their Umbrellas^ 
wherewith rhey keep off the runne-,and accompanied it through the City, 
in an orderly proceffion, as farre as the ' Tribunal of rites and ceremonies 5 
where the Prcfident received the order in writing • and fet it up in an emi- 
nent confpicuous place, and all of them did their reverence to it; after 
thar,hc tooke the letter and opened it,and made proclamation of the order, 
although there wanted nothing to the execution thercof,but that the com- 
m on people had not yet their Mourning caps. 

l^hdcvitxQtht ceremonies t which preceded the Funerall-^ the which 
being ended,ordcr was glwcn to the Mathematician Major, 01 chiefe Aftro- 
loger of the Court ofPekim^ that he diould make choife of a day or days, 
whereon the obfequies (hould be folemni zed. He, after he had confulted 
his art, appointed the nmth day of the fixth moone (foure months com^ 
pleat after the ^ecns dczth) to be the day, whereon the corps (hould be 
brought out of the Palace, and the fifteenth of the fame moone, for the 
d^LyohhcFunerail. The time being come, order was given for the fo- 
leranizing thereof inform following. 

Pirftt, that all the Mandarines oftheCourr, and Ma^ijlratesofthc fix 
Tribunals^ fix days before, fliould leave their own houfcs, and make their 
abode at their Tribunals^md fhould faft for three dayes in manner above- 


O^ITTT^ TheBfioryof CHlfJ^A 

Secondly, that the Officers of the Kings Patrimonic and Revenue 
fliould prepare whatfoever was neceflliry , for that occafion- that is, great 
qu:^ntitie of Candles, Perfumes, SpiceSjgreat ftore oi Phantafticke figures, 
nnd Images of men, Horfes, Lions,Elephantc, Vm brellas of Silk, all rich- 
ly fcr out, that they might be burnt at the place of Sepdture, It is repor- 
ted ,that there were fpent in this above 30000 Crowas. 1 make no doubt, 
but fo much was fpent-, but that it was afterwards all burnt, is hard to be 
proved-. It may be, fame was fomtthing extravagant in that particular. 

Thirdly, that they oftheColledge of i/4»i/>?fh9uld anew, make o- 
ther verfcs proper for the Funerall. 

Fourthly, becaufe the King was to accompany the Body to the Septd- 
//V/-1?, which is twelve miles diftant from the Court, he named another 
Perfon, who in his ftead fliould performe all the compliments and ne- 
cefTarie Ceremonies. 

Fifthly , order was given to all the Officers, Captaines, & Souldiers^that 
they fiiould keep a Guard in the City , and at the SepnlchrCy and that they 
(hould accompanie the Body, by the way, in this manner. That at every 
gate of theCity/ which are nine in all)there fliould ftand a thoufand men,' 
That from the gate, through which the Body was to paffe^to the place of 
Sepulture^thcvQ fliould fland two rancks of Souldiers.-that there fhould be 
3000 to carry thc^offm by turncs-,and loooo horfemen to accompany it: 
and for the Guard of the Hoyali Sepulchres , while the Ohfequies laftcd, 

Sixtly, order was given to levell the way from the Palace to the place 
o^ Sepulture, and to raile it in on both (ides, that the people might not 
ftop up the way. At every twenty paces, there was fet a basket of 
yellow earth, for to flrow in the way, as the Hearfe paffed-, as alfo, that 
Tent5,andPavillionsfh6uldbefetupin certainc places: for the refrefli- 
ment of thofe that accompanied the Body . 

Seavcnthly, command was given to all the officers of the revenue, 
that they fhould provide, with all pun(5lualitie and Iiberalitie,whatfoever 
was neceffary for the fuftenance and diet o^ the Mandarwes, Eunuchs, 
Capuines,Sciddkrs,^nd all others,that by duty of their pLice,attended up- 
on the Funera!lSolemnitie» 

Eighthly,that three dales before the Vunerdl, the Mowmngt Lamenta- 
tion, Reverences and Sacrifices fhould be renewed in like manner,as at 
the beginning. 

Ninthly, and laflly it was commanded^ that from die feaventh (that is, 
two dales before the F«wr4//^^/£?;7;w>/^ began) to the twentieth of that 
Moon, no Shambles fhould be opened, neither fleflinor fifli fold., in any 
manner, nor that any noifeof mirth, or Muiicall inflrument fhould be 
heard any where throughout the City. 

All things being fet in order for the Funerall-^on the fcaventh of the 
fixth moone the King and Prince with ad the officers, went to the Tem- 
ple of his Ancefiours , which ftandeth within the Ro-jali Palaces: where, 
cloathed in deep Mourning, and coming before the Image of the firfl 
founder of his Familie, he made a low Revercnce,and after offered to his 
deceafcd Mother, whofe Image was yet (landing therejinany Garments 

M of 

Ihe Hijlorj ofCHLT^A. Part.i . 

of filk, wine, and other things. Then he commanded thattone of the 
compoficions made in her praifc^fliould be read-, after which uflng fcverall 
other Reverences and Ceremonies, they all returned- and the King left 
particular order, that all thofe Garments, Poems, and other things fhould 

be burned. 

On the eighth day,vvere made Sacrifices to Heaven,Earthjthe Planets, 
Mounalnes, and Rivers, with great Solemnitie- when rhcfe were ended, 
the King commanded, that the fame Sacrifices fhould be made to the 
nine Gates of the Palace, through which the Corps of the deceafcd 
Que^n was to pafre-,and to the Tutelar Angels of them^ as alfothe fix 
Bridges of the River, which runneth through the Palace, oflFering in all 
thefe^places living creatures, Aromaticks, wine made with feverall Spices 
and ingredients, and diverfe other perfumes. 

' The Cheft or Coffin, in which the deceafed Queen lay, was of the 
mofl precious and dearefl wood, that could be found in that Kingdome, 
and was fbut and clofed up with all poffible art and diligence, and clafped 
on the outfide with hafps of Silver, made in the forme of Dragons : nei- 
ther was' there any Gold, or Charan^wkd for the Ornament thereof, that 
that precious wood might beleft more bare and open to the fight.It 
was placed in a Triumphant Chariot very richly wrought, with its Cur- 
taines of filk embroidered with Gold. Moreover the Chariot was ador- 
ned all over with plates of Silver,cafl in the figures of Lions andDragons, 
and other works-, all performed with exquifite art and diligence. About 
the Hearfe flood many Candles and perfuming pans. 

The fifth day being come, which was appointed by the Kings Mat he- 
matician for the carrying of the Corps forth of the Palace, the King with 
his Women,Sonnes,and the Eunuches ofthe Palace, came to theplace_, 
where the Chariot, that carried the Hearfe, ftood-, where, after they had 
renewed their lamentations for their departed Qu^en, they Sacrificed to 
the Chariot it felfe,or to the God and Genius thereof^ that the voyage 
might be profperous-, and that the Body might enjoy quiet and fecuritie; 
then Sprinkling fweet waters upon the Hearfe,thcy made their lafl Com- 
pliments and Reverences. 

Prefently the Bumchs (ioi no others enter there,)put the mfclves in or- 
der to draw the Chariot, the King accompanying ir with all his Familie 
to the lafl, that is ,thc eighth Gate ofthe PalacejWherejWith new laments, 
Ceremonies and complements,he took his leave. 

Then within the fiifl gate flood ready, they that were to receive the 
Corps, and in the Kings name and flead, were to accompany it , and to 
make the Sacrifices and C^remeniei^ that were to be performed at certaine 
places. Then prefently began the Proceffion, with fuch folemnitie, or- 
der, and filencc, that it caufed admiration in all that beheld it. It went 
no further that day, than to a Town without the walls-, neer to which 
there was a Tent fet up very richly adorned, where the Chariot was put; 
and the Tables likewifc being,fet , they did Sacrifice , and burned In- 
cenfe and Perfumes , and performed other Ceremonies and Revcren^ 
ces; and lafl ofall they renewed their Lamentations. From this place 
was difpatched an Bunnch to give the King full account , whither, 


Ghap.17- TbeHi/lory of CHl^A. 8 } 

and how the Body was arrived , and of all that paiTcd there. 

The day following was begun with the Ceremonies and other Fu^ 
0crali folemmties^vjhh which the day before was concluded-, and their 
journey continued with fuch a Multitude of people, as well of thofe of 
the Guard neerc hand, as of other people afar off , that were cuiious to 
fee, that they were not to be nunibred. Byrcafonof the Sacrifices, Ce- 
remonies, and ftops which they made in the way^ they were three daies 
ere they arrived at the Mountaine , where the Kings Sepulchres were. 

Aifoon as they were come thither, the Heaile was removed with ma- 
ny Ceremonies from the Chariot, where it was,to another triumphant Cha- 
riot, which they had in readineffe for that purpofc, of no le(Te coft than 
the former. After that, they Sacrificed to the earth, a Bull, with Spiced 
wines, rich perfumes, and garments, Suplicating to the tutelary Spirit 
thereof,that he would receive that Body with pitie,keep, & defend it^^f, 
At the fame time, nine MMdarines,A\>i^Qmcd by the King himfelf,per- 
formed the fame Ceremonies and Sacrifices to all the Kings predecelTourSj 
which were buried there ; when the day was come, on which the Body 
fiiouldbeburied, which was the fifteenth of the fixt Moone, they made 
manv Sacrifices, and fo put an end to the Funerall : v/hen prefently the 
Mandarines polled away, to give the King account of all that had pafTed; 
which account wasalwayes given him in part from time to time by the 
way. And he fliewed his liberalitie to all thofe that had taken paines in 
that worker and to (hew his care and piety, in all that which he ought, to 
his Mothers memorie, prefently after her death, he commanded that all 
prifoncrs (lioiild be releafed, that were not committed for any enormous 
criracs.Hegave order alfo, that in the Provinces, where there was a Scar- 
citic of vidualls, the ordinary Tribute (hould be taken off; and that alms 
(hould be given to thole that were moft neccfTitous among them. 

He ordered alio, that the Rights md Gab els ^ to be pa-ed at the Gates 
and Cuftome-houfes, which upon feme occafions were lately impofed, 
fhould ceafe; and he himfelf, with his own hands, made many thoufimd 
imall pieces of Silver which he lapped up in paper, according to the 
cuftomcofC^i/?^, to give them it^ Almes for the Soulc of his dead Mo- ' 

Truly there is nothing in.C/;/>4jro vvorthy to be imjtated by Chrifli-. 
ans, as their pietyip wards their Patents, and God havTnggivcn to this 
Nation fuch knowledge and inclination to vertjie, it is great pittie^ that 
they fliould only want the foundation of faith. Hence we may fee, 
with how great fruit and profit the Go fpel might be preached in this King- 
dome, or rather by the goodncffc of the Lor d>it is already preached, as 
we (hall declare in its proper place. 

-- It will not be. befides the purpofc of this difcourfe, to adde briefly 
^*^^^.i"g3 coiicerningthe death of Kiiig^W/, Sonne to this Qucena- 
bovefaid, thc_w hich fell out towards the end of y^»^«y? i^c year 1 610. 
in their (eaventh moone-,forbearing to mention the Ceremonies ^vjhkh Were 
like to thofe, we even now related. 

He fell fick about the end oifune (In the fame yearjof a loofenefs and 
, painc inhisftomack, fwelling of his feet, and other Maladies- This 


8^. ~" TheHiJlou of QHIH/i' V^^. 

infirmity lafted two months with many various changes & alrerationsraf- 
ter which,finding himfelfe come to the end of his life,he called his Sonne, 
the heirc of the Kingdome, with his three other brothers •, to whom he 
made a difcourfe full of good advifeand wholefome precepts, accufing 
himfelfe of too much negligence, and want of care, and then gave them 

Then he made his laft Will and Teftament^the manner whereof is this. 
When the Phyfitians do defpaire of the Kings recovery, the Colai^ if they 
be many, as they ufe to bc,together with the chiefe of the Eunuchs, and 
the firft Prefidcnt of the PaIace,wbom they call Suit Kien^ go to the King, 
and endeavour to draw from his owne mouth, what his laft Willis, and 
the fumme of his Tcftament. After that •, they go fccretly to the Prince^^ 
the heire of the Kingdome, and give him an account of all, to the end no- 
thing might be done contrary to the will of him, who is prefently to take 
pofTeffion of the Kingdome. 

When they have underftood, what both their pleafures are, they put it 
into the form of a Will, and carry it to the King, to have his approbation 
of it. ThentheyprefentittoaSenatour of the royall Colledge, called 
Hanli Tven^ to whom it bclongeth to put fuch writings, as concerne the 
King, into good form and ftile. 

That done, it is clofed up and fealcd with the Kings fcale, and is kept in 
the Archives of the royall Colledge, whileft the King is living, Affoone 
as he is dead^ it is carryed to the Tribunal q^ Rites and Ceremonies^ to 
whom it belongeth to publifli it through the whole Kingdome, and to put 
it puniftually in execution. 

The form of this Will is here faithfully copied and tranflated out of the 
Chinejfes language into ours. 

The laft Will and Teftamcnt of our Emperour Vanl'u 

who in obedience to Heaven, hath rcfigned his 
Empire into the hands of Tofieritie. 

T Trom a child received the governmertt ofthisMonarchlefrom the hands of my 
Ptogcnitours, and have held if fourty eight years, a very longtime : where- 
fore I have no reafon to lament , that lam now to leave it, i^ffoom as I was 
creat€d'Evc\\>QXOWXyI hadjlrong inclinations to governe well, and to imitate my 
Predecefiburs •, as in truth I endeavoured to do^with aS exaCfnejfe, But after- 
foard, being hindred by feverall infirmities for many years jl left off the care of 
having the wonted facrifices celebrated to Heaven and earth .'neither didlcanfc 
the offices and ceremonies to be performed^ which are due to the memory of my 
Anceftours. Ifeldome times fate upon the throne to confult of the affaires of the 
Kingdome 5 1 detained the petitions which were prefented me.^ without difpatch^ 
ing them. ItooVeno care of nominating Msgif^mes^ as the Kingdomes need 
required •, and J know , that at this prefent there arefome wanting . I have ope- 
ned nine mines ofgold^ andfilver: I have encrea fed and multiplied the Gabells 
and Excife .* 1 have dijlurbedthe publick peace with tumults ofwarre 5 whence 
hath followed difcord with the neighbouring frinces^^and great opprefsion and in- 
■ jury to their people: wherefore thinking continually both night and day upon thefe 
things^ I am hardly able to fuff'er the griefs which my foule endureth, and which 


ChapTs^ TheHiftoryof CHID^J. 8^ 

doth now deleft her former fatdts: finally^ I began to take up better refelutions-^ but 
I Am fallen into this infii tnity, the xvhtch dothftillfo encreafe^ that it maketh mg 
beleevey I P^U 'very flwrtly lofc my life. 

In the mean time I have this only hope left me^that my Sonnes andNephem 
mil amend my faults by leading a better life. 

toH therefore the Hcire of my KingdomCj feeing that you neither rvant inge- 
miity, nor good difpofition • andbecaufeyon have hitherto never forborne theex' 
ercife of pietj , obedience^ and other vertues , be of good courage. The inheritance 
of the Empire of Chim is yours. Let your principall care be rvellto compofeyonr 
life and manners. Apply yetirfelfe with allftudj andinduflry to the rvell gover- 
ningofthe Kingdome. Love thofe that are good -^ re fife not counfelli, take not 
advife in ev ill part r that you might be able to beare the great weight of this Em- 
pire: do your endeavour that your Sonne my Grand- child, follow hisjtudies with 
all diligence. Be kind and loving to your three Brothers ; afsigne them con* 
vmicvt habitations ; and provide for each of them a good revenue and honour* 
ahlc IhXtsMfeyour utmojl diligence^ that allymr fubjelfs^ as well noble as ig- 
mhle^may live in peace ^and love concord. Take carefpeedily to make the Colai, 
andotherthe ftfpreame Magiftratesj for I do remember^ to have left two places 
voyd: and above ally forget not to ele£i the Kings Adminiftmtours. Thefe 
things I recommend to you that youfhould endeavour fpeedily to put them in exe^ 
cut ion. 

By all means take ofthemw Gabells^^ Bridges ^ the Excife offtlkej fluffs :, 
farther ne ware^ and other things , which J have lately introduced. Take care 
that all caufes , which are depending in the Tribunals, bedtfpatched with dili- 
gence by fomefele^ judges -^ and free the innocent^ The fouldiers on the con- 
fines f>f Tartary do want their pay and provijions : let them be fpeedily fupplied 
out of the royall exchequer [this laft claufe is faidtohave been added by ths 
Trince to hts fathers Teflament^ I do recommend to you the fouldiers and Cap- 
taines, which were flaine in the laft warre* Honour their Mortuaries, W their 
fouies with new Titles*, afsift their families by paying their arreares. 

All this I briefly erdaine^ that you fwuld put it in execution, affoone aspof- 
fibly you may. 

K^Asfor my V\xntx2\\caufe the cerem onies of the Kingdome to be obferved. 
Though I had rather for my particular fatisfaltion, that infiead of twenty fea- 
V en months, as is the ufuall cuftome, they fhould only laft for fo many dayes. 
K^llthe Magiftrates, Vicc-roys, Vifitours 4^ Qz^uvatsof warre, have 
more need to afsifl at their governments and charges : Suffer not ., that they be 
called hither^ upon the occafionefmy funeralL It willbefufficientj that when 
each hath newesofmy death , he caufe to bedone^for three dayes intheplacewhert 
he is^that which ufeth to be performed at the Funeral! of the Kings body. The 
Va{^\\\oSyand other per fumes .^ wont to be prefented on f he like occafions^ maybe 
brought by the inferionr officers^ in the name of the great ones. But for the Ma- 
giftrates appointed for the government oftheforts^ and the Prefidcnts of Cities 
and TowneSy my Will is, that in no cafe they fhould befufferedto come, as alfo that 
theftrangcrs^ who are Tributary to this Kingdome jhuld be excufed, I door- 
daine that this my laft Will fhould bepuhlifhed through the whole Kingdome^ 
that it ma) come to the eares of every one ofmyfubjecls^ 
This was his will and Teftament ^ which accordingly was every where 


S6 The Hi/lory of QHI^/l. Pl^. 

publiihcd. The other ceremonies I forbcare to write^ becaufc they are 
the fame with rhofe, we have already related. 

Chap. i8. 

Of the feyerall SeBs of religion in 

THe Ch!nejfes:iXQ generally little inclined to SeBs •, neither are there 
any thing neere fo many among them, as among the people of: Gi- 
A^pn. Nevertheleife they have three5which, although they be different, 
ycr^that they might nor erre in any^ or to fpcake more corredl'y, that they 
might erre the morc,they joy ne them altogether. Two of them arc pro- 
per to chinAy and firft fprung up there ; The third, which is of the Idols, 
is adventitious, and came from IndU, 

Thefirft is ihat of the Litterati 5 and is more ancient among them, than 
fomedothink, who make Ozy^/^fo be the author of it. They worfhip 
no P^go^yOi Idol, but acknowledge a Supenoritie^ or Deitie, who is able to 
chaftile and to reward. Notwithftanding they have no Churches^where- 
in they worfliip him •, nor any divine Offices which they celebrate,nor any 
prayers that they rehearfe-, nor any Priefts or Minivers , which officiate at 
his fervice. Yet they fpeak and write in their books of this Lordvtiy Ho^ 
murabl^^s of a divine per fon • neither do they apply or attribute any unde- 
cent thing to him, as our Anceftours did to their Gods. But as they did 
notpcrfeaiy and diftintftly know the true God^they fcllto veorfhip three 
things, tvhich arc the moft renowned, powerfull and profitable in the 
world, the which they call San^ Cai, that is,heaven, earth, and man.There 
are, in the courts o^Uankim and Pekim onIy,very fumptuous Temples for 
heaven and earth-,but which do properly belong to the King alone^whcre- 
in he only in his owne perfon doth facrifice 5 he being the Minifter alfo 
of the facrifice, and in his abfcnce, or by his order, the chiefe Magiftratc 
of theTribunnl of Rires* 

In the Cities, there are Temples for the Tutelar fpirits, to which the 
CViandarincs do facrifice, as alfo to the fpirits of the rivers, mountaines, 
and of the foure parts of the world, (^c. 

There are alfo Temples to the honour of fomemen, who have been 
famous Benefadours to the publick •, and therein, are placed their Images, 
They do the fame honour to their Anceftours, untill the fourth degree 

For their foule in the next life, they neither cxpedt, nor pray for any 
thing : Nevertheleffe , they ask for iemporall afliftance in this life, 
good fortune, and to be able to imitate their good works and atchive- 

They pretend by this to ftirre up devotion in the people, that they fee- 
ing how heaven and earth are univerfall Parents^ they might 
alfo honour their particular Parems : and feeing how famoiis men of 


G H A p . i8 . The Hiftory of(^HI3\CA. g y 

former ages are honoured, they might thereby endeavour to imitate 
them-, and feeing how their dcceafed Pregemtotirs are fcrved, they might 
iearne how to ferve them, while living. In a word, they' order every 
thing,as it may conduce moft to good government;,to concord.peace and 
quietne/Te in Familes,and to theexcrciieof'vertue. 

The Second Se^ is that of the Taafi^ proper alfo to China.The Authour 
thereof was a Philofopher named Taufu, of whom they feign, that he was 
eight years in his Mothers belly. He lived about the time oiConfujio. He 
hath manyfoUowcrs to this day , who live together in communitierthey do 
nor marry •• they fuffer the haire of their head and their beard to ^row 
very long: in their habit they do not differ from others, except in Tome 
things at the time when they officiate. In ftead of a Cap^they weare a little 
Crown, inro which the knot only of their haire entreth.They pKice their 
ultimate Happineffe in the Body, in order to obtaine a quiet and eafie life^ 
without labour and trouble. 

This SeH acknowledgeth one Great God^ and other lefTcr one , all cor- 
poreall. They acknowledge (7/<?r/> and ^f//: the Glorieto be conjoyned 
to the body, not only in the other life, but alfo in this-, feighning, that by 
meancs of certaine exercifei and meditations, one may come to make 
himfelfe a child, and young, and others to become Xw Sie^jthl is, the 
fortunate ones of the earth-, obtaining bythisraeaneswhatfo ever they 
defire, and to be able to transferre themfelves froQ\ one place to another, 
although never fo diftant, fpeedilyandeafily-, and other fuch like foole- 

They are skilfull in Mufick, and have good Inftruments. They are al- 
waies called to the Sacrifices and Funeralls^and at thofe of the King and 
Mandarines, they are ever alTiftant. They Pretend to be Soath-SayerSj and 
promife to procure raine, and to drive away devils from places that are 
haunted : But are able to do nothing; and fometimes at fuch undertakings 
they are fouly routed by the devils : in great droughts they promife 
raine, and often prolong fo much time in praying for if, that at length the 

lnFekim,\n theycare 1622, there fell out a pleafant Accident, al- 
though troublefome. There happened a great drought, prayers were 
made, penninces and fafts were kept ; but all to no end. At length cer- 
taine T^/^/? offered themfelves to procure rajne without failc, and appoin- 
ted a fet day and houre, the offer was accepted with great applaufe, joy, 
and good hope of the event.* then they in a great P/42-2:4, or market- 
place made a theater compofed of little Tables,which, as they have many 
there of an equall height and breadth, they did fet one upon another, be- 
ginning at boitom with a great many,and raifing it up by degrees higher, 
ftill with fewer Tables, till at length,the Machine came to end in one on- 
ly,obfervinganhandfomc proportion and reafonable height. On this 
laft and higheft (food the chiefe of them, praying and fupplicating-, and 
the reft went round about him,doingthe fame,like Bads PA-zV/^Xalthough 
they did not wound themfelves; for in that they had great 1 egard,as thofe 
who (ought not bloud, but water.) 

The people ftood all round about,expe(5lingthe event : and the Mini- 


89 TheHiftory of CHI3S(J. Part.u 

ftersobfervingfo great an Auditory, which was almoft infinite, redou- 
bled their prayers,their \vhi{llings,and ceremonies. When the day and 
houre appointed was come, prefemly the Sky began to be overcaftwith 
very dark clou des, to the great joy of all, and credit of their Minifters, 
who did already promife themfelves the happy accompliihment of their 
undertaking; cxpe(Sling every momcnr, when the raine fliould falU When 
behold, of a fudden there fel a furious ftorm of Haile,rhe Stones where- 
of were as big as Eggs, and fome bigger, which did ruine , not on- 
ly their fields, but their Gardens, and killed^diverfe Pcrions, that could 

not in time recover fome Shelter, 

The Fathers have writ me from thence, that they thought the end of 
the world was comf,fo great was the confufion and noife of the Hailc 
that fell The Prophets,for having procured ftones in ftead of water, were 
all rewarded with ftore of Baftinadoes. 

The third Se^ is of the Pagods, from iWm, from the parts of Indofian^^ 
which Se(5t they call -V4f^,from the Authour of it: concerning whom, 
they fable-, that he was conceived by his Mother -M4/4,only upon the 
fiphtofa white Elephant, which (he faw in her deep-, and for the more 
puritie (he brought him forth at one of her flancks,and then prefendy di- 
ed, being but nineteen.yeares of age. And that,iconfidering the death of 
his Mother, the caule whereof he was by his Birch, he refolved to leave 
the worId,and to do pennance-, the which be did in a Mountain called 
the Snowy Mountaine,whcre he had fowerMafters, with whom he ftu- 
died twelve yeares-, fo that by that timehe was thirty yeares of age, he 
was accomplidied in the Science of the firft principle. He took the name 
oiXekia^oi^^aca : he taught his dodtrine lor the fpace of 4^ yeares- he 
had many Scholars, who, after his death coUeded his papers, and fpread 
his do(5trinethroughthegreater partof Afia. 

This Se^ entred into Chwa in the year of our Redemption 63 .The Em- 
pcroux Haumirnhdng commanded in a dreame, (as their books report) 
to fend for it in» The Bonzi^who were the preachers of that Seo^^ 
were well received of him, and atthebeginning,werc very powerfully 
much cfteemed, and info great number, that they fay, they were three 
millions. But at this day they are very few in rcfpe^ of that number : whe- 
ther it were that they trufting in their multitude, or in the Kings favour, 
committed fome notable diforder^ or (what is more likelyjby reafon of 
the misfortune that befell many Kings,fince their coming in : and by this 
meanes they are fo declined, that unle(le it be in the offices and A6ts of 
their divine wor(hip, there is but little account made of them among the 

. Their Prie^s weare their head and beards (havcd : their Cap is diffe- 
rent, but the reft of their Habit is the fame with that of others^ They 
worfliip idols : They hold a jReward and Puni(hment in the next Life : 
Thc^ marry not ; Tmy live in Convents, foure or five hundred together, 
of more: They have a moderate Maintenance allowed them by the King, 
nouvichftanding, every one is allowed to get what he can ; They begge, 
mutter Prayers: They fing: They have fevcrall offices, and prayers a- 
gainfl fire, tcmpefts, misfortunes, and efpecially for rhe dead .• in which 


C H A p .! 8. TheHiJlory of CHI^J. 85? 

Functions they ufc f:iccrdotall,or priertly garments : Their Caps arc like 
ours,and their (prinkling brufhes without any difference at all: They eat 
neytherflefli, filh, noreggcs, neytherdoe they drink wine. 

They live inclofed ; but within a very great circuite of wall , with long 
ftrects in it in manner ofa Towne-, where^in every houfe there dwelleth 
three or foure, that is, oneMaflerand the reft Scholars.- In it they have 
all manner of convenience. That which the King giveth them, is divided 
equally to every houfe. They have alfoay///>mW, who is over them all, 
and governeth them, but at large, for he only taketh notice of fuch cafes, 
asarcpropofedtohim for the reft, every one governeth hisovvnc houfe. 
He diftribureth the offices among them , and sppointcth fuch as are to re- 
ceive ft rangers. When any officer arriveth at theirConventjOrTemple^pre- 
fently a drumme is beaten, which they keep at the gate^ and then there are 
about thirty obliged to come and meet him, when they have put on their 
garment oicoiirtefie^ When the Magijlrate is come to the gate,they make 
him a low reverence, and prefently turning about they go before him, 
waiting on him to the place, whether he goeth-,and there they attend him, 
ftanding or their leet in the fame manner, till he go away. They are pro- 
perly fubjed to the conncell of dtes, who governeth them •, but in cha- 
Oifing of them, when there is occafionjthey are more favourable to thenij 
than To fecular perfons. 

• There are others of them, that live in caves, rocks, and grotts, and fome 
that make their particular penances in private-, others that make little 
narrow lodges, knocked full of nailes with their points turned inwards, 
where they ftand in fight of all the world, for the fpace ofa month with- 
out leaning; Some of them profefte to eat nothing,whileft they are there, 
but only to drink Cha. But thofe that arc expert, fay •, that they make up 
great balls of beefe, which hath been firft well boylcd, dried in the funne, 
and then ground to powder • and that when they give them their Cha to 
drink very hot, they caft one of their balls into it^ which prefently diftbl- 
vcth: which although itbenovery nouriHiingdier, yet it is fufficicnt to 
fuftaine them, and to colour their deceit of living without eatinc^. 

There be fome who belong to no Convent,orTemple,neither are they 
Sonnes of any Monaftrie; neither are they admitted into them, as Guefts, 
but for one day only : They call them vagabonds-, and among thefe, there 
are many times found fome, who are very wicked men^ and do much mif- 
chicfe, efpeciallyby robberies* 

Notwithftanding the greater part of thefe abovenamed Se^aries^ls not 
fcandalous •, but very patient, meek and humble ^ whether ft be from the 
habit, which humbleth them 5 or from the little cfteeme that is made of 
them, which keepeth them under. 

There go abroad no ill reports of them, although they be frequently 
fpoken off; And to mention thofe which appeare in publick, in two and 
twenty years, that I was there, I heard only two ftories of them- and of 
one of them,thecaufe was not certainly known. In the City of mncheu, 
there was found one morning one of them bound to a Tree, and ftabbed 
to death with daggers : concerning which there was an ill judgment rai- 
fed. In the village of Xhanhaj in the Province of Nankim, during the 

N time 

,o TheHiJlorj of QHl^A. Parti. 

time that I lived there^a Bcnz,o was defircd by a widow woman, to come 
to her houfe and to recite forae prayers for the foule of her deceafed huf- 
band: But it feemeth he chofc rather to make a commeration of the living, 
than the dead; Thefa6t w'as known •, and for a month together he was 
cxpofed to publick fhame (for they do chaftife them very well J with a 
great fquarc board about his neck, whereon was written in great letters 
the occafion of his penance. It is very much in 22 years to have heard 
no more againfl: them. Not butlHat I could fay fomething u pon thji flc- 
cafion ; but it is better to be filcnt, than to fpeak of it. 
-N^ There "arc alfo N unncs in Chim^ who live after the fame manner; They 
ihavetheir heads •, but they are not many •, neither do they obfervc CUu- 


TheendofallthefeSr^iofthe5^»^/ is to do penance in this life, to 
be better provided in the next. They believe the Tranfraigration of Py- 
thagoras, and that the foules departed go to hell 5 which, they hold, doth 
containc nine feverall places •, and after they have pafTed through them all, 
thofe oft he beft fort, are borne men againc, others of a middle fort, arc 
turned into living creJitures, like unto men* But they are in the worft con- 
dition.that go intobirds,who may not To much as hope in the next Tranf- 
migration to become men-,but at fooncfl in another after,having firftgone 
into fome other living creature. This is the generall beliefe, not only of 
the common people fin whom,thefe crrours are radicated beyond imagi- 
nation) but alio in people of better account. 

But their wifejl men, or to fpeak more truly, they thjf are moft given to 
Atheifme, forfaking this way, which they call the Exteriour^ do follow a- 
Vioihcr.moxQ inter lour orfecret; the knowledge whereof they preferve, 
with great care among themfelvcs •, placing their whole intent on the un- 
dciftanding of the firftprwaple^ (which is properly the dodrine of Xaca) 
whom they believe to be the fame,in all things 5 and all things to be the 
fame with him • without any eflentiall difference •, operating according to 
the extrwjick ^alities of the fubjecfi; as wax is formed into feverall ii* 
gures, the which being dilTolved by liquefacftion^remaine in fubftancc the 
felfc fame waxe. 

After this their way ; they divide mankinde into ten Clajfes. The fourc 
firft whereof are good :, that is, Pr'tncipanus^ or Beginners •, Profcimtes, or 
Proficients j Prove6ii^ or thofe that have ^/tdvAnced-^ Confummati^ or they 
that are accompli fht. The three firfl do walke well, although they are but 
yet in the way ♦, but the fourth is arrived at pcrfe(fiion, by means of con- 
templating the fir (i principle • and by mortification of their paflions-, which 
did difquiet them' with perturbations and fcruplcs-, and do already enjoy 
fuch an internall quiet and Peace of mindc, that nothing doth give them 
anyremorfcor trouble, for what^cver they thinke, lay^ordoj afTuring 
their confcienccs, that after death they are to expect neither reward nor 
punifliment 5 but that every thing fl\all rcturne to its principle^ as it was at 

I'or the other CiKClaJfes of men, they make fix Hels.The fir/l and gent- 
left is of Infants, who have not yet had any experience of their paflions, 
nor been troubled by them 5 efpecially by covctoufnefTe, anger, dr^, The 


Chap.iS. 1 he Hijlorj of CHl^A. c,i 

fecond is of them, who being placed in the government of the world, 
give themrelves wholly to the vanity thereof .-The third isof them.who 
like bniite bcafts, follow their paflions and difordinate appetites. The 
fourth IS of them, that rob, wound, affault, and flay. The fifth of them, 
who fuffer hunger, third, miferic, labours, troubles externally in the bo- 
dy, and internally in the foule. The fixt is of them, that take upon them 
voluntary labours and fufferings^ as the Bonz.i, who do penance, faft, 
drc This externall life ferving them only as a difpofition to the intcrnall-, 
the which being obtained, the other ferveth them for nought, no more 
than the woodden engine, (which workmen ufe to fliapc a vault withall) 
after the vault is finifhcd . 

Nowthefemendoefteeme Hdltobenomorcthanthus.- And when 
i\\ty {^QciVoiTranfmigration into beads, they fay, It is to bs undcrflood 
ofthis life : As if a man be civill, courteous, and well bred ^ they fay he is 
turned into a man ; if cholerick and furious, into a Lyon ; If cruell, into a 
Tyger ^ if gluttonous, into a fwinc : If a thicfe, into a Bird of prey. Hence 
was the originall of that handfome faying among them, it To Th'nn 
Than Ti Yen Sin Vat, ( That is, ) Heaven and Hell are feared in the 

Th£re are theThrce jrjnc]pallSf^7 
many others that are there to be found. 

They hold, that they may be made all to agree without any prejudice 
to their obfervance. They have a text, which faith, San Chiao Te Tao-^th^t 
is,Thedo(arines are thrce,but the reafon of them is but one.For although 
the worfhip , adoration , and cxercife be different, notwithftanding 
the end at which they all arrivCjis the fame,C/<w /7/«,(that is j nothing. 

The Lhterati of the firfl Se^^ imitating Heaven and Earth,apply all to 
the government of the Kingdome • oftheir families •, and of their perfons, 
only in this life •, and after that pretend to nothing. The r4»/of the fe- 
cond Se6iy without any regard to their families or the government, treate 
only of the body. The difcipks of Xaca of the third Se^:, without any re- 
gard to the body, treate only of the fpirit,internall pcace,and quiet of con - 
fcience : Hence arofe that fentence which they ufe, ^« Ctn ^<r, Tan Chi 
Xin, Xe Chi Sin^ that is,the Litter ati govern the Kingdom,the Tatifi the bo- 
dy, and the Bonzi the heart. 

Befides thefe three which are all admitted, and publikely profefTed in 
the Kingdom •, there is another which is not publike, nor permitted •, but 
is under a prohibition, notwithftanding it hath many followers : it is cdl- 
kd Pe Lien Kieo^ and is exceedingly hated of the Chinejfes^ cfpeciallyof 
the governours •, becaufe the difciplcs thereof do concealc 
ing every thing by night with much fecrecy. It is commonly bcleeved, 
that their intent is, to exalt fome of themfelves to the Crowne •, and it is 
verily thought, that fome pervcrfe men of this profeflion, have already 
defigncd it. 

. hChimffe of good credit did aifirme to me, tha| there were through- 
out cJnna many thoufands of them;and that they had a Captainc orKing , 
with all his officers belonging to him : whom, fuch oftheir Se5l^ as live 
far off, do reverence in their letters, with all refpet^ due to fuch a Perfon; 

N i and 

9 1 The Uijlory of QHl^d, P a b t .1 . 

andthofethatareat hand, when they have a convenicjncc to afTcmble 
themfelves, do honour him with fei vices, coiircefiesand fplendour, (uita- 
ble toth ^t of royall Majeftie: and that all of them knew one another. 

In the yeare 1621. in the Province oi Xantum^vi\\\c\\\hih. be- 
tween that of Nankim ^ndi Pekim ^thae was dilcovered and taken 
one of thcfe that was their Captaines* And becaofe the Ma^J- 
darhies were refolved, not only to punifh him , but all thofe that 
followed his Sed Hkewife-, they queftioned him concerning his com- 
panions- and not being able to draw a confeflion from him, ihey gave 
him feverall times the rack. Which being underftood by thofc,otthe 
fame Se5i^\\\\C\.\\tx it were for love they bare himjOr for fear,rhat he might 
beconftraincdtoconfeffeand difcover them, they all refolved toarme 
themfelvcs, and fall upon ihcMmdarines^ and by force of arraes to deli- 
ver their companion ; which accordingly they put in execution, with fo 
much fuddenneffe, thac it wasimpoiTible for the others to rcfift or cfcape 
them . They flew many ol the Mandarines ^and the reft were fo affrighted, 
that thqy delivered their companion, 

Then having formed themfelves into a Body, they began to conquer 
the Province. At the beginning their number was not confiderable, but 
in a fhort time there were To many,who joyned themfelves to them, part 
of their own fadion, and part of other vagabonds, tha: already they came 
to be many thoufands-, and fo going on, withour finding any re fiftaace, 
they made themfelves Mailers of the imall villages, and at length tooke 
two walk d Towns , where they fortified themfelves, ifluing out from 
thence,to alfault their enemies. 

This newes gave no little trouble to the Court, the rebels being very 
neerthem. But at length by the diligence they ured,all was remedi- 
ed-, by reafon,that numerous forces were fent out againft them from Pe- 
kirn •• and although at the beginning, there fell out many battailes with 
various fucceffe, both on the one and other fide, yet at the length they of 
P^)^/>» were Conquerours, and the rebels army defeated, and their Cap- 
taine taken, who called himfelfe King, and kept this Title with (o mucfi 
obftinacie, that being lodged at the houfc of a Perfon of quality, before 
he came to the Court,he did him no Reverence at all-, and being bid to 
bow and do him Reverence, he anfwered with much difdaine,the King 
dcth Reverence ro no man. Being come to Court, he was condemned to 
die,andvvas accordingly beheaded-, and this was the Crown which he 
deferved.Afterthatjthe King quieted the refl by pardoning the greateft 
part of the rebels. 


Chap.!5». TheHijloryof QUID^A. j*} 

Oj their Superjlitions and Sacrifices 
in China, 

OUperftltion is an Individuall companion of Pagmifme^^ but in Chin tt cj-^ 
^A^onj and Corea^ and die neighbouring Kingdomes, itls in great ex- 
^ cefle. The Ki ngs Mat^maticims^^ to the/e^ fuger -" 

ftirions^ToFTrom the impreflions of the aire, the colours ofthe Skie,tem-; 
pefts, unfeafonable thundeis, afpeds of the Sunnc, whereof they have 
two and twenty differences, and feverall appearances of the Moon^ 
whereof they have fixreen, be alwayes maketh \vts Prognoflications^ efpe- 
cially wherher there wil be peace in the Kingdome, or dearth^mortalitiej 
mutations, perturbations, and the like. 

To this end he maketh an Almanack for the whole yeare, which he 
divideth into its Moones-,and the Moones into daies, which according to 
his calculation, he declarcth fortunate or unfortunate, to do or leave un- 
done any thing,- as ro take a voyage*, to go out of doores-, to make marri- 
age, to bury the dead-, to build, and other fuch like affaires : whence the 
Chtmjfes in all their bufincfTe, do fo obferve thefe Rnbriques^ that meerly, 
not to go againft thefe rules, they haften, defer, or let alone whatfoever 
they have to do. So that if the {Almanack fay, on fuch a day, fuch a bu- 
finefs is to be done,although all the Elements confpire againft them^they 
will by ncrmeanes deferre it. 

Befides this Almanack^ whereof there are fo many copies given out^ 
that there is not an houfe, which hath not one of them, the market-places 
andftreetsare full of Afirohgers and Sooth- fayers^who keep open Shop 
with their Tables for Calculation, in order only to tell fuch their fortunes 
as come to them to require it : and although for the moft part, they that 
come to them, arc deceived and coozened, yet there are fo'manythat 
flock to them, that although the number of thefe Divmr^^xs almoft infi- 
nite, I hey live and fuftainc their Families by this Art, 

Some profeffeto Dwmehy way of numbers, even or odde; and with 
black jnd white figures-,making 64 murations,or changes of them-,virhich 
they explaine and interprete as they pleafe. 

Others confider the time of the Nativitie^ which the chinejfes are ve- 
ry diligent in keeping account of, that they may know the houre, the mi- 
nute,and conjuni^tion in which their children were born. 

Others, whom they call T///, pretend to Divine by meanes of the Sci- 
tuationofthe earth, and from the correfpondence it hath with heaven, 
and with the parts thereof-, pronouncing what places ztc profperous^and 
VJhiit unfortunate-, zndvjhGV^,i{ they build their houfes,alI will fucceed 
profperoufly, and with good fortune to the Family; or contrariwife, with 
fickneffe, misfortunes, difgraces and other evils ; and in this facultie 
they have many skilfull profeffours, on whom they fpend a great deale 


P4. 1 he Uiflory of CHL'hQA. Part.i. 

of mony without any profit at all. 

Others Divine by the Phyftogmmie of the face •, others by confidering 
the lines and ftrokesof the hand •, others interpret drcames. 

Whileft I dwelt in Nankim, there was a man, who went to confult one 
of thereabout a dreame he had, which was concerning an Umbrella^ or 
skreen to keep off the Sunne .- the profcffour asked him, if there were any 
pleaorenditemem againft him, inanyCoiirtofJuftice: he anfwered. 
There was: Well faid the profeiTbursthen San fignifieth an Umbrella^ and 
San alfo fignifieth to vanifh -, and the interpretation of your dreame is, that 
allthatisagainft you will vanifh and come to nothing. The poore man 
was very well pleafed, but being afterwards araigned, he received thirty 
Saflimd'os well fct on.The wretch being angrieat his punifhment,where- 
of he thought himfelfe fecure, went to quarrel with the profeflTour, who 
anfwered him, Alas, I had forgot to aske thee. Whether the Umbrella, 
which thou fawefl, were a new one, or an old one : it was a new one, an- 
fwered the foole. Then faid the profeffour, Make account, that thy for- 
rowes do but now begin. 

Othtrs divine only by the Touch, and thefe are blind men. In the 
yeare 1630. there came to the Metropolis o^ Kiamfi^ a blind man, well in 
years; he opened fliop, and was frequented by many of the Nobility: he 
foretold many things, with much confidence-,and a certain Gentleman of 
the fame City, that was of one of the foure principall families of that 
place, came to me to tell me what had paffcd ^ he knew me, and under- 
flood well enough, what my opinion was in that matter. He told me ma- 
ny particular cafes of things already happened-, by which he was confir- 
med of the event, of what the other faid, fliouldyetcometo paffe*, and 
prayed me, that I would go in perfon, and make triall of him. I went on- 
ly to undeceive him ; and coming to him, he touched my hand, and bid 
me fpeak: when I had fpoke, he began to tell, that I was married, and 
that I had two fonnes, that one of them was towardly ,the other wilde and 
difobedient ; that my wife was froward and difcontcntcd •, in fine,that my 
whole family was in difordcr .• but that when I had taken my degree, all 
would be well. He is already a Graduate^ anfwered my friend. Where,re- 
plied the blind man? In anot her Province, anfwered the other. At which 
the blind man withdrew, feeing, although without cyes,that he had erred 
in that particular of my degree. 

- Befides thefe, whom they confult, they have in their Temples, fe- 
verall kindes of lots 5 anciabooke that cxplaineth them: They do very 
frequently draw thefe lots, and they as frequently deceive them. 
^ They obferve likewifc, and make Augury^s from xbtftnging of Birdsy 
& from the Howling oiBe/tfts ;& if at their going out in the morning ^thcy 
prefently meet with a man cloathed it\Mourmng^aBonz>i,ox^uch like thing, 
they take it for an iWAuguriciThey fay alfo,that they have famlHar fpirits, 
which they frequently confultrBut^f this I have not Jiad any knowledge. 
Anciently, in time of the Tartars^ there were many very skilful! in this 
Art • and if we may beleeve, what Marcm Venetus relatcth, they did ma- 
ny wonders : But at this day there is nothing certainly known of this 
matter. Yet there is ftill a family, that have a particular penfion from the 


Chap.19. TheHiJloryof CHI 3^ J. 9'} 

King, which is continued, by fucccflion co their pofteritie ; and the name 
of^MagitUnovM'^/zard Major, and is the chiefe of that Sect, andisfomc- 
tinies Tent for to the King. I for my part believe, the devi il hath more po.^^ 
wer over them, than they have over the devill. 

~ As for faciifices the y are v ery frec^uentjn Chma, as well great asfmaU ^ 
ones : and every oTTe providethfor them what he will," or rather what he 
can, according to his eftate and abilitie. They facrifice fbure times a year, 
to lieaven,the Sunm , Moone, and greater part of the Planets and Starrest^ to 
the Earih^ MoimaineSy and the four e parts of the World ; to the Sea^ River Sj 
irfi^^j, and other things. But it fecmeth that in realitie they facrifice to 
the 5/?/r/>/ of thofe things, when in common fpecch, they fay they facri- 
fice to the Earthy Mount aims, &c. Which may be feen in many facrifices 
thcyraake^ as in the facrifice ofthchoufe, kitchin, (liips, (land ards and 
enfignes, when they go to war, and fuch like things ., in which facrifices 
they fpcak only to ihcTuteUr Spirits of thofe things* 
' They facrifice much more to the Idols, and to famous men dcceafed -, 
to whom, when they know them to be fuch, they caufe Temples to be 
built, and place in them their Images, for fervices they have done, oro^ 
thcr benefits the Kingdomc hath received by them. 

Itfeeraeth, that at the beginning it was, andflill is meant, only for a 
kindcofgratefuU commemoration of them -, and that properly they do 
not facrifice to them, but only bring offerings to them, and perform other 
Ceremonies, But the ignorant people in tirae.are come to worOiip them as 
Saints,and make praicrs to them, and other fuch like honours. 

They make likcwife thcfekinde of offerings to their Anceftours t whofe 
piduresand Images, (or at leaft their names written j they have alwaies 
prefent at thefe offerings and Ceremonies, They only make mention of/x, 
that is,the/r/ founder of their f amilie •, their third andi fourth Grand- father^ 
\\\c\x great Grand-father y Grandfather and "Father i And when he that is 
the chiefe of the famjlie dyeth, they take him in, and leave out the fourth 
Grand-father; So that there alwaies remaine /zxand no mare. Thefe 
offerings and ceremonies arc not properly facrifices made to their Fathers^ 
for they do not believe that their Fathers and Jncefi^mrfzxc all, cither 
Gods or Saints •, but only it is a dcmonftration of Gratitude and Heve- 
rirw^whichtheythinkeisdue to them, from whom they have received 
their being. 

That which they facrifice is, fomekindesof Beafis^zs Goats^Hog^es^ and 
oxen : Thefe arc the moft ufuall. Of Foules the mofi ordinary zic Cocks 
and ffens^ OiFijlus what they pleafe. They alfo facrifice pieces of flcfli, 
and moft commonly the Heah : They facrifice alfo Rice, Pulfe, and Wine, 
And if the King facrifice any of thefe things, the Mandarines tkethem- 
iclvcs large (hares of them 5 and if the better fort of people facrifice, fuch 
as arethe heads of families, it is divided among the kindred. The ordina- 
ry fort of people, after they have made their offering, which is comonly 
boyled before hand, take up every thing againe, then having drefled it a- 
new according to their fancy ^ they make a fcaft with it, where it is all 

They facrifice many other things- as Bannm and Umbrellas^ all of filk? 


9 6 The Hi/lory of QHL^d. P a b t .i 

fcvcrall y5[^/^r^/ moulded in gold or filver, orclfe rrndcof Orpine, orbafc 
gold ', great fummcs of mony made of cut paper. All thele things are to 
be fold^ ready made, in the market places, at the fliops of feverali Arcifi- 
^ cers . and after they are facrificed, they burn them all. 

Every man ofFereth facrifice without any difference,they having no de- 
terminate rainifters appointed for this ad: neither indeed have they for 
other things •, as for offices (or Divine fervice) Biuialls, to ling and oifici- 
^. ate at them with any exadncfTc. 

4 It belongeth only to the king to facrifice to Heaven^ the Earthy Stmne^ 

^ MoofiCj Plamts and Starresj and if any others (liould doit in publick, he 

were guilty of a great crime. For this end they hive two moft famous 
Ttmfles at the two Courts : where the King facrificeth at thcfoure feafens of 
the year. Springs Summer ^ Antumne and Winter^ going thither himlclfe in 
per/on 5 and if he cannot go, he fendeth fome other iq officiate in his 

The great Lorh and thofc who are T/>^/4^^;,facrifice to the Mount mus^ 
Lakes ^ ^c. The Gentlemen and Officers to the four feafons of the year, 
and particular parts of the earth, /^/Y//, and the like. ^ 

Tor the reff, as to their Idols, their houiliold- gods, Genij^ oxTutekr 
Angells^ any one facrificeth that will, there being fet times and places ap- 
poir\ted for it : except at fometimes they do accomodate themfelvcSjboth 
to the occafions and places; as when any one is to take a voyage by water, 
he offereth facrifice on the day, whereon he departethj and that cither in 
the ^4r^^, or on the »^v/ /^tfr^. . 

Chap. 2.©. 

Of the Militia and Armes of the 

THe knowledge and skill of^arre and Military affairs is very ancient 
among the chinejfes, as appcarcth by their bookes and Hiflorics^ 
and it is very certaine, that they have conquered many famous King- 
domes: itisalfo commonly belecved, that they did formerly conquer 
Ceilan-^ and neere to that place, in the City of Nagafatam there is to be 
fecn, at this day, an edifice, or building, which they call The Fagod of the 
Chmejfes : and it is a Tradition among the people of that Countrie, that it 
. was built by them. Neither truly is it a works unfit to be compared to a- 
ny of that Kingdome. NeverthelefTe their bookes make no mention at 
all of it 5 but that is not a fufficient reafon altogether to refute this Traditi- 
on ; for no more have they any memory left in their bookes of the ancient 
Chriftianitie, which notwithflanding it is mof^ certaine, was there 5 and 
wasalfo very much dilated and fpread abroad. However it is manifefl, 
that they had 114. Kingdomes Tributary to them 5 but at this day they 
have only the neighbouring Countries,which arc nothing neere (b many^ 
and even of thefe,fomc of them do deny them their tribute •, and others 


C H A p . 2 o . Ihe Etflory ofCiilD^A. p 7 

have been abandoned bytheC^/«<'j[/fithemfeIves,hoIdingitbettcrtore- 
tirethemfelves to their own,in peace and quiemclTe^than to go on ftil with 
warreand troubles, to conquer or maintainc other Kingdomes. 

Befide the Conquers and w^irns made with Granger Kingdomes,thcy 
have had warrc alfo for many yeares in their own Countiie-,fo that befide 
many particular books that treatc thereof, they have one body of hiftorie 
confifting often Tomes5which only treateth of the watys of thofe times, 
of their Captaims^ their manner of rvarfare, bMtailes,vi£fories, and other 
things ; wherein are many notable things to be read, which do clearly de- 
monftrate, that they have formerly been a 'validnt and warlike nation, al- 
though there are but few fuch at this time. The occafions how they came 
thus to grow Ic{fe, were very great, as I (hall (]iev7 hereafter. 

At this day, that which they have o^rvarlike in the Kingdome, is only 
xht multitude^ which is very gi eat-, for bcfidcs the SouUiery^ which they 
have in the frontiers of Tmme.^xxd. in the Armddos and fleets, which are 
at the mouihs of the great rivers, which runne into the Sea, every Pro- 
vince,and in that every City and Village of the Kingdome,hath a proper 
w///f/4 of their own, which is paid by them, and commanded by their 
own Captaincs ; and in cafe that any Province hath need of men, they 
make ufe o{i\izSouldkric of their owu Cities and To vvnes- which by or- 
der o' the vke-rdy is eafily brought to one Rerjdevous, And if there be oc- 
cafion for them on the frontier*^, or any other place of the Kingdome, 
prcfently by order from the King, or his councell of wnrre^ they rayfe the 
Souldiers c( one ot more Provinces, according to the Prefent neceflitie, 
and the polTibiliticofthe Province-, all ofthem not being able to main- 
taine the fime number of Souldicrs. 

Thefe Souldiers are alwayes in readinefle, and if one of them be wan- 
ting or die, there are prefcntly enow in the fame Town, though it be 
never fo little,who make fuite for the employment; and fo the place is 
prefently fupplied. 

In the City o^lSfankim they fay, there are 40000 Souldiers^ and in that 
of Pekim 80C00. and throughout the whole Kingdome fas Father Mat- 
/^^«i 5/Vd«r afl\rmeth, who lived in China many yeares, and had very 
good Knowledge thereof) above a million; and Father fohn Rodriguez^ 
who went very much up and down China^ and had opportunitie to fee the 
principall places thereof, and was very curious,faith5thathe found by di- 
ligent fcarch in their books, that in the body of the Kingdome, with all 
the Cities and Villages thereof, there are 594000 Souldiers-^mAozi the 
great wals, which confine on Tartaric 682888.and yet he did not put in- 
to this nuniber the Souldiers of the Arrnado that guardeth the coafl. Nor 
tvil this number feem fo exceflive, if we confider, that China alone, befide 
that it is much more populous, is as big as Spain^ France, Italie^ Germanic^ 
the LorV' Countries^ great Brittain^ and all the Ijlands belonging to it. 

In all this multitude-, if wefpeakof them, who guard ihc Frontiers, 
there is no doubt but there is found fomc valour and courage^ and they 
have fometiracs gallantly repulfed ther^rf^rj^and in the yea re i ')p6,when 
the GiapponeJfes^z(icv they had palfed through all the Kingdome oiCorea^ 
without finding any refinance, would have cntred Chirfa, which they 

- O came 

9 8 rhe Hijlory of CHJ-K.^- P a b t.i . 

came on purpofe to conquer,the Chmeffes repulfed them in fuch manner, 
that after the lofTe of many men,they were faine to put up their pipes, and 
returne home without doing any thing: fo likewife the Souldiers of the 
ArmadQh2^\'G. made fome alTaults, wherein they have been vi^oriom. But 
if we fpeake oi thco^s who live in the Cities and Villages throughout the 
Kingdomejthey are but of (mall courage and valour; but you mud not 
conceive, that they are only Souldiers, and have no other profeflion^ for 
they are Inhabitants and natives of the fame places- and are Taylors, Shoe- 
mders Sec. They are alwaies ready to march at the Kings command^and 
leaving their houfes,go to the warre, whenfoever there is occafion,They 
are moreover obliged, to appear at the mufters and rraynbgs for three 
months in the Spring^znd three in the Autumnet,ihe which are held in the 
greatCities every day infallibly .where only a Tertia or third part of them 
do mufter-, but in Villages they do all make their appearance every day. 

The manner which they hold in this Milma^is thus. All the Souldiery^ 
whether of Foot or Horfe, are drawn up into a B; dy, and if any be found 
raifling, there is an other put in his place^and in that place and degree, 
into which they are once admitted, they almoft ever remainc^or are hut lit- 
tle advanced J (aidyalmofi ahay ^/^becaufe on the FrontireSjif any Sonldier 
perform any notable exploit, they fometimes make him a Captam, and 
he is advanced to his degrees without being examined: but this is a thing 
which fallcth out very rarely. 

For to mzke C^ptaims^ Lieutenants, ^Lwd Corporals, Sec, thctt are exami- 
nations-, and in them two degrees are conferrcd-,which (to make them be 
the better underftood) we will call Licemiats in arms^ and Dolours in 
arms^ The firft examination is held in the chief Cities of the Provinces, 
whither all pretenders do refort^(and in the fame vniverfity or general! 
Palace, where the ftudents are examined^) and there they are to be exa- 
mined, giving them for a point, or T/'^w^, certasne doubts in matters of 
war, to which they anfwer with their pen, making thereon difcourfes 
and compofilions. The fpcculative triall being ended, they come to the 

They muft (hoote nine arrowes, (landing ftill upon their feet, and o- 
ther nine on horfe-back, againft a great Target, whileft the horfe is in his 
fpeed-, and of thofe who behave thcmlelves befl, both in the triall of 
ffiooting, and in that of compofing,fome are chofen, on whom the firft 
degree is conferred-, which hath alfo its enfignes and ornaments. The fe- 
cond degree is conferred at Court in the fame year^ where all thofe who 
have obtained the firft degree, do affemble thcmfelves-, and the examina- 
tion is held in the fame manner as beforc-,only there are more doubts con- 
cerning matters of warre propofed, than before. Their enfignes are the 
fame with thofe of the Dolours in learning-^ which is to be underftood in 
the Cities, while the Kingdom is in peace-, for in warrc,or publiqucadli- 
ons, where they affift as Souldiers , they have their particular enfignes and 
ornaments oiCapaines.'Xhiz graduates are employed the fame yeare,inthc 
office of Captainesjand fo are advanced by degrees,til they come it may 
be,to be Captaines General^z\t\\oi\o\i there be no war. They who remaine 
only with the firft degree^ are employed in the kflerjand more ordinary 


Chap.zo, TheHiJloryof CHI 3^ J. 99 

charges of the warr-but they are aUvaycs to be in fomthing of command. 

As for their Armes^ 1 fay firft-, that the ukoiPorvdcr is very ancient in 
china: and in fire- works, wherein they are excellently skilfull, they fperd 
more powder in a year, than in their Armies, at this time, in five. Anci- 
ently it feemcth, they ukd it more in the warr.For even to this day, there 
arc to be fcen on the gates of the City of Nankim, on both (ides of the 
town,, great Braffe Bombards^ or Cannon^ which though they be but ihort 
yet are very well made; from whence it may be concluded, that they have 
formerly been in ufe. But now they know not how to make ufeof them, 
and keep them only for oftcntation. NcverthelelTe they make fome ufe 
o^Morter pieces J or Spirjgards-, but they have but few, and thofe ill- made* 
They have airoI>4^.ffi two palms long, of Muket' bore-, they do flock 
three, and fometimes fowcr of thcfe together, and (lioot them offall at 
once. In their fhips of warr, they carry Guns, but they are very fmall 
oncs,neither do they know, how to level! them at a mark. But now,(ince 
the officers Q^Chim have made many firearmes in Machaoj by meanes of 
the Portughejfei'j Muskets began to come into China-, but the Armes which 
they commonly ferve with^are, Bowes and Arrowes, Lances, Scimitars. 

In the yeare 162 1 the City 6^ Macao fent,for a prefent,to the King Jthrec 
great pieces of Camo^^mxh their Crf;?^^;?/^^ belonging to them, to ac- 
quaint him with the ufe of them- which accordingly they did in Pekim^to 
the great afFrightment of many Ma?idarines: who would needs be preftnt 
to fee them difcharged. At which time, there fell out an unhappic acci- 
dent- which was, that one of the Guns violently recoyling killed one Por- 
tughefe, and three or fowcr Chir;eJfes,bQ fides many more that were Scared* 
Thcfc Gum were highlie efteemed,?ind carried to the Fromiers againft the 
Tartars-, who not knowing of this new invention, and coming un, many 
together in a clofe Body^reccived fuch a flaughtcr from an Iron piece, 
ifhat they were not only put to flight at that time,bnt went on ever after 
with more caution. 

For dcfcnfive Armes, thty ufe round Bucklers, Caskes or ffead-pieces^and 
certainc plates of Iron three fingers broad,laid one upon another, of 
which t bey make Back and Breft-pieces-they ate but of little proof, and 
are made only againfl arrowes. 

In a word both then Armes and Souldiers arehut little worth at this 
tIme.The occafions thereof arc many- the Firji is the gre at cafe and idle- 
ncffe, in which they have lived thefe many yeares, fincc the Kingdome 
hath been free from warr. The Secofjd is, the great account they make of 
learning, and thelirtle efleem they have ofArmes-^ fo that the leafl magi- 
flrate will dare to baffle a C^/^f/^/w^of^w/^/, let him be never fo great. 
The T^/W is their manner of eleding Captaines by way of cxamination,as 
we have faid,beingall raw Souldiers, that undcrftand nothing iri matters of 
ivarr. The Fourth is, becaufc all Souldiers, are either cour.igious by nature, 
or Spurred onto G4//4;?/r/(; by the example of thofe iVi?^/£?Perfons, who 
lead themj or elfe they are animated by rhe difcipline, their Captaines do 
bring them up in. But the Souldiers of china want all thefe occafions. For 
commonly their courage is but little; their Nohilitie lefle-thcir Education 
leaft of all^ for they will bafiinado a Souldier for any fault, as if he were a 

O a child 


<Ihe Hiftory ofCHLK^. Part.i 

child that went to fchoole. The fifth^ bccaufc in their Armies y over all the 
Capa'mes^ and alfo the Generall himfelfe, there goeth a Generalijfmo^ who 
is alwaies a man of the long robe; This man marchcth alwaies in the mid- 
dleofthemaine Battalia^ and from the place oi Battaile is many times a 
daies journy ofF^fo that he is too remote to give orders,and to runne away, 
in any cafe of danger,hc is moft ready.The/xf/' is, that in their Comcells of 
wane (of which they have two • one in the Court o^NankJm • and the o- 
ther in that o^Pekim ,• and each hath a Preftdent^ two CellateraUs^ and eight 
or nine Colleagues) there is not one Souldier, or Captaine among them, or a- 
ny that hath ever feen the wanes -, and yet for all thatjthe whole Militia of 
the Kingdome is ordered by them, efpccially by the Councell o^ Pekim, 
Only there might be anfwered to what hath been faidjthat thtChineJfes 
do ufe training, and exercifcs of wane, for three months in the Springs and 
three in the jiutumne every year : which cannot be done without feme 
profit, esscrcifing thcmfclves in fhooting arrowes at a marke, and fhooting 
alfo very well. But in truth this cxercife of theirs is the moft rediculous 
thing in the world:For dividing their men into fquadrons,part feign them- 
(elves to be enemies, mdi\>2xt Chine ff'es^ (as among us in Portugall, the 
boyes divide them (elves into Moeres and Chrifiians) otie part cometh, as 
it were, a farre off to warre with the other ; then they fend out fpies, and 
fend away meffengersto tlie Mandarines (who arc fitting not farre of un- 
der a Canopie^ or Pavilion of filke)giving them notice, that they are in fuch 
a place, and the enemie in fuch a place •, then the Chimjfes fend out a par- 
tic againft them, who encountring knock their Swords and Lanees one a- 
gainft the others, juft as plaiers do upon a ftage •, and this, or very little 
more is all they do. 


0/ the vparre vphich the T'artars made 
upon China. 

WHen Humm thejGrft founder of the royal! family thzx. govcrncth 
at prefentj'drove the Tartar out of the Kingdome, who had Jcept 
all C^ina under his fubjcdlion nineti e years , hc^nqr only re-gained his own 
Kingdome, butentrcd likewife iniothofeof the others and conquered 
thofe Kingdomes, that lay neereft him towards the North, obliging thera 
to pay hiratribute:neither did he let them remaine in the manner of King- 
domes, but the fame Hummi divided them into i6o. families or States^ gi- 
ving them divcrfe dignities and offices. Thcfe States grew fo great, that 
they divided themfclves into three Kingdomes* one towards the Wp/; 
another toward the North^ and the third toward the Eafl^ The two firfi: 
prcfently with- drew themfelves f rom their obedience to the Cbinejfes^ 
only he of the Eafi remaining their friend, treating with them, and per- 
fovming his obligations. 

This continued for many years 5 till the Chinejfcf feeing that Baflerise 


C H A p . 2 1 . Ihe Hifiory of QUI^A. i o i 

Kingdome CO cncrc.ife much, whether it were for reafonofftatc, or for 
fome other pariicular refpe^:, they refolved to fnll upon it , and to 
bring them under, fo that the Tmars forced by dcfperation, refolvedac 
once to invade upon them •, this is the ufuall effe(5t oi^ Extortion and Tyran^ 
»y, and where the Prince would have more from the people, than they are 
able to give. Whence Theofom^m K\nQ^oiK.\\Q Lacedemonians, when his 
wife told him, that becaufe he had cafcd his people of many taxes, he 
would leave his foone a poorer Kingdome, than he had received from his 
Father, anfwered, Relinqu0,fed diuturmus. That is, Ifliall, leave him a 
more lafting Kingdome. The Tartars therefore fccretly levied Souldiers, 
and on a fiidden fell upon a fort in the Province ofLeaotum. and tooke it 5 
making afterwards many in-roads to their profit, and to the great damage 

The Tartars of the Wefl and of the North ^ whether it were out of love 
to their Country , or out of intrefl:, which is more probable, raifcd alio an 
Army, and came in to the Succour of their Eafterne Counttimcn-, and by 
little and little grew fo numerous,chat in.thc; x^arc i6i8^tw^yery_gre_at 
Armits^ouQ C^/;?^^,and_the other ^'^^^^^,'£atn^e^ro^a_ficldJb^tailc; ]n 
which the Chinejes were vanifhed and put to fl ight, witha very great jofs 
-of men. And t hat it might the better be underftood, how the jlate -v 
of things were thenj will fet down here a me morial or petitio n,which the 
Frepdent of the C^uncdlof warre gave the King concerning this bufineffe^ 
which I tranflared at that time, and fent it into Europe for news, and now I 
have found it here printed, and it faith thus. 

A mcmoriall, or petition, prefcnted by the prefidcnc 
of the Councell of Warreto the King. 
liV this fix and foiirtieth year of your Reign, in thejixth Moone^(tvhich )vAs the 
^yeare i6iSin the month ofA\igu{\)the Prcfident of the Councell of Warre 
frefentethyofttpith this MemorhW J, as to our Lord and King, upn occasion 
that the Tartars are emred within the walls toward the 'Hoxthjn which he 
humbly fetitioneth you jthaf^ou would attend this hufinejfe^and prefently open 
your Treafures^ and afftfl this Warre with men and ammunition. For the truth 
is^ that in this month I have received intelligence from the Captaines, that re- 
fide in the Province of the walls toward the North-, wherein they give me no- 
tice^ that in all parts of that Provincethere were proclamations publtflud, where- 
in they did declare^ that the Tartars were gathered together to Conquer this 
vforldof China; and gave me intelligence of the day appointed for the Battaile^ 
the which accordingly was fought at that time, with a great firength and mul- 
titude of people: andentring within the wah^ they have taken fome of our men^ 
to Sacrifice them : and the day before the battaile they did Sacrifice them with 
great acclamations to their King-^ and have already proclaimed him King of 
VeVimJThey bring with them many hundred thoufands of Souldiers^ and each 
heareth about him feverall forts of Armcs. Our men, who met to encounter 
and fuppreffe them^ were two Captaines-Generall, ninety px ordinary Cap- 
taines,4/j^ 300000 men at armes. They )oymd battaile, and in the firfl en- 
counter they killed thirty eight of our C apt aines^amongfl whom was one of our 
Generals ; the others are (laine without number i they took alfofome thou fan ds 

loz TheBiftory of CiilV%A. Part.i. 

ojvr'tfomrs ^ and in the retreat^ byreafonoftheconfufion and diforder^there 
mre killed by them above a thoufand of our wen, J he people of the Cities are 
fled^ as alfo thofe of the other Toivnes»Whereiipon, the fame day they made them- 
fehes mafiers of three Cities. Upon the recieptofthisnewes we ajfembled the 
Councell, the Colao, and other Mandarines of this Ccurtythat info weighty a 
buftneffe wee might findefome good expedient : k^ nd in truth itfeemeth te us> 
that heaven doth favour the enemy ^ who otherwife could not have been able to 
have madefuch aflaughter of our people in one day^ and to have taken three Ci^ 
lies .• andfo itfeemeth heaven is angry with us* o^i alfo the Prodigies, which 
n>e have lately allfeen^ ^o demon/Irate no lejfe^ Jn the Province of Pekim the 
lajlyeare it raigned not at all ; and the people went about like men hdfe dead : 
and i» the Province of X^nViva^ there was fo ^r^4/ 4 dearth W famine, that 
thepeofle did eat one amther : and into Nankim came an infinite multitude of 
Mice f neither was it difcoveredj w hence t hat ^hpie came. In the roy all pa- 
laces, of five parts the Hre burnt downetwOy and the wind overthrew five 1 o^ 
rvers of this City : we faw two Sunnes together^ and the one did Ecclipfc the 0- 
thcr, Thefeare all things of evifl Pvogno^icmon : but above all^ we faw a 
man enter mto the roy all Palaces withrefolution to kill the Prince ; which he had 
donejjadhe not been hindred(This fell out when the King would have con- 
ftituted his fecond fonne heire of the Kingdome •, who was growne very 
powerfull by the favour and art of the Eunucbes •, and, at that time, there 
came in a man to have killed the cldeft fonne •, but he was hindred by his 
fearc, and the women, whohelpcdthel^nnce.) {^ nd the worfi is '^that^ a 
Mandarine having fpoken fomething high^ fhewingtherein his fidelitie to you^ 
OHrLordjbutfor hisLoy^iXxAQyou made him aTvaiiour^and commanded hefhould 
he put inprifon^ and although we made great means to free him^ by declaring his 
innocency^yet you never gave eare unto «i.CThis imprifonmcnt was, when the 
King fliewed his eldeft fonne to the Mandarines in the royall hall, whom 
they would have had declared heire of the Kingdome, & the King would 
not : and one of them tookethe boldnefle to fpeake, and to plead for the 
true Prince, and was therefore committed prifoner by the King.) 

Many times the Mandarines /'^^/^^/^^Memorialls 5 wherein they did relate 
the miferable condition of the people, defiring that their Taxes might be leffoned^ 
a thing worthy of much cenftderation'jbut neither did you make any account there- 
of We the y\.mdi2ix\t[^% of this cotirt have feverall times petitioned, that you 
would come out, and give Audience inpublick^ as jour Predeceffours hetherto 
have done •, that the government might be conformable to that of heaven^ as it 4^ 
mofi fitting :you anfweredusfometimes, that you were not well •, other times ^t hat 
the weather was cold andrough^ and that wefijouldmeet another day: we expe^- 
edtill Spring time^then till the beginning of Summer, that you would performe 
what you hadpromifed ^ but you not only gave no anfwcr to the fecond Memori • 
2\\,bHt yon commanded it to be burnt : and in this manner you live retired inthe 
Palace, without making any account of what import eth you mofi:. For this reafon 
arethe calamities fo great ^ andwe perfecutedwith warres. Peace is wanting ; 
andy as itfeemeth, it will be wanting 5 for we are come to fee rivers of blood 
running downe : and above all, in the third moone laftpafi^ there came fome 
from the Province cf Xenfi, to tellus^ that there had appeared there a man c loa- 
thed in yellow, with a green cap on his headland in his hand afan^f feather s^who 


OTa v.u. TheHiftory of CHl^^. ioi, 

fpakethns^ Vanli (that is the name of the King) hth notgoveme^ though he 
hathraignedlon^: he fleeptth alwaiesuhe Kingdomc is ready to be hfi^ the 
people will die ofhunfjir •, the Captaines will hejlaine and pierced through with 
lances: and when he bad [aid this, he vanifhed. The Manda rines were amazed. 
The Vice-roy it fed great diligence to know who this man was: but could notpof- 
Jihlyfinde him out,feeijsg therefore the calamites, famine, warre, and other e- 
vills^ which the Kinghme now juffereth^ we plainly perceive, that it was a 
r>xo(^no{klc:iiionofthefethi?7gs. Wherefore we are againe returned to require 
you^fpeedilj to open your treafures ofmony^thatfrejl) leavies of men may be made, 
andfome remedy put to fo great cvills, 

^ This is the J/^»Jgr/V/,whichwas^refenred in th cyeari6 i8 finc e when , 
the Tartars have continued every fummer (fofin'the winrer7 byTeafbnof 
the great cold, nothing can be done jto make confiderable inroads; where- 
in they are commonly gainers, to the great loiTe of the Chine [fes. So that 
the yeair 162 2 » two principall Madarines of the fort of ^amjt^ where-, as 
being the chief e fortreHe of that Province, the rice- roy^ maketh hisrefi- 
dence, (whether it were, that they were difcontentcd, or had hopes to 
better their condition by it j made a fccret agreement with the Tartars to 
deliver the fortrelTe into their hands^ which accordingly they did-, for the 
Tartars falling oi\ upon that i"ide,which was atligned them5a{roone as ever 
theybegan the affaultjthey cafily tooke it,by theTreafon,which the otheis 
had plotted, and put to flight all them, who knew nothing of the treache- 
lie •, who,together with the Viceroy^ efcaped to Xamhai^ the laft fortreffe 
(as it were) cf that Province, and the firft of the Province oiPekim-j the 
key and ftrength of the whole Kingdome. 

Afloone as the newes of this laft route came to Court, both the King 
and his Grandees were in great diforder^and deliberated 10 change his a- 
bode, and to remove to the Court olNankim^z^ farthell off from danger^ 
and it had accordingly been put in execution,if a piincipall3/Wrfr/;7£(;for 
there is alwayes found fome one or other, who taketh care of the publick 
good jhad not prefented zMemoriallto theKingjwherein he demonftrated 
to him, that this alteration would be the beft and readieft way to deftroy 
the whole Kingdome, or the greater pare atleaft, by difpoyling of all 
ftrength, the Court and Province of Pekim^ that was fo neere the other 
ProvincejWhich was now ready to be loft. 

This Memoriall took effed 5 and by it the the defjgnc of flying and 
fceking anew habitation, was broken off-, it being formerly refolved, 
that Nankim (hould be fortified. There was therefore a proclamation fent 
outjwhich under great penalties jd id prohibite any to go out of the Court, 
wot only Manharines and people ofqualitiej but even the common peo- 
pic alfo. Vpon this the people began to bee quieted, efpecially feeing, 
that the Citie was ftrengthencd with new Garrifom, Guards^ Watches^ and 
a rigorous ftri6tncffe at the gate.The chiefeft care was to fortifie the paffc 
at Xam Hai ^uan^ which, as I faid above, is on the very f rontire of the 
Province o^Leaotum^ which was already loft, and on the entrance of the 
Province o^Pekimy^n^ by rcafon the place, ftreightened on both fides 
wii h very high mountaines,is impregnable •• they fent thither great ftorc 
of Ammunition^ and freOi Sculdim in fo great number, that it was repor- 

704^ Ihe Hifiory ofCHLK^^ Part.i. 

ted that at that poft only they had 80000 men of Warre. The King alfo 
fent new Captawes with ample power-, which would have been of greater 
cffe<5l, if he could have given it them over theT^r^^n^to conduct them 
that way; who feeing it was not poflible to make their entrance at that 
place, both becaufe it was fo eafie to defend^ as alfo that it was wcU forti- 
fied with men, began to wheelcofftothef^T^ fide thereof, through part 
of C<7y^4, giving off their dcfignc of going toward Pekim-^ which if they 
had done with (b powerful! and vicftorous an i^rmy^ they had put that 
Court into a greater feare and danger, than ever yet they had experience 
of. The Chincjfes met them not far from the Court, where there began fo 
furious a BattailCj that many men loft their lives both of the one and the 
other fide- yet at the laft the C^/^^//irj had the viCtonQifo great endeavour 
mil men ufe to defend their own home. 

A little while after this fight arrived at the Court o^Pekim a Portughefs 
named Gonfalvo Texera^ who was lent thither with an Bmhaffie and a Pre- 
fent from the City o^Macao-^ who feeing the inlolency of the Tartars, and 
the feare of the Chmejfes^ and judging that by it they might do fervice to 
the Crown oi Portugal!, and a kindneffe tothemfelves, in what the King 
of China might do for them, offered to the Mandarine!, in the name of the 
City of Mac^o, fome Portughejfes to affift them againft the farters. The 
profcr was kindly accepted of, and a Memoriall vf:xs prefented to the 
King, who prefently returned a favourable dnfwer. The CouncellofWarre 
difpatched a Father of our company to Maeao^ivaho was already gone a- 
long with the Embajfadours to negotiate this afififtance j with feverall or- 
ders to the o^cQxsofCantone, to expedite the bufinefTe as much as they 
couldywith all jiberalitiejand provifion,and convenience for the men that 
were defired of them. 

Foure hundred men were put in order, that is 200 Souldicrs, ofwhich 
many were Portughejfes, (ome whereof were borne in PortugaU^znd fome 
there ; but the moft of them were people of that Countrie,who although 
they were Chinejfes, home in Macao, yet were bred up among the Portu^ 
gheffes after their manner, and were good Souldiers, and fhot well in 
Guns^ To each Souldicr was given a youth to fervc him , who was 
bought with the Kings money, and fo large pay for themfelvcs, that 
mthhihQ Souldiers clothe A themfelves nchly,and provided them (elves 
with armes, and were after all that left very rich too» 

Thefc Souldicrs fct out from Macao with two Captaines, one whereof 
was named Pictro Corderio,thQ oihtx f^monio Rodriquez. delca^oo^mth 
their Alferes and other officers. When they were come to Cantone, they 
muftered themfelves with fo much gallantrie, and with fuch falutes of 
their Mufquetrie^, that the Chincjfes were aftonifhed . 

There they were furniflied with boates to pafic up the river, with all 
convenience, through the whole Province,bcing prefented by the Magi- 
flrarcs, when they came to any of their Cities and Villages, fending re? 
frcfhment for them all, of Hens, Bee fe. Fruit, Wine, Rice.dzc. 

They psiTed over the Mountaines which divide the Province of 
famonefromih^toiKiamfiCzudhkiXc thanadaies journey from thco- 
ther Riverjall on horfe-back, even to the meancfl of their fervants. Pre- 

Ghapzi. 1 he Hifiorjof CHI3XA~ 7d"j 

fenty , upon the other fide of the Mountaine, they were imbaiqueda- 
gaine, and going down the River, they crofTed after the fame manner al- 
moft all the Province of Kiamfic/iW they came to the Metropolis thereof 
where I lived at that time, and had under my dire(5tion a good number 
of Chriftians, there they ftaycd only to lee the City^and to be wel looked 
on by them. They were invited by many of the noble men, that they 
might looke upon the Fafhion of their habit, and other things which k^^ 
med ftrange to them-, they treated them with all manner ofCourteJie^ and 
comniended and admired all, except the Slafhing and pinking of their 
cToathes, not being able to conceive,whyVwhen a piece of ftuffe is whole 
and new, men fhould cut it in feverall places for ornament. But, when 
they had feen this City, thefe men returned, without any other effed.but 
the expenfeand great lofTe of the C^/>f/f/, occafioned by thcTartars 
in feverall encountcrSjbccaufe they were deprived of this fuccour. 

The occafion of their returne was,that the chimjfes, who traffique in 
Cantom mx\ixhc Tortughejfes^znd arc their Correfpondents for their bu- 
finefle, from which they draw a vaft profit, began to perceive that by this 
entrance and the good fticceffe thereof, of which they made no doubt ac 
all, it would be an eafic thing for the Pormgheffes to obtaine licence to en- 
ter into the Kingdome, and to do their bufineffe, and fell their Merchan- 
dife themfelves , and by this meanes they fhould come to lofe their 
gaines ; therefore, before the Portughejfes fet out, they ufed all their en- 
deavour to hinder their going, prefenting many papers ^gainfl: it, and ac 
lafl-, the Magiftrate anfwering, that he could do no JeflTe, having already 
parted with the money, and diftributed among the Souldiers, not only or- 
dinarie,but very high and advantagious pay, they offered^ at their owne 
charges,ro re-imburfc the whole money to the King, But feeing that this 
way neither they could obtaine their ends, it is reported, that they fcnt 
to Court that money, which they would have given, and prefenting it to 
the Mand ar wes.previikd fo, that thofe very men,who had propofed the 
Portugejfes to the King, as an important fuccour, did againe prelent a 
memoriall, wherein they exprefifedjthat there was now no need of them- 
The King anfwercd,(and I my felfe faw the Royal anfwer, j It is not lon^ 
fince that ye did propofcto us, that thefe men fliould enter into the Kin<^ 
dome, and aifift us againfl the Tartars: now ye fay, they are not neceflS- 
rie.When ye propofe any thing,it were good you confidered of it better, 
howbeit, if they are not neceirary,lct them returne. 

In this manner did that expedition of the Portugheffcs come to an end 
without any profit at all to the Kingdome, but much to the Souldiers, be- 
fides that they had an opportunitie to fee a good part o^Oma, The Tar. , 
tars have ever fince continued the warre after the fame manner, incT do 
continue itto this day; and have forced the Kingdome of Or^^ to pay 
them tributc,as they payed toCA^V^^-although they ftil pay to the Chmffts 
as much as they did formerly. 

P Chap, 

o6 TheHipry of QHIH^- Parti. 

Chap. 22. 

Of the KJngand Queenes of Chi- 
na, and of the Eunuches. 

ALthough the chineffes have been ^o diligent in their Chronicles &Re- 
cords,that they have prefevved the memorie of above 3000 yeares 
to this time-, neverthelefTe they have fufFercd a great loflfe and damage in 
the knowledge of many things contained in them by the bLirnlng of 
thofe books, which arc called by them The tl'pry, ^nd in reality , the bu • 
finefle was thus. 

A King named T/f«, (whither it were as fome think out of the ha- 
tred he bo e to earnmg, or as fome hold with moreprobabilitie, that he 
might extinguiQi the memory of his /^w^/(?//r/, and leave only his owne 
to pofteritie) excepting only the books of P^/T/c^^as only neccffime to the 
Common- Wealth .commanded by a rigorous law, that the reft of their 
books fliould be burnt, with fo much feveritie as if every volume were 
guilty of h'gh treafon, and under fo great penalites for any that hid them, 
that it was to coft him no leffe than his life, and in effedt he cauCcd four* 
tie Litter Ati to be burned together with their books which they had hid. 

This perfecufion laftcd the fpace of fourty yeares, at what time they 
be«^an to renew their ancient chrcnkles, by meanesofcertaine books 
and fragments that had cfcaped.fome ofthem being buried underground, 
and others immured in the middle of walls, and after manv yeares and a 
diligent fcarcb, they fct on foot againe the more principall matters- ycc 
there were many things wanting, and efpecially concerning the firft 
Kifsgs and Princes of this Kingdome. 

However it is certainly known, that their firft Government was by way 
of Familiest, every one governing his ownjas anciently the Patriarks did* 
The fecond was MonArchtcall, but it is not certaine how ic began.* neither 
have they any thing certaine concerning the originallof ir.They do com- 
mit a notable errour in the time of their Chronologies-Sov the Emferour Yao^ 
from whofe time they do begin to give credit to their Hiftoric*;, even ac- 
cording to the moft favourable computation, from the creation of the 
world to iVW;,they make to be twelve yeares before the floud; never- 
theleffcalthough tht^re be an errour of the time in the Hiftorie of this Em- 
peronrand thofe that follow, it is certaine, that the matters related,arc ve- 
ry coherent with their fuccellions. 

Now this Emperoar Yao^ without having any regard to the natural! and 
lawful fuccclTion of his fonne, left the Empire to Xm his Sonnc-in-law, on- 
ly, becaufehe difcovcred in him parts and qualities worthie of the (7^- 
vernment. :^«» like wife for the fame refpC(5t gave the £w//>^ ro T«, who 
was no kin to him. Thcfe three Emperours are much eftcemcd by the C/^i- 
nejf^s for holy men : concerning whom thev relate many things, And tru- 
ly tl ere is no doubt, but that they were Philofojphers,y/d\ inclined to mo- 
rail vcrtucs. 


Chap. 22. TheHijloryof QRlD\(ji. wy 

They do attribute much merit to the laft of thefe three, for the ^^dju- 
jting of the waters Cas they call it ;) which was done by him through the 
Kingdom,which in that time did abound in lakes and moarifli places, and 
therefore in many parts could not be tilled. This King going in perfon, 
and commanding large trenches to be made, (wherein many years were 
fpcnt) he gave vent to that multitude of waters, and by that meanes re- 
covered a great deale of ground which was of great profit for tillage. 
There are fome in Ettrofe who believe that thefe waters were the reliques 
oithcfloud. ThtChinejfes^ although they make a large mention of thefe 
jv^i^fri in their books, of the draining of them, and of the benefit which 
accrued thereby to the Kingdom, do not fay any thing of any occafion or 
original 1 of them. 

After thefe three Emferotirs abovenamed, the fw/>/>^ was ever conti- 
nued by fucceflfion j but not in the (amc family • for there were many Prin- 
ces and Lords, who although they were fubjed to the Emperour, yer^ 
fometimes for particular refpeds, and otherwhile under pretence of evill 
Government and Tyranny^ made tvarres^ confederacies and d/forders, with 
which they either diflurbcd and troubled the Monarchy, or divided it, or 
elfc ufurped it all to themlelves -, So that although it lafted in fome fami- 
lies many years, as in that oiTham for 400. years, and in fome other/^w/- 
//>5 little lede, yet the Monarchy from the beginning, to this prefent day, 
hath been changed into two and twenty feverall Families, 

The Lords of particular flates continued in China 2006 years, till In 

theyearofourredemptioni2o6, thcTartars^ who then pofTelfed another 

Country, began to make themfelves Maflers of China 5 and advanced fo 

farre by degrees, till at length they brought it all under their fubjedion, 

reigning there as abfolute, till the year 1368. Atwhattime,^^»w^//^ the 

founder of the family, which reigneth at prefen-jfeeingthe flrength of the 

Tartars to bediminifhed, and their Tyranny encreafed, and the people fo 

wearied therewith that they were well difpofed to fliake off the yoake, 

and fet themfelves at libertie •, gathered together an army with fueh 

good fucccfTe, that he not only difcomfited theT'^r/^;'^, and drove them 

out of the Kingdom, but entred alfo into their Country, and conquered 

a good part thereof. 

The Kingdome being thus re-eflablifht in its naturall cflate, Hum Vu fee^ 

ing himfelfe become abfolute Z^/-^ thereof, fet on foot an admirable kindc 

ol Government^ differing in part from that of all Other Monarchies ; yet it is 

fuchaone, as hath now been conferved almofl 300 years, with fo much 

fubjedion, communication and dependance from its head, that fo great 

an Empire, feemeth to be but, as it were, one well governed convent.This 

King in the firfl place conferred many favours and graces upon all his fub- 

jedts: Liberalitie being thar,which doth moftdemonflrate a royall minde.* 

he created new officers, yet retained he fome of the former ones, as we 

fhall relate in its proper place. 

To the chief e and principall Captaims he alTigned large revenues , to the 
ficondawe^y competent maintenance, and to thofe of the th/r^ fort, fuffi- 
cient. Hetookc away all the Princes and X<?;^;of vaflals and fubje<5ts, 
without leaving one; he prohibited by a rigorous law, that none of the 

P 2 Hoyali 

loS"^ TheHijlory o fCHI3S(J. Parti. 

Royall family, ndiha in peace nor warre,nor in any cafe, might beare office 
in ihtCommm'tvealth.eithcx civil, crimindl^ox milit arj-^ntkh^x mi^hi they 
be (uiFercd to enter luioih^ oi.imimtions^ to receive their degree '(the 
which iaft prohibition, as I have formerly faid, hath been lately taken a- 
wayinpart.) He placed the whole Government in the Littcrati^ who are 
created fuch by way of concunence,(as hath been declared, whenj fpalte 
of the examinations) without any dependance at all on the Magiftratcs, or 
the King himfclfe, but only by the merit of their learning, good parts^and 
vermes? He did not annul! thofe ancient lawes, which concerned good 
Government, and hindred not his intent ; which was only to perpetuate the 
j^Jomrchy'mhis Pvjlcritie. Buthemaie many new ones, and modelled 
the Common- wealth and the Government into that form,wherein it ftan- 
deth at prefent 5 although in fo many years, and in fo vaft a Monarchic , \i 
hath not been pofrible,''but that it (hould receive feme alt erarion^ though 
not in any elTentiall part thereof* -' '"• ' ^i 

The King'is called by diverfe names. For the better underftanding 
whereof, you mufl know that there arc thirteen things remarkable at his 
Coronation. The firft\si\\t changing of the account of years, beginning 
their fuppiration a new from the entrance of the new Kings reigne • and 
this not only in their ordinary difcourfe, biu in all letters, difpatchcS;, pro- 
viCoes, writings, c^^. The (econdj that there is coyncdnewmony, witPi 
the letters of his name,although the former contlnueth current alfo. The 
third iSy That he Crowneth his true wife, making her as it were, Emprejfe, 
JhG fourth is, That he g iygth the name of ^leentofix Concubims. The 
fifth is, That there are great facrifices made to Heaven, to the Earth, to the 
SprifSj &c. The/^x^5 That there are great (lore of Aimes given to the 
poore.Theprf'i'^^//^,That all prifoncrs are fet at libertie, whofe freedom is 
not prejudicial! to a third party. The eighth, Jhzt there are f umptuous ban- 
quets made for theMagiftratcs.Thew;?? //,That all the women are to depart 
out of the Palace, that have been Concubines to the former King. The 
tenth, The Palaces, which are foure in number, wherein the other wo- 
men lived,are furniftied againe with new women,pickt & chofen through- 
out the whole realme : in time of which fcarch there are many marriages 
made, every one endeavouring to deliver his daughter from that fubjeSi- 
on. The eleventh,TheNobilitieo(r\\chloud ri^rf// do fend deputies (not 
every one, but all thofe of one City) to render obedience to the King, 
and to acknowledge him for fuch .• In like manner alfo do the Titttladoes, 
which cannot do it in their owne pcrfons. The twelfth is,That all Officers, 
from Vice royes to the meaneft Judges of Townes,go in perfon to Court Jio 
render the fame obedience, on the behalfe of their Provinces, Cities, and 
Towncs. Laftly the Kings name is changed, as is ufed among us at the c- 
ledlion of the Pvfs • and this is that name, which is written in all publicfc 
a(5ts, on money es,c^f. It is a name of a particular, but royal! perfon, as 
that of this Kings Grandfather w:is,Fam Lie -, of his father. Thai Cham 5 of 
his Brother who raigned ^x{k,Thien Khi-^ and of this King,7>///wC^/>». 

They have moreover three names, which lignifieaKing: The/r/?is 
Jdun, and by this they ufe to call foireigne Kings ; Thcfecondis Vam, and 
bv this name they call the Infantoes^or Kings children ; joyning them to- 


Chap.zi. TheHiJloryof CHI 3^ J. wF 

gether Khw Fam^ they make a name, by which their King may be called. 
But the principal! name is Ho i^m 7/, that is^Emperour. 

In the Palace,the Women,Eiinuchs, and other domefticks thereof call 
him C/m, that is. Lord. They call him alfo Thien Ztt^ which is to fay, 
Some of Heaven '^ not bccaufc they believe him tobefuch, butbecaufe 
they hold, that Er/^pn is a gift of heaven ; as alfo to render the refpedt, 
which is due to the royal 1 perfon, morefacred: and in realitie, the reve- 
rence which they ufe towards him/eemeth more befitting a Divine, than 
humane perfon ^ and the manner how they behave themfelves at this day 
in his prcfence, is more proper for a Church,than a prophane Palace. 

I faid at this day, becaufe in former times it was not fo. For then the 
Kings of Chim lived according to the falhion of the greatcft part of the o- 
ther Princes of the world: They went abroad^converfed, hunted-, and 
there was one of them fo greedy of this recreation,that,whereby he might 
have the opportunity of fpending whole months together in hunting 
without returning to Court, and attending upon the affaires of govern- 
mentjdid fubfticute one of his Sonnes in his place. The Empercurs did vi"' 
{it in perfon the whole Kins^dome, at what time there happened that (lo- 
ry which is fo famous in chma^and which defcrveth likewife to be known 
in Europe. 

The £;;2p^;'<?«r going this progreflTe, in a certaine way met with a com- 
pany of men, who were leading certaine prifoners. He caufed the coach 
to flop, and enquired what the matter was • which as foone as he had un- 
derftood,he fell a weepin^?. They who accompanied him began to cova^ 
fort him, and one of them faid unto him , Sir, It is not po(fihle^ but that in a 
Common-wealth there mufi be ehafiifements-^ it camotue avoided •, fo have 
the former Kings ^ y0t4r predccejfours^ commanded it to be • fo have the laws 
ordaimd tt •, fo doth the government of the ft ate require it. The King an- 
fwered, Ijveepe not to fee thefe men prifoners, nor to fee them chafijfed : ikncrv 
ver^j nvell^that Without rewards the good are not encouraged^ and without jh a- 
fit Cement the wicked an not re [trained^ and that chaflifement is as neceffary to 
the government of a Kingdome^ as bread is for the nouriflment and fufienance 
thereof. But J weepejyecaufe my ti me is ^^jl^happy^as that of old was^ when the ^, 
vertuesoflJje Princes were fuch^that they ferved aia bridle to the people ^ and 
their example wasfuffcient to re^raine the whole Kingdome without any other ^^ 
chaflijcment. This was a Heathen^ who fpake thu s : and who feech not ^' 
how much reaTon we have to envy thefe //^4/to^, who, although they 
are excei^dtd by us in the knowledge of things belonging to/^/V/', do yet 
oftentimes furpaffe us in the pradifc of moral/ vcrtues f 

According as I have faid, the ancient Kings did perfonally attend the 
Government, givingaudienceveiyeahly and very frequenrly to all their 
fubjeds. In the time of King Tham there was a Colao^ who having bcea 
his Mafter, was very powerfull with him, who,to prefcrve himfelfe in his 
grace ^nd favour, ftudied more to fpeak what fliould plcafe the King, than 
to tell him the truth for the good of his (late; a mofl abominable^thing. 
But the Chincffes feeing his honour was great, andtheKin^s favour tO' 
wards him very ex'traordinary, did diflemble it all •, notwkhftanding they 
forbore not to fpeak of it among themfelves, andtotaxcthe flattery of 


110 The Hijlory of CHl^d. Pabt.i 

the CoUo^ One day certaine Captaines of the guard difcourfing among 
themfelvcs in the Palace concerning this pointjOne of them, being a little 
warmed with the difcourfe, fecrctly withdrawing himfelfe out of the 
company, went into the halljwhcrethe iCing then was^Sc kneeled downc 
upon his knees before h\m, the King asking, what he would have? He an- 
fvvered-. Leave to cut off the headofaflattermgfubieci* Andwhisthat^ie- 
plied the King^ Su:h a one^ thatftands there^ ani'wered the other.The King 
being angry,faid,>^^4/>y? m^ M after dare youpropofe this^ and in my f^re fence* 
Let them take him away and cut off his head. When they be^an to lay hands 
upon him, he caught hold of a wooden balanfter, and as there were many 
pulling of him. and he holding with a great deale of ftrength, the balan- 
fter broke. By that time the Kings anger was over •, and he commanded 
they Ihonld let him go, and gave order, that the balanfter fliould be men. 
ded, and that they (houldnot make a new one, that it might remainea 
wicnefle of the fa<ft, and the Memorial! o( a fubjed, that was not afraid to 
advife his King, w hat he ought to do. 

Such was the facility, with which, not only the Officers, but anyone 
whofoever of the people, might have admififion to the King,- fo that with- 
in the firft gate of the Palace, there was always a Bell, a Drumme, and a 
Table overlaid with a white varnifh, as it were, playftcred over 5 upon 
this,he that would not fpeak to the King in perfon, wrote what his requeft 
was, which was prefently carried to the King: But whofoever would 
fpeak with him, rang the Bell, or beat the Drumme, and prefently they 
were brought in, and had audience. 

The Drumme remaines even to this day •, but as it fccmeth to me, ra- 
ther in memory of the times part, than for any ufe of the prefent ; for du- 
ring twenty two years time, I do not remember, that it was ever beaten 
above once : and he that did it, was prefently paid his penfion in ready 
Baftinadoes •, for having difquieted the King, who was about halfe a league 
off. After this hard penance^ he was heard, and allowed, not to fee or 
fpeak to the King, but according to the cuflome now in ufe, in a petition. 
So that the Kings are now become fo retired, and removed from the fight 
of the people, and as it were, fo idolized, and mewed up in their Palaces, 
that they give them occafion to think in other Countries,that the King of 
china never fuffereth himfelfe to be feen, and that he is always fliut up in 
a glaffe, and only flieweth one foot, and fuch like things. 

He who firft put himfelfe in this manner of living, vJZSFamLie^ the 
Grandfather of him that reigneth at prefent •, he had fome occafion to do 
it, becaufe he was fo fat, that it put him to great paine and carry 
himfelfe in publick, with that Gravitie and Majeftiey that is proper to a 
King- and therefore he did exempt himfelfe wholly from tbistrouble* 
He gave no (Audience ; he went not to the facrifices •, he went not out in 
publick: neverthelefTe he was a perfon of great prudence and judgement 
in managing the government : He was much eftecmed of the Mandarines^ 
though he made little account of them. He ufcd to fay many times,whcn 
any one was troublefome by replying often with their memoriallsor pe- 
titions, in which kinde the Chine([esziQ very itnportunate, JrvasaKing^ 
findgovmud before this fellow rvas borne ^ and yet he rvilltrndertake to teaeh me. 


Chap.zz. The Hijiory 0/ CH 1 3\( J. iii 

His Sonne, who ruccceded himjchangcd alfo the former falhion. as al- 
fo they that foUowcd, going out indeed in publick, but fo moderately, 
that ic is only foretimes in the month to hold a Koyal Audience^ and fonre 
times a yeare they go out of the Palace, and our of the City, to Sacrifice 
at the foure feafons of the yeare,to Heaven^ and to the Earthy in a Tem^k 
built for this purpofe without the walls of the City. 

This Temple is truly Rojall^zs well in the greatnefTe thereof, as in the 
exquilicenclTe of the workmanfh^.p .• the figureof it is round, with three 
rcwes of pillars one above another, for it (lands as ic were on a Hill or 
Mount compaiTed about with thofe pillars. The wall of the Temple be- 
ginneth at the top of the third row-, there are foure paire of flaires by 
which they afcend co it. placed towards the foure windes, all of white 
marble and very well wrought. 

The Temple o{ Nank/m is a very perfect and compleat piece of work- 
mandiip, it hath five lilcs fuftained by pillars ofwood, which have no 
painting or ornament upon them, except on thch Pedcflaf/s, that it may 
bee feen that each is made of one entire piece ofwood. Truly they are 
the goodlienr trees, the biggeft, higheft , moft uniform and equall(al- 
though they are very many}that can be imagined. And as for my part, I 
confefTe it is one ofthe remarkable things I have feen in Chim-, and that 
one fliall hardly find in all the refi: of the world, fo many trees of that 
beauty auduniformitie. The5^^//;?g-isallgui!ded,and although it bea- 
bovezooycares fmce it was done, and that it be farre remote from the 
eye of the King,fthe Sacrifices not being made therein, which are wont 
to be performed only at the Court, where the King refideth) yet it dotli 
to this day keep its fplendour. In the middle thereof arcraifed two 
Thrones made of the moft pi ecious marbles,on one of them theKing ufed 
to fit when he came thitherto facrifice; the other was left empty forihe 
Spirit^ to whome the Sacriffcc was offered. The gates are all adorned 
withplatesof Copper, enriched with feverall works and embofliTients, 
all gilt: without the Temple are many Alters,\vith the ftatues of the Suf7w^ 
Moon, Planets, Spirits, Mount aines^ Rivers &c. Round about the Temple are 
feverall cells»They fay that ancientlythcy were Baths, where the King 
and the Miniffers that were to Sacrifice,did waflithemfelves.The Grove, 
which flandcth onthercrt of the plaine, confifteth of feverall trees, bi.t 
the greateft part are Pines; not fo much as a Twigge of them may be cut 
off under mofl grevious penalties. The wal char encompafTeth it is cover- 
ed with glazed riles,fomeofyellowcolour,others of green. The circuit 
thereof is twelve miles. 

To this Temple, zsl faid, theKing cometh, and when he cometh 
forth, the wayesare Barracado'ed, leaving only free thit part through 
which the King is to pade; who bringeth with him (o many Eunuches^ 
who encomcpafie him, fo many Officers that sccompanie him, and fo 
many Souldiers that guard him, that it is altogether impolTible for him 
to be feen, cfpecially being carried in a Sedan. i 

Thcfe aie the only occafions, wherein the King eltlier appeareth 
or goeth abroad, All the reft of his time he f^aieth at home in his Palace, 
like a King of Bec?,withouc either feeing or being feen. Many are perfwa- 


m IheHiftoryofCHLK^. ^^^^Ta 

ded, that this is not to live like a King, but hkc a criminall Pcrfon con- 
dctnncd to pcrpetuall impiifonmcnt. How ever,it fcemeth to mt a great: 
matter, that a man, without being feen, by his power only fbould be the 
moft reverenced, the moil obeyed and feared, of all the Kings in the 
world. And as for the prifon, if we will call his PaUce fo, it is very large 
and pleafant for to give him delight, befides that he hath thelibertie to go 
out wh^nfocver he pleafetb,& his habitations therein are fo commodious, 
and full of all manner of emertainment.ofpleafureand recreation^that he 
haih no need to feck abroad v^herewith to content himfelf. 

His PMccSj laying every thing together that is contained in them, I 
think are the beftthat arc to be foundinthe world.Thofeof iV^^^^^iw?, 
which are the biggeft , containe about five miles in circuic . Thofe of Pe- 
kim^ are fomewhat lefle, but much the better. Thefe are not all one P^- 
/^?ce,butmany,5atagooddifi:anceonefromtheother.That of the King^ 
That of the ^.eenUhzi of the Prme.That of the Younger Somes.That of 
his Daughters who are married. That of the Secorjd and Third ^eer}s,Yot the 
Concubines there are fourc, at the fourc corners, and are from them na- 
med the Palaces of the Ladies. There arc alfo iome Palaces for the old and 
Penitent women, which they call Lemcum^ that is, the cold Palaces. Be- 
fides there are colledges for the Eunuehes^^ox th? LitteratiyPriefis^ fw>iing' 
w^^3C<JWf^/4;?^&c. and almoft infinite habitations for fo many Offices 
as there are there within, and for that multitude of people that are em- 
ployed there, who are at the leaft 1 7000 perfons* 

The ftrudture of the Palaces is very cxa(5t,having many things in it af- 
£er the manner of ours, as Arches jBalanfiers^Columnes ixtid^{\xc\\\^e.<Q^ 
Marble excellently wrought, with feverall little workes and curious en- 
richments,as alfo emboflements, or figures in ?*^//>i'f,fo well raifed and 
ftand ing out, that they feem to hang in the aire. That which is wrought 
in wood, is all varninied over with their Charan^ painted and guildcd ve- 
ry exquifitely. 

The H^//^andRoomes, although they are not, as it is here reported, 
one of Gold, another of Silver^ another of precious ftones, neither do 
theyufe any hangingsj yet the hand of the Archited, and the penfilof 
thepainter doth fupply all other ornaments. The Bafe Courts are very 
neat and fpacious. There are alfo many pleafant Gardens, and a River 
which runneth among the Palaces , and yeeldcth them much delight with 
his windings and turnings. There arc many artificial! mounts with very 
rare Beafts and Birds, many Gardens made with exquifite diligence, and 
all manner of curiofitie.There was a certaine King among them, who be- 
ing difcontented at the fpoile which the winter made in the beauty of the 
trees, depriving them both of leaves and flowers, commanded that 
many artificiall ones fhould be made, with great labour and cxpence^ and 
little fatisfa(5lion of the Magiftrates, who did much blame him. 

The whole fabrique is encompaffcd with two walls that have foure 
gates opening to thefourewindes,^/!/?, Weft^ Northland Southland this 
laft is the chiefeft, and maketh a beautifull and fightly facciata or afpe(5t 
tothe Palaces, 

At every gate there {land every night five Elephants (which are not 


HAP .11. TheHiftory of (^Hl^A. 1 15 

bred in that Countrie, but come from other parts) with their Souldiers 
belonging to thenijand the whole wall round about is guarded withSoul- 

Within the faid Gates/here is a Court able to containe 30000 Perfons^ 
and there ftandech al waies a Guard of 3 0000 men . 

At the uper end of this Court there are five Gates, which lead into a 
very large Haloi the Palace-^'in the midfl whereof is placed a RoyalThrom^ 
which ftandeth empty, ard is caWcd^Tk Throne of courtef!esjbcc:iu\c all 
they, who go oiitjdo make their reverence to it, as you (hall hear anone. 

As for the Women,there is only one of them, which is the Kings true 
wife, and hath the name of i/<?4f«H^«, which fignifieth Emprefje-^and is 
acknowledged for fuch, having her feate behind that of the Kings. There 
ate alfo other fix Women, who have the title of Queens, and are alfo 
much refpedcd. In the Palaces o^Nankim, which becaufe they are emp- 
ty, are more eafie to be feen, there isa^^jf^Z/Tv^r^/^^raifed upon feveiall 
fleps, and a cloth of ftate over it, with two Royall feates, one for the 
King, and the other for the Queen. And lower behind that, there ftand 
fix,three on the one fide, and three on the other, for the fixQneens. The 
King hath thirty Worn en morcj who are all much honoured and refpec- 

The other Ladies of the PMce^vj\\o as they fay, are about 3000 in 
number, have tht^ir Appartments in the foure Palaces above-faid, and are 
bcautifull Damfelsjfought out on purpofe through the whole Kingdome. 
To thefe the King goeth, when he pleareth^ and to which of them liketh 
him befl. 

The prefent King hath the reputation to be chaf^e, and they ufeto f-iy 
of hini; Pajcti Cum/.hat I'^Jje goeth not to the PaUce^.Thsre have been for- 
merly other Kings,liketo him in this,whoare much commended in their 
biflories^ as on the contrary, others who are much blamed-, fuch was one 
of them, whofe bcaflial appetite, not being able ro determine to what ?^- 
/4<rf, or to what part of it he fhoald go, uffd in this irrefo!ution to fuflPer 
himfelf tobe leadand guided by beafts,th.u is/lie had a little chariot 
drawn with Goates, in which he rid to the Palaces ^ and wherefoever they 
cntredjOr ftopped,thither he went in. 

Another, to Hive himfelf the labour of goins^ to the Palaces^ caufed 
Pi(5turcstobedrawnofevervLidie,and according as he fancied each 
Picture, he fent for the originall to be brought to him •, leaving the 
beauty ofeachoftheminthepowerofthe Painter, (he being ftill made 
the fayrefl, who.n he favoured moftjOrfrom whom he received the 
befl Prefent. 

But concerning theKings children.,if the Empreffe and true wife of the 
King, hath a fonne,at what time foever he be borne,hetaketh place of the 
rcfl .• but if Ibee have none, the firft fonne of any of his women whatfo- 
ever, taketh place-, although the King dcfire,that another fliould have the 
precedency- So it happened to Famlie^ who although he had none by 
his lawful wife, the Emprejfei,yet had two Tonnes, one by a waiting maid, 
which was the eldef^, and another younger fonnc by one of the Qieenes 
his ^oncubms 5 which fonne he loved very much-, and by reafon of the 

Q particulai 

11^ TheHiJlory of QHl^A. Part.i; 

particular affection he bore him, would by all means leave bim the King- 
dom, fayingjThat by reafon he had no Sonne by his lawful! wife, the fuc- 
ceffion was not due by right to any of the rcft,but that it belonged to him, 
t6eled which of them he pleafed; andbecauf^ the elder was the Sonne 
of a fervantjhe chole rather to leave the Kingdomc to the other ♦, notwith- 
flandingjthe Officers of the Court did very ftoutly oppofe him, faying. 
That fincc he had had commerce with that fervant,{he was cnoblcd by a 
fuperiour law, and that her fonne^bcing the eldeft,he ought not to lofe the 
rights and priviledge of his birth. There happened upon this a 'Tragedy^ 
with feverall adts of difcontent. For the King perfifted to carry on his in- 
tention, and the Officers in refifting him: whereupon many loft their of v 
fices, the King taking them away -^ others left theirs of their owne accord, 
and having laid downe the enfignes of their dignity,hung them up at the 
gate of the Pahce^ and departed to their own houfes, defpifing at once the 
honour, profic, dignity and revenue of their places, only for the defence 
of reafon, and of the laws and cuftoms of the Kingdom. A courage wor- 
thy to be imitated, in divine affaires at leaft, ifnotinallfecularcaufes.At 
length the King, being no longer able to contraft, was forced, bcfides his 
wont,to hold a Rojall Atidienee^zvi^. taking his eldeft fonne,now as Prince, 
placed him next bchinde him, and (hewing him to th^ Mandarines, he re- 
commends unto them the care of the publick peace, and quiet without 
doores, affuring them, that within the Palace all was quiet, and that Thai 
chdm^ that was the- name of the prefent Prince, fliould fucceed him with- 
out fayle in the Kingdom, as in effect it fell out. So prevalent is reafon_, 
and the conftancy of Counfellours even againft the moft powerfulKings. 
Among the Domefticks of the Palace^ the Eunuchs mzke the greateft 
number.- In the year 1626. there were reckoned to be 12000. of them, 
and for the moft part their number is very little greater ; or lefTe. They 
are all diftributed into their Pdlaces^ Colledges^ CUjJes , Tribunals , ^ndOccu- 
fations : So that within the Royall Palace^ there arc as many Tribunals^ to 
decide caufes, as there are without 5 not to fpeak of the womcn,who have 
their juftice apart • there being among them fome, who are appointed to 
governe and judge the reft, and to decide their differences • as alfoto con- 
demne and punifh them : and this, no more than is neceffary. 

The firft and principall ColUdge oi iht Eunuchs^h called,^// Li Kien^^zuA 
confiftethof the great ^^^r^^^m of purity-, of the chancery within the 
Palace^ and of many Aififtants, who are always advanced in the fame O/- 
ledge according to their examinations and trialls. Thefe always accompa- 
ny the Kings perfon •, and when he gocth abroad, have the place next his 
body. Thefe may enter without being called ^ and, the manner of the 
Kings governing, being by way of petitions, and refcripts, every thing 
paffeth through their hands. 

r.'Next followeththe CoUedge^ which they call, Thum Cham ^/^,which is, 
as it were,a Soveraigne Tribunalloi )w[i\cc^ over all the Eunuchs, This cau- 
fetb their perfons to be arrcfted, this condemneth and caufeththera to be 
puniftied jand not only the Eunuchs , but alfo other perfons of great Jutho- 
y//)', in matters of high concernment are remitted to them 5 and it is the 
meft rigorous Tribunal oijudkc of all thofe in China, The Preftdcnt is alfo 


GHAP.n. 1 he Hi/lory of CHI^/1. uV 

Captame of the Kings guard, which confifteth of pooo. men, 6000. foof 
and 3000. horfe. In time of vvarre he entreth inro'the Coumell of wane 
where he is allowed the higheft place. 

There are alfo other Co/ledges and Trihutids 5 as thofe of feverall Trea- 
furies, the Treafurie of Jewells ^ of rich Moveables j of Habits^ of Maga^ 
zines^ &c. 

There is alfo a Colledge of ^-udiciall i^firologers, who obfcrve the flars 
and the motion of the Heavens, who together with the chiefe Mathema^ 
tkian^ who is always a Mandarine abroadjdo make the i^lmanacke for the 
year following. 

There is a ^tf/Z^t/^^ of particular Priejls^ c2\\tdLAon Su^ (^oxth^Bonzi 
are not adniitted, neither may they enter into the Kings Palaces) thefe 
have the charge of the Divine fervice, the Chappells, Offices, and Sepul- 
tures of the dead ^f. There are alfo C^//f,53f^(?^ of Mufitians^ Comedians ov: 
Flayers^ PaJraers^ Geldfmiths, every one performing his office rcqui/ite to 
a well ordered Common-wealth. 

Without the Palace many are prcfeifls of the publick works., of the 
guards which keep watch every night without the Palaces^ of the 
Kings fepultures, of the Gabells and Impofitions, and other fuch employ- 
ments , by which they grow very rich: and by reafon they have no chil- 
dren (though ihey arc moft of them married,) they make great expenfes .• 
they have fumptuous Country- houfes without the City, and within, Pala- 
ces full of all delights, richly fui'nifhed3& a ftately traine of Servants,Their 
fepulchres are the mofl coff ly, they have the ftrongefl perfwafion ofthe 
Tranfmigration ofSoules^ and,that they might be well provided when they 
take their next new forme, are the mofl devouteftworfliippcrs ofthe I- 

The Eumchs arc exempted from all thofe Courtefies & complements, 
which others are obliged to pay the Mandarines •,as,lighcing off their hor- 
fcs, or coming out of their chaires vi'henthey meet them. In the Court 
they are not permitted to have many fervants after them , nor to weare ve- 
ry rich apparell, and but few are allowed to be carried in a fcdan, yet al- 
mofl all of them are fufFered to ride on horfe- back. 

When in the Palace there is not an Eunuch that is the K.\ng% favourite 
the Eunuchs which live without the Palace are wont to make great Court 
to the Mandarines, lend them their faire and commodious houfes, and 
endeavour by all obfervance to gaine their good will. But if it happen, 
that the King have an Eunuch loins favourite ^^s fomctimcs it falleth out, 
prefcntly they grow infolent, the governments are conferred upon them, 
and then they get the upper hand. 

Thclaft King had an Eunuch^ who arrived to all that grace and favour 
with him, that can be imagined : this fellow governed with fo great info- 
lence and T'^ranny^ that he apprehended,chafl:ifcd, and put to death, even 
Perfons ofthe greateft J^alitie, To touch him, though but in imaginati- 
on, was an excefTe of Treafon. And though the Chincjfes are very free and 
bold in fpcaking the truth, even to the King himfelfe, yet none durft fpcak 

The Princey who is now King, undertooke the bufmclTt^ who only told 

ii6 The Hi/lory of CHl^d. Pa r x.i . 

the King his father, that h IS fubjedls Perfons of worth and quality were 
ill ufed. This was fufficient ro banifh the Bumch out of the Palace, who 
at length miferably ended his daycs. For as foone as the King was dcs^d^ 
he poyfoned himfelfe ; and at the {lime time put a period co his favour and 
his life-, but not to the peoples hatred, who as foone as he was dead» drag- 
ged him about the ftreets, and tore him to pieces •• All his goods were 
confifcate to the King:they amounted to agreatvaluc/or there wasfcnrcc 
any body who had not formerly prefcnted him, and many had given him 
very rich prefencs. Among orher things there were found two chefls full 
of Pearle only •, it was (aid, he had robbed the Kings Treafury of theni. 
The fumptuous works, which were cither begun or ended through the 
whole Kingdom, in honour of him, as Temples to place his itatue in 
(which they call Temples cf the livings andufe toere(5i; them to eminent 
perfons, who have deferved well of the King and Kingdomc j Palaces^Tri- 
nmf hall Arches^ and fuch like fabriqucs,wcrc all caft down to the ground, 
leaving no other memory of them, than a comedy, which was prefently 
madeofhira, and is yet adted to this day, concerning his difgrace and 
driving out of the Palace, 

.' Now becaufe fome of thefe Emuchs^ate many times difmifTed, and tur- 
ned away, others grow old, and many die, from time to time there are 
young ones chofen in, to be put in their places: upon this account there 
comes almoft infinite of thefe Eumchs to the Court, who are made fuch 
by their parents-,cither for the profit which they make by it, becaufe they 
are always bought of them for a price, or elfe for the advantage they may 
receive by them, when they come to preferment in the Palace,or for thofe 
other conveniences, which are certaine and alfured to perfons of this con- 

At every eledlion, there are chofen about 3000 of them 5 at what time 
they principally confider in their choife, their age, good (liape and beha- 
viour, their fpeech and gracefull pronunciation^ but above all, that they 
wholly want that, which they pretend to have left, and that they be com- 
ip\t2it\^ caflrated'^dXiA moreover, every fourth year they are vifitcd.leafl 
any thing (hould grow out againe, which hath not been well taken a- 

When the ele(5lion is done, the reft are fent away from the Court, and 
thofe that are chofen, are defttibuced to thofe lodgings, occupations and 
offices, to which they are to apply thcmfelves. This is done almofl, as it 
were by d£ftiny,for without obferving of them any more than a few days, 
fome are put to ftudy, and go to the Collcdges of the greatefl credit, 
honour and profit, others are chofen for Priefls, others for Singers, Co- 
medians, &€. And others for the kitchin^ and fuch like meane and labo- 
rious occupations^ 

This is that which palTeth in the P^/^f^ within the gates in whatap- 
pertaincth to the Kings pcrfon and fervice. That which pafieth without 
doores is alfo very particular, and with fo much cxadnefTe, that it excce- 
deth all Hjperkle :and although the kingdome be fo vaft and large, yet it 
is not fufficient to hide one guilty perfon, that would make his efcape* 
The very trees fecm to be afraid to cover him with their fliadc. If a per- 

Chap.zz. TheHiftou of CHI^A. 11^7 

fon of qualirie be to be apprehended, they fend the Minifters of jufticero 
him-, who have no more to do, but to throw the cord or chaine at his 
feet-, the which he hfmfeffe takcth up, and putteth about his neck^ as if it 
were a chaine of Gold; and the very name of thefe is fufficient to flrikf ^ 
rerrour in any. 

In the City of Sncheii in the Province oiNadim, there lived a Manda- 
rwe, a grave Perfon^ who had pafTed through moft of the greateft Offi- 
ces in thcKingdome, with gi'eat fatisfa(51:ion and good liking of the peo- 
pie,it tvas in the time of that powerfull EuneuchjOivihom we fpake even 
now y this man had intelligence that thefe Minifters of juflice would 
be fent to him, he flayed not their coming, but made'a banquet to hiskin- 
dred and friends, toward the end thereof going out, as if it had been upon 
fome other occafion^hecaflhimfelfeoutofa^Balconeinto a fiQi Pond, 
where he drowned hfmfelfe. His Guefls feeing him ftay fo long, went 
out to looke him , and found upon a Table a paper having thefe words 
written with his own hand , Turning torvards the Palace^ I prforme the re- 
verence due to my King^whom I have alwayts endeavoured to fervc %vhh refo- 
Ititwns becoming afatthfullfuhjeB : and it is }wt reafonable^that I fl^ould fujfer 
from the hand of an Eunuch affronts worthy a hafe and criminall Perfon. 

There needs no more than two letters fent from the King, and put in 
any place, to make it remaine,3s it were, inchanted .• fo that, if they want 
anything in the Palace, as Cha, Fruit. &c.itisfufficienttofend to the 
Countrie, where thofe things are they defire,to give them notice only,and 
to fet up thofe two letters, Xim Chi^ that is, the mil of the King, and pre- 
fently every thing is made ready, and none dare ftir fo much as a leafe of 
it. The fame thing hapneth when there is any extraordinarie bufineffe 
to be done, which carrieih fome difficultie with it*, for it isTuificient to 
fet up the two letters above-faid, and all oppofition is levelled, as it fell 
out when the King gave the houfes of an Eunuch^ who was a prifoner, to 
the Fathers of our company,for a burying place, by clapping the faid let- 
ters upon tliem. 

In all the Cities of the Kingdome every monetb, on the firft day of the 
moonc the Magiftrates aflemble themfelves at the tribunall of the Gover- 
nour before a Throne, where ^replaced i\k Royall En^gncs-^and there 
they do reverence to them in the fame manner, as they would do to the 
King hirafelfe, if he were prefent. They doe the like alfo on his birth day. 

At thcbeginning of every years each Province fcndeth an EmbafTa- 
dour to vifit the King-, and as often as they write letters to him, they 
do not fend themby wayofthepoft,buraprincipall Mandarine goeth 
to carry them. But their mcmorialls, or petitions they fend by the Poft. 
Every three yc€res,all the great ii/W4r/>;^^ofthe Kingdome, go to do 
homage to the King. 

None may enter into the 5^;y4//P4/4^^;, no not into the firft gate, if he 
be clothed in Mourning, neither do they go to make their reverence in an 
ordinarie habits but in that extraordinarie one appointed iotCottrtefies , and 
the Magiflrates are to put on a red garment* 

None,of what condition foever,may paffe before the gates of the Pa- 
lace on horfe-back, nor in a Sedan, nor in any other manner, except on 


1,8 WkHijlory ofCHLT^^. ¥I^i. 

foot, no not ii' they be women-, and by how much the ^ditie of the 
Perlon is the greater, fo much the further off is he to hght^ and goa- 


All the Officers and Petfons of ^^i/V/^, who come to the Court, are 
prefently obliged either in the morning early, if they come, or late at 
niohtjif they go out,to go toKtm Chaofi\2t iSjthe Court of CerememesyV^s is 
abovc'faidjand before the Roy ail Throne^ which is placed in a Hall, al- 
though the King be not there, who at that hourc is for the moft part in 
bed, and when all that came in that morning, are a(Tembled,( there being 
no morning that there is not a good number of them) the Mafter of the 
Ceremonies commeth, and with a loud voice declare th the Ceremonies ^ 
which every one ought to performe, and they all in the fame manner put 
them in execution; and if by misfortune any one committeth an errour or 
doth any gefture not reverently enough, it belongeth to the Maftcr'of the 
Cenmomes to give the King notice thereof by a memoriall,as in like man- 
ner doth the Pcrfon that is culpable, accufing himfclfe,and requiring 
fomc pe:nance for it .• but this is done purely out o^Ceremopjy, the king ne- 
ver taking any heed to it. 

All Embaffadonrs are obliged likewife to the fame Ceremoms^vjhcn 
they enter into the Court, or go out thereuf: they ufe to be lodged in one 
of the Pakces ,'^hlch are within a fpacious circuit of wal,neere to the Roy- 
al! PaUce, and are alwayes kept in a readinefle for that purpofe, where 
they are royally treated, and at great cxpence^ but they may not go out4 of 
that circuit, and if they would have any thing out of the City, it Is 
brought to them into that place; they neither fee nor fpeak to the King-, 
but only the Couneellof Rites by the Kings order treateth with them, and 
difpatched them* s 

The Portugheffes^ thofe two feverall times they werefcnt thither from 
the City of Mmcao, were not only treated with extraordinary magnifi- 
cence, and liberalitieibut had alfo that particular priviledge to lodge out 
of that place; and the firfl: of them that were fent, faw King Thienkhie^ 
the brother of him who now rcigneth, he was very young, and out of 
curiofitie to fee men of a ftrange Nation, he caufcd them to come to the 
PaUee^ and although it was at a good diftance, yet he faw them, and was 
plainly feen by them. 

Every one in the Kings prefencc fpeaketh to him on his knees, if he be 

in the RoyailMall withtheMagi{lrates,hcgocth away before they rife 

up, if he be fick and they come to vifit him, they fpcak to him in the fame 

manner, and before they rife off their knees a Curtainc is drawn before 

him, orelfc he turneth himfelfe on the other fide. When they fpeak to 

him, they hold in their hands before their mouth a Tablet of Ivory a 

palm and a half long, and three or foure inches broad: it is an ancient Cf- 

remony^ for in old time, when they fpakc in a more familiar manner io the 

King, out of reverence they held fomething bctweenjto keep their breath 

from coming to the Kings face, and alfo when they difcourfcd with 

him of many bufineffesjtl cy carried the heads of them written thereon, 

that they might not forget them. But now that they fpeake to the King 

at luch adiflance, and rot fo long, this Cnemome might be excufcd, 


C^^^;. TheHifioryofQUlD^A. np 

if it were not, that they will keep up an old cuftome. 

The Kings Garmems differ not in fafhion from thofeofthe reft, but in 
the ftufife, which is very rich, and in certaine Dragons which are woven 
and embroydered in them, and no other Perfons may weare them, but on- 
ly the King, and rhofe that are of kin to him 5 as the Prmces of the Blotid, 
and particularly the women,3nd theEmuds of the Kings family , but with 
foraediftindiion. The colour is yellow, not but that other colours may 
be worne in the Palace, for they weare light colours of all forts, but yel- 
low is fo proper to the King, and to all that he wears, that none elfe may 
ufe it. 

HoJi? the IQngs ofChimare Married. 

AT that time, when there were feverall Kings and Lords mChina^ they 
♦*cookeoneanothers daughters iox Wives ^ as they do in Europe^ Buc 
they being at an end, and the Momrchj reduced under one only Lord, and 
he being never to take a v^ife out of the Kingdom, it is neceflfary, that he 
marry a daughter of one of his fubje(5l:s. Peifons of j^4% will not give 
him their daughters • for he being to fee them, whether he likes them or 
no, and tbey being to be turned off, if they pleafe him not,no perfon of a- 
ny^alHy will fhcw his daughter, becaufe fhe may be rcfufcd, after fhe 
isfeen-, efpeciallyby reafon that the fight and triallof them is to pafTe 
further then to what is feen in the outward frontifpiece. They donor, 
nor may nor marry with their kindred ,though in never fo remote a degree: 
and therefore there is fought through the whole Kingdoma Damfellof 
twelve or fourteen years of age,of a perfed beauty,of good naturall parts, 
and well inclined to thofe vettucs, which are required in a ^een^ in the 
fame manner, as in ancient times the Shunamite was fought out for David^ 
and Efther for t^haffucrus : and this is done without exception of per- 
fons: whence for the raoft part the ^^e?? is the daughter of fome ^/^r- 

When they have found out fuchaone, as they looked for, they con- 
figne her to two ancient Matrons, who fee that which all may not fee- and 
if they finde no difpleafing marke, or deformity about her body, they 
make her runne toputherinafweat, that they may examine, whether 
there be any unpleafing fmcllfromit: when thefe Matrons are fatisficd 
with the diligence they have ufed, (he is brought to Court, with a great 
traine of women and men fervants, and with an equipage becoming a per- 
fon, who from hence forward doth apperraine to the King : to whom fhe 
is prefcnted in his Palace, who after he hath ended his complements, he 
giveth her to the Prince for a wife : and this is afterwards the true ^een.- 
Within the Palace, they appoyntto waite on her vertuous women, of 
prudence, and underftanding, that they may inftrud her, asweJIinver- 
tue, as in complements, and the flile of the Palace, endeavouring to breed 
her in fuch manner,that fhe may deferve the name of a ^jieeriy whom they 


120 ^ The Hi/lory of CBL^d. Pabt.i 

commonly call ^e Mu^ that Is, Mother of the Kingdom ; And as their 
Hiftories relate, there have been many of thefe of great worth and merit. 
They arc very commonly devoute and charitable -^and many of them have 
been prudent and verruous. 

Such was one of them, who being the daughter of a Mafon, after fhe 
came to be ^een^ fhc kept always by her an Iron Trewell -^ and when the 
Prince her Sonne, upon any occafion, behaved himfelfe more haughtily 
than became him, flie fcnt to (hew him that Inftrument, with which his 
Grandfather ufed to lay ftones for his living ; by which means, (he redu- 
ced him to his Devoir. In old times when Kings took it in good part to 
be reproved for their errours, KingTas hadaO/^^, who at the Royall 
Audience would tel him his faults without any indulgence:One day,whc- 
ther the King had given more caufc, or that the excefle was on the C^^^aos 
part, the Audience being ended, the King returned into the Palace very 
much offended, faying, He would cut off the head of that impertinent fel- 
low.The ^een asked him the caufeof his difpleafure.-thc King anfwercd. 
There is an unmannerly Clown^that never ceafeth to tel me of my faults, 
and that publickly, lamrefolved to fend one totakeoffhis head. The 
^een tooke no notice of it, but retired to her Appartment, and put on a 
particular garment proper only for feaftivalh^andvifits, and in this habit 
llie came to the King, who wondring at it, asked her the caufe of this No- 
njeltj. The £ls^en anfwered, Sir, I come to wifh your Majefty much joy: 
Of what, replied the King» That you have a fubje6t,raid flie, that feareth 
nor to tell you your faulcs^to your face, feeing that a fubje(5ts confidence, 
in ("peaking fo boldly, muft needs be founded upon the opinion he hath of 
the vertue and greatnefTe of his Princes minde. that can endure to hear 
him. There have been many other like to this Queen^ 

The kindred of the Maiden are prefently exalted to honours and em- 
ployments; The family is already accounted, rich and honourable ; and 
by how much more the ^ueen gaineth favour within, they without are 
fo much the more advanced. 

The reft of the iCings Sonnes arc married after the fame manner : on- 
ly they do not ufe fo much diligence,and caution in finding out the bride, 
but for the moft part fhe is.fought for, and found in the Court it felfe. But 
the manner of marrying the daughters is very different. There arc twelve 
young men fought out of the age of 17 on § years, theluftieftandthe 
handfomeft they can (inde ,• thefe are brought into the Palace to a place, 
where the Princcfie may fee them, andnorbe feen •, and when (he hath 
well con(io!ered them, (lie feledeth two of them : Thefe are prefcnted to 
the King, who chufeth which of them heliketh bcft, to be his Sonne- in- 

;^4w?//V,the Grandfather of the prefentKing, upon the like occafion, 
feeing one of the two young men prefcnted to him, very well cloathed, 
and the other,though neat, yet poorly habited, asked him, what was the 
reafon, be was not To well cloathed as the other. The youth anfwered. 
Sir, my father is poore, and cannot afford it me. Then replied the King, I 
will have you that are the poorcft for my Sonne, in-law ; and being thus 
chofenj he did afterward carry himfdfc worthy cf commendations. And 


C H A p .14-. T^he Hiftory of QH 1 3\C ^- i^* 

— \ , 

truly a youth ought not to be afliamed of his povertie, nor a King for ha- 
ving chofen a poorc man. The reft are fenc home againe, but are accoun- 
ted JSTo^Ie ever after, for having had the honour to be admitted to that c- 

Piefently two Mandarines oii\\Q moft confiderable in the Court, are 
appoynted for Tutours unto thtk Fum May{oi\\ty call the Kings Sonne- 
in-laws, to infl:ru6t them in learning, manners, and Courtly behaviour 
^c. He is obliged every day to make the foure ordinary reverences upon 
his knees to his wife, till (he hath brought him a child, alTooneasfheis 
delivered,this obligation ceafeth, although there are ftill a great many o- 
ther conftraints, and inconveniences upon them,which is the reafon,,tha£ 
no man oifyalitie will be the Kings Sonne in-law. For this reafon the 
ufuall cuftomeof chufing twelve is now left off, and if the King do ear- 
neftly invite any per fon of ^alitie^ox Litter ato of reputation, to be his 
Sonne-in-law, ( as it hath fometimes fa lien out) he excufcth himfelfe with 
all the skill and friends he hath, fotii the Pri?jcej[e take a didikc againfl: 
her husband (as it often happcncth) fhe gives him af fli(5tion enough for 
all his life. 

Chap, 24. 
0/the !J\(obilitie of China, 

THc Nohilitieoi china at this day is much changed from what it was 
anciently, when,by reafon there were many Kings and Soveraignc 
Lords, they matched into one anothcrs families,and the Kings themfelves, 
made many noble men, whom they ufed to employ, as alio their neereffc 
kinfmen, in charges and governments of tlie greatcft importance, and by 
this means their families continued on foot for many years. At this day 
the moft of the I^obilitie have been raifed by their learning,to the higheft 
honours, from a low condition, many of them having been the Sonnes of 
K^rtizans and Handicrafts- men^ as alfo, for want of learning, their fami- 
lies decline and grow againe into povertie, fo that it is a rare thing to fee a 
family laft to the fift generation : forasthefirft beginners, being forced 
by neceflitiv, and ftirred up by a defire to advance themfelvcs, ftudy and 
take paines to obtaine their degrees, and confequently Governments and 
other Prehemincnces ; So the reft, who follow, and are borne rich, and 
bred up in delights, and wantonnefTejfuffer tbemfelves to be carried away 
with the pleafures of living high, and the vices which accompany it,ftudy 
little, and fpend much, fo that in a /liort time, they finde themfelves re- 
duced to the firft condition of their Anceftours, Notwithftanding,there 
is fome fhadow and refemblanceleftof the nncknt Nehilitie, and it may 
ije reduced to five orders, not mentioning thofe common people,who are 
of no account. 

The firft Nohilitie is of the King^ Prince^ the Kings Children, and the 
Koyall family, which is prefewcd in this manner. The Frince fuccecdeth 
his father in manner above- fald, 

. R To 

1Z2 TheHiJlory of CHi:hCd, Part.i 

To his Tounger Somes the King afligneth a habitation^out of the Court, 
in fach a Province or City as fliall fcem beft to him, with Palaces, Furni- 
ture, and Servants fuitable to his high qualitie-, and lands and revenues, 
which he purchnfeth for him in the fame place-,as alfo a competent pcnfi- 
on out of the Kings exchequer. 

He that dwelt in the Province of Xenft, where I lived, for fometime, 
had,as I was informed,3^oooo Cvowncs ^er amtm^and the title of a King 
conferred on him-,and all the Officers of theProvince were obliged to pay 
hira refpc<ft fuitable to his Title; whence every firft and fifteenth day of 
the Moone they went to do him reverence in like manner, as is done ac 
Court to the King^ there being nothing wanting to him to make him an 
abfolute King, but only Authority and Jurifdidion-,of which he had no^ 
thing at all? neither over the people,nor in the government^ the King re- 
ferving all that to himfclfe^ neither hath he libcrtie to go out of the City 
and Territorie, where he hath his refidence. 

The Eliiefl Sonne fucceedeth his Father in his cftate and goods -the reft 
marry and make feverall Families, which ftil grow lefler, although they 
be great-, and the King giveth them an allowance competent for them; 
and ss they are removed flill to a further degree from the Kings bloud, 
fo like wife their penfion diminilheth,till it cometh to fourcfcorc Crowns 
a yeare, and there it ftoppeth^ there being none fo remote from the Rojall 
Stem?ne, that hath not,atthe leaft, this Revenue. Yet nevertheleffe, all 
this is to be underftood only, if thofe that are dcfcended from him, have 
certaine conditions, that are required of them-, for if thefc be wanting, 
they have nothing given them at all. 

The Firft condition is, that they be Males-, for if they be Females, there 
is no account made of them, and the Father marricth them to whom,and 
when he will-, but not toPrihccs'of the bloud-, (neither may the Sonnes 
marry, but with Women of other Families}and he is to marry them at his 

The Second contlitioff \s, thdXthe Sonne he lawfully kgonen on the true 
wife-, not only baflards being excluded, but alfo the Sonnes of their con- 
cubincSjif they have any. 

The Third is, that alfoon as his Sonne is borne, he do give a memorial 
to the King, to give him a name, which is to be regiftred in the roll. 

The Fourth is, that having attained the age of 14 yeares, he give ano- 
ther memoriall to the King, praying him to give order, that he may re- 
ceive halfe his penfion^ which he after receivcth every year at fet times. 

The Fifthj that when he cometh to age to be married, there be ano- 
thcr memoriall given to the King, wherein is required leave for him to 
marry, and then he rcceiveth the whole penfion which is alfigned him^ 

Thefeare the Primes of the Bloud, dcfcended from the King by a right 
wale line Thefe are not to live in the two Courts oiPekim and Nankim^ 
nor in all the Provincesindifferently.butonly in fome certaine places; 
and are fo numerous, that they are bcleeved to amount to 60000. and 
ate all maintained by the King, But they have this advantage, that 
ihey may help themfelves by their indu.ftric,in buying and felling, and 
playing the Merchants. 


Chap.Z4.. ' TheHipryo/CHlU^C^. ill 

For the government of them^andtoprefent their mcnnorialls to the 
King; to decide their controvefies^andtopunirtnhcm,ifthere be caufe, 
they have a particular Mandarine^ih^r. is proper to them. But if they have 
any fuits with others, who are not of the bloud Royall, fuch caiifes are 
under the cognizance of the ordinary juflicCjWho may reprove them, but 
hath not the power to punifh them-, but ifany of them commit any nota- 
ble iliforcjer^he giveth notice thereof to the King, who for fuch occafions 
hath a Caftlc in the Province ot A'/4w/?, encompaffed with a very high 
wall, whither he confincth them during Jife* 

The Secopd Order o^Ncbilitie is of the TitnUu^ or Noblemen that have 
Titles conferred upon them: who nocwithftanding are but the fhadov/ of 
what they were in former times, Thefe are divided into foure orders. 
The F/r^ they C2\\^ec}im, a new Title, and are only foure Families, 
who were raifed by the }^m^Humvu, and are defcended from foure vali • 
ant Captainesjwhoferved.thefaid King againft the Tartars, They arc, 
as it wcre,Dukes and Captaines-Generall of the Militia^ and do aflift in 
that QuAlitie, at certaine military adtions of great importance, when they 
are done in the Cities where they inhabit-, but they never go to the war. 
ThcSecondoxttieui. ^hc Third Pe. The Fourth Chi Ho Ei,^\\ cLUcknt 
Titles. They have Offices in the Militia, and a competent revenue, and 
all of them fucceed their Fathers in their power,authority,and command. 
They giveplace to many Officers of the X/«^r4^/: but, at an aflembly in 
the Royall Hall,they precede all of them. 

Thcr/6/yJor^^rcontaineth all them, who either have or doe admini- 
nifter in the Government of the Kingdome, whether they be officers of 
warre, as Ceneralls or Capaines.ot of the Politick and Civill Government'^ 
whether they be fuprcam,fuch as arc thtColaiyOx. inferiour Minifters , as 
well the Mandarines of other Cities, as thofeof the Court, even to thofe 
of the fmallcft Burghs and Villages ; neither are they excluded from this 
order, who neither Govern, nor have governed, but are in Ele(5tion to be 
received into the Government-, fuch are all Graduates, as Bo^iours^Licen* 
tiates znd SatcheloursJ.n a word,this order confilteth o^Litterati. 

The fourth is of Students ^who^dXthou^h they have never taken any de- 
gree, yet only for being Students, and that they are in a way to obtain 
them» arc put into the rank of the Nobtlitie^ and treated as fuch, although 
they have no priviledge or authoritie. 

The Fifth is of thofe Perfons, whom they call 2Nrm/,or cleanly mcn^ 
who live either of their Rents or Merchandize.- and when their wealth is 
much, their honour is not little: and although without learning their 
power and credit is not fo great as among us-, yet they arc much refpe<i- 
tcd by the people. 

R 2 GHAp, 

i^^! 1 he Hifiory ofCHLT^^. ' Pl^i. 


Of the Goyernment of China ^ anhof 
the Officers, 

THe principall Government of Cte4,whicherabraceththefl:ateof 
the whole Monarchic is divided mo fix Counctls^ called by them Vu, 
Thefe do not only governe in the two Courts where they do refide, 
but from ihefc, as from the firft movers, the reft of the government de- 
pendeth •• and to thefe perfons, caufes, and matters, according as apper- 
taineih unco each, all is fubordinate^with an incredible dependancc and 

Every one of thefe Ctf//;?c<r/j hath its Prefident, whom they call Cham 
Xft with two Afliftants,one of the left hand, who is the firft, called Co Xi 
Lamr, the other of the Right, named Gen Xi Lam, Thefe are the chiefcfl: 
and moft profitable offices of the whole Kingdom, except the CoUi^o^ 
whom \?ve will fpeak hereafter; fo that when a Fice-roy of any Province, 
even of the moft principall, after he hath given good Teftimonie of his 
abilitie, is to be preferred, he holdeth himfelf well provided for, not 
only if he be made Prefident of one of thefe Coumelsy but alfo if he come 
to be one of the Affejfonrsox AffiJlantSy either of the left hand, or the 

^Befides thefe, who are the chiefeft of the CoumeO^ there are ten others 
of the fame Tr'thmaU^ almoft all equall in dignitie^who are diftributed in- 
to feverall offices and employments. To thefe are added other great 
and leffer officers, as Notaries^ Scribes^ Secretaries j Mimfers, Captaines of 
^nfiice^ and many others, who are not ufuall among us in Ettrope. 

The Firft znd chiefeft CeufjcelljVjhkh is oi the greateft authoritie and 
profic,isther<?«w^/^^/5?4?^5called5'/P«. To them it belongethto pro- 
pofe the Mandates of the whole Kingdome, concerning Officers, to 
change and promote them .• for after any one hath been once provided of 
an Office, he alwaiesrifeth by degrees to greater employments •• nor are 
they ever excluded from the Government,unlefre it be for fome rorable 
fault committed cither by themfcIves,or by fuch as apperraine to them, 
as their Sons, neerekindred^and the like. TothhTrihmaS 2\(o belong- 
eth the power to reftore againe any that is turned outofhis ofGce.-as,if 
a AfW^n»<?, by fome accident, lofe his office, they can eafily put him 
in again: and upon this account they have very many, and very great 
bribes given them. 

The Seconals the CotmceU of Warre^ called Pirn Vu>. This alfo, as well 
as the CouncellofState, hath authoritie over all the Magiftrates of the X//" 
terati^^s alfo over the officers of warrCjand takcth cogiiizance of allaffiures 
belonging to the Militia^ and is of great profit. 

The Thirdis the Coimcell of Rites^ named Lim Pu^ This, although it 
hath not fo great command, nor bringeth fo much profit, is notwithftan- 
ding more confidcrable, becaufe the Mandarines thereof are of the Ko'jat 
Colkdge, and arc from hence preferred to be Cohi^ which is the chiefeft 


CHAP.Z5. lheEiflory(^fQUl3^A. 125 

dignitieinC/>/;?4, To this O//^^^^ doth appercaine all affaires concerning 
Letters^ Temples ^ Ceremonies, Sacrifices^ the Bonz,iyStrangers^ Embajfadours, 
and fuch like things. 

The fourth is the ComceUofthe Kings Patrimonj, called Hu Fu^ it taketh 
care ofthe Kings Revenues, Taxes, Impofitions, Gabells, Excife, Tri- 
bute, and generally whatfoever concerneth the Kings Domaine^ 

The fifi is called Cum Pu^ it is fuper-intendcnt over all publick v;orks, 
particularly the Kings buildings, as thofeof the Palaces that are made for 
the Kings children, for the O fficers- over Walls, Gates, Bridges, Cawfe- 
v^^aies, cleanfing of Rivers, and whatfoever belongeth to the Ships and 
BarkeSj as well for the fervice of the King and the pubJique, as for the 

The/AT? hath the care of all Criminall matters, and to infli(51: puni/Ii- 
raents ; it is called HimPn, and is Judge of the higheft Criminall matters, 
and or her things appertaining there to» 

Befides xhtkfix Cotincells^ which are the mofl: principal! of the Court, 
there are other nine Tribunnlls ^called Kicu Kim,\m\h feverall offices which 
do particularly belong to the Kings houfliold. 

Ihcjirfl is called Thai ListiyZs one would hy, The great reafon-. it is,as it 
were, the great Chancery of the Kingdom* They examine, as being the 
laft appeaic,the judgements and fentcncesof theTiibunallsofthe Court ^ 
and thither are brought nil fads of great momenr.It confifteth of thirteen 
Mandarines^ that is, one Preftdent^ trvo Collaterals^ and ten Counfelloars, 

The fecondls called Quan Lo Sn, and is as it were. High Steward of the 
Kings houfhold^ to whofe charge it belongeth to provide the diet, for the 
King, theQueen^ the Ladies ^ the Eunuchs^ and to have the laying out of the 
whole expc^nce of ihePalaccr, to pay the Salaries to the officers of the Court ^ 
and toallthofe that come thither upon publick buffncfTe •, to Embaffa- 
dours, which come from other Countries, and other fuch like 
haih a. Prefident^ two /^Jfejfors^^ndfeaven Cotmfellours, 

The thirds Thai Pa Cu Si\ and is, as it were, Chicfe M after of the horfe to 
the King, and they have not only the charge of all Horfes for the Kings 
fervice^ but of all that belong to the Ports, and generally of ail other?, 
which belong to the publick fervice of the Kingdom. It hath a Prefident^ 
SLV.dfeaven Connfellotirs, 

The fourth is, as it were, Mafierofthe Ceremonies and complements of the 
Court. It belongeth to them to affifi at all the Ceremonies of the publick 
Adions of the King, at feaflivalls, and other times and occafions which 
prefent themfelves, and alfo at the daily Ceremonies., which are performed 
in the Palace^ by thofe that come in, or out, as is abovefaid. It hath a Pre* 
fiaerit, trvo Ajfeffors^ and feaven Counfellcurs, 

Thefift is oi Rites inmore pardcular matters, and in that it is different 
from the firft, but it hath the fame forme with its Affeffors. It taketh care 
of the facrifices, of the Royall fepulchres, of Mountaines5Groves, and all 
that belong CO them, as Singers, Inftruments^ living creatures for facri- 

Moreover, China hath another Trihunall^ which hath only charge of the 
Memorialise which are prefented to the King, and is^as it wcre^ a Chancer^ 


of Rcqueftsj fo that fuch petitions, as are not approved of by thcrrij arc 
never criven the King. This Tribiwall was the occafion, in the time of the 
perfcctition of the Chriftiansi6i6, that when we would have given an 
account of the law, which we preached, and of the things which were 
imputed to us, our ivfw;^m// could never paffe, it being ftill rcje(5ted by 


There are other three in the fame form^wlth leverall charges & offices, 
Befide the abovcfaid Trihtwalls^xhcve. are two more, one called Quelij the 
other Tauli: thcfe, although they have their eye upon feverall Provinces, 
each upon thofc matters which appertaineto them^ neverthekfie their 
proper occupation and principall office is^ to take notice of the crrours and 
diforders of the Kingdom , and to advertife the King of his own fai- 
lings, if he hath any, as alfo of the faults of the Mandarines and their Go- 
vernment : and as it was neve r hard for any to tell the faults of others, yet 
thefe have a particular Talent in it, and doc it with great liberty, though 
many times with little Juftice. 

Their manner is to frame a i\/(r«?(?r/4//, and prefent it to the King (for 
thofe of thefe two Trihunalls do not paffe through theChancery o^Memo^ 
rialls) and then prefcntly, fas they call it, Fa 'C Heo that is,) to tranfTcribe 
it , and fo to fend a copy of it to the Notaries, whereof there are many de- 
flined for this worke. thefe write many copies of it, which are fentby 
1[he next ports, from the Court to be difperfcd through the whole King- 
dom .• and by this means it is prefently known every where, by whom, 
and againft whom, this Memoridl is prefented. & the mifdeeds contained 
thercin,of what quahcie foever they be. AfToone as this Memorial^ which 
they call Fuen, is publifhed, prefently the Magiftrate, or other perfon, a- 
gainfl whom ic is framed, is obliged to do two things^ whether it be with, 
or againft his will, (which is more ordinary.; Thefirji is, that he give in 
2 Memorial, noun his own defence, (fortoexcufe himfelfwereto (hew 
little humility,) but he muft fay therein, that the Tauli hath great reafon ; 
that he hath committed a great errour, and is in fault, and doth defervc to 
have a penance laid upon him, and that with all fubjedionj hewillfub- 
rait to any punifhmcnt, that (hall be impofed. Tbefecofid is, that he pre- 
fently retire himfelte, and leave the Triluml, and fo all Ads of Juftice are 
fufpendcd>fo that he neither giveth audience, nor endeth any fuite, uniill 
the King have anfwered his petition, and declared his pleafure thereon ^ 
• the which is fomttimes in his favour, and then he continueth his office 5 
andfometimesagainflhim^morcorlefTe, according to the quality of his 
faulf. There is no doubt,if^this way were executed with reafon and good 
confcience, but that it would be much in favour of Juftice, and the good 
Government of the Common-wealth; as on the contrary fide, it is an o- 
pen gate to many caufelcfTe troubles and difgraces. Itfallethout many 
limes, that a i^W^r/V?^ in pel forming his office, and acquitting himfelfe 
of the duty of his place, doth make himfelfe many cncmjcs. Some one of 
thefe, if he be a perfon that hath intereft with any that is an Officer of 
thofe wo Tribunals^ as kinfman, friend, d'c. he giveth accountof icto 
the Court, t he i\/fw^r/W/flyeth abroad, and God help the poorc Mania- 
rim. When they arc IciTei: Mandarines jZs Jffd^esy Jjfijlants to Govcrnours, 


Chap. 25. TkBifiorjof QUIU^A. hy 

or Mandarinei in iArtnts ; at one blow, they lay him flat on the ground* If 
they be great MandarineSy there is more difficulty.- but if they know, how 
to finde a hole in their coatcs^ and the Tanli and ^^// gee him in their 
clawes, they never give them over, till they have un-horfed them, fo that 
the King himfelfe is hardly able to favethem. 

The like accident happened to that Tyrant Ji», who in the year 1^26 
(being Xi cam in Nankim) raifed a perfecution againft tbe Chriftians, and 
caufcdtbe fathers to be baniihed, as fhall be related in its proper place- 
He arrived afterwards to the dignity of a CoUo •, and caufed fourc enfic^nes 
to be hanged out at the 4 corners of his VaUcCy (I was then prefent in the 
fame City that is in Hamcheu) and made other demonftrations of extraor- 
dinary joy. But whether it were, that the Lord would chaftife him for 
the perfecutions he raifed againft hisele(51:, or whether he deferved pu- 
nifliraent for any other particular crimes according to humane laws or for 
both together, aflbone as his orders were come, and before he was de- 
parted to go to Courtjthcre was fo terrible a Mtmoridl put in againft him, 
ihdit a Chrifti an Mandarine told me, it would not be polTible for him to 
hold up his head .- and fo he was prefcncly glad to take in his Standard 
and depart with ordinary Ceremonies, He was notwithftanding a politikc 
crafty man,and had purchafed with his mony in the Falace,i\^aQQ^ vvii[ 
both of the Ladies and the Eunuchs^ who are not wont to fell the?r favours 
at a low rate. Thefedidnotonly caufca i»/f^^r/V/ro be difpatched in 
his favour, but ufed means for him to be fent for to Court. At lenc'th he 
wentjbut after a few months there was another Memoriall given in againft 
him, and after that feverall others, to the number of twenty feven ^ and 
the crimes laid to his charge were fuch, that the King could not help him, 
fo that he was forced to quit his Government, and retire to his houfe. 

Beiidc rhefe two 'tribunals^ there is another which is fuperiour to all tlie 
reft, and isthefupreame dignity of the Kingdom-, to which none do ar- 
rive, but thofe of the Rojall Celledge^cAXtdi Han Lifj, after they have Go- 
verned a long time,and given fuch teftimony of their dilitie and integrities 
that never any Memoriall was given in againft them. They arc calkd by 
the name of Colao^ they are commonly but fonrey and may never exceed 
the number o^fix. 

The old King (Grandfather to him that reigneth atprefcnt)never made 
but one of them at a time . faying,That more were fuperfluons. Thefe 
have no particular office, but have an eye over the Government of the 
whole Kingdomc. We may not unfitly call them the fipreame Prcjidents 
of all the ComfellSj and of the whole Government, although they are ne- 
ver prefent at them, but affift the King at all difpatches of affaircs-and now 
that the King doth not ufe to be prefent there himfelfe, they alwayes affift 
in the Palace, to receive and anfwer all bufineffe, and the Memorialise 
which are every day given in. Thefc repoit them to the King, who pro- 
nounceth the laft fentence upon them. Thefe CoUi are very much rcfpe(5t- 
cd by all thcMagijlratesymd at fct times they do them reverence as to their 
fupcriourSjinapublickHall. TheO/^i ftandup, and all the Officers of 
the Court paffe before them in their order •, and when they come rioht 
over againft them, they turnetowards-themjapd make them a profound 


iiS TheHiftory of QHl^A. Parti. 

Reverence to the very ground. They call this (Ceremony ^o Tham,ih^z is. 
To paflfe the Hall. Their enfignes, or badges of honour, arc different ftom 
thofc of the reft, and their girdle, which they call Tu Xe, is richly fee \i^ith 
precious ftones. They only are allowed to v^eare it, and it is given them 
by the King, as in Europe Kings doe ufe to give Collars of their orders to 
their knights. And when they are fick, it is only to thefe, that the King 
fendcth to vifit them with Regaloes and dainties from the Palace^ and they 
do fuificiently gratifie the Eunuch that brings them, fonhe Icaft they 
give him is fifty crownes^ which is more in that Country, than 200 


Befide thefc fupreame and generall Governonrs at the Court, who do 
not only govern chat, but the whole Kingdom alfo, there are likcwifc par- 
ticular and ordinary Governours and Judges of every City, and thefe ob- 
ferve the fame manner of Government as well in the Cities and Townes 
of the other Provinces, as alfo in thofe of Pekim and Narjkim, where the 
two Courts are, as lliallbe related hereafter. 


Of the Government of the thirteen 

'E have formerly fpoken of the univerfall Government of the 
whole Kingdomc, which refideth in the two Courts^ it followeth 
now, that \vt (hould fpeak of the particular Government of the Provinces^ 
every one whereof is a large Kingdom. This Government refideth ordi- 
narily in the Metropolis ot chiefe City of each Province* In each of thefe 
there are five Tribunalls, that have a generall command over the whole 
Province^ and diftinc^ offices among themfelves. Of thefe five, two are 
fupreame, to which all others, both of the Cities and Townes, are fubor- 
dinate.- Bur they amon^ themfelves arc not fubje(5ted one to the other, 
but are immediatly fubbordinate to the King and the Royall TrihunaSs, 
Thefe confift of one Prefidentpx Iudge,without any Affiftam or Councel- 
lour, although they have many other Officers. 

The ^r/ of thefe two is the rics-roy of the Province, whom they call 
Tut Ham J or Kiun Muen. He hath power over all the Magiftrates, and peo- 
ple of the Province. He Governeth for three years, and hath conftant 
Po(ls,that come & go from the Court at fet times, being to give account 
ofwhatfoever palTtth in the Province. He is received into the City in 
great pompe and iiatc.When he is ready to depart thcCourt,raany of the 
officers of his Tribunal go thither, to receive him, others meet him a 
good part of the way, where from City to City he is honourably accom- 
panied both by horfe and foot .• And three miles before he cometh to the 
City, where he is to refide, there go out cercaine Captaines with 3000 
Souldiers to receive him, after thefe follow the Magiftrates, and after 
them an innumerable company of people. 


The Second of ice, which is alfo abfolute, is called C^a ^ven^ we have 
no Office in £»/<>;><?, that is anfwerablc to it: heiSiasitwerejr/y7fd«r o£ 
thli'r^jv/ lafteth only a yeare, it is of great rigour and much feared. 
H^Jiath authority to take Cognizans of all caufcs both CrmimH znd civilly 
qf^e LMilitia'^ of the Kings Patrimome-, fn a word, of all. He vifiteth' ^ 

chquireth, and informeth himfelf of all^ even to the Fice-roy himfclf.- the 
inferiour Mandarines and Judges he may puni(h,or rurne them out of their 
places. Concerning the greater Mandarines, \h^^^^ be caufe,he is to give 
in Memorialise Qr\d they are from thence forward fufpendcd from the 
fun(5tion of their Offices, till the Kings anfwcr come from Court. 

To him it belongeth to caufe the fentenccs of Death, given through 
the whole Prevince^xo be put in execution, in order to which he affign- 
eth the day and the City, whither all thofe that arc condemned, fliall be 
brought to him:and there he is prefented with a Lift oftheir names-, then 
taking his penfill, he maikcth fix or feaven of them, ffor if he prick more 
they count him cruell j thefe arc prefcntly carried to execution,and the 
reft returned to the prifons whence they came. It belongeth alfo to him 
to vifit the Wals, CaftleSjand publick places &c.He fettech forth with a 
great traine and pomp^having banners carried before him and other En- 
fignes of Rigour and Majeftie.This is ufually every year. 

There is another extraordinarie Officer of the fame name.He is crea- 
ted from time to time at the Qiieens requeft •• he hath great power and 
authoritic, but it is only in favour of Piety and Mercy: he vifiteth all 
the Prifons of the Province, and freeth all fuch as arc imprifoned for 
light faults,and that have no profecutours, and all thofe miferable wret- 
ches, that have no meanes to free them[elves:hetakethintoprotc(5lion 
fueh caufcs as have been reje(fted,and parties that could obtainc no favour.* 
he revoketh fuch fentenccs, as have been unjuflly given; he maketh him- 
fclf eProtedour of the poorc, and in a word, his whole authoritic is cm-, 
ployed about works of mercy. 

The Third office is the Treafurer, who is fuper intendent of the Kings 
Patrimonie through the whole Province, He is fubordinate to the Coun- 
ccll of the Patrimonie at Court. He hath wo Ajfiftants, one of the right 
hand, and the other of the left : each of thefe have their houfe and 7>/2«- 
nallmthm the circuit of the Treafurer s Palace.Uc hath under him 16 lefler 
Maf9darines,that have feverall charges and employments, befides other 
Officers great and fmall^ of which fort there are very many belonging to 
this Tribunall. 

To him it belongeth to ovcrlooke the cuflomes, excife, and other du- 
ties appertaining to the K;ing,of what kind foever: to regulate all weights 
and meafurcs, allfultes, controverfies, punifhments and fcntcnces apper- 
taining to the Kings Patrimonie, or at leaft to remit them to what Tribti* 
nail he pleafeth; to pay the ordinarie falaries,to allMagiftratcs,tothe 
Kings kindred, to the Captaines and Souldiers: to provide all cxpences 
for the examinations: to furnifh and give the badges of honour to all 
Graduates :to lay out money for the publick workes, as Bridges^ High- 
wayes. Palaces of the Mandarines , Ships for the Navy &c. In a 
word^hc is fupcrintcndcnt of whatfoever is fpcnt or received of the Kings 

S Revenue 

ijo TheHiJtouofCHI.K ^. Part.i. 

Revenue immcdiatly fiom the Governours, ludgcs and Tauii, each for 
his own precind j and though the fumme be never fo fmall, they rauft 
alwayes be paid in fine Silver, which is afterwards melted by the Treafa- 
nr into /;>^tff^, weighing fifty Crownes a piece, with the Kings ftanvp and 
the Founders name upon thcra^that in cale any of them be falfified, they 
might know whom to accufcj and in this forme they are returned into the 
Kigs Exchequer. 

The Revenue of the Province is divided into three parts ; one whereof 
is put into the Treafure of the City/or extraordinary expcnfes- the other 
into the Goffers of the Treafurer^fov to defray ordinarie expences. This 
T'reafurie^hdidc that the doores and locks are made as fccurc as can be,yet 
it is guarded every night by a conflant watch of Souldiers. The third is 
fent publickely to Court, but with a ftrong Guard. 

This Silver is put into round pieces of wood, fawed through in the 
middle and hollowed within, and joyned together with Iron hoops and 
both ends clofcd faft with plates of Iron. Within every one of thefe 
pieces of wood is conveighed as much Silver as two men are able to car- 
rie. Tlie revenue of the whole Kingdome(according to the fupputation 
of Father Matted Riccius^ who lived many yeares in china^ as appeareth 
by his book printed in the year 1 6i i )is faid to amount to an hundred and 
fifty Millions of Crtffl?;?^ .Father ^ohn Rodriquez^who alfo travailed much 
about Chinay and was very curious to know the affaires of this Kingdome, 
in a writing which he left behind him concerning the fourc notable 
things of C^/«'«, faith; That it doth amount but to fifty five J//iQf/^w,To 
make them both agree, my opinion is, that the whole Revenue is a hun- 
dred and fifty Millions,as Father Riccius faid-, & that which is brought to 
Court is but fifty five, as Father Rodriqutz, would have it; the reft re- 
maining, as hath been faid, in the Frovinces. As I have not made any dili- 
gent enquiry concerning this mattcr,fo I will forbearc to add any thing 
to the Teftimonie of thefe grave P^r/^^4^-?j. 

The Fourth Tribunal is called Can Cha Sci, and is, as it were, a Tribunal 
Criminak it hath JJfeJfourSyCouncelloufs, and 74«//. And, as every Province 
is divided into Shires, and Precin<5ls5 according to the number of the 
Cities thereof, it belongeth to thefe T4«// to vifit them, and to do juftice 
in the feveial places alfigncd them-punifhing M3lefa(5tours, and exercifing 
their jurifdi^tion, which extendeth it felfe even to the Souldicrie, and the 
affaires of the Seajif the Province be maritime. 

The Fifth Tribunall is ovevkatmr\g and letters, to examinCjand con- 
fer degrees , and the like,and is particularly kt over all them that have ta- 
ken the degree oiBatchelhr'^ but DoBors are exempt from their furifdi^i- 
on. There is a Chanallour over the whole Province^ who,at fet times, vifi- 
teth all theCities and To wnes,holding cxaminations,and informing him- 
felf of every ones behaviour-,and according as hefindeth it, he rcproveth, 
chaftifeih,and fometimcs depriveth them of their degree, but leaving 
them alwayes the libcrtic, as I have faid.of returning,(if they pkafe,jto a 
new examination. 

There are moreover in every City two, whom they call Mandarines of 

the Sciences^ Hioquan-^viho belong tothehmeTribunaH: but their ft^ 

rifdi^ion doth not cxund it fclf further than to the £atch(Urs of the fame 

- ^ City, 

C^.z6. TheHiftoryof CHIJ^/I. ^ 

City, and the tcrriroric thereof. And although they have not the power 

toconferreadegreejOrtotakeicaway,butonly topuniflKhem-nc-verthe- 
leffc it IS they that givethemthcmodtroublejby reafon^ that living al- 
wayes in the fame City,they often call them before them, examine them, 
&c.They are, as it were,Prefcas of the Claffcs. 

All thcfe offices whereof I have fpoken,have authoritie over the whole 
Province^ and over all the Cities5Villages and Townes thereof. 

But the Cities have moreover their particular Governmenr, a? arnong 
us in Europe. In every City there are foure principall AIaf?dafmes^ one 
whereof is Pre{ident,whom they call Chf FUj and is, as it wcrc^ Gover- 
nourof the City: the reft are Collateralls, they are called T'/?//?;^ C^v^ 
ThmFhuon^Chiu ^ort. Every one of thefc holdeth his TV/^///^^/ apart, 
and hath greater and lelTer officers belonging to him. 

Befidethefe, every City hath nineteen IcfTer Magifirates employed 
infeverall Offices fubordinare to the principall. Two whereof have a 
Freftdent and foure Comcellours^ the nine others have only one Prefident 
and an AjfiJliWt j^nd the other eight have only one Prefident, but they have 
all of them their Officers jMlniftcrs, and a convenient number of Servants 
belonging to their Courts. 

The Villages have a Judge and three Councellours. The Judge is cal- 
led C/'i H/Vw.Tbe Firfl: Counccllour fium Chim, The Second C/'w Phn. 
The Third Tnn StiJXhty have each of them their Palaces and Tribunals a- 
part, as alfo their fubordinateOfficcrs,Notaries and others. The Judge 
may give fentence of death, but cannot put it in execution^ 

Bcfides thefc Mandarims ^v^hich rcfide in the Cities and Villagcs5there 
are others who have not the power either to Chaflife or condemn, but 
only to make their report, and are, as it ^cxe^Referendaries. There are al- 
fo of them in Caftles,if they be grcat.and farre from any City or Village: 
thefe are made ordinarily out of the inferiour Notaries of rf/^»;?tf/5, for 
out of the great ones are commonly made the Councellours to the Judg- 
es of Villages. 

But it muft be obferved, that both the greater and the lefTer officers 
Ji^ve not fo much authoritie, as ours in Europe, Befides, every Hamlet 
(whereof there are almoft Infinite in C^/>;/i, no labourer, or husbandman 
dwelling either in City or Village, but in the Fields) hath a Head or Thi- 
thing-man called Licham. The houfes are divided by tens , like Tithin^s 
or Decur^es, with a Head or Tithing-man belonging to each, by which 
meanes the Government becometh more cafie , and the contribution 
which is exacted jmorc certainc. 

S 2 CHAP. 


Of the "Badges of Honour, or Bnfgne% 
of the Mandarines. 

Ll Officers,who either have,or have had c5 nandjhave their Enfigns, 
^ -hby which they are diftinguilTied.not only trom the people, but from 
others as well Litterati , as "Noblemen of another rank. Thefe confift 
in five things, that is,the Cap,the Hdit, the Girdle, the Soots^zJ^d the Gorvn, 
The Cav is of black Silk,lined with a certaine ftiffc & ftrong Stufte.They 
all of them have it made after the fame fa{hion> only in the Cap of the Co- 
ld there is fome difference, it is called in the Chinefje language Xamao, 

The Habit ^ ( for fo they call it, and we have nothing in Europe that an- 
fwerethtoit,)isarquarepiece,whichthey wearon their breaft, richly 
cmbroydered round about, in the middle wherof is the device of their 
Office and dignitie; and, as thofe are diverfe, accordingly their devices 
are different. It is called P/'/X?'- The Ar^^z/^r^rf/ of letters have an £4^/^, 
a Bearn^ a Bird of the Sunne, or fuch like ; the Magijlrates of armes, have a 
V anther, 2, Tiger^^n UnicornyH L'jPn &c. 
The (?/W/^,vvhich is not made to Gird them withall, for it isfo wide,thaC 
they are fain to faften it atthe fides.tokccp it from falling, \% called <X»on 
Tlm-^ it is foure fingers broad, and divided into little fquares^ it is faftcned 
before (it the Girdle be rich) with large Buckles of Gold or Silver : fome 
vveare them nine inches broad»Thcre arc nine forts of Buckcls, that is, of 
Bufalo^o't Rhimceroshorne,o£ Ivory ^oi Tortoife-Jhell^ of Lignum AquiUyOt 
CaUmbd, of Silver, Gold, and precious ftones. Every one may no: wear 
them indifferently according to their Fancies, but fuitable to the qua- 
litie of the Office which he bearcth. The laft Girdle ^vi\{\c\\ is of a 
precious ftone, called TuXeM given bytheKinghimfelfetotheC^/^/, 
when they enter into their Office, nor is any other fuffcred to wearc it. 

The Boots, (which they call ^/'y^,) are not ordinarie, but of a cer- 
taine particular make.They are all black.and turned down. 

The Vefly or Gowney is worne over their ordinary habit, and is in all, of 
the fame fafhion. It is large, loofe, and very becoming.The colour is at 
their own choife, but for the moft part it is modcft : but on Feaftivall 

Thefe are the Enfignes of the Magiftratcs , when ever they ap- 
pear in publick : for at home they leave them off,and wear only the ordi- 
narie habit of the Litterati: and in the fame manner they go among their 
friends to Banquets, and places of recreation, efpecially in hot weather. 
Their externall Enfigncs,when they go abroad, arc the Sedan, or Lit- 
ter, inlaid with Ivory, and richly gilded, all open, without any cover at 
top,to the end they may be the better feen. There are fome of them car- 
tied by two men, others by foure, others by fix, and fome by eight, ac- 
cording to the qualitie of the Mandarine, When there are fix or eight 
men, only foure do carry the Scdan,the others go by on each fide, and 


Ch AP.zy. Ihe Bijlory ofCHI^A i ^ 

take their turnes. The traine which followeth after them is more or lefTc 
^iccotdingtoihcdigmleoi the Magjftr ate : thofeof thcgreatcfl: ^alitie 
caufe two men to march before them at a great diftance, with a round 
ftaffe in the hands of each, offomething more than a mans length, only 
forterrour (for the king only may ftrikc with a round ftaffe) and all the 
way they go, they make a cry* Then follow two men bearing tv/o Tab - 
lets filvered over, whereon is written in great letters the Title of his dig- 
nitie, thencomefoureor fix more, trayling after them cudgells made of 
a great tree called Bdmbtt, wherewith they are wont in thofc Countries to 
give the Ba/Iimdoto Delinquents^then follow others with chaines in their 
hands, and other inftruments of Torture, A httle brfore the Sedan there 
marchethone withanWw^r^//45orSun'Skreen, and fometimes two • the^7 
arc madcof fiike, and are as biggeas three of ours. Clofe by the Sedan on 
one fide, is carried a great gilded fanne, fo bigge that a man is hardly able 
to beare it,with which the Sun is kept off from him/or the Umbrellas fcrve 
only for ftiew and Parade. Immediatly before the Sedan is carried the 
Kings feale in a gilded Coffer, placed upon a Machine^ (like to that which 
we ufe in our Countries, to carry the Images, and Rcliques of Ssints 
upon in proccfTion) underadoathof (btc borne up with foure fmall 
pillar*;. This is carried by two men. Behind the Sedan follow the Paces 
and other people, both on horfe and foot. ^ ' 

When he goeth through the ftreet, if there beany thing unfeemly at 
the windowcs, as cloathes hanged out a drying, or fuch like things, pre- 
fenily they are taken in .- if they meet with any BcerSj or Hearl^s, fuch as 
the dead are carried to buriall withall,thcy overturnc them to the ground: 
people of Qualitie turne downc fome other ftreet fo avoyd mectincr of 
thcra : they that are on horfe-back alight : they that are carried in chaires 
are fet downe, & the people fet themfelves in ranke on both fides the way. 
If it be a great Mandarm^xhe multitude that (f and looking upon him, keep 
a profound filence. In the meanc while he fitteth in his chaire with fo 
much gravity and compofure of body, that he doth not fo much as move 
his eyes ; for to but lookc on one fide or oiher would in them be eftcemed 
a notable fault. 

When they make their firft entrie into any City or Towne, befides the 
traine which is appoynted to accompany them, all the way they oq^ and 
the Souldiers which guard them, through the Towncs and Cities where 
they paffe, and the Officers of their owne Tribunal^ who go many dales 
journyes ofPro receive them, and the Souldiers oi his owne Government 
who go out many miles to meet them, and all the inferiour Mandarines, 
who go out of the City to congratulate thein • at the gates of the Towne 
or City, ftandalltheold men of that place in great number, with their 
reverend white beards,who on their knees bid him welcome in the name 
of the people. 

The Mothers and wives of the Officers, as their Sonnes or Husbands 
are preferred and advanced to higher offices and dignities , are appointed 
by the King certainc honourable diflinaions in their habit, as alfo Titles, 
whereby they are called J fuch as are among us, your Honour, andycur 
Excellency •, nor, that they a re the fame, b^ that they have fome refem- 
blance more or Icffe. * When 

I ? 4. The Hiflory of QHl^SQi. P a b t .1 ; 

When any one of the moft Eminent Officers die^ the King fendeth a- 
way pofta Mandarine of the Court to folemnize his funcralls, and this 
not only to the confines of the Kingdom, but even out of it, as to the 
Ifland oiHainam^is it happened in the year 1 617 at what time I fpake with 
him who was fent heth^r by the King, only for that purpofe. 

The King alfo, after his death, beftoweth the office of a Mandarine 
upon his Sonne, or Nephew : and if the deceafed perfon be a ColaOj he be- 
ftoweth the like honour upon all his Sonnes or Nephewes, who, if they 
give a good Teftimony of their abiliiie in their Government, are advan- 
ced yet higher, and come to be Governours of Cit)es. 

The Palaces where they inhabit are large, convenient, and ftately, their 
Trihunals^whac they do Juftice, are magnificently adorned^and attended 
by great dove of Officers Jn the City of Nankim^ befide many others, 
there arc five Tribunals^ foure of the fourc windes, for fo they call them , 
and they are accord ingly placed in the C ity toward the North ttov^dxA the 
SoHth^ &c. The fift is in the middle of the Gity : yet are they inferiour 
Jrihunals^ for every one hath a Frefident and two Collaterals , and the 
Prefidciit is no more than a Dolour, and the two C^/^^/^r^/j are either 
fimple 54/f:/jJ^r;, or elfcraifed from the office of Notarie. It is true that 
in fmall and ordinary caufes, thefc are the hands and feet of the Manda- 
rines^ being faithfull and diligent executers of whatfoevcr they command 
them. There arejn every one ofihtf^Tribunals more than 300 menjWho 
ferve them, as NotarieSj Clerks, and Serjeants , fomc to apprehend men, 
others to whip them, others to carry letters and writings, and fuch other 
Cbmmiffionsjbuttheydonotfervcallatone time, but take their turnes 
in order. 

Now that I have treated of the fmall Tribunals^ I will fpeak of a great 
one, which is xh:>xof XhQ Fice-ro'j of Cantene^ which, for fome caufcs, I 
had occafion to obferve very diftindlly, as alfo many others. The Tribu- 
nal^ wherein rhe Fice-ro] doth Juftice, is joyncd to the Palace^ where he 
hath his refidence. 

There is firft a great fquare Court, which looketh toward the South, 
without having any gate in the wall right before it, but only two at the 
two fides thereof. At the foure Corners of this Court there are foure ve- 
ry high Mafts, on the top of each is difplayed a white banner, w^hcreon 
arc written two letters fo bigge,that they almoft take up the whole 
flagge. The letters are Kiun Mmn^ that is, Vice-roj^ Within,round about 
theCourt,arc Chambers for the Notaries^ for grcar and lelTcr Officers, 
and many fmall Mandarines ^ who are to be alwayes ready at the Fice-roys 
beck. In the middle of the Court is a Theater of ftone, with fteps to a- 
fcend to ir. There Hand drums^flutes fifes and Cornets of BrafTe : and be- 
fore the F/ce- King giveth audience,all thefc inftruments are founded with 
certain paufcs or Intervalls. They are founded three times for fome fpace, 
and at the end of each,thcre are three Bombards^oi: old fafliion'"d Cannon. 
difchargediat the third and laft time the gates are opened,& all they , who 
have any bufineiTc with him, arc permitted to enter into the firft Court. 

On the North fide whereof, which anfwereth to the front,where there 
is no Gate^there is,a great Pertal^yNhkh Icadcth into another quadrangu- 

"^ • lar 

Chap.zS. IheHiJloryofCHl^A. jjy 

lar Courr, which is longer than it is broad . This Portall hath three gates 
in it, after the fa(hion of our churches : that in the middle is the biggeft, 
the other two are leflcr : each of thefe gates openeth upon an entry ,which 
is raifcd three or foure palmes from the ground, and is fcaven or eight 
palmes broad, but that in the middle is larger. At each entry ftand two 
ranks of Souldicrs with their armes in their bands ; through the middle of 
whom thofc that have bufineife are to paflfe^ ^ntring at the left gate, 
and coming out at the right 5 for at the middle gate, none either go in, or 
come out, but the Fke-roy^ and they that vifit or accompany him. At the 
end of this Court is the place of the Vice-rojy which hath neither Hall, nor 
Gallery, but is a kind of building, that parcicipateth of both. It is like a 
Hall for its forme, and like a Gallcry,in that it hath no doore^but lyes all 
open. In it ftandeth a fmall Table covered with a Carpet of filke, where* 
upon lyeth the Kings feale, with red and black inke by it, and ftones for 
to grind it fmall, and penfills for to write withall 5 but above all, there is 
the Cafe of the Cheu Ctt^ that is,Litile Tallies of wood,each of which im- 
^oncihfi've lajhes'So that when the Vice-roy throwcth downe two of them, 
in the languages of Juftice, it fignifieth Ten lajhes 5 if he throweth downe 
fiXjThirty, and fo of the reft* Ncerc unto the feat of the Vice-roj on each 
hand ftand twelve Captaines richly cloathed, with their Morions on their 
heads, and their Scimitars by their fides. Behinde^ftand two Pages with 
fannes in their hands to make winde, in cafe the weather be hot ^ but in 
winter they do not ufe them. All 'tribunals arc not of this forme^although 
there are many things common to them all,and the reft is proportionable 
to the dignity of the Ji//iW4r/»^j who hold them. 

Ch AP.28. 

Of the frtfons^ fentences and pnni/hments 
o/the ChiriQkQs, 


Heirprifons for Malefadours are more commodious and fpacious 
than ours. They are all,throughout the Kingdom,of the fame forme, 
with very little difference •, fo that by treating of one, we fliall give a de- 
fcription of them all. They are for themoft part either joyncd, ornot 
farrediftant from the Palaces ^nd Tribtmals of xht Mandarines^ to which 
they belong. They have no grates towards the ftreet^ but within the out- 
ward gate ttec is a narrow entry,which leadeth to a fecond gate, within 
which is a Court, which is alwaies bigger or IcfTer according to the re- 
ceipt and concourfe of the prifon. Then follovveth a third gatc,where the 
lodgings of the keepers and warders are, who are commonly three ; be- 
yond that is another gate ,which openeth into a great fquare Court,along 
the foure (ides whereof are the chambers of the prifoners, which have no 
walls towards the Court, but in ftead thereof, Columnesof wood placed 
fo neere together, that they rather fecme to be grates. Thedoores arc not 
made ofboard, but of grates of the fame wood, fo that all is open to the 


i^6 '"^^neHiJiory of QHIJ^J. " ?I^^. 

ayrc-thcfc Lodges or Chambcrs^are the Prifonsof the ordinary Prifoncrs. 
At the end of one of thefe rowes of chambers,ftandeth the fccretjOr 
clofe Prifon,for fuch as arc committed for crimes of a higher nature. 
This they call Chtim Kkn^ that iSjthe heavy Prifon ; fothat having palfed 
through the common Prifon, there are other grates made in the like man- 
ner as the firft, within which are the clofe Prifons, where the moft crimi- 
nal! Perfons are, who ^e alwaycs kept locked up .• the other Prifons are 
opened every day, and the Prifoners have liberty to go from one cham- 
ber to another, and to converfe together in the Bafe- Courts. 

Every evening there is a view taken of the Prifoners,cau{ing them all, 
for this purpofe,to come into the outward Court,and one of the warders 
with a rol in his hand calleth them over one by one.-cach man as he is cal- 
led,goeth into his prifonjwhcre he is locked up for that night. ^ 
Thofe of the dole Priron,although they go not out of itjCwhich happen- 
cth only to thofe, who have no money, for if they have wherewithal! to 
fee the Gaolers, they go out when they wil, and are lodged where they 
pleafeOYet arc they all day at libertie in their Prifon ; but at night they 
are fc^urcd in this manner, They flccp at night upon planks, at the lower 
end whereof, where their feet lie, there is a great piece of Timber laid a- 
thwart, which hath ftore of holes in it, whereinthcir feet are put, and fo 
locked up ; on their hands they put manacles : on the (idc of each are 
two Iron rings fattened into the Boards,through which is pafTcd an Iron- 
Chaine of a good bigneffe, and is carried over their brefts from the right 
fide to the leftjfo that if this Chaine be ffreightncd a little(which is at the 
courteGe ofthe Keepers)rhe poor Prifoner isl^ot able to turnc himfelf,ha- 
ving not only his hands and feet, but his whole body bound. This is the 
caution which they ufe for the night. 

In the middle ofthe Court where the aforcfaid chambers arc, there is^ 
as it were, a little corps d'e gard, where there are foure who keep watch 
by turnes. If there happen any noife, or ftir, in the Prifons, or any thing 
which givcthfufpicion, although it be only the going out of the light, 
which is to bee kept burning all night long, prefently they give notice 
thereof to the Gaolers , who immediately come in haft to take care 
of it» 

They arevifited every moneth by one oithokMAndarms^'Viho have the 
care ofthe Prifons commited to them. Afloon as he hathtaken his featc 
in the outward Court^he caufeth to be brought before him all thofe who 
have been condemned to die.Thofe wretches prefent themfclves before 
him with their haire hanging down and uncombed, a (ickly countenance, 
their head hanging on one {ide,& almoft falling off,but alio on as they are 
remanded to the prifon, and have loft the fight ofthe -^W^r///^, they 
begin to skip, and are as found as a fifh.Thc reafon of this dilfimulation is, 
becaufe if the LMandarine find them fat and in good liking, he caufeth 
them to bebaftinadoed, which they call T^ Foiti^ that is, 10 fall upon the 
/^^(7;if/', faying, that they keep them there, to do penance, to grow leane 
and die, and not to make good checre. The other Prifoncrs alfo arc 
brought before him one hy one, and the Mandarim cnquireth of the 
GaolciSj how they behave themfclves, and accordingly hedifpenfeth 


Chap .z 8. TheHiftorj of QHI^A. 137 

his Baftimdoes, to thofc that are troublefomc, unquiet and Gamefters. 

After that,he vifitcth the chambers of the Prifoners, where he fuffer- 
rcth them to have no manner of convenicncie,if he find either, Scats, Ta- 
bles, Beds,or fuch like thingSjhe caufcth them prcfcntly to be taken away; 
for they will not have their Prifons to be as ours are, for the fecuring 
only of their Pcrfons, but alfo to punifli their bodies. 

They who are committed to prifon,are not only fubjed to the impri- 
fonment, but alfo to many contributions and paiments. The Mandarines 
have a tablet done over with a white varnifli^whereon is written the name 
and crime of the perfon apprehended , this is given to the officer, who 
having received it^carrieth him away prefently to Prifon, and makcth him 
pay for his journey, which fee they call Tablet-monq, When he entreth 
the fecond gate, commeth the Notarie Generall of the Prifoners, who is 
commonly one of them himfelf: he hath his Seare and Table Cwhich 
is only that whereon the Prifoners eat) he askethhim his name and the 
cauleofhisimprifonment, which he prefently cnrollcth in the book of 
Prifoners^ making him pay for the honour which he receivcth in having 
his name entred. Next after that,he is delivered to the Gaolers and ovcr- 
feers ofthcfeverall chambers, or to forae one of them, and if the Prifo- 
ners are many, they begin to diflribute them to one another: if it be one 
man only,they bid him go to the chambers of the North, or of the South 
&c,and prefently the overfcer of that is to be paid his fee. Affoon as he 
is come to his quarter, there cometh to him another little fcribe, whofc 
office is only to take his name, and to write it in the particular Table of 
that warde, which alwaieshangcth up thcrcf, and here he is to pay ano- 
ther fee for this writing. After that cometh another, who is the fweepcc 
of the Prifonjand tellcth him,Sir,Cleanlinc{fe is very necefTary here, this 
place is to be fwept and kept clcane^ your fire to be made &c. all which 
cannotbe dons without opening the purfe. In the mean while cometh 
one of the Prifoners with a pair of Iron Manacles, the ftreightefl he caa 
find, which he putteth on upon him ; about halfe an houre after he com- 
eth again with another wider paire^ and tellcth him,Brother J know thofe 
Manacles are very flreight and painfull,I wil therefore change them for 
thefe wider,if you wil pay me for thecourtefie^Sc if he hath no money to 
give him, he caketh his Cap, or clfe fome part of his cloaths. Thefe are 
the fmall charges, with which the poor Prifoners purfe is drained. 

Then follow the Gaolers, who being to receive a greater fee, allow 
him longer time; for twodaics after his imprifonment they let him alone, 
to fee what he will give of his own accord, and if in that time he prefent 
them not with fomcthing,for every night after, till they arcfatisfied they 
give him trouble and torment enough. This payment is not limited , but 
is at the difcretion of the Gaolers, who endeavour to draw from every 
one as much as they can, that is, a great fumme from thofc who are rich, 
IclTefrom the poor, and from thofc that have nothing, they take no- 

This duty is no fooner fatisfied, but the laft Rights raufl be paid, that 
is for the facrifices of the Idol , or Pagod of the Prifon, for in eve- 
ry one of them there is a Chappel or two^ where every month the Gao- 

T lets 

128 TheBijiory of CBID^A. Part.i. 

Icrs offer Sacrifice on the firft and fifteenth day of theMoon^ which 
confiftcth commonly of a Cock, a piece of Pork, two Fifties, Bread, 
Fruit, and other things. Thefe they feeth a little in water, and the Cock 
is to be boy led no more than that he may be made to ftand upright upon 
a Table which is placed before the ?Agody where the other things are fet 
in handfome order about him, and after it hath ftood there an hourc,they 
come and take it away;and drelTe the Fifh and Flefh ancw,feafoning it ve- 
ry well, and then they make a Bmqaet. 

The new Piifoners muft contribute to furnifh this expence^ they, who 
are admitted afcerthisSacrificejtill the next, which is fifteen dales after, 
furnilhech the cxpences of the next Sacrifice*, and they that come after 
that,of the next, and then they are freed from paying, 

Thefe Chappels dedicated to the Idols, do not only ferve the Prifoncrs 
to make their Sacrifices there,but alfo for other more common ufes- that 
is, for the Prifoners to make their vows, to draw lots, although many 
times with an untortunate event5for having Ubettie and a happfe delive- 
rance promifed them by the lot, they receive afterward at the Trih^- 
mis B^pnadoes and torments. 

I was one day prefent when a poor heathen drew his Jot, kneeling 
on his knees with much devotion, and becaufe he could not read, he cal- 
led another to inftru^t him out of the little book, which is kept for tha£ 
purpofe in the Chappels; having drawn his lot, faith this poor man,well, 
what have I got c' Shall I be tormented at the TrUfumlkThc other reading 
over the leafe cryed out,Be of good courage, all is well, you have a good 
lot. Shall I not have the R^ck given me,rcplyed the poor wretch^ Which 
was a kind of torment which he was much afraid of. Fear not, anfwered 
the Interpreter, you (hall have no harme. That very moaning this poor 
G entile ^ds brought tohisTryall,who in truth was innocent, the h&y 
for which he was committed, being done by his brother, who had recei- 
ved ftollen goods into his houfc,and knowing that he was difcovered, 
fled away^and fo this poor wretch was apprehended in his ftead. When 
he was examined, the Mandarine , not fatisficd with his anfwers, com- 
manded he (hould have the Rack given him. He being loath to be carried 
away, made what refiftance he could5fo that they were fain to drag him 
by main force, and being a ftrong fturdy young man, defended himfelfe 
with fo much courageand violence, that ten or twelve men were nota- 
ble to rule him,but tumbling up and downc from one fide to another, and 
catching hold of whatfoever he came neer, he hit by chance againft the 
Mandarines Table, and overturn'd it to the ground with all that was upon 
it, by which accident he did fo anger the Judge, and enrage the Ser-> 
jeants agaiofl him,that when they hod fcifed him,they gave him the Rack 
in fo cruel a manner, that they Were faine to fend him back to Prifon up- 
on other mens Shoulders, having his heel- bones out of joynt. The next 
day, when his pain was fomething mitigated, and be more capable of rea- 
fon, I went to vifit him,much compaffionating his fufFerings,he related to 
me all particulars of the ftorie, and I began to touch upon that point of 
the lots and their interpretation, faying unto him, what hath your Jdol 
done for youf T/&f Devilfidd hCitakc the I del and his lots,fir they are aHfuch 

C H A p ■ z 8 . IheHijlory ofCHI ih(ji. ,39 

as he is'y and fomc other words, which are not proper to be related here. 

ThePrifonersdopaffcthcfummer well enough, but in winter,as tl'ie 
cold Is very grcar.and the fuftenance of many very little, they muft needs 
fuffer much: and although the Mandarines^ for the good of the poor Pri- 
foncrs, do often commute Corporal punifhmcnts into Pecuniary MMs-^y^t 
when this is done, there is not enough for all.Thieves, when rbey are ta- 
ken,are generally abandoned of their friends and kindred^ neither is there 
any, who will own them, and ro,many of them perifli mifcrably. I have 
often feen fix or feaven dead bodies thrown out ac a time. 

They have a notable i^^/'frr/?///^;? concerning the dead, which is, that 
they will not fuffer the Body when it is dead, to be carried out at that 
Gate whereat itentrcd when it was living. And to take a way this diffi- 
cultie, in the outward Court, whereof we have fpoken, there Is a little 
doore, or hole in the wall, where they are thrown out; if it be a perfon of 
qualitie,there is alwayes leave obtained for him to go out of Prifon before 
he dieth, that he might not have his CarcaflTe thrown out at that hole, ac- 
counting it the mofl ilumef ull difgrace that can befall them.Hence one 
of the moft horrible imprecations and curfes that is ufed in that King- 
dome \s^La Laotlyi\\2X iSytnaifl thou be dragd through the hole of a Prifon, 

The Prifofis^h:\wmg no grate on the outfide of them, they, who would 
vifit or fpeak with any Pr ifoner, muft of neccffitie enrer into the Prifon; 
and thereis this inviolable cuflome among them,that none is to vifita Pri- 
foner without bringing him fomething to eate, more or Icffe according to 
his ability , and if by accident he bringcth nothing , he raaketh his 
cxcufe for having, broken a cuftomc fo generally received. But per- 
haps fotne will ask me how I came to be fo expert in thefc poynts.-f Tru- 
ly I muft anfwer him in a word, that though this knowledge be not much 
worth,yet it coft me very deare. 

Their trialls di^'er very little from ours, bur only chat the dclaies and 
the replies are not fo many .• every thing is done by way o? Petitions or 
j»/f;w<?r/4//y,and in thefe every one is allowed to fay what he can for him- 
felf. There are fome who get their living only by drawing up fuch wri- 
tings as thefe for Prifonersj but we do not admit them to the Sacra- 
ment of Baptifm,unleffe they leave this employment: for they tcl fo many 
lies in them,that ihcMandarines had need of a great deal ofexperience,and 
difcretion to find out any truth amongfl fo many falflioods;but fomtimes> 
when they are taken in them, they are well paid for them inBaJlinadoes, 
. The Vice-roy of Nankim^ who was a great friend to our Fathers, and, 
though a heathen, was well affecfled to the Chriftian religion, and well 
acquainted with the dodlrine o( it, told me one day this ftory. As I was 
giving audience, faid he, at my Tribunal^ and hearing of caufes, there was 
one, who among others, prefented me a Memoriall , I tooke it and read k, 
and found it full of nothing but revilings and Slanders againfl the C/;r^- 
ftian Religion, zv\di the Chrijlian Chinejfes of that City, fpeaking fufficiently 
ill of both. I asked him then, Do you underftand this law, and do you 
know this people ^ Yes Sir, anfwered he. It is an up ft art, pcrverfc, 
ftrange law, &c. Speaking yet more cvill of it than he had written in his 
Memoriall, I prcfefltly put my hand to my Tallies j and flung out fix, the 

T 2 Officers 

140 The Hi/lory of CHI^Nj^. Pabt.i; 

^^_ -^ _ 

Officers prefently gave him thirty Bdflwadoes (and thofc which are given 
at thcfe Tribunals^ are commonly well fet on) aflbonc as he had gotten up 
upon his legges, and had a little com pofed himfelfe, I told him, that I 
faw his petition was not well enough digefted for a bufineffc of fo great 
moment, and bid him go and confidcr better of ic,and more diligently in- 
forme himfelfe, and to come and give mean account of it •, but from that 
day ro this I never heard more of him. 

The petition is prefented by the party, or by feme other in his name, 
after this manner. The Courtjbefore the TribunAll^ is commonly full o£ 
people that have fuites there, but there is an entry in the middle of them, 
which leadeth diredtly to the Mandarines feat that is alwaies kept empty, 
and free to palTe through. He that hathapctiuon to prefcnt, when his 
timecometb, kneelcth on his knees in that paflage, having his petition in 
his hand lifted up as high as his head. Then the Mandarine fendeth one 
to take it, and if he hath any queftion to aske him, he askcth it ; then if he 
acccpteth the petition, he foldcth if, and layeth it on the Table^ if not, he 
prefently throweth it away •, and if he judgcth the petition to be imperti- 
nent, he appoyntcth a certaine number of Bajlinadoes, to be bcftowedon 
the petitioner, aS hath been already (aid : and many times for no other rca- 
fon^but becaufe the Judge is in ill humour,although he that prefenteth the 
petition is not the party whom it dot h concerne, I faw the like cafe hap • 
pen to a Bonzo^ (for they alfo are fubje<5t to the fecular power) for no o- 
ther reafon, but that the Mandarine was peevilh. 

The 5^;a2i<?ufed the ordinary Ceremony with his petition : his accep- 
tance was, that the Mandarine prefently turned towards the Table, and 
caft downe two Tallies of wood, which was no fooner done, but prefent- 
ly there were two men, that tooke the Bonzo, one by the head, and the o- 
ther by the hecles, and throwing him downe to the ground, ftripped 
downe his drawers to his very feete, and beftowed ten Baftinadoes up- 
on him, with fo much dexrcritie, that the bufincffewas done before any 
was aware of ir. 

Their condemnations are for the moft part pecuniary, and fometimes, 
though fcldome, they are fent into baniflimenr, ortothe Gallies, or ra- 
ther fomething equivalent to it. For to fpeak the truth, they have not that 
puni(hment,but one very like it,that is,they are put to worke on the rivers, 
in the Kings fhips and velTels, they tugge at the oare,and do other ferviccs, 
being bound two together in one chaine^ 

They only are condemned to death, (which is commonly executed by 
bangingjftrangling, or cutting off the head,) who falfifie the Kings mony, 
or commit murder : if there be many guilty of the fame crime, one man 
only is executed, the reft have other puniihments infli(Sed on them : but 
robbers by the high-waies are all to die, if the fa(5tbe fufficlently proved, 
Leifcr thceves for the firft fault, if the theft be of fmall value, arc Bajiina- 
docdj and imprifoned for a certaine time. If they be taken a fecond time, 
they have the fame punifhment with fome advantage; or elfe they have 
thefe two letters Za Tao imprinted on the outfide of their arme, both 
which do lignifie Thiefe, Thefe two letters are neatly carved on a piece 
of wood, and being rubbed over with inke, they do make theimprclfion 


Chap. 2 8. ^heHijinryof QUIHJ, i\i 

ofihemonthfirflcfli, and then with another piece of wood, wherein 
arc foure needles conveniently placed, they do prick holes in that pare of 
their fltili which is coloured with inke, and when the bloud comethj they 
rub it with their hands, to give entrance to the inke ; and by that means 
the impreflion remaineth for ever. Adulfcrers arc feverely puni/lied, al- 
though not with death, and befidcs other chaftifemcnts they are fufiici- 
cntly loaden with Baflinadoes, The women alfo taken in the fame fault, if 
they have been formerly of honcfl: repute, arcwhiptor Bafiimdoed, with 
their drawers or CaUones pulled downe to their heeles, to make them the 
morcafliamed , and fometimes alfo they are whipt in the publick ftreets .• 
bur, if they have formerly loft both their (hameand their honour, they 
beat them only upon their Calzsnes. 

They do many times die o( the Bajlwadoes they receive, efpeciallyif 
the delinquent defcrve dcatli, and they have a minde to difpatch him 5 for 
it is impoflfible a man (liould live, after he hath received feventy or eighty 
Bapftadoes^ efpecially as they are laid on, when it is before a great Tri^w 
mU In the year 16 17 there was in the City of Nmkim a kinde of ConfrA* 
lernifiej or fociety of fifty men, called by them Thien Cam. Thefe accor- 
ding to an agreement made among themfelves, did alv/aiesaffifl oneano- 
ther .- an injury refenred by one, was vindicated by all, and by this meanes 
they committed a thoufand infolencies .- at length they were almoft all 
apprchended,& diftributcd to the feverall prifons of theCity^whcre there 
are at leaft fourteen or fifteen : at their very firft cntrance,thcy put about 
thencckofcich^ KianHao Cofwhichvvewillfpeak hereafter) foheavie, 
thatitwasimpolfiblefor him that bore it, toftirreoufofhis place-, and 
when any of them was to be brought out, he was forced to have two men 
to help him to carry ir. They were brought toa triall before the Gover- 
nour of the City, who caufed them to receive threefcore and ten bio wes a 
man, whereof they all dyed. 

For ordinary crimes they inflia a certain punifhmenr, that is not in ufe 
among us in Pcrtugall-, they call it Kian is a great thick board, foure 
or five Palmes fquare, with a hole cut in the middle of it about the big- 
ncfle of a mans neck. This they faften about their necks, and to it are hun» 
two fcroUs of paper of a hands breadth, wherein are written his fault, and 
the caufeofhispunifhment- they ferve alfoto (hew that the board hath 
not been opened : and fo with thefe great boards about their necks, thefe 
poore wretches are brought out every day, and expofed to ihame in the 
publick ftreets, for fifteen, twenty, or thirty days, according as they are 
adjudged by their fcntence, whofe grcateft rigour is, that during all that 
time thefe boards are not taken off their necks, neither night nor day. And 
all this muft be underftood to be done after they have received their 
Baft/mdoes^ which are never wanting, there being no condemnation in 
Chifta, CunlcfTe it be pecuniary,) without this previous difpolition ; nei- 
ther is it neceftary to make mention of it in their condemnation, this be- 
ing alwaics underdoodtobe their firft difb, and as a neceffary, though 
acceiTIiry circumftance •, and then followeth their fentence, as the prin- 
cipal! verb, Andthetiuthis, that, as the G/appof?elfes arc wont to fay, 
they cannot Governe wfthoui: the Cahwaj that is, the Scimitar or 


H^^ IheBiftouofCalK^. FIr^- 

Sword •, fo it may be faid of the Chmejfes, that without Bambtt^ that is, the 
cudgeli or Baflon^ with which they ufe to beat men, it is not poffible they 
(hould be ruled. For the better undcrftanding of this, I will briefly de- 
clare the ufe of it. ,..,,. 

In every Trihumll of China, when the Mamarwe givcth audience^there 
ftand necre unto his Table ten or twelve men on both fides thereof, with 
lon^ Cudgells m their hands, refted upon the ground f and fometimcs for 
the greater terrour, they will place fourty men about them, as they did, 
when the fathers were brought before them for their Religion.) Thefe 
Cudgells are fcaven palms long , being at the bottom about a hands 
breadth in circumference, tapering flill cowards the top. where they are 
fmail and flender,that they might more coramodioufly be ufed with both 
hands. They arc made of^4w^«, which hath fomerefcmblance to Crf;?^, 
in that it is knotty and hollow within, but is different in this, that it is a 
maffic, ft 1 ong, heavie, hard wood . 

Moreover,on the Table ohh^Mandarm ftandeth that cafe of wooddcn 
'laUies^ whereof we have fpoken, and every Tally importeth five blowesj 
wherefore when the Mandarine would have any one Ba^inadoed^ he 
throvvelh downe as many Tallies^ as make up the number of the blowcs 
he would have given. Every one of the Up (as the Portughejfes call them 
who carry the iB^T?^?;^^ is ready to take his Trf^j', others to fiezc the pati- 
ent, and to lay him on the ground. AfToone as his breeches are pulled 
downe, prefently one of theZ//'/ lay eth five Bafiinadoes upon his naked 
flefli, according to the import of his Tallfy and withdrawcth himfelfe. 
Then cometh another, and laye[h on other five, and fo it isalwayes done 
by a frcfli hand, till he hath received the number afligned him : when the 
Mandarine thro weth the Tallies out of the cafe, he is not to give any rea- 
fonforir, neither mufi he be asked, but his commands are prefently put 
in execution, and only in fome fmaller offences the patient may ob- 
tain with his money, that the blowes be not altogether fo fierce and 


Thisistobeundcrftoodj when the Ji/Wim^ httcthonhis Tribunal^ 
for in no other place hemaketh ufe of thofe Tallies^ although hcbeal- 
v^^ayes waited on with thofe O^dgells \ and by reafon the ufe of them is fo 
frequent, they alwayes accompany the Mandarine^ whomakethufe of 
them in any place,and upon any occafion. It were a fufficient caufe if any 
one that met him on horfe-back did not alight, or that he croffed his way, 
which bccaule it is a flight fault, is chaflifed only with five or ten blowes. 
And the Mandarim hath this power, not only in the Townes and Cities 
of his owne Jnrifdi^ion^ but alfo in any place whatfocver, though it be 
not properly under his Authoritj. 

Before I left the Ciiy o^ Nankim, (the Metropolis of the Province of 
Kiamf^ where we have a Church, a houfe, and a good number of Chrifli- 
ans,) there came thither a Mandarine^viho was Judge of one of the neigh- 
bouring Townes, and palTed through our ftreet, which is one of the moft 
frequented ofthat City .> There was,in areraote corner thereof,a fortune- 
teller, one of thofe, who ufed to fell good fortunes to the people, fitting 
inhischaire, with his Table, books,and other things before him. The 


Chap.zS. 'fheHifioryofCHl^^A. 14? 

Mandarine pafTed once up, and another time downe the ftrect;, and the 
Smn Mim (for fo they call thefe Di-vimrs) never moved himfelfe off his 
chaire, either the firft or the fccond time. After a few houres the Uanda- 
y/>^had occafion to palTe through the fame ftreet againe, and coming to 
a little riaz&a, in a corner whereof this unhappy fortune-tellej: had his 
feat,the-?»/W4r^>ecalled outto him Jay ing,you make no difference oi men, 
neither do you doe your Courtefie to the Kings Mandarines : take him a- 
way, and give him what he deferveth ; prefently in the flreef, before his 
owncfeat, they gave him ten Baflinadoes, Go your wales now faid the 
Mandarine t and learn manners, and ftudy better that art of yours, fince you 
have not been able to forcfeethis good fortune, that hath befallen you : 
with fo much facility do they beftow their ^^jf/V^^i'^j- neither do men 
make any account of thera,although they alwaie^ pay them in ready coyn,- 
all do give them, all receive them, and all have felt them, neither doth it 
feeme ftrange to any one, nor doth any hold himfelfe aggrieved for them. 
In the fame manner do Lords and Mafi:ers chaftife their fervants, except 
only, that for the moft part they do not take downe their breeches. The 
like do Schoole-Mafters ufein their Schooles to their Scholars,ofwhat: 
cjualicy foever they be-, beating them on the buttocks v^'ith their breeches 
on, and laying them not upon the ground, but upon a forme. The fame 
sKo do they ufe to little children, for they have neither whips nor difci- 
plines,but rather abhorre them • wondring how we can chaftifc our chil- 
dren with a whip, which they apprehend to be a very cruell thing -, and 
the children themfelvcs,becaufc the whip fmarteth more, and tis (Iruck 
upon their naked skin, do rather choofe the 54;»^//. And that you might 
want nothing, there are in china certain perfons, who do buy thefe Bafti- 
nadoesdirho. Tribunals-^ or (to fpeak more corre<aiy, ; do fell the recei- 
ving of them in fleadofothers. But this is only in fomc flight caufes, for 
in others they neither may nor will. But when the caufe is fuch that this 
may be done, he agreeth with the party for fo much a Baflinado, and ap- 
peareth before the Mandarine in the place of the delinquent, and r-eceiveth 
them for him. 

The Rack is ufed alfo in certain ncceffary cafes. I do not know that 
they have above two kindes of it. That of the feet, and that of the hands. 
For the feet they ufe an inftrument called Kia ^n, it confifteth of three 
pieces of wood put in one Traverfe, that in the middle is fixe, the other 
two are moveable, between thefe their feet are put, where they are fquee- 
zed and preff , till the heele-bone run into the foot : for the hands they ufe 
alfo certain fmall pieces of wood between their fingers, they call them 
Tean Zti^ then they flraiten them very hard, and feale them round about 
with paper^ and fo they have them for fome fpace of time. 


14.4 TheHijlory of QRlU^d. Pabt.i 

C H A P, 15^. 

0[ fome particular things ^ rphichdo 
facilitate and reUifie the Go^ 
yernment inChinsL. 

^"Y^Hc Firft i^that the King doth bear the charges of his Officers, fur- 

X niihing them with all manner of expences,by this meancs,taking 
from them all occafions, which might, through their neceffities either en- 
gage them to feverall Perfons, or.runnc them much into debt, obliging 
them by the fame meanes more ftri<aiy to obferve the lawes,and to walk 
more diredily in the paths of juftice. 

After that a Dolour , or Licmiate^ or any other hath an employment 
beftowed upon him at Court, and departeth thence to go to his Govern* 
ment, all the expences of his perfon. Servants and Familie, as well in tra- 
veiling by water as by land, including the hire of Boats,C arts jHorfcs, 
Porters,and other things, are all defrayed by the King. 

Throughout their whole journey they never lodge at Innes, but In all 
the Townes and Cities, there are Palaces appointed for to entertain them, 
where all things fitting are provided for them. They alwayes fend a man 
before as an harbenger,fo that by that timethey arrive,all things arc in or- 
der for their reception. And if it fall out,as fometimes it doth, that they 
cannot reach to a good Town, there are in certain places, houfes built for 
this purpofe by the King, which they call Ti?//, where every thing is pro- 
vided for them. The worft is, that becaufe it is all at the Kings charges it 
is done more profufely and lavifhly than is requifitc : as for example, 
when the Mandarine hath occafion for ten horfes to carry his familie,they 
require fifteen or twenty-,and there is likewifc provifion made for fo ma- 
ny through the whole journey,andthcgreateft part of them receive this 
in money. 

Neither doth the matter flop here, but goeth yet further. There being 
fome, who have not fo much care of their credit and reputation, as of 
their purfe^ and when they are to have fo many difhes, and fo many fe- 
verall forts of meat, according to the Kings appointment, they give or- 
der, that the provifion fhould be lelTe and receive the reft in money, ne- 
vcrthelefTe there are but few who dare be guilty of fuch bafeneffe. 

Neither doth the King only furnifli thecxpcnce of their perfons, but 
thatairo,which is requifite to fuflainethe honour and dignirie of their pla- 
ces, as,men on horfc back,and on foot to accompany them from Town to 
Town through all places where they are to paffe. 

The Second is, that in the places where their Governments are,he pro- 
videth them Palaces for their habitation,incafethey have none of their 
own,asairorich Furniture and moveables, and all manner ojf Servants 
within doors, and without doqis even to the pages, who are never fo few, 
but that he alloweth eight tstitn of them to a Judge of thefmallefl 


Cha P.29 . 'fheHiJlory of QH I ^J. i^y 

Town-, yet they do not waitcall ar one time, unlcfTe it be whtn the M.m^ 
dArine giveth a particular command for it. 

The Third Isy that theMaf}danmSj\n treating with the h)h]c6ts^zte very 
warie and circumfped, never dilcourfing nor treating in fecret with any, 
bur alwayes publickly, fo that every onemaybewitnefTetowhatthey 
fay. Their Palaces ave alwayes kept fhut within & without- After they have 
given audience(which they do condantly every day •& many rimes both 
morning and evening,for there is alwayes fpmecing to do)they retire,and 
the Palace is fhut within,for the Mandarines, ilnd withour,for the Officers. 
And although the gates are opened as often as he hath a mind to go a- 
broad, yet it is never done fecretly,buc one beateth a drumme within, to 
whom another anfwereth without, and prefently the Officers and other 
people, who are to accompany him, come together-, aflToon as they are all 
affembledjthe gates of thePaUce^LXc opened, & the Mandarine comethout. 
The Fourth is, that no pcrfon of their houfe, whether they be Sonnes, 
Coufins^or Servants that dwell with them, may go out to vifit, converfe, 
or treat ofanybufinefle, for fear leaft they fliould receiye any bribe or 
prefcnt. The Pourvey our, or Cater our, dv/elleth without, and is of the fame 
Tribunal/^ as well as the refl of the Officers,and hath every day given bini 
in writing, what he is to buy. And becaufeit'is not convenient that the 
gates of the Palace (hould be opened upon every fmall occafion,they have 
all turning wheeles, by which they receive in, and fend out, whatfoevcr 
there is occafion for. 

The Fifth is,that they govern only three years in one place, by which 
meanes they are prevented from eftablifhing themfelves too ftrongly, 
and from contrading any flrcight alliances or friendfhips.None govern- 
eth in his own Countrie, except the Captains, who are prefumedj, when 
there is occafion,will defend and preferve their own Countrie, with grea- 
ter affedtions ^nd endeavours than flrangers. 

The Si^th is, that amongtbe Mandarines, there is a g rcat fubordination 
of fome to others. The inferiours with all reverence and obedience> re- 
fytdthclr Suferiours^:iud alfo vifit them courteoufly, and at certain fee 
times do make them prefents* 

The Seventh isjthat there is a flri(5l watch kept over the Government. 
For befidestheT^iw/iand^W/, whofe office it is to inform themfelves 
of whatfoever palfeth,and accordingly to give advice thereof to the King, 
every Province hath a V ifitour ^not for many years, but a new one every 
year, to the end he might do his Office more exa(^Iy, and that he might 
either cha{iife,or give notice to the King of fuch as do not comply with 
their duty,accordingto their obligation. 

The Eighth is,that every three years there is a general vifitation held up - 
on all the Mandarines of the Kingdome5partly by meanes of the informa- 
tion of the Fifitours^^nd partly by private inquifition, and it is held the 
fame year, where in,from all parts of the Kingdome, the ^.Mandarines go 
to render obedience to the King in P^)^/w, and fo the execution of this 
review is done at the Court it felf by chaflifing fome, abafing others, and 
taking their offices away .The principal! caufes for which they are punifh- 
ed,are thcfc following. 

rheUiJlory of CHLHJ. Pabt.!; 

Firfi if they fell juftice, by receiving bribes, thefelofe their Offices, 
and are fent home to their haufes. 

The Secondis^ if they be rigorous and crucll, puniflning men beyond all 
humanitie5chere lofe both their Office and honour, and are put into the 
ranck of the common people. 

The Thirdis^x^ they be neghgent or carelefTe in their governmenr,they 
lofe their Office, but retain ftill the Enfignes of their dignitie. 

The Fourth is, if they be haflie and precipitate, and not deliberate e- 
nough in giving their judgment,thefc are abafed to lower Offices,asfrom 
a Governour to a Judge,and the like. 

The Fifth isjif they be tooyoungjand their Anions light and Juvinile, 
thefe are likevvifedegraded,and employed in lower charges. 

The/A'/jifthey beoldjand have not ftrength to undergo the paines 
requifite in their audiences, and other fervices of the King, they give them 
their ^uietm efi^znd fend them to take their eafe at their own houfes. And 
although this be not a fault, but only a falling of nature, yet it is the worft 
ofallj})ecaufe theyjnot being able to remedie the incommodities of theit 
old age, this defeat ftil encreafeth upon them by time, and they are by 
confequence made uncapable of rcturne to their Offices. 

The Seavemh is, if they be carelefle in the conduct and government of 
their houfe and Familie-, whither it be that, where they a(5tually dwcll,or 
that which is in their own Country, which is governed alfo by their or- 
der, to which, both their fervants, kindred and (onne?, do yecld an exa(9; 
obedience(whichis not hard for them to obtain^ by rcafon of their great 
authoritiejthefe hkcwife lofe their Office. 

The Ninth thing, which much facilitateth good government, is,that 
the Kings will Iiear the Mandarines fpeak, although it be in a bufineffe 
that is difpleafing to them; and the Mandarines will freely fpeak to then?, 
although it be with fome hazard to themfelvcs •, fo that both the one and 
the other are much to be admired, In the Mandarines fiidr liberty in advi- 
fing, And in the Kings, their facility in hearing,Tn the Mandarines^ their 
zeale to juftice and good government. And in the Kings, their {inceritie 
and defire to fettle and eff ablilli it. They have many examples of this 
in their Hiftorie,and I am willing to fet down two or three of them. 

From a certain Province, x\\qyq. was fent unto the King, a damfell of a 
rare beautie,and incomparable features. Now his predecefTour had been 
formerly intrigued and engaged in the like occa{ion,& very great damma- 
geshad refulred thereby unto the Kingdome (for fuch like perfonsare 
feldome caules of much good jand the fame inconveniences were feared 
at prefent. A Colao undertook the buiinefle, and refolved to fpeak to the 
King about it; he was admitted, and fpake with fo much efficacy and 
perfwafion that the King told him , that afToon as flie was brought to the 
Palaee^fljeP)ould l?e difmifed and fent away. SUirc}p\ycd the Mandarirte^ your 
Majefty would do well to command her to be fent away fuddenly, im- 
mediatly/or if flie once enter into your houfe,and that you have fcen her, 
and heard her fpeak, your hands will trcmble^for women have the pow- 
er to enchaunt without witch-craft : neither will I go out atone gate of 
the Palace XiW fhe be firft fent away at another.The which was according- 
ly put in execution. There 

Chap.25>. 1 he Hifiory of QB13\!^A. j^j 

There was a King fo taken with the love of Birds, that he caiifcd the 
moft curious and beautifull Birds to be fought for through the woods of 
the whole Kingdome : and as the Kings will is like the frimum mobile^ im 
giving motion to the hands of his fubje(5is, this fearch was put in executi- 
on with great labour and opprelTion ofthcpcopIe,crpeciallyof one Pro* 
vincCjWhere this chafe was continually made by many,infomuch that the 
husbandmen could not attend their Ploughing and Sowing : fo that by this 
mcanes they came to fuffcr great want. It happened that a Mandmm 
pafTed through that Trovince^ as he came from another, who had more 
2ealeand compallion for them, than they who governed there, Affoon as 
hewascometoCourtheprefentedail/ifw^i^r/W/to the King, wherein he 
did fo lively fet forth thefmall importance of that chafe, and the great 
trouble and difturbance which it caufed to the people, that the King, 
not only bounded his curiofity, and commanded they (hould defift from 
takingany more Birds-but alfo gave libertieto thofcjWhich were already 
taken, commanding th^ doors of the Aviaries andC^^^^ to be fet open* 
that they might fly away. 

In the City of Pekim^in the Palace of one of the Kings daughters, 
whom they call C«wzC^«, there was one of her Servants, who was very 
infolcnt, having committed many high crimes, and one among the reft^ 
which deferved death .• the Mandarines much defired to apptchend him, 
but in the Palace they couid nor, and he never went abroad, but when he 
way ted on his Princejfe, At length there was a Mandarine^ who refolved to 
take him by any meanes he could, and to this elfedf , when the PnncefJ'e 
went next abroad, he with his men fet himfelf before the coaches, and 
made them ftop, and then prefently laid hands on that man, and carried 
him away.ThcPr/wfjf^jrefenting the afront that was done her, returned 
prefently to the Palace full of indignation, and was fo tranfported with 
colar, that flie would nor flay till the King came back from the audi- 
ence, where he then was, but went thither her felf in perfon to complain, 
The Mandarine was prefently fent for, who had put himfelf in a readinefs, 
well imagining he fliould be called: he prefemeth himfelf before the 
King,who iharply reproved him. He anfwered him, Sir,l have done no- 
thingbut that which j<?//r Ma](fiiecommandeth^^ the law erdaineth.But you 
ought,replyed the King,to have fought fome other time and opportunity. 
I have fought it long cnough,anfwered the Mandarine, but I fhould never 
have found it. At Ieaft,replyed theKing,ask ray daughter pardoo.and bow 
your head. Where there is no fault, anfwered the other, there is 
no need of pardon, neither will I ask pardon for having difcharged my 
Office. Then the King commanded tvvoiv/W^r/w^;, that by force they 
fhould bow his head down to the ground : but he by ftrength kept him- 
felf up fo ftiff,that it was not poifibie for them to do it; fo that the King 
was conftrained to fend him away. A few daics after the King gave or- 
dcr,that he fliould have a better Office bcftowed upon him, being much 
fatisfied with his integrity^ I forbear to relate many like cafesj which 
I might bring in confirmation of this. 

TheTV^z/iisthe ftiickt watch and ward, which is kept in the Cities. 
Tovvncs and Villages-, in every ftrccc there is placed a man,and if it be 

V 2 !on?v 

^8 TheHiJlorj of CHIH.^. Part.i. 

long, two or more •, who arc appointed to take care of any diforders that 
may arife there^ In every ftrcct likcwife there is a kinde of prifon cal- 
led Lemfhuy that is, the cold [hop ^ where upon a fudden occafion they 
may imprifon a delinquent, untill notice be given thereof to fome Ma- 


The Eleventh is^that every night infallibly all the gates of the City are 
fliut up as we have already faid. The ftreets alfo arc fliut up with grates 
made for that purpofe ; But the ftreets are nor alwaies (hut up, nor in 
all parts of the City, but only in fome, and that upon forae certain occa- 
lions and occurrences. 

The 'Twelfth is, that perfons of honour and authority do beare great re- 
fpe(5tone to another., and it would be accounted a great difgraccfor any 
of them to quarrell with another openly. Hence it happeneth, that al- 
though many times they have occafiOnof difguft and hatred, yet out- 
wardly they alwaies obferve their Beeorum •, neither do they,upon this 
account,avoyd any meetings that they might not come together. 

The thirteenth is, that none do beare armes except the Souldiers, and 
they only at their mufters, or when they do accompany the O^aftdarms, 
The common people, who contrariwifc do eafily quarrell one with ano- 
ther, do makeufe only of their fijis^ and he that catcheth the other firft 
by the haire gaineth the battell*, nay,if they have any thing in their hands, 
that might draw bloud^ as a ftaffe, a piece of wood or iron, or fuch like 
thing, prcfently they lay it dov/ne, and go to it with their//?/. 

The Fourteenth is, that the whores and curte2ans,who are many times 
the caufes of great diforders, do lodge without the walls, neither is any 
of them fuffered to dwell within. They have no particular houfcs, but 
manyot them live together with a man, who hath the care and govern- 
ment of them, and is obliged to give an account of any diforder that fal- 
leth out in their lodgings. 

The J^/^^tf/^^^ is, that they forbid all commerce with ft rangers with in 
the Kingdom, leaft they might infe(5t them with new cuftomes and man- 
ners, and difturbe their ancient way of government, which is a law, that 
was in part obferved alio by the Lacedemonians , upon the very fame mo- 
tive. Yet they have never prohibited Embajfadoun from other King- 
doms, and accordingly many are received, who are fcnt from the neigh- 
bouring Kings .* only they lay this obligation upon them, that when they 
are arrived at the firft City of the Kingdom, they are to ftay there, where 
the Magiftrates dotreate them with all honour and refpe(^>, and prefently 
give the King advice of their arrival), who fendcth them leave to come to 
the Court, without which licence, they arc not permitted to go forward^ 
When they are come to Court, they are lodged in a particular Fdace^ 
whence they may not go our, but in the manner we have above related. 

Above all, they have their certain laws, ftatutes, and ordinances, by 
which both they and their Kingdom are governed. Thefc are of two forts, 
Thefiiftconfifteth in ancient rites, cuftoraes and ceremonies, common 
to the whole Kingdom, and are contained in five BookeSj and arc cfteemed 
to be, as it were Sacred. Of the fecond fort arc the laws of the Kingdom, 
according to which Jufticc is adminiftred in particular cafes, bothcivill 


CHAP.zp. TheHifioryofCHl^A. 14.9 

and criminall, concerning all that is to be obfervcd in the execution of 
them. Thefeare likewife very ancient, and arc all founded upon thofe 
five Cardi mil venues J fo much eftcemed by their K^nce^otirsy and which 
are at this day held in great veneration among them, that is, Gm^T^Li^ 
Chi^ Sin : Pietiey Jufiice^ Polk'te^ Prudcmeand Fidclitie, 

Gin J fay they, fignifieth Fietie, Humanitie, Charitie, Reverence^ Love and 
Comfaffion. Which they expliane after this manner,To efteeme ones felfe 
lede than others,To be affable,To fuccour thofe that arc affli(ftcd,To help 
thofe that are in necelfitie,To have a tender and compaflionate hearr.To 
beare good will to all men, and. To ufeall this more particularly tovvard 
their parents, fuftaining them while they arc in health, and taking care to 
have them cured while they arc fick, ferving them while they live, and 
honouring them with funerall obfcquics, when they arc dead . 

7", according to their expofition, is ^•uftice, Equalitie^ Integrities conde- 
fcention in things reafonableand juft. In this manner the Judge is to cive 
every man his owne. The rich man, To take heed he be not proud of his 
wcalth>and,To give fome part of it to the poore. To worfhip heaven. To 
rcfpec^lthe earth,Not to be contentious,Not to be obftinatc>To yeeld to 
what is juft and conformable to reafon. 

Li, they fay, is Polic!e,CourteJie,to honour and reverence others as is fit- 
ting: which confifteth,ln the mutuall rcfpecH: one man is to beare another, 
In the mature confidcratlon & circumfpedion,which is to beufed iti the 
ordering of their affaires, In the modeftie of their outward deportmenf. 
In obedience to the c^Ugiftrates^ In being affable to young men> and re- 
fpe(5tfull to old men. 

Chifigm^cth Prudence and Wifdom^ the which they place,ln reading of 
bookes,In learning of Sciences, In being perfed: in the liberall artSjTo be 
learned in matters of Antiquitie,Tobcwcllverfed in the knowledge of 
moderne affaireSjTo obferve well what is paft, thereby to better regulate 
the prefent and future occafions,To difcerne right from wrong. 

Sin^ they fay, is Fidelitic and f'eritie. It confifleth in a fincerc heart and 
areall intcntion,To do only that which is good,To imitate what is juft,To 
make their works and words agree, and that which is hidden within, to 
that which appeareth outwardly. 

According to this diftribution of their dodlrine, they reduce the Com- 
mon-wealth to five orders of perfons, correlative to one another in what 
conccrneth the obfervance and duty of each, that is,the King and the Sul^' 
jeB^ Father and Sonne j Husband and Wifcy Elder Brothers and Tounger Bro- 
thrrs^ and Friends one to another. 

The King is to obfervc toward his SubjcBs^ Figilancie, Love and Cle- 
mencie^znd thd Suh\e5is toward the King, Loyalty^ Reverence, and obedience » 
The Father toward his Children^Love and Compafpon^ They toward their 
F at her, obedience md Pietie, The Husband toward the Wife^Loveznd Uni' 
on. She toward her Husband, Fideljtie, Refpe^, and Comftacency, The 
Eider Brothers tovjardtherounger^Love 2nd Jnftru^ion^ The roimgerxo- 
ward the £/^cr, that is, to all their brothers that are elder than they, Obe- 
dienceznd Refpe^^ jFr/Wy toward one ^notha Fidelftie^ Truth ^r\d Sin^ 


,5o The Hifiory ofCBlK ^. Part.i. 

^This is the manner of living,which rhcy obfervcd in ancient times, and 

in the golden age : when their lawcs were few, and they that gave obedi- 
ence to them many, being all founded upon the light and principalis of na- 
ture as is yet to be feen in their books, expreffed almoft in the fame 
termes they are in ours : when men took no plcafurein governing, btic 
retired from the Court, and left their government, if they faw the people 
were not profited by their authoritie and example, or that Kings did not 
moderate themfelves by their admonitions ; and fo withdrew themfelvcs 
to their owne poflefTions, which they tilled with their owne hands, as I 
have already touched in another place. 

But after that Ambition and i^varice prevailed over I'ertue, and pri- 
oJAte Interefl had blinded Honour and Generofttie, this manner of living be- 
gan to decay, and lawesto encreafe : the new Pr/W^j changing fome, 
moderating others, and adding many, cfpecially Htmvu^ thefirftofthis 
familie which raigneth at prefent, who finding the Kingdome, by having 
been fomc years under the Tyranny of the Tartars, to have changed many 
of their ancient cuflomes, for thofe of {Grangers, wholly altered the form 
of^overnment, and reduced the Kingdom, which was formerly divided 
aniong many Princes^ into fiitecn Pro'vinces and one Sole Monarch :vjheDCC 
hcwasconHvainedto make new lawes, having notwithllanding alwaies 
regard unto the ancient ones. 

"Moreovcr,the chineffes have their Commandemcnts, and in fome fro- 
ojimes they print them very well, and flick them up on the pofls of their 
doores towards the flrcet-, I believe they are not very ancient, and have 
fomc correfpondcnce with our Decalogue, as Not to kill^ Not to ftede. 
Not to lie. To Honoi*r their Father and Mother, &:c. And in this point of Ho- 
fiotirin^ their Parents, we have much to learne of the Chinejfes^ as alfo all o- 
ther nations, who, in my judgement, are all exceeded in this, by C/'/>/^. 
Many excellent ancient things about Honouring their Parents, mcxo this 
day growne out of ufe, not in their fpeaking and vvruing, but in the exe- 
cution of them,wherein they are now too negligent. Butthere are others, 
which although anciently they were better ordered, yet are to this day in 
force and vigour enough,and are exadly obferved from the King even to 
the meanefl Plebeian, not only in fuflaining their Parents^ making much of 
them, and having a fpeciall care of them,and fo much the greater,by how 
much the elder they are, but by refpe(5ting of them alfo with an incredi- 
ble reverence and fubmiffion, and this, what degree, age, and condition 
foever their children are in. 

The King himfelfe, on certain dales of the year,vifiteth his Mother^vfho 
is feated on a Throne, and,foure times on his feet, and foure times on his 
knees,he maketh her a profound reverence, bowing his head even to the 
around. The fame cuftome is alfo obferved through the greatefl part of 
the Kingdom, and if by chance any one be negligent, or deficient in this 
duty, low^rdlm Parents, they complaineto tbeit/4^//?r4/f/, who piinifh 
fuch offenders very feverely. 

Nor is the refped lefTe, which they beare their Mafters and Tutonys. 
And Mfs/tlexander could fay, that we owe more to our Mafters^ who in- 
{lru6t us, than to our Parents who beget us, it feemeth to me, that in China 


OTa p .? o. TheHiftory of (;HI^J. : iji 

only this duty is underftood, and difchargcd as it ought co be : for befides 
the refped, which, during their whole life, they profelTe to their Mafters 
they are never wantins at certain times to make them prefenrs- and when 
they are advanced to degrees and offices^ they conferre on their ^afters 
very confiderable benefits and favours. 

The <9/iw^;?alfo in this Kingdom have their place and advantage, the 
Chineffes honouring them no lefTc than they were anciently cfteemed a- 
mong the Lacedemonians . 

When they meet together, although there be Tome of the company, 
who are of greater Nobilitie (if they have not a dignitie or office-, for thcfe 
alwaies keep their place, jthe old men have the precedence, and theyoun^^ 
men upon all occafions pay them great refpcdt. The Magiftrates do them 
honour pubjickly, cfpecially, when they are not only o/^ in years, 
butalfoinvertueand good life, having lived without fcandall and re- 
proach, and particularly, if they have never been cited into any Courr 
nor accufed of any crime, which among them is taken for a Tejiimony of 
very great probitie and goodnefTc .- hence came their provcrb,vvhich faith 
XinFuKkff, ^on^ieu-Xita Pao, that is. The man whohnth never fccna 
Mandarine ( they mean fitting in judgement upon hint ; is a f red cm 

The Magiftrates every yeare make them a publick banquet,at the Kin^s 
charges, with Royall magnificence and ceremonies of great Honour and 
refpe(51:, (liewing thereby, what is due to grey haires, which arc venerable 
not only for their years, but alfo for their vertucs. 

To conclude, the Chinejfes have their books full of Sentences and good 
coUQcells, did they but as well obferve them in the pradife, as they keep 
them carefully in their papers. 1 will only repeat fome few of them, 
which come firft to my memory . 

In doing ferviceto our Maflers and old men j thefrincipallpirrt is reverence 
and court cfie. 

We muji hide other mens faults • and not fubltjh our orvneperfe^iions. 

In thegemrall Government, there mufl he no particular ajfe^iion, 

Wemuft not do evilly though h he never fo Itttle, nor leave a good deed un- 
done^ hecaufe it is not great . 

The vertuous, although young men.aretobeHonmrcd^ and the vicio&s^ al- 
though old men 3 are to be avoided. 

Chap. 30. 

Of the MooreSy fen^es^ and other J\(a^ 
tions, that are in China. 

IHavefpokcnbikflyof theKingdome of China^ the people, Iheircii- 
*ftoms and manners, as well as I have been able, in regard I am at this 
prefent out ol the Country, and deprived of the ufe of their books^^ oiit of 
which I might have taken many things of worth andcuriofitic. But fee- 

15Z The Hijiorj of QHIH^A. ' PAaT.i, 

ing that at this time I cannot fay all that is to be faid of any thing, it will 
not be amiffe, to fay fomcthing of all, and therefore I will now fpcak of 
the other nations, who live among them. 

•^ In defer ibing the Provinct of Cant one ;l faid that the I fland of ffajpam, 
whichls very great, and wholly appertaineth mito CFina^is divided inlo 
two partsTthe firft, which is neercft to the continent,is,on the North part 
t hereof, inhabited by Chineffes, and governed by them : the other, which 
lieth toward the SQuth^ upon the confines of C^ochinfh'tna , is inhabited 
by a barbarous people.who have their particular language, and their laws 
and cuftomes different ,without medling at all with the^-^/W/f j^unlefTe it 
be in fome things of commerce. 

• I faid alfo, that between the Provinces of ChincheOjCantone^ and Kiamfi^ 
there are certain Mountaines which unite them,as in C^M/g g;?4 the M oun- 
raines oiMon^M dojunjtejhat Province to th<^_Kingdoi^ 
and how within thofe Mountaines there wasafmallKingdome,which 
was likewife Governed by it {c\k^ not admitting any thing from the chi- 
mffes^^xcc^i PhyficianSjMcdicine^and fome little traffique. 

Bcfide thefc in the Province of Tunnan^ which is very large, lying to- 
wards the South jin the latitude of 24 degrees, there is a great Countrie in- 
habited by a particular people, who ufe another language and other cu- 
ftomes. They have a little King called by the Chine(/es,Thu ^uon,2i Man- 
darine of earth^thty pay tribute to the Kingof C/r/V^^jthey ufe traffiquc,and 
live in peace. 

The fame things hath been faid of the Province oi Sltte^Ciheu^ where, 

in the confines thereof,there is a people, who have their particular heads, 

and Governours, without any other dependance on the Chimjfesy than 

the Inveftiturc of the Title, by which they are called. 

— There^remoreoyer in Chind.Moors in great abundance, n ot in all the 

,^ • ^- ProvlncesTnonn everyLCity,but yet in the more pri ncip_all. They fpea k 

»v 9^ the language of the Countrie, and know nothing of their own tong^ue, a 

■p^rf ^ ^.r4 ^^ wordsonly excepted « Thcy arc acquainted alfo with many thing s of 

' ^ the holy Script uie. ,j>;V)'u.;y .. 

Illi^£^(^Jio55i2"li^^how?sborna breci in that Cit:e, that pro - 
noun ced to me 'Davids ^^^^^ ^P^i^^i^ -^^jdito^ly as Ijcould^ 
my fclf r In'their Ph(ioznomies\o[Q^,ts^^i beard and face^ they are alto- 
together like the Cbinejfes. Ihcy are Merchants, Phyficians &c»They 
have Offices in the Tribunals :\hty ftudy and are admitted to the examina- 
tions, and come many times to be Mandarines ^wt not of the great ones.- 
for the moft part they flop at the degree of Licentiate.ComvaouXy where 
they live^there are Beef- Shambles, bccaufe they eat no Pork, therefore 
whcrefoever they are, they kill and fell Beef^ and it feemeth to me to be 
the greateft advantage the Country ha h by them^for where they are not, 
there is Seldome any of that flefh to be fould. They have their publick 
Mdfches allowed them by the King,They follow their own rcligion,but 
not very exadly .They,who arrive at the degree of Litter ato^ot to the dig* 
nity of fome Officc,do not much care to be advanced higher. 

They preferve their Nation entire, by marrying with one another, al- 
though fomctimes they take Chineffe Women for their Wives ^ but they 


C H A r .^ o. TheHiftorj of CHI^^. "15? 

never give their Daughters in mnrrbgc to the Sonnes oi Chimffes, The 
rcafon is, becaufc in China the wife followeth the husband jfhe is brouoht 
to her husbands- Fathers houfe, there fhe livcth and followeth hisrelfoi. 
on. therefore when a Cert tile is brought to the houfe of a Meorflic becom- 
cch a Moor, and a Moonfh Woman being brought to the houfe of a Gentile^ 
muft infallibly become a Gentile. 

TheC/'/^/^/defpife them as being (Grangers, and call them Hocitet* 
HociUocL The letters, with which they write their name, hath no other 
fignifjcation, but only proper to exprcfTethat people, neverthekfTe they 
arc very angry and grieved, when they are called by it. The name by 
which they call themfelves is Kia Muen.ih^^r. is, the gate of Injlru^ions. \i 
they be dcfpifed of the Chineffes ^nhty no leffe defpife them> becaufe they 
worfhip Idols, and ^i^ Gentiles: and thus the one is not behind hand with 
the other. In the City o^Nankim they have, as ic were a mount of Pietie^ 
or Lombard , with which they help only thofe of their Nation^but not 
thofe, who are Prifoners for their mifdeeds and wickedneffe. 

They came into C/'/^rf about 700 years fince being called from Tur- 
^//^j?4;?,bytheKingofthattime,toaidhimagainft a rebellion that Was 
then in the Kingdome, wherein they had fo good fucccffe, that they who 
were willing to remain therejwere allowed to enjoy the fame priviledge 
with the natives of the Country -fince which time they have fo multiply- 
cd,that at this time there arc many thoufands of them. Afterwards in the 
warre which King Hum had with the Tartars about 300 yeares fince, 
they took his part and came in,to his afTiftancc-, aL which time the King 
gaining the vi(n:orie they grev/ into greater eftccm and were admit* 
ted to take part in the government of the Kingdome. 

We have already fpoken of the entrie which is made into china^ every 
three and every five years, with an Epthpe^nd prefents to the King; and 
though they arc all ^(?^w, yet they are of feverall Countries and King- 
domes, and very rarely any of them remain in China. 

^ There are likewif c ^ga^jin china^ although atjthistjmc no^reat num- - y 
ber of them : but wh en, or howjthcy camejhither I am not able to fay. ,^ vW^ 
Anciently there was greater fi :or e ofthem .^uf they'have been dlminiflicd 
bylitt le^and little, many of t heni turning Moors, there 1 i ve more of them ^^ 
iTv tHe Province of ^<?/?>g7inthe capital 1 City thereof, called Cai Fum Fu, 
than in any other place. They have thereaS'y^^^ yg.welJJbujkand a- ^ 
dorned in the fafliion of a great Chappe],andfetou: with curtaincs.They 
fay they have th ere a very ancienyjebrcw_Bibje. Vzthcv Julius Alems^ 
one of our com pany, was among them for fome time; they fhcwed J]]m 
their Sjnagogues^ bu^would not draw their curtaines and let him fee the 
Bible, Fath er MatthAnsK icciHsj^mQ\h^'t h2.t according to the relation 
which tile yfipj themfelvcrma delo himThereof in Pekm^ it was noy: 
all^ifferlrig^from oiirs . TheyHave no kn owledge at all of Chrl§, fo that 
it fecmeth,they were cntred jnt o dim before he came mto the World; 
or at leali, if they h ave evcrlieard of him, the memoric of it is quite loft : 
and theref ore it wo uld b^of great confequence to fee their mhle : for per - ^ 
haps they have not corru pted o ur Jews have done^to obfcure the gb-., 
ikofowx Redeemer, ^ 

X Thefs 

154- TheHifioryofCHlT^^. Part.i. 

Thefe, as they are in no great number, fo it is not probable they fhould 
long prefer vcthemfelvcs. They who at the Court had fome difcourfe 
with our Fathers, did much lament that they had loft themfelvcs for 
want of the ffehrew Torigm^ and by the little knowledge they had of their 
law,and faid,that after fome rime they (hould all become cither Moons or 
Centtks: that the ruler of their Synagogue at that time was a decrepit old 
man,and his fonne,who was to fuccecd him in his Office^young and igno- 
rant of the things of their law,and that indeed there were very few among 
themjwho were zealous obfervers of it. 

Moreover thefe fews did feem to be much troubled and weary of the re- 
proacheswhich ihtGentiles laid upon fome ceremonies of their lavv,which 
is a fign they have no great afFe(ftion for it: as, their not eating of S wines 
flefli, their not touching a beaft, which hath been killed by the hand of a 
Gentile, but efpecially the circumcifing their Infants on the eighth day; 
which their wives and Chinejfe kindred tell them, is a cruell and harharom 

"* At th is time w_eha ve,in that Cit y ofCaiFunifu a houfe and Church 5 
and (when I left that Kingdom^) a good number of Chriftians^ which 
dailj^aKreafei'iiqtvvithoutho^eaHb^d^ be done up- 

on tholejews^ who being fo ready to change their religion, will moreca- 
fily embrace the true one, which hath more conformitie to theirs, than at 
ny other. 

Chap. 31. 

Of the Chrijlian Keligion planted many ages 
fince in China ; and of a yery A ncient 
/lone lately dijcqvered there , vphich 
is anadniirMeJTMhn^ 

^^ IT hath jlwayes been^a well grounded opinion. that the Chrifiian Reli- 
■'^ion hath^cn very anciently planted in Chil^^> Paulus Vemtus making" 
a relation of that Counttieffrom whence it is certain that he went many 
daies journey into the Countrie of the Tartars') afTureth us, that in that 
time the rejwere a gre at number of Chnft ians /'^C^4,whohad veryfump- 
tuous Churches; and naiiieclthc Citiesjyherc thexljyed. He wrot thi s 
withycr y'much truth-, forofalUh at which he mentioneth. there arc yet 
remaining many houfcs ;and in other plac«;hc rumes aTefii- 
monie of it. 

To this may be added the Tefiimonk of other grave Authours,whcre- 

in we read, that the preaching of the Gof^ell penetrated as farre as China^ 

f / y/ - bYlb^ Mint^rie nf^thc A^Q^le St ^Thmas and his Difcipl ts. Among other 

*;^^^^^l^wntings, out of which this may be drawn, thc^W^g books concerning 

the lndianChri(fiamtic cultivated by the meancs of the faid Apoftjc^re oF 
J. i j^Q 

no fmall moment , the which it jice ifainj^ arctothisday prefer ver^jnj^^ ^ 
^epnn the t^rch'Bjjho^rkkol. Gran7amtir ^ ox Delta S err a, (jlMtisQf the 
Mountaines) as it is vulgarl^caljed.; tranflared joutof that language Jw 
o^^c^^pCJ^c ArcEJbElKip-thcr^^ by thcpainsand indu- 

flry ofone of our fathers,who was very skilfull in that tongue. The tranf - ^ 
latwnjsjnjiatinjbjjuhati^ we will -», 

curne what is cited ojjt of it,into the vulgar. 

^— DTneofthcf ebook^Is a Breviary, wjiichjn one of the leflons bcIon<y- ^^ 
ing to the fecond nodurnall^hathtbcfew;^^ 

S y the m ansjf S, Thomas the erroars of the Idolatry of t he Ind ians were 
dijfifated. By^ themanes ^f S r » Th omas the Chine fl es and iEtTiiopians 

♦ mre converted to thejmh^ ^Hh^^.^^^^ ^^t . Tlioraas iheyjkained the ^^ 
vert fte of ^3pn[m^ andjthi A.doption of Sonn^s^ By the mean&s of St Th o- 
nvisthejflelievedmthe Father, Sonne, an3 Holy Ghoft . 5^ the manes of ^^ 
StV Tnomzft^ef^epTthat faJtF^rvFkfThey had promt fed to God. By the 
meancsof St, Thomas /^ g bearnesofthekiwwledgeof li fe enli ghnedallln- '" 
dia, Bjlhe manes of St. Thom as the K in gdome of U javenjleiv and entred ^ 
WloCMv^. And pre fently there folio wcth an Antiphona, which fairb. 

The Indians, the Chinclfes, the i?CTfians,/«W the other Ijlanders, they of 
Siria, ArracniajGrsecia and Romania » in commemoration of St, Thomas do 
oficxthdvf^ deration unto thy moft Holy Name,0 great God, 

- In the Summarie of the Conflitutions fvnodalK part«2«cap:i9^ concer- »i 
Hing Sijhops and Metropolitans y there is a Canon of the Patriark Theodotins, 
which hath thcfe wordsj 

In like manner alfo the B ifhops of the great F rovince^fuchasjrefor themoJl 
part t he Me tropol i tans of China . 

"~ After thearnyaU^hhe^r^^ Cocchjne^h e governo uf of the ^ 

« Mountaines o^Malder vfho W3s c aljcd.Z^g;?.P/Vje^ entitled himfelf Afe/rg. 
poUian o^IndiA and cEma: as did ^\{oD on Giufeppej wh o died at Ro me. 
Thefc were the c-//w/>;z?7}//^j of that Church-,and being taken ^\ ^^^^ 
ther are ftrong arguments^that the Chriftian Religion did formerly flou- 
ridi in China, . . 

- Thefe were the powcrfull motives, thar did engage us, after our arri^ 
vail thither , with much care and fervour to trace the ruines and footftcps 

In the Hjftories of that Kingdome,which we have very diligently per- 
ufcd, we found no nicntjon jhereof, to our great admiration, knowing 
well, how curious and diligent Inquifitours the Chineffes are in the affaires 
of their owne Countrie, that they might eternize the memory of them. Ic 
is true, we had information, that there were fome in thofe parts, who did 
reverence Xh&CroJfe and made the figneofitover their meat, without. 
knowing the i eafon why they did it. When I was in the capitall City of ^ 
Kiaw^, I_was informed by a Chriflianj that in the little Towne of Tamo.^ _, 
Xanj which was not farre off^there were fome, who when tiiey went out 
ofdoores, did make the figne of the Cy^//e upon their forehead, and be-"* 
ing asked the reafon of that cufl:orae,they an fwe red only, that they had-' 
learnt it of their Ancefiours, 

■* in the Court ofPckim^ iomc of our father s being on edaytovifi ta Jew, 

X 2 he 

Jj *i^r~ 

1^6 IheHifiorjofCHl'NiA. Part.i. 

he difcourkd more particularly to them concerning this matter^ and na- 
med to them thcplaces and families, who did pra^ife this figning vvuh 
thcCrfijfe. We fcnt a brother of ourfociety thither^ with this informati- 
on but with all the diligence he could ufe, he was not able to difcover a- 
ny thine of what he fought for, whether ic were that they had a fufpicion 
ofhim, or that really this cuftom, orthofe families were cxtind. Not- 
withftanding the Jew did ftill affirme, That there were anciently many 
of thefe, who did reverence the Crdffe, particularly in the Northern Pro- 
vinceSj and that having gained a great reputation by their skill in learning 
and armcs,they did caufe the Chinejfes to have a great fufpicion of them, 
fo that thinking themfeives no longer fafc, they dffperfed tbcmfclves in- 
to feverall places .- others who remained behind, diffembled the Religi- 
on they had profclTed ; others becamc,either Moores or Jewes, and by 
this means they came to be extinguifhed. This, as the Jew faid, wasa- 
bout 5o years before, and it is now about 30 years fincc he made this re-« 


^ During thefe th irtic years, we have gone abo ut all Chinaj and founded 
C hurGhesiD feverall of the bJogeftTowns, planting the Chrjilian Religion^ 
andu{uig all diligencejrp dlfcoyer this truths without having beenablcjo 
obtainour purpofe in thelcaft.'^ It is true, we found a fmall Bell, fuch as . 
is uTed at Made^with Greekc letters round about it,anda Cf^^ very hand- 
fomely gravedrBut this may have been broughtjn lately from otherparts, 
- upon fome occafion, fuch as fall out often in that Countrie ; as it was like- 
wife probable, that book of Efops Fables in ladn did, bound up after our 
manner,which 1 faw in the Province o^Nankim^ We then,confidering on 
one fide the great fcarcitie of evident fignes for the proving a thing of fo 
great importance, & which was Authorized by fo many pens and power- 
tull reafons, it was no marvell, if we were in doubt, and perplexitie : and 
on the other fide holding the thing for infallible, as really it is, we made 
ufeoffome other waies, to finde out other reafons and motives, why wc 
thus failed of all manifeft fignes ,different from what the jCew had told us, 
difcourfing with our felves in this manner. 

* ' When th e Tartars cm^^^ttdchina t here were many Chriflia ns^ who 
had I'uniptuous gItuixH es, bcingjm favoured by thegi,as a ppearcth hy 
therelatioji^ofP4y«^r(«?^^^^//yteriPva titmvu endeavoured to 

re gaine the Kingdom,and made warre upon the Tartars^ the Moores tookc 
part with the C^/»^j(/^/, and lent them their alfiftance for the gaining of 
the Kingdom, and of the vi<5iory which they obtained, in acknowledge- 
ment whereof they were allowed torcmaine iViChina^ with libertie of 
their Religion and of their Mofches. The Chriftians inclined to the Tartars, 
and they being overcome in that warre, the Chrifiians alfo were deprived 
of their Eftates, -and ferae being (lain, others changing their Religion, o- 
thers flying and hiding themfeives in fecret pbcesjn a fhort time,all fignc 
and memory of our Religion perifhed, fo that it was not poflible for us 
to difcover any thing, with all the diligence we ufed to that purpofe. 

"~ Toconclude,we remained yerydifconfqlatein the midft offo grcatdark- . 
ncfTe, when it pleafed The onlyjiumawe of light to drawHs^iiefthis objcuri' _ 
^i^ tv/>< & a meft clear Teflinton'jy t hatthJ Gofp el had flour ifhed there man^ <i^^ 
(inse :The thing fell out thus. In 


7 he Eiflory ofQRIV\QA. 


* InthcYcari62^ .asthcv weredigging^thc^gyndati^ 
building neerc to the City oiJiz^njn, thcCnpitallCitjeofthe Province 
of Xentjj^ the workcmcn lighted u pon a tabl e of ftonc above nine pal meg 
long, andmore thanjo^ir^ breadth, a nd above one pajm e in thick ncttf. 
The top ofK^^tliat is, one of the extremities^ or ends, of the length there- 
of,} cndcth]nd]£fqrnie piiP}^^ above two palmes in height, and 
above one palmes bre adth at the Ba fis. " On the pla IneoFjh [s Pyramid ^ 
there is awcir^m^grgi^g, thccxtrg mities whereof end infloyycr-delu- 
ccsi afterTheTafliion ohhuxCroJfcy which is reported to have been fouhd 
graved on thc^epulchrc of the Apoftl e SJhomas in the Towne q^MdU' 
^,- and as they were anciently painted in Europe^ of which there are Tome 
yet to be feen at this day. 

This Cr^j!/^ is encompaffed, as it were, wirh certain clouds, and at the 
footjhereof^vvere three Traycrfd^ eac h confiftingof th ree g reat Jet- 
Tcri. being alf fuch as are commonly ufcd '^€hi»a^ very fa[rly_graven .• 
with the fame fort of letters is engraven the whole Snperfcies of the ftone, 
as aifo the thickneflTe thereof, the which notwithftanding diflfercth from 
the reft, in that fomeof the letters graven thereon, arefbrraine, neither 
were they knowne here at the firft finding of ir. 

^* Scarcely had ih^Chinejfes difcovered and cleanfed this notable piece of 
Antiquitje, wh^n cxcitedbyjhe fervour of thcirnaturaHcuriofityjthJy 
rannetothcGovernourtogivcTmn noticeofit, who being much joy^d 
at this newes, prefently came to fee it, and caufed it to be placed upon a 
faire Pedeftall,under a fmall Arch,fuftaincd by pillars at each end thereof, 
and openat the fides, that it might be both defended from the injuries of 
theweather^andalfofeafltheeyesoffuchas are true Lovers of venera- 
ble Antiquity. He caufed it alfo to be fet within the circuit of a Temple 
belonging to the Bonz^i^ not farre from the place where it was taken up. 

There was a wonderfull concourfe of people to fee this ftone, partly 
forjEcAntiquity thereof, a ndpartlyjfor the novelty of the ftrangc Cha- 
racters, which was to be fccn thereon : and as the knowledge of our Reli- 
gion is at this day very much fpread abroad in China^ a Gentile^ who was s 
great friend unto a grave Chriflian Mandarine named Leo, being prcfcnt 
there, prefently undcrftood the myftery of that writing, and believing, it 
would be very acceptable to his friend, fent him a copy thereof, although 
he was diflant above a month and a halfes voyage,the Mandarine dwelling 
mrhtdty o^ Hawcheuy whither our fathers had retired thcmfelves, by 
reafon of the former perfecution, whereof we (hall fpeak in its proper 
place. This copy was received with a fpirituall ^ubilee^ and many exteri- 
ourdemonn:rationsofjoy, as an irrefragable Teftimony of the Ancient 
Chiftianity in China, which had been fo much defired and fought after .- 
for no Icffe was conrained in this writing, as we fhall fliew anon. 

Tliree pars after in the yeaj;^i628fcme of ou^^ went into th^t 

Province in the company ofa Chrijlian Mandarine, who had occafion^ to 
go thither, tjieyjqujnded aj^u^ L^i^- 

offer the fervice of oiir gqodjGod, t hat he, wh o was ple a fed to dif cover 
(o precious a mcmoriall of the poffeflion taken in that Country b,yj^ di- 
vinelaw^ woul d a] fq facilitate the rcftitution th^reofin the fame place. It 


158 The HiJlory of QHl^A. Part.i. 

was my good fortune to be one of the fir ft, and I efteemed it a happy a- 
bode, m that I had the opportunity to feetheftone, and being arrived I 
took no thought for any thing elfe. I faw it and read it, and went often to 
read, behold, and confider it at leifurc, and above all, I did much admire, 
that being fo ancient, it fliould be fo entire, and have the letters fo plainly 
and neatly graven. 

On the thickncs of the fides thereof, it hath many Chimfse letters^which 

containe many names of the Priefts and B^Jhopsofthat time. There are al- 

fo many other letters, which were not then knowne, for they are neither 

^ . , Hebrew nor Greek .* and (for as much as I now underftand) they containe 

L7c.ttion ex- 'the fame names, that if peradvcmure fome ftrangers, might not under- 

pkined by fl-gi^d the letters of the Countrie, they might perhaps be better acquain- 

Sodror.:Cop! t^d With thofc of 3 fortaigne eKtraaion, 

op.j,p3g.73. p a\Xm^ by Cocc hi ffe I czme to Crangamr^ where is the Rejideme o[thc 
jirchlpijhdpoiCeJia^zocoQMt about thefe letters with father Jittem Fgr- 
mndts one of our focietie, who is very skilfuU in the books and writings 
of thofe ancient Chriftians converted by S. Thomas. He told me the let- 
ters vi^ere Syriack, and the very fame which are ufed there at this day. 

But let us come now to the infcription of our Marble which no doubt, 
ere this hath raifed an appetite in the reader to know it, 

Thofe three lines, which are at the foot of the Crolfsj each confifting 
of three letters, as we have faid, being faithfully tranflated, as alfo all the 
reft, as neere as pofTibly I could/ay thus. 

J Relation in the Praife and eternaU mcmorie^ efthe law of 
the light of truth br ought from ^udea^ and 
preached in China . 

THe writing is graved on the plaine fide of this ftone in its proper 
letters, placed in lines running from top to bottom after the Chi- 

fomewhr' nclse f afhion. The firft line, which is the fhorteft faith thus. 

diffcringfrom ] A Piologuc made by the Prieft of the Kingdom of ludea named Kim 

Prodmm'''^"* ^^"^' The reft of the infcription in a magnificent Orientall ftile, contai- 

Copt cap. neth that which folio weth. 

3 p3g. 53 • \\ oh how true and profound is the eternally and the incomprehenfihle mofi 

fpiritu tli [pea king of time pajl, he is without beginning^ and of time to come he 
is without end^ andalwaies in the fame perfeBion, He tooke nothingy and with 
it he made all. He is a principall^conftfling of Trinitie and Unirie, re^ without 
any reall principle. The Lord OXooyu, He madethe foure parts of the world in 
figure of a Cxoffc^ He moved the Ch^QS and made the two principles. There 
wa^s an alteration made in the AbyfTe, and heaven and earth appeared^ Nature 
M the beginning was fur e^ and exempt from difordinate faff tons, and the heart 
w<u cleane^ without the unrulinejfe of the appetites. 

Ill (Jlian came afterward to fall into the deceits of Sztm, who covering 
with words the mifchiefe he had plotted jperverted the innocence of the firfl man. 
T rom this principle fprangiS^ Seds, which by reafonthey were fo many did 
me drive away the other i andof all of them was made a net .^ wherein the world 
was caught. Some chofe the creatures and appropriated Divinity to themiothers 
were plungsd in that errotir of thinking that all is nothings and ends in nothing. 


Chap,?i. 1 he Bijlory of QHI^A. ,jp 

Others make facrifices to invite good fertum witkOthcrs counUrfeit ^ertueio 
deceive the world. The under fimdmg corrupted with err our s^ and the Will with 
f>afftons ^ are altogether obfcured. Men walked forwards without ever arriving 
at the end they aimed at. The world wa^s all in a mi fer able comhuflion, Man 
fi ill multiplied the darknejfe, andloofitfg his waj^ wandredlong time iisit^ with- 
out finding the truth, 

IV. Then theMt{fas,cn€ of the ihrccpcxCons^ covered his true OUajefiy 
and making himfelfa man, appeared unto the world, i^n Angell came to ma- 
rnfefi the Myftcry,4«^4 Virgin brought forththe Holy one. A Srarre appta- 
red^ which gave notice of his birth to thofe of the Kingdo7ne of Voz\x: They cam 
to offer him'Xnhuc^ and all wa^ done according to what had been foretold by 
the foure and twenty Saints. Hepublifhedtothe world the mofi pure law, He pu- 
rifiedtheir cufiomes^ and re^ified the faith. He cleanfedthe world.He perfehed 
vert tie y and therein founded the three venues. He opened the way to life, and flnit 
up that of death. He manife(led the bright day^ mci banifbed obfcure darkeneffe. 
He conquered the obfcure feate, at what time the devill remained whollj fubdued^ 
andfuccoured With his mercy the finking world, that men might afcend to the 
hahitati(vs of light, *^fter he hid perfecied his works ^ he afcenkd into the 
heavens at Midd ay. 7 hert remained 1 7 books of holy Scripture, There was - 
fened the gate to Converfton by means of that water ^ which clean feth^ and fur i- 
fieth, Hts Miniflers made ufe of the Holy C10&, they made their abode no 
more in one place than in another^ that they might illuminate the whole worlds 
The world being thm reduced unto Union ^ men did walke after their example 
and (thus did they open the way of life and glory. 

V. They fuffered their beard to grow, and did pjew by this means^ that they 
were li ke other men in their externa/lpart. They cut their haire,even to the roots^ 
upon the top of their headland by this they fhewed^ that they hadm internall 
tvordlj ajfeBions. They kept no jerv ants ^ the Noble and the common men were 
with them the fame thing. They tookeno riches from men. Thef gave to the 
poore that which they had.Theyfafled and watched to bring the fie fl) intofubjeBi- 
on to thefpirit, Seaven times a day they offered facrifices ofpraifejoy which they 
helped the living and the dead. Every feaventh da'j they did offer. They purified 
their hearts to receive the holy innocence. The true law hath no namethat doth 
wcllfuitewithit., andthatis ahleto explaine the excellency thereof-^ therefore 
becaufe it wanteth another name^we will call itThe law of^nghtneffe. The law^ 
if it be not holy, cannot be called great: andifholineffe be not anfwcrable to that 
which the law teacheth^ it may not have that name. But in this law the holineffe 
correffondeth to the law^ and the law to the holineffe. 

VI. If there be not Kingly Perfons to favour itythe law cannot well be propa- 
gated.^ if they receive not the law., they cannot grow truly great. When they and 
the law doagree^prefently the world is enlightened. By this means, at the time, 
when a King named Tai Zum Veil Hoam did governe with famous prudence 
and fani^itie^ there came from ^udea a man of high vertue, by name Olopiicnj 
who being guided by the clouds brought the true doBrine, And in the year Chin 
Quom Kieufu he arrived at the Court, The King commanded the Colao 
Fam K'zulin , that he (J)0uldgo and meet him dsfarre as the Wefi., and that he 
fhonld treate him as his guefi with all manner ofkindneffe. He caufed this doH- 
fine to be tranjlated in his palace ^ and feeing the law to be true^ he powerfully 


i6o TheBiJlory of QHl^d. Pabt.i: 

commnn^td it ^ouldht divulged through the Kingdome^ and frefemly 'after ^ 
hefent forth a royall patent, rvhich cor)tMned that rvhich foHoweth . 

"t he true lavp hath no determinate name . The Minijlers thereof go about in 
(.very fart to teach itttnto the worlds having no other aim ^ hut to befrojitable 
iothofethatliveinit, fn the Ktngdome of T^ch'w^ this Olopucn, being a 
ffian of great vertue, hath brought from fo remote a Countrie Ve^rines andlma^ 
ges 5 and is come to place them in our Kingdome, Having well examined 
that rvhich he propofeth , rve find it to be very excellent, and without any 
out fvar d noife. and that it hath its principall Foundation even from the Crea- 
tion of the World: hisdo^rine is brief, neither doth he fou^dhis truth in 
fuperficiall appear ances'jtbringeth with it the falvation andbeneft of men : 
wherefore I have thought it convenient, that it Jhould be fublijhed through 
ear Empire. 

He commanded the Mandarines of this Court of iWwjQw, that they 
Ihould build there a great Church, with 21 Mioifters, weakening by that 
mcancs the Monarchic o^chen Olao Fu^ head of the (c6t ofTauzw, which 
was carried in a black Chariot toward the Weft : fo, the great Tarn be- 
ing eblightened together with 7^4^, the Holy Gofpel came into China and 
a little while after, the King commanded, that olopuen bis Pidiure fliould 
be painted on the vvalsoftheTemple,where it fhineth, and his memoric 
willalwaycsfhine in the World. 

VII According to the records of the Empires of /T^w and (/«^i the 
Kingdome o^Tachin bordereth Southward upon the red Sea, and North- 
v;ard on the Mountaines of Pearls, Weft ward on the Forcft I>elle Fule 
P(?r £/ .y 4»f /,Gaft ward on the Countrie of C^^^^F/^w, and the dead water, 
TheCountrieproduccth a Lake Afphaltitisof fire,Balfome, Pearlesand 
Carbuncles : it hath no robbers, but all live in joyiull peace. The Gofpel 
only is allowed in that Kingdome : and honours are conferred only on 
thole that are vert uouf .Their houfes are great,and all is illuftrious by their 
order and good cuftomes. 

Vin ThegreatEmperour^4^:(^/w,theSonneof 74/:^«w, continued 
with good decorum the intention of his Grand Father , enlarging and ador- 
ning the works of his Father. For he commanded, that in all his Provin- 
ces,Churchcs fhould be built, and honours conferred on olopuen^ beftow- 
ing upon him the Title of Bifliop of the great law-^by whichlaw he gover- 
ned the Kingdome ofC^/>4 in great peace, and the Churches filled the 
whole countrie with the profperitie of preaching. 

IX In the year Xim Lte the Bcnz.i of the Se(5t of the Pagods ufing their 
wonted violcnce,did blafphcme this new and holy Iaw> in this place of 
Turn Chew, and in the year Sien Tien, iomc particular Perfonsin Sigan^ 
with laughter and difparagcment did mock at it. 

X Then one of the chief of the Priefts, called John, and another of 
great vertue, named Kie Lie., with fome others of their Countrie , Priefts 
of great fame, being difingaged from the things of the world, began to 
take up again that excellent net, and to continue the thrcd, which was 
now broken. K!ing Hi vtn 7^m Chi Tao commanded five little Kings to 
come in perfon to the happie houfe, and to fet up Altars.Then in the year 
Tien ?ao,\\\'z pillar of thcIav^jWhich had been cafl down for a while began 


Chap.^i. TheHiftoryofCHl^A. i6i 

to grow great .• King Taciam Kiumgave command to CaolieSic that the 
Pidturcs of five Kings his anccftours fhould be placed in the Churches 
with a hundred Prefents to honour the folemnitie. Although the great 
beards of the Dragon,werc afarrc off, yet could they lay hands on their 
Bowes and their Swords. The brightncffe which floweth from thefc 
Pidures, maketh them feem, as if the Kings themfelves were prefent. In 
the third year oiTien Pao^ the Prieft Kieho was in /W/4, who guided by 
the ftarrcs came to Chwa^Sc beholding the Sunne,came to the Emperour, 
who commanded that 5^tf^;?^andP4«/, and other Prie/is {hou\d bejoyned 
unto him, to exercife Holy works in Kim Kim^ a place within the palace. 
Then were hung up in Tables in the Churches the Kings letters richly a- 
dorned, by publique order, with red and blew colours, and the Kings 
pen filled the cmptines : it mounted on high, and tranfcended the Sunj 
his favours and donatives may be compared to the tops of the Moun- 
taines ot the South-, and the abundance of his benefits h equall to the bot,. 
Com of the eaftcrn Sea.Reafon is not to be reje(5ledithere is nothing which 
the Saints cannot do^ and their deeds are worthy of memorie. For this 
caufe \ Ven Mim commanded5'that Churches fliould be built in 
this Lmvtij and in five Cities. He was of an excellent nature, and open- 
ed the Gate to the common profperitie of the Kingdome, by which 
mcanes the affaires of the Empire began to flourifh again- 
XI KmgTaizum Fenvtt caufed happie times to return again-,doing things 
without labour and trouble. -al way es at the feaft of the nativitie of Chrift 
he fent Heavenly perfumes to the Royal! Churches, to honour the Mini- 
fters of this holy law. Truly, heaven givcth beautie and profit to the 
world, and liberally produccthallthings.This King imitated hcaven,and 
therefore he knew how to fuftaine and nourifh his fubjed:s. 

XII King Kien chum Xim Xtn Venvu ufed eight wayes of government 
for to reward the good and chaftife the wicked, and nine wayes to renew 
the eflate of the Gofpcl. Let us pray to God for him, without being a- 
fliamed of it. He was a man of much vertue-, humblc,and defirous of 
peace; and ready to forgive his neighbour, and to affift all men with cha* 
ritie. Thefearetheftepsof our holy law ; to caufe the winds and the 
raines to retire at their fcafons ; that the world fliould live in peace, men 
be well governed, and affaires well eff ablifliedj that the living fliouId 
profper,and the dead be inhappincfTc-, all this proceeds from our Faith. 

XIII The King gave many honourable Titles in his Court to the 
Prieft T^«,a great Preacher of theLa w,and alfo a garment of a red colour^ 
becaufe he was peaceable,and took delight in doing good to all.He came 
from afarre off" into fhma^ from theCountiy of Tarn XeChiChim, His! 
vertue furpafTed our three famous Families-,he enlarged the other fciences 
perfedly. He ferved the King in the Palace, and afterward had his name 
in the Royall book. The little King of Fuen Tarn, who had the Title of 
Chum Xulim,znd called himfelf Cozuy^kxycd 2it firft in the warrcs of 
ihefc parts of^^/rfw. King Sozum commanded r^^that he fliould affift 
Cozuy very much above all the reft .- neither did he for this change his or- 
dinariecuftome-, being the Nailes and Teeth of the Common- Wealth? 
the EyeS and Eares of che Army. He knew well how to diftribute his re- 

y venue n 

i6z TheHiftorjofCHlTsCA. Part.i 

venue -he was not fparing in any thing: he offered a precious Gift, called 
j'(?//,to the Church ofthis place of X/;?f/^«^;?: he gave Golden Carpets 
to that of Cie Ki, He repaired the old Churches, and eftablifhcd the 
houfeofthe law, adorning the chambers and galleries thereof, making 
them fhinc like flying lights-, he laid out his whole ftrcngth upon works of 
charitic .'every year he afifembled thePrieftsof the foure Churches, fer- 
ving them with a good heart,and making them honourable entertainment 
for thefpaceof fifty daies-, he fed the hungrie^ cloathed the naked, cu- 
red the fick, and buried the dead. 

XI III In the time of T^ So,m\h all his parfimonic, there was not fuch 
ooodnefTe, as this to be feen ;but in the time o[ this law wc fee fuch men, 
who do fuch good works as thefe. For this reafon have I graved this 
Stone, that thereby they might be publifhed . 

I fay then^ thar the true God had no beginning,but being pure and qui- 
et,was alwayes after the fame manner .-he was the fir ft Artificer of the fre- 
ation^ he uncovered the earth,and elevated the Heaven. One of the three 
Perfons made himfelf man for our cternall falvation : he afccnded like the 
Sunneonhigh, and defeated darkneffc ; in every thing he did difcovcr 
the profound Truth. 

XV The illuftrious King, being really the firft of the firft, making 
life of a fit time, put a ftop to mens invention :|the heaven was 3ilatcd,and 
the earth extended. Moft isright is our law : the which, when Tarn came 
to the Kingdome,and propagated the dodrine, and builded Churches, 
was zs^nBarquCfholh for the living and the dead, and gave reft to the 
whole world* 

XV I Cao ^m following the example of his Grand Father, built new 
Churches. The beautifull Temples of peace filled the whole earth. 
The true law was illuftratedjhc gave a title of honour to the Bijhof-^ and 

men enjoyed repofe. 

XVII The wife King H/r//jZ//w followed the right way^ the royal 
Tables were illuftrious^thc Kingly letters fhone therein,Thc Pidures of 
the Kings gave light on high, and all the people did reverence them -and 
all men had joy and gladneffe. 

XVIII When -y^^rtzw reigned, he came in pcrfon to the Church. The 
Bol-f Stmne did fhine, and the bright cloudes fwept away the darkneflc of 
the night ; Profperitie was united to the Royall family 5 misfortunes cea- 
fcdjtheheatofdiffcntionswas abated.- he quieted the rumours, and he 
renewed our Empire. 

XIX King Taizutt was obedient-, in vcrtue cquall to heaven and earth.- 
he gave life unto the people, and advancement to their affaires : he exer- 
cifed works of charitie - he offered perfumes to the Church. The Sunne 
and Moone were united in his perfon. 

XX When King Kien Chum reigned, he did illuftrate famous vertue 5 
and with his armes reftorcd peace to the foure feas :and with his learning 
he pacified loooo confines. As a torch he did enlighten the fccrcts of men, 
he faw all things as in a glaiTe .• He received the Barbarians, who all took 
rules from him, 

XXI The law is great and pcrfcd;, and cxtcndcth it fclfe to all things, 


Chap .?i . TheHi/lorj of QHl^NJ. 167, 

defiring to frame a name for ir,I cannot but call xx^Thc Divine Law. FCfngs 
know bcft to difpofe their affaires, I, who am a fubje<5t, can only caufc, 
them to be recited on this rich ftone, for to magnifie our great felicitie. 

XXII In the Empire of great Tam, the fecond year of Kicn Chum^ the 
feaventh day of the Month of Auturane, was this ftone cre(5tcd. Nin Cia 
being Bifhep^and Governing the Church of C^/>;4.Thc tJf^l andar ine^c^iWcd 
Litt Sicuyen entitled Chadylam (in which office before him was Tai Ckft Sn 
Sic Kan Kim) graved this (lone with his owne hand* 

This is the Interpretation of thatZw/?r//?i/^;;5tranflared as faithfully as wc 
could pof!ibly,out of the Chinejfe Phrafe. 

It will not be impertinent now to make {omtAnnotations upon the rextj,' 
having forborne on purpofe to do it before, that J might not brcake the 
thread of the difcourre,and therefore we will take thcParagraphs in order , 
noting the words which wc will cxplaine, and giving fome advertifement 
upon them. 

I Giudxa. This word is written hift thus without any other difference, 
but that the Characters are C/?/>?fjf/'tf. The fame is found alfo in the othet 
words or names, of Satanas and Mejpas , which arc in the iii and iiii 

II olooyu. This word is written juft thus In the ftone^ and it is proba- 
ble he meant Eloi which is a name of God.T^^f two principalis, of which he 
fpcakcth aftcrward,are matter and forme according to their Phylofophic. 

III 7'k kingdom of Pozu^ln the Chinejfe maps ylyethEad of fudea. The 
^OfSaints may well be,The y^«r^ great Prophets^The twelve fmallProphefSj 
Abraham, Ifaac, ^acob^ ^oh, Mofes^ Jojhua^David and Zacharias.iht father 
of fohn the Baptifl^ who put togcthcr,make up that number^ and have fpo- 
ken the plainefl concerning the coming ot C hrift. 

IV He conquered the feat^^cAt feemeth that he fpeaketh of thcRedeemers 
defcent into hell. Twenty feaven is probable he meaneth the new 
Tcftameot, thatiSjThefoure^'i;^;?^^///?/, The ^^j of the Apofiles^lho. 
fourteen Epiftles.of S. Paul^ one of S. ^ames^ two of S. Peter^ thrcb 
of S. lohn^ one of S, 5^//^^, and the Revelation, 

V Seaventimesaddythey offered dec. He feemeth tofpeak of the fea- 
venCanonicallhoures. Every feaventh day Sec- Signifieth the facrificc 
of the M affe, which was celebrated every Lords day. 

Vl.VlI.7/'^_jf^4r<?/^/w^^w&c. According to the computation of 
their Hiftorics, it is the year ot our Redemption 6^6. Weakening the Monar- 
chic ^c. Thisclaufe is an Elogie given to that Prince by the Authour of 
(this Infcription. Was carried in a black chariot toward the Wefi &c. It is to 
be underftood, that it went away out of china, 

VIII Caoz,ttmM appearcch by their books,that he reigned in the year of 
our Lord 65 1. 

IX Ximlie. According to the Chriftinn Computation, was the year 
699. Tumchett^ The opinion of the Tranflatour is,that ir was a particular 
place in the Province o'tHonam.Sien Tien is the year 712, Sicham^ Called 
at prefent Sig^m^ was the ancient Court in the Province of xcmfi. 

X KingHiVenZum^SiCC. Began toraigneintheyear ii/s^, Tien tdo 

Y 2 lived 

1(54. TheHiftoryofCBll^A. Part.i. 

lived in the year 745. CaoLie Sic, is the name of an Eunuch, who was ve- 
ry powerfull with that King. The Beards ^c. This claufe is another Elo- 
giefmadebythc Authour) of thofe Kings. The Dragon &c. According 
to the interprcter,this is an ancient fable of that Kingdom,which rclatcth, 
That one of their Kings rid through the ayre mounted upon that beaft, 
which his fubje(5ls, who accompanied him, had laden with their armcs, 
but they which came after plucked off the beard of the Bragen^ and took 
fomeofthearmes; that thefe might remain by them as a memorial 1 of 
that Prince, whom they did fancy to be prefcnt with them in thefe rc- 
liques. This fable might haply take its Orginall from the cuftomc which 
their Kings have, of embroydcring Dragons on their garments;) and other 
things, which belong to them. The third year of Tien Pao Sec, falleth out, 
according to our account, to be the year 745 . Sozm Fen Mim^ reigned ia 

the year 757- 

XU Tai ZunFemvu,h€gmtova\gnc in the year 7^4. 

XII X/V^^C/^^^^X/w^was King in the year 781. 

XIII ^^w Xe Chi Chim is a place in the Country of the Pagods, and 
fignifieth a remote Countrie. PoU^ faith the interpreter, is fomevefTcl of 


XIV. Tafo was a Bonzo of the fedi of the Pagods, who made a great 
affembly of the Bonzi^to treate of the publike affaires of that rcligion5and 
tooke care to lodge them, and provide all ncccfTaries for them. 

XlX The Sunnt and Moonehcc. Signifieth, that all obeyed that King. 

XX^I Kien C htm, VJBS they cat ySz. In the other P^y^^rrf^^/ whereon 
we have made no Annotations ^thac is nothing of obfcuritie to require it; 

It appeareth then evidently, by the teftimony of this venerable Anti- 
quity,that the Chriftian Religion was planted in China by the means above- 
faid ,in the year of Chrifi 6^6 j neverthekfle, it is not to be iraagined,that it 
was not formerly brought thither by the preaching of the Apoftlcs, who 
as the holy Scripture faith, did difperfc themfelves through the whole 
earth: but, as it happened in fcverail other Countries, that after it had 
once been propagated there by them, it came in time tobeextinguifhed, 
and was againe rcnucd by the induftry of ethers 5 fo it fell out in India^ 
where S. Thomas the Apoftle had once preached the Gofpel 5 but all me- 
mory thereof being loft, about the year 800 , a rich Armenian Chriftian, 
called Thomas the Canaanite reftored the ancient Religion in the Citie of 
Mogo Doven, or Patana^ repairing the Churches, which had been former- 
ly built by that holy Apoftle r, and erc(5ling others. And upon this oc- 
cafion of the likenefTe of their names, many have miftaken them to be all 
built by the fiift T^tfw^tf. The fame thing may probably have happened 
in China;^\\Qxt the Gofpel being received, prci'ently after if, began to be 
publiflied to the world-, and being afterward extinguiftied, it was intro- 
duced again a fecond time, whereof this infcription maketh raentionj 
and laftly a third time, whereof wc purpofeto treat in the fecond part. 
Itleemethneceffariethus to ftate the matter, that we may not derogate 
from the Tcftimonie of thofe grave Authours, whom I have formerly 
cited, how 5f. T/'tfw^i l^f^^/^//^ did preach in C^,/>4, and converted ic 



Chap.^1. n e tiijlory ofCBlHj^. 1 6? 

The time wherein the memorie of the Holy Apoftlcs preaching was 
loft, was not much different both in India and China-^ for by fcverall con- 
jectures it appcareth, that Thomas the Cananite renewed it in India in the 
eighth Century after Chrift-, and by this ftone it is manifeft,that it was in 
the feventh Ccnturie after Chrift, when it was preached in China .• and 
therefore without much difficultie it may be Concludedjthat thiswas not 
the firftcftablifhmentoftheChriftiaa Religion thcrcj but rather a re- 
cftablifhmentof it. 

The end of the firft part 


1 66 

TheUiflou ofCHl^d. Part.z; 


W^^^J^^i^^s contained 

The Chriftianitie of the Kingdome 



Chap. 1. 

Of the firH beginnings of the T^reachingo/the 
(jo [pel in China, 

^ooooooooo o otfj|rrnrr^mg tothc o^imoVioi SocrAtcs^hf^zs^ioht 
'^^^"^^ p ^ - cftecmed no IcfTc injurious, who fpake againft the 

Sunnc, than he, who fhould dcnic the bcautie of 
the light thereof, with which it makcth the day, 
and of that which is the fruit thcrof,as7<?r^«/,alIe- 
gorizcth itjthat is.the flower.It would be no lefle 
a fault,but rather more unpardonable in hinijWho 
treating of the converfion of China^ iliould deny 
Francifcus Xaverius to have bin the flower of that 
day of Grace, which, having bin fet there for fo many ages, is now rifen 
again upon the Gentiles of that Monarchie. He was the firft who came to 
the gates thcrof with thatTrcafurc of the holy Gofpcl, after he had comu- 
nicatcd it to fo many feverall K'ngdomes and Provinces. The glorious 
Saint Leo fpeaking of the Apoftlc St. Peter faith, ^am Populos^ qui in cir- 
cumeijione credideruntjerttdierat : ]a,m AmiochenAm EccUftAm fmdaverat : 
jam Pontum, GaUtiam^ Cappadociam, Ajiam at que Bithyniam^ legibm EvAn^ 
gdicA PrAdicationis impleverAt : nee atft duhim deproveEiu operis, aut de fpa- 
tiofHA igmrus MAtk^ Trofhxum C rue is Chrijli Romams arcihm infer eb at. 


Ch A p . 1 . The Eiflory ofQUI^KA. 1 6^ 

All IndU doth confefTe no leffc of their Apoftlc, to whom the bounds of 
the £4/?, though very large,fecmed but narrow, having already inftruacd 
in the faith the principall Cities thereof Goo, and Cochin^ having planted 
theGofpel on the coafts of P</^4r/4, having converted the Country of 
TrAvancor.^ inftrudled Camhaia^ and propagated the faith at Malacca^ prea- 
ched the true religion at Mdcazar^dc the Molucche Iflands; and finalIy,con- 
vcrted the King of Bungo in Giaffon^ and filled all that Kingdom with the 
knowledge of the law of Chrifl •, yet ftill the defire of a greater harveft, 
and to profit other Nations, fuffcrcd him not to reft. Studium froficiendi 
aliiSy otii ilium im^ittientem reddidit^ as Eohertu6 Jhhas faith of another La- 
bourer in the Gofpel ; tinde mc aut dttbiu^ defroveiitt oj?erii^dut defpatiofud 
igaaru^s at at is Trofhxum CrucU ChriftiSinicis arcibus infer eb at. 

This was his ayme, thcfc were his hopes and defires, with which he 
undertookethe voyage of Cte^, when being zn'weAztSanciano, where 
the T>i'vim Providence had appointed he fhould end his daies •, (that being 
true which 7Vr;«//;4» faith, Deus omnittm conditornilmnratione frovidit^ 
difpofftit^ ordinavit.) And the Lord being well appayed with the intenti- 
on of his fervant, and the ardent defires which he had, to facrificc bis life 
in this enterprifejas Abraham had to facriHce thclife of his fonne Jfaac, 
caufing him to afcend up into Mount Sancian , (as he did Mofes into 
Mount i\r^^aiter he had fhewed him the land he fo much dcfired to con- 
quer; Mortms ejl, jubente deo : the good man died by the ordination and 
appointment of Heaven? after he had feenand (bewed unto his Sons that 
land, which he had gained {like another ^acoh [oxjofeph^mth the bow of 
his will,and tbearrowes of his de{ires,Ieaving them for an inheritance the 
conqucft thcrcof,together with his hereditary fpirit-,which his fonnes and 
followers having received (in part,) made their affault, and at length en- 
tred this place 5 and it is now about fifty years that they have kept it with 
many labours, travels, perfccutions, imprifonments, Bajiinadoes, and in a 
word, Egentes, Angujiiati^ JffliSli'^ Thefc being the armes with which 
thcftandard of the Chriftian faith is fet up in the Kingdomes of the Gen- ' 

f/7^^, and by means whereof (together with the grace of God J fomany 
mcnhavcbeen converted unto Chriftianitie, as you (hall finde in this fol- 
lowing relation. 

After my returne into Europe^ and that my intention of feeking Labou- 
rers for this vine-yard was once divulged, prefently there were^fomany 
pretenders, who made fuit to me to be received,that there is fcarce a Pro- 
vince of our fociety, from whence I have not received many letters from 
fcverallof the fathers, wherein they did not only offer themfelves, but 
made it their moft earncflrequeft,that I would accept of them, ro ferve as 
Souldiers in this entcrprifc; as if the trouble and paincs they were to fuffcr 
in thcfc long and dangerous voyages, and the perfccutions they are fo cer- 
tainc to undergo in this exercife, were to this undertaking, as the prickles 
are to Rofes,whereof S. Jmbrofe faith,That they are Amatoria cjfudam //- 
leHamenta. And in the Province oiPortugall^ as being moft conveniently 
fcituated for this voyage, onlyoutofthetwoColIedgesof c<?w>7/^r4and 
£hora^ I had a lift of 90 perfons, all fo ready and defirous to labour in this 
Mijfion^ t^iat many of them, not being content to declare their defires by 


^8 The Hi/lory of QHID^A7~~~ Part.i.' 

ordinary words written with pen and inkc, have fcnt me very long letters 
concerning their holy pretention, all written and figncd with thier owne 
blood, witneffing in this manner, that they had a holy courage, that could 
dcfpife the threats of Martyrdom; offering cheerfully to the Lord that 
little blood, as a Tcflimony of the great defire they had to flied it all for 

his fake. 

Who now can doubt, whether thefc be not the marvellous effects of 
that fpirit and zeale whichi^'r^;?^//^^ Xaverim communicated to them,oc- 
cafioning inwardly in the breafl of each of them, that which a little while 
fincehedid outwardly in that great Champion MarceUmSpineUus, by 
fending him to Giappon, wheic he crowned that glorious cntcrprife with 
his blood. 

Sanaa;} is one of thofe many Iflands, which, on that fide, give a begin- 
ning to the Kingdom of cto<«: it is a high mountain covered with trees, 
and though very pleafant,yet un-inhabited. When the Portughejfes iirft 
began their trade with Chma^t\{\s Ifland ferved them for a Porc,and there 
they built houfes with ftraw, like huts, which ferved them only for the 
time of their Negotiation^^ whilefl they expeded their merchandife-,but 
as foone as that came,they abandoned that habitation,and prefently fetting 
faile,returned into India, Fourc and fiftic miles from thence, more within 
the Kingdom, there is another Ifland named GauXany and by the fortu- 
gheffes MacaQ^ it is but fmall,and fofull of rocks, that it is very eafie to be 
defended, and very opportune for the rcndevous of P;jrats and robbers • as 
indeed it was at that time,when many of them having got together in that 
place, did much infcfl all the Iflands thereabouts. The Chinejfes were in 
confultation how they might remedy that mifchiefe, but whether it was 
that they wanted courage to undertake it, or that theychofe rather to 
have it done without running any danger themfelvcs, and at other mens 
cofl, knowing well the vafour of the Portughefes, they fet them upon the 
cnterprife, promifing them,that if they could drive out the Pyrats^k fhould 
be granted to them for an habitation. 

The Portughejfes accepted of the condition with much picafure and 
contentment : and though they were but few and much inferiour in num- 
ber to the P^r^z/jnevertheleffe being more skilfull in military affaircs^thcy 
put themfelves in order, andfct upon them with fo much courage, that' 
without the lofTe of one man on their owne party, though with great 
flaughter of the enemie, they prefently became Mafleis, both of the field 
and Ifland* They began prefently upon this to build, every one taking 
that place and ground which fee med good to him; But that which coft 
nothing at firft, came after to be fold very deare, and atfo high a rate at 
this prefent, that it would hardly be beleevcd, how much the leafl piece 
of ground to build on in that City would cofl. For, trade beginning to 
faile every where in India^ doth here encreafe flill every day, and the in- 
habitants are growne fo rich, that the covetoufncfTc of the Hollanders 
have made them have a great longing to it, and did oni:e attempt to 
take it. 

In the moncth of I me 1622. Fourteen faile of Hollanders came into 
that Port, with fo much rcfolution and affurance to take that C icy, that 


C » A p . t . The Hijlory of QRID^QA. i 6^ 

they had already divided (in their thoughts) the principall parts there- 
of among thcmldveSjand many Captaines and old Souldiers came alon^^ 
in this fleet, only out of hopes to have their former fetvices paid them 
here, and to fettle themfelves in a condition of cafe and plenty after all che 
hardfhips they had endured .They landed 700 men on MidlomerEve33oo 
of them ftaid upon the (hoic to guard the Cannon, the other 400 having 
drawn up themfelves intoafquadron,went totheHillofourZ^^^y^^//^ 
GuidAy marching towards the Citie with fo great order and chcerfulnefTej 
as if they had the vi(5toric already in their hands. 

They were no fooncr difcovcred from the Mountain of 5.P4«/,but they 
were received with two or three falutes from the cannon on that fide, (o 
well levelled, that beginning to abate of their fury, they left the diredt 
way toward the Gitic,and turned on the left hand toward the Mountain 
of our Ldk del hmn pno : and becaufe there was a Garrifon therc,they 
kept offabout twice Musket-fhor, and fortified themfelves on the fides of 
the U'lW sphere St.Maries Church ftands. But the Portughejfes difcharged 
upon them fo fcafonably5and with fo much valour and courage, that they 
put them to flight, and made them run down the hill toward the Sea, 
where the other Souldiers flood by the fhips. They fled in fo 
much difordcr and confufion, that although there were above 
300. there to guard their Artilleric, who did fuccour them with 
frefli Men, and encourage them to face about , yet all was in vain, 
and fo both the one and the other forced to runne into the water up to the 
chin, to get into their boatcs : and thcfe fcapcd well 3 for many went over 
head and earcs-, and a barque by reafon of the confufion and diforder of 
thofe that got into her, funk down right, and above 460 men were drow- 
ned.The number of the wounded,is not knownj but it is conje(5tured,they 
could not be few ; for whilefl they embarqued, our Muskettiers, who 
flood upon a hill jufl over them, played continually upon them. Of the 
Tortughefes there were flain only three or four, and fome Servants* The 
Hollanders being ill fatlsficd with this entcrtainmentaprefently fet faile,and 
durfl never fince hazard themfelves upon the like enterprife. 

This was the caufe of fortifying the Town oiMacao^mxh a wall round 
about it, having fix Buharks-xhn o(St.Paul,which ferveth as a cittaddellj 
(landing higher than the Town,having fifteen pieces of Cannon, a Court 
of Guard, and a Caflellan belonging to it.That of the Port, having four- 
teen piece of cannon, among which arc fix great ones, that carry each of 
them a ball of 50 pound weight,and another Court of Guard. The third 
Bulwark is that of our LadU del baon porto , with eight piece of cannon^ 
The fourthjthat oiSt.Frajicis^ovJ2ix6. the Mountain,with other eight pjecc 
of Cannon. The fift is, that of St. Peter, mih five piece of Cannon. The 
fixtis,that o^ St, gCtf^»,with three piece of Cannon. And becaufe the 
Mountain of our Ladie della Gu/da commandeth both the Bulwark of St.' 
Paul and the Citie,it was fortified in the year 1637 in the fame manner as 
the Rock of Charil is : it hath ten great brafTe Cannon* 

The Citicis not great, there are in it about 900 or 1000 Pmughejfes, 
who are all rich, and live very fplcndidly : there are many Chmefs 
Ghriflians, who arc cloathed,and live after the Portughejfe falhion^ the;e 

Z are 

lyo TheU'tjlory of CHID\(A. Part.z. 

are alfo Chimfes who are Gentiks^znd are cloathed^ and live after the fa- 
{hion ot their own Coiintrie : all the Artizans of the Ckic confift of this 
laft fort, as alfo the Shop-keepers and Retailers &c. and arc in all about 
J or 6000. 

There lefideth alfo in the fame Citic an Auditor, who is fent thither by 
the King o^ Portugal, and is fuperintendent of thetraffique and commerce 
of that Iflc.The trade with Gia^po/j (not to fpeak of that oiManila^ which 
is worth very much) yeeldeth the King every year, for his rights and cu- 
flomesat ten fcr cent, many thoufands of Crowacs/>^r anmtm^ In the 
year 1635 it was worth to him 14000 T^^^^which are better than Crowns* 
The Citie fpcndcth every year,one year with anotherjin their Artillerie, 
Gunpowder, and the charges of their walls,and other things belonging 
to their Militia, (as appeareth by the books of publique accounts) above 

The rights and cuftomcs of the Faircot Cantone^ at 6 and 7 per cent* 
imporceth about 40 or 50000 Crowns. The Navigation to Giappon with 
the Prefcnt which is fcnt to the King,and other Prefcnts to the Tom ot that 
Iflandjc'ofteth between twenty and five and twenty thoufand Crownes. 
Their houfe of Mercy ftandeth them every year in 8 or 9 thoufand 
Crownes.They mantain two Hofpif als.three parifli Churches, five Mona- 
fteries,{oureofMenandoneof Women,befides the continuall Almes, 
which they diftribute to the poor Ghriftians of thofe Countries-, and par- 
ticularly to them of C>&/>4.- and although the ordinaiie Almcs, which 
the King of /'5r/«^4^alloweth them komGoahath not been paid thefe ip 
years,yct are they wel relieved by the liberalitic of the Citizens ofMacao.I 
doubt not but the Lord doth favour this Citic for their many Alraesdecds, 
and for the great care they take about the Service and Worlhip of God. 
Finally ,this Citie of Macao is a continuall Seminarie, wherein are educa- 
ted and brought up many of thofe LabourerSjWho cultivate not only C^i- 
na and Giappon^ but alfo all other Chriftianities of the Neighbouring is alfo a San(auarie and place of Refuge, whcrc,in times of 
troubles and perfecutions, they may allfhelrerthemfelvesjasit werein 
another Moab.^ being \yponQ\[ocz2.C\ons,Refugw?na Facie Vafiatoris^ 

One ot the Convents ofthis Citie is a Colledge belonging to our So- 
cietic.There are commonly between thrcefcore and fourcfcorc perfons 
in it, more or leffe, according to the number of the perfons they receive, 
or fend away. For all Miffwns being furnifhed out of them, their num- 
ber muft needs be very uncertain.There are in that Colledge twoLcdurcs 
in Divinitie; one of Cafes of Confcicnce-, one courfe of fuperiour ff udies5 
two claffcs of Latin-,one fchoole for children, fo numerous, that the low- 
er forme thereof containeth above ^o children of the Fortughefes, and pco- 
ple'of that Countrie. 

Out ofthis Houfe, (v;hich at the beginning was very imall,and the la- 
bourers there very few, )firft came the Souldiers of this enterprifc. 
Father ^lexmder yalignanofh^^i^y memoric, who was then Vifitcur, 
refolved to fend fome of theFathers into China to endevour to convert that 
vaft Kingdomc to the faith of Chrift- when prefcntly the firft difficulties 
began at the Colledge it felfe, a manifeft prognoftication of the 


C H A p . z . Ihe Hijlory ofQUIDMlA. 1 71 

manythatfliould happen in the progrtfle of the woik, and execution of 
the undertaking. For ro feme of the Fathers,by reafon of the knowledge 
and experience rhey had oftheKingdonae of Ch'tnA^ this enterprife fee- 
raed not only difficult, but alfo rafh and unadvifed, wherefore they advi- 
fed the Vifitour not to fet his mind upon ir. But our Lord, who bringcth 
wonderfull things to paffe from weak and troublcfome beginningSj 
would have this defign put in execution. 

Father Michel Roggiero was the firft, who was named to rake paincs in 
this conqueft-,he was followed by the Fathers Framifcus Pajfius , Amonl- 
US de tyilmeid^ Duarte^ Matthdus Riccius^ and others, who came after and 
helped on the work,and like the foundation-ftones of that building,fuft:ii- 
nedthefirft weight thcreofand greater difficulties, labours and troubles, 
than any Miffiens of our focietie had ever felt. For the difficulties in new 
Milfsons'mo Kingdomes fo remote and different, from our Batofc in 
language, cuftome, conveifation, diet &c. are not ordinarie; neither 
can they be few. But thofe in the Miffion of Chim do far exceed all o- 
thers. The language fcemeth m^re difficult than any in the world, be- 
ing all oi mmfjllables^ cure and ^quivocall.-and in this difficulty the Fa- 
tbers were without any Mafter to teach them, withoiit any interpreter to 
explain what was faid tplhemifo that they neither under ftood others ^nor 
others them-, butby force of diligence and unwearied paines they wcnc 
on conquering and gaining ground .• and although they never arrived ^t 
any petfedion in the language, or good accent in pronouncing it-, yet 
they difcoveredthe myftcries of that tongue,and fet them dov/n info plain 
a forme, that they made it much more eafic for thofe who came after 
them. To this may be added the painfull ftudy of their letters, which of 
it felfe alone is abufinefTe of incredible labour, they being fo many and 
fo various- and in this M'lffton^ (contrarie to what is done in others) the 
Fathers do ftudy them all with fo much diligence,that they have not only 
learned to write , and to read their books very perfectly, but do alfo com- 
pofe others themfelves, an J have of late publifhed many to the great ad- 
vancement of C^r//?/4^/>y. -and in truth,theJ'4/^^rj in china ^o juftly de- 
ferve this praife,that that language being fo hard, and they having the 
letters too to be ftudied which are not very eafie, yet they do fpeak that 
language much better, than any others do thofe, of their Af/jf/^^wj for 
of themfelves they are able to catechife, preach, treate, and coiivcrfe with 
thegreateft A/'4;?/i4/'/»f5oftheKingdome,andto fpeak to the King him- 
fclf,ifthere were occafion, without making ufe of any ones tongue, but 
their own^ their endeavours in this particular being extraordinarie, and 
fuch, as arc not ufed in other parts : and our Lord by his fingular provi- 
dence doth fweeren this labour, and feafon thofe difficulties they under- 
go for his fake with much joy and confolation. Moreover ,there is to be a 
generallchangcthroughout their whole bodies; in their beard and their 
baire, which they mnftfuffer to grow very longe^ in the falliion of their 
cloathes, in their manner of converfation , in their cuftomes and be- 
haviour, and all other tilings- which arc as differcntaasthey ate remote 
from ours. / 

Befides all thcfe ordinarie difficulties, (which are found mote or kffe, 

Z 2 in 

lyi TheHiJlory of QHl^d. Pabt.z 

in all Mipm)\t is not to be belccvcd,how (harp a warrc the devil hath rai- 
fed up againft this^ endeavouring by the ftrcngth of difficulties and pcr- 
fecutions to make us defift from the enterprife : and it went fo farre, that 
Father falignanxhc Vifitour,confidering the great obftru(5tions we found 
every where, the extraordinarie difficultie there was to enter, and the 
great trouble there was to ftay there, how little good we could do there, 
and yet how much we fuffcred^refolved to call back the Fathers to MaenOt 
to enjploythem in fome other ii/^jf/z^woflelTc danger and trouble, and 
where a greater profit of Soulcs might be made. But the Lord , who had 
otberwifc ordained it for the good ofhiscle(^, would not fuffer the La- 
bourers to come away,and leave the work begun in that Kingdome^ where 
it was to have fo advantageous a progreffe. 

C H A p.2,. 

X Of the proceedings, and perfecutions 
of the Fathers y before thej ar^ 
n'ue^ ^^ Nankim. 

■npHe Fathers did ftill perfevcre in the Rcfolutlon they had taken to en- 
•■' ter and fettle themfclvcs in Chtm-^ and accordingly three times the 
fame year they attempted with all diligence to make their entirejbut were 
as often repulfedjandfent back out of the Kingdome, with that refent- 
ment and grief, which is eafily imaginable they had, to find almoft every 
fpark of hope extinguifhed by fuch extraordinarie difficulties, as they 
found, and by that great avcrfion,the Chincjfes had to admit of 

I have been told,that about that time,Father Valigmn looking one day 
out of a window of the Colledge of Macao toward the Continent, the 
good old man cried out with a loud voice, and the moft intimate 
affediion of his heart/peaking to China-jAh Rock^ Rock^ when wilt thou ofe». 
Rock': But (as there is no councell againft God, who feeth and knoweth 
the times and moments of his divine Refolutionsjwhen the entrance fee- 
med more (hut up than ever, and more encompaffed with difficulties, af- 
ter fo many attempts and endeavours had been fruft rated, nay, after they 
had been fliarply reproved by the Vice-rojoiCaritone, and by publick or- 
der been fent back to Macao-^ then did the Lord our God open the gate by 
fuch meanes as were not to be imagined. 

The Fathers had not been full fcvcndaies returned to Macao^ wholly 
defpairing of the bufineffe, when there arrived a meffenger from the go- 
vernour of Cayitone^n^vatdChi J«,bringing letters from the f7V^rd^y,where- 
in he invited the Fathers loXaokim.^ the Capital! Citie of Cmtme^ where 
thcfamer/Ve-r<>>ofthe Provinces of Cantone and ^/^^w/z^had tiis refi- 
dcnce- offering them there a place for their Church and Houfe. 

The Fathers entred into Xaokimm Scfttmber 1583. with no little joy to 


C H AP .2. The Htjlory of QUl^A. 1 75 

fee rhcmfclvcs eftablifhed inamonrcnr, whcrc,beforc with all their en- 
deavours they could never fo much as fet their foot. They built a houfe 
and Church, and gave a beginning to their inrention,by tranflating the ten 
Commandements, as well as they could, into the Chwejfe language-, and 
fctting forth, how neceffary the obfervance of them was. The worth of 
thcfencw guefts was more admired in the City, for their good works 
andholineffeoflife, than for their words, not being able yet to fpeak 
that language fufficiently-, but almoft continuall troubles and perfecutions 
were never wanting to them. The covering of their houfe was fo loaden 
with . (tones by the infolcnce of the people from a neighbouring Tower, 
that they were in great danger of their lives: and, becaufe a fervant of the 
houfelaidholdofalitdcboy, and threatncd to complaine of him, pre- 
fcntly an accufation was fet on foot againfl the Fathers^thar they had mif- 
ufed the Son»e o^ aC/tizert : but in the end they were cleared by evi- 
dence of the fa(fi : foone after, other calumnies were raifed againft them, 
particularly againft Father Raggiero, whom they accufcd of Adultery • but 
his innocence was foone cleared, it being proved, that he was at that time 
more than two months journy from the place, where that crime was faid 
to be committed. Then did the people of J^^X'/w begin to throwing of 
ftoncs againe, with which they did fo mine and batter the houle,that the 
Fathers mlded very little of being killed.-all this while did their condition 
fceme like unto a rempeff uous fea. Bur amongft fo great tribulations and 
dangers, the Lord was pleafed to fend them fome dafes of peflce and tran- 
quilitie • and among fo many thorns they gathered fome rofes, and fome 
fruit of their labours : which was the rcafon that their fufferings did not 
fecme fo grievous to them, neither did they undergo them without joy 
and delight, hoping to make a greater progreffe, when the defired calrae 
fhould happen. Neither were the Fathers wanting (particularly Father 
MMtheus Riccms,)hy their knowledge in Mathem/itiques, and principally 
by a defcription of the world in a new Mappe^ to give reputation to the af- 
faires oiEnrepCt, and to make acquaintance and friend (hip with per fims of 
qualitic •, when behold, by the coming of a new Vice-roj there was fo ter- 
rible a ftormeraifed,thatnotvvithftanding all the diligence and addrcffes 
which were made,not only by the Fathers.but alfo by their friends,it was 
impoflible to finde any remedy, or to put a flop co the fentence, which that 
rke-roy^ fulminated againft the Fathers -, which was. That they fliould all 
immediatly returne to Mac^e^mthout fjiving them any time of flay there, 
or fuffcring them to go into any other Country; but that they Hiould pre- 
fently depart, and fhould be brought precifcly to Macao, They were for- 
ced to yecld obcdience,and fo leaving fome things belonging to the houfe 
in the hands of their friends, and carrying other things along with them, 
after they hadmadeafliort prayer unto God, recommending unro him 
that little flock,which they were forced to leave among Wolves without 
a fhepherd, and after they had exhorted the Chriftians to continue fted- 
faftinthe faith, wherein they had been fevcn years inftruaed, they de- 
parted downe the current of the river . both the Chriftians, which re- 
mained there, as alfo the Fathers, who tooke their leave, weepinc^ very 
much5& recommending each other to the divineProvince andProteaion, 


17^ IheHiftoryofCHiy^^. Part.2. 

When they were arrived at the Metropolis of Canton j the Admirall of 
thtChiniffe^dSiti oxHaitao^ who was to conduct them to Macao, was 
not to be found : where, while they ftayea to expc(5l him, they wrote to 
the Vifitour iciMacA6,i\\3X after two or three dales they were to be baniOied 
by order of the Vice-roy^oux. they had hardly paflcd a day there,when they 
cfpied a boate coming toward them with all fpeed , fent from ther/f^rc^, 
to invite them back ^g2\ntioXdok'm. It feemed to them, that they were 
returned from death to life by the unexpci^ed invitation 5 although they 
underftood well enough, that they were called backe to undergo new 
troubles, no lefle than the former. When they were returned ro the Vice- 
roj dX Xaokim^ he would have paid the charges the Fathers had been at in 
building their Church and houfe, which by no means they would fuffer 
himtodo;and(afterfcverall comrafts) they obtained leave of him to 
dwell in another City belonging to his GovernmcntjCalled Xaocheu,^Nii\\ 
this permiffion the Fathers departed from X4f?^/>» on the 15th. dayof y^«- 
gufl 158^, and being after a few daies arrived at Xaocheu, they had enough 
todotoavoydthe lodgings which were offered them in a A/i!?;;<«/?fn> of 
5^;?^:/. Atlengihby Gods alTiftance they were admitted intothe City, 
and were well lookt upon by the Magiflrates • they built a houfe and 
Church, and began to preach the Gofpel with their whole endeavours. 
Notwithftanding that, they were ever accompanied with perfections, 
contrafts and calumnies-, and in truth, it is hardly tobcbeleeved, how 
many of thefe they did undergo, I did once reckon them up to fatisfiemy 
curiofitie ; counting thofe which are related in thcHiftory of Father Tri- 
gmltius^ and others which are not fet downe there, till the perfecution of 
Nankim^ I found them in all to be fifty foure, the greateft part were at the 
beginning, and in the Province of Canton^ which as it is a paffage to the 
reft, may be called the Tromontor'j of tor meats •, fo that as oft as we (hall 
have occafion to mention it, there will alwaies recurre fome new troubles 

Our fervants were many times taken and Baftinadoed for no other occa- 
fion, but that they had defended themfelves againft affaults of the infolent 
people-, and one time alfo brother SebafianFernandes^ who went out to 
c^efend thofe innocents with reafons and prayers, was put to publique 
fhame. But the perfecution was worfe, which brother Francis Martines 
fuffered through a vaine fufpicion they had,that he had attempted to raifc 
a rebellion mChifja, and chat he was a Magician: upon which occafion af- 
ter he had been many times beaten and tormented, and after a tedious 
and noyfome iraprironment,and in the end, after his laft punifhment by 
an unmercifull heating,being brought back into the prifon,hedied,a death 
fo much the more glorious, by how much it was fupporred by anunfpeak- 
able patience, and for fo holy an occafion, as the procuring the falvation 
of that people was. After that, brother Francis Mender^, g^^^^g ^^ ^^'^^ ^^' 
iropolis of Canton upon occafion of bufinclTe, and to help a fervant of ours, 
who was kept there in prifon, fuffered very much : for being come into 
the prifon, the Gaoler prefently clapt Manacles upon him, and fufpeding 
him to be a Prieff,pulled 0^ his C3p,and fearched whether his crowne was 
fliavenor no; and finding no figneof any thing he could lay hold on, 


C^ITJ. The Hifi oryofCHlH^' ^7? 

only bccaufe hcwasaC^r/y?/4;?3andbcIorgedtotheFathers, hcfuffeicd 
him not to go out of the prifon, till there were beftowed many ciucU Ba- 
ftinadoes on him. Like wife two Fathers going from Ccmton further up 
into Chimy that is,Father Julm t^lexis,^nd another Father, were appre- 
hended, and after very great fuffcrings fet at libcrtie. 

The Chriftian Religion began to make fo;Tie progreffe atonr Refi- 
dence of Xaocheu •, and in another place neerc unto it, named Namhim^ 
whither Father Mmhaus Riccius was gone, and had reduced fome Gen- 
tiles to the fhecpfold of Chrift. But the bufinefle was fo full of difficulties 
and dangers, that brother Sehafiian FermndeSy Calthough a Chineffe by na- 
tion, (but brought up m Macao by his Parents who were Chrijliam ., ) and 
who entred into our focietic after he was growne a man, and a rich Mer- 
chant, and ferved therein many years, even to his death,with great paines 
to himfelfe and a great example to all thatChriff ianitie, ) told the Father, 
we (hould do well to go to Giappn-^kcmg the Lord did favour that King- 
dom with fo great a converflon^and fo manyBaptifmes,and fpend our lives 
there tvhere we might receive abundant fiuit of our labours. But the Fa- 
ther, who had a more lively faith, and a hope better grounded, feemed to 
have anfwered him by the fpirit of prophefie,that which afterwards came 
CO pafTe, giving him hopes of more copious fruit, fuchaswefind at this 
day ; And even at that tirne alfo, within foure years, wherein he had cul- 
tivated that vine-yard, in fpight of thofe great Tribulations, he made a 
good harvcft of many Chriftians •, who many times do prove the beft in 
times of trouble and perfecution ; and there were fome of them very e- 
mincnt, with fome of which I have fince fpoken and converfed, who fee- 
med to me, to be like chriftians of the Primitive Time 5 and by degrees 
there were many more alfo converted . 

In the mean while about the year 1 594 two perfons of this Houfe de- 
parted to a better life 5 for if the people of this Province are not good, the 
temper of the aire is much worfe. Till this time, the Fathers had gone in 
the fame garbe they entred in, with their beards and the crowne of their 
heads fhaven, and their hairc cut fhort, as we weare \ihQxt\n Eurepei, and 
there alfo the Bmzi^ or Priefts of their Idols, who in that kingdome, con- 
trarie to the cuftome of others, are in very mean efleem. But now they 
were better acquainted with the ftate of things there, it feemed to them 
to be more ^advantageous for the credit of our religion^as alfo for the prea- 
chers thereof, that they (hould take a habit different from the Benz^i: and 
that feeing they were inwardly unlike them, that they fhould no longer 
outwardly refemble themicfpecially, feeing that firft outward form was a 
great impediment to hinder them from treating with Decorum and famili- 
arity , with Officers and men of qualitie, who without the vefture of cour- 
tefie 2X\dih2\M oi^L Letter ato y do by no means admit any one to familiar 
convcrfation with them. So that leaving their former garbe and habit, 
they took the other of Letterati,m\h z great applaufe of the Chriftians 
and their friends-, as alfo of the MagijlrateSy andbecaufe thty had takeo 
no degree in their learning, they were accounted and efteemcd, fas they 
are alfo at this day,) for Letterati o^Ettrope ; bciides many other good ad- 
vantages and effects which it produced. 


lytf ' The Hi/lory of Qiil^^' Pabt.i. 

In May the year following , Father Matthdus Kiccius^ went to Nankim, 
in the companie o{ 2i Mandarine^ who was a grave Perfon and his friend, 
who went thither with commiffion to be General in the warre againft the 
Giapfonefes in theKingdome of Cona-^c wanted not troubles by the way, 
efpecially in a dangerous fhipwrack which he fufFered, the barque being 
overturned, and the Father falling into the water over head and eares, not 
having any skill in fwimmingjnor any hope of life. But the ^Lord aflifted 
him with his paternal providence; for without knowing how it carae,there 
he found a rope of the Barque in his hand, by which he was pulled up:nc- 
veitheleffe he lofl his companion, who being carried away by the force 
and violence of the water, was never more feen. 

At length he arrived at Nankim-^ butthehoure of that famous Citie 
was not yet come. Wherefore although fome friends there did defire to 
favour him ^ yet one , with whom he had contracfted in Camene^ 
and whofc favour he did now endeavour to gain , was not only 
wanting to him in what he requeflcd, but was To far changed from 
what he was, that he put the Father in great danger- and was theoccafi- 
oPjthat he was difgracefully (ent out of the Citie«and all this upon no 
other account, but left it fliould be faid ,that he was the occafion of the 
Fathers coming thither, contrarie to the lawes of China. 

The Father departed from Nankim, and went into the Province of Ki-^ 
amfij which licth between that oi Namkim and that oiCantme^ he was re- 
ceived into the Capitall Citie thereof, named Nanchum^zvid treated very 
kindly by the raoft confiderable people there-, and efpecially by a great 
Lord, named Kien Gam Vam^ who was the Kings ncer kinfman. He was 
2lfo very courteoufly ufed by the r/c^r^jf, with no ordinarie demonflra- 
tions of kindnelTe-, which was none of the leaft occafions that a refidence 
was founded in this City 5 then. Father ^iccius \x{\xs% all diligence to ob- 
tain leave to fct up a Houfc chere,the Lord provided him of a companion, 
named J-acohui Socirus^ fcnt from Macao very opportunely to refide 
there ; and then prcfently they purchafed fome few fmall houfes 
in this City-, but not without the ufuall rcfiflance and contradidion of 
the neighbourhood, as alio from other parts-, which in proccffcof time 
did fo encreafcjthat this Houfe may well compare with that of X/<^f^^« 
for perfecutions : for if the people of that City are bad, truly ,they of this 
City are notvcry good.The Fathers were fometimes molcfted by the Let- 
terati'^oihtxvi\\Ac% by the 2n^^///>/>-, of which fort there are many ftill re- 
{iding in this City : they were troubled alfoby the people-,and fometimes 
by the Chriftians themfelves. For there is never wanting a Judas to raife 
perfecution among the good difciples. Ncvertheleflejt pleafed God to 
make that Houfcjand Ghriftianity there to flourifli, and to bring into them 
many perfons of qualitie-, and particularly that neer Kinfman of the King, 
with his whole Houfc and Familie-,who by his holy life and other vcr- 
tues did much edifie that Church.And though he had no children, while 
he was a Gentile,yet it pleafed the Lord to fend him many, after he was 
Ixcome a Chriftian. There were alfo many other Families converted, 
which, although they were inleriour to his in bloud, yet did they not 
come much behind him in Chriftian Pictic. 


After that Father Riccius had a companion, to whofecarehe miehc 
leave that Houfe recommended, he began to undertake afrefh the entcr- 
prifc o^Nankim: and he had a good opportunitie offered him by a Mmdn. 
riM of quah'tic, and his friend, who took him along in his company. By 
this meanes he returned again to that City in the year 1 598. and although 
at the beginning, by reafon of the warre, which the Giapfomjfes made a- 
gainft the Kingdome oi Corea^ threatning alfo that of ChinA^ht 
found great diflficultic to be admitted (for thcfe two alwaycs <7o to- 
gether)yet at length it was facilitated by the good fuccefs o^Corea^nd the 
friendfhip of forne perfons of Qualitiejand of the Fice-roj himfelf^the Di- 
vine providence alwaycs opening that way , which he knew was mort 


Chap, 5. 
Of Ki^hat: happened after ^ till the Fathers 
entred into l^ekim. 

Aihex MAtth^s Iticdus never ceafed to endeavour a finall cllablifh- 
rucntof the Church in that Kingdome-, which did wholly depend up- 
on the entrance of the Fathers into the Royall City of Pek/m^vAKic the 
King and chief Court do refide .• and fo after he had afTayed diverfe 
meanes, at length he refolved to go thither in the company of the fame 
Manhrim his friend, who had brought him to Nankm^znd fo he took no 
houfe at that time in Nankm. He departed then along with Father Laza- 
rns CMamus his companion^ and two Cbmejfes who were Brethren, taking 
their way by watery which was above a moneths voyage, although the 
LMandarine got thither in a fhorter time by land. 

But at length being arrived at Pfir/>», without any hinderancc or dift ur- 
bance, the firft thing they did,was to go waite upon their friend, who had 
caufed them to come thither, and was arrived there before them. He re- 
ceived them with all kind neffe and civilitie, and endeavoured to favour 
and afififl them in every thing,& efpecially in recommending them to the 
acquaintance of an Mmich his friend. The Fathers had brought withthcm 
fome curiofities of Europe, to make a Prefent of them to the King, to wit. 
Two excellent Pictures Painted on Linoencloath, the one of our Saviour, 
the other of the B. yirgin-^^an Karpftcon, ^t\ inftrument which had never 
been heard; a flriking Clock, a thing which had never been fcen there 
before-, and fome triangular glaffes, with all which the Eunuch was well 
pleafed.'but not finding that gain from the Fathers^ which heexpec^led, 
and which was the only thing he lookt after , he excufed himfelf, that he 
could not prefent them to the King, by reafon of the troubles of the war, 
which the Giapponefes made upon C<7r<r^, and which were every day ex- 
pe(5ted in Chwa-, faying; that it was not a fitting time to f peak to the King 
about flrangers affaires,Of the fame opinion alfo was that Ma»Jarme their 
friend, who being to returne to Nankim^ where he had a Government be- 
(lowed upon him, would willingly have carried the Fathers back again 
with him* But it fecmed better to them, that the Hopes which they h;?d 

A a conccivecf 

lyS TheHifiory of CH13^^. Part.2. 

conceived, (hould not be fo foon loft-, nor fo much labour and cxpcncc be 
caft away in vain .'Wherefore they remained in Pekim above a raoneth 
after the departure of the Mandarine^ ufing all endeavours, and fceking 
out all wayespoffible, to fee if they could compaffe their intention. But 
all their diligence was in vain-, for the Mandarine being once gone, all the 
reft withdraw themfelves-, fo that there was not one of the Mandarines of 
the Courtjthat would admit chera fo much as to a Vifite. 

The difficulties then being fo great, and they finding no way to over- 
come them,the Fathers were forced to returne into that Country, where 
they were more known, and had been better reccivedj and fo they came 
back to Nankjm, but not with fo much eafc, as they thought they ihould 
hive done. For the Winter overtaking them in their voyage, and the Ri- 
ver being frozen up, they were forced to winter by the way. 

But Father Matth^m Riccim, being loath to lofe any opportunitie,Iefc 
his companions in the Barque,and took his way by land,avoyding by this 
meanes the trouble and hinderanceof the Wintering, but not the cold of 
the journey, which was fo excefTivcthat many times it hindred him from 
going forward* But at length having overcome all difficulties, he arrived 
at the Citie ofSucheu, which without all contradi(5iion, is the moft plea- 
fant and delightful! City of all Chma-, fo that they have a proverbe which 
faith. That the City oiSucheu & ffancheu,\s that upon earth,whicb the ha- 
bitation of the bleffcd, is in heaven. It is fcituated in a plcafant River of 
f rcfh Water,juft as Venice is in the Sea: it hath the greateft traffique of all 
the Kingdome^ the Merchandize from Macao being firft brought thither^ 
from whence they are afterwards difperfed to all other parts. 

Here the Father found ^itaizo^ his ancient friend, in the Province of 
C anion ^y whom he was received with all manner of kindneffe and f riend- 
/hip, and was alfo by him introduced and brought into credit with the 
whole City. And being the Sonne of aprincipall Mandarme^oyjz,^z 
great help to him in gaining the f ricndfhip of fcverall Mandarines of great 
authorities for which and other good turnes he did us in ^4/?/^;? and o- 
thcr places, and efpecially in Nankimfic deferveth no fmall commendati- 
ons and acknowledgment.Thc Father gave him a triangular glaffe, which 
by his friend was taken for fo precious a Jewel,that he tipt both the ends 
of it with Gold, and made aCafeofSilvertoputitin-,andafterfoldic 
for above 500. Crownes. Thishoneft man much defired, that the Fa* 
thcr would fettle himfelf in that Citie, and found a Houfe there,where he 
might alfift and promote him with more convenience-, propofing many 
difficulties which would hinder the refidence of the Fathers at Nankim. 
Neverthele{re,having weighed things better, and taking that rcfolution, 
which vvas moft fuitablc to their occafions, they went both of them to 
Nankim^ in the year 1 5^9. where they found the ftate of affaires much 
altered from what it wab the time before. 

The Citie did now enjoy a profound peace and tranquillity, the Ciap^ 
fonefes being beaten back into their own Countrie. The Mandarine their 
friend was very glad of their coming, ^d did them many fingular fa» 
vours,as did alfo many others, both Magi ftrates, and other grave men 
and perfons of account in that City,particularly a Colif which is a kind of 


Chap.;. TheHtJloryofCHl:^!. 17 p" 

fenforox Sfndic ro'jall^ named choxtlim : wherefore the Father, not only 
by their confentjbut alfo by their pcrfwafion,rerolved to fettle a refidence, 
and found a Houfe in that Noble City, which is the fecond of the tvhole 

While the Father made his abode there, he gave great proofe 
of him (elf and of the Sciences of Europe-^ particularly of the Mathema- 
tiques.Wc made a new Mappe of the World, with the explanation thereof 
in the C^/>^jftf language and charajffcersjwbich gained great reputation, 
not only to the authour, but alfo to Europe:, feeing there fuch a multitude 
of Noble Kingdomes and Cities .- fo that the fdme ^itaizo^wd others, 
with very Selemrt Ceremonies, made themfelves Difciples to Father KkcU 
us. Neither was the authoritie leiTc which the Father gained by the pub- 
lick Difputes,which he held concerning matters of Religion, wherein, to 
the admiration of all the Councels , he ever had the Vi(^orie ; fo that 
the Fathers came to fuch a height of reputation, that they were celebra- 
ted by many Letter ati in Epigrams and Elogies. 

In the meane time the companions of Father Riccim arrived, after they 
had wintered by the way, and endured many labours and hardfliips. But 
when they found the Father, in that City, where a little before he was 
not only not received, but alfo driven out with ignominie and 
to have fuch credit and applaufe, and fomany friends who favoured him, 
they forgot all their former fufferings, and gave moft hearty thanks to the ' 
Lord our God for that prefent profperitie* Not long after,they began to 
think of buying an Houfe: for, that wherein they lived, was only 
hired. Many were offered to them, but fuch for the mofl part as were in- 
convenient for them-, among which there was one that was very large 
and capacious, but haunted with Divells and Fhantafmes , fo that none 
durft dwell in it.This inconvenience ufeth commonly to be advantageous 
to us^for wee not fearing thcfe fpirits, which vanifh at the firfl on.fett,doe 
commonly purchafe fuch houfes at a very low rate< and fo it happened 
to Father Eiccins: wherefore after the bargain and Tale was concluded ,the 
Fathers came over a while to dwell in that houfe, where they lived very 
quietly without receiving any diflurbance or inconvenience from thofe 

AfToon as the Fathers had their Hoiife and Church, there were not 
wanting thofe who did frequent it. The firft who was baptized in this 
City,wasanoldman of feventy years of age, he was z Noble many and 
had the office of Chinociy whereof we fpake, when we treated of that No- 
h/lity, which defcendcth by way of blood. Prefently his fonne followed 
him, who was already a Letterato-^ and was afterward made a great CMan- 
dmne-^ and alfo his whole Familie, his Grand- Sonnes and Daughters &c, 
I knew them many yeares afterwardSjV;hen they hdd made great progrcfs 
in Vertue and Chriflian Pietie, and are therefore worthy of Etcrnall me- 
morie, with many particular cafes, whereof we lliall make mention here- 
after. This Famt-ie was followed by others, the number of Chriflians 
flillencrcafing, as alfo their zeale to good works jefpecially after the per- 
fecution, whereof we will fpeak anon. So that it may be faid to be the 
bcft ChrifltAnitie oichina^ although the mofl perfecuted and molcfted. 

Aa z The 

i8o IheHifloryofCHlT^A. Part.z. 

The affaires of iNT^^/t/wfuccceding thus profperoufly, and thcfe good 
beginnings (hewing that that Houfc would not only continue, but alfo be 
enlarged and advanced. Father Riccius fent one of his connpanions, F. La- 
zarus Cataneus to Macao, partly to give an account to the fuperiours of 
what had palled, partly to get fome curioficies of Eur of e to make Prcfents 
of; and partly to leek out fome new companions to labour in that plenti- 
ful! harveft. 

The Father arrived at Macap with chcfc glad tidings, which were recei- 
ved with that joy was fitting •, and (liortly after, having procured 
fome Picfents for the King, and a frelh recruit of other Fathers, 
he returned to Nankim^ where Father Riccius ftayd for him .* who having 
bis whole defires fer upon Tekimy after he had received the PreCcnts, and 
a frefli fupply of companions, deferred no longer to begin his fecond voy- 
age for Tckim ; having not only the opinions, but alfo the propitious affi- 
ftance of fome principall Mandarines, in his favour. 

It was the lixteenth day of May, in the year i5"oo. when the Fathers 
Matthdus Ricciusj^nd Didacus Pantoidy and brother Sebafiian Fernandes de- 
parted the fecond time for the Court, in the fame manner as beforej by 
water, having accomrnodation given them in a barque belonging to an 
Eunuch r, who the more he convcrfcd with the Fathers, had ftiil the more 
afipcdtion for them. 
' Having palled the Province of Nankim, and being come into that of 
Xantum^ in the City where the Fice-roy of that Province doth refide. Fa- 
ther Riccim was received with extraordinary refpedt by that Vice-roy, He 
was vifited inthe barquc,prefented5 and very much made off. The me- 
moriall, or petition, which he intended to prefent to the King, was men- 
ded for him, and put into a better form-, and lafl: of all, he had many letters 
of recommendation given him to the (Mandarines oi Pekim. This Ficc" 
roy had had fome knowledge of Father Riccim by means of a fon of his, 
who had very frequently and familiarly converfcd with the Father at 
Nankim» and had heard from him many things concerning our Religion* 
Their voyage continued very profperous, without any confiderable 
obftrudtion^ untill they came to a City, where there wasan Eunuch na- 
med Mathan^ who was Collecftour of the Kings cuftoms and rights, and 
of many wrongs alfo, which he did to moft paffengcrs, and was accoun- 
ted a wicked cruell man. He was very often viliccd by the Eunuch, in 
whofe company the Fathers travelled,with his hands laden withPrefent?, 
but could never be admitted, becaufe his gifts were nor proportionable to 
the greedinelTe of that Harpye^ And becaufe the time grew ncere, where- 
in if he came not to Court, he fliould be in great danger, not only of his 
goods, but of his life alfo ^ he refolvcd to betray the Fathers^ to free him- 
fclfc : And to that purpofc informed the Eunuch^ that ihofe ftrangers car- 
ried Prefencs for the King, which he b^ fcen •, adding withall, that they 
might poffibly have other thingsofgreaierprice^out of which Mathm 
might make a great advantage to himfclfe.Upon this occalion the Fathers 
runne a great hazzard, not only to lofe what they had, but alfo to be kil- 
led, being left in the hands of that covetous, cruell wretch. For the Ew^ 
TwxchMathan^ although at the beginning heOicwcd himfelfe fomething 


Chap,:?- "^/^^ Hifiory of QHI^A. , gi 

courteous, ycc it was not long, ere it was manifefl:, what intentions he had 
towards thcm.Firft he defired only rofcc chePrcfents which they carried 
and accordingly the Fathers (hewed them him with all courtefic and rc- 
fped : after tharjbc woul d needs take the charge upon him of prcfenting 
them to the King : Another time he carried them to his Palace, after that 
theKinghadanfweredtohisAf^w<?rM, that he fhould write him word, 
what ihofe things were whichcameto bcprefentedtohim. Laftofall, 
Mathm came with abovezoo men armed^who were juft fo many thecves' 
and he their Captainc-, and without any termes of refped, orcourtcfie' 
but with a furious countenance, ranfack'd aU their goods, andina^reat 
rage laid by whatfoever pleafed him. When he favv any thing that had not 
been (howen him before, he would cry out;, as if he had been robbed-, but 
efpecially he made moft horrible exclamations, when he had found a Crn- 
c'tp, faying, That they were to make ufe of it in their enchantments and 
conjurations, wherewith they purpofed to kill the King. To which the 
Father anfwered with all modefty, declaring x.o\\\^\X\tSacndm'j^er'j, 
which was reprefented by that Image ; But the Bumch not admitting of 
any reafon at all, crycd out. That fuch deceivers as they ought to be fe- 
verely puniihed. In conclufion, having taken whatfoever liked him, he 
made an invcntary of all,together with thePrefents that were for theKing, 
and fent them all, along with the Fathers into the Fort, where they had^a 
continuall guard upon them. The Fathers were much dejeaed by this ac- 
cident , fearing to lofe in one moment all that they had thitherto gained 
with fo much fweat. 

Yet did they not lofe the confidence, which they had in Godsaflfi- 
ftance,whereofthey had had fo frequent experience: and therefore fee- 
ing themfelves deprived of all liumarc help,thcy wholly caft themfelves 
into the armes of the divine providence, and with prayers and mortificati- 
ons, did by a holy violence wrcftlc witli the divine mercy.that he would 
vouchafe to turnc his eyes toward thefalvationof fomany foules, that 
had been redeemed with the precious blood of Chrift, the which', as it 
fcemcd probable to them, wholly depended upon the fucceffc of that ex- 
pedition. They fent a fervant to the t ity with letters to another Eunuch^ 
wherein they defired his favour to procure them leave to prcfent thofc 
things to the King, belceving, that becaufc it was a bufincffe, wherein he 
might gaine favour andefteeme from the King, ihz Eunuch would very 
willingly undertake ir. But whether it were for feare of Mathan^ or that 
he were already pre-poflclTed by him, the anfvver was, to mif-ufe the fer- 
vant both with words, and with blowes. 

They fought yet another expedient to endeavour to get out of that mi^ 
fery. They writ to a Ar^W^r/;?^, who had fliewedhimfelfe very friendly 
to them, before they fell into this tribulation, and had really favoured 
them upon feverall occafions .- But he alfo feeing the letter, was afraid to 
accept of it 5 neither would he returne any anfwer . neverthelcffc he told 
our fervant^that the Fathers were in as dangerousa condition as might be.° 
for the Eunuch was refolved to prefent a iife-w^m// to the King againft 
them, wherein he would declare, that they did dcfigne to take away the 
Kings life by witchcraft, as alfo many other things in their prejudice, to 


U TheHiJlory of QHI^A. Part.x; 

difcredit them, and colour hisowneimpofture^ wherefore his opinion 
was, that they (liould endeavour by any means poffible, to make their e* 
fcape, and to get back againe to Canton •, and that they fhould efteeme it a 
great gaine to lofe all they had, fo they might efcape that death, which 
hung over them , while they were in the hands of that crucll Bunuch. 
And jfthey were not cither able, or willing, to put this in execution, at 
lead they fhould endeavour to get a Mtmeriall prefented to the King, by 
the means of fome Mandarine at Court, who was their friend. 

You may well imagine,in what condition the fathers were at this mef- 
fage,andhovv apprehenfive they were of the danger they were in; yet 
would they not accept 6f thefirft counfell, left, being innocent, they 
might make themfclves guilty by their flight ; efteeming it a lefTe misfor- 
tune, to fufFer for rightcouf nes fake, than to give occafion to thofe who 
knew them not, to believe thofe things probable, which the Eunuch layd 
to their charge. But the fecond counfell fcemedmore reafonable unto 
them, and therefore they prefently difpatched toward the Court Brother 
SehaJIian Fernandes vji^h letters to their friends, to give them an account 
of the condition they were in ; But as in fuch cafes, there are few friends 
to befound,fo there was none there,who would give them any affiftance, 
wherefore the brother returned without having done any thing.Then did 
the Fathers well perceive, that there was now no longer any remedy left 
them in their owne induftrie, in their friends, and in humane counfclls; 
neither would they try any other means,but fubmitting themfelvcs whol- 
ly to the will of God, did cheerfully expc(5t: what iiTuc the Lord would 
be pleafed to fend them of their bufineflc. 

Six months had the Farhers remained in that imprifonment, expeding 
the affiftance of the Lord, by whom only they could be fuccoured. When 
beyond all thought of theirs,and without their knowledge, there cometh 
a decree from the King, wherein they are called to Court,with their Pre- 
fent. They fay, the King himfelfc one day, without being put in minde 
of it by any body, calling to his remembrance the Eunuchs Memomll^ ask- 
ed where that Bell was, which range of it felfe •, and which, as they tell 
me, is brought me by a flranger/'To which the Eunnch^ who always wai- 
teth upon him, anfwered, That it was not yet come to Court, becaufe his 
Majeflyhad not given order for it to come. Whereupon the King pre- 
fently gave order for it, and Mathan was forced againft his will to fend the 
Fathers with their Prefent , and the reft of their goods. They began then 
to take heart againe, and forgetting all theirformer troubles, they imme- 
diatly fet out upon their journy 5 and becaufe they could not do it by wa- 
ter by reafon the river was frozen up, they tooke their way by land, recei- 
ving from the Mandarines ^3i the Kings cxpence, whatfoever they had 
need of, both for their owne pcrfons, as alfo for the carriage of their 


Chap 4- TheHtjloryof QHIHJ' 18 j 


T^he Fathers enter into Pekim , and 
fettle there. 

T He Fathers cntred into Pekim on the fourth day of January i6oj, 
where they were well received, and entertained in a Palace, which 
an Eumchhzd lent them for that purpofe. They made ready theirPrefcnt, 
and the day following with a great traine and Parade, the Eunuchs carried 
it into the Palace,and prefentcd it to the King ; who made great account 
ot every thing. He did highly prizethe pi(5turcs of our Saviour and of the 
lileffed Firgin •, he much admired the Harp/icon •, and prcfently gave order, 
thatforaeofthe£tf»/*r^jfhouId learncto play upon it. When he came 
to the Clock, which was a piece of much skill and workmanihip, and an 
invention altogether unknowne to the Chineffes^ becaufe he knew it ftruck 
the hourcs of its ownc accordjand that at prefent it was not in ordcr,nor fo 
much as to be (hewed, he commanded that the Fathers fliould prefently 
come into the Palace, and fct it a going. So they were called in hafte,and 
admitted within the fecond wall (for within the third and fourth, none 
may enter,unle(rc it be the Ettmchs^znd the Souldiers of the night- guard,) 
where by the Kings order given to one of the chiefe Eunuchs^ the Fathers 
were received and entertained with all magnificence and courtefie. 

They flayed there three daies, partly fitting the Clock to fervc for the 
prefent •, (for afterwards for the greater ftate there was a Tower of wood 
made for it of much coft and workmanfhip,) partly in teaching fourc £«* 
mchs how to fee and order it ; and partly in fatisfying fuch demands, as 
were made them concerning Eurspe^ what kindc of Countrie it was, what 
Kingdoms, what people, what cuftomes it had, and a thoufand other par- 
ticularitiesjwhich were all afterwards by the Eunuchs related to the King, 
who was much delighted therewith, feeming to be very much fatisfied 
with every thing:he much defired to fee the Fathers,but becaufe he would 
not change the ancient ftile and cuftome of the Kingdom, according to 
which the King is never to be feen by any ftranger, he caufcd their 
pi(5tures to be drawneat length, contenting Jiimfelfe, to fee only the fi- 
gures ofthofe men, of whom he himfclfe might not be feen. 

All things fucceededprofperoufly, byreafonot the great fatis faction, 
which all they of the Palace received from the Fathers*, and efpccially 
by reafon of the contentment the King tooke in every thing •, and the de- 
light with which he received the Prcfents •, fo that now all feemed to be 
iecure, and that there was nothing more to feare. But there being no fecu- 
rity,or calme,that is long lading in this world, the Fathers quickly found 
themfelves in new troubles ; the occafion whereof was a ^W^n';?^ ofthe 
Tribunal Lipu^tovjhomxihdongcd byvertueof his office, to have had 
the Prefent brought to him, and by his means, to have had it prefented to 
the King, he being to aifift at all Embalfies, and Prefents, that are offered 
to his Majcftie, He therefore taking it il],thac the FatherSj who knew no- 


,84- TheHiJiorjofCHl?^ ^. Part.z. 

thing of this, had made ufe of the Etwucks to carry their Prefent to the 
King, contrary to the ordinary ftile of the Court, and without making a- 
ny mention of thofe Officers, prcf|j)tly fell upon the v/eakeft parr, and 
commanded the Fathers to be apprehended, and put into the Hmfeof 
/}ra}J!^ers,in^moxc difcourteous manner than was ufualL The Officers 
and Sergeants having ufcd more infolcnce in the apprehending them^than 
perhaps they were commanded to doe. Upon this occafion they were 
brouc»ht before the Trihunai^ and examined in publick, although by their 
anfwers their caufc was fufficiently juftificdjand the paffionof the Judge 
fomething moderated. 

They had not been above three daics, v^hen they were fcnt for thence 
to the palace, to perform the ordinary Ceremonies in the Court of courtc- 
lies whereof we have fpoken in the f? rft part. The very fame day they 
were ac^aine examined by the publick Notaries; by order of the fame Pre- 
fidcnt concerning many other things. The poynt they mod infifted on, 
was •, to what end they were come into Chma.-what their intentions were, 
and v^hat they did pretend by thcPrefent which they had given the King? 
The Fathers judged it neceffary to anfwer cleerly and in forme.,and there- 
fore told them. That they came to preach the law of the true God, who 
was fole Lord and Governour of heaven and earth. And that they had 
brought that Prefent to the King, not that they did pretend any thing by 
it, cither office, dignitie, or rccompence,but as a Tcftimony of the obedi- 
ence they ought him, having been inhabitants, for fo many years, of that 
Kingdom-, and that all they did defire, was to have leave to live and die 
in that Court,or in any other part of the Kingdom,which the King (hould 
thinke fit, as they had already lived there many years. • 

The Notaries having drawne up this anfwer, carried it to the Prejident^ 
who having feen and confidered it,drcw up his3/fw^r/4// thereupon to the 
King, partly in favour of the Fathers, and partly againft them. But the 
King being well affected towards them, becaufe there was fomething in it 
aoainft the Fathers, gave no anfwer to it •, which is there the fame thing 
as to rejcdt it : But the Fathers underftood by the Enmchs, that the King 
was much troubled, when he knew, they were kept asprifoners in the 
Hoafeo^ ftrangers. 

The Mandarine feeing there was no anfwer given to his petition, pre- 
fently judged the King was inclined to favour the ftrangers, wherefore he 
thought it fit to change his flile towards them, ufing them with all cour- 
tefie and kindenes, and commanded they fliould be better provided for in 
every thing, than the reft of the ftrangers, who v/cre kept there. And 
contrary to the law and cuftome of that refti aint, he gave them libcrtic to 
go into the City about their affaires, and to vifit their friends. But with- 
all he prefcntcd a fccond Memorial! to the King concerning the Fathers, 
wherein he did not only fay nothing againft them, but pofitively com- 
mended their perfons, and their good behaviour,and manner of life ; only 
there was this cvill in it, that he befoughc him to fend them away from 
Tekim^ becaufe it was againft his lawes5that ftrangers fhould inhabit in the 
Court. But becaufe the Emuchs^ who had care of the Clock, were afraid 
of the abfencc of the Father s,becaufG the ordering of it depended on their 


C^Av./^. TheHiJloryofCHID^A. 185 

\ - _ ■ - 

direit'ons, and the King alfo had a defire they fliould ftay^this fecond 
Memoriall\'\Vt\\\{c received no anfwer. 

In the mcane while the Fathers,having hbertie to go abroad when they 
plcafed, frequently Vifited the -A/4»^4r/>7w, made new friends, and trea- 
ted with thofe of the Councel of Rites, called Lipu^ before whom their 
bufinede was,that they would be plcafed in their Memorialise to fignific 
that they thought it fie that the Fathers rtiould be permitted to refide in 
Tekim-^ telling them, that they might plainly perceive, that the king rcfu- 
fcd to give an anfwer to them, bccaufe he was willing they fhould flay 
there. But they ftillobftinatelyoppofed that point-, and accordingly in 
their third, and many other Memorials^ which they prefented conceining 
the Fathers, although in the whole or at leafl: the greater part they fee- 
med to favour thera^ yet in that,which concerned their ftay at Court, 
they were al vvayes excluded-, but in the like manner the kings anfwer was 
alwayes fufpcndcd, there never comming any decree from him, eyther 
for or againft rhem. 

The Fatheis perceiving this long delay, and whence it came,defircd 
in the meane time to be freed from that rcftrainr, which is impofed upon 
all ftrangers*, wherefore they obtaided by meanes of certain MnnAarines^ 
who were their friends, the favour to be difcharged from that place, un- 
lill the King fliould returne his anfwer unto the fore-faid Memerials^znA 
to have leave to hire a Houfe for themfelves. This was a new thing and 
wholy different from the Stile of Chim^ and therefore fo difficult that it 
was accounted impoffible to be done without a particular order from the 
King. But when God would have it fo, all things are eafily brought a- 
bout^and fo this licence was obtained, rather as a thing granted from 
Heaven, than acquired by humane induft ric on earth . The Fathers thca 
had f ul leave to go out of that walled place.they hired a Houfc,and began 
to live in it, as if they had been natives of that Countrie, 

The Fathers then feeing themfelves in that condition which was much 
better than what they could hitherto obtain, prefently endeavoured with 
all their might to get their fettlement at the Court fecured,that none 
might be able to trouble them any more upon that account, underftan- 
ding very well, how much the fecuritie of their other houfes depended 
upoa their perfonall refidence at that Court. NeverthelefTe with all the 
diligence that they themfelves, and feverall Mandarines their friends, 
could ufc, they were never able to obtain a decree for it : it is trae, they 
were afTured by the Eunuchesfi\2X the King had faid,that they might d wel 
fecurclyatthe Court,and that they (hould by no meanes think of returning 
tothe Southern Provinces-^for if they di ^ he (hould be difpleafed at it. 

This anfwer was very fufficientjand being authorized with the Kings 
name, fcrved inftead of a decree abfolutcly ro fecure their habitation 
there: another favour alfo being added to this, by which it was more 
confirmed, and that was the appointing by the Kings own order,to have 
a competent penfion allowed the Fathers out of his exchequer, for the 
maintenance of themfelves, and fourc Servants, which allowance they 
were to receive quarterly ♦By thefe favours, and the friendfbip of the Bw 
mehesoi the Palace, and of foracpriilcipalli\/W4r;»^/, their habitation 

B b wal 

iS6 TheHiftoryofCHlK^. Part.z. 

was not only fecured, but brought into fuch credit, that their friends en- 
crcafcd dailic, and the people flocked continually to our Houfe, fome to 
fee ftrangers, fome to hcare fomething concerning our Sciences ^im^ fome 
to underftand the truth ot our holy Law ; and this was that which was 
moft pleafing to the Fathers, and moft profitable to the Chine jfes. 

Among the Princip all ^4Ai^4r/;?ej, who at this beginning contracted 
f riendfhip with the Fathers, there was one, who was named Lige ;(/w. 
He was a Native of the City oiUamcheti^ a man of great Talents and in- 
genuitie, and was known to be fuch through the whole KingdomejaC 
the examinations for the degree of X> e^our^vihcrc in that degree is given 
to about 500, he obtained the fifth place,which is a very great reputation 
among them. He was extreamly curious, and being aflifted by his own 
naturall ingenuicie, and the friendihip of Father Matthdus Riccius^hc lear- 
ned many curiofitics in the Matbemattques. He tranflated feverall of the 
Fathers Books into the C^/;?^/« language-, and whileft he was yet a Gen- 
tile hcput our Catechifrae into an excellent Stile. It is reported of him, 
thatwhenhcwasCompofingof it, feeing the powerful reafons which 
were brought in that Book to prove the Sanftitie of our Religion, that 
although he did not believe them to be true,he cryed owtywhat an excellent 
fieceis this and hetv accurately CmpofeM But in time he began to penitrate 
better into thcm,and at length acknowledging them to be true, he refol- 
ved to become a Chriftian:hut his defire not being capable to be put in 
effect at that time in his own perfon , by reafon of that inconvenience of 
his having many Wives (which in Cte4 is the ordinarie hindrance and 
obftru(5tion in men of that Qaalitie) neverthelcffe he would have his 
whole FamilicBaptized^and he himfclf, after he had fctled and jouftcd 
his affaires, as was rcquifire for that purpofe, was Chriftcncd alfo,and na^ 
med leo; and is the fame who is fo frequently mentioned in the yearly 
Letters, for his Pietie and zeal, and for being one of the Supporters and 
Pillars of that Chriftianitie, carrying himfelf in fuch manner, that by his 
example and perfwafion he gained many perfons of Qualitie to our holy 
faithi among which number a grave perfon, named MichaelyWasoT\e» 
who is alfo often mentioned in the Icttcrs-,and of whom we (hall fpeak, 
when it commeth to his turne. 

When he was now become a cM;/?/4;i. he governed in feverall places 
oftheKingdomCjbutalwayes with that obfcrvancc, which was due to 
the Religion he profeffed. Among other honourable employments, he 
had the ^Office of Tauli (which is a place of great honour and profit) 
in the Citie oiCaojeu in the Province of Nankim, he found in the Palace 
there, a Chappcl full of Idols, which the curiofity, or devotion of his 
prcdccelTours, had prcferved and adorned with cxtraordiaarie care and 
and cofl. The devout Leo judging it not convenient to have fuch ill com- 
pany in the Houfe where he dwelt, commanded his Servants, to throw 
down thofc Idols from the Alters where they flood, and to hew them to 
pieces with Hatchets, and after that they were given to the Cook, to 
confumc them in the fire with all their Gold about them. The officers 
of his Ttibunall, as Secretaries, Sergeants, and others were aftoniflicd at 
it, and looking one upon another, faid, fure our Caoye, ( for fo they call 


Chap. 5. The Hiftoryof CHI^A. 187 

thtix Matidarm)is out of his rr/V/j^ not underftanding that indeed he had 
fhewcd this more in that particular, than in any other. 

After he had ferved his King many years,he thought good to retire him- 
fclfe, that he might more fervently & devoucly fervc the King of heaven. 
He wcht therefore to his houfe in the City of Hamcheu- , where he dedica- 
ted himfelfe with his whole heart to the affairs of his falvation. He built 
a new Church and Houfe for the Fathers, which was very requifitc in fo 
vaft and populous a City, although we had then another there at the 
fame time.This ftood fo necr his owne Houfe,that it gave him a continual 
occafion to converfc very frequently with the Fathers,which washis only 
delight. And that he might wholly employ himfelf in the Service of that 
new Chriftianity,hegavc himfclfccoTranflatc our Books^ which is an ex- 
cellent way to introduce the underftanding of our Sciences,and with them 
the knowledge of our holy Faith.To this end he requefted to have one of 
theFathcrs al wayes with him,who might give himfelfe wholly tothat em- 
ployment.There was afligned \\\mzccotdim^y ^Vdxh^t Franci feus Fnrt ado, 
by whofe afliftance he compofed thofe books de Ccel0,and Printed them at 
his own charges, with the great applaufc of all China. He undertook after- 
wards to have fet out a Lo^icJ^, which he had finifhed and reviewed,& was 
ready for the prefTe, wh?n the Lord was pleafed to give him the recom- 
pence of his pious zeal,by calling him to a better life,after he had received 
the Sacramenty and teftified much refentmcnt of the Mercy of God, and 
many hopeful (igns of his owne falvation. 

Returning now to the Fathers, whom wcleft at Court-, there, where 
their Affairs profpered every day more and more, the Lord being plea- 
fed to comfort them, by letting them fee the fruit of their laboursjby ad- 
vancing the efteem of our Holy Faith every day more than other among 
the Gentiles, many continually turning Chriftians^ and the reputation of 
the Idols growing every day leffe and Jeffe, by reafonof the many dif- 
putes, which the profelTours of their Sedis, held with the Fathers, where- 
in they were not only vanquifhed, but even confounded by the Truth. 

CHAP, 5. 

0/ the proceedings andruine of our Hou/e 
at Xaocheu. 

WHileft our affaires at Court profpered, and the Fathers ufed theii? 
utmofl endeavours to fettle their abode there, in the meane time* 
the Fathers, who refided in the houfes of the other Provinces , omitted 
no opportunitie to promote the preaching of the holy Gofpcl, and had 
very good fruit of their labour : neither did the enemy of mankind ceafc 
tofhcwhowmuchherefcnted, to have fo many foules taken out of his 
clutches, neythet was he flow to invent new difturbances and troubles. 

The Houfe which we had in the Province of^4///tf/?, in the City of 
Xaocheu, incrcafcd every day in the number of new Chrifiians^ and in the 

Bb a rcraaikabk* 

TiT The Hijlory of CHIS\(A . " Part.z. 

remarkable converfions of many confidcrable perronages-,among whom 
were three ;\iW4nw^J,in the manner oF their behaviour, with examples 
of vertue far furpafling the carriage of Neophytes^ or new Converts.In fine, 
there was a great Gate opened to the Golpel, but in like manner to many 
adverfaries alfo, ^ 

Father NicoUus Longohardm was employed in this convernonj and 
when he endeavoured with the greatcft fervour and zcale to drive all I- 
dols out of the Houfcs of the Gentiles y behold there cometh one into 
his Houfe, brought upon mens Shoulders in a long procefTion-, who, 
with a great deale of noife and ftirre, demand Almes for thcFabrique 
of a Temple, that was to be built for it. Every one fccth the danger 
of that dcmandjbut Chriftian valour cxpofing it fclf to all events, did va- 
liantly repulfe that charge .-and although the noife was great, the de- 
mand fraportunate, and their out-cries reaching even to heaven, yet the 
Lord not permitting them to do any other violence, they went their 
waycs without getting any thing of him. 

In the Villages,the Letteratse were ftark mad againft the ChriftiansJn 
the Citie the report was every where divulgedj that in their journey to 
?<•/&/»?, the Fathersjwho went toward the Court, were apprehended and 
imprifoned by the Eunuch Mathan^ out of whofe hands, if ever they 
went alive, it would be after a very fevere chaftifement. And as the De- 
vill makes his advantage of every thing, there was added to this another 
worfe report, by reafon the Scene was laid neerer hand-, which was,That 
our Fathers were banilbed out oFthc Citic of Xaokim, and that all they 
whohad turned C/'rz/Mw, were apprehended and chaftifcd. It is not to 
be beleeved how much this ncwcs diflurbed the people, and troubled 
the Fathers-, and fo much the more, by reafon this prattle had fome foun- 
dation of truth. But as truth doth ft ill prcvaile in the end , fo this tribu- 
lation lafted not very long-, but fcemed rather to give place to, new trou- 
bles, which were prepared againft us . ^ i r ' - ' , 

There happened to be a great drought that year, and the Gentiles had 
many times offered Prayers and Sacrifices unto their Pagcds^ but all was 
to no effc(5i: •• and not knowing what to do more , they confulted with an 
old woman, who was a Pythomjfe, asking her the reafon, why it did not 
raine, and why the P4^<?^/ did not give an ear to their juft prayers in that 
common neceflitie.She anfwercd, bccaufe there arc many, who burn the 
Ribs of Con Him (which is the name of a Female Idoll,) meaning there- 
by, that they who turned Chriftians did burn the Ms which formerly 
they worftiipped m their Houfcs: with this anfwcr of the old woman, as 
if flie had been an oracle, it is not to be beleeved, into what fury and 
madnefte the Gentiles fell : fo that if they did not fet fire on the Chri- 
ftians Houfes, it was only for feare of the LMandarines . but they fwore 
to kill the Father , if ever he came againe* 

I n th e Citic the ^o;;2i/ nor being able any longer to endure, nor dif- 
fcmble the rage which they had conceived againft the Fathersauor to fee 
thcfmokeof theIdols,which were burnt every day by thofc who were 
converted,confpiring with many more of the people, refolycd to put an 
end once for all to this bufineffcjthey framed a divcllifh Petition,whcrcin 


Chap.5. TheHi/ioryo/CHI3\CA i8p 

they touched fiich poynts, that were able to pu tfear into any Magiftratc 
whatfocvcrj and fo much the more, becaufc fome of thofe things, which 
they faid there were true, at leaft in part,and could not be denied^ as that 
they were ftrangers 5 that they pcrfwadcd people to live after their way, 
and to obfervc their law 5 that they afTemblcd congregations, which is a 
dangerous thing mChina, for feare of Inrurre<5tions. To thcle they added 
many other things, in confirmation of their opinion. The MemoridU was 
prefcntcd to the Officers,neithcr was it received with an ill will. But the 
Lord, whoalway afliftethhis fcrvants, and with his divine Providence 
helpcth them out of their grcateft ftraits, kcptaftrong windein readi- 
nestodiflipatethefcclowds. ; 

This was a grave Mandarine^ who cxcrcifed the office of TauU in thit 
City, who undertookc our defence ; and with a fpeech which he made to 
the Mandarines and the people, concerning the probity and honefty of the 
Fathers, of their good manner of life and con verfation, and of the fecuriiy 
which was in them, quieted and appeafed this tempeft. Of fo great power 
upon all occafions is the authority of one who govcrncth: and in this par- 
ticularly, wherein,according to their manner of Government, one would 
have thought, that this T'W/, (hould have been our greateftadverfary, it 
pleafcd the Lord by his means fo farre to quiet all difturbances, that they 
made no fmall advantage, even of thefe temptations. 

Their affaires continued thus, between tempefts and calmes ; which 
latter commonly were of the (horter continuance ; and to conclude the 
Hiftoryof this Houfe, I will only relate two notable palTages concern- 
ing it. 

About this time the HollaKders did infeft India^ and were come as farre 
as C^ina with a defigne to gaine a Port in that Kingdom, and particularly 
to take, if they could,the City o^Macao^ as they did afterwards attempt to 
do, according as I have already related, upon this occafion that City re- 
folvcd to fortifie it felfe, as afterward it did, and although the defigne did 
not take cffe<^ at that time,y€t thofe beginnings and preparations of warre 
were fufficient to make the Chine ffes^ (who arc timorous and fufpicious c- 
ven by nature) to beleeve that the Portugheffes had fome defigne on foot 
againft them. This fufpicion was encrcafed by the coming of Father 
Laz,arm Catanms oxatoi Chinaio Macas 2Lii\\t fame time. He was a man 
fome what corpulent by nature,and of a tall ftature,and of a bold and live- 
ly mind or afpe^t, and was now become more venerable by reafon of hit 
long beard ; fo that to any one who was not acquainted with him, he fee- 
med fitter to carry a Pike than a Breviary. The Chinejfes were petfwaded 
that this Father had a defigne,to make himfelfe Mafter of their Kingdom, 
and that the Fortugheffes had chofen him for their Captain in that enrer- 
prife J partly \n confidcration of his pcrfon, and partly for the knowledge 
he had of the waics in that Country, by reafon he h^d been in both the 
Courts -adding with all, that there would arrive very fhordy two Ar- 
mies to their affiftancc, one from India oi Fortttghejfrs, the other from (7/- 
appon of Giapponeffes J who are their deadly enemies : and that the Fathers, 
who were the companions of Father Z4;2i4r«/ J were gone before into the 
Kingdom, partly as fpics, and partly to flirrc up the people to take part 


ipo TheBiJlory of QBl^HJ. Part.i! 

with their defigncs. A malicious but ridiculous invention of the Devil, 
as if 4 or 5 poorc religious men, with a handfull of Chrifiiam^ had been a- 
blc to conquer fo powerfuU a Kingdom, 

This rumour began by little and little, till at length, (as is ufuall in fuch 
cafes) it grew fo ftrong in the bclicfe of the Chinejjes^i\\2X as many of them 
3s dwelt in ii/4c^tf, either Merchants or Inhabitants, fled all away to Can- 
ton. Whereupon they ofthc Province of C4;?^<?» gave thcmfelvcs for half 
loft, and being filled with frights and terrours,they made no qucftion but 
the bufincflc was very certain. The newes had already arrived to the Vm^ 
reyjeares, who in haft made great levies both for fea and land. In the 
principall City of the Province, all the Houfes were caufcd tobe pulled 
downe, which were built along the wall on the outfide, which were very 
many, and the poorc people received an cxccffive lofte by it. The gates 
which opened towards Macao were walled up with lime and ftonCjand up- 
on the walls were placed Sentinells to keep watch both night and day. A 
proclamation was publilhed, which under very great penalties did prohi- 
bite ail manner of commerce with Macao, and that no ftranger whatfoever 
lliould be admitted, and in particular not Father Cauhaus^ who was he, 
that was to make himfdfe King, In this manner was the Metropolis infla- 
med with a military heat, while the neighbouring Cities were ready to 

Who would ever have doubted, that a fire fo unfortunately begun, 
fhould not have reached as farre as our Refidcnce o^XAocheu^o. City of the 
fame Province, and not very farre from the Metropolis^ and fhould not 
there have burnt up whatfoever it found in it, together with all our other 
Houfes in that KingdonjJ*They ruftied fuddcnly into the Houfe with fuch 
a fury as you may eafily believe them to be in upon fuch occafion : they 
made a very ftrickt fearch, and turned every thing upfide downe, to fee if 
they could finde any armes, and having not found what they fought for, 
having imagined to finde a -W4^/«2.^*wtf or Armory there, the tumult began 
toceafe, and the people went out of the Houfe .* neverthelefTe they fet 
guards upon us for their greater fccuritie *, and from this time that fire be- 
gan to be extinguiftied. 

Ther/V^r<?7 had already given order to the Captain General! of that 
Province, whom they call turn Pivt, that with all the ftrength of the 
Country he fhould fall uponAf4w<>,and that he ibould fack and deftroy it. 
But he, like a prudent man, would not put himfclfc upon an entcrprife of 
fo much hazzard and danger (for the Portugheffes would not have fuffered 
themfelves to have been fo eafily deftroyed, as they ftiewed afterwards 
againft the HollAnders, a people of another manner of valour than the Chi- 
mJfes)bdoic he had received better and more certain information.Thcre- 
fore he fent fpies to Macao^ who went up and downe the City very freely^ 
for by reafon they had no fufpicion of any thing,all pafTages were free and 
open. When the fpies had remained in alUibertie in Macao^ as long as they 
though fit, they returned with certain intelligence, that there was not any 
preparation for warre in 3/4^4<? , no levies of Souldicrs, nor anyfigneof 
that ncwes, which had been fpread abroad-, but all was in peace & quict- 
ncffe, favc only that the City was divided into two fa<aions^ by reafon of 
fome particular quarrels,. upon 

Ch AP.5. The Hijlou ofQHlU^A. i pi 

Upon this intelligence he ^i^ forbcarc to put the Vice-rop orders in ex. 
ecution, and in the mean time things began to be better cleared, and the 
truth to appearc. The Citizens o^ Canton did open their gates, and their 
feaics began to blow over and every thing to fettle in a great dealc of qui - 
ctnes, which was much promoted by the coming of that Mandarine, ct{ 
whom we have formerly made mention, that he did appeafc another tu- 
jTUilt againft the Fathers in the City ofXaodeu^Hc had been at the Court, 
and was returned from thence, upon the occafion of his being promoted 
to an Office. He,upon the acquaintance he had formerly had with the Fa • 
thcrs, and efpecially by reafoiiof thencw fricndfhip he had contradcd 
with the Fathers at Pekjm,mib whom he had had a very great familiarity, 
ablolutcly fctled all thofe diftenipers there for that time- for this Province 
is like a Turbulent fea, for thcre,ftormes arc never wantirjg, one ft ill fuc- 
cccding another, untill they had utterly ruined our Houfe at Xaecheu, 

It was the year of our Lord 1615, when the people of this City, after 
many contrafts,(vvhether it were that their finnes did render them un wpr- 
thy of thofe mercies the Lord would have conferred on them, or that the 
Lord was pleafed by this means to provide the Fathers a more quiet and 
fecure abode) confpiredin that violent manner againfl the Fathers, that 
the Mandarines jinoz being able to refift the fury of the Litterati ^the Bonzi., 
and the common people, who with one accord cryed out againft the 
ftrangcrs,) did banift them by a publick fentence pronounced againft 
them, which notwithftanding had thus much of good in it to them, that 
the banifhmcnt was not out of the Kingdom, as they did very much feare 
it would be, but fcemed rather a confinement to detain them in the King- 

They pillaged our houfe, and committed other fuch infolences, as are 
iifuall upon the like fentenccs, and with fuch perfons. They placed over 
the doore in figne of their vidlory a ftone with a long infcription on it a- 
gainflthe Fathers, and our holy faith. But when things began to clofe, 
the Chriftiam procured one night to have it peckt over with an iron toole, 
and fo defaced it, that it was never after to be read. 

The Fathers departed from that City with great contentment of the 
Gentiles^ and a greater refentment of the Chrifiians who wept all downe 
right : and going up the river towards the North, they arrived in a few 
daics at Mount Muilin^vjhcxe the Source and Head of that river rifech . At 
the foot thereof lyah the City oiTiamhium^ which terminareth that Pro- 
vince. Here the Lord was pleafed, that their Barque fliould reft, like that 
of Noah on the Mountaines of Armenia, And without asking any leave, 
or defiring the favour of any Mandarines ^ only putting their truft in the 
Lord, they hired a houfe in that City, (where it was not hard for them to 
find one for their turnc) without the moleftationor prohibition of any 
onewhatfoevcr« for when the Lord will have a thbg cometopafTe, all 
is eafie, even without pains and induftry. There they lived with that little ^ 
which they had faved out of their ftiipwrack at Xaocheu^ anddreftupa 
Chappell in their houfe: and as the report of the arrivall of thefe ftrangers 
began to raife their curiofity, fo thcconcourfe of the people, and their vi- 
fits to them did open a doorc to the preaching of the GofpelL 


T^I TfeHiflory of Qtil^A. Part.z; 

So that Father Gasfcr Ferrera, who had been with them in the late 
troubles, prefently began to baptize fome of them» And the year foUo- 
wingi as'l paffed by that place, to go to Nankim, there was, although not 
a numerous, yet a good and well inftrui^ed Chrijiiamtie^ who enjoyed all 
peace and quictnelTe, untilliheyeari6i6, whentheperfecutionat iV4^- 
/^/>w-began. ^^'.^ . . : • . 


'^^ Of the pro(^refs of the Qhrijlicin religion atthetm 
rejidenctes o/Nancham andN.ankim,andof 
the death of Father "^^tthtusKiccius. 

T He Fathers BmmAmel Dias^^ndfoames Sosrius laboured with very 
good fruit in the refidcnce o^Nancham^ which Is theprincipall City 
of the Province of A'/4w/if : and although the greateft part of the chrifiian$ 
were but of the common people, yet there were fome alfo of the NBbtUtie^ 
^ndoUhQ Kings kwdredy who were baptized, and carried themfelvcs ve- 
ry exemplarily to the edification of all the reft. I have fince known fome 
of them, who did very much benefit that Chrlfi'tAmtie by the good pattern 
and example of their livcs-,and when I departed from ckna^BonPedro was 
then living, who is fo often mentioned in the yearly letters, for having 
carried himfelfe like a good Chriflian upon all occafions, and even in the 
torments which he fuftained with great conftancy •, his houfe many times 
affording a Sandtuary to the Fathers, and a Church tothe chiftiam^v/ho 
went commonly tKether during their troubles, and perfecutions, which 
were not wanting there •, neither did they failcto produce that fruit, which 
they are wont to do in new C/'r//?/4w>/w. 

There dwell in this City many of the Kings kindred, who for the mofl 
part are very infolent-, partly by reafon of the authority of their blood ^and 
partly by reafon of the idle and eafie life they lead. Thefe did often give 
the fathers much trouble, and one time were refolved to furprize the 
houfe, where they lived, and to turne them out of the City, and had pro- 
ceeded Co farre in it,that there is no doubt,but that they had put their pur- 
pofe in execution, had not the Governour of the City been changed; who 
having ended his time refigned his place to another,who although he was 
new in that Office, yet was not new in the acquaintance of the Fathers. 

The Lftteratiiyfho when they have only taken their firft degree of Bd" 
chelour^ are another fort of troublefome people) had undertaken to oppofe 
the C^r//?/^;? religion, and to per fecute the Preachers thereof-, as accor- 
dingly they did many times, but once in particular, many of them con- 
fpiring together to pluck up this evill tvecde,as they called it, by the roots, 
{nmtdzMemmall, wherein they named fome of the Fathers by their 
names, and affirmed that they were Traytours to the King, and that upon 
this defigne they had difperfed themfelvcs into five feverall Provinces. 


C H A p . tf . The Hipry of CHI^J. ip ^ 

that they kept a conftant correfpondence one with another,- that they 
went up and down the Rivers to rob and alTafTinate the people-, that they 
taught; men not to reverence the Images of their anceftors,and not to 
'Worfliipthc Pago^Sybm brake and burned them- that they fcduced the 
ignorant peoplcjand taught them to worihip a Moori^x fo in that Province 
they call the Eurof^am) faying^that he was the true God^ that they made 
affemblics and meetings, and hindred people from following their bufi- 
nclTe^ that they had almoft perverted the whole Citie^ and though at the 
beginning there were but a few of their Seft,yet now they were multi- 
plyed to 20000. In fine, they faid many other things, which founded fo 
ill, that there was none who doubted but that they would be fufficicnt 
wholly to extirpate the Father s-, befide their adverfaries were many, uni- 
ted in one Body, and Litter Mi too, who knew very well how to ufc their 
pen, and are commonly the better heard for that reafon. 

They prefented their MemorialUo the MagiftrateSy who received it, and 
cited ihe Fathers to their T'rihmAlt, where they were examined about 
their life and manners,and concerning the dodlrine, which they preached. 
They gave an account of themfclves, and were alfo very wcUheaid. 
They brought along with them the Catechifm which they taught, printed 
in the Chinejfe Language, and prefented itto the Mandarines in ftead of a 
Memeriali This was fo well looked upon, that ihey,not only admired 
therein the foundation and principle of all vertues, but alfo greatly 
praifed the precepts of the ten Commandments. In finc,the bufineffe went 
fo well, and fo contrary to what their adverfaries did hope and expect, 
and fo much in favour of the Fathers^ that the Law sf God was publickly 
commended and approved by the very G^/?^/7f ithemfelves^and the abode 
of the Fathers in that City confirmed by a publique fentcnce, and drawn 
up in writing, which till that time could never be obtained -and the Crojfe 
ofchrift triumphed in fpitc of all the Devils in Hell- and from thence for- 
ward they that were Chriftians already, enjoyed all the liberty they 
could defire^ and they that had a mindtoturneChriftians,coulddoit 
without any caution or fecrecic : and truly there were many of them that 
proved examples of great edification^ and though I do purpofely for- 
bear to mention them for brevities fake, yet I will relate one belonging to 
the fame refidence, becaufe it was told me by the fame Chriftian himfclf, 
a little before my departure for Europe. 

I was ftanding one day, in the church which we have in this City, 
when I faw a man come in thither to fay his prayers, and not knowing 
him, I ft ay ed till he came out, and thenIaskedhim,iNhohewas.-He an- 
fwered, J'4//'fr, I am a Chriftian, and was born in this Cityjbutamby 
profelTion a Merchant in Nankim,ar\d at certain times I come hither to fee 
my Parents,& then I come to Church according to my dutie.I asked him; 
who did Baptize him^ He anfwered me, Father ^ofjn dclla Rocca: ^nii'ix. 
was,faid hf,in this manner;! had been fickly many yeareSjand had fpentall 
my poor fortune upon the Phyfitians without receiving sny help from 
them , my friends ufed to vifit me, and among them two Chriftians,vjho 
one day being moved with compaflion towards me, told me that I (hould . 
do well to turn Chrifiian, and it might be, that the Lord would grant me 

C e my 

T^ TheBfiory of QHI^A. Part.i. 

my health . I anfvvercd thcmjf your God would rcftorcme my health Jam 
content to turn Chrifiian. They went prefentiy ro the Father to ask him 
for a little Holy water,to give me to drink, hoping that it would have a 
good effect. 'S>\\tx.\\^ Father anfwered themJF he have a defire to turn 
chrifiian^ let him do it,and our Lord will fend him heahh,if it be hisplea- 
fure*,and if he do not, yet at lesft let him take care of the health of his 
Soule, which is more neceffary than that of the body^ As for miracles, the 
Lord doth them only when he pleafethjand if upon this occafionhe 
fhould not do a Miracle^ then would that Gentile dcfpife and undervalue 
ourreligion. They returned to me fufficiently difconfolate, but I was 
much more deje(5led when I heard that anfwer. About two dayes after, 
the fame two Chrift'ians being with me, there came in another called Peter, 
with whom I was alfo acquainted; and he was a very zealous and fervent 
Chrifliw.They told him what had happened to them with the Father-^but 
he replyed, What need have we of the Father for this matter^ I have holy 
water my felf at home-, let us give him (ome of it, and I hope our Lord 
will gi'ant him his health. He went prefentiy home, and fetched a little 
ofit; they gave it me, and I drank it^ and not long after I perfedly reco- 
vered-, and that which many medicines were not able to do in fo many 
years, the Uolj water did in a very (liorc time. I went prefentiy to churchy 
to render thanks to the Lord for that great mercy he had ihewed me; and 
after I had been well Catechifed and inft rucied in the principall matters of 
our Holy Faith J was Baptized. 

I hjvc made choi(e of this example in particular, becaufe it was rela- 
ted to me by the perfon himfelf, to whom it happened,although there ne- 
ver wanted many cthei s of the like kind^wherewith the Lord doth favour 
that church , ftrengthen the chriflians , and comfort the Preachers 

The Refidence of Nankimdid this while enjoy a perfe(51: peace and 
tranquilitie^and the Fathers gained a great deale of credit and reputati- 
on, and were much cfleemed by feverall of the Mag/ftrates^vjho did 
greatly favour them. The number and devotion of the Faithful! encrea- 
fed every day', and for (he greater help thereof there was founded a con- 
gregation of the B Virgin^ with thofe eflFe(5ts and fruits, which are ufually 
obtained by her. 

Diverfe perfons of very confiderable qualitie did prefent themfelves 
to receive Holy Baptifm^ among whom Kui Tai ^ was onc; who indeed 
was worthy of al! praife, for the great paines he took in this Citie to aflift 
the Fathers^ and for the many advantages he gained ihem by his authori- 
tie. This man, notwithftanding that he was our intimate friend, did ftill 
perfiftinhis Heathemfme^and although he commended our Holy Laxo, 
and approved the Truth and Certainty thereof, yet he thought it very 
troublcfome to obftrve-,a conceit which doth ufually with-hold very ma- 
ny from the undertaking of it.But at length having overcome himfelf and 
all other dif[iculties,he was Baptized, and c;illed Ipiatius^ making his con- 
fcflion and publick profeflion fo refolute and devoutly, that he did much 
comfort the Fathers^ and encourage the reft of the Faithfull: neither was 
he content only to recite ir,but gave it in- writing as apledg of his determi- 

Chap <J. The HiJloryofQHIihC/l. 195 

nafc rcfolution, the which for the publick edification I have thought fit 
CO infert in this place.and it faith thus. 

Kui Ignatius hern in thefecend Moon of the year called Ciea, (which ivas d* 
bout the month (?/ March, z» the year i^^9)ititheCitie0f Clzncku^ofthe 
CottntrieofSucki}^ in the Province of V^aDkim^ in the Kingdom ^/Tamin 
(forfo they caHthe Kingdome efC\\\v\2L) I being drawn by a profound confide- 
ration, and moved by a moflfncible (orrorvfor myfinnes^ do deftre to ask par- 
don ofalmightie God^that he might give me the ftving water <?^Baptifm for to 
canceUthem^ and that he would grant me fu^ idem grace to enter into his moft 
Holy Law. / confider with myfelf that being now ^-j years of age, I have had 
€yes all this while, And yet have never looked into his Holy Law: I have had 
tarts^ and yet have never heard of his Sacred Name-, hut on the contrary have 
followed the Seti tf/Scechia(vvhich is the name of a very famous Idoll) 4;?^ 
Although I under ^ood^ that it was repugnant both to truth and reafon^ I did 
very much enlarge an^fpread abroad that fuperflition-^ thewhich I acknowledge 
to be m) very great faulty andalmojl Infnitefinne, which mthout doubt dtdde- 
ferve no lejfe than the lowefl depth ef Hell. Of lite years it was my good fortune 
to meet with the Maflers of the truth, who came from the great Weft,Matt heus 
Riccius W Lazarus Catana?us together with their Cof^panionS^bMzn Fer- 
nandes. Thefe were the firfl that did open unto me the My fteries of Divine 
truth.' W now again of latent mett with John Delia Rocca andhis Companiori 
Frances Martinez . Thefe did confirm me in the heleefof thofe things I had aL 
ready heard; by meanes of thefe Maflers I learned j hat Heaven and Earth^Man- 
kind and all other things were made by God and that all things have their de- 
dependance on him-^andare neceffarilie fuhjeol unto his commandnthat no other 
Seii, or law^ whatfoever beftdes this^is conformable to truth; thatfinnes are for- 
given only by God by the intermiffion of his Mini flers-^t hat by him only the joy es 
of Heaven are conferred upon fuch^ who have a true and fjncere forrow for their 
ftnnes : and hecaufe f heleeve that by thefe meanes a man may obtain from God, 
Grace and other benefits J be feech his Divine Majeftie, that he would fo fill me 
with this truth, that I may put it in execution by good works ^ and may he able 
with a confiant and firme refolution to worfhip the Heavenly Ma/eft ie and to 
conformemyfelf to his Holy precepts and ordinances. And from the day where- 
in Ijhall receive Baptifme, which clean feth and wafheth all filth and unclea- 
neffefrom the Soule^ I do promt fe by his Grace for the time t$ come^wholly td ex- 
tirpate out of my thoughts the SeB of the vain and falfe GodS'^ as alfo their 
doctrines, which are repugnant to reafon-y and to take car e^ that my thoughts do 
not in any wife runne after the fuperfluous deftre of riches y the vanitie of the 
war Id, or the falfe and fool tfh pleafures thereof I will obey the Sovereign 
Lord and Father efall things^ and will follow the dtrcEi way of his lawr, and by 
a conftant watch upon my fences^ I will endeavour, as much as is poffihle for mc, 
fo reduce the light of that reafon, which God hath given me, to its former Splen- 
dour,/ will begin with my felf, and afterward communicate unto others, the be- 
nefit of thofe Graces I jhall receive from his bounttfull hand. 

For as much as appertaineih unto the Articles of our Faith, although J am 
not able to comprehend thegreatneffe of each Myflerie^ nevertbdeffe I do from 
my he Art fubmit my felfto them; and do firmly believe whatfoever is 
contained tnthem-ybefeeching the Holy Ghoi^y that he wot/Id illuminate my 

Dd 2 underfiandwg 

The Hi/lory of QiiL^d. Part.:?. 

mder (landing vo'nh hisUght, that I might be the better Me to comprehend 
them. Now therefore, jhce J have begun again to feele thefrjl imprejfms of 
faith my heart is like a tender eare of come., which ps not jet come to tts maturity^ 
ivherefore 1 be feech the Mother oi God, that jhe mil grant me firength and 
courage., by her Inter ccfCion for me with God her Sonne, that this my firm 
purpofe & con^ant refolution might never be ftaggeredor (haken-.that he would 
open the powers ofmyfoule, and grant me a eleane and pure heart: Thai he would 
open my mouth to declare his Divine law through the whole Kingdom^ the end 
that none might he ignorant of the law of the True God^ or refufe to give obe- 
dience to it. 

This was the profeiTion in writing of Ignatius. There was alfo baptized 
in this houfe by the hands of Father ^ohn della Rocca, who was fuperiour 
thereof, Deciour Paul^ whofe life we (liall fct downe more at lirge toward 
the end of this relation, and who mayjuftly be called the pillar of the 
Chrijlianitie of Chwa^ who was fo much celebrated in the yearly lettcrs/o 
eminent in dignitie and honour, having home the higheft office of the 
Kingdom, that is, ofCclao • fo zealous in the Ghriftian religion ^ fo cxatSt 
in the obfervance of it^ lo humble; fo vertuous and holy, that every great 
thing may worthily be faid of him. 

This feed of the Holy Gofpel was not contained within the walls of the 
City o^Nankim, but fprcad it felfe over the Province of the fame name 5 
for upon the occafion of Dr. Paf4ls turning C hrifian^ and oi his Fathers 
deat*h, at what time he went to Scianhai to celebrate bis funeralls. Father 
Lazarus Catan^us went thether,partly to vifit him, and partly to fee how 
that Countrie was difpofed to receive the word of God. His journey had 
fuch good fuccfeffe, that prefently after one Af^jf^, there were fifty Bapti- 
zed^ and in two years after the number was encrcafed to two hundred.-the 
example of /)r. Paul being of great efficacy to that purpofe. 

There happened alfo at that time feverail miracles; as, driving out of 
Devills, healing of the (ick, and fuch like, with which this new Chrifti- 
anitie was vj:iucd, and the earth difpofed to bring forth more fruit, fuch 
as were afterwards, and areftill gathered there at this day. There was al- 
fo a houfe founded in that Towne 5 and it is now oncofthebcft Chr/fiia- 
nities in all China. 

Whileft the Fathers of the three Southerne Refidencics, under went fo 
much paincs and trouble, V\ithtr Matt heus Riccius was not idle at Pekim 5 
but rather was fo bufied, that he had fcarce time to breath, partly for the 
vifitsoftheC^/>fj(/"^^, which he was alfo obliged torcturnethem, nor 
could he have omitted it without injury and difcourtefie-, and partly with 
iht Chrijlians and Catechumeni-^ andpartl) in compofing thofe bookes, 
which are fo much efleemed by the Chinejfes, In the mean while the re- 
pitation and effeeme of our religion was everyday advanced, and the 
number o{Chrifiians encrcafed by rare and miraculous events. One of the 
Neophites^oincvj Chrijlians, being delivcrea from death, which he was 
unjuiily condemned to fuffer, by the apparition of a man, like unto the 
Image of our Saviour,one night to that judge, who was to confirmc the 
fentcnccjwho commanded him to favc the life of that Tnnocent:and two o- 
thers J whofe recovery was dcfpaircd of by the Phy ficians, were cured by 


C H A p . 7- T^he Hijlory of (^HI3\(j^. ip 7 

the favour oFthe B. P^irgin, who viiibly appeared to them, ipake to them 
and ciimfortcd them. 

Notvvithftanding his great employments, Father Mauheus did note- 
mit the other fundions of his charge in the Houfc, he being fuperiour and 
having the care of the whole Utffwn^\\\Q\\ he governed with great care, 
prudencejand charityrby reafon ofthefecontinuall paines and care which 
hetooke, (or rather becaufe the Lord was pleafcdto deliver his fervant 
out of the troubles of this life, to give him the reward of his fufferings)he 
fell into a {ickneffe, and although all humane means were applycd, and all 
polTible care ufc d to fave his lif e^ yet all was to no purpofc. fie defired to 
receive the Sacrdmems^ which accordingly he received with very great re- 
fentmcnt and devotion ; The Fathers defired his blcfTing before he dyed: 
about many queflions which they asked him, he gave particular anfwers 
toall ; among the reff^toone who asked him, Why he would leave them 
atatime, when they had fo great need of his company^Heanfwered, I 
leavc^outhe gate Of en to great I'iciories, which notxvithflanding are not to he 
obtained without great fains and combats, ^nd fo entertaining with difcourfe, 
fomctimes the Fathers, fometimes the new Chripans^ and very often rai- 
fing up his heart ;inJ voice towards heaven, in amorous Colloquies^ lying ia 
his bed, without any motion at all of his body, and clofing his eyes, as if 
he were entring int.) a fweet fleep, he gave up his foule into the hands of 
his Maker, with the generall greife and refencmcnt, not only of thofe of 
thehoure,andoftheC/;r//?i4w, butalfoof the Gentiles j they all calling 
hlm^ a per fe^ Many a Saint J an /Ipoftle. I will forbearc to fpeak any more 
of him for brevities fake, by reafon his life is already written in the Hiito- 
ry of Father Trigaltim, 


Of the TBurfm^placey yphich x^asbejlovpedupon 

us hy the Kjngy ando/theprogrefse of the 

Chrijlian religion, tmliUthe time of 

theperfecutionat Nankim. 

IT is a cuflom among the Chine ffes, fas we have already related,) to have 
■■a particular place appoyntcd for the buriall of their dead. The Fathers, 
who had very hardly a place allowed them for to live in, were altogether 
deflituteof aplace of Sepulture; wherefore they were in great doubr, 
where they fliould bury the Father. But the Lord who is a guide unto hi?,* 
and who had a particular intention to honour his fervant, put them upon 
a very difficult undertaking, and as farre as f am able to judge by the cu- 
ftome of ^/'/^/f, without his fpeciall afriftance,altogether impolfible. This 
was to Petition the King, defiring his favour, tohave a place ailigned us 
for the buriall of our dead. And becaufe it vvas the Lord, who had fir ft: 
fet thisbufinelTe on foor,without any confideration of the great difficultie, 

ip8 TheH'tjloryofCBHK^. Part.z. 

which they were like to find, they prcfcntly framed a MemorUUto be prc- 
[entcd CO the King, wherein they laid downe the reafons, which moved 
them to make this humble rcqueft. 

The very paflfing of this i^/irw^m//, according to the Stile which is requi- 
(ite upon that occafion, feemed fo impoffiblc a thing, that the CoUo him - 
felte, who dcfired to affift them as a friend, accounted it a very difficult 
cnterprlfe. Neverthclcffe after they had recommended their bufinelTe to 
Almighty God, theMemoriall was prcfentcd to the Mandarine^ to whofe 
office'it belonged fir ft to over look it, and the Lord was plcafcd to favour 
us fo farre, that it paflfed theChancery without any difficultie,which at fir ft 
feemed to bethegrcateft. When it was prcfested to the King, without 
doubt he thatholdeth the hearts of Kings in his hand, did difpofc and in- 
cline him to favour us, andheremembringthe former Prefent, and the 
Clock which he had alwaies by him, did icferre it to the Colao^ together 
wiih many other petitions, according to the Stile of that Court, and he to 
the CpunccU of Rites, becaufe it was a bufinelTe of ftrangers, which did 
propel ly belong to them. But after they of that Councell had confidercd 
it, they judged it to be a fpeciall favour of the Kings,and that it did there- 
fore belong to the Councell of the Kings Patrimonie, Wherefore they 
did remit our Memor fall to them. Aflbone as the Fathers underftood this, 
and knowing ihey had no friends in that Councell, and that there was no- 
thing to be expeded from them without favour, they made fuch means, 
by way ofother, friends, that the C^emoriall vjas not only remanded a- 
gaine to the Councell of Rites, wherein the Fat hers had levcrall friends, 
but that they alio did receive it, andpafTe fentence in favour of them, as 
accordingly they did in this form. 

Tour MAJeflie hathgi'ven command^ that the Councell to whom this hu/iffejfe 
did belong Jfhmld give their judgement concerning this petition, i^nd it being 
come into our hands .^ we have well confideredthe laws and conjiitutions of this 
Kingdom^ and we find one which faith : ThatifanyofthofeStt^ngets^ which 
are wont to come into this Kingdom^fhould chance te die by the way ; ;/ he were a 
fubje^ or T^affalljSov fometimcs there come Kings and Princes thithcr)W 
were not 'jet arrived at the Court, the Treasurer of the Province ^where he dyeth^ 
/ball affigne him a place of bur tall, where there fhall be Cet up an infer iption gra - 
ven infione^ wherein jhall be exprejfedthe occafion of his coming hither. 

There is alfo another law which fait h^ If a Stranger come into this Kingdom, 
and die after he is arrived at the Court ^ if he have not received the Kings gra^ 
iuit%and reward, according to the ufuallcuftome^ the Cover nour of the City 
pull defra-^ the cofis ofhisfunerall : B dt if he hath received his gratuity, it jhall 
he done at his owne expence. 

In order to thefe two laws ffrora which I cannot well fee how an argu- 
ment, fliould be drawne to favour our caufe, becaufe the Fathers had al- 
ready received their gratuity) the Mandarine knew fo well how to make 
up the bufincffe, ard to find out fo many reafons and conveniences to ob- 
tain that favour, which Father fames Pantoia required of his Majeftie, for 
the buriall of his deceafed companion, that affoone as the Memor iall came 
againe into the Kings hands, he prefently referred it ro the CoUo, that he 
(houldgivcwhatanlwcrtoit he thought fit. TheC<?/4<?drewitupinthis 


Chap.7. fheBtJioryofCniV^A. i;>9 

formc^That it fccmcd very reafonable unto him,theftrangeisfliould have 
that favour granted them, which they did dcfire. And (o it was againe 
brought to the King, who figned it with his ownc hand, and put to it his 

This expedition put an end to our troubles • and the Fathers ceafed not 
torenderthanksto Almighty God for that favour, which they were fo 
clcerly to owne from his goodncffe, and which was of fo great impor- 
tance for the Fathers refidcncein that Court, and in the reft of the King- 
dom, that conccflion of the King, ferving not only for a Sepulture for 
their deadjbut alfo for a h"cenfe for us to remain there during our lives. For 
he having granted us a place in that Kingdom, to lie in after our death, it 
was manifeft that he granted us alfo a place ol- abode there during life:and 
the words of the Grant runne thu?,rtf hur'j tkirFatherKkcius and his com- 
f anions. Andaccordingly they who die in that Court at this day are bu- 
ried in the fame place. 

Having overcome the firft part of the bufineffe, (which was the raoft 
difficult J without any trouble, but rather with a great dealeot eafe and 
facilitie, there remained ftill the fecond, which was the execution of it 5 
which could not want very much oppofition : but by having many Man- 
^<ir/Wj to their friends, and by procuring the good will of others, with 
fome Sun-dialls of Ivory ,( which the Chimffes do highly cfteeme, and Fa- 
ther Fantoia had the skill of making them very cxa^iy) our poverty not 
being able to extend it felfe to any great matter, at length they overcame 
the f mailer difficulties, and the execution of their defires became more ea- 
fie for them 5 efpccially the Fathers having the Colao^ (who is able to do 
any thing,) for their friend : who indeed was fo well affe(5ted to the bufi- 
nelTe, that Father Prntoia going a fecond time to vifit him^ to rcfrefli his 
memory, fearing left the multitude of bufineflfc, which lay upon him 
might caufe him to forget them, before the Father could open his mouth, 
the C(7/^5 tookc him by the hand, telling him, that he did not forget his 
bufinelfe-, but fearing leaft any delay might be prejudicial! to them,he had 
part it himfclfe, and fcnt it to the Governour with particular recommcn- 
dations, although he thought it needlelTe, becaufe he knew him already 
tobevery wellaffe(5ledtothebufinclle,andthathehad done the like to 
feverall other officers, through whofe hands the bufinefle was topaffe: 
Upon the recommendations of a perfon of fo great qualitie, the bufineffe 
was not only received, but very much favoured. There vi^as prefently or- 
der given to the inferiour Officers, by whole hands it was immediately to 
be difpatchedj that they fhould findeout a proper place for that purpofe : 
who being alwaics very obedient to the commands of their fuperiours, 
and knowing what haftethe bufineffe did require,they went immediately 
about it •, and having found out foureplaces>which to them feemcd all ve- 
ry convenient,they came to the Fathers,and dcfired them that they would 
be pleafed to go and fee them, and make choifc of that which liked them 
beft, and then the King (liould be made acquainted with it. 

Among thefcfoure places, there was one veryneere the walls of the 
City, with a very faire and ftately houfe and garden, which had formerly 
belonged to one of the chiefe Eunuchs of the palace j who for I know not 


200 TheBJlory of CHlO^Qd. Pabt.z, 

what crime was condemned to dic-and was ftill kept a Prifoner.This man 
before he was condemned/ceing he fhould certainly be ruined , and that 
his whole eftatewouldbcconifircatedtotheKingjhadadcfign to fave 
this Garden, by putting it, as it were, into Sandluaric; wherefore he cau- 
fed the Gate thereof to be altered, turning it into an habitation of Bonsii^ 
and confecrated the great Hall for a Temple of Idols,ferting over it this 
Magnificent \vi^cx\^\\onjThc7emple of the Science of Goednejfe, This place 
was very commodious, and having but one only Bonzo that lived in it , it 
feemed to be, as it were , abandoned, and that there would be but little 
difficultie in obtaining it^ That place then being defigned and chofen, 
there was not wanting a Mandmne, who hoping to draw iomething out 
of the Fathers by ir, was very earneft to have the place prized ; but there 
was another Mandarine^ who prefently took him up, and told him, that 
the favours of Princes were above all price-, and that they were not to be 
put to an out- cry » The Governour having notice that we had found out a 
pi?ce,& who was the owner of it^prefently drew up an Order in this form , 
The Temple of the Science of goodnejfe, for as much as it did belong unto an 
Eunuch^n'/'^ was condemned to death by the King, ought not to be beught with 
money. Let the Bonzo, who dm/leth therein, jbefent arvay^and the place prefently 
conftgnedto Father James Pentioa,4;?^^/i companions. 

This Order was executed in the form of a Sentence .• and bccaufe 
the Tathers did imagine,that the Bonzo would make fome difficulty in be- 
ing got out of the place, after they had given thanks to the G over notir^ 
they defircd he would be pleafed to fend for the Bonzo locomQhdoxQ. 
him, and to command him to leave the Temple He difpatched prefently 
two men for him, who brought him away in much fear and doubt, what 
might befall him, by reafon of the great danger that men ordinarily runne 
into by fuch vifits. When he was come, the Governour commanded him 
immediatly without any reply, that he fhould quit that habitation, and 
feek out another. He obeyed him very willingly, being very glad the bu- 
fincflewas not fo bad as he had feared: and the very fame day the Fathers, 
having fome other Chriflians in their company, took poflcflfion of the 
Templc,Houfe and Garden,giving thanks to the Lord for their good fuc- 
cefTe, thinking the bufinelTe to be now at an end • not forefi eing the great 
contrafts and oppofitions, which they were afterwards to find. 

The fecrecie and expedition , with which this bufineffe was 
carried, gave no time for news to come to the ears of the Funuch in Pri- 
fon, what became of the Temple, which he ftill accounted to be his.But 
affoon as it was underftood abroad that it was granted to the ftrangers, it 
is not to be imagined what complaints and murmures it occaiioned in the 
Kindred, friends anddifciples of the Eunuch-, and how all of them, fomc 
one way,and fome another ,undertook to oppofe it, and to ufe che'ir ut- 
moft power to have it revoked by the King, 

Firft, there went a company of inferiour Eunuchs to the Temple,where 
atthattimethey found only a Brother of the Societie-, after a long dif- 
courfe they told him,that there were there fcverall goods and pieces of 
Houfliold-ftufTe not comprehended in the Kings grant to them. And at 
length before their dcparturCjthey made {evcrall fpcechesto the Idoll, 


C H A p. 7. Ihe Hijlorj ofQHl^A. 201 

fome bidding him adieu for evcr^for now they never hoped to have hbcr- 
tic to come thither again.- another in great rage called him, MafTc of durt 
and dung, (although the Jdoll were niadeof Chaulk,and gilt) telling 
him, that feeing he had not ftrength enough to defend himfelf,he would 
not hope for any affiftancefromhim-profcrtingtohis face, that he was 
not worthy of any honour-, and that from henceforward he would not 
fhew any fign of gratitude or memorie towards him:othersfaid,This 
ftatuc had formerly the name of another IdoU, which was afterwards 
changed: behold, what revenge he taketh upon him that ufurped ir» 

But t he £«wf^j of greater authoritie left no way nor meanes 
tempted^they made their application to the chid Eunuchs of the Palacc,as 
alfo to the CMandarims without, and other pcrfons of great power, tha£ 
they might carry on their intent. And truly they prevailed fo far,that ihey 
perfwadcd the CuUkien to interpofe his authority^who is Secretary(as they 
call it)of the Puritie, chief of the Eunuchs, and who haih the frequenteft 
accede to the Kirgs perfon. ButafToonashe underftood,thatitwas 
done by the Kings (irder, he would meddle no more with the bufineffe. 

There was not left any perfon of greater authoritie, but only the Kings 
Mother,who was a very devout worfhipper of Idols-, by her meanes they 
did endeavour to bring their defign about^ a certain Eunuch^ who was 
much in favour with her, being made the fir ft mover of this revolution* 
He told her with great lamentations, that a Temple of his Gods had been 
taken away from him-, that it was worth many thoufands of Crownes; 
that it had been given to certain ft rangers, who did not only render them 
no worfhip nor refpe<5^, but did alfo deftroy them-, and that he was cer- 
tain, they would break them in pieces and burn them; wherefore he ear- 
ncftly befought her Majefiie^xhsx flie would vouchfafe to fpeaka word 
concerning it to the King. But ftie would by no meanes allow of his rc- 
queft: and it was known afterwards, that iheanfwered him in this man» 
Ticr^What though the Temple he of that value yon fpeak of < What is that f?i 
comtarifon of the Kings LMagnifcence < the very mentioning offuch a huft- 
neffenow the King hath done them that favour^ if the Jlr anger s jhould but make 
their comflaint^wouldhe fufftcient to takeaway theltfe of that Eunuch, who is 
in Prifont and already condemned.Toconc\ude^\n[p\tc of all the powerfull 
endeavours, in fpite of all the craft and machinations which were ufcd a- 
gainft them, the determination ofthebulinefte was in favour of the poor 
ftrangers, who were prote(5ted by a Divine power^ and £o having over- 
come all difficulties and obftruiflions, the Fathers went to the Palace, 
according to the ufuall manner, to render Thanks to the King. 

This place which was granted them, is diftant from the gate of the 
Citie, about a third part of a Mile; the building is very neat, and all of 
Brickjand had not then been built above thirty ycars;it is reported to 
have coft 14000. Crownes- which is an exceflfive fumme in China.Xo' 
ward Morning the Body of Father i?/V^/«j was brought thither, having 
been already laid in a Coffin, which was very well clofed,and varnifhcd 
over after the Chinejfe Fafhion* A great number of new Chrijlians did ac- 
company it, with lighted Candles in their hands, following the Crojfc 
which was carried before very richly adorncdj and fonheprefemthe 

D d Coffin 

aot rheUijlory of QHl^^d. Pabt.z. 

Coffin was put in a room on one fide of the Chappcl, that there might be 
a convenience to pcrforme thofe ceremonies, which were requifite after 
the manner oi China-, after that,it was transferred to the Tformitorie alrea- 
dy prepared for it. At the further end of the Garden there is a Chappell 
confiftinf' of fix fides ; it is made of brick, and vaulted. From the fides 
come out two walls,built compaifing in figure of a Semi-circle.This place 
was chofen by the F athers for a Coemeterie, round about it there are four 
Cyprefes, which are alfo among the Chineffes accounted mournfull and 
funerall Trees: they feemed as if they had been planted there on purpofe, 
to ftiade the Tomb of Father Rkciusy which was alfo built there of Brick5 
and the chief Idol being beaten to pieces, ferved in ftead of Lime,tbat the 
Father might even after death, triumph in the deftrudion of Idols. They 
caufed the ChappelofIdolstobecleanfed,and confecratcdit to Chrift 
our Saviour.There was inthe Hal a very ftately Alrar,whcrcon was placed 
the principall Idol, all gilt from head to foot, of a vaft bignefTe, called by 
the C/;/>f/f^,T/V4w-, and their conceit is, that he doth prefide over the 
carth,and all treafures^and is the very fame with Vluto, having a Scepter in 
his hand, 'and a Qowne on his head, juft as we paint our Kings.On each 
fide of him flood foure Minifters, or Servants, all made of the fame mat- 
ter-, on each fide of the Hall were placed Two great Tables, upon each 
of which flood five inferiour Kings of Hell-, the fame Kings were 
alfo to be feen painted on the wallsof cachfide,fittingon a7r/to4//, 
and condemning Sinners to the punifiiments and paines of Hell^ there 
were alfo to be feen Painted horrible Devils,carrying Inflruments of tor- 
ment in their handstand likewife ft verall forts of punifhments which are 
infli(5led on the damned wretches, and their caverns full of flames. Ser- 
pents and terribk fiends. There was alfo Painted a great Ballance, and in 
one of the Scales was to be feen a man laden with finnes and wickednefTe, 
and in the other the book of prayers belonging to that Se6t, which did 
out- weigh all the Sinnes ,and deliver him who doth frequently rchearfe 
them. There was alfo a River of fire, which fwallowed up very many 
men-,over it there were two Bridges, one of Gold, and the other of Sil- 
ver-,and over thefe did the Minifters of the Idols condud men to places of 
pleafure and delight. There were alfo to be feen fome of the Benzi^v^ho 
plucked their Fathers out of the flames and torments in defpite of the De- 
vils, and other fuch things, by which thofe Minifters did gain a great re- 
pute to themfelves: and over every fort of torment there was this infcrip- 
tion,Whofcever fhall call athoufand times upon the name of fuch an L 
dolljftiall be delivered from this fort of punifhment. All was thrown 
down and deftroyed by our Servants,who ftrove who fliould do itfafteft; 
by reafon that the chineffes do put into the bellies of their Idols,Tnoney, 
Medals ^zv[di alfo Jewcls,The walls were playftered over a new,and over a 
Dew Altar was erected the Image of our B . Saviour. 

On the day of all Saints the firft Maffe was celebrated there, with al! 
pofTible Solemnitie, and with found of Organs and other inftrumcnts. 
All the Cbripam were there prcfent, and after a brief exhorrar ion, the 
body of Father Mattheus Riccius was carried to the place of Sepulture by 
the chiefcft of them, and followed by all the reftj particularly by Doc- 

Chap.7. TheHiJloryofCHl^A 

tour P^///, who loved him asaFathcr, andthcrc,withtheccremoncs of 
the Church he wasentcrred, there having been firft placed in that Chap^ 
pic another Image of our Saviour. The Fathers alfo built there another 
little Chappie to the B. Virgin in a place convenient for that purpofe^ to 
which they had obliged themfelvcs by a vow, which they made when 
they firft undertook this bufincfle. 

Finally over the firft Gate they placed in two Chinejfes Charaders this 
Infcription, B'j the Kings liber ditie-^ which among them is counted a grea- 
ter honour than will here cafily be beleeved. Curiofity brought many 
thither, to fee the accommodation they had made, which was commen- 
ded and admired by all.- neither truly ought it to feem a fmall matter, that 
in the face of the King and the Court, Alters (liould be overturned, 
and Idols beaten to pieces by a few poor ftrangers, and that too,cven 
withappiobationof the greateft officers. This extraordinarie Grace con* 
ferred by the King upon us was (hortly after divulged in Pekim^ which 
gave n© fraall ftrength and vigour to our afFuires there. Their houfcs were 
more frequentcd,the Fatheis better looked upon,and the fruits of the Go- 
fpel daily encreafcd. 

They had only foure Refidencies at that time, which was in the year - 
l6i o,but they were fo difpofed, that they did as it were comprehend the 
whole Kingdome from South to North, upon the great road from Can- 
ton to Pekim^ but the Fathers defiring, after they had runne in a manner 
from pole to pole, to follow alfo the courfe of the Sunne, and to cxalc 
the light of the Gofpel through the Eaft and Wcftern parts, (where 
there are many famous Cities,) the occafion was offered them by DoBot 
Leo'^ for his Father being dead, he was forced to leave his government, 
and to return into his Country to bury him^and to obferve that Mour- 
ning, which is required by the cuftome of the Country, wherefore he 
took along with him fome of the Fathers, partly for his own particulat 
confolation, and to inftru(5l the Chriflians in his Familie, and to Baptifc 
fuch as had not yet been converted-, and partly to endeavour to found a 
houfe in that his native City o[ Hamchets. The firft happy encounter 
thcre.was that of Dodour r^w, named afterwards at his Baptifm^ Micha- 
€/,who is much celebrated in our yearly letters. Wtv^^iSz Mandarine^ of 
great account, and a Kinfm an of I>o5iour Leo^ and had been for feaven 
years together Chancellour of the whole Province of Nankim, which is 
an Office of very great importance,and was very rich, of a great Houfe, 
and allyed to the principall Families ofthatCitie-, and above all, he was 
very devout towards the Pagods^ in fo much that he had built a Temple 
for them within his own Palace, with a certain number of 5^/?;t/ to fervc 
them, whom he maintained at his own charges. But he did this more ouc 
of ignorance than malice, and therefore the Lord fliewed mercy unto 
him. He was one of the firft that vifited the Fathers, and being very 
much addi(5ted to the defence of his Religion, he began a very hot difputc 
with a more than ordinarie zeal for the upholding of his Sc(5l; the which 
he continued likewife the day following, and the next day, and fo 
for nine dayes together , alwaycs producing new arguments 
and propofing new difficulties ^ not that he had a dcfign 

Dd 2 to 

Z04. IheHipuofCHlT^y ^. Part.z; 

to impugne^but only to difcover the truth. The ninth day he ycclded him- 
felte, crying out, e/^ true God, k^ true Lm, k^ true BoHrine. And after 
he had been very diligently Catechifed aud inltrudled, he was Baptized, to 
the great confolation of the Fathers^ and alfo of Dr, Lee^ (who did much 
rejoice at it •, and to the Angular grief e and (hamc of the Bonzi^ who were 
prefcntly dircarded,and their Temple converted into a Church dedicated 
to the Saviour of the rvorl^. 

Now did thcfe twofleroes feem two firme and ftable pillar$,very proper 
to fuftainc that infant Church, with a certain hope, that their example 
would draw many others tothe law of C^r(/?3 and that there would be a 
flourifhlng Cbrlftiamtk founded in that fo populous a Metropolis ^vf\\\ch in 
my opinion is the richeft, the mo ft delicious and magnificent in Temples 
and other {tru(5tures of any in that Kingdom. But for the generalitie the 
leafl: difpofed to receive our Hdyfaith^ whether if werethen for this caufc, 
or becaufe their hour was not yet come, which required a greater difpo- 
{ition: there was fo little fruit of the Gofpel at that time, that the Fathers 
judged it better to give place to time, and for the prefent to leave that a- 
bode, and to finde out fome other place, better difpofed to receive the 
feed of faith. They proceeded fofarreasto propofe their intention to 
Father 'Hicolam Lengobardus, fuperiour of that Miffiottj who would nei- 
ther approve, nor rejed their opinion, but remitted the bufineffcto the 
judgement of the Houfe at Nankim, where I was then at that time, and by 
the grace of God, we were there in all, nine of the Societie. The matter 
was debated, and it was rcfolved by all of us, that according as experience 
had taught u$3 they fhould proceed with patience and longanimitie, grea- 
ter difficulties having been overcome by thcfe weapons. So without any 
more thoughts of change,the Fathers remained labouring in that City,not 
knowing the great good which the Lord had there prepared for thcm,and 
which,timc afterwards dif covered 5 not only by founding there, one of 
the raoft numerous and beft inflrud:cd Churches that is in China, but be- 
caufe that houfe was ever a fafe Port to us in all Tempefts, and a ifccurc re- 
fuge in all perfecutions, as (hall be feen hereafter. 

ChrifHanitk alfo was much cncreafed in Xauhoi^ the Country of Drl 
Paul 5 for his Father and all his houfhold had been Baptized^ and many o-* 
ther people of that place :and although we had there no fetled houfe5there 
was nevertheleffe a Church, and every year the Chriftiam were viiitcd, 
both to confirme the old ones, and convert new ones. 

In the foure ancient houfes, the Fathers faid Maffe, preached and exer^ 
cifed the Myfleries and Ceremonies of our Hol'j Faith, very quietly and with- 
out any diflurbance at all. The Chrijlians cxercifed their devotion, and 
many Gentiles endeavoured to finde the way of their Salvation-^ the Chrifli- 
an Religion flourifhcd every day more and more, with an abundant number 
of new Converts^ and alfo of new Labourers^ which were fent to us from 
Macao^vthQit they were firft inflruded in the language and cuflomeof the 
Country. In the mean time we were fent unto from many places and 
from feverall perfons, to defire us to come into their Country, and to 
preach the Gofpel to thcra . 

This City oiyamcheu^ which is necrc utiioNankim, had fo great a de^ 


C H A p . 8 . Ihe Hiftory ofCHlU^/1. 2 o 5 

fire robe made partakers of our dodrine, that the Litterati there wrot a 
letter to Father K^lfhonfm Vdgnone^ in Nankim^vjhcvc he was at that time 

♦ fuperiour, which was fubfcribcd by forry ofthem, wherein they did in- 
vite the Father to come to them, with many prayers and entreaties, and 
very earneftly dcfired him,that he would not deterre his comraing,& that 
good which they fo much longed for. They did alfo the like in many o- 
thcr places ^ whether the fame of our Holy Faith was arrived.either by the 
books we had printed there, or by the relation of the Gentiles • (for thefe 
dofomctimesferveasaguidetothereft, and lhadonceoneofthem,who 
did help me to Catechife ) or elfe by their converfation with Chriftians 
thcmfelves. And this was done with fo much fervour, that really it fee- 
med to us, the time was come, wherein, after all ftorms and tribulations 
were blown over, the winter was pafTed away, and the fpring time be- 
gan to appeare, bringing forth flowers worthy the fight of that celcftiall 
Gardiner •, or rather, that the crop was now ripe,and expe<5ted a happy har- 
veft. The Ftff^^yijbeing animated with thefe fucceffes, and well pleafed 
with the many occafions, which continually prefented themfelves, were 
not fp^ring to make good ufe ofthem, hoping that they would have been 
daylycncreafcd. But who is able to comprehend the judgements of the 

'-Lord,<'Or who hath been his Counccllour < ^hileft things^ftoodjn this -- 
£rofperous condition, whether it werefor the finnerofthit Kingdgrn/or 
for ours in particular, or becaufc the Lord was JleafedTo prove and exc r- 
cife his fervantSjthcrc was raifcd in iV4;;&,(where that houfc was foun- 
ded with much quiet,and had continued in greater tranquility than the 
reft j the following perfecution. 

CHAP, 8. 

A fierce per fecution is raifed againft the 
Chriflians in Nankini. 

THls F/7;/?f«|/^ which was the mofl terrible of all we have yet fuf- ,' / '%> ' 
fercd, began in tfac year i^i^-uporuhls occarioh wTiichl niaTIa^ Af^^'-^/i^ 
late. ' t/i^n twA k. 

**- There was this year fent from Vekim to mnkim z Mandarine called ^; /^* Ci/linf/i*"^^ 
Xirtyto be an afliftant of the third Tribunal^ named Z/;%which taketh cog- /^S^' ^^S"^ 
nJMnceofall^/>«,^<r^/,5/r4;?^fri and fuch like/-' 1^ thtt^X 

he was extreamly averfe both to our He^ Faitf^^nd to the Fathers-^ and on 
the contrary,veryjnuchMdi<3edtothewprn]i/of Idoh * 

red up by fcvcrall occafions, to bcare aparticular hatred towards us jFiTft '» 
byreafanoFa bookc written againft our religion by a F^;;^^, an intimate 
friend of his, which was fo well confuted by Dr. PaHl,{hat the BonzohxgVc ^ 
his heart with the very griefe andfliame he conceived at it. "Moreover tlie "* 
^onx:i o^Nankim, had given him a handlome bribe, reported to be looco 
crownes, to drive us away •, hoping thereby, that fire might be extinguid^ 
cd, wJaich had bet n kindled againft their Gods. ' To thcfcjnay be Med 

' ' ths 

zo6 The Hijlory of QHl^NjA . Part.z, 

the fpleen he had againft J^r^lMh^^^r^MkhM^y who difcourfing with 
him, the one iwPehm^ and the other in Ceehian^ did by fuch power Eill ar- 
guments vilify thpfe Idols, he did worfhip, ihat, having n othing left tq^n- 
fwer for himlelfe, he converted his filencc intqjage, and his mame into 
1 venome . But his fpitc and malice was much more encreafcd ,whcn he un- . 
^ derftood, t hat tw o Memorialls had been prefented to the King, byus^ 
i/4«/^4r/;?<£ofgreat4iialitip, wherein they djd^arneftly mpvejhe King, 
'' that the Fathe^jnight be perfwaded rotranilate the books of Europe into 
J the Ctofj2^ language, and that they lliould be employed in the reform^- 
j tjon of their calendar • Xin not being able to digeft^ that ftrangers fliould 
beheldinfuch efteeme, who were enemies to his fecft, to the manifeft 
danger and ruine of his Idols; and laft of all, that which did ftrongly ani- 
mate him to that enterprife, was the ambition he had to be CoUo, hoping, 
that this his zeale for the ancient U'ttes^ and for the religion oFhis Fathers^ 
would aduance him to that dignitie- efpecially finccit belonged to his of- 
fice, to have a vigilent eye over fuch matters. 

Therefore befidcs other things, which belonged to his charge and,qf- 
fice,he caufcd a ^3imn2^\^Inforinauon\.oht drawne y^ agajnft thef 4/^/^ 
proving therein by feigned and colourable reafons, that they ought to be 
baniflicd the Kingdom. He fa id they had intruded themfelves into chin a 
without leave,making ufe/or proofe thereof,of a certain Memonall which 
we have formerly mentioned to have been made by the ftudents of Nan- 
ibiw, wherein they befought the Mandarines to banifh the Fathers out of the 
Kingdom, asperfonswho were very pernicious to the Common wealth, 
and had fecret Michinations againft the King and Kingdom •, for faid they, 
if it be not for this reafon, for what other end and purpofe are they come 
with fo much eagernclfe and zeale into another world, and had aban- 
doned their owne habitations and eftiites'' The other Tepmonics which he 
brought, were other fuch like impofturcs,wherewith a neighbour of ours 
in Nankim had furnifned him- that many nights in the yearjUnder pretenfe 
of fome folemmtie concerning the divine worfhip, there were many great 
affemblies held in our houfe confifting of thoufand^ of men and women(a 
moft groffe lie^ and that before the break of day they all difperfed them- 
felves to their owne houfes •, that every new Chrijlian had given him five 
falfe duckats, made by Alchimjy after he had been enrolled in a lift,which 
they kept of them, and that they had ftrange and barbarous names impo- 
fed upon them at their admittance, and were taught to make the figne of 
the crofTe i pon their forehead, to ferve them as a marke of diftinftion in 
the time of their rebellion and infurredion. That they had their houfes 
full of Armes, and other fuch like lies very well coloured over. 

Ofalhhefc arguments put together he framed a ^/(rw^r/^^, which he 
prefented to the Ki'^g in the Month of Maj \6\6. The fubftance whereof 
was. Our entrance hjftcalth into the Kingdcme, The frepagation of a Law con* 
Irary to that of the laols, which had been the religion 'f their Anceflonrs. 7hc 
concnrrance which there woi in high Titles between our God and their Kingjbc' 
twixt our Wefl and their Eaft, Our [nbtletie and craft in gaining of friends. The 
defirucJionofthe Aftrologie<?/China4j falfe and erroneous, occaJJ^ned by the 
reading of t bat 0fEuvoi^y^ndinchhkG things, Theconclufion of it was, 


C H A p . 8. The Hifiou of CHI^KJ. " " 207 

7'hat it rvas mcejfaryfor the fubltke good, that heflwuldcanfe ageneraU MafTa- 
cxchothofthe Fathers andtkerefiof the Chriftians, before their force and 
number could f rove dangerous to the Kingdom . 

To this MemoriallyVjhkh was prefentcd to the King very fecretly, there 
was no anfwer returned within the ufuall time, NeverthelcfTe^/^^-. A//Vy&//- 
ff/had notice of it by means of a Mandarine ^vfho was a friend both to him, 
and to the faid Xin : he prefently gave advife thereof to the Fathers^ with 
directions what they fliould do. He wrote many letters to feverall Manh- 
rines in our favour, and one directed to xin^ wherein without difcovcring 
that he knew his intention, he confuted all his arguments ^gainft the Fa- 
thers and their religion. Laft of alljhe invited the Fathersio retire them- 
fclves to his houfc in the City oiHamchen^ untill the were over. In 
the mean time^we laboured to obtain the help and fuccourof Almighty 
God, by re-doubling our prayers and mortifications*, and withall,we went 
to Dr. Leo^ who lived two daycs journey off,and (hewed him the Jpologie 
written by Dr. Michael [ot our aiTiftance and counfeli, to which headded 
a difcourfe in commendations o{ the Fathers^ and oFtheir religion^ and by 
their hands he difperfed many advertifements neccffary for that time and 
occafion, throughout the whole City .• neither were the Fathers wanting 
with fervent exhortations to do the office of faithfall Pafte/trs, animating 
and encouraging all tofuffer for the defence of Go js honour, and his Holy 
Jieligfon^ And the Chriftians, ftiiving who fliould prepare himfelfe beft 
againft the ftorme, frequented our houfe and the Holy Sacraments^ and 
toolcc counfeli how to carry themfelves in cafe of Perfecution. There was 
among the refl: a prudent and learned perfon named fohn Vaoy who had 
prepared foure fmall banners^wherein he wrote his name, Sir-name, and 
Country, and the Chriftianitie both of himfelfe and of his tamilie 5 which 
might fcrve him for enfignes of his profeflion in time of Perfecution-^ nei- 
ther did he ccafe to declare himfelfe to be fuch, and to exhort others to a 
conftant confefTion of their faith. 

Three Months after the firft Memoriall^ Xin having received no anfvvcr 
from the King, prefented another to the fame purpofe by the hand of 
Xamxu^vtho was Lifu of the third Tribunal in Pekim^ having perfwaded 
himalfo to frame another of the fame Tenour, and to prefenuc along 
with his. The Mathematician, who had perfwaded the Fathers to corre(S 
and amend the Chinejfe Calendar^ difcovercd their plot, and privately ta^ 
Icing a copy of their petitions, he gave it to the Fathers and to Dr. Paul, 
who in one night wrote anLyfpologie for the Fathers to^refent to the King, 
when there wasoccafion, and difpatched a c^4W4r/^^, his difciple, a 
man very well verfed in the manage of affaires at Court, to the Prefident 
ofLipu, that having fufficiently informed him of the truth, he might per- 
fwadc him not to favour the intentions of .Y/>. This Prefident concealed 
the venome he had in his heart under f aire and fpecious piomifes 5 but in 
efFe(5t,he gave in a moft pernicious Memorial/^ wherein he af1irmed,That 
thcrequefl: of A^;>3was{o juft and neceflfary for the prefervation of the 
Kingdom, that for his part hefliouldhave thought he had done well, if 
without cxpe(fting any other leave from the King, but only by the duty of 
tiis place, he had difpatched orders throughout all the Provinces for the 



8 TheBi(loryofCiil7^A* Part.z 

extermination and banifhmcnt of all the Fathers, excepting only thofc of 
fekiw becaufc he faw them well backt and f upported •, taxing by thcfe 
words both the King and the Mdndarines who did proteifl them. The 
MmoYiaU^2,% fo handfomely woven^and the words placed fo equivocal- 
ly that he could have given them quite another interpretation, if need had 


Thefe two Memomils^jhconcof^Xw^ and the other of the Prefident, 

WerepFerented^tlK fifte^ ^^^ ^f^l^l^ andsTter that a third, that we 
could get no intelligence of ^ till it was prefented .On the twentieth of the 
fame month they were publifhed, according to the Stile oiChim^ by ex- 
prcffeCwrnVn, throughout all the Provinces of the Kingdom, together 
with a particular order from the Treftdent, forihe imprifonment of the Fa- 
ihers. The people were amazed to fee three Mandarines confpire againft 
thofe, whom the whole Kingdom had admired, and whom almoft all the 
i^«^r4f?hadrefpeaed,vi{itcd, andcflcemed^ but they well perceived, 
that thefe accufations were but forged calumnies, which proceeded from 
a corrupt and malicious fpirit. 

On the thirtieth of the fame moneth, about midnight, by means of a 
Currier difpatched for that purpofe, by the ^oi o^Pekim, the news came 
to the Fathers in Nankim of what had paffed at Court. Immediately they 
ran to the Church, and prcfented themfelvesas Vi(5times and Sacrifices 
untothe Lord ;and afterwards packing up their Pidures,and the facred 
Veffcls that belonged to the Church, they conveighed them thence into 
the Houfe of a Chrijiiar}-, hoping by that meancs to fecure them. Affoon 
as it was day,the Fathers, Nicolam Longobardus fuperiour of theil/////tf;?,and 
5^«//WZ:m/,dcparted towards P^^/w, to give what afliftance they were 
able to the reft. There remained in Nankim the Fathers t/4lfhonfus Fag' 
none and i^lvarus Semedo (the Authour of this Relation^} who expected e- 
very moment, when they fliould be feifcd on by the Sergeants and Execu- 
tioners. Not long aftetjcame three ii^Wmw^ to us from the Prcfident 
of the CounccU of warre,to give us notice^ that that Prefidcnt and Xin 
were deputed to put the Proclamation in execution, which had been late- 
ly iflfued for our banifliment out of chat Kingdom^ neverthcleffe, they fee- 
med to condole with us,becaufc,as they faid,they were very well fatisfi- 
ed, both of our innocence and dcferts J yet advifed us to give place wil- 
linoly to force, before we (hould be necelTitated to undergo the difcour- 
teous aud barbarous ufageofj/>2; and that the Preftdent would give or- 
der,that we might not receive any affront,nor moleftation in our journey-, 
alfo one of the three did advifc us as from him felf, that we fliould not 
make too much haft, for that he hoped through our Innoccnce^and the fa- 
vour of the Fathers friends at Pekiwy thcfe troubles would fliortly be ap- 

Toward the cvcning,there was a company of Souldiers fcnt by Xin to 
bcfet the Houfe, and about the break of day, the firft of September, there 
appeared three Sergeants to apprehend the Fathers ^^nd to fearch every 
hole and corner of the houfe: and although they had a fpeciall order from 
Xinxo abufe and evill intrcate the Fathers, nevertheleffc they carryed 
themfelvcs very courtcoufly, and fcnt in their meflage in writing to 


Chap.8. TheHiJloryofCHlD^A. aop 

Father r^^w^w^^whicb is a great poynt o^ Civilitie in China. Theyfcta 
guard upon the doores^ and made an inventary of whatfoever they found 
in the Houfe. 

In the meane while Father Vagnone fcnt a Chriftian, called Donatus^vin- 
der pretence that he was our Caterer, to Father Longobardtis^ to tell him 
what had happened, and toadvifc him to take heed, that he did not fall in- 
to the enemies clutches. Donates did his mcfTage, and returned with pro- 
vifion for our fuppcr in his hands, although he was jeared by the Souldi- 
ers, that he would returne into the cage of his owne accord, yet he prefer- 
red that prifon before the liberty he might have enjoyed elfe where. For 
at the very firft rumour of the perfecution, He returned to the houfe pUr- 
pofely to fcrve us, being refolved either to live or die with us for the de- 
fence of that faithjof which (though he was of very young years) he was 
fo zealous and obfervant ; having converted many •, and in efFe(5l,God did 
give him the grace to fuffer much for his religion •, both inimprifonmcnt 
and ftripes, he was our conftant companion. 

When the inventary was finifhed, to the great edification of the Serge- 
ants, who did not exped to finde fuch povertie •, and when they had feal- 
ed our chefls and whatfoever could be fhut up, rhey carryed away Father 
Vagnom in a fedan, and brought him before X/>?, leaving Father Semedo ly- 
ing (ick in a chamber, which they had fealed up. Adoone as he was 
brought out,there was a great noyfc and fliouting made by the meaner 
fort of people, and fo great a crowde, that the Officers were forced to 
make their way by blowes. After they had gone two mileSjthey ftaycd 
according to the orders which X/» had given, atthehouleot the Tauli, 
who was a Kinfman o^Xim, fpending at leaft two houres in giving him 
an account of what had palTcd: during which time^Father Vagnom was left 
in the open ftreet expofcd to theinjurics^fcoflfes and abufes of the infolent 
people. At length the Sergeants being returned, made their excufes to 
the Father, ^ot their long ftay-,and fo carried him to prifon^recommcnding 
him to the Gaolers^ as an innocent perfon, 

A little after, the chief of the Sergeants fenC him from his Houfe a 

good Supper and a bed ^the other Sergeants did alfo the like in their turns, 

every one taking his day.There were two of our domcftiqueServants who 

waited upon Father r4g";?<?^^ in the prifon-, one whereof was called Ciam 

Matthew, he was a very zealous Chriftian, and for three years before^ had 

retired himfelfc to our houfe, that he might with more liberty ferve God, 

and waite upon the Fathers, without expe«5i:ingany^ other recompcnfe,but 

that of the next life. This man, aifoone as the Sergeants, were come into 

our houfe, prefented himfclfe firft of all to give them his name, that he 

might have the opportunitic to be carryed along with the FatheriyZSVEi 

effect he was,and gained a happy crowne by this Perfecution. \ L : v, , -> vnvA^ 

At the news of the imprifonmcnt of Father Vagnone, the Chriftians mr 

flamed with zcale, ran to our houfe, neither could the guards hitider fomc 

of them from going in.The moft zealous of all the reft was fehn r4tf,who 

fticking in his cap one of the above mentioned banners, and holding up 

in his right hand a fcrowl of paper, wherein were contained the chiefe 

heads ofoiH:religion,and the neceffity ofthemjbcingaskcdby the guard. 

Z^ 7heHiJioryofCH^K'^' ^^^^"^'^ 

what he meant by itjanfwered^To die with the F^,thers liVcaChnfiianfov 
the faith of Chrift. The Souldicrs were ranch aftonifhed at that anfwer - 
yet they put a halter about his neck,and lead him to the Mandarines ^whcxc 
being asked, what he was, anfwered boldly and with a loudc voice,Thac 
he was a chriftian^^ that he came to give an account of the law of Chrift, 
if they would be plcafcd to hearken to him. They immediately caufed 
the halter to be taken from about hisncck,and gave him a feat to reft him- 
felfc on 5 much admiring his refolution and conftancy, the like whereof 
had not till that time been feen in Chm. 

In the mean tm^^Xin underftanding that the Sergeants had left one Fa- 
ther in the houfe, and ufed the other civilly, was very angry ,3nd reproved 
them ftiarply for k^ commanding them to go next morning to a garden, 
which we had without the City for our recreation, telling them they 
(hould finde there ftorc of armes concealed •, and at their returne to carry 
the other Father to prifon.They found nothing in the garden of what they 
looked for-, but they carried Father 5fw^^tf out of the houfe to priron,to- 
gether with foure feivants, and foure other ChriftianSy who had come in- 
to the houfe, as alfo brother Sebafiian Ftrmnda, and another ftudent, who 
was a native of the City of Maca9. 

The Chrifiians of Nankim wrote an account of what had happened, to 
Father Longobardm , who was departed for Pekim^ The melTenger over- 
tooke him in Cauxeu^ where he prefently confulted with Dr. Leo^ who was 
Governour at that time of two territories; it was refolved,that the Fathtr 
fhould go alone to Fekim^ that he might the more cafily be fuflPeredto 
pafTc, and that hefliouid leave his companion there. He furnifliedhim 
with an hundred crownesto defray fuch expenfesas fhould be rcquifitc 
for the making of their defence. He wrote alfo to feverall Mandarines <£ 
Nankim^^nd to the Vice-rof himfelfe. He procured many letters from his 
friends to others in the Court in favour of the prifoners:he comforted 
them with letters, and mony,andcloaths againft winter, which began to 
grow very (harpej neither was his fortitude inferiour to his charity, rcfift- 
ing valiantly his kindred and friends, who did every day fet upon him to 
pcrfwadc him to leave that fo open defence and protedion of the Father Sy 
which might prove fo prejudiciall and dangerous to him-, but he gave 
themfo good reafons for what he did,that they were all filencedj and he 
and his whole family perfevered in the way they had begun. 

3r, MichaeKhevjed himfelfe no lefte zealous, aflbone as he underftood 
the newes by the letters, which were fent him by the Chrifiians oi Nankim 
and Nanham 5 for he ad vifed the Father who was at ffamkeu^(iov the other 
was gone to vifit the C^//?/>w thereabouts) that he ftiould get him gone 
out of the City 5 which accordingly he did with many tearcs of the Chri- 
ftiansy and fervour and zcale of the Catechumeni^ who accompanied him 
to the boote 5 as did Dr. J//V^4f/likewife and his two fonnes, and a bro- 
ther of his, who was a Gentile, ^nd three other Letterati^ walking on footc 
a great way, that cold and wet feafon of the year. He gave alfo a hundred 
crownes to that lay- brother, whom the Fathers fent to eauxeu, to Father 
Longehardusytovfztds the expence of hij voyage, the which mony Father 
Longobardus fent aftei^wardj by the fame brother to Nankim, for the re- 
licfe of our prifoncrs. When 

Ch AP , 8. The Hiftorj of CHI^J. in 

When Longobardus was arrived at Pekim^ he found the Fathers,faccbus 
Pamofay{r\d SabbAtinus D' Orfi, who negotiated our bufinelFe, according to 
the diredtions and inftru(5tions of Dr. Paul^ It is hardly credible, what 
care and paines he tooke in writing of letters and learned Apologies, zr\d all 
other imaginable diligences, both openly and under- hand/or the defence 
of the Chrifiian Religiorty which things I forbeare to mention here, bccaufe 
they (hall be related in his life. Yet for all this, was he never able to get a 
Memoriall paffed to the Kings hands, Jf/« having craftily fliut up all en- 
trance to him ^ neverthcleffe thofe K^fohgies were difperfed through the 
whole Kingdom, and did fufficicntly manifefl the malice of our advcrfa- 
ries, and the injuflice of the perfecution. 

While the Chriftians with one accord endeavoured to make our inno- 
ccncie appeare, and defended it with all their might, X/>? grew flill the 
more outragious againft the Chriflians^ and particularly againft the poore 
prifoners. He fuffered them not to be together above five daics,but com- 
manded they fhould be feparated and put into five feverall prifons, and 
vetyflridly forbid they fliouldbe allowed any convcrfation or vifits, 
ftrengthening their guards, upon pretence,that thofe men could vanjfh out 
of fight when they pleafed. But he was cxtrcamly vexed, when he faw 
he could not fo colour his caufejbut thatit appeared to moft men to be un- 
juft, and occafioned mccrly by malice- as alfo obferved, that the Manda- 
rines (hewed us the fame kindneffe and refpe(5t, as they had done in the 
time of our profperity : but that which affli(5tcd him mofl was the joy and 
cheerful neffe, which all thofe prifoners fliewed in their fufferings for the 
love of Chrift , without ever giving any figne of fadnefTe, or diicontentjin 
all their mifery. 

Xin not being able to fliike the conftancy of men, would needs try 
whether he could overcome the courage of children, commanding thaC 
fiveboyes, who were left behind in ourhoufeby reafon of their tender 
years, (hould be apprehended by the officers andcarryedto prifon: an 
a6t which was accounted bai barous,evcn in the opinion of thofe that did 
not favour us. He deprived of his degree o{ Batchelor Philippe Sin^ who 
was Maftcr of the Chinejfe tongue to the Fathers j who forefeeing the 
blow, kept himfelfc retired for a while in his houfe .* But afibone as the 
occz(\ouo{\\\s Degradation \\:^s^\M\{)[\^d J which was for having taught 
the language to the Fathers-^ then he went abroad , rejoycing publickly, 
that he had had the honour to obtain a more noble degree , by fuffcring 
for the faith of ^efta Chrtfl. 

After iKiSyXtn did very much endeavour to finde out fome letter, writ- 
ten by Dr, Leo^ or Dr. Paul^ or by the Fathers •, that he might pick fome 
occafion out of it to raife a calumny upon them .• but this atrcmpt proving 
fruitlcfle, he betooke himfelfc to compafie his defire by a fleighr, writing 
to Dr. Leo in the name of Father Vagnone, on purpofe to draw an anfwer 
from him, which he might cenfure, and make his owne comment upon^ 
which in China is no hard thing to do, by reafon of the cuftome they have 
of writing and fealing letters with the hand and fealc of another .- But nei- 
ther did this invention take effed. For Dr. Leo prefently difcovcred the 
cheat by theftilc & maaer of writing,&did bm laugh at him for his pains^ 

Ee a In 

212 TheHiJlory of QHIH.^. Part.x; 


In the mean time there arrived at i\r4;?^/>;j that lay -brother, who was 
fent from Father Longohardta toaiTift the prifoners and Chr'tftims there 5 
where he fo'jnd /^W'^^^J ^j4,a learned man, a good C^r//?i4«/and kinfniati 
of Pr. Leo who was fent thither from Cattxeu^ to caufe an ^fohgit^ 
which the Dr, had written,to be printed and difperfed in that Court.This 
lay-brother undertooke the care ot the prefTe, and having chofen out Six 
c:;^r///4»jofthe Art, he carried on the worke in a private garden that be- 
lon^^ed fo one of them. The uncle of this Chriftian to whom the garden 
belonged, wherein the preffc was, having counfelled them ia vain to dc- 
fiftj by reafon of the danger they put him in Avent and difcovcred it to Xm, 
who gave him a good gratuity for his news-, and that night fent Officers, 
who tooke them all and brought them before Xin^ who was very joyfull 
to have found this new occafion of travcrfing the Fathers. They were fenc 
to prifon, and ihortly after carry ed before that TauU^ who was a k/nfman 
oiXin : who having read the Apohgie^ and underftood the caufe, finding 
nothirtg in it to lay hold upon, to free himfelfe of the trouble, fent them 
to another rW/', who imitating the firft, fent them before another great 
Mandarine •, who having heard the caufe, faid they were not guilty of any 
thing •, and to conclude the bufincffe, gave his fentence in writing, That 
thofc men ought in juftice to be fer at libertie-,but if they were to have an^ 
chaftifement, he thought fifteen Bajlinadoestothtchitkoiih^mviouid 
be fufficient^and that hi^ opinion was they ought to be fet at liberty,with- 
out being fent any more to any other Tribunall : never theleffe, he reman* 
ded them back to Xin out of the rcfpe<5t he bore to his great office, fully 
perfwading himfelfe, that he would fet them at libertie. 

When Xin heard the fentence, he was ready to burft with rage and an- 
ger : but not knowing how to help it for the prefent, he fent them to pri- 
fon to Father Vagnone^ after he had caufed fifteen Baftinadoes to be given 
the poore brother in fo cruell a manner, that he was in great pain and mi- 
' fcry. IjyiH not ftand now to recount the villanies and outrages which 
they fuffered, whileft they were remanded from one 7rihunall to another; 
that tempeft of Cufes., Kicks., Thrufis, boxes of the care, fpitting upon, dirt 
throwing in their faces, pulling of the haire of their beads and beards, and 
other infolencies, which ufe to be done there to poore prifonerSjWhen the 
mony floweth not largely to the Officers-, as it happened to thefc poore 
Chriftians • leaving all to the confideration of the pious Reader. 

After this,they were fent by Xin to the Mandarines of his Tribunall to 
be examined-, the examination lafted fix houres upon thefe Articles; W64? 
law is this law df purs ? How came jou into Chinas Flowdoyottr frofe(fours 
live i Hbw do they maintain themfelves 1 What Government have they < What 
commerce with Maao^and the Fathers of that placed But at length the exami^ 
nation was ended without torments, by means of a Mandarine^ who was 
a Countriman of Dr, Paul^ and Dr. ^ohn, from whom he had received let- 
ters in favour of us. Xinvjas highly enraged at this, and having fharply 
reproved the ii/4W4r/»e, he removed the caufe from that Trihu»4ll., and 
fent it to a higher Court,dcfiring the Tauli thereof to put on rigour in fuch 
a caufe as this was. They were examined by him for a little while, and 
having pardoned the reft, he commanded twenty ftripes to be given to 

yuPaulyVfho was owner of the Gar df?n^, and twenty more to the Lay* 
brother, whofe wounds were not yet healed which he had received by 
the other fifteen ftripesj and (o fent them to Xin-, who not contented with 
thefe torments, fent them again to the Mafidari/ses of his own Trihriall^ 
where they were examined a nevv; and for the Satisfadtlon of Xm, were 
racked Caftcr that manner which we haive defcribed, when we fpake of the 
torments among \\\tChincjfes)\o make them confefTe that which they 
knew notjThefc vaHanc Chrifiians yver^ very ill handjed by thefe torraen- 
tours-, not having any crime to confeffe, they were accufed to have per- 
fwaded fevers! Women to turne C^rz/^fW^afli ft ing therein Father Vagmm^ 
wherefore by a new Sentence they were all 54/?/»4^«?<'^ in the manner a- 
bove-faid,except a very old man,and two of the Printers,who were Gen^ 
tflcf.B\it feeing the Lay-Brother and ^« Paul fo torne and wounded with 
the Stripes they had received ^they gave over, and fent them back to pii- 
fon. -- 

They being cured and healed there by Father r^^w^;/^, as well as he 
could poflfible, in that mifery and poverty he was in, fifteen dayes after 
they were brought again before ^j^, who cxam]ning them very particu- 
larly /aid to the Brother^^i^^^ krnd of Law is that ^^jom^which holdetb ^ 
forth for a God, a man who was executed for a MdefaBour? ' Whereupon the ^ 
Brother took occafion, with a great deale of Spirit, to open xhcM^eri^ 
thcjrjcarfidtion tohim-ThcT-yr^;?^ would not endure that liberty of fpeech: ' 
but to take off his promptnefTejCommanded there (hould be twenty ftripes 
given him-,and as his former wounds were not quite healed, he endured an 
incredible pain in having them opened again with new blowes; which 
were laid onfoluffily,thatthebloudfpurted as farre as where J/w fate; 
by which being, as it were, more inflamed, he grew out-ragious a^infl: the 
young man, whom he beleevcd to have brought the Apology of 'Doclsur 
P4«/from Pekim.,\vhkh although it were falfe , yet that he might not dif- 
cover the (rue bringer, he under- went willingly a furious load of ftripes^ 
for the love of C^r//?> and for his Hily Faith. After this, they were led 
through the City to the Prifon, whicn was three miles off^ whither not- 
with ftanding the Brother was carried upon a boavdj being of himfelf not 
able to move. 

The courage and defire of thefe Valiant Confeffeurs grew ftill the flron- 
ger,by how much thefe torment? had wcakned their Body. They had 
no other regret, but thauhey had not loft their lives together with 'their 
bloudj and fo in the healing of their wounds, which being almbft frozen 
by reafon of the extraordinary cold, required new cuttings and incifions 
from the hands of thofe unskilfull Surgeons of the Prifon^ they rejoyced 
in thofe new torments which they fuffered in fo glorious a caufc. All the 
forrow and trouble fell to the lot of I/Vi, who ftill thirfting after Chrifliaji 
bloud,remittedthe caufe of thefe Prifoners to the judge criminall. But the 
fucccfTe fell out contrary to his expedation,for that Judge, after he had 
conferred with Xon Xu, the Prefidcnt of his Tribunall,conccrning the en- 
ditement of thefe Prifoners, pronounced them innocent .- but that never^ 
theleiTe^ they were to expedt what the Kings pleafure would be concer- 
ning them. In the meane time he gave them good words, an i fent them *' 

back to Prifon-, but after five daycs,tie fet them at libertic, and fcnt 
them home to their Houfes, under pretence oi getting their wounds 


Ch AP.9. 

The Continuation of the Terfecution^ 
and the TBaniJhment of the Fa^ 
thersout of China. 

S foon as Xin was acquainted with the Sentence which the Judge Crt- 
minall had given, he began to contrive new Troubles for them,that he 
might not feem to have perfecuted Innocent Perfons. Firft he writ and 
difperfcd abroad libels againft thofe chriftUns^ accufing them to have 
printed an Apologie againft certain of the chiefeft Mandarines, in favour of 
the Fathers^s^ho were Traytours and Difturbers of the peace of the King- 
dome. After that ,he privately ftirred up the Cenfors of the people who 
had rccourfc to him,as to their Superiour5to receive rules from him for the 
ordering of the lives and manners of the people. The anfwer he gave 
them was, That they fhould take heed oiVz^Fagneneand his companions, 
who were Seducers of the people, and difturbers of the publick peace,by 
teaching a law,which did infringe their fidclitic to their Prince, the reve- 
rence of their Anceftors, the worfliip of the Gods, and the exercife of all 
other vertues, which have been from all times fo highly cfteemed in chi" 
»4.andintheconclu(ion, much deplored the mifery and unhappincffe 
of thofe times, wherein there were fo may Perfons, who fuffercd them- 
fclvcs to be bewitched by fuch Deceivers. 

Upon thiSjthere was a Mandarine of the Trihunalloi Xin^znd two other 
Dodiours of fmall efteem and reputation, who began to write againft the 
Tathers^znA one of them in particular, who had formerly been in the fhi- 
//p^/>;^ Iflands, wrote, 'XhziihtChrifiians 6\A worfhip a Crucified Man^ 
That they figned their Foreheads withthe^r^/f^That they fetit on the 
top of their Houfes and Steeples,and wore it about their necks as a Jewels 
That under pretence of Preaching their Law, they had made themfelvcs 
Mafters of the Philippines, o^ Mahcca^and of the W/>j;Th3t of late years 
they had flain many Chinejfes upon no occafion given them •, Tli^t their 
Religious men did commit horrible Sacrilcdge with the women, who fre- 
quented their Churches, drawing out all their Secrets from them under a 
picrence of Piety •,That the defigne of their coming into China was to con- 
quer the Kingdom, under colour of fuch deceits and impofturcs^ and 
that therefore undoubtedly they ought tobedrovenoutthcnce, as the 
peft and plague of the Common Wealth, Befides thefe writings publiflicd 
by ;t/»,and fent to the Court of Pekim,he laboured fo powerfully with 
thcTril?Hnalso£ Pekf m^thsit he perfwaded them toprdcntzMemorialho 
the King againft the Fathers, and the law which they Preachcdj and pro- 

Chap. p. 1 he Hiftory of QHI^A. zi 5 

cured alfo to have it figned with the Scale of the Eumch, who is there in 
ftead of Vice rof. 

This Memoriall was prefenred the laft day o^September-^rhQ day follow- 
ing they gave in another, wherein they befought the King to give a dif- 
patch to the A/l?w^r/Wj already prefentedt On the eighth of oMer, xin 
prefented a third ;on the thirteenth day he caufcd a fourth to be prefentcd 
by the hand of a TW/^ and afterward a fifth by meanes of a certain Colt of 
I^ankim^ who was one of the Kings Remembramers. 

For all this the Kings anfwer did not yet appeare*, andinthemeanc 
while Honour Paul wrote his fecond i^poiogie againft ail thcfe calunfi- 
nics and Slanders^ which being joyned to his firfl^'^and to that which Doc- 
tour Machacl made , and other Memorials and Treatifes, made a good 
large volume. Thus did that primitive Church glory to defend the ho- 
nour of their Holy Faith, both with their bloud and pens. The 
writings of our Dodours were Authorized by the patience of our Prifo 
ners, who cheerfully undcr-went all the ill ufagc which was fhewn them; 
partly for the fatisfadiion of A"//;-, and partly for want of money ^the Tjram 
not futf ering the leaft thing in the world to be brought to us from our 
Houfe.They lay three months hin the worft place of all the Prifon,with 
Manacles on their armes -• their food was only a little Rice ill-boylcd ,and 
a few hearbs without any Scafoning; and this too alwayes cold,they boy- 
ling ftill as much at once as might fervc them three or foure daycsjf there 
were any Almes fent them from the Ckriftjam, either all or part of it was 
ftoUcn from them by the Prifoners and guards, who alwayes fwarmcd a- 
bout them like Wafpes. 

Father .yg^g^g, and Brother Sebajlian Fernandes were put together in 
onePrifon, whereby way of an extraordinaric favour they had allowed 
them half a Duck Egge a picce^dried and falted in ftead of hearbs_;and al- 
though two of thofe Egges at leafl be fold for a farthing, yet was one of 
them divided between two men. Father Semedo lay continually fick nine 
nooneths together, and through the convenience of this worthy Infir- 
roarie, and the charity of his tenders, he was twice in great danger of 
death- although he was once pardoned r\\t Bajlinadoeshe^ovXdhz.'Vt 
received by reafon they found him in fo weak a condition. 

The other Chriftians fell fick likewife through their great fufferings 
and durance i wherefore there were feverall times Memorials prefented to 
A'/>;,to defire liberty, according to the cuftome, for them to go to their 
own Houfes to recover tberafelves, having firft given in good fecurity for 
their rcturne. But there were only two or three who could obtain this 
leave, and that for foure dayes that two happily ended their 
lives, only through the hard/hip they endured. The one of them was 
called Peter Hyao£ NankimyZgtd about 22 years .• he had been five 
years a Chri(lian,ofzvexy cxcmplarie life-, in which time he vowed pcrpe- 
tuall Cha(litie^ and endeavoured to prefcrvc it by frequent penances, and 
by keeping a ftrid watch upon his fenfcs-, not looking upon fo much as his 
ncercft Kinf- women- as alfo by frequent prayer day and night-, infomuch 
that his knees were become horny and callous. He came every day to 
-*^4/g,althongh he lived four miles ofif.- he was very difacct in his fpcecb, 


'^ The Hijlou of QHl^HA. Part.z. 

andof afincereconfcience, endeavouring to avoyd every fmall imper- 
fedions,andtheleaftfliadowofevill. What he got by the handy- craft 
trade he ufcdjhe ftill gave part of it to his parenrs^and the poore Chriftims; 
he was very patient of in juries ,faying,He ought to be a lambe who would 
imitate Chrifl •, and fuch a one did he fhew himfelfe to be, more than ever, 
in his laft fickneffe: for it being contrary to the lawcs of that Kingdom to 
fufFer any prifoner to die in prifon, Xin fent to the Father of the faid Feter, 
that he (Iiould take him home till he were recovered ; but the Father 
through mcere hatred to his fonnc, becaufe he was a ChrijiUn^ would not 
receive him. Then Xin fent him by the Sergeants to his Mother-in-law, 
who becaufe (he was an iMatreJJcy ufed him very wickedly, yet did he 
never fliew the leaft figne of difcontent, but alwaicsof modefty and ad- 
mirable patience. At length,when he was ncere death,hc was fetcht back 
into prifon/rom whence he flew into eternal! libcrtie. And this was the 
firft lay-man who died there in prifon for his religion ^ his corps was gran- 
ted to his Father to bury it, but without any Ceremony at all. 

The fccond who dyed in prifon was called Hkrome Vem •, he was taken 
iaourhoufe coming thither toafliftus.* he alfo died of pure fufferance. 
His wife prefentcd many Memoria/Is to the Mandarines^ that he might be 
brought home to recover his health, but all was in vaine. At length (he 
had recourfe to Xin^ who underftanding that her husband was a Chriflian, 
gave her no other anfwer but this,You fee what good you get by the reli- 
gion they profcfTe 5 and with this anfwer left her difconfolate and quite 
out of hope : not long after her husband died with fo much the more glo- 
ry, by how much the leffe he had of humane help, inthatfickneflTc hefo 
patiently endured for the love oifefus Chrijl, and the maintenance of his 

The death of thcfe men did ftirre up in the reft of the Chrifiian prifoners 
a holy envie,and a new fervour to fuffer for chrift-, neither were the Chri- 
^lians without wanting to {hew themfelves true followers of that perfecu- 
tcd religion. They divided the prifons among them, fo that every day the 
Chriftian prifoners were vifited, and fuccoured as much as might be, and 
had alfo notice given them of the defignes and proceedings of X/;;,and the 
othex Mandarines : neither were they content with this, but relieved alfo 
the wives and children of the prifoners, pawning fometimes their houf- 
hold-ftuffe, that they might not want wherewithal! to do ita 

Captain Ignatius O';;,although he was but newly converted to the faith, 
yet was as forward and eminent in this work o^Charitie^ as could poflibly 
bedefired-, as alfo three other families, with the hazzard of being made 
infamous for ever; namely ,that oi Lucius Ciam^ Captain of armes;, that of 
Andrew H/4wafmith; and that of fr^w/i^ a guilder; where I cannot but 
admire, the great charity of the faid .^Wrw, who having received fomc 
crowncs from Father Fagnoneiov the reliefe of the prifoners, made no ufe 
of them, but by the daily pains and labour of himfelfe and his fonne^ 
made provifion every day for two prifons, reftoring afterwards to the 
Father the mony he had put in his hands. There were alfo certainc de- 
vout Chriftian women, who making a purfe out of the fruit of their ia- 
bofs,beftow'd it in the prifons according to the ncccflTities of the prifoners 


Chap ,9. The Hifiory of CHI^\(J. ^^i 7 

there was alfo one, who being himfclfc a prifoner, fpared ftill fome- 
thingoutofthe penny, which was given him everyday for his mainte- 
nance : and when he had made up a fmall fumme, he divided it among the 
moft neceffitous of the prifoners, with fo much the greater liberaHtie, by 
how much the induftry of that C^aritie was more fubtle. 

At the beginning, when the Fathers were firfl: apprehended, there were 
not wanting certain wicked perfons, who feigning themfclves to be rainf- 
fters of juftice,went from houfe to honfe to difturbc the Chrijlians^on pur- 
pofeto drawmony from them-, andifinfearching every corner of the 
houfe, they happened tofinde any Images, they threatned to accufethcm 
toX/>. ThisIaftedtillai»/W/<;'/>;(r, who had notice of this roguery, ap- 
prehended many of them, and caufcd them to be well Bafiinadoed^ and 
one of them for no other caufe, but that he had inform'd againft a man to 
the Tauliy that he was a Chr'i^ian. NeverthelelTejthere were fome accufed 
before ^/>, only for being C^n/?/"^;;/ . he accepted the accufation, and re- 
mitted it to the Court Criminally whither the highcft offenders are fenr. 
They v/ere rigoroufly examined, and after that declared innocent, with a 
foule ftaine upon xin^hoih. of fnjuftice and ignorance. 

Neither was the infamy leffe which he received by the words of two 
great C^andarines. The one of them (called//^; in a great affembly of 
LetteratiyZskcd him,For what reafon he had imprifoned the Fathers i and 
he anfwcring 5 Becaufe they preached a law contrary to theirs -, the other 
replied. Why do you not then imprifonfo many others,who follow laws 
much more contrary to ours, than that of the Fathen is /* They have nor, 
fald xin, any accufers. And thcfe Fathers^xc^Xytdi //i>,Who accufeth them 
toyourLord(hipf He knew not whatanfwer to make him, but feeing 
himfelfe thus confuted, left there fhould be a laughter raifedathim, he 
withdrew himfelfe out of the (^jfemblie. The other, who was Prejident 
oftherr/^«w4//ofwarre,fliarply reproved him, that without reafon he 
had fo mif-ufed the Fathers^ who had committed no fault, nor had ever 
offended him .• And although Xin did endeavour to juftifie himfelfe, yet 
the Prefident threatned to accufchim to the King, foradifturber of the 
peace of the Kingdome, and in effecSthe difparcheda Cour/ierto Pekim^ 
with a ftoute Mernoriall againft him 5 which nevertheleffe he did after- 
wards re- call, by reafon that many Mandarines didinterpofe themfelves 
in the bufincffe; but he would never after maintain any friendfhip with fo 

Very admirable at the fame time was the Charitie of a new Chriftian of 
Pekim^ who had taken the degree oiBatcheUr • who having under ftood of 
the Fathers imprifonment, rannc to JV4;;)(r/>wjand although he had never 
feen them, he went to vifit them, and much alfiftedthem in their neceili- 
ties ; and not only invited, but alfo petfwaded feverall of his friends to do 
the like ; who extended alfo their Charitie to the other Chriflian prifoner s: 
And for this caufe only he remained there many months 5 he accompani- 
ed the C^r//?/4»j to the Trihunalls , healed their ftripes, encouraged and 
comforted them all . to which the quality and reputation of fo grave and 
learned a perfon did very much conduce. He undertooke alfo to difpute 
with a AfW4rwr, who had written a declaration againft the Fathers in 

Vi favour 

xi8 TheHiftory of QHI^A. Part.z. 

favour of X/7J,and ufcd fuch powerfull perlwafions to him, that he chang- 
ed his resolution, and brought him to favour the Fathers lo farre, tharhe 
did publiqucly praifc and extoll them. 

In the mean while, our adverfary feeing that the Kings anfwer was dc- 
layedj ufed his utmoft endeavour to gaine the CoUo to his party, who was 
Cotherwife) not much averfe to us •, and at length pcrfwaded him to pre- 
fent a MemoridUio the King, by the hands of an Eamch, whom he had al- 
ready prepared for the bufinefle with a very great bribe, to procure the 
Kings order upon it. The Emuchs palfed this pitition fo fecretly among 
themfelves, that without fhowing it to the King, they brought it againe to 
ihtCoko^ requiring him in the Kings name to draw up an order for our 
banifnment ^ the which he did in this manner. 

For (ts much as rve are informed by the CoUaterall Lypu of the third Tribu- 
nall ^/Pckim, that there remain in this mr Court certain firangers^ who do ex, 
feB our good leave anddtfpatch • and thefaid Tribunall hath be fought us^ that 
wemnld fmdow orders to ^^(f Provinces, that they Jhould fend them away to 
their o^vneCountries^A}^\\on{us Vagnone and Jacobus Pantoia with their 
comp4nions^ who under pretence of preaching a certain law^ do much difturbe the 
people, and alfo fecretly endeavour to make an infurreBion in the Kingdom: We 
do therefore ordaine^ that notice be given to the Lypu ^/Nankim, to give order 
to the Mandarines of the refpeBive Provinces, wherein any ofthefe men Jhall 
be founds that they fend them with a guard of S^uldiers to the Province and City 
^/Canton, to the end they may returne from thence to their owne Countries^ lea- 
ving China in peace and quietnejfe. And becaufi the lafl year we were given 
to underfiand by feveraU perfons^that Jacobus Pantoia and his companions ^who 
came into this Kingdome to enjoy the delights andpleafures thereof, were very ft 
to be employed in the emendation of our Calender, whereupon they were aggre- 
gated to the number of the Mandarines • yet notwithftanding the f aid aggrega- 
tion^ we will and command, that they he forthwith difmiffed^ andfentawayto 
their owne Countries . Let this fentence be given to the Lypu dnd to the Ciayan 
the twenty eighth of the twelfth Moone. 

AlToone as this Order was drawne up, at the foot of the MemoriaU^ the 
Coho fent it back into the Valace to be figned by the King according to the 
cuftome. Prefcntly the Eunuchs being all gained by the Prefents of Xin^ 
fraudulently contrived a way to get it fubfcribed-, or,as fome fay,they put 
it among a great heape of petitions, fo that the King figned it without ta- 
king notice what it was ; or as others fay, they perfwaded the Queen to 
fubfcribe it,to whom the King doth often remit the figning of Memorialls, 
And truly it is not very probable, that the King who had lent but a 
dcafc eare to fo many former Memorialls, fhould be fo foone pcrfwaded to 
it-, befidesthatjitis more conformable to the fWe of that Court to have 
fent them rather to fome Province lying in the middle of the Kingdom, 
than to fend them away after they had gained fo perfect a knowledge and 
full information of the affaires oi China. However it was,the fentence was 
publifljed the fourteenth oi February^ which is the folcmnc beginning of 
their new year. 

The news was blowne of a fudden through the whole Kii^dome .The 
Mandarines oiNanchiumiVi^^c'^tOMmtcyiC^ton^ where Father Gafpar 


CflAP.p. 1 he Hifiory of CHI3\CA. 2x9 

Ferrer A was, did in a very quiet and civiU manner give him notice ot the 
order,allovving him with all liberty to ftay till his companions carae.Not- 
withftanding,the Father thought it more fie to fell the Houfe,and to re- 
tire himfelfe to another CMijfion^ according to the inftru(5iions he had re- 
ceived from Father Lorjgobardus. In Hamlti there were two Fathers, who 
were brought thither by I> o^our Michaels meanes; but they had no notice 
given them of the Order, the Mdndarines forbearing, as it fccmcth, to do 
it^outof refpedltotheirProtedour^whowritto the Father fuperbur to 
fend him two more, which accordingly he did with very good fuccefTe. 
Father 5^^^;? i?<?r<r4 with two others of Na^ch/am^ vjhac he left Brother 
Pafquel Mendez, for the confolation of thofc Chrifti3ns5camctoC/;/^;^ 
C^/4w in the Province of C/j/4w/?, where he kept himfelfe private in the 
Houfcs of the Chriftians, untill the Lord fent better times. 

In Pekim the Colao made cxcufes to the Fathers j in that he was obljoed 
by his place to give them notice of the Kings Order, promifing them^al- 
fo his Affiftanceto hinder their going, in cafe they fliould think good 
to prefent a Memorialho the King to that effed. But all paffages were fo 
fhut up, that it was impoflible for them ever to prefent one : wherefore gi- 
ving place to time and ncccffity, having encouraged the Ci&?//?/^;^/, after 
the diftribution oi Palmes, that very Sunday they departed for Canton^ the 
Mandarmcs having ftridly forbid the people to'offer them any injuries by 
the way •• and left the Houfe which the King had granted them in the 
cuftody of a good Chrijiian, having obtained a licence of the Mandarines 
to that cffe(5l. 

The greateft ftirrc was in iV^wi'/w, where affoon as the Courier vj^s 
arrivedjhe would needs give notice himfelfe to the Fathers of their ba- 
ni(hment,thinking it a high favour.that they were not cut in pieces. AiToon 
as it was known abroad,the Mandarines came to vide them with much ho- 
nour and congratulations. On the fixt day of March.iht Fathers were 
brought firft before a Tribunallof fix Mandarines-^andahcr: that^before 
X/;j to be examined, v^rith a halter about their necks-, and Yather^Semedo 
was brought upon a board, not being able through weakncffe to ftand up- 
-onhisleggs. Xjn^kcr gnother cxammation; declai cd, That alth ough the y • 
had defcrved death for preach ing a new law in C /^7;?4, y^t their life was 
grante3them by the Kings clem_etide9 ngtwithftanding^he condemned 
them to receive ten Bajlinadoes apiece, and fo to be fent away to their own 
Country. Father Semedo was excufed by reafon of his fickneffe, ButJFr- 
Vagnone received them in fo cruel a manner,that he lay very ill upon it^nd 
it was above a moneth before his wounds were clofed. In conclufi - ^ 
on,their hou(e arid goods were confifcated; and many^ books were pub- 
liflied againraem,which declared them to be unworthy the name of X^- ^ 
mati. They themfelves were put^jnto very naiTow Cages of wood, 
({uch as are uTedin that Country to Cranfport perfons condemned to 
death, from one place to another) with Iron Chaines about their necks, 
and Manacles on their Wrifts, with their haire hanging down long, and 
Iheir Gownes accoutred in an odde fa{hion,asafigneof a ftrangc and 
Barbarous people. The thirtieth of Aprill, they were brought out of 
Prifontoarr/^;?4/^, where they were fliut up in chofe ftraighc Frames, 

Ffz and 

220 rheUijlory of QHlS^d. Part.z. 

and fcaled with the Kings Scale-, and order was given to the Mandarines of 
the Guard, to take them out at fuch times, as were allowed them to cjte 
and fleep in. In this manner were the Fathers carried with an inexpreflibk 
noifcwhich the Miniflcrs made with their ratling of Fetters aud Chaincs. 
Before them were carried three 7 ablets^ written on with great letters, de- 
claring^ the Kings Sentence, and forbidding all men to have any com- 
merce or converfation with them. 

In this equipage they went out ofNankim^and were carried in thefc Ca- 
ges for thirty dayes together,untill they came to the firft City of the Pro- 
vince of Cmoft^ where they were prefcnted to the Tutart-^ who having 
fharply reproved them for preaching a new law inCte^^caufcd them to 
be configned to the Mandarines : whence they were carried in that manner 
throughout all the 'Tribunals with all the people running after them . In 
conclufion,they were taken out, and after a few dayes were fenc away to 
Macao along with the Fathers which came from Pekim. 

The Chrifiians which remained in Prifon,aftcr many fufFerings and mif- 
ufages, were in conclufion, by the power and foUiciration of their adver- 
-farie X/>^, condemned to receive 70 Bafiinadoes apiece. Thetwo Lay- 
Brothers, becaufe they were Chinegej.^hct feyerali outj^ages and ^4/«?4- 
does, were condemned, one ofdicm to ferve at the Tartars wa[lj theothcr 
to tow the Kings barques, as Oxen do in our Country. NeverthcJciTe^ 
there was fcen in all the chrifiians n v/onderfull conftancie and joy to fuf- 
fer for Chrift, who (hewed Jo much chccrfulnejfe outwardly, tjiarthc 
C?^;?f/7^j did much admire atlt. There was a Woman, who having heard 
that our Brother Sebaflian Farnandes had been Tortured at an examinati- 
on by the fqueezing and pinching of his hands and fingers,defired that fa- 
vour of the Lordjthat (he her felf might likewife undergo it.,and her prayer 
was granted her in part ;,for being one day in praycr,ihe fawin a Vifion Xin 
fitting on his Tiibunall, who commanded her to renounce the Faith of 
Cy&r//?,which(henotconfentingt05hecaufed the fame Torture to be gi- 
vcn to her. When the Vifion was ended, the Marks were to be fcen for 
fome time on her hands,and the black and blue ftripes on her body^ which 
was a very great comfort and contentment to her. 

Chap. \o, 

HoKP things began to be calmed again af- 

ter the Terfecution^ and of the 

Foundation ofjeverall 


Ll the other pcrfccutions, which happened before this oiNnnkim^ 
^werc particular, and commonly the fire went notfarrc.For the caufe 
belonging to the i»/4^//?r4/« of that Frovinctythe fcntencc was alwayes 
given there, without extending it fcif to the Refidencits of other remote 


Chap a o. The Hijiory of (^HI3\(jf. 221 

Provinces. But m this Perfecutio/t the Tyrant accounted it too mcane an 
cnterprife to difchargc his choler on the Chriftiam o^NAnkim only. And 
therefore he would ftrfkc at the Chriftiamtie of the whole Kingdom, to 
root it out at one blow* He prcfcnted the caufe to the King, that his fen^ 
tence might include all, with the greater rigour and authoritie. But this 
Tragedic being ended ,t he -T^/^^r/ being baniOied from their deficiencies^ 
their Houfcsconfifcated and fold, the Churches ruincd,and that of Nani 
kim thrown to the ground by the fury of ^in,their goods loft^ and finally, 
the Fathers o^Nankim fent away from that Court with fo much hubbub 
and noife, that it feemed to be the day of Judgment- it is hardly to be be- 
lieved, how much mifchicfe followed upon it, how much good was hin- 
drcd by it, and how every thing was changed.The Fathershyhld^tho. 
Chriftians wereincontinuallfeare, the Genttles encouraged, the Tyrant 
Vidorious,and his followers fo free and infoient, that every one was rea- 
dy to trouble the Chriftans, and to,accufethem,efpecially in the City of 
Nan kim, 

]<le\/e:the]c({hj^iti4dom/msjucIicavit melius de mdis bene facere qukm 
mala nulla ejfe permittere, ciccoxding to his D.vine difpenfation he drew 
much good even from thcfc evils. For although the liberty and facilitic 
of making new Cbrifiians was impeded at that time ^ yet it manifefted the 
conftancie and valour of thofethat were already fuch-, all of them fhew- 
ing how highly they did cftcem the being followers of the Law of Gsd^ 
and how much they did defire to keep the Fathers in their Kingdom,that 
they might be ftill inftrudted in the Doctrine which they had already 
received : and fo, many of them, which live in other Cities, either fent, 
or came in perfon, to receive the Fathers, and carry them to their Houfes. 
Which was the reafon, that, except in the two Courts, we found good 
fhelter in other places, whereby the Chriftians were comforted in their 
fufferings, and confirmed in their P4/V^, and the Churches (I fpeak not 
of materiall ones) maintained and upheld, as alfo many new ones fet up^as 
we ftiall (hew hereafter. 

At the Court oi Pekim there remained two of our Brothers, in the 
place of Sepulture given us by the King: for,being Chineffes they were not 
comprehended in the Sentence of banifhmnr, wherefore under pretence 
of Piety and Devotion, whereof the Chinejfes make great efteem, they re- 
mained there to keep it,although with much trouble and many contrafts 
which they had with the £«w/f^^: for they, affoon as they faw the Fa- 
thers out of the Court, thought the Houfe had been without a head, and 
that the brothers alone would never have had ftrength enough to rcfift 
their batteries ; and therefore it is almoft incredible, what attempts they 
made every way to arrive at their defign, and how many times they 
brought the brothers into the Tribunalls, accufing and troubling them, 
but alwayes to nocffe<9:. For the Lord,who had granted that place to the 
Fathers, that they might be buried there after their death, would keep it 
for them, to ferve them as a retrcate and hiding place, even in their life 
timc-,difpofing it fo by his providence, that Do^iour Paul fliould refide in 
the Court at that time; and that by his authoritie he fhould overthrow all 
the plots of our enemies* 


222 TheHifiouofCHl?^yi. Part.z. 

Once cfpcciaUy the Emuchs had put their bufinclTe infuchaforme, 
that it it feemed impoflTib'e for them not to carry their defign- partly 
bccaufc they had (astheyfaid) corrupted fomeoftheMagift rates with 
bribes-, and partly C which was more confiderable )becaule they had the 
Chi Fu, or Govcinour of the C ity on their fide, to whom they had fpo- 
ken very effedually concerning the bufinefTe, and he had promifed them 
his favour in it. The worft was, they gave the Brothers iuchfliort war- 
ning to appeare, that they had hardly time to give Dolour Paid notice of 
it, and he to write a letter to the (7<?i^fr;?^«r of the City, giving Order to 
the Servant which carried it, that he fliould give it him, in what place fo- 
cver he mcthim,althoughit were in the ftreet : and fo he did, finding him 
almoft cntring into the Tribunal-^ ( for in Pekim they are without the Hou- 
fes where they dwell) where there was gathered together a great com* 
panyof£«/?«^/'5, who did already alTurethemfelvcs of good fuccelTcby 
rcafon of the care and diligence they had ufed in the bufineffc. The Go- 
verrjorir after he had read the letter,called the caufc : and the Eumchs jWith 
greater ftore of words than reafons began to plead for themfelves. The 
Brother being callcd,did no more but fhew his Patent ,whercin was contai- 
ned how the Officer, and former Governour^ by Order from the King, had 
granted that Houfe,and the Gardens thereunto adjoyning, for the Sepul* 
ture of Father Matth^us Riccius and his companions. The Governour took 
it and read it, and in (lead of the favour he was to do rhe Bumichs^ did 
ftrengthen it with one Seale more, putting to it the Scale of his Office,and 
telling the £«»«f^j, That which is once well done, ought not to be un- 
dozie, So the fuit was ended for the Fathers advantage, not only this, but 
alfo many other times^whileft the neer Kindred of theimprifoned Bumtch 
lived, they never gave over their endeavours to re- gain it- whereby they 
got often fome fmall fummes of money, which were given them on pur- 
pofe to avoyd fuits and contrafls* 

The Brothers, who kept the Houfe, making ufeof this opportunity, 
went fometimes one, fometimcs another to vifit the Chrifiiam of that Ci- 
ty .• and after the perfecution began to be over,and the fury of the tempcft 
was allayed, one of the Fathers wasfent thither in diguife-, who although 
he was glad to lie hid there, yet did he much affifl: the Chrifi'iAns, and un- 
der the protcdion of the old ones,converted many new ones alfo. 

The Houfe which we had in C4;?/(?;?,the moft Southerly Province ol 
Ci^/w^, was totally ruined-, for, although at the beginning there was ano- 
ther fmall Houfe'taken, where fome of the Lay-Brothers fhould have rc- 
fided for the reception ohht Fathers in their paffage to the City of Nan- 
^/«?», yet upon better confideration it feemed good to them to take it 
wholly away, becaufe the place was very fubjed to tempefts and trou* 
blcs. The Father who had his Refidence there, as I have already faid,went 
up farther into the Country, as did alfo the Lay Brother, with a promifc 
nevcrtheleffe,and obligation upon him, to come and vifit the C^r'iflians of 
that Country every year. 

Father Rocca^mth other two Fathers^ who, (as we have faid,) depar- 
ted from !Hatjkiam, aCity in the Province of Kiamft^ retired to the City of 
Kmcham, in the fame Province-, where they were vifitcd hy ^Chrifiiart, 


Chap.Io. TheHiJloryofCHlJ^A. 1^ 

Ste^henM ^ Noble Family, and one of the chicfefi of that place, being 
alfo the Sonne of a ^Mandarime yVjho was afterwards himfelf converted to 
the C)^r/y?/4;;ReIigion.The Fathers at their arrivall there, were received 
with all manner d^ChrifiUn love and charitic, and were lodged in a houfe 
neerto the walk ofthc Cicy/uch a one as they cal a HottfeofStadies^vfh^i^ 
they had an appartiment provided for them,conrifting of fourc chambers, 
with the Offices belonging tothem, and a faire Hall, which fcrved them 
for aChappel At the beginning there camcthither only thofc of the houf- 
hold of their Hoft, who were all Chrifiians, Afterward, their Kindred 
who were Gentiles, and their moft Familiar acquaintance-, and by occafion 
of thefe Vifics, there was alwayes fome one or other gained to the Faith5 
and thefe hkewife brought in others-, and fo by little and little this Chri- 
ftianity encreafed fo, that when I came thither about two years after, they 
faid3//ijf£^onHolydayes,with Muficall Inftrumcnrs, and with the con- 
courfe of a good number of Chrift Jans. They who played on the Inftru- 
mcnts, were the Sonnes of Chriftians-, and among them the Letter atiyzndi 
thofc of the bert quality ferved at the Majfe in their coatcs foure at a time, 
as 1 faw at my being there. At this day there is a good Refideme^ with a 
copious and well inftrudted Chriftianity, which hath annexed to 
it two Churches in the Province of C^/w^f(7, which bordereth upon it, 
and are vifited every year by the Father of this Houfe. 

The Rejidenee of Hamcheu doth flourifh mod of all under the Pr ote(5fcion 
oi Dr. Michael, For though the Fathers went out from thence publickly 
at noone day, that the world might take notice of their obedience to the 
Kings proclamation, accompanied by the faid Dr. zndihcChrifliamoi 
thebeft quality-, yet Dr. M/V^^^/ having prepared a fair c appartiment in 
his Palace J provided with Chambers, Offices, Chappcl,Hall, (jrc, did 
build alfo a new range of Chambers, furnifliing thcra all after our fafliion, 
that there might be roone enough for all of us, if there fliould be occafi- 
on ; and when he had fitted every thing,he fent for the Father s^who came 
thither very fecretly, although he was not very foUicitous to conceale 
them ; But three years after told Xift^ who being a nitivc of that City,was 
now come to live at his owne Palace^ That he hnd the Fathers with him in 
his houfe, and perfwdded him to come and vifit them,and difcourfc with 
them- Telling him, he fliould findc them other manner of men than he 
took them for. 

This houfe was in thofe troublefome times the moft fecure, commodi- 
ous, and eafie refuge, which the Fathers h2id. Here lived the Superionr^ 
hither came all bufinefle, and upon any ftraite, the greatefl: part ofthe Fa^ 
thers , who fometimes made a confidcrable number : and although there 
was care taken, that no Gentik (hould come in amongft them, unlefTe he 
were very well knowne, neverthelcfre,therc was MaJfe faid, and a fermoa 
every Holy day, with a great concourfe o^Chriflians^md a good number 
of new ones converted to the faith. 

The greateft temped fell upon the Church at iV4»^/w/ for as the Fa- 
thers were prifoncrs a long time there, and after they had received their 
fentence, were fent out in cages, being carried through the whole City 
with 3 great noifc and (houting of the guard, and an infinite concouifc of 


~^ TheHiJlory of QHL^K,^. Pabt.z. 

people, their cafe was more notorious and ignonainious, and the Gentiles 
were more alienated from the Chrifiians, accufmg them upon every occa- 
fion to the Magiftrate. Wherefore for divcrfe years after there was almoft 
every year fome particular vexation, and the C^riftians were brought be- 
ioxc the Trihnalls, and troubled, and many times were Bafimadoed-, all 
which they fuffered with great conftancy and cheer fulneffc, ^mdentes A 
confpe6iuCencili],^qmmAm digni hditifmtfro nomine^efa contumelmm patL 
Neither truly is there any doubt, but as the Lord did cxercife this Church 
o^Nmkim with particular tribulation?, fo he did alfo cndowe it more 
particularly with the vertue of Patience, as was feen upon all occafions. 

In this manner were our ancient houfes demoliihed, although the Chri- 
pans belonging to them, were preferved, who divided thcmfclvcs into 
companies, making by that means feverall Ce- fraternities : the moft anci- 
ent and pious among them did vifit and comfort the reft : the Fathers alfo 
at certaine times came to confefTe and communicate them, and ftaicd a- 
mongft them as long as they could.-But as they durft not ftay long,at leaft 
in fome places, they were forced to find out other places of abode,which 
was an occafion of laying the foundation of new Refidencies, which were 
afterwards brought to perfedion, and became well ordered Houfes and 
Churches, as they are to be feen at this prefent time. 

Thefirft Reftdence, which was begun in the time of our troubles and 
Bamjhment^ was in the Province oiKiamfi,m the City o( Kiendam^VfhQxe- 
of 1 have formerly fpokcn. 

The fecond was the Province o^Nankim in the City o^Kiat/m^ where 
Dr. Ignatius dwelt, a Chrifiian of great power and authority, who was af- 
terwards Viceroy of the Vtov\v\ctoi Xantum : he,a{roone as he had notice 
of the fentence pronounced againft the Fathers, immediately difpatched 
one of his Sonnes to Father Lazarus Catanms, who lived in HamcheUtmrh 
a letter, wherein after the iifuall complements,he wrote him only thefe 
words, "There is a hnfinejfe of imjfdrtanee, which I mujl neceffarily treate of with 
your Reverence before you leave this Kingdome.Whtn this letter was brought 
to ihe Fat hers, they were putting themfelves inareadineffe to depart out oi 
that City, as accordingly they did, with a defigne to go to Xanhai^ which 
VJZsBr. Pauls Country.but having received this inviiation,that they might 
give fatisfa(5lion to both parties, the Fathers divided themfelves, and Fa- 
ther Francis Sanbiafi, went to the City ofKiatim to Dr. Ignatius, who,by 
thattime the J'4//;^r arrived there, had got ready the lodgings neerc his 
houfe, which ferved him for a place of ftudy, and ftood within the walls 
of his Palace J being very convenient for his occafions, having feverall 
Chambers and a Chappel to fay Mafe in, and being provided with all ne- 
ceffary furniture : and although that Chappel was bigge enough for the 
reception of the Chriftians of his owne houfhold ; yet nevcrthclefTcjhe did 
afterwards build i n the fame place a f aire Church, which though it was 
not very great, yet was of perfect good v^rchite^ure. The Fathers did af- 
terwards draw many people to them by their preaching and difcourfcs ; 
fo that when I was there about foure years after, I found a well formed 
Chriftianity^'vexy devout,and both men,womenand children, very diligent 
in hearing oiMajft and fcrmons,as alfo in confcffing thcmfclves,with fuch 

Ch A p. n . The Hiftory ofCHi:A(jl. 225 

an aflPcdion to the Holy Saeramem of the i^lur^ that they fccmcd even 
Chrifiiam brought up in Europe, I forbeare to mention many examples of 
much edification, referring my Reader to the yearly letters. 

This Houfe alfo ferved tor an K^cademieio our people that came new- 
ly over .• for the City being very private, and having but little trade, and 
theHoufes being fpacious and convenient, they who were to ftudy the 
Chwejfe language and letters, did conftantly come thither .• fo that the 
number o^ Fathers and Students(who were Chineffes of Macao, whom we 
bred up and inftrucSted in vertue and the learning ofChma^ihaz they might 
afterward be helpfull to us in propagating theGofpeljwas about eleven or 
twelve, which confidering the time^ was a great number. 

Father Catandus went to Xankai, where he laboured in the fame manner, 
confirming the old chriftians^ and adding new ones continually to the 
church. In the meane time Dr, Paul czms from Court to his owne houfe, 
and by his prefence gave a greater libertie, with Icffe danger to preach and 
reduce that people: SothattheBaptifmes grew rofuchanumber, that 
the Father was^ forced to write for afliftance, and to call a companion to 
him,and fometimes they were three^and Dr. Paul ^to enlarge that Church 
did in a manner pull it all downe, and build it a new ^ and fo it continueth 
to this day with a very numerous Chrifliamy belonging to It, 

At the fame time began the Refidence of Xamfi, which hath at this day 
belonging to it, one of the moft flourifhing Chrijliamties of all China. It 
had its beginning by occafion of a Chrifiia» named Petert, who went to be 
Mandarine in that Province^znA carried with him Father Julius AlexiSythzX, 
he might be there infafctie under his prote<5iion, and that he might alfo 
prove the difpofition of that people, whether they would be apt to enter- 
taine the preaching of the Goffel in a place where the Fathers had never 
yet come 5 and although the Houfe was not pcrfe(5i:ed at that time, yet 
things were put in fuch order, that it was brought afterwards to perfc^ion 
with much facilitie, as we (hall fhew anon. 

In Macao they were more particularly fenfible of the fucceffe of the 
Perfection and troubles •, by which, foure Fathers of the two Courts were 
brought prifoners to that Colledgc, Neverthelefle, by the refentment of 
thofe troubles, their defires were more inflamed to enter afreHi upon the 
work, and to affift their brethren, who remained behinde, expofed to all 
dangers and fuffcrings,labouring under the heavie burthen oiihcPropag^ 
tien of the Gofpel. Ail thedifficultie was, how to get the foure /^//S'frj 
backe again, by reafon they were fo well knowne there, and were particu- 
larly named in the proclamation for their Banijhment: it was judged there- 
fore more fit for them to delay their returne for a while, during which 
time thcLord was pleafed to take to himfelfcthe Fathers of P^i^/w,namcly, 
Vdxhci^acobus Pantoia^ and Father Sabatinus dcUrfs : who having been 
the ancientefl: labourers in that vine-yard , were called firft ofall to re- 
ceive their reward. It was more dangerous for the other two Fathers o£ 
Nankim to returne backe againe, by reafon their banilhment was more 
publiciue •, they having been carried before many Tribunalls^ and through 
fcveral Provinces^ during that Perfecution^ Neverthelcffe, Father Jlvarus 
Semedoy who had lived there a lefTer time, and confcquently was IcfTc 

Gg knowncj 

^^^ ^ TheBijlory of Q^l^d. Pabt,2, 

knowne, returned back about three years after, having changed the name 
and Sir-name, which he ufed in that Country ; and about two years after 
that Father r/«f/?^/?c did the like 5 whoisthereliving atthisday inthc 
Court of Xwft', where, although he be growne very old, yet is he as pain- 
full and diligent, as any young man whatfoevcr. 

In this condition ftood the ftatc of ChriflUn aflPaircs,which ftill profpc- 
red and encreafed in every place,by the great induftrie and caution which 
was ufed •, as alfo by the protcdion of fome Cbriflians of quality, as like- 
wife of fome Gentiles that were our friends ^ and by this means the ancient 
Churches were confirmed, and fome new ones fet up ; when the fecond 
tempcft began in Nattkim-, which although it were not fo great as the fir ft, 
feecaufe it came not to the Kings ears, ye was it fuller of trouble and vex- 

ation to USi 


\ - 

0/ the fecond per/ecution of Nankini, and 

of the Martyr dome of a Qhriftian, 

named Andrew. 

THe affaires o^Chriftiamtte in China fcemed to be in a calme and pro- 
fperous condition,and we hadalmoft as much libertie,and as much 
fruit of our endeavours as we could rcafonably have expecacd.Only in the 
City of Nankim^ which was much diftcrapered by reafon of the former 
Perfecution^ there were alwaies fome troubles more or leffe, according as 
the occafion happened ; but the beft was, that they were never fo great, 
that many perfons were engaged in them.In the year 1622. in the Frovinct 
of Xrf^fz/wijtherc happened a rebellion by a certain people of a fed which 
they call PalienKm^Yfhctcoi we have formerly fpoken in its proper place. 
Thefe alTaultcd andtookethe barques laden with vi6l:uals, which paffed 
through that Province ro Pekim •, and after that,certain Townes-,and laft of 
all,they tooke a City, where they put very many to the fword. This news 
prefcntly alarmed the neighbouring Provinces, and efpecially the Court- 
whence theii/W4r/;^^x immediately difpatched orders through the whole 
Kint'dome for the apprehending and chaflifing all people of this Se^, In 
the more remote Previnces, thexc was no great heed taken to this Proclama- 
iion 5 but in the Province oiNAnkim^ which bordereth upon that of J4;;- 
tum^ there were great rewards propofed to him that (hould difcover any 

It happened about that time, that certain Sergeants did moleftand 
trouble a neighbour of a certain Chriftian^ who going out to help him,be- 
caufe he faw him much injured without any pretence of reafon for if, 
drew them all upon himfelfe, who following of him into his houfc with 
ittuch rage and paffionj& finding there a Crojfe & an Image of our Saviour^ 
tfieytookc them and carried them to the Mandarine^ accufing that Chrifti- 
nfjto bc^ follower oithcLarp oftklordofHuven^Yihidi was all one with 
.^iiwcifl/i that 

Cha P.U . The Hiftt>ry ofCHlD\(^ A. 127 

that of the ? alien Kiao , The Mandarine fent to apprehend him, and giving 
him the rack,he queftioned himjWho were the other followers of his Se^i 
He named only the Paynter, who had paynted the Image, and was alfo 
a Chriftian. He being apprehended and tormented in the fame manner, 
(whether it were through ignorance, or that it fecmed to him5thac he did 
by that means give a greater authority to the law he followed,^ impeach- 
ed many of his companions-,naming at leaft fourty,and among them thofc 
who were left as heads and Overfccrs of the reft •, and in abfence of the Fd- 
thers did affemble the reft in the Chappels and Oratories^vfhctc they ufcd to 
exhort them to vertue and piety. 

Upon this, rather (implc confeflion, than malicious accufation, the 
Mandarineknt prefently to apprehend thofc perions who had been nam- 
ed to him, fo that it feemed as if the furies of hell had been turned loofe 
that day into Nankim. There was no other noife heard in the ftreets, but 
ratling of chaincs,the voyccs and exclamations of the Sergeants,who ask- 
cd,Where is the houfeC Whither is he gone •: Where fhall I finde him.? 
When will he corned Being fo much the more eager in their purfuit of 
the Chrifiians, by how much the more they faw the Mandarines bent to 
ruine them. When they found out any one of them,they prefently ruftied 
into the houfe,& feized upon their Beads^CroJfesJmages,B09h,CatechifnieSi 
for commonly all of them ufed to have them in their houfes. Then they 
fcized on their perfons, dragging them through the ftteets with a chaine 
faftened about their necks, and manacles about their wrifts, carrying be- 
fore them the enfignes of their faith which they had taken, with a great 
noife, and out-cry of the people, that they were of the Se^ of Palien Kiao: 
The number of thofe who were taken was thirty foure,befide the two firft, 
and they were all prefently put to the torment of prefting their hands and 
feet, to make them difcover others. But they taking warning by the igno- 
rance of thetwofirft, faid only thztthey vjei'cChriJiians^ they and their 
wives and children ; that they followed the Law efthe true God^ who alone 
can punifh and reward both in this life and the next •, and that their law 
was not the law of Palien Kiao, neither had it any rcferablance to it : and 
more than this they faid not any thing. 

Among the prifoners there was a certain Chriftidn named ^$hn Tao. 
This man had been formerly imprifoned(as we have already related j with 
thcFdthers in the other perfecution by Xin,8c had be en fometimes54y?/W-i 
doedbcfovc thcTribunalsjSc was at laft condemned to bctheKings flave for 
certain years (which is much like putting into the Gallies with us : ) but 
was now returned from his flavcry,and began again to edifie the brethren 
by the example of his holy life,in the fame maner as he had formerly done 
in that City. This man hearing that fome chriftians were apprehended, 
and that they fought for him, never ftaid till he was difcovered, but went 
of his owne accord and prcfented himfelfc to the Mandarine, and kneeling 
in the fight of the Chriffiians that were tormented, told him, that he was a 
Chijlian, znd thBt the Law fifChrifi was the true law, and other fuch like 
things which the Lord put in his heart. When the Mandarine heard him, 
he told him (with what intention is not knowne)that he did not fee in him 
any garbc or appearance ofa preacher ot the law, and therefore charged 

Gg;^ him 

Z28 TheUiftoryofCHlTsQA. Part.z. 

him to begone, and ncvcx to appear before him again. Whereupon 
gf^i^^^roreupandwent his way, leaving an eminent Tcftimony of the 
Dwim Lapp, and the Chmejfes aftpniilicd at fo great a courage. 

Such another thing was done by the fame Mmlmnty although the end 
and rcafon which moved him to do it, were not known. Of tiie fix and 
thirty which he had apprehended and tormented, he fet foureand twenty 
ofthcm at hberty;and the others who did ufe to aflemble the Chrifikns^ 
and preach to them, he fent before the fix chief Tribunals; vyhere they 
w<er& all Bafltmdoed, fome at one, and fome at another-, the worft Tribu- 
nal of all being that of an Eunuch:, who having nothing of Humanity in 
him but his outward (hapc, not confidering they had bin already torment- 
ed and Baftim^oedhy the other Mandarms, commanded twenty blows a- 
piecc to be giving to each ofthcm; by which the good Chriftiam were fo 
wcakned^that they were faine to be laid upon boards^and to be carried 
back upon mens fliDuldicfs into Prifon. 

But they were not ufed fo by the ^ecHm{ who is equal! to one of our 
Dukes) before whom they were brought : for feeing them in fo miferablc 
a condition by reafon of the torments and ftripes they had received , he 
did not only nor caufe them to be beaten, but cdmplaining of their ill u- 
fage, faid publiquely,Th3t he was well informed concerning the Religion 
theyprofefTedvandthaticwasagoodandtrue Zftjr,and To fent them a- 
way with good words •, that Gentile giving a clears Teftimony to our Holf 
Faith, to which thofe Chriftiam had -born witnefle with their bloud . 

While thefe things were doing,thcchiefii/4;f^4r/;;^ of the fix before 
whom they were prefented, drew up the Sentence againfl them; which 
being faithfully tranflated out of the c^/W/'/^flanguaoejrunncth thus; The 
Law of the Lerdof heaven is falfe^ it hlindeth the tinder ft andingef men, and 
caufeth dangerous ajfemblies. of late years there was a Mcmoriall prefented 
againft tt to the King^ who did very feverely prohihite it. y^nd now they 
who follow that Law, are convinced not to have ohejed his commands^ Where* 
fore according to th Lawes of the Kingdom there ought to i>e an inquifttiort 
made againfl them^and they to be rigor oujly pumjhed. But confidering they are 
men of little knowledge ^or underjlanding^we do order ^ that the fir angers of O' 
ther Countries he fent home with a Guard to convoy them-^ and that they (hall all 
have the charges of their journey defrayed out of the Kings exchequer ; hat 
for the Natives of this Court ^we condemn them to carry a board about their necks 
y2»r 4 w^;?<?/^ ( which is a kind of punifhment we have formerly given an 
account of) and when that time is expired^they fhall be carried before the Tri- 
bunal, where they were examined^ and there they fliall be admonijhed to ebferve 
the Kings orders ^and not to follow this Law any longer. The Books ^ Images ^and 
fuch like things ^which were found with the Chriftians,jhallbe kept in the Kings 
Treafurie. Thus farr? the fcntence of their condemnation. 

The Fathers had heard nothing of thefe proceedings at Nankim, when 
there arrived at ffamchett^ which is diftant from that Court about fix 
dales journey by Und^'SiChriftiafi km on purpofe to give them notice of the 
dangerous eftate and condition ofthcC)&w^/4»i at Nankim. Father Hoc- 
C4 fuperiour oiXh% Miffion chanced to be atthaCtimcin/^^JW^^«,who 
pr^fentlyendeavoiii'ed to find fome rcmedie for it^by fpcdking with jyoc- 


Ghap.Ij. i:he Hiflory of QHl^d. 225> 

iour Mkhnel^ and writing/fo Dodiour Faul^ that by their letters they would 
perfwadc the Mandrjnes o^ntnkim to fhew fome favour to ty<c Chriftiajts- 
which accordingly they did, with madv zcale and eificacie, efpecrally 
BoBonr Paul, who obferved to them in his writings fourteen prindpall 
poyntSj wherein om Holy Law did diflfer fronn the Scd of P alt en Km^lhc 
letters had notthat cWcdi that was hoped of them, lomeof the Mandarines 
being rendered very avcrfe to them by the power and perfwafion of Xtn, 
who adiually enjoying at that time the dignity oi Colao^Gvcry one en- 
deavoured to gain his favour by following his inclinations. And that was 
plainely feen by their anfwcrSjWhich arc not wont to be in fuch rermes to 
iVaW4n;2^j of foconfiderabic Quality as thofc Chrtflians were. The an- 
fwer fo Dolour Paul was, that the Larv, which his Lordflnp faid was diffe- 
rent from that Sed of P alien Kiao.was not fo, but the very fame, both of 
them profeffing not to obey the King nor his Miniftcrs-, as was plainly to 
be feen by the F4/^fr^, who being banifhed out of the Kingdom by the 
Kings order, yet were fo audacious, that they ftill remained there; and o- 
ther things of the fame ftraine^ which evidently fhewed, that they who 
gave fuch anfwers, were changed, as alfo for whole fake they gave theno. 
This unpleafing anfwcr was followed by a thing of greater dangcr-jCfor 
in China, even in the qui^eft times, it is neceffary to live very retired' and 
refervedly) which was the Intelligence, that Do^mr Fatd had received, 
how that,not many daics before,two Mandarines ofthe fame City o^Nan- 
him had prefented a MemorialUo the King againfl: the Law of Chrijl-^ both 
againft the Chinejfes who were followers of it, as alfo the Fathers y that 
did preach and propagate it, accufing DoBour Michael by name for being 
a Chrifiian , and for keeping the Fathers in his Houfe-, they did alfo accufc 
feverall others for keeping of them; and although they did not name 
X>i?^<;//rP^«/,yetitmightbeca{ily underff ood, that they meant him for 
one. ■: '^ 

This news did require their moftferiousdeliberation-jfor when a bufi- 
ncffe is brought before the King, it is altvaycs of dangerous confequence, 
and doth ever fhavc or fl ea . ^ .; 

Dolour Patd immediately wrote to thtF'dhers.Wm in what place foe- 
ver they were, they (hould without any farther delay refolve to retire 
themfelves, and to break off all commerce with all mannet of perfons 
whatfoevcr, although they thought them never fo fafe or trufty, giving 
way to the necefHty of the times, as at that prcfent was very convenient 
for them. DoBour Michael \V2S of the contrary opinion-,at leaft he would 
not fuffer thofe which lived in his own Houfe to hide themfelves. Dolour 
Ignatius his Sonne alfo,who dwelt in the City of Kiatim,vfds of opiniort, 
that the Fathers fliould keep themfelves private and concealed-, for if any 
thing ftiould be decreed totheirdifad vantage, it could not be executed 
fo fuddenly,45Ut that there would be time enough for them to make 
their efcape, efpecially fiilce the Mandarines of the City were tliein 

Although this were a very young man, yet his Fathtr^ who lived then 
at the Court, was much fatisfied vvith his opinion in that cafe. Never- 
theleffcyit was judged more expedient, that wc ihould withdr^wr our 


zjo The Hifto ry of QH I ^A. Part.z. 

fclves, before the ftorm appeared, and that afterward thofc,who could 
not hidethcmfelveSjfhould fly, before they were apprehended by jufticc. 
But the difficulty was, where to find another fecrct place bcfide that 
where we were, which was in a very populous City, and among many of 
our trufty and faithfull friends : and bccaufe it was fo difficult to lie hid in 
that place, we did think of fearching out fome defert^but by reafon that 
ci'/;?4 is fo populous, that was no eafie thing to be done.- At length it was 
rcfolved,thatwe{houldall quit the habitations we were in, fome going 
to the Country Houfes of the fame Chrifliansy fome to the fepulchrcs of 
others, with a caution, that if there did not come a favourable anfwet 
from the King, there fhould be boates provided in a rcadincflc for to car* 
ry them up and down the Rivers , where the not remaining long in a- 
ny certain place,would be a good way to fecure them, till the Lord fhould 
dire(5t them to a better- 

During this time, Do^<?«rP4«/ kept a man on purpofe in the City of 
Sucheu{y}\itxt the Vict roy of the Province hath his Refidcnce^for he may 
not dwell in the City of Nankim, becaufc it is the Kings Court, as well as 
P^i&/>»J that aflbon as the Kings anfwer came, he might prefently bring 
him word of it ; and according to the ftile of that Country, it was concei- 
ved, that it might be delayed yet many dayes. The Fathers cxpedcd ten 
weeks to their great difcommodation and inconvenience, becaufe thofc 
things which might eafiiy have been had in the Towns and Cities, could 
not be come by butwithagrcatdealeof trouble, as they lay thus bids 
neither did any anfwer come in all this time : for which there were feve- 
rall reafons given, but the beft feemed to be, that thefe Memorials againft 
our Holy Faith were fent with an Orders that they ftiould fir ft be regiftred 
by Xin.iox whofe fake they were prcfented, who at the fame time was 
put out of his Office. So that when the Memorials came, he had now no 
power nor authority to preferrc them-, and fo they were not prefented at 
all-, for if they had been prefented, whether the King had anfwcred them 
or no, we fliould have been fure to have had notice of it. Thus the ftorm 
ended, which feemed to threaten us with a greater danger^ and the effecfl 
of it was turned upon Xirt^ although upon another occafion .• for it is moft 
certain, that at the fame time, when the Petitions againfl the law ofchrift 
'Vicxci&OiiiomthtSoutherrHoihcNdrthern Court, the King took away 
his Office of Colao^hy xtziovaht Mandarines o^ fekim had petitioned a- 
gainft him-,3nd although they had endeavoured his difgrace for 1 6 months 
before, yet they could never bring it about till then. So that it feemeth, 
the Lord did referve the fall of this iyrant, for that time wherein he 
might have done the grcateft mifchiefe, and would fhew us,what truft 
and confidence we ought to have in him upon the like occafions. 

Our DoSiours being of the opinion, that the Memorials^ neither were, 
nor would be prefented, the Fathers returned all to their K^ncient Rejiden- 
cies; although they were obliged to ufe more caution, and to make fewer 
affemblies-, and this the rather, becaufe they did not yet receive good 
news from iS74;?iJ:/>w, where there were new cdi(5ls publifhed againft the 
Chrifi tan Religion: which news, although on the one fide it occafioncd 
niuch grief to the /'/i^^rfi?, yet on the other fide it gave them much com- 

C H A p jf . The Hifiory of QHI^/1. ^ * , 

fort by the relation of the Martyrdme of a certain Chriftian,cd\kd Andrew 
concerning whofe life and adtions very much might be faid, and efpecial- 
ly of that courage and conftancy which he (hewed in all the torments they 
gave him ; which is fo much the more admirable in a Chineffe • becaufe 
that Nation is by nature very cowardly and timorous : yet we have had 
certain experience, that even to this day the Chriftian Chimffes^ in all oc- 
cafions of Perfecutions and Troubles that have happened to them have ever 
continued firme in the Faith : (Jo that by the grace of God they have not 
been wanting xoMartyrdome^ but Martyr dome hath been wanting to them ) 
as was feen in thofc of Nrnkim, and was proved in this good Chrijliln 

^\{\%Artdrerv\^z,%homtmthc?rovifJceoiKimfi, where after he had 
lived many yeares, he removed from thence into the Province oiNankim 
where having had fome information concerning our religion, h^ came to 
the F^/^fH; and after he had been well inflrudted by them in the princi- 
pal! points of our F^/V^, he received Baptifme from them, together with 
themmeo[J?>drerp. Some few dales after his whole familie was Bapti" 
zedby the hand o(F4t her RoccdyVjho was Superiounhcre at that time- After 
his BAptifme.Andrew became a pattern and example to the reft of the Chrt- 
fttam^hy endeavouring to communicate to others the good which he had 
rcccived,and to draw others to Chrifl^ which fucceeded very happily, ve- 
ry many being 54/>// Why his perfwafions^ He had a great devotion to 
the B. Virgin J and was the moft zealous man of a whole fraternitic, which 
before ihtPerfecution o^Nankim was dedicated to her in our Church there: 
and after that, when the /•4^^^n were banifhed, he built an oratory in his 
owne houfe to the honour of that Holy Mother ., whither he ufed to aflcm- 
Hc the Chrijlians, and to exhort them to devotion and obfervance of our 
JiolylAw. At the time i\\^ Father swqiq imprifoned there, and the other 
Chrtfiiam were divided into five prifons, he without any fear of that dan- 
ger to which he did expofe himfelfe, tooke upon him to ferve them, to vi- 
fit, comfort and aflfift them, efpecially the Fathers, with many almes at his 
owne expcnce ; not being content to pcrforme thefe offices of Charitie in 
his owne perfon only, he im ployed in them alfo a little boy that was his 
fonne, whom he fent to the Fathers, that they might make nfe of him to 
fend him of errants, and other little occafions. Like wife at our return thi- 
ther,he lent us his houfc for our habitation when we went to vifit the Chru 
fiians of that place, and for an Infirmary, or Hofpitall,when any were fick, 
whom he fcrved and tooke care of with great charity and affe(^ion. Thefe 
and other good works did the Lord pay him by crowning him with Mar- 
tyrdsme^ and making him to fuffer death for his fake« The good old man 
patiently fuffered the torments and SafUmdoesaho^cmtmontd-^and when 
as the laft which he received,befide that they were very cruell ones, were 
alfo laid on upon the wounds and ftripes, but lately infli(acd on him be- 
fore other TribunaUs^xt is no wonder,that an old man,who though he were 
ftrong in courage, yet was but weakc in body,(houId render his life to the 
violence of thofe torments •, (ince the youngeft of thofe Chriftiansy and 
thofe of the moft robuft complexion did hardly efcape with life. Thus he 
dycdj leaving that Church much edified by his good example, and much 


""^ ^laed for theToflfeof him. For he was, as it were a f^f^fr to them all^ 

andinthcabfcnceof the Fathers, ^Mafter, He was buried decently in a 
particular Sepulchre by himfelfe, to the end that one day he may have 
thofe honours, which are due to him, performed with greater folemnitie. , 

C H A P, U^ 

How things began to be quiet and fetled, and 

hoTp the Fathers wrejent for to Court by 

order of the Mandarines* 


N the mean time there came better news from N/mkim^ whither the Fa- 
then had fcnt a man on purpofejwith letters from themfclvsjas alfo from 
our Do^ comfort and ftrengthcn the Chrifiians there in their affli- 
(Slioiis and troubles-,although the Lord had fo filled their hearts with cou- 
rage and contentment, that they had little need of any humane confolati- 
on.This man returned with a confirmation of the news, which was alrea- 
dy fpread abroad, affuring them that all things were quiet; the fame alfo 
was written by xh^Chrijlians in their letters.For thcMapidarines Seeing that 
the plot did not take, and that the Memorialls were not prefcnted at Pekiffi^ 
and on the other fide, that Xin was turned out of his Officc,they prefcntly 
changed their ftile and opinion 5 they fet the Chrifiians at liberty, and alfo 
moderated the punidiment that had been impofed upon them. Only there 
remained in prifon ihxcQChriflians of Chincheo^viho expected every day to 
be fent into their owne Province^ as it afterwards fell out. From Pekim al- 
fo the Father J who lay hid there, wrote, that all the hopes of our enemies 
oiNankim^QXt quite overthrown at that Court ^ and that the face of 
things was fo changed, fincethe departure oi Xin^ that our friends did 
counfell him to treatc with the Chriftian Mandarines^ and fuch other of 
them,as(3\though they were Gentilcs,yet)had a good afFcdion for us, to 
finde out fomc way for him to go publickly abroad,and for us to be intro- 
duced thither againe. 

By this time there had fix or feven years pafled, fince the firft Perfecu^ 
tion ofNankim-.^nd the Tartars made a cruell warre upon the Chinejfes^znd 
had already not only defeated feverall of their armies, but alfo gained di- 
verfe places from them in the Province oiLeaotunt ; neither did they well 
know which way fo put a flop to the 'advance of their army. Neverthe- 
IcfTe, the Fathers did endeavour to finde fome way to manifeft themfelves 
to the Kingdome, and to appeare in publick, according to the tcnour of 
what had been written them from Pekim : But becaufe their banifliment 
was decreed by the King, they found no fmall difficulty in the bufincife. 
Notwithftandingjthc Chrijlians^'and the DoBottrs that were our friends re- 
folved to frame a CMemoriall-^^zVmg the occafionfrom the warre with the 
T attars^ and the extremities to which the Chinejfes were reduced, and to 
prefent it to the King •, fctting forth in the firfl place the misfortunes of the 
warre, the mortality and damages which they had received •, the lofTc of 


Chap.h. The Eijlory of CH I J\( a. 239 

their Towncs and Cities,withour having been able for the [pace of fo ma- 
ny years, after fuch infinite cxpcnce of treafure and lofTe of men, either to 
divert or ftop the courfe of that calamitfe. In the fccond place they did rc- 
raonftrate the crrour, which was committed in banilhing the Eurofaan 
Father s^who^ befidcthat they were vertuous, learned,and men capable of 
the management of great affaires, they were alfo very great Mathematici- 
ans, who without doubt had particular fecrets, and extraordinary inventi- 
ons.which might be made ufe of to their extraordinary advantage in that 
great ftraite wherein the Kingdom was at prefent ; and that if they were 
in the Court^as they had formerly been,thac they would be able to reduce 
the affaires of (late into a better condition . Laft of all they added, that it 
was probable , that they were not all yet departed , and that ic 
was not po0ible, that fo manyl men fhould be able to paiTe through fo 
great a Kingdom, through fo many ftraireand uncouth waiesjThat his 
Majefly (hould do well to give order for diligent fearch to be made 
through the whole Kingdom, to fee if any of them were ftill to be found 
there, and to fend for them to Court, that they might be ferviceable to 
him in this prefent conjundurc of the warre. 

The Fathers made great oppofition againft this particular means which 
was taken fortheir re-eflabUfhment-,by reafon they were altogether igno- 
rant in matters of warre and armes, and all things belonging to that pro- 
fcffion : and therefore they did not thinke it convenient, that they fliould 
be petitioned for under that prctencc.To this,as I underflandjDr.Xw who 
was one of the chiefe Adours in this Tragedie, prefently made anfwcr, 
Fathers^ let not this trouble you, for this pretence of arms fhall (land us in 
no more {lead,then the needle d,)th a Taylour,who when he hath drawne 
through the thred he foweth with, and the garment is finifhcd, prefently 
takcththe needle away-,let yourReverenccs once get in by theKingsorder, 
and the armes to fight with, (hall be turned into pens to write. In conclu- 
{ion,the Memorialises drawne up very well^ they having excellent skill to 
firame a petition after their manner 5 it was prefented in the Chancery of Pe- 
titions, and they tooke fuch paines in folliciting their friends, that they got 
it pafTed, and prefented to the Kings hands, with fuch goodfuccefTe, that 
immediately he made a favourable reference of it to the CotwcellofxvArre ; 
who did not only favour the difigne, but added alfo, that they did verily 
beleeve, that the Fathers by their skill in the C^athematicks v/ould be able 
fo to enchant the Tartars, that they fliould not be able to manage their 
armes againft them. They therefore immediately gave order, that they 
fhould be fought out with all poiTible diligence: But there was no need to 
take much pains to finde them out^ for he that was to feeke them, knew 
well enough where to have them. 

FatherRocc a ^owx Superieur ywho refided at that time in the Southern parts, 
had prefently news of theKings order-,&that he was to fend ivfoFathers to 
ibat Court. It is almoft incredible what joy there was both among the Fa- 
thers & the reft of theC^r//?/4»i-they knowing,that this was the moft cer- 
tain way, for the Fathers to return e publickly into the Kingdom, & for the 
propagation of the Gofpcl,with the fame libertic they formerly enjoyed. 

Father Nicolas Longobardus andFatherEwamel Bias were named for this 
> H h expedition 5 

~^ 7 he Hiprj ofCtUT^J. Part.z. 

expedition-, who affoone as they had fitted themfelvcs for their journy, de- 
parted for Pekim •, where they made their entrance publickly. And be- 
caufe fomc years had now palTedjfince beards of the Eurofam fafhion had 
been fecn in thatCity,thcre was fo great a concourfe of people to fee them, 
that they could hardly make their way through them.The firft thing they 
did, was to prefcnt themfelves to the Tribumll of xvarre^ fthe care of fee- 
king them out having been recommended to the Mandarines of that Tri^ 
hunAU ) who received them with all manner of courtefie and civility, and 
profered to take the care themfelves of their lodging and accommodation, 
which the F^r/^^n would by no means accept, excufing themfelvcs, that 
they had nor yet merit enough to accept of their oflFer.-but gave them very 
great thanks, and promifed to receive their kindncffe, when they (bould 
fee a fit time for it. But the true reafonwas^ partly that they might not 
be burthenfome to them, and partly that they might remain the 
freer by having the IcfTc obligation to be employed in their affaires of 
warrejunder which title they had been brought in thither. As for aHoufe^ 
it feezed good to the ChrifiianSy that they fliould returneto that, where 
they had formerly made their abode for fo many years, and where they 
were yet well knowne and beloved of the neighbourhood .* Befidcs that, 
by that means the world would more clearly underftand, upon how little 
reafonthey were baniilied •, and moreover, they fhould fave building of a 
new Chui chjthe old one having been bought on purpofe by a Chrifiiaft : 
only there was great need of rcpayring ♦, for the buildings of China^ con- 
fiding principally of wood5are not fo ftrong and lading as ours : But Dr. 
Ignatim, who refided at that time in the Court, tooke upon him to repaire 
all at his owne charges, and did accommodate them very excellently, e- 
fpecially the Church •, and when every thing was ready, the Fathers went 
thitherto dwell •, where they do >ct inhabit to this very day, medling on- 
ly with fuch things as belong to their profeifion, without being ever fpo- 
ken to concerning warre, Tartars or Kyirmes, 

The afEiires ofthe Court being thus happily accomplifhed,and the Fa- 
^i^frj dwelling freely and openly in their ancient Houfe, they began to fet 
on foote their former exercifes. They did cultivate and perfcdl: the know- 
ledge ofthe christians ^ they preached to the Gentiles • they received the 
vifits, which the Mandarines and their friends did pay them5with the fame 
familiaritie as formerly, and without any other cautions, but fuch as are at 
all times necefTary in C^/;?4. This fecuritie and libertie in the Court by 
publique approbation, was in a little while after communicated to the o- 
ther Houfes, where the reft ofthe Fathers did rcfide. So that by little and 
little, preaching and other exercifes of religion were fo happily encrcafed 
and enlarged, that in the year I628. and 29. whilefl we lived peaceably 
in the places of our abodc,a doore was opened to the Gofpel,and the way 
cleared to the convetfion ofthe Gentiles ^ without finding any oppofition, 
or refinance, to the defignes which God had encouraged us to undertake^ 
although it was alwaies neccflfary to make fomeA/4^//?r4r^ our friend in the 
place of our employment. 

Inthefamemcafurc that our libertie cncreafed, theGofpelwas like- 
wife divulged in fcvcrall parts 5 new Rcfidcncics were fet up, with Houfes 


Chap .12. TheHifloryof CHI^J. 255 

and Churches belonging to them, and Fathers, were fentto make their 
abode at them. Two, befide Oratories, were inftitutcd in the Province of 
Fokien^ both of them very numerous in Chrifiians. In the Province of 
Xanfly there was one fet up, and in that of Xunfi^ anot her, as alfo another in 
xht Province oi Henan, all which do flourifh at this day in a copious Chri- 
fiimitie. At my departure thence,thcre was another beginning, vyhich is 
now finifhed, having a Church and fomc ftore oichrijlians^ and they did 
rcfolvc to fend fome Fathers to refide there. But becaufe hereafter there 
will be an account given of them all in particular,! will ftay no longer up- 
on this fubje6t. 

The Fathers returned to their ancient Houres3(which were five in all be- 
fore the perfecution) after they had repaired and put them in forae hand- 
forae condition. That of Pekim^ (with the accommodation of the Houfe 
and Church,asisabove-faid5)had ihi^t Fathers ^^ont Lay-Brother, who 
laboured very fucceffefully in encreafing the number of Chrifiians, That 
of^4?«^/^^« had a new Houfe and Church, and more capacious than the 
former- which was indeed very neceflfary, by reafon of the great number 
o( Chriftiam, both Old and new ones, of which there are fome madec- 
veryday. That of /C/4«;j/ had likwife a new Church and Houfe fcitua- 
tcd in the raoftpublique Street of that City. That o[ Canton was let v^- 
lone, not only becaufe (beforcjit could not be continued as the reft were^ 
but alfo out ofconfideration that it was better to leave a place fo fubjed: 
to ftormes and troubles, and in ftead thereof to take another, where wc 
might find more profit and fecurity . Neverthekfre, the Chrifiians there 
are very carefully vifited every year. 

At the Houfe of Tiankim we had enough to do^ for the fhrifiiam of 
that Church could not endure, that they having been the firft in perfecu- 
tions and troubles, and the moftcxercifed in them, (hould be the laft in 
fpirituall favours- and not only the laft-, but even when other Houfes were 
well provided with Fathers ^ their Church only (hould want them. 
The Fathers alfo did much defire a Refidency thcre,& did therefore very 
frequently vifit them. But to fet up a publique and open Houfe, was very 
difficult, by reafon of the perfecutions that had happened there. But at 
length,all difficulties were overcome;& a Refidencie was inftituted there, 
although it were late firft-,which,next under God,weowetoI>r.p4///,vvho 
that he might alwayes do good,did this even after his death,in thismaner. 
The F^//j<rr^ had no other hope of this bufineftc,but the opportunity 
of^omcChriftian c^4W^/'/w^orfriend,whoiliould cometo governe that 
City-,ihat under his protedlion they might be introduced with greater fa- 
cility and fecurity. It happened about that time,that a Difciple of Dolour 
Pauls was fent thither to be Prefident of the Councell of Warre^ and as the 
Z)o<^(?//r was very vigilant in this matter, he prefently helped the Fathers 
to that which t hey defired-, that M4«^4n»^ being of great authority, and 
being his Difciple, he would do whatfoever he fhould require of him. 
This overture pleafed the Fathers very well .-and becaufe they would 
fend thither an experienced perfon, the place being of fuch great danger 
and fuch great importance, they did for fome time retard the execution of 
it, becaufe they were to take a Father av^ay from fome other Place, which 

Hha fo 

zjd TheHiJlory of QHI^A. Part.z. 

fo was to remainc unprovided. In the mcane while Dolour PaulkU fick, 
who was at chat time acStually CoUo in the Court; yet did not his ficknefTe 
hinder him from writing and fending a letter to the Mandarine in favour ot 
us. But his ficknelfe increafing, by that time the letter arried at Nankim^ 
the good DoSiour Paul was gone to a better life. But the Mandarine rccci • 
vcd the letter,( which the Father gave him with fome hcfiration) not as 
from 3 dead friend, but from a living Mafter .• he received alfo the Father 
with all demonftrations of courtelle and good will. By his favour and 
order a Houfe was taken ; and the other Mandarines feeing how he ufed 
the Father, to pleafe him (for all dc fire to fecond the great one^) they 
did likewife (hew him many favours^ not only with their authority and 
frequent vifits, but alfo by giving him money toward the buying of the 
Houfes. In this manner was that Chusch well provided for, and the 
Chrifiians comforted, who have been fince very much encreafcd. 

About that time, which was in the year 1^32 the affaires of that Church 
did proceed in a much different manner,from what they had done former- 
ly-,fo that it feemed thatthofc ftormes had only raifed the little barque of 
that Church to a greater height-,nor only in the number of the Baptized^ 
which without comparifon every year encreafed, but alfo the peace and 
quiet they enjoyed, and the liberty they had to preach: fo that there was 
a gencrall knowledge of our /^«3/y ^^//>/tf difperfed over the whole King- 
dome^infomuch that there is hardly a place in it, whither, cither by books 
written upon that fubjed^, or by the acquaintance of Chriflians, or by the 
report of Gentiles themfelves,ic is not arrivcd^and this nor only in the in- 
nermoft parts of the Kingdome^where for the moft part the Fathers are 
employed, but alfo in the skirts and extremities thereof. I will bring fomc 
examples, which will clearly demonftrate it. 

There came fometimcs to the City o^ Macao (which is inhabited by 
Portftgkfes^and is fcituated on the Confines of China)(ome Chrifiian Man- 
darines about fl:ate affaires; who have not onely publickly declared thcm- 
felves to he^Chriflians, but have alfo made it appear that they were well 
inftruded in the principles of our faithjand have carried themfelves with 
fo much cdificationj and fandity of life in the cxercife of all fhriftian ver^ 
tues, that they have much edified that people, and may be examples to 
chriflians ofmuch greater antiquity. 

In the year 163 1 the Portugheffe fhips fetting faile from Macao toward Gi- 
apponizs ufually they do every year)aboutthe height of Fokien a Province 
oi China fine of the (hips was caft away; and all the men drowned, except 
onely 1 2 perfon?, who faved themfelves in the long boate almoft by mi- 
racle, by reafon it happened in the night, and the wind blew very flrong, 
and the fcas ran exceeding high .• yet at length with much ado-, although 
they had neither needle nor compaflre,they came a fhore,and landed in the 
faid Province oi Fokien. Prefently the people flocked about the poor 
fliipwrackt men who had more need of food and clothing than of being 
examined who they were- but becaufe the Hollanders f of whom the cJb^. 
nejfes have a very ill conceit) did ufe about that time to excrcife much pi- 
racy and robbery upon thofe coafis, they put them in prifon, where by 
reafon they were not only flrangers, but were alfo accounted enemies, 


Cha P.1J. The Eiftory of QUI JA^ A. 2J7 

they endured extraordinary want & mifcry .Many people went to fee them 
out of curiofity, becaufe they were ftrangers,who as they are feldome ad- 
mitted into that Country, are thought a rare fpedlacle. Among the reft, 
there were forae Cbrifiians (which is that I would fhew) who were led i6 
fee them out of the fame curiofity that others had .• and taking notice that 
they carried beads, and crofTes about them, and that they ufed to fay 
over their beads , they judged them to be of the fame profcflion as 
themfelves were : therefore they made diligent enquiric about it; and be- 
ing affured that they were ChriftUns^ ahhough they wereftridly forbid to 
{hew them any kindneflc,yet Charitie,which is alwayes ingenious,found a 
way for them to help them, and to provide them with what they were a- 
ble. To cloath them they ufed this pious fhift: they would go into the 
prifon (for as I have fomerly faid,he that vifiteth a prifoner muft of ne- 
cefTity go into the prifon j having a double fuit of cloathes one over the o- 
rher : and as foon as they were got in, they would very dexteroufly flip off 
their under garments,and give them to thofe poor men, and go out again 
onely with their own cloathes, without any difcovery of fo feafonable a 
charity ,for the reliefe of thofe unfortunate wretches. 

Whilft Hived in the Province of Kiamfi at NanchAm.tht capital Ciry 
thereof-, where we have a Church and Houfe, there came thither a Chri- 
//4» of another City, on purpofc to conferre with me concerning his 
confciennce,and other fpirituall matters rand becaufe the place where he 
lived was far diftant from us, and he could not often make that journeyj 
his cuftome was to make a pretty long (lay when he did come, and then 
after his generallconfefTion and pennance was ended, to returne home a! 
gain. One time at his departure Idefired him to ufehis beft endea- 
vours to perfwade his kindred, friends, neighbours and other perfons,to 
embrace our Holy i='4/>/j», and that ifhe found any difpofition or inclinati- 
on in them to it,he (hould prefently give me notice of it. He did fo, and 
about a month after, he lint me an invitation to come thither, for that 
there was an opportunity of cafting my nets ,• I went thither, and becaufe 
he had not a Houfe bigge enough to receive the company that would 
come to treate with me, I did accommodate my felf in one of thofe Hou- 
fes,which the Chintjfes call Zutham^^nd do belong to a whole Family in 
com mon, where at fet times of the yeare the whole Family do alfemble 
themfelves to treate ofthe affaires ofthat Family, and of the behaviour 
and manner of living of fome of that Kindred^and there they reprove, 
chaftifc, give orderSj&c^thefe Houfes for the moft part ftand empty, only 
there is fome one or other, who kcepeth and taketh care of them . Necre 
unto that dwelt a Mandarine'^ who having heard of my arrivall, and that I 
was a flranger,drawn as I beleeve by his curiofity ,came prefently to vifit 
rac. But as we do not ufe in thcfe vifits to let flip any opportunity of ad- 
vancing the Gofpel of Jefus Chrift, I cntred into difcourfe with him 
concerning that matter. He asked me thereupon many extravagant que- 
ftions^ and not being, as it fcemed, much pi eafed with myanfwerSjhe 
took his leave of me with a great deale of civility; and, when he had done, 
he went and accufed me to the fecond Governour oUhe City; telling him, 
that there dwelt a ftranger^ that the times were dangerous 5 and more- 

2}8 TheUifiory ofCHl^d. Pabt.2. 

ovcfjthat I taught a new Iavv,which was contrary to thcirs^and prejudicial 
to the State-, that therefore it did behoove his Lordfhip to ufe all care and 
diligence to prevent the mifchicfe that might cnfue upon it. Lcffe than 
this would have been fufficient to have caufcd me to be apprehended, if 
thtMaYidarine had not been a cautious and difcrcct perfon. Nevcrthekffc, 
he fent fome of his Officers for me : there came into the Houfe where I 
was about thirty or fourty men, fome of them being fent, and others only 
out of curiofity to fee me^as alfo the Tifam of that ftreet, (who is obliged 
to give account of what ever pafeh there)and brought an order for me to 
appear before the GovermHr,]vSi in that inltant in came the Chriftian who 
had fent for me, who was a Litter ato^ and well cfteemcd in that City*, and 
taking me by the hand,would needs go along to give an account of mc to 
the Govermurr, where he found alfo the Manddrine that had accufed me. 

The ChriftUn told the Mandar/fie^thzt Hived in the Metro f»lis of the 
Prtf'i;/>f^5andthatlhadafriend(hipwith the Vicc-roy and other Manda- 
rines of Quality ( which was very true:) and that for the Lm which 
I taught, it was no fecret, but that I did preach it openly at the Court} and 
that my companions did the fame every where public kly^ as the Manda^ 
rims of the Metropolis knew very well. The Governour having heard thefc 
words, from a perfon of that merit, would make no further cnquirie into 
the caufe,but remitted it to the firft (^^i^^r^^^r, whom we found on his 
Trihnnall. The Tifam began to give him an account of the bu{incfle,but he 
being not well inftrudedinit5Couldnot make him underftand it. Then 
the chriftian began to fpeak,and to give an account of what had happened, 
in the prefcnce of almoft an infinite multitude of people-, of which num- 
ber there being two, who, hearing him talk of the lavp ef God^ figncd 
thcmfelves with the Signe of the Crojfe in the fight of a young man who 
flood near them:The young man asked them,If they were Chrtftians{Yhty 
anfwered , No, but that they had a friend who was a chriftian , and 
that he had taught them to make the figne of the CrofTe , and to re- 
hearfe feveral prayers. The Governour^'affoon as he heard oi'ihien ChuKiao^ 
that is^ The Law of the Lordoi heaven-,hc faid : this law hath many follow- 
ers in my Country , and is a very good Latv : what would the Father 
haveelfe? Thc.Chriftian anfwered : nothing,;^)' Lord^hut only to give 
an account of himfelf in anfwer to what he is accufed of by Bioqmn (for 
that was the name of the Mandarine that had complained of me j neere un- 
to whom he d welletb. Then the Governour replyed,Tell the Father he li- 
veth in no good neighbour- hood-, and wifh him to find a better. The Chri- 
ftian anfwered,fince your Lordfl)ip would have him change his habitation, 
be pleafed to command he fhould have a Houfe allowed him during the 
fliort time he is to make his abode in this City. The advice pleafed him, 
and prefently he gave order; there (liould be fome Chambers provided 
for me in a certain Palace^ and in them 1 lived during the Whole time that 
1 fpent there •• fo that by the occafion of the others turning mc out of 
the Houfe, I came to get one that was farre better. 

As a Portughefe Carrack was on her way from Macao toward ManiU,{he 

flrook unfortunately upon the fands of P«/^j{/?j and was caft away-, there 

being hardly fourty pcrfons faved in the long boatcj who fleering as 

«.,. well 

Chap,!^ 1 he Hijlorj of QHI^A. ^59 

well as they could towards the next land, aftei feme dales, arrived at the 
Ifland of Hiii;?^;?, which is but a little way diftanr from the Wefterne 
part of the Province o^Cantany and from Macao two daies faile with a good 
winde. Aflfoon as they landed, they were prefcnly apprehended accor- 
ding CO the cuftomeof that Ifland, with a noife and ftir which boded no 
good to thofe poor fliipwrackt men. They found fome Chrijlians in that 
Iflind, who were very helpfull to them, and among the reft there was a 
Mandarine c^Wcdi I gnatimy who had been a long time a Chriftian^zs alfo 
his whole Family, a very good and devout perfon, as I had formerly 
known him to be at Nankim. It pleafed God for the comfort and folace of 
thofe poorF<9y/«^^f/^/,that he fliould govern the Ifland at that time. Affoon 
as he had underftood what had happened to thofe prifoners, fearing what 
might fall our, he commanded the caufe to be brought unto his Trtbunall, 
When therefore the poor prifoners were brought into his prefence-, and 
after that he underftood they were Chilians, he nor only commiferatcd 
their condition, but prefently commanded they (bould be fet at liberty, 
and kept them for fome tinie in his Palace. It is hard to expreffe the Cha- 
rity and Love^Wvh which he entertained them , endeavouring to refrefh 
and comfort them after the labours and dangers they had paffed, conver- 
fing with them fo familiarly and fo cordially, and giving them fuch an ex- 
ample in his own perfon of all Chilian venues, that the Portughejfes did 
afterwards very highly commend him, both in Macao and many other pla- 
ccs,and not only his own carriage and behaviour,buc alfo that of his houf- 
hold-, but above alljthey did admire the care and diligence with which he 
gave them notice both of Fafts and Holy-dayeSjto the end they might ob- 
ferve them; fo that while they ftayed there, he ferved them alfo in (lead 

On the day of S.v4gneSj^h\ch was that whereon his wife was Baptized, 
and called by the fame name, he made a very great Feafl : firft a Spiritual! 
one in his Chappel, where they all met to do their devotions, and recom- 
mend themfclvs unto Ctf^j and after thatjhe gave them a Sumptuous and 
Splendid banquet. After he had entertained them a good while, and that 
they had recovered their health and ftrength againe,he lent them a Barque 
and Marriners to carry them to Macao.l could bring many other examples, 
which I omit for brevities fake, feeing thefe are fuff icient to prove what I 
faid before;Th3t the Chripan Religionpne way or other, is difperfed over 
the whole Kingdome of C^/;?^. 

Chap. I], 

7 he life and death of T>octour Leo: 
and the Conclufion of this 

THe chim(fe Chriflimitj hath fo great an obligation to the fingulat 
pietie, ind charitable alfiftance afforded them upon all occaflons by 


2^0 TheBiJlou of Cm^A. Part. 2. 

VoBoar Leo, that I cannot finilli this relation without giving a briefe EJfay 
of his life and death, which may fcrve alfoforateftimony of the great 
zcale of thofe new Chrifiians •, although I (hall forbearc to mention many 
things concerning his fanditlc-, as alfo (everall graces and gifts conferred 
uponhimby Almighty God, referring xhtReadtr to the yearly letters, 
where they arc more particularly fetdowne. 

JDr. Leo was borne in the City o^Hamcheu in the Province of Chekiam, 
and having happily finiflied the courfc of his ftudics, he removed to the 
Court oiTckiw^ where he obtained the degree of Do<51:our5 and executed 
the firft employment, which was conferred upon him after his degree. 
There he faw and converfed with Father Matthatis Ekcius^zs did alfo the 
greatefl part of the chief e Officers and Letter ati •, moved by a curiofitic of 
feeing men of f/^r^p^ ThisX^tf, befidesthathcwasofaquick and viva- 
cious wit, had a moft eager and intenfe defire of knowledge •, by which 
means he did the more engage himfelfe to an inward friendfliip and con. 
verfation with the Father^ being allured thereunto by the folidity and no- 
velty Q^owxScienceS'^ and particularly by the delight he tooke in fome maps 
and other curiofities ; fo that he could have been willing to have lived al- 
waies in his company. In the meanc while, together with humane Scien- 
«r^the Father did inftru^t him in the heavenly wifdome of the Law of God-, 
and he was growne fo skilfuU aiid well verfcd in it, that he was able to 
help the Father in the corredion and augmentation of a Catechifmey which 
he had made fome years before, and was then about to re-print it. He did 
therein much admire the great conformitie of our Myfler'ies^vi\i\\\ht prin* 
cipallsofreafon, the concordance, order, and admirable confcquencc of 
the points of our Faith: and although he did not at that time give an entire 
credence to them, ncvertheleffe he was much delighted to fee every thing 
therein fo well ordered and dirpofed-,being wont often to fayjThat ifthefe 
things were not true, they were wifely invented, and very conformable 
to the light of nature. He continued the fame affection toward the Father 
for fome years •, wherein he much afTified, both with his counfell and 
authority , the foundation of that Houfe ; and indeed he was the firft 
that did encourage the Father to the enterprife 5 and furnifbcd him with 
mony to buy the ground, and to build the Church, 

All thefe good works , accompanied with the fafimgs and Pename 
which he performed, while he was yet a Gentile, were as fo many difpofi- 
tions , to fit and prepare him for the reception of that divine light, 
which the Lord was picafed to communicate unto him. He was then fa^ 
tisfied in the truth of our Holy faith, and did much defire to be baptized ; 
which notwithflanding Father Riccius would not confent unto, by reafon 
ofa certain impediment which he had at that time ^ but being afterwards 
fick and in great danger of death, the Father was conflrained to Baptiz,e 
him. And imrnediatly aftcr,the Lord was pleafed, by means and vertuc 
ohhzt Sacrament andtheothcx of Extreame UnSiton, to deliver him from 
that death, which he expected every hour^as he himfelfe confeflTcd during 
his whole life, and al waies gave particular thanks fo God for it. 

Not long aftcr,hc returned home to his owne Houfe-,where,having bu- 
fied himfelfe one evening in breaking andburniog all the Ms he could 


Cha p .13. The Hi/lory of Qfil^KJ. 24.1 

finde, Br. Michael his ancient friend, (though ycc«a Gemtle and very zea- 
lous in the worfhip ot /-s/^//, and obfervant in their fuperflTition) came in 
to vifit him. He was much aftonifhed at the fight,and could not forbearc 
to reprove him for it: but by the others anfwcr^hc received fo much fatif- 
fa<5tion, that he had an carneft defire to hearc and underftand better the 
Law efChrifli^hich he afterwards received-,& the fameDr. Leo afliftcd him 
as God-father at his Baptifme-^^ot about that time there came to live in Leo's 
Houfe, the Fathers j Laz,aru6fiatan£us^zn6. Nicolas Trigaultiw ^-viho did of- 
ten difcourfe there, with Br, Michael-^ he carried them to a Country houfc 
of his,(whither he went often to dwell,) that he might with more free- 
<lom and leifure difcourfe with them concerning the Law of God: he doing 
this often,was at length converted and Baptized-^ wherein Br» i^^^had the 
greKcft (hare and merit ; conferring a moft important benefit upon this 
Churchjby the converfion of a perfon of thar^4%,who for many years 
together, in the heateand trouble of the greatcft perfecutions,did ever re- 
ceive, prote(5l,and favour us above mealure. 

From that day forward thefe two BoBoun^ Michael and Leo were the 
heads and pillars of our Hoi) faith in thofe Kingdoms : for, in the greateft 
fury of that perlecution,wherein the Fathers were banifhed the Kingdom, 
eight of them concealed themfelvesinthat City ;not only maintaining 
what they had already gained, but alfo cncreafing it fo much, that where- 
as about 8 or 10 years before, there were but three Churches in all Chirut^ 
we have at this day many in eight Provinces, as alfo twelve Houfes, the 
number of the/4i/^/«// being very much encrcafed every where, 

Br. Leo made continual! progrcffc in the chrijlian religion^ and (hewed 
in a(fl,upon all occa(ions,what he had before embraced and rcfolved in his 
miflde. When he went to rake poffeilion of the fir(t office, which was 
given him after he was a Chrifiiart, he was advertifed by the Minifters and 
Officers, that, according to the cufl:ome,hc (hould go and worfliip, and 
take his oath before the /^i>/i, which in great number were placed in a cer- 
tain Hall of i\i2X Palace^ where he was to lodge. The Dolour went, and 
being corne to the roome where the ^dols were, the Ceremonie he perlor- 
med was, to caufc them to be all overturned and throwne to the ground, 
and then to be broken in pieces : fo that the Sergeants themfelves, who 
were conftrained to execute this Commandement,which fecmed to them 
a very great impiety, faid among themfclvcs,^//r^ this new Lord of ours is not 
very vuelHn his witsSo great was the horrour and hatred which he had con- 
ceived againft the devill. He was in this particular very fevere and terri- 
ble all the time of his life- neither did he account them men, that were 
deceived in that point3& had fo little fenfc,as to believe Idols to be g ods ^ 
and thofe, who had any occafion to heare the Law ofGed^ or to read the 
books which treated of it, and did not judge it to be true, to want braines, 
andtobevoydofunderftanding. He perfwaded himfelfe, that all they 
who could read,and took a delight in the reading of books,that it was not 
polfiblcjbut that they fhould have a great paffion for the Learning and Sci- 
ences of Europe •, and that by means of them, they muft needs arrive at the 
knowledge of the true God, and receive his Holy law. Therefore his grea- 
teft care always was to perfvvadc the Fathers to apply themfelves to the 

I i tranflating 

z^2 The Hi/lory of QHl^A. Part.z. 

craoflating the books o^Etdrope-, and he himfclfc did help them in it all he 
could, which was not a little. 

Hence it was^that ever fince he knew the Fathers, which was about the 
fpacc of thirty years, healmoftalwaks bufied himfclfc in this sxercifc; 
which he followed with fo much ftudy and application, that even in the 
Country^at rccrcations,vifits and banquets,henever went without a book 
in his fleeve, or in the chaire, wherein he was carried on mens (boulders 5 
and when he was alone,hc did either read or write •, although It was more 
troublefome to him, than it would have been to another of lefTe ingenui- 
ty and capacity,by reafon of his want of fight in one eye, which he had a[- 
raoft loft 5 and the little fight he had in the other which was left; fo that in 
writing or reading he was faine almoftto touch the paper with his eye 
And truly he made fuch progreffe in our Sciences^ that he could have dif- 
courfed upon any fubje<a better than many in Europe^ that cfteeme thera- 
fclves learned men. 

H^pcrfedly underftood the firft fix books of Euclid 5 which are now 
tranflated into ihtChineffe tongue^he had learned all the kinds o^owv Arhh^ 
metkk^wkh many particular rules and fubtletie? which arc taught in that 
Art s oi which fubje(5t he compofed feaven Tomes ; he was very well ac- 
quainted with all that belongeth to the S pheare, znd£uch like cftriofities^hut 
what is moft of all, he underftood very well, and helped to tranflate the 
books oiAnJietle dc Cdo 5 together with the queftions,which are handled 
upon them by the Schoolc o^Commhra ^ fo that he had perfedly penetra- 
ted into that matter : and finally, he learnt a great part of our Logick^ con- 
cerning which he left 20 Tomes in the ChmejfeXmgmgt to be printed 5 be- 
fidcs,hc difcourfed fo pertinently of allthefc and other macrers, with lb 
much eafc and delight, that it was not fo facile for others, who were well 
verfed in thcmjto follow him. He never made account ofthofe curious 
commodities, which came from Europe, and which were fo much eftce- 
med by ochers-, all his delight and content was,to fee fomc new and curi- 
ous book, that was brought out o^EuropeiXhcn would he figh to fee him- 
fclfc old and alone, not finding in other Chrifiiarfs the zeale, which he had 
of a thing fo important, to the convcrfion of that Kingdom,as was the hel- 
ping us in the tranflation of fuch books. With the Fathers he never dif- 
courfed of any thing, but either o^God^ or of our Sciences, It was a knowa 
thing among us, that when he faw us,(which he did many times a week,) 
the firft thing he would ask,was, What book it was we were about tranfla-- 
ting-,and if he knew the fubje(a,how much wc had already tranflated^T And 
I can fpeak it with truth, that of fifty works which the Fathers have tran- 
flated into the Chineffe tongue, both oiDiv'mitie & other Sciences, among 
which there are fomc which do confift of manyTow^w, there is hardly one 
which hath not paiTed through his hands, he cither correding it himfcJfe, 
or helping us to doit, or revifing and fitting it for a new imprcflion; or dfc 
tend ring it of more Authority, with the addition of prologues and other 
compofitions of his owne.Hc had an unfpeakable plcafure in thofc works^ 
neither could be have a greater Prefent fent him, than one of our books 
newly printed in the chinejfehngiidge, 
From hence there grew in him a great and infatiable defirc, wherein 


Chap. I J 7 he Hijlory of QHIU^CJ- H3 

he fcemed to confume himfelfe •, which was to have many Fathers come 
into ChinA . and it was fo vehement in him,that it made him fall into com- 
plaints againft our Superiours, hying, They did not underftand, bccaufc 
they could not fee with their eyes the importance of that bufinclTes & that 
therefore they did not fupply that want fomuch as was neccfTary. One 
day falling into a great heat upon this fubje^:, the Father with whom he 
difcourfed5mildely replied. Sir, we thank you for your zcale, and do ac- 
knowledge the favour you fliew us, in complaining on this manner- but 
our Sffpermrs have many places to fuccour and fupply, and it is nor poffi- 
ble for them to do it to the fatisfa(5lion of all. To which he replied very 
gracefully ,Your Reverence doth reprove me for daring to murmurea- 
gainft our Fathers and Stiperionrs 5 but it is not fo ; but only I fay, That I 
lliould be very glad to have the opportunity to fpcak in perfon with our 
Reverend F/ither Gener all (inthcfe verytcarmeshefpake it in the Chinejft 
tongue, and when ever he mentioned the Superiours of the Company , he 
alwaies called them Our Fathers and Superiours) becaufe J would very ear- 
neftlydefireofhim, that he would be pleafed feafonably to fupply our 
Kingdomc of China with ftore of Fathers, by reafon the letters and lan- 
guage are fo difficult to be learnt : for ere long your Reverences will be fo 
old and worne out, that you will not be able to reach thofe, who are new 
comers. Thus he fpake, and this was his opinion concerning it. And a 
good Teftimony thereof will appeare in a letter which he wrote in anfwcr 
to one, vfhkh F athcr CMugaez, Ma fcaregnas thtAfjijiant of Portuga/I had 
fent him ; wherein he offered to fend him whatfoever curiofitie or raritie 
he dcfired out of Enropexo which point his anfwer was,that he neither wi- 
fhed,nor defined any thing, but only that he would earneftly endeavour to 
fend more oftheSocietie into C/>/;j4. l 

In proportion to the love he had ioixhtFathers, his zeale and care for 
their ftudies and health did encreafe -, as alfo that they fhould be v/ell ac- 
commodated, and that they Should know how to converfe with thofe of 
the Country, in fuch TcrmeSj Ceremonies, and Compliments, as were 
moft efteemed among them ; admonifhing, and inftrudting us with great 
confidence upon all occafions,when ever he faw us miftaken in the Stile oi 
that Country. He had fo tender a kindenefie for us^that many times with 
his owne hands he would open our gowns before to fee whether we were 
fufficiently provided with cloaths to defend us from the cold . When a- 
ny ofus wasfick.hecaufed the medicines, ro be boyled and prepared 
at his owne Houfe, faying, That either through the ignorance, or umkil- 
fulnefie of our fervants they might lofe their force, and fo the fick per- 
fon would receive no help by them. At the firft fight, after 2 little difcourfe, 
hecouidvery well judge of the talents and parts of every one of us, and 
had a great facilitie in gaining our aflfe(5lions» He had a great eftecme and 
aff edion for us all in generally but much more for thofe who were newly 
come, and could not yet fpeak thclanguage-, of whom he had alwaies a 
very great care, much compaffionating the labour and paines they were to 
take in the ftudyofthat language, and the letters belonging to it* and to 
encourage them, would much rejoyce at every word, which he heard 
them bring out, when they began to fpcak it. He gave thcra very particu- 

li 2 iar 

2^4- TheHiJlory of CHJ-K/^- Pabt.2. 

lar inftru<5i:ions concerning the manner and method they were to ftudy it 
by. He gave them the names of the books to which they were raoft to ap- 
ply themfelves •, and many times he fcnt them to them,written in his owne 
hand, concerning the poynts and ftrokcs,of which in Chinaih/tic is a ^dxti- 
cmW Science, It was an incredible confolation, and trudy did caufe no 
leflcthenouradmiration,tohcarethc two Dolours ^ Leo Siud Michael to 
gethcr, when they came both at once, (as they did often,) to our Houfe ; 
for they fcarce fpokeofany thing clfc but of the way how to propagate 
the Gofpel, and how to profC(5t,dctend and authorize the preachers thcre^ 
of throughout the whole Kingdom-, confulting with themfelves to which 
of their friends they fhould recommend them^what books they would ad- 
vifc them to write •, to which Province it were bcft to go firft j and which 
j'^/z^f/' were fitted to be required o^ the Superiouriot fuchapart- In the 
cnd,ail their confultations concluded in (ighs, faying: We are old men, ro 
morrow we (hall die-, \^hom (hall wee leave inourfteadto carry on, that 
which we have feen begun in our daies < Sometimes tranfported by their 
affe<aion6,they did imagine themfelves to be then at the Court, informing 
the King himfelfe by theirAf(fw^n4//of the fan<5lity and purity of our (^hri- 
ftian Faith •, and having obtained leave and authority of him to fet up pub - 
lick Churches, they did already in their imagination make choice of the 
ground and fcituation, and defign the form of the buildings ^otherwhilc 
they fancied themfelves tobeaccufed forthfscaufe, to be laid in prifon, 
and after that to be beheadedjand all with fo much courage and cheerful- 
neffej as did well (hew theeftecm they made of the honour oi Martyrdem-^ 
and the ardent defires they had to lofe their lives for the intei eft of Gods 

Neither did he (top at difcourfes and defires •, for I can juftly affirmc. 
That of all the Houfes and Churches our Socictie hath in Chim^ there is 
not one of them, which Dr. X^^ hath not helped both to build and to pre- 
ferve ♦, giving towards fome of themialthough he was not rich, a coniidc- 
rable fumme of money. 

But that zealous love oiLeo wasmoft remarkable,in that occafion of re- 
calling the Fathers to the Court and City of P^^/w^where they formerly 
refided . He contrived all poffiblc means toeffe<Sl it, and made ufe of all op- 
portunities ; and by reafon that china was then infefted by the tartars , 
and the Court o^Pekim in danger, he tooke advantage by that occafion to 
remonftrate to the King, that befides our learning and skill, which might 
be c^great ufe to him, in this conjuncture of time,we had alfo great power 
and inrereft with the inhabitants of ii/4t*rf(7, from whom we could eafily 
obtaine a confidcrable fuccour of men and armes to his ailiftance ; and the 
better to perfwade the King and his counfell to it, he ufed fo much Rhets- 
y/Vj&,and produced fo many,and fuch apt and proper examples out of their 
books and ancient Chronicles, wherein he was excellently well verfed, 
that I doubt not, but the Reader would receive much delight, if I (hould 
give him a little taft of that excellent memoriall of his, did not that Bre- 
viticwhichl have tied my fclf to in this relation, forbid it. Inconcla- 
/ion,he did,and faid fo much, that he obtained his defirc^ wherein he re- 
ceived lio leffc fatisfat^ion than we have,and ever (bal have obligation to 


Chap ,15- TbeHifioryof £HI^/1. 2^^ 

him for it.Neverthelefrc,he loft the great office he had , only upon this ac- 
count » throngh the mah'ce of his enemies-, who accufcd him to the 
King-, though they had nothing to lay to his charge,but the neare friend^ 
fhip he had had with Fathr Matthxus Rkms ^and that he did beleeve and 
profefTc a certain Law, which that Father taught,and which was different 
from the Law of that Kingdome. 

But it plcafedthe Lord to recompenfe him abundantly for what be 
then loft; reftoring him 4 or 5 years after to the fame place with much 
more honour and Fame throughout the whole Kingdom 5by means ofDr. 
P/W.who being alfo a Chriflian^zndi of To much courage & underftanding, 
as to be able to affift and favour our afiFairs,broughc it about upon occafion 
of the reformation of the iT^/^Wf^ He accepted of the employment, the 
better to enable him, together with DoSieur Paul^ to promote the intereft 
of the Gofpel- and fo he began his journey toward the Court; but, befidc 
the infirmities of his old age, the length of the voyage, and the exceffivc 
cold of the winter, did fo weaken him, that, not many moncths after his 
arrivall, he ended his life on the day o^ All-Saints, \v\{\c\\ was the very day, 
whereon foure years before the firft Mdjfe was faid in that Houfe , which 
he built on purpofe to beftow upon the Society^ where at this day is one of 
the two Residencies, which we have in the City of Hamcheu, 

I will not ftand torehearfe the Piety ,compun(5ion,and refentment,with 
which he did feverali times confeffe himfclf during his (ickneffe-, nor the 
confolation with which he received the holy Sacraments of the Commi*- 
nion and extreame un^isnyZnd with what devotion he hearkned to the dif- 
courfes and exhortations , which were made to him (at that time by 
three of the Fathers, who were prefeni-; at his death, (are- 
ward which certainly the Lord was pleafcd to beftow upon that love and 
affe6Hon, with which he had alwayes helped and favoured us, from the 
£r(t time he knew us,)I forbear, I fay,to mention them, by reafon anyone 
may imagine them in fo learned a man and perfed a Chrifilan, I will only 
take notice briefly of what he faid at that time to Dolour Paul^ whom he 
tooke by the hand,juft as he was about to depart,& alter 'he had given him 
thanks for the favours he had received of him upon many occafions, and 
particularly in that laft,he faid tohim with tearesinhise\es. Sir ,1 dye 
much comfortedte fee with mf €)es how well (7«r Fathers Arere-ellahlilhed^ and 
froteBedb'i yourzeale. I will not recommend themto yoHy hecanfe I know the 
f lace they hold in your heart. My finnes have made me umvorth") to have any 
jhare in this work^to which yfuhav€ done me the favour to caH me for your 
companion. But tf after this wtirk is ended you would be f leafed to make ufe of my 
name to an) things which might refult to the glory of Godj andthe propagation 
ef his moft Holy Law, you would do me a high favour ♦, andfo^ Sir^ J leave up- 
on your Shoulders the Chriftiamtie g/China.With thefe words^which /hew- 
ed fufficicntly the efleem he had of the Gqlpel,and of the pjeach^rs 
thereof,/><?g(?«yX<g ended pipufly and holily that Hfe-^agood part wherc- 
oT he had fpentrnthe affiftanceqf this new Church. He dyed on the 
firft of November 16^0 although his memory wTlTalwayeslivCjinithe 
breafts of the Labourers of our Society- and we hope, that his ex- 
ample will be prefcrvcd in other generous mindes of the chineffeNo- 
bilitie. To 

24.<J TheBifiorjofCHl'J^A. Part.z. 

- To this ftate and condition is the Church o^ China arrived, after the 
contmuall labour and paines of the Fathers^ di^rjngfi^ty eight years ; aji^d 
truly fo happy and profperous a fuccelTe could never have been cxpc<5lcd 
from fuch difficult beginnings, andjuch weak meanes. Neverthdefle, 
from the contexture of this Narration, ic may well be perceived, what 
paines, trouble, caution, patience and longanimity have alwayes accom- 
panied this enterprife, and alfo upheld it in thegreateft perfccucions. The 
zeale and heate of thofe perfons, who would convert the world perfcdly 
on a fudden^is much to be commcnded-,and we do efteeme,and reverence 
it in all-, neverthelefTe, in new particularly in fuch, which are 
not fufceptible of this fire, which flameth out fo fuddenly,but do require 
to be difpofed to it by longer time, we do endeavour to retain them with- 
in the limits of prudence, more fafe, and the bounds of patience, more 
profitable, for that which is pretended to, by our Society, when ever we 
meet with any of fuch a Spirit among us-,and if that will not ferve, we fend 
thcmtothepulpctsand auditories of £«r<?/>f, where that fire may fhine 
out without any danger of burning. And this is obfervcd by us in order to 
the Gentiles, 

As for the new chrifiiam^ I doubt not at all, but that it is a holy and de- 
fireable thing, prefc ntly to f afhlon and accommodate them to the comon 
way of the univcrfall Church, to her lawe^, decrees, ftatures,&c. Never- 
thelefTe, we muft look how farrc that is poflfiblej and if polTible, whether 
it be convenient-, and whether it would not be more for the deftrudion 
then edification of fuch tender plants. Our Saviour Chrift and the Apo- 
ftles have left us this do(5lrinefoclecr, that there doth not ft em any place 
tobeleftforcrrour. St. \^mhrofi faith, It is a property of falfe Apo- 
fllcs to teach every thing to every one without diflference of perfons-, the 
which difference was alwayes obfervcd by our Saviour in his holy doc- 
trine, y4//V^r^w>«/'/'f////V, diter Icquebatur di[apulis, St. Paul the preacher 
of the Gentiles, znd Mafter of preachers,wrote to the Corinthims^Lac ojobis 
ptum dedi: (it is wel to be feen,(raith St (7r?^i>/-)f)thathe brought them up 
and inftruded them as Children .- they were newly begotten unto the 
GofpeljC faith St, K^mbrofe) Jdeo (syfpoftolu^^ vir divinti^Qr medic u^ fpri- 
tmlis vnicaique fectmdum vires illius^Aoiirinam iradebat.) A nd to the Galati • 
ans he {ziih^Scitis^quia per infrmitatem cArnis evangelizavi vobis. Wherefore 
accommodating himfelfeto the rveaknejfe oftheflefh, the Apojlle did preach 
no higher things to them: faith Si, HieromeMt infirmosGalatas lucrifaceret. 
of this opinion alfo is Toftatus cap»^,quefl.p.upon .Jr.Mar, 

The fame St.PW, when he would lay the foundation of Chriflianitieot 
Athens ihtg2S\ with that \v\{c,n^\\ovi^Ignoto deo^ot fas St Hierem will have 
\t)Di]s Afix^Burofs ^ Ljbiitjlijs ignotis ^ peregrinis : And without evec 
reprovingthofe words, or condemning the fuperftition, (although it was 
bad enough) judging it more convenient at the firft, he made ufe of this 
^4r;l'»fj(/'^ to communicate light to them by it* The Apoftlcs in the firft 
councell treated only of the facilitating of the converfion of the Gentiles^ 
Vifumeflffirituifanifo& nobis nihil ultra imponere vobis oneris^quam b£C 
necejfaria : ut abjlineatis vos ab immolatis fimttlachrorum, & ffijfocat0^& 
fanguine. So that in thefe three things,they did include the whole obliga- 

Chap.13. The Hijlo ry ofCH^K^- H7 

tion of the ^ui fsfttivum^ to which thofc new chriftimsv/ac obliged; and 
(what is more; thcfe were (all ih^QQ) ftwifh Ctremonks-^ which if they 
fliould be obfervcd at this day,would give much rcandal.Neverthekfs,to 
facilitate the converfion of the Gentiles y^xA to avoyd giving Scandd to the 
Jewei,(t\ty wcrc,at that time^ judged necelTaiy-The fame thing happened 
about circumcifion, the which S , Paul not only permitted , but even ex- 
crcifedhimfelfcontheperfonofhis difciple Timothy^ condefcending to 
the weaknelfe and ignorance of thofc firft Chriftiam, 

Of this opinion was Fa»ormhams(cap. licet Gr£Cos^ de Baptifmo ^ejus ef- 
fe^ : ) where he faith, Peteji ^ debet venientes noviter ad fidem tolerare in 
morihus ^ ritihtts eerttm antiquis-. For otherwife3(asC«/^;j^ faith) there 
would rather be a perturbation than an edification. oportet infirmitati 
hominnm flerumque condefcendere nifivergat contra ^ternam falutem.( which 
is very raanifcft, every man being chiefly concerned to take care of his 
own eternall Salvation, ne cum nlijs fradicaverit^iffe reprohu^ efficiatur:) 
nam exa6iaw qu<trere conformitatem in omnihm ,efl f otitis pacem turbare. This 
opinion likewifc is favoured by the Glo{fe,(/» capit.Reus qui^ depanitentia 
dr remipone. ) where it is faid,That in favour of thofe who are newly con- 
verted to the Faith, detrahendttm eft jure. The Church hath often pra(5tifed 
the fame,and particularly in the Councel ot Florence-^ where Pope Eugenim 
the Fourth did very prudently diflemble with the Greeks, concerning the 
point of marriage^ for the Greeks not confenting to create any thing 
concerning Marriage , and the Pope having alfo already determined 
the point : y ec Sjnodice , ^ , Armeniis , in decreto fuo , credendum 
tradens'^ mirum diBu-^ GrMos ob communem concordiam recentur initam, forti- 
us ftabiliendam, non explicit^ ad hoc credendum ebftrinxit^ imh pertinaciam eO' 
rum in rdiquis^violata pace^ne reftUrent^videns non vidit'^vel(ut in A5iis Con- 
cilij patet),non condemnavitM this was done to Perfons of that authority, 
quality and antiquity : what (ball we fay of poor Neophytes^ but only that 
of St. Gregory: Duris mentibus (imul omnia abfcindere impoffibile e(fe not duhi- 
urn efi: quia is^ qui locum afcendere nititurj gradibus velpafftbtiSj non faltibm 
e/ei/^r/zr.Sothatinthe converfion oftheGentiles(according to St^Gregorj) 
Suaviter ^ prudenter fubinfinuare^ non violenter abrumpere^ Apofiolici mune- 
rii eft, St. Peter ^zo preferve thofe Plants he had newly planted ; Inter Gen » 
tiUfgentiliterJnterjud^os judaic} vi^itavit^ And Sf,Paul,Fa^m e^^ud^ls 
tdnquam fudaus.ut Jud^os lucrifaceret-.^ ijs qui fub lege er ant y quaft (ub lege 
effet^^uteosquifubligeerantjucrifaceret^dqueprudenter ad bonum animarum 
(as Baroniusdechretb in his Annals in the year 5 1 .)This is that,which the 
t^poftles.SaffJts^CouncellSfand Fathershawc taughtby precept and exam- 

And notwithftanding all thefclnftruiftionsj how difficult is it to take 
the middle way by accommodating ones felfe to places, times, and per- 
fons, and the feverall courfe of things ? and how much good is loft, not to 
fay, how much cvill donc(and even fuch cvill as at this day we fee and 
lament J by following everyone his own judgment and fancy wharfoevcr it 
be; leaving that more ccrtain^and faving way which was ufed by the 

I will conclude this Relation with a Paragraph of a LettcrjWhichthc Pa- 


24-8 ' TheHi/lory of CHL^^A. Part.z. 

triark o^<^thiopa Don Alfhenfo Mendez. wrote horn Go a to the Caidinalis 
of the Congregation df prepagandJijide • who for his Learning, /Authority, 
and Venue, and above all, tor his experience oi Mfperfs^v/httcm he la- 
boured and fuffered much, doth very much defervc to be believed. He 
faith thus: 

But at the end of this Letter I do judge it not from ourfurfofe to bemind your 
Eminencies,^/'^^ God hath formetly commanded^ that a vine-yard fhould net U 
fowedwith diverfe feeds •, nor that agarment oughtto bewovenof Linnen4;?^ 
Woollen,tr//^ which the Queen and Spoufe is to be cloathed-^wherein is impli- 
ed, That the feverallinflitutions and different manners of living of Religious Or- 
ders, ought not to be entruded upon young and tender Churches^fuch as are but yet 
in a manner fucklings •, hut only to be introduced into fuch Churches^ as are come 
to their full jlrength^ and are fortified by a long continuance of years. For many 
times J emulation growing among them^ and many wanting prudence, and others 
abounding in an indifcreet zeale, they do many things, which tend rather to ru- 
ine than edification 6cc. The Lord blejfeyour Eminencies &c. From Goa the 
eleventh i*/ November 1638, 




^yi^nhoU Iwplrt of C UrvcL 






The Great and moft Renowned 

Empire of 


By the Invafion of the T A R T A R S, who 

in thefe laft fevcn years, have wholly 

fubdued chat vafl: Empire. 

Together with a Map of the Provinces, and chief Cities 

of the Countries^ for the better uaderftanding 

of the SToRT, 

Written originally in Latin b by MArti ft Martimus^ prciknt in the 

Countrey atmoftoi the Paffages herein related, And now 

faithfully Tranflated into Englilh. 


Printed for John Crool^^ stnd are to be fold at his Shop at the Sign of 
the Ship in S.Pauls Church-yard. 1^55* 

Kk 2 TO 


i SI 


To the Reader. 


^ereas in the courfe of this infuing ffiflory there occurs 
frequent menthn oft I e chief e Provinces and Cities in 
China; which hAve either been affaulted and defended^ 
fubdued or deftroyed^ by the fever all Armies^ its xvell 
from North to Souths as from Eajl to IVtfi . jeafi the 
pleafure and delight of thisUiflorj^ Jhouldbeany way 
diminifhed by the frequent re-encounter of harfh and 
barbarous names of Countries^ and Towns unknown to 
the European deader ^ / thought it good to frefixa 
little Geographical table of the Countries^ and chiefe Cities y which might ferve 
as a guide to condu^ the eye of the under ft anding^in thepurfuit of the mentioned 
victories, I confeffe it is not fo exaSi as the rigour of Geography e)ca5is, but yet 
it is fuch an om^asrviis drawn by the hands of their learned Phylo fathers, and 
may well give afufficient notion of all the places mentioned. 

As for more exquiftt^ and rare Maps both univerfal and particular^ as well of 
the Countries i as of the Cities^ and of all the rarities they contain^ together with 
the exa6i knowledge of their Longitudes and Latitudes^ and ofaE that does he- 
long either to Aftrommy or Geography in relation to them ; with what may be ex- 
peUedfrom Natural or Humane Hiftory, Ireferve aUthefe to my Atlas of Chi- 
na n^^/V^/^wf^wp^?/?/?^ 5 taken from their own ancient records ever fince the 
time of Noah % aU which I have with much pains and indujiry gathered up to- 
gether^ and tranf ported with me to Europe. / w'iti> not therefore for the prefent 
deflower that work of its greateft beauty^ by an unfeafonable expofition of it to the 
Readers view 5 but expe^ till it grow to that per feii ion ^as I hope wiSfatisfe the 
appetite of this our curieus Age. 







TheHiJlory ofthelVarres o/^^^ Tartars 
in China, (^c. 

g^^;^^^fjy^^ap* y|He mod ancient Nation o^tdrtars in Afia^ the Pa- 
* rcnt^ofmany Nations, hath been an Enemy to the 

Empire of C/&/»/i above tour thoufand yearsrduring The tartars 
which time, they have had many fliarp Wars with g^'/^f^""^'"' 
thofc oiChim^ in which they, though fomccimes china^ 
worfted, yet for the moft part, have remained the 

- I call that Nation,r4r/4rj,which inhabitcth the 
Northern parts, bchindjh at f amous Wall w hich f^-,^'f; 
flretching out above ;qo. German Leagues from Eafl: to Weft, hath eve r 
feTved^ foFa KZm par t to hinder their irruptions into the faid Empire . 

This Country ihtCJmefes having a dcfe(5t of the letter R. anciently cal- 
led Tat A : comprehending under this namc,not only the occidentall, but 
the Oriental Tartars y hitherto much unknown to us in Buro^e^ containing 
the Provinces, Sumahania, Tanyu^Nmhe^ Niulhan, and the like, from the 
lertetT^r^dr^, and Kingdom of Crf/r^y-, to the Oriental Sea above ^apony^ 
where they arc fcparated by the Streight of Amarf, from ^ev'tra in Am&- 
rica^ if yet it be a Streight and not a Continent. 

But it is not my intention to write all the Warrs which have pafled be- 
twixt them •, but only of fuch as have happened in our memory , and in my 
prefence ; All the reft (hall appear at large in my Abridgement ot the Hi- 
ftory oi china. And that we may proceed with more Order, it will be 
neccffary to reflect, how and from whence thofe Troubles had their be- 

It is therefore firft to be known, that the ancient Weftern Tartars^z.^iti jhe rmm 
they had fubdued almoft all ^7?4 to their power, waged war againftC^//?^, T'^T'^o 
Cof which Paulns Venetus, and A)ton make mention under the names of ^^^^ "^^°' 
Cauje and Manin^in) and this before the times of great Tamberl^n, who Tambjriwt 
never fubdued China, as fomc have falfty writ ^ for he flouriOied about the ^^^^1 - 
yearMCCCCVI; in which time !r^/Vto^«^, Emperourof^i^/;?4,and ^ 
the fccond of the Taimingian Family (the Tartars being before beaten out 


2^6 Vellum l^artaricum. 

ofhisKingdom; governed peaceably all the Provinces included within 
thecompafsofthat Vaft Wall which before I ment ioned. 

But the War which Paulus Vemtus toucheth, betwixt the Chimjfes and 
Tartars began in the year MCCVI. as their Hiftory and Chronology te- 
ftify,which lafting77.ycars,at laft xhtrartArsiwxhQ year MCCLXXVUI. 
having totally conquered all that potent Erapirejextinguifhed the Imperi- 
all Family of the Sungas^ and ereded a new Regal Family,which they cal- 
led fuoja . of which Tartarian Race nine Emperors by defcent, go* 
The Tartars vcmcd in the Kingdom of China for the fpace of LXX. years in Peace 
Emperours of and Qufetnefs 5 and about the end of that War, came Paulus Venetus into 
china* chirjamththcTartars^ as appeareth by his Writings. 

In this trad of time, the Tartars forgetting their ancient Vigour of 
Mind and warlike Spirits, which the pleafurcs and deliccs of that Coun- 
try had quailed and tamed, and being alfo weakned by fo long a Peace, 
became of a fofter temper, and received a deep Tindturc of the Nature 
and DifpofitioD of the Natives of China. 

Whereupon a contemptible perfon (who was fervant to one of thofc 
deputed to offer Sacrifice to their Idols) called Chu^ prefunied to rcbell a- 
gainft them. 

This man commiferating the condition of his enflaved Country, and al- 
fotouched with the ambition of Reigning, firfl afted the part of a Thief, 
or High-way man 5 and being of a Generous Nature, bold, and as quick 
of hand,as in wit-, wanted neither Courage,nor Art,nor Companions,nor 
Fortune, to gather fuch a multitude as in fhort time made up the vaft body 
of an Army 5 whereupon depofing the perfon of a Thicf,hc became a Ge- 
neral ; and with a bold attempt prefumed to fet upon the Tartars^ and ha- 
ving fought many battailes with them, obtained many fingular Vidories; 
fo as in the year i j^S.he finally drove them out of the Kingdom of China^ 
receiving for fo memorable anadion, the whole Empire of Chinazsz. 
worthy reward of his Heroical Adions. 

It was he firft creded the Imperial Family of the Taminges^ and being 
hewasthcfirft Emperour of that Race, ftiledhimfelfby the name of 
Hunguus •, which fignifies as much as, The famous Warriottf, 

After fuch anilluftrious Adion, it was no wonder if all the Provinces 
fubmittcdto him^, both as to one that was a Native of their Country ^ and 
alfo becaufe they looked on him as a man who had redeemed them from 
Thraldome : for it is the Nature of the people of China to love and efleem 
their own,as much as they hate and vilifie Strangers. 

Wherefore he firft placed his Court at Nanking neer to the bank of that 
great River of Kiang^ which the Chinejfes^m refpe6t of the huge Mountains 
of water which it difcharges into the Ocean, call the Son of the Sea : And 
having fpeedily ordered, and eftablifticd that Empire, fearing no Infur- 
re(5i:ions from thefe new redeemed Creatures, he was not contented to 
have chafed the Tartars out of China^ but he made an irruption into Tarta^ 
ry it fclfe, and fo followed the point of his Vi6i;ory,as that he routed thera 
fcveral times, wafted all their Territories, and finally brought the Orien- 
tal 'Tartars to fuch ftrcights, as he forced them to lay down their Arms, to 
pay Tribute, and even begge an Ignominious Peace. This Storm of War 


Vellum Tartaricum. ^jy 

fell chiefly on the 74r/4rjofthe Province of iV/W^f, whither the TArtars 
oiChim being expelled ;Wcre retired. 

Afterward thofe Tartars every yeare, either as Subje(5i:$ or Friends, 
came into Chma by the Province oi Leaotungio traffick with the Inhabi- 
tants-, For, being brought to poverty and mifery, they thought no more of 
making Wirrc againft China. The Merchandife they brought were fevc* 
rail, as, the root cal'd Gmfemfa much eftecraed amongft the Chittefes-^ and 
all forts of precious skins,as thofe o^CaJlor^ Martais and ^bellens-^ and al- 
fo Horfe-hair, of which the Chinefes make their Nets, and the men ufc 
if in tying up their hair, as the handfomeft dreffe they can appear in. But 
thofe T'artars multiplyed fo faft, as they grew quickly into fcven Govern- 
ments which they call //^r^^j; and thefe fighting one againfl another, at 
length about the year of Chrifl MDL. were united into one Kingdome, 
called the Kingdome of Niuche. 

— Xk"J. ftood china in relatjpn t qthe Eaflein Tartars-.^M to the Wcflern '-- 
Tartars they payed Tributc^maskcd under the Tit le of Prcfcnts, that they 
niiglit dcEff from War, 

For the Chinefes efleem it very unhandfome to make war againft any ^f ^^ 
by any other means their Country can beconfcrved in peace and quiet-,, 
nefsjbeing taught this by their Philofophers. 

- But in the meanc time, being «ver jealous of the E nemies to the ir an- a great Gasi- 
tjent riches, they never left that great Wall, which' extends from Eaft^to WaKinft 
Weft, without a mill ion of Souldiers to guard it. tfacVdrSr" 

'^ Therefore this Kingdome of China bein^ th us cftablifhcd in the Tai- 
mh^innVjim^ ,en joyed a cqnflant pciccjmdjquietnefl^^ for CCL.yea«. -fnCMna^ ^^^^ 
and whilft the fcven Tartarian Lords or Govern ours made civil wars,that " "^ 
renowned Emperour of Chwa^ known by thehame of Vanlej being the 
thirteenth Emperour of Taiminges Family, governed happily the King- ^ 
dome of china from theycarj57j. to the year 1620. with as much Pru- l^2£ • 
dcnce as Juflice and Equity . 

— ^'But in this time ihtTartars of Niuche had fo multiplied and fpread The r^rr^rx 
themfclvcs,after incorporated into a Kingdome, that they became daily think of inva. 
more form id able to C^/;;^; And th^fore the Governours of the borde- *^'"^ ^*'"^* 
ring Provinces, confulted privately amongfl themfclvs how they might 
curb and reflraine thefe people within their limits: For their Governours 
have fo much Power and Authority, that although they live as Slaves to 
their Prince,yet when there is queftion of a Common and publick good, 
they govern abfolutely and uncontrouIably-,unlcfs by fome higher powers 
their orders be reflrained. 

Firfl therefore the Prefects or Governours, did abufe the Merchant j^^ ^^^ ^ ^^ 
Tartars oi Niuche when they came into Xm^^/w^, which is a Province ^tLkiS* 
confines next to them. ^'nwar. 

Then again when the King ofiV/W^tf would have married his Daugh-Tbefccoad 
tcr to another King of the r4rf4r^,they hindred this marriage by rcprefca- "u^c 
ting fome pretended reafons of State. 

And finally,when the King of Niuche fufpe^ed nothing from them he ^5^.^"'^ 
conceived his friends, they took him by deceit, and killed him perfidi- ^ 

L 1 Wherefore 


Bellum Tartaricum. 

Wherefore to revenge thcfe injuries, the Kings Son gathered a ftrong 
TbefirftirrDp. /^fjny, and taking his time,found meanes to get over the great Wall I 
TanMrs'mto mentioned^ and the great River being frozen, he prelently fct upon the 
china. great City Kaiyven,{or as others call it)T4Ar//;;,which lies upon the Con- 

fines o^Tartary, which he took in the year MDCX VI. 
Trom this City he writ a Letter in Tartarian Characters to the Empe- 
rr^. ^ rour of ehha^vfhkh though writ in Barbarian Charadlers^ yet contained 

Prmefhdona- nothing Batbarous. By this Letter, which he fent by one of their Ifidian 
gainft China. Priefts(whom they call Lama) in a very humble and fubmlflive manner 
he declared to him, that he had invaded his Country to revenge the in- 
juries he had received from the Governours of the neighbouring Pro- 
vinces. But yet that he was ready to reftore the City he had taken, and 
depofe his Armes, if his complaints might be heard, and fatisfa(5lion gi- 
ven him. The Empcrour of China^ called ra»ley^ having received this 
Letter, though otherwife of an eminent wifdome, and of as great expe- 
rience, yet being now broken with Age, in this bufinefle feems to have 
proceeded with lelTe Prudence than that which accompanied the former 
Anions of hislifcj For,thinking it not to be a bufinefs of "that moment as 
that it deferved to be treated before him in his own Court, he remitted it 
to the chief Governours and Commanders. And thefe men puffed up 
with their ufuall pride, thought it not fit fo much as to give an anfwer to 
the Barbarian King, but refented it very highly that he durft be fo bold as 
to complain to the Emperor of any injury received. 

The Tartariarf King, feeing they vouchfafed no anfwer to his juft de- 
TheBarb:- mahds,turninghis angcr into rage-, vowedto Celebrate his Fathers Fune- 
fii"k)us Vow ^" rals with the lives of two hundred Thoufand of the Inhabitants of Chitta> 
of the Tartaric For It is the cuftome of the Tartars when any man of quality dyctb,to 
dnKing. caft lUto that fire which confumes the dead Corps, as many Servants, 
Women, and Horfes, with bows and Arrows, as may be fit to atend and 
ferve them in the next life; Though now fince they conquered China, 
they have left off this Barbarous cuflome, being reprehended and correc- 
. tedforitbythcC/^/;?^jf^jthemfelvcs. After this fuperftitious Vow, ad- 
ty^oUeloy^ne vanciughis rcvcuging Armes, he befiegcd leaotung(vfh\ch was rhe chief 
bdiegedaud City of the Proviuce of X^4^jf4«^) v^ 50000. men. But the City was 
taken. defended by exceeding many men, who generally were all armed with 

Mufquets: The Tartars had nothing but their Scy metars, with Bows and 
Arrows, which they difcharge with ftrange Dexterity and Art.But be- 
A Stratagem caufe thcy chfcfly feared the mufquet bullets, they refolved by a Strata- 
againftmuf- gem to make that unkuowu Infttument lefic hurtfull to them than their 
quets. enemies did iniagin. For the 74rf4r/4» King commanded fuch as made 

the firft on-fet, to carry a thick hard board for their Shield, which was as 
good to them as a wooden Wall^ thefe men were feconded by other 
Companies who carried Ladders to climb up the Walls; and the Horfe 
came up in the Rear.In this manner he fet upon the City in fourc quarters, 
and received the difcharge of their Mufquets againft his wooden wall; 
Then in a moment the fcaling-Iaddcrs being applied, before they could 
charge again, they were upon the Walls and entrcd the Cicy 5 for fuch is 
thbquickncffcandnimblcneffeofthe "Tartars (in which they excel! all 


Vellum Tartaricum* 259 

Nadoas, and in which alfo they place their chief art) that in a trice, they 
either prevail in their dcngns, or retire.- and the little skill the Chineffes 
hadintheufcofMufquets, wasnofmall hinderancc to the warre. For 
the Tartars quickneile and nimblene/Ic pot giving them time to charge a- 
gain, being aftoniflied with the fudden inundation of armed men, they 
prcfcntly fled which way foever they could-, but being purfued by the 
fwift '74>/4r/4;?Horfe,moftofthem periflied in the taking of this great 
Ci y» This City being t3ken,the Tartar like a Torrent over- run many o- 
thers of lefTe note-, but amongft others, he took that Noble City Evamg- Many other 
ningy and overrunning moft ipeedily the whole Country of Leaotung^ he ^'"^' "^^"' 
cntred the Province oiPekin-^ and comming within feven Leagues of the 
very Imperiall City, He dur(t not advance, fearing the Hnemy might 
coinpafTe or f urround him, becaufe he heard that a world of men came in > 
to help their diftrefled Prince. ^iMthtTartar ftruck fuch aterrour into 
the hearts of all the Countries he had palTed, as both Souldier and Citi- 
zen quitting their Houfes left the empty walls to the Tartarians pofTeflionj 
knowing the r^r/^r to have that cuftom and pradife, to deftroy and put 
all fo fire and fword that did refift, and only pillage the Cities that fub- 
mittcd, leaving the Citizens alive, and treating themcourreoufly."By ^^,/^3 j[?- 
vyhich mcanes having colle(5ted a world of riches.he returned to Leaotung conVueW '"^ 
vidorlous. And becaufe his South -fayers had perfwaded him that the '^^^a^* 
ftanding of the old Walls were unfortunate, he beat them down^and v 
compared it about with new, fortifying them with new Munitions, and 
liL^I£R^^I?^<^J^^"^^clf Emperour o^ China : For although as yet he had jh^Tartar 
taker} nothing o^ China, but only the skirts of the Eaftern Country of .the cTps KimTeif 
Province oiLeaotun2:-,y^x. in his hopes & afpiring thoughts he had devpu- fPf^-^ 
r^^^ejwholeJCingdom ; wjicrefore he was called in the c:/6/;74 lan^age i^^' 

tk^H^^J^I'^^^^ ^^c ^^^^^ y^3^ of h^s Reign, which was in that of one 
thoufand fix hundred and eighteen. 

In this year, fome in authority about the Empcrour Fanley, demanded 
the baniQiment ofthe Pn'cfts, who did then preach the Chriftian Religi- 
on to that Nation-, But the Emperour(who in his heart loved Chriftanity, 
and thofe particularly that firft planted that Religion amongfi: them jgave 
no eare for a long while to their demands j But at length overcome by the 
importunity of a chief Commander, who had ever been a fore Enemy to 
Chriftian Religion, and was called J5/W^/^, it was ordained and procla- 
med that all thofe Fathers that did propagate Chriftan Religion fhould 
be baniflied the Kingdo ne. Upon which fome of them were fecretly 
concealed in feverall Provinces by fome Chriftian Governours, others 
being taken were carried in great Cages to Macao ^ wherein being (hut up God puniftcd 
day and night, they fulfered extreamly-, whilft others alfo being whiptcAw^ for their 
out ofthe Country, rejoyced to undcrgocfomething for his fake whofe^*^j[^g|"jJ'" '*^. 
name they bore-, but that which added more affli<i^ion to all thefe mifc- 
ries, was the Emperour Vanlefs Prohibition to all his to profcflfe Chrifti- 
an Religion. But, upon this occafion, the Chriftians oichina{\v\\o from 
the horrid wildernelTe of Infidelity, had been brought to the plcafant 
Pafturcs of Chriftianityj gave illuftrious examples of their Faith and 
Conftancy-, but the longer Narration of this glorious perfccution is rcfer- 

Ll 2 vcd 

x(jo Bellum Tartaricum. 

ved for another place. I only touch it here, to admire the Divine Provi- 
dence of God, who raifed fo (harp War againft ChmayVfhcn they negle<a ♦ 
cd Chriftian Peace •, and permitted, at the fame time, thefe Tartars to take 
fo deep a root in this Empire of qfiirnt^ as afterward grew to that height, 
as to extirpate the Royal Family of the Tam'tnges, together with the King. 
dom,at the very fame time they went about utterly to deftroy all Chrifti- 
anity . But, (as ordinarily it doth; by this very perfecution, Chriftian Re- 
ligion grew to that height and greatneffe, that the Church glories to be- 
hold it- whilft, (unleffe God vouchfafe to lend a potent helping hand,)thc 
vaft Kingdom o^China is utterly overthrown. 

In the mean time,thc Chine fes were very folicitous to expell this Enemy 
from the bowclls of cheir Country •, and firft,they felc^cd very chief and 
eminent men for Commanders and Governours •, then they gatheredan 
Army of fix hundred thoufand cboife Souldiers. The King of C^^r^ al^fo 
j(ji<p- fent to the Emperour o^chlm^ twelve thoufand •, with this potent Army 

therefore they went out in the beginning o^MarchMDCXlX .to give Bat- 
tail to the Enemy. The Tartars refolved to meet them with an undaunted 
courage ; and for a good while the event and vi<5tory was very doubtful! 5 
but in the end the Armyof C/;/;?;^ was wholly routed,& their chief Com- 
manders, with fifty thoufand men, were all flain.- The T^y^^n according 
to their cuftomc, profecute the vidory with all quickneflfc and diligence ; 
for the fame day they took and facked two Cities which they burned,Af- 
ter this, they over-run that whole Country.and came to the very Walls of 
PekirJy the Emperours Court • but durft not venture to befiegeit, becaufe 
they knewfbefides the infinite number of Canons it contained; there was 
lodged fourfcore thoufand Souldiers in it. 

But the Chinefes confefs that there was fuch a fear and confternation in 
the City, that the King thought to have left that City and gone into the 
Southern parts of the Kingdom : which he had ef!e(5tually performed,had 
not fome Commanders fuggefted, that his flight would give courage to 
the Vidlorious, and breed trouble and confufion in the whole Empire, be- 
ing that to fly is nothing elfe but to yeeld up the land to the Enemy. Nay 
more, they fay, the diforders were fuch in the City, that if the Tartar had 
come on,he infallibly had made himfelf Mafter of it. But the Enemy was 
more greedy of Prey • and therefore they difperfed themfelves abroad, 
fpoilirig and burning all Towns and Cities, and killing and deftroyfng an 
immenfe company oi chinefes in a moft cruell manner ; and fo leaving all 
1^^—^' thefe places difmantled and without Garifons, laden with infinite Riches, 
gicat rTJcs. they returned victorious to Leaotmg^ where they had their firft footing. 

^ After thefe things had paffed , that renouned Emperour of China cajjld 
'%^i"pfiouj- y^pjey died 5 and left his Son Taichangus to fuccced him-,who begun Co ga- 
Tifching^'' ther a new Army againfl the Tartars 5 but after four moneths reign he alfo 

fuccctds and died* 

Theinh- ' T^^ ^^^ fuGcccded Thewkins, who as foon as he afTumed the Crown, 
5o|nf^' fent^anEmbaftadour, with many magiiificetitPrefenis,^ 

china Monarchy to the King oiCorea •, The end of this EmbafTage was to 
thank him for the Auxiliary forces fent to his Grandfather,as alfo to com- 
fort him for the loffc he had received in the late fervice oiC^ina-^ & finally 


Vellum ^artaricum. 't6i 

to follicitc and prcfTc for further fuccours 5 For it fccnis thofe of Corea, as 

they are nearer to ^avon% fo they participate more of that warlike Spirit '^''^'^ °f ^'"^^'* 

and Fortitude, than thofe of Chim do. Z'thf '"' 

Befides, that he might more cflpc(5i;ually divert the imminent danger of chmfcs. 
his Kingdoms ruin, helcavied new Forces throughout ail the Kingdom ♦, .^"^L^S'" 
which he fent into the Province of hinder the irruption of the !rc"rlmi'" . 
Tartars any further into the Gountery • And for their better fupply with 
necefTary Provi{ion,he maintained a great Navie in the Haven o^Thiemn 
tocarry Corn and other neceffaries for their main: enance* This Port^of 
2j^/>A;f/;» is a Station to which an incredible number of (hips reibrt,both by 'f^fi^^l^ ^^^ 
Sea and Rivers, from all parts of China^ So as bY_tfe means, by a very 
(hoxi and^compendious way, t hey we re eafjly provide JwItH all necelTa- 
rl!es. For all the whole Country of Zffcf«^ is almoft invironed withjhc 
St2^ and the furtbeft part is but tvvo^daics dif^ant b y water from this Por t 
of Thiencin •, but by land far more time is neceffary. 
- Amongfi otherCommandcrs which came with fuccours to their Prince, Tj>e vaiiint 
there was one Herojck Lady, whom we may well call the Amazort or Ven- ^^m 9^ 
thefiUan of China, SJie brought along with her three thoufand, frpmjhc ^'""*^' 
rem_ote Province of Suchtien^carTjingall^nox. only Mafciiline minds, but 
mens habits alfo, and affumlng Titles more becoming men than women. 
This noble and generous Lady gave many rare proofs of her courage and 
valour, not only againft thefe Tartars^ but alfo againft the Rebells which 
afterwards rifs againft their Lord and Emperour.But now (he came in this 
War to fupply her Sons place, whom flie left at home in bis own King- 
dom, as being yet a Child, and not able to perform that Homage and Du- 
ty to which he was obliged . For in the mountains of the Country of 5»- 
chncn there is a King, not fubjed to him ofchjm^ but an abfolute Prince 5 
yet fo as he receives the Honour and Title of a King from the Emperour 
of C^''^4 5 after which Inveffiture, hisSubjedls only obey him and pay 
Tribute ^ But becaufc they furpafTe all others in Valour and Courage, ther- 
forc they arc ufed by the Kings of China in warlick Affairs. 
' Byoccafion of this war the two noble Chriftian Do(5tours, P/i/// and Mi- "^^^M >>' 
chael^ found means to pe rfwadc the Emperour to demand of the Fortuge- cSian/^^ 
fes^ojMaca$, fomc^reater Pieces^and alfo fome Gunnes and Gunncrs-,ho- advance Cfir;-. 
ping by this means alfo to reff ore thcTjanifhed Fathers of Chriftianity, as ^'''""^* 
alfo the Religion it felf. And their Propofition took cffea: 5 for both the 
one and the other were fent for 5 and the Fathers who hitherto fccretly ne- 
gotiated the bufinefTe of Religion were publickly admitted again, and ma- 
ny new Souldiers oi Portugal came to help th^ Army. 

And God did moft abundantly recompence to the Emperour this fa- 
vour done to Chriftianity ;For,before the Fmugefe arrived, his Army had 
caft theTartars out of Leaotmg^hy means of the Inhabitants of that Coun- 
try, who being much cxafperated by the Tartarians cruelty, opened tlieir 
City Gates as foon as the Kingoi China's Army appeared, and rifing a- ^-[^^ 
gainft their Garifon, gave entrance to the Army. Infomuch as they reco- ^^^ 
vered the Metropolitan Town of Leaotung : For the King of Tartary be- 
ing diverted by other Wars at home could not come foon enough to re- 
lieve it : So as by this means the affairs of china b^an to recover Life, 


The Tartars 
caA out. 


Vellum Tartaricum. 

The Tartars 
make war 
They befiege 

take it. 

rewarded by 
the Enemy. 

Tfcc Tart ATS 
Habits and 

and Strengrh, and the Tartars fccmcd wholly reft rained. 

But though Fortune feemed now to (hew a fmiling face for China, yer, 
ns her cuftome Is, (he ftood not long conftant and liable : For the Tarta- 
rian King having difpatched his affairs mTartarjJknt prcfently fixty thou- 
fand Horfe to bcdegc LtAojang again, promifing that himfclf inperfon 
would follow with greater Forces. And this /^rmy took that ftrong City 
in the fpace of forty hours 5 both patties fighting with fuch vigour and 
fiercenefSj that thirty thoufand of the Garifon wer^ killed, and the Tartars 
loft about twenty thoufand of theirs. Nay ihc C^im^es affirm, that they 
had never woon the City, had not the Governor been corrupted by great 
promifes oft ewjrd, to open them one of the Gates of the Town. But be 
it as it will, the Tartars woon the Town ., The Vice Roy hanged himfelf 
for grief •, The Kings Vifitor was taken by the enemy, but could never be 
brought to fubmit himfelf, or to beftow the Title of a King upon the Bar- 
bari.w ; for which, in admiration and reward of his Conftancy and Fide- 
lity, he obtained life and freedom ^ but, knowing that according to the cu- 
ftom of C/;w^,he was guilty of death, only l^ccaufe he had fought unfor- 
tunately, more cruel to himfelf than the barbarous Enemy, he hanged 

ThcTart^rs having taken the City,proclamed by Edi(5l,that they fliould 
kill none, if they would cut their hair,and life the Tartarians HMt.Vov the 
Tartars (that I may fay fomethingof their Manners, as my fubje(Ji gives 
me occafion) do (have both the Head and Beard, referving only the Mu- 
flachces, which they extend to a great length, and in the hinder part of 
■ their heads they leave a Tuff, which being cut ioufly woven and plated, 
they let hang down care'efly below their fliouldcrs-they have a round and 
low Cap, which is al waies garnifhed round with fome pretious skin three 
fingers hi o^d^ofC after oxZibcUin,^ ferveth to t^cfend theirTemples^Ears, 
and Foreheads fioin colds & other Tempefts. That which appears above 
the skin being covered over either with curious red filke,orelfe wiih black 
and purple horfc"hair,which they die and drcfte moft curioufly^fo as theit 
appurtenances being decently joy ned together, makes the cap both com- 
modious and handfom. Their Garments are long Robes falling down to 
the very foot,but their fleeves are not fo wide and large as the Chine fes ufe, 
but rather fuch as are ufed in Polon^^ Sc Hungary ^ovXy with this difference, 
tha ttheyfaft)ion the extremity of the Sleeve, ever like a Horfe his Hoof. 
At their Girdle there hangs on cither fide two Handkcrchiefesto wipe 
their face and hands •, befides, there bangs a Knife for all necefTary ufes, 
with two Purfes, in which they carry Tobacco, or fuch like Commodities. 
On their left fide they hang their Scymiters, but fo as the point goes be- 
fore, and the handle behind, and therefore when they fight they draw it 
out with the right hand behind them without holding the Scabbard with 
the other. They fcldorae weare Shoes 5 and ufe no fpurrs to their Boots, 
which they make either of Silk,or ofHorfc-skin very neatly dreft-but they 
often ufe fair Pattins, which they make three Fingers high. In riding they 
ufc Stirrups, their Trappings are both lower and broader than ours, their 
faces arc comely, and commonly broad as thofe oi China alfo have, their 
coJour is white, but their Nofc is not fo flat, nor their eyes fo little, as the 

Chine fes 

Vellum T'artaricum, 

chimfes arc5They fpeak littie, and ride penfis^cly. In the reftofthcic 
manners they refemble outtdttarso^ Europe, though they be nothing fo 
barbarous.Thcy rejoy ce to fee Strangers: They no way like the grimnefs 
and fourenefs of the Chineffe gravity,and therefore in theirfirft abords they 
appear more humane. 

Having thus briefly defcribed their manners, we refume our former 
dircourfe,and return to the vi<5torious Tartars in the City they had takcnjln 
which, finding many rich and wealthy Merchants of other Provinces, 
they publiilieda Licence that they might depart with their Goods-, and 
withall commanded them fpeedily to void the Qty^ who prefently obey- The Tartars 
ing rhe order, carried away all their goods and riches^ little fufpedting the perfidioufncfs. 
pe'rfidcous treachery of the Tartars-^Vot they had hot gone three miles 
from the Town, but being fct upon by the Tartars, they were plundred of 
their goods, and loft all their lives-, which being done, they returned into 
the fcarfuU City, laden with Riches, the Citizens trembling, left they 
^might happely experience the like perfidioufneffe. 

But the T'artar confidering at how dear a rate he had bought the mi- 
ftering of that City, and fearing alfo to find the like provifion and pre- 
paration in other Cities,they durft not make any further attempt-,for they 
knew well that the Emperour had not only fortified all the ancient places, 
but ercded alfo new muivitions, in the ftraights of many hard and rude 

And amongft all other ftrong Holds, that of Xanghai^ fcituated in the 
Ifland of Cu^ was moft eminent-, containing a vaft number of men in the 
Gariifon, to rcfift the further progrefTe of the T^r/^m;? Forces. But that 
which moft of all repreffcd the Tartars^ was the great valour of the 
incomparable Commmder LMMvenlmgus - who having with 
his great Fleet taken an Ifland necr Corea in the mouth of the River 
T4A?,vexedmurhtheir Army in the Rear, and was victorious in feverall The viiiameft 
Skirmifhes againfl them; fo that the Tartars bent all their care and Commander 
thoughts againft this their Enemy. This renowned perfon was born in 
the Province o^Bvangtungy where being neer the Pertugefeoi Macao, he 
had much perf eifted himfelf in the Art of war, and he brought with him 
many great pieces of Artillcrie, which he had recovered from the Ship- 
wrack of a BfoHajjd Ship, upon the coafls of that Territorie. And becaufc 
the Emperour o^ China had declared the C\iyo£Ninguyventohtt\\6 
chief (in place o^ Leao'jartg)(yj\\txc alfo he had placed a new Ficeroy^z{\dL 
his Royall Vifitor jthcreforc Mmvenlurtgrn placed the bcft part of his Ar*-' 
tdlarie upon the Walls of this City. 

The Tartars therefore adiied nothing till the year 1625. and becaufc 
they refolved to befiegc the new Metropolitan City of Nrnguyverf, they 
firftpufpofed ioimMaovenlungus his fidelity-, offering him halfc of the -pi^^^^.^,^^^^^ 
Empire of Chwa, if he would help them to gain it; But that noble Soul of ne^c of the " 
his, proved as faithfull, as valiant, by rcjetfiing thofe demands with indig- f ommander« 
natiofl-and came prefently with his Forces to fuccour the City Ningtt'fvw *" ^'"** 
which they befieged-, by which means, the 74r//<rj having loft ten thou- yj,c overthrow 
fandmen,wercputtoflght-,and amongft the reft, the King o^ tartarfs ^i^htT^rtars,' 
own Sonne was killed. Wherefore being furious with anger,thcypaf- 



26^ Vellum Tartaricum. 

fed the frozen Sea, and invaded the Ifland Thaoyven, where they killed 

ten thoufand that kept Garrifons there, together with all the Inhabitants; 

and by this one A6t, having revenged their former diTcomfiture, they re- 

X cruelty. ^^^^^^ ^^^^ Tartary^not with a refolution to fit ftill,but an intention to re- 

turne with greater Forces-, By which retreat, all things retnaincd^quietull 

the year 1627. in which the Empcrour Thienk'tus dyed in theflpw!r_of 

The Kings of his age, and^with him the whole Empire of Cto4 fccmed to fall to ruin 

cKJnd'^r- 2j^'(j deftru^ion-, andjjn the fame year, the King of the T artars, who had 

MT^jothdjcd. ^j^jy-^^^-£^^^ himfelfe augmented the number of the 

*-» AftcrT/'/e»i^/«J,in the Empire of C^/;?4, fucccedcd that unhappy Em- - 

peroiir ^«;j^f^/>/»^, brother to the former,(of whom more hereafter .) 
^I/A'^^ ^_ And ahcr Thiefiwwgus King of Tartar j, fucceeded Thienzmgtts his Son, 
rou/oT c/iiE' wHo changed the manner of his Fathers Government , and by good 
fBenxungw QqxxwccW began rogoverne the Chinefes in courteous and fweet manrier; 

S?Sp4c*S"tt^o"g^^^^^^^^"^^^ ^^"^"^^^ ^^"^ ^ good example for his 

cltfors. Son to conquer China more by Civifity and Humanitie^than by force of 


' lnthisy ear,grea t Mapvenlmgus Souldiers being i nfqlc titjb^ want of a ^i- 
Sicn".« ex- on, grew very troublefomc and oilenfive, by their Rapines and Diforder?, 
afperatc the to the Corcam^ who were friends and Allies-, and particularly they much 
Country of Co- ^xafperated the Province of Bienkin-^ infomuch that fome of the Inhabi- 
'^''** tantsof that place, moved with indignation of feverall pafTages, fecretly 

treated with the Tartarian King, to invade the Chimjfes Army, in the ha- 
bit and attire of the Inhabitants of Corf^, from whom they could exped 
-no treafon, being leaguerd with them in friendfhip and amitie •• to effe(5t - 
which dcfign , thcfe Traitours both to their Country , Kin^ , and 
the'Emperour of China, promifed their' bcft afTiflance. This Goun- 
fel pleafed the Tartar-, and therefore he fenta Vice-roy wfth a potent A r- 
ThtTartars j^y to which the Orf4WJ (hcwcd the wayes,and guided them through 

(nto Corea all thc paffages-, who falling upon the Chinefa Armie (which fufpe^ing 
nothing, was divided, nnd many ftragling up and down the Country; 

are biOu 

Trf. aiitnc 

^ madea huge Carnage amongft them . But when Maovenlmgus perceived ^^ 
they were T4y/4rj, he prefently made head, rallied his forces, and vigo- 
roufly oppofed all thofe (harp affaults.Butj^et at length he was forced to "' 
yeeld the Field-, and therefore leaving a Regiment or two,to hold the E- 
nemie in adioti whilft his Army retreated, he fled to his fhips, and to thc 
• Ifland which he had fortified. The Tartars were vexed and grieved,both 
to fee their victory fo bloody, and alfo that Maovenlungns, v^hom they 
chiefly aimed at, had efcapcd with mofl of his Army-,and therefore enra- 
^' gcd with anger»they fell upon thc Ct>rf4;; Traitors,asfallrtothcm,and 
,j killcci every man; (vvhichadtion the King o[ Tartary himfelf afterward 
muchcondemnedj) and then turning their wrath to thc four Northern 
Corea wafted.' Provinces, which border upon tartary, th ey vyaftc d and dcftroycd them 
all in a moment. 

' In the mean time the King of C$rea gathered an Army to refiff the Tar* 
tars-, and Maovenlmgus alfo, having recruited his Forces, came into Corea^ 
to revenge thc received lolfe. The victorious Tartars were come within 


Vellum Tartar icum* 26 f 

fcven Leagues of the principalleft City of all Cerea. And, finding the 
King to have taken the Straights and PafTagcs of the Mountains .which 
lead unto it, they defperately refolved to force their paflTage* The Battel 
-was hardly begun, when MAOvedungm^ after a long march, falls in upon 
their R ear: the T 4r/^rj finding^theniicl yes enconipaffed befor e & behin d, 
nor any means to eTcape bucbydintjof Sword, fought moft delperately^ 
fuEainingthe (hock of two Armics; fuch was the fji^ry_of thjs batteil, as 
<gyg4 ngycnaw7for,f it is ftrange to write,yet ve£yjrue~)o£the"thrce_Ar- 
mies, nonewas vicaorousib^^ a manner, deft royed. Of the rmari' The Fight and 
4;^ Annie fifty thoufaud were found wanting- The Or(rd« ArmiefKughteroTj. 
loft feveity thoufand^ and few or none efcaped of the Chinefes-, A^mlev; - 
for their Qinrter being moft commodious for the Tartars flight, they 
there made their moft vigorous Charges,and fo forced their way towards 
their own Coantry, So as none of them all gained the ficld,or could pro- 
fecute the courfe of a Vi(5tory. Yet the King o^Corea made a (liift to rallie 
To many together again, as to take pofleffion of thofe his Countries which 
the Tart ariaffs by thck flight had left dcfolate. But the Tartars after all 
their lo(res,ceafed not to make frequent in-rodes into the Country oiLeaO' 
tmgy^iM\ took all the Oriental! part of it. From thence they made incur- ^^^ ^^^^^^ 
{ions into the other part,and carried away great Preys and Booties^ But part'of i/i)^ 
they were alwayes fo beaten, and fo defeated, as they could never fix a r««^ is under 
conftant habitation there- For by^this time were arrived feven excellent ^^ •^'*''^'*''* 
Gunners from the Portughefe quarters, vvhij:h both by themfelvcs, and_by The Fomgeje 
teaching the Chinefes, advanced infinitely the King of Chirta his affairs; renTfuccour. 
crpedally where that Chriftan Vice- Roy , gaUed Sm Ignatius ^ was 
Conimander in chie^-^of whofe aflPairs we fhal fay fomething hereafter. 
*- In tnls conjun^ure of affairs, the Empcrour ^mgchmifis kxM 2^ new *" 
Commander called 7/vems iv^^o_Leamng, wjt h a new Armie an^dlull 
, power to conclude a Peace vyith the Tartars, li they would admit jt : For Amfty Com« 
the diforders oftfie time's had caufed fo matiy needy perrons5Thccvs,and c/;/>frt Army/ 
Cut throats, that the Emperour grew more anxious how to fupprelTc 
this great domeftick Enemie,which feemed to aim at the Kingdoms ruin, 
than he was of the Tartarian Forces. This Tvenusvizs a crafty and fubt'ili . 
wit,moft eloquent both in fpeaking and writing; who by politick difcour- 
fes, drawn ffom his tbilitary experience, had wrought fo much^ not only 
upon the Emperours mind, but alfo upon all the CounceU, that tBey c- 
ijeeiped what he c oncluded as a Law to be obfcrved ; Wherefore the 
Chinefes put all their confidence in him*, nor^had they been fruft rated of 
their hopes, had not this wicked man been more wedded to his own inte- 
tereft, and love ofRiches, than to the publick good, and fidelitie to his 
Prince : For firft he received of the Tartan a vaft Summe of gold; which ^ 
wrought lomuch upon him,as that having invited to a Banquet that moft 
, Valorous and Faithful! Champion Maovenlungus^ whom the Tartars on- * 
ly feared, he there poifoned that great Commander, After this he made polfbned! "^'^ 
a moft ignominious and (hamefull Peace with the T4/-/4rj,condefccnding .» 
to all,that thofe that had fed him with Riches, could dcfire.But when the:>:» 
Emperour had perufed the Tieatic, he prcfencly found his Plenipotcntia- 
rian had fold himjand therefore rcfufed to ratifie or confirm the Articles, "^ 

Mm "^Whac 

2<j<J Bellum Tanaricum. 

.- VVhatfliould rvenusz^m this exigents That he might force the Empc 
tour to admit them, be pcrfwaded the T^rMr;, in the year i6joV to enter 
r/f? o CBm\i^ another Country than that which was committed to his charge, 
> -^ - * prom \ring them for hisjgarj, he would^ way wit h his Army hinder 
thUr progrep7Trhe74r/4rjlcnew that his avarice had fo potent an Af* 
cendcnt over hlra,as that they need to fear no hurt from him^and upon 
that confidence admitted of his Counfell. Wherefore being fecure from 
all alTaults from any Enemie behind them5thcy entred the Province oiPe- 
/t/?2^j& at length bcfiegcd the Kings Court; Infomuch that his Councel 
Court SI perlwaded him to leave the ImperialCity,and retire to the Southern Pro- 
s^'^* vinccs-jbut he protefted he would rather die, than quit the Northern 

quarters^and not only fo^but he forbade any to depart the Court, or 
Townbefiegcd- In the mean time, the Tartars mzkQ many fierce af- 
faults, and as often were valiantly beaten back with great lofle and 
C2imzgt,r'venus was called to refift the Tartars , for as yet his Traiterous 
Complots were not difcovered. And left he fhould difcover his Trea- 
fon, he comes with his Armic neer the very Walls of the Court, which 
was of a vaft extent, and as it were a great partition between the two Ar- 
mies from which both the C^/W/<r and T'/ir/^ry forces were perfedly dif- 
cerned. But though Tvenus was under the Empcrours eye, yet he adtcd 
little-, for his only aim being to returne home laden with Riches, he ne- 
ver d'efiftcd to perfwade the Emperour to admit his conditions of: Peace. 
So that the Emperour finding him evidently to be a Traitor, difclofing 
his intention to none of his Councel nor Governours, fends to invite him 
to a private Councel of war, giving alfo order that he (hould be admit- 
ted into the City over the Walls, left if any Gate (hould be open, the 
Tartar being fo neer might preffe in upon them.,but indeed he ordered the 
bufinefTc in this manner, left he ftiould bring his Armieinto the City 
with him, ri;f»»uherefore knowing he had many chief men about the 
Emperous perfon, who were both his favourities and friends, and that 
none of them gave him the Icaft fign of any diftafte that the Emperour 
might conceive againft him, boldly and fccurely prefented himfelf at 
SS^kiSed Court., and as foon as he appeared, he was prcfently arrefted, and after 
fomefew queftions,the Emperour commanded him to be killed .The Tar- 
The '^^^^^^^ tars hearing of his death( before the China Armic had a new General alTig- 
cSVof k- ned)raife the fiege,ranfack all the Country round about,and after they had 
king,^ depart, made cxcurfions tothenextbordcringProvinccof Xantung^nchXyXzdiCii 
with all manner of Spoiles, returne to their firft xt£\dtnctm Leaotuvg, 
From thefe times til the year 1 6^6 xht event of their Warrs was very va- 
^^ riouSibut in general we obferve,that the Tartars could never fix a foot in 
r^rurjdies; Chiffa,hut they were prefently beaten out again.In thisfarae ytziThienzm' 
another fuc-' gus^mg of the Tartar s diedjafter whom,fucceeded his Son ZangteuSfVa- 
^"**'* ther to him that now governs Chinapi whom we now muft begin to treat. 

This Prince, before his Rcign, cxprelfed much judgement in feverall 
f^^^t^i Occurrences, furpafling all the Kings of Tartary in Hunaanity, and obli- 
Trfj-r ging courtcfic ; For when he was y oung,hc was fcnt by his Father into Chi- 
dent &-n»4We. ^^^ ^^^^^ j^g jj^g^j fccretly,and learned the chinas Manners^Doi^rine and 
Language, and now coming to the Kingdom, he changed, and far furpaf- 


Vellum Tartaricum. 2^7 

kd all the Examples of his Predeccffors : For having obfcrved, that their 
too hard and cruel ufagc of the Cbineffes^ had been the principal obftacle 
of their advancement, to the end he might conquer that Empire he fo 
much thirfted afrer,as well by Love as by Arms,he courteoufly entertain- Gcmknffs^"'^ 
ed and cherilhed all thofe of China which came unto himjufing all Prifon- be uicd m 
ers with great fwectnes, and inviting them either to fubmit freely to his Conquering 
Government, or rake their courfe with full freedom. The fame of his hu- ^"°"^* 
manitie was fpred tar andneer-, which induced many Commanders and 
chief officers to fly unto him •, by whofe means and help, at length he be- 
came Emperour of that fpacious and flourifliing Country. For experience 
fliews uSjthatLove andHumanity do work more upon mens hcartSjin con- 
quering and conferving Kingdomes, than Arms ; and crueltieof the Con- 
querors hath loft that, which ftrcngth of Arms had happily fubdued. 
Wherefore when the Chwejfes came to undeiftand, that the King of Tar- 
tary did not only afford them a refuge, but friendfhip, many great 
perfons flying the Indignation of the King of C^ina^ fhelfered themfelves 
under the Tartars prote(5lion. For, by rcafon of the China's great Avarice 
and Perfidioufnefs,it's a necefTary, (though mod inhumanej Maxim, that 
thofe Officers perifh, who have managed the Kingdomes Affairs witli Prindp?e°of 
Icfle fucceffe. For they cafily are brought to belceve, that fuch unhappy tiic chmfes. 
cventSjdo not proceed fo much from the frown of inconftant Fortune,as \t 
doth from the per fid ie or negligence of the Commanders. So as if any 
fought unhappily, or if he loft the Country committed to his charge, if a- 
ny Sedition or Rebellion happened, the Governors hardly ever cfcaped 
alive. Seeing therefore they found fo much Humanitie in the Tartar ^ and 
fo much Inhumanity in the Emperor, they rather chofe to fly to the 

By this occafion give me leave to relate what happened to that incom- hnatm the 
parable Commander (renowned both for Fidelitic and Fortitude) called ^''1?^""'"" 
Ignatius » This Heroick mind prcferd his fidelitie to his Prince, before his chriftians 
life, before the Tartarian s proted^ion, yea even before the ftrength of his ""J^^'x ^'l'<^^- 
formidable Army^ and chofe rather,with his unparallel'd Fidelity ,to fub- 
mit his head to a Block by an unjuft fentence, than to abandon his Coun- 
try, or once commit the leaft fault againft his Soveraign, though guilty of 
much injuftice towards Him : He might perchance have fwayed the So- ignatht^ his 
veraign Scepter o£ china, if he would have hearkened to his SouldietSjbut fidelity. 
he rather chofe to die glorioufly, than to be branded with the name of a 

After this man therefore had gained fevcral Viiflories againft the 
Tartars^znd recovered many Cities from their pofTeffion, fo as he hoped 
fhortly wholly to extirpate them out of ChinayHis Souldicrs being long 
without pay, feditioufly plundred and pillaged a Town which had ever 
been fairhfull to the KmgJgnatiM by fcveral petitions and Remonftranccs 
to the Emperour, had declared his wants of mony, and their want of Pay; 
but becaufe he fed not thofe venal fouls that mannaged the bufineffe for . , . 
mony and prefentSjthey al waies fupprefTcd his humble addreffes for relief. Pi"f>T " 
Befides, this man being a very pious Chriftian, he did nothing in his go- 
vernment, but what was conform to Rcafon and Jufticc •, which was the 

Mm 2 caufc 

x(J8 Bellum Tartaricum. 

caufe he incurred the hatred of all the ancient Prefects-, who ufiially recei- 
ving Bribes from the contcfting parties, demanded favour oUgmtm for 
their Clients.But it was in vain to intercede for any, unkfTe the juftncfle of 
the caufe did alfo ballance their Petitions. And thefe men attributing this 
proceeding, not to vertue, but to his Pride, thinking themfelvcs underva- 
lued by him, dealt under-hand with the Prefe(5ls in the Court, to ftop the 
Armies pay, that fo they might deftroy this innocent man. Moreover, he 
was envied by the Commanders in the very Court, bccaufe he came to 
this eminent dignitie by his own valour and induftry 5 which they imagi- 
ned was only to be given to Do<5tors,and Ignatius was but a Licenciat-,as if 
the moft learned muii needs be alfo the moft valorous. In this conjund:urc 
of affairs, the Souldiers not contented with the feditious pillage, feeing the 
moft imminent danger hanging over their moft efteemed and belovedGo- 
vernour, by reafon of their folly, go about to perfwadc him to make him- 
felf King of that Province •, nay more, to take the whole Empire to him- 
felf, as a thing due to hit. Prowefs and Merits; promifing their whole 
ftrength to effe(5t the bufinelTe 5 and alfo to extirpate thofe men about the 
Emperour, that aimed more to c6mpatfe their malicious ends,than to pro- 
mote the general affaires of the Empire : But Ignatius^ by pious admonici - 
ons,ftaved them off from further vioience,made them obedient and quiet, 
commanded all to ftand faithfull to the Emperour of China^ and punifhed 
the chief of that fedition» 

This fuprcme 3(51 of fidelity deferved a better efteemand acceptance, 
than th It which was returned by the Emperour and hi? Court; who fligh- 
ting this his allegcance, fent another Vice-Roy in his place, and comman- 
ded him to appear in Court : He then perceived they aimed at his life; 
and the Souldiers fufpciflcd the bufincfTe 5 and therefore, mad with anger, 
they all jointly rofe in Arms for him, {"wearing they would live and 
die with him, and that he fhould not prefent himfclfe at Court,// is cur da- 
ty (fay they j tocenfervethylife^ which hafl heenfo c/irefullof mrsr, andwc 
have ftreiigth md c enrage eneugh toreftft all theforceofthy ferjidimi EnC' 
„ , , But Ignatius was deaf to all thefe allurements, and ftudied by all means 

rather^raic, to fwceten their exulcerated minds ; alwaies inculcating to them to die 
than either to truc and loyall to their Soveraigns fervice ; chufing rather to water that 
ferveThV** ungtatcfuU Soil of his native Country with the ftreams of his Blood, than 
Tartars. either to fpill his Enemies blood by the force and pow'r of his Souldiers^ 
or to retire to the Tartarian King, which offered him fo fair preferments. 
But many of his Captains fell off to the Tartars -^ following, in this, not 
his example, but that of many others, whom they faw eminently promo- 
ted amongft the Tartars»Somc of thofe that then fled from the Emperour, 
are now chief Commanders under the Tartarian King, in their China Em- 
pire ; fome alfo have obtained the dignity of Princes,or Royolets in feve* 
ral Countries, for the reward of their Valour and faithfull Service againft 
China. Sb much more piercing is that rvedge^ whieh is made of the fame wood. 
But although hitherto thtkTartarianV^zxs had caufed.great troubles & 
tempcfts in the China Empire, yet all things now fcemed (o calmed and 
pacified, as they fecmed fecure from any further danger 5 forthc Wcffern 


Vellum 7artaricum, z6p 

part oiLcaotung was ftrongly fortified, and there was a great Army in tiae 
Iflind ofC«, and the bordering quartcrs^which hindered thcTartars in the 
Eaftern part of the Country, which they poffcfled, from further paflage. 
But now the chiefeft danger was from the Traitors and Thcevcs which j^'^^J^^^J'* 
were in the very Bowells of the Country 5 who finally deflroyed it, and cLf occaHon 
gave it up in Prey to the Tartars, of its 

I touched fomthing of their Commotions before, now we muft treat a ''^"''''■'^'^* 
little more largely of their proceedings, that the Reader may fee how the 
7'artars came to lubdue and conquer Chma. 

The fird Combination of thefe Rovers appeared in the remote Coun- Seveiali 
ixy o^ Suchuen^ whohavingpillaged divers Cities, and emboldened by ^''^^^^** 
profpcrous fucceffe, ventured to befiegc the chief City of that Country 
co\\*dCwgtU'^ which they had infallibly taken, if that valiant Amazon, 
whom I mentioned before, had not come to relieve it with her Army^but They are 
by her valour they were beaten off with great loffe • and, not being whol- defeated, bat 
lycxtingui(]3ed,!thcy retired into the mountains to recruit their Forces. "°^ ^^"'^"'^'"'^ 
Thefc were feconded by a like race of people in the Province oi ^leicheu 
who took occafion of rifingby rcafon of an unjufl Sentence pafTed ina fute 
betwixt two Grandees of that Country, he who loft the caufe being offen- 
ded with the Governors.Thefe roving companions, firfl kill'd all the Ma " 
giftrates which had pronounced that unjufl fenrcnce-, and then they defea- 
ted the Vice Roy his Army ; yet afterwards he routed them with a new ^^"^'^ 
Army, but could not extinguifh them, Befides thefe, the Famin increafing ¥Cs" '^"'' 
in the Northern quarters in the Countries oLxenfi and Xamung^ by reafon 
of a great inundation of Locufls which devoured alU there rifs up by this 
occafion, many loofe fell owes which lived by Rapin. Thefe men at firft 
were tew in number, and fmall in ftrength,and after only preying in little 
places, prcfently fled to the Mountains • but finding they got bodi Meat 
and Riches, with little labour and lefTe coft, they quickly got Compani- 
ons to reinforce them •, This Sedition being alfo much augmented by the 
Empcrour Zungchinius his notable avarice," who fo exhaufted the people And the 
by Impoflsand Taxes, as if it had been a year of the golden Age. The Emperom i..-. 
Prefers of the Provinces, not being able prcfently to reprcffe the info- '*''"'""' 
lency of thofe people, they daily increafcd in courage and (trength 5 Info- 
much as in feveral Countries they had eight very confiderable Armies. 
They chofethe flrongefl & valianteft men amongff: them for their Com- 
manders ;, and thefe perfons being grown rich and potent by preying, de- 
pofed now the pcrfon of Ring-leaders of Theeves, and afpired to no leffe 
than to the Empire of China. And at firft they fought one againft another, TheComman- 
every one pillaging another of what he could .• But at length things were fhe e n''"'^ '° 
brought to that paffe, that two of the Commanders being only left alive, ' ' '"^"'^ 
thefc two prevailed with the Souldiers of thofe that were killed,to follow 
their Enfignes and Fortune-, and they knowing well that if they were taken 
by the Emperors Officers, they could not efcape a moft certain death, ea- 
fily refolved to (helter themfelves under the Arms of thefe two vidtori- 
ous perfonsi The name of one of thefe chief Brigands was Licungzt^-^ihc tic chSo ^'^ 
fecond was called Chdnghimchtrngus', two notorious bold roguifh fellows-, ^ '^ ^ °"^ 
who left they fhould deftroy one anothcrs fortunes by their ambitious 


27® "Be Hum Tartaricum. 

emulation, feparatcd thcmfelves far from one another, refolving both to 
purfuethcirprofperous fortunes. Lkungz^m therefore poirclTcd himfclfe 
of the Northern parts oiXenfi and Honan 5 and the other tyrannized over 
the Countries o^Suchnen and Huquang. But that we may not interrupt our 
difcourfe, by delivering the Adts of both thefe together, we will firfl treat 
o^Ltcnngzus his feats,being he was the caufe of the Tartars coming to the 
Empire^ ("which he himfelf might have pofTefTed, if his proceedings had 
been moderate and humanej) and of the other we (hall fpeak hereafter. 
Therefore in the year 1641. thefc pilferers having got immenfe riches in 
the Province Xenfi, made an irruption, in a vaft body, into that delicious 
They vex IeTe» fwcet Province o^Homn, and went ftrait to the chief City called Caifung^ 
rai Frorinces. which thev beficged. There was in that place a very great and flrong Ga- 
rifon^who by the benefit of Artillery mounted upon hand- wheelingCars^ 
foi ced them to quit the fiege 5 then they fell upon all the neighbouring 
Cities, plundring,fpoiling, and burning all they could mafter. Having 
hoorded up (lore of provifion of Corn, and augmented their Army by a 
company of rafcally Vagabonds and loytering Fellows, they returned a- 
They beficgc gain to bcficgc the Metropolitan City • but difpairing to take it by Force 
the noble City or Affaults.they refolved to ruin it by a long fiege, that they might enjoy 
(^(i^fwg. ^^^ immenfe Riches of that noble City 5 and though this Town be three 
great Leagues in circumference, yet they rounded it fo by their lines, as 
nothing could enter the City^this drave them to fome (Iraits^for although 
the Purveyer for vi(5tualls had brought in good flore of provifion in the 
two moneths fpace in which they were abfent, yet becaufe that Province 
which ufed to be moft plentifull, was now deficient in Corn, they could 
not make fufficient provifion for fix moneths fiege, for fuch an infinite 
multitude of people as were retired within the Walls- Yet it held out moft 
refoiutely for the fpace of fix moneths, in which time though they were 
brought to hard (hifts, yet hoping alwaies for fuccour from their Empe- 
ror, they would never fubmit to any conditions* I dare not relate to what 
an exccffc this Famincame to-, but it feems it furpafTed the Famin offfieru- 
Jalem •, a pound of Rice was worth a pound of Silver •, and a pound of any 
Fam^n. ""^ ° old rotten skin was fold at ten C rowns •, dead mens flefh was fold publick- , 
ly in the Shambles as Hogs flefli , and it was held an zGt of Piety to cxpofe 
the dead in the ft reets for others to feed on, who fhortly were to be food 
for others •, but I will pafTc over, and conceal yet more horrible things 
than I have related. This City lies towards the South fide of that vaft and 
precipitate River which the ch'mefes cAXHoang^ becaufe the ftreams al- 
waies appear of a yellowifh faffron colour •, and becaufe the River is high- 
er than the plain levell downs,of a Leagues diftance from the Town,thcy 
built upon theRiver fidc,a long and ftrongBulwark of great fquare ftoncs, 
to prevent all 'inundations. The Emperours Army, after long expe(aati- 
on, came to relieve the Town, and advanced as far as thefe Bulwarks, and 
having confidered the fituation of the Country and Enemies Camp,it was 
thought the fitteft & eafieft way to raife the fiege without giving battail, 
and to let in the water upon the enemies Army, by fome breaches made in 
that long Wall or Bulwark. It was in K^utumn when they took this rcfo- 
lution, and the River, by reafon of extraordinary rains, was fwoln bigger 


Vellum T'artaricum, %yi 

than ever before •, and they, making the Sluces,or inlets, too greac,and the 
Breaches coo wide, gave way to fuch an Ocean of water, as it overran the 
walls of the Town (which were very (lately and high) involving not on- 
ly many of the enemies in its ruin and deftrudlion • but alfo 300000. men, Sf«^"L'^^ 
and the City it felf perished in thofe floods of water. So the ancient City, drownd!* 
which heretofore had been honoured by the Emperor's Refidence,3ppea- 
red no more a place of plearure,but a vaft Pool or Lake for Monfters of the 
waters to inhabit;for the houfes of the Town were not over run with wa- 
ter, but alfo beaten down •, and alfo the Church of the Chriftians, toge- 
ther with their Prieft, who was one ohhe Society of Jefus •, who when he 
could timely enough have faved himfelfc,chofe rather to laydown his life 
for the fheepe: For that City had many Chriftians.The deftru(51:ionof this 
Cily happened the ninth of 0<J?. 1^42. about which time this famous 
Condu(^our of Theeves took the name of King, with an addition of js:«;;- The General 
va/jgj which founds as much as ProfperouSj and fo was fiiled Licungzui the ^^^''^ J'^"v« 
profferous •, and having in a manner taken all the Country of Hof}af$ into his ofa'^K;n^^» " ^ 
Dominion, he returned into the Province ofXenfiy and won it wholly to 
his fubjedion. When he came to Si^an, which is the Metropolis ofXenfij ceilnt" ^oi 
he found fome rcfiftancc from the Garrifon* but yet he took it in three jr^y?T^° 
daics, and for a reward and encouragement to his Souldiers, he gave it to 
them to pillage alfo for three dales fpace •, and then he gathered up all the 
Corn of the whole Province, as well to keep all the Country in their duty 
to him, as alfo to leave no Provifion for the Empcrours Army. And now 
thinking himfelf fecure of the whole Empire, he took the namcof Empe- 
rour upon him,and ftiled the Family wherein he thought to eftablifli this ^ .. j 
Dignity, rhienxnmm^ as much as to fay, obedient to Heaven i, By which Emperow.^ 
Title he perfwaded the Souldiers and the People, that it was by thedifpo- 
fall of the Heavens that he (hould raign, that he might deliver the people 
from theEmperours Avarice,and extirpate thofe wicked Governours that 
fo much vexed the Nation,& deliver them from all their perfidious plots. 
For he knew well, that this Glorious Title would be very acceptable to 
them o^chim^who beleeve that Kingdoms and Empires come only from 
Heaven, and are not gained by any Art or Induftry of Man ; and that his 
anions might carry a face correfpondent to his illuftrious Title, he began 
to ufe the People with all humility and fweccncffe • not permitting any 
Souldier to wrongor injure thein-,only heperfecuted all theOfficers call'd xhe Tfiecves 
Prcfidcnts, which he could find, and all thofe he put to death • and as for good GoY€rn- 
thofe that had been Prefidents, becaufe he found them rich,hc made them ™^"'* 
pay great Fines, and let them live-, remitting all Taxes in the places hefub- 
ducd-,{everely commanding that the fubje(5ts fhouldbc treated with all 
civility and courtcfie. So as all men applauding and loving fo fwcct and 
railde a Government, eafily fubmitted to his Power and Dominion 5 but 
where the Governours ufe Tyranny, there the fubjedt hath little care of 
Fidelity. There were in this City Sigan two Pricfts which fervcd the 
Chriflians that were Jefuits, and fuffcrcd much inthefaccage of the Ci- 
ty, but being afterwards known for Strangers, they were ufed with all 
In the mean time a third caufe of this Empires ruin grew up in the 


271 Vellum Tartaricum. 

Courti which was hatched in the Emperour Thknkius bis time : For that 
The Prefects Empetour exalted an Eunuch called Gueio^ to fuch a height and power, as 
Difcordwas he gavc the abfolutc.and foveraign Command into his hands, and paf- 

anothercaulc S»" . , n 1 1 • 1 1 r t' 1 r^\ • ' 

of the ruine of fcd fo far,as al waycs to (tile him by the name ot Father. This extravagant 
China, power caufed much Envy, Diirention,and banding one againft another, 

amongft the Govcrnours, Prefidents, Commanders, and Counfellors: 
and the Eunuch alio added much to incenfe theflame, by his indifcrcet u- 
fage of the favour he poffcfTed^ for if any man had touched him, either in 
word or writing, or expreflfed lefTerefpedt unro him in converfation, or 
behaviour, or did not flatter the bafe fellow, he would prefently give or- 
der to put him to death, though he were a very eminent perfon-, 
or at Jeaft degrade him from all Office or Dignity. By vvhich means he 
exafperated many , and amongft the reft he offended Zunchinius when 
Prince-, who now, by the death of his Brother without iffue, was come to 
to be Emperour of China. This Emperour knew that the Eunuch had mo- 
ved Heaven and Earth to hinder his coming to the Crown- but feeing he 
could not effe<5t that, at leaft he maintained a feditious fa(5i:ion againft the 
great ones, which finally proved the deflrucSijon of the Eftate^ For thcfe 
men banding in two factions, ftudied more how to deftroy one another, 
than to advance the publique good ; yet both parties pretended the gene - 
ral benefit, but both negledcd it-, Every party endeavouring to extoll and 
exalt his own Creatures into places of truft and pov/er : All which when 
^unchinim the emperour went about to redrcffe, he exafperated the minds 
of many ofthe Commanders againft him-, for as foonas he came to the 
Crown,he cruelly perfecuted all that favoured the Eunuch-, and in fine, 
' killed this very Eunuch which had been his Predeccffors Favourite, to- 

gether with many more of his partie- of which Tragedy I will only re- 
late the Cataftrophe. The Em^txom Zungchinius rcfolving to deftroy 
both the Eunuch & all his power jfent him an order to go vifit the Tombs 
of his Anceftors, to confider if any of thofe ancient Monuments wanted 
reparation :thcEunuch could not refufefo honourable an imploymenr, 
which feemed rather an addition to his former hounours; but he had not 
gone far upon his journey ,but there was prefcnted to him (from the Em- 
pcrourja Box of Silver gilt, with a Halter of Silk folded up in it jby which 
he underftood he was to hang himfelf by the Emperors order ; which he 
could not refufcjbeing that kind of deathCamongft the Chinefes) is conn- 
ted honourable, when it is accompanied with fuch formalities. But by 
this occafioDtbe Emperour raifed againft himfelf new Fa(5i:ions and more 
Traitours.which held fecret correfpondence with the Theeves Army. 
Hence it came to pafTe, that no Army was fent to oppofe them-, or if any 
went,they did no manner of adlion, being alwaycs hindered by the emu- 
lation of others-, nay it happened often, that when they might have taken 
great advantages, yet the occafion was negleded,lcft the Commanders 
fhould increafc other men$.Power and Credit, (by their Vi(5torics,} with 
the Emperour^ Thefe Diflcntions and Emulations happend fo feafonably 
to the Roving Army of Theeves , as that to come , to fee ^ and f^;?- 
^wf?- J was to them one and the felf fame thing, asHhall declare unto 

^°"" / Whilcft 

Vellum T'artaricum. 173 

Whilcftthefetranfa(5tionsp3ircdin the Comt^ Licungz^us GondudOi' _ 
of the Thee vcs, having fctled all things in the Country of a:^^/?, pafTed to ^tethepl'o- 
the Eaft-,nnd coming to the famous great River oiCroceus^^ndxn^ no bo- vincc of Xenfi 
dytodcfendit, hepaiTcd over with as much facility, as it might have 
been maintained wirh eafe, if there had been placed but ahandfuilot 
Souldiers. For this River runnes with a violent rapid courfc,anda va.'l: 
Sea of waters from Weft to Eaft; but being there was no man to defend 
it.they paffing it eafily, prefently feized upon the chief and richcft City in 
all thofe quarters, called KaUngcheu^ which is fituated neer the South 
bankfide of that River^ and being carried on with a ftrong gale of For- 
tune, he feized upon many other Cities, every one defiring either to free 
themfelves from further vexation, or blindly and fondly fubmitting 
themftlves to any new change of Government. For we commonly de- 
light in varieties and novelties,and hoping for better, we find worfe. On- 
ly the City of Thaijvcn made fome refiftance, but being prefently fubdu- 
cd5was fined with great fumes of money for their temerity. The Emperour 
Zmgchmitts hearing theTheeves had pafTcd the River Cr<?c^»^, and were 
advanced to the very Confines of Xf;?/z(wh!ch borders upon the Province 
where he had placed his Throne an d Royall Seat)he fent an Army under 
the Lord Marilhal oiChim^ to hold them at leaft in play, if he could not 
overthrow them; But this Army did juft nothing; nay moft of the Soul- 
diers ran to the Thieving party, in fo much as the Lord Marfhal himfelf , 
called Cohiis Lms^ feeing Affairs grew fo defperate, Hang*d himfelf for 
fear of further fhame and difhonour. The Emperour hearing of the ill fuc- 
celfe of his Affairs, began to think of leaving the Northern parts, where TheEmp 
his Royal City ofPe^/<«^ is fituated, and to paiTe to Ndnkuing which \^1^o^^\X 
far more Southwardi but he was dilfwaded from this intended courfe as 
well by his loyal, as difloyal fubjcifls .* by thefe,thar they might give him 
up more fpeedily into the enemies hands, before their treachery was dif- 
covered-, and by the others, left his flight might trouble the Kingdome 
more, and difcourage all his Subjc(51:s from giving their bcft alfiftance; 
for they thought the City impregnable, being fortified with fo ftrong a 
Garrifon^nor did they doubt that the Kings prefence would draw the for- 
ces of the whole Kingdom to him. And their Counfcl had been good, if 
the Court had been purged of Traytors, 

In the mean time the Thecvcs GonduQ:orj who was no lefTe quick and xiie Snatagct 
nimble in execution, than witty in invention, fowing a Fox his tail to the of the Thecf. 
Lions skin, caufed many of his Souldiers in a difguifed habit to creep in- 
to that Princely City, and gave them money to trade in trifling ware, till 
he affaulted the walls with the body of his Army ;for then they had order 
to raife fedition,and tumult in the City? and, confidering they were a 
Company of defperate Fellows, and of a very low and bafc fortune, it is 
ftupendious to think how they could keep fo profound fecrecy in a mat- 
ter of fo high concernment .* But to this mine, which was prepared in the 
bowels of the City, he held a fecret train of Intelligence, with the Lieu- 
tenant of the City-, who feeing the Emperours Affairs defperate, is faid 
10 have dealt with the Condudtor of thcfc Brigants about giving up the 
City unto thcii: power; But, however it was, thcfc Pilferers came in a 

Nn fl^oTt 



^ellum Tartaricum. 

fliort time to beficge the Royal City of Peking. There was in that C ity a 
vaft Garriron,and as great a quantity of Artillery 5 but on the Quarters up- 
on which the enemy made their aflault^ there was none charged with 
Bullets,but only with Powder. 

Wherfore being fecure from any annoy from thaf fide, in the year 
q/ o^l^ MDCXLIV. before the rifing of the Sun, they entred the Metropolitan 
is'tikenf City of all chwa by one of the Gates which was opened to them; 
nor was there any long refiftance made,evcn by thofe that were faithful! 
totheirPrince-ZortheSouldiersoftheTheefjWhich lay lurking in the 
City, made f uch a tumult and confufion, as none knew whom to oppofc, 
in which refpeft they made a great flaughter, fo as Licungzus in this Ba- 
bylonian confufion, marched vidorious through the City,till he came to 
the very Emperours Palace-, where though he found forae refiftance from 
the faithfulleft Eunuchs, yet notwithftandingheprefenrly entred that fa- 
mous and renowned Palace; And that which exceeds all admiration, the 
enemy had pafled the firft Wall, and Precindt, and yet the Emp.rour 
knew nothing of fo ftrange a paffage; for the Traiterous Eunuchs, which 
wereof moft Authority, fearing he might efcapc by flight,defcrd to ad- 
moniih him of his own danger, or of the taking of the City, till they faw 
he could not polTibly evade: Who hearing this dolefuU news, firft de- 
manded if he could getawayby any means; but when he heard that all 
paffages were befet, he is faid to have left a Letter writ with his own 
Blood, in which he bitterly cxpreffed to all pofterity, the infidelity and 
perfidioufneflfe of his Commanders, and the innocency of his poor Sub- 
TheEm ^ro^^t']^^^coU]\^^th2CLktix\%th.t Heavens had caft the Scepter 
kvfng^Sfd Ms into his hands, he would, for his fake, take revenge of fuch perfidious 
Djughcerhan- (Creatures. After this reflecting that he had a Daughter Marriageable, 
ged himfclf. ^^^ falling ittto the villains hands ruight receive fome affronts, he called 
for a Sword, and beheaded her with his own hands in the place-, then go- 
ing down into an Orchard,making a Rope of his Garter,he hung himfelf 
upon a Prune tree. Thus that unfo^^tunate Emperour put a period, as 
welltothat Empire, which had flouriftiedro long with much fplendor, 
riches, and pleafure,as to his Illuftrious Family oiTaimwgtts^ by finifliing 
his life upon fo contemptible a Tree, and in fuch an infamous manner: 
To all which circumftances, I adde one more-, that as the Empire wasc- 
reded by a Theef, fo it was axtinguifhed by another-,for although other s 
were chofcn to fucceed him, as we fhall relate hereafter, yet becaufe they 
held a fmal parcel of the Empire, they are not numbred amongft the Em- 
perours.His example was followed by the Queen, and by the Lord Mar- 
fball, who is call'd in their language CoUus, together with other faithfull 
Eunuchsj So as thofe pleafant Trees which fcrvcd heretofore for their 
Sports and pleafures, now became the horrid and fureft Inftrumentsof 
their death. And this cruell butchering of themfelves palled not only in 
the Court but alfo in the City^where many made themfelves away.eithcr 
by hanging, or drowning by leaping into Lakes-, For it is held by this 
Nation to be the higheft point of fidelity, to die with their Prince, and 
not to live and be fubjeffc to another. 

"Whilcft tbcfe things were acting, Licmgzm enters the Falacc VidorJ- 


Vellum Tartaricum. 275 

ous and afccnding up to the Chair of State, (ate himfclf down in that Im ■ 
pariall Throne^ bur it is recorded, that ia exccuring this firft Adt of Roy- 
alty, he fat fo reftlefly and uaquietly.yea fo totteringly,as if even then thu 
Royal Chairc would forerel the fliort durance of his felicity. The next 
day after, he coaimanded the body of the dead Emperour to be cut into Th-Theef* 
fmal pieces,accufing him of oppreilion and cruelty againft his fubjed:s», As Tyranny and 
if he,being a villanous Traitor,and a Theef,after the faccaging & burning '^'"^^^y* 
fo many Provinces, and (bedding fuchan Ocean of blood, had been of 
abetter difpofition. So wc often condemn others, when we do worfeour 
fclves,and remark, yea augment, the leaft faults of others, when we ei- 
ther take no notice of, or diminifli our own . This Emperour ^ngchinm 
was Father of threeSons,of which the cldeff could never be found,though 
all imaginable means was ufed for his difcovcry^fome think he found 
means to fly away-,others think he perifhed by leaping with others into the 
Lake^the two others being yet little Childrenjwere by the Tyrants com- 
mand beheaded three days after^bis barbarous humour not fparing even 
innocentblood: Which difpofition he made further to appearjWhen cafting 
off that vail of Piety and Humanity, with which he had for fomctime 
charmed the people , he commanded all the Principal Magiftrates to 
be apprehended, of which he murdered many with cruel torments, o- 
thers he fined deeply, and rcfervcd the Imperiall Palace for his own a", 
boad. He filled that moft noble and rich City with ranfacking Souldi- 
crs, and gave it up to their prey and plunder-, where they eommitted fuch 
execrable things, as are both too long, and not fit to be related. But by 
this his horrid cruelty, and Tyranny,heloft that Empire which he might 
have preferved by courtefie and humanity. 

Amongft the other impri(oned Magiftrates,therc was one a venerable 
perfon called Us^ whofe Son Ufangueius governed the Army of China^ in 
the Confines of LcAotung, againft the tdrtars. The Tyrant Licungzus 
threatned this old man with a moft cruel death, if by his patcrnall power 
over his Son, he did not reduce him with his whole Army, to fubjedfon 
and obedience to his power; promifing alfo great Rewards and Honours 
to them both, if by his fatherly powerfwhich they hold facrcd)hedid 
prevail for his fubmiffion.Whereforc the poor old man writ to his Son 
this enfuing Letter, 

It is xveU known that the Heavens^ Earth, and Fate can c/iufe the fejlrange 
*vicif(itttdes of Fortune which rve behold', know my Son^that the Emperour 
7aVir\cWmus^andthe whole family of TBimiDgus are ferified^ The Heavens 
have caft it upon Licungzus*, we mtifi obferve the times, and by making a ver^ 
tue of necefftty^avoyd his Tyranny, and Ciiferience his Uberalitj'^he fromifeth to 
thee a Royal dignity ^ if with thy {^rmy thou fubmit to his Dominion^ and ac- 
knowledge him as Emperour\my life depends upon thy anfwer-jConJider what 
thou oivefl to him that gave thy life. 

To this Letter his Son Ufangueius returned this (hort anfwcr. He that 
is not fdithfull to his Soveraign^ will never be faithful to me : and if you forget 
your duty and fidelity to our Emperour^ no man will blame me if J for- 
get wv duty and obedience to fuch a father, I wiU rather die thanfervi 

Nn 2 And 


Bellum Tartmcum. 

And prefcntly after the difpatch of this Letter, he fent an Embaflfador 

The tartan (q thc King oi'Turury^dtCmng his help and force tofubduc this Ufurper of 

cwwa^i'inft the Empire-, and knowing that the Tdr/^r^ abound in men, but want wo- 

tbeThecvcs. men, hc promifed to fend him fome ftoreof themjandprefentcd him 

with leverall curious Silks^and fent him great ftore of Silver and Gold, 

The Tartarian King negle(5ted not this good occafion , but prefently 

marched with fourefcore thoufand men,which were in Garrifon in Lea@ • 

tttrtg^ to meet General Ufangueim^ to whom he exprclTed himfelf in thefc 

words. T(? the end to make our Vi^ory undoubted^ I eoanfellyoH te caufe a// your 

t/irmy to be clad like Tartars,/^r/^ the Theefm/l thwk us all Tartars j/^e/;?^ 

I cannot call greater Forces out ofmyKingdomefofoon as is required, 

Ufangueius, thirfting nothing but revengc,admitted all conditions, lit- 
tle thinking (as the Chinejfes fay j that he brought in Tigres to drive out 
The Theeves Dogs, Licungx,m hearing the march of the 7>/4r^,togcther with Ujanguei- 
rJZn ^^^ «i^)knowing himfelf not able to refift, quitted the Court and Palace as ea- 
fily as he had taken it .• but he carried with him all the rich fpoyls of the 
Court, and marched away into the Province of X^r;;/, where he eflablifh- 
ed his Court in the noble City o^Sigan , which heretofore had been the 
featoftheEmperours. It is accounted th at for eight daies fpacc by the 
four Palace gates, there was nothing fccn but a continual! fucceffion of 
Coaches, Horfes, Camels, and Porters, carrying away the precioufeft 
J^J^^^J^^^''!!!^^"^ treafures-, though they left alfo much, bccaufe the enemy approached. 
S^of the^^ Thus the immenfe Riches of Gold and Silver, which the Emperours of 
Palace. the Taimtngean Family had at leafure hoordcd up, in the fpace of two 

hundred and fourfcorc years, were in a moment difpcrfed. But although 
they fled very fpeedily, yet they could not avoid the fwift Tartarian Hor- 
fes^ for overtaking their Luggage, and the Rear of the Army , they pilla- 
ged and vexed them for eight daies*, but yet they cither could not, or 
would not pafTe the River Crocetts^ that fo they might fpeedily returne to 
amufe the trembling hearts of the Territory of Pf^/>a^. The 7'<«r/4r/ re- 
turne therefore victorious and rich into the City Peking, and there being 
admitted by the Chimfes^ they gave them the Empire. Where it is 
to be obfervcd, that although Zungteus^ the Tartarian King, dying at the 
" ^^^^^-ingfirfi: entrance into C^/;?4, did not obtain that noble Empire he fo much 
y,; ""—* thirfted afcer-, yet he gave thofe In(tru(aions, of the manner of conque- 
ring it, to his Councel, that they never defifted till they obtained it. This 
Prince dying, declared his Son of lix years old, his SuccefTor*, comman- 
ding all his own Brethren to manage the Childs AflFairs with all fidelity 
and circumfpedion, making his eldefl brother his Tutor-, and all thofe 
brethren, being uncles to the Child, by a ftupendious union, and never 
to be parallcl'd in any ambitious Nation, exalted this Infant to the pofTef- 
fion of the Empire. 
Thcfe things being thus paffcd, Ufanguemst feeing the Thief expelled. 
The Tartars began to think of creating a new Emperour, one of the Taimngds Fami- 
refUfe to dc- ly , who was 3 Princc not far diflant .• But firft being mindfull of his pro- 
pare China, ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ Tartar s^ he offers them their rewards*, he highly extols 
their Fortitude and Fidelity in the Kingdomcs quarrcljand finally, defircs 
them now to depart the Country quictly,and to entertain a ftrid alliance 


Vellum Tartaricum. zjy 

and fricndfhip with it,fecing they had abundantly revenged all torraer in- 
juries. To this demand the ^^rr^rj returned a long premeditated anfwer, 
but far contrary to what Ufaffgrnas expeded , which they delivered in 
thcfe rearms. 

We do not think it yet a jit titni to leave you and this Empire^ unlefs, having 
heard our Reafons, youjha/l ft ill preffe it-, for we consider ^ that many of the 
Theeves are fitll extant^ and feem rather differ fed than extingmjhed i, and we 
hear tha their great Condu^or Licungzus, hath fixed his Imperial Seat in Si- 
^z^,the Metropolis of the Province of Xtmi • hy which means he ftiH pojfejftth 
the richeft and mo ft populous Provinces, which are fltU under his Dominion, If 
we depart J worfe is to be feared will follow : He feared us Tartars^ when he hears 
we are gone y having now time to recruit his Forces^ he will doubt leffe make new 
Invaftons, and perchance wefhallnot be able to(endnewSuccours:We t her fore re- 
folve to profecute the Vi^ory, and quite extinguiftj thofe Vagabonds, that foyou 
may deliver the Empire to your defigned King, in full peace and tranquility . Be 
mtfolicitous of paying our promifed rewards^ for they are as fafe in yours ^ as in 
our own, hands. That which we now deft re to execute, is, that which prejfeth moft, 
andfeems to us to require no delay ., that you y with part of your Army and part of Their Craft 
ours, march ffeedily againft Licungzus^ and we with the reft, take our march to- ^""^ ^^^"^' 
wards the Province of Xantung, to extirpate thofe 'theevesthat havefetled 
there ^ By this means the peace of the Kingdome will be firmly eftabliflfed. 

W/4;?g-tt/V«j cither did not underftand the Stratagem, or if he did, he 
condefcended not to irritate an Army which was in the Bowclls of the 

Before the Tartars (which were called) cntrcd China, they fent into 
their ov/n and otherKingdoms to raife as many men aspoiOTibly they could , 
to the end they might conquer the Empire after they had acquitted 
themfelves of their promifed afififtancc againft the Theevcs. But thefe 
Succours, not being arrived to re-inforce them, therefore they thought it 
beft as yet to ufc no force, but gain time by fair words and new proje<5i"s. 
- But whilft this bufinefle was contriving, there came an immcnfe compa- - 
ny of Tartars into the Empire^ not only from the Kingdoms ofNiuche^and p.,rfy "r^r^x 
jV/W^4w, bur alfo from the old Occidental Tartary, and from a Country «:"^" china, 
called Tupiy which is more Oriental,and lyes above the elevation oifapon. 
This people is called Tupi^by rcafon they make their Coats of defence, or 
Breafl plates,of fiflies skin,which are in a maner impregnable. Nay, which 
is more, I faw very many who were come as far as the River Folga-^whlch 
people thefc Tartars call K^lga-Tartars, and I find they have a Notion of 
MufcovytZndPolan • but they are far more barbarous than the Oriental 
Tartars be-, with thefe auxiliary Forces,camein the infant Kingof fix years 
old, Son to tIBelate dcceafed King o^Ta) tary ^^nd when thcfe weTejoyncd 
with the body of the Army, then they publickly proclaimed their rightjp The Tartars 
the Empire, aod openly declared their concealed intentions 5 and proclai- ^^^ "fc°Gf ''^^ 
med this child of fix yea^old, Emperour of C^/114, by the mmtol Xunchi-^ dina.^^ 
and the new ere(Scd Imperial Family tfiey ftiledby the name of Tricing, x^ncbuiaovi. 
,, The Child of fix years old_took pofTefTion of the ancient Throncp_£Jbii5 Empe?o^u'iS,f 
Forefathers, with a great Gravity and Majefty,from whence he delivered tiie r^rr^r,' ;ii 
'' this judicious Speech to the Commanders and to his Army. ^ ^*""* 



TBellum T^artaricum. 

It isyonr flrength mdpxver mere than my felicity {my dear and generous Un- 
cles^ ^you the reft of my neble Commanders) which fupports my rveaknejfe^ and 
makes mefo undantedly ajcend andpojfefs this Imperial Throne, My prefent af- 
furance and this Chairs flabilit)^ Ihope^ ts as happy aftgn of my future pro fperi- 
ty^ as its tetteringproved unfortunate to the Thief Licxxngms his Tyrannie, Tm 
fee myfirjl (lep to the Empire -, But I know yeur valour to befucb^ that I look not 
only upon the Kingdom of Ch'm^ as my own^ hut conceive the Empire of the 
World, not only by me poffeffedj but alfo eflablifljed. The rewards due tofuch in- 
comparable Fertues^fhall be no other than therichesofthe Empire^ and Roy all 
dignities •, proceed therefore valiantly andfioutly. The whole Court was a- 
ftonifhed to hear a Child of fix years old (peak fuch things,and hence con- 
cluded,that fate orHeaven had cle<5tcd him for King-the young Prince did 
alTume his eldeft Uncle, as his Tutor and Father, the fame day he was ad- 
mitred to the Empire .- and therefore the Tartars in their language, called 
him ^mahan^ as much as to fay, the Father King ; which very thing, the 
C/^/Wi exprefs by the word Amavang, To this man therefore he remit- 
Thefideiity of (^j all the Condud of his Wars, and to him it is, the Tartars owe all their 
lor caii'd "' greatneffe and Dominion : for as he excelled in Counfel and Prudence,fo 
Atmvangw. alfo he wasas eminent in fortitude and fidelity^and withal! , by the ftrength 
and force of his Reafons and Counfels did ravifh th"fe wifeft men amongft 
the Chinefes', and his J uft ice and Humanity did wholly enthrall and en- 
chant the popularity. To all which I adde thofe fugitive Magiftrates,who, 
as 1 related heretoforc^had fled to the Tartars fto avoid the Emperoiirs in- 
dignationj and did not a little promote their caufe ; for thefe men, fomc* 
times by word and example, did feduce the hearts of the Subjects, and 
fometimcs fuggefted excellent Counfels to the Tartars, againft their own 
Country -, and by both thefe means advanced themfelves to high and emi- 
nent dignities amongft the Tartars, 

The fame day fomc Bands of Souldiers were difpatched, with order to 
proclameW/4;ji^«^/W a Tributary King to this new enftalled Emperours 
which they performed with great magnificence, adding to his name (as u- 
fually they do) the Sirname oiPingfi^ which founds as much as Pacifer of 
the Weftern jvcr/^i/reftablifhing his Kingdom in the Capital City in the Pro- 
vince of Xf»/?.This Prince confidering,that he could expert no more ho- 
nourable Dignity from the lawfull Succcfibur to the Empire of ^^/^^-jand 
that the Tartars were come into the Empire, in fo vaft a number, that he 
could never hope to Conquer them, found means to difpence with his hi- 
therto uncorruptcd fidelity, admitting the dignity, andfubmittingtothe 
vfanguem Empcrour, and fo he that had hitherto waged War for china againft the 
iotccd 10 fcrve Thccvcs, now was forced to march againfl China to fubdue its Provinces 
tiK Tarxm. jq ^j^g Tartarian Empire. And as he was a Great Commander, fo alfo by 
the help of the T/ir/rfrj he quickly drove out the Thcevcs from his Httlc 
Kingdom ofXenf^ where to this day he rcigneth in the Metropolitan City 
oisigan. But by thefe honours the 7'4?'/4r/ removed him from the pra- 
<ftice of Arras, who remaining Armed, might have proved a dangerous 
J . Enemy. 

knowiTwhat It was hithcrto never known what became o£ Licungzw-Sovac think he 
became oV ^vas killed by Ufangmttu in the fight 5 though he never appeared morc,nei^ 
LicNR^Mxt thcr 

Vellum Taftaricum. 279 

ther dead, nor alive, after this fightjin which all his forces were diffipared, 
or cut off. And with the fame facility the Tartars fubdued the Provinces 
oi Peking and Xarttung . where they immcnfly augmented their Arrnies^by 
the acceffeof the ChitaCs Souldiers and Commanders which fubmitted to 
them-, for the tartarians admitted all,cven the Conquered^to their Army, 
if they did cut their hair, and wear their habits after the Tartarian fafhion; 
for in this Puntillio of habit and hair they were fo rigorous, as they pro- 
clamed ic high Treafon in all that did forbear \t. Which Law, did many 
times endanger them, and difturb the whole frame of ihcir Affairs:For the 
Chimjfes both grieved, and fought more valiantly for their hair and habir, 
than for their Kingdom and Emperourj So as many^rimcs they chofe ra- 
ther to die, or lofe their heads,than obey the Tartars in thefe Ceremonies* 
of which 1 could relate many examples,unlef!c in this relation I had refol- 
ved to be brief. But all thefe little rubs, <^idnot hinder, but that in Icffe 
than the fpace of a year, (not counting Leaotmg) they had conquered Pe- "TLc tarms 
king, Xanft, Xenft, and XAntmg, which are the four vaft Northern Provin- ptovTncer''^ 
ces Q^ china. In all which they changed nothing in their Political manner 
of Government, n3y,they permitted the ufual cuftom of the Philofophers 
of china to govern the Towns and Provinces-, they left alfo the fame Ex- 
amcns as were ufed for the approving of learned men 5 for by this prudent 
Counfel they wrought this effcdi:, that having given the places of honour 
and truft to men of their own Creation, they found they furpalTed the ve- 
ry Tartars in fidelity to them ; yet they kept the Militia in their own hands, 
and the ordering thereof, and yet they flicked not to admit even to thefe If^y change_d 
Offices, fuch of the Country as were faithfull to them ; fo, as in the Royal ^~^' 

City they retained flill the fame Orders and degrees of Prefe(f^s, together * 

with the fix high Tribunals, as they were eftablifhed in the former Em - 
perourstime: butfo, as they were now compounded of Chineffes^ and 

— In the mean time the news of the Emperours danger came to the Sou- - - 
thern parts o^China^^ind the Prefe(Sts of every City gathering together ve* 
ry great forces marched towards the City of Peking^ but in their march 
they received the fad news of the Emperours death, and the taking of^- 
king -, they therefore Tpeedily called back their Forces, and allb all their 
Ships, which yearly ufed to carry Provifions to the Emperours Court • a 
little after this, they received the news how the T^artar was invefled in the 
Kingdom and proclaimed Erapcrour. I was then my felfc in the great Cir 
ty Nanquin^ where I beheld a flrange conft ernation and confufion in all Jtel'^i"^ ' 
things, till at length having recolledcd themfelvcs, the Prefers rcfolved ^Tor'a '^'"' 
fo choofe an Emperour of the Family oi the TaimingeSjVjhom they called ^«iMzn. 
Hungqnangus, This man had come hither (flying from the Thceves) out 
of the Province o?//i?»4», and being he was Nephew to that famous Em- 
perourr/iw/d5f,& cofin Germain toZmgchiniustheha deceafcd Emperour, 
they Crowned him vvith great pomp and oftentation, hoping for better 
fortune under his^ovcrnment. As fbbn as this Prince was chofcn,he fent 
an Embaflage to the Tartars, begging Peace, rather than demanding it.,foj 
he offered them aH the Northern Provinces which they had taken^ if they 
would joyn in amity with him,But the TarPars well underftood the Policy 


28 o Bellum Tartaricum. 

of thefe Prefers and Counfellours •, which was only to amufe them with 

a Peace, whilft they could recover their ftrength and force •, And there- 

?'i^no Peace ^^^^ ^^^^ returned anfwcr,that they would not receive as a gift,that which 

eacc ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ l^y j^^^^ of Arms • but feeing they had chofcn a new 

Emperour, they might do well to defend him •, but as for them, they were 

refolved to have all or nothing. This Legacy comming to nothing-whilft 

Zufichiniitf his both parties prepare to take the Field, appears at Nankuing a young man, 

I^Sr' ^' ""^^^ g^^^ himfelfe out to be the eldeft Son to the late deceafed Emperour 

:{uf?chmus . and he gave no fmall evidences of this truth and Claime-, nay, 
he was acknowledged by many of the Eunuchs. But the new ele(5tedEm- 
perour Hunquangus ^h^hg ftrongly pofTeiTed with an ambition of raigning, 
would never acknowledge, nor admit him • but commanded him to be 
imprifoned,and killed, as an Impoftor- though many of the Prefers en- 
raged to hear of this order, hindered the execution of the fentencc. But 
blcsln cLnT" ^^ ^^^^ accident, things grew into a fedition, and the difputc was fo high, 
~ ~ ' that it gave occafion to the Tartars of aflailing the Province and City of 
Nankuing ^ fome of the Prefe(fl:5 winking at it, if not enticing them under- 
hand tb this exploit. The Tarta?s^ vigilant to lay hold of all advantages, 
hearing of thefe emulations & divifions,prefently march out into the Ter- 
ritory of the City o^ Hoaigan^ and comming to the Eafi: fide of the River 
Croceusy they paffe over fpeedily by the help of their Boats ; on the other 
fide of this River flood the Army of C^/>4, which was fo numerous, as if 
they had bur cafl off their very fhoos, they had ere.fted fuch a Rampart a* 
gainft the Tartars, as all the Horfe would hardly have furmounrcd it. But 
it is the refolution and valour in War, that carries the Trophies, not the 
number of men : for hardly had the Tartars fet foot in their 13oats, but the 
The fiighc of Chwefes ran all away, as Sheep uk to do when they fee the Wolf, leaving 
the Chinefes. jj^^ wholc (liote unfencedjto their landing. The Tartars having pafTed the 
River, finding no enemy to refifl-, enter the mofl noble Province ofNan^ 
kingy and in a trice make them felves Maflers of all the North part of the 
Country, which lies upon the great Riverof it*/^;?^, which is fo vafl, ask 
is worthily called the Son of the Sea •, where it deferves particularly to be 
noted as a rare thing in the Warfare of the 7'4r/4r/, that before they enter 
into any Country, they chufe and name both the Governours, and Com- 
panies, with all the Officers necefTary for all the Cities and places which 
they aym to take ^ fo as in a moment they run like a lightning, and no foo- 
ner they pofTeffe it but it is f ortified,armed, and defended. There was one 
City in thefe Quarteis which made a generous refiflancetoall their re- ite- 
rated affauks, cdWcd Tangcheu^ where the Tartars loflthe Son of a little 
ri/«W«Tcfift- Royalet. ThisCity wasdeff 'ded by that faithful Imperial Champion 
ing the Tartar Called Zuuts CoUhs ♦, but though he had a mightie Garrifbn, yet he was at 
taJ" '""^ length forced to yield, and the whole City was facked, and both Citizen 
and Souldier put to the Sword ; and Icafl the multitude of the dead Carca- 
fes,(hould corrupt the Air, and ingender the Plague,they laid them all up- 
on the tops of the Houfes, and fetting fire both to the City and Suburbs 
brought all to aihes, and to a total dcfolation. 
The TanaYs ^^ ^^^^ ptogrcffc thtc Fotccs of thc Tartar much encreafcd j for the Go- 
take fdvtrat* ^ vcrnours of many places, & fevcral Regiments came to fubmit to his 'Do^ 
p'aew. , rainioD* 

Vellum Tartarimm. 281 

minion. To all whom he, commonly, continued the fame Commands 
and Offices they were cftablifhed in before, and advanced many of thera 
to higher dignity-, and fo by this Humanitie with which he treated all that 
came flying to him, and by the criielrie he ufed to thofc that refolved to 
make rcfiftance to the Force of his Arms,he gained this,that moft men re- 
Iblved to partake of his fweet treatie,rather than of his cruelty- fo he cafily 
conquered all that which lies on the North fide of that Rivcr,which I na- 
med before the Son of the Sea. This River beinga (7f/«;<?« League in 
breadth,and rifing from the Weft of C^/>?4,holds its courfe to the Eaft,and 
divides the Kingdom into Northernand Southern Quarters-it alfo divides 
the Country oi Nanking in the very middle •, though Nanking the Metro- 
politan and Royal City be placed in the Southern part. To Mafter this 
great Citie, they were to pafTe this River.They gathered therefore toge- 
ther many Ships,to Conquer this new Empcrial fear, and alfo the new fet- 
tled Emperour. The Fleet of C/^/V/^coinmanded by the moft generous and 
faithfull Admiral called Hoangchoangus, lay towards the other fide of this 
River. Here the Admiral fought fo gallantly and refolutely,that he made 
it appear to the world,that the Tartars were not invincible \ Till at length 
one of his own Commanders czWedTbienvs born in the Citie o^Leaotung, 
being corrupted by the Tartars, (h#t him with an Arrow to death : which 
Arrow fixed the unconftant wheel of Chinas fortune, and loft the whole 
Empire, But the Traitor,nor contented with this perfidious Ad:, began 
himftlf to run away, aiid by his example drew all the reft to imitate this 
Ignominious Aaion.His impudence paffed yet to a higher ftrain:for com- 
ming to the Imperial Citie, and finding the Emperour preparing to retire, 
he joyned himfelfe with him, as a faithfull friend, participatin^r of his ad- 
verfity 5 till he faw the Tartars fwho pafling the River followed the Kings 
flight with all imaginable diligence; were come near him, & then he took 
the Emperour Prifoner, and delivered him to the Tartarian Army in the The Emperour 
year MDCXLIV.This unfortunate Prince being thus betrayed before he nkTanrkii- 
had raigned full one year, was fent to Peking^ and there upon the Town led." """ 
Walls was hanged publickly in a Bow ftrin:,^, which kind of death the 
Tartars efteem moft noble. The pretended Son to the Emperour "^Hnchi^ 
nius^ (whether he were true or falfejrun the fame courfe of fortune, when 
they had difcovcred him being kept ft ill in Prifon : for they did not onely 
put to death all thofe which belonged tothe Imperial Family of the Taj. 
ntinges by Confanguinitie, but after a diligent fearch extirpated all they 
could find, which belonged to them even by Affinitie ; for it isa cuftom 
in i^fxa, if any one conquer a Kingdom, to root out all that belong to the 
Royal Family, 

After this,thcy divided their Army into two parts J the one they fenC 
to conquer the Mediterranean Provinces of Kianft^ Huqmng, & ^ang-^ 
tung^ which are all of a marvellous extent- the other, like a fwift Torrent, 
over-run all, till they came to the very Walls of the renowned and vaft 
C\t^oiHangch€u,\v\nc\\ is the head City of the Province ofchekiang.ln^ r!.n toTh? 'q. 
to this City the principal fugitives of the Army of China were retired^and ty ffangchen. 
thofe not only of the common Souldiers, but many great Commanders, 
and Prefers-, where they refolvcd to chufe a new Emperour calkdLo'van- 

Oo gus^ 

xg2 Vellum Tartaricum. 

guf, of the ancient Family o{Taim'wgm\ But this Prince would never af- 
fumc the Title of Empcrour, bu: contented himfelt with the Title of 
King-, thinking his fall would be Iclfe^and his death not fo bitter, as if he 
fell from the Throne of an Emperour : but yet to the end to animate 
them to fight with morevigour than they had done heretofore, he pro- 
mifed them to take that Title when they had re-gained one Imperial City. 
He had not reigned three dayes(a (hotter fpace than their perfonated 
» Kings ufe many times to reign in their Tragedies) but the Tartars arrive; 
Which the fugitive Souldiers feeing,& thinking by this pinch of neccffity 
to force their pay from the King and City,retured to fight before they 
had received their falary.It was on this occafion, that King Lovangus his 
heart, being not able to bear fuch a defolatic -n of the City, of his people 
and fubje(as5as he forefaw,gavc (uchan example of his Humanity and 
King Lovin^w Picty ,as Eurofc never faw; for he mounted upon the City Walls, and cal- 
CbV'^s.^* ling upon his Knees to the Tartarian Captains, begged the life of his Svh- 
\t6t%.Sfare not w^(quoth he)/ wil willingly be my Suhje^s viBime-,^ hav ing 
faid this,hc prefently went out to the Tartars Army, and was taken. This 
Illuftriousteftiraony of his love to his Subjeds had not wanted a reward 
to Crown fo Heroick an A(5lion5 if it had met with a generous Soul, 
like that oi^^lexander or of Cdfa r. When they had the King Prifoncr, 
they commanded the Citizens to fhut the Gates, and keep the Walls, 
leaft cither their own, or the Kings Souldiers (hould enter the City 5 and 
prefently they fell upon the Kings men, whom they butchered in a moft 
cruel manner , but yet the water dcftroyed more, than their Swords or 
Arrows, for many caft thcmfelves headlong into the great River of Cw;?- 
fto^, which is a League broad, and runs necr the City-, others leaping 
Many of tiie and Overcharging the Boats in the River were prefently funck^others fly- 
Kings Souidi- -pg ji^2y fuif Qf f(-aj and confufion, thruft one another at the River fide 
ersdrowne . .^^^ ^j^^^ unmerciful Element; and by all thefe many thoufands periflied. 
Hangcheu is The Tartars wanting boats to paffe this River, having thus expelled or 
taken. killed the Souldiery,they returned Triumphant to the City, where they 

ufcd neither force, nor violence-, by which means this noble City was 
conferved, whofe beauty, greatne(re,and riches, I hope to defcribe elfc- 
where, not by hear- fay, but by what I faw, in the three years fpace I lived 
in it,from which I lately came into Earope.lhis City of Hangcheu hath an 
Artificial Channel or Dike to pafs by water to the Northern parts of Chi- 
»4jThis Chanel is onely feparated by the high part of the way like a 
Caufeway from the River, which as I faid, runs on the South part of the 
City, The Tartars therefore drew many Boats out of this Chanel over 
the Caufeway into the River Cientbang^ and with the help of thefe Boats 
they pafled the River withoutrefiftance,and found the faireft City in all 
cA/»4,called X4/>/&/>ii^,prone enough to fubmit to their vidorious Arracs. 
This City in bigncffe yields to many others, but in dcanneffe and comli- 
nefleitfurpaficsall : it is foinvironcd withfweet waters as a man may 
contemplate its beauty by rounding it in a Boat 5 it hath large and 
fair Streets paved on both fides with white fquare ftoncs. and in the mid- 
dle of them all runs a Navigable Chanel, whofc fides are garoiflicd with 
the like ornament, and of the fame ftonclhcrc arcaMblwiltaaanyfeirs 


'Bellum Tartaricum, 


Bridges and Triumphant A rchcs-,thcHoufcs alfo, (which I obferve no 
where clfe in Chwd)ave built of the fame fquare ftonc-fo as,in a word I faw 
nothing neater in all Chm.lhcy took this Town without any refiftance 
and fo they might have done all the reft of the Southern Towns of this 
VovinccoiChek/arfg. But when they commanded all by Proclamation 
to cut off their Hair, then both Souldier and Citizen took up Armes and t 
fought more defperately for their Hair of their Heads, than they did for d^('nd\hfi 
King or Kingdomc, and beat the Tartars not only out of their City ^^''' 
buc repulftthem to the River Cienthang: nay forced them to pafTc 
the River, killing very many of them. In truth, had they paft the River 
they might have recovered the Metropolis with the orher Towns • 
But they purfucd their vidory no further, being fufficicntly con*, 
tented that they had prefcrved their Hair, refifting them only on the 
South fide of the (hore, and there fortifying themfclves. By this means 
the conquering Armes of the Tartars were reprefTed for a whole year Buc 
the Chinois that they might have a Head, chofe Lu Regulus of theTaiwift^ 
gian Family for their Emperour^who would not accept therof,but would 
beonly ftiled JheRcftorerof theEmpire.In the mean time the Tartars 
had fent for new forces out of M/>^, with which they left nere a Stone 
unturnedjthat they might get over the River Ciemhanghut all was in vain. 
The drooping affairs therforc of the Chinois now breached Jlgain, nay,ha- 
ving gathered together more Forces, they promifed themfelves greater 
vi(5tories. But the ambition and emulation of ruling fruftrated all their 
hopes. For the Commanders, and Prefidents which fled out of the Pro- 
vince of C^^^m;? into the Country of Fokiert.coxxkdi with them one of 
Taim'mga's Family ,called Thangus-^ and this man they chofe Kin(» in the 
Country oiFokiert^ which confines with C^ekiang, This P rince ^preten- 
ded that the King called Z«, fhould yceld up his right to him, both bc- 
caufc he had but a few Cities under him, and alfo becaufe he was fijr- 
ther removed from the Imperial Race, than he was. But King Lu 
pretended he was Proclaimed by the Army, before him,and failed not 
to fet forth his Vi(5lories over the Tartars^ By which two contentions, 
thcTartars kept the Crown- for thefe two Royalets, would never yeeld' 
to one another, nor fo unite their Armies, as joyntly to repreffc the Tar- 
tars. Since therefore this petty King Lu had onely eight Cities under his 
command, whofc Contributions were not able to maintain the necefTary 
pay of his Army, he never durft venture to pafTc over the River, but en- 
deavoured only to defend himfcIf.But the Tartars fought all means poffi- 
bly to get over this River,yet they durft not venture to palTe in Boats, be- 
caufe King Lu had many {hips,and good ftore of Artillery which he had 
caufcd to be brought from Sea. But the Tartars felicity, and profperous 
fortune, overcame this difficulty: for, as it happened, that year being 
dryer than ordinary, this River towards the South,where it runs betwixt 
high Mountains,and is deprived of the flowing of the Sea, had loft much 
of its depth? and here the r^r^^r^Horfe found it paffable^and becaufe Tftcr^^r^,, 
the rudcncffc of thofc Mountains,fccmcd a fufficient Guard to the Coun- P^^^ ^^^ ^'^ers 
try,thcyfoundnoSouldicrstorefift.butas foon as the Clowns efpiedSwTSt* 
twenty of their Horfc to have palled the River, they prcfcntly ad vcrtifcd 

Oo 2 the 


^ellum Tartaricum. 

the Army, and they all betook themfelvcs to flight. King Lu him felf left 
the City Xaoking^ and not daring to truft himfclf to the Continent, he took 
Ship and failed to the Ifland called cheuxan, which lies oppofit to the Ci- 
tie of Nimfus ; where he remains to this day fafe, and keeps ftill his Regal 
The Ifland of dignitie-, which Ifland being heretofore only a rctreit for Fifliermcn, and 
cJh:cJL fome Clowns, now is become a potent Kingdom-, by rcafon that 
comts a many fly from China to this King Z«, as to their fan(auary to conferve the 
Kingdom. libertieot their Hair. In this Ifland there are now found thrcefcoreand ten 
Cities, with a ftrong and formidable Army, which hitherto hath contem- 
ned all the Tartarian Power and Forces, and watch for fome happy occa- 
lion to advance again their Kingdom in China^^ur. by this mcans,the Tar- 
tar s took aWthtC'iUQ^ and Towns of the County oiChekiang into their 
Dominion. One only City oiKinhoa, whofe Prcfident was afwcl a Na- 
tive of the place, asalfothe Commander in chief, and my very fingular 
friend, (uftained the T^y/^r^aflaults for fome months. But to the end the 
refiftancc of this City fliould not be a hindrance to the courfe of their Vi- 
dtories, the Tartars divided their Army into three parts.The firft part mar- 
ched by the City Kiucheu,md the Mountainsithe fccond by the City Fen- 
cheu, and the Sea fliore, into the Province of Tokien 5 and the third obfti- 
kmIuL nately beficged the City oiKinhoa. At which time I by leave from the 
and dcftroycd, Empctour Longuvus^ rcfidcd in Henxas a City fubje(5l to that of Venchen, 
which prefcntly after was befieged,and taken by the 74y/4r/,together with 
many other neighbouring Cities. I dwelt in a very fair houfe of the City 
Venxus^ the whole Town then being in a tumult by reafon of the 
fearc and flight of moft of the Citizens. Aflbone as I underiiood of the ap- 
proach of the Tartars y I fixed over thefaireft gate of the houfe, a red paper 
very long and broad,with this Infcription upon it. Here dwells the Europe- 
an DoBw of the Divine Law. For I had obferved the C^ina Governours 
when they take any journy to affixefuch Infcriptions upon the houfes 
where they happen to Iodge,that all men may take notice what great per- 
fons are there. Likewife at the entrance of the greater Hall,I fet out my 
greateft and fairefl:.bound books : to thefe I added my Mathematical! In- 
ftruments, profpecflives, and other optick glaflcs, and what elfe I thought 
might make the greateft fliow 5 and withall I placed the pidure of our Sa- 
viour upon an altar erecfled for that purpofe.By which fortunate ftratagem 
I not ont only efcaped the violence and plunder of the common Souldicr, 
but was invited, and kindly entertained by the Tartarian Vice-Roy .-Who 
demanded of me whether I would with a good will change my cto^ ha- 
bit,and cut off my hair. To which I readily confcnted^and fo he comman- 
ded me to be fhaven there in bis prcfence ; and I telling him, that a (haven 
head would not fo well fuitc with a C/;/;^^- Garment, he pluk't ofFhis own 
boots, and made me draw them on, put his Tartar bonnet on my head,fc3- 
ftcd me at his Table, and accommodating me with his Paflcjdifmiflfcd me 
to my ancient quarters in the noble City Haneheu^ where we had a 
ftatdy Church and CoUedge : In the fiege of Kinhoa^ the Tartars 
by rcafon of great Guns which continually plaid upon them, 
and by the wife condu^ and courage of their noble Comman- 
dcr, fuffcrcd many and great loflcs 5 infomuch as he forced them to pitch 


Bellum Tartaricum. 085 

their Camp further from the City; But at length they alfo brought Ar- 
tillery from the chief City of the Province, by which they made fo many 
breaches in the WallSjas thefe being in a manner difmantled, they found 
cntrance^and burned and facked it with all imaginable Hoftility. The 
Govcrnour blew up himfelf and all his Family with a Barrel of Gunpow- 
der in his own PallacCjleaft he, or his, (hould fall into the Enemies 

The Province o£Fokien is invironed with the bordering Countries of 
^uamgtungiKianfi^ and Chekiangi, from all which it is fcparated by a con- 
tinuall Chain of Mountains which are in breadth of three dayes journey 
to palTe overs and withall^ fo full of ragged and ruggy Clifts, and obfc ure \'^ 

Vallics, as they make the very Paths horrid, dark and obfcure at Noon 
day. Infomuch, as without any exaggeration,they may well be parallel- 
led cither to the Grecian Straits o^Thermo^olis ^oi to the t^fian ruggy and 
ftraic paffage of Taurus, Thefe places might have been caiily defen- 
ded if they had but placed a few Clowns, to repel the Enemy, or croffed 
the waycs by any incumbrances 5 but the very imagination of 
a Tartar was grown fo terrible to thcm,as they fled at the very fight of 
their Horfcs^ leaving therefore thefe Mountains wholly ungarniihed, the 
Tartars found a paffage, but fo very painful, and full of diflBculties,as they The Tartars 
were forced to leave much of their Baggage behind them-and loft many "''' '"gf5'*^" 
of their Horfes, in thofe fearfull precipices^ but by this meanes they took "^'^ " ' ^ 
theProvinceofi^^/r/Vwwithasmucheafe, asit might have been defcn- 
ded-,for they hardly fpent as much time in taking it as a man would doc to 
walk the extent of it.The King himfelf named Lmgimiyvhkh iignifieth a 
Waiiike DragonJ fhewed himfelf a fearful Sheep,flying away with a 
good Army of men, if that word rightly can be apply ed to a numerous 
multitude that had no hearts; but his fight fcrved him for nothing- for the 
Tartars following him with their fwift and nimble Horfes, (hot all this 
flock offilly Sheep to death with is thought the King himfelf fl3^"„^ '^ 
was involved in this Maflacrejfor he tiever appearcd,nor was heard of af- 

Now becaufe the whole Province fubmitted' it felf voluntarily unto 
them without any refinance, it did not only fuffer little from the Tartars, 
but they had many choifeand feledt Souldiers out of it-, and having thus a- 
gain recruited their Army,they made another irruption into the Countrie 
oi ^antgtungs and its worth remarking, that the other Tartarian Com- 
mander, who. when the Army was divided'^as I related before,) had or- 
der to fubduc the Mediterranean Countries, with the fame felicity and 
expedition paflfing vi(5torious through the Provinces'of ff«^«4;?^and of%^^^^''"^" 
Kiangft, entred alfo on one fide of this Countrie oiS^amgtungy whilft i$ taken. ^ ^^ 
the other came in by Fokien upon the other fide^and becaufe the Town of 
Nankitmg refolved to fight it our,they confumed it all, by fire and fword. 
So the poor Country oi ^amgtmg oppreffed by a double victorious 
Army, was quickly over-run &fubdued. After this,one of thefe vidlorious 
Armics,enriched with all the rarities of Chma^ was called back to Peking^ 
but yet they left a Garrifon in every City, afligning in the name of the 
King of Tartars both Civil and Martial Officers, for the Countries Go- 
vernment. The 

igtf Vellum Tartarictim. 

The happie fucceffc in taking the impregnable Province of Fokien, is 
attributed by wife men, (to whofe judgement I alfo fubmit) to a more re- 
w mote and hidden caufe,which I will briefly relate. There was at this time - 
a famous and renowned Py rat called Chhtchilungtu • this man was born in 
the Province ot J^/VWjOf which we are treating •, he firftlerved the PortU' 
ahefe in CMacM-, then he ferved the Hollander in the Ifland called Formofa^ 
where he was known to all ftrangers by the name oilquon. After this he 
became a Pyrar, but being of quick and nimble wit, he grew from this 
fmall and flcndc r fortune, to fuch a height and power^as he was held ei- 
A famous Py- ther Superiour or equal to the Emperour oichinafox he had the Trade of 
rate in chtna. JndU in his hand ', and he dealt with the Portugefe in Macao j with the Spa- 
niards in the Phtlliffins ; with the Hollanders in the Ifland Fermsfa^ and 
new Holland'^ with the ^apemam, and with all the Kings and Princes of 
the Eaftern parts in all manner of rich commodities. He permitted none 
totranfpoitthe WaresofC/>/>4burhimfelrforhis, to whom he brought 
back the riches and the Silver of M^repe and Indies-^ for after he once rathet 
extorted, than obtained pardon of the King oi China for his Pyracies, he 
became (o formidable,as that he had no lelTc than three thoufand Ships of 
which he was Lord and Malter, Nor was he contented with this fortune, 
but afpired privately to no leflc than to the Empire ; But becaufe he knew 
he never (hould be' accepted of the Prefers and people, as long as there 
was any of the Imperial Family of the T4/w/;5|f^/ alive, he hoped by the 
r^?'^^^^ means to extinguifh them wholly, and after this was done, then 
he refolved to difplay his Banners and Enfigns in fo pious a caufe, as the 
driving out the common Enemy from the bowels of the Kingdom-,and no 
doubt but under this pretext, they would all have followed, helped and e- 
ven adored him, as their Saviour, It was therefore evident that he had fe- 
cret correfpondence with the Tartars • and that he favoured them for his 
own profit 5 And that which made the bufineflc more fufpicious was,that 
at that time when the tartars made their irruption into Fokien^t was then 
declared Lord Marlhal of the Kingdom, and all the Generals, Comman- 
ders and Souldicrs, were either of his affinity, or wholly at his Command 
and Obedience. And therefore it is no wonder, if the Tartars found an ca- 
iie admittance into the Country of Fekien •, of which they prefently made 
him King Pwgnan^ (as much as to fay^ Paafer efthe South) and they added 
The Tartars many Other Dignitie^and Offices of truft, that they might more fpeciouf* 
dcceiTc thePy- jy \\\^^q him •, for either they knew his afpiring mind, or elfe his great po- 
him'piifoncr wct and authotltie was fufpicious and formidable to them ., but yet all the 
ky mcer Art. while that the General of the Tartars remained in Fokien^ they never ex- 
preffed the leaft diffidence in him,but both with favours, courtcfies, pre- 
fents and honours, they ffudied how further to ingage him, and promifed 
him the Government of many more Provinces. He made himfelf there- 
fore fecure of the Government of all the Southern Provinces ; but all hap- 
pened quite contrary to his cxpedation; for when this General of the Tar^ 
tars.vjho was obferved as a little King, was to depart to Peking^ thecu- 
ftom was for all the Officers of the Kingdom to conduct him, for fome 
part of his journy, to give him an honourable farcwell^which /aft duty of 
CiviUty/^i^ow could not handfomcly avoid, nor indccd,had he any reafon 


Bellum T'ariaricum, 287 

to be diffident in hiai j fo as he left his Navic in the Port of Fecheu and 
accompanied the Royolet with great fplcndor and magnificence. But when 
he came to take leave, and demand Licence to return, the General of the 
Tartars^ invited hira a long to Peking^ where he promifed him yet greater 
honours from the Kings own perfon, to reward his Merits.He endeavour- 
ed by all imaginable impediments, toexcufethis journey, but nothing 
was accepted, he was forced, by their kindnefle, to accompany them to 
Peking ', and fo he was taken by Art, who by Arms fccmed Infuperable. 
He is yet detained in Prifon in P^i^/Vg-, becaufchis Brothers and KindrcJ 
hearing of his Captivitie, prefently feazed on the Fleet 5 with which they 
have much intefted China^ as we fhall touch hereafter. 

In the mean time the other Army which had palTed the Mediterranean the T^-urs 
ViosVi\ct^ oiHuquang^Kianfiy and ^amgtung^ invaded the Country of °^*=^^^'''^w 
^angfi. But here it was that the Arms of the Tartars which hitherto were •^*"^"^^' 
held in vincible, we re Hiewed to be weak,& where they leaft expcdcd op- 
pofition,there they found a flop to their happened that in this 
Province o^ ^ttangfi the Vice-Roy, called Khiu Thomas^ was a Chriftianj 
and alfo all the ii//7/>/<« of that Country was comnaanded by C^^iw^ Z«^^, 
vvhofe family for five Generations has ferved thcEmperours off /;/;^4^ with 
as much conftancy and fidelity, as they did Chrift. Thcfe two having ga- 
thered many together, which fled from all parts into S^angft^ after the 
Tartars had taken many places in the Country, overthrew the Tartariam 
in a fet Battail-,and pafling into the confining Province of ^4w^;»/;^,they 
recovered all the Weftern part of it. After this, that they might have a 
head to fight for,and who might command and govern them in all Oc- 
currences, and withall, to draw the minds and hands of the Chinefes to the 
common defence of the Country, knowing that in the City of ^eilin^ 
which is the head City of ^Mgft^ there was one of the Taminges Fami- Jmgiey mad^ 
ly living, who was Nephew to the Great Vanleius, they eleded him Em- ^^perour of 
perour,and called by the name offurjgley. This Prince Bxcd his Impcri- ^*''"'' 
al feat in the noble City of chat king in the Province o( Ji^awgtung, and 
hitherto has fought feveral times with the Tartars, with good fucceffc. 
And in this Princes Court, the chief Eunuch called Pang o/lchilleusy is the 
greateft favourite, and a great Servant of Chrift, whom he hath long pro- 
feffed finccrcly to worfhip, both by word and d^ctd ; for, to propagate 
Chriftianitie, he has ever maintained a million of Jefuitcs about him, by 
whofe painfull endeavours many have embraced the Faith of Chrift-,Ana 
amongft others the very Mother of this Emperour, his Wife, and his el- ^^^ ^^ 
defl Son, Heir of the Empire, called Conflantin, did allimbrace Chriflia- the'^Em^rV^ 
nity . May this Man by the praiers of all Chriftians prove another Cenfiari' t'ecomcs 
tifie to the Empire of China' The Emperour himfclf is not averfc from ^'^"^'^"• 
Chriftianitie, but hitherto he hath defer*d his Baptifm, but yet he permit- 
ted his Wife to fend a Father of the Society, to do homage to the Sea A- 
poftolick, as all Europe has heard. God of his goodncfte grant him that fe- 
licity, which may redound to the univerfal good o^Chma^nd Gods gr^a^ 
tcr^ory. ,oca 

But it was not only in St^ngfi that the Chinefes bcgaiv to rcfumc tbci« Theevcs infeft 
courage, but in the Province oiFokien alfo • for no fooncr was the tJir/a- p^^^'^J'^^^ ''^ 


288 "BeUum Tartmmm. 

rian Army called back to Pekingy but a petty Heathen Pricft broke out 
of the Mountains o^Fokien^yNiih a band of feditious fellows.and fubduing 
the Tartarian Garrifons took the fair City of Kiennmg, and many others 
from their fubjeiSlion*, and others which lay lurking in the Mounraines 
fdllowing his example, recovered alfo many other Cities-, about which 
time alfo the friends and Kindred of the Captive iquon did extremely in- 
feft the Sea, and making defcents upon the Land,vcxed the Province ex- 
tremely about the Quarters ofSiueacheu^^ndChangchett. At this time a 
chief Governour of the Tartariam, Vice-roy of two Provinces was at 
Chekfaffg; who hearing of thefe commorions came prcfently by night in 
great haff e with all the force he could make, towards the Mountains of 
Fokien; for he with reafon feared left they fhould take poffeffion of the 
PafTagesof thofe places, which if they had done, the whole Province 
had been rc-gained. But when this Vice-roy, called Cto^w;, found the 
Mountains and Paffages clear,& no oppofition made in fuch difficult pla- 
ces, he then proclamed himfclf vi6torious,and his enemies perfidious Rc- 
changw the bels ; wherefore coming without refiftance into the Country,hc befieged 
^("^h^Tmars ^be Ci'ty Kienning, which was defended by rAngusj:\\h Siege held fome 
beiieges Kien- wecks, but he never could take the place by force, , and therefore ha- 
n'mg in vain, ^jj^g \q^ ^^^y Qf j^j^ ^^^ by affaults, he judged it beft rather to block up 
the place afar off, than to befiege itfo clofe and ncer. But yet by this, 
he hindred other forces from joyning with Vangm, fo that he was not 
ftrong enough to fally out upon them. 

When the noyfe of thefe com motions came to P^^//^^, the Empcrour 
prefently fent a new fupply to appcafc thefe tumults-, and this fi e(h Army 
It is at length commingto joyn witiithc othcr,broughtthe City to great ftreights- but 
taken and ra- y^^ ^j^^y could not Win it, til at length they found means by a rare inventi- 
'^^^' on to tranfport their Canons over the Mountains upon Por ters Shoulders, 

by which means they difmantled the Town, and put all whatfocver to 
the Sword^ to the number of thirty thoufand perfons , as my own 
friends writ unto me^and not content with this, they fet fire on the Town, 
and brought it all toafhes, by which means, the (lately Church eredfcd 
bytheChriftiansfortheferviceof God. was alfo confumed by that de- 
vouring flame-, yet the Priefts that fcrved in that Church got out miracu- 
loufly as Lot did out oiSodom-^ which name was appropriated to this Ci- 
ty, by reafon of that infamous vice. This City being taken, it was no 
hard matter to recover the Countrie-, for fome fled to fave them felves in 
the Mountains, others ran to the Sea, and fo when this new Array had 
pacified all, they were called back to Peking-, where it is not amilTe to ob- 
ferve the policy which the Tartars ufe in the Government and ordering of 
their Army .'They are ever calling back fome, and fending out othersj in 
which proceeding they aim at two things ; firft to keep the Countries in 
awe and fubje(5lion, by feeing variety of Troops continually paflingup 
and down ; and fecondly,to provide for the poorer fort of Souidiersjfor 
the wealthy Souldier is called back to recreat, and cafe labours, and the 
poor Souldier feeing his Companion grown rich,takes heart and courage 
to run the fame cburfe upon hopes of the like good fortune. 
* Yet for all thefe preventions and cautions, their Empire was not fo 


Vellum Tartaricum. 289 

cftablifhcd, but by frequent rebellions it was often indangered-, and parti- 
cularly by one Rebellion, which now I will relate, which fhakcd fhrewd- 
ly the foundations of the new Empire. The Kingdome ofchma is of fo 
vafl: an extent, as it is a bufinefTe of main importance, to diftribute judici- """^ tiic Tar- 
oufly the Armies and Garrifons. Now becaufe the Tartars alone cannot IhH q^°^^ 
fuffice to furni/Ti both, they are forced roufe the help of the Chinefes^om. 
thcmfelves, although they have a fpeciall care never to leave or place ei- 
ther Commander or Souldier, who is a Native, in the fame Country ; yet 
this care could not exempt them from feveral Treafons, and Rebel! ions j 
though they d iftributc & order their ii//7///i«jWith great circumfpec^tion-, 
for the chief Commander or Governour refides in the Metropolitan Ci- 
ty, whom all inferiour Officers obey. This man maintaines alwayes 
a complcat Army, which he commands to march, when he hears of any 
rifings. Every City has alfo their own proper Governour, with a compe- 
tent number of Souldiers, but thofe for the mod part arc Tartars^ and 
thefe are Chines, But all this Politicall, and well-eflabliihcd Government 
could not defend them from Traitors amongft themfelves. The firft man 
that did revolt from them was one Kinus Governour of the Province of fc-;,„, r . . 

r f-r«1 • 1 • 1 1 /> • • ti.tnUS VTOVCI- 

Ktangji^ This man was born m Leaotung, and becaufe it is a Country that nour of a pjo- 

bordcrs upon Tartary^ihe King commonly raoft confides in the Natives T'"^^ ^^''^^^ 

ofthatProvince.Ichappenedlknownot how,thatthisGovernour,byrea- 

fon of fome corruptions, and Avarice of the Vifitor ofthe Country, had 

fome contcfts with him, which grew by little and little to a fecret hatred; 

and although they both diflcmbled their private malice, as ufually they The hatred 

do in china^ yet at length the flame broke out to the ruin of the Country 5 betwm the 

for being the one was Governour of the Armes,and the other of Jufticc, Sibs tf/ 

there was a neceflity of often meetings, & feaftings alfo.It happened once Counrry of 

that whilfl they were feafted with a fumptuous Banquet, they were alfo ^''*"^' 

entertained by a plcafant Comedy; in which the A6lors were attired with 

the habits of C^/>4, which were more comely and fairer than thofe which 

the Tartars ufe-, upon which occafion Kims turning himfclf to the Vifitor 

faid, Is not this habit better^ ^ graver thm ours ^This innocent fpeech was 

interpreted by his corrival Judge,as if he had contemned the Edi(51: about 

changing of Ha bits,and expreffed too much love to the Chines Garments, 

before thofe of the Tmars-j and of this he fent an ExprcfTe to advertile 

the Emperour. \ 

But the Governour Kims^ had corrupted a Secretary, which fcrved 
the Lord Chief J uflicc-, who gave him intelligence of all that paffed in 
word or deed in his Ma(ters Houfe. And as foon as he had notice that this 
Letter was fent to the Court, he prefently difpatched thofe, who inter- 
cepted the Packet-, which the Governour having read, went prefently 
armed to the Judges Palace, whom he fuddenly killed .Then prefently he 
with the whole Province revolted from the Tartars,zr\d with the great ap- 
plaufe of all the Chinefes,hc fubmitted himfelf to funglej the new ele(5lcd 
Emperour. One only City called CancheUyVihXch. was governed by an in- 
corrupted T4rf4r,refufed to fubmit-,which was the whole, and only cauf<?, 
that the Tartars did recover the two Provinces Kianfi and Q^mtmg')30ih 
which Provinces revolted at the fame time with their Commanders, and 

Pp both 

2po Vellum Tanaricum. 

Many places ^oth fubmittcd alfo to the new elc(5ted Eraperour. Lihuzus was Govet- 
IZtana^ nour of ^amgtufig at that time^who refolved to joyn his Forces with Ki- 
ms, and lo to caft the tartars out of the Empire-,which it is believed they 
might have cffeded, if the Governour of Crfw^f«, which is the Key and 
entrance into four Provinces, had not cunningly uudermined all their dc- 
figncs and intentions. But this nnan hearing that had revolted,and 
marched to joyn his Army with Kimsy difpatched to him this deceitfuU 
Tiie deceipt of Letter, I have not hitherto ftthmitted te Yiimsjbecaufe I kmn> his forces were 
theGovernoui not equal^ noT ahU toreftji the Tartars : But feeing theu.mojl renowned and 
of cancheu, valiant Capainjbeginnefi alfo to march againft hopes concerning them 
are at end J am thine ^andimbrace thy caufet^whenfoever thoujhalt come^or fend^ 
I mil render mj City to thee or thine. But in the mean time he fent to all the 
Governours in Fokien^ to fend him fecrccly all the poflible fuccour they 
could raife altogether* Lihuzus having received the Letter marched to- 
wards him, cheerfully, and confidently; But though he found the Gates 
of the City open, yet he was furioufly repelled by the Tartarians oppofiti- 
onj which uncxpedcd accident fo aflonifhcd his Souldiers, as many of 
them pcrifhed, and amongft the reft it is thought himfclf was killed, for 
he was never heard of after. 

This reverfe and crofTe fortune did much difturb the progreffc of the 
Emperour ^ungleys affairs^ though Kinm in the mean time had many fin- 
gular vi(5tories over the Tartars^^ for when the chief Goveroour of all the 
Weftcrn parts ofchina^ who had placed bis chief Seat in Nanking, had 
gathered great Forces to reprefTc his afplring mind, yet he was feverall 
times routed & overthrownc by himjand MKinus had purfued the courfc 
of his viaorics, he might have come to the very Walls of Nanking-^ but 
he was follicitous ofthc City o^ Cancheu, which obliged him to a retreir- 
for neither was it fafc for him to leave an enemy behind him, nor could he 
receive vidualsfrora the Emperour Jungley^ but by Cancheu, which is the 
natural defcent of the River-, and therefore when he heard ofLihuzf/s de- 
fear, he prefently befieged that City with his whole Army-,But whilfl he 
was beficging this City^there came, unfortunately ^a new Army of Tartars 
from the Imperial] City oiPekifig ,which had order fo recover this Pro- 
vince of KiatJgJt'j and therefore Kinus was forced to raife his Siege to op- 
pofe their entrance by the Northern parts of the Country ^ And at firft ha- 
ving a vaft Army, and ufcd to the Tartarian warfare, he fought both va- 
beHe ed ^^^ntty and happily^ but not being able to fuftain any longer their redou* 
hy^ihiTanfrs. bled violent aflaults, he was forced fo retire for his fccurity to Nanchang^ 
the chief City of that Country-, which City the 74r/4r/durft not venture 
to take by force, but refolved to reduce it by a long Siege^ for which end 
they gathered together a Company of Country Clowns to make a large 
and fpacious Trench round about the City to the River, and there ihcy 
placed Ships, fo as no Provifion could poflibly enter. This City of 'Han- 
chang is great and extremely full of inhabitants, befides the multitude of 
Souldicrs which defended it at that time, fo as although iT/^w had made 
great Provifion for a Siege^yet after fome moncths he came to great want 
and pcnnury^and yet he held it out though many dyed,expe<5Hng ftil fome 
fuccours from the Emperour fungley^ which coald not be fcnt; bccaufe 


Bellum T^artaricum. 2pi 

the SoLildicrs ot ^mrngtimg could never fubdue the Gity oiChanchett^ by 
which his fuccour was to palTe ; wherefore Kinus being brought to great 
extremity, cxprcffed his mind to his Souldicrs in thefe words. There is no 
further ho^e^ {mj faithful Companions) but in our own valour and fir engtb we 
muft force our way through the Tarrarian <^rmy by dint of Sword -^ be couragi- 
tf//j, rfw^y^/Ztfip^^^y f.v^zw/'/f. And having ordered all affairs, he fuddainly 
made a Sally out of the Town upon their Trenches ^ where, though he out'^fthrcty, 
found a vigorous oppofition, yet, with great difficulty, he palfed and for- 
ced their Trenches, by which means he faved him feU and his Army, ha- 
ving killed many Tartars • for it is conftantly reported that Kinus with a 
good part of his Army lives in the Mountains, expeding there fomc good 
occafion to renew the War. 

He being thus efcaped, x\\Q Tartars pillaged thcCiry, and put all the tj^^q, oi 
Citizens to the fword,tor it is the Tartars cuftom to fpare all Cities which Nalchalg\i 
fubmit to them 5 and to thofe which have made re/iftance before they be '^^^^oyed. 
taken, they arc more cruell-, but they never fpare or pardon thofe Cities 
which revolt after they have once been taken. In this Slaughter they killed 
the two Priefls which there aflifted the Chriftians •, and their ancient and 

- fair Church was burned in the City. After this, the Tartars cafily recover- s 
ed the whole Country 3 and having appeafed all, and left new Garifons in 
ailplaces, the Array returned vi6i:onous to the Royal City of Peking. In 

' tTie mean time this Court prepared new Armies to rtduce^amgtung with 
the other Provinces which acknowledged Jungley for the Emperour of 
China • for the Tutor to the young King oiTartary^ finding the dcfe<5lions 
and rebellions in the Southern parts to be very frequent, rcfolvcd to give 
thofe Quarters over tofome Tributary Royolets, the better to contain JJ-^^ ^.''jp 
thofe Countries in their Juties;whereforc in the year MD CXLIX .he fcnt S^yVS^' 
three Armies, confifting ipmlyotfartars., and partly oichinefes^ under ""^^^Jmb/ 
tfirec Tributary Princes, to govern thefe Provinces with abfolutc power If/c&r^"' 
and Dominion- one of thefe was King oiFokien^ another o[ ^amgtung^ ~~ — * 
and the third of the Province of ^angfi-^but with this condition,that firft , 
of all they fliould joyn their Forces to recover theCountry o^^amgtung, 
and drive away the Emperour ff*fJgley^ But we (hall fay more of this hcrc- 
afrerj now having feen the Rebellions of the South,let us look a little back 
on the Rebellions in the North againfl: the T^rMr/ alfo. 
— In the fe Northern parts the Chinefe s ihewed their defire of Liberty as - - 
much as^they had done mtfie South ; where the Commanders though o- 
vcrthrown,yernoc taken, retired into the abrupt and precipitious Moun- 
tains,wherethey held Counfel, how they might fhake off the Tartars Do- 
minion 5 three of thefe heads inhabited the thickeft and highefl places of 

- that mountanous Country •, the ch ief eft of whom was called Hou^ • this ^•^wrifecii 
man being flrong in men, invited the reft to joyn with him, to deliver his xm^s!"^ 
Country from this miferable thraldome* oneofthemconfentcd, theo- ^ 

thcr could not come,but fent him two thoufand men to affift him^fo as ffoi' 
«* marched out with five and twenty thoufand men 5 which was no coo-' 
temptible Army if they had been as couragious, as numerous .* He put out 
a Proclamation, in which he challenged the Tartars, and threatened them ■ 
all extremities 5 and to the C^inefes^ he promifcd all liberty and freedom ; 

Pp 2 and 

2pz Be Hum Tartaricum. 

and upon thefc hopes jinany Towns and Cities admitted him very willing- 
ly. Sigan^iht Metropolitan of the Country ,was the only place able to re* 
(ift him,havin<' within its Walls three thoufand T^rMrj, andtwothou- 
fand felcded menof C^/»</,who ferved the Tartar JXhc Governour of this 
Town hearing oiJiom his motion, gathered all things neceffary for a long 
Siege, till a new fupply of Tartarian Forces could be fent him. But when 
he heard that all the Towns and Cities in the Country did voluntarily 
The baibarous fubmit themfelvcs to Horn J to prevent the like effcd in this City, he refol- 
rcfolution of a ^^^ ^^ mutder all the Citizens moft barbaroufly-, nor would he ever be re- 
Govemo"ur. moved from this unhumane fentence, till the Vice-Roy commanding and 
perfwading, and the Citizens promifing all faithfuU fervicc, at length he 
changed thisTyrannical Counfel.But he commanded under pain of death, 
that the ChimfeSj who loved fo much their Hair, that they only cut a little 
of it away, about their Temples, fliould hereafter (have it off wholly and 
totally, that fo he might diftinguifli the Citizens from any others, if per- 
chance they entred ; he ordained befides, that if any fpokc more than two 
together, they Ihould all be prefently killcd-,he forbad all men to walk up- 
on the Walls, or to walk in the ftreets by night, or to keep a fire or candle 
in his houfe by night-,and finally difarmed all-, declaring it death to infringe 
any of thefc orders. 
Thefe tilings being thus ordered, he fent out fome Scouts to difcovcr the 
IKt^n 7s cnenM^ who were partly killed, and partly came flying back to 

bcdcged. the City ; but this Tartarian Governour, as well to make an oftentation of 
his flrength, as of his feeurityjcommandcd the City Gates to be lefc open, 
nor would he permit the Draw- Bridge to be raifed or pulled up, to (hew 
he feared nothing. But for all this,the Commander Boui befieges this Ci- 
ty afar off, Cwbich was three leagues compsffe,) out of the reach of their 
Artillery •, and to the end he might make a (hew of greater forces than in- 
deed he had, he joyned to his Army a company of dull headed Clowns, 
by which means he made up a body of thirty thoufand men. The Gover- 
nour of the City feeing luch an Army, as appeared, believed them all to be 
Souldiers, and left his Citizens (hould jpyn with them, he thought again 
of cutting all their throats; but his friet^ds ever diverted him from this 
outragiaus cruelty •, and it diverted him from luch horrid proje(5ts, when 
he walking upon the Walls, faw the Chinefes under his colours fight fo 
valiantly againft Hous • for when he faw this, he ufed to cry out in their 
Language, koo Manz.u^ (as much as to fay) Ogeod Barbarians ;, for fo the 
Tartars call thcC/&/;»4«,as conquering Nations ufc to expofc the conquer- 
ed to fcornand derifion-, and he crowned this feoff with thefe words, 
Maumxa Manz^u^ as much as to fay,Let the barbarous kill the barbarous % 
and when they returned vi6loriouSjhe did not onely praife them, but gave 
chemMony, and other precious rewards, which were expofed to publick 
view upon the WallSjto animate them to high and generous exploits ^ fo 
as i^fl«y finding no Body ftirin the City,asheexpeded, could do nothing? 
befidcs,therc came new fuccours to the Tmartan Armyjwhich wheOi^tf^/ 
undcrftoodbyhisfpies, he prefently retired. But yet this flight did not 
fcrve his turn,nor could he wholly efcape the Tartars hands^for the Horfc* 
mcnpurfuing them, fell upon the {vear, and killed many, ca/rying away 
V- ^ qu great 

Vellum Tattaricum. 295 

great ftorc of Riches, which the Commander diftributcd in fuch propor- 
tion, as he gave moft to fuch as were wounded •, what became ofHous af- 
ter this a<5tion, is unknown, and therefore I conclude^that thcfe Northern 
revolts produced no other erfe(5l, but the fpoy 1, Rapin and Plunder of all 
thofe Qnarters, as it had produced the like in the Southern parts. The 
Tartars having happily overcome all difficulties hitherto, fell into another The Tartan 
by their own infolency-, from the year MDCXLIX. thcEmperour of '»'^^*^""^5 
theTarurj, being now grown up to mans Eftate, defired to Marry the S'^ng^';!;'^ -'"' 
Daughter of the King of Tayngut who is Prince of the Wcftern Tartars, 
hoping by this match., to conferve the friendfliip of him.^ whofe Forces he 
feared •, for this end he fent his uncle to him, who was King of Pauang^ 
This Prince palTed by the impregnable City o^Taitung ; which as it is the 
Jaft City towards the North,foalfo it is the Key and Bulwark of the Pro- 
vince o^Xanfi againft the irruption of theWeftern Tartnrs^^^ox it commands 
all the Souldicis which keep the many Fortifications of thofe Quarters, 
where a fair Level down extending it felf beyond that famous Wall, I 
mentioned heretofore, gives a fit occafion for the incurfion of the Tartars o 
The Women of this City are held the moft beautifull of all China • and 
therefore it happened, that feme of the Embaffadours followers did ravidi 
fome of themj arid alfo carried away by a Rape, a Perfon of quality, as fhe 
was carried home to her Spoufe, which was a thing never heard of here- 
tofore amongft the Chine fes. The people had recourfe for thefe injuries to 
Kiangus^ who governed thofe Quarters iotihtTartarsi, who hearing of 
this grolTe abufe, fent to that petty Prince Vauang^ to demand the new 
Married Lady to be rcftored,and to defire liim to prevent future diforders 
in that nature-, but be gave a very flight Ear to fuch complaints • and there- 
fore Kiangtis himfelf went unto him, who was not only flighted, but even 
caft out of the Palace- His anger was quickly turned into rage ^ ^^'^^^'^Kungusxikih 
made him refolve to revenge that injury by the Tartars bloud-,he therefore ^gamft the 
Mufters up his Souldier3,and prcfently falls on the Tartars^ih all he could ^^''^'■'^• 
encounter •, the EmbafTadour himfelf being let down by the Walls of the 
Town, hardly cfcaped by fwift Horfes. Then Kiangus difplayed a Ban- 
ner, wherein he declared himfelf a Subje6t to the Empire of C;^/>4,but na- 
med no Emperour in particular, becaufc perchance he had heard nothing 
of the Empcrour 5C/^;?^/#y, byreafonoffovaftadiflance. But, however, 
he invited all the C^/;«f/^i to the defence of their Country^ andto expell/cwn^^H^gatheis 
the Tartars ^ and many Captains as well as Souldiers, came in to him^yea s^^wt Forces, 
even the very Weftern Tartars againft whom he had ever born Arms,be- 
ingpromifed great rewards,fent him the Forces which he demanded. This 
accident extremely troubled the Court •, for they knew well that the We- 
ftern Tartars did both afpire to the Empire oichina^ and alfo were envi- 
ous at their profperous courfc of fortune ^ they alfo knew that they were 
more abundant in Men and Horfes than they wcre-,f or from hence it is they 
bought all their beft Horfes, and they feared that now they fliould have 
no more •, and therefore they refolved to fend prefently a good flrong Ar- 
my againft him, before hrftiould gather a greater ftrength. But Hiangus 
who was as crafty as valiant, and one who by long experience knew how 
to deal with the TartArsy%x^ feigned to fly wivh bis Army^ But in the Rear 



Vellum Tariaricum. 

Kiangus over- 
throws tUe 
Tartars by a 
He beats the 
turtars again. 

againft Kian- 

The Tartars 

Iht Tartars 
delight in han- 

he placed very many Carts and Wagons, which were all covered very 
carefully as if they had carried the richeft Treafures they poffeded, but in 
real truth they carried nothing but many great, and leffer, pieces of Artil- 
lery, with their mouths turned upon the Encmie: all which the Tartars 
percciving,prefently purfue; they fight without any order, and fall upon 
the prey with great Avidirie •, but thofe that accompanied the Wagons, 
firing the Artillery, took off the greateft part of the Army ^ andwithall, 
Kimgus wheeling about,came up upon them, and made a (trange carnage 
amongft thera-,and after this he (liev^ed himfelf no lefTe admirable in Stra- 
tagems than in fortitude and courage •, when he fought a fet pitched Field, 
with a new recruited Army of the tartars^ in which he obtained fo noble, 
and renowned a vidory, that he filled all the Court at ? eking with fear and 
trembling-, for by this means vidtorious liungm had gathered fo vaftan 
army, as he counted no leffe than a hundred and fortie thoufand Horfe,and 
foure hundred thoufand foot, all men having reccurfc to him, to defend 
their Country againftthe Tartariar$ army-, and therefore i^mavangu^^ 
Tutor to the Emperour, thinking it not fit to commit this bufincffe to any 
other, refolved himfelf to go againfl Kiangus^zn^ trie the laft turne of for- 
tune for the T^trf^n • he therefore drew out all the eight Colours, that is, 
the whole Forces that were then in Peking •, for under thefc eight colours 
are comprehended all the Forces of the Kingdom o^ China, whether they 
be Natives or Tartars, nh^ firft of which is White,called the Imperial Ban- 
ner •, the fecond is Red •, the tliird is Black j the fourth is Yellow-, and thefe 
three laft are governed and commanded by the Uncle of the Emperour, 
but the firft is immediatly fubje(a to the Emperour ; of thefe four colours 
by feveral mixtures, they frame four raore/o as every Souldier knows his 
own colours, and to what part of the City to repnii-, where they have ever 
their Arms andHorfes ready for any expedition^fo as in one half hour they 
all are ready-, for they blow a Horn juftinthe fafhion of that, which we 
appropriate ufually ro our Tritons, and by the manner of winding it, they 
prefently know, what Companies and Captains muft march, fo as they 
are ready in a moment to follow their Enfign, which a Horfe- man carries 
tied behind him, though commonly none but the Commander and En- 
fign knows whither they go : this profound fccrecyin their exercife of 
War,has oftenaftonifhcd the Chinefes.ior many rimes,when they thought 
to oppofe them in one part, they prefently heard they were in another 
Quarter : and it is no wonder they are fo quick, for they never carric with 
them any Baggage,nordo they take care for Provifion: for they feed them- 
feives with what they finde, yet commonly they eat Flefti, though half 
rofted, or half boyled ; if they find none, then they devour their Horfcs, 
or Camels : but ever when they have leafure,they go a hunting all manner 
of wild Beafts, either by fome excellent Dogs and Vultures, which they 
bring up for that end, or elfe by incompaffing a whole Mountain, or large 
Field, they beat up all the wild Beafts into a circle, and drive them into fo 
narrow a compaffe, as that they can take as many as they pleafe, and dif- 
mifTc the reft. The earth covered with their Horfc-cloath is their iBed,fbr 
they care not for Houfes, and Chambers 5 but if they be forced to dwell 
in Houfes, their Horfcs muft lodge with them, and they muft have many 


Vellum Tartaricum. 295 

holes beaten in the Walls-, but yet their Tents are moft beautiful, which 
they fix and remove with fuch Art and dexterii£y,as they never retard the 
fpeedy naarch of an Army.Thus the Tartars train their Souldiers to hard- 
ncde for War. 

Out of all thefe Enfigncs Amavangus chofe the choiccft men to accom- 
pany hispeffon. And bcfides, he took part of thofe which he had depu- 
ted to follow the three Royalets which he diTpatched to the South^order- 
ing them to take as many out of the feverall Garrifons through which 
they pafTed, as might fupply this defe(5i:. But although t^mivangas had 
fo gallant, and fuch a flouri/hing Army, yet he never durft give Batcail to 
Kiangusy left he might feem to expofe the whole Empire of the Tartars to . 
the fortune of one Battail; So that although Kiangm did frequently offer duTft^noffight 
him Battail-, yet hceverrefufed to fight, expeding ftilltohearwhatre- ^^^^ K-itngns, 
ply the Weftern Tartars would make to his Propofition of his Nephews 
Marriage5for he had fcnt a Legate to that TVir/rfri^;? King with pretious 
gifts, as well to demand his Daughter for the Emperour of Chimy as to 
defire him to afford no f uccour to the Rebel KUrtgusf The precious gifts 
ofGoIdjOfSilk, ofSilver, and ofWomen, obtained whatsoever he de- 
manded-, and therefore Kiangm feeing himfelf deferred oithcTartars^thzt 
he might provide as well as he could for his own affjirs, returned to the 
City 74/V«;jf^5ofwhich he foon repented himfelf, when it was too late; 
for Amavangus calling in an innumerable number of Pe2antS5in the fpace 
of three daycs, with an incredible diligence, caft up a Trench of tcti 
Leagues compaflTe, which he fo fortified with Bulwarks and Ramparts, 
that in a trice he blocked up that Gity.Then did Kiangus fee his errour in 
granting them leafure to draw their Trench, which he knew would debar 
him from all manner of Provifion- And therefore being enraged with 
anger, as he was a man full ofmettal, and a great Souldier, turning him- 
fclf to his Souldiers, he faid, Jflmuft dye^ I had rather dye hj the Stvord^than 
by Famine'jZnd upon this marched out prefently to the Enemies Trench 
with his whole Army. Here it was that both the parties fought moft ob- 
ftinately, the one to feck his PaflTage, the other to hinder his Advance^fo 
as the fortune was various, and the vidory doubtfull, untill an unlucky 
Arrow tranfpierc'd ir/4;si^»y-, and in him all the hope o( China pevlOaed, i^j^^^^^,. 
His Souldiers feeing him dead, partly ran away, and partly fubmitted to tilled. 
the Tartars^vfho received them with all courtefic and humanity- for they 
had canfe enough of joy, to fee they had efcaped the danger of lofing the 
Empire, and that they had conquered fo formidable a Commander. But 
yet they Plundered the City Taitung, and burned the City o^ Pucheu^ 
where the Church of the Chriftians alfo peri(hed.From hence the Tartars 
returned to Peking^ where I faw them enter overladen with Riches and 
triumphant hzuxeh-fiwiK^mavangus purfued his journey to the Weftern 
Tartars:, where he ratified his Nephew Xmchius his Marriage, and 
brought back with him an infinite Company of Horfe from the Tartars of 
the Kingdomc ofTanytt, Xamhim tf.e 

In the mean time, the three Royalets which went to the Southern SLT' 
Kingdoracs,topacifie thofe unquiet Provinces, tooke their journey by 
the defccnt of the River Cne^zx\d when they paflfed through that Pro- 

2p(S 'Bellum Tartaricum. 

vince, which the Emperour had given the rtartm to inhabit, and culti- 
vate after he had expelled the Chinefcs for their Rebellion, moft of thele 
PezantSjbeing wholly ignorant of tilling and manuring the ground, as ha- 
ving never been ufed to mannage a Spade or a Plough, but their Swords-, 
thcfe men,! fay, defired carneftly thefe Princes, that they might acccom- 
pany them in thefe Wars,and in their expeditions-. Two of thefe Princes 
rejedcd their Petitions^ but the third calIed;'X(?;3fe«/ without any confenC 
or order from the Emperour, lifted them amongft his own Troups-, up- 
on which they joyfully changed their ruftical inftruments into weapons 
for war-,whenthe Emperour heard of this proceeding,he fent word to Ken- 
gus to difmifs them-, but he pretended various cxcufes,and did negk(5l the 
Empcrours orders.He therfore commanded the fupremc Governour of all 
the Southern Quarters who refides ever at ISlank'mg cither to take Kengus a- 
live, or caufe him to be flaine.He prefcntly caft about how to compafle the 
Emperours command with all fecrecy,& received the three Royolets with 
all forts of divertifcmentSjof Comedies,Banqucts,6e the like pleafures,as if 
he had received nodiftaflful order from the Emperour. And when the day 
was come that they rcfolved to profecute their journey by the great Ri- 
ver of Kimgt the faid Governour contrived his bufineffe fo, as he met 
them again in the River, and under pretence of taking his laft farewell, he 
entertained them nobly with a Royal feaf]:,and in as Royall a Junck? 
which in Chin a are fo magnificent, as they refemble rather fome gilded 
P alaces than floating VeBels. In this Princely Ship he entertained thefe 
Princes in all jollity and mirth, untill their Army had advanced a good 
way before, and then he declared to X^^jI^wj the Emperours order-, who 
prefently promifed all fubmiflion, and to returne to Nanking with him, if 
he would onely permit him to go to his Ship, which expe&d him in the 
River, to order fome little affairs of his own-, which being granted, he no 
Ktnfus hangs fooHcr got into his Ship, but, knowing he could not avoid death by ano- 
himftif, ther mans hand , he chofe rather to be his own executioner-, and fo hang- 
ed himfelf. Yet for all this, the fupreme Governour in the Emperours 
name, granted to this Mans Son the fame Dignity and Province which 
had been conferred upon the Father-, and thus the three Royolets joynfng 
again, having paffed2\r4;?^/»^ and X/^v^J?, came at length into the Pro- 
vince of ^amtung^ to carry on the War againft the Emperour ^mg- 
leji, and at their firfl entrance, they took many Cities,which durfl not op- 
pofetheftrength oftheir Armiesj onely, the City of jgf/4»i^c^e« refolved 
to try its fortune and flrength. 

ThisCityof^/<;!?j:i^^f«isamoftrichand beautiful place, environed 
vi^ith large waters-,only the Northern Gate joines to the Gontinent,on all 
other fides it is entrable only by boate. In this Town was the Son of the 
Captive Jquof9 whom I mentioned before; befides, there was a ftrong 
Garrifon to defend it, and amongfl others many fugitives from MacM, 
who were content to ferve the Emperour fnftgly for great ftipends^and by 
Kdi^on the Tartars had neither Ships, nor skill to govern them, and that 
the Town had both the one and the other, it is no wonder if they endu- 
red almofl: a whole years Siege, having the Sea open for their relief; the 
ir4rf4« made many alTaults, in which they loft many men, ^nd were ever 


TBellmn ^ artaricum, 191 

beaten back,anclvigorou(ly repelled. This courage of ch irs, made the 
Tartars h\\ upon a refolution ot beating d vvn the Town Walls.with 
thsT great Cannt^n, which had fuch cfFe(5t as in fine they took it the 24.of 
November M DCL.and becaufe it was remarked that they gave to one of 
the Pi'e'c(5ts of ( iie Town, the fame Office he had before, it was rurpe(5ted 
it was dehvered by Treafon.The next day after, they began to Plunder The.c,ty of 
the City, and the Lckage endured from the 24. of Nove?n^er{\\U\\Q 5. of '^anichen is 
J)ecember,\n which they neither fpared Man, Woman or Child; but all V^^'V"'^ ^'^' 
whofoevcr came in their way were cruelly put to th^* Sword-, nor was ^^'^ 
there heard any other Speech^ But, KHl^kiU thefs barbarous Bebels-.yet 
ihey fpared fordc Aitificers to confervc the neceffary Arts, as alfo fome 
ftrona and lufty men, fuch as they faw able to carry awav' the Pillage of 
the City 5 but finally the 6 day of December came out an Edi(5t,which for- 
bad all further vexation, after they had killed a hundred thoufand men, 
befidcsall thofe that per.fhcd feverall waycs during the Siege After 
this bloody Tragedy, all the Neighbouring Provinces fent voluntarily 
their Legates to fubmit, demanding mercy, which they obtained by the 
many rich prefents whicfrwerc offered. After this the Royalct marched 
with his Army,againft the City Chaoking^ where the Emperour J'mgUy 
held h's Court-, but he knowing himlelf far infcriour in Forces , and 
unable to refiff , fled away with his whole Army and Family, leaving the 
City to the Tartars mercy. But whither this Eraperou- flid ^ is yet whol- The Empe- 
ly unknown to me,for at this time I took Shipping in Fokien to the Pbthf- flyes. "^^ 
fines, 2i^6. from thence I wa--- commanded to go for Europe^by thofe whom 
1 mufl: not difobey. But I make no doubt, but the E iiperour retired into 
the adioyning Province called ^tngp. 

Now to give the Reader a litilc touch how the Tartars (land aflFedted 
to Chiiffianityj in the Metrop »litan City of ^angchtu^ which (as I 
now rtfl^ted) was utterly deflroyed, we had a ftatejy Church, and there 
was a venerable perfon, who had the care and fuperintendency of all the ^^^ ^^^^^^ 
Chrift iansjwhofe name was o/lharm Semedo a Jcfuit -this Man they took th^ Rv lad^ 
& rye \ hand & foot for many daye<,and ^hreatned to kil him every houre, of c/jin^. 
unlefTe he would deliver theChrift ansTrcafures-but the poor man had no 
Treafure to producejfo as he fuffered much, till at length the King hearing 
of his cafe,took pitty of hisvenerable gray Heirs and comely Pei fon, and 
gavehim not onelv his life and liberty ,but a Bible,and a Breviary ^together Ther^rf^rx 
with a good fumme of Money for an Almes-,and finally a Houfe to build a to^cUttiins^ 
Church for Chriflians-, and this is lefTe to be wondred at from h^m, be- 
caufe heretofore he had been a Souldicr under that famous Sun tg- 
patfus^vjhom I mentioned before, where he knew what belonged to 
Chriflianiy, and alfo had feen th- J fuits in his Camp, from whence he 
fled to the Tartars, Nor is it onely this Tartar that favours us Chrift ians, 
but in a manner all the reft do love, honour, and efteem thofe Fathers, 
and many hive imbraced our Religion, nor do we doubt but many more 
would follow their example, if we could enter Tartaric as now it is pro- 
je(Siing, where doubrleffe many great things may be performed, for the 
reducing ofthat Nation to the Faith of Chrift-,and perchance God has 
opened a way to the Tartars to enter China^ to give Chriftianity a paffa^e 

Qji into 

^pg ~~ "Bellum Tartaricum. 

Cored revolted 
ficm thelrfi'f 

into TartaYy,\N\{\c\\ hitherto to us hath been utiknown and inacceflible. 
About this time alfo they m^ide War againft the Kingdome of Corea-^ 
who oflate years became alfo Tributary to the Tartars^ upon condition 
that they (liould ftill conferve their Hair and Habits : but now the Tartars 
would needs conftrain them to conform themfelvcs to the Tartarian faflii- 
on; and therefore all that Kingdome revolted from the Tartars-^ but my 
departure hindrcd me from knowing fince what has paffcd. 

But all thefe glorious vidories were much eclipfed, by the forrowfull 
/^/?,vn/<i;r£«j ^^^^^ ^£ AmAvangm^ which happened in the beginining of the year 
^ ' MDGLl.He was a Man to whom the Tartars owe their Empire in Chwa^ 

and fuch an one as whom both Tartars and Cbmfes loved and feared, for 
his prudence, Juftice, humanity, and skill in Martial affairs. The death 
of this Potentate did much trouble the Couit.,for the Brother to this Man 
called ^rigtusy would needs pretend to the Government of the Empire, 
and of the young Emperour Xunchiusi, but both the Tartars & the Chimfes 
refifted his claime,alledging,thar,being of fixteen year oId,he was able to 
govern the Kingdom himfelf;& in conformity to this opinionjall the Pre- 
fidents depofcd the Enfignes of their Offices^refufing ever to receive them 
from any, but from the young inftalled Emperour J/^w^//s/^. To which 
Conftancy the King iir«i;?///^,UncIeto the Emperour, prudently yeelded, 
left he fliouldexafperate the minds of many, and raife greater troubles 
in the Empire, 

But I cannot doubr, but the death of Amavangns^ muft needs endanger 
the Tartarian Empire, and bring all their affairs inro great difturbancc; for 
they will hardly find a Man fo beloved , feared , and expert in all 
Military Difcipline and Government as he in effedl: fliewed himfelf to be- 
but time wil teach us, what will become of aU,f or fince his death we have 
no certainty of any relation. 
*-*- Now let us turne the threed of our difcourfe as I promifed here a- 
bo ve, and confider thcjortune and (uccefs of th e other Great Brigand ,ca- 
ledcto^)5'/>wto^«;> to let the Reader underftand how the Tartars did 
invadejuot onely the Mediterranean and Oriental parts,but alfo the Occi- 
,. dental Quarters of that vaft Kingdome* 
ch^^'ct\A But before I begin to fpeak of this monfter of nature, Imujljngeniouf- 
"■t^rant. ly conf cfs, 1 am both afhamcd, and alfo touched with a kind o£hqrrour , 
to dcclarclfirs villanies, bo^Tn refpcd they feem to exceed all belief, and 
therefore I may pcrcRance be held to write Fables^ gs alfo becaufe it is no 
g^atcFiH tliingjo rnake7efl_e<5|:ionson fuch $ubjcdis-,yetl may fincerely pro* 
tcftjthat Itiave in my hands a long relation of all his Ad?, written byiwo 
Religious perfons, who were then in the Vxo\\vicc o^Suchum to exercife 
their Fun(5^ions^ which C ountry was the Theater^ of all his BrutaJitjes, 
which I fliail relate-, and becaufe I judge thcfe two perlons to be of an in- 
corrupted Faith, I judge therefore that a mortal Man might arrive to this 
pitch ofwickednefsand inhumane Cruelty. l_thercfore gat hered out of 
tliat relation, what I here relate^ whi ch is nothing elfe but a vaft MaHepf 
fuch abominable Cruelty, as I doubt nor even the moft mildeft Reader 
wil toke the Authour to be no Man but fome horrid wild Bcafl:,or rathcr,if 
no more execrable name occurrcs, fome Devill tranf vefted in our humane 
Nature, This 

Vellum T'artaricum. 299 

This mdDfter, like a wild Bear^entrcd into divers Provinces, filling all 
with Rapin, Death, Fire and Sword, with all other imaginable miferies: 
for he had a mind to deftroy all,that fo he might have no enemies,or leave 
any alive that might revolt from him, but only content himfelf with his 
own Soiildiers vind oftentimes he [pared not thefe. But the Province of 
Suchuen^ where be ufurped the Title of a King was the chief Theater of 
his barbarous crueltie •, for after he had afflidted and vexed the Provinces 
of Httquartg and Honan^ and part of that oi Nanking and KtAngL he entred 
the Province of ^w^tf^;? in the year MDCXLIV. and having' taken the 
principal Citie called C^/>^r«, in the heat of his fury he killed a King of 
therrf/w/;?f /4;«Race^which here had eftablifhcd his Court-,as he hath done 
alfo to feven other Grandees of the fame family. Thefe were the Preludes 
of the Tragical Ads, whofe Sences I go about briefly to defcribe, that fo He kiis divers 
lEuro^t may fee^what a horrid and execrable thing an unbridled and armed I'rinces, 
crueltie appears to be, when it furioufly rageth in thcdarkncffe of Infi- 

This Brigand had certain violent and fuddain motions of furious cruel- 
tie, and maxims drawn from the very bowels of vengeance it felf • for if 
he were never fo little offended by another, or fufpcded another' to be 
offended with him, he prefently commanded fuchto be maflaered-, and 
having nothing in his mouth but murder and death,he often for one fingle 
Mans fault deftroy'd all the Family jtefpeaing neither Children,nor Wo- 
men with Child 5 nay many times he cut off the whole Street where the 
offender dwelled, Involving in the Slaughter, as well the innocents as no- Fofone oficn- 
cents. It happened once he fcnt a man poft into the Country of X^;?/?,who ^^"1^^^!^" - 
being glad he was got out of the Tyrants hands, would not return -, to re- 
venge this imaginary injury, hcdeftroyedallthe Quarter of the Citie in 
which he dwelt, and thought he much bridled his ficrceneffe, that he did 
not wholly extinguifh all the Citie.To this I addc another unhumane Ad, 
about his hangman, whom it feems he loved above the reff , becaufe he 
was crueller^thisman dying of a difeafe,he caufed the Phyfician who had 
given him Phyfick to be killed ,• and not content with this, he Sacri- 
ficed one hundred more of that Profelfion to the Ghofl of his deceafed 

He was affable and fweet towards his Souldiers •, he plaied,banquet ted, 
and fcafted with them, converfing familiarly with them ; and when they 
had performed any Militaric A(5lion, with honour and valour, he gave 
them precious gifts of Silks and Monies-, but yet many times he comman- 
ded fomeof them to be cruelly put to death before him upon very fmali 
caufe,efpecially fuch as were of theProvince oiSmhuin where he raigned; 
(whom he intirely hated, becaufe bethought they did not rejoyce in his 
Royal dignitie. j Infomuch as he hardly ever did any publick Aaion,which 
though it began like a Comedie, yet had not in fine, the fad Cataftrophe 
ofa Tragedies for if, walking out, hedidbutefpieaSouldierill clad, or "'^ ^^^■"^'^ "^^ 
whofe manner of Gate or walking was not fo vigorous or Mafculine as he 'slllct °^ 
dcfired, he prefently commanded him to be killed. He once gave a Soul- 
dier a piece of Silk, who complained to his fellows of the poorncffe of the 
piece, and being over-heard by a fpie, (ofwhichhehadagrcat number) 

Qjq 2 who 


Vellum Tartaricum. 

\vho prcfcntly acquainted him with what was faid,he prefently comman- 
ded him, and this whole Legion which were of two thoufand men, to be 

HccutsofFa He had in his Royal Citieforae fix hundred Prefcd:s, or Judges, and 
onf raailuit. men belonging to the Law, fuch as managed the principal Offices -, and in 
He kils many ' thrccycars fpacc there was hardly twentie left,having pue all the reft to fc- 
Cicy officers. ^^ ^.^j jj^aths for Very flight caufes •, He caufed a Sergeant Major which the 
Chittefes call Pingpt^j to be flea'd alive, for having granted leave to a China 
Phiiofopher, without fpecial order, to retire a little to his Country Houfe. 
And whereas he had five hundred Eunuchs taken from the Princes of the 
Taimingean family, after he had put their Lords to death; he commanded 
all thcfe to be cruelly put to death ; onely becaufe one of them had prefu- 
And he killed medtoftile him, not by the Title of a King, but by the bare name of 
aifo the Eu- changhimhungH6^ as if he then were no Theef. 
""' *' Nor did he fpare the Heathenifh Priefts, who facrificed to their Idols. 

Thcfe fort of men, before he came into this Country, having feignd many 
crimes againft the Priefts, which preached the Faith of Chrift, had raifed 
a bitter pcrfecution againft them •, which God of his goodneffe did turn fo 
much to their good, as they had permiffion to teach and preach publickly 
the Law of Chrift. But after this Tyrant came into the Countrie, the 
chief of thefc Heathenifh Priefts was apprehended for fome words let fall 
againft him,and in the prefence of the Fathers,who by accident were then 
at audience with the Tyrant, he was beheaded ; And although they had 
learned of Chrift to do good for evill, yet knowing the phrcnctical anger 
and fury of this monfter^ who urea to punifli thcfe that interceded, with 
the puniflimcntof the offender, they durft not make any motion for the 
leaft favour, it is true, this cruel Bcaft loved thcfe Fathers, and would of- 
ten converfc with them, whom he experienced wife and learned, and he 
would often call them to the Palace to entertain him in difcourfe-,but they 
knowing well his precipitous anger, >yent ever prepared for, and expe(5t- 
ing death ;and indeed they were thrice deputed to death-,and a fourth time 
efcaped alfo by Gods particular providence, as we fhall relate in time and 
place. But he was not contented with the death of one of thefe fame Hea- 
ihenifli Priefts, but having got together about twemie thoufand of the 
fame profeffion, he fent them all to hell, fo vifit their Matters whom they 
hadferved* And then he would applaud himfelf, asifhehaddoncave- 
(Mckih^ ry Heroical A6f ion, faying to them, Thefe men would have taken away your 
twenty thou- Uves j but thtencheufo they call God,which fignifies the Lord of Heaven, 
^- ' has fent me to revenge your caufe, ^ infltB due punijhment upon thefe wretches, 

' He would often confer alfo with the Fathers of Chriftian Religion, and 
tKat fo properly 5 as a man would fake him for a Chrift iaii. He prai(ed,and 
highly extolled the Religion of Chriftians, which he well underftood, 
partly by the confe