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Susquehanna and Juniata Valleys 




VOL. I. 



Copyright, 1886, by Everts, Peck & Richards. 




In presenting to its patrons the "History of MifBin, 
Juniata, Perry, Union and Snyder Counties,'' in the 
Commonwealtli of Pennsylvania — the result of the sys- 
tematic labor of trained and capable men, during a pe- 
riod of nearly a year and a half, and embodying also the 
fruits of many years of toil on the part of several able 
students of the local annals — the publishers feel the 
gratifying consciousness that they have not merely ful- 
filled, but far exceeded all obligations entered upon at 
the inception of the work. While they do not arrogate 
to themselves, or claim for their staflT of writers, such 
infallibility as would be a requisite to the production 
of a work absolutely free from trivial and inconsequen- 
tial error ; they yet believe implicitly that the volumes 
they now place before the people are, in all essential 
matters, correct and authentic, and that therefore they 
will not only withstand the test of candid, catholic 
criticism, but that the character of the History will 
grow in the respect of the public, just in proportion as 
familiarity with it increases. 

The publi.shers announce with sorrow the death of 
the chief editor of this work, Franklin Ellis. When 
the History <n'hich he begun had almost reached com- 
pjetion, the braitt which thought and the hand which 
wrought were stilled in death, and his work was con- 
cluded, upon the plan he had projected and followed, 
by others who in various fields had labored with him 
and understood his method and purposes. The earth 
chapter of his life closed, not altogether unexpectedly, 
nor yet definitely apprehended, at the Cameron 
House, in Lewisburgh, Pa., on Monday morning, De- 
cember 14, 1885, alter a lengthened illness, of which, 
however, the acute and alarming period was quite 
brief. So passed away a man remarkable " for general 
historical lore, especially of what may be called mod- 
ern history; always modest, of retiring disposition, 
yet sensible of his value as a -(Writer; tenacious of all 
that ia just and right between men." He had labored 
as a writer of local liiatorieB for about ten years, and 

produced in that period, either wholly or in part — as 
writer and editor — a considerable number of works, all 
of which rank as standard authorities upon the regions 
of which they treat. He was a careful investigator, a 
conscientious and chaste writer, logical and perspicu- 
ous, and in naught meretricious or superficial. At 
the outbreak of the war he was residing in New York, 
and went into the Federal service as a member of the 
famous Seventh Regiment. Later he re-entered the 
army as a lieutenant in the Forty-second New York 
Volunteers, but was soon transferred to the Signal 
Corps, and attached to General Keyes' staff. He 
served at times with General Casey, General Couch, 
General "Baldy" Smith, General McClellan, Gen- 
eral Hooker and General Sheridan, being with the 
latter commander over a year. Afterwards he was 
transferred to the West, and served on the staffs of 
Generals Rosecrans, Negley and others, — the whole 
period of his army life being three years and five 
months. He was a native of Massachusetts, born at 
Old Dedham (now Norwood), a suburb of Boston, April 
27, 1828, and his remains now rest in the cemetery at 
his birth-place. 

That part of the General History devoted to the 
Revolutionary War was taken up from notes left by 
the editor-in-chief and completed by Alfred Mat- 
thews, of Cleveland, Ohio, of the publishers' corps. 
Prominent among the writers engaged upon the pre- 
paration of this History from its beginning was 
Austin N. Hungerford, of Ithaca, N. Y., whose prac- 
tical and varied experience for a period of ten years 
was of great value on this work. 

In the General History, the chapters upon Geology 
(I.) and the Indian tribes of the region (II.) were 
respectively the work of Professor George G. Groff 
and Professor A. L. Gusa. In the history of MifBin 
County the cliapters on Armagh and Brown town- 
ships were contributed by John Swartzell; on Union 
and Mcnuo, by Miles Haffley ; on Decatur, by S.imuel 


Sterritt; and on Granville, by Walter L. Owen. 
The sketch of the McVeytown Presbyterian Church 
was contributed by the Rev. E. H. Mateer, and the 
sketch of the German Brethren by William Howe and 
S. R. Rupert. 

In the history of Juniata County the sketches 
on the Progress of First Settlements, First Appear- 
ance of Geographical Names on the Tax-List, 
Negro Slavery and Servitude, and the histories of 
the townships of Lack, Tuscarora, Milford, Turbett, 
Beale, Spruce Hill and the boroughs of Port Royal 
and Patterson were contributed by Professor A. L. 
Guss, of Washington, D. C. The sketch of the Bench 
and Bar was contributed by A. J. Patterson, Esq. 

In the history of Perry County the sketch of 
the Bench and Bar was contributed by Hon. B. 
F. Junkin ; the sketch of the Medical Profession, 
by Dr. James B. Eby. The histories of the town- 
ships of Greenwood, Liverpool, Buffalo, Watts, 
Howe, Juniata, Oliver, Tuscarora, Miller, and the 
boroughs of Newport, Millerstown, Liverpool and 
New Buffalo were contributed by Silas Wright; 
Toboyne, Jackson and Madison townships by J. R. 
Fliokinger; Spring and Carroll townships, by Hor- 
ace R. Sheibley ; Penn township and Duncannon bor- 
ough, by Professor J. L. McCaskey; Rye township and 
Marysville borough, by Dr. G. W. Eppley; Saville, 
by E. U. Aumiller, and sketches by J. L. Markel. 

In the history of Union County the sketch of 
the Bench and Bar, the borough of Lewisburgh 
and the townships of Buffalo, East Buffalo, 
Union, White Deer, Kelly and Gregg were con- 
tributed by J. Merrill Linn, Esq. ; the townships 
of Hartley, Lewis, Limestone, West Buffalo, and 
the boroughs of Mifflinburg, New Berlin and 
Hartleton by R. V. B. Lincoln. In Snyder 

County, chapters on the Bench and Bar, the Med- 
ical Profession and the townships of Penn, Jackson, 
Monroe, Middle Creek and the borough of Selin's 
Grove were contributed by Horace Alleman, Esq.; 
the townships of Chapman, Washington, Union, Perry 
and West Perry and other sketches were contributed 
by Professor Daniel S. Boyer ; the information con- 
cerning the townships of Centre, Franklin, Beaver, 
West Beaver, Adams and Spring and the borough of 
Middleburg was gathered by G. C. Gutelius and Dr. 
J. Y. Shindel, of Middleburg. 

In behalf of the writers of their staff, the publishers 
express cordial thanks to the officials of the several 
counties, the members of the press, the clergy and all 
who have assisted in the furtherance of making this 
work an exhaustive and accurate treatise on the region 
which has been its province. Especial mention should 
be made of some individuals who, through their pos- 
session of exclusive or extensive information, have 
been enabled to give peculiarly valuable assist- 
ance. Among such were William P. Elliot, Gene- 
ral Thomas F. McCoy, William McCay, David 
Jenkins, Daniel Dull and George Frysinger, of 
Mifflin County; Robert McMeen, B. F. Burch- 
field. Captain James J. Patterson, J. Stewart 
Lukens, James Law, Hugh T. McAlister, General 
William Bell and Dr. I. N. Grubb, of Juniata County; 
James B. Hackett, James Woods, George A. Smiley, 
William A. Sponsler, William Sheibley, James L. Di- 
ven and the members of the Historical Society, of 
Perry County ; John Blair Linn, Judge John Walls, 
Paul Geddes, M. L. Shoch, H. P. Glover and Alfred 
Schooley, of Union County ; David Witmer, J. G. L. 
Shindel, A. K. Gift and the Rev. J. P. Shindel, of 
Snyder County. 

The Pdblishers. 



Chapter I 1-25 

Description of Physical Features and Geology — Botany. 

Chapter II 25-53 

Early View of the Pennsylvania Interior— The Jnniatii 
and Tuscarora Indians— Explorations of the Indian 

Chapter III 53-83 

Indian Purchases — Pioneer Settlements — Indian Mas- 

Chapter IV ■ 88-120 

The Revolutionary War — Troops Forwarded to the 
Continental Army— The Militia— Indian Incursions 
and other Local Affairs of the Period — Tories. 

Chapter V 120-132 

The Five Counties in the War of 1812— Troops in the 
Niagara-Chesapeake Campaigns. 

Chapter VI 132-151 

Mexican War— Prouiiueuce of MifHin County— Sketch 
of the Juniata Guards — Other Troops from filiffliu, 
Perry and Union Counties. 

Chapter VII 151-297 

The War for the Union —The Five Counties Represented 
in over Seventy Regiments, Batteries and other Organi- 
zations — Histories of Regiments and Rosters of the 
Troops from MifRin, Juniata, Snyder, Union and Perry 

Chapter VIII 297-415 

The Warforthe Union (Cb'.^tH«ed)— From One Hundred 
and First to the Two Hundred and Thirteenth Regi- 
ment Militia. 

Chapter IX . 415-449 

Internal Improvements— The Indian Paths Followed by 
the White Man's Roads— The Pennsylvania and other 
Railroads within the Five Counties. 



Chapter I •. . . . 449-460 

Civil History— Erection of County— Location— Seat of 
Justice — Public Buildings— Provision for the Poor — 
Rosters of Officials— 17S9 to 1885 - Population. 

Chapter II 460-i74 

The Bench and Bar -Early Courts— The Lewistown 
Riot of 1791 — Biugiupbical Sketches— Rostei-s of Judges 
and Attorneys. 

Chapter TIT 474-492 

Sledical Profession — Early and Late Practitioners — 
County Medical Societies. 

Chapter IV 492-532 

The Borough of Lewistown. 

Chapter V 532-561 

Derry Township. 

Chapter VI 551-579 

Armagh Township, 

Chapter VII 579-588 

Wayne Towusliip. 


Chapter VIII 588-592 

Borough Newton Haniiltnu. 

Chapter IX 592-600 

Oliver Township. 

Chapter X 600-613 

Borough McVeytuwn. 

Chapter XI 613-616 

Bratton Township. 

Chapter XII 616-633 

Union Township. 

Chapter XIII 633-638 

Menno Township, 

Chapter XIV 638-645 

Brown Township. 

Chapter XV 645-654 

GtuuviUe Township, 

Chapter XVI 654-661 

Detutur Township. 




Chapter 1 661-667 

Erection and Organization of tlie County — Location of 
County Seat— Public Buildings— Eosters of Officials 
from 1S31 to 1885. 

Chapter II 667-679 

Miscellnneous Matters — Progress of Settlement — Oddi- 
ties from tbe Old Records— Klectlon Districts— Negro 

Chapter III 679-690 

Bench and Bar — Judges and Attorneys of tbe Juniata 

Chapter IV 690-699 

jMedical History — Practitioners — Early and Late Home- 

Chapter V 699-701 

County Societies — Agricultural Granges — "N'eterans' 

Chapter VI 701-727 

Boroujjh of Miffliutown. 

Chapter VII 727-741 

Lack Townsbip. 

Chapter VIII ■ . . . 741-749 

Tuscarura Township. 

Chapter IX 749-773 

Slilfurd Township. 

Chapter X 773-781 

Turbdt Township. 


Chapter XI 781-791 

Beale Township, 

Chapter XII. 791-801 

Spruce Hill Townsliip. 

Chapter XIII 801-805 

Port Royal Borough (Perrysville]. 

Chapter XIV 805-808 

Patterson Borough. 

Chapter XV 808-832 

Fennanagli Township. 

Chapter XVI 832-846 

Fayette Township. 

Chapter XVII 846-865 

M'alker Township. 

Chapter XVIII 865-874 

Delaware Township. 

Chapter XIX 874-879 

Borough of Tlionipsontowu, 

Chapter XX 879-885 

Monroe Township. 

Chapter XXI 885-891 

Greenwood Townsliip. 

Chapter XXII 891-894 

Susiiuehanna Township. 


Alexander, James 619 

Banks, David 829 

Brown, Samuel H 358 

Burchfield, Lewis 772 

Burns, James 529 

Campbell, A. W 623 

Close, H. L 570 

Contner.D. M 637 

Court-House, Juniata County 604: 

Court-House, Mifllin County 455 

Crawford, D. M 693 

Culbertson, James 479 

Daris, Charles S 346 

Davis, John 530 

Dull, Casper 602 

Elliott, W. P 508 

Evans, S.Owen 869 

Guss, A. L 768 

Hayes, John, Sr 633 

Hassenplug, G. H 257 

Hoffman, George S .531 

King, Joseph G34 

Kinsloe, E. M 591 

Kyle, Crawford... 044 

Lewlstown, Distant View of. 494 

Long, A. B 526 

Map of Beading, Howell's i 


Map, outline part of Juniata and Susquehanna Valleys 1 

Map, Geological 13 

Means, R. A 545 

Metz, J. K _, 485 

McDowell, John 575 

McKee, Hugh 648 

Moore, William A 612 

Murphy, Thomas 740 

Patterson, John 739 

Parker, Andrew 684 

Phillips, William M 443 

Eobison, J. K 357 

Eothrock, Joseph 822 

Rothrock, A 477 

Selheiraer, John B i60 

Smith, 0. P 578 

Stambaugh, H. A 819 

Stroup, John , 656 

Taylor, H. P 621 

Taylor, John P igs 

Van Valzah, Thomas 48I 

Williams, General E. C 2S9 

Willis, William 391 

Wilson, J. W 629 

Worrall, Thomas A 483 

Wright, John 795 

L Y C M I 

C U N "^ 

M A T> 

>nFFI.LS . Jl XL\TA. PE1\UY. 


.Eri^iTtl E.rprcss/v tor this Work. 

Portion ol: 

EcaiUug" Jlo-wiell's 

I 1792 ) 

embriichii) , Mi/tliri , Jutiiatii <t- 
Pei'i-y I'ouiilu's. 



Susquehanna and Juniata Valleys, 







Professor of Natural History in the Uoiverttity at Lewisburgli, Pa. 


The counties of Perry, Juniata, Mifflin, Sny- 
der and Union lie near the centre of the State 
and on the right bank of the Susquehanna 
River, all, excepting Mifflin, resting on the 
ri\-er. They form a somewhat irregularly tri- 
angular block of land, fifty miles from base to 
apex, and fifty miles wide at the widest point, 
while a line drawn from the southwest to the 
northeast would measure about eighty miles in 
length. Of this triangle, Perry County forms 
the base, its southern boundary being the Blue 
Mountains, which are unbroken by a single 
water-gap along the boundary of this county ; 
Union forms the apex, the Susquehanna River 
the eastern side, while all, except Snyder, form 
portions of the western boundary. ISIifflin ex- 
tends farthest to the west, Snyder farthest east. 

' To the reader who may desire to become acquainted 
with the principlea of geology, we recommend Le Conte's 
"Elements of Geology," or Dana's "Text-Book of Geo- 

If one rides over these counties in a direction 
parallel to the river, he will find the country a 
continued succession of rolling mountains with 
intervening valleys. Commencing at the south- 
ern border of Perry County, we pass from the 
Blue Mountains into Sherman's Valley, which 
forms the greater portion of that county. The 
county really consists of two great troughs, 
separated by the arch of Half Falls Mountain. 
Each trough is subdivided bv several minor 
ridges. The Tuscarora Mountains are passed 
and one descends into the trough of Juniata 
County. This county consists of one great de- 
pression, bounded on the south by Tuscarora 
Mountains and on the north by the Blue 
Ridge and the Shade Mountains. Mifflin con- 
sists of two troughs, separated by Jack's ^loun- 
tain, the southern bounded on the south by 
the Blue Ridge and the northern limited on the 
north by Stone Mountain. The southern val- 
ley is Ferguson's and the noi-thern Kishaco- 
quillas. Snyder County is penetrated by 
Turkey Ridge, Shade and Jack's Mountain^, 
between which lie extensions of Turkey Vallev 
and the Lewistown Valley. Union Countv is 
penetrated on the west by spurs of Jack's 
Mountain, Path Valley Mountain, Buffalo 
Mountain, Bi-ush, Xittany and White Deor 



Mountains, between which lie BuiFalo, White 
Doer and White Deer Hole Valleys. These, 
with innumerable smaller ranges and valleys, 
all extending in the general direction of south- 
west and northeast, form the face of the coun- 
try. It is to be noted that along the Susque- 
hanna River the valleys generally expand into 
an open country, but as one proceeds west they 
contract, the country becomes broken with in- 
numerable ridges, very mountainous, and the 
valleys finally terminate abruptly in what are 
called " coves." Where the mountains extend 
to and are cut by the river, bold bluffs are 
formed, as in the case of Blue Mountains, 
Cove, Peters, Mahanoy, Berry's, Buffalo, Jack's 
and White Deer Mountains, also Blue Hill. 

At Duncannon, on the Susquehanna River, 
the elevation above the sea is 356 feet, and the 
summit of Jack's Mountain, near ]\lount 
Union, in western part of MifHin, is 2354 feet, 
Lewisburgh is 458 feet above tide-water, and 
the western part of Union County about 1500 
feet. The fall of the Susquehanna River from 
Montgomery Station, just north of the Union 
County line, to Marysville, in the southern part 
of Perry County, is just 131 feet. The dis- 
tance between these points being sixty miles, 
the fall is two feet to the mile. 

It will thus be seen that the country slopes 
in two directions, — first, a rapid slope from the 
west toward the Susquehanna River, and from 
the north, south along the river. The drainage 
of the whole region is toward the Susquehanna 
River, and all the streams flow to the east to- 
wards this river, except those which enter the 
Juniata, this river forming a secondary drain- 
age system. The waters of the Juniata, how- 
ever, fall into the Susquehanna. The streams 
draining the region, commencing on the south, 
are Sherman's Creek, Juniata Creek, West Ma- 
hantango Creek, Middle Creek, Penn's Creek, 
Buffalo Creek, White Deer Creek, White Deer 
Hole Creek and their tributaries. 

This broken and diversified country has much 
beautiful mountain and valley sceneiy and much 
rich valley soil. 


Minerals and rocks form the hard exterior of 

the earth. Minerals are homogeneous and con- 
sist of but one material, while rocks often con- 
sist of several ingredients or materials. Thus, 
quartz and galena are minerals, while limestone 
and granite are rocks. Minerals and rocks 
pass, however, insensibly into each other. 

These counties are not noted for diversified 
mineral wealth. They all possess iron ore, 
limestone, sandstone and building-stone, but 
nothing more of mineral wealth. The follow- 
ing is a list of the minerals which have been 
detected in this region, with a short description 
of each : 

Barite (heavy spar, sulphate of barium). — 
This mineral has been noticed one mile north of 
Fort Littleton, in Mifflin County, in veins in 
limestone. It is a white mineral and vcrif heavy, 
by which character it is easily recognized. In 
composition it is a sulphate of barium (BaSOi), 
and is in great quantities used to adulterate 
white lead. Valueless here. 

Caloite (carbonate of lime). — This is a soft, 
brittle and generally white or pink-colored 
mineral, found forming veins in limestone, or 
crystallized in cavities in that rock. In com- 
position it is the same as marble or pure crys- 
talline limestone (CaCO.,). It has been deposited 
where found, from solution, it being freely 
soluble in water containing carbonic acid. It 
has no value here. 

Chalcanthite (copper sulphate). — This 
mineral has been detected in small quantities as 
an efflorescence, on the rocks at Blue Hill, op- 
posite Northumberland. It is of a powdery 
form, light blue in color, and freely soluble in 
water, with a metallic taste. AVhen dissolved 
in w^ater, it makes a blue solution, and if into 
this solution a piece of clean iron or steel is 
thrust, it will be coated with copper. It is in 
too small quantity to be of any value. Com- 
position, CuS04-f-7H20. 

Coal. — This valuable mineral has been de- 
tected in a number of places in the district, in 
tiie Devonian rocks, in seams from one-eighth 
to one-half inch to one foot, or, as has been re- 
ported in Perry County, three feet. There is a 
seam about one-fourth of an inch thick in the 
rocks of Blue Hill, opposite Northumberland, 
in Union County. In Perry County it is 


found at Duncannou, where there are two 
seams, one ten and the other thirty inches thick ; 
ia the end of Berry Mountain, in Buffalo 
township, where there is a seam said to be 
three feet thick ; near Little Germany a vein 
three inches thick, and at numerous points in 
Buffalo, Berry and Cove Mountains small seams 
have been detected. The coal is, however, all 
soft, easily crumbles, and contains a large per 
cent, of ash, as the following analysis shows : 

Volatile matter 14.38 

Fixed carbon 48.28 

Sulphur 32 

Ash 36.44 

There has been a good deal of money wasted 
in this district, especially in Perry County, in a 
vain search for coal ; many persons blindly 
persisting that there must be mineral wealth in 
all mountains, since these can be good for no- 
thing else. Our present knowledge of geology 
leads us to fully believe that no workable coal- 
beds will ever be found in these counties. The 
rea.son is as follows : Most of the coal of the 
world occurs in the rocks of one age, called the 
carboniferoits. In the rocks below the carbon- 
iferous, coal has never yet been found in beds 
which are workable, though large workable de- 
posits exist above the carboniferous. Now, all 
the known rocks of these counties are in the 
series below the carboniferous : hence, coal can- 
not be expected here, and all money spent in 
search of it will be simply wasted. 

Clay. — Clay suitable for brick-making can 
be found in most of the valleys of our district. 
Clay results originally from the decomposition 
of granite rocks and when pure is called kaolin. 
It is found in many rocks, as limestones and 
.shales in varying quantity, and when de- 
compose the clay is set free. Heavy, wet soils 
contain too much clay. When clay is burned 
it beccjmes red, because the iron in it before 
burning is in the form of a colorless c^u'bonate, 
which, in burning, its carbonic acid and 
becomes the red oxide. 

Fluorite (fluor spar, fluoride of lime). — 
This is a soft, purple or greenish mineral crys- 
tallizing in cubes, and associated with adcite in 

limestone. It has been observed at Dale's Hill, 
in Union County. With us it has no commer- 
cial value, though fine crystals are highly prized 
for cabinet specimens, and in P^ngland it is 
sometimes used as a flux in smelting ores. 
Crystals of great beauty are found in Cornwall, 
England. Composition, calcium fluoride, CaF. 

Gai.exa (PbS, sulphide of lead). — This 
mineral has been detected in the Helderljurg 
(Lewistown) limestone, in Northumberland 
County, below Sunbury, and has been noticed 
in the .same formation in Snyder, Union, Perry 
and other counties. It may exist in paying 
quantities, but no good deposits have yet been 
found. Galena is a soft, lead-gray mineral, 
with metallic lustre, brilliant, cry.stallizes in 
cubes, and when struck with a hammer, cleaves 
into more or less perfect cubes. Galena usually 
occui-s in j)ockets in limestone associated with 
calcite and fluorite. The only depo.sits in our 
country now profitably worked are in Missouri, 
Illinois, Iowa and Wisconsin. 

Geodes. — These are hollow pebbles or boul- 
ders of quartz .studded on the inside with crys- 
tals. They occur of large size and great beauty 
at various places in the Mississippi Valley. 
Small ones have been observed in Tyrone town- 
ship. Perry County. C'alcareous geodes have 
been found in Lewisburgh, Union County. 

Iron Ores. — In this district are found a 
number of the ores of iron, some of them in 
valuable deposits, though at present (1885) the 
low price of the metal has almost stopped the 
production of ores. The principal ores are 
hematite, called also " fossil ore " and " block 
ore ; " limoiiitc, called also " brown hematite," 
" pipe ore " and " honey-comb ore," and when 
very soft, " yellow ochre," (also called " bog 
ore ") ; siderite, or the carbonate of iron ; rae- 
lanferite, or " green vitriol ; " and iron pyrites, 
" pyrites," or '' fool's gold." 

Hematite and limouite are the only ores wortli 
working in this district, though there are hun- 
dreds of deposits of these ores which it will 
never pay to mine. Pyrites, melanterite and 
siderite are here practically worthless. 

As iron is widely distributed in tiiese coun- 
ties, and many persons who own properties on 
which there is some show of ore are anxious to 


know whether or not it will pay to open mines, 
the following points are suggested for careful 
consideration before any money is spent in dig- 

1. The price of the ore delivered at the furnaces. 

2. The cost of hauling to the furnaces. 

3. The thickness of the bed. 

4. The quality of the ore and yield of iron. 

5. Cleanness of the ore, — freedom from clay, sand 
or shale. 

6. Supply of water for working, if this is neces- 

7. The cost of mining, difficulties in mining, etc. 

To tiiese earefiil attention should be paid in 
all mineral exploration. 

Iron ore occurs in most of the formations in 
these counties, but there are three horizons in 
which it has been mined with profit — i. e., in 
the Clinton, Marcellusand Hamilton beds. The 
Clinton beds furnish the valuable fossil ore. 
hematite, of Perry, ^Mifflin and Juniata Counties. 
This ore is found in large deposits near Millers- 
town, in Perry County, at Dry Valley, in 
Union, and elsewhere. The following is an an- 
alyisis of the Millerstown ore by Mr. A. S. 
McCreath, of the Second Geological Survey : 

Sesquioxide of iron 78.571 

Sesquioxide of manganese 021 

Alumina 4.927 

Lime 510 

Sulphuric acid 213 

Phosphoric acid 1.502 

Water and organic matter 6.015 

Silicious matter 8.017 


These Clinton hematites are derived from 
the decomposition of a " hard-fossil ore," which, 
in many cases, is little more than a ferruginous 
carbonate of lime, as the following analysis of 
an ore from near Millerstown will show : 

Iron 640 

Phcsphorus 065 

Lime 41.730=74.518 carb. lime 

Silicious matter 10.880 

Hematite is always distinguished from other 
ores by producing a red or reddish .streak when 
rubbed upon a piece of unglazed porcelain. 

" Brown hematite," or limouite, is distin- 
guished by producing a yellow streak when 

rubbed on unglazed porcelain. It is the pipe 
ore of all these counties. It occurs principally 
in the Marcellus formation. It has been mined 
near Newport, New Bloomfield and other places 
in Perry County and probably in all the other 
counties. Analyses of this ore by Mr. A. S. 
McCreath show : 

Sesquioxide of iron 50.285 61.143 

Sesquioxide of manganese... .051 .072 

Alumina 5.101 2.9.37 

Lime 1.070 .650 

Magnesia 342 .288 

Sulphuric acid trace .107 

Phosphoric acid 146 .176 

Water and organic matter... 7.465 9.980 

Silicious matter 35.540 24.640 

100.000 99.993 
In the Hamilton beds the ore is fossil (hema- 
tite). There has been observed in Perry, Union, 
and probably in the other counties, narrow 
veins of a red specular hematite. This is a very 
pure and excellent ore, but the seams are un- 
fortunately, narrow, not more than two to four 
inches wide and flanked by hard rock. An 
analysis shows it to be, — 

Metallic iron 60.200 

Metallic manganese 050 

Sulphur 016 

Phosphorus 036 

A peculiarity of this ore, as found in Union 
County, is that it is decidedly unctuous to the 

Sidcrite (carbonate of iron) has been observed 
three miles of New Bloomfield. It is a 
grayish-blue rock and gives a gray streak. Re- 
quiring roasting, it is not so valuable as other 
ores. It is the ore generally found associated 
with coal-beds. 

3Ielanterite (iron sulphate) has been observed 
as an efflorescence on the rocks at Blue Hill, 
opposite Northumberland, where it results from 
the oxidization of the pyrites in the rocks. It 
is of a bluish-green color, is soluble and has aa 
astringent taste. The deposits in this district 
are of no value. 

Iron Pyrites is a widely disseminated min- 
eral. It is found in most limestones in small 
quantity; it occurs sometimes in great abundance 
with coal, and in this district generally in the 



Hamilton black shales. It often occurs in 
beautiful cubical, octahedral or dodecahedral 
crystals. In coal it occurs in fiat bands, some- 
times of grciit beauty. In the Hamilton shales 
it occurs in the form of black, rounded nodules. 
These in places are so numerous as to form 
the bulk of the strata. When these nodules are 
broken open, they are often found to be formed 
about a shell or some other organic matter. In 
a well in Lewisburgh, Union County, which 
penetrated this shale, great numbers of very 
beautiful shells, fossilized in iron pyrites, were 
found. In this district the mineral is of no 
value, though it is used elsewhere as a source of 
sulphur and in the manufacture of sulphuric 

Iron pyrites when exposed to the action of 
the atmosphere or water, rapidly oxidizes 
forming iron sulphate, and sometimes sul- 
phuric acid. This acid sometimes appears 
in spring water, forming an acid spring; at other 
times it unites with alumina, forming an alum 
clay or alum shale. In the same way as iron 
pyrites undergoes changes when exposed to the 
atmosphere, so do the other ores of iron, and 
indeed almost all rocks and minerals. The 
fossil ores are, near the surface, soft and easily 
worked ; but if the vein dips rapidly, admitting 
water, they quickly pass into the hard calcif- 
erous ore. So the soft surface limonites, at 
greater depths, become hard carbonates. 

Ochre. — There are two ochres found in 
various places in this district, — the red and the 
yellow. Ochres are iron ores more or less im- 
pure, in the form of powder, or are at 
least easily reduced to powder. Eed ochre is in 
composition the same as hematite, while yellow 
ochre is a limonite. Both are used as pigments 
under the name of " mineral paint." 

The Formation of Iron Bedx. — Iron is an 
element of almost universal distriliution in 
nature. In plants it forms the coloring matter 
in the leaves. In animals it is the coloring 
material of the l>lood and skin, and in the earth 
it colors soils and rocks red, green and yellow. 
In soils and rocks it exists in the form of the 
insoluble sesquioxide. But whenever any or- 
ganic matter decays in the presence of the ses- 
quioxide, as do plants and animals at all times, 

the sesquioxide is transformed into iron car- 
bonate. The carbonate is soluble in water, 
and is slowly washed from the soil into the low- 
lands and swamps, where it is deposited as a 
carbonate so long as carbonic acid is present 
from organic decay; but when decay ceases, the 
carbonic acid gradually escapes and the ore be- 
comes again an oxide. Hence, iron is formed 
in beds or seams, and not in veins, as are the 
precious metals. The heaviest and most valu- 
able deposits of iron in all the world occur in 
the oldest rocks, — i. e., those called Archtean. Of 
this age are the celebrated deposits of Norway 
and Sweden, of Michigan, Xortheru New Jersey 
and British America, of Iron Mountain andPilot 
Knob, in Missouri, and the great beds recently 
discovered in Utah, said in some places to be 
six hundred feet thick, solid, pure, magnetic 

Formerly, when iron was reduced from its 
ores by means of charcoal fires, there were nu- 
merous furnaces throughout this district, which 
were supplied with ores from deposits near at 
hand. But when coal became the fuel, char- 
coal furnaces went out of use, and at the 
present time few furnaces are in operation, and 
these only along the lines of the railroads, while 
the production of ore has ceased, except where 
directly along the lines of rail transportation. 

Kaolin. — This is a soft, white, pla.stic ma- 
terial found on Jack's Mountain, in Hartley 
township,Union County, and probably elsewhere 
in the mountains. It is the basis of brick clay. 
When pure and free from iron, it will burn of 
a beautiful white color, and is used in the man- 
ufacture of porcelain. It is not probable that 
any kaolin in this district is free from iron, and 
hence it is only of value in the manufacture of 
the cheaper varieties of earthenware. 

M.XLACHITE (carbonate of copper). — This ore 
is of a green color, and exi,«ts in small quanti- 
ties in the rocks of Blue Hill, opposite North- 
umberland. The deposit there is of no value, 
and it probably will ne\-er be found anywhere 
in the district in body sufficient to work with 
jjrofit. The only copper deposits in the United 
States now found profitable to \\ork are those 
in the northern portion of Michigan. 

Quartz. — This mineral is abundant in all 


these counties and under many different forms. 
When pure and crystallized, it occurs in glassy 
six-sided crystals often terminated at both ends 
by six-sided pyramids. It is very hard, cutting 
glass readily. It is insoluble, infusible and 
without any cleavage. Quartz is the basis of 
sandstone, the grains of sand being rounded pieces 
of quartz. It exists massive in veins in limestone, 
shales and other rocks, where it can always be 
distinguished by its hardness. It forms all our 
beds of flint, hornstone and chert. Elsewhere 
quartz is found as amethyst, false topaz, rock 
crystal, smoky quartz. Cape jNIay and California 
diamonds,— forms to some extent valued in jew- 
elry. It is the most abundant mineral in 

Saxd. — Some of the Oriskany sand rocks in 
Juniata County are easily crumbled into sand, 
which, from its purity, has been found valuable 
in glass-making, and quarries are now (1885) 
in operation at McVeytown and near Lewis- 
town, the sand from which is being shipped to 
Pittsburgh and elsewhere. Over one hundred 
car-loads a day have been taken from these 
quarries. An analysis shows the following 
composition : 

Silica (SiO,) 98.84 

Alumina 17 

Oxide of iron 34 

Oxide of manganese trace 

Lime '' 

Magnesia " 

Loss on ignition 23 


Sulphur. — This mineral has been observed 
as a delicate efflorescence around some sulphur- 
etted hydrogen springs in Toboyne township. 
Perry County. It is recognized by its yellow color 
and burning with a blue flame and the odor of 
a burning match. The deposit is entirely too 
small to be of any value. 

Springs — Mineral. — On Sherman's Creek, in 
Spring township. Perry County, are what are 
known as " the Warm Springs." They are 
beautifully situated under a high ridge of Ham- 
ilton sandstone and are much frequented by pic- 
nic-parties from the surrounding country. The 
amount of water poured forth is so great that 

they seem more like underground streams issu- 
ing from the ground than regular springs. The 
water is considerably warmer than that in any 
other springs in the vicinity. Professor E. W. 
Claypole, on October 27, 1883, found the tem- 
perature of the water as follows : 

East Spring.... , 03° Fahr. 

Middle Spring 61° 

West Spring 60° 

On the same day the temperature of tlie 
water in Falling Spring, three miles distant, 
was, according to the same observer, 55° Fahr. 

In Toboyne township, Periy County, have been 
observed several springs whose ^vaters bring to 
the surface sulphuretted hydrogen gas, which is 
recognized by its fetid odor, like that of de- 
cayed eggs. This is produced in the interior of 
the earth from the sulphur in iron pyrites, or by 
the decomposition of organic matter. This 
water is the same as that of the celebrated 
Clifton Springs in New York and some of the 
mineral si)rings of Virginia, at which places the 
water is considered as of medicinal value. 

Bridge's Mineral Springs. — In Mifflin County, 
on the banks of Jack's Creek, near Painter's 
Station, Sunbury and Lewistown Railroad, in a 
very romantic situation, are located these spi"ings, 
said to possess medicinal properties. The waters 
are said to be bitter and unpleasant to the taste 
and to contain muriate and carbonate of lime 
and soda, sulphide of sodium, sulphate of mag- 
nesia, with traces of alum and sulphuretted 
hydrogen. A large hotel has been erected, and 
those afflicted with chronic diseases are invited 
to come and partake of tlie life-giving waters- 
It is altogether likely that the mountain air, 
good table board and cheerful company will 
here cure many troubles which have long i-e- 
sisted persistent drugging, and this without 
much use of the medicinal waters. 

Iron Springs (chalybeate waters) are numerous 
in many parts of this district. The .soil near 
the spring is discolored by a red or yellow floc- 
culent deposit of iron oxide. If such water be 
collected in a glass vessel, it is at first beautifully 
colorless, but in a short time it becomes filled 
with a, caused by the oxidation of 
the iron in the water, which issues from the 
earth in a colorless state. 


The ordinary springs of tiie county all issue 
from the earth carrying in solution a considera- 
ble amount of mineral matters, as will be dis- 
cussed under erosion. Those waters which con- 
tain a large amount of lime or magnesia are 
" hard," because these minerals curdle soap. 
Waters from limestones and many shales are 
" hard," while that from hard sand-rocks is 
generally very pure and " soft," containing little 
mineral matter. 


We will consider the rocks of this district 
under three heads, — 

1 . The diifercnt kinds ; 2. The soils pro- 
duced by their decomposition ; 3. The geological 

The rocks which make up the great bulk of 
our formations are limestones, sandstones, shales, 
with small amounts of schists and trap-rocks. 
These, and boulders, conglomerates, breccias, 
flagstones, etc., will be described and their uses 
pointed out so far as they have any known. 

Classification of Rocks. — Geologists place 
all known rocks in three great classes, viz., 
sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous. The first 
are the sediments of ancient seas, lakes, etc., the 
second class has been formed from the first 
through the action of heat, while in the third 
class is placed all volcanic lavas. In Central 
Pennsylvania all our rocks give evidence that 
they are made of fragments collected together 
under water. This is true of all limestones, 
shales and sandstones. The only exception to 
this general rule are the trap-rocks of Perry 
County, which are igneous in origin. 

Limestone. — This valuable rock forms only 
a comparatively small portion of the surface of 
our district and belongs hci-c to two different 
ages, — the Trenton and the Lower Helderberg, 
or Lewistowu. This rock forms the floor of the 
Cumberland, Lebanon and the great Shenan- 
doah Valley, and. by its decomposition has 
produced tlieir great fertility. Limestones may 
be divided into three classes, depending upon 
their ciiemical composition, — 

1. The pure calcium carbonates; 2. The 
double carbonates of cidcium and magnesium ; 
3. The impure stones containing silica and clay 
and exiled water-limes. 

The following analyses of stones from Mifflin 
County will show how tiie varieties differ : 

I'vire Magnesian Water 
LiinestoDe. Limestoue. Lime. 

Carbonate of lime 97.G51 54.285 G0.214 

Carbonate of magnesia 1.131 .3G.109 1.664 

Oxides of iron and alumina .426 1.422 5.384 

Sulphur 0.34 .151 .000 

Phosphorus (139 .011 .068 

Insol. residue 760 8.010 31.520 

100.041 99.788 99.850 

Limestone has been formed from organic re- 
mains, probably almost always. Much is the result 
of cora^ growth, as may be seen at Dale's Hill and 
uear^ Mifflinburg, in Union County. At other 
times it is formed entirely of molluscan shells, 
and again in places it is formed of the skeletons 
of crinoids, as in a bed at Lewisburgh, Union 
County (farm of Mr. J. W. Shreiner). Limestone 
is brought to the surface in solution in many 
spring waters and has sometimes been deposited 
from these waters in beds, more or less stratified, 
called travertine. But most of the earth's great 
beds of limestone are fussiliferous and produced 
by .sea animals ; hence, wherever we find a bed 
of limestone we can be quite sure the sea once 

Limestone may be of all colors, from pure 
white (marble) to black, and from pure to very 
impure, from a firm hard rock to the softest 
chalk. Its principal varieties are blue, gray, 
black, etc,, named from its colors, red and yel- 
low colors being due to iron oxides, and black 
and gray to carbonaceous materials, for these 
burn white; it is called " fossiliferous," when 
containing fossils ; " coral," when formed of 
coral ; " crinoidal," when full of crinoid stems. 
" Bird's-eye " limestone is so-called from bright, 
sparkling crystalline spots the size of a bird's 
eye ; silicious limestone, when containing silica. 
Chalk is soft limestone generally made of micro- 
scopic shells of sea animals. ^larl is generally 
largely composed of shells, and hence, similar to 
limestone in composition. Tufa is a porous 
limestone made by deposits of lime by spring 
water over mosses, etc. Marble is purified 
limestone, which has been crystallized. It is 
all crystallized, though not always pure. There 
is no marble in our district. In Tyrone township. 


Perry Couuty, and west of Lewisburgh, Uuion 
County, a rock made of rougli, angular fragments 
of limestone has been observed. Such rocks of 
angular fragments are called breccia. 

Caverns, " sink-holes " and " sinking springs " 
occur in limestone regions and need some ex- 
planation. These phenomena are only seen in 
limestone regions. The explanation is as fol- 
lows : 

Limestone is, to a considerable extent, soluble 
in rain-water, esj^ecially when tliis contains car- 
bonic acid gas in solution, as all rain-water does. 
Now, different strata and different parts of the 
same strata are of different degrees of hardness 
and of resisting power to the solvent action of 
■water. The result is that rain-water, sinking 
deeper and deeper into the earth, eats its way 
through the limestone strata, until finally it 
forms an underground channel for itself. Some- 
times, owing to a peculiarity in the rock or to 
other conditions, a cavern is hollowed out, while 
at other times the stream seems to only wear 
out a narrow underground channel. All lime- 
stone regions are full of small caverns made in 
the way described, but sometimes they become of 
great extent, as the celebrated Mammoth Cave, 
in Kentucky, Luray and Weyer's, in Virginia, 
and others equally celebrated. In Pennsylvania 
there are interesting caverns in Centre and 
Berks Counties. In these caverns the forma- 
tions hanging from the roof are called stalactites, 
those rising from the floor, stalagmites, while 
the mass spread over the floor is called traver- 

The first are formed in the following way : 
As the water comes through the roof of the 
cavern it carries a load of lime in solution, but 
ou reaching the air in the cavern a portion of 
the carbonic acid in the water evaporates and 
some of the lime is deposited. Stalactites are 
often hollow, because evaporation takes place 
on the outside of the water forming the stalactite. 
Stalagmites are formed in the same general 

Sink-holes are produced by a falling of the 
soil into caverns beneath. They are found in 
all limestone regions, and generally are produced 
in wet seasons. Where a number occur in one 
place, or in a linear series, they indicate the po- 

sition of the cavern beneath. In this way the 
Luray caverns, in Virginia, were discovered, 
and finally sold for $40,000. In Kentucky it 
is estimated that there are not less than one 
hundred thousand miles of underground streams. 
Several such are known near Lewisbiu'gh, in 
Uuion Couuty. 

There are small caves at Dale's Hill, and at 
Winfield, Union County. 

The Uses of Limestone. — This is one of our 
most valuable rocks, and, when it decomposes, 
it forms our richest soil. It is valuable for 
building purposes, for burning into lime, which 
is used in building and various manufactories, 
and as a fertilizer ; also some varieties are used 
to make hydraulic cement. When limestone is 
burned it loses about one-half of its weight, 
\\hich escapes as carbonic acid gas, and, at the 
same time, becomes of a lighter color. In this 
condition (quicklime) it has a greater affinity for 
water, and is of an acrid, caustic nature, eating 
into the flesh when handled. When exposed to 
the air it falls into a dry, mealy powder, called 
air-slaked lime ; but, when water is added, it 
unites with the water, jjroducing great heat and 
forming lime-hydrate or lime-cream. This, if 
exposed to the air, hardens, and, slowly absorb- 
ing carbonic acid, returns to the form of the 
original carbonate. Mortars slowly change to 

In reference to its use as a fertilizer there is 
a great difference of opinion among practical 
farmers, whose opinions are to be received with 
respect ; but this is observed — that whereas 
formerly lime was used in great quantities, at 
the present time comparatively little of it is 
used. Its chemical action is believed to be to 
act upon organic matter already in the soil, and 
to make this more easily obtained by the grow- 
ing crop. It thus adds nothing to the soil — only 
enables the crop to get more of what is there 
out. This is the belief in reference to it at the 
present time. It will be seen by this that lime 
may be used on limestone soil as well as ou any 
other, and also that the use of pulverized, un- 
burnt limestone can be of no value, since this 
has no power of acting upon organic matter. 
Also, lime long burut and expo.sed to the air 
and rain, so that it is largely transformed back 


to the carbonate, can be of little value, for it 
is only caustic lime which is of value here. 
But there are some conditions in which lime is 
of real value on the soil. One of these is where 
the land is heavy and sour with humic acids. 
These the alkaline lime neutralizes, and thus 
improves the soil ; also, soils which contain 
silicate of potash, if limed, the silica unites 
with the lime, setting the potash free in the 
form of a carbonate — one of the most valuable 
of plant-foods. Such soils are benefited by 
lime. " Fat" or " hot " limes come from pure 
limestones free from magnesia, while "cool" or 
" lean " lime, preferred by builders, comes from 
stone containing magnesia. 

When a limestone containing a large amount 
of silica and clay is burned, it does not crumble, 
as does pure lime ; but if the stone is crushed to 
a powder, and then mixed with water, it has the 
property of uniting witii the water and resetting 
into a hard, durable rock, and this it will do 
even under M'ater. This is " water-lime." 
Sueh limestone is found at various points in 
Perry, Juniata, Mifflin, and probably in Snyder 
and Union Counties. 

Sandstones. — These rocks are abundant in 
nearly all parts of the world and in our district. 
They are of all colors, from a nearly white, 
througla gray, to deep red, or even sometimes 
black. Sandstones consist of grains of sand, 
produced at a former age of the world, just as 
sand is now produce;!, and afterwards cemented 
into a solid rock. The cementing material is 
either carbonate of lime or iron oxide. If the 
former, tiie stone will crumble in time, for the 
cementing material is soluble ; but if the latter, 
the stone is very durable, for both the sand and 
the iron are very uncliangeable. Some sand- 
stones are, however, porous, and absorbing 
water, this in winter-time freezes and spawls off 
the stone. All sandstone should be tested by 
immersion in water to see if it becomes heavier. 
If it does, it is not a safe stone to use in ex|)en- 
.sive buildings. 

The principal varieties of sand-rock are named, 
from a prominent or ciiaracteristic constituent, 
siiicioiis, caloareous, aluminous, ferruginous, 
aniillaceous, c/ranitic, micaceous, and from their 
.structure, fp'itty, friable, laminated, concretion- 

ary, shaly, conglomierate, chcrty. Sandstones 
are valuable for building purposes, but disin- 
tegrate into poor, thin soils. 

Shales. — These are rocks of a soft, rotten 
kind, which generally readily disintegrate into 
.soil, and have a marked tendency to cleave 
parallel to the bedding of the rock. They in- 
sensibly pass into limestones on one hand, and 
into sandstones on the other. These rocks are 
very abundant in almost all parts of this dis- 
trict, forming a great part of the outcrops and 
of the soils. Many of them are red, as the Clin- 
ton and Onondaga shales ; the Hamilton are 
black, while the Chemung shales are generally 
gray. The shales associated with the coal- 
seams are black througii tiie presence of carbon- 
aceous matter. From characteristic constitu- 
ents, shales are named clayey, alum, silicious, 
calcareous, ferruginous, bituminous, oily, etc. 
Shales are doubtless hardened mud-beds. 

Slates and Schists. — These rocks, com- 
mon elsewhere, do, not exist, so far as known, in 
this section. They are often confounded with 
shales, and will hence here be defined. Slates 
are rocks, which may in general aj)pearance re- 
semble shales, but they are firmer, and the 
cleavage is vertical to the bedding, and not par- 
allel, as in shales, — i. e., shales cleave thus, ~ZI ; 
while slates thus, ||{|. Schists are crystalline 
rocks. They are bright and sparkling from 
crystalline particles, and are often full of dis- 
tinct crystals They are abundant in the south- 
eastern part of the State. Slates and schists are 
doubtless transformed shales, and thus remotely 
beds of consolidated mud. 

Trap-Rocks. — In Perry County are found 
narrow strips of a dark, heavy, tough rock, 
called " trap." It is believed to be a lava which 
has is.sued from the interior of the earth in some 
past age. They are found in the extreme east- 
ern part of the county, near Keystone Post- 
Office, Duncannon, and at Montgomery Station, 
crossing the Susquehanna Eiver into Dauphin 
County. There ai'c several narrow belts of the 
rock, sometimes not more than four feet in 
width. The rock is distinguisiied by its color, 
weight and toughness. The belts cut tiie moun- 
tain ranges nearly at rigiit angles. There seems 
to be no overflow of tlie lava, only a filling up 



of the cracks or fissures in the rocks. Such 
veins of lava are called " dykes," and are com- 
mon in many parts of our country. Thus there 
is a narrow belt of trap-rocks extending from 
Virginia through Maryland, Pennsylvania, New 
York to Connecticut and Massachusetts. Much 
of the mineral wealth of these States is along 
this region. Mounts Tom and Holyoke, in 
Massachusetts, and the Highlands of the Hud- 
son River are of this kind of rock. The 
grandest eruptions of this kind known are 
found in the northwestern part of the Union, in 
Oi'egon, Washington, Montana and adjacent 
territories, where some forty thousand square 
miles are covered with lava, from one thousand 
to six thousand feet in depth. 

Flagstones. — Any rock which will cleave 
readily into thin slabs, which can be used for 
paving purposes, is called a flagstone. Such 
rocks are found near Lewistown, Juniata Coun- 
ty, where there is a limestone yielding very 
good flags ; and also near Liverpool, where 
thei'e is a sandstone quarried for tlie same pur- 

Conglomerates. — Along the Susquehanna 
River, and sometimes in the valleys and moun- 
tains, rocks are found which are formed of peb- 
bles of a considerable size, cemented together. 
When the pebbles are rounded the rock is 
called a "conglomerate" or "pudding-stone." A 
conglomerate called the " millstone grit" under- 
lies the coal measures of Eastern Pennsylvania, 
and it is from the coal regions that the rock 
comes which we find along the river. It is the 
same in nature as a sandstone, but with larger 
grains. When the pebbles in a conglomerate 
are angular, it is called a breccia. 

BoiTLDERS. — These are rounded rocks gener- 
ally found loose in the soil, or detached from 
other rocks. Most boulders show that their 
forms are due to the action of running water, 
though many are formed where found by the 
action of the weather rounding off all the sharp 
edges and angles. Boulders are often found far 
removed from the place of their origin. Thus, 
in the alluvial bottoms of the Susquehanna 
River we find boulders which have been trans- 
ported for miles from the mountains at its 
head. So also in Buffalo Valley, Union Coun- 

ty, are found buried in the soil numerous sand- 
stone boulders, which have come from the 
mountains some miles distant. 

Stone Slides. — On mountain-sides are 
often seen considerable areas covered so closely 
and so deeply with loose stones and rocks that 
no trees or shrubs can find a foothold. How 
were these produced ? At such places there 
were originally projecting rocks and crags, 
which, through the action of the atmospheric ele- 
ments, especially of frost, have been broken up 
and their fragments tumbled down the moun- 
tain-side. That this is the true explanation 
can be shown from a careful inspection of these 
slides, when, often, remains of the original crag 
may still be detected. The action of the ele- 
ments still continues making the stones smaller 
year by year. 

IV. soils. 

The unconsolidated earthy material found in 
most places covering the rocks of the dry land 
is called soil. The dark, rich surfiice of the 
soil, which contains more or less of the products 
of decomposition of animal and vegetable tis- 
sues is known as mould or humus, while subsoil 
is that part of the soil where there is little, or no, 
organic matter. It is usually lighter colored 
and more clayey than the upper parts ijf the 

Origin of Soils. — -All soils originate from 
the decomposition of rocks. The agents pro- 
ducing this decomposition are the mechanical 
and chemical elements of the atmosphere. Of the 
former, frost, and of the latter, oxygen, carbonic 
acid, water and humic acids are the prime act- 
ing agents. That soils are produced from the 
underlying rocks can be seen by any one who 
will attentively examine the cuttings along the 
line of any railroad. (1) The soil will be seen 
to pass insensibly into the rock below. First 
mould, then soil, then subsoil, then friable rock, 
then harder and harder rock, until it becomes 
valuable building rock at perhaps many feet 
below the surface. (2) Oftentimes one small 
vein of rock is harder than the others, as a 
quartz vein in limestone or granite, and it will 
remain imchanged while the others will pass 
into soil ; and this vein can thus be traced from 



the perfect soil into the originul imchauged 
rock. (3) The composition of" most soils is so 
nearly like the rocks below that we cannot 
doubt but that they were formed from the rocks. 

All have observed that soils on a hillside are 
not so deep as those in valleys. The explana- 
tion of this is that on hillsides the soil is con- 
stantly washing into the lowlands, there accu- 
mulating, while the rocks on the hills are 
denuded. Those soils which remain just where 
formed may be called atmosphcrir soils ; those 
found at the mouths of rivers and along their 
banks, transported from a distance, may be 
called alluvial soils ; those on the seashore, cast 
up by the waves, littoral soils ; and those gravelly 
soils so common in the Northwest, and probably 
in our own Pennsylvania valleys, supposed to 
have been produced by glacial action, are known 
as drift soils. 

In reference to the way in which the elements 
act to decompose rocks, it may be briefl}^ stated : 
(1) Water enters the natural crevices in rocks, 
or into the pores of porous rocks, and freezing, 
expands and cracks off chips and slabs. This 
process is repeated indefinitely until some rocks 
become fine soil. This can excellently be seen 
along the line of any new railroad, where fresh 
rock surfaces are abundantly exposed to atmos- 
pheric action. (2) In nature, oxygen and water 
are great destroyers. These substances enter 
into combination with such substances in rocks 
as iron protoxide, iron sul})hide, etc., and in the 
production of new compounds the cohesive 
power existing between the particles is overcome 
and the rock crumbles to pieces. Water acts 
much in the same way as oxygen, giving up its 
contained oxygen to the rocks. Carbonic acid 
is, however, our principal rock-destroyer and 
soil-former. Our limestones, sandstones and 
shales have their constituent particles cemented 
together by carbonate of lime. This is soluble 
in water containing carbonic acid. Hence, just 
as fast as atmospheric water can penetrate these 
rocks they crumble into soil. In some places the 
change has extended to great depths. 

Fertility of Different Soils. — Lime- 
gtonea the world over produce the rich soils. It 
is this rock which makes so valuable the soils 
of our great Pennsylvania valleys. Sandstones 

and conglomerates generally produce a thin, 
light, "poor" soil, though not always. These .soils 
are often susceptible of great development 
through proper use of fertilizers. Shales pro- 
duce soils of varying fertility. Red shales in 
Central Pennsylvania generally decompose into 
a very good soil ; black shales vary, some mak- 
iqg a very sterile soil, and others a soil of .some 
value. Gray shales vary, though the Chemung 
shale, which is abundant in Perry County and 
elsewhere, produces a barren soil. Chalky and 
gypsum soils vary, sometimes good, sometimes 
poor. Alluvial soils are generally very fertile, 
unless composed of too much sand. 

Determinatiox of the Fertility of 
Soils. — (1) Something may be known from the 
color and texture of a soil, as to its value, 
though this is not to be depended upon. (2) 
By the wild plants growing upon the land; 
some plants seem to be confined to sterile soils. 
The vigor and luxuriance of the vegetation in- 
dicate a great deal, and yet here, too, great 
mistakes have been made. Soils which would 
produce great returns when cultivated have 
often in new countries been passed over because 
the natural vegetation was not luxuriant. (3) 
The sui'e method is by observing the cultivated 
crop. In this connection, it is to be remem- 
bered that all soils, unless we may exempt river 
bottoms, contain in .so small amount the chemi- 
cal elements necessary for the ripening of seeds, 
that a very few crops will make such soils bar- 
ren for the production of seed crops, unless 
stimulated by the use of artificial fertilizers. 
Nowhere has this been more clearly shown than 
in the exhaustion of the .soils of our western 

Dlseases Pertaixixg rn Different 
Soils. — It has long been known that cer- 
tain diseases seem more frequent on some soils 
than on others. Hippocrates treated at length 
in one of his works on the .sanitary influences 
of the .soil. Herodotus and Galen called atten- 
tion to the same subject, as did also the Roman 
architect Vitruvius, who flourished about the 
beginning of the Christian era. He taught 
that a point of first importance in building a 
dwelling was to select a site upon hecdlhij soil. 
We can onlv call attention to the facts that all 



wet soils are unhealthy, and by wet we mean all 
which cannot be made perfectly dry. All 
swampy soils are unhealthy, and all soils full of 
decaying vegetable matters are unhealthy, as the 
made soils in mauy of our cities. A light, dry, 
porous soil is best adapted to health. 


Geologists have divided time so far as it has 
affected our earth into the following seven ages, 
commencing with the oldest, viz. : 

1. Archaean, or azoic, (no lite). 

2. Silurian, or age of molluslcs. 
'A. Devonian, or age of fislies. 

4. Carboniferous, or age of coal plants. 

5. Reptilian, or age of reptiles. 

6. Mammalian, or age of mammals. 

7. Psychozoic, or age of man. 

These ages are subdivided into " periods " 
aud the periods into " epochs," as is shown in 
the following table. The thickness in Perry 
and adjoining counties is also indicated, as 
well as the composition of the rocks. The 
table is taken from F 2 of the Second Geologi- 
cal Survey of Pennsylvania. 

[Note. — Those periods in italics do not occur in 
our district. It will be observed that the rocks in 
these counties are all below the coal measures, though 
they extend upward into the Carboniferous age.] 


XIII. Coal measures . . . 2oOU Sandstone, shale aud coal. 

XII. PoUsville 1000 Pebbles and sandstone. 

XI. Mauch Chunk. . . 2500 Red shale. 

X. Pocono 2000 Gray sandstone. 

IX. Oatskill COOO Hed sandstone and shale. 

f Chemung 3000 Olive sandstone and shale. 

Portjige 200 Shale. 

Genesee 200 Dark shale. 

I Hamilton 1.500 .Shale and .sandstone. 

1 Marcellus .... 200 Dark shale and limestone. 

[ {Upper Uelderberg) (absent) 

Cauda-Galli .... (absent) 

Oriskany 25 Sandstone. 

VI. Lower Helderberg. 200 Limestone and shale. 

, Onondaga .... 1600 Shale. 

i Clinton SOO Red sandstone and green shale 

f Medina 1500 Sandstones and shales. 

^ I Oneida 500 Conglomerate and shales. 

i \ 

I I 



r Hudson River . . loOi) Slates and shales. 

[ Utica .'lOO Dark shales. 

Trenton .500-. 

Chazij ) -Limestone. 

Calcijeron, . . . | 5""") 

Potsdam 20011 Sandstone and slate. 

s I 

Total thickness, 3272.') feet. 

In the first survey of Pennsylvania by Pro- 
fessor H. Rogers, another system of nomencla- 

ture was used, the terms being the Latin for 
different periods of the day. These, with the 
present equivalents, are shown in the following 
table : 

XII. Serai, Millstone grit. 

XI. Umbral, 
X. Vespertine, 
IX. Ponent, Catskill. 

( Vergent, 
VIII. ] Cadent, 

I Post-meridian, 
VII. Meridian, Oriskany. 

VI. Pre-meridian, Lower Helderberg. 
V. Scalent, Onondaga. 

( Surgent, 
IV. & IIL \ Levant, Niagara. 

I Matinal, 
II. Auroral, Trenton. 

I. Primal, Potsdam. 

In Perry County the lowest rocks are the 
Trenton limestone, found in the extreme west- 
ern part of the county, in Horse Valley, in 
Toboyne township, though there are only 
traces of it there resting upon Hudson River 
shales and Utica shales. The highest rocks in 
the county are the Mauch Chunk red shale, 
found in the extreme eastern portion of the 
county in two patches in Buffalo and Rye 
townships, the former being an extension of the 
upper arm of the Pottsville coal-field, and the 
latter of the lower arm. The rest of the rocks 
are intermediate between 

Ill Mifflin and Juniata Counties the lowest 
rock is also Trenton limestone, found forming 
the whole bottom of the KishacoqulHas Valley ; 
also a small patch in Beach Log Valley. The 
highest rock in these counties is the Chemung 
siiale, which covers a large portion of the 
eastern, northern aud southern parts of Mifflin 
County, and a portion of both the northern and 
southern parts of Juniata. 

Snyder County has for its foundation rock 
the Utica .slates and the Hudson River shales, 
which occur sparingly in west Perry County on 
the side of Shade Mountain. The highest 
formation is the Catskill red sandstone, which 
occurs forming a large portion of Shade 
Mountain and Blue Hill. In Union County 
the lowest rock is the Utica shale, found spar- 
ingly ill the far western portion of the county. 
The Chemung and Hamilton shales, found in 

M A F 



PEN N ». • 
Empmvit E.iTJi-es.vly l'm-(liis Work 

L Y C O M I N Q 


Maurh Ch.uiU. He .1 Sluil» SI f | 

Focono Saudstaae ^1 

^ Shiile 

--"^s- i ^'-m, 

OrittlEMij- SasuLsttiue VJL 

Om-tOU Shale 

Un.mda S aod .•rt a 

Sljale iind in" 
\Tica &lsU) 

Trvntoa IJnies 



the extreme northern portion of the county and 
on both sides of tlie mouth of Buffalo Creek, 
are the highest and youngest. In Union and 
also in the other counties there is unconsoli- 
dated rock material of later date, some of it 
possibly deposited since the advent of man. 
We refer to the extensive gravel and boulder 
deposits which can be found in Buffalo and 
other valleys. We are not certain how or when 
these deposits were made, whether through the 
agency of running water or of ice. At any 
rate, they are recent. 


1. Definitions. — Formation, all the rocks 
of one geological age. Its subdivisions are 
strata, layers, seams and beds. 

Stratum, a thick bed or layer of rocks. 

Layer, a division or part of a stratum. 

Seam, a layer quite different in composition 
from adjacent strata, as of coal or iron. 

Bed, a thick, workable seam of iron or coal. 

Outcrop, any portion of rock projecting 
above the soil. 

Dip, the inclination of strata, or the angle 
they form with a horizontal surface. 

Strike, the directiou in reference to the points 
of the compass which an outcrop takes. 

Anticline, a hill in which the rocks slope 
away from a central axis (a, b)as shown in cut. 

SyneKne, a syncline is seen in a valley where 
the strata slope toward an axis («, b), as in cut. 

Monocline, a hill or valley in which the 
strata all have the same slope. 

Joint, those division planes which cause most 
rocks to come from the quarry in more or less 
regular-shaped blocks ; thus,sanc?.s-torie is jointed 
into large, irregularly prismatic blocks ; gran- 
ite, irregularly cubic; trap, hexagonal prisms. 
Joints are believed to be produced in rocks by 
shrinkage in drying or cooling. Joints usually 
extend through strata of one kind only without 

Fissures, great cracks extending through all 
strata to indefinite depths into the earth. They 
have been produced by earthquakes and by 
fracturing of the crust as it shrinks in cooling. 

Fault, a fissure in which the strata on one 
side are displaced, being pushed up or allowed 
to sink down. In mining regions faults are 
often very abundant and the cause of much 

Law of Faults, the under-strata have been 
pushed up. This is so general that in mining 
it is always followed. 

Nodule, a rounded rock-mass produced bv a 
power somewhat resembling the crystalline 
force. Very small nodules are called oolites 
(fish eggs), larger ones pisolites (peas). They 
sometimes form hundreds of feet in diameter, as 
in crystalline formations in the Rocky Moun- 
tains. When the nodule fakes on a form re- 
sembling an animate object it is called a con- 
cretion. Thus they are often found resembling 
turtles, heads of various animals, human foot- 
prints, etc. A concretion in the museum of the 
University of Lewisburg much resembles a 
musk rat. 

Conforinabh' : when strata lie parallel, they 
are said to be conformable; but when not 
parallel they are unconformable. 

River Basin, the whole extent of country 
drained by a river and its tributaries ; thus the 
basin of the Mississippi extends from the Alle- 
gheny Mountains to the Rocky Mountains. 



River Valley, properly sjjeaking, is all the 
country between the bluffs bordering the river ; 
or, it is tlie country over which the river has at 
some time flowed. In some of our western 
rivers the bluffs are from twenty, forty to one 
hundred miles apart, as on the Missouri and 

River Channel is the portion of thi' \alley 
actually occupied by the stream. 

Mountain, this term is loosely applied to 
every considerable elevation of country, no 
difference what its origin or structure. A 
mountain system consists of an elevated region 
of great extent, as the American Cordilleras — 
ten thousand miles long and one thousand miles 
wide, and consisting of several mountain ranges 
separated by great valleys. Each groat com- 
ponent of a mountain system is called a moun- 
tain range; the Coast Ranges, the Sierra 
Nevadas and the Wahsatch are ranges in the 
Rocky Mountain system. The components of a 
range are called ridges, and isolated portions 
are called peaks. 

2. The Agencies Producing Moitntains. 
— These are two : (1) Lateral pressure of a 
contracting earth and (2) erosion of superficial 
waters. All mountain systems and mountain 
ranges have been produced, it is now believed, 
by the first of these means, while all ridges and 
peaks have been brought about by the second 
means. In reference to the first of these 
causes, it is now supposed that the earth is a 
cooling globe, the interior of which is cooling 
more rapidly than the exterior. This is brought 
about by the exterior receiving heat from the 
sun and external space, while the interior 
loses heat rapidly by conduction. Now the 
outside of the earth, following down the con- 
tracting interior, is subject to powerful lateral 
pressure, which continues until there is a yield- 
ing at some point. " Mountain chains are the 
lines along which the yielding of the surface to 
the horizontal tlirust has taken place." The 
proofs that ranges are formed in this way are : 
(1) That the strata in mountain ranges are dis- 
tinctly folded, as is well seen in the Alps, Ap- 
palachian and Coast Range of California. (2) 
Slaty cleavage is present in these folded rocks 
when they are of the riglit materials, and ex- 

perimentally we know that slaty cleavage is 
produced by powerful lateral pressure. (3) The 
folded structure of mountains and various 
mountain phenomena have been produced by 
compressing many layers of plastic material, as 
clay, wax, etc. 

There are certain facts generally observed in 
an examination of mountain systems, some of 
which will be noted, viz. : 

1. Mountain systems are generally on the 
borders of a continent, and the highest systems 
facing the 'widest oceans. 

2. Mountain chains have been formed of im- 
mensely tiiick sediments. In the Appalachian 
forty tiiousand feet ; in the Wahsatch range 
fifty-six thousand. 

3. The different ranges of a system seem to 
have been formed successively coastward. 

4. The strata in a chaiu are often strongly 
folded, fissured and faulted. 

5. Mountain chains are often one-sided — 
tliat is, have more and sharper folds, more 
metamorphisra of rocks and more volcanoes on 
one side than on the other. 

6. The highest mountains on the earth are 
the youngest. 

It may be interesting to examine the differ- 
ent steps in the formation of a mountain range, 
such as one of our Appalachian ranges. 

1. A downward bending of the crust as the 
sediments, which aftei'ward formed the range, 
accumulated. It seems that at an early period 
in the history of the American continent there 
was land to the east and north of the present 
Appalachian Mountains ; there was also land 
in the Rocky Mountain region, while the whole 
of the interior was a vast sea, extending north 
from the Gulf of Mexico. Now the sediments 
of which mountains are formed seem to be ac- 
cumulations on the coast of some sea, and we 
suppose that the continent which lay where 
now the Atlantic Ocean is, furnished the greater 
portion of the sediments. It is possible that 
the Blue Ridge is the western portion of this 
ancient continent. 

2. Studies of mountains show that the sedi- 
ments accumulated in shallow water ; hence the 
sea-shore must have slowly sank as the sediments 
gathered. Now when this sinking had pro- 



oeeded to a groat depth, as of forty tliousand 
feet, the original crust would have penetrated 
into the regions of great internal heat, and 
would doubtless have become softened and 
weakened, and finally, pi'obably completely 
melted off. 

3. The third step would follow the second. 
The soft, unconsolidated strata would be called 
upon to resist the great lateral pressure of the 
-shrinking globe, and the result would be a 
folding, crumpling, compression, and finally an 
elevation of the stratified sediments into one or 
more mountain ranges. The proofs of this have 
already been given. 

These evolutions of mountains occurred with 
great slowness, requiring many ages for their 
fulfillment. The old geologists taught that 
m.ountains were suddenly formed in great con- 
vuLsioDS of nature. Professor J. D. Dana es- 
timates that the Green Mountains, elevated at 
the close of the Lower Silurian age, were not 
less than twenty million years in process of 
formation, and the Appalachian sy.stem, which 
was elevated at the close of the Carboniferous 
age, was thirty-six million years in formation, 
at the lowest estimate. These estimates are 
only introduced to show that geological time is 

Our Pennsylvania streams nearly all cut 
through our mountain ranges. Xow we can 
only explain this by supposing that the 
mountains arose so slowly that the rivers and 
streams were able to cut down as fast as they 
were elevated. In the Susquehanna River 
" natural dams" still exist, which the stream is 
cutting away. In the study of these we can 
gain an idea of the immensely long period it 
took to elevate the mountains. 

The relative size of the earth to its mountains 
has been carefully estimated, and it is stated 
as follows : On a globe twelve feet in 
diameter, lines elevated one-twelfth of an inch 
would have the same i-elative heigiit as the 
highest mountain ranges of the earth. It is an 
interesting fact that the deepest places known 
in the ocean are about as many feet in depth as 
the highest mountains are in elevation. 

It will thus be seen that, as the earth con- 
tinues to cool through time, existing ranges 

must continue to be elevated, or new folds and 
new ranges produced. But the existing ranges 
are continually expo.sed to atmospheric erosion, 
and this has occurred to such an extent that 
there is in no part of Americia any feature of re- 
lief in any degree like what it was when first 
produced. In parts of Pennsylvania there is 
good evidence that in places this erosion ha.s 
extended even to the depth of twenty thousand 
feet, and in other parts of the continent to an 
even greater extent. Professor J. P. Lesley, 
State geologist, in charge of the Second Survey, 
til us speaks, — 

" The coal-beds which were formed just at the sea-level 
were elevated in some jjarts of Jliddle Pennsylvania to 
a height equal to nearly the whole thickness of the 
PaL'eozoic system — that is, nearly thirty-five thousand 
feet, higher than the highest summits of the Himalaya 
Mountains. Frost above, and the undermining rains 
below, began their rapid work of destruction, which 
has lasted ever since. Nearly the whole area of the 
State east of the Allegheny Mountains lost not only 
its coal measures, but a vast majority of all the min- 
eral strata underneath them. All that escaped de- 
struction was what lay in the deep synclinal basins 
of the anthracite country, the little patch of Broad 
Top and the tip of» the Cumberland or Frostburg 
Basin. For scores of miles the entire Paheozoic sys- 
tem was excavated and planed down to the limestone 
at the base of the system. Along the central lines of 
Kishacoquillas, Nittany, Canoe and other valleys the 
old Laurentian .system cannot be more one 
thousand feet below the present surface. All the 
rest has been carried of!'. The destruction was the 
greatest where the elevation was the greatest, — along 
the middle belt of the Appalachian Mountains. Out 
of this destruction were created, on the eastern side. 
New Jersey, Delaware, and the tide-water country of 
Maryland and Virginia ; and on the western side, the 
lower half of Alabama and nearly the whole of Mis- 
sissippi and Louisiana. In other words, the Proto- 
zoic mountains were wasted to form the Palaeozoic 
rocks of the interior ; and the Paheozoic mountains, 
in their turn, have been wasted to form the Triassic, 
Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks of the seaboard." 

Many persons seem to find it difficult to be- 
lieve that this great destruction has occurred 
outside the brains of imaginative geologists. 
Probably it will be proper to dwell on the sub- 
ject a little further. Careful estimates made on 
the sediments carried by the Mississippi River 
to the Gulf show that this, if spread over the 
whole basin of tiiat river, would elevate it about 
■^^^ of a foot. In other words, the basin of 



the Mississippi is denuded about sTrorr of a foot 
each year. In the case of the Ganges, it seems 
to be more rapid, the basin of that river falling 
one foot in two thousand years. Sir Charles 
Lyell says that two thousand boats, each car- 
rying one hundred and forty tons of mud, 
would have to be employed daily to carry all 
the sediment borne daily by the Ganges. Now, 
it is to be remembered that the total elevation 
of the American continent is probably not more 
than seven hundred to nine hundred feet. To 
present the matter in another way, we quote 
from Report F 2, Second Geological Survey of 
Pennsylvania, by Professor E. AV. Claypole, — 

" In ordinary weather the Juniata water carries 
about eight grains of earthy sediment, or about one 
pound for every one hundred cubic feet of water. 

"At Millerstown the river is about six hundred 
feet wide and four feet deep, with a current flowing 
about two miles an hour ; that is, twenty-four million 
cubic feet of water pass Millerstown every hour, car- 
rying two hundred and forty thousand pounds (120 
tons) of rock sediment. In other words, one million 
cubic yards of the rock waste of Juniata, Mifllin, 
Huntingdon and Blair Counties pass through Perry 
County down the Juniata Rivjer to the sea every 
year. The water basin from which this river sediment 
comes measures about ten billion square yards. Its 
average loss per year is, therefore, about the ten 
thousandth of a yard. If we take into account the 

erode more rapidly, there being no winter frosts 
to hold it in place, and there it is very common 
to hear intelligent persons speak of the "county 
washing into the Gulf as rapidly as possible," 
and this is there evident to the most careless ob- 

It is to erosion, then, that we probably imme- 
diately owe every present feature of relief in our 
country. Isolated peaks, all cross-valleys, all 
ridges have been produced by erosion, and even 
sometimes where originally valleys exi.sted now 
are mountains, and the bottoms of valleys have 
become mountains. 

Some rocks are harder and more enduring 
than others, and after ages of erosion it is the 
position and inclination of these hard rocks 
which mark the presence of the peaks and 
ridges, while the valleys are located where the 
rocks are softer or are more broken. If the 
strata are horizontal, then table mountains are 
produced ; if gently undulating, then generally 
the anticlines will become converted into val- 
leys, and the synclines into ridges or mountains. 
Thus the valley of East Tennessee, Kishacoquil- 
las Valley, in Mifflin County, and most of the 
valleys in tlie anthracite coal regions are anti- 
clinal. The mountains between Lewistown 
and Bald Eagle Mountain are synclinal. 


gravel and stones rolled down the river in flood times, 
and carried down by ice, it will be safe to call it the 
five-thousandth of a yard. 

" The whole surface of the Juniata country has, 
therefore, been lowered, say one foot in fifteen hun- 
dred years, or three thousand yards in thirteen million 
five hundred thousand years; that is, supposing the 
climate was always the same, and the Juniata River 
never did more work than it does now. But there is 
good reason for believing in earlier ages the erosion 
was more violent ; this time may be reduced to ten, or 
even to five million years." 

In the southern part of our country, in the 
mountains of North Carolina, South Caro- 
lina, Georgia and Alabama, the laud seems to 

3. The Structure of Mountain.'^. — It 
has already been mentioned that mountain 
ranges are formed of great thicknesses of sedi- 
mentary strata folded into a ridge. In the sim- 
plest form of a mountain there is but a single 
such ridge, as in the Uintah Mountains. In the 
next form there may be several ranges more or 
less compressed, as in the Jura Mountains t>f Eu- 
rope, or in the Coast Range of Califoi-nia, or 
the Appalachian Mountains of Pennsylvania. 
Most mountain ranges, however, have stratified 
sedimentary rocks on their flanks, while the 
central part of the mountain consists of a gran- 



itic mass of rock. In otliers, nothing is seen 
but granite, as in parts of the Rocky Mountains. 
The granite axis, or core, is believed to be pro- 
duced from sedimentary rocks, highly altered. 


A fossil is any remains or evidence of an or- 
ganic being found in the soil ori'ocks. The very 
lowest and oldest rocks are destitute of fossils, 
while the most recent contain the remains of the 
animals and plants now living on the earth. All 
the rocks found in tliese counties are fossilifer- 
ous, though some of them very sparingly so, 
and all, in some places, to a greater extent than 
in others. It is by means of the fossils in a 
rock that geologists determine its age and place 
in a system. All rocks containing the same 
fossils are judged to be of the same age. In 
our district all the rocks have been seen to be- 
long to the Palfeozoic era; hence the fossils rep- 
resent forms of life very different from anything 
on the earth at present. We can only in a very 
general way refer to the fossils which have been 
detected in this district. 

In the Trenton limestone are found the re- 
mains of marine plants, called "fucoids." These 
are indistinct tracings of the plant stems. Three 
kinds of corals are abundantly found in this 
same age, and forming a great bulk of the rock, 
viz.: " cuf) corals," "chain corals" and "honey- 
comb corals." Each is distinguished by a feat- 
ure indicated in the common name. Some lime- 
stone rocks are formed of crinoid stems, as near 
Lewisburgh, in Union County. Crinoids were 
animals nearly related to corals, and which se- 
creted from the sea-water the calcareous matter 
of which they formed their skeletons. In some 
places the limestones and shales are formed 
mainly of small bivalve shells called " brachio- 
pods." The animals which inhabited these 
shells were not true mollusks, but were worms. 
" Trilobites," three-lobed crustaceans, were com- 
mon in the earlier periods. Their fossils are 
three-lobed longitudinally, and striated or 
grooved transversely. Shells of true mollusks 
abound. Many of them ai-e curved or spirally 
arranged, as in mollusks of to-day ; others are 
straight. One, called the orthoceras, has been 
found fourteen feet in length. It was an animal 


of the cuttle-fish kind. Its fossil, which is a 
straight, ringed rod, represents the internal skel- 
eton of the monster, which in its day was king 
of the animal creation. The uppermost rocks 
of our series contain the fossils of the coal age, 
among which are ferns much like those of to- 
day, — calamites, or " horse-tails," like now 
living, only much larger; lepidodendrids and 
sigillarids, plants resembling the ground-pines 
still found in our forests, and used for decora- 
tive in the winter months. The other 
forms of ancient life are all passed over except 
two. These are the fossil fish of Perry County 
and the mastodon remains of Union County. 

The earliest fish and the earliest vertebrates 
found in any part of the world were discovered 
less than two years ago (1884) by Professor E. 
W.Claypole,then of the Slate Geological Survey, 
in the Catskill rocks of Perry County. The fol- 
lowing is Profes.sor Claypole's account of these 
remains, as published in the Perry County Free- 
man of September 3, 1884 : 

" For fiftj' years or more the Uppermost Silurian 
rocks of England have been famous as the home of 
the earliest known fossils that can with confidence be 
called fish. Near the old town of Ludlow, the scene of 
Milton's ' Comus,' are certain beds from which these 
fossils have been obtained. Nowhere else have they 
been discovered in beds of equal age. These Ludlow 
fish-beds lie almost at the top of the Silurian system, 
and their fish belong, as I have said, to types so old- 
fashioned that no living member of the fishy tribes 
would recognize them or own relationship. Their 
bones, if such they can be called, consisted altogether 
of soft cartilaginous material, and they carried their 
hard parts outside. Armed like a tortoise, with a 
shield which covered the fore part of the body, they 
had no defence for their tails and hind portions. 
Probably, like some modern fish, they hid their soft 
parts in holes or in the mud, exposing only their 
armor-clad head to the perils of the seas. This struct- 
ure was common among the fishes of the olden time. 
They resembled the iron- sheathed ships of modern 
navies. They were proof against all attack from above. 
Their vulnerable point was below. 

"The fishes of the Old Red Sandstone, immortalized 
by Hugh Miller, were built on this fashion, and were 
probably the gigantic descendants of the compara- 
tively small and puny Silurian forms to which our 
little Perry County fishes were closely related. 

"Some of the Devonian or Old Red Sandstone spe- 
cies were thirty feet long, and carried huge plates of 
bony armor as much as two or three inches thick. 
But no such giants were known in Silurian davs. The 


little fish of Perry County were not more than six inches 
in length, and the only traces which they have left 
are the thin shields that protected their vital organs. 
These shields measure from two to three inches in 
length, and resemble in form the skin of a quarter of 
an orange, having its sharp ends rounded off. Their 
microscopic structure, on which depended their iden- 
tification as fish, closely resembles that of the English 
Ludlow fishes, but could not be made intelligible 
here without figures. Suffice it to say that in every 
link the chain of argument is complete, and that 
Perry County now has the honor of contributing to 
geology the oldest indisputable vertebrate ammals 
which the tcorld has yet seen. 

" It is a long, long vista through which we look back, 
by the help of geology's telescope, to see these tiny 
ancestors of our fishes sporting in the Silurian seas. 
The Tertiary and Secondary rocks abound with fish. 
Even in our Coal Measures we find numerous species. 
The Devonian seas, as I have already mentioned, 
swarmed with great armor-clad monsters, some of 
which I have found in Perry County. These lived 
millions of years ago, and few can realize what a raij- 
lion means. But earlier than all these swam the little 
hard-shelled Pennsylvania Palceaspis, as I have called 
it, in the seas of long ago, before Tuscarora and the 
Blue Mountains had raised their heads above the 
waters. To these queer, antiquated forms we must 
look as the ancestors of some at least of our existing 
fish, developed by the slow process of nature, by 
change of environment, by competitionin the struggle 
for existence, and by the inexorable law of the sur- 
vival of the fittest. The condition of life must then 
have varied rapidly, for these and every nearly allied 
form became extinct in Mid-Devonian days; and when 
our Coal Measures were laid down they were already 
as much out of date and as nearly forgotten as are the 
armor-clad knights of the Middle Ages at the present 
time. But the mud of the sea-bottom received their 
carcasses, buried them carefully, and has ever since 
faithfully preserved them, if not perfect, yet in a con- 
dition capable of being recognized. And to the geol- 
ogist that same sea-bottom, long since dried and 
turned to .stone, now returns these precious remains. 
The day of their resurrection has come, and the ham- 
mer has brought to light from the rocks of Perry 
County the identical bones entombed, perhaps, twenty 
million years ago, when its wearer turned on its back, 
gave up the ghost and sank to the bottom." 

Later, Professor Claypole announced the dis- 
covery of four species of fish in these rocks, 
which he has named Onchus Ciintoni, Onehus 
Pennsylvanicus, Faheaspis bifuroata, Palceas- 
pis Americanus. 

In 1852 the tuslv of a mastodon was dis- 
covered in digging a cellar in Bufialo Valley, 
near Lewisburgh, Union County. The tusk 

was ten feet long and in diameter ten inches. 
A fragment about sixteen inches long and ten 
inches in diameter is now preserved in the 
museum of the University at Lewisburgh. I 
did not learn that any other portions of the 
animal were discovered. Professor A. Winchell 
thinks it possible that the mastodon may have 
been exterminated by the ancestors of the 
present Indians. 

There have been found, within the county, 
the remains of the elk {Cervus Canadensis) and 
the beaver {Castor fiber), now extinct in this re- 
gion. The wild turkey [Meleagris gallopavo), 
red deer [Cariacus Virginianus), wild oat {Lynx 
rufus) and black bear ( Ursus Americanus) are 
sometimes seen in the mountains; but unless 
protected by law, M'ill also soon become extinct 
within our boi'ders. The bones of Indians, 
stone axes, hatchets, arrow and lance-heads, 
beads, etc., are found to represent a disappear- 
ing race, who once possessed the land. 

The Peouress of Life. — lu reference to 
the changes in life and its progress through the 
different geological ages, we cannot do better 
than quote a few passages from Professor J. D. 
Dana, a veteran American geologist, — 

" Life commenced, among plants, in sea-ioeeds, 
and ended in palms, oaks, elms, the orange, rose, etc. 
It commenced among animals in mollusks stand- 
ing on stems like plants, crinoids, loorms and trilobites, 
and probably earlier in the simple systeraless pro- 
tozoans ; it ended in man. Sea-weeds were followed 
by lycopods, ferns and other flowerless plants, and by 
gymnosperms, the lowest of flowering plants ; these 
finally by the higher flowering species above men- 
tioned, the palms and angiosperms. Radiates, mol- 
lusks and articulates, which appeared in the early 
Silurian, afterwards \\&df.shes associated with them; 
later, reptiles; later birds and inferior mammals; later, 
higher mammals, as beasts of prey and cattle ; lastly, 

This progress was from marine to terrestrial 
life. In the Archtean, Silurian and Devonian 
ages the great bulk of the life was probably 
marine ; in the Carboniferous it was both marine 
and terrestrial, and since the Carboniferous both 
marine and terrestrial have existed, the terres- 
trial predominating. 

There has been a constant change of species, 
new species appearing as others disappeared. 
Not a single one of the early species survives 



until to-day. Few species lived through their 
vwn age. At the close of some of the ages, 
there was widespread extermiuation of species, 
as at the close of the Devouion, Carboniferous 
and Cretaceous. As we pass from rock-bed to 
rock-bed, the life changes in each. Over forty 
thousand species of animals have been found 
fossilized in the rocks, not one of which is now 

The lowest species of a group have not alicays 
been first introduced. The earliest fishes were 
among the highest. Trilobites were not the 
lowest crustaceans. Oxen appeared long after 
tigerfi, dogs, monkeys, etc. The earliest species 
were intertnediate or Comprehensive types. Thus 
the first fishes were, in some resjiects, inter- 
mediate between fish and rejitiles. The earliest 
birds were between reptiles and birds. The 
earliest mammals were between birds and 
mammals, etc. The same is true of the earliest 

There was, however, always harmony be- 
tween the different species living on the earth 
at any time and M'ith the physical conditions of 
the earth at that time. The reptiles, the birds, 
the fish of the Reptilian age all harmonize 
with themselves and with the earth of that 
age. So with the life of the Carboniferous and 
the Quaternary, etc. 

Progress always the unfolding of a system; 
man the culmination of that system. " There 
were higher and lower species appearing 
through all the ages, but the successive popula- 
tions were still, in their general range, of higher 
and higher grade, and thus the progress was 
ever upward. With every new fauna and flwa 
in the passing periods there was a fuller and 
higher exhibition of the kingdoms of life. 
Had progress ceased with the Reptilian age, 
the system might have been pronounced the 
scheme of an evil demon. But as time moved 
on, higher races were introduced, and finally 
man came forth, not in strength of body, but in 
the majesty of his spirit ; and then living nature 
was full of beneficence. The system of life 
about to disappear as a thing of the past had 
its final purpose fulfilled in the creation of a 
spiritual being, — one having powers to search 
into the depths of nature and use the wealth of 

the world for his physical, intellectual and moral 
advancement, that he might thereby prepare, 
under divine aid, for the new life in the coming 
future." It is interesting to note that all 
through the progress in the development of life 
there has been development in the line of 
increased brain capacity. The earliest verte- 
brates had very small brains. This increase 
culminates in man, whose brain is the most 
perfect in all the animal creation. 


Juniata. — " Area, four hundred square miles. 
This county, ten miles wide and about fifty 
miles long, stretches in a gentle curve between 
the Tuscarora and Shade Mountains, from 
the Susquehanna River to the bend of the 
Juniata, below Newton Hamilton, on the Hun- 
tingdon County line. It is a single trough, or 
basin, on the two sides of which outcrop 
Clinton and Onondaga shales (V.)\. Lower Held- 
erberg limestone (VI.). Oriskany sandstone 
(VII.), and the central part of which still pre- 
serves the Marcellus, Hamilton, and Chemung 
divisions of VIII., but nothing higher in the 
series, and, therefore, no coal, although a few 
thin .streaks of carbonaceous slate (VIII.) have 
led to that belief. The sides of the basin are steep, 
and its bell}^ is crimpled into several close folds, 
which produce the zigzags which appear on the 
colored geological map, so that the northern out- 
crop of VI. and VII., if stretched out, would 
measure at least seventy miles, and the south- 
ern outcrop forty miles. The fossil ore-beds 
have been mined along the Juniata River 
(which cuts through Clinton rocks for about 
fifteen miles) and in the low ridges in front of 
East and "West Shade ^Mountains, back from the 
river. East Shade Mountain is a sharp anti- 
clinal fold of Medina (IV.) split lengthwise, so 
that the Lorraine shales (III.) appear on the 
ci'own of the arch in a secluded vale between 
the tM'o crests of the mountain. Blue Ridge is 
a similar rock wave of No. IV., dying out 
east at the river. Between the two mountains 
are the ' Long Narrows,' a basin of No. V., 

> Refer to the geological map for location of each kind of 



in which the river Juniata flows. West Shade 
Mountain is a similar arch rock of No. IV., 
but so much higher than the other two that 
when it splits into two crests going south, not 
only the slates of No. Ill,, but the limestones 
of No. II., appear at the surface, and this 
becomes Black Log Valley, in Huntingdon 
County. At the eastern part of the county 
the basin has a sharp wave in its bottom, which 
brings up to the surface, on both sides of the 
Susquehanna River, at the bottom of the 
Mahantango Creeks, both the Oriskany sand- 
stone (A^II.) and the underlving limestone 

The Juniata trough is crossed near its mid- 
dle by the Juniata River, and with the excep- 
tion of a small area in the northeast, which 
drains into the West Mahantango Creek, the 
whole county has but two slopes, a northern 
and a southern, both falling towards the Juniata 
River. The streams carrying oif the drainage 
are Tuscarora, Licking, Lost and Cocolamus 
Creeks, falling into the Juniata, and in the 
northwest, the West Mahantango Creek, which 
falls into the Susquehanna. Black Log Creek, 
which drains the upper part of Black Log 
Valley, runs south, falls into the Great 
Aughwick, and thus reaches the Juniata. 

The valley's bear different local names. 
Those best known are Tuscarora Valley, the 
great central trough ; Black Log and Liberty 
Valleys in the south, and Turkey Valley, in 
the extreme eastern part of the county. " The 
Narrows " lie along the Juniata River. 

The soil is various. There is little limestone 
soil, comparatively speaking. The mountains 
and the steep mountain-sides are necessarily 
unsuited to agriculture. The shales, which 
form the greater portion of the soil of the 
county, vary in quality, sometimes fertile, at 
others barren. In the valleys there is, how- 
ever, much productive land. There is much 
iron-ore in the county. 

Mifflin County. — " Area, three hundred 
and eighty square miles. The western half of this 
long, narrow county is a secluded Lower Silurian 
limestone valley, drained by Ivishacoquillas 
Creek, through Logan's Gap, in Jack's ^Mouu- 
tain, between which and Stone Mountain, on 

the west, the valley tapers to a point southward, 
and is split at its northern end into three, long, 
narrow, straight, anticlinal vales, separated by 
two picturesque synclinal spurs of the Buffalo 
Mountains coming from Snyder County. The 
limestone floor of this valley contains deposits of 
brown hematite iron-ore, once extensively mined 
in open quarries. Its sides consist of Lorraine and 
Utica slate. No. III., rising to a very remarka- 
ble terrace of Oneida conglomerate {IV. a), 
broken at short, regular intervals by little ra- 
vines, heading in the upper slope of Medina 
slates (IV. b), crowned by the mountain crest 
of white Medina sandstone (IV. c). The scen- 
ery is not only romantic in an artistic, but in a 
geological sense, and an end view of the north- 
ern spurs affords the finest illustration of syn- 
clinal and anticlinal wave-structure to be found 
in Pennsylvania. The eastern county line, 
forty miles long, follows the crest of East Shade 
Mountain (IV.), crosses the synclinal vale of the 
Juniata, ' Long Narrows,' to Blue Ridge (IV.), 
the crest of which it follows to the great bend 
of the Juniata River. Between this eastern 
mountain line and Jack's Mountain runs the 
Lewistown Valley, thirty-eight miles long, and 
with great regularity six miles wide, — a trough 
deeper at its two ends and shallower midway, 
of UpperSilurian and Lower Devonian measures, 
crumpled into numerous sharp, parallel folds, 
producing at the present surface many zigzag 
outcrops of the Lewistown limestone (Lower 
Helderberg, No. VI.) and Oriskany sandstone. 
No. VII., with the overlying pyrilous ferrif- 
erous black clay, turned, near the surface, into 
a valuable brown hematite iron-ore, extensively 
mined west of liCwistown in the numerous low 
ridges bordering the north bank of the Juniata 
River. The fossil ore-beds of the Clinton, No. 
v., are opened at many points along the slope 
of .Jack's Mountain, and outci'op also along the 
slopes of Shade Mountain and Blue Ridge." 
Instrumental measurements of the formations in 
this county, carefully made at Lewistown by 
the Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania, 
show the following thicknesses of the different 
rocks : 


Marcellus black slate 290 

Marcellus limestoue 40 



Schoharie (?) dark shale 53 

Caudi-galli (?) clay 40 

Oriskany sandstone 110 

Oriskany shale '205 

Lewistown shale 140 

Lewistown limestone 185 

Water-line sliale 470 

Salina variegated shale 358 

Niagara (?) limestone 4 

Niagara shale 70 

Clinton upper red shale 305 

lyower red shale 260 

Lower lime and upper olive shale 250 

Fossil ore-beds 120 

Middle olive shale 820 

Iron sandstone 7 

Lower olive shale 571 

Medina white sandstone 820 

Red sandstone and shale 1280 

Oneida red conglomerate 309 

Gray sandstone 313 

Hudson River gray sandstone 425 

Gray shale 190 

Hard, line sandstone 140 

Dark, ferruginous shale 182 

Utica upper gray slate 210 

Middle black shale 302 

Lower gray slate 855 

Trenton limestone 320 

Total, 4409 

All of this county, except the extreme north- 
eastern portion, which Penn's Creek drains into 
the Susquehanna River, is drained by the Ju- 
niata River. Besides the river, the principal 
streams are Kishacoquillas Creek, draining 
Kishacoquillas Valley ; Licking Creek, draining 
Sugar Valley ; Jack's, Standing and Meadow 
Creeks. The valleys are Lewistown, Kishaco- 
quillas, Ferguson's, Sugar, Long Hollow and 
" The Narrows." 

There is considerable limestone in this county, 
and, hencs, good and productive soil. In the 
valleys generally the soil is fair. The sand- 
stones produce thin soil, the shales various. 
There is much iron-ore in many j)arts of the 

Perry Couxty. — " Area, four hundred and 
eighty square miles. The construction of the 
underground world of this flag-shaped county 
is so beautifull}' simple as a whole, and so cu- 
riously complicated in details, that it will ever 
stand the tyjiical district of the Appalachian 

mountain belt of the Atlantic seaboard : two 
grand basins, cut across by the Susquehanna 
and Juniata Rivers, sinking eastward to re- 
ceive the two lobes of the fish-tail of the 
southern anthracite coal-field, in Schuylkill 
County, and rising westward so as to bring to 
the surface in concentric ellipses the successively 
lower formations from No. XL down to No. 
IV., the mountain outcrops of which form the 
southern, western and northern borders of the 
county. Between the two great basins rises the 
great anticlinal which makes, by the corruga- 
tions of its arch, the two loops in the Cumber- 
land County line, and the long, projecting spurs 
of Bower's Mountain, Amberson's Mountain 
and the Great and Little Round Tops, with a 
much larger number of close crimjjles in the 
middle of its course, producing a system of zig- 
zags on the colored map like the grain of wood 
cut bias for ornamental furniture-work ; with 
at least three notable downthrow faults, one of 
which, running along the foot of Dick's Hill, 
brings into contact the middle beds of the 
Chemung and the Lower Helderberg limestone 
beds, with a maximum throw of four thousand 
and seventy-five feet. The Clinton fossil ore 
is mined in front of Tnscarora Mountain, 
near Millerstowu ; the Marcellus iron-ore 
in little basins of Oriskany sandstone south of 
Newport ; on Iron Ridge, at the Old Perry fur- 
nace ; on Mahony Ridge at and west of New 
Bloomfield ; in Bell's Hill, north and west of 
Little Germany ; in Pisgah Hill, at Oak Grove 
furnace ; the Hamil ton fossil ore near !Manors- 
ville; at old Juniata furnace, south of Newport; 
at Girty's Notch, on the Suscjuehanna, and at 
various points along the south side of Mahanoy, 
Crawley's, Dick's and Pisgah Hills, and back 
of the Susquehanna River, at Marvsville. 
Small coal-beds have been opened near Dun- 
cannon and near Mt. Patrick, in the Pocono 
sandstone rocks (X.) of Berry's and Buffalo 
Mountains, but they are, of course, worthless. 
The great length of the zigzag outcrop of the 
Lower Helderberg limestone (No. VL), amount- 
ing in all to one hundred and fifty miles or 
more, has filled the county with quarries, and a 
large trade in lime to other counties is carried 
on in Liverpool township. Four remarkable 



trap-dykes cross the cove in Rye and Penn 
townships ; the largest, Ironstone Ridge, is the 
north end, in Perry County, of the remarkable 
dyke which crosses Cumberland County. It 
makes a water-shed across the valley of Fishing 
Creek, nine miles west of Marysville. It must 
be two hundred feet wide, for its blocks cover a 
width of five hundred. Another much smaller 
one runs five hundred yards east of it, also N. 
10° E. Two others cross the cove in a direc- 
tion N. 20° E., one of which, passing Duncan- 
non, runs across Wheatfield and Watts town- 
ships. Here have been found the first speci- 
mens of Onohus Clintoni and of Pal(Basj)is 
bifurcata, Palceaspis Americanus and Onchus 
Pennsylvanicus, the oldest fish as yet known." 

The Juniata River runs through the north- 
eastern part of this county, and towards this 
river and the Susquehanna nearly all the land 
in the county slopes. Into the Juniata River 
flow Buffalo, Little Buffalo, Wild Cat, Coeola- 
mus and Raccoon Creeks, and into the Susque- 
hanna, West Fisher's, Sherman's, Juniata and 
Hunter's Creeks. The main valleys of the 
county are Sherman's, Horse, Liberty, Raccoon, 
Buffalo, Wild Cat, Pfoutz's and Kennedy's. 

The soil of Perry County is largely sterile, 
formed to a great extent, as it is of Chemung 
shales. In Pfoutz's Valley there is some very 
excellent soil. There is much iron-ore in the 
county, for which at present there is little 

Snyder. — " Area, three hundred and twenty 
square miles. Its border on the west bank of 
the Susquehanna, from Northumberland down, 
is (in a straight line) eighteen miles. Through 
its centre runs the Shade Mountain's anticline 
of Medina sand.stone. No. IV., gradually bury- 
ing itself under Onondaga and Clinton i-ocks 
No. v., which passes across the river at 
Selin's Grove, and splitting into two crests on 
the Juniata County line, between which lies a 
high and narrow little vale of Hudson River 
slate. No. III. Outcrops of No. VI. limestone 
and No. VII. sandstone follow the south foot 
of the mountain past Freemount, Freeburg, 
and Kantz post-office. Another outcrop of 
VI. and VII., twenty-eight miles long, follows 
the north foot of the mountain past McClure 

City, Adamsburg, Beaverton, Paxtonville, 
Middleburg, and Kreamer post-office, where it 
forms the hilly north bank of Middle Ci'eek, to 
the Susquehanna, just above Selin's Grove and 
the mouth of Penn's Creek. The northern 
county line follows the top of Jack's Mountain 
to its end, at Centreville, and along the foot of 
Jack's Mountain (composed of Clinton and 
Onondaga No. V.) runs a third outcrop of VI. 
and VII., eighteen miles long, from Bannerville, 
on the Mifflin County line, past Troxelville, to 
Centreville and New Berlin, on Penn's Creek. 
The three townships south of the first VI. and 
VII. outcrop, and the space between the two 
other outcrops (i. e., the middle of the great 
valley between Stone Mountain and Jack's 
Mountain), are occupied by rocks of the 
Hamilton, Portage and Chemung, No. VIIL, 
and the lower beds of Catskill, No. IX. The 
well-known fossil iron-ore banks of the Clin- 
ton group. No. V. have been opened at a great 
number of points along the foot of Jack's 
Mountain, along the north foot of Shade 
Mountain, especially at Paxtonville, Adams- 
burg and Middleburg, and along the south foot 
of Shade Mountain, at Freeport and Free- 
mount. The sand-vein ore-bed, the highest in 
the series, and resting on the ore sandstone, 
is a fossiliferous limestone; often nearly des- 
titute of iron, but in places rich enough to 
yield twenty and even forty per cent. ; usually 
soft along the outcrop, and always hard below 
drainage level ; less than two feet thick along 
Jack's Mountain, and dipping 25° at Centre- 
ville, 38° at Ulsh's Gap, 40° at Bannerville; 
south, along Shade Mountain, at Smith's 
Grove, one foot thick, dip .30° north ; from 
Middleburg to Paxtonville, too small to work, 
dip 45° north ; at and west of Beavertown, soft 
fossil ore, twenty inches to twenty-six inches. 
The Danville ore-beds, underlying the ore sand- 
stone, are three fossil limestone beds, impreg- 
nated with iron, close togetlier, one or other of 
them very rarely becoming three feet thick, and 
all softening for a variable number of yards 
from the surface down the dip and in propor- 
tion to its gentleness. The black ore-bed or the 
iron sandstone (one to twelve inches thick) un- 
derlies the Danville ore-bed by one hundred 



and fifty feet. In the five hundred feet of 
olive shales beneath it the highly esteemed 
bird's eye fossil ore, one hundred to one hun- 
dred and fifty feet above the top of the Medina, 
No. IV., lies at Paxtonville, six to fourteen 
inches thick, on a gentle north dip, and soft 
where the covering of shale is thin." There is 
little demand for these ores at pi-esent. 

Snyder County is an extension of the Lewis- 
town Valley to the east, bi-oken into two parts 
by Shade Mountain. The slope is wholly to 
the east and into the Susquehanna River, except 
a very small portion of the extreme western 
portion of the county, which is drained west- 
ward by Jack's Creek. The streams falling 
into the Susquehanna within this county are 
West Mahantango, Xorth Mahantango, Middle 
and Penn's Creeks. In quality the soil is in- 
termediate, neither very rich, nor yet sterile. 
Some of the bottom lands are very fertile. 

Union County. — Union County is wild 
and broken by mountain ranges in the west, 
while along the river, to which the land all 
slopes, it is a country of broad, fertile valleys. 
In the western part ai'e the " Seven Mountains," 
which gradually sink into the earth as they 
approach the river on the east. The valleys of 
the eastern part of the county, commencing at 
the south, are Dry, Buffalo, White Deer and 
White Deer Hole. In the western part of the 
county the valleys run into the mountain spurs, 
and terminate in numerous small valleys, hav- 
ing but one outlet, and called " coves." The 
streams which drain Union County, commenc- 
ing on the south, are Penn's, Turtle, Buffalo, 
White Deer and White Deer Hole Creeks. All 
empty into the West Branch, except Penn's 
Creek, which breaks through the ranges of 
Jack's Mountain and falls into the Susquehanna, 
below the junction of the two branches at 

While the amount of limestone soil in this 
county is not large, there is a large amount of 
very fertile soil, which is cultivated with great 

The area of Union County is three hundred 
and ten square miles. " The western part of the 
county is occupied by seven anticlinal mountain 
spurs of Medina sandstone. No. IV., lying 

eastward beneath a low country of Clinton and 
Onondaga No. V., across which the river flows, 
exhibiting the rock-arche.s in succession. A 
triple synclinal runs up west between Jack's 
Mountain and the Buffalo Mountains, and 
along the deepest central line has been pre- 
served a low ridge of Lower Helderberg lime- 
stone, No. VI., for five miles west and three 
miles east of Mifflinburg. A loop of No. VI., 
supporting Oriskany sandstone. No. VII., runs 
west of Lewisburgh, south of Buffalo Creek five 
miles and returns to the river north of the 
creek. A small area of Marcellus shale lies 
between the loop and the river. A third out- 
crop of VI. and VII., four miles long, crosses 
Gregg township, and a small area of Marcellus 
lies north of it. The zigzag red line on the 
map represents the Bloomsburg red shale di- 
vision of the Onondaga, No. V. ; and between 
this red line and the edge of the Medina runs 
a similarly zigzagged outcrop of the Clinton 
fossil iron-ore beds. The mines have been 
wrought for Union furnace, on the banks of the 
river, four miles below Lewisburgh, in 1853. 
Here, at the end of Longstowu Ridge, was first 
mined the lowest of the Danville beds, twenty 
inches to three feet thick. In the slope, a mile 
west, the soft ore goes deeper at the notch, but 
in the hill, on each side, turns to hard ore. 
Half a mile further west ore lean, four to six 
inches. In Chapel Hollow, four miles west of 
the river, bed varies rapidly four to eighteen 
inches. Two miles further west, ravine ; lower 
levels, hard ore; upper levels, soft; three beds 
close enough to be worked together ; in all, ten 
to twelve inches ore. West of the ravine the 
two upper beds, each six to ten inches, are 
worked together ; the other is four inches. The 
Price mine is six miles from the river, worked 
by tunnel ; two lower beds, eight to twelve 
inches, have yielded forty thousand tons of 
superior ore. At the Maize bank they yield • 
ten inches ; at the IMoyer bank six to twelve 
inches. The Kelkner mine is less than a mile 
from New Berlin ; north of which the Colton 
mine is on a three to six-inch bed, and a mile 
west of it Seabold's mine has four to six inches 
of soft ore ; but further towards Centreville 
are no mines." Ore is found in various other 



points in the central, northern and western 
portions of the county, but there is little de- 
mand for it at the present time (1885). 


The following lists are known to be incom- 
plete. The plants named have been observed.' 


Abies Excelsa Norway spruce. 

Abies nigra Black spruce. 

Abies Canadensis Hemlock spruce. 

Acer saccliarinum Sugar maple. 

Acer dasycarpum White maple. 

Acer rubrum Red maple. 

Acer platanoides Norway maple. 

Acer spicatum Mountain maple. 

Acer Pennsylvauium Striped maple. 

^sculus glabra Buckeye. 

.(Esculus Hippocastanum Horse-chestnut. 

Amelanchier Canadensis Shad-berry. 

Asimina triloba Pawpaw. 

Betula cuta Birch cherry. 

Betula nigra Black birch. 

Betula alba White birch. 

Betula Denta River birch. 

Carpinus Americana Irouwood. 

Carya alba Shellbark. 

Carya microcarpa Small fruited shell- 

Carya tomentosa Mock hickory. 

Carya sulcata Ribbed hickory. 

Carya porcina Pignut hickory. 

Carya amara Bitter-nut hickory. 

Castanea vesca Chestnut. 

Cornus florida Dog-wood. 

Cercis Canadensis Judas tree. 

Diospyrus Virginiana Persimmon. 

Euonymus atropurpureus Burning-bush. 

Fagus ferruginea Beech. 

Fraxinus Americana White ash. 

Fraxinus sambucifolia Black ash. 

Fraxinus pubescens Red ash. 

Fraxinus viridis Green ash. 

Fraxinus quadrangularia Blue ash. 

Gleditschia tricanthos Honey locust. 

Gymnocladus Canadensis Kentucky coflFee-tree. 

Juglans cinerea Butternut. 

Juglans nigra Black walnut. 

Juniperus Virginiana Red cedar. 

Larix Americana Larch. 

Liriodendron tulipifera Tulip-tree. 

Magnolia acuminata Cucumber-tree. 

Morns rubra Red mulberry. 

Morus alba White mulberry. 

^ The names of any omitted will be thankfully received 
by G. G. Groff, M.D., Lewisburgh, Pa. 

Negunda aceroides Box elder. 

Nyssa multiflora Black gum. 

Ostrya Virginica Hornbeam. 

Pinus rigida Pitch pine. 

Pinus strobus White pine. 

Pinus inops Scrub pine. 

Prunus Americana Wild plum. 

Prunus serotina Wild black-cherry. 

Prunus Pennsylvanioa Wild red-cherry. 

Platanus occidentalis Sycamore. 

Populus tremuloides Aspen. 

Populus monilifera Cottonwood. 

Pyrus coronaria Wild crab-apple. 

Quercus alba White oak. 

Quercus obtusiloba Post oak. 

Quercus macrocarpa Burr oak. 

Quercus ilicifolia Bear oak. 

Quercus castanea Chestnut oak. 

Quercus nigra Black oak. 

Quercus rubra Red oak. 

Quercus coccinea Scarlet oak. 

Quercus palustris Pin oak. 

Robina pseudacacia Black locust. 

Sassafras officinale Sassafras. 

Salix tristis Gray willow. 

Salix alba White willow. 

Tilia Americana Basswood. 

Thuja occidentalis Arbor- vitae. 

Ulmus Americana White elm. 

Ulmus fulva Red elm. 

Ulmus racemosa Corky elm. 

Viburnum lentago Sheep-berry. 


Alnus incana Hoary alder. 

Andromeda ligustrina Andromeda. 

Azalea n udiflora Azalea. 

Ceanothus Americanus New Jersey tea. 

Celastrus Scandens Bitter sweet. 

Celtis occidentalis Hackberry. 

Cephalanthus occidentalis Button-bush. 

Chimaphila umbellata Winter-green. 

Chimaphila maculata Spotted green. 

Cornus Canadensis , Dwarf dogwood. 

Cornus stolonifera Red dogwood. 

Cornus paniculata Panicled dogwood. 

Cornus alternifolia Alternate-leaved dog- 

Corylus Americana Hazel-nut. 

Corylus rostrata Beaked hazel-nut. 

Crata?gus coccinea Scarlet thorn. 

Crataegus crusgalli Cockspur thorn. 

Crata'gus par vifolia Dwarf thorn. 

Diervilla trifida Bush honeysuckle. 

Epigtea repens May flower. 

Gaultheria procumbens Winter-green . 

Gaylussacia brachycera Box hucklebei'ry. 

Gaylussacia frondosa Blue huckleberry. 

Gaylussacia resinosa Black huckleberry. 



Hamamelis Virginica Witch-hazel. 

Hydrangea arborescens Wild hydrangea. 

Ile.K verticillata Black alder. 

Ilex la-vigata Smooth winter-berry. 

ICalraia latifolia Mountain laurel. 

Kalmia angustifolia Narrow-leaved laurel. 

Lindera Benzoin Spice bush. 

Lonieera parviflora Small honeysuckle. 

Louicera ciliata Fly honeysuckle. 

Prunus pumila Dwarf cherry. 

Pyrus angustifolia Crab-apple. 

Pyrus arbutifolia Choke-berry. 

Rhododendron maximum Great laurel. 

Rhus typhina Staghorn sumach. 

Rhus copallina Dwarf sumach. 

Rhus aromatica Fragrant sumach. 

Ribes histellum Smooth gooseberry. 

Ribes rotundifolium Round-leaved goose- 

Ribes lacustre Bristly leaved goose- 

Ribes prostratum Fetid currant. 

Ribes floridum Black currant. 

Rosa Carolina Swamp rose. 

Rosa rubiginosa Sweetbrier. 

Sumbucus Canadensis Black elder. 

Sambucus pubens Red elder. 

Spirea opulifolia Nine bark. 

Staphylea trifolia Bladder-nut. 

Sy mphoricarpus racemosus Snowberry . 

Syringa vulgaris Common lilac. 

Viburnum prunifolium Black haw. 

Viburnum acerifolium Maple-leaved haw. 


Adiantum pedatum Maiden-hair. 

Aspidium thelypteris Shield fern. 

Aspidium noveboracense Shield fern. 

Aspidium spinulosum Shield fern. 

Aspidium marginale Shield fern. 

Aspidium acrostichoides Shield fern. 

Asplenium trichomanes Spleenwort. 

Asplenium ebeneum Spleenwort. 

Botrychium Virginicum Rattlesnake fern. 

Botrychium lunarioides Common moon wort. 

Camptosorus rhizophyllus Walking leaf. 

Cystopteris fragilis Bladder fern. 

Dicksonia punctitoba Dicksonia. 

Onoclea sensibalis Sensitive fern. 

Osmunda regalis Flowering fern. 

Osmunda Claytouiana Clayton's fern. 

Osmunda cinnamomea Cinnamon fern. 

Phegopteris hexagonoptera Beech-fern. 

Pteris aquilina Common brake. 

Pteris ebeneum Ebony fern. 

Polypodium vulgare Common polypody. 

Struthiopteris Geremanica Ostrich fern. 

There is one rare plant in tliis district thus 
de-scribed by Professor E. W. Claypole, — 

" There is one species almost peculiar, being known, 
so far as I am aware, at only one other locality. The 
box huckleberry [Gaylussacia trachycera) grows 
abundantly on a small tract of about ten acres near 
New Bloomfield. To this space it is, I believe, lim- 
ited. Outside the county it is found on the banks of 
the Indian River, near Millsborough, Sussex County, 
Del., as reported by Mr. A. Cummings. It was de- 
scribed many years ago by Michaux, from Virginia 
(Winchester and Warm Springs), but has been found 
there by no one since. 

" It appears to be a lingering relic of the ancient 
flora of the county, maintaining itself on the sterile 
hillside of Chemung shale, but liable to be destroyed 
by cultivation at any time. It is exceedingly plenti- 
ful, forming a perfect mat over much of the ground, 
but its limits are sharply defined without apparent 




Early Glimpses of the Interior. — These 
volumes profess to give an account of five of the 
interior counties of Pennsylvania, a region that 
has but little very early history, for the white 
men went almost all around it before it was pene- 
trated, and the first explorations made by traders 
unfortunately were never written, or at least 
not preserved. Yet there are some early 
glimpses into this interior too interesting to be 
entirely neglected. 

At an early day the Spaniards were in the 
Chesapeake Bay and named it St. IMary's, 
from which they carried a native to Mexico, 
where he was educated and baptized. He after- 
wards returned with some priests to Axacan, on 
a large river flowing into the bay, where they 
established a missionary station. After a few 
months he apostatized and assisted in killing 
the missionaries. He had related to the Span- 
iards that by going up a great river, flowing 
into the bay, for eighty leagues and crossing 
over the mountains there were two great water- 
courses, one of which led to China, as they sup- 
posed, and by the other furs were carried in 



canoes to the mouth of the St. Lawrence and 
traded for Indian goods. The one route led 
across the Alleghenies to the Ohio, whence 
news had come of white men in Mexico sup- 
posed to be China ; the other route led up the 
Susquehanna to the lakes and the St. Lawrence. 
The story presents a pleasing picture of our 
rivers, which from time immemorial were thor- 
oughfares of Indian traffic, while the land was 
interwoven with a net-work of their jjaths. The 
Indians Avith which these Spaniards came in 
contact were of the nomadic Algonquins. 

The French in Canada gave the name An- 
dastes, or Gandastogues, to all the Iroquois- 
speaking tribes south of the Five Nations. The 
"Jesuit Relations of 1659 " state a tradition that 
prior to 1600 these Pennsylvania tribes had 
almost exterminated the Mohawks in a ten 
years' war. The tradition is valuable in that it 
shows that before the New York tribes obtained 
fire-arms the Pennsylvania tribes were fully able 
to cope with them in war. 

In 1608, before Captain John Smith explored 
the Chesapeake Bay, he was told by Powhatan 
of " a mighty nation, called Pocoughtaouack, a 
fierce nation that did eat men." This name 
meant " Destroyers." These were Pennsylvania 
Indians, and this is the first word given by any 
white man of anything tiiat belongs to tlie ter- 
ritory of this State. Smith says, — " Many 
kingdoms he described to me to the head of the 
bay, which seemed to be a mighty river issuing 
from mighty mountains bet^vixt two seas." 
This is the Susquehanna, extending northward 
among the mountains and situated between the 
ocean and the lakes. William Straciioy, who 
wrote a few years later, confirms what Smith 
says of this tribe. " To the northward of the 
falls, and bending to the northeast, lieth the 
skirt of the iiighland country, from whence the 
aforesaid five navigable rivers take tlieir heads, 
which run through the lowland into the Chesa- 
peake Bay. This quarter is altogether unknown 
to us as yet, only herein are seated, say the In- 
dians, those peojile whom Powhatan calls 
Bocootawwanaukes." These pioneers differ in 
spelling this oldest of all our Indian names, 
though the sound is nearly the same. It was 
not fashionable in old days for even the same man 

to spell an Indian name twice in the same way. 
We next learn of this interior in 1608, when 
Captain Smith, in exploring the Chesapeake 
Bay, visited the mouth of the Susqueliamia 
River. On the east side of the head of the bay 
he found a Nanticoke tribe, whom he calls 
Tookwoghs. one of whom understood Powhatan ; 
another one understood the language of the Sus- 
quehannocks, a nation of whom they told Smith, 
and so-called by them because of the numerous 
springs in their country, as compared with the 
sandy eastern shores of the bay, the name mean- 
ing Fresh -water-Stream-Landers, or the people 
from the region of tiie springs, literally the new 
water. He sent these two men up the river to 
induce some of them to come down. After 
waiting three or four days, sixty of those "gyant- 
like people " came down and they had a friendly 
talk. As Smith could only ascend the river a 
few miles on account of the rocks, he made dil- 
igent inquiry as to the upper parts of the river 
aud the towns and tribes located upon it and its 
brauches. He drew a pen-picture of a Susque- 
hanna giant and placed it in the corner of a 
map which he made of Virginia, as all the 
country was then called. It is the oldest map 
of any of our inland parts. He gives the river 
and its principal branches, and five towns with 
kings' houses. The lowest one is " Sasquesa- 
hanough," from which the delegation came, 
supposed to have been located near Columbia. 
Writers have hei'ctofore located all these towns 
below the Kittatinny Mountains. The draw- 
ing of the stream aud tiie location of these towns 
was done from descriptions given him by these 
Indians, imperfectl}' understood on account ot 
the double interpretation necessary aud liis own 
imperfect knowledge of the Powhatan tongue. 
The proper view is more comprehensive. Smith 
was looking for an outlet into the " Back Sea " 
and for a near way to China, as instructed by 
the King's Council, and was not inquiring after 
the little creeks in I^ancaster and York Coun- 
ties. We may rest assured that his map rep- 
resents the principal branches of the river. 
"Quadroque " is at the forks at Northumber- 
land. "Tesinigh"is on the north branch at 
Wyoming. "Utchowig" is on the head of the 
West Branch. "Attaock " is on the Juniata. 



Althouj^h this branch is laid down as entering 
the main river below the Susquehannoek town, 
yet there can be no reasonable doubt that it 
was intended for the Juniata. Smith drew 
what he understood them to say, during his 
short interview, were the principal parts of the 
river and the distinctive tribes on the several 
branches. It is no objection to this interpreta- 
tion that it does not harmonize with the scale 
of leagues. Indians are very indefinite as to 
distances after they get far from home ; and 
Smith may have neglected to adjust this exten- 
sion into an unseen region to the scale adopted 
in the map. That he had, however, no petty 
contracted view of this stream is evident from 
his own words, for he says this river " cometh 
three or four days' journey from the head of the 
bay." It was not characteristic of the man to 
confine his inquiries to narrow bounds ; and his 
map, which is a marvel of accuracy, does not 
(leal in small features, but gives the great out- 
lines of the country. Smith's publications make 
no reference to these tribes, but they were 
doubtless all Andasta tribes, using dialects of 
the throat-speaking Iroquois stock, and perhaps 
allied for defense in times of war. When we 
recall Smith's description of the language spoken 
by those he met, the " hellish voyce " " sounding 
from them as a voyce in a vault," and when we 
look on the picture he drew of the great chief, 
we may wsU conclude that we hear and see the 
" king " of Attaock on the Juniata, for no 
doul)t, in language, dress, head-gear and mode 
of life, if not in tribal alliance, they were sub- 
stantially alike. 

All along the shores of the Chesapeake Bay 
Smith found the natives in dread of the Mas- 
sawomekes (Great-water-men), who lived beyond 
the mountains on a lake, and harassed the coast 
tribes by their incursions, especially those re- 
siding on the rivers Potomac and Susquehanna, 
for they " had so many boats and so many men 
that they made war with all the world." Smith 
met seven canoes of these men at the head of the 
bay, but could not understand a word they said. 
The early Virginia historiiuis " supposed " that 
they were " possibly " and " probably" ^Mohawks, 
or ancestors of the Five Nations. Later writers 
assert this suggestion as a positive fact. The 

conclusion is unwarranted and the historians 
are wrong. The interior of Pennsylvania was 
then full of hostile tribes, through whom such 
war-parties could not have traveled ; and Smith 
expressly asserts that they came from a great 
lake beyond the mountains at the head of the 
Potomac. Daniel Gookin, who was familiar 
with this country from Virginia to Massachu- 
setts, from 1621 to 1674, to whom the character, 
location and identity of the Five Nations were 
well known, at the latter date, asserts that 
Smith's Massawomekes were the Indians on a 
great interior lake. It is interesting to learn 
how our valleys were travei-sed by these war- 
riors in this early period. 

In 1614 the Dutch established a trading post 
near Albany. Shortly afterwards three of their 
men wandered out into the interior along the 
Mohawk River and crossed the dividing water- 
shed to Otsego Lake, the very head of the Sus- 
quehanna River. They came down this river, 
and by the Lackawanna Creek and the Lehigh, 
passed over to the Delaware River, where, below 
the Trenton Falls, they were rescued from the 
Minequas, M'ho held them in captivity, by Cap- 
tain Heuflricksen, who happened to be there 
exploring the bay and river. These three Dutch- 
men were the first white men that ever set foot 
on Pennsylvania soil. A " paper map '' found 
at the Hague in 1841 illustrates their travels, 
and beyond the Susquehanna River, in the region 
of the Juniata, gives an Indian tribe named 
"lottecas," from information doubtless gained 
from Minequas then living across the river from 
Conestoga. Whether this word was an effort 
to write the name from which our word Juniata 
is derived, is a matter for speculation. The 
locality and the source of information seem to 
lead to that conclusion, but brevity here ex- 
cludes a full statement of the argument. 

In September, 1615, Champlain made an 
expedition against the Ononilagas in New York, 
starting from a point near Lake Simcoe, in Can- 
ada. He sent Stephen Brule across the enemy's 
country to the borders of Pennsylvauia for a rein- 
forcement of five hundred men of the "Carantow- 
annais," enemies of the New York tribes. He did 
not reach the fort in time to aid Champlain, who 
was wounded and forced to retreat. Brule re- 



turned and wintered at the chief town, which he 
said could muster eight hundred men ; and the 
tribe had two other towns, in one of which the 
three Dutchmen were taken prisoners, for he men- 
tions this* fact, whicli fixes the date wlien Hen- 
driclvsen rescued them with " kettles, beads and 
merchandise." Tlie next spring Brule descended 
the Susquehanna to its mouth, but lias left us 
little of historic value ; but the little that we do 
gain from these adventurers is exceedingly valu- 
able in that it proves that at this period the 
Pennsylvania tribes were abundantly able to 
take care of themselves, and even to loan large 
numbers of warriors to their friends in Canada. 

In 1632 Captain Henry Fleet visited the 
head of tide on the Potomac, and had an inter- 
view with some natives called " Massomacks or 
Cannyda Indians," comprising four populous 
countries, who lived some five days' journey up 
the river. They were called Tonhoga, Mosticum, 
Shauntowa and Usserahak. While at the falls 
above Washington City there came there seven 
cannibals, lusty savages, of haughty language, 
with strange attire and red fringes, desiring use- 
ful goods rather than trinkets, who were called 
" Hirecheenes," who lived three days' journey 
beyond the Tohogaes, and "do drive a trade in 
Canada at the plantation," which is fifteen days' 
journey from this place, and they had such 
(Biscay) axes as Captain Kirk traded in Canada. 
From the direction, distance and language, we 
doubt not they came from the Susquehanna or 
its branches. We cannot here discuss the prob- 
able identity of these tribes, but the relation 
presents an interesting picture of Indian life 
aifecting this whole interior at this very early 

In KJoo Visscher published a map, in Amster- 
dam, of New Netherland, in which the Susque- 
hanna is laid down witJi some degree of resem- 
blance to reality, but without any West Branch 
or Juniata, and having its head branches nearly 
identical with the "paper map" drawn by some 
one from the descriptions given by the three 
wandering Dutchmen. During the next half- 
century there were some fifteen different maps 
published, all having this same river outline. 
On all these majjs, on the west side of the river 
just where the Juniata belongs, there is the name 

of an Indian tribe called "Onojutta Haga" — 
a name which beyond all doubt contains the 
root of the word from which "Juniata" is de- 
rived. " Haga " is the Mohawk word for peo- 
ple, tribe or nation ; the first part means a pro- 
jecting stone. 

In 1648 there was published "A Description 
of the Province of New Albion," etc., sometimes 
called the " Plantagenet Pamphlet." It says : 
"The Sasquehannocks' new town is also a rare, 
healthy and rich place ; with it a crystal, broad 
river, but some falls below hinder navigation," 
and further, " the Sasquehannocks are not now 
of the naturals left above 110, though with their 
forced auxiliaries, the Ihon a Does and Wicome- 
ses, they can make 250 ; these together are counted 
valiant and terrible to all other cowardly, dull 
Indians." We are interested in these forced 
auxiliaries. The Wicomeses were a tribe in 
lower Maryland. The crude spelling " Ihona- 
does," or " Jhonadoes," in this crude pamphlet, 
is so nearly identical M^itli the word Juniata, 
and no other name in all this region does resem- 
ble it, that we may safely conclude that at 
this period the Juniata j)eople were either in vol- 
untary or forced alliance with the Susquehan- 

Van der Donk, in 1655, published a history 
in which he says : " Many of the Netherlanders 
have been far into the country, more than sev- 
enty or eighty leagues from the river and sea- 
shore. We frequently trade with Indians who 
come more than ten and twenty days' journey 
from the interior." He says that half of the 
buffaloes have disappeared and left the country, 
and now " keep mostly to the southwest, where 
few people go." The beavers, of which eighty 
thousand are annually killed, are also " mostly 
taken far inland, there being few of them near 
the settlements." Unfortunately, no accounts 
have come down to us of these great journeys 
into the interior, which is described as abound- 
ing in lakes, rivers and creeks. 

In 1670, Augustine Herman made a map of 
Maryland for Lord Baltimore. Herman lived 
at the head of the bay and knew the country 
well. The north line of Maryland is given as 
crossing " Onestego R." (Conestoga Creek) near 
Lancaster, and " The jiresent Sasquahana In- 



flian Fort," called "Canoge," was on the south 
side below " the greatest fal," near the two Con- 
ewago Creeks. The corner of the map back of 
Harrisburg is a cluster of mountain ranges, and at 
the eastern base is a lengthy note, from which we 
gather these facts : Tliat beyond these moun- 
tains the streams run to the west, either into the 
Bay of ilexico or the South Sea ; that the first 
one discovered was a very great stream called the 
" Black Miuquas "River (Ohio), on which lived 
the tribe of that name ; that there was a branch 
of the " Black Minquas River" (Couemaugii) op- 
posite to a branch of tiie Susquehanna (Juniata), 
which entered at some leagues above the fort ; 
that formerly these " Black Minquas" came over 
along these branches as far as the Delaware 
river to trade, but that " the Sasquahana and 
Sinnicus Indians went over and destroyed that 
very great nation." The "Black Minquas" 
were not so called because they were black, but 
because they wore black badges on their 

The following laconic message sent by the 
Susquehanna tribes to those in Canada proves 
how little they feared the Iroquois before they 
obtained fire-arms. It is taken from the "Jesuit 
Relations of 1642." "Our Fathers among the 
Hurons have informed us that the Indians of 
Andastohe, whom we believe to be neighbors of 
Virginia, and who formerly had important alli- 
ances with the Hurons in such a way that- in 
the one country may still be founrl people of the 
other country — these Indians, I say, have trans- 
mitted tJK'se few following words to the Hurons: 
We are infi)rmed that you have enemies. All 
that you have to do is to lift the tomahawk, 
and we guarantee that either they will conclude 
peace, or that we shall make war with them." 

About 1(540 the Dutch began to sell fire-arras 
to the Five Xations, and in a few years they had 
furnished as high as four hundred of these deadlv 
weapons, with ammunition, to the Mohawks.' 
These equipments enabled the Five Nations 
to enter upon a high career of military conquest 
and glory. The thousands of the surrounding 
tribes, Mhom they hated, were as nothing before 
a few hundred armed Iroquois. They carried 

• Pa. Arch., N. S., vol. v. p. 78. 

their conquests over the Western States, even 
beyond the Mississippi ; they desolated all the 
cognate tribes in Canada and around Lake Erie, 
incorporating the captives into their own can- 
tons ; they carried their conquests far down the 
Ohio Valley ; they entirely destroyed the An- 
dasta tribes in Pennsylvania, among whom were 
the "Scahentoar-rouon" (Great-flats-people), at 
Wyoming, the "Otzinachson," or Cave Devils, 
on the West Branch, and the Standing-stone 
tribe on the Juniata, until only the " Susque- 
hanna Minquays or Conestoga Indians " were 
left. These withstood their onslaught for manv 
years, being also pai'tly armed by the Swedes 
and assisted by the Marylanders. When the 
English superseded the Dutch, in 1664, one of 
the stipulations which the Iroquois made for the 
continuance of their good-will and trade was 
that the English do not assist "the Ondiakes," 
(Andastes), and with all these advantages they 
were so fearful of these tribes on the Susque- 
hanna that in 1666 ten Oneida chiefs M-ent to 
JNIontreal and begged the French to come and 
erect forts in their country to protect them 
against the Andastae-ronnons. At length, in 
1676, being deserted by their allies, the last of 
the Andastes were overcome, and their remnant 
left as a tributary outpost or stopping-place in 
their forays still further southward. When 
they gave these Susquehannocks the final blow 
the English felt sorry, but did not dare to aid 

The Iroquois claimed all the lands on the 
Susquehanna and its branches, and sold them 
to ^Villiam Penn and his heirs as their territory 
by right of conquest. As early as 1684, when 
Penn was trying to negotiate for some of these 
lands, the Iroquois spoke of this whole region as 
"the Susquehanue River, which we won with 
the sword;" and Governor Thomas Penn ex- 
pressly acknowledged this right in these words, 
in 1736: "The lands on Susquehanna, we be- 
lieve, belong to the Six Xations by the conquest 
of the Indians of that river." At the treaty in 
Lancaster, in 1744, they made these same con- 
quest claims to all the lands in Maryland and 
Virginia, from the Blue Ridge westward. These 
rights were enforced and acknowledged, and 
their " Shanandowa " lands paid for accordingly. 



The whole Juniata region was a conquered, 
empty interior, used as an Iroquois hunting- 
aground from the time of these conquests up to 
the period when the Tuscaroras were allowed 
to settle there. Subsequently for a time the 
Delawares and Shawanese were allowed to occupy 
these deserted regions. At the time of its con- 
quest there were no white adventurers, or traders, 
or historians on the Juniata, nor anywhere in 
the interior. No Jesuit missionaries were there 
to relate the story of their extirpation ; but their 
journals, written among the Hui'ons and Iro- 
quois, are full of references to expeditions to the 
southward, and relate the bringing of vast num- 
bers of prisoners into the New York towns from 
the south, mentioning as high as six hundred at a 
single time. Wherever history has lifted the veil 
and given us a glimpse of their operations, it tells 
the same story. By this analogy we can pretty 
well determine the fate of the Juniata and other 
Andasta tribes in Pennsylvania. The exact 
date of this extirpation is uncertain, but the fact 
is clear. Most of the relics found in this region 
are the remains of this anterior race. The for- 
est upon their corn-fields was only partly grown 
up when the white settlers first came, and they 
were sometimes mistaken for " barrens," because 
the trees were small ; and in other cases their 
cleared " meadow land" was eagerly seized upon 
by the pioneer settlers. 

The Juniata Tribe — The Origin and 
Signification of the Name. — We have 
already referred to certain words, used by 
writers and found on maps, denoting towns and 
tribes in the region of the Juniata River. They 
are Attaoek, on Smith's map, 1608 ; lotteoas, 
on Hendricksen's pa^jer map, 1616 ; Ihon a 
Does, in the New Albion pamphlet, 1648 ; 
Onojutta-Haga, on the Visscher maps, 1655 
and later. Whatever may be thought of the 
former, we have in the last word, beyond all 
reasonable controversy, the oldest known form 
of the word which has ripened into Juniata. 
The latter part, haga, is the Mohawk word 
denoting tribe, people, nation, inhabitants of 
any place. The other part is the same word 
from which the term Oneida is derived. The 
reader knows that among Indians there were 
many dialectical variations, and even in the 

.same tribe different persons pronounced the 
same word with considerable variation, and 
where there is no standard it is hard to deter- 
mine which is correct. The Indian ear, moreover, 
did not distinguish between many of the sounds 
in use among us. In Iroquois words, "o " and 
" u " represent one sound, and " t " and " d " 
are variants, as are also "j," " k," " eh" etc. 
Hence, in the following words pronounce " o " 
as in "do;' "ij" and "j" as " y." The 
languages and education of Europe, ignorance 
and many other causes have helped to produce 
an almost interminable variation in the spelling 
of our Indian names during the period when 
the unwritten was first put in written form. 
Tlie Iroquois used no lip sounds, but spoke 
from the throat with an open mouth. In eas- 
ing the organs of speech certain breathing 
sounds M'ere used, especially in certain dialects, 
which some white men tried to indicate by 
letters and others omitted. The initial " /" in 
Juniata is only an introductory breathing- 
sound, and is without signification. In the 
name Oneida it did not take permanence ; in 
Juniata it did. Compare the French Onontio 
with the English Yonondio, meaning the Gov- 
ernor of Canada ; also the names Onondagas and 
Sonnontowans, Jenontoicanos, Tsanandowans, 
(Senecas) both derived from onnon, a mountain. 
The name Juniata, like Oneida, is derived from 
onenhia, onenya or onia, a stone, and kaniote, 
to be upright or elevated, being a contraction 
and corruption of tlie compound. Onenniote 
is rendered " the jn-ojecting stone." Horatio 
Hale also translates, in the " Iroquois Book of 
Rites," the word onenyute or o nen yo deh, as 
" the protruding stone," denoting the name of 
a town. Only the latter part of the second 
word has been retained in the compound. 
Zeisberger gives oneijaas the Mohawk woi'd for 
stone. Another form is oonoyah. In Onondaga 
the form onaja is given. The Tuscaroras seem 
to have prefixed a syllable and said owrunuay. 
Sir William Johnson says that the onoya, a 
stone, is the true symbol of the Oneidas, and 
tliat they hence called themselves onoyuts 
(Doc. His. N. Y., iv. 432). They desig- 
nated their village by a stone in the fork of a 
tree, and when on the war-path as a defiance to 



their enemies. The French forms of their 
name are Onneyouth, Onneyote, Onneiouts, 
Onoyauts. The Hurous would call them 
Oiiayoh'li-ronons. Briiyas wrote it Onnejoutas. 
Hennepin wrote Hoiinehioufs. In our pro- 
vincial records, May 9, 1704, it is given as 
Honoyoothachs. James Logan, in 1720, wrote it 
Oiieyookces. Conrad Weiser, in 1742, wrote it 
A nayints. These variations, selected from over 
threescore, will prepare the mind of the reader 
for some differences in spelling Juniata before 
its orthography became fixed. 

The Onojutta-Haga on the map is proof that 
the Dutch map-maker learned from the Mo- 
hawks that beyond the Susquehanna, in the 
region of the Juniata River, there was a tribe 
of Indians known as the projecting or standing 
stone people. The map material was probably 
collected prior to 1650. The name reappeared 
on many maps, and the close identity in form 
and signification suggested the idea that they 
were the same people, and that the Oneidas 
came originally from the Juniata ; or at least 
that those on the Juniata at an early date were 
a part of the Oneidas This ideii was advanced 
long ago, and it did not die out very quickly. 
On a map made probably in the earlier part of 
the last century, and afterwards used to illus- 
trate missions, and also post-routes along the 
Atlantic towns, there appears an Indian town 
in the undelineated interior of the Juniata 
region called " Onnoyoute," with explana- 
tion, — " F (cirt) of the Iroquois." It seems to 
be taken from Moll's maps of 1720. The 
town is well inland beyond the Susquehanna, 
and is beyond doubt the Standing vStone. 
When the white people came to penetrate and 
explore this region, they found no resident 
tribe, and not knowing that the armed Iroquois 
had depopulated the Avhole country, they con- 
ceived the idea that these Indians must have 
removed to New York. Even as late as 1854 
a township adjoining the borough of Hunting- 
don was named " Oneida " under the impres- 
.sion that the word meant Standing Stone ; and, 
strangely enough, Mr. Africa, in his history, 
says that Oneida is the Seneca Indian term for 
.standing stone. There is, however, no reason 
why two cognate tribes, entirely separated by 
distance and organization, may not have had the 
same name, or one which had a shade of differ- 

ence then well understood by them, but now- 
undetermined by us, which, in this case, was 
most likely the fact. The Oneidas were cer- 
tainly never a resident tribe on the Juniata. 
The Onojutta-Haga were a defunct tribe before 
the white man visited their country, or came 
near enough to save an account of them. 
Their name, however, would not die with them. 
Mountains repeat and rivers murmur the voice 
of extirpated nations. Long as this stream 
flows down its gentle bed, its name shall remind 
us that once along its banks lived a people 
whose tribal insignia was the beacon stone. 

Nationality with our Indian tribes is dated 
from the period of their assuming to build a 
separate council-fire. Surrounding circum- 
stances determined their name. Viewed in an 
historic light, a tact always present in the mind 
of an intelligent Indian, this name carries with 
it the story of their origin. We can best illus- 
trate by reference to the Oneidas, who were also 
a stone tribe. They lived on a highland between 
their lake and the Susquehanna River, near a 
sheltering hill, on the top of which was an orbic- 
ular boulder, at which they built their council- 
fire, and around which they assembled to delib- 
erate on national afJairs. This was their beacon 
stone, and here the signal light and smoke, 
visible as far as the eye could carry, was the 
rallying sign for their kindred. In the course 
of time they looked upon this spot with super- 
stitious reverence. Here they had arisen. They 
were the red granite stone people, and their 
sacred legends taught them that M-hen the Great 
Spirit made the world, he made their country 
first, and their ancestors came up out of the 
ground like the trees. Being fii-st craited, they 
looked upon themselves as the original Simon- 
pure Indians, superior to all others, having even 
the color of the ground from which they sprang. 
The projecting stone was the totem or sign-mark 
of the nation. Their name carried with it the 
whole story of their origin, superiority and 
sacred legends. The name thus beaime an 
epitome of their history. 

The Juniata people, no doubt, had a similar 
story of their origin, varied to suit their par- 
ticular case. They had not come from a distant 
land, but were autochthons, sprung from the 
ground itself; as one of the Iroquois oratoi-s said 
at Lancaster, in 1744, " our ancestoi-s came out 



of this very ground." The precise locality 
where they origiDated, and the particular kind 
of a stone tribe they were, can now only be 
determined by the lingering legends and tradi- 
tions. Fortunately, these have not all perished. 
Names are locally tenacious. Geographical 
vestiges assert the claims of extinct nations to 
an inheritance in the past. The Juniatas were 
of Iroquois stock, and their nauie belongs to 
that class of languages. When the Delawares 
came, they adopted the old name for the stream, 
pronouncing it Juchniada ; but when they came 
up the river, and found it localized at Hunting- 
don, they translated it to Achsinnink. The 
white man followed, applied the old name to 
the river, and again translated it for the locality, 
rendering it Standing Stone. The old totem- 
post, it appears, remained. This, and the 
traveliug Iroquois on their huntiugand maraud- 
ing expeditions, kept alive the story of the ex- 
tirpated tribe. It was then handed down to the 
white people, who never saw or heard of the old 
maps, or if they did, they could not have recog- 
nized the root and meaning of the term. At 
this place the traditions had been kept alive for 
over one hundred years, but somewhat corrupted 
by explanatory innovations. The Delaware 
missionary, Heckewelder, says, — 

" Juniata River. — This word is of the Six Nations. 
The Delawares say Yucfmada or Chuchniada. The 
Iroquois had a path leading direct to a settlement of 
Shawanese residing somewhere on this river ; I un- 
derstood where Bedford is. Juniata is an Iroquois 
word, unknown now. The Indians said the 
river had the best hunting-ground for deer, elk and 

"Standing Stone. — Achsinnink is the proper name for 
this place. The word alludes to large rocks stauding 
separate and where no other is near. I know four 
places within 500 miles which have this name, two 
of which are large and high rocks in rivers. For 
noted places where a small rock is they give the 
nane Achsinnessink, the place of the small rocks." 

Conrad "Weiser has left us the oldest record 
of Standing Stone, August 18, 1748, then 
seemingly already a well-known name for the 
place. John Harris, in 1753, says it was "about 
fourteen feet high and six inches square." Rev. 
Philip Fithian, in 1775, says it was "a tall 
stonecolumn or pillar nearly square," and "seven 

feet above the ground." A remnant of this 
stone is still preserved, having on it the name, 
"J. Lukens, 1768," then surveyor-general, 
and also other names, initials, and a great quan- 
tity of hieroglyphics. Sherman Day, in 1843, 
gathered the traditions of the oldest inhabitants. 
McMurtrie told Day that the stone was eight 
feet high when he came there, in 177(3. Day 
says : " Previous to that time (1767) the j^lace 
had been noted as the site of an ancient Indian 
village called Standing Stone. (This was, of 
course, a translation of the Indian name.) A 
tall pillar of stone, four inches thick by eight 
inches wide, had been erected here by the resi- 
dent tribe many years since, perhaps as a sort 
of Ebenezer. The tribe regarded this stone with 
superstitious veneration, and a tradition is said 
to have existed among them that if the stone 
should be taken away the tribe would be dis- 
persed, but that so long as it should stand they 
would prosper. It is said that Dr. Barton, of 
Philadelphia, learned in some of his researches 
that Oneida meant Standing Stone, and that 
nation, while living in New York, is said to 
have bad a tradition that their ancestors came 
originally from the south." 

When we call to mind that these writers, and 
the people from whom they obtained their infor- 
mation, were not aware that the Delawares only 
first inhabited these empty Iroquois hunting- 
grounds about 1725, and that the original Stand- 
ing Stone people had been exterminated three- 
quarters of a century prior to this, it is not hard 
to sift out of these traditions the misunderstand- 
ings which time had woven into them. The 
story of an Oneida southern origin was suggested 
by the lack of knowledge concerning the ancient 
tribe. The story of the Tuscaroras carrying 
the stone away is unwarranted, from the fact 
that they did not come into this region until 
half a century after the extirpation of the Stand- 
ing Stone people. The substance of these tradi- 
tions is, however, no doubt true ; and even the 
perversions rest upon a substratum of fact. No 
doubt the Juniata or Standing Stone people in 
their day, while roaming all over the whole 
Juniata Valley, had their council-fire at the stone 
pillar at Huntingdon ; that it was here that they 
were autochthons ; that here the Great Spirit 



made them spring from mother earth like the 
trees, and the ever memorable spot was marked by 
the monumental stone in commemoration of this 
important fact. It stood as a token of Divine 
favor, ever reminding them from whence they 
came. Signs and symbols were cut upon it ; 
superstitious reverence associated it with the 
perpetuity of the tribe, and it was guarded with 
a zealous care. Its origin and the signification 
of its hieroglyphics were explained to their 
dusky sons, that they might drink in deep les- 
sons of Indian patriotism and devotion. 

There can be no reixsonable doubt that Juni- 
ata is derived from the Onojutta of the Dutch 
map, and that Achsiniunk and Standing Stone 
are translations meaning the same thing. A 
few years ago the writer met an educated Wy- 
andot, one of the Huron stock, who speak a 
dialect of the Iroquois tongue. The name 
Onojutta- Hag a was written upon a piece of 
paper and handed to him, and he was asked its 
meaning. He at once commenced : " The peo- 
ple of the mountain-top — the people of the 
high, stony place — the people of the standing 
rock ;" then pausing, as if he wished to catch a 
better translation, we inquired how " Standing- 
Stone-people" would ans«er. "That's it — that 
is an excellent translation," said he. At first 
glance he had thought the first part was de- 
rived from ouon, a mountain, and he then 
wrote " Onuntatte-Haga, " for mountain-top 
people. This was a most striking confirmation 
of the meaning of the name found on the old 
maps, and the conclusion to which we had come 
after long and patient investigation. 

Heckewelder confessed his ignorance ; but 
since then several interpretations have been 
fruitlessly attempted. Some years ago a New 
England lady, Mrs. M. D. Sullivan, wrote a 
clever little poem about " Bright Alfarata" on 
the " Blue Juniata," which was once very popu- 
lar, and from it the impression has become 
almost universal that " Juuiata" means " Blue 
Water." This may indeed be very nice poetry, 
and answer well for an Indian love-song, but 
it contains no interpretatiou of the name. 

Several dateless French maps, running possi- 
bly along from 1700 to 1725, have the name of 
the river, as in other cases, on those maps, 

opposite the mouth of the stream, and they 
give it !is Chemeuidc and Chemegaidc ; but as 
there could be no "m" sound in it, that letter 
is probably a mistake for "nn" or "n." 

Conrad Weiser, a German, who had lived 
some years among the JMohawks, gives tiie word 
several times with the prefix " Sco ;" which is 
probably derived from "skat" or"skota," one, 
and that its use was to denote the stone standing 
alone, the pillar by itself. It is the same idea 
expressed iu the Delaware word, of a stone 
standing alone where no other is near. Histor- 
ically, it would be the river on which this one 
stone stood by itself. 

There was a Mingo chief called Half King, 
who flourished about the Ohio in 1754, whose 
name reminds us of Juniata. It is given as Ski- 
rooniatta and Scruneyattha. It probably em- 
bi'aces the Standing Stone idea, with a prefix 
peculiar to the Conestoga or Tuscarora dialect. 

It will be observed that the third syllable in 
0-ni-a, which was. always present in the old 
French and English forms for the name 0-ne-i 
da, has suffered an elision, and the vowel has 
become a diphthong with the one preceding it. 
The word Juniata retains the original sound 
much more correctly. The pronunciation, as 
determined by its origin, should be Ju-ni-a-ta, 
and not Ju-ni-at-a. The tendency to duplicate 
the " t " is owing to the accent. 

In addition to the spellings already given, 
the following have been observed, and we ap- 
pend the names of the writers, the dates and 
references : 

Soghneijadie. — N. Y. Comm's. of Ind. Aftrs., 1726, 
N. Y. Coi. His., V. 796. 

Cheniaty. — Isaac Taylor's raaji, 1728 ("?), Egle's " His. 
Dauphin Co., '" p. 18. 

Choniata. — Le Tort and Davenport, Oct. 29, 1731, 
Pa. Arch., i. 302, and Secretary, June 18, 1733, Col. 
Rec, iii. 502. 

Juniata. — Secretary, July 7, 1742, Col. Rec, iv. 570 
(first used). 

Chiniotta. — Thomas McKee, Jan. 24, 1743, Col. 
Rec, iv. 633, and Thomas Cookson, May 1, 1743, Col. 
Rec, iv. 657. 

Chiniotte. — Conrad Weiser, April 5, 1743, Col. Rec, 
iv. 640. 

Juniada. — Governor Thomas' Message, 1743, His. 
Reg., i. 159. 

Scokoo7iiadi/. — Conrad Weiser, April 9, 1743, Col. 
Rec, iv. 648. 



Chiniotto.—Thom&s, Cookson, April 22, 1744, Pa. 
Arch., i. 646. 

Juneauta.—Rey. D. Brainard, Sejjt. 20, 174.5, Wat- 
son's " Annals," ii. 191. 

Joniady. — Conrad Weiser, June 17, 1747, Col. Rec, 
V. 87. 

Scohonihady. — Conrad Weiser, June 1.3, 1748, Col. 
Eec, V. 285. 

Schohonyady. — Conrad Weiser, June 13, 1748, Col. 
Rec, y. 285. 

Junietto. — Col. James Burd, Sept. 22, 1755, Pa. 
Arch., N. S., ii. 690. 

Juniatia. — Secretary, May 19, 1757, Col. Rec, vii. 

Juniaita. — William Johnson, Sept. 22, 1757, N. Y. 
Doc, His., i. 415. 

Juniefa. — George Croghan, Sept. 10, 1757, N. Y. 
Doc. His., ii. 756. 

Junilia. — George Croghan, Sept. 10, 1757, N. Y. 
Doc. His., ii. 757. 

Jimeata. — Pouchet's Map, 1758, Pa. Arch., N. S., vi. 

Juniatto. — James Burd, Oct. 31, 1760, Pa. Arch., N. 
S. vii. 428. 

Jiineadey. — Rough Draught, 1762, Egle's " History 
Dauphin Co.," p. 438. 

Coiiiata. — Watson's "Annals," ii. 191, and Pa. Law 
Book, No. 6, 245, March 21, 1798. 

The phonetic unity of these forms will be 
readily seen by the following, bearing in mind 
what has been said about pronunciation : 

-no -jut -ta -Haga 

Che -ne -gai -de 

Sogh-ne -ija -die 

Che-ni - a -ty 

Cho -ni - a -ta 

Chi -ni - ot -ta 

Sco -koo -ni - a -dy 

Sco - ho -ni - ha -dy 

Scho - ho -ny - a -dy 

Juch -ni • a -da 

Ju -ni - a -dy 

Jo -ni - a -dy 

Ju -ni - at -ta 

Ju -ni -a -ta.] 

The Tuscarora Indians. — To the Tusca- 
rora tribe of Indians there is attached a .special 
interest, because they were once inhabitants of 
the Juniata region, and because they have left 
their melodious name upon one of its moun- 
tain ranges, one of its finest valleys and one of 
its large creeks. Hitherto no writer has ven- 
tured to state how the word " Tuscai'ora " came 
to be applied, geographically, in this locality. 

Historians do uot even tell us that the tribe of 
that name were ever residents of the valley. 
They have generally contented themselves with 
the statement that the Tuscaroras, after a war 
of three years with the white people, were 
driven out of North Carolina ; that they then 
came northward to New York and were adopted 
by the Five Nations, which thus formed the 
Six Nations. The date is variously given as 
about 1712, '13, '14 or '15, while one writer 
.says, " The date (1714) is well known." An- 
other declares that " it is impossible to fix the 
date of this exodus." This variation at once 
proves that their history has been very imper- 
fectly investigated. When and how the name 
came here, no writer has stopped to inquire. 
The question why this locality, situated midway 
from Carolina to New York, should have this 
name so freely and so early fastened upon it, 
has led the writer into an extensive examina- 
tion of their history and the documentary ar- 
chives relating to them; and the information thus 
gained, though upon the whole satisfactory, is 
much more meagre than would naturally be ex- 

David Cusick, a native chief of the Tusca- 
roras, has written their traditions, which, if 
properl}- interpreted, will doubtless throw some 
light on their prehistoric life. These legends 
trace a common descent from the same stock as 
the Hurons, Iroquois, Susquehan nocks and 
Eries, a conclusion now amjjly proven by the 
fact that they all sjjoke dialects of a com- 
mon language. These traditions claim that the 
" Real People " were created and resided in the 
northern regions. After many years they were 
encam2ied upon the St. Lawrence. Passing 
through many trials and conflicts with giants 
and monsters, they formed a confederacy with a 
council-fire on the St. Lawrence, and possessed 
the banks of the Great Lakes. The " Real 
People " were on the south side of the Great 
Lakes. The northern nations appointed a prince 
who visited the great emperor at the Golden 
City, which was the capital of a vast empire to 
the south. In the course of time this emperor 
built many forts in his dominions, and, by ex- 
tending his realms, penetrated northward al- 
most to I^ake Erie. The " Real People" began 



to fear the loss of their country soutli of the 
Lakes, and a war of perhaps a Imudred years 
ensued. The nortliern nations prevailed and 
totally destroyed the towns and forts. These 
people were doubtless what we now call Mound- 
Builders. In after-years the northern nations 
had war among themselves. At length there 
were several families of the " Real People " hid 
in a cave near Oswego, to whom the Great 
Spirit, called Tarenyawagon, the Holder of the 
Heavens, appeared. He took them towards 
sunrise, and then passed down the Hudson to 
the sea, where a portion of them were detached 
and went southward. The rest returned and 
were successively planted as separate nations by 
the Holder of the Heavens, and their language 
was changed so as to form dialectical variations, 
though in a measure they could still understand 
each other. Atler establishing the Five Na- 
tions, the rest came to Lake Erie, and then, 
going between mid-day and sun-setting, — that 
is, southwest, — they came to a great river (the 
Ohio, or the straits near Detroit), where some 
crossed by means of a grape-vine, which finally 
broke and left some permanently on each side. 
The Kautanoh, since Tuscarora, in their mi- 
grations, went to the south, and, crossing the 
Allegheny Mountains, came eastward to the 

At the time of the early settlements by the 
white men the Tuscaroras were found on the 
Xeuse, Tar and Pamlico Rivers and on the 
head-watei-s of the Roanoke, Cape Fear and 
James Rivers, where Captain John Smith calls 
them ]\Ionacans, and they may have extended 
as far north as the Potomac, thus forming a 
continuous belt of Huron-Iroquois-speaking 
tribes from Canada to Carolina. Bricknell, an 
early writer (17.'>7) on North Carolina, describes 
the Tuscaroras as " one of the civilized tribes 
amongst the English that lived near the Sea." 
The Chowan, the ^Meherrin and the Nottawav 
Rivers still retain the names derived from 
branche-s of this tribe, — flowing monuments 
of a people now long passed away. Ho^\• 
closely these various subdivisions were leagued 
together, or whether any real confederacy 
existed, it is impossible now to tell ; but, in the 
early days, it seems certain that the term Tus- 

carora bore the same relation to these southern 
tribes that the word Iroquois did to the Five 
Nations of New York. The origin of the name 
seems to be involved in some obscurity. Mor- 
gan, in his " League of the Iroquois," defines 
Dusge-oweli-ona as meaning the "shirt-wearing 
people." This is unsatisfactory, because it im- 
plies that Europeans ad(jpted a nick-name 
which other tribes had applied to them after 
they had been long enough in contact with the 
white man to adopt the shirt-wearing habit. 
The only interpretation that is natural and 
probable is that given to the writer by a 
Wyandot chief a few years ago. He says it is 
derived from " Tuskaho," and means those dis- 
posed to be among themselves, or those not 
wanting to live with others. The latter part of 
the name seems to be a corrupted form of 
" rouon," " ronu " or "ona,"the Huron name 
for people, tribe or nation. This, then, would ha 
the old name given them by all the Irot^uois- 
speaking tribes, because they were isolated and 
lived by themselves, and as such it M'ould be 
naturally acquired by the English at an early 

"When Raleigh's ships, in command of Gren- 
ville, in 1585, visited the Carolina coasts, there 
were among the colonists a philosojiher and 
historian, named Harlot, and a painter named 
White. " Harlot's Virginia," published by De 
Bry in 1590, gives us pictures of two Tuscarora 
towns. The apparel, fashion, manner of living 
and constructing villages had probably knowu 
little change tor long centuries prior to the 
innovations introduced by the white man. 
Hariot's account and the illustrations of White 
are the most precious pictures of unadulterated 
Indian life, in peace and war, and are more 
valuable than any made in subsequent years. 
One of them proves the great attention that was 
paid to agriculture. It is an Indian Eden. 
Unlike the hunting and fishing nomads farther 
north, they subsisted almost entirely on vegeta- 
bles, which they cultivated in great abundance, 
while labor among them was not considered de- 
grading or confined to the women. They 
cultivated corn, beans, melons, squashes, gourds, 
ground-nuts, potatoes and tobacco. The picture 
of " Secotan " shows that they were in this 



respect far in advance of any of our tribes of 
whom we have minute information. 

Our first definite information comes from 
Lawson, who lived in contact with them for 
years and knew them well. He said, '' They 
have many amiable cjualities. They are really 
better to us than we have ever been to them, as 
they always freely give us of their victuals at 
their quarters, while we let them walk by our 
doors hungry, and do not often relieve them. 
We look upon them with disdain and scorn, 
and think them little better than beasts in 
human form ; while, with all our religion and 
education, we possess more moral deformities 
and vices than these people do.' His " Hi.story 
of Carolina," written about 1710, published in 
London in 1718, says that the Tuscaroras had 
fifteen towns and twelve hundred warriors, 
making a population of about six thousand per- 
sons. This did not include the Virginia Notta- 
ways and other tribes allied linguistically. 
Lawson says that all the tribes were reduced to 
one-sixth of their original number since their 
intercourse with the white people, caused chiefly 
by rum, small-pox and deadly weapons. They 
were mild, kind, not warlike, but ingenions 
and industrious. We cannot avoid the con- 
clusion that, had they been properly treated, 
they could easily have been civilized and made 
a very useful part of our population. They 
were, however, brutalized by the white men, 
robbed of their lands, their youths kidnapped 
and sold into slavery, and their decimated 
remnant driven northward into an unknown 
interior. From the time of the first settlements 
there had been peace and harmony with the 
Tuscaroras for some sixty years. Unlike Penn 
and his predecessors, the Swedes and the Dutch 
on the Delaware, the white people of Carolina 
did not recognize in the Indian any right to the 
soil. They took possession of the lands as the^' 
wished, without purchase. These enci'oach- 
ments at length began naturally to create 
jealousy and distrust, and finally, with other 
grievances, ripened into hatred and resistance. 
The story of their wrongs cannot fail to awaken 
our .sympathy. 

In 1709 and 1710 there were six hundred 
and fifty German Palatines transported to North 

Carolina under the leadership of a Swiss named 
De Graffeuried. The proprietaries of the prov- 
ince assigned them large tracts of the Tuscarora 
domain. In September, 1711, De Graffenried 
and Lawson, surveyor-general, went up the 
Neuse River to locate these lands and see how 
far the stream was navigable. They were cap- 
tured by a band of sixty Indians, and hurried 
to a distant village of the Tuscaroras. Lawson 
was regarded by them with bitter hostility, as 
his duties led him to locate the grants of the 
proprietaries. They were incapable of compre- 
hending responsibility beyond the immediate 
agent in an act. They held him responsible for 
the loss of their lands. They therefore, after a 
discussion of two days, put him to death with 
cruel torments. De Graffenried was also con- 
demned, but he told them he was a chief from a 
different tribe from the English, and promised 
to take no more of their land. After being kept 
for about five weeks he was allowed to return. 
While the fate of these men was yet unknown 
a secret conspiracy was formed among the Tusca- 
roras, Corees, Pamticos, Cothechneys, Metamusk- 
eets and Mauchapuugos to cut off all the white 
people, each tribe operating in its own district. 
The Corees butchered over one hundred Pala- 
tines. Planters and Huguenot refugees were 
stricken down and hunted with pine-knot 
torches through the forests at night, and indis- 
ci'iminate slaughter was visited upon all white 
intruders. This massacre took j)lace September 
22, 1711, a day and year long remembered, 
especially by the Germans, who observed it as 
a day of fasting and prayer. The survivors 
fled to places of refuge, and appeals for aid were 
sent to South Carolina and Virginia. The 
former sent Colonel Barnwell, with six hundred 
militia and three hundred friendly Yamassee 
and other southern Indians, and some eighty 
thousand dollars were voted to carry on the 
war. Governor Spottswood, of Virginia, met 
the northern sub-tribes on the Nottaway, on the 
7th of November, and secured them in a treaty 
of peace to desert their allies in the hour of their 
extremity. The Tuscaroras were driven ta 
their temporary fortifications, about twenty 
miles above Newbern, defeated, and a hundred 
of their warriors slain and the others forced to 



terms of peace. The North Carolina goveru- 
luent (lid not have time to take much part in 
this war, as it was just then engaged in dissen- 
sions with the Presbyterians, Quakers and 
Lutherans, in an effort to establisli the Church 
of England (Episcopal) in that province. Pres- 
ident Pollock wrote to Lord Craven, in 1712, 
that the war was caused by " our divisions, 
chiefly occasioned by the Quakers and some 
other ill-disposed persons," during which feeling 
ran so high that the two counties were in arms 
against each other, and " the Indians were in- 
formed by some of the traders that the people 
who lived here were only a few vagabonds who 
had run away from other colonies and settled 
here of their own accord, so that if they were 
cut off there would be none to revenge them." 
In fact, the province at that period sported both 
a " President " and a " Governor," and it is 
more than intimated that one of them urged the 
Indians to slaughter the other party. On the 
way home, Barnwell and his troops, in violation 
of the treaty terms of capitulation, seized some 
of the young Indians for the purpose of selling 
them into slavery. This crime seems, for years 
prior to tliis, to have been one of the grievances 
under wliich the Tuscaroras were suffering; 
and in this instance, in face of the capitulation, 
was a most flagrant outrage. Historical writers, 
while crediting the Tuscaroras with everything 
done by their allied tribes, usually omit this 
provocation ; but, as might have been expected, 
it caused the war to break out again. South 
Carolina was again called upon, and James 
Moore, a former Governor and a needy adven- 
turer, was just the man to engage in such a bus- 
iness, for he had been for years attempting to fill 
his empty purse by kidnapping Indians and 
selling them into slavery. He came with a 
small militia force and over one thousand 
southern Indians. The Tuscaroras were driven 
into a fort on the Xeuse River, in Greene Coun- 
ty, called Naharuke, where, on ^larch 26, 1713, 
after a terrible battle, beside those killed, eight 
hundred were made prisoners, all of M'hom were 
sold as slaves, and were even shipped to the 
northern colonies for a market. There was an 
ad\'ertisement in the Boston Neies-Letter of 
that year wanting purchasers for these southern 

Indians. After a three months' campaign the 
remaining iiostilc Tuscaroras were driven from 
their ancient habitations, and forced to abandon 
the hunting-grounds, corn-fields and graves of 
their fathers, and seek a refuge on the Juniata, 
in a secluded interior, " near the Susquehanna," 
in Pennsylvania. Elias Johnson, a native Tus- 
carora historian, says this " bright, sunny June 
morning was one of the darkest days that the 
Tuscaroras ever witnessed." He says, " Me- 
thinks I can see them leaving their once cher- 
ished homes — the aged, the helpless, the women, 
the children, and the warriors are faint and few 
— the ashes are cold on their native hearth ; 
the smoke no more curls up from their lowly 
cabin; they move on with slow and steady 
steps ; they turn to take a last look upon their 
doomed village, and cast a last glance upon the 
long-cherished memories of their fathers' graves. 
They shed no tears, they utter no cries, thev 
heave no groans, they linger but a moment, 
they know and feel that there is for them still 
one more remove further, not distant or unseen." 
The story of the Tuscarora war, as here given, 
is gathered chiefly from the historians ; but it 
falls far short of the facts. The white people 
in Carolina made no pretense to buy the lands 
from the Indians. Step by step they took 
possession, and drove the natives back from 
their villages and cultivated fields. Yet all 
this was nothing compared with the persistent 
and continued practice of kidnapping the young 
boys and girls, and selling them into slavery in 
the West Indies and all along the coasts, 
wherever they could find purchasers. This re- 
mark is not intended to be limited to the cap- 
tives taken in time of war. Long before the 
war Tuscarora Indians were carried to and sold 
even in Pennsylvania. The enslavement of 
these Indians excited the greatest apprehensions 
on the part of the Delawares and other resident 
tribes. They justly feared it would soon come 
their turn ; and. at length, to allay the uneasi- 
ness, the Assembly of Pennsylvania passed an 
act, in 1705, that "whereas the importation of 
Indian slaves fi-oni Carolina, or other places, hath 
been observed to give the Indians of this Prov- 
ince some umbrage for suspicion and dissatisfac- 
tion," it was enacted that after March 2-5, 1 706, 



such importation be prohibited, except such slave 
Indians as had deserted from their masters, and 
such as had been slaves for a year in the impor- 
ter's family.' A man looks in vain for a parti- 
cle of evidence, even in the Pennsylvania As- 
sembly, that such enslavement was wrong. The 
quasi prohibition is based on expediency and 
mercenary motives, and because " the Indians 
to the southward " are in " a general commo- 
tion." An act of June 7, 1712, passed during 
the Tuscarora war, to promote a better corre- 
spondence with the Indians, forbade their impor- 
tation, but provided for their sale as slaves to 
the highest bidder, in case any should be im- 

On June 8, 1710, Colonel John French and 
Henry Worley, in behalf of the Council, met 
an embassy of three chiefs of the Tuscaroras 
at Conestoga in the presence of the chiefs of 
the resident tribes. They proceeded after the 
Indian custom to lay down belts of wampum, 
and deliver the words of which the belts were 
tokens. " The second belt was sent from their 
children l)orn and those yet in the womb, re- 
questing that room to sport and play, without 
danger of slavery, might be allowed them." 
The third belt came from the young men, who 
wanted the privilege of hunting food for their 
aged " without fear of slavery or death." The 
sixth belt came from kings and chiefs, who 
wished a peace that would secure them "against 
those fearful apprehensions that they have for 
these several years felt." The seventh belt en- 
treated " a cessation of murdering and captur- 
ing them." ^ The general purport of the mes- 
sage, when divested of Indian idioms, is unmis- 
takable. There had been so many of them, 
especially of their children, carried oiF into 
slavery, others of their people killed in the 
kidnapping forays, that they wanted to see if 
arrangements could not be made for a migra- 
tion to a more friendly province. It must be 
borne in mind that at this period there was no 
war, and that there must have been a systematic 
stealing of these people in order to sell them 

> Col. Rec. ii., 213 and 231 ; Dallas' Laws, i. 62. 
2 See this quaint and graphic picture of Indian diplomacy 
fully set forth in Col. Rec, vol. ii., 511. 

into slavery. Their apf)eals were piteous, and 
at this juncture they seem already to have been 
willing to forsake the land of their fathers for 
the sake of peace, and in order to avoid a con- 
flict of which they already had fearful appre- 
hensions. The truth of their story impressed 
the agents of this province, who say that " the 
sincerity of their intentions we cannot in any- 
wise doubt, since they are of the same race and 
language with our Seneques (Conestogas), who 
have always proved trusty, and ha\'e also for 
these many years been neighbors to a govern- 
ment jealous of Indians, and yet not displeased 
with them." They were told that, in order to 
seciu'e a favorable reception, they must briug a 
certificate of their good behavior from the 
government from which they came. A man 
comes to your door at midnight, saying he has 
been beaten and robbed. You tell him if he 
gets a certificate of his good behavior from the 
robber, you will take him in. 

On June 18, 1711, the Governor was at 
Conestoga and informed the head men of the 
Conestogas and Shawanese that Governor Penn 
was " about to settle some people upon branches 
of Potowmack." To this they replied that, ''as 
they are at present in a war with the Tos- 
cororoes and other Indians, they think that 
place not safe for any Christians," as it is " be- 
twixt them and those at war with them." As 
all the tribes on the Susquehanna were subject 
to the Five Nations, it is hard to see how they 
could be at war with the Tuscaroras. It is 
true that the report of Lawrence Clawson, 
May 6, 1712, sets forth that the Five Nations 
agreed to aid Virginia in the reduction of the 
Tuscarora " murderers ;" but if they did so 
promise under some* pressure brought to bear 
upon them, it is certain they never did anything 
to carry it out. The fact is, they were charged 
with overt acts in aid of their brethren during 
the war. Williamson, in his " History of 
North Carolina," p. 197, quotes a contemporan- 
eous writer, who says : " The Tuskarora In- 
dians, numerous and well provided with arms 
and ammunition, expect assistance from the 
Five Nations, or Senecas ; hence they are con- 
fident of success." 

As already stated, however, the pressure was 



too great. Their friends could not sufficiently 
aid them, and they were crushed, their lands 
forcibly taken and the pride of their nation 
sold into slavery. Most of the remnant fled 
to the north. It is remarkable that our co- 
lonial records contain nothing about their ad- 
vent at the time it occurred. This is the more 
surprising when we observe how very jealous 
they were of " strange Indians." On July 1, 
1 707, when " several strange Indians from 
Carolina " came to the Shawanese town on the 
Susquehanna, a strong effort was made to get 
their principal men to Philadelphia, to give an 
account of " their reasons for leaving their 
native country and transporting themselves 
hither." September 14, 1715, those on the 
Susquehanna were urged " to inform us of any 
strangers coming amongst them." Why no 
notice was taken of the influx of the Tusca- 
roras can only be accounted for on the idea that 
they settled so far inland and so distant from 
any of the white people that it \vas at that 
period not deemed a matter of public im- 
portance. But this need not be wondered at 
when we observe no minutes from October 15, 
1713, to July 16, 171-t, and this record, July 
30, 1716: "The clerk having neglected to 
enter the minutes of what passed (on that day 
with the Indians), as he did all others relating 
to these people, which J. Logan himself took 
not with his own hand, are, with others, irre- 
coverably lost." The migration, however, ex- 
cited positive expressions of fear in New York. 
June 13, 1712, Governor Robert Hunter, of 
New York, wrote to the Board of Trade : 
" The war betwixt the people of North Caro- 
lina and the Tuscarora Indians is like to em- 
broil us all. The Five Nations, by instigation 
of the French, threaten to join them." Again, 
September 10, 1713, the same Governor wrote 
William Popple : " The Five Nations are 
hardly to be persuaded from sheltering the 
Tuscarora Indians, which would embroil us 
all." Here is a fear that the Five Nations 
would make common cause with the Tuscaroras 
against all the English colonies. The shelter- 
ing evidently refers to allowing them to live 
somewhere on their undisputed territories. Such 
sheltering on the Juniata would, at that period, 

be as effectual as in New York, and in many 
respects preferable. How such sheltering would 
"embroil us all" will be seen in the savage 
letter of the Governor of Virginia to the Gov- 
ernor of New York some seven years later. 

At a conference held with the Five Nations, 
September 20, 1713, as set forth in the journey 
of Hansen and others to Onondaga, one of the 
Iroquois orators said : " The Tuscarorase went 
out heretofore from Us and have .settled them- 
selves there (in Carolina) ; now they have got 
in a war and are dispersed and have abandoned 
their castles. But have compassion on them. 
The EnglLsh have got the upper hand of them ; 
they have abandoned their castles and are scat- 
tered hither and thither. Let that suffice. 
(Here follows a request that "Corlear," Gov- 
ernor of New York, will act as mediator, as- 
suring him that they will do no more harm.) 
For they are no longer a nation with a name, 
being once dispersed." A year after this, Sep- 
tember 20, 1714, at a conference with Governor 
Hunter, the Five Nations orator said : " We 
acquaint you that the Tuscarora Indians are 
come to shelter themselves among the Five 
Nations. They were of us, and went from us 
long ago, and are now returned and promise to 
live peaceably among us." This, for the first 
time, sounds as if some of the Tuscaroras were 
actually living among the Iroquois ; though 
being on the Juniata and along the middle 
Susquehanna may, in the language of that 
day, under the wide sway of Iroquois rule, 
have been regarded as sheltering among the 
Five Nations. If some of them were at this 
date already in New York, this passage stands 
alone in support of the fact ; and it is very in- 
definite, and at most could only refer to a 
small fragment of the tribe. It is utterly im- 
possible to follow all the detached fragments of 
the broken-up Tuscarora confederacy ; but there 
is no evidence that the mass of them had pro- 
ceeded any farther north at this time than the 
Juniata region. 

After the Five Nations had overcome the tribes 
on the upper Susquehanna and the Juniata, 
they finally conquered the Susquehannooks, 
or Conestogas, in 1676. This opened up the 
wa\' for predatory raids southward, and brought 



them iuto collision with the governments of 
Maryland and Virginia. In 1682 they were 
forced to indemnify these provinces for their 
depredations. Treaties were made and broken, 
and the fault was laid at the door of the in- 
discreet young men, who could not be restrained. 
Albany was the place where the chain of friend- 
ship was brightened from time to time, by giv- 
ing large presents to these Indians. These goods 
were purcliased at Albany, and became a regu- 
lar source of income, and were looked forward 
to like a modern government pay-day. In 
December, 1719, the president of the Council of 
New York wi"ote a circular letter to the Gov- 
ernors of Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia 
and Carolina on Indian affairs. He observed 
that the Five Nations living in that province 
" think themselves slighted by the governments 
to the southward," and he intimated that it was 
time to come to Albany and hold a treaty with 
them. This enraged Governor Spottswood, of 
Virginia, who was opposed to " all the King's 
Governors dancing many hundred miles to Al- 
bany to treat upon every whim and caprice" of 
"your savages," as he writes to the Governor 
of New York. His sarcastic letter is dated 
January 25, 1720. To this letter we are in- 
debted for several items of interest in the early 
alliance of the Tuscaroras with the Five Nations, 
and what is of especial value is a statement 
that will, we believe, solve the question as to 
how the name "Tuscarora" came to be geo- 
graphically fastened in Juniata County. The 
only natural solution is that the tribe once re- 
sided there, yet we have sought in vain for any 
respectable histoiian who has ventured the 
statement that they ever did live here. The 
early traders to the Ohio, in following the 
dividing water-shed between the Potomac and 
Juniata, came to the ' Tuscarora Path," the 
well-defined route used Ijy that tribe in tiieir 
migration northward, and which led to their 
settlement in the valley beyond. The first is 
known as Path Valley to this day, and the 
region where they had their headquarters is still 
Tuscarofa A-^allcy, thus illustrating how lan- 
guage adheres to the soil when the lips that 
spoke it are resolved into dust. The language 
of Gov. Spottswood, referred to, is as follows : 

" In the years 1712 and 1713 they (the Five Na- 
tions) were actually in these parts assisting the Tus- 
carouroes, who had massacred in cold blood some 
hundreds of the English and were then warring 
against us ; and they have at this very day the chief 
murderers, with the greatest part of that nation, 
seated under their protection near Susquehannah 
river, whither they removed them when they found 
they could no longer support them against the force 
which the English brought upon them in these parts. 
During the Tuscouroro war about two hundred of 
your Indians set upon our Virginia ti'aders as they 
were going to the southern Indians with a caravan of 
at least eighty horses loaded, and after killing one of 
our people and shooting most of the horses, they 
made booty of all the goods, declaring their reason 
for so doing was because they did not carry their am- 
munition to the Tuscouroroes. Is their close confed- 
eracy with the Tuscouroroes any ways agreeable to 
the Five Nations' answer which Lawrence Clauson 
reports to your Commissioners on the 6th of May, 
1712, and to be taken for the assistants promised to 
reduce these murderers ? " 

The above extract proves that, although the 
great body of the Tuscaroras had left Carolina 
in 1713, yet seven years afterwards, instead of 
"being with the Five Nations in New York, 
they were seated under their protection, near 
the Susquehanna River, having been removed 
there by tliem. The Five Nations had a close 
coufederacy with the Tuscaroras, but they had 
n(3t adopted them, nor had they taken them to 
New York, but left them living near the Sus- 
quehanna. In spite of the pressure brought to 
bear upon them, the Five Nations had aided 
their kindred, and in their extemity, had 
allowed them to occupy a quiet interior region, 
which they, in former years, had depopulated in 
their exterminating wars to the southward. 
Here, hemmed in by mountains, they were 
beyond the reach of their enemies. 

Tills position, that the Tuscaroras lived at 
some distance from the Five Nations, is 
strengthened by the assertion made by the 
Board of Trade, July 7, 1720, that the rob- 
beries and mischiefs complained of by Vir- 
ginia had been committed by " some loose 
straggling Indians of the Five Nations, who 
had joined the Tuscaroras." This language 
shows that the loose fellows straggled from 
New York southward, and, living among the 
Tuscaroras, were molesting the Virginia set- 



tiers. This would have been no excuse in 
Ijehalf of the Five Nations, if tlie Tu.scaroras 
were then living among tliem, and if they then 
constituted a part of their confederacy. 

The Tuscai'oras did not all come north at tlie 
same time. They came in detached fragments 
for at least fifty-five years. The Nottaways 
remained until they entirely melted away. On 
the breaking up of the hostile forces, in 1713, 
tiie fragments of the several tribes scattered 
in ditferent directions, seeking safety from 
the vengeance of their overpowering foes. 
This made them a roving, uneasy set of 
fellows, who were constantly seeking to 
better their condition by a change of resi- 
dence. These fragments cannot be followed, 
as they soon lose their identity in the com- 
pany of remnants of other tribes similarly 
situated. Yet we have the testimony of Gov- 
ernor Spottswood that in 1720 "the greatest 
part of that nation," including their chief 
warriors, were seated near the Susquehanna, in 
a region of which the white people knew little 
or nothing. It is possible that all who came 
north did not live in the Tuscarora Valley. 
They had a wide scope of country over which 
to roam, as it was then an empty interior. It 
is possible that some of them may have gone 
already as far as New York, but the bulk of 
them must have been in Tuscarora Valley. 
Their council-house, no doubt, was in the " old 
fort field," near Milligan's, above Academia, 
where their remains exactly corresj)ond with 
what we know of these people. Their fort site 
and mound will be found described under the 
iiead of Beale township. There were at this 
period no other tribes in this region. The 
Delawares were then only beginning to leave 
their native river, but had not crossed the 
Susquelianna. The Shawanees, who hatl come 
up from tiie south, the Conoys and Nanticokes 
from Maryland, and the little squad of Cones- 
togas, all lived east of the Kittatinuy Moun- 

Frederick Kidder says : " It is certain that 
the main part of the tribe had joined the 
Iroquois in 1717." For this assertion there 
is not a particle of evidence. Morgan, in his 
" League of the Iroquois," says : " The Tusca- 

roras were regarded as a constituent member of 
the confederacy, although they were not ad- 
mitted to full equality, as the Five Nations 
•■vere oppo.sed to changing the number and 
apportionment of tiie sachemships adopted at 
the first organization of the league. Otherwise 
they were equal." Samuel G. Drake, an In- 
dian antiquarian, who has made extensive 
researches into the history of North American 
Indians, says : " The Tuscaroras from Cai'olina 
joined them (the Five Nations) about 1712, 
but were not formally admitted into the con- 
federacy until about ten years after that — this 
gained them the name of the Six Nations." 
A strong confirmatory proof is found in the 
fact that during this period they are never 
mentioned at any of their conferences or treaties. 
Conferences were held at Albany, September 
20, 1714, August 27, 1715, June 13, 1717, 
September 7, 1721, and August 27, 1722, 
besides many other meetings with the Five 
Nations, so called, but at which there is no 
mention of the Tuscaroras. How could this 
be if they were received and adopted, as 
declared by our historians, immediately after 
they came from Carolina ? The inference is 
clear. During these ten years most of them 
were on the Juniata, and after this probation 
they were formally assigned a portion of the 
Oneida territory, where they had their council- 
house east of Syracuse. 

On September 1, 1722, Governor Burnet 
held a conference with the Five Nations, at 
Albany, at which the Iroquois speaker said : 
" We inform you also that three companies of 
our people are gone out to fight against the 
Flatheads (Catawbas), who have been our ene- 
mies for a long time. There are also two 
French Indians that live at Cadarachqni, that 
went out a fighting two years ago towards Vir- 
ginia by way of Cayouga and have their abode 
among the Tuskarores that live near Virginia 
and go backwards and forwards." Beyond all 
doubt tlie Tuscaroras, among whom these two 
French Indians had their headquarters, were 
those in Tusearoi-a Valley. At this treaty Gov- 
ernor Spottswood got the Five Nations to agree 
to a division line along the Potomac and the 
high ridge of the Allegiieny Mountains, to 



prevent incursions between the northern and 
soutiiern Indians. There are ten tribes enu- 
merated on each side of that line. The Five 
Nations are named in their order from east to 
west, but the Tuscaroras are classified separately 
with the tribes resident in Pennsylvania and 
subject to the Five Nations. The Iroquois 
orator said : " As you engaged for ten nations, 
so do we, viz. : for the Five Nations and for 
the Tuscarores, Conestogoes, Chuanoes, Och- 
tachquauawicroones and Ostanghaes, which 
live upon Susquehanna River." This would 
seem to imply that these five tribes lived upon 
the Susquehanna, but upon the 6th of Sep- 
tember it is noted that the agreement made 
with the Governor of Virginia was by the 
whole Five Nations, including the Tuscaroras. 
Evidently they were only then beginning to 
reckon the Tuscaroras as a factor in connection 
with the negotiations with the Five Nations. 
On the same day it is recorded that the Indians 
" gave six shouts — five for the Five Nations 
and one for the castle of the Tuscarores, lately 
seated between the Oneidas and Onondagas." 
The word " lately" cannot possibly be acci- 
dental. It is positive proof of their recent 
settlement. At the conclusion of this treaty, 
in the presence of the New York Commis- 
sioners of Indian Affairs, the Five Nations, 
calling themselves by that name, requested a 
special interview with the Governor of Penn- 
sylvania, and this is the way in which the 
record introduces the Tuscaroras : " The next 
day, the 14th da}' of September, the Governor 
received, at his chambers, the ten chiefs of the 
Five Nations, being two from each, together 
with two others, said to be of tiie Tuscoroi'oes." 
This is the first mention of tlie Tuscaroras in 
the management of the affairs of the Five Na- 
tions, and the expression denotes that their ap- 
pearance in this capacity was something new. 
On December 4, 1726, Governor Burnet, of 
New York in speaking of the Iroquois, says : 
" Who were but Five formerly, but now, by 
sending for the Tuscaroras from South Caro- 
lina, are become Six." Even as late as April 
18, 1732, the Governor of Pennsylvania said : 
" Those Indians by us generally called the Five 
Nations, but of late the Six Nations, alias the 

Minquays and Iroquois." Here we find the name 
Six Nations only lately substituted for Five 
Nations; the French term, Iroquois, and the 
Dutch, Minequas, in the process of transforma- 
tion into Mingos, strangely transferred from 
the Conestogas, whom they conquered, to their 
conquerors in New York, and finally especially 
applied to a mixture of Conestogas and New 
York Indians settled in Ohio. 

It may seem strange that, from the time the 
Tuscaroras left Carolina until they were adopted, 
and became one of the Six Nations, that so little 
is said of them, and that we have trouble to find 
evidence of their location. This is explained by 
their fragmentary condition, being too dispersed 
to be regarded as a nation ; and partly by the fact 
that the body of them were then living beyond 
the range of white habitations, among the 
mountains, perhaps not yet peneti'ated by the 
ubiquitous trader ; and, again, partly because 
further trouble with the white people was so 
dreaded that for a season they were retired and 
circumspect. Their town in Tuscarora Valley 
was, however, not abandoned altogether when 
they were adopted by the Five Nations, as is here 
demonstrated by the following quotation. An 
Indian boy (of what tribe is not stated, but 
most likely a Tuscarora), held as a slave by 
Nathaniel Ford, an Englishman on the Pedee 
Eiver, called Constichrohare by the Indians (now 
the site of Cheraw, Chesterfield County, S. C), 
was carried away. Complaint was made, and 
Governor Burnet and the Commissioners of In- 
dian Affairs of New York, on September 13, 
1726, made inquiry of the Iroquois concerning 
this boy. In reply they used tliese words : " You 
have made inquiry concerning a slave, whom 
you say was taken by our people. We acknoM'l- 
edge to have been of the company that took him. 
He is given to Indians who live on a branch of the 
Susquehannaii Kiver, which is called Soghneija- 
die. Therefore we desire you to make a farther 
inquiry, for thai place is nearer to you than to 
us."' Beyond all doubt the branch of the Sus- 
quehanna here named is the -Tuniata, and this 
reference to it is especially interesting, as the 
oldest mention of the name of this river, outside 

' See N. Y. Col. Hist., vol. v. 796. 



of ancieut maps, that we have been able to find. 
No doubt the Indians who had this slave in 
possession on the Sogh-ne-ija-die were Tusca- 
roras, who still had a town in Juniata County. 
The Dutch used " ij " as we use the letter " y ". 
We read occasionally of some of the tribe being 
in this part of the State in later years. Sep- 
tember 5, 1730, we read that " three Tuskarorows 
were missing at Pechston " (Harrisburg). 

While we claim to have established for the 
Tuscaroras a residence in the Juniata region 
with a central council-fire and fort in Tuscarora 
Valley, between their exodus from Carolina 
aud their admission into the Iroquois confed- 
eracy, we claim, also, that there were some 
Tuscaroras still living at this outpost until after 
the Juniata region was sold to Penn. John 
O'Neal wrote a letter to the Governor from Car- 
lisle, May 27, 1753, in which he remarks, — 
" A large number of Delawares, Shawanese and 
Tuscaroras continue in this vicinity — the greater 
number having gone to the west." In an old 
bill of sale for lands at Academia, in Tuscarora 
Valley, written June 1, 1754, mention is made 
of Indians then " settled on ye bottom, sur- 
rounded by ye creek," which was a large loop, 
known as the Half-Moon. John Armstrong 
took up three hundretl anil fifty-six acres of 
this land February 3, 1755, and in his appli- 
cation says it is " whei-e some Indians, called 
by the name of Lakens, live, some six miles 
from the mouth of the Tuscarora," and George 
Armstrong on the same day got a warrant for 
land " on the south side of Tuscarora, opposite 
to the settlement of the Indians called Lack- 

The year 1756, following Braddock's defeat, 
will be remembered as a time of border devas- 
tations by the Indians, headed by French. 
Among a series of letters and reports, written 
at Fort Duquesne (Pittsburgh), we find the fol- 
lowing, dated September 15th : 

"Two hundred Indians and French left Fort Du- 
quesne to set fire to four hundred bouses in a part of 
Pennsylvania. That Province has suffered but little 
in consequence of the intrigues of the Five Nations 
with Tnskarosins, a tribe on the lands of that Prov- 
ince, and in alliance with the Five Nations. But 
now they have declared that they will assist their 
brethren, the Delawares and Chouanons (Shawanese), 

and consequently several have sided with them, so that 
the above Province will be laid waste the same as 
Virginia and Carolina.'' 

It would seem, from this extract, that these 
Tuscaroras, who lived in this province, were 
friendly to the whites, and for a time served as 
a partial protection to them in Pennsylvania. 
We have met no such evidence elsewhere. At 
this date the eastern jjart of the Juniata region 
had been already devastated ; but the intima- 
tion is that had it not been for a desire to win 
over these Tuscaroras, the borders would have 
suffered still more. We have no means for 
ascertaining the number of Tuscaroras then 
located here ; but it was probably not large. 
^^'e cannot well doubt the statement here given, 
as the French were well posted on Indian af- 
fairs, and, at that tiiue, had parties out scouting 
under their direction to murder and burn in a 
style that is shocking to relate. 

In a journal kept by Colonel James Burd, 
while building Fort Augusta, at Shamokin, 
June 4, 1757, we find these words : " This day 
the Tuscarora tribe informed me they intended 
setting off up the river ; I gave them provis- 
ions enough, and five gallons of rum ; they set 
off accordingly." From the abrupt manner in 
which they are here spoken of, we infer that 
this branch of the Tuscaroras had been living 
near Shamokin, and probably stretching along 
the Tuscarora Path southward to the Potomac, 
or scattered over the Juniata Valley. There 
seems to be evidence, also, that at still later 
dates there were members of that tribe in Tus- 
carora Valley. On August 11, 1762, the Gov- 
ernor received a letter "taken from the mouth 
of Angus, Tuscarora chief, by Eli Forbes, 
missionary at Onohoquage." It is dated at 
"Lower Tuscarora Onohoquage, July 8, 1762." 
The chief Angus, or Akis, carried this letter in 
person. The place is said to be " on the upper 
waters of the Susquehanna." It contains this 
sentence : " We should be glad to be informed 
of the state and behavior of our brethren in 
Tuscarora Valley, and to have some directions 
about the way, as we propose to make them a 
visit, and also should be glad of a pass or 
recommendation in writing, that we may be 
friendlv received on our wav to aud at the val- 



ley." It may be argued that there is a Tus- 
carora Valley in the southeast corner of Brad- 
ford County, and that that may be the region 
referred to in this and in the French extract 
above given ; but this does not seem possible 
for the following reasons : (1) The Tuscaroras 
did not settle at the mission point in Bradford 
County until ten years later (1766) ; (2) in 
that locality they would have been no barrier 
to any of the white settlements against Indians 
operating against them from the Pittsburgh re- 
gion ; and (.3) the chief Augus would not have 
come from his town (A^'indsor, Broome County, 
N. Y.), a little beyond that place, to Lancaster, 
to inquire from the Governor the way to Tus- 
carora Valley in Bradford County; and, finally 
(4), his letter asks for a pass that would secure 
him a friendly reception among the white peo- 
ple, not only on his way, but also " at the val- 
ley." There were white inhabitants at this time 
in Juniata County, but none in Bradford County. 
The conclusion is, therefore, that this chief desired 
to visit his kindred in the Juniata Tuscarora 
Valley. The fact is the more interesting as we 
find, by the first assessment, taken the next year, 
that there were over fifty settlers already living 
in the valley. They must have settled among 
these red men — a condition of affairs which we 
have l)een slow to believe. When the last of 
them took their departure we have found no 
means to determine. 

On December 16, 1766, one hundred and 
sixty Tuscaroras from Carolina arrived at Sir 
William Johnson's, in New York, Avho, while 
on their way, at Paxtang, in Pennsylvania, were 
robbed of their liorses and other goods to the 
value of fifty-five pounds. In a diaiy kept at the 
Moravian mission at Friedenshutten (Wyalus- 
ing), during the year 1767, we find these entries: 
"January 25th — two feetof snow fell last night. 
The Tuscaroras were so alarmed, not being accus- 
tomed to snow, that they all left their huts 
down by the river and came up to us." In 
February mention is made of several Tuscaroras 
coming to the mission to stay there, who had 
planted, the summer previous, at the mouth of 
Tuscarora Creek, in AVyoming County. " In 
May seventy-five Tuscaroras came from Caro- 
lina." " They are lazy and refuse to hear i"e- 

ligion." Corn had to be sent to them down 
the river. They are described as half-starved, 
miserable objects. In November, 1770, Sir 
William Johnson says : "The Tuscaroras, since 
the last of them came from the southward to join 
the rest, may now number about two hundred 
and fifty." 

In the Revolutionary War the Tuscaroras 
and Oneidas remained true to the interests of 
the colonists, and their settlements were not de- 
vastated by General Sullivan when he so severely 
punished the other tribes for their apostasy. 
Some time after the war the Tuscaroras migrated 
to a reservation near Niagara Falls, at Lewis- 
town, N. Y., where they still reside. Some of 
them, however, have gone over to Canada and 
a few to the West. Samuel Smith was the last 
chief of those that remained in Carolina, and 
died in 1802. Sacarissa and Solomon Long- 
board, both chiefs of the northern Tuscaroras, 
then brought up from North Carolina the last 
remnant of their people, thus making the total 
duration of their migration northward to cover 
a period of eighty-nine years. They now 
number about three hundred, and still retain 
the peculiarities of their Carolina ancestors. 
The men cultivate the soil with great success, 
and the women are thrifty housewives. Those 
southern tribes which aided the white people in 
driving their ancestors out of Carolina, a couple 
of years later, went to war with the white 
people, because they refused to fulfill their en- 
gagements when they employed them to fight 
the Tuscaroras ; and in turn they were devas- 
tated, and to-day are only known in history. 
The Tuscaroras are the only living representa- 
tives of all the Carolina tribes. In these de- 
scendants there is still the blood of those who 
first met Grenville, Lane, Hariot and White 
in 158o. 

Although the name Tuscarora is one of the 
plainest of our Indian names, yet, in the prep- 
ai-ation of this article, the writer has found at 
least fifty-four variations in the spelling of the 
word. These arise from ignorance in the 
writers, dialectical variations in pronunciation 
and many other causes. The inability of the 
Delawares to pronounce the letter " r " has led 
to curious variations. A town in Ohio, where 



a number of this tribe had settled, was called 
by the Delawares Tuskalawa, as given in Rev. 
Charles Beatty's journal. By a compromise, 
one of the displaced letters was restored, and 
the valley is now known as the Tuscarawas. 

Like other Indians, the Tuscaroras were 
subdivided into families, named after animals. 
They were bear, wolf, turtle, beaver, deer, eel and 
snipe. Marriage within the clan was forbidden, 
and all relationship reckoned in the female 
line, in which alone the civil and military 
chieftainships were hereditary. 

The Eka of thk Traders. — At what dale 
and by whom the Juniata and West Branch 
Valleys were first traversed, aud the Alleghen- 
ies first crossed by Europeans in a journey to 
the Ohio, is unrecorded, and must forever re- 
main unknown. The first men who ventured 
into the unexplored forests among these mount- 
ains were not given to keeping journals of their 
travels for future historians. No one seems to 
have thought of immortalizing himself by be- 
queathing to us a good description, giving 
minute details of tiie country and its tribes. At 
first the natives brought their peltry hundreds 
of miles to the Delaware River; but, in course 
of time, these skins and furs became so valuable 
in Europe that the worst class of men were 
stimulated to penetrate the depths of the forest 
in order to hasten and monopolize the trade. 
In this way the whole Juniata and West 
Branch regions were traversed long years be- 
fore their settlement ; but the few literary 
renuiants of those days scarcely furnish us a 
local iiabitation and a name. From the days 
of William Penn's advent up to 1722 the 
Indian expenses were inconsiderable, being 
limited by law to fifty pounds per annum. In 
that year the Assembly paid Governor Keith's 
expenses to Albany. In 1727 they refused to 
pay more than half tlie amount of an account of 
Conrad Weiser. In 1728, under an alarm, 
they agreed to pay without limitation the ex- 
penses of an Indian conference. After this 
they sometimes paid half, and sometimes all. 
The appetite for presents which the Indians ac- 
quired was not easily satiated. Constant dis- 
turbances, frequently caused by rum, called for 
expensive treaties, and the donations allm-ed 

the Indians and made them more insolent and 
exacting. The expenses soon rose to over eight 
thousand pounds, and the question whether 
these treaties were more for the benefit of the 
^proprietaries in buying lands than for the 
safety of the peojsle gave rise to heated contro- 
versy. The result was that Indian affairs 
began to take a wider and more public range, 
and the records of those days begin to throw 
more light upon the uninhabited interior of the 

As early as 1722 we read that "William 
Wilkins was 150 miles up Sasquehannah (above 
Conestoga), trading for his master," John Cart- 
lidge, a trader. Several Frenchmen engaged in 
the trade lived among the Indians east of the 
mountains, extending their travels up the Sus- 
quehauna and its branches ; but, in what is said 
of them and other traders, there is not a hint 
that any one penetrated or crossed the Juniata 
region prior to 1727 — and then it is only an 
inference in the accounts of traders passing to 
the Ohio. 

On July u, 1727, at a council held in Phila- 
delphia with the chiefs of the Five Nations, but 
mostly Cayugas, also Conestogas and Ganawese, 
Madam Montour, interpreter, we have the first 
clear reference to the Juniata region. The rec- 
ord makes them address the Governor as 
follows : 

" They desire that there may be no settlements 
made up Sasquehannah higher than Pextan (Harris- 
burg), and that none of the settlers there abouts be 
suft'ered to sell or keep any rum there, for that being 
the road by which their people go out to war, they 
are apprehensive of mischief if thej' meet with liquor 
in these parts. They desire also, for the same reasons, 
that none of the traders be allowed to cany any rum 
to the remoter parts where James Le Tort trades, — 
that is, Allegan}' on the branch of Ohio. And this 
they desire may be taken notice of, as the mind of 
the chiefs of all the Five Nations, for it is all those 
nations that now speak by them to all our people." 

To this the Governor replied, the next day, 
as follows : 

" We have not hitherto allowed any settlement to be 
made above Pextan, but, as the yo»ng people grow- 
up, they will spread of course, yet it will not be very 
speedily. The Governor, however, will give orders 
to them all to be civil to those of the Five Nations 
as they pass that way, though it would be better if 



they would pass Sasquehannah above the mountains. 
And the sale of rum shall be prohibited both there 
and at Alegany ; but the woods are so thick and dark 
we can not see what is done in them. The Indians 
may stave any rum they find in the Woods, but, as 
has been said, they must not drink or carry any 

Two interesting facts may be fairly inferred 
from the above complaints. First, at this date 
Le Tort, who had settled at Carlisle, it is said, 
as early as 1720, was a well-known trader al- 
ready at Allegheny, passing over the mountain 
either at the Juniata and Kittanning path, or by 
Shamokin and the West Branch. This is the 
more interesting, as it was in this year that the 
Shawanese began to pass over the mountains, 
followed by some of the Delawares and the 
restless young Iroquois, especially those of Con- 
estoga descent, and began to settle on the Oliio, 
then an uninhabited hunting-ground. The 
second inference is that at the date of the above 
conference there were white people already 
squatted on the Susquehanna or Juniata, west 
of Paxtang, or there were already such decided 
symptoms of danger in this direction that the 
Iroquois deputies considered it necessary to for- 
bid that any one should presume to settle be- 
yond the Kittatiuny Mountains. A violation 
of this precautionary restriction led to a series 
of complaints about intruders into the Juniata 
region for the next twenty-seven years. 

The reader will bear in mind that the Dela- 
wares originally lived on the river Delaware ; 
that, being encroached upon by the settlers, 
they began gradually to remove to the Susque- 
hanna, especially at Paxtang, Shamokin and 
Wyoming, soon after the year 1700; that the 
Shawanese first came up from the south in 
1699 and settled on the lower Susquehanna, 
the Conestogas going security for their good be- 
havior ; that, about twenty-five years later, both 
these tribes began to work their way westward, 
along the Juniata and West Branch, and finally 
passed over the mountains to the Ohio. Some 
other remnants of southern tribes, such as the 
Ganawese, or Conoys, the Nanticokes and the 
Tuteloes, gradually .worked their way up the 
main stream to the Six Nations, to whom they 
and all these tribes were tributary, and into 
which they were finally merged. It was 

claimed by Pennsylvania, at the treaty in Al- 
bany in 1754, and admitted by the Six Na- 
tions, " that the road to Ohio is no new road ; it 
is an old, frequented road ; the Shawanese and 
Delawares removed thither about thirty years 
ago from Pennsylvania, ever since which that 
road has been traveled by our traders at their 
invitation, and always with safety until within 
tliese few years." Though the Delawares were 
leaving their ancient river and settling on the 
Susquehanna and its branches, and some of 
their hunters were following the restless Shaw- 
anese to Ohio, still the Governor observed, in 
1728, that " all our Indians in these parts have 
an entire dependence on the Five Nations." The 
truth is, it was about this time, as demonstrated 
by these movements, that the Shawanese especi- 
ally began to manifest impatience under the 
Iro([uois rule, and the Delawares dissatisfaction 
at being displaced, feelings which eventually 
culminated in openly aiding the French. 

During the next twenty years the history of 
Indian aifairs on Susquehanna, West Branch 
and Juniata are often connected with an Iro- 
quois agency on the northern border of the 
district. More than a passing notice should be 
taken of its principal managers. Allummapees, 
alian Sassoonan, was a Delaware king, a chief at 
Paxtang as early as 1709, and king from 1718 to 
1747. He was a good-hearted Indian, true to 
the English and an advocate of peace, and sup- 
posed to be one hundred years old when he died. 
Perhaps one of the finest and most prudent, 
as well as able and sensible, characters that the 
Indian business of those days brought to promi- 
nence was Shickcalamy, Shikelimus or Shikel- 
limo. As early as September 1, 1728, we find 
Governor Gordon sending a message to Shamokin 
by the hands of Henry Smith and John Petty, 
Indian traders. From this we learn that 
Shickcalamy was already at that post as the 
deputy of the Six Nations and superintendent 
of their subjects, especially the Shawanese. He 
lived for ten years a mile below Milton, on the 
Union County side of the river, a spot long known 
as " Shickcalamy's old town." He then moved 
to Shamokin, (now Sunbury), as a more conve- 
nient place for the transaction of his public 
business. He lived there until his death, in 



1749. His name is, moreover, memorable as 
thu father of " Logan, the Mingo chief," whose 
name, from Logan's Spring, in MifHin County, 
has geographical application all over the country. 
At the date above given we find him thus spoken 
of: " Shikellima, of the Five Nations, appointed 
to reside among the Shawanese, whose services 
have been and may yet further be of great ad- 
vantage to this Government," and the Governor 
adds, " he is a good man and I hope will give a 
good account of them." He was first visited at 
his old town by Conrad Weiser in February, 
1737. Soon after he removed to Shamokin, 
where he was visited by C'ount Zinzendorf, in 
1742, who preached to him the gospel. lu 
after-years he received that gospel with faith in 
tears from Bishop AYatteville, and subsequently, 
while on a visit to Bethlehem, he was received 
into the Moravian Church, and before partaking 
of the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper he cast 
away a small idol or totem which he wore about 
his neck. He had during this trip with him 
his two sons, whom he had baptized, calling 
one after the above-named trader, John Petty, 
and the other after that distinguished friend of 
the Indians, and long the provincial secretary, 
James Logan. Shickcalamy was a descendant 
of the ancient Minequas or Susquehannock or 
Couestoga Indians, but was reckoned as an 
Oneida chief, but his son Logan was a Cayuga 
chief, belonging to the tribe of his mother, 
according to the system of Indian relationship. 
Zinzeudorf says Shickcalamy was " the Viceroy 
of the Six Nations, maintaining the balance of 
power between the diiferent tribes, and between 
the Indians and whites, acting as Agent of the 
Iro(piois confederacy in all affairs of state and 
war." Loskiel speaks of him as " being the 
first magistrate and head chief of all the Iroquois 
living on the banks of the Susquehanna as far 
as Ouondago ; he thought it incumbent on him 
to be very circumspect in his dealings with the 
white people." He never became intoxicated, 
and died in April, 1749, attended by the pious 
Zeisberger, in full confidence in the Christian's 
hope. His son, John Taghneghdoarus, was 
appointed his siiccessor. What those services 
were which the Governor speaks of as having 
alreadv been of great advantage to the govern- 

ment in 1728, we arc not told ; but we are bound 
to infer that he had been at this post for some 
time previous to this first mention of his name. 
It is probable that he was sent there in 1727. 
In the capacity in which he served he had 
general oversight of the Indian affairs in the 
whole Juniata region, and his advice was 
generally adopted by the council of the Six 

The position here taken as to the time when 
the Delawares first settled on the Susquehanna 
and its western branches has been carefully 
considered, in view of the many writers who 
have taken it for granted that they always be- 
longed there. There are several French maps, 
of dates about 1700 to 1720, and the map of 
Senex in 1721, founded on Herman's of 1670, 
which give quite a number of names along the 
middle Susquehanna River. These names belong 
to the Iroquois stock of languages, showing that 
the Delawares then had no towns on its waters. 
In Egle's" History of Dauphin County "there is 
amanuscriptdraughtof the middle Susquehanna 
River, made by Isaac Taylor, surveyor of Chester 
County, to which the date 1701 has been as- 
signed. This map, indeed, proves the presence 
of the Delawares, but its true date is at least 
twenty-five years later, as is demonstrated by 
numerous ear-marks. Le Tort did not have a 
"store" at Northumberland, nor Scull, opposite 
Port Treverton in 1701 ; but we know they 
wei-e in that region in 1727. Nor was the 
Delaware term " Shamoakin," applied to the 
river or its mouth, then in use. In fact, the 
name Shamokin is derived from the circumstance 
that it was the abode of the great sachem, 
Allummapees, whom we know yet lived at 
" Paxtang " in 1 709, and probably did not go to 
this place of the " Shackamakers " prior to 1727, 
in which year he sent the Governor a letter 
dated at " Shahomaking." With all due defer- 
ence to Heckewelder's opinion that the name 
means " the place where we caught plenty of eels," 
the writer submits that, as in the case of 
" Shackamaxon," his definition is too slippery 
for this situation. It is evidently derived from 
the ^yords " sachem," a chief, and " acki " or 
"ohke," a place or region, meaning the place 
where the chief lived. The name only came 



into use after this " king " removed there to 
look after his people, who were scattered in 
every direction in little temporary towns on the 
larger streams. These facts are not only inter- 
esting, but very imjjortant in understanding the 
history of this region and period. The Juniata 
is spelled " Cheniaty " by Taylor ; the Mahan- 
tango is called " Sequosockcoo ; " and " Chin- 
as-ky " is the spelling of a name of the West 
Branch, of which the writer has made a collec- 
tion of over thirty variations. It referred to 
the caves on this river in which demons were 
supposed to dwell, and hence also often called 
by the Iroquois the " Ot-zinachson," or the 
stream in the region of the cave-devils. At these 
headquarters at Shamokin, Allummapees regu- 
lated the affairs of his tribe after 1727, and was 
joined by Shickcalamy a few years later. 

In the spring of 1728 we find Le Tort con- 
templating a trading tour as far west as the 
Miamis or Twightwees or naked Indians, who 
resided at the west end of Lake Erie. He had 
contemplated going the fall previous, and waited 
so long at Chenastry (West Branch) for one who 
had engaged to accompany him that the winter 
set in before he could proceed. He had engaged 
Madame Montour and her husband to go along, 
as she had a sister married among the Miamis, 
but she was deterred by a prominent Delaware 
chief named Manawkyhickon, who had ill-will 
to the English because Wequeala, his brother, 
had been hung in New Jersey, and who told 
them they might meet some " white heads " on 
the way, as the Miamis were about to take up 
the hatchet against the English. This news was 
brought by Le Tort, and as he and John Scull 
were about "to return to Chenasshy, " the Gov- 
ernor sent presents to Allummapees, Madame 
Montour and Manawkyhickon. The latter 
boasted to King Allummapees that if he wanted 
■war, " he could make a handel to his Hatsheat 
Seventey ffaddom Long." Chenasshy is the 
same as Zinachse, and other forms for West 

At this period we have the first manifestation 
of uneasiness over the machinations of the 
French to the westward. It is feared, Septem- 
ber 2, 1728, that as "there are still some com- 
motions among the Indians," that the story " is 

not altogether without a foundation " which 
Manawkyhickon and Madame Montour told 
Le Tort spring, about the " Tweektwese, or 
Miamis, or naked Indians oeing invited to at- 
tack this country " by the French. " Our 
Lenappys or Delawares know nothing of it. 
The Shawanese we know are ready for any 
mischief. How far the Five Nations are privy 
to it we can not judge." Evidently at this 
time there was considerable travel up the Sus- 
quehanna and Juniata, and they were getting 
news over the mountains from the INIiamis, who 
were the nearest Indian nation to the west. 

In 1729 a son of Shickcalamy and Caron- 
dowanna, alias Robert Hunter, an Iroquois and 
husband of Madame Montour, were captured 
and killed in an expedition against the southern 
Indians. The Governor sent " strouds to cover 
the dead," and wrote, " our souls are afflicted for 
the loss of our dear good friend Carondowanna 
and of all our other brethren of the Five Na- 
tions." On August 18, 1729, Gordon wrote to 
Shickcalamy, desiring the Indians " to be kind to 
our people wherever they meet with them, 
whether on Susquehannah, Potowmack or Al- 
legheny, or in any otiier place." This proves 
the wide extent of trading operations at that 
date. On October 4, 1729, the Governor ad- 
dressed a formal letter " To the several 
Traders of Pennsylvania with the Indians at 
Allegiieny and the other remote parts in or near 
said Province." The letter is a caution against 
carrying rum to the Indians ; exhorts them to 
set an example to the Indians by their " sobriety, 
temperance, humanity and charity ; " urges 
them to observe honesty, justice, courtesy and 
humanity in their dealings ; and enjoins these 
rules " for the peace of the public and your 
own ease, benefit and security." Unfortunately, 
this good advice was never observed, for, as a 
class, they were among the worst of the white 

In 17.30 two white men were killed at Al- 
legheny ; the number of traders was increasing, 
and rum was the principal cause of bringing 
items to the surface as surviving history. The 
fall previous John Fisher and John Hart, who 
are called , " two of the Siioahmokin traders," 
went with the Indians to a fire-ring hunt one 



liimdred miles down the river, in which Hart 
was accidentjilly shot. Tiie Delawares got Ed- 
mund Cartlidge to write a letter for them to the 
Governor, which is dated April 30, 1730, " att 
Alleegaening on the main Road," and signed by 
Shawan-oppau and six other chiefs. Shanop- 
j)in's town is described by Harris and others iu 
1754, and was on the river a little above Pitts- 
burgh. In a memorial of Edmund Cartlidge, 
•hjnah Davenport and Henry Baly, in 1730, we 
have definite information as to when and by 
wliom the trade at Allegheny was commenced. 
They claim to have been the pioneers at Al- 
legheny, and during the three years jiast had 
the chief part of the trade. This would fix 
1727 as the time for " venturing themselves and 
goods further than any person formerly did." 
In 1731 quite a desire was manifested to in- 
duce the Shawanese to return from Allegheny, 
ofiering as an inducement the grant of a reserva- 
tion in Cumberland County. Peter Chartier 
communicated this offer to them. He lived 
below and across the river from Harrisburg, 
and no doubt was to carry the message on one 
of his trips to Allegheny. This same Chartier 
afterwards removed near Pittsburgh, and in 
1744 proved treacherous to the English, joined 
the French and helped to pillage traders, and 
.seduced a number of Shawanese to join the 
enemy. Governor Thomas attributed this to 
the " perfidious blood " of the Shawanese that 
partly filled his veins. The province now be- 
gan to awaken to the designs of the French. 
Their operations at Allegheny created mani- 
fest uneasiness, as the people began to realize 
how deeply the consequences might affect this 
province. A new general atlas revealed how 
exorbitant were the claims of the French. 
Large parts of Carolina and Virginia were given 
as parts of New France, and the Susquehanna 
River wa.s laid down as the western boundary 
line of Pennsylvania. The news brought east- 
ward over the mountains by Lc Tort, Daven- 
port and Cartlidge revealed the intrigues of 
the French in trying to gain the good graces of 
the Shawanese, through an agent named Cava- 
lier, who visited them every year and took their 
leading men to Montreal, and sent them a gun- 
smith to repair their arms free of charge. 

Hence it was determined to tr}' to induce the 
Shawanese to return to the proffered manor. 
But this effort failed, as it was found that if the 
Iroquois would press their juri.sdi(;tion, it would 
result in the summaiy removal of the Shawanese 
within undoubted J^'rench territory. The affida- 
vits of James Le Toi't and Jonah Davenport 
concerning the Indian towns to the westward 
and the operations of Cavalier, were taken 
October 29, 1731. Up to this period no records 
have come down to us of those going to Al- 
legheny, relating their experience and observa- 
tions in crossing the Juniata region, yet there 
can be no doubt tiiat it was traversed by them 
during these five years, and that every Indian 
town was fret[uently visited, although no land- 
marks are given. At this point, however, we 
are no longer in doubt as to the route traveled 
by the traders. On a paper that was folded ■with 
the affidavits above named there is an estimate 
of the number of Indians, the distances to their 
to\'\'ns and the names of their chiefs and tribes. 
To this paper we are indebted for the mention 
of the name of the river Juniata and two places 
on its waters, being our oldest recorded land- 
marks. As a more than an ordinary interest 
attaches to this document, we give the few words 
it contains concerning this region, — 

" Oliesson upon Choniata, distant from Sa'squehan- 
na 60 miles; Shawanese, 20 families, 60 men, eliief, 

" Assunnepachla upon Choniata, distant about 100 
miles by water and oO by land from Ohesson ; Dela- 
wares, 12 families, 36 men." 

The other tribes named are all located 
of the Allegheny ^lonutains. We must infer 
that these traders knew of no other towns be- 
longing to these tribes except the two here 
given. Assunnepachla was situated at Franks- 
town, in Blitir County. Ohesson was probably 
at Lewistown. This point was early and long 
known as " Old Town," meaning that it was th-e 
seat of a former Indian village. Jones, in his 
" History of the Juniata A'^alley," locate*; Ohessoo 
" ou the flat eight or nine miles westof Lewistown 
near a large spring." Why, he does not teiij/ 
and we know of no other authority. Tweniji 
to twenty-three yeare after this date this chief 
evidently lived iu " the valley of Kishicoquil- 



las." He died ia August, 1754, at McKee's 
Half Falls, on Susquehanna ; and in May, 1755, 
General John Armstrong calls the big valley 
after him. He appears to have been one of 
the more decent and peaceable of the turbulent 
and treacherous Shawanese. As early as Au- 
gust 1, 1739, he was a witness to a renewal of 
the league of amity and good-will between the 
representatives of his tribe and the proprieta- 
ries, in which his name is spelled Kaash-aw- 
kagh-quil-las. Lewistown is the natural outlet 
of the valley and a much more likely location 
for a town than any other place in this region 
The name does not belong to the Shawanese 
language, and is probably a lingering remnant of 
its ancient inhabitants. As a Shawanese town 
it could not have been in existence over five 
years, ^^'hatever may be the facts as to the 
routes by which these traders traveled to the 
Ohio prior to this date, whether they sometimes 
went by Shamokin and the West Branch, or 
during certain seasons along the dividing waters 
between the Juniata and Potomac, it is certain 
that one path traveled by these men passed 
through Ohesson and led over the mountain by 
Frankstown and Johnstown to Kittanning. 

On the head of this news from the Ohio the 
Governor addressed the Assembly, saying, 
"You will clearly see the necessity of turning 
your thoughts to the consideration of Indian 
affairs, and providing by proper regulations for 
the peace and safety of the province, which is 
too frequently endangered by persons settling on 
lands not yet purchased from the natives, and 
the undue manner in which our trade with them 
for several years past has been carried on." 
This intimation of encroachment on unpurchased 
hinds must refer to those west of the Blue 
Mountains, for although the lands eastward 
wei-e purchased after tiiis date in oi'der to sat- 
isfy the Iroquois, yet the proprietaries always 
contended that the lands east of the mountains 
had been fairly purchased, and were included in 
the deed from Governor Dongan. 

In August, 1 732, deputies of the Six Nations 
ofUne to Philadelphia, to whom was rehearsed a 
histoiy of the Shawanese, and as " they had re- 
moved backwards to Ohio," they were ordered 
by the Six Nations to return; but this, like 

previous efforts, resulted in utter failure. The 
occasion, however, served a timely opportunity 
to sharpen the hatred of the Six Nations against 
the French, and secure their good-will in behalf 
of the English. Daring this year one John 
Kelly, belonging to John AVilkins, got up a tre- 
mendous consternation among the Shawanese by 
telling them that all the Christians were in 
friendship with the Five Nations, and that the 
latter had told the Governor that they had 
already eaten several of the Shawanese, and "if 
they should speak they would eat them all." 
The Governor sent them a message and a six- 
gallon keg of I'um, which made them " exceed- 
ing joyful," and their four chiefs returned thanks 
for the dram. In October a deputation visited 
Philadelphia by invitation, and gave various 
pretexts for living on the Ohio, but made pro- 
fessions of friendshijj to the English. The 
Governor said it involved a question, "in case 
of a rupture with France, between having a 
thousand fierce fellows for or against us." The 
following paragraph, also from the Governor, 
\yell illustrates the situation at that day: 

" Those Indians by us generally called the Five 
Nations, but of late Six Nations, alias the Minquays 
and Iroquois, have been acknowledged by all the na- 
tives of these parts as their masters, and a friendship 
has hitherto existed between them and us on the Sus- 
quehanna River and other parts of the Province. These 
people, since their conquest of the Susquehannali In- 
dians, have always claimed that the river and all the 
lands upon it or its branches as their property ; and 
this claim has been constantly acknowledged by all 
the other Indians in these parts ; divers treaties have 
been held with them about those lauds, and they 
sometimes seem to give them up to us, but still they 
claim them, and what may be the issue of it when 
they see such great numbers settled, as they will now 
find of those distressed people of Ireland, who have 
generally without any permission from the Govern- 
ment sat down on those lauds, is very uncertain." 

In June, 1733, Shickcalamy and three other 
Iroquois messengers visited Philadelphia, on 
the head of several ill reports in circulation 
among the Indians. He also made complaint 
against Peter Cheaver (Shaver) for ti'aducing 
the former deputies and trading at Allegheny 
contrary to the agreement made at the last 
treaty, and also for making threats against the 
Indians. This man settled at Shaver's Creek 



about 1754, where his headless body was found 
one morning about the year 1770, the mystery 
of whose death has never been solved. 

The following is the formal protest presented 
against John Harris, father of the founder of 
Harrisburg, for settling on unpurchased lands 
at the mouth of the Juniata River : 

"Shekallamy then asked whether the Proprietor 
had heard of a letter which he and Sassoonan sent to 
John Harris to desire him to desist from making a 
plantation at the mouth of Choniata, where Harris 
has built a house and is clearing fields. 

" They were told that Harris had only built that 
house for carrying on his trade ; that his plantation, 
on which he has houses, barns, &c., at Paxtang, is his 
place of dwelling, and it's not to be supposed he will 
remove from thence ; that he has no warrant or order 
fur making a settlement at Choniata. 

"Shekallamy said that though Harris may have 
built a house for the convenience of his trade, yet he 
ought not to clear fields. 

"To this it was answered that Harris had probably 
cleared as much land only as would be sufficient to 
raise corn for his horses. 

"Shikallamy said he had no ill-will to .John Har- 
ris — it is not his custom to bear any man ill-ill ; but 
he is afraid that the warriors of the Six Nations, 
when they pass that way, may take it ill to see a set- 
tlement made on lands which they have already de- 
sired to be kept free from any persons settling on." 

"He was told in answer that care should be taken 
to give the necessary orders in it." 

The improvement made by Harris, under 
pretense of a trading-post, was on Duncan's 
Island. He removed because of this protest, 
but other offenses of a like nature were con- 
stantly occurring during the next twenty years. 

During 1734 and 1735 Hetaquantagechty 
came as a messenger three times from the Six 
Nations. The busiuess related principally to 
the efforts put forth to induce the Shawauese to 
return east of the mountains, whicli, as usual, 
failed. The customary protests were made 
against carrying rum into the Indian country. 
It is a disgrace to civilization that these savages 
had occasion to make tiiese frequent complaints 
against their civilized brethren. He complaineil 
of the slanders of Madame Montour against a 
foraier deputation, and said " old age only pro- 
tects her from l^eing punished for such false- 
lioods." The Shawauese tiireateued that they 
would remove farther northward towards tiie 

French country, and desired the Delawares to 
go with them. Sassoonan had forbidden this, 
but fears were entertained concerning the con- 
duct of these nations. A letter from the Ohio 
named some twenty traders then among the In- 
dians in that region. 

In August, 1736, Allummapees and other Del- 
awares visited Philadelphia. Among them was 
one Tuscarora, belonging doubtless to one of 
the straggling bands of that nation still living 
in Pennsylvania. Governor Gordon having 
died, Allummapees hoped " that by eiiting and 
drinking we should endeavor to forget our 
grief." The poor savage knew no higher source 
of comfort. The Six Nations could not visit 
the province this year because " a great number 
of Indians from the Winter Country were 
come amongst them, who are said never to have 
seen wiiite people, corn or bread." They, how- 
ever, came in October with a very large depu- 
tation. This year is memorable for the sale and 
release of all claims, to the lands east of the Blue 
Mountains, to which the Six Nations still held 
a disputed claim. The M'cstern limit of tliis 
purchase M'as the dividing line adjoining the un- 
purcha.sed Juniata region for the next eighteen 
years. The range was called Tyannuntasacta by 
the Six Nations and Kekachtannin by the 
Delawares, both of which terms signified End- 
less Hills. The early settlers called it North 
Mountain ; afterwards it got the name of Blue, 
though often called Kittatinny. The land pur- 
chase was made privately by the proprietaries, 
and hence the Council records do not tell us 
what the deputies said about encroachments 
upon the lands of Juniata and ujiper Susque- 
hanna. From what passed before and after 
this period, no doubt decided expressions were 
given by them on this point. 

In August, 1737, Manawkyhickon who 
figured in 17'28 in frightening Le Tort and 
Madame Montour from visiting the Miamis, and 
old Nutimus, a chief of the Delawares, who had 
some fifty years before signed the deed of what 
is known as " the AValking Purchase '' for lauds 
on the Delaware River, now, with other chief- 
tains of that nation, confirmetl the old deed and 
released their claims to those lands. These ne- 
gotiations had been pending at Durham in 



1734,atPennsboroughin 1735, and now, iu 1737, 
it was agreed to have this walk performed, and 
it took place September 19th. Three walkers 
started on the course, two of whom died of over- 
exertion, and Edward Marshall reached a point 
computed at eighty-six miles. The Indians 
were over-reached and defrauded ; and from 
this time the Delawares were alienated, and the 
lauds in after-years dearly paid for in blood, — a 
price ruthlessly exacted from many of the first 
settlers in the Juniata region. Although the 
Delawares had commenced to stray west of the 
mountains as early as 1727, yet the most fero- 
cious and warlike of their tribes, the Minsi or 
Monseys, were most affected by the Walking 
Purchase, and now entered thatschool in which 
they were trained for the part they took in the 
French and Indian War. The grievances of the 
Delawares cannot be denied or palliated. The 
heart-burnings engendered in tlie savage breast 
broke dut in loud complaints and in atrocious 
acts of vengeance. 

In 1738 one hundred Shawanese at " AUe- 
ghenia" signed a temperance pledge for four 
years, and appointed men to stave all casks of 
rum brought into their towns. Their " Debbity 
King " and others sent a letter saying, " the 
track of land (on Connadoguinnet) you have 
reserved for us does not suit us at present, and 
we would not have you take it amiss that we do 
not come and settle upon it." AUummapees 
and a number of old men visited the Governor 
to brighten the chain of friendship, bringing as 
usual a few skins and getting three times their 
value in return. 

In July, 1739, a delegation of Sliawanese, 
mostly from Allegheny, visited Philadelphia. 
A history of their first settlement, in 1699, 
" near Paxtang, on the west side of Susque- 
hanna," was recounted to them. The treaty 
that their fathers had made with William Penu, 
April 23, 1701, was read and explained ; they 
made formal professions of friendship, which, 
as usual, was to last as long as the sun and 
moon would endure. 

In August, 1740, a considerable delegation of 
Delawares from Allegheny headed by AUum- 
mapees, sundry Miugoes headed by Shickcalamy 
of Shamokiu, and other Indians from Otzeuaxa, 

Conestogoe and Brandywine, visited Philadel- 
phia. They desired that white hunters should 
be restrained from killing the deer, beaver and 
bear which the Great Spirit had made for the 
use of the red man. As usual, they brought 
their broken guns and hatchets to be repaired. 
Special auswei-s were given to our " brethren 
who are settled on the River Ohijo," and to 
"our brethren, the Mingoes from Shamokiu." 
Otzenaxa, or Otstuacky, was a town on the 
Otzinachson, or West Branch, above Shamokin. 
It is evident the Shickcalamy was kept busy 
iu managing the affairs of these scattered rem- 
nants of these various tribes. 

In 1741 the Six Nations sent a letter declar- 
ing that the Delawares had no lands to dispose 
of, and prayed the proprietor not to buy or ac- 
cept any grant of lands from them. The Gov- 
ernor sent a letter to the Delawares, setting 
forth the former purchases and releases from 
them and the request of the Six Nations, exhort- 
ing and requiring tiie Delawares to live peace- 
ably with the English inhabitants. 

In July, 1742, a large delegation of the 
Iroquois visited Philadelphia to receive the 
second and last payment for the Susquehanna 
lands sold in 1736, being that part that lays 
southwest of the river. In the speech made by 
Canassatego there is the following i-eference to 
the Juniata lands : 

" We know our lauds are now become more valua- 
ble; the white people think we do not know their 
value, but we are sensible that the land is everlast- 
ing, and the few goods we receive for it are soon worn 
out and gone. For the future we will sell no lands, 
but when our brother Onas (Penn) is in the country, 
and we will know beforehand the quantity of goods 
we are to receive. Besides, we are not well used with 
respect to the lands still unsold by us. Your people 
daily settle on these lands and spoil our hunting. We 
must insist on your removing them, as you know they 
have no right to the northward of Kittochtinny Hills. 
In particular, we renew our complaints .against some 
people who are settled at Juniata, a branch of the 
Susquehanna, and all along the banks of that river, as 
Mahaniay, and desire that they may be made forthwith 
to go off the land, for they do great damage to our 
cousins, the Delawares." 

To this urgent complaint the Governor re- 
plied : " On yoir former complaints against 
people settling the land on Juniata, and from 



tlience all along the river Susquchannah as far as 
Mahaniahy, some Magistrates were sent ex- 
pressly to remove them, and wc thought no per- 
son would stay after that." 

Here the Indians interrupted the Governor 
and said ; " These persons who were sent did 
not do their duty ; so far from removing the 
people, they made surveys for themselves and 
they are in league with the trespassers. We de- 
sire more etfectual methods to be used, and 
honester persons employed." 

This the Governor promised them should be 
done. After thinking over it from July 7th to 
(3ctober 5th, he issued a proclamation. From 
its terms we infer that the sections most troubled 
by the intruders at this period were at the 
mouth of the Juniata and up along that river, 
probably as far as the present Juniata County ; 
in Fulton County, in what were termed the Big 
Cove, Little Cove and the Canalloways, here 
spoken of as the region of the Licking Creek 
Hills, after a small stream west of MeConnells- 
burg, flowing into the Potomac ; and the whole 
length of the Susquehanna, from the mouth of 
the Juniata, up to Wyoming — showing that all 
along this border, stretching across the province, 
the pioneers were imprudently intruding upon 
the unpurchased lands of the New York In- 
dians. > 



Less than a hundred and fifty years ago — 
until several years after the middle of the 
eighteenth centurs' — all the territory now in- 
cluded in the counties of Mifflin, Union, Perry, 
Juniata and Snyder was claimed by the native 
Indians as their own rightful property, and 
their claim was admitted and acknowledged by 
the proprietaries of Pennsylvania, whose settled 
policy it was and had ever been to secure and 
retain the friendship of the savages by prohib- 
iting and preventing, as far as possible, the 
locating of white settlers on any lands within 
the province until after the Indian title to such 

lands had been fairly purchased from their 
native owners, in open treaty council. 

The region embraced in the five counties to 
which this history has particular reference con- 
tained but few Indian settlements, and was, in 
no sense, to be regarded as their home domain. 
There were a few of their squalid little villages, 
or camps, along the West Branch of the Sus- 
quehanna, and fewer yet in the valley of the 
Juniata ; but the country was not, on that 
account, any less highly prized by them ; in 
fact, the reverse was the case, and they regarded 
it as the most valuable of all their possessions, 
because it included vast tracts of their best and 
most productive hunting-grounds. Referring 
to this fact, Conrad Weiser, in a letter to Rich- 
ard Peters, the proprietary secretary, dated 
April 22, 1749, said: "The Indians say (and 
with truth) That Country is their only Hunt- 
iug-Ground for Deer, because further to the 
North there was nothing but Spruce woods, 
and the Ground covered with Kalmia [laurel] 
bushes, not a single Deer could be found or 
killed There." 

To preserve these favorite hunting-grounds 
for the Indians, free from the intrusion of 
white settlers, was the earnest desire of the 
proprietaries, and they used every practicable 
means in their power to their end ; but it was 
without avail. Neither the several proclama- 
tions of the Governor, threatening fines and 
imprisonment to intruders, nor the fear of the 
tomahawks and scalping-knives of the savages, 
had the effect to deter adventurous white men 
from attempting to secure homes in the invi- 
ting region lying west of the Susquehanna, and 
extending from the West Branch of that rivi-r 
southward to the Blue Mountains. 

It appears that the first Europeans who at- 
tempted to make their homes in all that region 
M'ere Germans, who ciirae several years in ad- 
vance of all other white settlers, and boldly 
located themselves in the valley of the Juniata. 
The coming of this little colony of fearless 
pioneers is mentioned as follows, in an official 
communication dated July 2, 1750, and ad- 
dressed to Governor Hamilton by the secretary 
to the proprietoi-s, Richard Peters, Esq. : 

" About the year 1740 or 1741, one Frederick Star, 



a German, with two or three more of his countrymen, 
made some settlements at the above place,' where we 
found William White, the Galloways, and Andrew 
Lycon, on Big Juniata, situate at the distance of 
twenty-five miles from the mouth thereof, and about 
ten miles north of the Blue Hills, a place much es- 
teemed by the Indians for some of their best hunting- 
grounds, which (German settlers) were discovered by 
the Delawares at Shamokin to the deputies of the Six 
Nations as they came down to Philadelphia in the 
year 1742, to hold a treaty with this Government; and 
they were disturbed at, as to enquire with a peculiar 
warmth of Governour Thomas if these People had 
come there by the Orders, or with the Privilege of the 
Government; alleging that if this was so, this was a 
breach of the Treaties subsisting between the Six 
Nations and the Proprietor, William Penn, who, in 
the most solemn manner, engaged to them not to 
suffer any of the People to settle Lands till they had 
purchased from the Council of the Six Nations. The 
Governour, as he might with great truth, disowned 
any knowledge of those Persons' settlements; and on 
the Indians insisting that they should be immediately 
thrown over the mountains, he promised to issue his 
Proclamation, and if this had no Effect, to put the 
Laws in execution against them. The Indians, in the 
same Treaty, publickly expressed very severe threats 
against the Inhabitants of Maryland for settling 
Lands for which they had received no Satisfaction; 
and said if they would not do them Justice, they 
would do justice to themselves; and would certainly 
have committed Hostilities if a Treaty had not been 
under foot between Maryland and the Six Nations 
under the mediation of Governour Thomas; at which 
the Indians consented to sell Lands and receive a 
valuable consideration for them, which put an end to 
the danger." 

The secretary then recounts that, in accord- 
ance with directions from the proprietaries and 
the Governor, and under a prochimation of 
the Governor to the same eifect, he (Secretary 
Peters) caused the settlers to be driven out, in 
June, 1743. He also mentions that in 1741 or 
1742 information was given that white people 
were intruding and making settlements on un- 
purchased lands at Big Cove, Little Cove and 
Big and Little Conolloways, and that these un- 
authorized settlements had continued for some 
years to increase, notwithstanding frequent pro- 

' Referring to a place mentioned in the preceding part of 
tlie letter from which this is extracted — the place being 
where the settlements of William White and others were 
broken up in 1760, along the valley of the Juniata, near 
what is known as Mexico, iu Juniata County. 

hibitions on the part of the government, and 
admonitions of the great danger they ran of 
being cut oif by the Indians, who were incensed 
at this occupation of their lands, for which they 
had received no compensation. The report then 
continues, — 

" These were, to the best of my remembrance, all 
the places settled by Pennsylvanians in the unpur- 
chased part of the Province till about three years ago 
[1749], when some Persons had the presumption to go 
into Path Valley or Tuscarora Gap, lying to the east 
of the Big Cove, and into a place called Aucquick, 
lying to the Northward of it; and likewise into a 
place called Shearman's Creek, lying along the waters 
of Juniata, and is situate east of the Path Valley, 
through which the present Road goes from Harris' 
Ferry [Harrisburg] to Allegheny ; and lastly, they 
extended their settlements to Big Juniata ; the Indi- 
ans all this while repeatedly complaining that their 
hunting-Ground was every day more and more taken 
from them ; and that there must infallibly arise quar- 
rels between their Warriours and these settlers, which 
would in the end break the chain of friendship, and 
pressing in the most importunate terms for their 
speedy removal. The Government in 1748 sent the 
Sheriff and three Magistrates, with Mr. Weiser, into 
these places, to warn the People ; but they, notwith- 
standing, continued their settlements, iu opposition 
to all this; and if those People were prompted by a 
desire to make mischief, settled Lands no better, nay, 
not so good, as many vacant Lands in the purchased 
part of the Province. The bulk of these settlements 
were made during the administration of President 
Palmer ; and it is well known to your Honour, though 
then in England, that his attention to the Safety of 
the City and the Lower Counties would not permit 
him to extend more care to places so remote." 

Lands Purchased from the Indians. — 
The first sale of lands in Pennsylvania, by 
Indians, was that made to William Penn at 
the hi.storic treaty council of 1682, comprising 
a comparatively small area of country, extend- 
ing along the Delaware above Philadelphia, 
and as high up as the central part of the present 
county of Bucks. On the 1 7th of September, 
1718, another treaty was made, by which the 
Indians confirmed the sales they had previously 
made and extended them from the Delaware to 
the Susquehanna. This last-named sale was 
again confirmed at a treaty council held and 
concluded on the 11th of October, 1736, at 
which time twenty-three chiefs of the Six Na- 
tions sold to John, Thomas and Richard Penn 



all the lands on both sides of the Susquehanna, 
— eastward, to the heads of the branches, or 
springs, flowing into the river ; northward, to 
the Kittoehtinny Hills ; and westward, to the 
•setting sun, — this vague and extravagant de- 
scription meaning nothing more than that the 
western boundary was undecided on and in- 

In 1749 another treaty was made, in pursu- 
ance of which the sachems and chiefs of the Six 
Nations, and of the Shamokin, Shawanese and 
Delaware Indians, sold to the proprietaries of 
Penns3'lvania, for the consideration of five hun- 
tlred pounds, a vast scope of territory, extend- 
ing from the Delaware westward to the Sus- 
quehanna River, and north along that river, far 
enough to include more than half the present 
county of Northumberland, and Luzerne, a part 
of Columbia, Lackawanna and Wayne, all of 
Schuylkill and Monroe and nearly all of Pike. 
This great purchase was described in the deed 
from the Indians as follows : 

" Beginning at the Hills, or mountains, called, in 
the language of the Five Nation Indians, Tyanunta- 
sachta, or Endless Hills, and by the Delaware In- 
'dians, Kekachtany Hills, on the east side of the River 
Susquehanna, being in the northwest line or boundary 
of the tract of land formerly purchased by the said Pro- 
prietaries from the said Indian nations, by their deed 
of the 11th of October, 1736; and from thence, run- 
ning up the said River, by the several courses 
thereof, to the first of the nearest Mountains to the 
north side or mouth of the creek, called, in the lan- 
guage of the said Five Nation Indians, Cantagug, 
and in the language of the Delaware Indians, Magho- 
nioy ; and from thence, extending in a direct or 
straight line to be run from the said mountain on the 
north side of said creek, to the main Branch of Dela- 
ware River at the north side of the creek called 
Lechawachsein ; and from thence across Lecbawach- 
sein creek, aforesaid, down the River Delaware, by 
the several courses thereof, to the Kekachtany Hills, 
aforesaid ; and from thence, by the range of said 
Hills, to the place of beginning, as more fully appears 
by a ma|) annexed ; and also all the parts of the 
Rivers Susquehanna and Delaware, from shore to 
shore, which are opposite said lands, and all the 
Islands in said Rivers, &c." 

^yIIITE Intruders, or " Squatters." — 
Down to this time, and for several years after- 
wards, the Indians remained ownersof the terri- 
tory already referred to, and they continued to look 

with distrust and increasing displeasure on the 
white settlers who continued to enter the hunting- 
grounds of the Susquehanna and Juniata Val- 
leys, in spite of Indian warnings and of all the 
earnest efforts of the proprietary government to 
restrain them. Yet only on one occasion had the 
savages proceeded to the extreme of murder 
within that wilderness region. It was the 
murder of an Indian trader named John (or 
Jack) Armstrong, who was killed at, or near, 
the " Narrows " of the Juniata, in the year 
1744, two of his assistants, named James 
Smith and Woodward Arnold, being killed at 
the same time.' The Indian who was princi])ally, 
or solely, engaged in the bloody deed was a 
Delaware named Mnsemeelin, who was soon af- 
terwards detected, arrested and confined in 
Lancaster jail, from which he was taken for 
trial to Philadelphia. The bodies of the mur- 
dered men were found by a party comjjosed of 
iilexander Armstrong (brother of John, the 
trader), Thomas McKee, Francis Ellis, John 
Florster, William Baskins, ^ James Berry, John 
Watt, James Armstrong and David Denny. 
Some of these were residents on the east side of 
the Susquehanna, but most of them were ad- 
venturers, who, notwithstanding that Frederick 
Star and the other German settlei-s had been 
driven away from their locations on the Juniata, 
in 1 743, had, not long afterwards, settled on 
the unpurchased lands west of the Susquehanna, 
in defiance of the w-arnings of the government 

1 The object of this murder, however, does not appear to 
have heen revenge, but pUinder of Armstrong's goods. 
Indiiin traders, who were in no sense settlers, had been 
among the savages of this region for many years. As early 
as 1704, Joseph Jessup. James Le Fort. Peter Bazalion, 
Martin Chartier, Nicholas Goden (all Frenchmen) were 
trading with the Indians of the Susquehanna, and thence, 
by way of the valley of the Juniata, Kittaning Point and 
the Conemaugh, to the great Indian rendezvous at the 
head of the Ohio. The murdered Armstrong was one of the 
later traders, who passed and repassed several times in a 
year over the Pack-Horse Path, or road that passed 
through the Juniata " Narrows,'' forming the best route 
from Lancaster to Kittaning Point 

-Thomas ilcKee, in IToo, warranted a large tract of 
land at the mouth of Mahantango Creek and McKee's 
Half Falls, and died in 1772. 

Francis Ellis and William Baskius, in 176"2. were living 
on what is now Duncan's Island. 



aud the threats of the savages. Between 1745 
and 1 748 quite a large number of settlers came 
in and scattered themselves along the west side 
of the Susquehanna, as far up as Penn's Creek 
aud many miles up the valley of the Juniata, 
until, in the latter year, the government, be- 
coming alarmed at the openly-exjjressed dissat- 
isfaction aud threats of the Indians at this in- 
vasion of their rights, " sent the sheriff and 
three magistrates [of Lancaster County, which 
then had nominal jurisdiction over the Indian 
country west of Susquehanna], with Mr. Weiser, 
into these Places to warn the People ; but they, 
notwithstanding, continued their settlements in 
opposition to all this." ^ 

This attempt aud failure of the government 
to drive the squatters off frora the purchased 
lands of this region had the effect to embolden 
other settlers, who immediately afterwards (in 
the fall of 1748 and spring of 1749) came in 
and located themselves in various places in the 
territory. On the Juniata, in what is now 
known as Walker township, Juniata County, 
settled William White (who, with some of his 
neighbors, was massacred by Indians in 1766), 
George and William Galloway, David Huddle- 
ston, George Cahoon and some others. At 
Shearman's Creek was a larger settlement, 
where were located James and Thomas Parker, 
James Murray, John Scott, John Cowan, John 
Kilough, John McClare, Richard Ivirkpatrick, 
Simon Girty (the father of the notorious rene- 
gade) and a number of others ; and along the 
west side of the Susquehanna were several small 
clusters of squatters, extending from the mouth 
of Juniata to Pemi's ('reek, at which last- 
named point sevei'al Scotch-Irish pioneers had 
located themselves. The uneasiness and dis- 
satisfaction of the Indians, on account of these 
encroachments by the whites, is mentioned as 
follows, in a letter addressed to Secretary Peters, 
April 22, 1749, by Conrad Weiser, who had 
then just returned from Shamokin, whither he 
had been sent with important messages to the 
Indians. He said, — 

■'The Indians are very uneasy about the white 

1 Extract from Secretai-y Peters' report to Governor 
Hamilton, dated July 2, 17£0, and before quoted. 

people settling beyond the Endless Mountains on 
Jouiady [Juniata], on Sherman's Creek and else- 
where. They tell me that about thirty families are 
settled upon the Indian Lands this Spring, and daily 
more go to settle thereon. Some have settled almost 
to the Head of the Joniady River, along the Path that 
leads to the Ohio. . . . They asked very seriously 
whether their brother Onas had given the People 
leave to settle there. I informed them of the con- 
trary, and told them that I believed some of the In- 
dians from Ohio, that were down last Summer, had 
given Liberty (with what right I could not tell) to set- 
tle. I told them of what passed on the Tuscarora Path 
last Summer, when the Sheriff and three Magistrates 
were sent to turn off the People there settled ; and 
that I then perceived that the People were favored 
by some of the Indians above mentioned; by which 
means the Orders of the Governour came to no 
effect. So far they were content, and said the thing 
must be as it is, till the Six Nation Chiefs would be 
down and converse with the Governour of Pennsyl- 
vania about the Affair." 

According to this suggestion, several chiefs 
of the Six Nations came from their home in 
New York to Pennsylvania in the spring of 
1750 and held a conference with Secretary 
Richard Peters and others with reference to 
the unwarranted occupation of their hunting- 
grounds by the incoming settlers ; the result of 
which conference, and the subsequent actipn of 
the government officers in consequence of it, is 
told by Peters in a report made by him to 
Governor Hamilton, dated July 2d, in the same 
year. In that report he states that on the 
18th of the preceding May, at the plantation 
of George Croghan, a conference had been held 
with two sons of tiie Sachem Shikilemy and 
three other Indians, representatives of the Six 
Nations, in presence of James Galbreth and 
George Croghan, Esquires, justices of the 
county of Cumberland, at which the Indian 
speaker expressed the sentiments of his people 
with regard to the unwarranted settlements of 
white people on unpurchased lands in the Juni- 
ata region as follows : 

" Brethren — We have thought a great deal of what 
you imparted to us, that ye were to come to turn the 
people off who are settled over the Hills ; we are 
pleased to see you on this occasion, and as the Coun- 
cil of Ouondago has this affair exceedingly at heart, 
and it was particularly recommended to us by the 
Deputies of the Six Nations when they departed 
from us last Summer, we desire to accompany you, 



but we are afraid, notwithstanding the care of thu 
Governour, that this may prove like many former 
attempts ; the People will be put off now and next 
year come again ; and if so, the Six Nations will no 
longer bear it, but will do themselves justice. To 
prevent this, therefore, when you shall have turned 
the People off, we recommend it to the Governour to 
place two or three faithful Persons over the Moun- 
tains, who may be agreeable to him and us, with 
Commissions, empowering them immediately to re- 
move every one who may presume after this to settle 
themselves until the Six Nations shall agree to make 
sale of their Land." 

To enforce this, they gave a string of \yani- 
pum and received one in return from the magis- 
trate, with the strongest assurances that they 
would do their duty. After the narration of 
the preceding, Mr. Peters' report continues, and 
will be found in the account of early settlements 
in Walker township, Juniata County, whei-e 
their trespassers located, aud from where they 
were ejected. 

This forcible ejectment of the settlers (or, 
more properly, squatters) from the Juniata Val- 
ley and region contiguous to it on the south 
and southwest had, only temporarily, tlie effect 
to deter others from entering on the unpurchased 
lauds west of the Susquehanna. Within two 
years from the time when Secretary Peters, with 
the under-sheriff aud magistrates of Cumber- 
land County, led their prisoners to the Carlisle 
jail, after having burned their cabins, the alarm 
had subsided, and many of those who had been 
driven away had returned to the forbidden 
country, together with others who were then 
making their first visit in search of locations 
for future homes. As early as 17-52 the Kisha- 
coquillas Valley was entered by white pros- 
pectors, who afterwards became permanent set- 
tlers, and located lands on which their descend- 
ants still live. Among the first white men who 
entered that valley were William Brown (after- 
wards one of the most prominent men of that 
vicinity), James Reed,^ Samuel IVIaclay, and the 
five brothers, Robert, John, William, Alexan- 
der and James McNitt, who were in the valley 
before the Indian purchase was made, and who 
were among the earliest to take up lands uuder 

iThe wife of James Reed was the first white woman who 
came to Kishacoquillas Valley. 

that purchase, as were also Alexander Cochrane, 
James Alexander, and others, whose names still 
remain there. At the mouth of the Juniata 
was located Marcus Hulings, tlie families of 
Francis Ellis, James Baskins and others, and 
settlements were found at several points along 
the west side of the Susquehanna, and some 
distance up Mahantaugo, Middle and Penu's 
Creeks, among them being those of George 
Gabriel,^ Abraham Sourkill, John Zehring, 
Jacob Le Roy (called Jacob King by his neigh- 
bors), George Auchmudy, George Schnable, 
George Aberhart, George Glewell, Edmund 
Mathews, John McCahon, John Young, Mark 
Curry, John Simmons, William Doran, Gott- 
fried Fryer, John Lynn, Daniel Braugh and 
Dennis Mucklehenny, most of whom were of 
the fearless Scotch-Irish race, who seldom per- 
mitted the dangers of the wilderness or of sav- 
age incursion to frighten them away from fertile 
lands, clear streams and eligible sites for set- 

These continued aggressious of the white peo- 
ple, and their apparent determination to disre- 
gard the rights of Indians at whatever hazard, 
greatly incensed the latter, w"ho, at a treaty coun- 
cil held at Carlisle in 1753, very plainly ex- 
pressed their views on the subject, entering their 
vigorous protest against this unjustifiable occu- 
pation of their hunting-grounds, and notifying 
the authorities that " they wi.shed the people 
called back from the Juniata lands until matters 
were settled between them and the French, lest 
damage sliould be done, and then the English 
would think ill of them."" 

Treaty of 175-t. — At this crisis there 
seemed to be but one way out of the difficulty, 
which was to pacifv the Indians by a fiiir pur- 
chase of tiie lands west of the Susquehanna. 
Accordingly, on the 6th of July, 1754, a treaty 
was held and concluded at Albany, X. Y., be- 
tween the sachems and chiefs of the Six Nations 
and the representatives of the proprietaries, by 
which, for a consideration of four hundred pounds, 
lawful money of Xew York, the Six Nations 
sold to Tiiomas and Richard Penn a great ex- 
tent of country in Pennsylvania, west of the 

' A trader, whose place was where Selin's Grove now is 



Susquehauua, and adjoining the purchase of 
1736 on the nortii, the following being the de- 
scription and boundaries as given in the deed 
of conveyance : 

"All the lands lying within the Province of Penn- 
sylvania, bounded and limited as follows, namely: 
Beginning at the Kittochtinny, or Blue Hills, on the 
west branch of the Susquehanna Biver, and thence by 
the said Kiver, a mile above the mouth of a certain 
creek called Kayarondinhagh (Penn's Creek) ; thence 
northwesterly, west as far as said Province of Penn- 
sylvania extends, to its western lines or boundaries ; 
thence along the said western line, to the south line 
or boundaiy of said Province; thence by the said south 
line or boundary to the south side of said Kittochtinny 
hills ; thence by the south side of said hills to the 
place of beginning." 

This purchase included all the territory now 
included in the counties of Perry, Juniata, Mif- 
flin, Fulton, Huntingdon, Bedford and Blair; 
nearly all of Snyder, half of Centre, and parts 
of Union, Somerset and Franklin. In fact, 
the boundary, as mentioned in the original deed, 
would have included the whole of the western 
part of the State ; the north line starting from 
a point one mile above the mouth of Penn's 
Creek, and running thence north 45° west, 
crossing the West Branch a little above the 
mouth of the Sinnemahoning, and striking Lake 
Erie a few miles north of the city of Erie. After- 
wards, at a conference held at Aughwick, in 
September, 1754, the Indians gave notice that 
they had not understood the matter of points of 
compass ; that it had not been their intention 
to sell the valley of the West Branch of the Sus- 
quehanna, and that they would never agree to 
the confirmation of that indefinite boundary, 
stretching northwest to the lake. It was after- 
wards changed, and the remainder of the pur- 
chase confirmed by the Indians at the treaty of 
Easton, Pa., Octol)er 23, 1 758. The line, as 
confirmed at that treaty, was described as, — 

"Beginning at the Kittachtinny, or Blue hills, on 
the west bank of the river Susquehannah, and running 
thence up the said river, binding therewith, to a mile 
above the mouth of a creek called Kaarondinhah (or 
John Penn's creek) ; thence northwest, and by west to 
a creek called Buffalo creek ; thence west to the east 
side of the Allegheny or Appalachian hills; thence 
along the east side of the said hills, binding therewith, 
to the south line or boundary of the said Province; 
thence by the said south line or boundary to the south 

side of the Kittachtinny hills; thence by the south 
side of the said hills to the place of beginning." 

Indian Hostility Aroused — The Penn's 
Creek Massacre. — The Western Delawares 
were exceedingly angry because of the sale of 
the Susquehanna and Juniata lands to the 
whites, declaringthat those fine hunting-grounds 
had been given to them (the Delawares) by the 
Six Nations, and that therefore the latter had 
no right to sell them. The Six Nations ad- 
mitted that they had given the region to their 
cousins, the Delawares, as a hunting-ground, 
yet they did not hesitate to n:ake the sale to 
the English, in 1754, and to confirm it in 1758, 
as mentioned above. In the mean time the 
Delawares, whose lauds had l)een taken from 
them, while they had received none of the con- 
sideration of four hundred pounds which had 
been paid to the Six Nations, sought an oppor- 
tunity and pretext for that revenge' against the 
English which they dared not show towards 
their ancient conquerors, the Six Nations. Such 
an opportunity was presented by General Brad- 
dock's disaster on the Monongahela, July 9, 
1755, immediately after which they, with the 
Shawanese, became the active and bloody-handed 
allies of the French who occupied the forts on 
the Allegheny River. Within three months 
from the time of Braddock's defeat their war- 
parties had crossed the AUeghenies eastward," 
and committed atrocities at Conococheague, and 
other front'.er settlements along the southern 
border of the province, and on the 16th of Oc- 
tober, in that year, they appeared in some force 
on Penn's Creek, in the present county of 
Snyder, where they burned the houses, massa- 
cred the people and broke up the settlements. 
An account of the inroad and massacre is found 
in the following petition addressed, at that time. 
to Robert Hunter Morris, Governor of Penn- 

" We, the subscribers, living near the mouth of Penn's 
creek, on the west side of the Susquehanna, humbly 

1 In fact, they had shown hostile intentions even before 
the defeat. As early as May 20, 1755, Colongl John 
Armstrong, of Cumberland County, wrote Governor Morris, 
notifying him that three painted savages had been seen 
in KishacoquiUas Valley, and that they had robbed and 
diiven away several settlers from that vicinity. 



show that, on or about the 16th October the enemy 
came down upon said creek, killed, scalped, and car- 
ried away all the men, women, and children, amount- 
ing to twenty-five in number, and wounded one man, 
who, fortunately, made his escape, and brought us 
the news. Whereupon the subscribers went out and 
buried the dead. We found thirteen, who were men 
and elderly women, and one child, two weeks old ; 
the rest, being young women and children, we suppose 
to be carried away. The house (where we suppose 
they finished their murder) we found burned up, the 
man of it, named Jacob King, a Swisser, lying just by 
it. He lay on his back, barbarously burned, and two 
tomahawks sticking in his forehead, one of them 
newly marked W. D. We have sent them to your 
Honor. The terror of which has drove away all the 
inhabitants except us. We are willing to stay, and 
defend the land, but need arms, ammunition, and as- 
sistance. Without them, we must ilee, and leave the 
country to the mercy of the enemy. 

" George Glidwell. Jacob Simmons. 

George Auchmudy. Conrad Craymer. 

John McCahan. George Fry. 

Abraham Sowerkill. George Schnable. 

Edmund Matthews. George Aberhart. 

Mark Curry. Daniel Braugh. 

William Doran. George Linn. 

Dennis Mucklehenny. Godfrey Fryer." 

John Young. 

The following letter from John Harris 
(founder of Harrisburg) to the Governor re- 
lates further particulars of the Penn's Creek 
mas.sacre, viz. : 

"Paxton, October 20, 1755. 
" May it please your Honour : 

" I was informed, last night, by a person that came 
down our River, that there was a Dutch woman who 
made her escape to George Gabriel's, and informs us 
that last Friday evening, on her way home from this 
settlement, on Mahahony or Penn's Creek, where her 
family lived, she called at a neighbour's house and 
saw two persons lying by the Door of said house, 
murdered and scalped, and there were some Dutch 
families that lived near their places immediately left, 
nut thinking it safe to stay any longer. It is the 
Opinion of the people up the River, that the families 
on Penn's Creek being scattered, that but few in 
number are killed or carried oft', except the above 
sAd woman, the certainty of which will soon be 
known, as there are some men gone out to bury the 

'■ By report this evening, I was likewise informed 
by the Belt of Wampum' and these Indians here, 
there were seen, near Shamokin, about six days ago, 
two French Indians of the Canawago tribe. 1 a little 

An Indian, so called. 

doubted the truth of the report at first, but the In- 
dians have seemed so afraid, that they dispatclied 
Messengers immediately, to the Mountains above my 
house, to bring in some of their women that were 
gathering chestnuts, for fear of their being killed. By 
a person just arrived down our River brought Infor- 
mation of two men being murdered within live miles 
of George Gabriel's, lour women carried oft', and there 
is one man wounded in three places, who escaped to 
Gabriel's and it is imagined that all the inhabitants 
on Penn's Creek and Little Mahahony are killed or 
carried off, as most of them live much higher up, where 
the first murder was discovered. The Indian war- 
riours here send you these two strings of white Wam- 
pum, and the Women hold the black one, both re- 
questing that you would lay by all your council pipes 
immediately and open all your eyes and ears, and 
view your slain People in this land, and put a stop to 
it immediately, and come to this 2)lace to our assist- 
ance without any delay, and the Belt of Wampum 
particularly mentions that the Proprietors and your 
Honour would immediately act in defense of their 
Country, as the old chain of Friendship now is 
broken by several Nations of Indians, and it seems to 
be such as they never expected to see or hear of. Any 
delay on our acting vigorously now at this time, 
would be the loss of all Indian interest, and perhaps 
our Ruin in these parts. 

" I am. Your Honour's 

" Most Obedient Servant, 

"JoHX Harris." 

In a postscript to this letter he informed the 
Governor that he should endeavor to send a 
party of his neighbors up the river to learn full 
jiarticulars of the affair, and also of the feelings 
and disposition of the Indians then gathered 
at Shamokin. A party of forty-six from the 
vicinity of Harris' Ferry accordingly went up, 
Mr. Harris accompanying them. On their re- 
turn they were fired on by an ambushed party 
of Indians, who killed four, while four more 
were drowned in attempting to cross the river. 
The rest fled, and the whole line of the river 
was abandoned from Shamokin to Hunter's 
Mill. An account of it is given in the follow- 
ing letter from Mr. Harris to Governor 
Morris : 

" Paxtox, October 2S, 1755. 
" May it please your Honour : 

'This is to acquaint you that on the 24th of October 
I arrived at Shamokin, in order to protect our Fron- 
tiers up that way, till they might make their escape 
from their cruel enemies, and learn the best intelli- 
gence I could. 



"The Indians on the West Branch of the Susque- 
hanna certainly killed our Inhabitants on Penn'.s 
Creek; and there are a hatchet and two English scalps 
sent by them up the North Branch, to desire them to 
strike with them if they are men. 

"The Indians are all assembling themselves at 
Shamokin to counsel ; a large Body of them was there 
four days ago. I cannot learn their Intentions, but 
seems Andrew Montour and Mona-ca-too-tlja are to 
bring down the News from them. There is not a 
sulKcient number of them to oppose the enemy, and 
perhaps they will join the enemy against us. There 
is no dependence on Indians, and we are in imminent 

" I got certain Information from Andrew Montour 
and others, that there is a Body of French with fifteen 
hundred Indians coming upon us — -Picks, Ottaways, 
Orandox, Delawares, Shawanese. and a number of the 
Six Nations; and are now not many days march from 
this Province and Virginia, which are appointed to 
be attacked ; at the same time some of the Shamokin 
Indians seem friendly and others appear like enemies. 

"Montour knew, many days ago, of the enemy being 
on their March against us before he informed; for 
which I said as much to him as I thought prudent, 
considering the place I was in. 

" On the 25th instant, on my Return, with about 
forty more, we were attacked by about twenty or thirty 
Indians; — received their fire, and about fifteen of our 
men and myself took to the trees, attacked the Vil- 
lains, killed four of them on the spot, and lost but 
three more — retreating about half a mile through 
woods, and crossing the Susquehanna; one of whom 
was shot oft" an horse riding behind myself through 
the River. My horse was wounded, and falling in the 
River, I was obliged to quit him and swim part of 
the way. Four or five of our men were Drowned 
crossing the River. I hope our journey, though with 
fatigue and loss of substance, and some of our Lives, 
will be of service to our Country, by discovering our 
Enemy, who will be our ruin if not timely prevented. 

"I just now received Information that there was a 
French Officer, supposed with a party of Shawanese, 
Delawares, &c., within six miles of Shamokin ten 
days ago; and no doubt intends to take possession of 
it, which will be a dreadful consequence to us if suf- 
fered. Therefore I thought proper to dispatch this 
Message to inform your Honour. The Indians here, ' 
I hope, your Honour, will be pleased to cause them 
to remove to some place, as I do not like their com- 
pany ; and as the men of those here were not against 
us, yet did them no harm, or else I would have them 
all cut ofi". Belt (Indian so-called) promised at Sha- 
mokin to send out Spies to view the Enemy; and 
upon hearing of our skirmishes. Old Belt was in a 

1 Meaning the supposed friendly Indians who were then 
gathered in considerable numbers in the vicinity of Harris' 
Ferry (now Harrisburg). 

Rage, — gathered up thirty Indians immediately, and 
went in pursuit of the enemy, as I am this Day in- 

" I expect Montour and Mona-ca-too-tha down here 
this week with the Determination of their Shamokin 
council. The Inhabitants are abandoning their 
Plantations, and we are in a dreadful Situation. 

" John Harris. 

" P. S. The night ensuing our Attack, the Indians 
burnt all George Gabriel's houses — danced around 

In a postscript to his previous letter, Mr. 
Harris told the Governor that unless vigorous 
measures of defense were taken, the settlers 
would abandon the country west of the Susque- 
hanna, and that there was very grave danger 
that the Indians, hitherto regarded as friendly, 
would go over to the French. 

The Stoey of Marie Lb Eoy and Bak- 
BARA Leininger. — The result of the Indian 
incursion and massacre at Penn's Creek was the 
killing of about fifteen persons, and the taking 
of ten prisoners, among whom weie Marie Le 
Roy and Leininger, who remained in captivity 
with the Indians about three and a half years, 
at the eud of which time they succeeded in 
making their escape. In 1759 they were exam- 
ined before the authorities relative to the 
circumstances attending their capture and im- 
prisonment by the savages, and their sworn 
statement was translated from the original 
German by the Moravian Bishop de Schweinitz, 
of Bethlehem, Pa., for the Hon. John Blair 
Linn. The substance of the narrative is as 
follows : 

" Marie Le Roy was born at Brondrut, in Switzer- 
land, and in 1752 she came to America with her 
parents, who settled about fifteen miles from the site 
from the present town of Sunbury.- Half a mile 
from their plantation lived Barbara Leininger, with 
her parents, who came to Pennsylvania from Reutlin- 
gen in or about the year 1749. 

" Early in the morning of the 16th of October, 
1755, while Le Roy's hired man went out to fetch the 
cows, he heard the Indians shooting six times. Soon 
after, eight of them came to the house and killed 
Barbara Le Roy's father with tomahawks. Her 

'' The house where the Le Roy family lived stood by the 
spring on the farm owned in recent years by Frederick 
Bolender, Esq , in Buffalo Valley. It is now, or was 
lately, the property of the heirs of the Hon. Isaac Slenker. 



brother defended hinisclt' desperately for a time, but 
was, at last, overpowered. The Indians did not kill 
him, but took him prisoner, together witli Marie Le 
Roy and a little girl, who was staying with the family. 
Thereupon they plundered the homestead and set it 
on fire. Into this fire they laid the body of the mur- 
dered father, feet foremost, until it was half consumed. 
The u[)per half was left lying on the ground, with 
the two tomahawks, with which they had killed him, 
sticking in his head. Then they kindled another fire, 
not far from the house. While sitting around it, a 
neighbor of Le Roy, named Bastian, happened to 
pass by on horseback. He was immediately shot 
down and scalped. 

"Two of the Indians now went to the house of 
Barbara Leininger, where they found her father and 
brother and sister Regina. Her mother had gone to 
the mill. They demanded rum ; but there was none 
in the house. Then they called for tobacco, which 
was given them. Having filled and smoked a pipe, 
they said : ' We are Allegheny Indians and your ene- 
mies. You must die ! ' Thereupon they shot her 
father, tomahawked her brother, who was twenty 
years of age, took Barbara and her sister Regina 
prisoners and conveyed them into the forest for about 
a mile. They were soon joined by the otlier Indians, 
with Marie Le Roy and the little girl. 

" Not long after, several of the Indians led the 
jirisoners to the top of a high hill, near the two plan- 
tations. Toward evening the rest of the savages re- 
turned with six fresh and bloody scalps, which they 
threw at the feet of the poor captives, saying that 
they had a good hunt that day. 

" The next morning we were taken about two miles 
further into the forest, while the most of the Indians 
again went out to kill and plunder. Toward evening 
they returned with nine scalps and five prisoners. 

"On the third day the whole band came together 
and divided the spoils. In addition to large quantities 
of provisions, they had taken fourteen horses and 
ten prisoners, namely : One man, one woman, five 
girls and three boys. We two girls, as also two of 
the horses, fell to the share of an Indian named 

"We traveled with our new master for two days. 
He was tolerably kind and allowed us to ride all the 
way, while he and the rest of the Indians walked. Of 
this circumstance Barbara Leininger took advantage 
and tried to escape. But she was almost immediately 
recaptured and condemned to be burned alive. The 
savages gave her a French Bible, which they had 
taken from Le Roy's house, in order that she might 
prepare for death ; and, when she told them that she 
could not understand it, they gave her a German 
Bible. Thereupon they made a large pile of wood 
and set it on fire, intending to put her into the midst 
of it. But a young Indian begged so earnestly for 
her life that she was pardoned, after having promised 

not to attempt to escape again, and to stop her cry- 

" The next day the whole troop was divided into 
two bauds, the one marching in the direction of the 
Ohio, the other, in which we were with Galasko, to 
Jenkiklamuhs,' a Delaware town on the west branch 
of the Susquehanna. There we staid ten days, and 
then proceeded to Puncksotonay,^ or Eschentown. 
Marie Le Roy's brother was forced to remain at Jen- 

" After having rested for five days at Puncksotonay, 
we took our way to Kittanny. As this was to be the 
place of our permanent abode we here received our 
welcome, according to Indian custom. It consisted of 
three blows each on the back. They were, however, 
administered with great mercy. Indeed, we con- 
cluded that we were beaten merely in order to keep 
up an ancient usage, and not with the intention of 
injuring us. The month of December was the time 
of our arrival, and we remained at Kittanny until the 
month of September, 1756. 

" The Indians gave us enough to do. We had to tan 
leather, to make shoes (moccasins), to clear land, to 
plant corn, to cut down trees and build huts, to wash 
and cook. The want of provisions, however, caused 
us the greatest sufferings. During all the time that 
we were at Kittanny we had neither lard nor salt ; 
and, sometimes, we were forced to live on acorns, 
roots, grass and bark. There was nothing in the 
world to make this new sort of food palatable, ex- 
cepting hunger itself 

" In the month of September Colonel Armstrong 
arrived with his men, and attacked Kittanny Town. 
Both of us happened to be in that part of it which 
lies on the other (right) side of the river (Allegheny). 
We were immediately conveyed ten miles farther into 
the interior, in order that we might have no chance 
of trying, on this occasion, to escape. The savages 
threatened to kill us. If the English had advanced, 
this might have happened. For, at that time, the In- 
dians were greatly in dread of Colonel Armstrong's 
corps. After the English had withdrawn, we were 
again brought back to Kittanny, which town had 
been burned to the ground. 

" There we had the mournful opportunity of wit- 
nessing the cruel end of an English woman, who had 
attempted to flee out of her captivity and to return to 
the settlements with Colonel Armstrong. Having 
been recaptured by the savages and brought back to 
Kittanny, she was put to death in an unheard-of way. 
First, they scalped her; next they laid burning 
splinters of wood here and there upon her body; and 
then they cut oft' her ears and fingers, forcing them 
into her mouth so that she had to swallow them. 

' Cbinklacamoose, on the site of the present town of 
' learfield. 

- Punxsutawny, in Jefferson County. 



Amidst such torments, this woman lived from nine 
o'cloclv in the morning until toward sunset, when a 
French officer took compassion ou her and put her 
out of her misery. An English soldier, on the contrary, 
named John , who escaped from prison at Lan- 
caster and joined the French, had a piece of flesh cut 
from her body and ate it. When she was dead, the 
Indian.s chopped her in two, through the middle, and 
let her lie until the dogs came and devoured her. 

" Three days later an Englishman was brought in, 
who had likewise attempted to escape with Colonel 
Armstrong, and burned alive in the same village. His 
torments, however, continued only about three 
hours ; but his screams were frightful to listen to. It 
rained that day very hard, so that the Indians could 
not keep up the fire. Hence they began to discharge 
gunpowder at his body. At last, amidst his worst 
pains, when the poor man called for a drink of water, 
they brought him melted lead and poured it down his 
throat. This draught at once helped him out of the 
hands of the barbarians, for he died on the instant. 

" It is easy to imagine what an impression such 
fearful instances of cruelty make upon the mind of a 
poor captive. Does be attempt to escape from the 
savages, he knows in advance that if retaken he will 
be roasted alive. Hence he must compare two evils, 
namely, either to remain among them a prisoner for- 
ever, or to die a cruel death. Is he fully resolved to 
endure the latter, then he may run away with a brave 

" Soon after these occurrences we were brought to 
Fort Duquesne, where we remained for about two 
months. We worked for the French and our Indian 
master drew our wages. In this place, thank God, we 
could again eat bread. Half a pound was given us 
daily. We might have had bacon, too, but we took 
none of it for it was no good. In 'Some respects we 
were better off than in the Indian towns. We could 
not, however, abide the French. They tried hard to 
induce us to forsake the Indians and stay with them, 
making us various favorable offers. But we believed 
that it would be better for us to stay among the In- 
dians, inasmuch as they would be more likely to make 
peace with the English than with the French, and 
inasmuch as there would be more ways open for flight 
in the forest than in a fort. Consequently we declined 
the offers of the French, and accompanied our Indian 
master to Sackum,' where we spent the winter, keep- 
ing house for the savages, who were continually on 
the chase. In the spring we were taken to '' Kasch- 

'Sakunk, outlet of the Big Beaver into the Ohio, a point 
well-known to all Indians ; their rendezvous in the French 
Wars, etc.' Post, in liis journal, under date of August 20, 
1758, records his experience at Sakunk (Reichel). See 
Post's Journal, Pennsylvania Archives, 0. S., vol. iii., page 

'' Kaskasbunk, near the junction of the Slienango and 
Mahoning, in Lawrence County. 

kaschkung, an Indian town on the Beaver Creek. 
There we again had to clear the plantations of the 
Indian nobles, after the German fashion, to plant 
corn and to do other hard work of every kind. We 
remained at this place for about a year and a half. 

"After having in the past three years seen no one 
of our own flesh and blood, except those unhappy 
beings, who, like ourselves, were bearing the yoke of 
the heaviest slavery, we had the unexpected pleasure 
of meeting with a German, who was not a captive, 
but free, and who, as we heard, had been sent into 
this neighborhood to negotiate a peace between the 
English and the natives. His name was Frederick 
Post. We and all the other prisoners heartily wished 
him success and God's blessing upon his undertaking. 
We were, however, not allowed to speak with him. 
The Indians gave us plainly to understand that any 
attempt to do tliis would be taken amiss. He himself, 
by the reserve with which he treated us, let us see 
that this was not the time to talk over our afflictions. 
But we were greatly alarmed on his account. For the 
French told us that if they caught him they would 
roast him alive for five days, and many Indians de- 
clared that it was impossible for him to get safely 
through, that he was destined for death. 

" Last summer the French and Indians were de- 
feated by the English in a battle fought at Loyal- 
Hannon, or Fort Ligonier. This caused the utmost 
consternation among the natives. They brought their 
wives and children from Lockstown,'' Sackum, Scho- 
mingo, Mamalty, Kaschkaschkung and other places 
in that neighborhood to Moschkingo, about one hun- 
dred and fifty miles farther west. Before leaving, 
however, they destroyed their crops and burned every- 
thing which they could not carry with them. We 
had to go along and staid at Moschkii;go* the whole 

" In February Barbara Leiuinger agreed with an 
Englishman, named David Breckenreach (Brecken- 
ridge), to escape, and gave our comrade, Marie le 
Roy, notice of their intentions. On account of the 
severe season of the year and the long journey which 
lay before them, Marie strongly advised her to re- 
linquish the project, suggesting that it should be post- 
poned until spring, when the weather would be 
milder, and promising to accompany her at that time. 

" On the last day of February nearly all the In- 
dians left Moschkingo, and proceeded to Pittsburgh to 
sell pelts. Meanwhile, their women traveled ten 
miles up the country to gather roots, and we accom- 
panied them. Two men went along as a guard. It 
was our earnest hope that the opportunity for a 
flight, so long desired, had now come. Accordingly, 
Barbara Leininger pretended to be sick, so that she 
might be allowed to put up a hut for herself alone. 

^ Loggstown, on the Ohio, eight miles above Beaver. — 
Weiser's Journal. 
* Muskingum. 



On the fourteenth of March Marie le Roy was sent 
back to the town, in order to fetch two young clogs 
which had been left there; and on the same day 
Barbara Leininger came out of her hut and visited a 
German woman, ten miles from Mosohkingo. This 

woman's name is Mary , and she is the wife of a 

miller from the South Branch.' She had made every 
preparation to accompany us on our flight, but Bar- 
bara found that she had meanwhile become lame, 
and could not think of going along. She, however, 
gave Barbara the provisions which she had stored, 
namely, two pounds of dried meat, a quart of corn 
and four pounds of sugar. Besides, she presented her 
with pelts for mocasins. Moreover, she advised a 
young Englishman, Owen Gibson, to flee with us two 

"On the sixteenth of March, in the evening, Gib- 
son reached Barbara Leininger's hut, and at ten 
o'clock our whole party, consisting of us two girls, 
Gibson and David Breckenreach, left Moschkingo. 
This town lies on a river in the country of the Della- 
mottinoes. We had to pass many huts inhabited by 
the savages, and knew that there were at least sixteen 
dogs with thera. In the merciful providence of God 
not a single one of these dogs barked. Their barking 
would have at once betrayed us, and frustrated our 

" It is hard to describe the anxious fears of a poor 
woman under such circumstances. The extreme 
probability that the Indians would pursue and re- 
capture us, was as two to one compared with the dim 
hope that, perhaps, we would get through in safety. 
But, even if we escaped the Indians, how would we 
ever succeed in passing through the wilderness, un- 
acquainted with a single path or trail, without a 
guide, and helpless, half naked, broken down by 
more than three years of hard slavery, hungry and 
scarcely any food, the season wet and cold, and many 
rivers and streams to cross"? Under such circum- 
stances, to depend upon one's own sagacity would be 
the worst of follies. If one could not believe there is 
a God who helps and saves from death, one had 
better let running away alone. 

" We safely reached the river (Muskingum). Here 
the first thought in all our minds was: O! that we 
were safely across ! And Barbara Leininger, in par- 
ticular, recalling ejaculatory prayers from an old 
hymn which she had learned in her youth, put them 
together to suit our j^resent circumstances, something 
in the following style: 

" ' O bring us safely across this river ! 
In fear I cry, yea my soul doth quiver. 
The worst afflictions are now before me, 
Where'er I turn nought but death do I see. 
Alas ! what great hardships are yet in store 
In the wilderness wide, beyond that shore! 

i. c, South Branch of the Pototn.ic. 

It hath neither water, nor meat, nor bread, 

But each new morning something new to dread. 

Yet little sorrow would hunger me cost 

If I could flee from the savage host, 

Which murders and fights and burns far and wide. 

While Satan himself is array'd on its side. 

Should on us fall one of its cruel hands, 

Then, heljj us. Great God, and stretch out Thy 

hands ! 
In Thee will we trust, be Thou ever near. 
Art Thou our Joshua, we need, not fear.' 

" Presently we found a raft, left by the Iudian.s. 
Thanking God that He had himself prepared a way 
for us to cross these first waters, we got on board and 
pushed off. But we were carried almost a mile down 
the river before we could reach the other side. There 
our journey began in good earnest. Full of anxiety 
and fear, we fairly ran that whole night and all next 
day, when we lay down to rest without venturing to 
kindle a fire. Early the next morning Owen Gibson 
fired at a bear. The animal fell, but, when he ran 
with his tomahawk to kill it, it jumped up and bit 
him in the feet, leaving three wounds. We all hast- 
ened to his assistance. The bear escaped into narrow 
holes among the rocks, where we could not follow. 
On the third day, however, Owen Gibson shot a deer. 
We cut off' the hind quarters, and roasted them at 
night. The next morning he again shot a deer, 
which furnished us with food for that day. In the 
evening we got to the Ohio at last, having made a 
circuit of over one hundred miles in order to reach it. 

"About midnight the two Englishmen rose and be- 
gan to work at a raft, which was finished by morn- 
ing. We got on board and safely crossed the river. 
From the signs which the Indians had there put up 
we saw that we were about one hundred and fifty 
miles from Fort Duquesne. After a brief consulta- 
tion we resolved, heedless of path or trail, to travel 
straight toward the rising of the sun. This we did 
for seven days. On the seventh we found that we 
had reached the Little Beaver Creek, and were about 
fifty miles from Pittsburgh. 

"And now, that we imagined ourselves so near the 
end of all our troubles and misery, a whole host of 
mishaps came upon us. Our provisions were at an 
end, Barbara Leininger fell into the water and wa.* 
nearly drowned, and, worst misfortune of all, Owen 
Gibson lost his flint and steel. Hence we had to 
spend four nights without fire amidst rain and snow. 

" On the last day of March we came to a river. 
Alloquepy,'- about three miles below Pittsburgh. Here 
we made a raft, which, however, proved to be too light 
to carry us across. It threatened to sink, and Marie 
le Roy fell off", and narrowly escaped drowning. We 
had to put back, and let one of our men convey one 
of us across at a time. In this way we reached the 

'' Chartier's Creek. 



MoDongahela River, on the other side of Pittsburgh, 
the same evening. 

" Upon our calling for he\p, Col. Mercer imme- 
diately sent out a boat to bring us to the Fort. At 
first, however, the crew created many difficulties 
about taking us on board. They thought we were 
Indians, and wanted us to spend the night where we 
were, saying they would fetch us in the morning. 
When we had succeeded in convincing them that we 
were English prisoners, who had escaped from the 
Indians, and that we were wet and cold and hungry, 
they brought us over. There was an Indian with the 
soldiers in the boat. He asked us whether we could 
speak good Indian ? Marie le Roy said she could 
speak it. Thereupon he inquired why she had run 
away? She replied that her Indian mother had been 
so cross, and had scolded her so constantly, that she 
could not stay with her any longer. This answer did 
not please him ; nevertheless, doing as courtiers do, 
he said he was very glad we had safely reached the 

" It was in the night from the last of March to the 
first of April that we came to Pittsburgh. Most 
heartily did we thank God in heaven for all the mercy 
which he showed us, for His gracious support in our 
weary captivity, for the courage which He gave us to 
undertake our flight, and to surmount all the many 
hardships it brought us, for letting us find the road, 
which we did not know, and of which Pie alone could 
know that on it we would meet neither danger nor 
enemy, and for finally bringing us to Pittsburgh to our 
countrymen in safety. 

" Colonel Mercer helped and aided us in every way 
which lay in his power. Whatever was on hand and 
calculated to refresh us was offered in the most 
friendly manner. The Colonel ordered for each of 
us a new chemise, a petticoat, a pair of stockings, gar- 
ters and a knife. After having spent a day at Pitts- 
burgh, we went, with a detachment under command of 
Lieutenant Miles,' to Fort Ligonier. There the Lieu- 
tenant presented each of us with a blanket. On the 
fifteenth we left Fort Ligonier, under protection of 
Captain Weiser and Lieutenant Atly,^ for Fort Bed- 
ford, where we arrived in the evening of the sixteenth, 
and remained a week. Thence, provided with pass- 
ports by Lieutenant Geiger, we traveled in wagons to 
Harris' Ferry, and from there, afoot, by way of Lan- 
caster, to Philadelphia. Owen Gibson remained at 
Fort Bedford, and David Breckenreach at Lancaster. 
We two girls arrived in Philadelphia on Sunday, the 
sixth of May. 

''And now we come to the chief reason why we 
have given the foregoing narrative to the public. It 
is not done in order to render our own sufferings and 
humble history famous, but rather in order to serve 
the inhabitants of this country, by making them ac- 

1 Lieutenant Samuel Miles. 
' Lieutenant Samuel .J. Atlee. 

quainted with the names and circumstances of those 
prisoners whom we met, at the various places where 
we were, in the course of our captivity. Their 
parents, brothers, sisters and other relations will, no 
doubt, be glad to hear that their nearest kith and kin 
are still in the land of the living, and that they may 
hence entertain some hope of seeing them again in 
their own homes, if God permit. 

'■ Marie Basket is at Kaschkaschkung. She was 
taken prisoner on the Susquehanna, where her hus- 
band was killed. She has two sons. The younger is 
with his mother ; the elder is in a distant Indian 

"Mary Basket's sister — her name is Nancy Basket 
— is at Sackum. 

" Mary, Caroline and Catharine Hoeth,' three sis- 
ters, from the Blue Mountains. 

"Anne Gray, who was captiu-ed at Fort Gransville,* 
is at Kashkaschkung. We saw her daughter, but she 
has been taken farther west by the Indians. 

" John Weisman, a young unmarried Englishman, 
about eighteen years of age, is now at Moschkingo. 
He is said to have been captured on the South 

"Sarah Boy, David Boy, Rhode Boy, Thomas Boy, 
and James Boy, five children. The youngest is about 
five or six years olds Sarah, the oldest, is about fif- 
teen or sixteen years of age. Three years ago they 
were captured in Virginia. 

" Nancy and Johanna Dacherty, two sisters, aged 
about ten and six years, captured at Conecocheague, 
and now in Kaschkaschkung. 

" Eve Isaacs, William Isaacs and Catharine Isaacs. 
Eve is a widow and has a child of about four years 
with her. Her husband was killed by the Indians. 
William is about fourteen or fifteen years of age, and 
Catharine about twelve. They are Germans. Eve 
and her child, together with Catharine, are in Kasch- 
kaschkuuk; William in Moschkingo. They were 
captured on the South Branch. 

" Henry Seifiart, Elizabeth Seiifart, Geo. Seiffart, 
Catharine Seiti'art and Maria Seiffart, brothers and 
sisters, Germans, captured about thirteen months ago 
at Southport, in Virginia, are now at Kaschkaschkung 
and Moschkingo. 

" Betty Rogers, an unmarried woman, with five or 
six brothers and sisters, of whom the youngest is about 
four years old, captured three and a half years ago on 
the South Branch. 

" Betty Frick, a girl of about twenty-two years old, 
captured three years ago in Virginia, now in Kasch- 

" Fanny Flardy, from Virginia, married to a French- 
man. Her daughter, seven or eight years old, is at 

3 From Northampton County. 

* Fort Granville, one mile west of Lewistown, on the 



" Anna Brielinger,' wife of a German smith from 
Schomoko, now at Kasohkashkung. 

"Peter Lixe'sHwo sons, Joiiu and William, Ger- 
man children from Schomoko, now in Kitahohing. 

"An old Englishman or Irishman, whose surname 
we do not know, but whose Christian name is Dan, a 
cooper, captured on the Susquehanna, now at Kasch- 
kaschkung. His wife and children are said to be in 
this country. 

"Elizabeth, a young English woman, captured 
about a mile and a half from Justice Gulbret's' place, 
on the Swatara. Her child, which she took along, is 
dead. Her husband and other children are said to be 
living somewhere in this country. She is at Kasch- 

" Marie Peck, a German woman, captured two and 
a half years ago in Maryland. Her husband and 
children are said to be living somewhere in this 

"Margaret Brown, a German single woman, cap- 
tured on the South Branch, in Virginia, now in the 
country of the Oschaski, a powerful nation, living, 
it is said, in a land where there is no timber. 

" Mary Ann Villars, from French Switzerland, a 
girl of fifteen years, was captured with Marie le Roy, 
has a brother and sister living near Lancaster. 

"Sally Wood, a single woman, aged about eighteen 
or nineteen years, captured in Virginia three and a 
half years ago, now in Sackum. 

" Two young men, brothers, named Ixon, the one 
about twenty, the other about fifteen years old, at 
Kaschkaschkung. Their mother was sold to the 

" Mary Lory and James Lory, brother and sister, 
the first about fourteen, the second about twelve or 
thirteen years old, captured three years ago at Fort 

"Mary Taylor, an English woman, captured at 
Fort Granville, together with a girl named Margaret. 
" Margaret, the girl captured with the foregoing. 
" We became acquainted with many other captives, 
men, women and children, in various Indian towns, 
but do not know or cannot remember their names. 
We are, however, heartily willing to give to all such 
as have or believe to have connections among the In- 
dians, any further information which may lie within 
our power. We intend to go from here to Lancaster, 
where we may easily be found." 

Massacres in 1756. — The massacre at 
Peun's Creek, ou the 1 6th of October, 1755, 
aiitl the subsequent Indian attack on John 

' Wife of Jacob Breilinger, whose itaprovement was on 
Peon's Creek, two miles below New Berlin, in Union 

2 Peter Lick, from Penn's Creek, near New Berlin. 

^ Galbraith. 

Harris' armed party, on the west side of the 
Susquelianna, on the 25th of the same month 
(as related in the letter printed in this chapter, 
addressed by him to the Governor), had the ef- 
fect which he foresaw, viz. : to drive all the 
settlers from their plantations west of the 
river, so that none of those whose locations 
were above Mahantango Creek returned to 
their improvements until after the conclusion of 
the "New Purchase"' of 1768. 

Another result mentioned by Mr. Harris a.s to 
be feared, was that tlie body of (supposed 
friendly) Indians collected at Shamokin (Sun- 
bury) would finally side with the French, who 
were then reported as being in considerable 
force, on their way down the West Branch ; 
that he was expecting Mon-a-ca-tootha and 
Montour at the Ferry (Harrisburg), in a few 
days, to inform him what decision the Indians 
had made as to their attitude tow-ards the Eng- 
lish, whether it was to be war or peace ; and 
on the 31 st of October, Andrew Montour, " The 
Belt" (a friendly chief), two Mohawks and 
other Indians from Shamokin, arrived at Har- 
ris' plantation with information that " the whole 
body of Indians, or the greatest part of them 
in the French interest, is actually encamped on 
this (east) side below George Gabriel's, near 
Susquehanna," and that a French officer was in 
that region, charged with the duty of immedi- 
ately commencing the erection of a French fort 
at Shamokin ; upon which John Harris and 
others issued a call to all His Majesty's subjects 
in Pennsylvania to report on the Susquehanna 
frontier without delay, to resist the advance of 
the French and hostile savages. 

On the 27th of January, 1756, a party of 
Indians from Shamokin made a foray in the 
Juniata Valley, first attacking the house of 
Hugh Mitcheltree,^ who was absent at Car- 
lisle, having left his house in the care of his 
wife and a young man named Edward Nicholas. 
Both of these were killed by the Indians, who 
then went up the river to the house of Edward 
Nicholas, Sr., whom they killed, as also his 
wife, and took seven prisoners, namely : Jos- 

*0n the farm now owned by Wm. 
ware township, .Tuniata County. 

Thompson. Dela- 



eph, Thomas and Catharine Nicholas, John 
Wilcox, and the wife and two children of 
James Armstrong. 

" While they were committiug these depredations 
in what is now .Juniata County, an Indian named 
Cotties wished to be captain of this party, but they 
did not choose him ; whereupon he and a boy went 
to Sherman's Creek, and killed William Sheridan and 
his family, thirteen in number. They then went 
down the creek to where three old persons lived, two 
men and a woman, named French, whom they killed. 
Cotties often boasted afterward that he and the boy 
took more scalps than all the others of the party. 

" The same Cotties in 1757, went to Hunter's Fort 
and killed a young man named William Martin, 
whilst he was gathering chestnuts. After the war 
was over, the same Cotties, being at the same fort, 
was killed by an Indian of the name of Hambus, who 
reproached him for the death of young Martin." 

The following letters, copied from the original, 
giving an account of a massacre by Indians, on 
the river, between Thompsontowu and ]\[exico, 
are exceedingly interesting, and taken iu connec- 
tion with the other extracts, comprise about all 
the cotemporary literature on that event and 
its sequences. This was the largest butchery of 
whites that ever took place in the east end of 
Juniata County. The letter of January 28th 
proves that at that date Captain Patterson was 
with his company at his fort, which was 
located " on Juniata," and not on Mahantango. 
It is a singular fact that even the tradition of 
these murders is lost in this locality. 

Extract from a letter from Carlisle, dated 
January 29, 1756,— 

" This afternoon came to town a man that lived on 
Juniata, who in his journey this way called at the 
house where the woolcombers lived, about ten miles 
from this place, and saw at his door a bed-tick, and 
going into the house found a child lying dead and 
scalped. This alarmed us much, and while we were 
consulting what to do, we received the enclosed, 
which puts it past all doubt that the enemy intend to 
attack either Sherman's Valley or this place. We 
thought it necessary to acquaint you as soon as 
possible, not only to hurry you home, but, if thought 
needful, that the people of York might send over 
some aid." 

The following is the " enclosed " referred 

" Extract of a Letter from Patterson's Fort, on Juniata, 
January 28, 1756. 
"This serves to inform you yesterday, some 

time in the afternoon, one Adam Nicholson and his 
wife were killed and scalped and his daughter and 
two sons made prisoners; that the wife and two 
children of James Armstrong were also made pris- 
oners ; and William Willock and wife killed and 
scalped and live children carried off" by the Indians — 
in all fifteen people killed and taken. I was this day 
with our Captain at the places of the above-mentioned, 
where we saw three of the dead people and the houses 
burnt to ashes. I desire you would tell Ben Killgore 
and his brother to hurry over and all the boys be- 
longing to our Company to come in a body, and that 
you may be upon your guard, for all the Indians, 
except two that went with the prisoners, crossed over 
Juniata towards your settlement. There is a large 
body of them, as we suppose from their tracks. 

" N. B. — The above mischief was done within three 
short miles of the Fort., down the creek (river). Just 
now a man came to the fort and informed us that Hugh 
Mitcheltree's wife and another son of Nicholson's 
were also murdered. There are no more missing in 
this neighborhood at present." ' 

" We have advice from Carlisle that, besides the 
mischief mentioned in our last to be done by the 
Indians near Patterson's Fort on the Juniata, the 
party that went to bury the dead found one Sheridan 
and his wife, three children and a manservant, all 
murdered ; also two others in another house ; these 
within ten miles of Carlisle." '' 

" I am heartily sorry that I must grieve you with 
an account of a most inhuman murder, committed by 
the Indians at Juniata and Sherman's Creek on the 
27th of last month. Within three miles of Patter- 
son's Fort was found Adam Nicholson and his wife 
dead and scalped, and his two sons and a daughter 
were carried oflT; William Wilcock and his wife dead 
and scalped ; [Mrs.] Hugh Mitcheltree and a son of said 
Nicholson dead and scalped, with many children, in 
all about seventeen. The same day one Sheridan, a 
Quaker, his wife and three children and a servant 
were killed and scalped, together with one William 
Hamilton and his wife and daughter, and one French, 
within ten miles of Carlisle, a little beyond Stephens' 
Gap." ' 

The same events are thus related in Gordon's 
" History of Pennsylvania," — 

" In February, 1756, a party of Indians from 
Shamokin came to Juniata. They first came to 
Hugh Mitcheltree's, being on the river, who had gone 
to Carlisle, and had got a young man named Edward 
Nicholas to stay with his wife until he would return ; 
the Indians killed them both. The same party of 
Indians went up the river where the Lukens' now 
live ; William Wilcox lived on the opposite side 

^ Penna. Gazette, February 5, 1756. 
Tenna. Gazette, February 12. 1756. 
2Rev. Thos. Barton at Reading, February 6, 1756. 



of the river, whose wife and eldest son had come 
over the river on some business; the Indians 
came while they were there and l^illed old Edward 
Nicholas and his wife, and took Joseph, Thomas and 
Catherine Nicholas, John Wilcox, James Armstrong's 
wife and two children prisoners." 

Oil the 24th of March, 1756, Captain James 
Patterson (whose plantation was on the Juniata, 
wliere the town of Mexico now is), being out 
in command of a soouting-partv of borderers, 
tell in witii a party of Indians on Middle 
Creek, Cumberland County (now Snyder), at- 
taci<ed them, icilled and scalped one, and put 
the rest to flight On their return', Patterson 
and his party reported that from Shamokin to 
the Juniata the country was swarming with 
Indians, looking for scalps and plunder, and 
burning all the houses, and destroying all the 
grain whicli the fugitive settlers had left in 
that region. 

The following extracts from the Pennsylva- 
nia Gazette give cotemporary accounts of this 
occurrence : 

"In a letter from Juniata, in Cumberland County, 
dated the 24th of last month, there is advice that 
Captain Patterson, being out with a scouting-party 
in order to scour the woods as far as Shamokin, on 
the 20th of that month fell in with some Indians at 
Middle Creek, one of which they killed and scalped, 
put the rest to flight and took oft' their horses ; that 
one of Captain Patterson's meu was wounded; that 
the woods, from Juniata to Shamokin, are full of 
Indians seeking for plunder and scaljjs ; that they 
found many houses burnt and some burning, and 
that it was feared but few, in a short time, would be 
left standing, and that all the grain would be de- 
stroyed." ' 

"We also hear from the same place (Carlisle) that 
some Indians ha\e been seen very lately within seven 
or eight miles of that town ; that Patterson's fort on 
Juniata was fired on several times by them a few 
days ago, and one Mitcheltree carried off from it; 
that a few of them have been seen about tiranville 
and Juniata, and that the inhabitants of Cumberland 
County, in general, are in the greatest distress and 
confusion imaginable, many of them leaving their 
habitations, and not knowing where to go or what 
to do." - 

Tiie Indians committing these depredations 
were Delawarcs ; there were no Shawanese 
among tliem. They were incited by the 

" craftiness, power and bribery of the French " 
in Canada, but professed to be largely influ- 
enced by grievances about the sale of lands.' 
They had their headquarters on the North 
Branch at Nescojjcck and points above. Con- 
rad Weiscr had sent James Patterson and 
Hugh Crawford to Aughwick, in December 
previous, to get Indians to carry a message 
from the Governor to those at Nescopeck.'' 
They, were so violent that they threatened to 
break the heads of any of their own race who 
advised peace with the English. 

Forts Buii.t on the Frontier. — In the 
mean time the atrocities which had been com- 
mitted by the Indians in the fall of the previ- 
ous year (1 755) had fully awakened the provincial 
authorities to a sense of the insecurity of tlieir 
frontiers, and to the pressing necessity of immedi- 
ately adopting means to prevent the savages from 
extending tlieir depredations over the entire prov- 
ince. A principal measure to afford some 
degree of safety for settlers, was the erection of 
a number of forts to form a continuous line of 
defense extending entirely across Pennsylvania, 
from near the Delaware Water Gap to the 
Maryland line, at Wills' Creek ((Cumberland). 
This defensive line ran through the region of 
territory to which this history has especial refer- 
ence ; the most important of the works within 
the boundaries of this territory being Fort 
Granville, on the Juniata — a still more im- 
portant one being Fort Augusta, which, however, 
was located just outside the territory in question, 
on the other side of the Susquehanna, at the site 
of the present town of Sunbury, then the site of 
the Indian town of Shamokin. The order to 
George Croghau to select sites and arrange for 
the erection of Fort Granville, and two other 
works of the same class, was given by Benjamin 
Franklin and others, as follows : 

"Sir : — You are desired to proceed to Cumberland 
County and fix on proper places for erecting three 
Stockades, viz. : One back of Patterson's, one upon 
Kishecoquillas, and one near Sideling Hill; each of 
them fifty feet square, with a Block House on two of 
the corners, and a Barracks within, capable of lodging 
fifty men. You are also desired to agree with some 
proper Person or Persons to oversee the workmen at 

' Penna. Oanett-e, March 11, 1756. 
' Peniin. Gazette, April 8, 1756. 

» Col. Rec, vol. vii. 53. 
' Same, vol. vi. 762. 



each Place who shall be allowed such Wages as you 
shall agree to give, not exceeding one Dollar per day ; 
and the workmen shall be allowed at the rate of six 
Dollars per Month and their Provisions, till the work 
is finished. 


"Joseph Fox, 
" Joseph Hughs, 
"Evan Morgan. 

"To Captain George Crogan, Philadelphia, Dec. 17, 

Instead, however, of erectiDg "one upon Kish- 
acoqiiillas " Creek, according to the instruc- 
tions, a site was selected for it at a fine spring 
on the bank of the Juniata River, about one 
mile above where the borough of Lewistown 
now stands. The existence of the spring at 
that place luay have been the reason wh_y Crog- 
han selected that site instead of " one upon 
Kishacoquillas," as named in his letter of in- 
structions. A little more than seventy years 
afterwards that historic spring was destroyed 
by the canal being constructed directly over it. 

Upon the site so selected was built the stock- 
ade work which received the name of Fort 
Granville, and was garrisoned by a company of 
enlisted men, under officers regularly commis- 
sioned. That the work was commenced very 
soon after the order was given to Captain Crog- 
han, and that the fort was completed and gar- 
risoned during that winter, is shown by a letter 
written by Elisha Salter, and dated Carlisle, 
April 4, 1756, in which the writer says : " From 
Fort Granville, ;31st of March, there was a party 
of Indians, fonr in number, within one mile of 
the Fort, which fort is so badly stored with 
ammunition, not having three rounds per man, 
they thought it not jirudent to venture after 

Fort Augusta (located at tiie Indian town of 
Shamokin, as before mentioned) was not erected 
until the following July. It was believed (and 
no doubt with good cause) that the French 
were preparing to take possession of that point 
and build a fort there, and the consent of the 
friendly Indians was therefore sought and easily 
obtained by the English to take and fortify 
the place. The work of erecting Fort Augusta 
was done by the men of the regiment com- 
manded by Colonel Clapham. The guides of 

the expedition were Joseph Greenwood and 
George Gabriel — the last-named of whom had 
his house, store and other buildings (where Se- 
lin's Grove now stands) burned by the Indians 
in their second raid of the preceding year. 
Among the officers of the regiment under Col- 
onel Clapham was Ensign Samuel Miles, who, 
twenty years later, was a colonel, commanding 
a regiment in the Continental army under Gen- 
eral Washington, and who became the jjropri- 
etor of Milesburg, Centre County, Pa. He 
kept a journal of events connected with the 
erection of the fort, from which journal the fol- 
lowing extract is made,' viz. : 

" We marched up the west side of the Susquehan- 
na, until we came opposite where the town of Sun- 
bury now stands, where we crossed in batteaux, and 
I had the honor of being the first man who put his 
foot on shore at landing. In building the fort, Cap- 
tain Levi Trump and myself had charge of the work- 
men ; and after it was finished our battalion remained 
there in garrison until the year 1758. In the summer 
of 1757 I was nearly taken prisoner by the Indians. 
At about one-half mile distance from the fort stood a 
large tree that bore excellent plums, on an open piece 
of ground, near what is now called the Bloody spring. 
Lieutenant Samuel Atlee" and myself one day took a 
walk to this tree, to gather plums. While we were 
there a party of Indians lay a short distance from us, 
concealed in the thicket, and had nearly got between 
us and the fort, when a soldier, belonging to the bul- 
lock guard not far from us, came to the spring to 
drink. The Indians were thereby in danger of being 
discovered ; and, in consequence, fired at and killed 
the soldier, by which means we got off, and returned 
to the fort in much less time than we were in coming 

" Fort Bigham " was a strong block-house 
and small stockade located about twelve miles 
from Mifflintown, in Tuscarora Valley, ou the 
plantation of Samuel Bigham, who, with three 
other Scotch-Irish settlers, — viz. : John and 
James Gray and Robert Hoag, — came and lo- 
cated at that place soon after 1754, and, joining 
their forces, built a "fort" on Bigham's land 
as a place of refuge and protection for tliem- 
selves and families. It was also used as a shel- 
ter by the other settlers who came to the vi- 
cinity during the succeeding seven years, until 

' Penna. Archives, 2d Series, 745. 

^ Lieutenant Atlee also became colonel of a battalion in 
the Revolutionary army. 



June, 1756, when it was attacked, captured and 
burned by Indians, who killed or took prisoner 
every person who was in the fort. The Penn- 
gylvaiua Gazette of June 17, gave tliis account 
of the massacre : 

" We have advice from Carlisle tliat on Friday 
night last (June 11th), Capt. Bigham's Fort, in Tus- 
carora Valley, was destroyed by the Indians. There 
is no particular account come to hand, only in gene- 
ral it is said that all that were in it are either killed 
or carried off; and that a woman, big with child, was 
found dead and scalped near the fort, mangled in a 
most shocking manner." 

From Pennsylvania Gazette, June 24. " The fol- 
lowing is a list of the persons killed and missing at 
Bigham's Fort, viz : George Woods, Nathaniel Big- 
ham, Robert Taylor, his wife and two children, Fran- 
cis Innis, his wife and three children, John McDon- 
nell, Hannah Gray, and one child, missing. Some 
of these supposed to be burnt in the fort, as a num- 
ber of bones were found there. Susan Giles was 
found dead and scalped in the neighborhood of the 
fort. Robert Cochran and Thomas McKinney found 
dead, scalped. Alexander McAllister and his wife, 
James Adams, Jane Cochran and two children 
missed. McAllister's house was burned and a number 
of cattle and horses driven off. The enemy was sup- 
posed to be numerous, as they did eat and carry off a 
great deal of Beef they had killed." 

At the time when the savages made their 
attack on the fort, Joiin Gray, one of the above- 
named original settlers of the place, was absent 
at Carlisle, whither he had gone to procure salt. 
On his return he found the fort destroyed and 
his family missing, — probably prisoners in the 
hands of the Indiaus. In the hope of finding, 
or hearing from them, he volunteered to go 
with Cohjnel Armstrong, in the expedition 
which went soon afterwards, against the Indian 
town of Kittauing, on the Allegheny, but he 
gained no intelligence of those whom he sought, 
and soon after his return he left the Juniata 
country, and went back to his old home in 
Bucks County, where he remained until his 
death. Meanwhile, iiis wife and daughter had 
been taken by their savage captors to Kittaning 
and thence to Canada, from which latter place 
Mrs. Gray escaped and returned to Tuscarora 
Valley in 1757. Afterwards, a young woman 
claiming to be the daughter made her appear- 
ance there also, and was said to have been 
recognized by the mother ; a full account of 

the case will be found in Milford township, 
Juniata County. 

Concerning the two Patterson Forts, the two 
Captains Patterson, James, the father (hereto- 
fore alluded to) and William, his son, and the 
much-written of, but mythical " Pomfret Cas- 
tle," a well-known historical student' gives 
much interesting information and clears away 
the old existing confusion. Pie says, — 

" There were two Captain Pattersons and two Pat- 
terson's forts, and these have been the means of much 
confusion. Capt. James, the father, lived at Mexico, 
and had a house fitted up for defense against Indians, 
soon after Braddock's defeat ; at all events, it had the 
name of Patterson's fort before the close of 1755. 
Capt. William Patterson lived opposite Mexico, at 
Wetzler's place, and had a house fitted up for defense, 
the logs of which were in position yet within the 
writer's memory, but this fort was not built until af- 
ter the French and Indian War, probably in 1768, 
and hence, is not the one referred to in the Colonial 
Records and Archives, and on maps. 

"The order of the Commissioners, Dec. 17, 175.'), 
for the erection of forts west of Susquehanna, desig- 
nated one of the three to be located ' back of Patter- 
son's.' It was to be on the Mahantango (near Rich- 
field) and was to have been built by Col. Burd and 
Captain Patterson. Although the Governor wrote 
to other Governors that these forts were all finished 
on January, 29, 1756, yet on February 2d he hoped it 
would be finished in 10 days ; yet it appears from his 
own letter that this one, which was to be called 
' Pomfret Castle,' had nothing done to it yet on Feb- 
ruary 3rd, and on the 9th he again says it ' is 
erected ; ' but on the 14th of June he orders Capt. 
George Armstrong ' to build it where it was laid out 
by Major Burd ; ' and it is doubtful whether any work 
was ever done upon it. Patterson put up or strength- 
ened his own fort at Mexico, and great confusion has 
arisen by confounding it with the proposed Pomfret 
Castle, or rather, it locates them both at Litchfield. 
The same view was taken by the compiler of the 
State Archives in the article on forts. The error, per- 
haps, arose from the directions to paymaster Elisha 
Salter, who, on leaving Fort Granville, was directed 
to go in charge of a guard to ' Pomfret Castle, or 
Patterson's Fort.' This might mean that the latter 
was onlj' another name fm- the former. It may, also, 
and in this ease does, mean that he was to go to the 
one place, orthe other, as circumstances on his arrival 
pointed out. It was certainly known that the soldiers 
were likely at Patterson's, at Mexico, and the instruc- 
tion was, that if he learned at Fort Granville that 
they were still at Patterson's, he was to go there. 

' Prof. A. L. Guss. 



" In the text accompanying the Historical Map of 
Pennsylvania it is stated that Patterson's Fort was 
built in 1751, and Pomfret Castle built in 1756, both 
in Snyder county. This is a strange jumble. Patter- 
son's fort was not built in Snyder, nor in 1751. No 
man can prove that this, or any other fort in this 
region, was built at that date. The map gives an 
Indian path from Shamokin, by way of Pomfret 
Castle and Mexico, to Mifflintown. This path came 
to the Delaware run, where, it seems, Musemeelin 
lived in 1744 when he followed and killed Jack Arm- 
strong, and is said to be the same place that the 'Dutch- 
man' Starr settled. The several relations of the 
capture of Hugh Mitcheltree, already given, are also 
relied upon to prove that Patterson's Fort and Pom- 
fret Castle were the same." 

In regard to the name " Pomfret Castle," it 
may be stated that it was used by Elisha Salter, 
in reporting the capture of Hugh Mitcheltree ; 
but there is abundant evidence that he 
applied the name to Patterson's Fort of 
Mexico. There is no foundation for the belief 
that " Pomfret Castle " ever was built. 

The same writer from whose pen came the 
foregoing, contributes the following about Cap- 
tains James and A\'illiam Patterson : 

" It is related by Jones, on the authority of Andrew 
Banks, that Capt. James Patterson kept a well-rid- 
dled target at quite a distance from his house, and 
whenever he saw Indians coming near he would fire 
at the target, and then let them examine the spot 
where the bullet entered, which thus always seemed 
to be at the center, and that this made them shrug 
their shoulders and call him ' Big Shot.' The other 
story about a wooden cannon, used even sometimes 
by his wife to frighten Indians, is too improbable 
and impossible to need serious contradiction. 

"In 'Sherman Day's Collections ' remarkable abil- 
ities are attributed to Captain William, while no 
mention is made of Captain James. Samuel Evans, 
of Columbia, says Captain William was called ' Long 
Gun ' by the Indians, and that he was a brave and 
dashing officer, and followed the Indians into their 
fastnesses and struck them deadly blows. The fact 
is, they were both, doubtless, good marksmen, a 
qualification not unusual in those days, and beyond 
controversy they were both prudent in time of peace, 
as well as excellent Indian fighters when it became 
necessary. Had their history been freshly written up, 
it would doubtless compare with those of Smith, 
Brady and others. 

" Nothing can better illustrate the pluck and pa- 
triotism, the spirit and service of Captain James Pat- 
terson than the following extract taken from a letter 
written by him to Col. John Armstrong, on March 
27, 1759, he being then at ' Harris's Ferry ' : 

" ' I received the message which you was pleased 
to send by Colonel Work to me, and am highly 
obliged to your honor for the regard you always en- 
tertain for me and my interest, a favor which I shall 
always with most humble gratitude acknowledge. I 
must acquaint your honor that I am in a low state of 
health, by reason of the great hardship and fatigue 
that I underwent in the last campaign, but I am in 
hopes that I shall overcome it in time ; but as the 
Doctor assures me that if I do not take good care of 
myself, I shall lose the use of my limbs, I am afraid I 
shall not be capable for some time of going out upon 
a new campaign, but should be willing to continue 
in the service if your honor would think proper to 
have me stationed in some fort or garrison until I 
come to my full strength and the use of my limbs; 
and as I am acquainted with the ways and humors of 
the Indians, I humbly conceive I could be of service 
to my country if stationed at Augusta ; all of which I 
leave to your honor's most wise consideration. Yes- 
terday I received an account from Augusta that my 
son was come in there and bi-ought with him a lusty, 
able French prisoner, and that the Indians stood ex- 
ceeding true and faithful to him. I expect him down 
as soon as he rests himself after his fatigue.' " 

There were numerous minor events in the 
rude drama of Indian war during 1756. Some 
of these of particular local interest — the Wool- 
comber tragedy and others — we extract from 
the account given by Robert Robison, a partic- 
ipant, as given in after-years.' He says, — • 

"Sideling Hill was the first fought battle after 
Braddock's defeat. In the year 1756 a party of In- 
dians came out of Conococheague to a garrison of the 
name of McCord's Fort, and killed some and took a 
number of prisoners. They then took their course 
near to Fort Littleton. Captain Hamilton being sta- 
tioned there with a company, hearing of their route 
at McCord's Fort, marched with his company of men, 
having an Indian with them who was under pay. 
This Indian led the company, and came on the tracks 
of the Indians, and soon tracked them to Sideling 
Hill, where they found them with their prisoners, 
and having the first fire, but without doing much 
damage, the Indians returned the fire, defeated our 
men and killed a number of them. My brother, 
James Robison, was among the slain. The Indians 
had McCord's wife with them ; they cut ofl'Mr. James 
Blair's head and threw it in Mrs. McCord's lap, saying 
that was her husband's head, but she knew it to be 

"The next I remember of was in the same year. 
The Woolcomber's family on Shearman's Creek, the 
whole of the inhabitants of the valley was gathered 
to a fort at George Robison 's, but the Woolcombers 

In " Loudon's Narrative, " published in Carlisle in 1813. 



would not leave home. He said it was the Irish who 
were killing one another; these peaceable people, the 
Indians, would not hurt any person. Being at home and 
at dinner, the Indians came in, and the Quaker asked 
them to eome in and eat dinner. An Indian answered 
that he did not come to eat, but for scalps. The son, a 
boy of fourteen or fifteen years of age, when he heard 
the Indian say so, repaired to a back door, and as he 
went out he looked back and saw the Indian strike 
the tomahawk into his father's head. The boy then 
ran over the creek, which was near to the house, and 
heard the screams of his mother, sisters and brothers. 
The boy came to our fort and gave us the alarm ; 
about forty went to where this was done and buried 
the dead."' 

Here follows an aecount of the Kittaniug 
e.Kpeditioii, in which there is nothing local ex- 
cept that Andrew Douglas, who lived near 
Jericho, in Fermanagh township, Juniata 
County, was shot through both ankles. 

Robison further savs, — 

" I forgot to give you an account of a murder done 
at our own fort in Sherman's Valley in July, 1756. The 
Indians waylaid the fort in harvest-time, and kept 
quiet until the reapers were gone; James Wilson 
remaining some time behind the rest, and I not being 
gone to my business, which was hunting deer for the 
use of the company. Wilson standing at the fort gate, 
I desired liberty to shoot his gun at a mark, upon 
which he gave me his gun and I shot. The Indians 
on the upper side of the fort, thinking they were dis- 
covered, rushed on a daughter of Robert Miller and 
instantly killed her, and shot at John Simmeson ; 
they then made the best of it they could, and killed 
the wife of James Wilson and the Widow Gibson, and 
took Hugh Gibson and Betsey Henry prisoners. 

"The reapers, being forty in number, returned to 
the fort, and the Indians made ott'. While the Indian 
was scalping Mrs. Wilson, the relator shot at and 
wounded him, but he made his escape." 

Some time in the month of July, 1756, the 
Indians appeared again in Shearman's A^alley, 
and abducted Hugh Robison, who says, — 

" I was taken captive by the Indians from Robison 
Fort, in Shearman's Valley, in July 175(5, at which 
time my mother was killed. I was taken back to 
their towns, where I suH'ered much from hunger and 
abuse ; many times they beat me most severely, and 
once they sent me to gather wood to burn myself, but 
I cannot tell whether they intended to do it or to 
frighten me ; however, I did not remain long before I 
was adopted into an Indian family, and then lived as 
they did, though the living was very poor. I was 
then about fourteen years of age. My Indian father's 
name was Busguetom ; he was lame in consequence 

of a wound received by his knife in skinning a iSeer, 
and being unable to walk, he ordered me to drive 
forks in the ground and cover it with bark to make a 
lodge for him to lie in ; but the forks not being secure 
they gave way and the bark fell upon him and hurt 
him very much, which put him in a great rage, and 
calling for his knife, ordered us to carry him in a 
blanket into the hut, and I must be one that helps 
carry him in. While we were carrying him in I saw 
him hunting for his knife, but my Indian mother had 
taken care to convey it away, and when we had got 
him again fixed in his bed, my mother ordered me to 
conceal myself, which I did. I afterwards heard him 
reproving her for putting away the knife, for by this 
time I had learned to understand a little of their lan- 
guage. However, his passion wore oft', and we did very 
well for the future. . . . 

" Having now been with them a considerable time, 
a favorable opportunity oflfered me to regain my lib- 
erty. My old father Busguetom lost a horse, and he 
sent me to hunt for liim. After searching some time 
I come home and told him that I had discovered his 
tracks at considerable distance, and that I thought i 
could find him ; that I would take my gun and provi- 
sion, and would hunt three or four days, and if I could 
kill a bear or deer I would pack home the meat on 
the horse. Accordingly, I packed up some provisions 
and started for the white settlements, not fearing pur- 
suit for some days, and by that time I would be out of 
the reach of the pursuers. But before I was aware I 
was almost at a large camp of Indians by a creek- 
side. This was in the evening, and I had to conceal 
myself in a thicket till it was dark, and then passed 
the camp and crossed the creek in one of their canoe-s. 
I was much afraid that their dogs would give the 
alarm, but happily got safe past. I traveled on for 
several days, and on my way I spied a bear, shot at 
and wounded him so that he could not run, but being 
too hasty, ran up to him with my tomahawk; before 
I could give him a blow he gave me a severe stroke 
on the leg which pained me very much, and retarded 
my journey much longer than it otherwise would have 
been. However, I traveled on as well as I could till 
I got to the Allegheny River, where I collected some 
poles, with which I made a raft, and bound it together 
with elm bark and grape-vines, by which means I got 
over the river, but in crossing I lost my gun, I ar- 
rived at Fort Pitt in fourteen days from the time of 
my start, after a captivitv of five years and four 

De.structiox of Fort Graxyille. — Fort 
Granville, on the Juniata, above the site of 
the town of Lewistown, heretofore described, 
was attacked and destroyed by French and 
Indians in the summer of 1756. The first 

^ " Loudon's Narrative," vol. ii. p. 196. 


appearance of any considerable force of the 
enemy in its vicinity was on the 22d of 
July, when about sixty savages, who had 
been lurking in that region for some days, 
made a demonstration in its front, firing 
on and wounding one of the men whom they 
surprised a short distance out, but who succeeded 
in escaping from them into the stockade. They 
made no further attack at tiiat time, but sepa- 
rated into smaller parties, some of whom scouted 
down the valley and attacked the house of 
Robert Baskins, who lived at the mouth of the 
Juniata, and whom they killed, burning his 
cabin and carrying off" his wife and children 
prisoners. Another party of marauders at- 
tacked the house of Hugh Carroll and took 
him and all his family prisoners. After com- 
mitting these and other depredations, the enemy 
still remained lurking in the vicinity of the 
Juniata Valley, with the evident intention of 
assaulting Fort Granville before their return. 
Their force was differently estimated at one hun- 
dred and fifty men, about one-third of whom 
(including their commanding officer) were 
French, but the larger part were Delaware and 
Shawanese warriors from the Indian stronghold 
of Kittaning, on the Allegheny, they being 
under the immediate command of the Chiefs 
Shingas and Captain Jacob. 

On the 30th of July Captain Edward Ward, 
the commandant of Granville, marched from 
the fort with a detachment of men from the 
garrison, destined for Tuscarora Valley, where 
they were needed as a guard to the settlers 
while they were engaged in harvesting their 
grain. The party under Captain Ward era- 
braced the greater part of the defenders of the 
fort, which was then left with only twenty-four 
men, under command of Lieutenant Edward 
Armstrong. Soon after the departure of Cap- 
tain Ward's detachment the fort was sur- 
rounded by the hostile force of French and 
Indians, who immediately made an attack, 
which they continued in their skulking, In- 
dian manner through the afternoon and fol- 
lowing night, but without being able to inflict 
much damage on the whites. Finally, after 
many hours had been spent in their inef- 
fectual attacks, the Indians availed themselves 

of the protection afforded by a deep ravine, up 
which they passed from the river-bank to within 
twelve or fifteen yards of the fort, and from 
that secure position succeeded in setting fire to 
the logs and burning out a large hole, through 
which they fired on the defenders, killing the 
commanding officer, Lieutenant Armstrong, 
and one private soldier, and wounding three 
others. They then demanded the surrender of 
the fort and garrison, promising to spare their 
lives if the demand was acceded to. Upon 
this, a man named John Turner ' opened the 
gate and the besiegers at once entered and took 
possession, capturing, as prisoners, twenty-two 
men, three women and a number of children. 
The fort was burned by the Chief Jacob, by 
order of the French officer in command, and 
the savages then departed, driving before them 
their prisoners, heavily burdened with the 
plunder taken from the fort and the settlers' 
houses which they had robbed and burned. On 
their arrival at the Indian rendezvous, Kittan- 
ing, all the prisoners were cruelly treated, and 
Turner, the man who had opened the gate of 
the fort to the savage besiegers, suffered the 
dreadful death by burning at the stake, endur- 
ing the frightful torment for three hours, dur- 
ing which time red-hot gun-barrels were forced 
through parts of his body, his scalp was torn 
from his head and burning splinters were 
stuck in his flesh, until at last an Indian boy 
(being held up for the purpose) sunk a hatchet 
in the brain of the victim, and so released him 
from his agony. 

Among the prisoners taken by the French 
and Indians at Fort Granville, was one Peter 
Walker, who, with others afterwards made his 
escape, and deposed before John Armstrong, 
Esq., at Carlisle, with reference to the circum- 
stances attending the capture, as fellows : 

" That some of the Germans [taken prisoners by the 
Indians at Granville] flagged very much on the second 
day, and that the Lieutenant [Armstrong, who was 
killed in the fort] behaved with the greatest bravery 
to the last, despising all the terrours and threats of the 
Enemy, whereby they often urged him to surrender ; 

1 Previously a resident in Buffalo Valley, where he had 
sold out his improvement to John Harris in the preceding 
year, now owned hy R. V. B. Lincoln. 


though he had been near two days without Water, but 
a little Ammunition left, the Fort on fire and the 
Enemy situated within twelve or fourteen yards of the 
fort, under the natural bank, he was as far from 
yielding as when first attacked ; a Frenchman in our 
Service, fearful of being burnt, asked Leave of the 
Lieutenant to treat with his countrymen in the 
French language ; the Lieutenant answered : ' The 
first word of French you speak in this Engagement, 
I'll blow your brains out,' telling his men to hold out 
bravely, for the Flame was falling, and he would soon 
have it extinguished, but soon after received the 
fatal Ball. The French Officer refused the Soldiers 
the liberty of interring his corpse, though it was to be 
done in an instant, when they raised the cry to quench 
the fire. One Brandon, a Soldier who had been shot 
through the knee, on the approach of the Enemy 
called out: 'I am a Roman Catholick and will go 
with you,' but the Indians, regardless of his faith, ob- 
serving he could not march, soon dispatched him with 
a Tomahawk." 

The deposition of John Hogan, another of 
the escaped prisoners, taken before Colonel 
Armstrong, was as follow.s: 


"The first day of June in the year of our Lord, 
1757, before me, John Armstrong, Esquire, one of His 
Majesty's Justices of the Peace for the County of 
Cumberland aforesaid, came John Hogan, late a sol- 
dier belonging to Captain Edward Ward's company 
of Foot, in the pay of the Province of Pennsylvania 
and upon his solemn Oath did depose and declare 
that on or about the first Day of August last past 
(1756) he, this Deponent, with several others, was 
taken Prisoner at Fort (iranville by a party of French 
and Indians — sonsisting of one hundred Indians and 
fifty French — who took this Deponent and the rest of 
the Prisoners to the Kittaning, where they continued 
about three hours, in which Time John Turner, one 
of the Prisoners, was then burnt. They were then 
taken down the River to Fort Du Quesne. where they 
staid but a few hours — the French and Indians not 
agreeing — they then proceeded to Logs Town, where 
this Deponent mostly continued, until he made his 
Escape, which was about nine weeks ago. And this 
Deponent further saith that During the time of his 
captivity he was several times at Fort Du Quesne and 
was fully satisfied that the Garrison consisted of about 
three hundred French, had six Guns, five or six- 
pounders, mounted, and seven Swivels. That there 
were no Indians in the Fort; but at about two miles 
distant from the Fort was an Indian Town, wherein 
were about fifty or sixty of the natives. Twenty where- 
of were able to bear Arms. That the walls of the 
Bastions of the said Fort were about fourteen feet 
thick ; The curtain about four or five feet thick, ex- 
cept that next the River, which is built as a common 

Stockade; that between the two Bastions, in the 
Pennsylvania side, there is a Ditch about six feet 
wide, and about seven or eight feet deep. That 
about four Days before this Deponent made his Es- 
cape, there were twenty battoes arrived at Fort Du 
Quesne for Canada, loaded with Ammunition and 
Provisions, and that it was reported that they also ex- 
pected a large reinforcement of French and Indians 
from Canada and Mississippi and that they would 
then Endeavour to cut off" the back Inhabitants; and 
also said that if the English did not go out this Sum- 
mer, they would come to them. And this Deponent 
further Saith that the Indians, having sold a Prisoner 
to the French, received a nine-gallon keg of brandy. 
This Deponent and George Hily, another Prisoner, 
thought that would be a good Time for them to es- 
cape, as it was customary for the Indians on such Oc- 
casions to make a frolick and get drunk, whereupon 
they set off' and brought Martin Borrowelly, another 
Prisoner, along with them, and arrived at the South 
Branch of the Potomack in three weeks from the 
time of their escape. 

"Sworn at Carlisle the 1st of June, 1757, before 
" John Armstrong." 

ab.a.xdonmext of the settlements 

Akmstkoxo's Expedition. — The butcheries 
of the sutumer of 1756, closing with the capture 
of Fort Granville and its garrison, struck 
terror to the hearts of the pioneers of the region 
west of the Susquehanna and caused the pre- 
cipitate abandonment of the settlements from 
the Blue Mountains northward and westward 
to the West Branch. From the valley of that 
stream the fugitive settlers and their families 
retired for safety to Fort Augusta, and thence 
eastward to their former homes, while those 
who had located themselves along the Juniata and 
in the valleys of its tributaries, fled for their 
lives across the mountains, and took refuge at 
Carlisle and Shippensburg. " In 1755," says 
Gordon, "the country west of the Susquehanna 
River hud three thousand men fit to bear arms.' 
In August, 1756, exclusive of the Provincial 
soldiers, there was not one hundred ; fear having 
driven them from their Immes into the interior 
of the Province." 

Immediately after the Fort Granville atiair 
the whites retaliated with vigorous and incisive 
measures, Colonel Armstrong, with a large force, 
marching westward on his famous Kittanning 
expedition. The Indian stronghold was 

' This is evidently an absurdly extravagant estininte. 



situated where the present thriving borough of 
the same name is, — upon the Allegheny, forty- 
five miles above Pittsburgh. Kittanning was 
attacked at daybreak of September 8, 1756, 
and, in revenge for the destruction of Fort 
Granville and other atrocities, was completely 
destroyed, its thirty houses, or huts, being 
burned, while a large number of the Indians 
were killed, among them, it is averred, the 
chief, Captain Jacob — though this is a mooted 
question. A considerable quantity of arms, 
ammunition and stores which the French had 
assisted the savages to gather at that point were 
also captured. 

The severe blow dealt by Colonel Armstrong 
had the effect to render the Indians less bold 
and aggressive, and to withdraw many of the 
Delawares from the French alliance. The 
negotations with Teedyuscung and the eastern 
Delawares, in 1757, also had a favorable effect; 
but the bands of Captain Jacob, and the other 
western Delawares and Shawanese who still re- 
mained in league with the French, continued 
their murdering and burning raids wherever 
exposed white settlements could be found, until 
1758, when the treaty of Easton brought peace 
once more to the harassed frontiers of Pennsyl- 
vania. At that time, as before mentioned, the 
Indian purchase of 1754 was confirmed (with 
a material change of the western and north- 
western boundary), but the treaty of peace and 
the confirmation of the purchase did not have 
the effect to cause the return of the great body 
of settlers who had fled the country in terror 
during the bloody summer and fall of 1756, 
though a considerable number did come back 
to reoccupy their lands, which they were then 
enabled to enjoy in comparative freedom from 
molestation until 1762, M'hen the machinations 
of the western chief, Pontiac, began to develop 
themselves, and to foreshadow another period 
of devastation and blood for the frontiers. 

Second Period of Indian War. — The 
plan of the great Ottawa chief was to unite all 
the Indian tribes east and west against the 
whites, and in the harvest-time of 1763 to in- 
vade their settlements, carrying massacre and 
conflagration in their path. This plan was put 
in bloody execution in many localities, among 

which was the upper part of Cumberland 
County (northward of the Blue Mountain), 
which region suffered in the hostilities of that 
year perhaps more severely (in proportion to 
the number of inhabitants which it then con- 
tained) than any other part of the province of 
Pennsylvania. Again (as in 1756) the country 
was abandoned by the settlers, who fled from 
their homes across the mountain and sought 
refuge at Carlisle, Bedford, Shippensburg, Fort 
Littleton and other points. 

A letter from Carlisle, under date of August 
14, 176.">, to the rector of Christ Church, Phila- 
delphia, stated that in Cumberland County, 
principally in the Juniata Valley, seven hun- 
dred and fifty families had abandoned their 
plantations and crops from fear of Indian in- 
cursions. Several occuirences had given legiti- 
mate ground for this terror and flight. On the 
10th of July, 1763, the Indians committed 
murders at William White's, on the Juniata, 
at Robert Campbell's, on Tuscarora Creek, and 
at William Anderson's, and committed depre- 
dations at Collins' and James Scott's, in the 
Tuscarora Vallej^, and burned Graham's house. 

The white massacre and some of the other 
atrocities are interestingly and probably accur- 
ately related by Robert Robison,' as follows : 

" In the second war, on the fifth (tenth) day of 
July, 1763, the Jndians came to Juniata, it being 
harvest-time there, and the white people were come 
back to reap their crops. They came first to the 
house of William Wliite; it was on the Sabbath day ; 
the reapers were all in the house. The Indians 
crept up nigh to the house-door and shot the people 
laying on the floor, killed William White and all his 
fjimily that were there, excepting one boy, who, 
when he heard the guns, leaped ijut of the window 
and made his escape. 

" This same party went to Robert Campbell's, on 
the Tuscarora Creek, surprised them in tlie same 
way, shot them on the floor, where they were resting 
themselves. One George Dodds, being there harv- 
esting, had just risen and gone into the room and lay 
down on the bed, setting his gun beside him. When 
the Indians fired, one of them sprang into the house 
witli his tomahawk in liis hand, running up to where 
a man was standing in the corner. Dodds fired at 
the Indian not six feet from him ; the Indian gave 
a halloo and ran out as fast as he could. There be- 
ing an opening in the loft above the bed, Dodds 

' '■ Loudon's Narrative." 



sprung up there and went out by the chimney, 
making his escape and carae to Shearman Valley. 
He came to William Dickson's and told what had 
happened, there being a young man there which 
lirought the news to us, who were harvesting at Ed- 
ward Elliot's other intelligence ; we got in the night. 
John (rraham, John Christy and James Christy were 
alarmed in the evening by guns firing at William 
Anderson's, where the old man was killed with his 
Bible in his hand, supposed he was about worship ; 
his son also was killed and a girl that had been 
brought up by the old people. Graham and the 
Christys come about midnight, we hearing the In- 
dians had got so far up the Tuscarora Valley, and 
knowing Collins' family and James Scott's were 
there about their harvest, twelve of us concluded to 
go over Bingham's Gap and give those word that 
were there. When we came to Collins' we saw that 
the Indians had been there, had broke a vvlieel, emp- 
tied a bed and taken flour, of which they made some 
water gruel. We counted thirteen spoons made of 
l)ark ; we followed the tracks down to James Scott's, 
wliere we found the Indians had killed some fowls; we 
pursued on to Graham's; there the house was on fire 
and burned down to the joists ; we divided our men 
into two parties, six in each. My brother with his 
party came in behind the barn, and myself with the 
other party carae down through an oats-held. I was 
to shoot. The Indians had hung a coat upon a post 
on the other side of the fire from us. I looked at it and 
saw it immovable, and therefore walked down to it 
and found that the Indians had just left it. They 
had killed four hogs and had eaten at pleasure. Our 
company took their tracks and found that two com- 
panies had met at Graham's and had gone over the 
Tuscarora Mountain. We took the Run Gap, the 
two roads meeting at Nicholson's. They were there. 
They first heard us coming and lay in ambush for us. 
They had the first fire, being twenty-five in number 
and only twelve ' of us. They killed five and wounded 

' The names of the twelve were William Robison, who 
acted as captain, Robert Robison, the relator of this narra- 
tive, Thomas Robison, being three brothers ; John Graham, 
Charles Elliot, William Christy, James Christy, David 
Miller, .John Elliot, Edward McConnell, William McAllis- 
ter and John Nicholson. The persons killed were William 
Robison (shot in the belly with buck-shot and got about 
half a mile from the ground) : John Elliot, then a boy of 
about seventeen years of age, having emptied his gnn, was 
pursued by an Indian with his tomahawk, who was within 
a few perches of him when Elliot had poured some powder 
into his gun by random out of his powder-horn, and hav- 
ing a bullet in his mouth put it in the muzzle, but hnd no 
time to ram it down ; he turned and fired at his pursuer, 
who clapped his hand ou his stomach and cried, 'Och,' 
turned and fled. Elliot had run but a few perches further 
on when he overtook William Robison weltering in his 
blood, in his last agonies. He requested Elliot to carry 

myself. They then went to Alexander Logan's, 
where they emptied some beds and passed on to 
George McCord's. 

"A party of forty men came from Carlisle in order 
to bury the dead of Juniata. When they saw the 
dead at Bufi'alo Creek, they returned home. Then a 
party of men came with Captain Dunning; but belore 
they came to Alexander Logan's, his son John, 
Charles Coyle, William Hamilton, with Bartholomew 
Davis, followed the Indians to George McCord's, 
where they were in the barn. Logan and those with 
him were all killed except Davis, who made his 
escape. The Indians then returned to Logan's house 
again, when Captain Dunning and his party came on 
tliem, and they fired some time at each other. Dun- 
ning had one man wounded." 

Interesting cotemporary accounts of the oc- 

him off, who excused himself by telling him of his ina- 
bility to do so, and also of the danger they were in. He 
said he knew it, but desired him to take his gun with him, 
and. peace or war, if ever he had an opportunity of an 
Indian to shoot him for his sake. Elliot brought away the 
gun, and Robison was not found by the Indians. Thomas 
Robison stood on the ground until the whole of his people 
had fled ; nor did the Indians offer to pursue until the last 
men left the field. Thomas having fired and charged the 
second time the Indians were prepared for him, and when 
he took aim past the tree a number fired at the same time 
and one of his arms was broken ; he look his gun in the 
other and fled. Going up a hill he came to a high log and 
clapped his hand, in which was his gun, on the log to as- 
sist in leaping over it ; while in the altitude of stooping, a 
bullet entered his side, going in a triangular course 
through his body ; he sunk down across the log. The In- 
dians sunk the cock of his gun into his brains ai.d 
mangled him very much. John Graham was seen by 
David Miller sitting on a log, not far from the place of at- 
tack, with his hands on his face and the blood running 
through his fingers. Charles Elliot and Edward McCon- 
nell took a circle round where the Indians were laying 
and made the best of their way to Buffalo Creek : but 
they were pui-sued by the Indians, and where they crossed 
the creek there was a high bank, and, as they were 
ascending the bank, they were both shot and fell back 
into the water. Thus ended this unfortunate affair to 
those engaged; but, at the same time, it appears as if the 
hand of Providence had been in the whole transaction, for 
there is every reason to believe that spies had been view- 
ing the place the night before, and the Indians wt-re 
within three-quarters of a mile of the place from which 
the men had started, when there would have been from 
twenty to thirty men pei'haps in the field reaping, and all 
the guns that could be depended on were in this small 
company except one, so that they might have become an 
easy prej-, and instead of those five brave men who lost 
their lives three times that number might have sufiiced. 

The two Christys were about a week before they could 
make their escape The Indians one night passed so near 
them they could have touched them with their guns. 



currences of this period and the condition of 
tlie country, especially in old Cumberland 
County (which contained much of the territory 
here under consideration), are given in letters 
to the Pennsylvania Gazette, written from Car- 
lisle in July and August, 1763 : 

" Carlisle, July 12, 1763. 

" I embrace this first leisure, since yesterday morn- 
ing, to transmit you a brief account of our present 
state of affairs here, which indeed is very distressing; 
every day almost affording some fresh object to awa- 
ken the compassion, alarm the fears or kindle into 
resentment and vengeance every sensible breast, 
while flying families, obliged to abandon house and 
possession, to save their lives by a hasty escape; 
mourning widows bewailing their husbands, surprised 
and massacred by savage rage ; tender parents lam- 
enting the fruit of their own bodies, cropt in the very 
bloom of life by a barbarous hand ; with relations 
and acquaintances pouring out sorrow for murdered 
neighbors and friends, present a scene of mingled 

" When, for some time, after striking at Bedford, 
the Indians appeared quiet, nor struck any other 
part of our frontiers, it became the prevailing opin- 
ion that our forts and communication were so pecu- 
liarly the object of their attention that, till at least 
after harvest, there was little prospect of danger to 
our inhabitants over the hills; and to dissent from 
this generally-received sentiment was political her- 
esy, and attributed to timidity rather than judgment, 
till too early conviction has decided the point in the 
following manner : 

" On Sunday morning, the 10th inst., about nine or 
ten o'clock, at the house of one William White, on 
Juniata, between thirty and forty miles hence, there 
being in said house four men and a lad, the Indians 
came rushing upon them, and shot White at the 
door, just stepping out to see what the noise meant. 
Our people then pulled in White and shut the door; 
but observing, through a window, the Indians setting 
fire to the house, they attempted to force their way 
out at the door; but the first that stept out being 
shot down, they drew him in and again shut the 
door ; after which one, attempting an escape out of a 
window on the loft, was shot through the head, and 
the lad wounded in the arm. The only one now re- 
maining, William Riddle, broke a hole through the 
roof of the house, and an Indian, who saw him look- 
ing out, alleged he was about to fire on him, with- 
drew, which afforded Riddle an opportunity to make 
his escape. The house, with the other four in it, was 
burned down, as one McMachen informs, who was 
coming to it, not suspecting Indians, and was by 
them fired at and shot through the shoulder, but 
made his escape. The same day, about dinner-time, 
at about a mile and a half from said White's, at the 

house of Robert Campbell, six men being in the 
house, as they were dining, three Indians rushed in 
at the door, and, after firing among them and wound- 
ing some, they tomahawked, in an instant, one of the 
men ; whereupon one George Dodds, one of the com- 
pany, sprang back into the room, took down a rifle, 
shot an Indian through the body, who was presenting 
his piece to shoot him. The Indian, being mortally 
wounded, staggered, and, letting his gun fall, was 
carried off by three more. Dodds, with one or two 
more, getting upon the loft, broke the roof in order 
to escape, and, looking out, saw one of the company, 
Stephen Jeffries, running, but very slowly, by reason 
of a wound in the breast, and an Indian pursuing ; 
and it is thought he could not escape, nor have we 
heard of him since ; so that it is past dispute he also 
is murdered. The first that attempted getting out of 
the loft was fired at, and drew back ; another, at- 
tempting, was shot dead, and of the six, Dodds was 
the only one made his escape. The same day, about 
dusk, about six or seven miles up Tuscarora, and 
about twenty-eight or thirty miles hence, they mur- 
dered one William Anderson, together with a boy 
and girl all in one house. At White's were seen at 
least five, some say eight or ten Indians, and at 
Campbell's about same number. On Monday, the 
11th, a party of about twenty-four went over from 
the upper part of Shearman's Valley to see how mat- 
ters were. Aiiother party of twelve or thirteen went 
over from the upper part of said valley; and Colonel 
John Armstrong, with Thomas Wilson, Esq., and a 
party of between thirty and forty fiom this town, to 
reconnoitre and assist in bringing the dead. 

"Of the first and third parties we have heard noth- 
ing yet ; but of the party of twelve, six are come in 
and inform that they have parsed through the several 
places in Tuscarora, and saw the houses in flames or 
burnt entirely down ; that the grain that had been 
reaped the Indians burnt in shocks, and had set the 
fences on fire where the grain was unreaped ; that 
the hogs had fallen upon and mangled several of the 
dead bodies ; that the said company of twelve, sus- 
pecting danger, durst not stay to bury the dead ; that 
after they had returned over the Tuscarora moun- 
tain, about one or two miles on this side of it, and 
about eighteen or twenty from hence, they were tired 
on by a large party of Indians, supposed about thirty, 
and were obliged to fly; that two, viz., William Rob- 
inson and John Graham, are certainly killed, and 
four more are missing, who, it is thought, have fallen 
into the hands of the enemy, as they appeared slow 
in flight, mo?t probably wounded, and the savages 
pursued with violence. What farther mischief has 
been done we have not heard, but expect every day 
and hour some more messages of melancholy news. 

" In hearing of the above defeat, we sent out an- 
other party of thirty or upwards, commanded by our 
high sheriff, Mr. Dunning, and Mr. William Lyon, to 
go in quest of the enemy, or fall in with and rein- 



force our other parties. There are also a number 
gone out from about three miles below this, so that 
we now have over the hills upwards of eighty or 
ninety volunteers scouring the woods. The inhabit- 
ants of Shearman's Valley, Tuscarora, etc., are all 
come over, and the jjeople of this valley, near the 
mountain, are beginning to move in, so that in a few 
days there will be scarcely a house inhabited north 
of Carlisle. Many of our people are greatly dis- 
tressed, through want of arms and ammunition; and 
numbers of those, beat off their places, have hardly 
money enough to purchase a pound of powder. 

■'Our women and children must move downwards, 
if the enemy proceed. To-day a British vengeance 
begins to rise in the breasts of our men. One of 
them, that fell from among the twelve, as he was just 
expiring, said to one of his fellows: ^ Here, take my 
gun and kill the first Indian you see, and all shall he 
well.' " 

"July 13, 17G3. 
" Last night Colonel .\rmstrong returned. He left 
the jiarty, who pursued further and found several 
dead, whom they buried in the best manner they 
could, and are now all returned in. From what ap- 
pears, the Indians are traveling from one place to 
another, along the valley, burning the farms and de- 
stroying all the people they meet with. This day 
gives an account of six more being killed in the val- 
ley, so that, since last Sunday morning to this day, 
twelve o'clock, we have a pretty authentic account of 
the number slain, being twenty-five, and four or five 
wounded. The Colonel, Mr. Wilson and Mr. Alricks 
are now on the parade, endeavoring to raise another 
party to go out and succor the Sheriff and his party, 
consisting of fifty men, which marched yesterday, 
and I hope they will be able to send otl" immediately 
twenty good men. The people here, I assure you, 
want nothing but a good leader and a little encour- 
agement to make a very good defence. 

"Our advices from Carlisle [says the editor of the 
Pennsylvania Gazette of .July 28th] are as follows, viz. : 
That the party under the Sheriff, Mr. Dunning, men- 
tioned in our last, fell in with the enemy at the 
house of one Alexander Logan, in Shearman's Val- 
ley, supposed to be about fifteen, or upwards, who 
had murdered the said Logan, his son and another man 
about two miles from said house, and mortally wounded 
a fourth, who is since dead, and that, at the time of 
their being discovered, they were rifling the house 
and shooting down the cattle, and, it is thought, 
about to return home with the spoil they had got. 

" That our men, on seeing them, immediately 
spread themselves from right to left, with a design to 
surround them, and engaged the savages with great 
courage, but, from their eagerness, rather too soon, as 
some of the party had not got up when the skirmish 
began; that the enemy returned our first fire very 
briskly, but our people, regardless of that, rushed 
upon them, when they tied and were pursued a con- 

siderable way, till thickets secured their escape, four 
or five of them, it was thought, being mortally 
wounded ; that our parties had brought in with them 
what cattle they could collect, but that great num- 
bers were killed by the Indians, and many of the 
horses that were in the valleys carried off; that on 
the 21st lust, (ihe morning) news was bnmght of 
three Indians being seen about ten o'clock in the 
morning ; one Pummeroy and his wife and the wife of 
one Johnson were surprised in a house between Ship- 
pensburg and the North Mountain, and left there for 
dead, but that one of the women, when found, showed 
some signs Of life, was brought to Shippensburg, 
where she lived some hours in a most miserable con- 
dition, being scalped, one of her arms broken and her 
skull fractured with the stroke of a tomahawk ; and 
that, since the 10th inst, there was an account of 
fifty-four persons being killed by the enemy. 

" That the Indians had set fire to houses, barns, 
corn, wheat and rye, hay, — in short, to everything com- 
bustible, — so that the whole country seemed to be one 
blaze; that the miseries and distresses of the poor 
people were really shocking to humanity and beyond 
the power of language to describe ; that Carlisle was 
become the barrier, not a single inhabitant being be- 
yond it ; that every stable and hovel in the town was 
crowded with miserable refugees, who were reduced 
to a state of beggary and despair, their houses, cattle 
and harvest destroyed, and, from a plentiful, inde- 
pendent people, they were become real objects of 
charity and commiseration ; that it was most dismal 
to see the streets filled with people, in whose coun- 
tenances might be discovered a mixtureof grief, mad- 
ness and despair, and to hear now and then the sigh> 
and groans of men, the disconsolate lamentations of 
women and the screams of children, who had lost 
their nearest and dearest relatives ; and that, on both 
sides of the Susquehanna, for some miles, the woods 
were filled with poor families and their cattle, who 
made fires and lived like savages, exposed to the in- 
clemencies of the weather." 

" Carllsle, July 30, 1763. 
" On the 25th a considerable number of the inhab- 
itants of Sherman's Valley went over, with a party of 
soldiers to guard them, to attempt saving as much of 
their grain as might be standing, and it is hoped a 
considerable quantity will be preserved. A party of 
volunteers (between twenty and thirty) went to the 
larther side of the valley, next to the Tuscarora 
Mountain, to see what appearance there might be of 
the Indians, as it was thought they would most prob- 
ably be there, if anywhere in the settlement; to 
search for, and bury the dead at Buffalo Creek, and 
to assist the inhabitants that lived along the foot of 
the mountain, in bringing oft" what they could, which 
services they accordingly performed, burying the re- 
mains of three persons, but saw no marks of Indions 
having lately been there, excepting one track, sup- 



posed about two or three days old, near the narrows 
of Buffalo creek hill, and heard some hallooing and 
firing of a gun at another place. A number of the in- 
habitants of Tuscarora Valley go over the mountain 
to-morrow, with a party of soldiers, to endeavor to 
save part of the crops. Five Indians were seen last 
Sunday, about sixteen or seventeen miles from Car- 
lisle, up the valley, towards the North mountain, and 
two the day before yesterday, above five or six miles 
from Shippensburg, who fired at a young man and 
missed him. 

" On the 25th July there were in Shippensburg 
1384 of our poor, distressed, back inhabitants, viz.: 
men, 301 ; women, 345 ; children, 738 ; many of whom 
were obliged to lie in barns, stables, cellars, and 
under old, leaky sheds, the dwelling-houses being all 

" In a letter dated Carlisle, 13th August, 1763, it is 
said that some Indians have lately been seen in 
Shearman's Valley, and that on the 11th the tracts 
of a party were found there, supposed to consist of 
eight or ten, coming through (Shearman's Valley to- 
wards Carlisle, about twelve miles upward. In 
another letter, dated August 17th, mention is made 
that one John Martin, in the Great Cove, seeing an 
Indian coming up to a house where he was, fired at 
him, upon which the Indian raised a yell and took a 
tree ; that Martin, imagining there might be more In- 
dians near him, ran to a company at work and told 
what had happened, when they went to the place, 
found some blood and excrements, from which they 
concluded he was shot through the bowels. 

" They followed his track down to a bottom, where 
they saw the tracks of six or seven more, but, being a 
small party, pursued no farther. In the same letter, 
it is also said that a young man, at a plantation about 
nine miles from Carlisle, near the foot of the moun- 
tain, saw an Indian and fired at him at about fifty 
yards' distance, but was not sure that he hit him. The 
Indian took a tree and the lad went back a little 
way, in order to load again, but on his return could 
not see the Indian. He then alarmed the neighbor- 
hood, and, the soldiers being all out in parties cover- 
ing the people gathering in grain, upwards of twenty 
young men turned out immediately, from Carlisle, to 
scour the woods." 

The condition of the people throughout tiiis 
region at the close of 1763 is described by 
Colonel Armstrong, then in command of the 
forces west of the Blue Ridge, in a letter to 
Governor Penn, dated in December, 1763 : 

" The people drove off by the enemy from the 
north side of the mountains forms the Frontier, as they 
are mixed with the settlers on the south side, where, 
of course, the motions of the Ranging Party are re- 
quired. At the same time, those who have been 
driven from their habitations have some part of their 

Effects yet behind and their Crops stacked in the 
fields in the different Valleys at a considerable 
distance beyond the Mountains. 

"To these distressed People we must afford cover- 
ing Parties as often as they request them, or will con- 
vene in small bodies to thrash out their Grain and 
carry it over to their families for their supplies. The 
last mentioned Service, necessary as it is, greatly ob- 
structs the uniform course of patrolling behind the 
Inhabitants, that otherwise might be performed." 

The terror created in 1763 did not subside 
sufficiently to admit of the resumption of 
peaceful avocations in any marked degree 
until 1765. Colonel Henry Bouquet's victory 
in Ohio, in 1764, in a measure, cowed the 
Indians, and they were obliged to be peace- 
able. The settlers gradually returned, and 
by 1767 all of the best locations were taken 
up by "squatters." In 1768 the "new pur- 
chase " (presently to be fully treated) was made, 
and, in 1769, the Land-Office having been 
opened, the " squatters " took up lands by war- 

From this time on there were no Indian 
massacres until about 1778, and these were 
principally confined to the valley of the West 
Branch.' The murder of a number of Indians 
— White Mingo and others, — by Frederick 
Stump occurred in 1768, but is not germane to 
the present subject.^ A general alarm was 
caused and a wild fright — " The Great Run- 
away " — ensued in 1778, but this and the nu- 
merous Indian outrages of 1781 and 1782 are 
related elsewhere.' 

The " New," heretofore alluded 
to, and containing a portion of the territory 
which is the especial province of this volume, 
was made by treaty with the sachems of the 
Six Nations, and the representative of Thomas 
and Richard Penn, at Fort Stanwix (now 
Rome, N. Y.) November 5, 1768. 

It included an immense belt of territory, 

1 They are treated of in the history of the townships of 
Union and Snyder Counties. 

'A full account of Stump's murders is given in Penn 
townsliip of Snyder County. 

*The panic of tlie settlers in 1778 is introduced in the 
chapter upon the Revolution and of the local atrocities of 
marauding bands of savages ; accounts will be found in 
the various township cliapters. 



northwest of the lands procured by the pur- 
chase of 1749, and extending entirely across 
the province from the Delaware River, in the 
northeastern corner, to the southwest corner. 

Of the territory treated in this work, it in- 
cluded the northeast corner of Snyder and all 
of ITuion, except a small southwest corner, to- 
gether with the whole of Green, Washiugton, 
Fayette, Westmoreland, Somerset, Cambria, 
Montour, Wayne, Sullivan, Susquehanna and 
Wyoming, and parts of Lackawanna, Luzerne, 
Columbia, Northumberland, Bradford, Lyco- 
ming, Cliuton, Centre, Clearfield, Indiana, 
Armstrong, Allegheny and Beaver. 

Its territory was thus described in the original 
treaty document : 

" All that part of the Province of Pennsylvania not 
heretofore purchased of the Indians, within the said 
general boundary line, and beginning in the said 
Boundary line on the east side of the east Branch of 
the River Susquehanna, at a place called Owegy, and 
running with the said boundary Line down the said 
Branch, on the east side thereof, till it comes opposite 
the mouth of a Creek called by the Indians Awandac 
(Tawandee) and across the River, and up the said 
Creek on the South side thereof and along the range 
of hills called Burnett's Hills by the English and by 
the Indians ' — on the north side of them, to the head 
of a creek which runs into the West Branch of the 
Susquehanna ; then crossing the said River and run- 
ning up the same on the South side thereof, the several 
courses thereof, to the forks of the same River which 
lies nearest to a place on the River Ohio,- called 
Kittanning, and from the said fork, by a straight line 
to Kittanning aforesaid, and theu down the Said Ohio 
by the several courses thereof, to where the western 
Bounds of the said Province of Pennsylvania crosses 
the same river, and then with the same western 
Bounds to the South boundary thereof, and with the 
South boundary aforesaid to the east side of the Alle- 
gheny hills, on the east side of them to the west line 
of a tract of Land purchased by the Said Proprietors 
from the Six Nations, and confirmed October 23d, 

1 At a subsequent treaty at Fort Stanwix (October, 1784), 
the Pennsylvania Commissioners inquired of tlie Indians 
what was their name for the range called by the Eng- 
lish " Burnett's Hills," to which they replied that they 
knew them by no other name than the " Long Mountains." 
.\s to the creek called by them " Tiadaghton " they ex- 
plained thai it was the same known by the whites as Pine 
Creek which flows into the West Branch of the Susquehanna 
from the northward. 

2 Meaning the Allegheny, to which the Indians always 
gave the name Ohio. 

1758, and then with the Northern bounds of that 
Tract to the River Susquehanna and crossing the 
River Susquehanna to the northern Boundary line 
of another tract of Land purchased of the Indians by 
Deed (August 22, 1749), and then with that northern 
Line, to the River Delaware at the north side of the 
mouth of a creek called Lechawachsein, then of the 
Said River Delaware on the west side thereof to the 
intersection of it by an east line to be drawn from 
Owegy aforesaid to the Said River Delaware and then 
with that east Line, to the beginning, at Owegy 

This M'as the purchase which, by giving the 
basis of just title, upon which the Land Office 
could issue warrants, in a large measure, re- 
lieved the anxiety of the inhabitants in regard 
to Indian incursions, and enabled them to 
become actual purchasers by warrant, and 
therefore actual settlers instead of unauthorized 
invaders. The region thus released from sav- 
age ownership soon swarmed with the peojjle of 
the supplanting race, and few deeds of violence 
afterward occurred, except during the War of 
the Revolution, to mar the era of peace thus 

The " new purchase" was made partly upon 
the consideration of seciu'ing land to bestow 
upon the officers of the First and Second Bat- 
talions who had served under Bouquet and 
formed an association to ask for such reward. 
Tracts of three hundred acres each, upon the 
West Branch, M'ere granted in 1769 to a large 
number of these officers, who, settling upon 
them, formed a strong barrier against Indian 

As a pendant to this chapter we are enabled 
to publish some extracts from the journal of 
Rev. Charles Beatty,* who passed through the 

^ See Chapter I. of Union County. 

* Charles Beatty was the son of an officer in the British 
army, and was born in Ireland about 1715, and emigrated 
to America in 1729. He studied theology at the Log Col- 
lege, under Wm. Tennent, whom he succeeded as precep- 
tor in the Neshaminy in 1743. On December 1st in that 
year, he was ordained to the ministry, and spent most of 
his life in charge of "ye congregation of Warwick, in ye 
forks of Neshaminy." In 1754 he was on a missionary 
tour through North Carolina, and was chaplain in several 
difl'erent expeditions, and in 1766 was appointed, with Rev. 
Geo. Duffield, missionary to the frontier settlements in the 
new purchase, and lo the Indians on the Ohio. He diea 
when on a visit to West Indies, at the Isle of Barbadoes, 



territory comprising Perry, Juniata and Mifflin 
Counties in 1766, and which affords some inter- 
esting glimpses of the then condition of the 

His little book of one hundred and ten pages 
was printed in London in 1768, and is entitled, 
" The Journal of a Two-Months' Tour, with 
a view of Promoting Religion Among the 
Frontier Inhabitants of Pennsylvania, and of 
Introducing Christianity Among the Indians 
to the Westward of the Alegh-geuy Moun- 
tains." The prefatory note is addressed to the 
Earl of Dartmouth and other English gentle- 
men interested in Rev. Dr. Wheelock's Indian 
Charity Schools, and he calls it " a plain, artless 
narrative of facts." 

" Being appointed by the synod of New York and 
Philadelphia to visit the frontier inhabitants, that a 
better judgment might be formed what assistance 
might be necessary to afford them, in their present 
low circumstances, in order to promote the Gospel 
among them ; and likewise to visit the Indians, in 
case it could be done in safety, to know whether they 
were inclined to receive the Gospel ; I accordingly sat 
out on myjourney, Tuesday, the 12th of August, 1766, 
accompanied with Joseph Peepy, a Christian Indian, 
who was to serve as an interpreter ; and, after travel- 
ling one hundred and twenty-two miles, we arrived 
at Carlisle on Friday, the 15lh instant, where I met 
Mr. DufEeld, who was also appointed to accompany 
us, and lodged at Col. Armstrong's. 

"Carlisle, Saturday, August 16. — Remained here; 
as I understood that none of the vacant congrega- 
tions had any notice of my design of being with 
them on the morrow. 'An opportunity presenting to- 
day, we sent notice to several places of our purpose 
to preach to the people there next week. 

" Carlisle, Vth, Sabbath.— Freached for Mr. Duf- 
field in the afternoon. 

" l&th, Monday.- — In the forenoon were much en- 
gaged, preparing for our journey ; sat out with Mr. 
Duffield. After riding .about six miles, we came to 
the north mountain, which is high and steep. The 
day being very warm, and we obliged to walk, or 
rather climb up it, the greatest part of the way, were 
greatly fatigued by the time we reached the top, — 
After travelling four miles into Sherman's Valley, 
we came, in the night, to Tliomas Ross's, where we 

August 12, 1772. The Rev. Philip Fithian, who in 1775 
traveled through this section, was a son-in-law of Mr. 

' After crossing the Blue Mountains from Carlisle, come 
18lh August, to Thomas Ross', who was elder in Centre 
Church, in what is now Tyrone township, near Landisburg. 

" I'dth, Tuesday. — Rode four or five miles to a place 
in the woods, designed for building a house for 
worship, and preached but to a small auditory ; notice 
of our preaching not having been sufficiently spread. 
After sermon, I opened to the people present the 
principal design of the synod in sending us to them 
at this time ; that it was not only to preach the gos- 
pel, but also to enquire into their circumstances, 
situation, numbers, and ability to support it.^ 

"The people not being prepared to give us a full 
answer, promised to send it to Carlisle before our 
return. After sermon we proceeded on our way 
about five miles, and lodged at Mr. Fergus's.^ The 
house where he lives was attacked by Indians in the 
late war, the owner of it killed, and, if I am not 
mistaken, some others. While the Indians were 
pillaging the house and plantation, in order to carry 
oft' what suited them, a number of the countrymen 
armed came upon them ; a smart skirmish ensued, in 
which the countrymen had the better. The Indians 
were obliged to fly, and carried off their wounded, 
but left all their booty behind them. 

" 20</i, Wednesday. — This morning, after travelling 
about seven miles, we crossed the Tuskerora Moun- 
tain, which is very high, and in most places very dif- 
ficult to pass.* Not far from where we passed to-day, 
after crossing the mountain, a block-house, or some 
little fortification, was built by a number of the in- 
habitants for their protection in time of war. The 
Indians, who very probably were watching them, took 
the advantage one day, when most of the men were 
about their business, and attacked the place, and 
killed and captivated all that were in it. So that the 
poor men found on their return, to their unspeaka- 
ble grief, their wives and children all carried off; 
and what still added to their concern, the fears of 
their being put to death in the most barbarous man- 
ner. In riding three miles on the other side of this 
mountain, we came to a house where a number of 
people were convened, whom I preached to; they 
promised to attend sermon to-morrow and give us an 
account of their situation, numbers, etc. The house 
I preached at to-day was also attacked by the In- 
diana : some were killed in the house and others were 
captivated.^ It was truly affecting to see, almost in 

» The next day preached where Centre Church now 

' Mr. Fergus lived in what was. in 1 763, the house of 
Alex. Logan, now Geo., in Madison township, 
near Sandy Hill Post-Office. 

• From Fergus' he traveled along the south foot of Cono- 
cocheague Hill, crossing it by the r.avine north of Ander- 
sonburg, calling it the Tuscarora Mountain. In passing 
down the north .side he came by what is now Mohler's tan- 
nery, crossing Liberty Valley and the end of the other 
Tuscarora Mountain by Bighani's Gap. 

5 Three miles from the foot of the high mountain became 
to the place where he preached, believed to be near where 



every place on the frontiers, marks of the ravages of 
the cruel and barbarous enemy. Houses and fences 
burned, household furniture destroyed, the cattle 
killed, and horses either killed or carried off, and to 
hear the people relate the horrid scenes that were 
acted. Some had their parents killed and scalped in 
a barbarous manner before their eyes and themselves 
captivated. Women saw their husbands killed and 
scalped, while they themselves were led away by the 
bloody hands of the murderers. Others related that 
they saw the cruel scene and that they themselves 
narrowly escaped. After sermon we rode to Mr. 
William Graham's, about three miles from hence, and 
lodged at his house.' 

" 21sC, Thursday. — After riding about two miles and 
a half, we came to a place where the people had begun 
to build a house for worship, before the late war, but 
by accident had been burned.'- Here Mr. Duffield 
preached to a number of people convened, who, after 
sermon, informed us that this valley of Tuskerora is 
about thirty-two miles in length, between six and 
seven miles broad in the middle, and about ten miles 
wide at the lower end next to Juniata River. 

" There are about eighty-four families living in this 
valley who propose to build two houses for worship ; 
one about fourteen miles from the upper end of the 
valley and the other ten miles below it, towards Ju- 
niata River. As their circumstances, at present, are 
such that they cannot support the gospel, they _j>ur- 
pose tojoin with the people settled upon the other 
side of Juniata ; but hope, in a few years, to be able 
to support a minister in the valley. We must say, 
u[)on the whole, that they appear very desirous to 
have the gospel settled among them, and are willing 
to exert themselves to the utmost for that purpose, 
and as soon as it shall be in their power, they design 
to purchase a plantation for a parsonage. After ser- 
mon we rode eight miles to Capt. Patterson's, where 
we were kindly received.^ Here we met with one 
Levi Hicks, who had been captive with the Indians 
from his youth, and we being desirous to know their 
present situation and circumstances, he gave us the 
following relation, that about one hundred miles 
westward of Fort Pitt was an Indian town, called 
Tuskalawas, and at some considerable distance from 

the Rev. Christian Myers now resides. This route over 
the mountain was by what is known as the Traders' road. 
The reader is referred to the article on Bighani's Fort as to 
the persons killed at the house where he preached. 

' The house of William Graham is in Spruce Hill towu- 
ship, near Graham's old mill, now owned by Benjamin 

2 The location of the house of worship is at the present 
Lower Tuscarora Church, at Acadeinia. 

^ The Captain Patterson may have been William, the young 
captain opposite Mexico, but it is much more probable 
Captain James Patterson, his father, who resided in 

that was another town named Kighalampegha, where 
Natatwhelman, the king of the Delawares, lived, and 
from thence, about ten miles or more, was one called 
Moghwhiston, i. «., Worm-Town, having about twen- 
ty houses ; that seventeen miles thence was another 
town, named Ogh-ki-taw-mi-kaw, i. e., White-corn- 
Town ; that this was the largest, he supposed, in 
these parts ; that about twenty miles farther was a 
Shau-wa-nagh Town; that there was another at some 
distance called Sugh-cha-ungh, that is, the Salt-lick, 
of about twenty houses. In this town, he told us, 
there was an Indian that sjjoke to the Indians about 
religion ; that forty miles farther was a towli called 
Migh-chi-laghpiesta, that is, the Big-lick. He told 
us that he thought, from some things he observed 
among the Indians, that they would be desirous of 
hearing the gospel. This intelligence, with some 
other circumstances related to us by an Indian trader, 
gave us some encouragement to venture out among 

" 22d, Friday. — Preached in the woods, as we have 
done mostly hitherto, two miles on the north side 
Juniata.* Here the people, some years ago, began 
to build a house for worship, but did not finish it, but 
expect soon to do it. This congregation extends 
about twenty miles along the river, and its breadth 
from Juniata to the head of the river called Kocka- 
lamis, is about ten miles ; and in this extent there 
are but fifty families, who meet together for worship. 
They purpose joining Tuskerora settlement, at pres- 
ent, till such time as they shall be able to support a 
minister themselves, which they expect to do in some 
years, if peace continues, and, as soon as they can, to 
procure a plantation for a parsonage. In short, these 
poor people, as well as those of Tuskerora, before 
mentioned, are very desirous of having the Gospel 
settled among them, and for that purpose appeared 
forward and willing to do everything in their power; 
but at present the people here, and in other places 
that have suffered so much by the war, have a number 
of difficulties to struggle with, as they have to begin 
the world anew. 

" After sermon we returned to Captain Patterson's, 
where Mr. Duffield and I agreed to part for some 
days, the better to be able to answer the great design 
of our mission, for by these means we should be able 
to visit double the places, and preach to double the 
people we could have done had we been together. 
Accordingly, Mr. Duffield proposed to go to the Path 
Valley great and little Coves, and to set out this 
evening in his way to the first of these places, where 
he intended to preach next Sabbath, and I purposed 
to visit the new settlements up the river Juniata. 

* The site of this old church is in Walker township, near 
the house of David Biven, and in 1768 Captain James Pat- 
terson and James Purdy received a tract of glebe land for 
the Cedar Spring congregation, au account of which will 
be found under head of Mifflintown Borough. 



" 23d, Saturday. — Remained at Captain Patterson's. 

" 24th, Sabbath. — Preached near the mouth of Tus- 
kerora River (where it empties itself into Juniata) to 
a large congregation, collected from ditierent quarters 
and from afar. The audience appeared very attentive 
and much engaged. I would fain hope some good 
impressions were made upon the minds of a number 
that attended to-day. In this afternoon, being in the 
open air, we were interrupted by a very heavy shower 
of rain, attended with a high wind and sharp thunder, 
which obliged us to take shelter in a neighboring 
house as well as we could. The women, and a great 
part of the men crowded into it, and there I fiijished 
my discourse.' After sermon I went to a house about 
a mile off and baptized a child born last night, and 
returned to Captain Patterson's in the evening. 

" 2oth, Monday. — Sat out from Captain Patterson's 
this morning, as early as we could, on our journey, 
accompanied with Joseph, the interpreter, and Levi 
Hicks (mentioned before as being many years a pris- 
oner among the Indians). I understood he was con- 
siderably impressed under the Word yesterday, and 
therefore was desirous to hear more sermons. We 
traveled up Juniata River eight miles through a bad 
road, to a place called the Narrows, where a rocky 
mountain bounds so close upon the river as to leave 
only a small path along the bank for the most part, 
and this, for about ten miles, very uneven : at this 
time also greatly incumbered by trees fallen across 
it, blown up from the roots, some time ago, by a hard 
gale of wind, so that we were obliged to walk some 
part of the way, and in some places to go along the 
edge of the water. After riding about twenty-one miles 
we came to Mr. Thomas Holt's, much fatigued, where 
we rested an hour or two, and refreshed ourselves, 
and fed our horses.^ Not far from his house stood 
Fort Granville, erected there the last war, and gar- 
risoned by a small number of provincial troops. 
This place was attacked by the savage enemy. Lieu- 
tenant Armstl-ong, and the few men under his com- 
mand, made a noble defence for some time, till at last 
the enemy found means to set the fort on fire, which 
was made only of wood. A breach by this means 
being made, the commanding officer was killed, and 
the remaining troops, with such of the inhabitants 
who had fled there for refuge, were either killed or 
taken prisoners. 

" We proceeded on our journey, the road being now 
pretty good, the land we passed over, for the most 
part, level, some of it very rich, yet unhabitated. 
Night coming on, and it being very dark, we were at a 

' This was probably at the house of Eobert Campbell, 
•who then lived near the mouth of Licking Creek. It has 
been stated tliat tliis Sabbath service was at Thomas Wil- 
son's (now Port Royal), but Wilson did not become a resi- 
dent on his tract until 1771. 

2 Thomas Holt then lived on the land on which Hope 
Furnace was afterwards erected. 

difficulty to find our way ; and rain coming on at the 
same time, added to our distress. We began to con- 
clude we must take up our lodging in the woods, but 
a kind providence at last brought us to a little house, 
where we were received and entertained in the best 
manner that was in the people's power. 

"26th, Tuesday. — Finding that notice of my 
preaching to-day had not been sufficiently spread 
through this settlement, the man of the house where 
I lodged sent this morning betimes, in order to notify 
my preaching to the people that lived at some con- 
siderable distance up the river, while I at the same 
time crossed the river at a fording-place, to a house, 
and from thence sent notice to those living on that 
side of the river. By twelve o'clock a considerable 
number of people were collected at a place in the 
woods, where a mill was building, near to which a 
house for worship is intended to be built, as being 
most essential to the inhabitants in those parts. ^ 
While the people were convening it began to rain, 
and the rain continuing, obliged as many as could to 
crowd into a small house. While I was preaching, 
and the people were very attentive, we were alarmed 
by a rattlesnake creeping into the house among the 
I^eople, supposed to have got in under the logs of the 
house, it being pretty open, but this venomous creat- 
ure was, happily, discovered and killed before it did 
any damage. Scarcely were the people composed 
again before we were alarmed anew by a snake of 
another kind, being discovered among the people, 
which was also killed without any detriment besides 
disturbing us. The providence of God appeared 
very remarkable in preserving us from the venom of 
the creatures, and more so, as these people were so 
crowded together as that it might be a just matter ot 
wonder how these creatures could crawl through the 
congregation without being some way offended by 
them, which always excites them to bite ; however, 
the auditors all got composed again and were attentive 
the remaining part of the discourse, which was the 
first sermon ever preached in these parts. Here I 
baptized several children ; and after sermon rode 
about four miles and a half with one of the audience 
and lodged at his house. 

" This settlement, on both sides the river Juniata, 
consisting, at present, of about eighty families, ex- 
tends from the place called the Narrows, mentioned 
before, to where the river Augweek empties itself into 
the Juniata. The settlement is about twenty-five 
miles in length ; and in the centre, seven miles 

"There is another settlement just began, consisting 

s The preaching-place here mentioned is supposed to be 
near the old Bratton graveyard, and where, a few years 
later, a log church was built. The tradition is still retained 
in old families that the Rev. Charles Beatty preached the 
first sermon in that neighborhood at this place, and near to 
which the Brattons had a saw-mill. 



at preisent of six or seven families, four miles from 
the center of the former, over a mountain called 
Kithaquaquilla or Great Valley, extending ahout 
thirty miles and five or six wide. As the land here is 
very good, a greater number of people is expected to 
settle there in the spring. Both those places propose 
jiiluing in order to make one congregation. They 
are desirous of having a minister settled among 
them as soon as may be, and appear to be willing to 
do as much towards his support as their present low 
circumstances will admit. 

" 27(h, Wednesday. — I baptized a child this 
morning, brought to my lodging, and then sat out in 
company with several people. I rode about eight 
miles and preached to a small auditory convened for 
that purpose, who appeared attentive. 1 baptized 
several children, and lodged near the place, at Mr. 
John M'Michael's.' Here, and in many other places 
on the river, is very rich land, usually distinguished 
by the name of Bottom-Land, excellent for hemp 
and Indian corn ; but it is so rich that it must be culti- 
vated some years, and sowed or planted with other 
grain or hemp, before it will produce good wheat. It 
abounds with fiue black walnut timber, and the 
people settled on this river, have an advantage above 
many others on the frontiers ; and that is of carrying 
down the river when the water rises but a little with 
the rains, their produce, and floating down walnut 
boards to Harris's or Wright's ferry, on Susquehannah 
river, the former within thirty-five and the latter 
about eight miles olf Lanca.ster town, (which is forty- 
five miles from Philadeli)hia), where they have a 
market for their produce; so that probably they will 
be able in some years, if peace continues, to support 
a minister among them. 

" 2Sth, Thursday. — Rained last night and this 
morning till 9 o'clock, when we sat out for Fort 
Littleton, crossing Juniata at the mouth of Aughweek 
river, and being conducted by the men in whose house 
we lodged about twelve or fourteen miles along a 
small path which led up the river Aughweek, cross- 
ing the bondings of it a number of times (the laud 
chiefly level and some very rich near the river) ; we 
passed by an old Indian town, now deserted, where 
Fort Shirley was built in the late war. Hitherto we 
saw but two or three houses. We halted a little while 
on a natural meadow, situated on a bend of the river 
Aughweek, to let our feed. After travelling 
about thirty miles to-day, we arrived, a little before 
night, at Fort Littleton and put up at Mr. Bird's, a 

Beatty'.s coui'se from Fort LittletoD, where 
he was rejoined by the Rev. Mr. Duffiekl, was 

through Path Valley and on to Fort Pitt, 
where he arrived Friday, September 5th. 

'The name John McMichael is a typographical error, 
as .John Carmichael then lived in what is now Wayne town- 
ship, Mifflin County, and was connected later with the Pres- 
byterian congregation. 



Troops Forwarded to the Continental Army — The Militia — 
Indian Incursions and other Local Affairs of the Period 
— Tories. 

The Revolutionary "War, through the 
difFereut stages of its progress, from its com- 
mencement until the final establishment of 
peace and independence, occiu-red and covered a 
period in the annals of the Susquehanna and 
Juniata Val'eys, M'hen that great region (more 
particularly the part of it which is the special 
subject of this history) had been devastated 
again and again by savage incursions and mas- 
sacres, so frequently, and with such terrorizing 
effect, that the few adventurous pioneers who 
had attempted the making of homes within the 
territory from 1750 to 1763, inclusive, had 
been forced to abandon their possessions, and 
fly eastward and southward, across the river 
and the mountains, leaving the country desolate 
and depopulated ; and those of the bolder ones 
who, years afterwards, had again ventured back 
to the western side of the Susquehanna, during 
the brief time that had intervened between the 
close of active Indian hostilities and the open- 
ing of the great conflict for national freedom, 
were too few and too poor to be expected to 
give material assistance in any other struggle 
than the one in which they wei>e already en- 
gaged, and from which there was no discharge 
— the ceaseless fight to procure bread for their 
wives and children, and to guard their cabin- 
doors from the assaults of the gaunt wolf of 

The result was such as was inevitable within 
a territory in which a few of the oldest settle- 
ments were only ten years old (1765 being the 
earliest return of any M'ho had fled before the 
Pontiac alarm), and the greater part of them of 
much more recent date ; there could be no gen- 
eral enlistment of men to form regiments or 
companies to serve in the righteous cause, and 
althouo;]! at the first alarm and call to arms the 



pioneers of this territory came forward at least 
as readily and with as much of ardor as those 
of any other part or region of the province, to 
enroll themselves among the fighting men and 
patriots of Pennsylvania, the drain on the sparse, 
able-bodied population could not afterwards be 
sustained, and few soldiers went from this re- 
gion to fill the Continental army; for all, and 
more than all, were needed at home, to care for 
the helpless ones, and once more to become 
guards against the savage atrocities which 
reached their climax in the fourth year of the 
war, and which continued until its close to de- 
mand the constant services and vigilance of 
every man capable of bearing arms, from the 
West Branch southward to the Blue Mountain 
range. At the time of the great struggle for 
independence there was no Mifflin, Union, 
Perry, Juniata or Snyder County ; all the terri- 
tory now embraced in those counties forming 
only the outlying, wilderness fiortions of the 
counties of Cumberland and Northumberland, 
at whose county-seats, the people of the south- 
ern and northern jjortious of this territory, re- 
spectively, met for the holding of their courts 
and the transaction of all public business, in- 
cluding that most intensely exciting part which 
related to events of continual occurrence, that 
were each day bringing the people and the 
province face to face with the dread i-ealities of 
actual war. 

The oppressions and exactions of the mother- 
country were becoming more and more odious 
to the j)eople, and were acting as educators to 
prepare the colonists for the impending contest, 
which, under Providence, was to result in their 
emancipation from foreign rule. Among the 
first of the measures taken in Pennsylvania to 
organize an opposition to the encroachments of 
the ministry on the people's liberties was the 
formation of a central Committee of Correspond- 
ence and Safety in Philadelphia, and of branch 
committees in most, if not all, of the several 
counties. The central committee assumed a gene- 
ral oversight of affairs through the province, and 
placed themselves in correspondence with the 
leading patriots of the different sections for that 
purpose. Such a communication, sent at a very 
early period (while the peaceable relations be- 

tween the two countries were yet unbroken) by 
the committee to leading men of Northumber- 
land County, explains the object had in view, 
and may be said to have marked the commence- 
ment of Revolutionary measures. The docu- 
ment, the original of which was found among 
the papers of Captain John Lowdon, one of the 
most prominent and patriotic of the Revolution- 
ary officers of this region, was as follows : 

" Philadelphia, June 28, 1774. 

"To William Maclay, William Plunket and Samuel 

JBunier, Esquires, Northvmberland ; 

"Gentlemen: -The committee of correspondence 
for this city beg leave to enclose you printed copies of 
the resolves passed by a very large and respectable 
meeting of the freeholders and freemen, in the State 
House square, on Saturday, the ISth instant ; and by 
the fourth of these resolves, you will observe that it 
was left for the committee to determine on the most 
proper mode of collecting the sense of this Province 
in the present critical situation of our affairs, and ap- 
pointing Deputies to attend the proposed Congress. 
In pursuance of this trust, we have, upon the maturest 
deliberation, determined upon the mode contained in 
the following propositions, which we hope may meet 
with the approbation and concurrence of your respect- 
able county, viz.: 

■" 1st. That the Speaker of the House of Represen- 
tatives be desired to write to the several members of 
Assembly, requesting them to meet in this city as 
soon as possible, but not later than the 1st of August 
next, to take into consideration our very alarming 

" 2d. That letters be written to proper persons in 
each county, recommending it to them to get commit- 
tees appointed for their respective counties, and that 
the said committees, or such number of them as may 
be thought proper, may meet at Philadelphia at the 
time the Representatives are convened, in order to 
consult and advise on the most expedient mode of 
appointing Deputies to the General Congress, and to 
give their weight to such as may be appointed. 

"The Speaker of the Assembly, in a very obliging 
and ready manner, has agreed to comply with the re- 
quest in the former of these propositions ; but we are 
now informed that, on account of the Indian disturb- 
ances, the Governor has found it necessary to call the 
Assembly to meet in their legislative capacity on 
Monday, July 18, being about the same time the 
Speaker would probably have invited them to a con- 
ference or convention in their private capacity. 

" What we have, therefore, to request, is that if you 
approve of the mode expressed in the second propo- 
sition, the whole or a part of the committee appointed 
or to be appointed from your county, will meet the 
committees from the other counties at Philadelphia 



on Friday, the 15th day of July, in order to assist in 
framing instructions and preparing such matters as may 
be proper to recommend to our representatives at 
their meeting the Monday following. 

" We would not ofl'er .such an affront to tlie well- 
known ])ublic spirit of Pennsylvania as to question 
your zeal on the present occasion. Our very exist- 
ence in the rank of freemen, and the security ol all 
that ought to be dear to us, evidently depend upon 
our conducting this great cause to its proper issue 
with firmness, wisdom and unanimity. We cannot, 
therefore, doubt your ready concurrence in every 
measure that may be conducive to the public good : 
and it is with pleasure that we can assure you that all 
the Colonies, from South Carolina to New Hampshire, 
seem animated with one spirit in the common cause, 
and consider this as the proper crisis for having our 
difference with the mother-country brought to some 
certain issue, and our liberties fixed upon a perma- 
nent foundation. This desirable end can only be ac- 
complished by a free communion of sentiments and a 
sincere, fervent regard to the interests of our common 

" We beg to be favored with an answer to this, and 
whether the committee from your county can attend 
at Philadelphia at the time proposed. 

"Thomas Willing, Chairman." 

On the back of this ancient and interesting doc- 
ument wa.>< the following indorsement (said to be 
in the handwriting of Joseph Green), wliicli 
shows the public action taken, viz.: 

"At a meeting of a number of the principal inhabit- 
ants of the township of Buffalo, at Loudowick Derr's,' 
of Saturday, the ninth of July, John Loudon, Esquire, 
and Samuel Maclay were chosen as committee-men to 
meet the other committee-men from the other town- 
ships, on Monday, the 11th instant, at Richard Maloue's, 
in order to choose proper persons out of the township 
committees to go to Philadelphia to the general meet- 
ing of the committees chosen by the respective coun- 
ties of this Province; and likewise to fix upon some 
proper way and means to correspond with the other 
committees of this Province. 

" By order of the meeting. 

"Joseph Green, Clarh." 

The committees' meeting was duly held at 
Ricliard Malone's on the 11th, on which oc- 
casion William Scull and Samuel Hunter were 
chosen to represent Northumberland County in 
the proposed congress of deputies. 

For tiie county of Cumberland, to which a 
similar notification and request had been sent 
by the Philadelphia committee, deputies were 

' Now Lewisburgh. 

also regularly chosen, — the sparse population 
of the Juniata region and of the western side of 
the Susquehanna Valley above the Blue Moun- 
tain taking the journey to their more distant 
county-seat of Carlisle. 

The state of feeling in that region was indi- 
cated at a meeting of the freeholders and free- 
men, held at Carlisle the 12th of July, 1774, 
John Montgomery in the chair, at which the 
following resolutions were adopted, and deputies 
elected : 

" 1. Resolved, That the late Act of the Parliament 
of Great Britain, by which the port of Boston is shut 
up, is oppressive to that town, and subversive of the 
rights and liberties of the Colony of Massachusetts 
Bay ; that the principle upon which that Act is founded 
is not more subversive of the rights and liberties of 
that Colony than it is of all other British Colonies in 
North America, and therefore the inhabitants of 
Boston are suftering in the common cause of all these 

" 2. That every vigorous and prudent measure 
ought sjjeedily and unanimously to be adopted by 
these Colonies for obtaining redress of the grievances 
under which the inhabitants of Boston are now labor- 
ing, and security from grievance of the same or a 
still more severe nature under which they and the 
other inhabitants of the Colonies may, by a further 
operation of the same principle, hereafter labor. 

" 3. That a Congress of Deputies from all the 
Colonies will be one proper method for obtaining 
these purposes. 

"4. That the same purposes will, in the opinion 
of this meeting, be promoted by an agreement of all 
the Colonies not to import any merchandize from, nor 
export any merchandize to. Great Britain, Ireland, or 
the British West Indies, nor to use any such merchan- 
dize so imported, nor tea imported from any place 
whatever, till these purposes be obtained ; but that the 
inhabitants of this county will join any restriction of 
that agreement which the General Congress may 
think it neces-ary for the Colonies to confine them- 
selves to. 

"5. That the inhabitants of this county will con- 
tribute to the relief of their sufl'ering brethren in 
Boston at anytime when they shall receive intimation 
that such relief will be most seasonable. 

"6. That a committee be immediately appointed 
for this county, to correspond with the committee of 
this Province, or of the other provinces, upon the 
great objects of the public attention; and to co-operate 
in every measure conducing to the general welfare of 
British America. 

"7. That the committee consist of the following 
persons, viz.: James Wilson, John Armstrong, Wil- 
liam Irvine, Robert Callendar, William Thompson, 



John Calhoon, Jonathan Hoge, Eobert Magaw, Eph- 
raim Blane, John Allison, John Harris and Robert 
Miller, or any five of them. 

"8. That James Wilson, Robert Magaw and Wil- 
liam Irvine be the Deputies appointed to meet the 
Deputies from other counties of this province, at 
Philadelphia, on Friday next, in order to concert 
measures preparatory to the General Congress. 
"John Montgomery, 


The meeting of deputies cliosen by the 
several counties, as recommended by the central 
committee, convened in Philadelphia, at Car- 
penter's Hall, on Friday, July 15, 177 i. 
Thomas Willing was made chairman, and 
Charles Thompson secretary, and among the 
resolutions passed were the following : 

"U'. 1. That we acknowledge ourselves and the 
inhabitants of this Province liege subjects of His 
Majesty King George III., to whom they and we owe 
and will bear true and faithful allegiance. 

" U. 2. That as the idea of an unconstitutional 
independence of the parent state is utterly abhorrent 
to our principles, we view the unhappy differences 
between Great Britain and the Colonies with the 
deepest distress and anxiety of mind, as to 
her, grievous to us and destructive to tlie best inter- 
ests of both. 

" U. 3. That it is, therefore, our ardent desire that 
our ancient harmony with the mother-country should 
be restored, and a perpetual love and union subsist 
between us, on the principles of the constitution and 
an interchange of good offices, without the least 
infraction of our mutual rights. 

" U. 4. That the inhabitants of these Colonies are 
entitled to the same rights and liberties within these 
Colonies that the subjects born in England are en- 
titled to within that realm. 

"U. 5. That the power assumed by the Parliament 
of Great Britain, to bind the people of these Colonies, 
' by statutes in all cases whatsoever,' is unconstitu- 
tional, and, therefore, the source of these unhappy 

" U. 6. That the act of Parliament for shutting 
up the port of Boston is unconstitutional ; oppressive 
to the inhabitants of that town ; dangerous to the 
liberties of the British Colonies ; and, therefore, that 
we consider our brethren at Boston as suffering in the 
common cause of these Colonies. 

" U. 9. That there is an absolute necessity that 
a Congress of deputies from the several colonies be 
immediately assembled to consult together and form 
a general plan of conduct to be observed by all the 

' The letter U tlius placed before a resolution indicates 
that it was passed unanimously. 

Colonies, for the purpose of procuring relief for our 
suffering brethren, obtaining redress of our grievances, 
preventing future dissensions, firmly establishing our 
rights, and restoring harmony between Great Britain 
and her Colonies on a constitutional foundation. 

"U. 16. That this committee give instructions on 
the present situation of public affairs to their Repre- 
sentatives who are to meet next week in Assembly, 
and request them to appoint a proper number of 
persons to attend a congress of Deputies from the 
several Colonies, at such time and place as may be 
agreed upon, to affect one general plan of conduct, 
for attaining the great and important ends mentioned 
in the ninth resolve." 

In the Provincial Assembly, June 30th, it 
was " Remlved, That this House approves the 
Association entered into by the good people of 
this colony for the defense of their lives, liber- 
ties and property." And by the same body, 
on the 2 2d of July, on receipt of a report of 
the proceedings of the deputies, it was " Re- 
solved, that there is an absolute necessity that 
a Congress of Deputies from the several 
Colonies be held as soon as conveniently may 
be, to consult upon the unhappy state of the 
Colonies, and to form a plan for the purpose of 
obtaining redress of American grievances, &c., 
and for establishing that union and harmony 
between Great Britain and the Colonies which 
is indispensably necessary to the welfare and 
happiness of both." The first-mentioned of 
these resolutions had reference to the fact that 
a Committee of Safety, consisting of twenty- 
five citizens, was appointed and authorized to 
call into actual service such number of the 
associators as they might judge proper. Organ- 
izations of " associators " were found in most, if 
not all, the counties. The committee organized 
July 3d by the choice of Benjamin Franklin, 
president. Congress, July 18th, recommended 
that all able-bodied, effective men between six- 
teen and fifty years of age should immediately 
form themselves into companies of- militia, to 
consist of one captain, two lieutenants, one 
ensign, four sergeants, four corporals, one clerk, 
one drummer, one fifer and about sixty-eight 
privates ; the companies to be formed into 
regiments or battalions, officered with a colonel, 
lieutenant-colonel, two majors and an adjutant 
or quartermaster ; all officers above the rank 



of captain to be appointed by the provincial 

The following letter, written for the com- 
mittee by Casper Weitzel, of Sunbury, North- 
umberland County, a prominent attorney, and 
soon afterwards himself the commander of a 
company of Northumberland volunteers in the 
war for independence, is self-explanatory. It 
was addressed " to John Lowden, Esquire, and 
Mr. Samnel ^laclay, in Buffalo Valley" (now 
Union County), viz. : 

"Sunbury, 20lh April, 1775. 
" Gextlemex : The time is at hand wlien the 
spirit of Americans that love liberty and constitu- 
tional principles will be put to the trial. What has 
been by them in their ditlerent resolves avowed must, 
perhaps, at last be put in execution. The late alarm- 
ing news just received from England (which we may 
depend upon) informs that the British Parliament 
are determined by force to put in execution every of 
their supreme edicts, as they style them, together 
with their late oppressive acts, which we have so long, 
and with so little or no eftect, hitherto complained 
of. We consider it absolutely necessary to have a 
general meeting of the whole county, in order to 
form some regular plan, in conjunction with our 
countrymen, to give every opposition to impending 
tyranny and oppression, either by force or other- 
wise. The time of meeting, we think, will be best on 
the first day of May next, at ten o'clock in the fore- 
noon, and the place most convenient, at Vandyke's, 
near Beaver run, in Buffalo Valley. We do, there- 
fore, earnestly request that you will immediately, on 
the receipt hereof, in the most expeditious manner, 
notify the inhabitants of your township of this 
matter, and insist on their attendance without fail 
there on that day. The pLice of meeting is such 
where we cannot expect much accommodation. It 
will be, therefore, necessary that every man should 
provide for himself. We are your humble serv"*. 
"Signed by order of the Committee, 

" Cas. Weitzel." 

In Cumberland County the strongly patriotic 
feeling, the righteous resentment of oppression — 
indicated in the resolutions passed at Carlisle on 
July 12, 1774, and heretofore given, gathered 
force as time went on. A letter bearing date 
of Carlisle May 6, 1776, says, — 

"Yesterday the County Committee met from nine- 
teen townships, on the short notice they had. About 
three thousand men have already associated. The 
arms returned amount to about thirteen hundred. 
The committee have v<ited five hundred effective men, 
besides commissioned oflScers, to be immediately 

drafted, taken into pay, armed and disciplined to 
march on the first emergency ; to be paid and sup- 
ported, as long as necessary, by a tax on all estates, 
real and personal, in the county ; the returns to be 
taken by the township committee, and the tax laid 
by the commissioners and assessors ; the pay of the 
officers and men as usual in times past. 

" This morning we met again at eight o'clock. 
Among other subjects of inquiry this day, the mode 
of drafting, or taking into pay, arming and victual- 
ling immediately the men, and the choice of field and 
other officers will, among other matters, be the sub- 
ject of deliberation. The strength or spirit of this 
county, perhaps, may appear small if judged by the 
number of men proposed ; but when it is considered 
that we arc ready to raise fifteen hundred or two 
thousand, should we have support from the Province, 
and that, independent, and in uncertain expectation 
of support, we have voluntarily drawn upon this county 
a debt of about twenty-seven thousand pounds per 
annum, I hope we shall not appear contemptible. 
We make great improvements in military discipline. 
It is yet uncertain who may go." ' 

On the 14th of June, 1 775, Congress authorized 
the raising of six companies of expert riflemen in 
Pennsylvania, two in Maryland and two in 
Virginia, to join the army near Boston. On 
the 22d the " colony of Pennsylvania " was di- 
rected to raise two more companies, making 
eight in all, which were to be formed into a 
battalion. Lancaster County furnished two 
companies instead of one, and thus the bat- 
talion, which was commanded by Colonel Wil- 
liam Thompson, of Carlisle, was swollen to 
nine companies, viz. : Captain James Chambers' 
comjwny, enlisted in that part of Cumberland 
which is now Franklin County ; Captain Rob- 
ert Cluggage's company, enlisted chiefly iu 
what is now Bedford County; Captain Wil- 
liam Hendricks' company, of Cumberland 
County ; Captain John Lowdon's company, 
enlisted at Northumberland ; Captain Abraham 
Smith's company, enlistetl in Northampton 
County ; Captain George Nagel's company, en- 
listed at Reading, Berks County ; Captain James 
Ross' company, enlisted in Lancaster County ; 
and Captain Mattiiew Smith's companj', enlisted 
iu that part of Lancaster which is now Dauphin 
County. This last-named company was one of 
those who were selected to accompany Genenil 

' American Archives, vol. ii p. 516. 


Benedict Arnold in his toilsome and remarkable 
march through the wilderness of Maine to the 
stronghold of Quebec, and it did good service 
on that disastrous expedition. Its commander, 
Captain Matthew Smith, was a Lancaster 
County man, but after his service in the army 
he removed to what is now Union County, and 
remained a citizen there until his death. 
The other company which took part in 
the Quebec expedition was that of Captain 
William Hendricks, of Carlisle, a brave 
and gallant officer, who was killed in the as- 
sault at the Palace Gate, Quebec, January 1 , 
1776. John McClellau, who was first lieuten- 
ant of Hendricks' comjjany, was from what is 
now Juniata County.' He died on the march 
through the wilderness, November 3, 1775. 
He left a daughter, Priscilla, who resided in 
Cumberland County in 1787, then aged four- 
teen, and his descendants still reside in Juniata 

The men of this company were entirel}' of 
Cumberland County, and were enlisted in J line, 

This company was composed largely of men 
from the region now constituting Mifflin, Ju- 
niata and Perry Counties. It left Carlisle on 
tlie 15th of July, and arrived in camjJ at Cam- 
bridge on the 8th of August, and was assigned 
to Colonel William Thompson. 

On the 6th of September two companies of 
the battalion, under Captain William Heudi'icks 
and Captain Matthew Smith, were ordered to 
join the detachment '' to go upon command 
with Colonel Arnold." These companies led 
the advance under Captain Daniel Morgan, 
through the wilderness, and participated in the 
attack on Quebec on the morning of the 31st of 
December, at Palace Gate. In this battle Cap- 
tain William Hendricks was killed and the 
rest of the command, after desperate fighting, 
were forced to surrender, and were paroled on 
the 7th of August, 1776, and after being ex- 
changed, for the most part re-entered the ser- 

The following is a roster of Captain William 
Hendricks' company : 

I See " History of Milford Township, .Juniata County." 

[Those marked with an asterisk (*) were captured.] 

Captain : William Hendricks, June 25, 1775; killed 
in action at Quebec, January 1, 1776. 

First Lieutenant : John McClellan, died on the 
march through the wilderness, November 3, 1775. 

Second Lieutenant: Francis Nichols, captured at 
Quebec, January 1, 1776 ; returned from captivity 
October 10, 1776. 

Third Lieutenant: George Francis . 

Sergeants : Dr. Thomas Gibson, of Carlisle (died at 
Valley Forge in the winter of 1778), Henry Crone,* 
Joseph Greer,* William McCoy.'-' 


Edward Agnew,* George Albright, Thomas Ander- 
son,* Philip Boker* (wounded at Quebec), John 
Blair,* Alexander Burns,* Peter Burns,* William 
Burns,* John Campbell (killed at Quebec), Daniel 
Carlisle,* John Corswill * (released April 21, 1777), 
Roger Casey,* Joseph Caskey,* John Chambers,* 
Thomas Cooke* (afterwards lieutenant of Eighth 
Pennsylvania), John Cove,* John Craig (promoted 
lieutenant in Second Battalion, Colonel St. Clair), 
Matthew dimming,* Arthur Eckles (re-enlisted, re- 
sided in Cumberland County in 1809), Peter Frainer,* 
Francis Furlow,* William Gommel,* John Gardner,* 
Daniel Graham,* James Greer,* Thomas Greer,* 
John Hardy,* Elijah Herdy, John Henderson * 
(wounded at Quebec), James Hogge* (resided in 
Cumberland Couuty in 1794), James Inload,* Dennis 
Kelley (killed at Quebec), William Kirkpatrick,* 
Richard Lynch,* David Lamb, Thomas Lesley,* John 
Lorain, John McChesuey,* Daniel McClellan,* 
Richard McClure,* Henry McCormick, Henry Mc- 
Ewen, Archibald McFarlane * (made his escape and 
enlisted in Captain Doyle's rifle company), Barnabas 
McGuire,* John McLin,* John McMurdy (re-en- 
listed in Flying Camp, afterwards sergeantin Captain 
Patterson's company, Second Pennsylvania), Jacob 
Mason,* Philip Maxwell,* George Morrison,* George 
Morrow,* Edward Morton, Thomas Murdoch,* 
Daniel North,* Daniel O'Hara,* William O'Hara* 
(exchanged November 8, 1776), John Ray,* James 
Reed,* George Rinehart, Edward Rodden,* William 
Shannon,* William Smith,* William Snell,* Robert 
Steel* (exchanged January 3, 1777, promoted en- 
sign in Fourth Pennsylvania), Hugh Sweeney, Ed- 
ward Sweeney, Abraham Swaggerty* (wounded at 
Quebec), Matthew Taylor, Henry Turpentine,* 
Michael Young,* Thomas Witherof,* Joseph Wright.* 

The proportion of men from Cumberland 
County in Captain Robert Cluggage's Company, 
though nominally from Bedford, was not suf- 
ficient to warrant the printing of the roster in 
this connection ; especially as it is now impos- 



sible to designate which were from " old Cum- 
berland " and which from the part which has 
since been taken in the erection of the newer 
counties to which this history particularly refers. 

The " Northumberland Company " of the 
battalion was that commanded by Captain 
John Lowdon, wlio was then a resident " on his 
farm, called Silver Spring, adjoining the present 
town of Mifflinburg, Union County, where he 
died in February, 1798, haying served not only 
in his military capacity, but as a member of the 
vSuprenae Executiye Council of Pennsylyania. 
First Lieutenant James Parr [of this company] 
was from BufEilo Valley, near New Columbia. 
He rose to the rank of major and became noted 
throughout the army for daring and intrepidity. 
His history subsequent to the Revolution 
seems to be altogether lost. He died prior to 
1804. James Wilson, second lieutenant, was a 
noted surveyor in Northumberland County 
prior to the war. William Wilson, third lieu- 
tenant, or ensign, served the entire period of the 
war. On the 13th of January, 1792, he was 
appointed associate judge of Northumberland 
County, which office he held until his death, in 
1813.' Sergeant David Hammond rose to the 
rank of first lieutenant and served throughout 
the war. He was severely wounded iu Wayne's 
attack on the block-house, at Bergen Point, 
near Jersey City, July 21, 1780. He never 
recovered from the effects of his wound, which 
caused his death April 27, 1801, aged fifty- 
five. He is buried in the Chillisquaque grave- 
yai'd. He was father of the late General B. H. 
Hammond, of Milton, Pa., and grandfather of 
Lieutenant Thomas C. Hammond, who fell in 
the Mexican War, at San Pasqual, December 6, 

Captaiu Lowdon's commission, still in exist- 
ence, was dated June 25, 1775, and reads as 
follows : 

'This officer was the one who. at tlie battle of Moa- 
mouth. captured the battle-flag of the Royal Grenadiers, 
when they were driven back and their leader, General 
Monckton, killed, at the Tenuent parsonage, in the after- 
noon of June 28, 1778. The color is still in possession of 
his descendants, in Bellefonte. 

^Penna. .\rch., ^d .Series, vol. x. pf . ■J7--8. 

" In Congkess: The Delegates of the United Colo- 
nies of NewHampsliire, Massachusetts IJay, Rhode 
Island, Connecticut, New York, Xew Jersey, Penn- 
sylvania, the counties of Xew Castle, Kent and 
Sussex, in Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North 
Carolina and South Carolina : 
" To John Lowdon, Esquire : 

"We, reposing especial trust and confidence ia 
your patriotism, valor, conduct and fidelity, do, by 
these presents, constitute and appoint you to be captain 
of a company of riflemen in the battalion commanded 
by Colonel William Thompson, in the army of the 
United Colonies, raised for the defense of American 
liberty and for repelling any hostile invasion thereof. 
You are, therefore, carefully and diligently to dis- 
charge the duty of captain by doing and performing 
all manner of things thereunto belonging. And we 
do strictly charge and require all officers and soldiers 
under your command to be obedient to your orders as 
captain ; and you are to observe and follow such 
orders and directions, from time to time, as you shall 
receive from this or a future Congress of the United 
Colonies, or committee of Congress for that purpose 
appointed, or commander-in-chief for the time being ol 
the army of the United Colonies, or any other superior 
officer, according to the rules and discipline of war, 
in pursuance of the trust reposed in you. This com- 
mission to continue in force until revoked by this or a 
future Congress. 

" By order of Congress. 

" JoHX Haxcock, President. 
"Attest : Charles Thompson, Seerefary. 
"Philadelphia, June 25, 1775." 

Captain Lowdon's company was sworn iu at 
Northumberland June 29, 1775, only four days 
after the date of his commission and probably 
before he had received it. Aaron Wright's 
journaP says that immediately after that cere- 
mony "... we chose our officers and lay 
there until the 7th of July, when we got or- 
ders to march the next morning. When on 
parade our first lieutenant came and told us he 
would be glad if we would excuse him from 
going, which we refused, but on consideration 
we all concluded it was better to consent. . . . 
In the evening we cho.'^e a private in his place. 
The next morning we marched on board the 
boats, Ac. Jidy 13th, reached Reading, where 
we got our knapsacks, blankets, &c." They 
left Reading on the 20th of July and were at 
Bethlehem on the 1st of August ; reached 
North River, opposite New Windsor, August 

I In Xfu- York Historical Magazine. 186'2. 



20th. On the 24tli marched through Litch- 
field, Conn., crossed the Connecticut, near Hart- 
ford, on the 2(3th, and reached Dudley, Mass., 
on the 30th of August. On the 31st they 
marched to Weston and stayed all night; thence 
through Farmiugham and Watertown to Cam- 
bridge ; thence to Prospect Hill.' 

This movement was made with Colonel 
Thomp.son's battalion (the organization of 
which has been given). This battalion became 
the Second Regiment, and, after the 1st of Jan- 
uary, 1776, tlie First Regiment " of the army 
of the United Colonies, commanded by His 
Excellency Greneral George Washington, Es- 
quire, general and commander-in-chief." So 
reads a return dated " Headquarters at Cam- 
bridge, Aug. 18, 1775," by which it appears that 
three field officers, nine captains, twenty-seven 
lieutenants, the adjutant, quartermaster, surgeon 
and mate, twenty-nine sergeants, thirteen drums 
and fifes, and seven hundred and thirteen rank 
and file were present and fit for duty. 

Colonel Thompson's men are thus described 
in Thacher^s Military Journal, — 

" Several companies of riflemen have arrived here 
from Pennsylvania and Maryland, a distance of from 
five hundred to seven hundred miles. They are re- 
markably stout and hardy men, many of them ex- 
ceeding six feet in height. They are dressed in rifle 
shirts and round hats. These men are remarkable 
for the accuracy of their aim, striking a mark with 
great certainty at two hundred yards' distance. At a 
review, a company of them, while on a quick ad- 
vance, fired their balls into objects of seven inch di- 
ameter, at a distance of two hundred and fifty yards. 
They are now stationed on our lines and their shot 
have frequently proved fatal to British oflicers and 

McCabe, in his sketches of Captain Samuel 
Brady, has the following mention of him in an 
allusion to a movement made by Lowdon's 
company : 

" Lowdon's company was ordered to drive the 
British from an island, on which they had landed to 
forage. Brady was considered too young to go along, 
and left behind ; but, to the astonishment of the cap- 
tain, he followed after, and was the second man on 
the island." 

November 9th the British landed at Lech- 

■ Pennsylvania Avcliives, Secoml Series, vol. x. p. 27. 

mere Point, one and a half miles from Cam- 
bridge, under cover of a fire from their bat- 
teries on Bunker, Breed and Copp's Hills, as 
also from a frigate, which lay three hundred 
yards off the point on which they landed. The 
high tide prevented our people crossing the 
causeway for nearly an horn-, This time they 
employed in shooting cows and horses. The 
battalion of Colonel Thomjisou took to the wa- 
ter, although u]) to their arm-pits, for a quarter 
of a mile, and, notwithstanding the regular fire, 
reached the island. Although the enemy were 
lodged behind stone walls and under cover, on 
Colonel Thompson's approach they fled, and, 
although the riflemen followed them to their 
boats with all speed, they could not bring them 
to an engagement. Our loss was one killed and 
three wounded ; English loss, seventeen killed 
and one wounded." 

In " The Letters of Mrs. Adams," wife of 
John Adams, page 61, under date 12th Novem- 
ber, 1775, is also a notice of this incident, — 

" A number of cattle were kept at Lechmere Point, 
where two sentinels were placed. In a high tide it is 
an island. About four hundred men were sent to 
take the cattle off. As soon as they were perceived, 
the cannon on Prospect Hill were fired on them and 
sunk one of their boats. A Colonel Thompson, of 
the riflemen, marched instantly with his men, and, 
though a very stormy day, they regarded not the tide, 
nor waited for boats, but marched over neck-high 
in water, when the regulars ran without waiting to 
get off their stock and made the best of their way to 
the opposite shore. The general sent his thanks in a 
public manner to the brave officer and his men." 

In the latter part of August, Captain Low- 
don was the recipient of a letter from Robert 
Lettis Hooper, Jr., and Reuben Haines, of 
Philadelphia, of Mhich the following is the 
chief portion (though there are allusions to 
other matters, which will be narrated in proper 
place) : 

" Philadelphia, Augmt 13, 1775. 

" De.vr Sir : — We hope this letter will find you 
safe at the head of your company, acting in support 
and defense of American liberty ; a glorious cause, 
which must stimulate the breast of every honest and 
virtuous American, and force him, with undaunted 
courage and unabated vigor, to oppose those minis- 
terial robbers. We hope the contest will be ended 

' Philadelphia Eveninff Post, 1775. 



where it began, and that the effusion of blood may be 
providentially prevented, but, at the same time, we 
hope to see American liberty permanently established, 
to have the honor, ere long, to serve in her righteous 
cause ; and we are well convinced that these senti- 
ments prevail throughout this Province. You can't 
conceive what a martial spirit prevails here, and in 
what order we are. Two battalions, with the light in- 
fantry companies, are very expert in all the manoeu- 
vres, and are generally well furnished with arms. 
Several companies of riflemen are formed in this city 
and the adjacent counties, who are become expert in 
shooting ; besides we have sixteen row galleys, with 
latteen sails, now building. Some of them are already 
rigged and manned. These galleys are rowed with 
from twenty-four to thirty oars, and carry each one 
gun, from eighteen to thirty-two pounds, besides' 
swivel guns, fore and aft. We are told by experienced 
men that these galleys will prevent any ship of war 
from coming up this river. All the coast to Georgia 
is alarmed — prepared to oppose our ministerial ene- 
mies. Where, then, can these British bastards, those 
servile engines of ministerial power, go to steal a few 
sheep. God and nature has prescribed their bounds. 
They can't deluge our lands, nor float their wooden 
batteries beyond the bounds prescribed, nor dare they 
to penetrate so as from afar to view those high-topped 
mountains which separate the lower plains from our 
Canaan, and from whence, should their folly or mad- 
ness prompt them to attempt it, would come forth our 
thousands and tens of thousands, with gigantic strides, 
to wash the plains with the blood of those degenerate 
invaders of the liberties of mankind." 
** * * * * ** 

In the journal of Major Ennoin William are 
given the details of a trip to the camp at Cam- 
bridge, under date October 17th. He says : — 

"Guns of one of our batteries, two miles from Bos- 
ton, firing. One bursted, and killed one man and 
wounded six. I returned thence to the riflemen's 
camp, and stopped with Captain Lowdon overnight. 
At daybreak I awoke, and a few minutes after the 
morning gun fired. All aroused directly ; the men 
repaired with arms and accouterments to the forts 
and lines, and in about ten minutes the captains, with 
their companies, were in the fort, drawn along the 
sides of the fort, and in two or three minutes they 
began their firing. 

''The captain stepped on the banket or step, inside 
at foot of breastwork, and gave the word ' Make 
ready ! ' The front rank step on the banket, and 
second step forward. 'Present!' He does not give 
the word ' Fire ! ' but makes a pause. Then they re- 
cover, and face to right about, and march through the 
files. At the word ' Make ready ! ' again the next 
rank steps on the banket, and so on continually. 
Every man is to be sure of his object before he fires, 

as he rests his piece on the parapet. In about half 
an hour the flag was hoisted. They ceased, and re- 
tired by regiments to their quarters, and the orderly 
sergeant read the orders of the day and trials by 
court-martial, &c." 

There are numerous notices of this company 
in the Hand papers, in the possession of Mrs. S. 
B. Rogers, of Lancaster, the granddaughter of 
General Edward Hand, who was lieutenant- 
colonel, and afterwards colonel, of the First 
Rifle Regiment. On the 24th of October he 
says, — 

" This morning at dawn Parr, from Northumber- 
land, with thirty men from us, marched for Ports- 
mouth, New Hampshire, to defend that place." 

On the 8th of March,— 

" I am stationed on Cobble Hill, with four compa- 
nies of our regiment. Two companies, Cluggage's and 
Chambers', were ordered to Dorchester on Monday ; 
Ross' and Lowdon's relieved them yesterday. Every 
regiment is to have a standard and colors. Our stand- 
ard is to be a deep green ground, the device a tiger, 
partly inclosed by toils, attempting the pass, defended 
by .1, hunter, armed with a spear (in white), on crim- 
son field. The motto, Domari Nolo.'"- 

March, 1776, the comjiany left Cambridge 
with the battalion which was detached by Gen- 
eral Washington, with five other regiments, 
under General Sullivan, to prevent a lauding of 
the British at New York, when they evacuated 
Boston. Arrived at Hartford on the 21st, and 
at New York on the 28th. The company was 
stationed on Long Island during May and un- 
til June 30th, when it was mu.stered out of ser- 
vice, but many of the men enlisted under Cap- 
tain James Parr, as wo shall presently show. 

Following is the roster of Captain Lowdon's 
company : 

Captain : John Lowdon. 
First Lieutenant : James Parr. 
Second Lieutenant : James Wilson. 
Third Lieutenant: William Wilson, promoted 

second lieutenant January 4, 177G. 
Third Lieutenant : John Dougherty, appointed Janu- 
ary 4, 1766. 
Sergeants : David Hammond, A<lexander McCormick, 
William McMurray, Cornelius Dougherty. 

'This standnrdis still in possession of Thomas Robinson. 
Esq., grandson of Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Robinson, of 
the First Pennsylvania, and was on exhibition at the Cen- 
tennial, 1876. — John Blair Linn, '''^Annah of the Buffalo 




Corporals : Thomas Henry, William Edwards, Cor- 
nelius Dougherty, John White (died January 8, 
1776), James Carson, Charles Cochran. 

Drummer: Richard Grosvenor. 

Privates: William Adkins; Joseph All, discharged 
July 31, 1775 ; John Berniele, afterwards ser- 
geant in the German Eegiment; Samuel Brady, 
afterwards captain lieutenant Eighth Pennsylva- 
nia ; William Briggs ; John Butler, discharged 
January 25, 1776; William Calhoun; Eobert 
Carothers ; James Carson, advanced to corporal 
January 4th ; John Casady ; Samuel Cealy ; David 
Clements ; Charles Cochran, advanced to corporal 
January 8th, discharged July 1, 1776, living in 
Crawford County in 1819 ; Peter Condon ; David 
Davis ; John Dean ; John Eicholtz, residing in 
Lancaster in 1813 ; John Evans ; Jacob Fink- 
boner; Charles Ford; James Garson ; Philip 
Ginter; Thomas Gilston ; John Hamilton ; David 
Harris ; Michael Hare ; Thomas Hempington ; 
Christopher Henning; William Humber; Wil- 
liam Jamison ; Samuel Johns ; James John- 
ston; Lewis Jones; Thomas Kilday; Nicholas 
Kline; John Ladley; Samuel Lowdon ; William 
Leek; Eobert Lines; Thomas Lobden; Eeuben 
Massaker; Moses Madock; John Malone; Chas. 
Maloy ; Alexander McMullen ; Patrick Mc- 
Gonigal ; Cornelius McConnell ; Martin McCoy ; 
James McCleary; Edward McMasters, resided 
in Lycoming County in 1823; William Mor- 
gan ; William Murray ; Timothy Murphy ; 
John Murphy; John Neely (he was cap- 
tured at Fort Freeland, July 28, 1779, and 
taken to Canada; Daniel Cakes); John Oliver; 
Michael Parker ; Thomas Peltson, re-enlisted in 
the First Pennsylvania, and was killed by Joseph 
Blackburn in 1777 ; Peter Pence ; John Eay ; 
Eobert Rishie; Bartholomew Eoach ; John Rob- 
inson ; George Sands ; George Saltzman ; George 
Segar ; Henry Silverthorn ; John Shawnee (was 
a Shawanese Indian, died at Milesburg — see 
Jones' " Juniata Valley," page 352) ; John Smith 
(son ot Widow Smith, of White Deer Mills, he 
never came back from the army) ; James Speddy 
(lived and died at New Berlin) ; Arad Sutton 
(lived on Lycoming Creek; the first Methodist 
Society in Northern Pennsylvania was formed at 
his house in 1791); James Sweeney, discharged 
July 20, 1775 ; John Teel ; Eobert Tuft, dis- 
charged October 25, 1775 ; Philip Valentine, dis- 
charged July 20, 1775; Peter Ward; John 
Ward; Charles West, died January 4, 1776; 
Joseph Whiteneck ; Aaron Wright, (residing in 
Eeading in 1840) ; John Youse; Robert Young, 
(died in Walker township. Centre County, in 

Congress resolved to re-enlist Thompson's 
battalion, and before General Washinsrtou be- 

came aware of the intentions of that body he 
wrote to urge such a measure, saying that " as 
the loss of such a valuable and brave body of 
men " would greatly injure the service, it was 
best, if possible, to induce them to remain, and 
adding, " They are indeed a very useful corps ; 
but I need not mention this, as their importance 
is already well known to the Congress." 

On the 1st of July the battalion entered 
upon another term of service, for three years, or 
during the war, as the First Eegiment of the 
Pennsylvania Line in the Continental service. 

Following is the roll of Caj)tain James Parr's 
company (originally Lowdon's), enlisted July 
1, 1776: 
Captain: James Parr, promoted major October 9, 

First Lieutenant: James Wilson. 
Second Lieutenant: William Wilson, promoted cap- 
tain March 2, 1777. 
Third Lieutenant : John Dougherty. 
Sergeants: David Hammond (promoted second lieu- 
tenant September 14, 1777 ; first lieutenant, May 
12, 1779), Alexander McCormick, William Mc- 
Murray, Cornelius Dougherty. 

David Allen. James Moore. 

Michael Bacher. William Moore. 

John Bradley. William Morgan, 

Daniel Callahan. John Murphy. 

Daniel Campbell. Patrick Murray. 

Peter Condon. John Noishen. 

James Conner. George Norton. • 

Mansfield Coons. John Oliver. 

David Davis. Thomas Paine. 

Eichard Dubois. Thomas Peltson. 

Cornelius Delling. Philip Peter. 

Patrick Donahue. John Eankin. 

William Edwards. John Eay. 

John Griffin. William Eyan. 

William Haggerty. George Saltman. 

John Hammond. Samuel Scott. 

Philip Henry. William Scott. 

Aquila Hinson. James Sprigg. 

John Hutchinson. James Speddy. 

Lewis Jones. Thomas Stewart. 

William Leech. Maurice Sullivan. 

Michael Lough'rey. Alexander Thompson. 

James Loughrey. John Toner. 

James McCleary. George Warren. 

Cornelius McConnell. Jonathan Washburn. 

Henry McCormick. Matthew Wilson. 

Hugh McCaughey. Samuel Willson. 

John Malone. Joseph Whiteneck. 

Charles Melov. John Youse. 



Captain Casper Weitzel, a lawyer of Suubury, 
appoiuted captain March 9, 1776, raised a com- 
pany in and around the place of his residence, 
which had a place in the Pennsylvania Rifle 
Regiment, commanded by Colonel Samuel Miles, 
which was raised in about six weeks, and ren- 
dezvoused at Marcus Hook. On the 2d of July 
the regiment was ordered up to Philadelphia, 
and on the 5th the whole regiment marched to 
Trenton, and thence later to Amboy. On the 
10th of August, Colonel Miles was ordered over 
to New York. The regiment j^articipated in 
the battle of Long Island, August 27th, and 
Weitzel's comj^any lost twenty officers and 

Captain Weitzel, writing to his brother John, 
under date of September 6, 1 776, " camp near 
King's Bridge, sixteen miles above New York," 
says, — 

"... You no doubt before now have heard 
of the drubbiugwe Penusylvanians, with the Delaware 
and Maryland battalions, got on Long Island on the 
27th of August last ; we were prettily taken in. The 
General Sullivan who commanded on Long Island is 
mueh blamed. I saw nothing of him in the engage- 
ment or some days before. The little army we had 
on the island, of five thousand men, was surrounded 
by fifteen or twenty thousand English and Hessians 
when the engagement began ; they gave us a good 
deal of trouble, but we fought our way bravely through 
them. The number of English and Hessians killed 
is surprising great, and of ours very trifling; but 
they have taken about seven hundred of our people 
prisoners, and amongst them more officers than was 
perhaps ever known in the like number of men. My 
Lieutenant Gray, Sergeant Gordon, Sergeant Price 
and sixteen privates are missing. I know of only one 
killed in my company. The poor fellow was wounded 
in the thigh and unable to walk ; his name is Speiss. 
The d — d savage Hessians and English Light In- 
fantry run their bayonets through him and two of 
Captain Albright's men, who were also badly wounded 
and murdered by them. I have this from one of my 
men who was a prisoner and escaped to me, and 
imagines the rest are prisoners. James Watt is 
among them. I came off with whole bones, contrary 
to my expectations." 

The regiment af\^erward consolidated with 
another; followed the fortunes of the Continental 
army ; was engaged in the capture of the Hes- 
sians at Trenton, December 26,1776; in the 
battle of Princeton, January 3, 1777; lay part 

of the winter in Philadelphia, and moved down 
to Billingsport in March, 1777. 

Following is the muster-roll of Captain 
Casper Weitzel's company when at camp near 
Kingsbridge, September 1, 1776: 

Captain: CaspeY Weitzel, Esq., of Sunbury, appointed 

March 9, 1776. 
First Lieutenant: William Gray, appointed March 

15th I captured August 27th ; exchanged Decem- 
ber 8, 1776, for Lieutenant Thompson. 
Second Lieutenant : John Robb, appointed March 

16, 1776 ; promoted captain April 18, 1777. 
Third Lieutenant : George Grant, appointed March 

19, 1776 ; captain in the 9th P. C. L, ; died Oc- 
tober 10, 1779. 
Sergeant-Major: John Gordon. 
Sergeants : Jacob Snider, Thomas Price, AVilliam 

Orr, Thomas Shanks. 
Drummer : John Everard ; September 1st, sick at 

New York. 


William Allison.' Thomas Hissom. 

John Arthur. Dennis Huggins.' 

John Aumiller. Elijah Hunt. 

William Barr. James Irvine. 

Peter Brady.' Martin Kerstetter.' 

Stout Brinsou. Thomas Little. 

John Burke. Charles McCleane. 

Samuel Carson. William McCormick.' 

William Carson, Jr. John McDonald. 

William Carson, Sr. Patrick Mclnnis. 

Andrew Carter.' Patrick McManus. 

Charles Carter. William McMath. 

Robert Caruthers.' Patrick McVey.' 

James Chisnell. Joseph Madden. 

William Clark. Henry Miller. 

James Clayton. Robert Morehead.' 

Jeftry Connell. Richard Newman. 

John Cribs. Michael Noland. 

David Curry. Andrew Ralston. 

Peter Davis. James Randolph. 

Edward Doran. John Rice.' 

David Durell. John Sands. 

Stephen Durell. John Shafler. 

James Elder. Jacob Spiess.' 

Christian Ewig. Samuel Staples. 

Henry Gass.' David Turner. 

Henry Gerhart. James Watt.' 

James Glover. Robert Wilson. 

John Hardy. Christian Winters. 

William Harper. Silas Wolcot. 

Casper Weitzel, Esq., was a lawyer, prac- 
ticing at Suubury when the war broke out in 
1775, and as secretary of the Countv Com- 

' Missing after tlie battle of Long Island, Auaust 27th. 



mittee took a very active part in favor of in- 
dependence. At the battle of Long Island he 
fought through tlie British ranks and made his 
way into camp with Lieutenant-Colonel Brod- 
head. His rolls, written in his own neat hand, 
are in the office of the Secretary of the Com- 
monwealth. He died in 1782. He was a 
grand-uncle of P. E,. Weitzel, Esq., of Scran- 
ton, Pa. 

Lieutenant William Gray — afterwards Cap- 
tain Gray — died at Sunbur}', July 18, 1804, 
aged fifty-four. 

Sergeant Price ended his days in a small 
log house on Water Street, in Selin's Grove. It 
seems he was carried to Halifax, in Nova 
Scotia. Made his escape traveling through 
the vast forests intervening between that coun- 
try and the nearest American settlements. In 
a letter to Hon. Samuel Maclay, member of 
Congress at Philadelphia, dated Penn's town- 
ship, December 4, 1798, written in a very good 
hand, he complains that he had been three 
times elected colonel, beating Charles Drum 
twice and Frederick Evans once, and yet had 
not been commissioned ; because, as he says, it 
was alleged that he M'as too poor for such a 
post. He says, — 

" I settled in these parts before the war and have 
resided here ever since, except while I was out in the 
army. I enlisted in Cajjtain Weitzel's company and 
was wounded and taken prisoner at the battle of 
Long Island. I underwent many hardships, but at 
last found means to escape ; returned to the army 
and served my time out ; was honorably discharged 
and never received my pay. Soon after my return 
home I was elected adjutant, and continued in that 
post many years ; afterwards was elected major." ' 

The Associators of Buffalo and Penn's town- 
ships — practically coextensive with the present 
counties of Union and Snyder — on August 31, 
1776, held an election for field officers, and on 
the 8th of October following commissions were 
issued to them as officers of the Fourth Battalion 
of Northumberland County Associators, and 
also to the company officers, as follows : 

" Colonel, Philip Cole ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Thomas 
Sutherland; First Major, Thomas Foster; Second 
Major, Casper Yost ; Standard- Bearer, Dewalt Miller ; 
Adjutant, James McCoy. 

' .John Blair Linn's "Annals of the Buffalo Valley." 

'^Company No. 1. — Captain, John Clarke; First Lieu- 
tenant, Henry Pontius ; Second Lieutenant, James 
Moore ; Ensign, Patrick Watson. 

" Four sergeants, four corporals, one drummer, one 
lifer, and forty-six privates, certified by me, this 26th 
day of September, 1776. 

John Clarke, Captain. 

"Second Company. — Captain, Michael Weaver. 

" Third Company. — Captain, Jacob Links. 

" Fourth Company. — Captain, William Weirick ; 
First Lieutenant, Jacob Sherred ; Second Lieutenant, 
William Gill; Ensign, Nicholas Moon. 

"Four sergeants, four corporals, one drummer, one 
fifer, forty privates. The whole of the above as asso- 
ciators testified by me, this 26th day of September, 

" William Weirick, Captain. 

"Fifth Company. — Captain, George WoW; First 
Lieutenant, George Conrad ; Second Lieutenant, 
Michael Wildgoose ; Ensign, John Hessler. 

" Four sergeants, four corporals, one drummer, one 
fifer, forty-one privates. 

"Sixth Company. — Captain, George Overmeier; 
First Lieutenant, James McCelvey; Second Lieu- 
tenant, Peter Weirick ; Ensign, Michael Snyder. 

" Four sergeants, four corporals, one drummer, one 
fifer, forty privates. The whole of the above as 
associators testified by me, this 26th day of Septem- 
ber, 1776. 

" Captain George Overmeier." 

Drafts from this battalion went into service 
in December, when Colonel Cole was with part 
of it at Reading. Colonel Brodhead wrote that 
he made use of a company from Buffiilo Valley 
to apprehend some of tiie disaffiscted and to 
compel some of the militia of Berks to march. 
When the danger to Philadeljjhia became im- 
minent, it is probable that officers and men 
volunteered to fill up Captain Clarke's company, 
as their names are found on the following roll. 
The company left the valley on the 5th of 
December, and served three months and eighteen 
days. It appears from some memorandums in 
an old account-book which contained the roster, 
that the company did not leave Reading until 
the 3d of January, 1777, and consequently did 
not participate at Trenton and Princeton, but 
was in the subsequent skirmishes. It was at- 
tached to Colonel Potter's Second Battalion, 
Lieutenant-Colonel James Murray, Majors John 
Kelly and Thomas Robinson. Joseph (xreen 
assigned as surgeon's mate to Doctor Benjamin 
Allison. Four companies — Clarke's, Lee's, Tag- 



gart'sand Cookson Long's — had casualties during 
the campaign.' Following is the roll of Captain 
John Clarke's company : 

Robert Allen. 
Hieronimus Augustine. 
Joseph Barnett. 
John Beatty. 
George Bower. 
Thomas Cery. 
George Clark. 
Daniel Cogh. 
Adam Colpetzer. 
Daniel Commer. 
Jacob Conner. 
George Conrad. 
Henry Conrad. 
William Cousins. 
Jacob Esterly. 
George Etzweiler. 
Philip Ewig. 
Michael Fought. 
Thomas Foster. 
John Fry. 
William Gill. 
Henry Gilman. 
Joseph Green. 
William Greenlee. 
Joseph Groninger. 
Wendell Grove. 
John Hain. 
Jacob Harpster. 
Stophel Heny. 
William Hessler. 
John Hessler. 
Michael Hessler. 
Patrick Kellahan. 
Jacob Keeny. 
Francis Kishler. 
Frederick Kneedler. 
Conrad Kneedler. 
Michael Lamb. 
Jacob Links. 

Jacob Long. 
William Long. 
Richard Lowdon. 
John McCashon. 
James McCelvey. 
Matthew McClung. 
Randal McDonneld. 
Valentine Macklin. 
Benjamin Miller. 
William Moor. 
Andrew Morrow. 
Henry Nees. 
Peter Nees. 
George Overmeier. 
Nicholas Pontius. 
George Pontius. 
Frederick Rinehart. 
George Rinehart. 
Yost Rith (or Ritle). 
Michael Rote. 
Ludwig Row. 
George Sierer. 
Michael Schneider. 
John Schock. 
Michael Schock. 
George Schock. 
Robert Scott. 
Michael Smith. 
William Speddy. 
Jacob Speese. 
James Stevenson. 
David Storm. 
Robert Thompson. 
George Ulrich. 
John Weaver. 
David Weaver. 
Henry Wenderbach. 
Robert Wilson. 
George Wolfe. 

Some facts concerning the officers and men of 
this company are given by Mr. Linn in his ad- 
mirable volume on the Buffiilo Valley. He 
says, — 

Captain Clarke lived on the first farm above 
Mifflinburg, south of the turnpike; died Feb- 
ruary 22, 1809, aged seventy-three; buried in 
Lewis graveyard. Lieutenant Thomas Foster, 
grandfather of Mrs. Mark Halfpenny, died 
June 4, 1 S04 ; buried in Lewis graveyard. 
Augustine was a weaver; lived near Selin's 

' John Blair Linn's "Annals of tlie Buffalo Valley." 

Grove as late as 1 800. George Bower lived in 
Union township. Joseph Barnett became the 
patriarch of Jefferson County, Pennsylvania. 
(See a full notice of him in Day's " Historical 
Collections.") Hon. I. G. Gordon, of Brook- 
ville, writes me, 1871, that some of his grand- 
children live near that place. John Beatty lived 
near New Berlin. George Clark was a promi- 
nent surveyor in the valley until 1800, and 
then removed West. He lived in a house near 
Judge Hummel's, now torn down. He was an 
exceedingly tall man, and took delight in 
making his axe-marks as surveyor beyond the 
reach of other men. He once made a narrow 
escape from the Indians by leaping Little Buf- 
falo Creek, from the high bank near late Jacob 
Moyer's. It was attributed to Brady, but Bra- 
dy's leap M'as in the western part of the State, 
in Armstrong County. Jacob Conner lived in 
Buffalo. Adam Colpetzer, in West Buffalo; 
married a daughter of George Rote, of Mifflin- 
burg. George Etweiler was killed by the Indi- 
ans in 1780, at Heberling's mill, then French 
Jacob Grochong's. Michael Fought, in Union, 
on Seebold's farm, near Chappel Hollow, east 
of it. William Gill, in Penn's. Wendell 
Grove, in Derrstown. Henry Gilman, in White 
Deer. Joseph Groninger, in Kelly, on Clingan's 
place. Joseph Green, near Philip Pontius'; he 
was grandfather of Joseph Green, of Lewisburgh. 
Jacob Harpster, in Beaver township. John 
Hain, in Penn's. The Hesslers, near Crotzer- 
ville ; the church there bears their name. Chri.s- 
topher Heny, on General James Ir\'ine's (now, 
or lately, Kleckner's), west of Mifflinburg. Pat- 
rick Kellahan, northwest of Mifflinburg. Jacob 
Keeny, on John Aurand's place, Turtle Creek. 
Richard Lowdon was a brother of Captain John, 
and lived with him. Andrew Morrow was a 
tenant on Samuel INIaclay's place. Benjamin 
Miller afterwards owned James Biehl's place. 
Matthew McClung, late George Gundy's heirs, 
near Turtle Creek. Randal McDonneld, on S. 
Maclay's,just north of the Great AA'estern (now 
INIrs. Shoemaker's.) Peter Nees died of wounds 
received Febniary 1, 1777. George Overmeier 
lived near Seebold's, in Limestoue. Nicholas 
Pontius was the father of the late J. F. Pontius. 
George was his brother, sons of John, who 



owned the Captain Bucher tract, where his 
descendants stil! reside, or a few of them, as the 
name is legion now. David Storm, wliere B. 
Lahr lives, on Esquire Cameron's farm. Rob- 
ert Scott, on Barber's place. White Springs. 
Jacob Speese lived, within our memory, in 
White Deer. William Speddy, see 1772. The 
Schocks, about Mifflinburg. Michael Smith, 
in East Buffalo, above Henry Mertz's. George 
Wolfe was the grandfather of Jonathan, of 

From the region of Cumberland County, 
which is now Juniata, a considerable number of 
men went early to the field. Andrew Banks, in 
his recollections (1845), says, — 

" The first troops that marched from here were 
those that joined the army of Gen. Montgomery 
(Arnold?), destined for Quebec. The writer had a 
first cousin on that expedition, belonging to the com- 
pany of the braveHendricks.whofellat theheadofhis 
company, fighting at 'the barriers ;' but the fate of 
those worthy men is well known in the history of 
our country. The next troops tliat marched were 
two companies of volunteers, each company contain- 
ing eighty men, besides their officers ; the one com- 
manded by Capt. Gibson, the other by Capt. Purdy. 
They repaired to the camp in the beginning of 1776 
and performed a tour of two months. Afterwards 
the troops marched agreeably to their drafts, which 
order was continued. The writer also well recollects 
the enthusiastic joy manifested on the capture of 
Cornwallis, and the patriotic songs of those days are 
still familiar (one of which he gives)." 

Captain John Hamilton, who lived within 
the present limits of Walker township, organ- 
ized a " Company of Horse," in what is now 
Juniata County, in 1776. The men compo.sing 
it — of whom Hugh McAllister was the first to — met at the house of William Sharon, in 
Fermanagh township, to perfect their organ- 
ization. (No roster of this company is pre- 
served in the State Archives, nor is elsewhere 

That portion of Cumberland which is now 
Perry evidently furnished the whole or greater 
portion of what was known as the Seventh Bat- 
talion of Cumberland County Militia, Colonel 
Frederick Watts ^ — for although there is no 

1 Colonel Walts lived and died in Wheatfield township, 
Perry County (which see for full sketch). He was the 
father of David Watts and grandfather of .Judge Frederick 

roster of the men attainable, that of tiie officers, 
which we reproduce,^ shows that nearly, if rot 
quite all of them, lived within the present 
limits of Perry County. The troops, or a draft 
from them, went on a tour of duty early in 
1776, for there is on record an order for money 
to be sent to Colonel Frederick Watts, to be 
used for defraying the exjjense of forwarding 
his men to camp, and he was at the surrender 
of Fort Washington, November 16, 1776. The 
roster of officers here given is, however, for the 
year 1777. 

The following is a return of Seventh Bat- 
talion of the Cumberland County Militia, com- 
manded by Colonel Frederick Watts, 1777 : 

Field and Staff . — Colonel, Frederick Watts; Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel, Samuel Ross; Major, David Mitcliell. 

First Company. — Captain, James Fislier ; First 
Lieutenant, Thomas Fisher ; Second Lieutenant, Rob- 
ert Scott; Ensign, Joseph Sharp, — fifty-eight rank 
and file. 

Second Compani/. — Captain, James Power; First 
Lieutenant, David Marshall ; Second Lieutenant, 
Samuel Shaw ; Ensign, John Kirkpatrick, — sixty- 
seven rank and file. 

Third Company. — Captain, William Sanderson; 
First Lieutenant, George Black ; Second Lieutenant, 
John Simonton ; Ensign, Archibald Loudon, — forty- 
six rank and file. 

Fourth Company. — Captain, William Blain ; First 
Lieutenant, James Blain; Second Lieutenant, Wil- 
liam Murray ; Ensign, Allen Nesbitt, — flft3'-one rank 
and file. 

Fifth Company. — Captain, Frederick Taylor ; 
First Lieutenant, Daniel Hart; Second Lieutenant, 
Matthew McCoy; Ensign, Thomas Watson. 

Sixth Company. — Captain, Edward Graham ; First 
Lieutenant, Thomas McCoy ; Second Lieutenant, 
Samuel Whitaker ; Ensign, George Smiley, — seventy- 
eight rank and file. 

Seventh Company.- — Captain, John Buchanan; 
First Lieutenant, William Nelson; Second Lieuten- 
ant, James Ewing ; Ensign, Benjamin Junkin, — 
fifty-five rank and file. 

Eighth Company. — Captain, Thomas Clark ; First 
Lieutenant, Joseph Neeper; Second Lieutenant, John 
Nelson ; Ensign, John Gardner, — sixty-two rank and 

Total Commissioned officers, 29; non-commis- 
sioned officers, 1(3; rank and file, 465. 

Watts, now living at Carlisle. He served at Wyoming 
under Colonel Zebulon Butler, and was wounded there. 

- This roster does not appear in the Pennsylvania Ar- 
chives, although the battalion or a draft from it went "into 
the Continental service. 



Captain William Bratton, of that part of 
Cumberland County which is now Mifflin, 
where a township is named in his honor/ went 
into the service originally as first lieutenant in 
Captain Robert Adams' company of the Sixth 
Pennsylvania Battalion, Colonel William Ir- 
vine, being commissioned January 9, 1776, and 
when that body was reorganized as the Seventh 
Pennsylvania Regiment, became captain of a 
company strengthened by recruiting. The 
Sixth Battalion went into the field in the sum- 
mer of 177(3 and returned to Carlisle March 15, 
1777. It was then that it was reorganized as 
the Seventh Pennsylvania Regiment of the 
Continental Line, and the men re enlisted for 
three years, or the period of the war. The 
regiment was paid off and discharged at Car- 
lisle in April, 1781. Captain Bratton was 
wounded at the battle of Germantown. Fol- 
lowing is a roster of his company, which con- 
tains the names of many Cumberland men who 
were from that part of the county now in 
Mifflin, Juniata and Perry Counties, espe- 
cially the first, but they cannot now be desig- 
nated : 

Captain : William Bratton. 

Lieutenant : Thomas McCoy. 

Ensign : William Armstrong. 

Sergeants: Amos Chapman, February, 1777 ; Thomas 
Giles ; Timothy O'Neal, February, 1777. 

Drummer : Edward Steen, April, 1777. 

Filer : John Waun, November 26, 1776. 

Privates : John Beatty, February, 1777 ; William 
Carman, June 8, 1779; Patrick Carter; John 
Daily, October 25, 1778; Daniel Dunnivan; Ed- 
ward Edgarton, November 20, 1776 ; James El- 
liot; Henry German; Thomas Giles, promoted 
sergeant ; Michael Gilmore, September 9, 1778 ; 
David Hall ; Francis Henry ; James Higgins, 
June 3, 1778 ; Fergus Lee ; Eicha 1 Lowden ; Peter 
Lloyd, November 20, 1776; Gilbert McCay ; Neal 
McCay ; Patrick McDonald ; John McGeghan, 
February, 1777; John McKean ; Peter Martin ; 
Fergus Moore, January, 1777; John Prent; 
William Redstone ; Peter Rooney, April, 1777; 
John Ryan; Patrick Shockey, 1779; James Si- 
monton; Thomas Simonton, 1779; John Taylor. 

Major John Kelly, afterwards colonel, was in 
Colonel James Potter's battalion, one of the 
first men from the Buffalo Valley, who en- 

'See Bratton township, in " History of Mifflin County." 

listed in 1776 and particularly distinguished 
himself at the battle of Princeton, January 3, 
1777. Washington, who had slipped away 
from Cornwallis at Trenton, made a fonx-d 
march on Princeton, and had already won the 
battle there, when Cornwallis, having made a 
forced march, arrived near Stony Brook. 
Washington sent an order to Colonel Potter to 
destroy the bridge at Worth's Mills, on Stony 
Brook, in sight of the advancing British. 
Colonel Potter ordered Major Kelly to make a 
detail for that purpose. Kelly said he wouI<l 
not order another to do what some might say 
he was afraid to do himself He took a detail 
and went to work. The British opened upon 
him a heavy fire of round shot. Before all the 
logs were cut off, several balls struck the log on 
which he stood and it broke down sooner than 
he expected, and he fell into the stream. His 
party moved off, not expecting him to escape. 
By great exertions he reached the shore through 
the high water and floating timbers, and fol- 
lowed the troops. Incumbered, as he was, with 
his wet and frozen clothes, he made a prisoner 
of an armed British scout and took him into 
camp. Colonel Kelly used to tell that during 
this tour, for three days at one time, there was 
no service of provisions, and during the march, 
before and after the battle, they were thirty-six 
hours under arms without sleep. 

The Twelfth Pennsylvania Regiment of the 
Continental Line, of which four companies 
were from Northumberland County and the 
others from Northampton County, was raised 
by authority of Congress, and among the last 
acts of the convention which had assembled in 
Philadelphia, to form a State Constitution, was 
the choice of its field officers, from its mem- 
bers, on September 28, 1776. William Cook, 
delegate from Northumberland, was made 
colonel ; Neigal Gray, who, after the war, 
moved to White Deer township. Union County, 
and died there in 1786, was made lieutenant- 
colonel; and James Crawford, delegate from 
Northumberland County, was chosen major. 
Peter Withington was the first captain, ap- 
pointed by the Council of Safety on October 1, 
and three days later, with the field officers, took 
the qualification directed by the convention. 


On the same day (October 4th) Nicholas Miller 
and Hawkins Boone were appointed ca2:)tains ; 
Thomas Brandon and Hananiah Lincoln, iirst 
lieutenants ; and Robert King and James Wil- 
liamson, second lieutenants. It was resolved 
that the commissions of all the captains and sub- 
alterns should be dated October 1st. On the 14th 
of October, John Brady and Major John Harris, 
both of Northumberland County, were ap- 
pointed caf)tains; Christopher Gettig, first lieu- 
tenant ; and Francis Allison, sergeant.' 

The regiment went immediately into active 
service. Being composed mainly of good rifle- 
men, large drafts were made upon it for picket 
and skirmish duty. A portion, under Boone, 
was sent into the northern army, and assisted in 
the capture of Burgoyne. At Brandy wine the 
regiment lost heavily in officers and men, and 
at Germantown ; so that after wintering at 
Valley Forge, the field officers were mustered 
out, the sujjernumerary line officers discharged 
and what remained of officers and men were 
distributed into the Third and Sixth Regiments, 
which arrangement went into effect July 1, 

Captains John Brady and Hawkins Boone, 
Lieutenants Dougherty and Robert King were 
ordered home by General Washington to assist 
Colonel Hartley in protecting the West Branch 
Valley. Captain Brady, of whom we shall 
have more to say in this chaj)ter, was killed by 
Indian scouts near the town of Muucy, April 
11, 1779, and Captain Boone fell near Fort 
Freeland on the 29th of July, in the same year, 
while Dougherty also lost his life in the defence 
of the frontier, after passing safely through the 
hard campaigns of the Continental army. Their 
names will reappear in this history. 

Following is a partial roster of the Twelfth 
Regiment, with some remarks as inserted by 
Mr. John Blair Linn : 

Colonel: William Cooke, of Northumberlaud, com- 
missioned October 2, 1776. 

Lieuteuant-Colonel : Neigal Gray, of Northampton 
County ; he moved to Buffalo Valley after the 

iCol. Records, vol. x. p. 756 ; Archives (Second Series), 
vol. X. page 769. 

Major: James Crawford, commissioned October 8, 
1776; afterwards justice of the peace in Lycom- 
ing County, where he died. 

Adjutabt: Thomas Hanson. 

Paymasters : Robert Levers ; Thomas Dungan, ap- 
pointed April 29, 1777. 

Quartermaster : George Vaughan. 

Surgeon : Dr. Andrew Ledlie, of Easton. 

Surgeon's Mate : Aaron VVoodrufl'. 

Peter Withiugton, commissioned October 1, 1776; 
took sick in Philadelphia in December, 1776 ; 
sent home to Reading, where he died May 11, 
1777 ; his widow, Eve, survived him over fifty 
years, and died in Mifflinburg. 

Nicholas Miller, appointed October 4, 1776, from 
Northumberland County ; died in 179-, in North- 
ampton County. 

Hawkins Boone, appointed October 4, 1776 ; killed at 
Fort Freeland, July 28, 1779. 

John Brady, appointed October 14, 1776 ; badly 
wounded at battle of Brandywine, September 11, 
1777 ; killed by the Indians, April 11, 1779. 

John Harris, appointed October 14, 1776. 

Rev. Henry McKinley, of Carlisle, appointed October 
16, 1776. 

Alexander Patterson, of Northampton County. 

William Work, appointed October 16, 1776. 

Thomas Brandon, appointed October 4, 1776. 

Hananiah Lincoln, appointed October 4, 1776 ; he 
was a sergeant in Captain George Nagel's com- 
pany, Colonel William Thompson's regiment, 
1775-76; resigned after battle of Brandywine, 
and went to Daniel Boone's settlement in Ken- 
tucky ; he followed Boone to Missouri, where he 

Christopher Gettig, appointed October ] 4, 1776, from 
Sunbury; wounded at Piscataway, N. J., May 11, 
1777 ; taken prisoner, and had his leg amputated ; 
justice of the peace many years afterward at Sun- 
bury ; his descendants reside near Bellefonte. 

John Reily, appointed October 16, 1776 ; promoted 
captain, May 20, 1777 ; mustered out of service 
November 3, 1783. 

Stephen Chambers, Esq, appointed October 16, 
1776 ; promoted captain ; one of the council of 
censors in 1783 ; delegate to the Federal Conven- 
tion December 12, 1787 ; wounded in a duel with 
Dr. Jacob Rieger on Monday, May 11, 1789; 
died on Saturday, 16th, at his house in Lancas- 

William McElhatton, appointed October 16, 1776; 
wounded at Bonhamtown, N. J., in right shoul- 
der; disabled, and transferred to the Invalid 
Corps July 1, 1779; died April 26, 1807. 

John Henderson, appointed October 16, 1776. 

William Sayre, appointed October 16, 1776. 



Second Lieutenants. 

Robert King, October 4, 1776; promoted lieutenant 
Third Pennsylvania May 20, 1777 ; let't out of 
service June 23, 1779. 

James Williamson, October 4, 1776. 

Edward McCabe, October 16, 1776. 

John Hays, October 16, 1776. 

Samuel Quinn, October 16, 1776. 

John Boyd, of Northumberland, promoted lieutenant 
in Third Pennsylvania June IS, 1779; died Feb- 
ruary 1.3, 1832. 

William Bard, October 1, 1776. 

John Carothers, October 16, 1776 ; killed at German- 
town, October 4, 1777. 

Robert Falconer. 


Benjamin Lodge, Jr., October 16, 1776 ; promoted 
lieutenant Sixth Pennsylvania, October 11, 1777. 

Thomas Hamilton, October 16, 1776. 

William Ball Blackall, October 16, 1776 ; promoted 
lieutenant Third Pennsylvania 11th September, 
1778 ; mustered out November 3, 1783. 

William Boyd, appointed October 16, 1776 ; killed at 
Brandywine, September 11, 1777. 

John Stone, October 16, 1776 ; resigned January 8, 
1777 ; died March, 1792. 

Stewart Herbert, October 16, 1776 ; promoted lieu- 
tenant Sixth Pennsylvania January 9, 1778. 

Andrew Engle, October 16, 1776 ; promoted lieutenant 
of Third Pennsylvania December 20, 1778 ; re- 
tired January 1, 1781. 

Henry Strieker, October 16, 1776. 

John Seeley, February 3, 1777. 

John Armstrong, formerly sergeant ; served until the 
end of the war, and promoted lieutenant in Cap- 
tain James Moore's corps. 

Samuel Brady was in tlie fight at the Bran- 
dywine, and distinguished himself, a few days 
later — September 20, 1777 — at the Paoli mas- 
sacre. He was on guard, and lay down with 
his blanket wrapped and buckled around him. 
The Briti-sh were nearly on them before the 
sentinel fired. Brady ran; and as he jumped 
a fence, a soldier struck at him with a musket, 
and pinned his blanket to a rail. He tore the 
blanket, and dashed on. A horseman overtook 
him, and ordered him to stop. He wheeled 
and shot the horseman dead, and got into a 
small swamp, supposing no one in but himself. 
In the morning he found fifty-five men in it, 
whom he took under command and conducted 
to camp.* 

Captain Anthony Selin,^ of that part of 
Northumberland County which is now Snyder, 
and who died at Selinsgrove in 1792, com- 
manded a company (the Second) in the Baron 
De Ottendorff' s^ corps, which was recruited in 
the spring of 1777, and continued in service 
until 1780, being ultimately merged into Ar- 
mand's legion. 

Following is a roster of Captain Selin's com- 
pany, made in June, 1778 : 

Captain: Anthony Selin, December 10, 1776; died 
at Selin.sgrove, Snyder County, 1792. 

Lieutenants: Lawrence Myers, of Maryland, April 
8, 1777 ; Christian Froelich. 

Sergeants : Henry Bartholomew, John Blum, Val- 
entine Keyser, Henry Seiders. 

Corporals : George Marks, John Walter. 

Drummers : John St'huh, William Marks. 

Fifer: John Thompson. 

Henry Bartholomew. 
Andrew Bengell. 
John Bengel. 
John Blum. 
Adolph Croselius. 
John Dowell. 
George Dehn. 
Henry Donich. 
Wilhelm Dorn. 
Thomas Drisnoll. 
John Eberts. 
John Eisoch. 

Michael Eisoch. 
John Adam Fetzler. 
John Green. 
Mathias Gentzoll. 
Isaac Hool. 
Patrick Hanley. 
George Hiller. 
John Hultry. 
Valentine Keyser. 
Henry Kirk. 
Daniel Kline. 
Gabriel Kline. 

2 Captain Anthony Selin, founder of Selinsgrove, was 
commissioned by Congress, December 10, 1776, captain 
in Ottendorff's corps, and still in service in 17S0, at 
Wyoming; died in 1792. His children were Anthony, 
Charle.s and Agnes. His wife was a sister of Governor 
Snyder, and Selin purchased the ground on which the 
town now is at the death of his brother-iu-law, John Sny- 
der. Finding Snyder's plot would not fit, he re-surveyed 
the ground, laid it out anew and named it. His son, An- 
thony Charles, was a major in the War of 1812. The 
widow of the latter, Mrs. Catherine Selin, died at the 
residence of her son-in-law, Robert Swineford, in Selins- 
grove, November 3, 18B8, aged eighty-two, the last of the 
fiimily name in the United States. 

' Nicholas Dietrich, Baron De Ottendorff, was a noble- 
man from Lusatia, Saxony, and had served in the " Seven 
Years' War" as a lieutenant under Frederick the Great. 
At the close of that struggle he became associated with 
Kosciuszko and Roman de Lisle, in Paris, and. on the 
breaking out of the Revolution, came with them to Amer- 
ica. The Bai'ou was authorized by Congress to raise an 
independent corps, to consist of three companies, with a 
total of one hundred and fifty men. 



Arnold Loos. 
George Maul. 
Samuel Murden. 
John Philips. 
George Rex. 
Andi'ew Reaberg. 
John Ridey. 

James Ridgway. 
John Rock. 
John Steinheizer. 
Henry Till. 
John Trow. 
John Walter. 
Samuel Ulett. 


Indian Invasion. — While companies of re- 
cruits were marching away to join the main 
army and participating in its campaigns, there 
was also activity in the sparsely-settled country 
they had left, and preparations were early made 
to guard the frontier against incursions by the 
Indians, which the people apprehended would 
be incited by the British. Tiieir fears, as will 
presently be shown, were pot without good 
grounds. A militia organization was effected 
all along the border in the fall of 1775. 

For the upper division of Northumberland 
County, comprising Union and Snyder, and a 
part of Centre Counties (and much other territo- 
ry), officers were chosen for eleven companies of 
militia on the 12th of September, 1775, at 
Derr's (site of Lewisburgh), as appears from the 
certificate of William Scull, " chairman of the 
committee," dated Northumberland, January 
24, 1776, and reading as follows : 

" I do hereby certify that an election for field offi- 
cers, held at Ludwig Derr's, on the West Branch of 
the Susquehanna, on Tuesday, the 12th day of Sep- 
tember last, the following gentlemen were regularly 
chosen for the upper division of the county of 
Northumberland, viz. : James Potter, Esquire, colo- 
nel ; Robert Moodie, Esquire, lieutenant-colonel ; Mr. 
John Kelly, first major; Mr. John Brady, second 

" William Scull, 
" Chairman of the Committee." 

Then follows " a return of the names of the 
captains and other officers of the several 
companies in the upper division of the county 
of Northumberland, with the ranks of said 
companies and number of men," — 

Arthur Taggart, first captain ; Cornelius Atkinson, 
first lieutenant; James McClung, second lieutenant; 
James Wilson, ensign, — eighty-five privates. 

William Gray, second captain ; William Clark, first 
lieutenant; James Murdoch, second lieutenant; Wil- 
liam Thompson, ensign, — ninety privates. 

David Berry, third captain ; William Hammon, 

first lieutenant ; Israel Parsels, second lieutenant ; 
Benjamin Burt, ensign, — forty-five privates. 

Samuel Dale, fourth captain ; William Bennett, 
first lieutenant ; Hawkins Boone, second lieutenant ; 
Jesse Weeks, ensign, — sixty-seven privates. 

Cookson Long, fifth captain; William Muckle- 
hatton, first lieutenant; Robert Fleming, second 
lieutenant; Robert Fleming, junior, ensign, — fifty- 
nine privates. 

Samuel Wallis, sixth captain ; John Scudder, first 
lieutenant; Peter Jones, second lieutenant; James 
Hampton, ensign, — ninety-one privates. 

James Murray, seventh captain ; William Murray, 
first lieutenant ; Thomas Plunket, second lieutenant ; 
Andrew Robinson, ensign, — sixty privates. 

Henry Antes, eighth captain ; Thomas Brandon, 
first lieutenant; Alexander Hamilton, second lieu- 
tenant; Simon Cole, ensign, — fifty-eight privates. 

John McMillan, ninth captain ; John McConnol, 
first lieutenant; John McCormick, second lieuten- 
ant ; Charles Wilson, ensign, — forty-three privates. 

David Hayes, tenth captain ; Charles Clark, first 
lieutenant ; Thomas Gray, ensign, — forty-one pri- 

Philip Davis, eleventh captain ; James Aspey, 
first lieutenant; John Nelson, second lieutenant; 
Jacob Fulmore, ensign, — seventy-four privates. 

" Northumberland, 24tt January, 1776. 
" I do hereby certify the above to be a true return 
of the several companies which form the battalion in 
the upper division of the county of Northumberland, 
as delivered in to me. 

" William Scull, 
" Chairman of the Committee." 

The Convention of 1776, by an ordinance 
dated September 3d, created a new Council of 
Safety, of which Samuel Hunter and John 
Weitzel were the members for Northumberland 
County, and John Lowdon, of Silver Spring, 
near Mifflinburg, became member of the 
Supreme Executive Council by choice of the 
voters in the district composed of Northumber- 
land, Northampton, Bedford and Westmore- 
land Counties. 

That the inhabitants of tlie territory now in- 
cluded in the counties which are the especial 
province of this work were in fear of Indian 
invasion as early as 1776 is clearly shown by 
the records of the State Convention of that 
year. On July 29th, John Kelley and Walter 
Clark, who were in attendance, petitioned the 
Council of Safety for aid, stating that they had 
just grounds to believe that the county 
(Northumberland) would be disturbed by the 



Indians, and stated tliat there was not sufficient 
ammunition in the county for the four bat- 
talions ah'eady raised. 

In a letter dated Paxtang, August 27, 1776, 
John Harris says, — 

"The Indians, to the northward, southward, and 
westward, are for war against us, as I am informed 
by a letter from Northumberland County, by their 
post, two days ago. The Susquehanna Indians are 
only for peace with us. About twenty Indians 
(enemies), men, women and children, have been 
many days past at Sunbury, and make said report." 

A body of Indians, of the Seneca and 
Muncy tribes, were induced by Captain John 
Brady to come down to Fort Augusta to 
make a treaty, in August, 1776, but nothing 
seems to have been accompli.shed in that direc- 
tion. The party stopped at Ludwig Derr's 
trading-house (site of Lewisburgh ) on their way 
back and got very drunk, Derr knocking the 
head out of a barrel of whiskey and furnishing 
them with tin-cups to drink from. Their de- 
bauch was cut short by Captain John, who, 
arriving on the scene and fearing the conse- 
quences of their unlimited indulgence, kicked 
the barrel over, greatly to their disgust. The 
Indians iinally returned peaceably enough, and 
it was not until 1777 that they made any organ- 
ized movements against the frontier settlements. 
Notwithstanding their inactivity, preparations 
were made {or the troubles which it was appre- 
hended the near future would bring. 

Pkoceedings or the Northumberland 
Committee of Safety. — The account of these 
plans for the protection of the frontier against 
the savages is perhaps best given in transcripts 
from the records of the Committee of Safety 
of Northumberland County ' (from February 
8, 1776, to April 17, 1777). 

" 8th of February, 1776. — The following gentlemen, 
being previously nominated by the respective town- 
ships to serve in this committee, for the county of 
Northumberland, for the space of six months, met at 
the house of Richard Malone, viz.: 

"Augusta township. — John Weitzel, Esijuire ; Alex- 
ander Hunter, Esquire, Thomond Ball. 

'' Mahoning township. — William Cook, Esquire, 
Benjamin Allison, Esquire, Mr. Thomas Hewet. 

■ Publication of Pennsylvania Historical Society, 1846 ; 
also Linn's ' Buffalo Valley." 

" Tarbut township. — Captain John Hambright, Wil- 
liam McKnight, William Shaw. 

" Mimceg township. — Robert Robb, Esquire, Wil- 
liam Watson, John Buckalow. 

" Bald Eagletoa-nship. — Mr. William Dunn, Thomas 
Hughes, Alexander Hamilton. 

"Buffaloe township^' — Mr. Walter Clark (removed to 
White Deer), William Irwin, Joseph Green. 

" Wioming township. — Mr. James McClure, Mr. 
Thomas Clayton, Mr. Peter Melick. 

" Penn's township.- — 

" Moughonoy towiuhip. — 

"Potter township. — John Livingston, Maurice Davis, 
John Hall. 

" White Deer township.'' — Walter Clark, Matthew 
Brown, Marcus Huling. 

"Captain John Hambright was appointed chairman 
and Thomond Ball clerk. 

" On the 7th instant the following gentlemen were 
duly elected field officers for the battalion of said di- 
vision, viz. : Samuel Hunter, Esquire, colonel ; Wil- 
liam Cook, Esquire, lieutenant-colonel ; Casper 
Weitzel, Esquire, first major ; Mr. John Lee, second 

" Monday, February 26th, 1776. — The committee 
met, according to adjournment, at the house of 
Laughliu McCartney, in Northumberland town, 
CajJtain John Hambright in the chair. 

" The following gentlemen appeared and produced 
certificates of their being regularly chosen captains 
of companies in Colonel Hunter's battalion, and pro- 
duced lists of their subalterns, companies, &c., viz. :• 

"Captain, Nicholas Miller; First Lieutenant, 
Christopher Gettig ; Second Lieutenant, Xehemiah 
Breese ; First Ensign, Gustavus Ross ; Second En- 
sign, William Sims. 

"Captain, Hugh White; First Lieutenant, John 
Forster; Second Lieutenant, Andrew Gibson ; Ensign, 
Samuel Young. 

"Captain, James McMahon ; First Lieutenant, 
•fohn Murray; Second Lieutenant, William Fisher; 
Ensign, William Baily. 

" Captain, Charles Gillespie ; First Lieutenant, 
Robert King • Second Lieutenant, Samuel Fulton ; 
First Ensign, William Boyd; Second Ensign, John 

"Captain, William Scull; First Lieutenant, Jona- 
than Lodge; Second Lieutenant, George Colhoun ; 
First Ensign, William Sawyers ; Second Ensign, 
George Grant. 

" Captain, William Clarke; First Lieutenant, John 
Teitson; Second Lieutenant, William McDonald; 
First Ensign, John Moll. 

" Wednesday, March 13, 1776. — The committee met 
at the house of Frederick Stone, in Northumberland 
town, agreeable to adjournment. Captain John Ham- 

» Buffalo, Penn's and White Deer townships were in what 
is now the territorv of Union and Snvder Counties. 



bright in the chair, when the following gentlemen 
made returns of their officers, captains, subalterns, 
&c., properly certified, viz. : 

" William Plunket, Esquire, Colonel ; James Mur- 
ray, Esquire, Lieutenant-Colonel ; Mr. John Brady, 
First Major: Mr. Cookson Long, Second Major. 

" Captain, Henry Antis, Esquire ; First Lieutenant, 
Thomas Brandon ; Second Lieutenant, Alexander 
Hamilton ; First Ensign, John Morison ; Second En- 
sign, James Alexander. 

"Captain, Samuel Wallis ; First Lieutenant, John 
Scudder; Second Lieutenant, Peter Jones; Ensign, 
James Hampton. 

" Captain, John Robb ; First Lieutenant, William 
Watson ; Second Lieutenant, Eobert Wilson ; En- 
sign, James White. 

" Captain, William McElhatton ; First Lieutenant, 
Andrew Boggs ; Second Lieutenant, Thomas Wilson ; 
Ensign, John McCormick. 

"Captain, William Murray; First Lieutenant, 
Richard Irwin ; Second Lieutenant, Thomas Plunk- 
ett; First Ensign, Andrew Robinson; Second En- 
sign, Benjamin Jordon. 

"Captain, Simon Cool; First Lieutenant, Thomas 
Camplen ; Second Lieutenant, James Brandon ; First 
Ensign, William King ; Second Ensign, James 

" Captain, David Berry ; First Lieutenant, Wil- 
liam Hammond; Second Lieutenant, Joseph Bonser; 
Ensign, Israel Pershel." 

At this time there arose some jealousy in re- 
gard to tlie enlistment of men and the conse- 
quent M'ithdrawal from the exposed frontier of 
its best military element. 

" Information being given to the committee that a 
certain Hawkins Boone is now enlisting men in this 
county, without giving any satisfactory account for 
what purpose or service the said men are enlisted ; 

"Resolved, That the chairman of this committee 
call upon the said Hawkins Boone, by letter or other- 
wise, to appear before him and two or more of said 
committee, as he, the chairman, shall think ex- 
pedient, on such day and at such place as he shall 
appoint, to show cause why he, the said Boone, enlists 
men as aforesaid. 

'■'Monday, March 25, 1776. — The committee met 
pursuant to adjournment at the house of Thomond 
Ball, in Sunbury, Captain John Hambright in the 

"Resolved, That it appears to this committee that 
several recruiting officers, belonging to the battalions 
of different counties in this Province, have latel}' 
come to this infant frontier county and drained it of 
a number of useful men, to the prejudice of the 

"Resolved, That for the future no officer or non- 
commissioned officer be allowed to recruit men in 

this county, except the officers who are or may be 
appointed therein. 

" John Simpson, Esquire, presented a return, where- 
in appears the following list of officers, the company 
belonging to Colonel Hunter's battalion, viz. : 

" Captain, John Simpson, Esquire ; First Lieu- 
tenant, Robert Curry ; Second Lieutenant, John 
Ewart ; First Ensign, Thomas Gaskins ; Second En- 
sign, David Mead." 

The feeling of the people against indiscrim- 
inate and heavy drainage of the popidation from 
the frontier by enlistments for the Continental 
army is in the following letter of John Ham- 
bright very fairly reflected : 

" Sunbury, ilth March, 1776. 

"... We are now, gentlemen, to inform you of 
what we think a grievance to this young and thinly 
inhabited county, viz. : a constant succession of re- 
cruiting officers from different counties in this Prov- 
ince. Our zeal for the cause of American liberty has 
hitherto prevented our taking any steps to hinder the 
raising of men for its service; but finding the evil in- 
creasing so fast upon us as almost to threaten the de- 
population of the county, we cannot help appealing 
to the wisdom and justice of your committee to know 
whether the quota of men that may be demanded 
from this county under their own officers is not 
as much as can reasonably be expected from it. 
Whether, at a time when we are uncertain of peace 
with the Indians (well knowing that our enemies are 
tampering with them), and a claim is set up to the 
greatest part of this Province by a neighboring 
Colony who have their hostile abettors at our very 
breasts, as well as their emissaries amongst us, is it 
prudent to drain an infant frontier county of its 
strength of men '? and whether the safety of the in- 
terior parts of the Province would not be better se- 
cured by adding strength to the frontiers ? Whether 
our Hon. Assembly, by disposing of commissions to 
gentlemen in different counties to raise companies 
which are to form the number of battalions thought 
necessary for the defense of the Province, did not in- 
tend that the respective captains should raise their 
companies where they [were] appointed; and not 
distress our county by taking from it all the men 
necessary for the business of agriculture, as well as 
the defense of the same? From our knowledge of 
the state of this county, we make free to give our 
opinion of what would be most for its advantage, as 
well as that of the Province (between which we hope 
there never will be a difference), and flret to inform 
you [of] the poverty of the people, many of whom 
came bare and naked here, being plundered by a 
banditti who call themselves Yankees, and those who 
brought some property with them, from the necessary 
del.ay of cultivating a wilderness before they could 



have any produce to live upon, together with the 
necessity of still continuing the closest application 
to labor and industry for their support, renders it 
morally improbable that a well disci])lined militia 
can be established here, as the distance which some 
men are obliged to go to muster is the loss of two 
days to them, which, not being paid for, they will 
not, nor indeed can they, so often attend as is neces- 
sary to complete them even in the manual exercise. 
We would recommend that two or more companies 
be raised and put in pay for the use of the Province, 
to be ready to march when and where the service 
may require them, and when not wanted for the 
service of the public at any particular place, to be 
stationed in this county in order to be near and de- 
fend our frontier, should they be attacked by our 
enemies of auy denomination, the good effect of 
which, we imagine, would be considerable, as though 
they may be too few to repel, they may stop the 
progress of an enemy until the militia could be 
raised to assist them. Should this proposal appear 
eligible, please to inform us thereof, and we will 
recommend such gentlemen for officers as we think 
will be most suitable for the service and agreeable to 
the people. 

" We are, gentlemen, with due respect, your very 
humble servants, 

"Signed for and in behalf of the committee, 

" John Hambright, Chairman. 
" To the Committee of S.4^fety, Philadelphia." 

On August 13, 1776, a new Committee of 
Safety was ehoseu to serve for six months, the 
members for Buffalo, Penu's and AVhite Deer 
townships — with which we have particularly to 
do — being as follows : 

Buffalo township. — Martin Treaster, William 
Speedy, Philip Coal. 

Pemi's township. — Simeon Woodrow, Adam Bol- 
inger, Paul Gemberling. 

White Deer township. — James JlcClanachan, Robert 
Fruit, William Gray. 

The committee elected Robert Fruit as chair- 
man, and John Boyd clerk. 

Upon the same date as the foregoing, action 
was taivon to have Colonel William Piunket 
forward from the house of Laughlin INIcCartney 
"the dividend of ammunition belonging to the 
six companies of his battalion that lie above 
Muncy," and also to secure and have such 
" a quantity of powder and lead at IVIr. John 
Harris' ferry,' which belonged to the Associatovs 
of this county (Northumberland). 

' Harrisburar. 

The committee found, September 12, 1776, 
that of the quantities of powder and lead on 
hand, the quota of each associator was half 
a pound of the former and a pound of the lat- 
ter, which not being deemed sufficient, " and 
whereas the greater part of Colonel Plunket's 
men are situated on the frontier and the most 
e.xposed parts of the county," they demanded a 
further quantity of eighty-nine pounds of pow- 
der and one hundred and seventy-eight pounds 
of lead, to be divided among the several captains 
of the battalion, " with the strictest charge that 
the same be preserved for the purposes of 
defense of this county." A similar division 
of ammunition was made among the men of 
Colonel Potter's battalion. 

One of the hardships of this period, though 
at first thought a seemingly small thing, was 
the scarcity of salt. But little could be pro- 
cured, and that only at great cost, — often aug- 
mented by speculators who took advantage of 
the necessities of the people. 

At a meeting of the committee on September 
10, 1776, complaint being made against Mr. 
Aaron Levy and John Bullion, setting forth 
that they had a quantity of salt on hand, which 
they refused to sell for cash, it was " Resolved, 
That the aforesaid salt that is in the hands 
of the aforesaid Levy and Bullion, (as they 
have refused the same for sale) be put 
into the hands of Mr. William Savers, and by 
him sold at the rate of fifteen shillings per 
bushel, and not to sell unto any family above 
half a bushel for the time that the said salt is 
selling, and that the said Sayers shall keep a 
particular account of every bushel that he sells, 
and when sold, he shall return the money aris- 
ing from said salt to this committee, first de- 
ducting one shilling out of the pound for his 
trouble of selling said salt, and six shillings and 
four pence for porterage." 

Two days later the committee being in- 
formed by one of the members of the conven- 
tion " that there is a dividend of salt in Phila- 
delphia, which is allotted for this county, by a 
late resolve of convention, wherefore, this com- 
mittee thought proper to appoint two suitable 
persons to go to Philadelphia and take charge 
of said salt, and [to] be bv them conveyed to 



this county and delivered to the care of this 
committee ; Therefore, William Maclay aud 
Mordecai McKiniiey were uuauimously ap- 
pointed by this committee for the purpose above 
mentioned : Resolved, That the salt belonging 
to this county is to be sold at fifteen shillings 
per bushel." 

The remainder of the record for the year 
1776 consists chiefly of an account of the ex- 
amination of certain charges of treasonable de- 
sign and utterances brought by Cajjtain John 
Brady against Robert Robb. The trial was 
continued in 1777, and finally Robb was es- 
corted to the Council of Safety at Philadelphia, 
to whom his case was referred. 

A new committee for Northumberland County 
was elected in February, 1777, of which the 
members in Penn's, White Deer and Buifalo 
townships were as follows : 

Penn's townsfdp.— Andrew Moore, David Miller, 
Jacob Hosterman. 

White Deer township.— VfiWiava Blyth, James Mc- 
Cormick, William Reed. 

Buffalo township. — John Aurand, Thomas Suther- 
land, George Overmire. 

Thomas Jordan was chosen chairman. 

It appears that Captain Benjamin Weiser 
was out on a tour of duty with a company of 
Northumberland County troo])s in 1776-77, 
and was in the German Regiment. On Janu- 
ary 30th, he was at Philadelphia. About that 
time he wrote to the County Committee of 
Safety, complaining that a number of his men 
had deserted, aud craving their assistance to- 
ward their return. 

Following is the muster-roll of Captain Ben- 
jamin Weiser's company, at Philadelphia, Jan- 
uary 30, 1777 : 

Captain : B. Weiser ; [after the war resided at Se- 
linsgrove, Snyder County.] 

First Lieutenant: Christopher Snyder. 

Second Lieutenant: Adam Shaffer. 

Third Lieutenant : Joseph Van Gundy. 

First Sergeant : Matthew Hain. 

Second Sergeant : George Markle. 

First Corporal : Philip Moyer. 

Second Corporal : Frederick Eisenhauer, enlisted in 
the service of the United States. 

Privates : George Brosius ; Nicholas Brosius ; John 
Faust ; Christian Furst, sick at present, (dis- 
charged at Reading by Doctor Potts) ; Conrad 

Furst ; Henry Grouinger ; John Hauser ; John 
Heim ; John Herter ; George Herrold ; Peter 
Hosterman ; Henry Kaufman ; Adam Kerstetter; 
Martin Kerstetter ; Leonard Kerstetter ; Thomas 
Kitch ; Adam Leffler ; John Livengood ; John 
Meiser; George Moyer; Philip Neitz ; Michael 
Newman ; George Peifer; Tobias Pickel; Andrew 
Eeitz ; Christian Shafer ; Nicholas Shafer ; Jacob 
Snider ; Zacharias Spengle ; .John Stroub ; 
George Troutner (enlisted in the L^nited States 
service) ; Peter Weis ; Mathias Witmer. 

Increased Vigilance ox the Fkontier 
— Major Kelly, the Bradys and Boone 
— Forts Built. — It has been heretofore noted 
that in the fall of 1777— after the battle of the 
Brandy wine, which occurred Sejjtember lltli — 
Captain John Brady, Captain Hawkins Boone 
and Lieutenants John and Samuel Doughei'ty 
were ordered by Washington baclv to the fron- 
tier to assist the inhabitants in resisting the in- 
cursions of the savages through the mountain 
passes. Colonel (or Major) John Kelley,' the 

^ As Colonel (or Major) John Kelley is so frequently 
mentioned in this chapter, and was so conspicuous a charac- 
ter in the local as well as the Continental campaigns, we give 
a brief sketch of his career. He was born in Lancaster 
County in February, 1744. After the purchase from the 
Indians of 1768, and before tlve opening of the land-office 
in 1769, he came to Buffalo Valley, then a part of Berks 
County. Here he suffered all the hardships and privations 
which are inseparable upon the first settlement of a new 
country. He was tall, about six feet two inches in height, 
vigorous and muscular, with his body so inured to labor as 
to be almost insensible to fatigue, and a mind so accus- 
tomed to dangers that dangers ceased to alarm. He was a 
captain, and a major at twenty-seven years of age, and when 
his country called on her sons he was ready. In the fall 
of 1776 he volunteered to assist in the protection of New 
Jersey. He was present at Trenton when the Hessians 
surrendered, and assisted in that most masterly movement 
on Princeton, by which the chain of communications of 
the enemy was broken, all their plans deranged, and their 
army compelled to return to New York and its neighbor- 
hood, and to leave New Jersey free to avenge her wrongs. 
His iutrepidity in destroying the bridge at Princeton, 
which has been narrated in the text (see ante), preserved 
the army from defeat upon the momentous 3d of January, 
1777. When the Indians became too strong for the deci- 
mated frontier population he was one of the first to return 
to its defense. He had the principal command of the 
scouting-parties in wh is now Union County and the 
region above and eastward and was often out in person. 
After the war he was for many years a magistrate in Union 
County. Kelly township, in which was his home, was named 
after him. He died February 18, 1832, aged eighty-eight 
years, and was buried in the Presbyterian burial-ground. 



hero of Princctou, as heretofore noted, had been 
ordered home for a similar reason, and during 
the summer liad command on the frontier. He 
had as a guide a friendly Indian called Job 
Ohilloway. Major Moses Van Camjieu, the 
famous Indian fighter, says, in his narrative, 
that he served a three months' tour with him at 
this time, and that they were located at the Big 
Island, near Lock Haven. 

As the continuance of Indian forays became 
more certain, it was deemed necessary to build 
forts or stockades at intervals along the frontier, 
to serve as places of refuge for the inhabitants. 
Fort Freeland, on Warriors' Kun, had been 
built in 1773, and Fort Augusta, at Sunbury, 
prior to that time. It was commanded during 
the Revolution by Colonel Samuel Hunter.' A 

in Lewisburgh, where a monument to his memory was 
patriotically reareil and dedicated with impressive cere- 
monies April 8, 1835, on which occasion a memorial ad- 
dress was delivered by Jame« Merrill, Esq. 

Colonel Kelly's children were : .James, who moved to 
Penn's Valley and died there (he was the father of Hon. 
James K. Kelly, United States Senator, of Portland. 
Oregon) ; John, who also moved to Penn's Vallej' ; William, 
who married a daughter of .Archibald Allison, of Centre 
County, and died January 27, 1830; Andrew, a bachelor, 
W'ho was born 1783, and died on the old place September 
24, 18(37, aged eighty-four ; Samuel Kelly, of Armstrong 
County, Pennsylvania ; Elizabeth, married to Simeon 
Howe; Maria, married to John Campbell, of Lewisburgh ; 
Robert, who died April IL', 18S6, aged seventy-seven; 
Joseph, died March 2, 1865, aged sixty-six ; David H. 
Kelly, Esq., deceased, late county commissioner of 
Union County. 

'Colonel Samuel Hunter, who commanded at Fort 
Augusta, who is also frequently mentioned in this chapter, 
performed very valuable services on the frontier. He died 
at the close of the struggle in which he had taken a promi- 
nent part. April 10, 1784, aged hfty-two years. His grave 
is near the site of Fort Augusta. His wife's name was 
Susanna Scott, sister of Abraham Scott, formerly member 
from Lancaster. Colonel Hunter was from the county of 
Donegal, Ireland, and when he died had a mother and two 
brothers still living there. He left two daughters, Mary 
and Nancy, minors. 1. Mary, married Samuel Scott, who 
died before her, leaving children, — Samuel H. Scott, Sarah, 
Susanna. Samuel Scott lived on wliat is now the Cake 
farm, and was drowned. He was a son of Abraham Scott, 
who lived on the island which he had purchased of 
Mungo Reed, the original owner. Abraham Scott died 
there in August, 1708, leaving a widow, Sarah, and chil- 
dren, — Samuel (above), Mary (wife of General William Wil- 
son, afterwards of Chillisquaque Mills), Sus.inna and Sarah, 

Susanna married Rose. Their daughter, Isabella. 

is the widow of Hon. Robert C. Cirier, late justice of 

small stockade was constructed, probably iu 
1777-78, one mile above Milton and called 
Fort Schwartz. Boone's Fort, at the moutli of 
Muddy Run, was commanded by Captain 
Boone. John Brady removed from opposite 
the siti of Lewisbiu'gh, settled on the Muucy 
Manor, and erected a small fortification, for the 
protection of his family and neighbors, on the 
south side of Muncy Creek, near where the 
town now stands. It was called Fort Brady 
and has often been confounded with Fort 
Muncy, which stood on the Muncy farm, above 
the town. A small inclosure was erected near 
the mouth of Lycoming Creek, where Jaysburg 
now is, and called, after a settler of the region, 
Fort Huff. 

A fort which was a very important place 
during the troubled times prior to the " great 
runaway " was built in the summer of 1776 by 
Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Antes, on the high 
ground at the mouth of Nippenose Creek, 
above Jersey Shore. It was a picketed inclos- 
ure and defended by a regular garrison of 

Horn's Fort was on the south side of the 
West Branch, on what is no\v known as Cris- 
pin's Run. Reed's, at Lock Haven, a place 
of considerable importance during the early 
period of the war, was commanded by Colonel 
Cookson Long. 

The Upper Fort, built in 1777 in Penn's 
Valley, was merely the fortified log-house of 
Colonel (afterwards General) James Potter, who 
was one of the principal officers on the frontier, 
and f n- a considerable period was colonel of the 
UpperBattalion. His corresjiondence is frequent- 
ly quoted in this chapter, and there are numerous 
allusions to him. As has been shown, he was iu 
command of a battalion of Northumberland 
County militia at Trenton and Princeton. On 
April 5, 1777, he was appointed third brigadier- 
general of the militia of the State, and after- 
wards commanded his brigade at the Brandy- 
wine and battle of Germantown with great 
ability. He obtained leave of absence in Jan- 

the United States Supreme Court. 2. Nanci/, married her 
cousin, Alexander Hunter, who died in June, 1810, leaving 
her also a widow, and children, — Mary, Elizabeth, Nancy 
and Samuel. 



uaiy, 1778, on accouut of his wife's illness, and 
during that and the following year, until mid- 
summer, was in Peuu's Valley assisting in re- 
pelling the inroads of the savages. In July, 
1779, he retired with the rest of the inhabitants 
and took his family to Middle Creek, in Snyder 
County. In 1780 he became a member of the 
State Council ; November 14, 1781, vice-jjresi- 
dent of the State; May 23, 1782, a major- 
general, and in 1784 a member of the Council 
of Censors. Meanwhile he had resumed resi- 
dence on his farm in what is now Union 
County, a short distance above New Columbia, 
where he had settted in 1772, and remained 
until his removal to Penn's Valley, in 1774. 
He ultimately returned to Penn's Valley from 
Union County, where he received injuries while 
raising a barn, in the fall of 1784, from which 
he died in the same year. He was a native of 
Tyrone, Ireland, born in 1729, and obtained his 
first experience as a soldier before he was seven- 
teen years old in the Indian War of 1756-64. 
Such, in brief, was the life of one of the promi- 
nent characters of this region during the terri- 
ble period of the Revolfttionary War and of 
Indian incursion.' 

■There are some other details worthy of preservation 
concerning General Potter. He was a son of .John Potter, 
the first sheriff of Cumberland County, and in January, 
1758, was a lieutenant with William Blythe, in Colonel 
John Armstrong's battalion. He married a Jliss Cathcart, 
sister of Mrs. George Latimer, of Philadelphia, who died, 
leaving a son and daughter. He then married Mrs. Cham- 
bers, sister of Captsiin William Patterson. He resided 
principally on the Ard farm, in White Deer township, just 
above New Columbia, though, no doubt, he changed his 
residence on accouiit of the Indian troubles One year, 
1781, he resided in the Middle Creek settlement, now 
Snyder County, as the assessments show, and family 
tradition has it, his eldest son, John Potter, died there. 
In 1786, Pickering visited him at the Ard farm, and in 
1787, Mrs. Gregg, his daughter, was married there. 

His eldest daughter married Captain .James Poc. Mary 
married George Riddles, who died March 14, 1796, and is 
buried at Northumberland, in the Presbyterian church- 
yard. Their daughter, Mary A., married W. H. Patter- 
son ; Eliza, Dr. Joseph B. Ard, whose heirs still own the 
old place in White Deer ; Martha married Mr. Gregg. 

General Potter's son James married Mary Brown, 
daughter of Judge Brown, of Mifflin County. Of their 
children : 1, General James Potter (third) married Maria, 
daughter of General William Wilson, of Chillisquaque ; 2, 
William Potter, Esq., late of Bellefonte, attorney-at-law ; 
3, Mary P , married Doctor W. I. Wilson, of Potter's 

The Indians repeatedly came stealthily down , 
the West Branch in 1777, and committed 
murders of men, women and children where- 
ever they could find them exposed. One 
Sunday morning in June they killed two men 
—Miller and Cady — who had gone out from 
Antes' Fort to milk the cows, and though pur- 
sued, were not apprehended or made to suffer 
for their crimes. A similar affair occurred at 
Horn's Fort, and in the fall of 1777 an attack 
was made on the families of Brown and Benja- 
min, on the Loyal Sock Creek, and committed 
every fiendish atrocity that the tomahawk, 
scalping-knife and torch could enable them to. 

These murders were the ominous warnings of 
more sweeping fury to be wreaked upon the 
settlements later, but they spread terror through- 
out the valley, and most of the families fled to 
the so-called forts, or, for protection, 
leaving their houses, fields and cattle at the 
mercy of the savages. The condition of the 
county at this time was indicated in a letter 
from Colonel Hunter, who said (November 1st) 
that he had orders for the third and fourth 
classes of militia to march, but he had neither 
arms nor blankets for them ; that the first and 
second classes were on the frontiers, and had 
all the good arms that could be collected ; that 
the people were in a bad way ; had not got in 
any crops. For the state of the country, he 
referred President Wharton to Captain John 
Hambright, Mdio had been chosen of the 
Council. He added that the county was 
worse off than any other in the State for salt. 
Writing again, from Fort Augusta, November 
11th (after referring to the fact that upon that 
day the third and fourth classes of the Third 
Battalion were to march to join the army of 
General Washington, under the command of 
Colonel James Murray), he says, — 

"The two classes of Colonel Cookson Long's bat- 
talion I have ordered to duty on the frontiers, as the 

Mills ; 4, John Potter ; 5, Martha G., married to Abraham 
Valentine; 6, Peggy Crouch, married Dr. Charles Coburn, 
of Aaronsburg ; 7, George L. Potter, Esq., who practiced 
awhile at Danville, Pennsylvania. Mrs. Andrew G. 
Curtin, who is a daughter of Doctor W. I. Wilson, of Pot- 
ter's Mills, is a great-granddaughter of the Revolutionary 
general, and the Governor is a great-grandson, on the 
Gregg line of descent. 



first class, that was commanded by Colonel John 
Kelly, has come oil' I'rom thence, after serving two 
months, to encourage the poor, scattered inhabitants 
to return back to their habitations, which I hope will 
be approved by the Council." 

Colonel John Kelly, being relieved from ser- 
vice on the West Branch, was ordered, with 
his battalion, to Peun's Valley to perforin duty 
for two months. 

The year 1778 opened gloomily enough for 
the Continental army in the field and the har- 
assed inhabitants of the frontier. Notwith- 
standing the tact that a large number of sol- 
diers had gone to the front from the back 
settlements, greatly weakening them at a time 
when organized Indian invasion was appre- 
hended, officers came into the region early in the 
year to recruit for the Northumberland com- 

In May, Colonel Kelly was still on duty in 
Penn's Valley, but his presence did not awe 
the Indians completely, for upon the 8th, 
Jacob Stanford was killed there and his family 
carried into captivity. Numerous other mur- 
ders were committed along the frontier. Again 
we draw information from a letter of General 
Potter's (dated Upper Fort, Peun's Valley, 
May 17th). He says that he was informed by 
Colonel Long that a few families coming to 
Lycoming, escorted by a party under the com- 
mand of Colonel Hosterman, were attacked by 
twelve Indians, who killed six of them, and six 
were missing. Three men were killed, at the 
same time, on the Loyal Sock ; twenty persons 
killed on the North Branch. One who was 
taken prisoner made his escape, and says the 
Indians are determined to clear the two 
branches of the Susquehanna this moon. He 
says we have two forts in the valley, and are 
determined to stand as long as we are supported. 
The people were poor, and bread very high. 

Colonel Hunter pictured the situation (in a 
letter of May 31, 1778) thus,— 

" We are in a melancholy condition. The back in- 
habitants have left their homes. All above Muncy are 
at Samuel Wallis's. The people of Muncy are at Cap- 
tain Brady's. All above Lycoming are at Antes' mill 
and the mouth of Bald Eagle. The peojile of Penn's 
valley are at one place in Potter township. The 
inhabitants of White Deer are assembled at three 

different places. The back settlers of Buffalo have 
come down to the river. Penn's township people have, 
likewise, moved to the river. All from Muncy hill 
to Chillisquaque have assembled at three different 
places. Fishing creek and Mahoning settlements 
have come to the river-side. It is really distressing 
to see the people flying away, and leaving their all, 
especially the Jersey people, who came up here last 
winter and spring. Not one stays, but sets off to 
Jersey again." 

On the 2d of June he writes that the people 
have drawn up a petition to Congress for 
relief, and Bobert Fruit and Thomas Jordan 
were set off to lay it before the Executive 
Council for their approval, before presenting it 
to Congress. 

On June 14th he writes that communica- 
tion between Antes' mill and Big Island is cut 
oiF. On the 10th of June a bloody and 
sweeping slaughter occurred where Williams- 
port now stands. 

All of these events were but the forerunners 
of greater disasters than any which had yet 
befallen the settlements. 


The great massacre at Wyoming occurred on 
July 3d, and ,as the report of that horrible 
glutting of savage bloodthirst passed down 
North Branch and spread up the valley of the 
sister-stream, it caused a general stampede — 
the wild, precipitate flight of the settlers from 
all the upper region, known as the " Great 

The terrorizing news was quite generally 
spread by the 5th or 6th, and on the 9th, 
Colonel Hunter writes that both branches are 
nearly evacuated, and Nortiiumberland and 
Sunburv will be the frontier in less than 
twenty-four hours. His letter evinces the 
agony of a strong man, M'ho, with all supports 
taken away, was determined to fall, if need be, 
in defense of the charge committed to him. 
He says, — 

" Nothing but a firm reliance upon Divine Provi- 
dence, and the virtue of our neighbors, induces the 
few to stand that remain in the two towns ; and if they 
are not speedily reinforced they mus't give way ; but 
will have this consolation, that they have stood in 
defence of their liberty and country as long as they 
could. In justice to this county, I must bear testi- 



iiiony that the States never applied to it for men in 
vain. I am sure the State must know that we have 
reduced ourselves to our present feehle condition by 
our readiness to turn out, upon all occasions, when 
called for in defense of the common cause. Should 
we now fall, for want of assistance, let the neighboring 
counties reconcile to themselves, i f they can, the breach 
of brotherly love, charity and every other virtue 
which adorns and advances the human species above 
the brute creation. I will not attempt to point out 
the particular cruelties or barbarities that have been 
practised on our unhappy inhabitants, but assure you 
that, for the number, history aftbrds no instance of 
more heathenish cruelty or savage barbarity than has 
been exhibited in this county."' 

Matthew Smith writes from Paxtaug (Harris- 
burg), July 12th, that he had "just arrived at 
Harris' Ferry, and beheld the greatest scenes of 
distress I ever saw. It M'as crowded with 
people who had come down the river, leaving 

Upon the same day Peter De Haven writes, 
from Hummelstown : "This day there were 
twenty or thirty passed through this town from 
Buffalo Valley and Sunbury, and the people 
inform me that tliere are two hundred wagons 
on the road coming down. I was at Mr. Elder's 
meeting to-day, and Colonel Clark and Colonel 
Rodgers made an appeal to the inhabitants to 
turn out one hundred volunteers," etc. 

A letter written by William Maclay, from 
Paxtang, on the 12th, gives a very graphic pic- 
ture of the distress, — 

" I left Sunbury, and almost my whole property, on 
Wednesday last. I will not trouble you with a recital 
of the inconveniences I sutTered while I brought my 
family, by water, to this place. I never in my life 
saw such scenes of distress. The river and the roads 
leading down it were covered with men, women and 
children, flying for their lives. In short, Northumber- 
land County is broken up. Colonel Hunter only 
remained, using his utmost endeavors to rally the 
inhabitants to make a stand. I left him with few. I 
cannot speak confidently as to numbers, but he had 
not a hundred men on whom he could depend. Mrs. 
Hunter came down with me. As he is now disencum- 
bered of his family, I am convinced that he will do 
everything that can be expected from a brave and 
determined man. It was to no purpose Colonel 
Hunter issued orders for the assembling of the 
militia. The whole county broke loose. Something, 
in the way of charity, ought to be done for the many 
miserable objects that crowd the banks of this river, 
especially those who fled from Wyoming. You know 

I did not use to love them, but I now pity their dis- 

Colonel Hunter, upon the 12th, indited (at 
Sunbury) a most pathetic appeal to the Presi- 
dent and Executive Council, in which he 
said, — 

"The calamities so long dreaded, and of which we 
have been more than once informed must fall upon 
this county if not assisted by Continental troops or 
the militia of the neighboring counties, now appear 
with all the horrors attendant on an Indian war; at 
this date the towns of Sunbury and Northumberland 
are the frontiers, where a few virtuous inhabitants 
and fugitives seem determined to stand, though doubt- 
ful whether to-morrow's sun shall rise on them free- 
men, captives or in eternity." 

He urged most strenuously that "a few hun- 
dreds of men, well armed," be immediately sent 
to the relief of the people. 

Bertram (ialbraith, writing from Lancaster, 
July 14th, says, — 

"On Sunday morning last the banks of the Susque- 
hanna, from Middletown up to the Blue Mountain, 
were entirely clad with the inhabitants of Northum- 
berland County, who had moved ofi", as well as many 
in the river in boats, canoes and on rafts. This I had 
from Captain Abraham Scott, a man of veracity, who 
was up at Garber's Mills for his sister, the wife of 
Colonel Samuel Hunter, and spake with a lieutenant, 
who was in the action at Wyoming. He also seen 
six of the wounded men brought down." 

Robert Covenhoven (Crownover), describing 
the scene near Lewisburgh, says, — 

"I took my own family safely to Sunbury, and came 
back in a keel-boat to secure my furniture. Just as 
I rounded a point above Deri'stown (now Lewisburgh) 
I met the whole convoy from all the forts above. 
Such a sight I never saw in my life. Boats, canoes, 
hog-troughs, rafts hastily made of dry sticks, every 
sort of floating article, had been put in requisition, 
and were crowded with women, children and plunder. 
There were several hundred people in all. Whenever 
any obstruction occurred at any shoal or ripple, the 
women would leap out into the water and put their 
shoulders to the boat or raft, and launch it again into 
deep water. The men of the settlement came down 
in single file, on each side of the river, to guard the 
women and children. The whole convoy arrived 
safely at Sunbury, leaving the entire range of farms 
along the West Branch to the ravages of the In- 
dians." ' 

iThe account of the "Great Runaway," as well as of some 
subsequent affairs, is taken chiefly from John Blair Linn's 
" Annals of the Buffalo Valley." 



Several persons, among them John Michael 
Bashor, were killed by the Indians during the 
" Great Runaway." 

Re(; Ti;oops Marched to thk Pro- 
tection OF THE Settlements. — In answer to 
Hunter's appeal, Colonel Brodhead and his 
regiment, on their march to Fort Pitt, were or- 
dered to the West Branch. He was at Fort 
Muncy on July 24th, and sent a captain and 
twenty-four men down to Penn's Valley to 
protect the reapers at General Potter's place. 
General Potter writes from Penn's Valley, on 
the 25th, " that the inhabitants of the valley 
are returned and were cutting their grain. He 
left Sunbury last Sunday afternoon, and the 
people were returning to all parts of the county. 
Yesterday two men of Captain Finley's com- 
pany, of Colonel Brodhead's regiment, went out 
from this place on the plains a little below my 
fields, and met a part}' of Indians, five in num- 
ber, M'hom they engaged. One of the soldiers, 
Thomas Van Doran, was shot dead; the other, 
Jacob Shedacre, ran about four hundred yards 
and was pursued by one of the Indians. They 
attacked each other with their knives and our 
excellent soldier killed his antagonist. His 
fate was hard, for another Indian came up and 
shot him." The general estimated the loss in- 
flicted on the coimty by the " great runaway " 
at forty thousaud pounds. 

Colonel Thomas Hartley, Mith a small force 
of men, was also ordered to the Susquehanna, 
and on August 1st was in command at Sun- 
bury with his regulars and two hundred mili- 
tia. On the 8th he was at Muncy, Colonel 
Brodhead's regiment having resumed their 
march to Fort Pitt. Colonel Hartley seems 
to have been in command of all the troops, and 
offered it to General Potter, who declined the 
honor and responsibility. Much fault had been 
found with Colonel Hunter's management of 
the militia at the time of the " great runaway," 
and he evidently did not wish to place himself 
in a position where he would be subjected to 
similar obloquy. 

Lieutenant Carothers, who was at Carlisle, 
sent sixty men up to the Kishacoquillas and 
neighboring valleys, and they remained there a 
considerable time. 

Murdering, pillaging and burning went on 
in the West Branch Valley and adjoining re- 
gions, in spite of the presence of troops. 

Death of James and John Brady. — On 
August 8th the brave James Brady was killed 
above Loyal Sock. Colonel Hartley relates 
the circumstance as follows, — 

" A corporal and four men of his regiment, with 
three militia, were ordered to guard fourteen reapers 
and cradlers who went to cut the grain of Peter 
Smith, who had his wife and four children killed by 
the Indians. On Friday they cut the greater part 
and intended to complete the work next morning. 
Four of the reapers improperly moved oft' that night. 
The rest went to work — the cradlers, four in number, 
by themselves, near the house ; the reapers somewhat 
distant. The reapers, except Brady, placed their 
guns around a tree. Brady thought this wrong and 
put his at some distance from the rest. The morning 
was very foggy, and an hour after sunrise the sentry 
and reapers were surprised by a number of Indians, 
under cover of the fog. The sentry retired towards 
the reapers, and they in turn fell back. Brady ran 
towards his rifle and \yas pursued by three Indians, 
and, within a few rods of it, was wounded. He rai) 
for some distance and then fell. He received another 
wound with a spear, and was tomahawked and 
scalped in an instant. The sentry fired, but was shot 
down, as also a militia-man. Young Brady, who is 
an exceeding fine young fellow, soon after rose and 
came to the house. Jerome Vanuess ventured to re- 
main with him ; the others fled. There were thirty 
Indians, supposed to be Mingoes. Brady wanted 
Vanness to leave him, but he would not do it. He 
assisted him to the river, where he drank a great dea] 
of water. Captain Walker and a party came up from. 
the fort at Muncy. ^\'hen they approached, Brady, 
supposing them to be Indians, sprang to his feet and 
cocked his gun. They made a bier and carried him 
to Sunbury, where his mother then was. Robert 
Covenhoven was one of the party. On the way he 
became delirious and drank large quantities of water. 
It was late at night when they got there and they did 
not intend to rouse his mother. But she had fears 
that something had happened and met them at the 
river. He was a fearful-looking object and the meet- 
ing with his mother was heart-rending. He lived five 
days, the first four being delirious; but on the fifth 
his reason returned and he related tlie whole circum- 
stance distinctly. He said that Bald Eagle (after- 
wards killed by his brother Samuel on the Allegheny) 
was of the Indian party." ' 

' James Brady was the second son of Captain John and 
Mary Brady, and was born at Shippensburg. his eUler 
brother being the famous Captain Samuel Brady, the In- 
dian scout and woodsmau, whose services were, peviiaps. 



The force on tliis part of the frontier now 
consisted of one hundred men of Colonel Hart- 
ley's regiment, two hundred and twenty of Lan- 
caster County militia, one hundred and seventy 
of Berks County, one hundred of Northum- 
berland militia and seventy of Captain James 
Murray's, making nearly seven hundred men, — 
a quite eifective force, distributed to the best 
advantage by Colonel Hartley. 

In September, 1778, Colonel Hartley planned 
an expedition up the North Branch, and to 
Tioga (now Athens, Bradford County). It left 
Muncy on the 21st, two hundred rank and file 
strong, at four a.m., with twelve days' provi- 
sions. Great rains, swamps, mountains and de- 
■ files impeded the march. They waded or swam 
the Lycoming Creek twenty times. On the 
morning of the '26th the advance party of nine- 
teen men met an equal number of Indians, had the 
first fire, and an important Indian chief was 
killed and scalped ; the rest fled. A few miles 
farther they came upon a camp where seventy 
Indians lay the night before. These also fled. 
They then pressed on to Tioga. They burned 
Tioga, Queen Esther's Town. On the 28th they 
crossed the river and marched towards Wyaln- 
sing, where they arrived at eleven o'clock that 
night. Here seventy of the men took to the 
canoes and the rest marched by land. Lieu- 
tenant Sweeney commanded the rear-guard of 
thirty men, besides five scouts under Captain 
Campleton. The advance guard consisted of 
an officer and fifteen men. At two o'clock a 
heavy attack was made on the rear, which gave 
way. At this critical moment Captains Boone 
and Brady and Lieutenant King, with a few 
brave fellows, landed from the canoes, joined 
Sweeney and renewed the action. They advanced 
on the enemy on all sides, with great noise and 

of more value than those of any other one man of his use- 
ful class. Of James Brady, his brother, General Hugli 
Brady, said : '' He was a remarkable man. Nature had 
done much for him. His person was fine. He lacked but 
a quarter of an inch of six feet, and his mind was as well 
finished as his person. 1 have ever placed him by the 
side of Jonathan, son of Saul, for beauty of person and 
nobleness of soul, ami, like him, befell by the hands of the 
Philistines." James Brady was buried at Foil Augusta, 
but his grave has long since been plowed over and no man 
knows his sepulchre. 

shouting, when the Indians fled, leaving their 
dead (ten). The expedition arrived at Sun- 
bury on the 5th of October, having performed a 
circuit of three hundred miles and brought off 
fifty head of cattle, twenty-eight canoes, etc' 

This expedition did not, however, awe the 
Indians, for, by November 9th, they had come 
down, invested Wyoming and destroyed the 
settlements on the North Branch as far as Nes- 
copeck. The same fall murders were committed 
at Fort Freeland. 

Colonel Hunter, in a letter written in Decem- 
ber, expresses great regret at Colonel Hartley's 
departure. He says he made the very best possible 
use of his troops. He comjjlains of the " fore- 
stallers" of grain, whom he looks upon as 
worse than savages, for raising the price of 
grain upon the people. 

The year 1779 witnessed no improvement in 
the situation of the settlers on the Susquehanna 
frontier. On the 11th of April, Captain John 
Brady, who, it will be remembered, commanded 
a so-called fort bearing his name and located 
near the mouth of Muncy Creek, was killed by 
the Indians, scarcely a quarter of a mile away 
from its protecting walls. It had become 
necessary to go up the river some distance to 
procure supplies for the fort, and Captain John 
Brady, taking with him a wagon-team and 
guard, went himself and procured what could 
be had. On his return in the afternoon, riding 
a fine mare, and within a short distance of the 
fort, where the road forked, and being some 
distance behind the team and guard, and in con- 
versation with a man named Peter Smith, he 
recommended Smith not to take the road the 
wagon had, but the other, as it was shorter. 
They traveled on together, until they came near 
a run where the same road joined. Brady ob- 
served, ' This would be a good place for In- 
dians to secrete themselves.' Smith said ' Yes.' 
That instant three rifles cracked and Brady fell. 
The mare ran past Smith, who threw himself 
on her and was carried in a few .seconds to the 
fort. The people in the fort heard the rifles, 
and seeing Smith on the mare coming at full 
speed, all ran to ask for Captain Brady, his 

1 John Blair Linn. 



wife along, or rather before the rest. Smitli 
replied, ' In heaven or hell, or on iiis way to 
Tioga,' ' meaning that he was either killed or 
taken pri.soner. Those in the fort ran to the 
spot and found the eaptain lying in the road, 
his scalp taken and rifle gone ; but the Indians 
iiad been in such haste that they had not taken 
his watch or shot-pouch." 

Rapine followed throughout the settlements. 
Isolated murders and cases of pillaging were al- 
most numberless and larger strokes of savage 
fury were not infrequent." Several of these 
murders occurred at Fort Freeland. By May 
so great had become the sense of insecurity 
that the greater number of the people of Buf- 
falo Valley had left. Colonel Hunter had poor 
success in recruiting companies of rangers, as so 

' McCabe's account in Blairsville Record. 

2 Captain Jolm Brady " was born in tlie State of Delawai-e 
in 1733. His father, Hugh, an emigrant from Ireland, 
tirst settled in Delaware and then removed within five 
miles of Shippensburg, Pennsylvania. John Brady mar- 
lied Mary Quigley, and their eldest son, Samuel, was born 
in Shippensburg in 1758. He was a surveyor and pioneer 
in the settlements, and lived at Standing Stone (now Hun- 
tingdon) in 1768, wlien his son. General Hugh, and twin- 
sister, Jennie, were born. In 1769 he came over on the 
West Branch and settled on what is still the property 
of Hon. George Kremer's heirs, opposite Strohecker's 
Landing, below Lewisburgh, where he resided until the fall 
of 1776, when be removed to a place a little above Muncy 
and built upon it. October 14, 1776, he was appointed 
captain in the Twelfth Pennsylvania, and was wounded 
severely in the battle of Brandy wine." — Limi. 

Mary, the widow of Captain John Brady, died October 
20, 1783, and is buried in the Lewisburgh cemetery. The 
family of John and Mary Brady was as follows : Captain 
Samuel Brady, born 1758, at Shippensburg. James Brady, 
killed in 1778. John Brady, born 171)1, and known as 
sheriff. Mary (married to Captain William Gray, of Sun- 
bury), died December 13, 1850. William P. Brady, who 
removed to Indiana County, Pennsylvania. He was dep- 
uty surveyor in Northumberland County many years. His 
son Hugh was a noted aUorney in the western counties 
of the State. The latter married a daughter of Evan Rice 
Evans, Esq., and their son, the first Brady that ever was 
killed in battle, fell at Antietam, in 1862. General Hugh 
Brady, who died in Detroit, in 1851. Jennie Brady, a 
twin-sister, born 20th July, 1768. Robert, married after- 
wards to a daughter of Colonel William Cooke. Hannah. 
Liberty, born August 9, 1778. so called as she was the tirst 
child born to them after the Declaration of Independence. 
She married William Dewart, and died without issue, July 

■^See chapters upon the townships for accounts of nu- 
merous murders and massacres. 

many of the able-bodied men of the settlements 
were preparing to enter the " boat service " [the 
convoying of General Sidlivan's commi.ssary up 
the North Branch]. By the la-st of June he 
had only thirty men, exclusive of at Fort 
Freeland and with General Potter, who was at 
Sunbury. By the latter part of July the 
troops had all left Sunbury to join General 
Sullivan. JVorthumberland Comity was left in 
a deplorable condition, \vith no forces but the 
militia and fourteen regulars under Captain 
Kamplen. Almost every young man on thLs 
part of the frontier had engaged in the boat 
service, and the country above Muncy was com- 
pletely abandoned. 

Fall of Fort Freeland. — All things 
conspired to give the Indians opportunity Iot a 
more than usually eifective blow. It was di- 
rected against Fort Freeland, and that strong- 
hold was captured upon July 28, 1799. A 
number of British officers and soldiers were 
with the besieging party, the advance portion of 
which made its appearance upon the 21st. The 
whole force consisted of about three hundred 
men. Colonel Hunter writes upon the 28th, — 

"This day, about twelve o'clock, an express ar- 
rived from Captain Boone's mill, informing us that 
Freeland's Fort was surrounded ; and. immediately 
after, another express came, informing us that it was 
burned and all the garrison either killed or taken 
prisoners ; the party that went from Boone's saw a 
number of Indians and some red-coats walking 
around the fort, or where it had been. After that, 
firing was heard off towards Chillisquaque. Parties 
are going off from this town and from Northumber- 
land for the relief of the garrison. General Sullivan 
would send us no assistance, and our neighboring 
counties have lost the virtue they were once possessed 
of, otherwise we should have some relief before this. 
I write in a confused manner. I am just marching 
off, up the West Branch, with a party I have col- 

A few days before the aipture Robert Coven- 
hoven went up as far as Ralston (now), where 
he discovered Colonel McDonald's partv in 
camp. He returned to Foit Muncy (Fort Penn) 
and gave the alarm. The women and children 
then were put in boats and sent down, under 
his charge, to Fort Augusta. He took with 
him the families at Fort Meminger, at the 
UiOuth of Warrior Run ; but Freeland's Fort 



being four and a half miles distant, they had 
no time to wait for the families there, but sent 
a messenger to alarm them. 

The following account of the fall of Fort Free- 
land is given by Mrs. Mary V. Derrickson, born 
the year of this calamity, and a daughter of 
Cornelius Vincent, one of the occupants of the 

"... Nothing serious occurred until the 21st 
of July, when a party at work in the corn-field 
were attacked by Indians, about nine a.m. Isaac 
Vincent, Elias Freeland and Jacob Freeland, junior, 
were killed ; Benjamin Vincent and Michael Free- 
land taken prisoner.-s. Daniel Vincent outran the 
Indians, and, leaping a high log fence, escaped. Ben- 
jamin Vincent, then only ten years old, hid himself 
in a furrow ; he left it to climb a tree and was seen 
and.captured. He knew nothing about the fate of 
the others until in the afternoon, when an Indian 
thrust the bloody scalp of his brother Isaac into his 
face. At daybreak, on the 28th, Jacob Freeland. 
senior, was shot as he was going out of the gate and 
fell inside. The fort was surrounded. There were 
twenty-one men in it and very littlejammunition. Mary 
Kirk and Phrebe Vincent commenced immediately 
and ran all their spoons and plates into bullets. 
About nine a flag was raised, and John Lytle and 
John Vincent went out to capitulate, but could not 
agree, and one half hour was given to consult those 
within. It was finally agreed that all who could bear 
arms should go as prisoners, the old men, with the 
women and children, to be set free and the fort given 
to plunder. The latter left the fort at twelve. Not 
one ate a bite that day, and not a child was heard to 
cry or ask for bread. They reached Northumberland, 
eighteen miles distant, that night. Mrs. Kirk put 
girl's clothes on her son William, a lad of sixteen, 
and he escaped with the women. Elizabeth Vincent 
was a cripple and could not walk. Her husband, 
John Vincent, went to Captain McDonald and told 
him her situation, and asked for the horse the Indians 
had taken from his son Peter a week before. He 
carried his wife to the lower end of the meadow, 
where they lay and saw the fort burned. It rained 
hard that night and she lay partly in the water. In 
the morning the horse came to them. Vincent 
plaited a halter out of the bark of a hickory tree, set 
his wife on and led it to Northumberland, where 
wagons were pressed to take the people down the 

Those killed at the fort were James Watt, 
John McClintock, William McCluug, James 
Miles and Henry Gilfillen. Colonel Hunter's 

account says that the firing at Freeland's was 
heard at Boone's mill," about seven miles off. 

Captains Hawkins Boone, Kemplen and 
Daugherty marched with thirty-four men, but 
were met by the Indians in large force before 
they reached the fort. Captain Kemplen, who 
observed the first Indian, shot him dead. The 
men behaved with great bravery, but were over- 
powered and fifteen were killed and two 
wounded. Among the dead were Captain 
Boone and Captain Samuel Daugherty. 

This engagement took place at McCluug's 
place, above Milton. William Miles, who was 
taken prisoner at the fort, and afterwards re- 
sided in Erie County, said that, in Canada, 
Captain McDonald spoke ih the highest terms 
of the desperate bravery of Hawkins Boone.* 
His scalp, with that of Daugherty, was brought 
into Fort Freeland.^ 

Of Boone's party, Samuel Brady (uncle of 
Captain Samuel), James Dougherty and James 
Hammond, made their escape. Of those made 
captives in this party, as well as those at the 
fort, nearly all ultimately returned.'^ Colonel 
Hunter, writing to General Potter several years 

•It is here taken from Linn's "Annals of the BufTiilo 


2 This mill was on Muddy Run, six hundred yards from 
its mouth, the site of what is now Kemmerer's mill, two 
Diiles above Milton. 

^ Linn 

* Boone came originally from Exeter, Berks County, and a cousin of the celebrated Daniel Boone, of Kentucky. 
Hia grandfiither, George Boone, had a large family of sons : 
William, Joseph, James, Benjamin, John, Hezekiah, Squire 
and Josiah Boone. Hawkins was a son of Squire, who 
moved to North Cai-olina in 1752. Hawkins was a sur- 
veyor and lived on the place, just above New Columbia, now 
owned by Samuel Gemberling. He owned, also, the Jacob 
Rees place, northwest of the latter place, the Earnest Book 
tract, etc. He was commissioned a captain in the Twelfth 
Pennsylvania Regiment, and selected to accompany a de- 
tachment of riflemen from the regiment, sent under Mor- 
gan to Saratoga. In a return of Morgan's command, dated 
at Lowdon's Ferry, on the Mohawk, September 3, 1777, he 
is marked "absent; wounded." In February, 1779, the 
State Council allowed him clothes out of the State stores, 
"in consideration of his situation and spirited intrepidity 
of his conduct in the campaign under Colonel Hartley, 
when his situation might have justified him in remaining 
at home." He left a widow, Jane, and two daughters. 
Some years after his death his widow married a Mr. 
Fortenbaugh and moved to Halifax, Dauphin County, 
where she resided many years. 

^ Meginness' ''West Branch Valley," p. 257, el seq. 



after the affair at Fort Freoland, gave a list of 
the meu taken prisoners there, as follows : 

"Captain's company, John Neely, sergeant; George 
Baily, George Arniitage, Aaron Martin (died at Fort 
Cliambly, January 8, 1780), Thomas Smith, Isaac 
Wilson and John Forney. The following persons be- 
ing those of the militia that enrolled themselves for 
the defense of the garrison : John Lytle, adjutant; 
Cornelius Vincent, quartermaster ; sergeant, Samuel 
Gould; Henry Townley, Peter Williams, Isaac Wil- 
liams, Elias Williams, Henry GilfiUan, James Dur- 
ham, Daniel Vincent, John Watts, William Miles, 
John Dough, Thomas Taggart (died 16th January, 
1780) ; Francis Watts made his escape on the same 
day he was taken ; Peter Vincent likewise made his 
escape the same day." 

Fifty-two women and children and four old 
men were permitted by Captain McDonald to 
depart for Sunbury. 

Colonel Kelly went over with a party from 
the Buffalo Valley and buried the dead at the 

Great consternation prevailed throughout the 
region after the capture of Fort Freeland ; the 
inhabitants fled, and the road down to Fort 
Augusta was again thronged with terrified wo- 
men and children. The Indians and British 
retreated toward the Tioga. They had un- 
doubtedly intended to attack Fort Augusta, and 
were only deterred from their purpose, iu all 
probability, by meeting Boone's party, and ap- 
prehending that it was the advance detachment 
of a larger one. 

Preparations were made as quickly as possi- 
ble to follow the enemy, partly for the purpose 
of recovering some of the cattle, as they had 
driven off all they could find. On the od of 
August, Captain (or Colonel) Matthew Smith 
arrived at Sunbury, with sixty " Paxton Boys," 
and was joined by detachments from other re- 
gions, in all numbering five hundred. They 
marched for IMuncy, but the enemy had retired 
far into the wilderness, beyond reach of all pur- 
suit. General Sullivan had now commenced 
his march into their country, and his destruc- 
tion of their towns, which they abandoned as 
thev flew before him, as leaves of the forest fiy 
before a gale of wind, so disconcerted them that 
for a year or so only a few predatory bands 
came down upon the branches of the Suscpie- 
hanna. They were temporarily dispersed, and 

never fully recovered from the blow given them 
by Sullivan. 

Nevertheless, grave fears were felt by the ex- 
perienced men in authority. In old Xortliuni- 
berland, William ^laclay, writing to President 
Reed, of the Executive Council, April 2, 17 HO, 
says, — 

" I will not trouble you with the distress of this 
county. It will, no doubt, be jjainted to the Council 
in lively colors, and, indeed, the picture cannot be 
overcharged ; nor should I, at this time, write to you 
but for a strong belief and persuasion that a body of 
Indians are lodged about the head of Fishing and 
Muncy creek. They were with us to the very begin- 
ning of the deep snow last year ; they are with us now 
before that snow is quite gone. Many of our hunters 
who went up late last fall into that country 
were so alarmed with the constant reportof guns, which 
they could not believe to be those of white men, that 
they returned suddenly back. We are not strong 
enough to spare men to examine this country and 
dislodge them. The German regiment are under 
their own officers, and, for my part, I expect no ser- 
vice from them. I ca,nnot help uttering a wish that 
what troops we have might be all Pennsylvanians. . 

. . Help us if you can, and much oblige a dis- 
tressed country." 

Colonel Samuel Hunter writes ou the same 

" The savages have made their appearance ou the 
frontiers in a hostile manner. Day before yesterday 
they took seven or eight prisoners about two miles 
above Fort Jenkins, and two days before they carried 
off several people from about Wyoming. The Ger- 
man regiment that is stationed here is no ways ade- 
quate to grant us the necessary' relief The case ia 
quite altered from this time twelve months ago. We 
then had a pretty good garrison at Muncy, Brady's 
fort, Freeland's, with our own inhabitants. Jsow we 
have but forty or fifty at Montgomery's, and thirty at 
Fort Jenkins. ... I have seen the time within 
three years that we could turn out some hundred of 
good woodsmen, but the country is quite drained of 
our best men." 

April 8th the Indians made a descent on 
WHiite Deer Creek; on May IGth, attacked 
"French Jacob's" (Jacob Grosboug's) Mills, in 
Buffalo Valley, killing a number of people, and 
on July 14th committed murdei-s at the mouth 
of Buffalo Creek.' 

Colonel Kelly was still active in the defense 
of the frontier, and an old pay-roll found 

' See local chapters. 



among liis papers shows who were his follow- 
ers in the summer of 1780 : 

"A pay-roll of my company in the first battalion, 
Northumberland county militia, commencing l(5th of 
July, 1780. Enrolled July 16, 1783. Discharged 
August 15. 

" Colonel : John Kelly. 

" Captain : James Thompson. 

" Lieutenant : Joseph Poak. 

" Ensign : Alexander Ewing. 

" William Black, Thomas Black, Joseph Brindage, 
Hance Fleming, Joseph Green, James Hamersley, 
Jonathan Iddings, John Poak, Thomas Poak, James 
Smith Poak, Hugh Rodman, Peter Wilson, John Wil- 
son, John Young.'' 

Tories and Tory Schemes. — During the 
early years of the Revolution the settlers on 
the frontier in these parts of Cumberland and 
Northumberland Counties which are now Mif- 
flin, Juniata, Perry, Snyder and Union, had 
not only to suffer the general apprehension 
which filled the whole country, and the e.special 
and intense anxiety and distress which their 
savage enemies caused, but they were also in 
great fear of internal dissension — of a social 
enemy in their very midst — the Tories. 

The earliest mention of a Tory within the limits 
of the territory of which this work treats occurs 
in 1776, and applies to that region of Cumber- 
laud County which is now Perry, in the form of 
an affidavit against Edwin Erwin, charging lan- 
guage inimical to the cause of the colonists, 
viz. : 
" Cumberland County, ss. : 

" Before me, George Robinson, one of His Majesty's 
Justices for said county, personally appeared Clefton 
Bowen, who, being examined and sworn, doth depose 
and say : that some time in the month of Januaiy last, 
he, this deponent, was in the house of John Mont- 
gomery, in Tyrone township, in company with a cer- 
tain Edward Erwin, of Rye township, and this 
deponent says he then and there heard said Erwin 
drink damnation and confusion to the Continental 
Congress, and damn their proceedings, saying they 
were all a parcel of damned rebels, and against spring 
would be cut off like a parcel of snowbirds, and more 
such stuff. 

"Sworn and subscribed before George Robinson, 
19th February, 1776. " Clefton Bowen." 

In Northumberland County, in the spring of 
1777, the Committee of Safety, " in consequence 
of sundry accounts from different parts of the 

county of a dangerous plot being on foot by 
some of our enemies to bring on an Indian 
war, and in particular by an intercepted letter, 
wrote by a certain Nicholas Pickard, directed 
to a certain John Pickard, at the house of Cas- 
par Read, in Peun's township, with all speed, a 
cojjy of which was transmitted to us by Na- 
thaniel Landon, of Wyoming, and is now before 
this committee," commanded Captain Espy 
to bring before them those two men — John and 
Nicholas Pickard. The former took the oath 
of allegiance, in the following form : 

" I do swear to be true to the United States of 
America, and do renounce and disclaim all allegiance 
to the King of Great Britain, and promise that I will 
not, either directly or indirectly, speak or act any- 
thing in prejudice to the cause or safely of the 
States, or lift arms against them, or be any way as- 
sistant to their declared enemies, in any case, what- 
soever. So help me God." 

Nicholas Pickard, the writer of the letter in 
question, on being examined, Avas ulianimoiisly 
believed by the committee " to be an enemy to 
the States," and was sent under guard to the 
Supreme Executive Council, " to be dealt with 
as their superior judgments shall direct them in 
this case." 

By far the greatest scare over the Tories was 
in the Juniata region of our territory, and will 
presently be related. The following, upon the 
laws relating to treason in the Revolutionary 
period, and the incidents just alluded to, is by 
a student of the subject ; ' 

"The act of February 11, 1777, defined treason and 
misprision of treason, and provided for the conviction 
and punishment of these crimes. Under this Act 
Thomas Kerr, of Lack township, Tuscarora valley, 
was found guilty at a trial in the court at Carlisle in 
October, 1778. He seems at the time to have been 
one of the leading farmers in that region. 

"The Council of Safety, which was a kind of spon- 
taneous revolutionary body combining the functions 
of governor, legislature and court, as early as Octo- 
ber 21. 1777, selected the three gentlemen hereafter 
named, for Cumberland County, to seize the property 
of traitors and make reports to the Council.' 

"The Act 'of March 6, 1778, provided the most 
stringent measures against the Tories; and the Su- 
preme Executive Council was given great power in 
confiscating the estates of those who adhered to Great 
Britain, and for the appointment of Agents through- 

' Prof. A. L. Guss. 

2 Col. Rec. xi. 330. 



out the State to report guilty and suspected persons. 
Under this Act George Stephenson, John Boggs and 
Joseph Brady became 'Agents for Forfeited Estates,' 
May 6. 1778, and Alexander McGechan, a year later, 
for Cumberhmd County. In a proclamation by the 
Supreme E.xecutive Council, dated October 30, 1778, 
it is stated that John Campbell, William Campbell, 
James Little, Edward Gibbons and James De Long, 
yeomen, all now or late of Amberson Valley ; and 
Andrew Smith and Robert Nixon, yeomen, both now 
or late of the township of Lack; and Joseph King, 
yeoman, and William ^Vright, dyer, both now or late 
of the township of Path Valley; and Dominick Mc- 
Neal and John Stiliwell, yeomen, both now or late of 
the township of Tuscarora; all now or late of the 
county of Cumberland; and Richard Weston, yeo- 
man, now or late of the township of Frankstown; and 
Jacob Hare, Michael Hare and Samuel Barrow, yeo- 
men, all now or late of the township of Barree ; all 
now or late of the county of Bedford ; beside many 
others, have severally adhered to and knowingly and 
willingly aided and assisted the enemies of this State 
and of the United States of America by having joined 
their armies within this State. It was provided that 
unless they surrendered themselves for trial, they 
should, after the 15th day of December next, stand 
and be attainted of High Treason, to all intents and 
purposes, and shall suffer such paius and penalties, 
and undergo all such forfeitures as persons attainted 
of High Treason ought to do.' 

"In a letter from George Stephenson,^ dated at 
Carlisle, December 10, 1779, he says: 'I do not find 
mentioned the names of Six Men, who left this 
County some time after the British Army got Posses- 
sion of the City of Philadelphia, and joined them 
there; soon after my Appointment as an Agent, I 
wrote to his Excellency, Thomas AVharton, Esq'r., all 
I knew concerning those Men; as this was about two 
Years ago, and before the Act of Assembly for the 
Attainder of Traitors was made, 'tis jirobable my 
Letter might have been mislaid or forgot, or I may 
not have seen their Proscription; their names are 
Alexander McDonald, Kennet McKinzie and Edward 
Erwin, all of Rye township. Farmers ; also William 
Simpson, William McPherson, blacksmiths, and Hugh 
Gwin, labourer. Single Men, all of Tyrone Township. 
Thomas McCahan, of Tuscarora Valley, went off, af- 
terwards, to New York, as I am informed ; he was an 
unmarried Man, rented out his Farm, and I think he 
ought to be proscribed.' 

"It has been said that the Scotch-Irish 'was, per- 
haps, the only race of all that settled in the Western 
world that never produced one Tory." No doubt. 

' Col. Rec. vol. xi 610. 
■■^ Pa. Arch., N. S. vol. iii. 337. 

3 .1. Smith Futhey, West Chester, in Pa. Mag., vol. i. 
p. 286. 

they were generally very patriotic; but, like other 
people, there were exceptions among them also. 

" In the spring of 1778, there was formed one of 
the most depraved and dastardly conspiracies that 
ever disgraced this region of the country. The plan 
was to gather a large force of Tories and Indians at 
Kittanning, then cross the mountain, and at Burgoon's 
Gap divide, one party to march through the Cove and 
the Cumberland Valley, the other to follow the 
Juniata Valley, and form a junction at Lancaster, 
killing all the inhabitants on their march. The 
Tories were to have for their share in this wholesale 
massacre all the fine farms on the routes and the 
movable property was to be divided among the 
Indians. The leaders of this conspiracy were Cap- 
tain John Weston, living above Water Street, the 
headquarters and starting-point of the expedition 
being at his house; Jacob Hare, living at Mapleton ; 
a man named McKee from Amberson Valley. The 
company numbered thirty-one members. "When 
near the Indian town they halted, and Weston and 
Hare proceeded with a flag to inform the savages of 
their arrival. The Indians were pleased, but exer- 
cising that caution for which they are ever noted, 
proceeded to meet the rest of the company and escort 
them to the town, having mounted a few of th^ir 
warriors on horse-back with cocked guns, and placing 
Weston and Hare in the advance. McKee and his 
men, instead of meeting them without arms in their 
hands, as military courtesy among the Indians re- 
quired, rose with guns in their hands and made a 
salutation with a forward quickstep. The Indians, 
supposing by this movement that they had been 
betrayed by spies, shot and scalped Weston and fled 
to the town. Hare and his comrades fled in great 
alarm and in destitution made haste to reach the 
Juniata region, which had thus been providentially 
saved from the savage and brutal allies. This con- 
spiracy extended from Path, through Amberson and 
Tuscarora Valleys, and up the Juniata Valley into 
Sinking Valley. The houses of favored families in 
this region were to be saved by the display of a Tory 
flag. Some of the good ladies helped to keep the 
secret by advising their neighbors to display the token 
of safety. Thus the secret was disclosed and the 
settlers everywhere gathered to watch the mountain 
gaps for the expected invaders. They came not as 
defiant leaders escorting bloodthirsty savages, but as 
scattered, half-starved and broken-hearted. Some 
escaped to the eastern counties, some were captured 
and taken to Bedford, and some to Carlisle and 
placed in jail. Lieutenant Hare, in his flight to the 
lower counties, stopped for the night three miles from 
Concord, in Path Valley. The news soon spread, 
and the neighbors gathered, when, after various 
methods of punishment were proposed, William 
Darlington, taking a case-knife with a hacked blade, 
executed the sentence by sawing oflTboth of his ears 
close to his head. It is probable that all in the first 



list above given were in this Kittanning expedition, 
as among tlie few names composing this party which 
have come down to us are Samuel Barrow, John and 
William Campbell and James Little. There was 
also in the party one James or John Armstrong, of 
Tuscarora Valley. It was stated by Richard, a 
brother of John Weston, that when Weston was 
shot, McKee (or McGee) pulled a letter out of his 
pocket which he had got from an English officer in 
the jail at Carlisle, and with this letter waved a 
handkerchief, crying ' peace, peace, brothers,' but 
the savages ran away without giving it any attention. 
There was at this period and for sometime afterwards 
a vague dread in the public mind that a Tory force 
would make its appearance at some unguarded point 
and in an unexpected moment; but they soon learned, 
much to their relief, that these fears were ground- 
less." ' 

Last Years op the War. — Eeverting to 
the condition of the frontier, we find that there 
Avere a number of murders committed and 
several people taken captive during the last 
half of 1780, in spite of the punishment in- 
flicted upon the Indians by Sullivan's and sev- 
eral smaller e.xpeditions. In September, Gen- 
eral Potter marched a body of one hundred 
and seventy men up to Fort Schwartz ;uk1 then 
went up to Colonel Kelly, who lay at the mouth 
of White Deer Creek. 

Early in 1781, Captain James Thompson 
was taken prisoner while going from the site 
of Lewisburgh to Colonel Kelly's, but subse- 
quently made his escape. Captain Thomas 

1 Of this aifiiir the following cotemporary account was 
given in a letter from Colonel John Piper to the Supreme 
Executive Council, dated May 4, 1778 : 

"An affiiir of the most alarming nature Iihs just hap- 
pened in this vicinity, which I could not think myself 
justifiable in not communicating to the Honourable the 
Supreme Executive Council of the State. A number of 
evil-minded Persons, thirty-five in number, I think, hav- 
ing actually associated together and Marched to the Indian 
Country in order to Join the Indians and conduct them 
into the Inhahitancy, and thus united, to kill, burn and 
Destroy men, women and children. They came upon a 
Body of Indians, and conferring with them, they, the In- 
dians, suspecting some Design of the white People, on 
which one of the Indians shot one Weston, who was a 
ringleader of the Tories, and scalped him before the rest, 
and immediately the rest fled and dispersed. A very con- 
siilerable number of the well-affected InhaWtants having, 
as soon as their combination and March was known, pur- 
sued them and met five of them, and brought them under 
a strong Guard to the County Gaol. They confessed their 
Crime and intention of destroying both men and Property." 

Campleton (sometimes spelled Kemplin and 
Kempling) and his son were killed in March, 
and about the same time several persons were 
taken prisoners and marched away into the 
great northern A\ilderness. General Potter, in 
a letter of April 12th, says, — 

" I have just maid a visite to difrent parts of the 
frunteers, who I find in great disstress, numbers of 
them flying for their lives. At this early season of 
the year the enemy has maid five different strookes on 
our frunteers since the 22nd of March." 

He adds that Captain Robinson (Thomas) 
has got forty men enlisted, "but many of them 
are so naked for want of all kinds of clothing 
that they cannot do duty. They have not a 
blanket among them all." Following is the 
roster of the ranging company referred to :'' 

Captain: Thomas Robinson, February 10, 1781. 
Lieutenant: Moses Van Cam pen, February 10,1781. 
Sergeants : William Doyle, Ebenezer Green (dead), 
Edward Lee, Jonathan Bey. 


John Adams. 
Jas. Bennett (Banett). 
Conrad Bessel. 
Claudius Boatman. 
Jonathan Burnmell. 
James Busier. 
Henry Carton (dead). 
Conrad Cutherman. 
James Dougherty. 
Ephraim Dunbar. 
John Fox. 
Ebenezer Green. 
Leonard Groninger. 
Charles Haines. 

Adam Hempleman. 
James Henderson. 
Joshua Knapp. 
Michael Lamb. 
William McGrady. 
William Miller. 
Adam Neible. 
Jonathan Pray. 
John Shilling. 
William Snell. 
Richard Stewart. 
Francis Varhelet. 
John Wallace (dead). 
Thomas Wilkinson. 

This company had a sharp engagement with 
the Indians at Bald Eagle Creek. 

During the year the detachments of Peter 
Grove and Samuel McGrady were also on duty. 
They were composed as follows : 

Lieutenant: Peter Grove. 

Sergeants: William Clark, Matthew AVilson. 

Privates: John Trester, Nicholas Lamberson, John 
Rough, Uriah Barber, Jacob Trester, John Shock, 
Paul Fisher, George Bower, Matthew Bradley, 
Daniel Bower, Jacob Houser, William Harriott, 
Michael Grove. 

Lieutenant: Samuel McGrady. 

Sergeants: Samuel Montgomery, Daniel Armstrong. 

' Penn. Archives, Second Series, vol. xi. p. 744-745. 



Privates: Robert Love, Ephraim Daraugh, Flem- 
ing, Samuel Fulton, William Marshall, Joseph 
Ly kens, John Misener, George Clark, Daniel Rees, 
William Speddy, Pollock. 

The First Battalion of Nortlinmberland County 
militia, commauded by Colonel John Kelly, had 
at this time a strength, rank and file, of over 
four hundred, di.stributed in the following com- 
panies : 

Captain John Foster, numbering, officers and pri- 
vates, fifty-five men. 

Captain James Thompson, numbering, officers and 
privates, forty-four men. 

Captain George Overmeier, numbering, officers and 
privates, fifty-one men. 

Captain Samuel Fisher, numbering, officers and pri- 
vates, fifty-five men. 

Captain Samuel Young, numbering, officers and pri- 
vates, fifty-one men. 

Captain Abraham Piatt, numbering, officers and pri- 
vates, fifty-three men. 

Captain William Irvine, numbering, officers and pri- 
vates, fifty-three men. 

Captain William Gray, numbering, officers and pri- 
vates, forty-four men. 

The capture of the Emerick family, and 
atrocious murder of its head, David Emerick, 
was one of the most startling events of the year. 
Various outrages followed, and they were kept 
up until winter set in, when, as usual, the In- 
dians retired to their permanent towns, deep in 
the wilderness. They began their incursions 
again early in the .spring of 1782. A number 
of Captain Overmeier's men, who were out upon 
a scout, were met by a party of Indians, Alay 
6th, in what is now Limestone township, and 
two of them were killed. 

Major John Lee and other members of his 
family, John Walker, a Mrs. Boatman and 
daughters, were killed a few miles above Suubury, 
in August, and several more were taken captive. 
The Indian band which made this descent, about 
sixty or seventy in number, were pursued by Col- 
o^nel Hunterandaforce of men, but escaped their 
vengeance. Some minor atrocities occurred at in- 
tervals later in 1782, and during 1783,' but by the 
closeof thelatteryear the people generally had re- 
turned to the West Branch and all the northern 

' For these and various other outrages by tlie Indians, 
see the township histories, especially in Union and Snyder 

and western region of old Northumberland, 
\vhich had so hjng been at the mercy of a steal- 
thy, savage enemy — the almost constant scene of 
pillage and burning and blood. 

Upon the 19th of October, 1781, Cornwallis' 
forces — seven thousand two hundred and forty- 
seven British and Hessian soldiers — surrendered 
at Yorktown, and by a swift courier the news 
was borne to Congress at Philadelphia, the mes- 
senger arriving there on the evening of tlie 
23d ; and the sentinels, when they called the 
hour of the night — "ten o' the cltxik and all is 
well " — added, " and CornwaMis in taken." This 
news, which spread rapidly through Pennsyl- 
vania and the other colonies, brought the long- 
suftering inhabitants to a realization that they 
were at last, even if an impoverished, an inde- 
pendent people. Though the armies remained 
for some time iu the field, the war had really 
ended. Preliminary articles of peace were 
agreed to between Great Britain and the Con- 
federation of Colonies Novemlier .30, 1782, and 
the definitive treaty was concluded at Paris 
upon the 3d of September, 1783. 

Thus closed the Revolution, but upon the 
frontier its auimositias and asperities died sul- 
lenly and slowly away, like the last, lingering 
reverberations of thunder in the passing of a 
mighty storm. Peace came at last— like the 
warm sunshine after long and dreary winter — 
and with it began a new life through all of the 
great interior of Pennsylvania. 

Gexeijal Xote. — Following are brief notes 
upon Revolutionary soldiers, who, either before 
or after the struggle, lived within the five 
counties which are the province of this work, 
and who are either omitted from, or inade- 
quately mentioned in, the text of the foregoing 
chapter : 

Michael resided in Mifflin County in 1835, 
aged eighty-four; was in the "German Regiment," 
Continental Line. 

Adam Specbt was in the German Regiment from 
1776 to 1779. He was discharged at Northumber- 
land. He died at New Berlin, Union County, 
October 4, 1824. 

William Martin was in the Second Troop of the 
First Partisan Legion, January 26. 17S1, to Novem- 
ber 15, 1783, and prior to that in the Third Peiinsyl- 



vania. He resided iu Milford township, Mifflin 
County, in 1813. 

Benjamin Lyon, captain in First Pennsylvania — 
Colonel Edward Hands — promoted from lieutenant 
December 8, 1778; resigned May 1779, on account of 
ill health. In 1835 he was living in Mifflin County, 
aged eighty-two. 

Samuel Wharton, who was a private in the Second 
Pennsylvania of the Continental Line, 1777-81, 
died in Mifflin County, August 18, 1823, aged eighty- 
one years. 

Robert Vernon, who was also in the Second Penn- 
sylvania Regiment, Continental Line ; resided in 
Mifflin County in 1809. He was wounded iu the right 
arm at the battle of Monmouth. 

George Martin was drafted into Morgan's Rifle 
command. He was wounded at Saratoga, October, 
1777, and was subsequently in the Twelfth Pennsyl- 
vania. Continental Line. In 1786 he was living in 
the Buffalo Valley, Union County. He died March 
10, 1816. 

Joseph Cunningham, who was living in Lack 
Township, Mifflin County,in 1817, went into the Third 
Pennsylvania as a private, and was promoted to ser- 
geant June 1, 1777, and discharged January 17, 

John McMullen, who lived in Mifflin County after 
the war, and died there January 3, 1832, aged eighty- 
one, was in the Second Battalion, and after January 1, 
1777, in the Third Regiment. He was in the battles 
of Germantown and Monmouth, and the storming of 
Stony Point; was captured with thirty-three others 
at Newark, and was a prisoner nine months and ten 
days. He rejoined the company of Thomas Butler, 
and then marched south with the company of Captain 
Henderson. He was present at the surrender of 

William McMullen, who was also in the Third 
Regiment, was living in Mifflin County in 1835, aged 

Daniel Sallada, another soldier of the Third Regi- 
ment, was living in Mifflin County in 1835, aged 

Daniel Davis, who,in 1818, was livinginLewistown, 
Mifflin County, was in the Fifth Regiment; wounded 
at Brandywine, taken prisoner, exchanged and dis- 

Henry Hoover, living in Mifflin County in 1812, 
was in Captain Christie's company of the Fifth Regi- 
ment. He was wounded at Germantown, and dis- 
charged January 20, 1781. 

John Kernor was out with Captain Nagel's com- 
pany, Thompson's Rifles, and re-enlisted in Captain 
Moser's company. Sixth Pennsylvania. He was 
wounded in 1777, and discharged in 1781. He died 
in LTnion County, June 22, 1829, aged eighty-nine. 

James Boveard, of Kilgore's company. Eighth 
Regiment, 1776-79, died in 1808 in EastBuflfalo town- 
ship, Union County. 

COUNTY IN 1820.' 

Jonathan Brown had served three years as a private 
in Captain Elijah Humphrey's company. Colonel 
William Douglas' regiment, and was sixty-two years 

Joseph Britton enlisted at John Stetler's tavern, in 
Limerick township, Montgomery County, in the 
spring of 1776, in Captain Caleb North's company, of 
Colonel Anthony Wayne's regiment. Britton was, 
in 1820, seventy-one years old, a farmer, and had a 
wife and two daughters. 

Dewalt Billman, aged sixty-seven, enlisted at Read- 
ing in Captain Jacob Bowers' company. 

Daniel Burd, seventy-five years old, enlisted at Am- 
boy, Cidonel James Treddle's regiment; served five 
years, nine months, except three months when he was 
at home sick. He was wounded in the left thigh at 
Battle Hill, with two musket-balls. 

George Bower, of White Deer. Pressed in the fall of 
1777 as teamster; had charge of an ammunition 
wagon at Valley Forge. Drafted in June, 1778; 
arrived on the field of Monmouth as the battle was 
closing. He received a sword-cut on the knee from 
a British soldier who lay in ambush by the road. 

McDonald Campbell served in Captain John Con- 
way's company. Colonel William AVind's New Jersey 
regiment thirteen months. Re-enlisted in Colonel 
John Conway's regiment and served nine months, 
and then was detailed by General Green as his ex- 
press rider, and remained such during the war. Was 
a filer in Captains Conway's and Furman's companies. 
He married a widow Valentine, who had two children, 
— Jesse, aged thirteen ; Jane, aged ten. His children 
by her were Isaac Wilson Campbell, Sally Walls, Al- 
meda, Eleanor and Elizabeth. 

Anthony Carney, blacksmith. Hartley, enlisted in 
Orange County, North Carolina ; served three years. 
He was sixty-seven iu 1820, and had no family except 
his wife, Catherine. 

Peter Clemmens, private in Captain Stake's com- 
pany, Colonel Butler's regiment, and served two 
years. He left a daughter, Elizabeth. His wile, 
Elizabeth, died in 1820. 

John Campbell (still living in West Buffalo, 1838, 
and then eighty-three years old) was drafted into the 
militia from Derry township, Lancaster County, in 
1776; served under Captain Robert McKee; arrived at 
Trenton the day after the capture of the Hessian?, 
and went thence to Morristown. In the latter part 
of 1777 he was again drafted, and went to Trenton. 
His third tour was at the close of the war, in a com- 
pany commanded by Lieutenant James Laird. They 
lay at Chestnut Hill awhile. Campbell moved to 
Buffalo Valley iu 1777; lived on Captain Gray's farm 
one year ; then moved to another farm of the captain's 
near James Dale's. He lived there seven years ; then 

1 From Linn's " Annals of the Buffalo Valley." 



moved near Buffalo Mouutain, then into West Buffalo, 
where he died. 

John Cook, private iu Captain Herbert's company, 
from Womelsdorf, who was taken prisoner at the sur- 
render of Fort Washington, exchanged and appointed 
ensign in the Twelfth, Colonel Cooke's. He was un- 
married and childless iu 1820, seventy-eight years 

George Coryell wa.s a native of Hunterdon County, 
New Jersey; was born at Coryell's Ferry, on the Del- 
aware River (now Lambertville), on the 28lh of April, 
1761. He entered the army in Captain Craig's com- 
pany of dragoons in 1776, just alter the taking of the 
Hessians, and before the cannonade at Trenton, on 
the 2d of January, 1777. His company marched up 
the creek and was at the battle at Princeton. He 
was a year with Captain Craig. He was afterwards 
drafted into a company of dragoons under Lieutenant 
Reading, in which he served one year. He was after- 
wards drafted into the company of Captain Palmer, in 
which he continued until the fall of 1780. He was 
only sixteen years of age when he enlisted. George 
Coryell w-as married in 1790 to a sister of Richard 
Van Buskirk, of Mifflinburg, and moved in 1793 to 
the premises of Samuel Maclay, in Buffalo township. 
He was a carpenter by trade, and built many houses 
in Buffalo Valley. Coryell was adjutant of Colonel 
George Weirick's regiment, at Marcus Hook, in 1814. 
He removed to Lycoming County once ; then back to 
Buffalo Valley ; then to White Deer Valley ; thence 
to Butler County (Ohio), near Hamilton, where he 
died, 1837-38. His wife soon followed him to the 
grave. He had four sons — Tunison, John, Joseph R. 
and Abraham — of whom Tunison, the eldest, and 
Abraham, the youngest, alone, survive. 

Christian Derr, West Buffalo, aged, in 1820, seventy- 
two. Enlisted at Reading, in Captain Nagle's com- 
pany. Colonel Thompson's regiment, and served one 
year; re-enlisted in November, 1776, in Captain 
Moore's company, Colonel Humpton's regiment, and 
served in the battle of King's Bridge, 11th January, 
1777, Brandywine and Germantown. In the last ac- 
tion he was wounded, had several ribs broken, and 
was, therefore, discharged. He had eleven children. 
He had three balls in his body, which he carried to 
his grave. His children were Ellis Derr, Mifflinburg; 
Samuel, Uniontown ; Henry, Schellsburg, Bedford 
County; Susan, married to Jesse Egbert, afterwards 

David Kline, of Hartley; Polly, to Jones, of 

Sugar Valley ; Elizabeth, to William Kepner, moved 
to Venango; John, Oley township, Berks; Catherine, 
to Henry Barrich ; Christian, Jr., who died in 
Spring township. Centre County, in 1852. His chil- 
dren live in and about Bellefonte: Daniel; Rachel, 
married to William Young; William, iu Benezet; 
Christian and Solomon, in Bellefonte. 

Christian Ewig, aged sixty, enlisted at Sunbury, in 
Captain Weitzel's company, Colonel Miles' regiment, 
in April, 1776; served one year, nine months; theu re- 

enlisted at Sunbury in Captain James Wilson's 
Pennsylvania, Colonel James Chambers, in v hich he 
served until the close of the war. A wheelwright by 

George Kerstetter, blacksmith, Washington town- 
ship, aged sixty-four. Served four years in Captain 
Burkhart's company. Colonel Hunsecker's regiment, 
Children: Jacob and Dorothy. Wife's name was 

John Linn, aged sixty-five, enlisted in the winter 
of 1778, at Lanciister, in Third Troop, Captain Eras- 
mus Gill, Fourth Regiment, Pennsylvania Cavalry, 
Colonel Stephen Moylan. Discharged in October, 
1783. Had five children, — Roliert Bruce, born May 
21, 1806; Altha, January 15, 1808; James Smith, 
October 20, 1811; Eliza, June 4, 1814; Mary Jane, 
November 23, 1816. Weaver by trade. 

George Lennox, private. Captain Bankson's com- 
pany, Colonel Stewart's regiment. ■ 

Elias Reger, enlisted in May. 1775, Captain George 
Nagle's company, Colonel Thompson, First Rifle Reg- 
iment. In the siege of Boston. Discharged at Long 
Island, June, 1776. Cooper by trade. Seventy-seven 
years old. 

Philip Rorabaugh, Buffalo township, served three 
months in Pennsylvania Line, Captain Slaymaker's 
company, Colonel Bull's regiment, while the army lay 
at Valley Forge. Served also in the campaign of 
1794, known as the AVhisky Insurrection, and three 
months in Captain John Bergstresser's company, at 
Marcus Hook, in 1814. This hero of three wars died 
February 3, 1837, aged eighty-six, and is buried in 
Lewisburgh German grave-yard. 

Daniel Swesey died in White Deer, 31st January 
1836, leaving a widow, Mary. 

Timothy Strickland, carpenter, Lewisburgh, en- 
listed in 1776, in Berkshire County, Massachusetts, 
Captain Bacon's company Colonel Porter's regiment, 
and served therein one year. Re-enlisted in Septem- 
ber, 1777, in Captain Mill's company, New York State 
Line, and was honorably discharged after three years' 
service. Aged, in May, 1824, seventy-three, but very 
much crippled. He had four sons (Samuel was a 
soldier of 1814). His grandchildren reside still iu 
Lewisburgh ; Cyrus, a grandson, in Bellefonte. 

Adam Smith was a teamster during the Revolution. 
He settled ui)on the place now owned by Jacob Kun- 
kle, above Henry Mertz's. He died there and was 
buried at the Dreisbach grave-yard. His sons were 
Adam, George, Michael and J' hn, and a daugiiter, 
married to Michael Maize, another to Steffy Touch- 

Michael Yiesely, aged sixty-seven, enlisted in Au- 
gust, 1776, in Captain B. Weiser's company, in Col- 
onel Haussegger's regiment. Served during the war, 
and was discharged in 1783. He had a wife and five 
children — Henry, Catherine, George, Elizabeth and 



The following is a list of the soldiers of the 
Revolutiou iu Juniata County in 1840 (pen- 
sioners) : 

Jacob Wise, aged eighty-three, Mifflintown. 
George Uhiaiii, aged eighty-three. Walker. 
Mary Cox, aged ninety-three, Greenwood. 
Lawrence Koon, aged eighty-two. Greenwood. 
Frederick Keller, aged eighty-three. Greenwood. 
Thomas Burchfield, aged eighty-five, Fayette. 
John Bell, aged eighty-eight, Fayette. 
Emanuel Ebbs, aged one hundred and six, Fayette. 
James Leviney, aged one hundred and four, Fay- 

John Middaugh, aged eighty-one, Turbett. 
William Patton, aged eighty-two, Turbett. 
Sarah Nicholson, aged eighty-seven, Tuscarora. 
David Hackendorn, aged seventy-seven, Tuscarora. 
John l^emon aged seventy-two, Lack. 


Englehart Wormley, of Tyrone township, died on 
the 28th of August, 1827. He participated in the 
disastrous battle of Long Island, and the subsequent 
engagements which followed. He was never injured 
during his term of service. 

Andrew Burd, of Greenwood township, entered the 
army as a fifer-boy when but fourteen years old, and 
served the faithful seven, being discharged when he 
had just attained his majority. 

Benjamin Bonsall, Sr., of Greenwood township, 
died in 1845, aged eighty-nine years. He served in 
the militia during the " freezing and starving" win- 
ter at Valley Forge. 

Thomas Brown, of Tyrone township, was a Rev- 
olutionary soldier, and so thoroughly imbued with 
love of his country that he made provision in his 
will for the reading of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence over his open grave, after which a minister was 
to pray for him and his beloved country. 

Edward Donnelly, of Buckwheat Valley, Tuscarora 
towship, served in the militia. 

Alexander Gaily, of Penn township, died in Cove 
Valley on the 13th of November, 1842, aged one hun- 
dred and two years. He served in the Revolutionary 

Andrew Lynch, of Tuscarora township, served in 
the Revolutionary army, but of what date or length 
of term, whether volunteer or militia, we could not 

Benjamin Essick, of Liverpool township, died at 
the advanced age of ninety -three. He served in the 

David Focbt was a Revolutionary soldier, and one 
of the first settlers iu western Perry County. He lived 
in Jackson township. 

William Heim, the father of Rev. John William 
Heira. removed from Mahanoy township, Northum- 
berland County, to Jackson township. Perry County, 

in 1815, where he died on the 2d of March, 1856. He 
was the last surviving hero of the Revolution living 
in the county. He died aged ninety-five, and his 
funeral was attended by one hundred and fifty riders on 
horseback. Mr. Heim is said to have been able to re- 
late many incidents of the contests in which he was 
engaged, but they were never written, and have now 
passed into that history which no living recollection 
can recall. He asked the national government to 
reward his services, but being unable to furnish other 
evidence than the existence of his name on the roll of 
his company, he never received the pension to which 
he was justly entitled. The State recognized his ser- 
vices by a small yearly annuity. 

There were from Watts township (then Greenwood), 
in the Revolutionary army, John Buchanan, whose 
descendants are now living in the townships of Green- 
wood and Liverpool ; Robert Moody, Mr. Montz, Mr. 
Philips, William Rodgers and William Philips. 
These men were all distinguished for their patriotism, 
but of their achievements in the sanguinary struggle 
which gave us a nation, no detailed account can be 

William Patterson served in the patriot army one 
year. He lived in that part of Duncannon known as 
Petersburg. It was then scarcely a village of Rye 
township. Mr. Patterson remembered the Tories 
mustering on Young's Hill. 

Peter Kipp served seven years as a soldier in the 
American army. He returned home after Cornwallis 
surrendered at Yorktown, and lived for many years 
afterward iu Buffalo township. 

George Albright, one of the first settlers of Buck's 
Valley, shouldered his musket at the breaking out of 
the war, and went forth to serve his country as a sol- 
dier, while his wife, with a servant-girl and several 
small boys, did the farming. 



War was not formally declared against Great 
Britain by President Madison until June 18, 
1812, but in Pennsylvania, as in nearly all of the 
Eastern States, his action was anticipated by the 
various executives, and in this commonwealth 
strong measures were resorted to for placing the 
militia in a serviceable condition as soon as the 
first issuance of fetleral authority warranted it. 
The President having, in conformity to an act of 
Congress, required a draft of fourteen thousand 
men as the quota of Pennsylvania, energetic 

THE WAR OF 1812. 


and patriotic Governor Snyder issusd his first 
general order, which was also a most spirited 
appeal, for the furtiierance of that end, on May 
12, 1812. 

In Northnmberland County, which then in- 
cluded the territory now in Union and Snyder, 
drafting from tiie militia was proposed as early 
as June 4th, and a meeting was held for that 
purpose. Jared Irwin's eomj)any was formed 
prior to August 20th, and by September 7th 
over three hundred enlisted men left INIilton to 
join General Dearborn's volunteers and drafted 
men. They had orders to march to Meadville, 
and there was great consternation in the valley 
about their going away, the people having fears 
that their own region might in time be the scene 
of hostilities — an apprehension which, fortun- 
ately, was never realized. It is noted in Roan's 
journal that more volunteers were upon the 
march upon September 10th, and that upon the 
20th three hundred of them passed through 

In Miftlin County, which is the only one of 
the five counties treated in this volume which 
was in existence at the beginning of the war, 
the people were as early and as patriotically 
astir as in old Northumberland, or any other 
portion of the commonwealth. MiiHin, with 
Huntingdon and Centre Counties, formed the 
Eleventh Militia District, the quota of which 
under the first call for fourteen thousand men, 
was six hundred and eighty-six. Within this 
district at least one company of militia — belong- 
ing principally to Huntingdon County — had 
voted to tender their services to the President as 
early as May 4, 1812, and subsequently marched 
to Buftalo. In the mean time other companies, 
belonging more exclusively to that part of the 
division which was ■within our territory, — Mif- 
flin County, — had perfected their organizations 
and were ready for the field. 

In the Juniata Gazette (published at Lewis- 
town) of September 11, 1812, we find the fol- 
lowing call : 

"The members of Captain Millikin's Troop of Horse 
are requested to meet at the house of Alexander 
Reed on Saturday, the 19th inst. All those persons 
desirous of serving their country are earnestly in- 
vited to come forward and join the troop." 

This company went to Meadville, and thence 
to Buffalo, with the other companies first organ- 
ized in what are now Mifflin, Juniata, Perry, 
Union and Snyder Counties. It is to be regret- 
ted that no roster of its men has been pre- 

That portion of jNIifflin which is now Juniata 
County had also been quick to respond to Gov- 
ernor Snyder's call, as appears from an item in 
the same issue of the Juniata Gazette from 
which we have already quoted. The item is 
dated Miffliutown, September 8, 1812, and 
reads, — 

"This place witnessed this day a spectacle at once 
novel, pleasing and honorable to our country. The 
rifle company commanded by Captain John McGar- 
ry/ composed of upwards of fifty youths of vigour 
and activity, well armed and handsomely equipped, 
and of respectable parentage. After attending divine 
service, performed in the most solemn and impressive 
manner by the Rev. J. Hutchinson and Rev. T. Smith, 
marched on their way to Meadville, amidst the reit- 
erated acclamations, of several hundreds of fellow- 
citizens and relatives of every age and sex from all 
parts of the county below the Narrows. They were 
escorted by Captain Christy's troop of light dragoons, 
who were succeeded by a train of citizens more than 
a mile long, in double tiles, horse and foot. It ivas 
truly a proud day for Mifflin County, and the most 
sanguine expectations are entertained of the valour 
and patriotism of our young men. 

"A second rifle company is now forming here and, 
from the ardour of the volunteers, it is supposed will 
be ready to take the field in a month. The subscrip- 
tion is expected to be filled this week. Go thou and 
do likewise." 

In the same issue of the Gazette is found the 
following : 

" Lewistown, September 9th. — Yesterday the 
Thompsontown Patriotic Blues were met in the Long 
Narrows by a number of the citizens of this place 
and conducted to this town, amidst the firing of can- 
non and the reiterated applause of the citizens. 
Every house was open to them. Each heart seemed 
to vie with the other in entertaining those youthful 
soldiers. The next morning they continued their 
march, accompanied by Captain Milliken's Troop of 
Horse, the officers of the militia in uniform, and a 
number of patriotic citizens. At the end of the town 
lane they halted, and Brigadier-General Doty de- 
livered a patriotic and animating address. On arriv- 
ing at Mrs. Cottle's and Mr. Thompson's, an elegant 

' McGarry's compnny was in the First Brigade of the 
Eleventh Division (ol the Slate). He had fifty-nine men. 



dinner was prepared for them by the citizens, and 
after dining and bidding a grateful farewell, they pro- 
ceeded across the mountains. We understand they 
are to be joined at Potter's Mill by a company from 
Aaronsburg, and will then proceed directly to Mead- 

Reverting to Northumberland County, we 
find that Captain John Donaldson s company of 
militia, of Colonel Snyder's regiment, and Cap- 
tain Ner Middleswarth's, of the Eighth Rifle- 
men, Colonel James Irwin, were among the 
troops that marched to Buffalo to take part in 
the Niagara campaign (though not so early or- 
ganized as those heretofore mentioned), and 
were on duty from September 25th to November 
24, 1812. These are the only ones of the mili- 
tia organizations marching from this region in 
the first year of the Avar of which rosters have 
beau preserved. Donaldson's company con- 
tained many men from the territory now in 
Union and Snyder Counties. Following is 
the roll : 

Captain : John Donaldson. 

Lieutenants: Aaron Chaniberlin, John Hall. 

Sergeants : John McFadden, Abel Johnston, .Jacob 

Eilert, Henry Cimibrt. 
Corporals : Jacob Alsbach, Samuel Jones. 
Fifer : Michael Dennis. 
Drummer : Robert Parks. 


Christopher Auple. 
James Barbin. 
Francis Barklow. 
Robert Black. 
Joseph Bower. 
Uriah Chaniberlin. 
Uriah Clements. 
William Cornelius. 
Jonathan Cozier. 
Jacob Culbertson. 
Thomas Curtis. 
Samuel Frederick. 
Peter Frederick. 
Jacob Frederick. 
Jacob Frock. 
John Forster. 
William Forster. 
William Forster, Jr. 
John Gibson. 
John Gile. 
John Glover. 

Robert H. Gray. 
Benjamin Harman. 
James HofT. 
Francis Hollinshead. 
George Jodon. 
William Johnston. 
Benjamin Jones. 
John Kelly. 
Philip Kimple. 
Daniel Kline. 
Jacob Klingaman. 
John Klingamnn. 
George Kliuganiau. 
Peter Klingaman. 
David Linn. 
Samuel Lytle. 
William Lytle. 
John McGinnes. 
John McKinley. 
James McKinley. 
John McGee. 

' No roster of these companies appears in the Pennsylvania 
Archives, nor is elsewhere obtainable. I 

Peter Martin. 
Daniel Meekert. 
Jonathan Mies. 
Thomas Miller. 
Henry Miller. 
Daniel Nelson. 
William Norman. 
John Parks. 
John Pearson. 
John Rearick. 
Henry Reeder. 
Henry Reininger. 
Michael Renner. 
Henry Renner. 
Christopher Seebold. 
Samuel Shaw. 

John SI ear. 
Peter Snook. 
Frederick Stine. 
Peter Struble. 
Henry Struble. 
Jacob Stuttlebach. 
Samuel Thompson. 
John Turner. 
William Vanhorn. 
John Walker. 
George Wartz. 
Benjamin Weaver. 
Henry Weikel. 
John Wise. 
John Wright. 
David Zimmerman. 

Following is the roster of Captain Ner Mid- 
dleswarth's company (September 25th to Novem- 
ber 24, 1812), heretofore referred to : 

Captain : Ner Middleswarth. 

Lieutenants : Thomas Youngman and John Kline. 

Sergeants : George Wise, George Zigler, Daniel De- 

vore and Daniel Schwartz. 
Corporals: Adam Neihood, Henry Bremenger, Adam 

Heater and John McNade. 
Bugler : George Huick. 


George Baker. 
John Bong. 
Peter Bristol. 
Henry Brunner. 
John Clements. 
Andrew Devore. 
George Devore. 
Daniel Doebler. 
Benjamin Etzler. 
Simon Fete. 
Henry Frock. 
Jacob Frock. 
Benjamin Frock. 
David Harbster. 
David Hassinger. 
Jacob Hassinger. 
John Heter. 

Andrew Hammer. 
George Hummel. 
John Kaler. 
Samuel Krebs. 
Peter Layer. 
David Layer. 
William Love. 
Peter Lowder. 
Michael Lowder. 
Henry Mook. 
George Moyer. 
Jacob Nerhood. 
Leonard Peter. 
Timothy Shay. 
Thomas Stewart. 
Peter Stock. 
Melchoir Stock. 

It will be borne in mind that the military 
operations upon the Niagara frontier during 
the summer and autumn of 1812, though ac- 
tive, were indecisive. General Van Rensselaer, 
having become disgusted with the conduct of 
the Now York militia at Qucenstown and else- 
Avhere, resigned his command and was succeeded 
by General Alexander Sniyth, of Virginia. 
The Pennsylvania militia became worse dis- 
gusted with the officer commanding them 

THE WAR OP 1812. 


than Van Ri'ussulaer had with tlie men under 
him, and ahnost every man of them mutinied. 
Smyth was charged on all sides with cowardice 
and disloyalty, and after three months was de- 
posed from his command. In the mean time 
nearly all of the Pennsylvania volunteers had 
returned to their homes in straggling bands, 
the first as early as December 8th. Roan 
Clark, writing to George Kremer, December 
14th, says, — • 

" You will think it strange to hear that all of our 
volunteers have returned home. They give different 
accounts of the proceedings at Black Rock, but all 
say that they came off without being discharged, and 
all agree that General Smytlie has acted the part of a 
traitor." ' 

The Juniata Gazette of December 25, 1812, 
announces the return (unhurt!) of all of the 
troops which had marched from Mifflin County 
to Meadvilie and Buffiilo. 

In 1813 there was a temporary lull in the 
war feeling in the region which is the especial 
subject of this work, and the theatres of action 
being farther removed than in the preceding 
year, the keenness of interest abated and few 
troops went into the field. 

Among the few companies which were re- 
cruited this year was Captain JMattiiew Rodgers', 
belonging to the regiment of Pennsylvania 
militia commanded by Colonel Reese Hill, from 
the 5th of May to the 5th of November, 1813. 
The company was composed of men from the 
region now included in Mitflin and Juniata 
Counties (then all Alifllin). Captain Rodgers 
lived in what is now AValker township, of 
Juniata County. 

The following is the "muster roll of Captain 
INIatthew Rodgers' company of Pennsylvania 
militia, belonging to the regiment of Pennsyl- 
vania militia commanded by Colonel Reese 
Hill, from the date of entering into the service, 
commencing May 5, a.d. 1813, to the 17th of 
September, a.d. 1813 :" 

Matthew Rodgers, captain. 

James Criswell, lieutenant on command at Sandusky. 

John McCoy, lieutenant. 

Michael Holman, lieutenant ; sick ; present. 

'Linu's "Annals of the Buffalo Valley.' 

Robert Uric Elliott, ensign; volunteered on b(jarj 
fleet, August .5, 1810. 

William Butler, sergeant. 

Samuel McKillips, sergeant ; sick; present. 

James Dunn, sergeant. 

Samuel Edmiston, sergeant; on command at San- 

William Robb, sergeant. 

Samuel Crawford, sergeant. 

Robert McAllister, corporal. 

Richard Fear, corporal ; volunteered on board fleet, 
August 9, 1813. 

James Rhea, corporal. 

Joshua Shields, corporal. 

.Jacob Miller, corporal. 

William Meloy, corporal. 

William Luts,fifer. 

Henry Baker, drummer. 

William Alexander, on command at Sandusky. 
James Alexander. 
Fielding Alford, volunteered on board fleet, July 

.John Adams, volunteered August 2d. 
William Allen, volunteered on fleet, August 9th. 
Robert Allison. 
James Allison. 
Robert Bell. 
Joseph Brothers. 

Robert Crane, on command at Sandusky. 
John Cooper, appointed sergeant-major August l-3th. 
John Corkle. 
Samuel Curtis. 
Andrew Dobbs. 
John Dysert. 
William P. Elliott. = 

George Fisher, on command at Sandusky. 
Robert Gooshorn, on command at Sandusky. 
John Gustine, on command at Sandusky. 
Eln.athan Gregory, enlisted June 23rd. 
John Galloway. 
Daniel Grassmyer. 

Robert Hogg, on command at Sandusky. 
William Hogg, on command at Sandusky. 
Robert Horrel, enlisted July 9th. 
Henry Hoyt, volunteered August 7th. 
William Henry, volunteered on board fleet July 


' William P. Elliott, still living at Lewistown, aged 
ninety-two years, is the only survivor of all the one hun- 
dred and twelve men who enlisted in Captain Kodgers' 
company. He was commissioned major by Governor Sny- 
der in 1814, and is the only person living who received a 
commission under his administration. He is a primer, 
and probably the oldest in the United States. The Luris- 
toirn Gazette, which he established in 1811, is still in ex- 



Jacob Hazlett. 

Thomas Humphrey. 

John B. Irwin. 

Daniel Jones, appointed artificer May 24th. 

William Jenkins. 

Thomas Kennedy, sick; present. 

Samuel Kennedy. 

John Kennedy, enlisted July 9th. 

John Krause, sick ; absent. 

Thomas Laughlin. 

Henry Louenfoss. 

Neal Leyman, volunteered on fleet July 27th. 

Alexander McDonald, sick; present. 

James McDowell. 

Francis McConnel. 

George McConnell. 

Michael McCrum, enlisted June 14th. 

Samuel McFadden. 

Charles McKiuney, on command at Sandusky. 

David May. 

James Mayes. 

John Marsh, enlisted July 11, 1S13. 

Joseph Marshall. 

Nathaniel Martin. 

William Metlin. 

Alexander Metlin, volunteered on fleet August 9th. 

William Moss. 

Alexander Myers. 

James Mitchell, volunteered July 26th. 

Daniel Oakeson. 

Jacob Piper, on command at Sandusky. 

John Pedan. 

Kobert Reed. 

John Reynolds. • 

John Rice, volunteered on board fleet August 10th. 

David Ross. 

William Roberts. 

AVilliam Robison. 

James Sims, volunteered on board fleet July 26th. 

Adam Senor, enlisted June 23rd. 

Henry Scills, sick; present. 

David Shimp. 

James Stuart, on command at Sandusky. 

Valentine Stoneroad. 

John Stinson. 

Benjamin Swallow. 

Daniel Swisher, volunteered July 27th. 

Samuel Sweezy, volunteered in fleet August 3rd. 

David Sweezy. 

William Shuler, volunteered July 26th. 

John Thornberg, enlisted June 14th. 

Jacob Tool, volunteered July 26th. 

Daniel Worley, absent on command. 

Robert Work. 

" I certify on Honor that this muster-roUe exhibits 
a true statement of Captain Matthew Rodgers' com- 
pany of Pennsylvania Militia, in the service of the 
United States, commanded by Colonel Reese Hill, 

for the period therein mentioned, & that the re- 
marks set opposite the names of the men are accurate 
and just, to the best of my knowledge. 

"Matthew Rodger,?, Cap't. 

" I hereby certify that the Muster-Roll exhibits a 
true statement of Capt. M. R. Co. of Pa. Mil., in the 
service of the U. S., commanded by Col. Reese Hill,- 
& that the remarks set opposite to the names of the 
men are accurate and just, as mustered by me this 
17th day of Sept., in the year of our Lord, 1813. 

"S. Price, ('apt. L. A. Acting Inspector. 

"Camp at Portage River." 

There was at least one other company contrili- 
uted to the army by Mifflin County in 1813. 
It was organized in Januaiy and was command- 
ed by Captain Andrew Bratton.' 

In 1814 enlistments were far more numerous 
in the territory now composing the five 
counties which are our special subject than in 
the previous year, and a number of companies 
took the field during the year, some going to 
the Canada frontier and some eastward before 
and after the burning of Washington.^ Early 

'The Pennsylvania Archives contains no roster of this 
company, and the only mention of it occurs in a letter daled 
at the oHice of the Secr-etary of the Commonwealth, Har- 
risburg, January 2, 1813, and reading as follows : 

"To Andrew Bratton, Esq., Captain of a Company of Vol- 
unteer Eifiemen, associated in Wayne Township, 
Mifflin County, Lewistown. 

''Sir: Your letter of the 19th of the last month has 
been received by the Governor, who applauds much the 
patriotism of the oiiicers and men of your company in 
tendering their services as Volunteers at this iniportant 
crisis in defence of iheir country's rights, so long violated 
by an implacable fge, and he has no doubt of their re.adi- 
ness to obey the call of the government whenever their 
services shall be lawfully required. At present, however, 
there is no requisition uncomplied with on his part. Before 
the commissions can be obtained it should appear that 
the company has been organized and the officers elected in 
conformity with the fourth section of the Militia law, 
passed the 9lh day of April, 1807, and the second section 
of the supplement act passed the 26lh day of March, 1808 ; 
as soon, therefore, as the Brigade Inspector shall have 
made a return of the election of the oflScers as duly held, 
and it is duly cerlitied to the Governor that the Company 
is organized and equipped agieeably to law, the Commis- 
sions wUl be issued without delay. 
" I am sir, respectfully, 

" Your friend and obedient servant, 

" James Tkimble." 

2 Among the soldiers from Union County who saw 
actual service in the War of 1812 was Captain Frederick 
Evans (commission dated July 23, 1812), who went from 

THE WAR OF 1812. 


in the year Governor Snyder ordered that a 
thousand militia be raised in Pennsylvania to 
assist in repelling the British invasion on the 
Canada frontier. About one-half of tliis num- 
ber was composed of voluuteers from Cumber- 
land County, many of them being from the 
region now in Perry County ; the residue were 
raised principally by draft from the counties of 
Franklin, York and Adams. These soldiers 
constituted the Eleventh Regiment or Division, 
and were commanded by General Porter, and 
led by Colonel James Fenton, Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel Robert Bull, Majors Galloway and Marlin. 
The Cumberland County troojjs were rendez- 
voused at Carlisle, from which place they were 
marched to Pittsburgh, thence to Black Rock 
Fort (now the site of the city of Buffalo), which 
place they reached about the 1st of April. 
They remained there in camp, engaged in drill 
and guard duty, until July 2d, when General 
Brown, contrary to the expectation of his offi- 
cers, issued orders to embark the troops next 
morning at daylight. The author of a "History 
of Perry County " ' says of the campaign in 
which these troops engaged : The army con- 
sisted of two brigades. The First, commanded 
by General Scott, with the artillery corps in 
charge of Major Hurdman, landed nearly a 
mile below, while General Ripley, in command 
of the Second Brigade, di.sembarked about the 

Penn's Valley, and in the fall of 1814, as a captain in the 
Second Regiment of Artillery, was one of the garrison of 
Fort McHenry, Baltimore, which the British gave a severe 
bombardment, but failed to capture, September 13, 1814. 
He assisted in building the fort, and was one of its noble 
defenders. He ofien described the scene inside as terrific. 
Three bomb-shells struck and exploded inside of the fort, 
and he remarked one man shaking as if he had a chill. 
He asked to sit under one of the cannon. Evans giive him 
permission, when shortly another shell struck inside and 
killed him instantly. Another man was killed within 
three feet of him. Their coffee i-an out, and they had very 
little to eat for three days. He spoke of a woman who 
brought water for them. A bomb-shell hitting Iter, 
e.xploded, and she was blown to atoms. He brought a 
small piece of her dress home with him, the largest part 
of her remains that he could find. The fourth shell that 
came in was marked "a present from the King of 
England." This did not explode. It weighed within two 
pounds as much as an ordinary barrel of flour. This he 
brought home with him, and it may still be seen at Evans' 
mill, in .Juniata County. — Linn. 
1 Silas Wright. 

same distance above Fort Erie. A battery of 
long eighteens was soon planted in j)osition to 
command the fort, while a flag was dis- 
patched with the demand to surrender in two 
hours or the bombardment would be commenced. 
At the end of the truce, one hundred and thirty- 
seven men, including officers, marched out and 
surrendered themselves prisoners of war. Thus 
was carried out Generals Brown and Swjtt's 
determination to eat their Fourth of July din- 
ners in Fort Erie. The day was one of busy 
preparation for an aggressive movement against 
the enemy's army, which was composed of the 
British's supposed invincibles, then encamped 
at the mouth of the Chippewa. Before day- 
light, however, on the morning of the 5th, it 
was ascertained that the three days' rations, 
ordered to be supplied to the troops, could not 
be furnished until a boat could be dispatched 
to Buffalo and return with them. This caused 
a delay until two o'clock in the afternoon, be- 
fore the army of about three thousand five 
hundred were ready to march, and it was four 
o'clock before the militia came in sight of the 
regular troops who had preceded them. 

Scarcely had they halted when there was a 
requisition made for volunteers to drive off the 
Indians, who had been annoying tlie pickets 
by firing upon them from their places of con- 
cealment. This was answered by about three 
hundred volunteers, composed of officers, who 
exchanged their swords for muskets, and private 
soldiers from the Eleventh Regiment, strength- 
ened by several hundred friendly Indians, com- 
manded by General Porter, Colonel Bull and 
Major Galloway. An order commanding every 
white man who went with General Porter to 
leave his hat and go with his head uncovered 
was issued before starting. The Indians tied 
up their heads with muslin and blackened their 
faces by rubbing their hands over burnt stump.s 
before starting. Thus equipped, the skirmishei-s 
started, and in less than half an hour were en- 
gaged in the battle known in history as - Chip- 

'•' Lieutenant Samuel Brady, of Northumberland County, 
was engaged in the battle of Chippewa, and gave the fol- 
lowing account of it in a letter to Captaiu Vincent : 

" Camp at Fort Erie, West Canada. Jut;/ 'IS. 181-1. 

"Dear Sir: Blood, carnage, death and destruction of 



pewa, during the progress of wliicli Colonel 
Bull, Major Galloway, Captain White and a 
number of private soldiers were surrounded 
by Indians, who, concealed in the high grass, 

men are the contents of this painful letter. On the 22d 
■we had orders to reduce our baggage, allowing one tent to 
ten men and two shirts to e.aeh officer. The surplus was 
sent across the Niagara, at Queenstown, where we then 
laid, to be sent to Buffalo. On the 24th we marched to 
Chippewa. On the 2-5th the enemy appeared on the 
heights, near the Falls of Niagara, two miles distant from 
our camp. At three o'clock we were Ordered to parade. 
At five our brigade, under General Scott, marched out. At 
six the action commenced, when, great God ! to tell the de- 
tails from that time till ten o'clock at night is impossible. 
Could I converse with you for the length of time we were 
engaged I could give some idea of it, but lo make an at- 
tempt will, doubtless, not be unsatisfactory to you. Our 
brigade fought a much superior force under gi-eat disad- 
vantages for one hour and a half, and we were completely 
cut up, more than half the officers and men being killed 
and wounded, when the second brigade, commanded by 
General Ripley, came to our assistance. The enemy, at 
the same time, received reinforcements, which made the 
action again severe. General Kyall and a number of 
prisoners were, previous to this, taken by our brigade. 
Colonel brady was wounded before we were fifteen minutes 
engaged and commanded the regiment till the action was 
nearly closed. I assisted him off and on his horse during 
the engagement, when he was like to faint from loss of 
blood We got possession of the heights and kept them till 
■we got off our wounded. The British made three different 
charges to gain them, but they were as often beat back. 
Our brigaile made three charges, in the last of which we 
lost three officers of our (the twenty-second) regiment, 
our brave General Scott heading each charge. He was 
severely wounded in the shoulder near the close of the ac- 
tion. General Brown was also wounded. When we re- 
turned from the ground there were, of our regiment, Major 
Arrowsmith, myself and thirty privates that marched into 
camp. The balance were killed, wounded, missing and in 
camp. Colonel Brady can inform you that I was the only 
platoon officer of our regiment that kept the ground to the 
last and marched in with the men. For the satisfaction of 
your friends and yourself, I enclose you a copy of our re- 
port of the killed, wounded and missing; likewise the 
officers' names who were in the oction. Our wounded are 
at Buffalo in good quarters. Let me hear from you. 
"I am yours, sincerely, 

" Samuel Bu.\dy, 
" Twenty-second Infantry. 
" Captain Bethuel Vincent. 

" N. B. Our total loss in killed, wounded and missing 
on that day must have been eight hundred. The British 
loss no doubt exceeded that, as General Ryall acknowledged 
that they were whipped when he was taken, and we 
fought two liours after that and took nineteen British 

had jiermitted the naain body of the troops to 
pass, that they might the more safely and 
eif'ectually secure the officers. Having disarmed 
their prisoners, they next commenced stripping 
them of their clothing, one taking a coat, 
another a vest, while a third claimed the neck- 
cloth. If a shirt .showed a ruffle anywhere, a 
fourth claimed it. Major Galloway and Private 
Wendt were .stripped of their boots and com- 
pelled to march through thorn and other stubble 
barefoot, until, in tlie language of the latter, 
"their feet were run through and through." 

The party had advanced their prisoners but 
a short distance until they were halted, and 
there was evidently an Indian dissatistied about 
something. They started again, and had scarce 
gone more than half a mile when the dis.satis- 
fied Indian, then in the rear, whooped loudly, 
raised his rifle and shot Colonel Bull through 
the body. The ball entered the left shoulder 
and came out through the right breast. After 
he was pierced with the bullet. Colonel Bull 
raised himself on his elbow, reached out his 
hand to Major Galloway and said, " Help me, 
Wendt ; I am shot !" Tiie help implored by 
the dying man was prevented by the Indian 
who had shot him coming up, sinking his 
tomahawk into his head and scalping him. 

This act, so contrary to all laws of 
human warfare, was no doubt in compliance 
with the order of General Riall, which was in 
substance not to spare any who wore the uni- 
form of militia officers, while who wore 
the regular officer's uniform were to be brought 
into camp in safety. To this fact we ascribe 
the cruel fate of a brave soldier and good 

His surviving comrades bear te.stimony to 
the sober and exemplary habits of C'olonel 
Bull. At Erie, it is said, he spent his Sabbaths 
in the hospital among the sick, ministering to 
their physical Mant.?, or reading and conversing 
with them about the truths of religion. 

Micliael Donnelly, Esq , volunteered to go 
aboard of Perry's fleet, then operating on Lake 
Erie, expecting to be gone two or three days at 
most, but did not get back to his company until 
twenty-eight days after\vard. 

The following persons from Perry County 

THE WAR OF 1812. 


were members of Captain David Morcland's 
company, mustered in 1814, and rendezvoused 
at Carlisle. They belonged to the Fifth Detacii- 
ment Peiuisylvania Militia, uuder command of 

Colonel James Fenton : 

David Moreland, captain ; residence, Jackson town- 
ship; mustered out with company ; died in 1870. 
First Lieutenant : Robert Thompson. 
Second Lieutenant : John Neiper. 
Ensign : Amos Cadwallader. 
Sergeants : John Steigleman, Richard Rodfjer, Geo. 


Corporals : James Adams, John Abercrombie, Se- 
bastian Waggoner (missing July 20th), James Rod- 


Musicians : David Beenis, John Myers. 

John Kibler, first seigeant ; residence, Landisburg; 
lost in Mexican War. 

Peter Evinger, private; residence, Jackson township ; 
mustered out with company. 

George Gutshall, private ; residence,- Jackson town- 
ship; mustered out with company. 

Peter Kessler. private ; residence, Toboyne township ; 
mustered out with company. 

Jacob Gutshall, private ; residence, Toboyne town- 
ship ; mustered out with company. 

John Garland, private ; residence, Madison town- 
ship ; mustered out with company. 

Moses Ruggles, private ; residence, Madison town- 
ship ; mustered out witli company. 

George Robinson, private ; residence, Saville town- 
ship ; mustered out with company ; died in 
Black Log Valley, 1870. 

William Barkley, private; residence, Saville town- 
ship; mustered out with company; died in 1859. 

John Jacobs, private ; residence, Saville township ; 
mustered out with company. 

George Strock, private ; residence, Saville township ; 
mustered out with company; died in Ohio. 

Joseph Strock, private; residence, Saville township; 
mustered out with company; died in Ohio. 

Jacob Bower, private; residence, Saville township ; 
mustered out with company ; died in Saville 

D.ivid Kessler, private; residence, Toboyne township ; 
mustered out with company ; dead. 

William Stump, private; residence, Toboyne town- 
ship ; mustered out with company. 

William Johnson, private ; residence, Toboyne town- 
ship ; mustered out with company. 

Adam Kessler, private; residence, Toboyne townsltip ; 
mustered out with company. 

John Shretfler, private ; residence, Toboyne town- 
ship ; mustered out with company. 

George Shreffler, private; residence, Tobov'ne town- 
ship ; mustered out with company. 

Adam Wolf, private ; residence, Tyrone township ; 
mustered out with compan)'. 

Samuel Ross, private; residence, Tyrone township ; 
mustered out with company. 

Philip Stambaugh, private ; residence, Tyrone town- 
ship ; mustered out with company. 

Jacob Sheat'er, private; residence, Tyrone township ; 
mustered out with company. 

William Sheafer, private ; residence, Tyrone town- 
ship ; mustered out with company. 

George Disinger, private ; residence, Tyrone town- 
ship ; mustered out with company. 

Disinger, private; residence, Tyrone township ; 

mustered out with company. 

Michael Weaver, private ; residence, Toboyne town- 

Peter Otto, private ; residence, Toboyne township. 

Jos. Hockenberry, private; residence, Toboyne town- 

Joseph Wilson, private ; residence, Tyrone township ; 
mustered out with company. 

Robert Welch, private ; residence, Tyrone township ; 
mustered out with company. 

John Garland, private ; residence, Madison townsliip ; 
mustered out witli company. 

John Goodlauder, private ; residence, Madison town- 
ship ; mustered out with company. 

Stroup, private; residence, Madison township; 

mustered out with company. 

Scott, private ; residence, Liverpool ; mustered 

out with company. 

Sponenberger, private ; residence, Liverpool ; 

mustered out with company. 

Richard Stewart, private ; residence, Tyrone town- 
ship ; mustered out with company. 

John Topley, private ; residence, Landisburg ; mus- 
tered out with company. 

Dr. Samuel Mealy, private; residence, Millerstown ; 
mustered out with company. 

Peter Swanger, private; residence, Tyrone township ; 
mustered out with company. 

George Wolf, private ; residence, Tyrone township ; 
mustered out with company. 

Comp, private ; residence. Centre township ; 

mustered out with company. 

Jacob Kiner, private; residence, Tyrone township; 
mustered out with company. 

The following names are contained in a mus- 
ter-roll made out by Captaiu David Moreland, 
September 22, 1814, and do not appear in the 
above : 


William Askins. 
George Bergstresser. 
Jacob Bower. 
Solomon Bergstresser. 
Samuel Bice. 
Peter Bower. 
George Buck. 

Robert Buck. 
Frederick Burd. 
Joshua Byers. 
John Baughman. 
Daniel Camp. 
Jacob Keiner. 
Thomas Clark. 



Robert Dougherty. 
Philip DeckarJ. 
Robert Dunbar. 
Thomas Dansville. 
Moses Ewens. 
Daniel Fry. 
Joseph Fry (killed July 

Abraham Fry. 
Jacob Gillam. 
Isaac Gurhard. 
John Gallagher. 
Henry Hollebough. 
John Hoobler. 
Matthias Hollebaugh. 
Robert Hays. 
Joseph Hamaker. 
John Hamilton. 
Joseph Hackeaberry. 
George Irwin. 
David Jordan. 
Archibald Kennedy. 
George Kelsey. 
Jacob Kenny. 
Jacob Ledech. 
John Mores. 

Ezekiel McMurray. 
Thomas McCoy. 
James Morton. 
William Miller. 
James ISeeper. 
Jacob Potter. 
Henry Presser. 
George Gray. 
Robert Rogers. 
Henry Ross. 
George Shaw. 
John Sleighter. 
George Shumbaugh. 
Samuel Sheets. 
Jacob Stambaugh. 
William Tate. 
Joseph Taylor. 
Joseph Wilson. 
George Wendt (taken 

prisoner July 5th). 
Samuel Wilson. 
William Wallace. 
Abraham Young. 
Godfrey Rouse. 
John Shrefler. 

The following were members of Captain 
James Piper's company, mustered in 1814, and 
rendezvoused at Carlisle : 

Michael Donnelly, private ; residence, Tuscarora 
township; mustered out with company; died 

Jacob Hammaker, private; residence, Watts town- 
ship ; mustered out with company ; dead. 

Daniel Fry, private ; residence. Greenwood township ; 
mustered out with company ; dead. 

Abraham Fry, private; residence. Greenwood town- 
ship ; mustered out with company ; dead. 

Joseph Fry, private; residence. Greenwood town- 
ship ; killed at Chippewa, July 5, 1814. 

George Wendt, private; residence, Liverpool town- 
ship ; taken by Indians ; exchanged ; dead. 

Frederick Burd, private ; residence. Greenwood town- 
ship ; mustered out with company. 

John Staily, private ; residence, Liverpool township ; 
mustered out with company. 

Philip Deckard, private; residence, Buffalo town- 
ship ; mustered out with company. 

Jacob Potter, private; residence, Buffalo township ; 
mustered out with company. 

Jacob Liddick, private; residence, Buffalo township; 
mustered out with company. 

Peter Werner, private ; residence, Buffalo township ; 
mustered out with company. 

Andrew Hench, private ; residence, Buffalo township; 
mustered out with company. 

From what is now Perry County, also, in 1814, 
went a company of militia, enrolled in two days' 
time, when Washington was burned, by Dr. John 
G. Creigh, who became its captain. The company 
was accepted by Governor Snyder and given the 
second post of honor in the Pennsylvania Line. 
The only reference found of this company in the 
archives is in a letter of James Lamberton to 
Governor Simon Snyder, dated Carlisle, Octo- 
ber 7, I8I4, in which he says : " Caj)tains John 
Creigh and Holbert's company marched to 
Philadelphia, and, no doubt, are under your 
immediate notice in service, and at the expira- 
tion of their time, you will have the goodness to 
direct respecting the arms, &c." 

The company was enrolled September G, 1814, 
and was known as the Landisburg Infimtry 
Company. U])on October 2d it was encamped 
at Bush Hill. Following is the roster of the 
organization, together with the residences, of the 
men composing it : 

John Creigh, captain ; residence, Tyrone township. 

Henry Lightner, first lieutenant; residence, Landis- 

Isaiah Carl, second lieutenant ; residence, Tyrone 

George Simons, Sr., private ; residence, Tyrone town- 

Francis Gibson, private ; residence, Landisburg. 

Samuel Ickes, private; residence. Spring township. 

Jacob Lightner, private ; residence, Landislturg. 

George West, private ; residence, Tyrone township. 

William Henderson, private; residence, Tyrone town- 

William Wilson, private ; residence, Tyrone town- 

Jacob Ernest, private ; residence, Landisburg. 

Nathan Jones, private ; residence, Landisburg. 

Samuel Jones, private ; residence, Landisburg. 

John Landis, private; residence, Landisburg. 

Samuel Landis, private ; residence, Landisburg. 

John Mahoney, private ; residence, Landisburg. 

Daniel Stambaugh, private; residence, Tyrone town- 

David Carl, private ; residence, Tyrone township. 

Benjamin McCracken, private; residence, Tyrone 

Philip Smith, private ; residence, Tyrone township. 

John Power, private ; residence, Tyrone township. 

Alexander Roddy, private; residence, Tyrone town- 

Joseph Marsh, private; residence, Tyrone town- 

THE WAR OF 1812. 


Barney Whitmer, private ; residence, Tyrone town- 

John Johnson, private ; residence, Saville township. 

Benjamin Dunlcelberger, private ; residence, Tyrone 

Barnett Sheibley, private ; residence, Tyrone town- 

Daniel Bollinger, private ; residence, Millerstown. 

Israel Jennings, private ; residence, Millerstown. 

Thompson, first lieutenant ; residence, Jackson 


Neeper, ensign ; residence, Tyrone township. 

Amos Cadwallader, ensign ; residence, Tyrone town- 

John Curry. 

John Dunbar. 

John Hippie. 

George Dunbar. 

Solomon Sheibley. 

Stephen Keck. 

Michael Foose, fifer. 

Jacob Frederick. 

Henry Lackey, drummer. 

Conrad Holman. 


• Sheer. 


Joseph Fullerton. 

George Swarner. 


Robert Woodburn, private ; residence, Tyrone town- 

Richard Rodgers, private ; residence, Tyrone town- 

Samuel Myers, private ; residence, Tyrone township. 

Adolphus Hall, private ; residence, Landisburg. 

Amos Pratt, private ; residence, Landisburg. 

E. B. Leonard, private ; residence, Landisburg. 

William B. Sponsler, private; residence, Bloom- 

From Union County (erected during the 
war) at least two full companies were forwarded 
to the scenes of operations on the Delaware and 
Chesapeake, in 1814, and the same territory 
also supplied manj^ recruits to the several com- 
panies of Lieutenant-Colonel George Weirick's 

The Selinsgrove Rifle Volunteers went from 
that part of Union which is now Snyder 
County. It was commanded by Captain John 
Snyder and attached to the battalion of Captain 
John Uhle, in the Light Brigade of General 
Thomas Cadwallader. Following is a roster of 
the company as it stood in the actual service of 

the United States, at Camp Du[)otit, November 
14, 1814: 

Captain : John Snyder. 

First Lieutenant : Jacob Rhoads. 

Second Lieutenant: Anthony C. Selin. 

Ensign : George Berkstresscr. 

Sergeants : Mathias Thornbaugh, Jacob Shriner, 

Isaac Harlon, Philip Graever. 
Corporals: John Hausman, Daniel Lebo, William S. 

Devine, Conrad Stock. 


Henry Hilbush. 
Henry Bloom. 
Henry Hoote. 
Henry Keefer. 
Henry Botthoff. 
John Miller. 
John Fillman. 
John Hall. 
John Ulrick. 
John Rhem. 
John Kersteler. 
James Hays. 
James Harlon. 
David Fisher. 
George Houch. 
George Boddory. 
George Buckley. 
George Weiser. 
Benjamin Ulrick. 
Samuel Gamberling. 
Samuel Haislett. 
Solomon Coldron. 
James Vandike. 

John S. Maus. 
John Essick. 
William Steel. 
William Gougler. 
John Sassaman. 
Peter Arnold. 
Isaac Robison. 
Jacob Strayer. 
Jacob Vanandey. 
Jacob Volburn. 
Peter Schlutterbach. 
Abraham Shipman. 
William Minier. 
Thomas Silverwood. 
Paul Lebo. 
John Rupp. 
Christian Wise. 
John Lambert. 
Samuel Hoey. 
Valentine Hair. 
Thomas Thursby. 
Charles Antee (or 

Captain Ner Middleswarth's comjiany, the 
Union Rifle Volunteers, was also attached to 
the Rifle Battalion commanded by Captain John 
Uhle, in the Light Brigade, commanded bv 
General Thomas Cadwalader, in actual service 
at Camp Dupont, October 27, 1814, at which 
time its roster was as follows : 

Captain ; Ner Middleswarth. 

Lieutenants : Isaac Slertz, .lohn Aurand. 

Ensign : Daniel Devore. 

Sergeants : Jacob Fryer, Daniel Weiser, Frederick 

Stees, Jr., George Weikel. 
Corporals : Abraham Frederick, Daniel Layer, Albright 

Swineford, Jacob Long. 


Jacob Beitler. 
John Bird. 
Daniel Bowersox. 
Samuel Boyer. 

Elias Campbell. 
Henry W. Carroll. 
George Clemence. 
Henrv Dreese. 



Asher Ely. 
Ludwig Freedley. 
Jacob Gilbert. 
Jacob Gill. 
Robert Gilmore. 
Jacob Grubb. 
Abraham Kaley. 
John Katherman. 
Henry Kratzer. 
John Kuhns. 
Joseph Loehr. 
Peter Loehr. 
Samuel Martz. 
Daniel Miller. 

Jacob Miller. 
John Mitchell. 
George Meyer. 
Jacob Moyer. 
Henry Shneb. 
James Smith. 
Melchior Stock. 
Jacob Troxell. 
Israel Thurston. 
John Wakey. 
John Wales. 
Henry Weirick. 
George Wient. 

Five companies went from tiie region com- 
posed of Northumberland and Union Counties, 
in the autumn of 1814, to in resisting the 
British advance up the Delaware, and were .sta- 
tioned most of the time until the practical close 
of the war at Marcus Hook, below Chester. 
These companies, — Henry Miller's, Jacob 
Hummel's, Valentine Haas', John Bergstresser's 
and William F. Buyer's — constituted the regi- 
ment or detachment commanded by Lieutenant- 
Colonel George Weirick, Brigadier-General H. 
Spearing, First Brigade, Second Division, in 
the service of the United States. The roster of 
the field and staff and the five companies was as 
follows : 


Lieutenant-Colonel : George Weirick, September 24, 

Majors: William Taggert and Jacob Lechner, Sep- 
tember 24, 1814. 

Adjutant : George Coryell, September 24, 1814. 

Surgeon : John Y. Kennedy, September 24, 1814. 

Surgeon's Mate : Thomas Vanvalzah, September 24, 

Quartermaster: George Clingau, October 31, 1814. 

Quartermaster-Sergeant: John Eeehl, November 5th. 

Sergeant-Major : Daniel Rohrer, October 5th. 

Aid-de-camp to General Spearing : Hugh Maxwell. 
Camp, Marcus Hook, November 14, 1814. 


Pay-roll of the company of infantry from Union 
County, under the command of Captain Henry Mil- 
ler, attached to the regiment commanded by Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel George Weirick, Marcus Hook, November 
10, 1814. 

Captain : Henry Miller. 
Lieutenant: John McMillan. 
Sergeants : Benjamin AVilliams, John Eearick, Philip 

Euhle, William Francis. 
Corporals: Adam Specht, Foster Wilson, George 

Spangler, Richard Robinson. 

Privates : George Baker, Peter Baker, John Barber, 

Charles Bitting, Conrad Bobb, John Bobb, Rob- 
ert Black, George Bossier, Andrew Cooke, George 
Coryell (appointed sergeant-major September 
26, 1814), Samuel Cosgrove, Ellas Dar, John 
Dreisbach, Thomas Dreisbach, Daniel Dunsipe, 
Cyrus Egbert, William Eilert, Garrett Farres, 
William Forster, George Fought, Jacob 
FoughtjConrad Fox, John Fry, Jacob Gearig, 
Samuel Gearhart, John Gill, William Gill (dis- 
charged October 26, 1814; died at Bellefonte, 
November 21, 1876, aged eighty-nine), Peter 
Hanius (called Panier), Henry Herger, Henry 
Hasenplugh, Samuel Hasenplugh, Abraham 
Kleckner, Anthony Kleckner, Isaac Kleckner, 
John Maclay (appointed assistant quartermaster- 
general October 9, 1814), David Mangel, John 
Mayer, John Moyer, William Moyer, William 
Myer, John Norman, Francis Phelps, John 
Rearick, William Reichly, Henry Ritter, John 
Rote, Henry Royer, Michael Saunders, William 
Shaffer, Jacob Shaffer, John Smith, Michael 
Snyder, George Sleer, Samuel Shaw, Benjamin 
Slough, David Stitzer, Christian Spangler, David 
Speer, Daniel Spiegelmeyer, Abraham Solomon, 
James Thompson, John Weight, Jacob Zimmer- 


Pay-roll of the company of infantry under the com- 
mand of Captain Jacob Hummel, attached to the reg- 
iment commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel George 
Weirick, Marcus Hook, November 10, 1814. 
Captain : Jacob Hummel. 
Lieutenant: Walter Brady. 
Ensign : Francis B. Swartz. 

Sergeants: Stephen Baldy, John Eisely, John Ham- 
mer, John S. .James. 
Corporals: John B. Gordon, John Petery, Jacob Lei- 

senring, James Martin. 
Privates : John App, John Applegate, John Arm- 
strong, John Barnhart, William Bear, Henry 
Bestler, John Born, John Buckner, Henry Burn, 
John Buyers, John Campbell, Andrew Caruthers, 
Daniel Conor, John Crutchley, Daniel Delany, 
George Espy, George Forly, Jona. Furman, Dan- 
iel Gearhart, Henry Haupt, Jacob Hedrick, John 
Housel, Lockwood G. Hoy, Benjamin Huff, Isaac 
Hull, Zachariah Lowdon, Joseph McCloughen, 
William Mahoney, Griggs Marsh, William Met- 
tler, Balser Mirely, David More, Joseph Morgan, 
James Morgan, John Masteller, Abraham New- 
comer, Peter Overdurf, John Redline, John W. 
Renn, Frederick Rinehart, Daniel Ringler, 
John Roadarmel, Henry Sterner, Jonathan Stroh, 
Christian Wagner, James Warner, Frederick 
Weaver, William AVillet, Samuel Willet, Elias 
Woodruff, William Woldigan, David Zeluff. 

THE WAR OF 1812. 



Roll of the company of infantry from Union Coun- 
ty, under the command of Captain Valentine Haas, 
Seventy-seventh Regiment Pennsylvania Militia, 
commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel George Weirick, 
Marcus Hook, November 10, 1814. 
Captain : Valentine Haas. 
Lieutenant: Samuel Shedle. 
Sergeants : Jacob C. Eckhart, George Hosterman, 

Henry Boyer, Andrew Hendricks. 
Corporals : John Johnston, Jacob Kleckner, Fred- 
erick Richter, David Overmyer. 
Privates : Joseph Alter (discharged October 5th), Lo- 
renzo Bachman, Isaac Bear, Joseph Berger, An- 
thony Berman, George Benfer, Jacob Binckly, 
Frederick Bous, Jacob Bosler, Henry Brouse, 
Philip Buttenstein, John Clendinin, Ludwig Do- 
ebler, Jonathan Derk, John Dofle, Jacob Duke, 
George Duke, Barnes Everhard, Philip Everhard, 
Benjamin Fetter, John Folk, Joseph Folz, Willis 
Gordon, Jonas Gaugher, Henry Grim, Henry 
Haas, Daniel Haas, E. Hentricks, Philip Har- 
rold, Frederick Hobb, John H. Hummel, Jacob 
Jarrett, George Karstetter, John Keely (dis- 
charged October 22d), Michael Kesler, Henry 
Kreisher, Frederick Kreitzer, John Kuns, Daniel 
Miller, Jacob Mowrer, Philip Moyer, Jacob Neitz, 
Henry Pontius, William Rettig, John Richen- 
bach, John Rusher, Jacob Shedler, Peter Shoe- 
maker, Abraham Smith, John Smith, Joseph 
Smith, Philip Sold, Henry Spaid, Henry Stahl, 
George Stimeling, Peter Stock, Peter Swartz, 
George Swartzlender, John Trester, George Wag- 
ner, John Weaver, Isaac AVeller, Samuel Wit- 
mer, Henry Woodling, Daniel Wool, John Yea- 
ger, Adam Yeager, Henry Yeisly, Philip Yerger, 
John Yordon, Ludwig Young. 


Pay-roll Union County company of militia, at- 
tached to the regiment commanded by Lieutenant- 
Colonel George Weirick, Marcus Hook, November 
18, 1814. 

Captain : John Bergstresser. 
Lieutenant : Thomas Fisher. 
Ensign : Henry Noll. 

Sergeants : Uriah Silsby, Philip Reedy, Johu Gillas- 
py, Daniel Rengler, Samuel Merwine, John Sar- 
gint, George Clingan. 
Corporals : William Nevyus, John Vartz, Jacob Mc- 

Corley, John Lutz. 
Privates : Lewis Aikey, James H. Anderson, Benja- 
min Baldy, George Bellman, Samuel Bennage, 
John Bennett, Abraham Bidleman, William 
Bower, George Bower, John Bower, William 
Campbell, John Campbell, Joseph Campbell, 
Joseph Clarke, Flavel Clark, Francis Clark, 
William Clark, John Darraugh, Jonathan Demp- 
sey, Ludwig Darsham, Philip Diefenderfer, Jesse 

Egburd, Charle.s Flickingner, Peter Frederick, 
Jacob Frederick, Samuel Frederick, Jacob Gil- 
man, Paul Goodlander, John Huflbrd, Frederick 
Heiser (discharged October 2d), William Herren- 
don, Joshua Housel, Jacob Hubler, John Irwin, 
William Irvin, John Jamison, William Jodun, 
Benjamin Jodun, Thoma-s Johnston, John Jones, 
J. Koffman, Andrew Kelly (discharged October 
28th), Adam Kimmell, D. Kunts, Abram Kline, 
George Kline, Peter Lilley (discharged Oc- 
tober .Sd), Saml. Lutz, Richard McClure, Richard 
McGuire, Hugh McKinley, James McLaughlin, 
Daniel Maughamer, James Magee, John Mize- 
ner, George Mengel, Peter Mowry, Peter Myers, 
Henry Moyer, Michael Quinn, John Rees, Jona- 
than Ranck, Christopher Rorabough, Philip Ro- 
rabough, Adam Rose, Daniel Shafler, Henry 
Shaffer, (substitute for John Hummel), Jonas 
Sheckler, Simon Sheckler, Jonathan Smith, 
Adam Smith, Richard Steel, David Steel, Daniel 
Stoner, Samuel Strickland, Peter Struble, Jacob 
Sypher, Henry Vanderhoof, William Vander- 
hoof, William Vanhorn, Abram Vanhorn, James 
Wallace, John Walters, Nicholas Welch, Gideon 
Williamson, Thomas Wilson, Samuel Wilson, 
Abraham Young, George Zearphus (Sarphus). 


Roll of the Northumberland County Blues, volun- 
teer company, attached to the regiment under the com- 
mand of Lieutenant-Colonel George Weirick, Marcus 
Hook, November 10, 1814. 
Captain : William F. Buyers. 

Lieutenants : Thomas S. Jenkins, Samuel H. Scott. 
Ensign: John Hepburn. 
Corporal : John Reehl. 
Sergeants: Samuel H. Wilson, Joseph T. Wallis, 

A. M. Sweeney. 
Fifer : William Armor. 
Drummer: Samuel DeLong. 

Privates: Jacob Armstrong, David Black, Thomas 
Bonham, George P. Buyers, William Cameron, 
Robert Campbell, Edward Chapman, William 
Cooke, Adam Cook, .Toseph B. Cramer, Abram 
Cramer, Henry Dale, William Dieus, James S. 
Dougal, Charles Frazier, William Gale, Mact 
Grant, Thomas Grant, junior, (discharged Octo- 
ber 23d), William M. Grant, William Gray, 
Thomas Harris, Isaac Hendershot, Jacob Hopfer, 
Joseph Huffman, William Jones, Jeremiah Jones, 
William Latherland, William Layton, Daniel 
Lebo, Robert Lyon, Jeremiah Lyon, Isaac Mc- 
Cord, John McPherson, John Martin, Charles 
Maus, James Oliphant, George Prune, John 
Quinn, Henry Reininger, Theodore J. Rockele, 
Johu Ross, William Watson, John Weisner, 
George Weitzel, Samuel Wilson. 
" Jacob Armstrong, John Martin, Robert Campbell 
and William Dieus, drafts in Captain Hummel'scom- 



pany, joined my company on 29th. They have been 
in service the same time our company has. 

" William P. Buyers, 
" Captain Northumberland County Blues." 



Promineace of Mifflin County — Slietcli of the .Juniata 
Guards — Other Troops from Mifflin, Perry and Union 

Of all the five counties embraced iu this his- 
tory, Mifflin took the most prominent part in 
the Mexican War of 1846-48 ; and this was not 
alone through the number of the men who went 
forth from her boundaries, but largely because 
of the character of some of them and the posi- 
tion to which they arose. 

Mifflin contributed to the service of the 
United States, in this war, one full company — 
the Juniata Guards, under Captain William Ir- 
win — and a majority of the Wajiie Guards, 
Captain Caldwell, as well as a considerable 
number of volunteers, who, singly or by twos 
or threes, entered other organizations. 

Of the other counties, Perry contributed 
nearly a full company, of which Michael 
Steever was lieutenant ; and Union County sup- 
plied only a few scattering recruits. 

Actual hostilities between the Republic of 
Mexico and the United States commenced in 
May, 1846. The first battles in this war were 
fought on the 8th and 9th of that month, and 
are known in history as the battles of Palo Alto 
and Resaca de la Palma. The capture and oc- 
cupation of Matamoras, and the advancement 
upon and battle of Monterey, speedily fol- 
lowed. These battles and victories of our 
army, commanded by General Zachariah Tay- 
lor, created an extraordinary excitement and a 
patriotic fervor throughotit the country. Volun- 
teer organizations all over the country, north 
and south, east and west, were offering their 
services to the government. In these patriotic 
manifestations Pennsylvania was largely repre- 
sented. Two regiments, known as the First 
and Second Pennsylvania Volunteer Regiments, 

were organized, commanded by Colonels Wyn- 
koop and Roberts, and were despatched to the 
seat of war, leaving scores of companies at 
home that had volunteered to go, and amongst 
these were the Washington Guards, of Mc- 
Veytown, the Lewistown Guards and Lewistown 
Artillerists,- all of Mifflin County. As these 
regiments passed through the county, by canal- 
boat, on their way to Mexico, quite a number 
of individuals joined them from the towns and 
villages in the county. J. H., William 
Stackpole, George W. Hesser, L. Bymaster, 
Jacob Hoseywantle, from McVeytown, joined 
themselves to the First Regiment, and served to 
the end of the war. Dr. John C. Reynolds, of 
the same place, was appointed surgeon of this 
regiment and Daniel M. Dull the sutler. J. H. 
Ross is the only one of these soldiers that sur- 
vives, and is now the worthy State Senator 
representing York County. 

At a later period a company of volunteers, 
called the Wayne Guards, headed by Captain 
James Caldwell (mortally wounded at Belon 
Gareta, September 1.3, 1847) and Dr. Charles 
Bower, joined by Lieutenant A. McKamey and 
Lieutenant I. A. Doyle, with many others with 
them from Huntingdon County, was accepted 
by the government, together with Captain S. M. 
Taylor's company, from Bedford ; and these 
two companies were added to the Second Penn- 
sylvania Regiment, making this a regiment of 
twelve companies ; and these two companies 
had the good fortune to arrive at Vera Cruz 
just in time to advance into the interior of 
Mexico, with the reinforcements under General 
Franklin Pierce, and joined their regiment at 
the city of Puebla the evening before General 
Scott made his grand movement in his advance 
upon the city of Mexico. Peter Kerns, of Lew- 
istown, enlisted in the regular army, and was 
wounded at Cliapultepec. 


The old volunteer organizations having 
failed in being accepted, the belief was enter- 
tained that a new company, gotten up. for the 
special purpose of engaging in the war, might 
be more fortunate, and this idea gave rise to ef- 



forts that resulted in the formation of the Juni- 
ata Guards, raised in Lewistown and McVey- 
town, of wliich Wm. H. Irwin was made 
captain and Thomas F. McCoy first lieutenant. 
About this time it was learned that the govern- 
ment would not accept for the service any more 
volunteei's, but would increase the army by the 
passage of a law by Congress to add ten new 
regiments to the regular army. This was done, 
and these two officers, repairing to Washington, 
waited upon the Pr(!sident of the United States 
{Mr. Polk), and were promptly appointed of- 
ficers in the regular army, — Williaai H. Irwin 
captain, and Thomas F. McCoy, first lieutenant 
in the Eleventh United States Infantry. This 
was in the month of February, 1847. When 
these officers appeared, clothed in the uniform 
and with the authority of regular army officers, 
and called upon the Juniata Guards to enlist in 
the service for the war with Mexico, a large 
number of them failed to respond, alleging that 
they were pledged to enter the volunteer, not 
the regular army. Of the twenty young men 
who had pledged themselves at McVeytown, 
not one failed to promptly enter the service. A 
recruiting rendezvous was opened at Lewistown, 
and in thirty days the required comjilemeut of 
brave men was secured. Lieutenant McCoy 
spent a few days at Potter's Bank and Belle- 
fonte, in Centre County, enlisting sixteen re- 
cruits, which completed the company. The 
company, while being recruited, formed part of 
the funeral escort at the burial, in Lewistown, 
of tlie mortal remains of Lieutenant James S. 

Woods, late of the Regiment United 

States army, who was killed whilst gallantly 
leading his company in the battle of Monterey, 
on the 21st day of September, 1846. He had 
previously distinguished himself in the battles 
of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma. Being 
a young man, born and raised in Lewistown 
until he entered the academy at West Point, 
and a son of the Rev. James S. Woods, D.D., 
his death excited the greatest interest, sorrow 
and sadness. A public meeting was held, and 
a committee appointed to go to the battle-field 
at Monterey, Mexico, disinter his remains from 
the strange and inh(ispitable land in which he 
fell, gallantly defending the flag of his country. 

and have them deposited in his own cherished 
land and in his own native valley. Dr. T. 
Howard Vanvalzah and Colonel I. A. Banks 
composed the committee appointed for this pur- 
pose, who discharged the duty imposed upon 
them to the satisfaction of the public. 

At a crowded meeting in the Methodist 
Church on the evening befoi'e the company left 
for the seat of war, the ladies of Lewistown 
presented each member of the company with a 
copy of the Bible. The Rev. James S. Woods, 
D.D., made the presentation address on behalf 
of the ladies, and Captain Irwin responded on 
behalf of the company. 

On the 2.5th day of March, 1847, the com- 
pany took its departure from Lewistown for the 
seat of war. The speediest mode of transpor- 
tation at this date was by boat on the Pennsyl- 
vania Canal, jJropelled by mule-power on the 
towing-path. A very large assemblage of the 
people of the county was present on this very 
interesting and exciting occasion. The follow- 
ing account of the scene was published at the 
time : 

"The Juniata Guards. — They are gone. It 
only remains for us to regret their departure, to sym- 
pathize with them and their friends whom they have 
left behind, and to wish them well on their journey 
to a distant clime. The day was delightful, and na- 
ture seemed herself eager to contribute to the solem- 
nity and interest of the occasion. The Guards having 
formed under their gallant commander, Captain W. 
H. Irwin, the citizens were also formed in procession, 
and escorted them from their quarters to the boat, 
which was in waiting to convey them to Pittsburgh. 
On their arrival at the boat, James K. Kelly, Esq. 
(now the chief justice of the Supreme Court of the 
State of Oregon), addressed them on behalf of the 
people, in a beautiful and touching manner, and 
spoke of the excitement, perils and dangers of the 
soldier's life. The manly bearing of those gallant 
hearts gave an earnest that their conduct would never 
be such as to sully the fair fame of their mountain 

" When Mr. Kelly concluded, Captain Irwin re- 
sponded in his usual style. After commenting large- 
ly upon the kindness of his friends, he made a most 
solemn and feeling appeal to the valor and bravery of 
his men, concluding in this wise : ' My men know 
me ; I can trust them ; I can rely upon them ; I trust 
in God we will never tarnish the fair fame of our na- 
tive hills,' and turning to the vast assemblage present, 
he added, ' and now it only remains for us to bid you 
a sad, it may be a long farewell.' While he was 



speaking, the gay and the grave, old and young, 
maintained almost a breathless silence, eager to catch 
every sentence. All were on tiptoe to catch a last 
look at those destined for a southern, sultry clime. 
There were many, very many, whose tears flowed pro- 
fusely, who seemed to possess neither the power nor 
the inclination to repress them, while listening to the 
fervid eloquence of Captain Irwin, while many in the 
distance, who were eager to hear as those near the 
speaker, could be gratified only whea the restless 
wind might waft it in its own good time to their lis- 
tening ear. There was a mutual interchange of sym- 
pathy and feeling between the soldier 'and citizen; 
and where is the man who would not wish well those 
brave hearts who are sacrificing the comforts of home 
and of friends and the sweethearts of the Juniata for 
a distant land, where the ravages of disease incident 
to the country are as pestilential as the Simoon 
winds of Arabia, in view of promoting the dignity 
and honor of our nation, and of vindicating her 
character from reproach. Finally, the word was 
given to cast off' ; amid the cheers, farewells and with 
a hearty ' God bless you ! ' they took their leave of us, 
some of them, perhaps, for the last time. We hope 
they may all live to return to the bosoms of their 
friends and relatives, among whom they will be wel- 
comed as the victors of olden times were wont to be 
received. Scenes like this one are not frequent in 
the valley of the Juniata, and can any blame us if we 
give full scope to our zeal and enthusiasm '? The la- 
dies, too, who are always ready to favor with their 
smiles any good enterprise of our sex, were present in 
large number to join in the rights and ceremonies of 
a long adieu to the defenders of our native soil." 

At McVeytown, on the next day, a similar 
scene occurred. More soldiers had enlisted in 
the company from this place than from any 
other locality in the county, and a seemingly 
deeper interest and feeling vrere manifested by 
the people, of which there was a very large 
number from the surrounding country to bid a 
last farewell to the soldiers. 

Before leaving McVeytown, Colonel R. C. 
Hale presented Captain Irwin with a sword, 
A. P. Jacobs, Esq., making the presentation 
speech, A sash was presented by Major M. 
Criswell. At the same time the citizens of 
McVeytown presented Lieutenant McCoy with 
a regulation sword, and Major M. Criswell pre- 
sented him with a dress sword, and Lieutenant 
William Macklin with a military sash, and the 
ladies with a beautifully-bound copy of the 
Bible. The company received many tokens 
and manifestations of great kindness from the 

people of the village and vicinity. Lieutenant 
McCoy was appointed acting quartermaster 
and commissary. 

The company arrived at Pittsburgh on March 
31st and quartered at the American House. 
April 1st it was nnistered by Lieutenant Field, 
U. S. A. Surgeon Dr. McDowell, U. S. A., made 
the surgical examination, in doing which he re- 
jected James Criswell, who afterwards returned 
to his home. The following is a correct list of 
the comj^any as mustered into the United States 
service for the war : 

Captain : William H. Irwin. 

First Lieutenant : Thomas F. McCoy. 

Second Lieutenants : Weidmau Foster, Byers Kuhn. 

First Sergeant : John McGuigan. 

Second Sergeant: Joseph Dull. 

Third Sergeant : Michael T. McEnnis. 

Fourth Sergeant : James Kerr. 

First Corporal : Thomas O'Brien. 

Second Corporal : G. W. Soult. 

Third Corporal : B. F. Miller. 

Fourth Corporal : John Bayard. 

Musician : John Sifticks. 


James B. Alexander. 
Jas. H. Anderson. 
David L. Bogle. 
William Bogle. 
Peter Beaver. 
John Bice. 
James Criswell. 
William Cook. 
Isaac Correll. 
William M. Coulter. 
Robert Cargill. 
Willis Copelin. 
J. H. Cowden. 
Isaac Campbell. 
Jacob Carpenter. 
Samuel W. Davidson. 
Cornelius Duff". 
Robert Davis. 
Isaiah Dunn. 
John Deehl. 
D. S. Disbrow. 
Samuel Evarts. 
John Fink. 
James Fulton. 
Abraham Foster. 
Thomas Gibbs. 
John AV. Godwyn. 
Godfrey Gressmoyer. 
William Guthrie. 
James Hays. 

John N. Hays. 
William P. Hafty. 
Reuben Hall. 
James Hite. 
John Hoffman. 
Jacob Hawn. 
Joseph Jackson. 
Abraham Walker. 
G. ^V. Watson. 
Isaiah Knight. 
William Kurtz. 
Uriah Kitchen 
Albert B. Kauffman. 
Christian Long. 
John Landis. 
James Mahan. 
James McCauley. 
John McClenahan. 
Geo. E. Miller. 
Reynolds McDonald. 
Patrick Noonan. 
John Neff'. 
Jacob Nicholson. 
Julius Ort. 
Samuel Patterson. 
Levi Peters. 
Simon Pennington. 
Caleb G. Patterson. 
James Roles. 
William Roles. 



James Rager. John Sigler. 

Geo. W. Rager. Geo. Susseman. 

William Rager. John Taylor. 

McClung Radcliff. Lemuel Taylor. 

Isaac J. Stephens. Bar. Thatcher. 

Isaac Signer. Henry Wells. 

Frederick Smith. .Joseph Williams. 

Joseph Sedinger. John Woodside. 
Henry SulotF. 

While at Pitt.sburgli Private Francis Tliomas 
deserted. The company left Pittsburgh April 
3d in the steamer " Germautowu," with Cajjtain 
Barnard's company of voltigeur.s, and Captain 
Moore's company of the Eleventh Infantry, and 
arrived at the city of New Orleans April 12th, 
and were immediately transferred to the trans- 
port ship "America," in which were already 
about six hundred soldiers of all arms. Before 
the arrival the soldiers were informed of the 
capture of Vera Cruz. There being no field 
officers present, Captain William H. Irwin was 
placed in command. While at this city Privates 
William Guthrie and James McCauley deserted. 

While the troops were preparing for the sea 
voyage a diiBculty occurred between Captain 
Wm. H. Irwin, Eleventh Infantry, and Captain 
R. C. Merrick, of the Third Dragoons (in 
later life a lawyer in Washington City of 
national repute), which well-nigh resulted in 
a duel. When one of the parties had crossed to 
Algiers, the fighting-ground, and the other was 
about to pa,ss over. Lieutenant McCoy made 
the information at the mayor's office, and 
speedily officers were in pursuit and an arrest 
made, which resulted in averting the disgraceful 

On the 18th of April, 1847, the ship 
" America " left the city of New Orleans with 
her burden of nearly eight hundred soldiers, 
bound for Brazos, near the month of the Rio 
Grande, and after a safe passage of four days 
arrived at that point. From this the troops 
were taken by steamers up the river some forty 
miles and were in a camp of instruction under 
the command of Brigadier-General Geo. Cad- 
wallader, where they remained for nearly a 
nionth. The first soldier of Company D, in 
the person of Private Caleb G. Patterson, died 
in hospital at Matamoras. He had been enlisted 
at Bellefonte, Centre Countv, Pa. General 

Scott, having advanced into the interior from 
Vera Cruz, and gained a great victory at Cerro 
Gordo, ordered the troops in this camp of in- 
struction to reintbrce his army then at Jalapa 
and Perote, and advancing upon Puebla. The 
ship "Meteor" conveyed the company in six 
days' sailing upon the Gulf, and on the 2nd of 
June anchored in the harbor at Vera Cruz, 
and near the Castle of San Juan de Ulloa. 
The troops were landed on the 4th of June un 
the beach, two miles north of the city. On the 
8th of June all the troops in camp took the 
line of march, with a long train, for the interior 
and with a view of reinforcing Colonel Mcin- 
tosh, who had left a few days before, and near 
Plan del Rio had been attacked by a force of 
the enemy. Fourteen of the company had 
been left in hospital — five at Point Isabel and 
nine at Vera Cruz — on account of sickness. 

Having joined Mcintosh, General Cadwal- 
lader assumed command of the militia forces 
and continued the advance. The company 
experienced its first fight at the National Bridge 
on the 11th of June. The company received 
credit for brave conduct in the fight, which con- 
tinued long into the night, and received special 
distinction for l)ringing from the scene of the 
battle, under fire, several wagons loaded with 
specie (for the payment of the army) that had 
been upset down an embankment during the 
engagement. John Hoffman was killed in the 
fight and Frederick Smith wounded. Twenty- 
five were wounded of other companies. After 
resting one day at the National Bridge, the com- 
mand advanced, passing over the battle-ground 
of Cerro Gordo and by " Encesin,'' Santa Anna's 
fine country-seat, entered the city of Jalapa, 
the Mexican Paradise, June loth. Being joined 
here by the force under Colonel Shields, which 
had been occupying the city to keep open com- 
munications, composed partly of the Second 
Regiment of Penn.sylvania Volunteers, the Avhole 
force advanced in the direction of the city and 
castle of Perote, some eighty miles farther in 
the interior, and on June 21st arriveiV at this 
interesting point, entering upon the table-lands 
of Mexico, and having passed around the snow- 
clad moimtain-peak of Orizaba, its summit 
beins eighteen thousand feet above the sea. 



Guerrillas were constantly hanging on the flanks 
and made attacks at every opportunity, and the 
greatest precaution was necessarily observed. 
At La Hoya quite a fight took place, in which 
Captain Walker, with his company of mounted 
rifles, took part, and the enemy was routed with 
considerable loss in killed and wounded, our 
loss being small. At Jalapa the company 
lost, as was supposed at the time by assassina- 
tion, their pojndar and famous old drummer, 
John Sifficks. It was afterwards learned, 
however, that he was a prisoner in the hands of 
the enemy, and was kept to the close of the 
war and died in the city of New Orleans on his 
way home. The castle of Perote is one of the 
greatest fortifications in the country, covering 
twenty-two acres of ground, mounting one 
hundred and twenty guns, and erected in the 
strongest and most permanent way, and looks as 
if it were impregnal)le if fairly defended by a 
competent force. The First Pennsylvania 
Regiment Volunteers, with Captain Walker's 
mounted rifles, were the garrison of the castle. 
Here the company met many of their acquaint- 
ances that had preceded them in the war. 
Surgeon John C. Reynolds, with Sutler D. M. 
Dull, both from McVeytown, manifested much 
kindness to those of their acquaintance in the 
company. General Cadwallader's force re- 
mained at this place for two weeks, waiting the 
arrival of General Pillow with additional re- 
inforcement. The following extract from the 
diary of an officer gives an idea of the way our 
soldiers suifered in the Mexican War : 

"A great many sick, in consequence of the climate 
and the exposure, there not being tents sufficient to 
protect the officers and men from the inclemency of 
the weather. In consequence of this, hundreds are 
in the hospital. Half the men of our company are 
sick and cannot do duty. The march from Vera 
Cruz was severe on officers and men alike. Men 
dropped dead on the way. Hundreds would give out 
on the march and lay down exhausted on the way, 
and had to be forced up in the evening by the rear 
guard to prevent their falling into the hands and be- 
ing killed by the guerrillas. At night, tired, debili- 
tated and worn out, would lie down on the ground 
hundreds with no covering but the canopy." 

Every day the "Dead March" was heard and 
the volleys over the dead comrade, who found 
a grave far from home in a foreign land. Ser- 

geant Joseph Dull, who enlisted at McVey- 
town, a very worthy man and zealous soldier, 
being left at Vera Cruz sick, and having gotten 
better, undertook to rejoin the comjjany by the 
next train, died on the way and was interred 
with honors of war by Captain Syborg's com- 
pany of the same regiment, near Eucerro, about 
ten miles east of Jalapa. 

General Pillow, having arrived with two 
thousand men, and being the ranking officer, 
assumed the command of the whole force of 
about four thousand men, with a train of five 
hundred wagons, took up the line of march 
July 2d and left Perote for the headquarters of 
the army at Puebla, eighty miles distant on the 
highway to the city of Mexico. The enemy 
made occasional demonstrations, especially at 
the Pinal Pass, but no serious attack was made, 
and the force reached and marched into the 
beautiful city of Puebla on the 8th of July. 
Large numbers of Scott's army and of the 
people of the city turned out to receive the 
long-wished-for reinforcements. Major Wm. 
H. Graham, an old veteran of the Fourth 
United States Infantry, and who had been 
appointed lieutenant-colonel of the Eleventh 
United States Infantry, the regiment of which 
the Juniata Guards formed a part, now known 
as Company D of that regiment, joined the 
regiment here, and soon after. Colonel A. C. 
Ramsey being sick, Lieutenant-Colonel Graham 
became the permanent commander until killed 
at the battle of Molino del Rev. 

The month spent at Puebla was one of great 
interest and enjoyment. During this time Gen- 
eral Scott was organizing and preparing his 
army for the grand march ujjon the city of 
Mexico, and drills and reviews were the order 
of the day. The movement was to take place 
as soon as General Frank Pierce arrived with 
the last expected train and reinforcements, 
which took place August 7, 1847. An officer's 
diary gives this account of the advance, — 

" August 7th. — The First Division left this morning 
— 3000 strong — -under the command of General 
Twiggs, for the City of Mexico. I passed along the 
line as it was formed in front of General Scott's 
headquarters, fronting the grand Plaza. The column 
extended along the street three-quarters of a mile. 
They gave a deafening cheer, the music struck up 



' Yankee Doodle,' and off they marched for the 
' Halls of the Montezumas.' " 

General Quitman left with his division on 
the 8th, General Worth on the 9th and Gen- 
eral Pillow on the 10th. Quitman's division 
was composed of volunteers ; the other three 
divisions, together with Colonel Summer's 
brigade of cavalry and the artillery, were all 
regulars. The Juniata Guards, now Company 
D, Eleventh Regiment United States army, was 
in General Pillow's division, Cadwallader's 
brigade. The route the army was required to 
march was over one hundred miles to the city 
of Mexico, and the road crossed the lofty 
mountain a little west of the great Snow Moun- 
tain and volcano, Popocatepetl, into the Valley 
of Mexico. At this point the diary referred to 
says, — 

"Again in the advance, Company D the leading 
company. A severe, hard march to-day for twenty- 
five miles. To give encouragement and spirit to the 
troops, the band would play in front and sometimes 
would stoj) and play while the brigade marched 
The power of music the world confesses, and its re- 
viving power was realized to-day. There was no 
fighting to-day, although expected. In ascending 
the mountain we i)assed through ten miles of woods, 
and, tired and weary, at length, to our great delight, 
the Valley of Mexico burst upon our view, and the 
city, with its domes and church-spires glistening in 
the bright sun, many miles away up the valley. The 
sight was grand and beautiful in the extreme and in- 
spiring to the soldiers. Lakes, extended plains, cities, 
towns and villages and haciendas dotted the great 
historic valley of the Aztecs. Here was the home of 
Montezuma and the theatre of Cortez's wonderful 
and romantic achievements nearly three centuries 

General Scott, finding the eastern defenses of 
the city of Mexico too strong to be taken 
without great loss, hit upon the expedient of 
his famous flank march of thirty miles around 
Lake Chaleo and the advance upon the south 
of the city ; he was successful in this move- 
ment, the advance column arriving at the city 
of San Augustine on the evening of the 17th 
of August, this city being only eight miles from 
the city of Mexico. Within the next twenty- 
four hours the whole of Scott's army had con- 
centrated at San Augustine, and General Worth 
had advanced within cannon-shot of the enemy's 

strong defenses at San Antonio, two miles 
nearer the city of Mexico. On the arrival ot 
Pillow's division on the 18th, the Eleventh In- 
fantry, with Captain Kearney's and Captain 
McReynolds' companies of drag(jons, under the 
direction of Captain Robert E. Lee, of General 
Scott's staif, were ordered to make a reconnois- 
sance of the enemy's jjosition at Contreras. In 
doing this Captain Lee took his escort right 
into an advance force of the enemy in the 
Pedregal and had a lively fight, in which Cap- 
tain Irwin's comjiany was noted for its gallant 
conduct. The enemy suffered quite a loss in 
killed and prisoners. Lieutenant McCoy saved 
the life of a Mexican soldier and secured him 
as a prisoner when at the point of being shot 
down by one of his men. Our soldiers were 
disposed not to give quarter on account of the 
Mexicans having assassinated so many of our 

The account of the operations for the next 
two days we extract from an officer's diary, — 

"August 18. — We quarter to-night in a fine house 
in the city of San Augustine. Orange-trees bearing 
fruit in the court-yard, and Col. Graham cautioned 
the soldiers against taking the oranges, and the 
tempting fruit was left hanging upon the branches. 
To-morrow will disclose great events most assuredly. 
There will be a great battle. May the Great and 
Good Being preserve us through the contest and 
grant victory to our arms. 

" 19th. — The great movement began this morning. 
General Pillow's Division moved at nine o'clock, 
Cadwallader's brigade leading, the 11th in the 
advance. The direction was the same road that had 
been reconnoitered by Captain Lee the previous 
evening, and where we had the skirmish. Pillow 
occupied the hill until Twiggs' Division passed. At 
this time the enemy opened fire by their artillery 
from Contreras. Twiggs was to make the attack on 
the fortifications ; Pillow was to support. The diffi- 
culties of the way, which was over Pedregal of lava, 
rocks and fissures, almost insurmountable. McGru- 
der's battery was advanced, and was soon dismounted 
by the enemy's fire, causing considerable slaughter of 
men and officers. Horses could not pass at all, and 
the men with great difficulty. Cadwallader's brigade 
succeeded in working its way, all on foot, over the 
rocky way, and he deployed his force on the plain, 
between the enemy on the hill and the city. To the 
right and front ot Cadwallader, Santa Anna ap- 
peared in person, with probably six thousand men, 
drawn up in line of battle only a few hundred yards 
oft". One of their reconnoitering parties came so close 



that two companies ou our right, Irwin's and 
Guthrie's, were ordered to open fire, which was 
returned by the enemy. Here we were in a tight 
place, with a large force of the enemy in front and 
rear. We had no artillery. The officers were on 
foot, their horses not being able to pass the Pedregal. 
About dusk General Smith's brigade, of Twiggs' 
division, and followed by General Riley's and Shields'. 
Our company (Irwin's)- was ordered to occupy the 
village church. Generals Smith and Cadwallader 
had their headquarters in this church, and here it was 
determined and ordered to storm the enemy's works on 
the hill of Contreras at the dawn of next daj^ Col. 
Riley was to head the storming-party, composed of his 
own brigade, to be supported by Cadwallader. Gen- 
eral Smith commanded in person, in consequence of 
Generals Smith and Twiggs having become separated 
from their commands. 

" 20th. — At two o'clock this morning our company 
left the church, joined the regiment and marched 
towards the hill, preceded by Riley's brigade. The 
march was to the right of the fort, the intention being 
to go round in that direction and come upon them 
in the rear. The march was in rain and mud. Day 
approached before the troops were in position. The 
enemy became aware of the movement and prepared 
to give us a warm reception. In consequence of the 
rain, the arms of the troops had to be examined and 
many soldiers had to withdraw their loads and put in 
new ones with powder dry. This took time. At 
length the position was gained, and the column 
steadily moved, the storming regiments in array with 
flags flying, arms gleaming and swords flashing. 
Then the firing began — a most terrible roar of cannon 
and musketry. In less than twenty minutes the fort 
was in our possession, and the ground strewn with 
the dead and the dying ; the veterans of the renowned 
Hidalgo were swept from their works with the force 
of an avalanche. 

" One moment, like ten thousand drums. 

The musketry rolls out; 
While like the bass-drum's booming knells, 
The cannons' diapason swells. 

With many a mingled shout ; 
A gallant storm — -a thousand shouts ! 

And lo ! the foes fiy fast ; 
In maddened haste, in wild alarms 
They break their ranks, they leave their arms 

Like chaff' before the blast ! " 

This was a great victory for the American 
army, and created tiie greatest enthusiasm. 
It turned the right flauks of the enemy's gen- 
eral worlds in defense of the city, and made the 
strong defenses of San Antonio untenable, and 
caused the force there to fall back to Cherubusco, 
with General Worth in pursuit. At this point 
the officer's diary gives this account, — 

" After the taking of the fortifications on the hill, 
Twiggs', Pillow's and part of Quitman's divisions,, 
moved towards the city, distant about six miles, but 
in full and magnificent view from our elevated 
ground. When near Cherubusco the next strong- 
hold of the enemy, 'Old Chippewa,' that we had not 
seen for twenty-four hours, came riding down the 
long column. Cheer after cheer greeted the old 
veteran. When opposite our regiment, and after we 
had cheered him with our whole hearts, he stopped for 
a moment and addressed us in the following words : 
' Thanks ! Thanks to God, and glory to this gallant 
army ; I wish I could hug every one of you to my 
bosom.' He spoke these words with great emphasis 
and emotion. At this time we were nearer to the 
enemy's works at Cherubusco than we thought, 
as very soon a brisk fire was heard in our front, and 
it was manifest that -the battle had begun, as the 
volume of the cannons' roar increased. Every officer 
was alive to the contest. General Pillow, in person, 
led our regiment oft" to the right to support the Sixth 
Infantry of General Worth's command, which had 
been driven back on the San Antonio Causeway. 
Here we were under very heavy fire within one- 
hundred and fifty yards of the two forts, and con- 
tinually advancing closer. The contest was long and 
sanguinary. In the course of three hours the enemy's- 
forts and fortifications were in our hands, but at the 
great sacrifice of one thousand of our men, in killed 
and wounded. Our regiment pressed forward along the 
Causeway leading to the city with Worth's advanced 
regiments, and until we received the order of recalls 
Whileherewe witnessed thedariiig chargeofKearney's 
dragoons upon the San Antonio Gaseta, and cheered 
them most heartily as they passed us with banners 
flying and flashing sabres, and with the sound and 
force of a tempest." 

These successes of the American army 
alarmed Santa Anna and the Mexican govern- 
ment, and during the night they sent a deputa- 
tion from the city to General Scott's head- 
quarters, at the city of San Augustine, propos- 
ing an armistice and negotiations for peace. 
General Scott granted and agreed to the 
armistice, and the eighteen days of its duration 
resulted not in peace, but in terrible and bloody 
war. It gave our army rast, however, and 
fitted it for further triumphs. In these eighteen 
days our army took possession of all the coun- 
try on the south side of the city of Mexico, 
including towns, villages and cities, in a com- 
passof ten miles, and lived in-doors, enjoying all 
the beauties and luxuries of a rich country, teem- 
ing with plenty. Our regiment had quarters in 
the Hacienda San Jose, near the village Mexcoac, 



and from which we had a good view of the city 
of Mexico, could hear their ciiurcli-bells and 
their army salutes. The cities of San Augustine 
and Tacubaya, ten miles apart, were the extreme 
points of our army, and Worth's division occu- 
pied the latter city and was in good cannon- 
range of the famed castle of Chapultepcc. It 
was at the village of Mexcoac, where the 
thirty- two deserters from our army captured in 
the battle] of Cherubusco, were hung, (most of 
them just after the Stars and Stripes floated from 
the castle, that being the signal given by Gen- 
eral Kearney for swinging them off), which was 
the penalty for deserting and fighting against 
the American flag. 

On the 7th of September General Scott, 
finding that Santa Anna was violating it, ter- 
minated the armistice, the tocsin of war was 
sounded, and the hosts were again marshaled for 
the contest, — 

"lu the afteruoon of to-day the regiment was 
marched from their comfortable quarters at the 
Hacienda to about a mile nearer the city, where we 
encamped. A half-hour after dusk, when we had 
everything arranged for a comfortable night's rest, 
an order came from General Scott that the regiment 
should report to him at Tacubaya in two hours. 
We immediately formed without even striking tents, 
and marched direct for headquarters, three miles 
distant. Before nine o'clock p.m. we were reported 
by General Cadwallader as being ready for any ser- 
vice which was required. We laid on our arms to 
await further orders. Next morning, at 3i o'clock, 
September 8th, we were again formed and quietly 
marched towards the enemy's works at Molino del 
Rey, about a mile and a half distant, the object 
being to attack these works, lying directly west and 
under the guns of the Castle of Chapultepec. The 
part of the American Array that was ordered by 
General Scott to accomplish the work of driving the 
enemy from his position was composed of Cadwal- 
lader's brigade, Worth's division, a part of which 
was to be the storming-party, Duncan's and Hager's 
batteries, some other artillery force and the cavalry, 
— about thirty-two hundred men in all. We gained 
the eminence near the forts before daylight, when 
the artillery opened, the infantry continuing to move 
steadily forward. At the dawn of day the storming 
force was near the enemy's lines, which extended 
from fort to fort, and a heavy musketry fire was 
opened, which was terribly destructive to life, and 
the storming column, a large part having been killed 
and wounded, was forced back. At this critical 
moment our regiment (the Eleventh) was deployed, 

advanced rapidly and charged the enemy. A most 
destructive fire was poured upon us, killing and 
wounding one-fourth of the regiment. Notwith- 
standing the hail-storm of bullets, the officers and men 
who had not fallen pressed gallantly forward, driv- 
ing the enemy and occupying his line. The battle 
continued to rage, during which the enemy made an 
effort to retake the position from which they had been 
driven, but were gallantly repulsed. Our loss in this 
battle was so great that the battle of Molino del Eey 
is known as the bloodiestof the war. Outof the thirty- 
two hundred engaged, over eight hundred were killed 
and wounded, and amongst them many distinguished 
and valuable officers. In our own regiment forty- 
three were killed and wounded, being over one-fourth 
of the number engaged. Lieutenant-Colonel Gra- 
ham, our commanding officer, an old army officer of 
distinction, was killed, having twelve wounds upon 
his person. Lieutenant Johnson, a brother of Gov- 
ernor Johnson, was killed in the charge. Captain 
Irwin was severely wounded in the left hand. John 
Sigler was killed ; John Hayes and Isaac Mahan 
mortally wounded, and died after the battle. James 
Eager, Macluney Radclitf and I. Hite were wounded, 
but not fatally. Lieutenant McCoy was the sixth in 
rank in his regiment before entering the battle, and 
at its close was the ranking officer for duty, collected 
the men, formed the lines and being relieved by fresh 
troops under General Frank Pierce, marched the 
regiment from the tield." 

From this day Lieutenant JlcCoy became 
the permanent commander of the company^ 
Captain Irwin, in consequence of his wound, 
being in the hospital. The company having 
been reduced by battle and sickness, two other 
companies, for the time of the fighting, were con- 
solidated with it, nudving it seventy-five strong ; 
Lieutenant McCoy was placed in command. 
Operations continued on the 9th, 10th and 11th 
down near the city, between the San Antonio 
and the Piedad Causeways, leading into the city. 
Batteries were planted, and some skirmishing 
took place. On the night of the 11th, Pillow's 
division was taken back to the battle-ground of 
Molino del Rey, with a view of besieging 
Chapultepec and capturing this stronghold, as 
it was necessary to do this before advancing 
upon the city, — 

"At four o'clock on the morning of the 12th we 
were again on the move, with the object of capturing 
this impregnable stronghold, to any but American 
soldiers. At the break of day our division 
deployed in theopen plain south and west of the Castle 
of Chapultepec. Soon our artillery opened, and the 



«nemy quickly returned the fire. The bombardment 
was continued all day with good effect and but little 
loss on our part. Lieutenant McCoy was ordered to 
report with his company to Captain Robert E. Lee 
(the great Confederate general in the late Rebellion), 
to aid him in planting a battery of heavy guns, and 
spent most of the day, receiving the thanks of that 
distinguished ofHcer at the completion of the work. 
Although tired and weary, in the evening the same 
officer and company was ordered on dangerous out- 
post duty, with orders to occupy the Cassa Mata fort, 
in the rear of our force, and to hold it to the last. 

" September 13, 18-19. at 7 o'clock (says the oflScer's 
■diary), the whole army was on the move and concen- 
trating in the direction of the south and southwest of 
the castle, that being the only assailable part. It had 
ieen determined to carry it by assault, and the col- 
umns, with the ladders and other arrangements for 
the purpose, had been arranged previously. Before 
the columns of infantry and storming-parties ad- 
vanced the heavy guns were opened from all our bat- 
teries and poured in a terrible fire of shot and shell, 
then ceased, and the whole force gallantly and deter- 
minedly moved to the attack in the face of the heavy 
fire of musketry, shell and grape, and in less than an 
hour after the advance was made the Stars and Stripes 
were seen floating from the flag-pole of the castle. 
Such a burst of joy no man ever heard as this impor- 
tant result was accomplished. General Bravo, the 
commanding general of the castle, and a good many 
prisoners were taken ; besides, a great many of the 
enemy were killed and wounded. Our army lost no 
■time in pushing on towards the city ; General Quit- 
man, with his volunteers, taking the Causeway leading 
to the Bekn Gareta, and General Worth, supported 
by Pillow's troops, now under Cadwallader, advanced 
by the Causeway leading to the ><an Cosme Oareta, 
and before dark both gates were in our possession, 
and by ten o'clock at night a mortar battery was 
throwing bombs into the heart of the city. Great 
success attended our army to-day. The storming of 
the Castle of Chapultepec struck consternation into 
the enemy. During the night Santa Anna, his army 
and the Mexican government evacuated the city, and 
& deputation came out to General Scott and surren- 
dered the city, and in the morning, about one o'clock. 
General Scott made his grand entry into the city of 
Mexico, at the head of the Cavalry Brigade. He 
xode into the Grand Plaza, alighted at the National 
Palace, went into one of the grand apartments, and 
penned his famous congratulatory order, in which 
may be found these words : ' Under the favor of God, 
by the valor of this army, after many glorious victories, 
we have hoisted the colors of our country in the Capi- 
tal of Mexico and on the Palace of its Government.' " 

Within a weelc from tiiis time nearly the 
whole army had entered the city. This had to 
be done gradually, as the quarters could be se- 

cured, which were in churches, convents and pub- 
lic buildings, so far as possible. 

"To-day, September 22, 1847, the 11th Infantry, 
commanded by Major L. F. Hunter, marched into the 
famed city of Mexico. Thousands were lined along 
the streets to see. Our Band played various tunes as 
we marched through the streets, and when near the 
Grand Plaza, struck up ' Yankee Doodle.' The scene 
was interesting and exciting. We are quartered in 
the Convent Santo Domingo, on Guadaloupe Street, 
and within two squares of the Grand Plaza." 

Although all this series of victories were 
gained, and great sacrifices made of thousands 
of gallant men, yet there was no peace. Gen- 
eral Scott had left Puebla with an army of ten 
thousand five hundred men, and after the bat- 
tles he entered the city with about seven thou- 
sand effective men, and now his great effort and 
duty was to hold this great city of two hundred 
thousand of a population until reinforcements 
could be brought from the States to secure and 
preserve the fruits of victory. Scott's small 
army was therefore wholly engaged for months 
in the performance of the most careful guard 
duty all through and around the city. 

A train of wagons, with an escort of troops, 
left on the 1st of November, with a view of 
opening the road to Vera Cruz, three hundred 
miles away. Some of the wounded and dis- 
abled and some discharged soldiers took this 
opportunity of returning to their homes. Cap- 
tain Irwin and Sergeant M. T. McGinnis 
were with this train. D. M. Dull, who had 
been an amateur soldier with Colonel J. W. 
Geary's command of Pennsylvania volunteers, 
and honorably mentioned in his report of the 
battle of Chapultepec, also left in the same 
train. Corporal William M. Coulter and Joseph 
Jackson were afterwards discharged on surgeon's 
certificate of disability, and returned home in a 
subsequent train for Vera Cruz. 

In about three months from the capture of 
the city reinforcements began to arrive. Gen- 
eral Cushing and General Patterson each brought 
a force of several thousand troops, and this was 
a great relief to the army in the city. 

On the 6th of January, 1848, General Cad- 
wallader was sent with a force of several thou- 
sand men, of which our regiment formed a part, 
to occupy Toluca, the capital of the State of 



Mexico, lying about forty miles southwept of 
the fity of Mexico, in the great Toluca Valley. 
This was accomplished without any opposition 
on tlie part of the enemy. The Eleventh 
Regiment was detached and occupied the city of 
Lormes, a strategic ])oint, and which had been 
fortified, and situated on the north side of the 
valley, and within thirty miles of the city of 
Mexico. Here the regiment remained, enjoying 
good health, performing the routine of military 
duty for a period of five months, during which 
time the negotiations for peace were in progress. 
While the company was at this city, those of 
its members who had been left behind in the 
diiferent hospitals, and had not been discharged 
or died, rejoined. About one-third of the com- 
pany had been thus left, of which the following 
died or were discharged from hospital : 
David L. Bogle, died September 25, 1847, at Perote. 
Robert Campbell, died July 5, 1847, at Perote. 
John Goodwin, died August 5, 1847, at Perote. 
John McLenahan, died October 20, 1847, at Perote. 
Isaac J. Stephens, died November 30, 1847, at Perote. 
William Cook, died 1847, at Point Isabel. 
Daniel S. Disbrow, died November 20, 1847, at city 

of Mexico. 
John Fink, died August 14, 1847, at Puebla. 
Sergeant Thomas O'Brien, died September 17, 1847, 

at Puebla. 
Simon Pennington, died August 10, 1847, at Puebla. 
William H. Eager, died November 8, 1847, at Puebla. 
James Roles, died 1847, at Puebla. 
Joseph Sedinger, died August 18, 1847, at Puebla. 
Isaiah Knight, died July 17, 1847, at Vera Cruz. 
William Roles, died at Vera Cruz. 
John Siffick, died July 6, 1848, at New Orleans. 
John Taylor, died October 10, 1847, at city of 

James Hite, died August 25, 1848, at Staten Is- 
land, N. Y. 
Isaac Correll, discharged November 18, 1847, at Vera 

Thomas Gibbs, discharged November 18, 1847, at 

Baton Rouge, La. 
Reuben Hall, discharged November 7, 1847, at Puebla. 
Sergeant B. F. Miller, discharged 1847, at Baton 

Rouge, La. 
Corporal G. W. Soult, discharged February 5, 1848, 

at New Orleans. 
Jesse Walker, deserted from hospital. Baton Rouge, 

January, 1848. 

Several second lieutenants had been appointed 
to Company D that circumstances had prevented 
joining the company. One of these was Lieuten- 

ant Thomas Welsh, who had been wounded in 
the battle of Buena Vista, and after joining 
the company, in consequence of this wound, 
was required to return to his home in Columbia, 
Pa. He became the distinguished ojlonel of 
the Forty-fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Vol- 
unteers in the late Rebellion, and was pnj- 
moted to brigadier-general, and while in the 
campaign against Vicksburg contracted sickness 
from which he died. Lieutenant James Keenan 
was another one who joined the company and 
remained with it until discharged. He was, 
after the war, appointed adjutant-general of 
Pennsylvania, and when General Frank Pierce 
became President of the United States he ap- 
pointed him consul to Honolulu, where he re- 
mained until the breaking out of the Rebellion, 
when he returned with the intention of fighting 
for the Union, but died in New York City soon 
after his arrival. Lieutenant William H. Scott 
served with the company from Vera Cruz up to 
the city of Mexico, and was a brave and intelli- 
gent officer, and had served in Jeff Davi.s' 
regiment, under General Taylor ; was from 
Vicksburg, and through Davis' influence re- 
ceived transfer into the old army ; becoming 
involved in a duel with a brother officer, was 
compelled to resign, when he joined Colonel 
Walker's expedition to Central America and 
was blown up in one of his ill-fated vessels. 
Lieutenant J. Minor Stout was another young 
officer who was temporarily attached to the 
company and served with it a few months near 
the close of the war. Corporal John A. Bay- 
ard enlisted in Belmont, was appointed a sec- 
ond lieutenant in the regiment and soon after 
retired from the service. 

Many changes necessarily took place in the 
non-commissioned officers of the company. The 
first sergeant's, one of the most important posi- 
tions, had been filled before the company left 
home by John Maguigan, a very worthy man ; 
but having taken sick, he, after recovering, was 
detached on the recruiting service and never 
rejoined the company in Mexico. It therefore 
became nece.-^sary to select another, an acting 
first sergeant, for this important position. This 
soldier was found in the person of James B. 
Alexander, a young man of talent and intelli- 



gence from the east end of the Kishacoquillas 
Valley, who filled the place with commendable 
faithfulness and courage. His fidelity and ser- 
vices were such that he deserves well of his 
country. Isaac Signer and Albert B. Kauif- 
mann, two gallant soldiers (the former wounded 
in the battle of Molino del Rey), became ser- 
geants. The corporals were William O. Bogle, 
Henry Wells, Peter Beaver and James M. Ea- 
ger ; the latter had been badly wounded in the 
battle of Molino del Rey. 

As to the services of the rank and file of the 
company there can be no question, as they were 
long, arduous, faithful and brave. They never, 
in all the varied fights and battles, turned their 
backs to the enemy. They charged and stormed 
the enemy's works whenever and wherever or- 
dered. In the hottest part of the battle of 
Molino del Rey, when the old regulars of 
Worth's division were repulsed by the enemy's 
murderous fire, the company leading the regi- 
ment charged with the greatest gallantry into 
the breach, retaking the lost ground, driving 
the enemy, and maintaining their ground in the 
bloody struggle with the greatest enthusiasm 
until the victory was secured. In the terrible 
fighting and advance into the enemy's lines on 
the Pedregal, the storming of their works on 
the heights of Contreras, and the charge with 
Worth upon the Fe de pont in the battle of 
Cherubusco, the same determined, gallant spirit 
was manifested. But there was a more danger- 
ous and destructive enemy to contend against 
than the battle-field. The climate and the dis- 
ease of the country relentlessly decimated the 
ranks of the whole army. The march through 
the hospitals to the soldier's grave was continuous 
and unceasing, and thousands of brave hearts 
who had left happy Northern homes found 
their last resting-place beneath the clods of the 
plains and valleys of Mexico. 

"On Fame's eternal camping-ground 
Their silent tents are spread ; 
And glory guards, with solemn round, 
The bivouac of the dead." 

" Nor shall your glory be forgot, 
While Fame her record keeps. 
Or Honor points the hallowed spot 
Where Valor proudly sleeps." 

As before indicated, Captain William H. Ir- 
win was in command of the company until he 
was severely wounded in thesanguinary battle of 
Molino del Rey. On account of this wound and 
debility, he was permitted to return to his home at 
Lewistown, where he was assigned to the re- 
cruiting service, and was continued on that duty 
until the end of the war, laeutenant McCoy 
remaining in command of the company nearly 
a year after, and returning with it when peace 
was declared. Captain Irwin has received 
honorable mention for gallantry and good con- 
duct in the battles in which he participated, by 
the commanding officers of the regiment, ia 
their official reports, and received the commission 
of major by brevet from the President of the 
United States, for gallant and meritorious con- 
duct in the battles of Contreras and Cheru^ 

General George Cadwallader, who commanded 
the brigade of which the Eleventh Regiment, 
United States army, composed a part, has made 
the following record of the conduct of Lieutenant 
T. T. McCoy in the several engagements under 
his command : 

"A reference to the official reports will show that 
the services of Lieutenant McCoy were not overlooked, 
either by the commanding officer of his regiment, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Graham, or, after his death, by his 
successor, Major Hunter, and that he is also particu- 
larly named in high terms in my report. I take 
pleasure in referring to them here. Lieutenant-Col- 
onel W. H. Graham's report of August 22, 1847, 
speaking of the attack on Contreras, on the 19th, and 
of a detachment on the flank, says : ' This small force 
of eighty men, Companies D and I, Eleventh Infan- 
try, under Captains Irwin and Guthrie, and Lieu- 
tenants McCoy, McClellan and Scott, gallantly per- 
formed this duty, killing a number of both Lancers 
and Infantry.' And again, after speaking of the 
battle of Cherubusco, attests to the gallantry and de- 
termined courage of Lieutenant McCoy and others. 
My own report, dated August 22, 1847 (Contreras and 
Cherubusco), speaks handsomely of the services of 
the Eleventh Infantry, and notices with commenda- 
tion the services of Lieutenant McCoy. Major Hun- 
ter's report, dated September 10, 1847 (Lieutenant- 
Colonel Graham having been killed at Molino del Rey), 
says: 'Lieutenant-Colonel Graham, with Lieutenants 
McCoy and Harley, pursued the enemy to the left, 
.although he (Colonel Graham) was badly wounded in 
two places, and while leading a charge on a large and 
fortified building still in possession of the enemy, a 



volley of musketry was fired upon him, inflicting two 
mortal wounds, of which he died in a few minutes on 
the field he had so gallantly assisted to win ;' and in 
conclusion he names particularly Lieutenant McCoy 
among the most distinguished. My own report, Sep- 
tember 10, 1847, particularly names Lieutenant Mc- 
Coy in referring to the death of Colonel Graham, in 
the assault upon Molino del Rey. Major Hunter's 
report oi' September 16, 1847, agiiin mentions Lieu- 
tenant McCoy. I know he was a good and efficient 
■oflicer, and rendered most gallant services on many 
occasions, and was particularly distinguished at the 
battles of Contreras, Cherubusco and Molino del 

He also received tlie commission of brevet- 
captain for gallant and meritorious conduct in 
the battles of Contreras and Cherubusco. 

The negotiations for peace having been con- 
cluded and the treaty ratified, prompt arrange- 
ments v>ere made for withdrawing the army 
from Mexico. On the .30th of May, 1848, the 
Eleventh Infantry took up the line of march, 
and the next day arrived in the city of Mexico, 
where it remained until the 4th of June, and 
on that day, with joy and rejoicing, it began the 
march for " home, sweet home," and arrived 
at Vera Cruz on the June 29th. July 1st, set 
sail in the ship "America" for New Orleans, 
where it arrived July 8th. Remaining a few 
(lays encamped at CarroUtou, reshipped on a 
steamer, and went round by sea to Fort Hamil- 
ton, on the channel near the city of New York, 
and was mustered out of the service of the 
United States by Lieutenant-Colonel J. 
Plymptou, U. S. A., on the 16th day of 
August, A.D. 1848. Before leaving Fort Ham- 
ilton the company, as a parting testimonial of 
their respect and regard for Captain Irwin and 
Lieutenant McCoy, presented each with abeauti- 
ful and costly sword, with the battles through 
which they had passed engraved upon them. 
The company returned to Lewistown on the 
25th of August, 1848, and on the next day was 
iionored by the citizens and the people of the 
county by a public reception, and a sumptuous 
<linner by the ladies in the court-house. In 
reply to a complimentary address of welcome 
on behalf of the people. Captain Irwin, Dr. 
Bower and Lieutenant McCoy made short ad- 
dresses. That of Lieutenant McCoy is the only 
one now extant, and is as follows: 

"Your very kind words, and the peculiar and very 
interesting associations of this occasion, have nearly 
deprived me of proper terras in which to express our 
sense of gratitude. Our hearts are full, our tongues 
almost mute. This deeply exciting, this all-absorbing 
scene is indelibly stamped upon our hearts. A wel- 
come so cordial, hearty, and universal and splendid, 
has seldom been witnessed. It is with sensations of 
delight and heartfelt gratitude that I view .so many of 
the patriotic people of Mifflin County present them- 
selves, with hearts swelled with gratitude, and eyes 
dimmed with tears of joy, to do honor to that gallant 
band of soldiers now before you, to welcome them 
to their dear homes, their beloved friends and fami- 

" The God of battles, in His great goodness, has 
mercifully preserved them through strange and won- 
derful scenes. He has thrown His protecting shield 
around them in singular vicissitudes, hardships and 
afflictions — emphatically in all the dangers of the 
land and sea, the battle and the pestilence. Gratitude 
deep and lasting, I trust, is felt by every heart to Him 
who has thus manifested His goodness and power in 
their preservation. I am rejoiced in being enabled 
to say that amidst the dangers and trying circum- 
stances by which they have been surrounded they 
ever presented the truly noble characteristics of the 
American soldier, — patriotic, brave and devoted, 
anxious to deserve well of this great and glorious 
country of which they were proud to be natives and 
defenders, and to which they return with hearts better 
fitted for appreciating her excellencies. They had a 
commander who dared to lead them into the thickest 
of the fight — they dared to follow, and with that irre- 
sistible enthusiasm which has always distinguished 
our victorious troops in Mexico. But apart from this 
patriotic impulse that impelled to the discharge ot 
our duty, we had a particular iuceutive to endeavor 
to act well our part. We had generous, noble friends 
who were observing our conduct and movements with 
an abiding, indeed, almost a fatherly interest. They 
were embalmed in our affections, and were ever 
present in our minds. That parting scene when 
about to leave you for the camp and the battle-field, 
exhibited here and at McVeytown, was a continued, 
bright and happy recollection. This all-absorbing 
thought inspired us with strength in moments of 
weakness and despondency, gave encouragement in 
darkness and difficulties, and nerved us in the hour 
of conflict. This feeling jjossessed us like a living 
spirit. Rather would these gallant fellows have left 
their bones to whiten the plains and valleys of Mexico 
than have offended you by proving recreant, and com- 
ing short of the high expectations you had formed of 
their courage and gallantry. 

" I regret that my closing words must be mingled 
with the shades of sorrow and sadness. The only re- 
flection that is in the least calculated to disturb the 
perfect delight of this hajipy occasion is that a!/ our 



beloved and gallant comrades are not with us to ex- 
perience the joys of this welcome. Many (nearly one- 
third of the number) who left with us with highhopes 
and hajipy anticipations, and looked forward to an 
occasion like the present, are now resting, far from 
country, from friends and home, beneath the clods of 
the valleys and plains of Mexico. Some of them fell 
fighting upon the battle-field, others by the slow pro- 
cess of disease. We mourn their fate, and sympathize 
with their friends. Our consolation is, and it is a 
comfort that friends and comrades may have, that they 
died in the service of their country, a saci'ifice upon 
her altar, to aid in purchasing the great and enviable 
achievements which have shed a brighter lustre upon 
the American name. This remnant before you have 
returned, and live to-day to receive and rejoice in 
your congratulations. They feel grateful, very grate- 
ful, for your kindness. They never can, they never 
will, forget you. Accept the soldier's gratitude." 

The company was in the United States ser- 
vice a year and a half, and arrived in Mexico 
just in time to engage in the most interesting- 
part of the war. In that time it had traveled 
about eight thousand miles in various ways 
(none by railroad), nearly one thousand of which 
was on the marcli in Mexico, beneatli a tropical 

The history of the Juniata Guards presents 
a true idea of the horrible ravages of war. 
Twenty-five of the original number never re- 
turned to their northern homes^ having been 
killed in battle or died from disease. Many 
others, whose fortune it was to be again per- 
mitted to greet their friends and look upon the 
hills and valleys of their native mountain homes, 
brought with them the seeds of disease which 
ultimately brought them to untimely graves. 
At this writing very few are living of those 
that I'eturned to Mifflin County in August, 
1848. It is believed by an officer of the com- 
pany that not more than fifteen survive. Lieu- 
tenant McCoy, Sergeant I. Beatty Alexander, 
Reynolds McDonald, James Carr and Freder- 
ick Smith are the only survivors now living in 
Mifflin County. John Diehl and James Fulton 
are known to be living in Centre County, and 
Henry Suloff in Juniata County. Some of the 
company who were living twenty-five years ago, 
when the life of the Union was in great peril, 
again entered the service to do battle for the 
old flag, very precious to them, that they had 
followed through the smoke and fire of many a 

hotly-contested field in the great valley of Mex- 
ico. Corporal J. A. Bayard, of Bellefonte, who- 
had been promoted to a lieutenancy in Mexico, 
entered the cavalry service as a lieutenant in 
the late Rebellion, and died at home soon after 
the war. Corporal G. W. Soult served as a 
captain in the One Hundred and Forty-ninth 
Regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers, and was 
wounded in the battle of Gettysburg, and at the 
close of the war returned to his home in Lewis- 
town and died a few years ago, a worthy and 
esteemed citizen. Private B. F. Miller served 
as a captain in the late war and died in the ser- 
vice. Amongst others who were known to 
have engaged in the late war, and died in the 
service, were Robert Davis, William Cowdea 
and Corporal J. N. Rager. Privates Samuel 
Patterson, James Fulton, Uriah Kitchen, Fred- 
erick Smith, Reynolds McDonald, Jacob Car- 
penter and Corporal Peter Beaver were also ia 
the service for the preservation of the govern- 
ment and the Union. 

Sketches of Generals Irwin and Mc- 
Coy. — Captain William H. Irwin and Lieu- 
tenant Thomas F. McCoy were both natives of 
Mifflin County, and both had been prominently 
identified with the volunteer military of the 
county for years previous to the Mexican War, 
and in this service had received all the military 
education and fitness they possessed when they 
engaged in real and active military life. 

Captain Irwin was a lawyer by profession, 
and was an accomplished and a distinguished 
public speaker. He practiced his profession at 
the Mifflin County bar before and after the 
Mexican War, but also engaged in other pur- 
suits, and in later years gave little attention to 
the law. Soon after the Mexican War he was 
appointed by the Governor adjutant-general 
of this State. After retiring from this position 
he engaged in politics, and was prominent in 
the Whig party in this part of the State, and 
advocated the claims of that party on the stump. 
On one or two occasions he was a candidate for 
Congress in this district, but was not successful, 
on account of the district being strongly Demo- 

When the late Rebellion was inaugurated. 
General Irwin was ready for the contest, and 



was amougst the first to volunteer in the Logan 
Guards and march through Baltimore to the 
defense of tlie capital. Soon after tlie firing 
upon Fort Sumter, President Lincoln called 
for twenty-five regiments of three mouths' vol- 
unteers from this State, and Governor Curtin 
commissioned General Irwin colonel of the 
Seventh Regiment and in command of this 
regiment, took part in the movement of General 
Robert Patterson in his demonstration near 
Martinsburg and Winchester, Va., in the 
early days of the war. The three months' ser- 
vice being ended, he was soon after commis- 
sioned by Governor Curtin colonel of the 
Forty-ninth Regiment of Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers, a three years' regiment. In the oi'ganiza- 
tion of the Army of the Potomac by General 
McClellan, this regiment was assigned to Han- 
cock's brigade. Smith's division, of the Sixth Ar- 
my Corps, in which it did good and gallant ser- 
vice until the close of the war. Colonel Irwin, 
with his regiment, was with General McClellan 
in the Peninsula campaign, in the effort to 
capture the city of Richmond, the Confederate 
capital. Being in Hancock's brigade, he 
shared in the distinction acquired by that officer 
in the battle of ^yilliamsburg, and received his 
thanks on the field, and was in the movements 
of the Seven Days' Fight, and the famous re- 
treat and successful backward movement of the 
army to Harrison's Landing, on the James 
River. Richmond being made safe from capture. 
General Lee now marched his army north, 
against General Pope, and encountered and de- 
feated him at the battle of Second Bull Run. 
In the mean time the Army of the Potomac had 
been transferred to the vicinity of Washington, 
part of it in time to share in this disastrous 
battle, but in good time to be reorganized with 
Pope's army, under the lead of McClellan, 
and to dissipate the clouds hanging over the 
Union cause in the victories of South Mountain 
and Antietam. In these two engagements Col- 
onel Irwin was in command of Smith's brigade, 
and rendered good and gallant service, in which 
he received honorable mention in the official 
report of his superior officer. Colonel Irwin's 
regiment having been greatly reduced in number, 
he made application to the ^\'ar Department to 

have it consolidated into a less number of com- 
panies, and the surplus officers assigned to the 
recruiting service. The Department favoring 
this application, tliis was done, and Lieutenant- 
Colonel Huling being left in command in the 
field. Colonel Irwin and the other assigned offi- 
cers were ordered on the recruiting service. 
The colonel returned to the front just in time 
to have command of his regiment in the move- 
ments which preceded the battle of Chancellors- 
ville. On the 2<)th of April, 1863, the brigade 
to which his regiment belonged was ordered ou 
the very perilous duty of crossing the Rappa- 
hannock below Fredericksburg, in pontoon 
boats, to gain possession of the south side of the 
river, preliminary to the laying of a pontoon 
bridge. This was done in the face and under 
the fire of a considerable force of the enemy 
stationed at that point with a view of defeating 
the attempt. Notwithstanding the great advan- 
tages of the enemy, the effiirt was successful, 
but the loss in killed and wounded was consid- 
erable. Colonel Irwin received a severe and 
painful wound in the foot, and which aiused 
his absence from the front for some months. 
Captain Freeborne, from Lewistown, was mor- 
tally wounded in this same engagement, and died 
some time after in the city of Washington. 
When Colonel Irwin returned to his regiment, 
he remained at the front but a short time, having 
concluded that his condition of health and his 
disabilities from wounds were such that he was 
unsuitcd for the hard tugs of the service, re- 
signed his commission and retired from the 
army in October, 1863. He afterwards received 
the brevet of brigadier general of volunteers, for 
gallant and meritorious services iji the war. 
After the War of the Rebellion, when General 
Hancock was in command of the Southern De- 
partment, General Irwin was on his staff as 
attorney-general, or legal adviser. 

General Irwin remained in Lewistown, en- 
gaged in business pursuits, for several yeare 
after the war, and then removed to the State of 
Indiana, where he was engaged in mining ope- 
rations and railroad enterprises, and not being 
successful in them, removed to the city of 
Louisville, Ky. Having married (being his 
second marriage) an estimable lady of that city. 



he made that place his permanent residence. 
His death occurred at Louisville, January 17, 
1886. He leaves a widow and a son aged 
about ten years in that city. He also leaves an 
only daughter by his first wife, — Henrietta, 
wife of John B. Hannum, Esq., a la^vyer of 
Chester, Delaware County, Pa. 

Brevet Captain Thomas F. McCoy was the 
youngest of a family of nine children of John 
and Jane McCoy, the mother being a daughter 
of William Junkin, one of the early settlers in 
what is now known as Bratton township, 
Mif&in County. In early life and up to man- 
hood his residence was in McVeytown, and 
some time before going to the Mexican War, 
he was the editor and publisher of the Village 
Herald, a newspaper independent in politics, 
published in that place. After the Mexican 
War, he returned to his former home, and was 
soon after elected protlionotary of the county, 
in which office lie served acceptably for six 
vears. Having studied law under the direc- 
tion of D. W. Woods, Esq., he was admitted to 
the Mifflin County bar in 1857. At the be- 
ginning of the war of the late Rebellion, having 
volunteered for service. Governor Curtin ap- 
pointed him to the position of deputy quarter- 
master-general of the State, with the rank of 
lieutenant-colonel, in which he served faithfully 
until August, 1862, when, preferring more ac- 
tive service, he was appointed and commis- 
sioned by the Governor colonel of the One 
Hundred and Seventh Regiment of the Penn- 
sylvania Veteran Volunteers, in the place of 
Colonel Thomas A. Zeigle, deceased, and as- 
sumed the actual command of the regiment, 
tiien at tlie front, at Cedar Mountain, south of 
Culpeper, Va., in the army of General Pope. 
In this position, occasionally commanding a 
brigade and detachments of several regiments, 
he served from Pope's campaign of Second Bull 
Run, participating in more than twenty fights 
and battles, and in nearly all the movements of 
the Army of the Potomac, including the nine 
months' siege of Petersburg, uj) to the climax 
of the war, on the 9th of April, 1865, at Ap- 
pomattox Court-House, and was in the force 
under Sheridan, across Lee's path, early in the 

morning of that day, when the white flag ad- 
vanced from the Confederate lines. 

In the battle of the Weldon Railroad, near 
Petersburg, August 19, 1864, Colonel McCoy 
had the misfortune to fall into the hands of the 
enemy ; but, with visions of Libby Prison life 
before his eyes, at the imminent risk of being 
shot down in the attempt, he made a successful 
dash for liberty, found safety in the second 
Union line of battle, and was thus saved to 
command his regiment in the triumphant bat- 
tle of the 21st, the second day after, on the 
same field, being the third battle within four 
days for the possession of the Weldon Rail- 
road, where Lee's force received a disastrous 
repulse, with great loss in killed, wounded and 
prisoners. In General Grant's last grand flank 
movement previous to crossing the James River 
and advancing upon Petersburg, the Fifth 
CorjJS, under General Warren, was assigned 
the important duty of covering the movement 
from the enemy. The One Hundred and 
Seventh, under Colonel McCoy, was placed at 
an important point, and performed the duty 
with such success that Major-General Craw- 
ford, in command of the division, gave official 
acknowledgment of it in these words : 

"The general commanding expresses bis satisfac- 
tion at tlie efficient manner in which you and the 
officers and men under your command performed the 
part assigned you on tlie 13th instant, in effectually 
holding your position without support." 

Colonel McCoy was brevetted a brigadier- 
general of United States volunteers on the rec- 
ommendation of Generals Meade, Warren and 
Baxter, "for gallant and meritorious conduct 
during the war," his commission bearing date 
from the battle and victory of the Five Forks, 
in which battle, for the effective manner he 
conducted and controlled his regiment, he re- 
ceived the thanks of his commanding officer, 
Major General Henry Baxter, on the field. 
The commanding officer of the One Hundred 
and Seventh was so popular with his men that 
in February, 1864, they re-enlisted for the war 
with great unanimity, and it was thereby recog- 
nized as a " veteran regiment " by the War De- 
partment, During this winter Colonel McCoy 
was in the discharge of outpost duty at Mit- 



chell's Station, six miles south of Culpejier, 
and in front of the army and near tlie cnemv, 
and under circumstances of great exjjosure and 
danger, and, being part of tlie time in command 
of the brigade, his dispositions for the safety of 
his command received the emphatic approval of 
General John C. Robinson, his division com- 
mander. His superior officers, under whom he 
served and who had the best opportunities of 
seeing and knowing, have spoken very favor- 
ably of his conduct and his long and faithful 
services : 

"I commend him [says General Duryea, his first 
brigade commander] as an ofiicer cool and deliberate 
under fire, subordinate and respectful in an eminent 
degree, commanding the respect and confidence of 
his companions in arms, and possessing .military 
ability and experience." 

In the battle of Fredericksburg, December 
13, 1862, in the successful charge made by the 
divisions of Meade and Gibbon, Colonel Mc- 
Coy's regiment was in the line of battle that 
charged upon and carried the enemy's works, 
and for his conduct and that of his regiment 
(losing more than one-foiu-th of his men in 
killed and wounded) received high commend- 
ation, in the official rei)ort of the battle, by 
Brevet Major-Gcneral Root, his brigade com- 
mander. In the disastrous battle of Chancel- 
lorsville it became his duty to hold the skir- 
mish line on the right of the army for two days 
and nights without relief This was in that 
part of the field where Stonewall Jackson had 
surprised the Eleventh Corps, and was himself 
mortally wounded in the night of May 2, 1863. 
At Mine Run he was designated, with his regi- 
ment, to lead the brigade in the charge. In 
the hotly-contested battle of Dabney's Mill, on 
the left of the Petersburg line, on the 6th and 
7th of February, 1865, the One Hundred and 
Seventh, in two charges upon the enemy, met 
with the loss of nearly one-third of the number 
engaged. Brevet Brigadier-General Henry 
Morrow, commanding the brigade, having been 
dangerously wounded, in the midst of the 
battle passed, with the brigade flag which he 
had been gallantly bearing, the command to 
Colonel McCoy, and immediately left the field 
for surgical treatment. He, after the battle, 

gave the following testimony as to the services 
of Colonel McCoy in these two days of battle, 
most of the time in a storm of sleet and snow, 
with consequent wintry exposure and suffering 
to the soldiers : 

"His conduct there was such as to win my highest 
regards, and I did not fail to do him and his gallant 
regiment full justice in my report of the battle. I was 
wounded in the first day's fight and before it closed, 
and he then assumed command of the brigade, 
and commanded it during the next day, and so far as 
his conduct came under my observation, it was such 
as to inspire me with a nigh regard for his courage as 
a man and skill as an ofiicer; and from all I have 
heard from Genl. Crawford and others, I know his 
conduct during the whole engagement to have been 
gallant and skillful." 

General Peter Lyle, one of his brigade com- 
manders, speaks of his " gallant and meritorious 
conduct whilst under my command, particularly 
diu-ing campaigns from the battles around Spott- 
sylvania Court-House to the Weldon Railroad, 
having been associated with him from October, 
1862, until September, 1864, and can testify to 
his ability and bravery as an officer." His division 
commander. Brevet Major-General John C. Rob- 
inson, late Lieutenant-Governor of the State of 
New York, and a retired officer in the United 
States army, has made this record of the One 
Hundred and Seventh Regiment and its com- 
mander, — 

" The One Hundred and Seventh Regiment was 
with me at the second crossing at Fredericksburg, 
Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Mine Run, Wilderness, 
and Spottsylvania Court-House. That it was with 
the division under my command from December, 
1862, until the time I was severely wounded in 18G4. 
Besides the battles above-named, it took part in other 
movements and demonstrations. That it occupied at 
times very responsible and exposed positions, and at 
all times, in battle, in camp and on the march, it gave 
me perfect satisiaotion. I always found the regiment 
and its gallant and faithful colonel ready for any duty 
required, and regarded it as one of the most reliable 
of the many excellent regiments in the division I had 
the honor to command. 

"That it took part in many of the important battles 
of the war, with credit to itself and its commander 
and with honor to the State of Pennsylvania. That 
at all times and all circumstances it did its whole 
duty, and enjoyed the full confidence of its division 

" Since the spring of 1863 (says Brevet Major-Gen- 
eral Henry Baxter,) associated in the same command. 



and much of the time in my immediate brigade, I 
wish to express my appreciation of his moral worth 
and integrity of purpose that has governed his every 
action, and the promptness and ability with which his 
services have been rendered under all circumstances. 
In the camp, on the long and tedious marches, and on 
the battle-field, his duties have been performed with 
that decision and ability which cannot but render a 
command eftective and reliable, which his has ever 
been. In the long list of battles since the opening of 
the campaign of 1863, with Chancellorsville, and the 
closing scene, on the 9th of April, 1865, at Appomat- 
tox Court-House, where his services have come under 
my immediate observation, I might particularize, but 
will only say I had full appreciation of his own valua- 
ble services and those of his command." 

Major-General G. K. Warren, the gallant 
and distinguished commander of the Fifth Corps, 
in his history of the battle of the " Five Forks," 
takes occasion to speak of the colonel of the One 
Hundred and Seventh as " one of the most 
worthy officers of the corps." The more than 
four years of active war experienced by the 
subject of this sketch could not but furnish a 
volume of interesting war reminiscences and in- 
cidents of the two wars through which it was 
his fortune to pass. The nine months' siege of 
Petersburg was full of the wonders of war and 
a period of the most absorbing interest, a large 
part of the army being under the guns of the 
enemy during this time. The extraordinary ex- 
posures, the hair-breadth escapes from sharp- 
shooters, cannon-balls, exploding of shells and 
bombs, might be truly said to have been of al- 
most hourly occurrence, and although in these 
years of war thousands fell upon the right 
and on the left, not one hair of his head was 
hurt. And in his preservation from the innum- 
erable missiles of death, he is free to acknowl- 
edge the hand of a kind and protecting Provi- 

It may be remarked here, however, that tactical 
ability on the field of battle and the courage to 
lead the column in the deadly charge do not 
embrace all the admirable and excellent qualities 
of a good army officer. Moral and religious 
character are as important in army as in citizen 
life, and it is one of the glories of the country 
that Christian influences held high sway in our 
armies, and to a much greater extent during the 
operations of our late war than iu any jirevious 

one in which we have been engaged. The 
Christian and Sanitary Commissions repre- 
sented, in a large degree, the Christian patriot- 
ism of the loyal people of the country. Their 
good influences were gratefully experienced in 
all parts of the army, and through these organ- 
izations millions of dollars of voluntary con- 
tributions found a channel to comfort and en- 
courage the soldier, and especially those sick and 
wounded in hospital. It has been well re- 
marked in Bates' " Martial Deeds," " That the 
highest type of a soldier is a Christian citizen 
fighting the battles of his country." To model 
his command after that type was his constant 
aim. To restrain that hilarity which had a ten- 
dency to riotous or immoral life in the camp 
was often unpopular, and unless judiciously 
done was likely to draw odium upon him who 
attempted it ; but the purity of life, and the 
reasonable and sensible way in which General 
McCoy impressed his men and his associates with 
his own spirit, commanded respect." One of 
the very good things that can be said of a com- 
manding officer of a regiment in the war — a thing 
in which many fell short — is that he encouraged 
and co-operated with the chaplain in the prose- 
cution of his sacred and trying duties, and in 
the absence of the chaplain the commanding of- 
ficer of the One Hundred and Seventh was 
known to have conducted religious meetings, 
and to have taken special interest in the moral 
and religious welfare of his command. 

Official reports of battles were not allowed to 
be published during the war, but were carefully 
filed away in the War Department at Washing- 
ton. Since the War, Congress has authorized 
their publication, and the " Annals of the 
War," containing these reports, number many 
volumes, and it is from these volumes that the 
most interesting and accurate history of every 
regiment can be obtained. The following is an 
extract from Colonel McCoy's last official re- 
port : 

" In closing this, which will doubtless be the last 
and final report of battles for this regiment, I would 
express my gratitude to a kind and ever merciful 
Providence that He has permitted us to pass through 
the many exposures, hardships and great perils of 
this last great and closing campaign of an unprece- 
dented war with comparatively so little sacrifice of 



life and blood, and that the lives and the health of so 
many brave officers and men of the regiment have 
been preserved under the shield of His Almighty 
power during the past three eventful years, to return 
to their homes to dwell in peace, and rejoice over vio- 
lated laws vindicated, a righteous government pre- 
served, the Union restored, and the old flag re-estab- 
lished with more than its original power, beauty and 
significance in some honorable degree through the in- 

He, with his regiment, participated in the 
great review, the grandest military pageant of 
the age, — of the Army of the Potomac, by the 
President of the United States and General U. 
S. Grant, in the city of Washington, at the 
close of the war, on the 23d day of July, a.d., 

On the 13th day of July, 1865, General Mc- 
Coy and his veteran regiment was mustered out 
of the United States service at Ball's Cross 
Roads, near the city of Washington, and be- 
ing transported to Harrisburg, Pa., were paid 
off at Camp Curtin, and from this point, where 
more than three years before the regiment had 
been organized for the war, separated with joy 
and rejoicing to their respective homes, to learn 
war no more. General McCoy returned to his 
former home, at Lewistown, Pa., where he con- 
tinues to reside. 


The Wayne Guards, ninety-four strong, rank 
and file, was composed of men from Mifflin, 
Huntingdon and Blair Counties, the largest 
proportion being from the upper end of Mifflin, 
with about fifteen from the southeastern part of 
Huntingdon, and about twenty-five from Wil- 
liamsburg and that part of Blair around it. 

The company was mustered into service at 
Pittsburgh May 19, 1847, and officered as fol- 
lows : Captain, James Caldwell ; First Lieuten- 
ant, Dr. A. McKamey ; Second Lieutenant, Dr. 
C. Bowers; Third Lieutenant, John A. Doyle; 
Sergeants, George Filey, J. L. Madison, W. A. 
McMonigle, William Westhoven ; Corporals, 
J. L. Kidd, Jacob Shade, C. B. Wilson, A. W. 

At Pittsburgh the Wayne Guards were 
joined by a company from Bedford, under Cap- 
tain Taylor, and the two embarked on board 
the steamer " Colonel Yell," and moved down 

the river to New Orleans, where they arrived 
early in July. They encamped at Plaine Chal- 
mette (Camp Carlton), below the city, Mhere 
large numbers of men in other commands were 
sick with ineasles. The disease, however, did not 
spread to any great extent among the soldiers 
of the two Pennsylvania companies. After a 
short stay at Plaine Chalmette the companies of 
Captains Caldwell and Taylor embarked on the 
ship " Florida," and proceeded to Vera Cruz, 
whence they marched with the division of Gen- 
eral Franklin Pierce (afterwards President of 
the United States) to Puebla, where the division 
joined the army of General Scott, and where the 
companies of Captains Taylor and Caldwell 
were assigned to the Second Pennsylvania,' the 
latter being designated as M Company. 

The Second Pennsylvania Regiment having 
marched with its division (General Quitman's) 
from Jalapa, by way of Orizaba, to Puebla, 
where it received the two new companies, as 
above noticed, moved thence with the army of 
General Scott towards the Mexican capital. 
During the campaign that succeeded it took part 
in all the principal battles, including those of 
Contreras, Cherubiisco, Molino del Rey, San 
Pascual and at the storming of the Belen Gate 
(in which last-named engagement, as also in that 
of Chapultepec,^ it lost very heavily in killed 
and M^ounded), and was the first regiment to 
enter the city of Mexico after its surrender, 
September 13, 1847. The commanding officer 
of the regiment. Colonel W. B. Roberts, died 
in the city on the 3d of October following, and 
upon his death Lieutenant-Colonel Geary was pro- 
moted to the colonelcy. Not long after the oc- 
cupation the Second Regiment was moved out- 
side the city, and was posted successively at sev- 
eral neighboring points in the valley of Mexico, 
where it remained until May, 1848, when it 
marched to Vera Cruz, embarked, and proceed- 
ed by sea to New Orleans, and thence by 
steamers up the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers to 

' The Secoud Pennsylvania Regiment, of which William 
B. Roberts had been elected colonel and John W. Geary 
lieutenant-colonel, had gone to Mexico several months be- 

'^Captain Caldwell was wounded at Chapultepec Septem- 
ber 13, 1847, and died upon the 18th of the same month. 



Pittsburgh, where the men were mustered out 
of service on the 29th of July, 1848. On the 
2d of August a grand file was given in their 
honor at Newton Hamilton, Mifflin County. 

The following is a roster of the Wayne 

James E. Caldwell, captain, Newton Hamilton, Mifflin 

Alexander McKamey, first lieutenant, Williamsburg, 
Huntingdon County. 

Charles Bowers, second lieutenant, Newton Hamilton, 
Mifflin County. 

John A. Doyle, second lieutenant, Newton Hamilton, 
Mifflin County. 

Joseph Madison, first sergeant, Williamsburg, Hunt- 
ingdon County. 

James Larimer, second sergeant. Centreville. 

William A. McManigal, third sergeant, Newton 

William Westhoven, fourth sergeant, Newton Hamil- 

Joseph L. Kidd, first corporal, Williamsburg, Hunt- 
ingdon County. 

Cyrus B. Wilson, second corporal, Huntingdon, 
Huntingdon County. 

Lorenzo E. White, third corporal, Williamsburg, 
Huntingdon County. 

Adam W. Clarkson, fourth corporal, Cassville, Hunt- 
ingdon County. 

David W. Hannah, drummer, Williamsburg, Hunt- 
ingdon County. 


David Ash, Newton Hamilton, Mifflin County. 

Louis Barnard, Newton Hamilton. 

John B. Bond, Newton Hamilton. 

Robert Barrett, Newton Hamilton. 

Jackson Cornelius, Newton Hamilton. 

David Copeland, Newton Hamilton. 

Anthony Colabine, Newton Hamilton. 

Silvester H. Campbell, Williamsburg, Huntingdon 

Alexander Caldwell,' Newton Hamilton, Mifflin 

Thomas Drake, Newton Hamilton. 

David Ditch, Williamsburg. 

Theodore Dixon, Newton Hamilton. 

Mathew Dunlap, Williamsburg. 

Charles Divans, Newton Hamilton. 

Daniel D. Duncan, Pittsburgh. 

Jonathan Edwards, Williamsburg. 

Charles Epler, Wheeling, Va. 

'Alexander Caldwell was the son of .Tames K. Caldwell, 
captain of the company, who was killed in taking the city 
of Mexico. Alexander Caldwell was at one time United 
States Senator from the State of Kansas, and is now living 
at Fort Leavenworth, in that State. 

William Farren, Pittsburgh. 

Eli Fockler, Williamsburg. 

Hugh Gwin, Newton Hamilton. 

Joseph H. Gardner, Williamsburg. 

Samuel Garrett, Cassville. 

SafFair Heshley, Newton Hamilton. 

Jacob Higgins, Williamsburg. 

Dorsey B. Houck, Williamsburg. 

James Houck, Williamsburg. 

Francis M. Hills, Williamsburg. 

Joseph Hamilton, Williamsburg. 

Eussell Harris, Pittsburgh. 

Joel L. Hoover, Cassville. 

John Holder, Stone Valley. 

John Hurst, Stone Valley. 

Henry Hockenberry, Newton Hamilt<jn. 

Ira Jenkins, Stone Valley. 

George W. Johnson, Pittsburgh. 

John Keever, Newton Hamilton. 

George Kensinger, Williamsburg. 

James Long, Cassville. 

Jacob McLenahen, Cassville. 

Robert McCardle, Cassville. 

John S. McKeirnan, Williamsburg. 

William McDowell, Newton Hamilton. 

Adam Morgan, Newton Hamilton. 

John Montgomery, Williamsburg. 

Reuben Neice, Newton Hamilton. 

George Norton, Newton Hamilton. 

Arthur O'Brien, Freeport. 

Thomas Richardson, Newton Hamilton. 

Samuel Ramsey, Stone Valley. 

Thomas Roach, Williamsburg. 

Austin B. Snyder, Boalsburg. 

Jacob F. Schnee,Newton Hamilton. 

David Shives, Cassville. 

George Smith, Burnt Cabins. 

Benjamin Shinn, Burnt Cabins. 

Oliver Temple, Newton Hamilton. 

William L. Thompson, Williamsburg. 

James R. Taylor, Newton Hamilton. 

Edward Toley, Newton Hamilton. 

William H. Wilson, Williamsburg. 

John Wingler, Newton Hamilton. 

Moses Wingler, Newton Hamilton. 

John Wilson, Pittsburgh. 

George W. Ziders, Newton Hamilton. 

It may be noticed that all from Mifflin 
County are credited to Newton Hamilton, but 
quite a number of them were from surrounding 
townships and other parts of the county. 


Following is the muster-roll of Perry County 
volunteers who served in the army during the 
Mexican War : 



(These troops were nearly all from the " Laii- 
disburg Guards " and " Bloomtield Light In- 
fantry," organized companies, but they were iipt 
accepted or credited to the county as companies. 
They participated in the engagements of Buena 
Vista, Vera Cruz, Cerro Gordo, Contreras, 
Cherubusco, Molino del Rey and Chapultepec.) 

Lieutenant, Michael Stever. 


Hezekiah Applegate. 
Joseph Addison. 
George Bristline. 
William Blair. 
Frederick Boker. 
Alexander Brown. 
Jacob Bolmer. 
Daniel Baskins. 
Hugh Boden. 
David M. Black. 
Thomas O. Bryan. 
John Boyer. 
Martin Barnhart. 
Daniel Cobeck. 
Henry Charles. 
Barnard Cornyn. 
Hezekiah Dayton. 
Peter Evinger. 
Bayard H. Etter. 
James Elliot. 
— Ernest. 
Hiram Frank. 
Samuel Geyslinger. 
William Hippie. 
George Hatter. 
Samuel Huggins, Jr. 


John Holland. 


Marshall Miller. 
Dr. G. A. Miller. 
James McGowan. 

George Peavy. 
Samuel Peck. 
Charles Rosley. 
Samuel Roler. 
Robert Rodgers. 
David Stump. 
Henry Sweger. 
Samuel Sweger. 
Levi Sweger. 
Samuel Simmons. 
George Simmons. 
Isaac H. Shotto. 
John Snyder. 
William Shull. 
George K. Scholl. 
Samuel B. Sipe. 
John Shock. 
Joseph Sullenberger. 
J. Stroop Shuman. 
John Simons. 
William H. Titzell. 
William Tagg. 
Jesse Tweed. 
William Trotter. 


Andrew Wiseman. 
David White. 
John Williams. 
W. Woodmansey. 
Samuel Wolf. 
Daniel Witzel. 
William Willis. 


The following list is from Linn's "Annals 
of the Buffiilo Valley:" 

Jacob App, Selinsgrove, Company C, Second Regi- 
ment ; died at San Francisco, Cal., in October, 
1849, aged twenty-four. 

Francis R. Best, Mifflinburg, Company C, Second 
Regiment ; died at Perote June 30, 1847. 

Dr. Charles Bower, surgeon. 

William Bruner, Hartleton. 

Henry Cronmiller, Mifflinburg, Independent Rocket 
and Howitzer Battery. 

R. H. Forster, Mifflinburg, Company C, Second Reg- 

Joseph Leopard, Kelly, Company I, First Regiment. 

George Miller. 

Hugh McFadden, Lewisburgh, Company C, Second 
Regiment; died at Perote September 14, 1847. 

William McLaughlin, Lewisburgh, Fifth United 
States Infantry ; died in service. 

John C. Montgomery, Company M, Second Regi- 

Peter Nyhart, died January 14, 1849. 

George Oliphant. 

Thomas Quiddington. 

Peter Yarnall. 

Enos Zentmyer, First Regiment. 

(The survivors of Company C returned to Danville 

in August, 1848, and shortly after Lieutenant Charles 

G. Frick returned the flag, tattered by the storms of 

war and little left besides the staff, to Colonel Mc- 
Fadden, at Lewisburgh.) 



The Five Counties Represented in over Seventy Regiments, 
Batteries and Other Organizations — Histories of Regi- 
ments and Rosters of the Troops from Mii&in, Juniata, 
Snyder, Union and Perry Counties. 

In the gigantic War of the Eebellion, ex- 
tending through the period of four years, from 
April, 1861, the five counties whose history 
is especially noticed in these pages took an 
honorable and patriotic part in the measures 
adoj)ted for the preservation of the government 
and the suppression of the attempt to destroy it 
by force of arms. At the receipt of the intelli- 
gence of the attack on Fort Sumter, in April, 
1861, there were seen everywhere in these 
counties the same demonstrations of loj'alty to 
the Union, and a determination to crush out 
treason at every hazard, the same enthusia.*tic 
meetings and flag-raisings, the same disposition 
of young men to volunteer, and of old men to 
encourage and aid them in doing so, as were 
found everywhere in the other counties of the 
patriotic State of Pennsylvania. And later on 
in the great struggle, when the Union armies be- 
came wasted and weakened by the dangers and 
hardships of the service, and call alter call was 
made for soldiei-s to take the places of the dead 
and disabled ones, there was here shown the 
same determination to stand bv tiie government 



at whatever cost, and to help to refill the 
thinned ranks by repeated contributions of men 
from the valleys of the Susquehanna and Ju- 

The number of men so contributed by the 
five counties to the armies of the United States 
during the memorable period from 1861 to 
1865 exceeded nine thousand, whose names are 
found on the rolls of more than seventy Penn- 
sylvania regiments, batteries and other militaiy 
organizations, of which the following is nearly 
a complete list : 

The " Logan Guards," of Lewistown, Mifflin Coun- 
ty ; this being the first company which reported at 
the front in the great War of the Rebellion. 

The Second Regiment (three mouths'), — Containing 
one company from Perry County. 

The Fourth (three months'), Regiment. One com- 
pany from Union County. 

The Seventh (three months') Regiment. — One com- 
pany of Mifflin County. 

The Eleventh (three months') Regiment. — Detach- 
ment from Mifflin County. 

The Fourteenth (three months') Regiment. — De- 
tachment from Juniata County. 

The Fifteenth (three months') Regiment. — Detach- 
ments from Juniata and Mifflin. 

The Twenty-Fifth (three months') Regiment. — Its 
color company was the famed Logan Guards, of Mifflin 
County, before mentioned. 

The Thirty-Fourth Regiment, or Fifth Reserve 
(three years'). — A company from Union County. 

The Thirty-Fifth Regiment, or Sixth Reserve. 
• — One company of Snyder County men. 

The Thirty-Sixth Regiment, or Seventh Reserve. 
— One company from Perry and a detachment of men 
from Mifflin County. 

The Forty-Second Regiment (the original " Buck- 
tails"). — Men of Juniata, and one company from 
Perry County. 

The Forty-Third (First Artillery).— Battery E of- 
ficers from Union County. 

The Forty- Fourth Regiment, or First Cavalry. — One 
company from Mifflin and one company from Juniata 

The Forty-Fifth Regiment. — One company of Mif- 
flin and a number of men of Juniata County. 

The Forty-Sixth Regiment. — One company from 
Mifflin and a detachment from Juniata County. 

The Forty-Seventli Regiment. — Two companies 
from Perry and a detachment from Juniata County. 

The Forty-Ninth Regiment. — Three companies 
from Mifflin, one company from Perry, one company 
from Juniata and men from Union and Snyder Coun- 

The Fifty-First Regiment. — Three companies from 

Union and Snyder and men from Mifflin and Juniata 

The Fifty-Second Regiment. — One company from 
Union County. 

The Fifty-Third Regiment. — One company from 
Juniata County, and a large detachment from Union 

The Fifty-Sixth Regiment.— Men of Union County. 

The Seventy-Fourth Regiment. — One company 
from Snyder County. 

The Seventy-Seventh Regiment. — A large detach- 
ment from Juniata County and men from Perry 

The Seventy-Eighth Regiment. One company from 
Mifflin and a number of men from Perry County. 

The Seventy-Ninth Regiment. — A few men from 
Perry, Juniata and Mifflin Counties. 

The Eighty-Third Regiment. — Small detachment 
from Perry County. 

The Ninety-Second Regiment (Ninth Cavalry). — 
Six companies from Perry County and large detach- 
ments from Mifflin and Juniata Counties. 

The One Hundred and First Regiment. — Two com- 
panies from Juniata County. 

The One Hundred and Fourth Regiment. — Men 
from Perry County. 

The One Hundred and Sixth Regiment. — Men from 
Perry and Juniata Counties. 

The One Hundred and Seventh Regiment.— Men 
from Perry County, and one company from Mifflin. 

The One Hundred and Thirteenth Regiment 
(Twelfth Cavalry). — One company principally raised 
in Juniata County, and men from Juniata, Mifflin and 
Union in another company. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-Sixth (nine 
months') Regiment. — Two companies from Juniata 

The One Hundred and Thirty-First (nine months') 
Regiment. — Three companies from Mifflin, one com- 
pany from Union and one from Snyder County. 

The One Hundred and Thirty -Third (nine months') 
Regiment. — Three companies from Perry County. 

The One Hundred and Fortieth Regiment. — De- 
tachment from Perry County. 

The One Hundred and Forty-Second Regiment. 
— One company from Union County. 

The One Hundred and Forty-Ninth Regiment 
(" Bucktail Brigade "). — Men from Perry, Mifflin and 
Juniata Counties. 

The One Hundred and Fiftieth Regiment. — A num- 
ber of men from Perry and one company from Union 

The One Hundred and Fifty-First (nine months') 
Regiment. — One company from Juniata County. 

The One Hundred and Fifty-Second Regiment 
(Third Heavy Artillery). — Detachment from Juniata 

The One Hundred and Fifty-Eighth Regiment. — 
Detachment from Perry County. 



The One Hundred and Sixty-First Regiment (Six- 
teenth Cavah-y). — One company from Juniata Countj% 
one company from Mifflin and detachments from 
Union, Snyder and Perry Counties. 

The One Hundred and Sixty-Second Regiment 
(Seventeentli Cavalry). — One company principally 
from Perry County. 

The One Hundred and Sixty-Sixth Regiment. — 
A number of men from Perry County. 

The One Hundred and Seventy-First (nine months') 
Regiment. — One company from Juniata County. 

The One Hundred and Seventy-Third Regiment 
(drafted militia, nine months'). — One company from 

The One Hundred and Eighty-First Regiment 
(Twentieth Cavalry).- — One company from Mifflin 
and detachments from Union and Perry. 

The One Hundred and Eighty-Fourth Regiment. 
— Two companies from Snyder, two companies made 
up largely of men from MifHin and a detachment 
from Union County. 

The One Hundred and Eighty-Fifth Regiment 
(Twenty-Second Cavalry). — Detachment from Mif- 

The One Hundred and Eighty-Seventh Regiment. 
— Detachment from Perry County. 

The One Hundred and Eighty-Eighth Regiment. — 
Detachment from Juniata County. 

The One Hundred and Ninety-Fourth Regiment 
(one hundred days'). — One company from Mifflin 

The One Hundred and Ninety-Fifth Regiment 
(one hundred days'). — Large detachment from Mifflin 

The Two Hundred and First Regiment (one year). 
— Detachment from Perry County. 

The Two Hundred and Second Regiment (one 
year). — One company from Union and one company 
principally from Juniata County. 

The Two Hundred and Fifth Regiment (one year). 
— Two companies from Mifflin County. 

The Two Hundred and Eighth Regiment. — Two 
companies from Snyder and four companies from 
Perry County. 

The Two Hundred and Tenth Regiment. — Parts of 
two companies from Mifflin County. 

The Two Hundred and Thirteenth Regiment (one 
hundred days). — Large detachment from Juniata 

Besides the companies and detachments 
noticed in the preceding list, large numbers of 
men of the five counties were enlisted for 
service in the regular army, and in the militia 
and emergency troops that were called out to 
repel the Confederate invasions of 1862 and 
1863. Brief historical sketches are given in 
following pages of the organization and war 

.services of such regiments as were most notice- 
able for the number of men from these five 
counties serving in their ranks; the .sketches 
being, in general, accompanied by li.sts of the 
officers and men referred t<^>, copied from the 
rolls in the adjutant-general's office at Harris- 
burg, verified, corrected and added to in accord- 
ance with such information (deemed reliable) as 
it has been found practicable to obtain from 
veterans of the war and from other sources. 


The Logan Guards, a volunteer military 
organization of Lewistown, Mifflin County, 
was the first company accepted, and placed 
imder marching orders, by the Governor of 
Penn.sylvania, on receipt of the President's call 
for troops after the surrender of Fort Sumter ; ' 
it was one of the first five companies that 
marched to the defense of the National capital in 
that dire emergency ; and of all the mighty 
Union that was marshaled in tlie great 
War of the Rebellion, this company from the 
Juniata Valley was tha first that reported for 
duty at the front, facing the hostile Confederate 

The company had been formed and organized 
in 1858, at Lewistown, through the etforts and 
influence of a number of the citizens of the 
place, prominent among whom are mentioned 
Robert W. Patten, Frank Sterrett, J. Ard 
Matthews, William B. Weber, George W. Gib- 
son and Jacob F. Hamaker,- under whose call 

' "The Logan Guards, of Lewistown, could muster but 
twenty-six members ; but on receipt of a lelegram from 
Governor Curtin, dated .■Vpril 16th, accepting theii- services, 
and urging them to lose no time in moving, the drum-call 
was soon heard along the streets, and in less than an hour 
one hundred and sis men, including the twenty-six origi- 
nal members, were in line and ready to march. At ten 
o'clock P.M.. of the same day, the company moved to 
the station on the opposite bank of the Juniata River, but, 
owing to a lack of transportation, it did not reach Harris- 
burg till the morning of the 17th." — Bales' " History 
Pennxylvania Volunteers" vol. i. p. 4. 

^ The following, with reference to the formation of the 
Logan Guards, is from the pen of William F. McCay, of 
Lewistown : 

'• The militia law in force thirty-five and forty years ago 
required everj- able-bodied citizen under a certain age to 
do military duty or pay a fine. 'Battalion day.' as the 
'training' days were then called, was considered sort of a 



and invitation two public meetings were held at 
the town hall, and at the second of these, held 
August 7, 1858, a committee, previously ap- 

holiday and brought many people together to ■witness the 
evolutions of the troops and to admire the showy uniform 
then in use. and it was the delight of the small boy (the 
writer being one of them) to accompany the 'sogers' as 
they marched and countermarched through the streets, 
their only regret being that they were not big enough to 
wear a uniform and play soldier. Who that has ever seen 
them can forget the uniform then in use— the heavy leath- 
er hat, with different-colored pompons thereon, and 
brightly-burnished brasses ; the swallow-tailed uniform 
coats, with three rows of buttons down the breast, and 
which was either red, buft" or blue, indicating the arm of 
the service to which the wearer belonged, the breasts being 
padded so as to give military bearing to the wearer ; the 
heavy-colored epaulettes; the stiff leather stock, worn 
around the neck to keep the head up in the proper posi- 
tion, and in summer the white pantaloons stretched to the 
utmost by straps attached, which were placed under the 
feet. The officers especially, and they were legion, were 
simply grand in gold and silver braid and heavy bullion 
epaulettes. The staff particularly presented a magnificent 
appearance, mounted upon spirited horses, with their fine 
trappings, showy uniform and nodding plumes. The uni- 
form then worn by volunteers was simply gorgeous in com- 
parison with the uniform now worn by citizen military. 
This militia law, having become very unpopular with the 
people, was repealed prior to the Mexican War. To show 
their disapprobation, the citizens frequently appeared on 
training day armed with corn-stalks and broom-sticks, 
until it became a farce. Almost every third man became 
an officer of some kind or other and the title of general, 
colonel or captain attached to his name. 

" The old militia law having died, very few military organ- 
izations were maintained outside the larger cities. How- 
ever, in 1857 a new law was enacted by the Legislature 
which encouraged the formation of volunteer militrry or- 
ganizations. The law made generous provision for both 
officers and men, the uniform prescribed being the one then 
in use by the United States Regulars, and the old and 
superannuated arms were condemned and supplanted by 
the most improved modern guns. It was under this law 
that the Logan Guards was organized. On a beautiful sum- 
mer afternoon in the year 1858 five young men of Lewis- 
town — R. W. Patton, Frank Sterrett, J. Ard Matthews, 
William B. Weber and Jacob F. Hamaker — took a stroll out 
along the Kishacoquillas Creek, and whilst resting under 
the trees one of them abruptly said, 'Boys, there is lots of 
material for a good military company in this town ; I pro- 
pose we three talk it up among our friends and see what 
we can do.' This being mutually agi-eed upon, they slowly 
strolled back to town. A day or two subsequent to this, 
George W. Gibson, a well-known citizen, who was a jeweler 
and a man of the most generous impulses, went into the 
jewelry store of R. W. Patton, on East Market Street, and 
said, 'Bob, I have a proposition to make to you. Let us 
get bills struck calling a meeting in the town hall to see 

pointed for that purpose, submitted the consti- 
tution and by-laws of the Logan Guards, which 
were then adopted and signed by the following- 
named original members of the company,' which 
afterwards became so famous : 

J. A. Mathews. 
R. W. Patton. 
Elias W. Eisenbise. 
W. B. Weber. 
D. B. Weber. 
Bronsen Rothrock. 
George W. Elberty. 
Thomas M. Hulings. 
Joseph Stidle. 
S. G. McLaughlin. • 
John A. McKee. 
T. M. Uttley. 
R. B. F. Hoover. 
John Nolte. 
David Wasson. 
Richard C. Parker. 
J. F. Hamaker. 
William Hopper. 
J. B. Selheimer. 
Henry Walters. 
P. P. Butts. 
C. M. Shull. 
Franklin Dearment. 
George Hart. 
Fred. Hart. 

Charles W. Stahl, 
F. R. Sterrett. 
George A. Freeburn. 
James Price. 
William F. McCay. 
Edwin E. Zeigler. 
Win. G. Mitchell. 
Robert D. Morton. 
John Hughes. 
Wm. A. Nelson. 
Joseph A. Miller. 
Thomas A. Nimon. 
J. M. Postlethwait. 
Emanuel Cole. 
John T. Hunter. 
James P. Smith. 
Lucien T. Snyder. 
James M. Jackson. 
Owen M. Fowler. 
Samuel Comfort. 
John Spiece. 
John Swan. 
S. Mitchell Riden. 
James Yeamans. 
Frank Heisler. 

Immediately following the signing of the 
constitution an election M'as held, which resulted 
in the unanimous choice of John B. Selheimer 

what we can do towards raising a company of infantry in 
our town.' Patton then told him of what had transpired 
on the preceding afternoon, and said, ' Gibson, if you will 
put up the bills I will go up to the Gazette office and have 
them printed and pay for them.' Gibson was full of en- 
thusiasm and promptly agreed. Both left the store and 
each did his part of the agreement. In a very brief time 
the town was billed, inviting the citizens to a meeting to 
organize a military company. In the early evening the 
soul-stirring music of the fife and drum was heard on the 
streets, and after marching from the Red Lion Hotel (Uncle 
Dan Eisenbise's), up and down Market street, the proces- 
sion repaired to the hall. The meeting was a decided 
success, and after an interchange of views another meeting 
was arranged for, at which the company was formed and 

' In consideration of contributions, the following persons 
were elected honorary members : General William H. 
Irwin, General T. F. McCoy, Hon. .lohn Davis, Colonel 
William Butler, Major Buoy, Major Daniel Eisenbise, 
Geoi-ge W. Elder, Esq., Lafayette Webb, Colonel John A. 
Wright, Hon. S. S. Woods, Colonel Alfred Marks, H. J. 
Walters, Esq., Samuel Aultz. 



as captain, Thomas W. Hulings first lieuten- 
ant, John Sigler second lieutenant and John 
Swan third lieutenant, with the following non- 
commissioned officers and musicians : First 
sergeant, H. A. Eisenbisc ; second sergeant, J. 
S. Waream ; third sergeant, J. A. Mathews ; 
fourth sergeant, J. F. Hamaker ; first corporal, 
E. W. Eisenbise ; second corporal, P. P. Butts ; 
third corporal, J. M. Nolte ; fourth corporal, F. 
Hart; fifers, S. G. McLaughlin and I. F. 
Cogley ; tenor drummers, Thos. Elberty and I. 
Boggs ; bass drummer, John Spiece ; color- 
bearer, Mitchell Riden. 

The company, thus organized, at once gave 
strict attention to matters of military discipline, 
including squad and company drills, which were 
held nearly every night in an unfurnished brick 
building on Logan Street, which had been in- 
tended for a church, but which was secured as an 
armory and drill-room. In these drills the officers 
were kindly assisted by Captain Henry Zollin- 
ger, an accomplished drill officer, who had been 
captain of a company at Newport, Perry 
County, and who subsequently commanded a 
company of the famous Forty-ninth Pennsyl- 
vania in the Rebellion, and also by Captain 
(afterwards General) "William H. Ir^vin, who 
had served in the Mexican War, in command 
of the Juniata Guards of Mifflin County. The 
Logan Guards were mustered into the State ser- 
vice by Major Daniel Eisenbise, the proprietor 
of the Red Lion Hotel, in Lewistown, who was 
always a warm and enthusiastic admirer, friend 
and patron of the " Logans," and to whom 
Bates, in his " History of the Pennsylvania 
Volunteers," gives the credit of being the pro- 
moter of their organization, viz. : 

"The 'Logan Guards,' a volunteer company, was 
organized by Major Daniel Eisenbise, inspector of 
the Second Brigade, Fourteenth Division Pennsyl- 
vania Militia. In the month of July, 1858, John B. 
Selheimer was elected captain, and commissioned on 
the 7th of August. The company met for parade ana 
drill about once a month, and participated in volun- 
teer encampments at Lewistown in the fall of 1859, 
and at Huntingdon in 1860, both under command of 
Major-General William H. Keim. It participated in 
the ceremonies incid'cnt to the inauguration of Gov- 
ernor Curtin, in January, 1861, and in the reception 
of Mr. Lincoln, President-elect, on the 22d of Feb- 
ruary following.'' 

The company having preserved its organiza- 
tion, and, to a great extent, its esprit du c.ovj)s<, 
and being thus in a condition to be rapidly re- 
cruited and made ready for actual <luty in tlio 
field, its services were tendered in advance by 
Captain Selheimer to Governor Curtin, in an- 
ticipation of the emergency that arose imnicdi- 
ately afterwards, so that when, on the 16tli of 
April, the message came from the Governor, ac- 
cepting the company and ordering it forward, its 
ranks were filled by recruitment in a single 
hour,^ and in the evening of the same day 
marched across the Juniata to the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, by which, after a few hours of wait- 

' Mr. McCay tells the story of the rapid filling of the 
" Logans' " ranks, and their prompt departure, as follows i 
" Upon the receipt of the telegram from Governor Curtin, 
ordering us to proceed to Harrisburg immediately, Captain 
.Selheimer responded by telegram that we were coming. 
He at once opened a recruiting office in the National Hotel, 
and in one hour had recruited a full company (ninety-one) 
of picked men, and was obliged to refuse the services of 
many who wished to go. The soul-inspiring music of the 
fife and drum was heard upon the streets, and the mem- 
bers made hurried preparations to leave. Very many left 
their business with no one to attend to it. The news 
spread rapidly and the farmers came into town by scores. 
The greatest excitement prevailed, extending even to the 
women and children, and as the shades of night came on. 
the streets in front of the Red Lion hotel and in front of 
the court-house were densely packed with men, women and 
children. It seemed, indeed, as if everybody had left 
their homes to bid us good-by. Many never expected to 
see us return, as the most exaggerated rumors were in cir- 
culation, one of which was that the rebels had captured 
Washington and Baltimore, and were then m.arching on to 
Harrisburg. All the original members promptly left their 
business to attend to itself, and amid the tears and lamen- 
tations of relatives, — mothers and fathers, wives, sisters, 
sweethearts and friends, — the company having formed in 
front of the old Red Lion Hotel, and preceded by our band of 
martial music, the Logans took up the line of march to the 
(new) junction, the boys stepping off in quick time to the 
tune of ' The girl I left behind me.' A great many persons 
accompanied us to the railroad, when we found that, owing 
to lack of transportation, we could not get away till near 
morning. \ few returned to town, but the great m.ijority 
remained at the depot, not wishing to again undergo the 
pain of parting with their loved ones. However, in the 
eiirly morning we got aboard of the morning passenger- 
train, which soon Landed us safely in Harrisburg on the 
17th of April. In a very short time we were joined by 
the Ringgold .\rtillery, of Reading, which was followed by 
the Pottsville companies and the .\llen Infantry, of Allen- 
town. Everything was in a state of the utmost confusion 
in Harrisburg.'' 



ing for the trains, it was transported to Harris- 
burg, where it arrived early on the morning of 
the 17th, and was joined by four other vol- 
unteer companies, viz., — the Ringgold Light 
Artillery, of Reading, the Washington Artillery 
and National lAght Infantry, of Pottsville, and 
the Allen Rifles, of Allentown, — in all, five 
hundred and thirty soldiers of Pennsylvania, on 
their way to the defense of the capital of the 

On the following morning (Thursday, April 
18, 1861) these companies were mustered into 
the service of the United States for three 
months, by Captain Seneca G. Simmons, of the 
Seventh Regular Infantry, and immediately after- 
wards left Harrisburg, for Baltimore, Md., by 
a railway train, on which was also a detachment 
of about fifty men of the Fourth (regular) Artil- 
lery, from one of the western posts, and bound 
for Fort McHenry, in Baltimore Harbor. This 
detacliment ^vas under command of Lieutenaut 
Pcmberton, afterwards the Confederate lieuten- 
ant-general, who commanded, and finally surren- 
dered, the stronghold of Vicksburg, Miss. 

On arriving at Baltimore they found the 
streets of that city (through which it was neces- 
sary for them to march nearly two miles on 
their way to the Warrington depot) filled and 
blockaded by a large and excited mob of men, 
who were ready, at a word, to make as bloody 
and brutal an attack ' on them as the same mob 

'"As we neared the city of Baltimore," says Mr. 
McCay, " alarming reports began to reach us, the mob 
having declared that rather than allow any Union troops 
to pass through tlieir city they would kill us to a man. 
Captain Selheimer, Hidings and Irwin and others cautioned 
us not to resent anything, as we were comparatively de- 
fenseless, the only arras being about forty muskets belong. 
ing to our company and the sabres worn by the Kinggolds, 
who were in the rear. Some of our men had secured some 
gun caps, and these were put upon muskets which in some 
<!ases were not loaded. As we alighted from the cars at 
the city limits we were met by a howling mob which 
hurled the most abusive epithets upon us. The regulars 
took the advance (they left us, however, before we got half- 
way through the city), followed by the Logans, our beauti- 
ful flag being carried by Will Mitchell. (He rose to the 
rank of brevet brigadier-general of volunteers, chief of 
staff to General Hancock, and, just previous to his untimely 
«nd, was made an assistant adjutant-general United States 
army, being the first appointment made by President Gar- 
field. His honored dust now lies in St. Mark's Cemetery.) 

made on the Sixth Massachusetts Regiment in 
their march through the city on the following 
day. The companies, however, promptly left 
the train on arrival, and were formed in bat- 
talion in the following order; The detach- 
ment of regulars on the right; next, the 
Logan Guards ; then the Allen Rifles, the 
Washington Artillery and the National 
I.iight Infantry, with the Ringgold Light Artil- 
lery as a rear-guard. "As the column was 
forming, near Bolton Station,^ the police of Bal- 
timore appeared in large force, headed by Mar- 
shal Kane, and followed by a mob, who at once 
commenced an attack on the volunteers, counte- 
nanced by a portion of the police sent to give 
safe conduct through the city. Orders were 
given to the men to preserve their temper, and 
make no reply to anything that shoidd be said 
to them. At the command ' forward !' the mob 
commenced hooting, jeering and yelling, and 
proclaimed, with oaths, that the troops should 
not pass through their city to fight the South. 

"Arriving near the centre of the city, Pem- 
berton, with his regulars, filed off" towards Fort 
McHenry, leaving the volunteers to pursue their 
way through the city as best they could. At 

A line of police, headed by Marshal Kane, kept the crowd 
back somewhat, but as we slowly neared the other depot 
the mob was increased by thousands, and when the police 
left us at the depot they were more brutal and abusive 
than ever. Tearing up the cobble-stones, they hurled a 
continuous stream of missiles through the open doors of the 
box-cars on which we had been placed. They attempted 
to break the decks of the cars in by jumping on them. 
Several times, indeed, they uncoupled the engine 
and endeavored to tear up the rails in front of us. 
Some of the stoutest of our boys, when they could stand 
no further abuse, jumped out of the car and offered to fight 
the whole crowd one by one. This seemed to please them, 
and they told us that as we were neighbors, and did not 
amount to much anyhow, they would let us go, but they 
said ' we'll give them Massachusetts Yankees hell ; they 
shall never go through this city,' and other such remarks. 
They made their threat good the next d,^y, when the terri- 
ble street fighting between the mob and the Sixth Massa- 
chusetts occurred. 

"As we had been told that we would draw new uni- 
forms at Harrisburg, our men did not present a very cred- 
itable appearance, having left home with the most dilapi- 
dated clothes they could find. This is why the mob at Balti- 
more called us convicts and poor-house paupers, and said 
that Pennsylvania had emptied its jails and poor-houses 
to send down there to be food for Southern powder." 

'' Bates' '' History Pennsylvania Volunteers." 



this juncture the mob were excited to a perfect 
frenzy, brealving the line of the police, and 
pushing through the files of men, in an attempt 
to break the column. Every insult that could 
be heaped upon the troops was offered, but no 
word of reply was elicited, the officers and men 
marching steadily on towards Camden Station. 
At every step the mob increased, until it num- 
bered thousands of the most determined and 
desperate rebels of the war. 

" The Logan Guard was armed with thirty-four 
Springfield muskets, whicii had been drawn from 
the national armory on a requisition from thead- 
jutaut-general of Pennsylvania at the time of its 
organization, in 1858, and thirty-four of their 
number, carrying them, were uniformed pre- 
cisely like the regulars. The officers and some 
of the men wore revolvers at their sides, well 
loaded. Aside from these, there was not a charge 
of powder in the five companies ; but one of the 
men of the Logan Guards, happening to have a 
box of percussion caps in his pocket, had pre- 
viously distributed them to his comrades, and the 
thirty-four muskets of the Guards were capped, 
and carried, half-cocked, at a support arms, 
creating the impression in the mob that these 
muskets were loaded, and ^^•ould be used against 
them if they attemjDted an assault." It was 
believed that this little ruse of capping the un- 
loaded muskets awed the mob, and prevented 
a bloody conflict between them and the sol- 

Finally the Pennsylvania companies reached the 
Camden Station, where they at once took the train 
for Washington, and at seven o'clock the same 
evening reached the city, and,by order of Major 
Irwin McDowell' (who had assumed command 
of the troops on their arrival), marched to, and 
occupied the Capitol building,' which they at 

1 Afterwards Major-General McDowell, U. S. A. 

2 " We finally reached ihe Baltimore and Ohio depot at 
Washington about dusk, and marched to the Capitol build- 
ing, the Logans being on the right of the line, and conse- 
quently the first company of volunteers to enter the Capitol 
building for its defense. We were very tired and hungry, 
but immediately began to barricade all the open space and 
corridors in the building with cement barrels and the iron 
plates which were intended for the dome, it being unfinished. 
In a short time every gas-jet was lighted, and the seces- 
sionists down in the city (and they were legion) heard 

once proceeded to strengthen by barricades. 
"The night of the 18th passed quietly away, 
and at daybreak of the 19th the morning report 
of the Logan Guard, officially signed, washanded 
by the first sergeant of the company to ^\.dju- 
tant-General Thomas, that officer remarking 
that it was the first official volunteer report 
received." ^ 

On their arrival at the Capitol, the men of 
the Pennsylvania companies wei-e armed, equip- 
ped and provided with ammunition, and they 
continued to occupy the building eleven days, 
at the end of which time the Logan Guard and 
the two Pottsville companies were ordered to 
Fort Washington, located fourteen miles below 
the city, on the Maryland side of the Potomac, 
nearly opposite the Washington mansion and 
tomb at Mount Vernon. The fort was com- 
manded by Brevet-Major J. A. Haskins, a one- 
armed veteran of the Mexican War, and under 
him, at this post, the three volunteer companies 
remained on duty through all the remainder of 
their term of service.^ 

that ten thousand Yankee volunteers had just marched 
into the Capitol. Many believing this, did not wait for the 
morrow, but ' skedaddled ' in hot haste across the Long 
Bridge, and down the river to Alexandria, which was garri- 
soned by General Ben. McCullough with eight thousand 
men. We got our first taste of hard-tack and bacon that 
night, and one of our Logans absolutely shed tears because 
he could not get more than one teaspoonful of sugar in his 
cofiFee. This young man found afterward how to endure 
privations, made a good soldier, and by his own merits rose 
to the rank of captain in the Forty-Ninth Pennsylvania 
Volunteers. We occupied the hall of the House, and while 
there we organized a Congress of our own, George W. Elb- 
erty being elected the Speaker." — W. F. McCay. 

3 Bates. 

*" We were put upon fatigue duty (says Mr. McCay) 
upon our arrival at Fort Washington, and placed under 
the most rigid discipline. Major Haskin, who commanded 
the garrison, was a brave and gallant soldier, a Christian 
gentleman and a strict disciplinarian, and very soon won 
the esteem and good-will of every Logan, and when we were 
about to come home, at the expiration of our time, he shed 
tears, and could not master his emotions when he said that 
we were all perfect gentlemen. Assisted by the officers, 
we soon became the, if not the superior, of the com- 
pany of the First .-irtillery and the company of recruits 
stationed there. We mouuteJ all the guns which com- 
manded the river for miles up and down stream, and every 
vessel or boat, large or small, had to stop and give an ac- 
count of themselves. If they did not, an eight-inch shell 
was quietly dropped over their bows, which soon brought 



In the intense excitement which everywhere 
prevailed from the time of the marching of 
these first five companies, it appears that the 
State authorities forgot or overlooked the right 
of these companies to be assigned to and desig- 
nated as the First Kegiment of Pennsylvania 
Volunteers ; and it was not until two hundred 
and forty other companies of later date 
had been organized and assigned to numerical 
precedence in the State service, that the claims 
of these " first defenders " were remembered, 
and they were then organized as a part of the 
Twenty-fifth Regiment, which was the last of 
Pennsylvania troops enlisted for the three 
mouths' service. Of this I'egiment, which was 
organized before the departure of the com- 

them to terms. On the land sides all the trees were cut 
away to get range for the heavy guns and the howitzers 
in the flanking casemates. Comfortable quarters were 
erected, and Rev. Harris, who was the chaplain in Fort 
Sumter when it was evacuated, was the chaplain of the post. 
Mount Vernon, the home in life, and tomb in death, of 
General Washington, the father of his country, was nearly 
opposite, on the other side of the river. Some of our boys 
would frequently swim the river, which is nearly a mile 
wide at this place. On that extreme hot Sunday when 
the disastrous battle of Bull Run was fought, we couid 
hear the sound of conflict quite plainly, and when the 
major received a dispatch that our army was out to pieces 
and in full retreat, and to be jirepared for a night attaclc, 
the water battery was reinforced by Captain Wren's com- 
pany. Extra heavy details were made for the rifle battery, 
the guns were trained and loaded, and the howitzers on the 
land side were double-shotted. Videttes were placed out 
on all the roads, and tlie men stood to their arms that long 
and gloomy night. Our time was now expired for wliich 
we had enlisted, but at the request of the government we 
remained two weeks longer. It is an open secret now that 
if the Confederates had pushed right on they could have 
captured Washington quite easily, there being no organized 
force to speak of to oppose them. Even after the arrival 
of the Sixth Massachusetts Regiment, the Confederate force 
under General Ben. JlcCuUoch could easily have captured the 
city, — that is, before the way was opened, and the blockade 
raised for the passage of loyal troops from the North." 

In referring to ihis, Mr. Lossing says, in his first volume 
of the " War of the Rebellion,'' that he has heard distin- 
guished officers and statesmen say that if this little band 
of Pennsylvanians had not been where they were on the 
18th day of April, 1861 (in the Capitol), that the President, 
his Cabinet officers, heads of departments, the commander- 
in-chief of the army, and many more, would have been 
assassinated or taken prisoners, the public archives and 
buildings seized, and .leff. Davis proclaimed dictator from 
the eastern portico of the Capitol, where Mr. Lincoln had 
been inaugurated just forty-five days before. 

panics for Fort Washington, the Logan Guards 
were designated as E, the color company. 
Henry L. Cake, of Pottsville, was made colo- 
nel ; Captain John B. Selheimer, of the MifHin 
County company, lieutenant-colonel ; and James 
H. Campbell, of Pottsville, major. By the 
promotion of Captain Selheimer to the lieuten- 
ant-colonelcy, Lieutenant Thomas M. Hulings 
became captain, Frank R. Sterrett first lieuten- 
ant and R. W. Patten second lieutenant. 
Colonel Selheimer joined the regiment, which 
was then ordered to march, with fifteen days' 
rations and sixty rounds of ammunition, to 
join Colonel Charles P. Stone's command, at 
Rockville, Md. It had been the intention, at 
the formation of the regiment, to concentrate 
all its companies ; but when the order for the 
march was issued, it did not include the com- 
panies then on duty at the Arsenal and Fort 
Washington, as it was deemed unwise to remove 
them ; they, therefore, never did a day's duty 
in the regiment to which they nominally be- 
longed, but remained at the posts to which they 
had been assigned. " Major Haskins, and the 
efficient officers under him at the fort, worked 
zealously and kindly with these troops in per- 
fecting them in their duties as soldiers, and so 
well did they succeed that in the single com- 
pany of Logan Guards one-half of the num- 
ber became commissioned officers in various 
Pennsylvania regiments ; four of the number 
being brevet brigadier-generals, four colonels, 
four lieutenant-colonels, six majors, eighteen 
captains, and thirty-two lieutenants. Among 
the privates in the ranks of this company, in 
their march through Baltimore, was Brigadier- 
General William H. Irwin, who commanded a 
brigade of General Franklin's corps at Antie- 
tam ; Brevet Brigadier-General William G. 
Mitchell, chief of General Hancock's staff; 
Brevet Brigadier-General J. A. Matthews, who 
commanded the Second Brigade of General 
Hartranft's division in the Ninth Corps ; and 
Brigadier-General Thomas M. Hulings, who 
was killed while gallantly leading his regiment 
into the thickest of the Wilderness fight." ' 
The invaluable services rendered to the gov- 

' Bates' " History Pennsylvania Volunteers.' 



ernment by the five compauies of " first de- 
fenders " was acknowledged by Congress on 
the day succeeding tlie disastrous battle of Bull 
Run, in a resolution of thanks, such as are 
never tendered by that body except for great 
and signal services to the country, viz. : 
"thirty-seventh congress of the united 


"July 22, 1861. 
" Resolved, That the thanks of this House are due 
and are hereby tendered to the five hundred and 
thirty soldiers from Pennsylvania, who passed 
through the mob of Baltimore and reached Washing- 
ton, on the Eighteenth of April last, for the defense 
of the National Capital. 

"Galusha a. Grow, 
" Speaker of the House of Representatives." 

After having served about two w^eeks beyond 
their term of enlistment, the Lewistown and 
Pottsville compauies left Fort Washington for 
their homes in Pennsylvania. Of the return of 
the Logan Guards, one of its members (W. F. 
McCay, before quoted) says, — 

" Having been mustered out of the U. S. service 
and received our pay in gold, we astonished the citi- 
zens of Harrisburg by our soldierly appearance and 
exemplary conduct. We arrived home safely. The 
entire population turned out to receive us and we re- 
ceived a perfect ovation. The citizens and the 
' Slemmer Guards ' received us with all the honors, 
the members thereof being of the most respectable 
families. A bounteous and never-to-be-forgotten 
dinner was provided for us in the court-house and 
speeches ot welcome were made and responded to, 
after which we broke ranks and the old Logan Guards 
ceased to have an organized existence. 

" Shortly after the war the survivors formed them- 
selves into an organization called 'The Logan Guards 
Association,' Colonel Selheimer being president. Ma- 
jor K. W. Patton vice-president. Captain William B. 
Weber treasurer. Captain Joseph S. Waream secre- 
tary. Since the death of Captain Waream the va- 
cancy was filled by the election of the writer as sec- 

Colonel John B. Selheimer is the great- 
grandson of Nicholas Selheimer, for eight 
years a soldier of the "War of the Revolution, 
who emigrated from Hesse Cassel, Germany, 
about 176o, and settled in Franklin County, 
Pa., where he engaged in farming. He married 
Mary ^Miller, to whom was born five sons — 
William, Conrad, George, John, Jacob — and 
one daughter, Susan. 

John and Jacob served in the War of 1812. 
John was killed on the ship " Niagara," on 
Lake Erie, while under the command of Com- 
modore Perry. For the bravery displayed by 
Pennsylvania troops in the engagement the 
government of Pennsylvania awarded a num- 
ber of silver medals, about three inches in 
diameter and three-eighths of an inch in thick- 
ness, one of which is still in po.ssession of the 
family and contains the following inscription : 
" To John Selheimer, in testimony of his patri- 
otism and bravery in the naval action on Lake 
Erie, September the 10th, 1813." 

The birth of William Selheimer occurred in 
1776, in Franklin County, from which locality 
he removed to Chester County and built a 
paper-mill, which was successfully conducted 
for several years. About 1815 he made MifHin 
County (now Juniata County), Pa., his home, 
purchasing an extensive tract of land and build- 
ing several dwellings and a paper-mill, which he 
managed with profit until his death, in 1826. 
William Selheimer married Elizabeth Houltry, 
of Hagerstown, Md., whose children were Ab- 
salom B., William, James, John, Patterson, 
Elizabeth (Mrs. Thomas Kerr), Catherine 
(Mrs. AVilliam Kirk), Mary (Mrs. William 
Robison), Sarah (Mrs. John McKennan), Jane 
(Mrs. John P. Low) and Mariah (Mrs. David 
Dough man). 

Absalom B. Selheimer, the fiither of Colonel 
Selheimer, was born in 1798, in Franklin 
County, Pa., and removed, with his parents, to 
Chester County, and later to Juniata County, 
in both of which localities he engaged in the 
business of paper-making. He married, in 
1821, Eleanor, daughter of Judge William 
Beale, of Beale township, Juniata County, 
whose children are William B., Napoleon B., 
John B., Hanibal S. 

Mr. Selheimer married, a second time, in 
18.33, Louisa A. Crawford, daughter of Dr. 
David Crawford, whose children are Robert S., 
David Crawford, Absalom B., Jane A. (wife 
of E. W. Eisenbise) and Oliver P. 

The death of Mr. Selheimer occurred in Ro- 
chester, N. Y., in 1852. His son. Colonel 
John B. Selheimer, was born on the 18th of 
August, 1826, in Milford toMuship, Juniata 



County, where the days of his boyhood were 
passed. His advantages of education were 
those afforded by the common schools, after 
which, at tlie age of sixteen, he removed to 
Lewistown and became an apprentice to the 
trade of a tinsmith, concluding his period of 
service in Philadelphia. Returning to Lewis- 
town in 1848, he established himself in the 
hardware business, which, from time to time, 

service during the War of the Rebellion. In 
1858 the Logan Guards was organized and 
elected him as their captain. About ten days 
before Fort Sumter was fired upon, and Presi- 
dent Lincoln issued his call for seventy-five 
thousand men, the Logan Guards called a com- 
pany meeting and passed resolutions offering 
their services to the government. This offer 
was accepted on the 16th of April, 1861, and 

increased in extent, and is still successfully 
conducted by him. 

Colonel Selheimer was, on the 23d of March, 
1850, married to Eliza Jane, daughter of 
Joseph Mathews, of Lewistown. Their chil- 
dren are Joseph M., Eleanor B., William L., 
Lizzie B. (Mrs. Dwight S. Beckwith, of Or- 
leans County, N. Y.), Harry C, Charles M. 
(deceased) and Mary L. 

Colonel Selheimer was actively engaged in 

two hours after the receipt of the telegram the 
company was recruited to one hundred men, 
who the same evening started for Harrisburg, 
and at midnight of the 17th instant were 
ordered by Governor Curtin to proceed to 
Washington the following morning. They were 
the first company who reported at Harrisburg, 
and the Logan Guards had the honor of being 
the first company mustered into the service of 
the United States. On the morning of the 



18th of April, 1861, they started for Washing- 
ton with four other Pennsylvania companies, 
but with no arms other than the scanty supply 
brought from their homes, the State not having 
been able to arm and equip them at this early 
date. On reaching Baltimore the mob closed 
around them, the Logan Guards, nothing 
daunted, and with their colors flying, mean- 
while forcing their way, with their associates, 
through the hostile crowd, and reaching Wash- 
ington in safety, where they handed in the first 
morning report. They were for several days 
quartered in the Capitol building and later 
ordered to Fort Washington, where they re- 
mained until their term of service expired. 

The liOgan Guards, with other companies, 
afterward formed the Twenty-fifth Regiment 
Pennsylvania Volunteers, of which John B. 
Selheimer was elected lieutenant-colonel. 

Napoleon B. Selheimer, brother of the col- 
onel, entered the cavalry service during the 
Mexican War, and four brothers — David C, 
Absalom B., Oliver P. and the subject of this 
sketch — served during the War of the Rebellion. 

David C. Selheimer, who was engaged in busi- 
ness in South Carolina when Fort Sumter was 
fired upon, at once started for the North, being 
arrested on several occasions before reaching 
the Union lines. He enlisted in the Ninth Regi- 
ment New York Volunteers, and was after- 
M'ard transferred as second lieutenant to the 
Logan Guards, Forty-sixth Regiment Pennsyl- 
vania Volunteers. He re-enlisted as a veteran, 
and was appointed aid-de-camp on the staff of 
General Joseph S. Knipe in Sherman's ISIarch 
to the Sea. At the battle of Peach Tree Creek, 
Ga., he received a wound which soon after 
proved fatal. 

Absalom B. Selheimer enlisted in 1861 as a 
private in the First Pennsylvania Cavalry; was 
discharged on account of illness ; on his recovery 
re-enlisted for nine months and later served in 
an emergency regiment. He subsequently 
raised a company, of which he became captain ; 
marched to Tennessee and remained until peace 
was declared. 

Oliver P. Selheimer enlisted when but fif- 
teen years of age and served with the nine 
months' volunteers. 

Colonel Selheimer is a Democrat in politics, 
as are all the members of the family. He 
has been for years an influential member of his 
party, and held many leading offices in both 
borough and county. He was, in 1859, elected 
county treasurer for a period of two yeai's. He 
has also officiated as town commissioner, school 
director and chief burgess of Lewistown. In 
1884 he was elected for four years to the Slate 
Senate from the district embracing Mifflin, 
Juniata and Perry Counties, and served on the 
committees on " Constitutional Reform," " Canals 
and Navigation," " Military Afl^airs," " Banks," 
" Federal Relations " and " Pensions and Grat- 
uities." He is identified with the Masonic 
order as a member of Lewistown Lodge, No. 
203, and Lewistown Commaudery, No. 26. 

The following is the correct list of the 
officers, non-commissioned officers and privates 
immediately after Colonel Selheimer had de- 
parted to assume command of the regiment as 
lieutenant-colonel. This is copied from the 
roll in the handwriting of General J. Ard 
Mathews, deceased, and was the same as handed 
to Major Haskins. The record of the different 
members is also given : 

Captain, Thomas M. Hulings,' afterwards colonel 
Forty-Ninth Regiment Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers; killed at Spottsylvania Court-House, Va. ; 
body not recovered. 

First Lieutenant, F. E. Sterrett, afterwards captain 
Minnesota Volunteers and aid to General Sib- 
ley, Minnesota Volunteers, in Indian war, North- 

Second Lieutenant, R. W. Patton, afterwards major 
One Hundred and Thirty-Sixth Regiment Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers. 

Third Lieutenant, William H. Irwin,^ resigned to 
accept command of Seventh Regiment Pennsyl- 
vania Volunteers ; afterwards colonel Forty- 
Ninth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers and 

Henry A. Eisenbise, promoted to third lieutenant ; 
afterwards lieutenant Forty-Fifth Regiment 
Pennsylvania Volunteers and captain Company 
A (second Logans), Forty-Sixth Regiment 
Pennsylvania Volunteers; twice a prisoner nf 

' See biographical sketch appended to history of the 
Forty-Ninth Regiment. 

- See chapter ou Mexican War for sketch of General 



Orderly Sergeant, Joseph Ard Mathews, afterwards 
captain and major Company A, Forty-Sixth 
Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers (second Lo- 
gans) ; colonel One Hundred and Twenty-eighth 
Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers and briga- 
dier-general Ninth Army Corps ; dead. 

Second Sergeant, Joseph S. Waream, afterwards cap- 
tain Company K, One Hundred and Thirty-First 
Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers ; deceased. 

Third Sergeant, William B. Weber, afterwards cap- 
tain Company A, Forty-Sixth Regiment Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers. 

Fourth Sergeant, Chauncey M. Shull. 

First Corporal, Elias W. H. Eisenbise, afterwards 
captain Company F, One Hundred and Seventh 
Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers. 

Second Corporal, Porter P. Butts. 

Third Corporal, John M. Nolte, afterwards first ser- 
geant Company A, Forty-Sixth Regiment Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers ; promoted to captain ; served 
during the entire war; afterwards captain Com- 
pany G, National Guards of Pennsylvania. 

Fourth Corporal, Frederick Hart, sergeant Company 
F, One Hundred and Seventh Pennsylvania 
Volunteers ; killed in first day's fight at Gettys- 

Musician, Samuel G. McLaughlin ; being a cripple, 
he was discharged for physical disability; now a 
resident of Fowler, Mich.; an excellent fifer, his 
superior has never been found. 

Drummers, William Hopper, afterwards sergeant 
Company A, Forty-Sixth Regiment Pennsylva- 
nia Volunteers; died from wounds received at 
Fredericksburg, Va. Joseph W. Postlethwaite, 
no record available. 

Quarterma.ster-Sergeant, David Wasson. 

Commissary Sergeant, William T. McEwen, after- 
wards major First Regiment Pennsylvania Cav- 
alry ; severely wounded in action. 

Jesse Alexander, afterwards corporal Company C, 

First Regiment Pennsylvania Cavalry ; died 

from wounds received in abtion. 
James D. Burns, afterwards quartermaster-sergeant 

Company A, Twentieth Regiment Pennsylvania 

William H. Bousum, supposed to be dead. 
William E. Benner. 
Robert Betts, afterwards private Company C, First 

Regiment Pennsylvania Cavalry. 
William R. Cooper, Seventy-Sixth Regiment Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers; wounded in action. 
William Cowdon, afterwards private Forty-Sixth 

Regiment ; killed in action. 
Emanuel Cole, died from exposure on the field. 
Harry Comfort. 
Jeremiah Cogley, afterward sergeant United States 

marines; second lieutenant. 

Samuel Comfort. . 

Frank De Armint. 

Thomas W. Dewees. 

George W. Elberty, afterwards sergeant-major Forty- 
Sixth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers. 

James Eckebarger, afterwards lieutenant and captain 
Forty-Ninth Regiment Pennsylvania Volun- 

Joseph A. Fichthorn, afterwards corporal and ser- 
geant Thirty-Sixth and Seventy-Eighth Regi- 
ments Pennsylvania Volunteers. 

George W. Freeburn. 

William Butler Freeburn, afterwards lieutenant and 
captain Forty-Ninth Regiment Pennsylvania 
Volunteers ; died from wounds received while 
laying pontoon bridge at Fredericksburg. He 
volunteered for this dangerous work. 

James William Henry, afterwards sergeant in the 
One Hundred and Nineteenth Pennsylvania Vol- 
unteers, Second Bucktails; wounded at Gettys- 

John S. Kauffman, One Hundred and Thirty-First 
Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers. 

George I. Loit. 

Elias W. Link, Forty-Sixth Regiment Pennsylvania 
Volunteers; killed in action. 

Samuel B. Marks, afterwards second lieutenant Fourth 
Regiment (emergency) Pennsylvania Militia. 

William McKnew, wagon-master Fifty-Fourth Regi- 
ment Pennsylvania Volunteers. 

Robert D. Morton, sergeant in Twenty-Second Regi- 
ment Pennsylvania Cavalry; killed inaction in 
Shenandoah Valley. 

John A. McKee, afterwards captain Fourth Regiment 
Pennsylvania Militia. 

John S. Miller, afterwards lieutenant Forty-Fifth 
Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers. 

Robert A. Mathews. 

Joseph A. Miller. 

Thomas D. Nurse, afterwards corporal Company A, 
Forty-Sixth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers; 
killed at Antietam. 

William A. Nelson, afterwards captain Company K, 
Thirty-Sixth Regiment (emergency) Pennsylva- 
nia Militia. 

Robert Nelson, afterwards private Thirty-Sixth Regi- 
ment Pennsylvania Volunteers ; died and was 
buried at Charlotteville, Blair County, Pa. 

John A. Nale, afterwards corporal Company F, One 
Hundred and Seventh Pennsylvania Volunteers; 
killed at battle of South Mountain. 

John W. Postlethwaite. 

James Xenophon Sterrett, afterwards second lieuten- 
ant Company D, One Hundred and Seventh 
Regiment Penn.sylvania Volunteers. 

Charles W. Stahl, deceased. 

Thomas M. Uttley, afterwards clerk in quartermas- 
ter-general's office and adjutant Thirty-Sixth 
Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers. 



David B. Weber, afterwards lieutenant Two Hundred 
and Fifth and One Hundred and Thirty-First 
Regiments Pennsylvania Volunteers. 
George White, afterwards sergeant First Regiment 

Pennsylvania Cavalry; died from wounds. 
William F. McCay, afterwards acting hospital stew- 
ard One Hundred and Seventh Regiment Penn- 
.sylvania Volunteers and sergeant-major Fifth 
Regiment United States Cavalry. 
J. Bingham Farrer, killed by a collision soon after 

the war. 
Owen M. Fowler (printer), afterwards captain United 

States Colored Troops ; died in Shamokin, Pa. 
John T. Hunter, afterwards captain First Regiment 
United States Colored Troops ; died from wounds 
received at Fort Wagner, South Carolina. 
James M. Jackson, afterwards hospital steward, three 
months' service, and in the Twelfth United 
States Infantry ; now of Philadelphia. 
James N. Roger, a Mexican War veteran ; dead. 
Augustus Edward Smith, afterwards second sergeant 
Company F, One Hundred and Seventh Regi- 
ment Pennsylvania Volunteers ; discharged for 
disability ; afterward first duty sergeant in 
Twenty-Second Regiment Pennsylvania Volun- 
James P. Smith (Sugar Jim), afterwards captain 
Forty-Ninth Regiment Pennsylvania Volun- 
Theodore Smith, afterwards corporal and sergeant in 
Two Hundred and Fifth and One Hundred and 
Thirty-First Regiments ; sergeant in Third 
Logan (Company G), Fifth Regiment National 
Gideon M. Tice, died from disease contracted in the 
service; member of Huliugs Post, Grand Army 
of the Republic. 
Gilbert Waters, afterwards lieutenant and captain 
Ninth Regiaient Pennsylvania Cavalry ; killed 
while leading his squad in a charge at Win- 
chester, Ky. 
Abraham Files, afterwards a member of the One 
Hundred and Thirty-First Pennsylvania Volun- 
Paniel Wertz, died in 1862 of rheumatism con- 
tracted in the service. 
Edwin E. Zeigler, afterwards lieutenant Forty-Ninth 
Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers ; captain and 
major One Hundred and Seventh Regiment 
Pennsylvania Volunteers ; was made the brevet 
colonel at the close of the war, and is now gen- 
eral freight and passenger agent of the Alle- 
gheny Valley Railroad at Allegheny City, Pa. 
Lucian T. Snyder, (printer and reporter) ; he had the 
honor of being the cleanest soldier in the gar- 
rison of Fort Washington, and on that account 
was invariably selected as foot orderly to the 
commanding officer when detailed for guard 

Henry F. Keiser, afterwards private in Forty-Ninth 
Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers; slightly 
wounded on the Peninsula under General Mc- 
Clellan ; lost his eye-sight by reason of exposure, 
etc., in the field ; reported dead. 
Charles E. Lamb, afterward sergeant First Regiment 
District Columbia Volunteers; died from disease 
contracted in the service. 
Henry Printz, afterwards sergeant Forty-Sixth 
and lieutenant Two Hundred and Fifth Regi- 
ments Pennsylvania Volunteers ; discharged by 
reason of wounds received in action at the battle 
of Mount Jackson, Va. 
Daniel Fissler, afterwards member of Stevens' Light 
Battery; served during entire war; no further 
record ; supposed to be dead. 
John Hughes, since member Twentieth Regiment 
Pennsylvania Cavalry; died at Newton Hamil- 
ton from disease contracted on the field. 
John W. Jones, afterwards sergeant and lieutenant 
One Hundred and Seventh Regiment Pennsyl- 
vania Volunteers ; also quartermaster in the 
Twelfth Regiment Pennsylvania Cavalry. 
Thomas Kinkead, afterwards private in Forty-Sixth 
Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers ; killed in 
John S. Langton, farmer, Decatur, 111. 
General William Galbraith Mitchell, volunteered as 
a private ; carried the Logan flag through the 
mob at Baltimore at the head of the column ; 
promoted to adjutant Seventh (three months') 
Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, and after- 
ward captain in Forty-Ninth Regiment Pennsyl- 
vania Volunteers, where, by his soldierly quali- 
ties he attracted the attention of General Han- 
cock. His gentlemanly deportment and gallant 
bearing caused him to be promoted rapidly. It 
is said that at the battle of Gettysburg, Hancock 
being severely wounded, General Mitchell, with- 
out any ordera, placed Stannard's Iron Brigade to 
make a rush fisr Little Round Top, the key of 
the position. They reached there just in time to 
repel a heavy rebel infantry force who were 
almost up the hill. He participated in all the 
battles with the Army of the Potomac and ren- 
dered great service to his country. He finally 
became chief of staff to General Hancock, and 
upon the election of General Garfield he was 
appointed assistant adjutant-general at the re- 
quest of General Hancock, this being the very 
first appointment made by President Garfield. 
He did not live long thereafter. He was taken 
ill suddenly and after a brief sickness departed 
this life at Governor's Island, May 29, 1883, 
leaving a widow" and family. His death was 
deplored by many eminent men. His honored 
remains were brought to Lewistown, his surviv- 
ing comrades of the Logan Guards escorting them 
to their last resting-place in St. JIark's Episco- 



pal Cemetery. His ancestors were among the 
earliest settlers in this county. One of them 
gave the ground gratuitously for the court-house, 
school-house and jail. 

William Sherwood, afterwards lieutenant and cap- 
tain Forty-ninth Regiment Pennsylvania Vol- 
unteers ; served the entire war. 

Nathaniel Scott, afterwards a member First Regi- 
ment Pennsylvania Cavalry; died in the service. 

George Ard Snyder, re-enlisted in One Hundred and 
Thirty-first and Seventy-eighth Regiments Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers. 

Frank Wentz, afterwards first sergeant Company F, 
One Hundred and Seventh Regiment Pennsyl- 
vania Volunteers ; promoted to first lieutenant 
and brevet captain ; was severely wounded in 
the first day's fight at Gettysburg. 

Henry G. Walters. 

Philip Winterode, afterwards a private in the 
Forty-ninth Regiment Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers ; he participated in all the actions in which 
that fighting regiment was engaged, and in one 
of which he was wounded ; he was killed on 
the Pennsylvania Railroad near Harrisburg, by 
being run over by a train. 

This ends the list. Most of those who vol- 
unteered for the defense of the Union have 
long since gone to join the great majority on 
the other side, and there are not more than 
twenty who have survived. The remnant of 
what once was the beautiful flag of the Logan 
Guards is now the property and has been 
placed in the custody of Colonel John B. Sel- 
heimer for safe keeping, he being the senior 


The Second Regiment (three months' service) 
contained one company of men recruited at 
New Bloomfield, Perry County. This was 
Company D, commanded by Captain Henry D. 
Woodruff. This, as well as the other companies 
of the regiment, was hastily recruited under the 
President's call for volunteers, the enlistments 
commencing on the day of the call (April 15, 
1861), and the company being completed and 
mustered into the service on the 20th of the 
same month. The regiment was organized at 
Camp Curtin on the 21st, under command of 
Colonel Frederick S. Stumhaugh, and on the 
evening of the same day left Harrisburg for 
Washington ; but on reaching Cockeystown, 
Md., it was found that the railroad bridge at 

that place had been destroyed, and thereupon 
the regiment returned to York, Pa., and there 
remained in a camp of instruction until June 
1st, when it was ordered to Chambersburg, Pa., 
where it was assigned to duty in Colonel Wyn- 
koop's (Second) brigade of the (Second) di- 
vision commanded by Major-General William 
S. Keim, in the Department of Washington, 
under Major-General Eobert Patterson. 

At Chambersburg the regiment remained 
until June 16th, A'hen it crossed the Potomac, 
and with other troops advanced to Martinsburg, 
Va. On the 15th of July it was again ad- 
vanced to Bunker Hill, Va., in the expectation 
of a combined movement against the enemy on 
the 16th. The projected movement, however, 
was not made, and the regiment was not called 
on to take part in actual battle. On the 23d of 
July — its term of service having already expired 
— the Second marched from Charlestowu, Va., 
to Harper's Ferry, whence it was transported by 
railroad to Harrisburg, and was there mustered 
out of the service on the 26th of July. 

Company D, Perry County. — This com- 
pany engaged in no battle of the war, its du- 
ties being chiefly to guard ; yet their detei'mina- 
tion was as good and their patriotism as pure 
as any band of men who ever left home for the 
army. They were mustered into service on the of April and mustered out on the 26th of 
July, 1861. 

Captain, H. D. Woodruff; residence, Bloomfield. 

First Lieutenant, J. H. Crist; residence, Newport. 

Second Lieutenant, C. K. Brenneman; residence, 

First Sergeant, Joseph Fry ; residence, Bloomfield. 

Second Sergeant, Jacob Stump ; residence. Centre 

Third Sergeant, James Hahn ; residence, Newport. 

Fourth Sergeant, George Stroop ; residence, Bloom- 

First Corporal, Geo. W. Topley; residence, Bloom- 

Second Corporal, Wm. H. Troup; residence, Oliver 

Third Corporal, DeWitt C. O'Bryan ; residence, New- 

Fourth Corporal, George Kosier; residence, Bloom- 

Musicians, Chas. Weber and Daniel Howard; resi- 
dence, Newport. 



H. A. Albright, residence, Newport. 
John H. Arnold, residence, Madison township. 
Wm. H. Allwood. 

-Jacob Bergstresser, residence, Carroll township. 
J. Edwin Beat. 
Wm. H. Barnes. 
Charles C. Bent. 
Philip Becker. 

Isaac Baldwin, residence, Millerstown. 
Wm. Clouser, residence. Center township. 
Isaiah W. Clouser, residence, Center township. 
Samuel Clay, residence, Center township. 
John W. Campbell, residence, Bloomfield. 
Eli B. Charles, residence, Buffalo township. 
George Dial. 

G. Smith DeBray, residence, Millerstown. 
William C. Duncan. 
James B. Eby, residence, Bloomfield. 
John F. Egolf, residence, Bloomfield. 
Isaac Etter, residence, Newport. 
John B. Elliot, residence, Saville township. 
Wesley H. Ernest, residence, Millerstown. 
John F. Ferguson. 

William R. Fertig, residence, Millerstown. 
John H. Fertig, residence, Millerstown. 
Reuben S. Gardner, residence, Newport. 
Wm. S. Hostetter. 
Frank Holt. 
Thomas J. Heany. 
Adam J. Hartzell. 

John W. Howell, residence, Greenwood township. 
James M. Heany, residence, Juniata township. 
Daniel Holman. 
Comly Idal. 
Conrad Jumper, 

Michael C. Lynch, residence, Bloomfield. 
Daniel W. Lutman, residence. Center township. 
Benjamin F. Leiby, residence, Newport. 
David Maxwell. 
Lewis Maslha. 
George Mysel. 
George Moore. 

Thomas McDonald, residence, Carroll township. 
John McClintock. 

George W. Orwan, residence, Center township. 
Samuel B. Orwan, residence, Center township. 
Martin v. B. Orwan, residence. Center township. 
Washington A. Power, residence. Center township. 
H. S. Rumbaugh. 

Amos Robeson, residence, Bloomfield. 
Thaddeus C. Rider, residence, Newport. 
Oliver P. Rider, residence, Newport. 
Lewis Rody. 
John M. Swartz. 
George Sanno. 
Daniel Swartz, Jr. 
David P. Shively. 
Jacob SuUenberger. 

Van Buren Shultz. 

Joseph F. Smith. 

Andrew J. Watts. 

Wm. M. Wallace. 

Wm. C. Weilly. 

Thomas Wright. 

Charles J. Wright, residence, Millerstown. 


The Fourth Regiment (three months' service) 
originated in the First Regiment, Second Bri- 
gade, Second Division of the State militia, or- 
ganized under the militia act of 1858. It con- 
sisted of six companies and had a full regimental 
organization, the officers holding State commis- 
sions. In response to the call of the President, 
the services of the militia regiment were tender- 
ed to the Governor for the term of three months, 
and were accej)ted on condition that the com- 
mand would report in Harrisburg within four 
days. The officers immediately commenced the 
enrollment of recruits, and at the expiration of 
the time appointed some seven hundred men were 
ready to move. One of the companies (G, 
Captain .John W. Chamberlain) was recruited 
at Lewisburgh, Union County. 

On Saturday, April 20th, the command pro- 
ceeded by rail to Harrisburg, and occupied 
Camp Curtin. It was the intention to have 
remained in camp till a sufficient number of 
men could have been procured to fill the regi- 
ment to its maximum number ; but the urgent 
necessities of the government rendered this pur- 
pose impracticable, and orders were issued to 
form a regiment immediately from such compa- 
nies as were in camp. This order had the 
elfcct to change the command from a militia to 
a volunteer organization. 

An election was accordingly held, which re- 
sulted in the choice of the same field officers as 
those holding the militia commissions, which 
were as follows : John F. Hartranft, colonel ; 
Edward Schall, lieutenant-colonel ; Edwin 
Schall, major. Charles Hunsicker was appointed 

Scarcelv was the organizatiim completed when 
marching ordere were received. Leaving Camp 
Curtin on the evening of the 21st of April, the 
regiment proceeded by rail to Philadelphia, 
where it was ordered by General Patterson to 
report to Colonel Dare, of the Twenty-third. 



Taking one company of his own and the Fourth 
Eegiment, Colonel Dare proceeded by rail to 
Perryville, Md., and took possession of the town, 
making such disposition of the troops as would 
prevent a surprise. 

On the following day General Patterson or- 
dered the regiment to proceed without delay to 
Washington. Immediate application was made 
to Colonel Dare for transportation by steamer 
to Annapolis, the route by Baltimore being then 
closed. Not feeling secure from capture, Colo- 
nel Dare only gave transportation for one wing 
of the regiment, which embarked under com- 
mand of Colonel Hartranft. Arriving at Annap- 
olis, the troops were disembarked and quartered 
in the buildings belonging to the Naval Acade- 
my, by order of Major-General Butler, then in 
command of the town. The lett wing, under 
command of Major Schall, was detained several 
days at Perryville for the security of the port. 

It was expected that the men would be fully 
clothed, armed and equipped at Harrisburg be- 
fore marching. But when the urgent appeals 
came from Washington for troops, it was not 
the time for the patriotic citizen-soldier to hesi- 
tate, and the regiment marched M'ithout uni- 
forms or equipments, the men being armed with 
muskets, and provided with ammunition, which 
they were obliged to carry in their pockets. 
Clothing was sent to the regiment on the 28th 
of April, but not until some time in June were 
proper unifoi-ms supplied. 

In pursuance of orders, the regiment proceed- 
ed, on the 8th of May, to Washington, and was 
quartered in the Assembly buildings and in 
a church near by. Transportation, camp and 
garrison equipage not having been supplied by 
the State or national government, the regiment 
was prevented from going into camp. The close 
confinement of the men in crowded quarters 
soon produced its legitimate results. Sickness, 
which, up to this time, had been scarcely known 
in the regiment, now began to prevail to a con- 
siderable extent. As soon as tents were received 
it was at once established in camp, about two 
miles distant from the city, toward Bladensburg. 
When the necessary equipage was furnished, 
regimental drills and inspections were com- 
menced, and vigorous measures taken to make 

the regiment effective. On the 24th of June 
it was ordered to Alexandria, in anticipation 
of an attack by the enemy, and was soon 
after placed in camp on Shuter's Hill, where 
the regular drills and inspections were resumed. 

On Sunday, June 30th, at two o'clock in the 
morning, the pickets of the regiment, stationed 
on the old Fairfax road, under command of 
Lieutenant M. R. McClennan, were attacked 
by about thirty of the enemy. They were re- 
pulsed by the Union pickets, only three in 
number, who killed Sergeant Haines, previously 
a clerk in the Treasury Department at Wash- 
ington. Three others of the pickets on the outer 
post, intending to go to the rescue of their com- 
rades, came in contact with the enemy's force, in 
M'hich Thomas Murray was killed and Llewelyn 
Rhumer was severely wounded. The third, 
dropping upon the ground, escaped without in- 
juiy, the enemj', in the excitement and darkness, 
j)assing over him. The trails of blood discov- 
ered in the morning showed that they had like- 
wise suffered in the encounter. 

The evidences on every hand pointed mimis- 
takably to an early advance of the army. In- 
spections were careful and minute. All surplus 
baggage was sent to the rear, together with 
knapsacks and overcoats, the men retaining only 
their blankets. The Fourth Regiment was as- 
signed to the First Brigade, Third Division' 
of McDowell's army. The division moved 
from camp by the Fairfax road, reaching Sang- 
ster's Station on Thursday evening. The enemy 
set fire to his stores and retreated as the column 
advanced. Firing was heard in the direction 
of Blackburn's Ford, occasioned by Colonel 
Richardson's reconnoissance in that direction. 
On Friday the division moved to Centreville, 
where the entire army of McDowell lay en- 
camped. On Saturday, the 20tli of July, the 

1 Organization of First Brigade, Colonel W. B. Franklin, 
Third Division, Colonel S. P. Heintzelman (the three brig- 
ades of the division were commanded respectively by Colo- 
nels W. B. Franklin, 0. 0. Howard and 0. B. Wilcox).— 
Eicket's Battery of the First United States Artillery ; Fifth 
Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers, Colonel Lawrence; 
Eleventh Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers, Colonel 
Clark ; First Regiment Minnesota Volunteers, Colonel Gor- 
man ; Fourth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, Colonel 



question of muster out was I'reely agitated, the 
term of enlistment expiring on the following 
day. Desirous of retaining the regiment in his 
command till the anticipated battle should be 
fought, General ]McDowell issued an order, 
making the following appeal : 

"The General commanding has learned with regret 
that the time of service of the Fourth Regiment 
Pennsylvania Volunteers is about to expire. The 
services of the regiment have been so important, 
its good conduct so general, its patience under priva- 
tion so constant, its state of efficiency so good, that 
its departure at this time can only be considered an 
important loss to the army. Fully recognizing the 
right of the regiment to its discharge and payment, at 
the time agreed upon, the agreement of the govern- 
ment in this respect, the General commanding, never- 
theless, requests the regiment to continue in service for 
a few days longer, pledging that the time of muster 
out of service sliall not exceed two weeks. Such 
members of the regiment as do not accede to this re- 
quest will be placed under the command of proper 
officers, to be marched to the rear, mustered out of 
service, and paid, as soon as possible, after the expi- 
ration of the term of service." 

Differences of opinion jjrevailed in the regi- 
ment upon the question of compliance with this 
request. While many were willing to re-enlist 
for two weeks longer, some were desirous of 
being mustered out in accordance with their 
contract with the government. When it was 
ascertained that unanimity of sentiment was not 
likely to be secured, it was decided by the com- 
manding general that to break up the organiza- 
tion and to take a fragment of the regiment into 
battle would not be prudent ; orders were accord- 
ingly issued for its muster out of service. 

The subsequent history of the men composing 
this regiment dispels any doubt that may, at 
the time, have been raised of the rectitude of 
their intentions. Under the command of the 
lieutenant-colonel, it marched to Washington, 
from whence it was taken by rail to Harris- 
burg, where it was soon after mitstered out of 
service. But measures immediately taken for 
the organization of new regiments, in which the 
men were immediately enlisted for the war, and 
fully attested on the bloody fields of Fredericks- 
burg and Antietam, and in numberless hard- 
fought battles of the war, their patriotism and 
their valoi'. 

Company G, Union Cot nty. — This com- 
pany was recruited at Lewisburgh, Union 
County, and was mustered in April 20, 1861. 

John W. Chamberliu, captain. 
George H. Hassenplug, first lieutenant. 
James M. Linn, second lieutenant. 
James Chamberlin, first sergeant. 
Thomas Donachy, second sergeant. 
John N. Wilson, third sergeant. 
Peter Koser, fourth sergeant. 
Samuel Cuskaden, first corporal. 
Charles H. Trainer, second corporal. 
Jeremiah Snyder, third corporal. 
William Frymire, fourth corporal. 
William Wise, musician. 


Levi Amraon. 
A. James Bell. 
Henry Brown. 
Charles S. Buoy. 
Jacob Campbell. 
David Davis. Davis. 
John H. Derr. 
Richard Dye. 
Richard Edwards. 
William Everett. 
Charles R. Evans. 
George W. Foote, 
Henry Frey. 
Louis H. Funk. 
Jacob Gibbony. 
William Gilham. 
William Grant. 
William Gunter. 
Adam S. Houtz. 
Nathan JI. Hann. 
John Harvey. 
William H. Haus. 
Henry Heigh tsman. 
Robert Henry. 
Henry Hutchison. 
Benj. F. Housewerth. 
Seth J. Housel. 
Isaac S. Kerstever, 
Samuel F. Klechner. 
John Lenhart. 
Benjamin Lenhart. 

Wm. A. Martlett. 
James R. Mackey. 
Samuel McGregor. 
Daniel McGregor. 
.John McPherson. 
Charles Moody. 
Jacob N. Moyer. 
David B. Nesbitt. 
John A. Norris. 
Joseph R. Orwig. 
James H. Prass. 
Joseph Pursell. 
Lemuel Potter. 
Martin G. Reed. 
Thomas D. Reed. 
Emanuel Sasaman. 
James H. San ford. 
Grottlieb Smaltzricd. 
Michael Smith. 
Charles H. Snively. 
Henry Snyder. 
Aaron Stoughton. 
William M. Switzer. 
Roland Stoughton. 
Martin L. Schock. 
Ashton Tetlow. 
Daniel Tovey. 
William Tovey. 
William Ulrich. 
Matthew Vandine. 
Robert Walsh. 
John Wertz. 


The Seventh Regiment (three montlis' ser- 
vice) was organized at Camp Curtin. Harris- 
burg, on the 2'2d of April, 1861, under com- 
mand of Colonel William H. Irwin, who was 
at that time serving as a private .soldier in the 
ranks of the Logan Guard at Wasliington, D. C. 



The other field officers of the Seventh were 
Lieutenant-Colonel Oliver H. Ripjiey, of Pitts- 
burgh, and Major F. P. Robinson, of the same 
city. One of the companies of the I'egiment was 
the " Burns Infantry," raised at Lewistown, 
Mifflin County, by Captain Henry A. Zollin- 
ger. In the organization of the regiment it was 
designated as Company I, and was mustered 
into the service on the day of the regimental oi- 
ganization — April 22d. 

The regiment left Camp Curtin on the 23d 
of April, under command of Lieutenant-Col- 
onel Rippey, and proceeded by rail to Chambers- 
burg, Pa., where the command was assumed bv 
Colonel Irwin, who had come to that jjoint from 
Washington. At a little distance from the 
town a camp was formed, where the regiment 
remained nearly nine weeks, engaged in drill 
and other soldierly duty. In the latter part of 
May it was assigned to General E. C. Williams' 
(Third) brigade of the (First) division of 
Major-General George Cadwallader, in the 
corps commanded by ]\Iajor-General Robert 
Patterson. On the 8th of June the Seventh, 
with the other regiments of the brigade, struck 
tents and commenced the march, by way of 
Hagerstown, to the Potomac, which was reached 
at Williamsport, Md., on the 15th. On the 
2d of July, under positive orders from General 
Scott to General Patterson to advance into Vir- 
ginia, the command moved at daylight, forded 
the Potomac and marched to Martinsburg. Two 
or three days later the regiment moved forward 
with the brigade to Bunker Hill, and thence to 
a new camp near Charlestown, Va. From this 
camp a midnight reconnoissance was made by a 
battalion of the Seventh ; but, after an advance 
of about six miles, it was found that the enemy 
had withdrawn from the front, and Colonel 
Irwin's report to that eifect was afterwards con- 
firmed by a reconnoissance made by a heavier 
force, sent out to the Shenandoah fords by the 
brigade commander, General Williams. 

On the 22d of July the Seventh (whose term 
of enlistment was to expire on the following 
day) moved, under orders, from its camp to the 
Potomac, at Shepherdstown, Va., where it crossed 
the river, and marching thence, by way of 
Sharpsburg, to Hagerstown, was transported 

from the latter place by rail to Harrisburg, 
where the companies were paid off and dis- 

Company I, Mifflin County. — This com- 
pany was recruited at Lewistown, Mifflin Coun- 
ty, and was mustered in April 22, 1861. 
Henry A. Zollinger, captain. 
William H. McClelland, first lieutenant. 
James Couch, second lieutenant. 
Amos W. Wakefield, first sergeant. 
Thompson Wiece, second sergeant. 
Michael Dillon, third sergeant. 
Samuel Eisinbise, fourth sergeant. 
Jackson D. Stoneroad, first corporal. 
William A. Troxal, second corporal. 
James P. McClintic, third corporal. 
John W. Nelson, fourth corporal. 
William L. Harding, musician. 
Henry H. Fortney, musician. 

Steel Barcus. 
John Brimmer. 
George W. Black. 
Andrew Bringman. 
George Brown. 
Franklin Beisel. 
Lewis Blumenloder. 
James Cambell. 
Samuel Collins. 
John Cherry. 
Jackson Corkell. 
William H. Crothers. 
Jeremiah Corseck. 
Thomas Dillon. 
John Devore. 
Charles Donnan. 
James H. Funk. 
John Ginapban. 
Austin Gro. 
Abram Gondor. 
Tbomas B. Hiltebarn. 
William Hart. 
J. R. Hackenburgh. 
Joseph Houser. 
John F. Harice. 
John Henry. 
John Hofler. 
William M. Irvin. 
David Jenkins. 
Aaron Klinefelter. 
John Klinefelter. 
John W. Kunes. 
Daniel Karl. 

George W. Kelley. 
John M. Krise. 
Jacob Landis. 
William Leator. 
John Morton. 
John D. Martin. 
William R. Moran. 
Henry McNalley. 
Henry Maser. 
David A. McCram. 
Samuel Myers. 
Isaac dinger. 
Lewis Price. 
Philip Pefler. 
Fredk. Reninger. 
R. Rosenborough. 
James B. Ross. 
Patrick Rodgers. 
John Ruble. 
William Ruse. 
James Rutherford. 
Amos Satcher. 
James Sanford. 
Matthias Shilling. 
William Sperry. 
John M. Skelley. 
David Shafer. 
James Vanzant. 
Benjamin Walters. 
Thomas Wolfkill. 
James Wilson. 
Charles White. 
James Yeamon. 


The Eleventh Regiment (three months'), was 
organized at Camp Curtin April 26, 1861, and 



was soon afterwards moved to Camp Wayne, 
near West Chester, where it remained abont tiiree 
weeks. Tlie colonel of the regiment was Phaon 
Jarrett, of Lock Haven, promoted from the 
the captaincy of Company B, in which company 
was a detachment of men of Mifflin County. 
Upon the promotion of Captain Jarrett to the 
•colonelcy, Benjamin K. Jacl^man became cap- 
tain of the company, with William Shanks as 
first, and Thomas C. Lebo as second lieu- 

The regiment, having been only partially 
uniformed and equipped, was ordered on the 
27th of May to move forward and occupy the 
Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Rail- 
road, which was done, and the headquarters es- 
tablished at Havre de Grace, where B and A 
Companies were posted — the other companies 
being scattered at different points along the 
railway and the Delaware and Chesapeake 

On the 18th of May the regiment, having 
l)een fully equipped, marched, under orders, to 
Chambersburg, Pa., and thence, a few days 
later, to Hagerstown, Md., where it was assigned 
to duty in the brigade of General Negley, in 
Cxeneral Keim's division. On the 20th of June 
it was transferred to Abercrombie's (Sixth) 
bi'igade, of the same (Second) division. On the 
28th an attempt was made to cross the Poto- 
mac, but no fording-place could be found in the 
high stage of water ; but, being moved to Wil- 
liamsport Md., on the 29th, it remained there 
three days, and before daylight, in the morning 
of July 2d, was pushed across the river into Vir- 
ginia, and marched towards Falling Waters, 
where the enemy was rejjorted to be in force. 
The Eleventh, being considerably in advance of 
the remainder of the brigade, encountered this 
hostile force, which consisted of the Second, 
Fourth, Fifth and Twenty-Second Virginia 
regiments of infantry, the cavalry regiment of 
J. E. B. Stuart, and a four-gun battery under 
Captain Pendleton, — all forming what after- 
wards became the famed " Stonewall Brigade," — 
Colonel Thomas J. (" Stonewall ") Jackson be- 
ing present in person and in command of the 
Confederate force. Passing through a wood to 
the open ground, the Eleventh received a heavy 

fire of musketry and artillery, but which gen- 
erally passed over their heads. The enemy was 
posted at some farm buildings, which were soon 
set on fire by shells from Perkins' (Union) bat- 
tery. " The enemy being thus driven from 
their shelter, were for the first time exposed to 
view, and extended their line. The Eleventh 
now opened, and the engagement became gen- 
eral. The enemy's guns were soon silenced, 
and his line began to fall back, at first in good 
order, but soon in great confusion." The vic- 
tory was complete, the Sixth Brigade (of which 
the Eleventh was a part) driving the Confed- 
erates two miles from the field, where they left 
their dead and wounded. The loss of the 
Eleventh was eleven killed and wounded — 
among the latter being Private Marion F. 
Hamaker, of Lewistown, a member of B Com- 
pany. He died of his wound soon after return- 
ing to his home.^ The others wounded were 
James Morgan, Daniel R. Stiles and Nelson 
Headen, of Company E; Christian Schall, of 
Coupany F ; John De Hass and Russel C. Levan, 
of Company G ; and John E. Reed and Wil- 
liam H. Kuhns, of Company K. The one 
killed was Amos Suppinger, private, of Com- 
pany H. 

On the 3d of July the Eleventh, with the 
brigade, moved to Martinsburg, Va., and en- 
camped. It remained there twelve days, during 
which time it received a stand of national 
colors, presented by the Union ladies of the place. 
Before this it had I'arried no colors. On the 
15th of July the regiment moved to Bunker 
Hill, Va., on the 17th to Charlestown, Va., 
and on the 21st to Harper's Ferry, where, 
on the 24th, it forded the Potomac, and marched 
thence to Sandy Hook, Md. On the 26th it 
was ordered to take rail transportation to Bal- 
timore, en route for Harrisburg, there to be 
mustered out of service. The order (by Gen- 
eral Pattereon) concluded : " It gives the com- 
manding general great satisfaction to say that 
the conduct of this regiment has merited his 
highest approbation. It had the fortune to be 
in the advance in the affair at Hokes Run 

1 Hamalier was probably the first Union soldier wounded 
in the war after Fort Sumter was captured. 



(Falling Waters), where the steadiness and gal- 
lantry of both officers and men came under liis 
personal observation. They have well merited 
his thanks." The regiment was mustered out 
of service on the 31st of July, but was re-en- 
listed for three years under the same designating 
number (Eleventh), was organized at Camp 
Curtin in the summer and fall of 1861, and on 
the 27th of November, in that year, it was 
moved to the front, and remained in the field, 
serving gallantly through the principal cam- 
paigns in Virginia until the war was closed by 
the surrender at Appomattox. 


The Fourteenth Regiment (three months' ser- 
vice), which contained a large number of Ju- 
niata County men, was organized at Camp Cur- 
tin in the latter part of April, 1861, under the 
following-named field officers : John W. John- 
ston, colonel ; Richard McMichael, lieutenant- 
colonel ; Charles N. Watts, major. It was 
mustered into the United States service as a 
regiment April 30th. On the 9th of May it 
was moved from Camp Curtin to the fair- 
grounds at Lancaster, and there remained until 
the 3d of June, wiien it moved to a camp about 
five miles from Chambersburg, and was there 
assigned to the Fifth Brigade (General James S. 
Negley) of General William H. Keim's (Second) 

After a stay of about two weeks at the camp 
near Chambersburg, the regiment moved (June 
16th) to Hagerstown, Md., and thence on the 
20th to a camp near Sharpslnirg. At this 
place it remained until the 2d of July, wlien it 
moved with the column under General Patter- 
s(jn across the Potomac into Virginia, and on 
the 3d (having encountered Ashby's Confederate 
cavalry on the march of tlie previous day) ar- 
rived at Martinsburg, where it remained on pro- 
vost and other duty until the 15th of July, 
when it moved with the forces of General Pat- 
terson to Bunker Hill, Yi\., upon a report that 
tiie enemy was in force at that place. No 
enemy was found, however, but only his deserted 
camps, and on tiie 18th the regiment marched 
to Charlestown, Va., and on the 21st(the"day of 
Bull Run battle) to Harper's Ferry, where, two 

days later, the news was received of the great 
disaster to the Union arms. This ended the 
Virginia campaign, and soon afterwards, the 
term of service of the Fourteenth having nearly 
expired, it crossed the Potomac, marched to 
Hagerstown, where it arrived on the 26th, was 
moved thence by rail to Chambersburg, and 
from there to Carlisle, where, after a stay of 
eleven days, it was mustered out and disbanded 
on the 7th of August. 


The Fifteenth Regiment (three months') con- 
tained one company which was partly made up 
of men from ]\Iifflin and Juniata Counties. 
This company — designated as I of the Fifteenth 
— was mustered into service on the 20th of 
April, 1861. The Fifteenth Regiment was or- 
ganized at Camp Curtin, its field officers being 
Colonel Richard \. Oakford, Lieutenant-Col- 
onel Thomas Biddle, Major Stephen N. Brad- 
ford. It was brigaded with the Fourteenth, 
under General James S. Negley, and its history 
from muster in to muster out is essentially the 
same as that of the Fourteenth. 

A considerable number of men of Mifflin, 
Union, Peny, Juniata and Snj-der Counties 
served in other comjjanies and regiments, but 
the companies which have been mentioned above 
were all which were distinctively of these counties 
in the three months' service. During their first 
enlistment they saw little of actual war, but the 
greater part of them afterwards entered regi- 
ments raised for thfee years, and in that term of 
service became veteran soldiers. Many of them 
gave up their lives on the battle-field, many 
others died in Southern prisons, and hundreds 
who came back from the conflict to their homes 
in the valley of the Juniata will bear to their 
graves the scars and wounds received in the ser- 
vice of their country. 


The Thirty-fourth Regijnent, otherwise des- 
ignated as the Fifth Reserve, was organized at 
Camp Curtin on the 20th of June, 1861, being 
made up of companies previously formed and 
filled in Lycoming, Northumberland, Clearfield, 
LTnion, Huntingdon, Centre, Bradford, Mifflin, 
Snyder and Lancaster Counties. Union County 



furnished one company (D, Captain Thomas 
Chamberlain), and there were also Mifflin, Sny- 
der and Union County men in Companies B, 
E, G, H and I. The original field officers of 
the Fifth Reserve were Colonel John I. Gregg, 
of Centre County ; Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph 
W. Fisher, of Lancaster; and Major George 
Dare, of Huntingdon. 

On the 21st of June, the day following the 
organization of the Fifth under the above-named 
field officers, Colonel Gregg resigned in order to 
accept a captaincy to which he had been ap- 
pointed in the Sixth United States Cavalry. He 
was succeeded in the colonelcy of the Fifth by 
Captain Seneca G. Simmons, of the Seventh 
Regular Infantry, and in the morning of the 
22d the regiment, with Battery A, First Penn- 
sylvania Artillery, and the " Bucktail " regi- 
ment, under Colonel Charles J. Biddle, left 
Camp Curtin under orders from General Scott 
to proceed to Cumberland, Md., to relieve the 
Eleventh Indiana Regiment, under command of 
Colonel Lew. Wallace, at that point. The 
route of the command was from Harrisburg by 
the Pennsylvania Railroad to Huntingdon, 
thence southward by the Huntingdon and 
Broad Top Railroad to Hopewell, where it ar- 
rived on the night of the 2 2d, the men having 
been profusely feasted during their stop at 
Huntingdon, where " an ample dinner had been 
provided for the coming soldiers, of which they 
partook most freely, and filled their haversacks 
with the choicest dainties " 

From the night camp of the 22d at Hope- 
well the command moved early in the morning 
of Sunday, the 23d of June, and took the road 
for Bedford Springs, near which jilace it en- 
camped on the same evening. This was named 
"Camp ]\IcCall," and the two regiments and 
battery remained there three days. From 
" Camp McCall " the command marched to the 
Maryland line, where a camp was formed call- 
ed " Camp jNIason and Dixon." There it re- 
mained until the night of the 7tli of July, when 
it moved forward and occupied Cumberland, 
this being done at the urgent request of the cit- 
izens of the town, who desired it for protection 
against a I'umored raid of the enemy's cavalry. 
The attack was not made, being prevented 

doubtless by the presence of the Pennsylvania 
troops. On the following day the regiments 
took possession of the camps previously occupied 
by Colonel Wallace's Indianians. On the 13th of 
July the command moved to a camp about two 
miles from New Creek, Va., and twenty miles 
above Cumberland, where a railroad bridge had 
been destroyed by the enemy. The town of 
New Creek was occupied immediately after- 
wards by the troops, and on the 20th the Fifth 
moved to Piedmont, to hold the town and afford 
protection to its Unionist citizens. At this place 
some of the men of the regiment took 
sion of the office of the Piedmont Independent 
(the editor of which journal had been driven 
away by the rebels), and from it issued a paper 
called the Pennsylvania Reserve, " which was 
the first of a great number of similar publica- 
tions issued during the war by the editors and 
printers in the volunteer army." 

This campaign of the Fifth and the Bucktails 
at Cumberland, Piedmont, New Creek and 
neighboring parts of A^irginia was of forty days' 
duration, in which time they had frequent skir- 
mishes with bodies of the enemy's cavalry and 
infantry, afforded protection to the Union people 
of that region, and, by repairing the railroad 
bridges which had been destroyed by the rebels, 
reopened railroad communication between Bal- 
timore and Wheeling. Their campaign was 
closed on account of the urgent need of more 
troops in the vicinity of Washington, to protect 
that city against the expected advance of the 
enemy after the battle of Bull Run. In con- 
formity to orders recalling this command, the 
regiments and battery took up their line of march 
northward on the 27th of July, and moving to 
Hopewell, proceeded thence by railroad through 
Huntingdon to Harrisburg, where they arrived 
on the 31st. There the companies were re- 
cruited to near the maximum strength, and on 
the 8th of August the Fifth was moved by 
rail to Washington, and thence marched to the 
camp established for the Reserve division at 
Tenalhiown, ild., as before mentioned. 

In the organization of the division at the 
Tenallytown camp the Fifth was assigned to 
Brigadier-General John F. Reynolds' (First) 
brigade, of which the other resjiments were the 



First, Second and Eighth Reserves, commanded 
respectively by Colonel R. Biddle Roberts, 
Colonel William B. Manu and Colonel George 
S. Hays. 

The regiment remained at Tenallytown about 
two months, a period which was passed in camp 
routine, picket duty and frequent alarms along 
the line of the Potomac, and on the 9th of Oc- 
tober moved, with its brigade and division, across 
that historic stream and took position in the 
line of the Army of the Potomac at Langley, Va., 
at which place the Reserve division made its 
winter-quarters. In the battle of Dranesville, 
which was fought on the 20th of December by 
the Third Brigade (General Ord's) of the Re- 
serves, neither the Fifth Regiment nor any part 
of Reynolds' brigade took part, having been 
delayed at Difficult Creek by orders of General 

On the 10th of March, 1802, the Fifth, with 
the entire division, moved from the winter- 
quarters at Camp Pierpont (Langley) to 
Hunter's Mills, Va., with the expectation of 
joining in a general advance of the army on the 
Confederate position at Manassas. But it was 
found that the enemy had evacuated his line of 
defenses and retired towards Gordonsville, and 
thereupon the plan of the campaign was changed 
by the commanding general, McClellan, and the 
Reserve regiments were ordered back to the 
Potomac. On the 14th the retrograde march 
was commenced, and continued through mud, 
darkness and a deluge of rain to Alexandria, 
where it was expected that the division would 
embark, with the rest of the army of the Poto- 
mac, for the Peninsula ; but this was not the 
case. The division of McCall was assigned to 
duty with the First Corps, under General Mc- 
Dowell, which, with the exception of Franklin's 
division, was held between the Potomac and 
Rappahannock Rivers for the protection of the 
■city of Washington. 

From Alexandria the Fifth, with its brigade, 
marched back (April 9th) to Manassas, thence 
to Catlett's Station, thence to Falmouth, and 
(May 26th) across the Rappahannock to Freder- 
icksburg, of which place General Reynolds was 
appointed military governor. An advance from 
Fredericksburg along the line of the railroad 

towards Richmond was intended, but this was 
found to be inexpedient, and as General Mc- 
Clellan was calling urgently for reinforcements 
to the Peninsula, Reynolds' brigade was recalled 
from its advanced position on the railroad, the 
entire division was marched to Gray's Landing, 
and there (June 9th) embarked for W^hite 
House, on the Pamunkey River, where it ar- 
rived on the 9th of June. There had been a 
vast quantity of stores collected at White House 
for the use of the army on the Chickahominy, 
and the timely arrival of the Reserves prevented 
the destruction of those stores by a strong de- 
tachment of Confederate cavalry under Fitz- 
hugh Lee, who was then on his way towards 
the Pamunkey for that purpose. From White 
House the Fifth marched with its division by 
way of Baltimore Cross-Roads to join the Army 
of the Potomac in the vicinity of Gaines' Mill. 
Thence the division was moved to the extreme 
right, where it took position at Mechanicsville 
and along the line of Beaver Dam Creek. 

On Thursday, the 26th of June, was fought 
the battle of Mechanicsville, the first of that 
series of bloody engagements known collectively 
as the " Seven Days' Fight," and also (with the 
exception of the severe skirmish at Dranesville 
in the previous December) the first engagement 
in which the infantry of the Pennsylvania Re- 
serves took part. The Fifth had been that 
morning ordered across the Beaver Dam Creek 
to guard the Mechanicsville and Meadow 
Bridges, and four companies advanced to Me- 
chanicsville. At one o'clock p. M. the enemy 
appeared and drove in the advanced pickets to 
the creek. At two p. m. Reynolds withdrew 
his brigade and occupied the light works which 
had been thro^^-n up behind the creek. The Fifth 
occupied the left centre of the brigade line, be- 
ing posted in the partial cover of a belt of 
woods on the left of the road. The enemy, 
advancing in strong force, attacked with great 
impetuosity, the Georgia and Louisiana troops 
wading Beaver Dam Creek where the water 
reached up to their belts, and charging again 
and again with fierce determination. Rej^nolds' 
brigade on the right received and repelled the 
severest assaults in the conflict, which raged 
through the whole afternoon, and only ceased 



when darkness closed down on wood and stream. 
The entire loss of the Reserve division was two 
hundred and ten killed and wounded and two 
hundred and eleven missing, of which number 
the Fifth Regiment sustained a loss of fifty 
killed and wounded. 

Through the night succeeding the battle the 
men of the Pennsylvania Reserves slept on the 
field of conflict. At daylight on the morning 
of the 27th of June the Fifth, with its compan- 
ion regiments, withdrew from the line of the 
Beaver Dam, and moved down parallel with the 
Chickahominy, some two or three miles, to 
Gaines' Mill, where General Fitz John Porter's 
corps (of which the Reserves formed a part) was 
placed in line of battle for the renewed conflict, 
which was inevitable. Butterfield's brigade 
occupied the extreme left, Sykes' division of 
regulars the right, and McCall's Pennsylvanians 
were placed in the second line, Meade's brigade 
being on the left, near the Chickahominy, and 
Reynolds' brigade on the right of the line of 
the Reserves. Approaching the Union lines 
from the direction of Cold Harbor and Dispatch 
Station were the Confederate commmands of 
Generals A. P. Hill, Longstreet, D. H. Hill 
and (farther away, but moving up with all possi- 
ble speed) the corps of the redoubtable " Stone- 
wall " Jackson, in all more than fifty thousand 
men, against half that number on the Union 
side. The battle ^Yas opened by a furious attack 
on the regulars composing Porter's right. These, 
after having repulsed the enemy in his first at- 
tack, finally gave way before a renewed assault. 
The battle raged furiously during the afternoon, 
the Fifth, and other regiments of the Reserves in 
the second line, being constantly under a severe 
artillery fire. Between four and five o'clock 
the Second and Third Brigades were advanced 
to the first line, and at once became heavily en- 
gaged, the enemy making a furious and most 
determined assault at that point of the line. 
" The Fifth Regiment, on my left," said INIajor 
Stone, of the Bucktails, in his official report, 
" the conduct of which offered a constant ex- 
ample of courage and discipline, answered the 
enemy with the most terrific fire." lu that 
perilous position the regiment stood fast, and 
held its ground against repeated charges, until 

the men had exhausted their ammunition, when 
they retired before a flank assault made by the 
veterans of Stonewall Jackson.' Just then the 
famous Irish Brigade moved past them rapidly 
to the front, poured in a destructive volley, and 
bravely held the enemy in check, while the 
wearied men of the Fifth fell back with empty 
cartridge-boxes, but without panic or disorder, 
to the Chickahominy. During the afternoon of 
the battle the command of the Fifth devolved 
on Lieutenant-Colonel Fisher, Colonel Simmons 
being in command of the brigade. The heroic 
General Reynolds, the brigade commander, be- 
came separated from his troops and was cap- 
tured by the enemy on the following morning. 
The losses of the Fifth Regiment in this en- 
gagement were not reported separately from 
those of the succeeding four days. 

The day of Gaines' Mill closed in blood and 
defeat to the Union forces, and during the night 
the shattered Pennsylvania Reserves, with the 
other troops, succeeded in crossing the Chicka- 
hominy and destroying the bridge behind them, 
though two bridges farther down the stream 
(Bottom's and Long Bridges) still remained ; 
and it was not long after sunrise on Saturday 
morning when the Confederate force under tlie 
indomitable Jackson was massed at the upper one 
of these and preparing to cross to the south side> 
Other hostile forces were also advancing, and in 
view of this rather alarming situation of affairs, 
the general had, as early as Friday morning, 
decided on a retreat by the whole army to James 
River, where a base of supplies could be held, 
and communication on the river kept open by 
the Union gunboats. The troops were informed 
of the proposed change by an apparently trium- 
phant announcement (intended merely to en- 
courage the soldiers, and lighten in some degree 
the gloom of the great disaster) that a new flank 
movement was about to be executed that would 
surely and swiftly result in the capture ot^ 
Richmond. No such assurance, however, could 

1 A Confederate oflicer who was present at the battle of 
Gaines' Mill, in writing of it afterwards, paid a high compli- 
ment to the gallant conduct of the Pennsylvania Reserves 
on that field, and said, "It was only when the news came 
that Jackson was upon them in their rear that, about eight 
o'clock, they retired before our advance." 



conceal from the intelligent men who formed 
the Army of the Potomac that their backs, and 
not their faces, were now turned towards the 
Confederate capital, and that the "change of 
base" was made from necessity rather than 

During the day succeeding that of the Gaines' 
Mill battle the Fifth Reserve lay in quiet on 
the south side of the Chickahominy, near the 
York River railroad. On Sunday, the 29th, it 
moved with the other regiments to and across 
White Oak Swamp, and at evening came to the 
vicinity of Charles City Cross-Roads, where, on 
the following day, a fierce battle was fought, in 
which the Fifth took gallant part. The first 
assault of the enemy at Charles City Cross- 
Roads was received at about one o'clock in the 
afternoon of the 30th. At about three o'clock 
the Fifth became heavily engaged, and, with 
the Eighth, charged the Seventli and Seven- 
teenth Virginia Confederate Regiments, putting 
them to complete rout, and capturing many 
prisoners. Later in the day the Fifth fought 
desperately, repelling repeated assaults of tiie 
foe, and losing its commander, the brave Colonel 
Simmons, who was mortally wounded, taken 
prisoner, and died in the hands of the enemy. 
No abler or more gallant officer than Colonel 
Seneca G. Simmons ever led a regiment to 
battle. The division commander. General Mc- 
Call, was also taken prisoner in this engage- 
ment, and Captain C'hamberlain, of D Com- 
pany, wounded. 

In the terrible battle of Malvern Hill, which 
was fought in the afternoon of the following 
day (July 1st), the Fifth being held with the 
division in reserve, did not become actively en- 
gaged, though it lay for hours under a heavy 
fire of artillery. The battle opened about four 
o'clock p. M., and from that time until darkness 
closed the roar of musketry, the crash of 
artillery and the howling of canister was uninter- 
mitting. Finally the carnage ceased, and tiie 
men of the North lay down on the field (as they 
supposed) of victory. But at about midnight 
orders came to fall in for a march, and the 
Pennsylvania Reserves, with other commands 
of the army of the Potomac, moved silently 
down the hill and awav on the road to Berkeley 

(or Harrison's Landing), where they arrived 
and camped on the 2d of July. The loss of the 
Fifth Reserve Regiment in the seven days' 
battles from the Chickahominy to Malvern Hill 
was one hundred and thirty-three killed and 
wounded, and one hundred and three taken 
prisoners. By the death of Colonel Simmons, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Fisher was promoted to 
colonel, Major George Dare to lieutenant-colo- 
nel and Captain Frank Zentmyer to major of 
the regiment. 

After a dreary stay of about six weeks at 
Harrison's Landing the Fifth broke camp, and 
from that time to the final muster out the com- 
panies to which this history has special refer- 
ence participated in the several battles in which 
the regiment was engaged, among which were 
the second Bull Run, August 20, 1862, South 
Mountain, Antletam, Fredericksburg, Va., De- 
cember 13, 1862, where Captain Charles D. 
Schaffle of D Company, was wounded and 
taken prisoner, and died one month later in 
prison, at Richmond, Ya. In February, 1863, 
the Fifth was sent to "Washington to rest and 
recruit. In battle of Gettysburg, Pa., in July, 
1863; Warrenton, Bristoe Station, Mine Run, 
and then stationed at Alexandria through the 
winter of 1863-64. In battle of Wilderness, 
Parker's Store, Fredericksburg and Orange 
Turnpike, May 6, 1864; Spottsylvania Court- 
House, North Anna River, Bethesda Church, 
May 30, 1864, which was their last battle. 
They left the field June 1, 1864, and proceeded 
to Harrisburg, Pa., where the whole regiment 
was received with joyous demonstrations by the 
people of its native State. 

Company D, LTnion County. — Following 
is given a roll of the Union County company 
of the Fifth, viz. : 

Thomas Chamberlain, captain, mustered in June 21, 
1861, three years; wounded at Charles City 
Cross-Roads June 30, 1862 ; promoted to major 
One Hundred and Fiftieth Regiment Pennsylva- 
nia Volunteers September 23, 1862. 

W. H. H. McCall, captain, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; promoted to captain March 5, 1863 ; 
mustered out with company June 11, 1864. 

Charles D. Shaffle, captain, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; promoted from second lieutenant to 
captain September 18, 1862; wounded and pris- 



oner at Fredericksburg December 13, 1862 ; died 
at Richmond Va., January 13, 1863. 

Jonathan E. Wolf, first lieutenant, mustered in June 
21, 1861, three years; promoted to captain Com- 
pany G January 17, 1862. 

Theodore H.H.McFadden,firstlieutenant, mustered in 

June 21, 1861, three years ; promoted to first lieu- 

■ tenant January 20, 1862 ; discharged October 30, 

1862, for wounds received in action June 30, 


Thomas B. Reed, first lieutenant, mustered in June 
21, 1861, three years ; promoted to first lieuten- 
ant March 5, 1863 ; brevetted captain March 13, 
1865; mustered out with company June 11, 

John B. Dayton, second lieutenant, mustered in June 
21, 1861, three years ; promoted to second lieu- 
tenant March 5, 1863; brevetted first lieutenant 
March 13, 1865; mustered out with company June 
11, 1864. 

George C. Kelley, sergeant, mustered in June21, 1861, 
three years ; wounded and prisoner at Charles 
City Cross-Roads June 30, 1862 ; and wounded 
at Fredericksburg December 13, 1862; trans- 
ferred from Veteran Reserve Corps ; mustered 
out with company June 11, 1864. 

William Searles, sergeant, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; wounded at Fredericksburg Decem- 
ber 13, 1862 ; mustered out with company June 
11, 1864. 

James Doran, sergeant, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; wounded at Fredericksburg Decem- 
ber 13, 1862 ; mustered out w'ith company June 
11, 1864. 

Richard H. Walk, sergeant, mustered in June 21, 
1861, three years; transferred to Company D, 
One Hundred and Ninety-first Regiment Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers, June 6, 1864; veteran. 

William M. Schwenk, sergeant, mustered in Septem- 
ber 19, 1861, three years; transferred to Company 
D, One Hundred and Ninety-first Regim'ent Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers, June 6, 1864 ; veteran. 

James Fichthorn, sergeant, mustered in June 21, 
1861, three years; transferred to Company D, 
One Hundred and Ninety-first Regiment Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers, June 6, 1864; veteran. 

James M. Essington, sergeant, mustered in June 21, 
1861, three years; discharged by order of War 
Department August 21, 1862. 

Oeorge M. Slifer, sergeant, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
November 25, 1862. 

H. J. Schofield, sergeant, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years; died November 9, 1861. 

John C. McMichael, sergeant, mustered in June 21, 
1861, three years ; killed at Fredericksburg De- 
cember 13. 1862. 

Amos Ditsworth, corporal, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years; wounded at South Mountain Sep- 

tember 14, 1862 ; mustered out with company 
June 11, 1864. 

.Tohn B. Hafer, corporal, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; wounded at Fredericksburg Decem- 
ber 13, 1862; mustered out with company June 
11, 1864. 

George W. Schoch, corporal, mustered in June 21, 
1861, three years ; wounded accidentally Decem- 
ber 13, 1862 ; mustered out with company June 
11, 1864. 

George Eicholtz, corporal, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company June 
11, 1864. 

John Babb, corporal, mustered in June 21, 1861, three 
years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Septem- 
ijer 25, 1861. 

Jacob K. Mertz, corporal, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
February 4, 1863. 

George Harbeson, corporal, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; discharged April 6, 1863, for wounds 
received at Fredericksburg December 13, 1862. 

Jacob Reise, corporal, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; transferred to Company D, One 
Hundred and Ninety-first Regiment Pennsylva- 
nia Volunteers, June 6, 1864 ; veteran. 

Effinger L. Reber, corporal, mustered in June 21, 
1861, three years ; promoted to sergeant-major 
March 6, 1862. 

Jacob Campbell, corporal, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years; killed in action June 30, 1862. 

William Haskins, corporal, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; killed at Fredericksburg December 
13, 1862. 

Jacob M. Barnhart, corporal, mustered in June 21, 
1861, three years. 

James Barnhart, musician, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
August 6, 1862. 

John Clymer, musician, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; transferred to One Hundred and 
Ninety-first Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 
June 6, 1864 ; veteran. 

William Beckley, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company July 
11, 1864. 

John Bonnell, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years; wounded at Antietam September 17, 
1862 ; transferred from Veteran Reserve Corps ; 
mustered out with company June 11, 1864. 

Michael B. Boylan, private, mustered in June 21, 
1861, three years ; discharged on surgeon's certifi- 
cate August 24, 1863. 

Joseph Barnhart, private, mustered in September 17, 
1861, three years. 

Sylvester Bennett, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years. 

Thomas Crawford, private, mustered in June 2i. 1861, 
three vears ; mustered out with companv June 
11, 1864. 



David Canfield, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
February 15, 1862. 

Daniel Covert, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; discharged October 20, 1862, for 
wounds received at Gaines' Mill June 27, 1862. 

John Connell, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years. 

John Dougherty, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years. 

John E Ennis, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; killed at Alexandria, Va., April 29, 
1864; burial record May 3, 1864, grave 1863. 

William Fravel, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; wounded at Gaines' Mill June 27, 
1862 ; mustered out with company June 11, 1864. 

Benjamin Fry, private, mustered in June 21, 1861. 
three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
November 14, 1862. 

Thomas Gaskin, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company June 
11, 1864. 

Daniel Gilbert, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; wounded at Fredericksburg Decem- 
ber 13, 1862 ; mustered out with company June 
11, 1864. 

William C. Green, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; discharged September 27, 1864, to 
receive promotion in United States army. 

Albert Oilman, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; transferred to Company D, One 
Hundred and Ninety-first Regiment Pennsylva- 
nia Volunteers, June 6, 1864; veteran. 

John Hartman, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; discharged February 1, 1863, for 
wounds received in action June 30, 1862. 

Nathaniel Huth, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; discharged November 28, 1862. 

Isaac Harper, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; transferred to Company D, One 
Hundred and Ninety-first Regiment Pennsylva- 
nia Volunteers, June 6, 1864 ; veteran. 

George Irwine, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years; discharged November 16, 1862, for 
wounds received in action June 30, 1862. 

Lewis Jerns, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, three 
years ; mustered out with company June 11, 

Joseph Joll, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, three 
years ; mustered out with company June 11, 

Albert E.Johnson, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years; discharged November 16, 1862, for 
wounds received in action June 30, 1862. 

William Johnson, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years. 

Thomas Kennedy, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company June 11, 

John Knoll, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, three 
years ; mustered out with company June 11> 

John Kyle, private, mustered in October 7, 1861,. 
three years ; killed at Gaines' Mill June 27, 1862. 

John Kessler, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; killed in action June 30, 1862. 

Harry L. Landis, private, mustered in June 21, 1861,^ 
three years ; discharged March 14, 1863, for 
wounds received at Bull Run August 30, 1862. 

Charles Moody, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company June 11, 

Lawrence Monroe, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company June 
11, 1864. 

Levi Markel, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, three 
years; wounded at Gaines' Mill June 27, 1862; 
transferred to Company D, One Hundred and 
Ninety-first Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, 
June 6, 1864 ; veteran. 

James A. Morrison, private, mustered in June 21, 
1861, three years ; wounded at Charles City 
Cross-Roads June 30, 1862; transferred to Com- 
pany D, One Hundred and Ninety-first Regi- 
ment Pennsylvania Volunteers, June 6, 1864; 

Charles Moyer, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; discharged February 17, 1863, for 
wounds received at Fredericksburg December 13, 

William Mateer, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; discharged April 21, 1863, for wounds 
received at Fredericksburg December 13, 1862. 

William Myers, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years; killed at Wilderness May 9, 1864 ; 

Charles Peeling, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; transferred from Veteran Reserve 
Corps ; mustered out with company June 11, 

John D. Price, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
August 6, 1861. 

Elias Page, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, three 
years ; transferred to Company D, One Hundred 
and Ninety-first Regiment Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers, June 6, 1864 ; veteran. 

Samuel A. Reed, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years; wounded at Gaines' Mill June 27, 
1862; mustered out with company June 11, 

Charles W. Reeder, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company June 
11, 1864. 

John M. Reber, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; discharged April 8, 1862, to accept 
promotion as second lieutenant in United States- 
Marine Corps. 



John Ripple, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, three 
years; discharged May 24, 1864, for wounds re- 
ceived at Fredericksburg December 13, 1862. 

Darius L. Ricker, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; killed in action June 30, 1862. 

John E. Roberts, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; killed in action June 30, 1862. 

Patrick Roberts, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years. 

John Reed, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, three 
years; wounded at Mechauicsville June 26,1862. 

Charles E. Snyder, private, mustered in June 21, 
1861, three years ; wounded at Gaines' Mill June 
27, 1862; mustered out with company June 11, 

Joseph Stroup, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company June 11, 

William H. Smith, private, mustered in June 21,1861, 
three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
July 20, 1861. 

Levi Smith, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, three 
years : transferred to Company D, One Hundred 
and Ninety-first Regiment Pennsylvania Vol- 
unteers, June 6, 1864 ; veteran. 

Peter Smith, private, mustered in June 21, 1861,three 
years ; transferred to Company D, One Hundred 
and Ninety-first Regiment Pennsylvania Voluu- 
teers, June 6, 1864; veteran. 

Harrison Strahan, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
December 11, 1862. 

George B. Saylor, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; transferred to Company D, One Hun- 
dred and Ninety-first Regiment Pennsylvania 
Volunteers, June 6, 1864; veteran. 

William H. Showers, private, mustered in June 21, 
1861, three years ; transferred to Company D, 
One Hundred and Ninety-first Regiment Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers, June 6, 1864 ; veteran. 

Andrew H. Sticker, private, mustered in June 21, 
1861, three years; killed at Wilderness May 9, 
1864; veteran. 

Thomas Taylor, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; died at Philadelphia May 13, 1864 ; 
burial record May 14, 1864. 

Henry Theis, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years. 

Henry Ulrich, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years; mustered out with company June 
11, 1864. 

Robert Walsh, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company June 
11, 1864. 

Luther Wheeler, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years; mustered out with company June 
11, 1864. 

Jackson Wertz, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years; transferred to Company D, One Hun- 

dred and Ninety-first Regiment Pennsylvania 
Volunteers, June 6, 1864 ; veteran. 

Isaac Wertz, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, three 
years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Febru- 
ary 9, 1863. 

Charles Washburn, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years; discharged August 3, 1863, for 
wounds received at Fredericksburg December 13, 

York A. Woodward, private, mustered in June 21, 
1861, three years ; discharged March 19, 1864, 
for wounds received at Fredericksburg December 
13, 1862. 

Thomas F. Wilson, private, mustered in June 21, 
1861, three years ; transferred to Company D, 
One Hundred and Ninety-first Regiment Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers, June 6, 1864; veteran. 

Newell Wilkes, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; died September 17, 1861. 

John Welsh, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, three 
years; died April 13, 1862; burial record Janu- 
ary 6, 1864, Alexandria, Va., grave 1265. 

O. B. Woodward, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three yeare ; died December 6, 1862, of wounds 
received at Mechauicsville June 26, 1862. 

Harrison Wertz, private, mustered in June 21, 1861, 
three years ; killed at Fredericksburg December 
13, 1862. 

William Whatmore, private, mustered in June 21, 
1861, three years. 


Zachariah Chappell. James McFall. 
David Hawk. Milton McPherson. 

John E. Potter. 


Thomas L. Potter. 


The Thirty-fifth Rejijiment, otherwise known 
as the Sixth Pennsylvania Reserve, was ren- 
dezvoused at Camp Curtin, its formation being 
commenced in the latter part of April, 1861, 
and its organization being completed on the 
'22d of June, by the appointment of field offi- 
cers, viz. : Colonel, W. Wallace Rickotts ; 
Lieutenant-Colonel, William M. Penrose ; 
Major, Henry J. ^Madill. Companv B, of 
the Thirty-fifth, was composed of men recruited 
in Snyder County, and was under command of 
Charles D. Roush as its first captain. 

Being armed and equipi)ed at the camp of 
organization, the regiment moved thence, on the 
11th of July, to Greencastle, Pa., where it oc- 
cupied a camp named Camp Biddle, remaining 
there until the 22d, when it was moved by rail- 
way transportation, i-ia Baltimore, to Wash- 



ington, D. C, arriving there on the 24th. At 
its camp, east of tlie Capitol, it was mustered 
into the United States service on the 27th, and 
was tiien marched to the camp of the Pennsyl- 
vania Reserves, at Tenallytown, Md., where it 
was assigned to duty in Colonel John S. Mc- 
Calmout's (Third) brigade of the Reserve Di- 
vision, under General George A. McCall. It 
remained at the Tenallytown camp until the 
9th of October, when, with the other regiments 
of the division, it crossed the Chain Bridge into 
Virginia, and encamped near Langley's, at 
"Camp Pierpont" where it remained more 
than five months, during which time (Decem- 
ber 20Lh) it fought its first battle at Dranes- 
ville, on which occasion the Sixth held the 
centre of the line, and behaved with the utmost 
steadiness and gallantry. On the 10th of 
March, 1862, it moved with the Army of the 
Potomac, remained a few days at Hunter's 
Mills, Va., then moved to Alexandria, Va., 
where it remained several days ; then moved to 
Bailey's Cross-Roads, and thence, in turn, to 
Fairfax Court-House, Manassas Junction, Cat- 
lett's Station and Falmouth, where it arrived on 
the 3d of May, and encamped a mile north of 
the town. 

The regiment remained encamped on the 
Rappahannock about six weeks, and on the 13tli 
of June embarked for White House, on the 
Pamunkey River, arriving there on the 14th 
and becoming a part of the Army of the Poto- 
mac, under General McClellan. It was ad- 
vanced from White House to Tunstall's Station, 
on the York River Railroad, and remained 
there until the disastrous battle of Gaines 
Mill compelled the retirement of the Union 
troops and the destruction of the vast quanlity 
of stores which had been accumulated at White 
House. At that place, on the 28th of June, the 
Sixth embarked, and, proceeding down the 
York River to Fortress Monroe, and thence up 
the James to Harrison's Lauding, reached that 
place on the 1st of July. On the 4th it was 
transferred to Sinclair's (First) brigade of Sey- 
mour's (Reserve) division of the Fifth Army 
Corps, under General Fitz John Porter. It 
remained on the Peninsula, but without being 
engaged in any fighting of consequence, until the 

night of the 14th of August, when it moved by 
transport down the James, and thence up the 
Potomac River to Acquia Creek, arriving there 
on the morning of the 16th, and proceeding 
without delay from that place, by rail, to its old 
post at Falmouth. On the 21st it marched 
from Falmoutli for Kelly's Ford, on the Rap- 
pahannock, reaching its destination at dark on 
the 22d. Again, on the 23d, it moved on to 
Rajjpahannock Station, and on the 24th en- 
camped near the Fauquier White Sulphur 
Springs, on the Warrenton road, where it re- 
mained until the 27th, when it marched with 
the division, and at night bivouacked at New 
Baltimore. The next day, on its march, it be- 
came slightly engaged with the enemy near 
Gainesville, but no battle resulted, and its night 
bivouac was made on the Alexandria turnpike. 

On the 29th and 30th of August, the Sixth 
participated gallantly in the battles in the vi- 
cinity of Groveton, Va., and the old Bull Run 
battle-ground, charging the Confederate posi- 
tion with the gi-eatest bravery, driving the 
enemy and holding the ground gained. The 
loss of the regiment was thirty-six killed and 
wounded and eight missing. The regimental 
colors were shot from the staff in this memora- 
ble charge. 

From the field of this engagement the regi- 
ment marched to a bivouac at Cut Run, where 
it remained on picket during the 31st and until 
nearly night of the 1st of September, when it 
took up the line of march for Fairfax Court- 
House. On the following day it moved to 
Hunter's Chapel and afterwards to Mnnson's 
Hill. On the 6th of September it moved to 
the Potomac, which it crossed by the Long 
Bridge, and, marching through Washington, 
proceeded, by way of various towns in Mary- 
land, to South Mountain, where it occupied the 
right of the Union line in the desperate Ijattle 
which was fought along its declivity from base 
to summit, on the 14th of September. 

" Night was fast approaching,' and the battle raged 
furiously for mauy miles to the left. Companies A 
and B, Captains Ent and Roush, were ordered out to 
seize and hold the knob of the mountain immediately 
in front. They marched from the wood, passed the 



enemy's flank, and firing into it one volley, made 
straight for the mountain-top. When within one 
hundred yards they received the fire of the enemy, 
protected by a ledge of rocks which capped the sum- 
mit. Immediately, Companies C, D and E were or- 
dered to their support, and, forming to the left of the 
first two, the line advanced at a charge. The num- 
bers of the enemy were largely in excess of those of 
the Sixth, but the five companies, restrained during 
the early part of the battle, dashed like a steed re- 
leased from his curb against the very muzzles of their 
guns. The enemy, staggered by the impetuosity of 
the charge, yielded the first ledge of rocks, and re- 
treated to the second, from behind which he de- 
livered a most galling fire, causing the advance to 
reel under the shock and threatening its annihila- 
tion. The rebel line to the left, which had been 
passed by these companies, had, in the mean time, 
been compelled to yield to the persistent hammering 
of the other regiments of the Reserves. The cheers 
of the brigade were distinctly heard by both, when 
the rebels, broken in spirit by the severity of their 
losses and the determined front presented by the Re- 
serves, fled down the mountain-side. These five com- 
panies had performed an important service, and 
driven before them in confusion the Eighth Alabama 
Regiment. The loss was twelve men killed, two ofii- 
cers and thirty-nine men wounded." 

From the scene of conflict at South Moun- 
tain the regiment marched to the field of An- 
tietam, wliere it took part in the great battle on 
the 16th and 17th of September, in which, says 
Bates, it " sustained an aggregate loss of one 
hundred and thirty-two." After the battle of 
Antietam the Sixth Reserve remained on the 
north side of the Potomac, in the vicinity of 
Sharpsburg, about six weeks, and, on the 29th 
of October, crossed the river at Berlin and 
marched to Warrenton, Va., arriving there 
November 6th. On the 11th it left the War- 
renton camp and moved, by way of StaiFord 
Court-House, to Brooks' Station, on the Acquia 
Creek Railroad, where it remained in camjj un- 
til December 8th, when it moved, with other 
regiments of the division, to the heights north 
of the Rappahannock, ^preparatory to crossing 
that stream for an assault on the strong position 
of the enemy at Fredericksburg. Ou the 
morning of the 12th the regiment crossed the 
stream on a j)ontoou bridge, about three miles 
below the town, and advanced to a position 
which it held through the day. In tiie terrific 
battle of the 13th it became furiouslv enoaoed. 

driving the enemy from his position at, but 
afterwards being compelled, by overpovvjring 
numbers, to yield the ground thus gained, and 
to fall back to its first position. The strength 
of the regiment on entering this conflict was 
about three hundred men, of which number it 
sustained a loss of one hundred and two killed 
and wounded and nineteen missing. 

After the Fredericksburg battle the regiment 
encamped at Belle Plain and thence moved to 
the former camp at Brooks' Station, where it re- 
mained until the first part of February, 1863. 
On the 7th of that month it was ordered to 
Alexandria, where it became a part of the 
Twenty-second Corps. Late in March it moved 
to Fairfax Station, and remained there until the 
25th of June, when, with the other troops of 
the command, it moved across the Potomac, and 
thence northward to the field of Gettysbm-g, 
reaciiing that historic ground on the 2d of July, 
and having, in the mean time, been transferred 
back to the Fifth Army Corps. In the great 
conflict of Gettysburg it made two charges, 
liberatitig a large number of Union prisoners, 
recapturing an artillery piece and several cais- 
.sons and sustaining a loss of twenty-four killed 
and wounded. After the battle it joined in the 
pursuit of the enemy as far as Falling Watere, 
Va., and afterwards encamped for a month at 
Rappahannock Station. Thence it moved to 
Culpeper Court-House and encamjied near that 
place till October 10th, when it recrossed the 
Rajjpahannock and fought at Bristoe Station on 
the 12th. On the 26th of November it was 
again engaged with the enemy in the battle at 
New Hope Church, sustaining a small loss in 
killed and wounded. On the 5th of Decem- 
ber it went into winter-quarters at Kettle 

On the opening of the campaign of 1864 the 
Sixth moved from its winter camp on the 29th 
of April, and marched to Culpeper, from 
which point it moved to Gerraania Ford, and 
there crossed the Rapidan on the 4th of May. 
On the 5tli and 6th it was heavily engaged in 
the Wilderness, as also ag-ain on the 8th, 9th, 
10th and 12th in front of Spottsylvania, losing 
in the series of actions, seventy-seven killed and 
wounded and nine missinsr. <^n the 22d it was 



again engaged, and captured ninety-two men of 
the Confederate corps of A. P. Hill. 

The last battle of the Sixth Reserve was 
fought at Bethesda Church, Va., on the 30th of 
June. It entered that conflict only about one 
hundred and fifty strong, yet sustained and re- 
pulsed a furious charge of the enemy, " captured 
one hundred and two prisoners, and buried 
seventy-two dead rebels in its immediate front." 

On the following day (its term of service 
having espired) the regiment marched to the rear 
and was moved thence to Harrisburg, where it 
was mustered out of service June 14, 1864. 

Company B, Snyder County. — A list of 
officers and men of the Snyder County company 
of the Sixth Reserve is here given, viz.: 

Chas. D. Roush, captain, mustered in May 6, 1861, 
three years; discharged January 10, 1863, for 
wounds received at South Mountain, September 
14, 1862. 

Levi Epler, captain, mustered in May 6, 1861, three 
years; promoted from first lieutenant to captain 
March 1, 1863 ; wounded at Wilderness, May 
6, 1864; brevetted major March 13, 1865; mus- 
tered out with company June 11, 1864. 

Wm. Harding, first lieutenant, mustered in May 6, 
1861, three years; promoted to first lieutenant 
May 5, 1863; brevetted captain March 13, 1865; 
mustered out with company June 11, 1864. 

E. D. Lebkicher, second lieutenant, mustered in May 
6, 1861, three years; promoted from first sergeant 
to second lieutenant May 5, 1863 ; mustered out 
with company June 11, 1864. 

John Emmett, sergeant, mustered in May 6, 1861, 
three years; mustered out with company June 
11, 1864. 

Robert P. Calvert, sergeant, mustered in May 6, 1861, 
three years; promoted February 1, 1864; died at 
Andersonville May 11, 1864: grave 1832. 

Charles S. Swineford, sergeant, mustered in May 6, 
1861, three years ; discharged on surgeon's certif- 
icate June 16, 1862. 

James H. Bowman, sergeant, mustered in May 6, 
1861, three years; transferred to One Hundred and 
Ninety-first Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 
May 31, 1864; veteran. 

Charles S. Bowman, sergeant, mustered in May 6, 1861, 
three years ; transferred to One Hundred and 
Ninety-first Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 
May 31, 1864; veteran. 

Henry L. Stock, sergeant, mustered in May 6, 1861, 
three years ; transferred to One Hundred and 
Niuety-first Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 
May 31, 1864; veteran. 

George Everett, corporal, mustered in May 6, 1861, 

three years; mustered out with company June 11, 

Henry H. Bowen, corporal, mustered in July 10, 1861, 

three years; mustered out with company June 

11, 1864. 
Isaiah Fink, corporal, mustered in May 6, 1861, three 

years ; absent, in hospital, at muster-out. 
Michael Cantwell, corporal, mustered in May 27, 1861, 

three years; promoted February 1, 1864; died at 

Andersonville July 28, 1864, grave 4117. 
Benj. T. Barks, corporal, mustered in May 6, 1861, 

three years; discharged on surgeon's certificate 

December 25, 1862. 
John Yergey, corporal, mustered in May 28, 1861, 

three years ; transferred to One Hundred and 

Ninety-first Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 

May 31, 1864 ; veteran. 
Samuel Ritter, corporal, mustered in May 28, 1861, 

three years ; transferred to One Hundred and 

Ninety-first Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 

May 31, 1864; veteran. 
Neven P. Gutelius, corporal, mustered in May 6, 

1861, three years; transferred to One Hundred 

and Ninety-first Regiment Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers, May 31, 1864 ; veteran. 
Henry B. Mowry, corporal, mustered in May 6, 1861, 

three years; died September 27, 1862, of wounds 

received at South Mountain September 14, 1862. 
Thomas Robison, corporal, mustered in May 22, 1861, 

three years; killed at Gaines' Mill June 27, 

Daniel P. Rumberger,musician, mustered in February 

28, 1862, three years; discharged on surgeon's 

certificate October 8, 1862. 
James Aukey, private, mustered in May 27, 1861, 

three years ; mustered out with company June 

11, 1864. 
James Arnold, private, mustered in May 28, 1861, 

three years; transferred to One Hundred and 

Ninety-first Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 

May 31, 1864; veteran. 
John Arnold, private, mustered in May 28,1861, three 

years ; transferred to One Hundred and Ninety- 
first Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers May 31, 

1864; veteran. 
Reuben Botdorf, private, mustered in May 6, 1861, 

three years ; discharged June 30, 1861. 
David Bowersox, private, mustered in May 6, 1861, 

three years; discharged on surgeon's certificate 

January 6, 1862. 
Solomon Bender, private, mustered in May 6, 1861, 

three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 

January 15, 1862. 
William Bobb, private, mustered in May 6, 1861, three 

years ; died August 8, 1861 ; buried in Military 

Asylum Cemetery, Washington, D. C. 
Jacob F. Boran, private, mustered in May 27, 1861, 

three years; killed at South JJountain September 

14, 1862. 



Thomas Boran, private, mustered in May 28, 1861, 
three years ; not on muster-out roll. 

William F. Charles, private, mustered in May 6, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company June 11, 

Peter Campbell, private, mustered in October 8, 1861, 
three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
May 30, 1862. 

Abraham Campbell, private, mustered in October 8, 
1861, three years : discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate October 29, 1862. 

Adam Campbell, private, mustered in October 8, 
1861, three years; transferred to One Hundred 
and Ninety-first Regiment Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers May 31, 1864; veteran. 

Stephen Chubb, private, mustered in July 27, 1861, 
three years ; killed at Wilderness May 8, 1864. 

Wilson Duck, private, mustered in May 6, 1861, three 
years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate August 
17, 1861. 

Isaac Decker, private, mustered in May 28, 1861, three 
years ; transferred to One Hundred and Ninety- 
first Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers May 31, 
1864; veteran. 

John Doney, private, mustered in July 24, 1861, three 
years ; transferred to One Hundred and Ninety- 
first Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers May 31, 
1864; veteran. 

Martin Daisey, private, mustered in May 27, 1861, 
three years ; killed at Fredericksburg December 

Nicholas Dormier, private, mustered in May 27, 1861, 
three years. 

Peter Eckhart, private, mustered in July 24, 1861, 
three years; killed at Fredericksburg December 
13, 1862 ; burial record, died at Richmond, Va., 
December 20, 1862. 

George Euig, private, mustered in July 24, 1861, 
three years; mustered out with company June 
11, 1864. 

Edwin W. Finicle, private, mustered in May 18, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company June 
11, 1864. 

Henry Fink, private, mustered in May 6, 1861, three 
years ; discliarged on surgeon's certificate Janu- 
ary 5, 1863. 

Patrick Feeney, private, mustered in May 27, 1861, 
three years ; absent, sick, at muster out. 

Adam Gutsleber, private, mustered in May 6, 1861, 
three years; mustered out with company June 11, 

Michael Gray, private, mustered in May 27, 1861, three 
years ; prisoner February 1, 1864 ; died at Ander- 
sonville, grave 1302. 

Cyrus Gregory, private, mustered in May 27, 1861, 
three years ; absent, sick, at muster out. 

Samuel Gundrum, private, mustered in May 6, 1861, 
three years; transferred to One Hundred and 

Ninety-first Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 

May 31, 1864; veteran. 
Daniel Grow, private, mustered in October 8, 1861, 

three years; transferred to One Hundred and 

Ninety-first Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 

May 31, 1864; veteran. 
Levi Haas, private, mustered in July 24, 1861, three 

years; mustered out with company June 11, 

Geo. Haines, private, mustered in July 24,1861, three 

Thomas Hammond, private, mustered in May 6, 1861, 

three years. 
Nathaniel Keeler, private, mustered in July 24, 

1861, three years ; mustered out with company 

June 11, 1864. 
Martin L. Keifer, private, mustered in May 6, 1861, 

three years; transferred to One Hundred and 

Ninety-first Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 

May 31, 1864; veteran. 
John Kohler, private, mustered in July 27, 1861, 

three years ; killed at Antietam September 17, 

Leonidas Keeler, private, mustered in February 24, 

1864, tliree years; not on muster-out roll. 
Samuel Long, private, mustered in May 6, 1861, three 

years ; transferred to Western gun-boat service 

February 17, 1862. 
John Loy, private, mustered in May 27, 1861, three 

years ; transferred to Battery A, First Pennsyl- 
vania Artillery, June 1, 1862. 
Franklin Leister, private, mustered in July 24, 1861, 

three years ; transferred to One Hundred and 

Ninety-first Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 

May 31, 1864 ; veteran. 
Horace Lloyd, private, mustered in May 6, 1861, three 

Chas. Miller, private, mustered in May 6, 1861, three 

years; mustered out with company June 11, 

Jacob E. Mooney, private, mustered in May 6, 1861, 

three years; promoted May 30, 1864; absent at 

muster out. 
David C. Mowry, private, mustered in May 6, 1861, 

three years; promoted May 8, 1864; absent at 

muster out. 
Clinton Mackey, private, mustered in May 28, 1861, 

three years ; transferred to One Hundred and 

Ninety-first Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 

May 31, 1864. 
Rein't Morniugstar, private, mustered in May 25, 

1861, three years. 
John McCormick, private, mustered in May 27, 1861, 

three years; prisoner May 30, 1864; absent at 

muster out. 
Joseph Norwood, private, mustered in July 11, 1861, 

three years; transferred to One Hundred and 

Ninety-first Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 

May 30, 1864. 



Emanuel Neitz, private, mustered in July 24, 1861, 

three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 

February 24, 1862. 
Edw. Norwood, private, mustered in July 11, 18G1, 

three years; died at Philadelphia September 28, 

Wm. Oswalt, private, mustered in July 27, 1861, three 

years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate March 

14, 1862. 
Michael Pei)per, jjrivate, mustered in May 27, 1861, 

three years ; absent, sick, at muster out. 
David Parker, private, mustered in May 6, 1861, 

three years ; mustered out with company June 

11, 1864. 
Wm. H. Peifer, private, mustered in July 10, 1861, 

three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 

April 15, 1862. 
Henry Pontzline, private, mustered in May 6, 1861, 

three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 

October 23, 1862. 
Jacob F. Peifer, private, mustered in October 8, 1861, 

three years. 
John O. Eupp, private, mustered in May 6, 1861, 

three years; mustered out with company June 

11, 1864. 
Levi C. Ressler, private, mustered in July 10, 1861, 

three years; mustered out with company June 

11, 1864. 
Franklin Reif, private, mustered in May 6, 1861, 

three years ; mustered out with company June 

11, 1864. 
John B. Rorick, private, mustered in July 10, 1861, 

three years ; mustered out with company June 

11, 1864. 
John Reigle, private, mustered in July 24, 1861, three 

years; discharged on surgeon's certificate Febru- 
ary 24, 1862. 
Samuel Rogers, private, mustered in May 28, 1861, 

three years ; transferred to One Hundred and 

Ninety-first Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 

May 31, 1864 ; veteran. 
Wilson Rathfan, private, mustered in October 8, 

1861, three years; transferred to One Hundred 

and Ninety-first Regiment Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers May 31, 1864; veteran. 
Thos. Rathfan, private, mustered in October 8, 1861, 

three years; transferred to One Hundred and 

Ninety-first Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 

May 31, 1864 ; veteran. 
Joel Reichenbach, private, mustered in October 8, 

1861, three years ; transferred to One Hundred 

and Ninety-first Regiment Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers May 31, 1864; veteran. 
John Smith, private, mustered in May 25, 1861, three 

years; mustered out with company June 11, 

Samuel Seesholtz, private, mustered hi May 6, 1861, 

three years ; mustof ed out with company June 
11, 1864. 

Cyrus Salada, private, mustered in May 27, 1861, 
three years; mustered out with company June 
11, 1864. 

John Sampell, private, mustered in May 6, 1861, three 
years; mustered out with company June 11, 

William Seller, private, mustered in May 28, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company June 
11, 1864. 

John N. Snyder, private, mustered in May 6, 1861, 
three years; mustered out with company June 
11, 1864. 

Theodore S. F. Sterick, private, mustered in May 6, 
1861, three years ; absent, sick, at muster out. 

Nicholas Simon, private, mustered in May 6, 1861, 
three years ; transferred to One Hundred and 
Ninety-first Regiment [Pennsylvania Volunteers 
May 31, 1864; veteran. 

Joel Shaffer, private, mustered in May 6, 1861, three 
years ; transferred to One Hundred and Ninety- 
first Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers May 31, 
1864; veteran. 

John H. Seachrist, private, mustered in July 24, 1861, 
three years ; transferred to One Hundred and 
Ninety-first Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 
May 31, 1864 ; veteran. 

Charles Spencer, private, mustered in May 6, 1861, 
three years; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
August 17, 1861. 

Theodore Strawser. private, mustered in May 6, 1861, 
three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
November 24, 1862. 

Henry Shrawder, private, mustered in May 6, 1861, 
three y'ears ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
May 21, 1862. 

Peter Shultzbach, private, mustered in May 28, 1861, 
three years; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
November 23, 1862. 

Henry Shultzbach, private, mustered in February 24, 
1861, three years; transferred to One Hundred 
and Ninety-first Regiment Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers May 31, 1864. 

Willliam Stahl, private, mustered iu February 24, 
1861, three years; transferred to One Hundred 
and Ninety-first Regiment Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers May 31, 1864. 

Nathaniel Swartz, private, mustered in May 27, 1861, 
three years; died August 10, 1861; buried at 
Military Asylum Cemetery, Washington, D. C. 

Samuel Spotts, private, mustered in July 24, 1861, 
three years ; drowned at Harrison's Landing 
July 7, 1862. 

John Sterer, private, mustered in July 24, 1861, three 
years ; killed at Bull Run August 30, 1862. 

David Shell, private, mustered in May 6. 1861, three 
years ; died at Fredericksburg October 1, 1862. 

Richard Sansa, private, mustered in July 24, 1861, 
three years. 

Simon Troup; private, mustered in May, 6, 1861, three 




killed at South Mountain September 14, 

John Trego, private, mustered in July 10, 18G1, three 
years ; died at Fredericksburg October 3, 1862. 

William Walt, private, mustered in July 2-1, 1861, 
three years; transferred to One Hundred and 
Ninety-first Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 
May 31, 1864 ; veteran. 

Rudy Wilmore, private, mustered in May 6, 1861, 
three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
January 25, 1863. 

Emanuel Werick, private, mustered in July 27, 1861. 
three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
May 7, 1863. 

John F. Zartman, private, mustered in May 6, 1861, 
three years ; absent, sick, at muster out. 

Samuel Zimmerman, private, mustered in May 6, 
1861 ; died September 4, 1S61. 

Jacob F. Zechman, private, mustered in May 6, 1861, 
three years ; died at Alexandria, Va., Septem- 
ber 16, 1862. 


The Thirty-sixth Regiment, or Seventli Re- 
serve, contained one company (B) of Perry 
County soldiers, and a considerable number of 
men of the same county in Companies A and H. 
There were also Mifflin and Juniata County 
men serving in the same companies. The regi- 
ment was organized in the early part of the 
summer of 1861, under command of Colonel 
Elisha B. Harvey, of Wilkesbarre, and was 
rendezvoused at Camj) Wayne, near West Ches- 
ter, where it was fully clothed, armed and 
equipped by the State. It remained at this 
camp until the 21,st of July, when it moved to 
Washington, D. C, by way of Harri.sburg. At 
the capital city it was encamped on Meridian 
Hill, where, on the 27th, it was mustered into 
the United States service for three years. On 
the 2d of August it marched to Tenallytown, 
Md., and there encamped with the other regi- 
ments of the Reserve Division of General Mc- 
Call. It was assigned to duty in the Second 
Brigade, commanded by General George G. 
Meade, afterwards commander of the Army of 
the Potomac. 

At Tenallytown and vicinity the regiment 
remained with the division, employed in drill 
and picket duty until the 9th of October, when 
it crossed the Potomac and marched to " Camp 
Pierpont," at Langley, Va., where it remained 
during the entire winter of 18Gl--()2. On the 

10th of March, 1862, the Seventh, with the 
division, broke camp and marched in the (expec- 
tation of taking part in a grand attack on the 
enemy's stronghold at Manassas, but the advance 
disclosed the fact that the hostile force had 
withdrawn from the front, and thereupon the 
Seventh, with the other Reserve regiments 
marched back to the vicinity of Alexandria, 
where the division was assigned to the First 
Army Corps, under General Irwin McDowell. 
Tlie regiment went into camp at Fairfax Station, 
and remained until April 9th, when it advanced 
with the division to Manassas Junction, and 
thence, on the 17th, to Catlett's Station. On the 
11th of May it moved to Falmouth, on the 
Rappaliaunock, and after remaining there nearly 
a month, embarked (June 9th) on transports 
and proceeded to White House, Va., advancing 
thence to the line of the Chickahominy, on the 
right of the Army of the Potomac, there being 
attached to General Fitz John Porter's (Fifth) 
army corps. 

The first battle of the Seventh was that of 
Mechanicsville, or Beaver Dam, which was 
fought by the Reserves against a greatly superior 
force of the enemy, on the afternoon of Thursday, 
the 26th of June. In this engagement theSeventh 
held for six hours a position of extreme peril, and 
through the night succeeding the conflict, held 
the field as a rear guard, to watch the move- 
ments of the enemy, and within fifty yards- of 
his line. An hour before daybreak it was with- 
drawn from this dangei-ous position, and retired 
with the othe)' troops of the Reserve down the 
Chickahominy to the uneven ground around 
Dr. Gaines' mansion and mill, where Cieneral 
Fitz John Porter had decided to post his corps 
and stand for battle. In the engagement which 
followed in the afternoon of the same day — 
known in history as the battle of Gaines' Mill — 
the Seventh fought desperately, being called on 
three times to resist charges of the enemy, and 
sustaining a loss of nearly half its numbers in 
killed and wounded. 

Early in the morning (Saturday, June 28th) 
succeeding the battle tiie regiment, with its 
brigade, crossed to the south side of the Chicka- 
hominy, and late in the same night took the 
road to Savage Station and, by way of White 



Oak Swamp, to Charles City Cross-Roads — the 
Reserves having in charge the entire reserve 
artillery of the Army of" the Potomac and a 
drove of two thousand five hundred cattle. It 
was nearly noon on Sundav, the 29th, when the 
Seventh crossed White Oak Swamp bridge, and 
ten o'clock at night when it reached Charles 
City Cross-Roads. In the morning of tiie 30th 
it was drawn back nearly two miles and re- 
mained quietly resting until afternoon, when 
the line (of which the Seventh formed the ex- 
treme right) was suddenly and fiercely attacked, 
and a general engagement followed, in which 
the Seventh took a conspicuous j)art, fighting 
until darkness closed the struggle. The loss of 
the regiment in that series of battles was over 
three hundred in killed, wounded and missing, 
leaving only about two hundred to answer the 
regimental roll-call. The Seventh was not or- 
dered into the battle of Malvern Hill, which 
occurred on the following day, but moved with 
the other regiments to Harrison's Landing, on 
the James, and there occupied a fortified camp 
for about six weeks, during which time it crossed 
the James to the southern shore, with the brig- 
ade, to cut down the woods and burn the build- 
ings of Edmund Ruffin, which had sheltered a 
large body of the enemy, who, in the night of 
July 31st, had opened a furious cannonade from 
that point, for the purpose of destroying the 
Union transports and stores collected on the 
north shore of the river at the Berkeley Landing. 
On the 15th of August the regiment was, 
with others, embarked on transports and pro- 
ceeded, by way of Fortress Monroe and the 
Potomac River, to Acquia Creek Landing, ar- 
riving there on the 17th and marching thence 
to Kelly's Ford, on the Rappahannock, thus 
becoming for the time a part of General John 
Pope's Army of Virginia, in which command it 
took part in the battle of Second Bull Run, 
August 29th and 30th, losing very heavily. At 
Chantilly, on the following day, the Seventh 
was not engaged, and immediately afterwards, 
at the close of the campaign, it moved to a 
camp at Munson's Hill, Va., whence, on the 
7tli of Saptember, it moved with the army 
across the Potomac and encamped at Meridian 
Hill, Washington. Two days later it marched 

north through Maryland, and again met the 
enemy at South Mountain in the battle of the 
14th of September. Two days later it joined 
in the opening of the first day's battle (Sep- 
tember 16th) at Antietam. and on the 17th par- 
ticipated in that great conflict with the greatest 
steadiness and gallantry, and winning and re- 
ceiving the warm commendation of Major- 
General Sumner. 

On the 26th of October the Seventh, with 
its brigade, crossed the Potomac at Berlin and 
marched to Warrenton, Va. It arrived there 
on the 6th of November and remained until 
the 16th, when it moved with the army to the 
line of the Rappahannock and, on the 19th, 
encamped with the Reser^^es at Belle Plain. 
In the preparations for the battle of Fredericks- 
burg it crossed the river on the 1 2th of Decem- 
ber, taking a position below the town, from 
which it advanced to the charge, capturing a 
large number of prisoners, but sustaining a loss 
of seventy-eight killed and wounded, among 
the latter being Lieutenant John Q. Snyder, of 
Company B, wound resulted in the loss 
of a leg. On the 15th the regiment recrossed 
the Rappahannock, and on the 16th again oc- 
cupied its old camp at Belle Plain, which be- 
came its winter-quarters until February 7th, 
when it was moved to Upton's Hill and re- 
mained there until April 14th, when it was 
stationed at Camp Convalescent. In June, 
1863, it returned to Alexandria and remained 
there, engaged principally in guard and provost 
duty, during the succeeding summer, fall and 

On the opening of the spring campaign of 
1864 the Seventh was ordered to prepare for 
active operations. On the 18tli of April it 
marched to Manassas, whence, on the 2d of 
May, it advanced to the Rapidan, crossing the 
stream on the 3d and camping that night in 
the Wilderness, near the old battle-ground of 
Chancellorsville. On the 5th it became en- 
gaged with the enemy, and, becoming separated 
from its supports in the tangled copses of the 
Wilderness, the larger part of the regiment 
(two hundred and seventy-two officers and men) 
were captured and made prisoners of war by 
the Confederates. They were immediately 



niarolied to the rear, at Orange Court-House, 
and thence to Lynchburg, Va., wlience the offi- 
cers were sent to Macon, Ga. (and subsequently 
to Cliarleston, S. C), and the privates to the 
liorrible prison-pen at Andersonville, Ga., where 
sixty-seven of them died. A larger number 
still died at the prison-camp at Florence, S. C. 

The capture of the jirincipal part of the 
regiment in the Wilderness closed its military 
career. There were left one hundred and ten 
otiicers and men (including recruits), who were 
placed under command of Captain Samuel B. 
King, of Company H, who had just returned 
from recruiting service in Pennsylvania. This 
small body of men, representing the Eleventh 
Regiment, remained in the field until after the 
action at Bethesda Church, when (their term 
having expired) the remaining original mem- 
bers returned with the Reserve Division to 
Harrisburg and thence to Philadelphia, where 
they were mustered out of service June 16, 1864. 

Company B, Perry County. — The roll of 
the Perry County company of the Seventh Re- 
serve Regiment is here given, viz. : 

John Jameson, captain, mustered in May 4, 1861, 
three years ; wounded at Antietam September 
14, 1862; resigned November 11, 1862. 

John Q. Snyder, captain, mustered in May 4, 1861, 
three years promoted to first lieutenant Novem- 
ber 11,1861; to captain November 11, 1862; 
wounded with loss of leg at Fredericksburg De- 
cember 13, 1862 ; discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate April 9, 1863. 

H. Clay Snyder, captain, mustered in May 4, 1861, 
three years ; promoted to first lieutenant March 
28, 1863 ; to captain July 21, 1863 ; discharged 
August 15, 1863. 

George K. Schall, first lieutenant, mustered in May 
4, 1861, three years ; resigned November 11, 1861. 

John Deitrick, first lieutenant, mustered in May 4, 
1861, three years ; promoted to sergeant May 11, 
1861 ; to second lieutenant March 1, 1863 ; to first 
lieutenant July 20, 1863 ; dismissed May 3, 1864. 

W. H. Dieffenbach, second lieutenant, mustered in 
May 4, 1861 ; three years; promoted to sergeant 
July, 1862; to second lieutenant July 31, 1863; 
brevetted first lieutenant March 13, 1865; captured 
May 30, 1864 ; discharged March 12, 1865. 

Amos W. Hetrick, first sergeant, mustered in May 4, 
1861, three years ; killed at Gaines' Mill June 27, 

Henry H. Winters, first sergeant, mustered in May 4, 
1861, three years ; promoted to first sergeant June 

26, 1862; discharged October, 25,1862, for wounds 
received at Bull Run. 

John J. Hamilton, first sergeant, mustered in May 4, 
1861, three years; promoted to corporal Jlay 1, 
1862; to sergeant December 1, 1862; to first ser- 
geant August 1, 1863; mustered out with com- 
pany June 16, 1864. 

Benjamin Huff, sergeant, mustered in May 4, 1861, 
three years ; promoted to corporal March, 1863; 
to sergeant January 1, 1864 ; captured May 5, 
1864 ; discharged June 13, 1865 ; veteran. 

William H. Portsling, sergeant, mustered in May 
4, 1861, three years ; wounded at Gaines' Mill 
June 27, 1862 ; promoted to sergeant March 28, 
1863 ; captured at Wilderness May 5, 1864 ; trans- 
ferred to One Hundred and Ninetieth Regiment 
Pennsylvania Volunteers May 31, 1864; veteran. 

J. W. Eshelman, sergeant, mustered in May 4, 1861, 
three years; discharged on surgeon's certificate, 
date unknown. 

Samuel Haas, sergeant, mustered in May 4, 1861, 
three years; promoted to sergeant May 1, 1862; 
discharged on surgeon's certificate January 21, 

H. McCracken, sergeant, mustered in May 4, 1861, 
three years ; promoted to sergeant September 1, 
1863 ; mustered out with company June 16, 1864. 

John Grimes, sergeant, mustered in May 4, 1861, 
three years ; promoted to sergeant January 1, 
1864; mustered out with company June 16, 1864. 

William Newkirk, corporal, mustered in May 4,1861, 
three years ; killed at Gaines' Mill June 27, 1862. 

James Hebel, corporal, mustered in May 4, 1861, three 
years ; promoted to corporal March 28, 1863 ; trans- 
ferred to One Hundred and Ninetieth Regiment 
Pennsylvania Volunteers MaySl, 1864; veteran. 

Philip Klinger, musician, mustered in May 4, 1861, 
three years; transferred to One Hundred and 
Ninetieth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 
May 31, 1864 ; veteran. 

T. Kirkpatrick, musician, mustered in July 18, 1861, 
three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
January 29, 1862. 

Matthew Adams, private, mustered in jNlay 4, 1861, 
three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
October 11, 1862; re-enlisted January 21, 1864; 
died at Alexandria, Va., March 5, 1864. 

Michael W. Bowers, private, mustered in May 4, 
1861, three years ; mustered out with company 
June 16, 1864. 

Lewis Bitting, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, three 
years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate March 
3, 1863. 

JohnB. Boyer, private, mustered inM.ay4, 1861, three 
years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate October 
23, 1862. 

Elias Beaumont, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, 
three years; transferred to One Hundred and 



Ninetieth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 

May 31, 1864; veteran. 
William BDlman, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, 

three years ; transferred to One Hundred and 

Ninetieth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 

May 31, 1864. 
Joseph C. Blakely, private, mustered in February 25, 

1801, three years; transferred to One Hundred 

and Ninetieth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 

May 31, 1864. 
Edward Bowers, private, mustered in May 4, 18G1, 

three years ; missing in action at Bethesda 

Church, Va., May 30, 1864. 
George W. Brown, private, mustered in July 18, 1861, 

three years; killed at Gaines' Mill June 27, 1862. 
John Chamberlain, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, 

three years; wounded at Charles City Cross- 

Roads June 30, 18G2 ; absent at muster out. 
John Cluck, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, 

three years; wounded with loss of leg at Fred- 

ericksbui'g December 13, 1862 ; discharged De- 
cember 10, 1863. 
William H. Dewalt, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, 

three years; nuistered out with company June 16, 

John Deemer, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, 

three years; discharged on surgeon's certificate 

November, 1861. 
John Derr, private, mustered in January 28, 1862, 

three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 

May 20, 1862. 
James C. Duffy, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, 

three years ; transferred to One Hundred and 

Ninetieth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 

May 31,1864; veteran. 
Leonard Deitrick, private, mustered in January 28, 

1862, three years; captured May 5, 1864; dis- 
charged, date unknown. 
William Free, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, three 

years ; mustered out with company June 16, 1864. 
George Foley, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, 

three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 

December 7, 1862. 
George Grissinger, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, 

three years; discharged on surgeon's certificate 

December 20, 1862. 
John W. Glaze, private, mustered in January 28, 

1862, three years ; transferred to One Hundred 

and Ninetieth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 

May 31, 1864. 
Charles Gebhart, private, mustered in July 18, 1861, 

three years; transferred to Battery A, Forty-Third 

Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, January 23, 

Stephen F. Glaze, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, 

three years; captured May 5, 1864; died at 

Andersonville ; veteran. 
Andrew H. Griffin, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, 

three years ; missing in action at Wilderness 

May 30, 1864; veteran. 
John S. Hain, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, three 

years ; mustered out with company June 16, 1864. 
John C. Hebel, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, 

three years ; mustered out with company June 16, 

John F. Hassinger, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, 

three years ; mustered out with company June 16, 

Jacob Huggins, private, mustered in July 18, 1861, 

three years; mustered out with company June 

16, 1864. 
Jonathan Hilbert, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, 

three years ; transferred to Veteran Reserve 

Corps February 15, 1864. 
James Heckard, private, mustered in Maj' 4, 1861, 

three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 

December 18, 1862. 
John W. Holmes, private, mustered in September 20, 

1861, three years ; transferred to One Hundred 
and Ninetieth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 
May 31, 1864; veteran. 

David Hebel, private, mustered in December 31, 1863, 
three years; transferred to One Hundred and 
Ninetieth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 
May 31, 1864. 

Frederick H. Harmon, private, mustered in February 
9, 1864, three years ; wounded, with loss of arm. 
May 11, 1864; transferred to One Hundred and 
Ninetieth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 
May 31, 1864. 

Calvin R. Harmon, private, mustered in February 9, 
1864, three years ; transferred to One Hundred 
and Ninetieth Regiment Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers May 31, 1864. 

Newton C. Harmon, private, mustered in February 9, 
1864, three years ; transferred to One Hundred 
and Ninetieth Regiment Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers May 31, 1864. 

Alfred Hebel, private, mustered in December 31, 
1863, three years; missing inaction at Bethesda 
Church May 30, 1864. 

Jacob Holmau, private, mustered in January 28, 

1862, three yeai's; prisoner irom May 30, to No- 
vember 26, 1864; discharged February 27, 1865. 

Leonard Keiser, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, 
three years ; discharged^ on surgeon's certificate 
October 8, 1862. 

William Keagy, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, 
three years ; discharged September 26, 1862, for 
wounds received at Charles City Cross-Roads. 

William T. Keller, private, mustered in September 
18, 1861, three years ; transferred to One Hundred 
and Ninetieth Regiment Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers May 31, 1864. 

John S. Laning, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, 
three years|; mustered one with company June 16, 



James Larzelier, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, 

three years; mustered out with company June 16, 

Daniel Liddic, private, mustered in July 18, 1861, 

three years ; mustered out with company June 

16, 1864. 
Solomon Leitzel, private, mustered in July 18, 1861, 

three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 

May 20, 1862. 
Thomas Lowe, private, mustered in September 18, 

1861, three years; transferred to One Hundred 
and Ninetieth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 
May 31, 1864; veteran. 

Isaac R. Lenhart, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, 
three years ; transferred to One Hundred and 
Ninetieth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 
May 31, 1864; veteran. 

William Lindsey, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, 
three years ; transferred to One Hundred and 
Ninetieth Regiment May 31, 1864; veteran. 

Jacob Light, private, mustered in February 23, 1864 
three years ; transferred to One Hundred and 
Ninetieth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 
May 31, 1864. 

Jeremiah Liddic, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, 
three years ; missing in action at Wilderness 
May 5, 1864 ; veteran. 

Benjamin E. Liddic, private, mustered in January 
28, 1862, three years; missing in action at Wil- 
derness May 5, 1864; veteran. 

William Miller, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company June 
16, 1864. 

Thomas McConnell, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company June 16, 

C. McGlaughlin, private, mustered in January 28, 

1862, three years ; discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate November 2, 1862. 

Lewis Myers, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, three 
years; discharged on surgeon's certificate July 8, 

John Monroe, private, mustered in July 18, 1861, 
three years ; discharged October 10, 1862, for 
wounds received at Charles City Cross-Roads. 

John A. McKnight, private, mustered in September 
18, 1861, three years ; discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate March 3, 1862; re-enlisted January 28, 
1864; missing in action at Wilderness May 5, 

George Matchett, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, 
three years ; missing in action at Wilderness May 
5, 1864; veteran. 

James McGlaughlin, private, mustered in May 4, 
1861, three years ; died at Annapolis, Md., Oc- 
tober 27, 1862. 

Joseph Potter, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, 
three years; absent, sick, at muster out. 

Rudolph Preisler, private, mustered in May 25, 1861, 
three years; wounded May 11, 1864; transferred 
to One Hundred and Ninetieth Regiment Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers May 31, 1864; veteran. 

Silas Portzling, private, mustered in May 4, 1801, three 
years ; died at home, in Snyder County, Pa., No- 
vember 29, 1863. 

Christopher C. Reen, private, mustered in May 4, 

1861, three years ; wounded at Second Bull Run; 
discharged on surgeon's certificate April .30, 1863. 

Frederick Reen, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, 
three years ; wounded at Second Bull Run ; dis- 
charged on surgeon's certificate April 30, 1863. 

Frederick Rinehart, private, mustered in January 
28, 1862, three years ; wounded with loss of arm ; 
discharged on surgeon's certificate, date unknown. 

Israel Ritter, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, three 
years; transferred to One Hundred and Nine- 
tieth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers May 
31, 1864; veteran. 

Elias Rice, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, three 
years; captured May 5, 1864; died at Anderson- 
ville September 3, 1864, grave 7716. 

Jacob Shoemaker, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company June 
16, 1864. 

David P. Sheibley, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, 
three years; mustered out with company June 
16, 1864. 

Henry H. Shuler, private, mustered in July 18, 1861, 
three years ; wounded ; mustered out with com- 
pany June 16, 1864. 

James P. Sheibley, private, mustered in M;iy 4, 1861, 
three years; wounded at Charles City Cross- 
Roads June 30, 1862 ; mustered out with company 
June 16, 1864. 

Joseph Stevens, private, mustered in January 28, 

1862, three years ; discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate, date unknown. 

James Snyder, private, mustered in May 25, 1861, 
three years ; transferred to One Hundred and 
Ninetieth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 
May 31, 1864; veteran. 

George Smith, private, mustered in May 25, 1861, 
three years ; transferred to One Hundred and 
Ninetieth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 
May 31, 1864; veteran. 

Jeremiah J. Stailey, private, mustered in May 4, 

1861, three years; captured May 6, 1864; mus- 
tered out May 11, 1865. 

David Shatto, private, mustered in May 25, 1861, 
three years; died at Washington, D. C, October 
4, 1863. 

Richard Tagg, private, mustered in May 25, 1861, 
three years ; discharged November 14, 1862, for 
wounds received at Antietam September 17, 1862. 

Robert Temple, private, mustered in Jauuarv 28, 

1862, three years; transferred to Veteran Re- 
serve Corps November 6, 1868. 



William Ulsh, private, mustered in February 25, 
1864, three years; transferred to One Hundred 
and Ninetieth Regiment Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers May 31, 1864. 
Wesley Vandling, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, 
three years; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
December 10, 1862. 
William Wingard, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, 
three years ; wounded ; absent, sick, at muster 
Elias Welsh, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, three 
years; wounded at Charles City Cross- Roads 
June 30, 1862 ; absent, in hospital, at muster out. 
William Weikell, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, 

three years ; absent, sick, at muster out. 
G. W. Williamson, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, 
three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate ; 
date unknown. 
Joseph Winters, private, mustered in May 25, 1861, 
three years ; discharged September 5, 1862, for 
wounds received at Gaines' Mill. 
Cyrus Williamson, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, 
three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate, 
March 3, 1863. 
John Wagner, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, 
three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
March 3, 1863 ; re-enlisted January 28, 1864 ; miss- 
ing in action May 5, 1864. 
J. W. Williamson, private, mustered in February 5, 
1864, three years; transferred to One Hundred 
and Ninetieth Regiment Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers May 31, 1864. 
Alfred Wolf, private, mustered in February 13, 1864, 
three years ; transferred to One Hundred and 
Ninetieth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 
May 31, 1864. 
Isaiah D. Winters, private, mustered in January 28, 
1862, three years; missing in action in Wilder- 
ness May 5, 1864 ; discharged, date unknown ; 
P. E. Williamson, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, 
three years ; died September 20, 1862, of wounds 
received at South Mountain. 
William Walker, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, 

three years. 
John Zitch, private, mustered in May 4, 1861, three 
years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Feb- 
ruary 14, 1863. 


The Forty-second Regiment, otherwise known 
as the " Bucktails," or the " Kane Rifle Regi- 
ment of the Pennsylvania Reserve Corps," 
which, in its formation, was intended to in- 
clude only companies of skilled marks- 
men, selected chiefly from the lumbering dis- 
tricts of the State, was recruited in the spring 

of 1861 (largely through the efforts of Thomas 
L. Kane, brother of Dr. Kane, the famous 
Arctic explorer), and was rendezvoused at Camp 
Curtin, Harrisburg, where it was duly organ- 
ized under command of Colonel Charles J. 
Biddle, the lieutenant-colonel being Thomas 
L. Kane, who was afterwards promoted to 

On the 21st of Jiuie the Bucktail regiment 
left Camp Curtin (in company with the Fifth 
Reserve, Colonel S. G. Simmons) and pro- 
ceeded to Hopewell, Pa., whence it marched, by 
way of Bedford Springs, to " Camp Mason and 
Dixon," on the Maryland State line, from 
which, on the 7th of July, it moved to a camp 
at Cumberland, Md. On the 12th the regi- 
ment attacked a body of Confederate cavalry, 
at Ridgeville, Va., but was obliged to retire to 
New Creek and Piedmont, which position it 
held until July 27th, when, in accordance with 
orders then received, it returned to Harrisburg. 
On the 1st of August it was ordered thence to 
Harper's Ferry, where it was assigned to Colonel 
George H. Thomas' brigade, in the division of 
General Nathaniel P. Banks. In this command 
it remained until the 1st of October, when it 
moved to join the other regiments of the Re- 
serve Division, in the camp at Tenallytown, Md. 
From that camp it moved with the other regi- 
ments of McCall's division, and, crossing the 
Potomac on the 9th of October, moved to a 
camp in the vicinity of Langley, Va. From 
this camp, on the 20th of December, it marched 
to take part in the battle of Dranesville, in 
which action its loss was thirty killed and 
wounded, among the latter being two officers, 
one of whom was Lieutenant-Colonel Kane, who 
received a painful wound in the face. 

In the spring campaign of 18(32 the Buck- 
tail regiment marched, with the other Reserves, 
to Manassas, in the expectation of attacking the 
Confederate works there, but finding them aban- 
doned and the enemy gone, they returned to a 
camp at Alexandria. This movement occupied 
from the 10th to the 20th of March, in the 
roughest and most inclement weather of the 

From Alexandria the regiment was moved 
to Falmouth, on the Rappahannock, whence 



four comjianies of scouts, as a part of the brig- 
ade of General Reynolds, were moved forward 
iu May, on a reeonnoisance toward Hanover 
Court-Hoiise, the expectation of tlie men and 
officers being that they were to join the Army 
of tlie Potomac, then on the Peninsula. These 
expectations were not realized, and the battalion, 
after marcliing back to the Rappahannock, was 
ordered to the support of General Fremont, who 
was confronting Stonewall Jackson in the 
Shenandoah Valley. Iu this expedition the 
Bucktails performed excellent service, but their 
numbers became reduced to one hundred and 
four men of the four companies, — C, G, H and 
I, — which had been detailed for special duty as 
scouts and skirmishers, with Lieuteuaut-Colonel 
Kane, who was himself among the wounded. 
At the same time they inflicted, on the four 
Confedei'ate regiments who opposed them, a 
loss of five hundred and fifty-nine in killed and 

Early in June the other six companies, four 
hundred strong, had embarked on the Rappa- 
hannock for the Peninsula, and arrived, on the 
9th, at White House, Ya., whence it moved 
forward to Dispatch Station, and along the left 
bank of the Chickahominy to a point on the 
extreme right of the Army of the Potomac, the 
Reserves holding the line from Gaines' Mill to 
Beaver Dam Creek. This position was taken 
on the 18th of June and was held until the 
26th, when a heavy Confederate force appeared 
on their front and opened a most furious as- 
sault which continued until after dark, and is 
known in history as the battle of Mechauics- 
ville. From this bloody field the little battalion 
of Bucktails retired early in the morning of the 
27th, it being the rear-guard of the Reserve Di- 
vision iu the retreat to Gaines' Mill, where, 
later in the day, the great battle of that name 
was fought. In the fighting which fell to the 
lot of the Bucktail companies in the conflict of 
Mechanicsville, and in their guarding of the 
rear of the division in the retreat to Gaines' 
Mill, they suffered a very heavy loss, of which 
Bates' .says; "The loss in the morning's en- 
gagement and retreat was more than half of its 

' "History of Pennsylvania Volunteers." 

[the Bucktail l)attalion's] effective force, and 
upon its arrival at Gaines' Mill, it could mus- 
ter but six officers and one hundred and 
twenty-flve men." This loss was additional to 
that of the afternoon of the 26th, in the 
battle of Mechanicsville. In the action 
of the 27th, at Gaines' Mill it was hotly 
engaged for fully four hours, until its ammuni- 
tion was exhausted, and losing twenty-six 
killed aud wounded, which was a very heavy 
loss out of the small number with which the 
battalion entered the fight. 

During the night of the 27th the Reserves 
crossed to the south side of the Chickahominy, 
and in the following night (Saturday, Jtine 
28th) pushed on, by way of White Oak Swamp, 
towards Charles City Cross-Roads, where a fierce 
battle was fought on Monday, the 30th, in 
which Major-General McCall, the division com- 
mander, was wounded and made prisoner, and 
the Bucktail battalion was almost annihilated, 
losing ninety- two officers and men, killed, 
wounded and taken prisoners. It was not or- 
dered into the battle at Malvern Hill, on the 
following day, and on the 2d of July it reached 
a camping-ground at Harrison's Landing, on 
the James, where it remained for several weeks, 
during which time it was reinforced by the re- 
turn of a part of the men who had been taken 
prisoners in the battle of IMechanicsville. 

From the camp at Harrison's Landing the 
Bucktail battalion was moved, on the 15tli of 
August, and proceeded, by way of Acquia 
Creek, to Warrenton, Va., where it became, for 
the time, a part of General Pope's Army of 
Virginia, and in the campaign which was then 
iu progress it took part in the Second Bull Run 
battle (August 29th and 30th), in which its loss 
was twenty-four, killed and wounded. 

On the 7th of September the four companies 
which had been separated from the remainder 
of the regiment, to act a.s scouts, rejoineil the 
battalion, and on the same day the Bucktails 
moved northward to meet the enemy in his 
invasion of Maryland. On the 1 4th they reached 
South Mountain, and immediately became en- 
gaged in the fierce battle that rageil along its 
declivity, from base to summit. They charged 
with great impetuosity, capturing many prison- 



ers and losing sixty-three killed and wounded. 
Again, on the 16th and 17th, they fought bravely 
and well in the great battle of Antietam, losing 
one hundred and ten officers and men killed and 
wounded, of whom ninety-five went down on 
the 16th in a single charge. Among the killed 
was the commanding officer, Colonel Hugh W. 
McNeil, and Lieutenant William Allison, of 
Company B. 

From Antietam, after some delay, the regi- 
ment crossed the Potomac into Virginia, and 
was encamped for some time near Warrenton, 
then moved to the vicinity of Fredericksburg. 
On the 12th of December they crossed the river 
below the town, and took position for the great 
battle of the following day, in which their loss 
was one hundred and thirty-two killed, wounded 
and missing. The regiment returned on the 
15th to the north side of the Rappahannock, 
whence, on the 6th of February, it moved with 
the other Reserves to the Washington defenses, 
and encamped at Fairfax Court-House, where it 
became a part of the Twenty-second Corps, and 
of McCandless' (First) brigade. Here it re- 
mained until the 25tli of June, 1863, when it 
rejoined the Fifth Corps, and marched north- 
ward to Maryland and Pennsylvania, to meet 
the invading army of the Confederates. It 
reached Gettysburg on the 2d of July, and late 
in the afternoon of the same day entered the 
great battle which was then in progress. From 
that time until the evening of the 3d it was 
continually under heavy fire, and made several 
charges, capturing a large number of prisoners 
and losing forty-seven officers and men killed 
and Mounded. In the later operations of 1863, 
in Virginia, the Bucktail regiment was actively 
and continually engaged until the close of the 
Mine Run campaign, when it went into winter- 
quarters at Bristoe Station. 

On the opening of the spring campaign of 
1864 the regiment broke camp April 29th, and 
marched to Culpeper, where it was armed with 
Spencer seven shooting rifles. It crossed the 
Rapidan May 4th, and on the following day 
became engaged in the battle of the Wilderness, 
at Parker's Store, charging through the Con- 
federate line with a loss of only fourteen men. 
Again, on the 6th, it was engaged at diffijrent 

times during the entire day, losing twenty-three 
men. At Spottsylvania, on the 8th, it took part 
in three unsuccessful charges of the Reserve 
Division. On the 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th, on 
the line of the Po River, the regiment was con- 
stantly under fire in front of the Confederate 
line of works, and on the 13th, for the fii'st 
time in the campaign, it enjoyed a day of rest. 
On the 14th, and from that time till the 20th, 
it was engaged in marching and skirmishing 
without intermission, reaching Guinea Station 
on the latter date. On the 22d it marched to 
Jericho Ford, where it crossed the North Anna 
River, advancing thence as skirmishers, clearing 
the woods, and repulsing a determined attack 
by the enemy. This position was held until 
the night of the 26tli, when the Bucktails, with 
other regiments, marched towards Bethesda 
Church, reaching there on the 29tli. At that 
point, on the 30th of May, the regiment fought 
its last battle — its term of service expiring on 
that day. In the series of battles of the cam- 
paign which, for the Pennsylvania Reserves, 
was closed by the fight at Bethesda Church, the 
Bucktails had lost one hundred and forty-six 
officers and men killed and wounded, and had 
elicited the warmest and most flattering com- 
mendations for bravery and steadiness by the 
general officers under whom it served. On the 
1st of June it was marched to the rear ; the 
veterans and recruits were transferred to the 
One Hundred and Ninetieth Regiment, and the 
remainder of the men of the original Bucktails 
were transported to Harrisburg, where, on the 
11th of the same month, they were mustered out 
of service. 

Company B, Perry County. — In the 
Bucktail regiment there were serving a consider- 
able number of men from Mifflin and Juniata 
Counties, and one of its companies, of which 
Captain Langhorn Wistar was the original 
commanding officer, was made up of Perry 
County men, recruited at Duncannon, in that 
county. A roll of the company is here given, 
viz. : 

Langhorn Wistar, captain, mustered in June 4, 1861, 
three years ; promoted to colonel One Hundred 
and Fiftieth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 
September 4, 1862. 



Thomas B. Lewis, captain, mustered in June 4, 1861, 
tliree years; promoted from first sergeant to 
second lieutenant December 12, 18(31 ; to captain 
September 16, 1862 ; mustered out with company 
June 11, 1864. 

John A. Gulp, first lieutenant, mustered in June 4, 
1861, three years; resigned November 1, 1861. 

William Allison, first lieutenant, mustered in June 4, 
1861, three years ; killed at Antietam September 
16, 1862. 

Philip E. Keiser, first lieutenant, mustered in June 4, 
1861, three years ; promoted to first sergeant De- 
cember 12, 1861 ; to first lieutenant March 1, 
1863 ; mustered out with company June 11, 

Joel R. Sparr, second lieutenant, mustered in June 4, 
1861, three years ; promoted to sergeant Decem- 
ber 12, 1861 ; to second lieutenant March 1, 
1863 ; mustered out with company June 11, 

Frederick A. Perry, first sergeant, mustered in June 
4, 1861, three years; promoted from private to 
sergeant July 5, 1863 ; mustered out with com- 
pany June 11, 1864. 

Thomas J. Belton, first sergeant, mustered in June 4, 
1861, three years ; killed at Gettysburg July 3, 
1863; buried in National Cemetery, section B, 
grave 91. 

Charles W. Tierney, sergeant, mustered in June 4, 
1861, three years ; promoted from private to ser- 
geant November 1, 1863; mustered out with 
company June 11, 1864. 

Robert B. Bothwell, sergeant, mustered in June 4, 
1861, three years; promoted from private to ser- 
geant November 20, 1863 ; wounded May 12, 1864 ; 
absent, sick, at muster out. 

J. W. Muntzebaugh, sergeant, mustered in June 4, 
1861, three years ; promoted from corporal to 
sergeant July 1, 1863 ; mustered out with com- 
pany June 11, 1864. 

Remuel K. Morton, sergeant, mustered in June 4, 
1861, three years ; discharged May 27, 1864. 

John O'Brien, sergeant, mustered in June 4, 1861, 
three years ; died June 4, 1864, of wounds re- 
ceived at Spottsylvania Court-House May 9, 

Mark Burke, sergeant, mustered in August 7, 1861, 
three years. 

Joseph H. Meek, corporal, mustered in June 4, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company June 

Hiram G. Wolf, corporal, mustered in June 4, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company June 
11, 1864. 

J. H. Muntzebaugh, corporal, mustered in Juno 4, 
1861, three years; discharged by General Order 
of War Department, 1862. 

John W. Parsons, corporal, mustered in June 4, 1861, 

three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 

November 8, 1862. 
Henry J. Jones, corporal, mustered in June 4, 1861, 

three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 

August 1, 1863. 
Jacob E. Stuckey, corporal, mustered in June 4, 1861, 

three years; died November 16, 1863, of wounds 

received at Fredericksburg December 13, 1862. 
Samuel Galbraith, corporal, mustered in June 4, 1861, 

three years ; killed at Dranesville December 20, 

John Wilkinson, musician, mustered in June 4, 1861, 

three years ; discharged August 2, 1861. 
Charles Austin, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 

three years; wounded May 7, 1864; absent, sick, 

at muster out. 
George L. Arnold, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 

three years. 
Robert H. Branyan, private, mustered in June 4, 

1861, three years ; mustered out with company 

June 11, 1864. 
James A. Branyan, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 

three years ; mustered out with company June 

11, 1864. 
Jeremiah Breckbill, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 

three years; mustered out with company June 

11, 1864. 
James E. Burns, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 

three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 

July 4, 1861. 
James Bolden, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 

three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 

July 9, 1862. 
Isaac G. Black, private, mustered in December 26, 

1861, three years ; discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate August 22, 1862. 
John Barth, private, mustered in August 8, 1861 

three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
■ January 8, 1863. 
George L. Cook, private, mustered in June 4, 1861 

three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 

October 28, 1862. 
Edward Casswell, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 

three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 

August 1, 1863. 
Joseph Duncan, private, mustered in August 3, 1861, 

three years ; transferred to One Hundred and 

Ninetieth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 

May 31, 1864; veteran. 
George L. Dile, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 

three years; transferred from Veteran Reserve 

Corps; mustered out with company June 11, 

Enoch R. Davis, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 

three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 

July 29, 1862. 
David Evans, private, mustered in August 3, 1861, 

three years; discharged, on surgeon's certificate 

November 14, 1862. 



George W. Ebright, private, mustered in June 4, 

1861, three years; died February 28, 1862. 
Jacob Etter, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, tliree 

William A. Fissell, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 

three years ; mustered out with company June 11 

John A. Fissell, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, three 

years ; mustered out with company June 11, 1864. 
Samuel Farnsvvorth, private, mustered in January 16, 

1862; transferred to One Hundred and Ninetieth 

Begiment Pennsylvania Volunteers May 31, 1864; 

Erastus R. Foster, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 

three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 

July 28, 1862. 
Francis A. Foster, private, mustered in August 19 

1861, three years ; discharged Maj' 1, 1862, for 

wounds received in action. 
Ephraim B. Fleck, private, mustered in June 3, 1861, 

three years ; discharged by General Order Novem- 
ber 14, 1862. 
Philip Furlong, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 

three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 

January 20, 1863. 
Patrick Foran, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 

three years ; died at Manassas, Va., April 13, 

Thomas G. Green, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 

three years ; mustered out with company June 

11, 1864. 
T. W. Gillespie, private, mustered in March 6, 1862, 

three years ; killed at Charles City Cross-Eoads, 

June 30, 1862. 
William A. Holland, private, mustered in June 4, 

1861, three years; mustered out with company 

June 11, 1864. 
Isaiah Hartzell, private, mustered in June 4, 1861 

three years; mustered out with company June 11 

John Hood, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, three 

years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate July 

24, 1861. 
Edward Hayner, private, mustered in August 6, 1861, 

three years ; transferred to One Hundred and 

Ninetieth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 

May 31, 1864. 
W. H. H. Irvin, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 

three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 

December 10, 1862. 
Nicholas Y. Jones, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 

three years ; mustered out with company June 

11, 1864. 
John Jamison, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 

three years; discharged on surgeon's certificate 

July 4, 1861. 
Conrad Jumper, private, mustered in March 6, 1862, 

three years ; killed at South Mountain Septem- 
ber 14, 1862. 

William H. Johnson, private, mustered in August 8, 

1861, three years; absent in United States Insane 

Asylum at muster out. 
Charles Kugler, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 

three years ; transferred to One Hundred and 

Ninetieth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 

May 31, 1864; veteran. 
Joshua Lenig, private, mustered in March 6, 1862, 

three years ; discharged on surgeon's certflcate 

May 12, 1862. 
John B. Lewis, private, mustered in August 6, 1861, 

three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 

May 10, 1862. 
Peter Lehman, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 

three years ; died September 20, 1862, of wounds 

received at Antietam September 17, 1862. 
Joseph T. Ldwyer, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 

three years. 
Miles A. Mayall, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 

three years ; transferred to One Hundred and 

Ninetieth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 

May 31, 1864 ; veteran. 
George McCallum, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 

three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 

July 4, 1861. 
John H. Mell, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 

three years ; discharged, date unknown. 
Jacob Myers, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, three 

years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate August 

8, 1861. 
Samuel M. Mitchell, private, mustered in June 4, 

1861, three years ; discharged on surgeon's certif- 
icate September 17, 1861. 

Solomon Mick, private, mustered in August 6, 1861, 

three years; discharged on surgeon's certificate 

March 4, 1862. 
John C. Meek, private, mustered in March 6, 1862 

three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 

February 19, 1863. 
Andrew J. Metz, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 

three years ; discharged by General Order May 9, 

Ambrose B. Magee, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 

three years ; died March 1, 1863, of wounds re- 
ceived at Fredericksburg December 13, 1862. 
Jacob McCould, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 

three years. 
William Pressley, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 

three years ; mustered out with company June 11, 

John Pemnell, private, mustered in August 6, 1861, 

three years ; discharged April 28, 1862, for wounds 

received in action. 
Theodore A. Parsons, private, mustered in March 6, 

1862, three years; killed at Charles City Cross- 
Roads June 30, 1862. 

Thomas C. Roberts, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company June 
11, 1864. 



David Richard, private, mustered in August 8, 1861, 
tliree years ; discharged ou surgeon's certificate 
Jlay 10, 1862. 

John Reynolds, private, mustered in June 4, ISGl, 
three years ; transferred to Company F, date un- 

Charles Rennard, private, mustered in Augusts, 1861, 
three years ; transferred to Company D, Forty- 
Sixth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, Sep- 
tember 24, 1861. 

George Ranp, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 
three years; killed at Dranesville December 20, 

Absalom Sweger, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company June 
11, 1864. 

Thomas J. Shively, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 
three years ; wounded at Spottsylvania Court- 
House May 9, 1864 ; absent, in hospital, at mus- 
ter out. 

George W. Shively, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 
three years; mustered out with compauj- June 
11, 1864. 

John C. Smith, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 
three years ; wounded at Bethesda Church May 
30, 1864; absent, in hospital, at muster out. 

John F. Staekle, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 
three years ; missing in action at Wilderness 
May s] 1864. 

Oliver Sheaffer, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 
three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
Jiiiy24, 1861. 

William M. Stevenson, private, mustered in June 4, 

1861, three years; discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate August 7, 1861. 

Levi Seward, private, mustered in January 16, 1862, 
three years ; transferred to One Hundred and 
Ninetietli Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 
May 31, 1864; veteran. 

Truman K. Snyder, private, mustered in January 16, 

1862, three yeare; discharged by General Order 
December 11, 1862. 

George W. Shatto, private, mustered in August 6, 1861, 
three years ; transferred to One Hundred and 
Ninetieth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers 
May 31, 1864. 

Alexander Shatto, private, mustered in August 10, 
1861, three years ; transferred to One Hundred 
and Ninetieth Regiment Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers May 31, 1864. 

John Savers, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, three 
years ; killed at Charles City Cross-Roads June 
30, 1862. 

Samuel Spear, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 
three years; killed at Gettysburg July 2, 1863. 

George H. Sparr, private, mustered in October 10, 
1861, three years; died at Chesapeake Hospital 
February 7, 1863. 

Reuben Seller, private, mustered in .June 4, 1861, 

three years. 
John Seller, private, mustered in August 7, 1861, 

three years. 
John E. Shatto, private, mustered in August 10, 1861, 

three years. 
Samuel A. Topley, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 

three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 

July 28, 1862. 
Robert B. Valentine, private, mustered in June 4, 

1861, three years ; mustered out with company 

June 11, 1864. 
James X. Vanzant, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 

three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 

March 12, 1863. 
James Walker, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 

three years; mustered out with company Juue 

11, 1864. 
George C. Watson, private, mustered in June 4, 1861, 

three years; discharged on surgeon's certificate 

July 4, 1861. 


In Battery E of this regiment — the First Ar- 
tillery — were at least two men from Union 
County, — Captain Thomas G. Orwig and First 
Lieutenant Benjamin M. Orwig. 


The Forty-fourth Regiment of the Penn- 
sylvania line, otherwise known as the First 
Cavalry, or Fifteenth Reserve Regiment, con- 
tained one company (A, Captain John K. 
Robinson) of men recruited in Juniata County, 
and one company (C) of Mifflin County men, 
uuder command of Captain John P. Taylor. 

The organization of the regiment was eifected 
September 1, 18G1, under Colonel George D. 
Bayard (previously of the Fourth Uuited States 
Cavalry), Lieutenant-Colonel Jacob Higgins 
and jSLijor Owen Jones. The regiment joined 
McCall's division of Pennsylvania Reserves at 
the camp at Tenallytown, Md., in September, 
and remaiued there engaged in drill and camj) 
duties until October 10th, when it moved to 
"Camp Pierpont," Va., where it remained dur- 
ing the succeeding winter, participating, in the 
mean time, in the battle of Dranesville and in 
several encounters with the enemy's cavalry and 
guerrillas, and being constantly engaged in 
scouting, picket duty and drill. 

On the opening of the spring campaign of 
1862, under General McClellan, the First Cav- 



airy moved with army to Manassas and Ceutre- 
ville. It is always difficult to follow in detail 
of description tlie movements of a cavalry com- 
mand, so numerous are the marches, counter- 
marches and changes of position, and such is 
the case with regard to the history of the march- 
ing and fighting of the First Cavahy. During 
the year 1862, after the advance to Manassas 
and the transfer of the Army of the Potomac 
from the front of Washington to the Virginia 
Peninsula, the regiment might be said to have 
been continually in the saddle, marching thou- 
sands of miles, always on the alert and frequent- 
ly in action, though, from the nature of the cav- 
alry service, seldom participating in the dangers 
and glories of a great battle. This regiment 
was in the early part of May employed in picket- 
ing the line of the Rappahannock, attached to 
the command of General McDowell, and when, 
on the 25th of that mouth, he advanced by way 
of Bowling Green towards Richmond, the First 
formed part of the cavalry force which preceded 
the infantry cor[is in its march (as was then 
supposed) to reinforce IMcClcllan on the Penin- 

Reaching the Pamnnkey River, and having 
driven the enemy's cavalry to that stream, it 
was there recalled, to move to the Shenandoah 
Valley against Stonewall Jackson. By way of 
Catlett's Station and Thoroughfare Gap, it 
marched to Front Royal, thence to Strasburg, 
where, on the 1st of June, it was heavily engaged 
with the eneuiy, driving him in some confusion, 
and fighting again at Harrisonburg, Va., against 
a greatly superior force. On the 8th and 9th it 
fought well at Cross Keys and Port Republic. 
On the 10th it turned eastward again, passed 
through Mount Jackson and Front Royal, and 
came to Manassas on the 2;3d, after a month of 
continuous riding, skirmishing and fighting, 
over a route of nearly four hundred miles. Two 
■weeks it remained at Manassas, then moved with 
the Army of Virginia, under General Pope. 
Here the service was the same, — skirmishing, 
scouting, picketing and duty in saddle con- 
stantly, by night and day. At the battle of 
Cedar Mountain it performed invaluable service, 
charging, fighting its way back through the 
enemy's infantry, charging again, saving a bat- 

tery from captui'e by the enemy and incurring 
heavy loss. 

When Pope retreated towards Washington, 
the First Pennsylvania, with the First New 
Jersey Cavalry, under Colonel Sir Percy 
Wyndham, did more than any other two regi- 
ments to protect the rear of the beaten Army of 
Virginia, routing the enemy, who came on 
exultantly at the crossing of the Rappahannock, 
confident of cutting off the retreat of the Union 
forces. A day later, in conjunction with a 
division of infantry, it held Thoroughfare Gap 
turnpike for six hours against the assaults of a 
heavy force of the enemy under General Long- 
street. Finally, the regiment fought a good 
fight at the second battle of Bull Run, August 
29th and 30th ; and then, when the campaign 
was closed, it moved, with only two hundred 
men (of whom fully half were dismounted), to a 
camp at Munson's Hill, in front of Washington, 
and then spread out its feeble force of videttes 
across the highways and by-ways of the vicinity, 
guarding against the approach of Confederate 
foes towards the national capital. In Septem- 
ber, Lieutenant-Colonel Barrows resigned, and 
was succeeded by Captain John P. Taylor, of 
Mifflin County, commanding officer of Company 
C. In front of Washington the regiment 
remained on such duty for nearl}^ six weeks, 
and was then again moved southward, to guard 
the front and flanks of the Army of the Poto- 
mac, which was moving from Antietam, by way 
of Berlin and Warrenton, to the Rappahannock 
at Falmouth, from which j)oiiit, in the evening 
of the 12tl) of December, a part of the regiment 
^vas thrown across to the south side of the river, 
to picket the sjjace between the enemy's position 
and the pontoon bridges which were then 
thrown across for the passage of the troops of 
Franklin's corps in the then contemplated ad- 
vance. In the great battle of Fredericksburg, 
which was fought on the 13th, the regiment did 
some skirmishing, and was for a time under a 
heavy fire of artillery, but was not called on to 
take part in the general engagement. After the 
battle the First went into winter-quarters at 
Belle Plain. It took part in the great '' mud 
march" of January, 1863, and otherwise was 
employed during the winter in picketing. 



seoiitiug and minor raiding in the neigiilwrhood 
of the Ra|jpaiianno<rk. In tiie spring oamjiaign 
it was employed in picketing antl guarding the 
fords of the river, but took no part in the battle 
of Chancellorsville. On the 28th of May it 
moved to Warrenton Junction. June 10th it 
took part in the cavalry fight at Brandy Station 
under General Pleasanton, losing fourteen 
killed and wounded. Ou the 22d it was again 
engaged at Aldie. On the movement from that 
point to>vards Gettysburg it was the rear-guard 
of the cavalry column. In the great battle of 
Gettysburg it was not engaged, but acted as a 
guard to the headquarters of the commanding 
general. In the pursuit of the enemy after the 
battle the regiment was first engaged at Shep- 
herdstown on the 16th of July. In this action 
the companies fought dismounted, and con- 
tributed in a great degree to the enemy's re- 
\nilse. After the fight the regimental camp 
was made at Bolivar Heights, from which, on 
the 19th, the First marched eastward, and 
reached Warrenton on the 27th. Picketing 
skirmishing and continual marching succeeded 
until the 14tli of October, Mhen the regiment 
was fiercely engaged at Auburn, Va. in the 
Mine Run campaign it fought dismounted at 
New Hope Church, and captured twenty-eight 
prisoners. The winter-quarters were made at 
Stevensburg, and during the entire winter the 
regiment furnished one-fourth of its effective 
strength for constant duty on picket and iu the 

In the opening of the campaign of 186-4 the 
cavalry moved on the 21st of April. This 
regiment was engaged in scouting along the 
Rappahannock for ten or twelve days, and on 
the 3d of May crossed the Rappahannock, and 
ou the 4th the Rapidan at Ely's Ford. On the 
5th it was sharply engaged at Todd's Tavern, 
and drove the enemy. Again, on the 7th, it 
was engaged near the same place, diarging and 
taking a considerable number of prisoners. On 
the 9th it moved with the cavalry column of 
General Sheridan on his great raid to the de- 
fenses of Richmond, and before night was hotly 
engaged. It fought at Ashland, Hungary Sta- 
tion, Yellow Tavern and Meadow Bridge, near 
Richmond; then twice crossing the Chicka- 

hominy, reached James River at Haxall's, and 
after a stay of three days there, returned to the 
Army of the Potomac, arriving at Chesterfield 
on the 25th of May. In the advance of the 
army, the First fought with great determination 
and with severe loss in the engagement at 
Hawes' Shop, May 28th, and again at Barker's 
Mills. From this time the marches and move- 
ments of the I'egiment and its brigade were too 
continuous and complicated to be followed in 
detail. It fought in the engagement at Trevil- 
lian Station, in Sheridan's second raid, and 
again at St. Mary's Church, June 24th. Three 
days later it crossed the James River. On the 
12th of July it was engaged at Ream's Station, 
and on the 27th at Malvern Hill, where it was 
opposed by the enemy's infantry, and fought 
dismounted, losing eighteen killed and wounde<l. 
On the 30th it fought at Lee's Mills, and soon 
after at Gravel Hill. It then returned to the 
south side of the James, and, moving to the 
Weldou Railroad, fought at Ream's Station, 
which was the last action in which the Fir.~t 
Cavalry was engaged. On the 30th of August, 
the regiment being then in camp at Jerusalem 
Plank-Road, the order for its relief from duty 
was received, its time of service having expire.l. 
On the 1st of September the regiment (except- 
ing veterans and recruits) was withdrawn from 
the front, and proceeded to Philadelphia, where 
it was mustered out of service September 9, 

A list is given below of officere and enlisted 
men of Companies A and C of the First 
Cavalry, the first of which was recruiteil wholly 
in Juniata County, and the latter in Mifflin 
County, it having been organized as early as 
1858, at Reedville, as the "Mifflin County 
Dragoons," and it was the first organized 
cavalry company to offer its services to the 
Governor of Pennsylvania for the three months' 
term of enlistment. The offer being declined, 
it entered the Firet Cavalry, as stated, and, 
having served out the original term of three 
years, it veteranized and served to the close of 
the war. 

Company A, Juniata County. — The fol- 
lowing is the roster of Company A, Forty- 
fourth Res>-iment Pennsvlvania Volunteers : 



John K. Kobinson, captain, mustered in July 25, 

1861, three years ; resigned March 28, 1862. 
Thomas J. Frow, captain, mustered iu July 25, 1861, 
three years ; promoted from first lieutenant 
March 29, 1862 ; resigned March 16, 1863. 
William H. Patterson, captain, mustered in July 25, 
1861, three years ; promoted from second to first 
lieutenant March 28, 1862; to captain March 16, 
1863; mustered out with company September 
9, 1864. 
James R. Kelley, first lieutenant, mustered in July 
25, 1861, three years; promoted from first ser- 
geant to second lieutenant March 28, 1862; to 
first lieutenant March 16, 1863 ; wounded July 
17, 1863 ; prisoner from June 24, 1864, to March, 
1865 ; mustered out April 25, 1865. 
David H. Wilson, second lieutenant, mustered in 
July 25, 1861, three years; promoted from first 
sergeant to second lieutenant March 16, 1863 ; 
died June 6, 1864, of wounds received in action. 
John H. Fertig, first sergeant, mustered in July 25, 
1861, three years; promoted to first sergeant; 
l]risoner from June 21, 1864, to February 28, 
1865 ; mustered out April 5, 1865. 
Lemuel R. Beale, sergeant, mustered in July 25, 
1861, three years; mustered out with company 
September 9, 1864. 
William J. .lackman, sergeant, mustered in July 25, 
1861, three years; promoted to hospital steward 
February 25, 1863. 
John Hamilton, sergeant, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years ; promoted to sergeant-major May 1, 
John W. Forney, sergeant, mustered in July 25, 
1861, three years; promoted to regiment saddler 
September 1, 1863 ; veteran. 
Samuel F. Lane, sergeant, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years ; promoted from corporal ; transferred 
to United States Signal Corps March ], 1864. 
Newtim A. Lane, sergeant, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years ; promoted to sergeant ; discharged 
on surgeon's certificate March, 1864. 
William A. Patterson, sergeant, mustered in July 
25, 1861, three years ; promoted from corporal ; 
captured June 21, 1864 ; mustered out February 
1, 1865. 
William S. Miller, sergeant, mustered in July 25, 
1861, three years; promoted from corporal; 
wounded at White House, Va., June 21, 1864 ; 
mustered out November 16, 1864. 
S. L. Patterson, sergeant, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years ; promoted to sergeant; mustered out 
with company September 9, 1864. 
Samuel S. Wilson, sergeant, mustered in July 25, 
1861, three years; promoted to corporal; mus- 
tered out with company September 9, 1864. 
Jerome T. Funk, sergeant, mustered in July 25. 
1861, three years; promoted to corporal ; wounded 

June 24, 1864; mustered out with company 

September 9, 1864. 
John T. Sterrett, sergeant, mustered in July 25, 1861, 

three years ; promoted to sergeant ; mustered out 

with company September 9, 1864. 
Henry H. Wilson, sergeant, mustered in July 25, 

1861, three years ; not on muster-out roll. 
William H. Wagoner, corporal, mustered iu July 25, 

1861, three years; discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate September, 1862. 

David Holtzapple, corporal, mustered in January 2, 

1862, three years ; discharged February, 1863, 
for wounds received at Bull Run August 30, 1862. 

Amos G. Wolfgang, corporal, mustered in July 25, 
1861, three years; discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate February, 1863. 

William H. Smith, corporal, mustered in July 25, 
1861, three years ; killed at Hawes' Shop, Va., 
May 28, 1864. 

Jacob Q. Eby, corporal, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years; captured June 21, 1864; mustered 
out February 15, 1865. 

John E. Doty, corporal, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years ; wounded and missing in action June 
24, 1864. 

William Bortel, corporal, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out August 16, 1864, ex- 
piration of term. 

Silas S. Mairs, corporal, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years ; captured June 21, 1864; transferred 
to Company D battalion, September 9, 1864; 

J. M. Burchfield, corporal, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years; transferred to Company D battalion, 
September 9, 1864, ; mustered out by Special Or- 
der June 20, 1865, as sergeant Company A bat- 
talion ; veteran. 

Mathew Aber, corporal, mustered in February 4, 
1864, three years; transferred to battalion Sep- 
tember 9, 1864. 

David Snyder, corporal, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years; mustered out with company Septem- 
ber 9, 1864. 

Noah Campbell, bugler, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years ; transferred to Company D battalion 
September 9, 1864 ; veteran. 

A. J. Anderson, private, mustered in February 19, 
1864, three years ; transferred to Company D 
battalion September 9, 1864. 

John M. Brasee, private, mustered in July 25, 1861 
three years ; mustered out with company Septem- 
ber 9, 1864. 

Henry Bortel, private, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company Sep- 
tember 9, 1864. 

Elijah Barkey, private, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company Septem- 
ber 9, 1864. 



James A. Baird, private, mustpred in July 25, 18G1, 
three years; mustered out with company Septem- 
ber 9,"l8(U. 

William H. Beidler, private, mustered in July 25, 
18G1, three years ; mustered out with company 
September 9, 1864. 

William H. Brown, private, mustered in July 25, 
1861, three years ; mustered out with company 
September 9, 1864. 

I. Burkeyheyser, private, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company Septem- 
ber 9, 1864. 

William R. Bear, private, mustered in July 25, 18C1, 
three years; wounded at White House June 21, 
1864; mustered out ^August 13, 1864, expiration 
of term. 

Colin R. Bayne, private, mustered in April 11, 1861, 
three years ; transferred to Company D battalion 
September 9, 1864. 

John Best, private, mustered in January 19, 1864, 
tliree years; transferred to Company D battalion 
September 9, 1864. 

James A. Barnett, private, mustered in January 19, 
1864, three years; transferrred to Company D 
battalion September 9, 1864. 

Obediah M. Bassart, private, mustered in February 5, 
1864, three years ; transferred to Company D 
battalion September 9, 1864; discharged in 
Company A battalion by General Order Septem- 
ber 25, 1865. 

W^illiam H. Bitter, private, mustered in February 19, 
1864, three years; transferred to Company D 
battalion September 9, 1864. 

William A. Bair, private, mustered in February 19, 
1864, three years; wounded at White House 
June 21, 1864; transferred to Company D bat- 
talion September 9, 1864. 

Jacob Benson, private, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years ; died September 21, 1861 ; buried in 
Military Asylum Cemetery, District of Colum- 

Alexander R. Brant, private, mustered in July 25, 
1861, three years. 

Joseph Bond, private, mustered in February 15, 
1864, three years; captured; died February 26, 
1865; buried at Richmond, Va. 

David W. Collier, private, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company Sep- 
tember 9, 1864. 

John Clair, private, mustered in July 25, 1861, three 
years; discharged on surgeon's certificate March, 

Isaac Clair, private, mustered in July 25, 1861, three 
years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Feb- 
ruary, 1863. 

B. J. Carpenter, private, mustered in April 12, 
1864, three years; transferred to Company D 
battalion September 9, 1864 ; discliarged in (Com- 
pany A battalion June 7, 1865. 

Thomas M. Cleaver, private, mustered in Febru:iry 
19, 1864, three years ; died March 30. 1864. 

James F. Casey, private, mustered in October 19, 
1864, one year; not on muster-out roll. 

George S. De Bray, private, mustered in July 25, 
1861, three years ; discharged on surgeon's certifi- 
cate March 1, 1862. 

Tliomas W. Dewees, private, mustered in July 25, 
1861, three years ; discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate March 24, 1862. 

William Dunn, private, mustered in November 21, 
1861, three years ; transferred to Company D 
battalion September 9, 1864; mustered out as 
corporal Company A battalion by Special Order 
June 20, 1865 ; veteran. 

William 0. Donnell, private, mustered in October 19, 
1864, one year ; not on muster-out roll. 

AVestley H. Ernest, private, mustered in July 25, 
1861, three years; mustered out with company 
Septemher 9, 1864. 

John L. Ernest, private, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years. 

James P. Foltz, private, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three j-ears ; mustered out with company Sep- 
tember 9, 1864. 

James W. Fulton, private, mustered in July 25,1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company Sep- 
tember 9, 1864. 

Michael Foley, private, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company Sep- 
tember 9, 1864. 

John Fasick, private, mustered in November 10, 1861, 
three years; transferred to battalion September 
9, 1864. 

George W. Fink, private, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years ; wounded September 15, 1863, and 
July 28, 1864; mustered out September 17, 1864. 

William S. Fulton, private, three years ; woundecl 
July 10, 1863 ; not on muster-out roll. 

Samuel Gazette, private, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years ; transferred to Veteran Reserve 
Corps January 1, 1863. 

John R. Hershey, private, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company Sep- 
tember 9, 1864. 

Israel Haller, private, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years; wounded October 1, 186:5; mus- 
tered out with company September 9, 1864. 

.Jolin A. Hardy, private, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years; mustered out with company Sep- 
tember 9, 1864. 

Daniel J. Horton, private, mustered in July 25, ISiil, 
three years ; captured April 18, 1863 ; mustered 
out August 1, 1864, expiration of term. 

Henry F. Howard, private, mustered in February 19, 
1864. three years; died July 27, 1864, nf wounds 
received in action June 21, 1864; buried in Na- 
tional Cemetery, Arlington. 



Arthur Henderson, private, mustered in October 19, 
1864, one year ; not on muster-out roll. 

Michael Innerst, private, mustered in August 1, 1863, 
three years ; not on muster-out roll. 

Matthias Johns, private, mustered in July 25, 18C1, 
three years; transferred to Company D bat- 
talion September 9, 1864; veteran. 

John A. Jacobs, private, mustered in February 19, 
1864, three years ; transferred to battalion Sep- 
tember 9, 1864; discharged in Company A bat- 
talion by General Order August 1, 1865. 

A. L. Kinslow, private, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years; mustered out with company Sep- 
tember 9, 1864. 

John Kinslow, private, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company Sep- 
tember 9, 1864. 

Joseph R. Kinzer, private, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
November 22, 1862. 

Joseph B. Kennedy, private, mustered in July 25, 
1861, three years ; transferred to Company D 
battalion September 9, 1864 ; veteran. 

Martin H. Kendrich, private, mustered in February 1, 
1864, three years ; transferred to battalion Sep- 
tember 9, 1864. 

Isaac Longacre, private, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years; captured at Bull Run August 30, 
1 862 ; mustered out with company September 9, 

Thomas C. Logan, private, inustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years ; not on muster-out roll. 

Alfred M. Louden, private, mustered in July 25, 
1861, three years ; mustered out with company 
September 9, 1864. 

William J. Lang, private, mustered in February 10, 
1864, three years ; transferred to Company D 
battalion September 9, 1864. 

Samuel Linton, private, mustered in February 4, 
1864, three years ; transferred to Company D 
battalion September 9, 1864. 

Francis M. Ludwig, private, mustered in January 21, 
1864, three years; transferred to Company D 
biittalion Se])tember 9, 1864. 

Joseph Landers, private, mustered in November 18, 
1864, three years; not on muster-out roll. 

Calvin T. Logan, private, mustered in August, 1, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company Septem- 
ber 9,"l864. 

George W. Maloy, private, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years ; detailed as orderly to Major-General 
Meade ; mustered out with company September 
9, 1864. 

Joseph B. McDonald, private, mustered in July 25, 
1861, three years; mustered out with company 
September 9, 1864. 
Andrew W. McDonald, private, mustered in July 25, 
1861, three years; mustered out with company 
September 9, 1864. 

A. J. McWilliams, private, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company Sep- 
tember 9, 1864. 

John M. McCoy, private, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company Sep- 
tember 9, 1864. 

James B. Marley, private, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company Sep- 
tember 9, 1864. 

Alonzo W. Morley, private, mustered in July 25, 1861. 
three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
April 1, 1862. 

Samuel M. Mitchell, private, mustered in July 25, 
1861, three years; discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate May 12, 1862. 

George H. McCachron, private, mustered in July 25, 
1861, three years; discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate May 1, 1862. 

James McKee, private, mastered in July 25, 1861, 
three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
September 18, 1862. 

Henry O. McConnell, private, mustered in July 25, 
1861, three years; transferred to United States 
Signal Corps March 1, 1864. 

Samuel Marshman, private, mustered in November 
21, 1861, three years; transferred to battalion 
September 9, 1864. 

William Minnich, private, mustered in February 19, 
1864, three years ; transferred to Company D bat- 
talion September 9,1864; promoted to corporal 
Company A battalion, date unknown. 

J. W. B. McClintock, private, mustered in February 
27, 1864, three years; transferred to battalion 
September 9, 1864. 

John T. Mitchell, private, mustered in October 19, 
1864, one year; not on muster-out roll. 

Jacob B. Nicely, private, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company Septem- 
ber 9, 1864. 

Henry W. Nicely, private, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years ; transferred to battalion September 
9, 1864; veteran. 

John F. Neiman, private, mustered in November 21, 
1861, three years; killed at Culpeper, Va., Sep- 
tember 13, 1863. 

John 0. Nipple, private, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years; wounded June 24, 1864; mustered 
out August 1, 1864, expiration of term. 

Samuel B. O'Keson, private, mustered in July 25, 
1861, three years ; mustered out with company 
September 9, 1864. 
John Pasieh, private, mustered in November 21, 

1861, three years ; not on muster-out roll. 
Robert Parsons, private, mustered in August 12, 1864, 
one year; transferred to battalion September 9, 
Matthew H. Rodgers, private, mustered in July 25, 
1861, three years ; mustered out with company 
September 9, 1864. 

■^'^ ^iyAH nUaT^ 



Colonel Joiix P. Taylor, who is of Scotch- 
Irish lineage, is tlie great-grandson of Robert 
Taylor, who removed from Pine Ford, Swatara 
Creek, Dauphin County, Pa., to the present 
Mifflin County, where he secured by warrant 
a tract embracing several thousand acres, much 
of which is still held by the family. His five 
sons were Henry, William, Robert, John and 
Matthew. Henry settled near Taylor's Mills, 
in the Kishacoquillas Valley, William on a 
large tract adjoining hira on the east, Robert in 
the Tuscarora Valley, John on property now 
owned by Colonel Taylor, and Matthew on land 
adjoining him on the north, a part of which is 
in possession of the subject of this biographical 
sketch. Robert finally sold his estate, and re- 
moved to Erie County, Pa., John emigrated to 
Augusta, Va., while Henry and Matthew died 
in their old homes. The last-named, and 
grandfather of Colonel Taylor, married Mrs. 
Sarah Sample, whose children were Robert, 
John, Henry, a soldier of the Revolution, and 
Sample. The birth of John Taylor occurred 
on the 6th of March, 1775, on the homestead, 
his life having been spent on a portion of the 
original tract as a farmer. He married Eliza- 
beth i\IcManigle, a descendant of Xeal Mc- 
Manigle, who emigrated from Donegal, Ireland, 
and settled in the Kishacoquillas Valley. The 
children of Mr. and Mrs. Taylor are Sarah S. 
(Mrs. James Watt), Rebecca M. (Mrs. David 
Brisban), Matthew (married to Jane A. Taylor), 
Margaret T. (who died in infiincv), Margaret 
I. (Mrs. Oliver P. Smith), John P. and Eliza- 
beth T. (Mrs. Samuel McWilliams). Mr. Taylor, 
in addition to his farm, carried on an extensive 
tannery in his native county. His death occur- 
red October 22, 1843, and that of his wife 
October 30, 1869. Their son, John P., was 
born on the 6th of June, 1827, on the property 
still owned by him, which has during his life- 
time been his home. Afler receiving an aca- 
demic education at the Tuscarora Academy, 
Tuscarora, Pa., he returned to the cultivation 
of the paternal acres, and also engaged in stock- 

dealing. To the congenial pursuits of an agri- 
culturist his attention and time have since been 
given, with the exception of his period of ser- 
vice in the army. He was, on May 19, 1863, 
married to Sallie, daughter of Rev. James 
Nourse, of Milroy, Pa., whose death occurred 
in 1870, when he was a second time married, 
on the 1st of June, 1876, to Elizabeth Henry, 
daughter of Judge John Henry, of Mifflin 
County, whose death, resulting from an acci- 
dent, occurred January 17, 1883. Colonel Taylor 
entered the service during the late war as first 
lieutenant of Company C, First Pennsylvania 
Cavalry, of which company, on its arrival in 
Harrisburg, previous to starting for active duty, 
he was elected captain. He remained in the 
service three years, having, in September, 1862, 
received promotion unsought to the rank of 
lieutenant-colonel, and to that of colonel 
January 30, 1863. On the 5th of August, 1864, 
he held the brevet rank of brigadier-general, 
having previously been in command of his 
brigade. He participated, besides innumerable 
skirmishes, in the following engagements : 

Dranesville, Va. 


Cross Keys. 

Cedar Mountain. 


Bull Run (first day). 

Bull Run (second day). 


Brandy Station. 



Shepherds-town, Va. 



New Hope Church. 

Todd's Tavern. 


Richmond Heights. 

Hawes' Shop. 

Cold Harbor. 

Barker's IMill. 



Trevillian Station. 
White House. 
St. Mary's Church. 
Malvern Hill. 
Lee's Mills. 
Gravel Hill. 
Ream's Station. 

The following letter was received by Colonel 
Taylor from the commander of his division, on 
the departure of the regiment for home : 

" Headquarters Second Division Cavalry 
Corps, A. O. P. 

" Sept. 1st, 1864. 
" Col. J. P. Taylor, First Penna. Reserve Cavalry: 
" My dear Colonel, — 

"The order discharging from the United States 
Service the First Pennsylvania Cavalry has been re- 
ceived at these Headquarters. As 3'ou will accom- 
pany your regiment to Pennsylvania, there to be dis- 
charged with it, I cannot permit your departure with- 
out expressing to you how much I feel the separation 
of yourself and command from the Second Division. 
For nearly two years the First Pennsylvania Cavalry 
has been under my command, and now, at the end of 
its term of service, I can proudly say its record is 
without a blemish. The excellence of your regiment 
resulted from the proper application of discipline by 
its officers. In the many engagements of this di- 
vision, in which your regiment has participated, 
many officers and enlisted men have fallen. They 
met death facing the foe ; let them be properly re- 
membered by those who survive. To you, colonel, 
my thanks are due for the efficient manner in which 
you have always performed your duty, whether as a 
regimental or brigade commander. You return to 
your home well satisfied that you have failed not in 
your duty, bearing with you the sincere friendship of 
myself and all your companions in arms. With the 
very best wishes for your health, happiness and suc- 
cess in the future, 

" I am very truly yours, 

" D. McM. Gregg, 
"Brig.-Gen. Comd'g Second Cav. Div." 

On his discharge from the service, Colonel 
Taylor returned to his home in Brown town- 
ship, and to his accustomed pui-suits. He has 
always been active in affairs connected with the 

township, and wielded much influence in politi- 
cal circles as a Republican, though invariably 
declining all official honors. He is a member 
of Lewistown Post, No. 176, of the Grand Army 
of the Republic, and of the Loyal Legion, 
Department of Pennsylvania. He is a supporter 
and regular worshipper of the East Kishaco- 
quillas Presbyterian Church, of which his pa- 
rents were members, and his grandfather a 
leading elder.' 

Major William T. McEwen, of the First 
Cavalry, was an efficient officer in the late War 
of the Rebellion. He participated in many of 
the actions in which his regiment took part, and 
was wounded in one of the engagements. He 
entered the service as second lieutenant, being 
mustered in August 10, 1861, for three years. 
He was afterwards promoted to first lieutenant 
February 26, 1862, to captain October 1, 1862, 
and to major February 23, 186-3. 

Lieutenant Hiram McClenahen won 
his rank in the First Cavalry, having been a 
corporal in January, 1862, and filled subse- 
quently the position of first sergeant. He was 
promoted to first lieutenant February 13, 1863, 
and was mustered out with the company Sep- 
tember 9, 1864. He was wounded near Shep- 
herdstown July 17, 1863. 

Captain Robert J. McNitt enlisted in 
the State service April 11, 1861, and in that of 
the United States August 10th of the same 
year. On June 21, 1864, he was captured, 
with others of the First Calvary, at White 
House, Va. He was confined first at Libby 
and afterwards at Macon, Gra., Savannah, Char- 
leston, S. C, Columbia and finally at Raleigh, 
from which place he was taken to Wilmington, 
N. C, and exchanged April 12, 1865. He 
was in Washington when President Lincoln was 
assassinated. He served four years in all, and 
was known as a brave officer. He lives at the 
east end of the Big Valley, in Mifflin County. 

1 Colonel Taylor declines to give any further facts regard- 
ing the military record than those embodied in the fore- 
going letter. 



Jimathan Kheincr, private, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company Sep- 
tember 9, 1864. 

Levi Richer, private, mustered in July 25, 1861, three 
years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate January 
8, 1862. 

William M. Robinson, private, mustered in July 25, 

1861, three years; wounded at Cedar Mountain, 
Va., August 9, 1862; discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate February, 1863. 

Mattock Reimer, private, mustered in August 8, 1862, 
three years; transferred to Company D battalion 
September 9, 1864 ; mustered out in Company A 
battalion by General Order June 6, 1865. 

Joseph M. Reed, private, mustered in April 14, 1864, 
three years; transferred to Company D battalion 
September 9, 1864. 

James Rawbottom, private, mustered in April 14^ 
1864, three years ; not on muster-out roll. 

James S. Reed, private, mustered in February 19, 
1864, three years ; transferred to Company D bat- 
talion September 9, 1864 ; promoted to corporal 
Company A battalion. 

Josepli Rowbottora, private, mustered in April 14, 
1864, three years; transferred to Company D 
battalion September 9, 1864. 

Christ. R. Richard, private, three years. 

Joseph Robertson, private, three years; wounded 
June 24, 1864 ; not on muster-out roll. 

David L. Smith, private, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company Sep- 
tember 9, 1864. 

Calvin E. Stewart, private, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
May, 1862. 

Joseph G. Simpson, private, mustered in May 2, 1862, 
throe years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
March, 1863. 

William Sperry, private, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years; transferred to battalion September 
9, 1864; veteran. 

James K. P. Sleislier, private, mustered in April 11, 

1862, three years ; transferred to Company D bat- 
talion September 9, 1864. 

Elias H. Seebold, private, mustered in February 10, 
1864, three years ; transferred to battalion Sep- 
tember 9, 1864. 

William Smith, private, three years ; sent to insane 
asylum, date unknown. 

Jackson Sheppard, private, mustered in August 5, 
1864, one year ; not on muster-out roll. 

John A. Toomey, private, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
January 8, 1862. 

John Trump, private, mustered in May 5, 1864, three 

years ; transferred to Company D battalion Sep- 
tember 9, 1864. 

George W. Tannyhill, private, mustered in July 25, 
1861, three years. 

William Taggert, private, mustered in November 2, 
1864, one year; not on muster-out roll. 

James Van, private, mustered in March 22, 1864, three 
years ; not on muster-out roll. 

Abrm. Wildman, private, mustered in July 25, 
1861, three years; wounded June 2, 1864; trans- 
ferred to Company D battalion September 9, 
1864; veteran. 

George F. Walton, jirivate, mustered in February 19, 
1864, three years; transferred to Company D bat- 
talion September 9, 1864. 

A. J. Williamson, private, mustered in February 19, 
1864, three years ; transferred to battalion Sep- 
tember 9, 1864. 

Cornelius Weitzler, private, mustered in April 12, 
1864, tliree years ; transferred to Company D bat- 
talion September 9, 1864. 

Newell D. Whitney, private, mustered in March 26, 
1864, three years ; not on muster-out roll. 

Joseph Yocum, private, mustered in July 25, 1861, 
three years; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
April i, 1862. 

CoMPANT C, INIiFFLix CouNTY. — Tlie fol- 
lowing is the roster of Company C, Fortv- 
foiirtli Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers : 

John P. Taylor,' captain, mustered in August 10, 1861, 
three years; promoted to lieulenant-colonel Sep- 
tember 15, 1862. 

William T. McEwen, captain, mustered in August 10, 
1861, three years: wounded in action ; promoted 
from second to first lieutenant February 26, 
1862; to cantain October 1, 1862; to major Feb- 
ruary 23, 1863. 

Robert J. McNitt,- captain, mustered in August 10, 
1861, three years; promoted from sergeant to 
fir?t sergeant ; to second lieutenant February 26, 
1862 ; to first lieutenant October 7, 1862 ; to cap- 
tain February 18, 1863. 

William Mann, first lieutenant, mustered in August 
10, 1861, three years; resigned February 26, 1862. 

Hiram McClcnahen, first lieutenant, mustered in 
May 15, 1861, three years; transferred fiom 
Forty-second Regiment Pennsylvania Yolmi- 
teers November 1, 1861 ; promoted to corporal 
January 1, 1862 ; to first sergeant March 1, 1862 ; to 
first lieutenant February 13, 1863 ; wounded July 

' For special sketch of Captain John P. Taylor see page 

198 a. 

- For further mention of Captain Robert J. McNitt see 



17, 1863 ; mustered out with compauy Septem- 
ber 9, 1864. 

John W. Nelson, second lieutenant, mustered in 
August 10, 1861, three years; promoted from 
sergeant October 8, 1862 ; transferred to battalion 
First Pennsylvania C.ivalry September 1,1864; 
mustered out September 26, 1864. 

Thomas A. Kearns, first sergeant, mustered in August 
7, 1861, three years ; promoted to corporal Jan- 
uary 1, 1862; to sergeant October 1, 1862; to first 
sergeant March 1, 1863 ; mustered out with com- 
pany September 9, 1864. 

George W. Seigrist, quartermaster-sergeant, mus- 
tered in August 10, 1861, three years; promoted 
to sergeant-major September 1, 1861. 

Jacob Ruble, quartermaster-sergeant, mustered in 
August 10, 1861, three years; promoted to cor- 
poral July 1, 1862; to quartermaster-sergeant 
July 1, 1863 ; mustered out with company Sep- 
tember 9, 1864. 

Wilson S. Dellett, commissary-sergeant, mustered in 
August 10, 1861, three years; promoted from cor- 
poral to sergeant September 1, 1832; to com- 
missary-sergeant July 1 , 1861 ; captured at 
Brandy Station, Va., June 9, 1863 ; mustered out 
with company September 9, 1864. 

Albert Laird, sergeant, mustered in August 10, 1861, 
three years; died September 23, 1862, of wounds 
received at Cedar Mountain, Va. ; buried in 
Military Asylum Cemetery, D. C. 

William J. Furst, .«ergeant, mustered in August 10, 
1861, three years ; discharged on surgeon's certifi- 
cate September 30, 1862. 

Chr. Romich, sergeant, mustered in August 10, 1861, 
three ye.xr j ; promotei from corporal ; killed at 
Brandy Station, Va., June 9, 1863. 

J. Harvey Carson, sergeant, mustered in August 10, 
1861, three years ; promoted from corporal July 
1, 1862; mustered out with company September 

9, 1864. 

Hamilton R. Mitchell, sergeant, mustered in August 

10, 1861, three years; promoted to corporal 
April 1, 1862 ; to sergeant October 7, 1862 ; absent, 
sick, at muster out. 

W. P. Dachenbaugh, sergeant, mustered in August 
10, 1861, three years; promoted to corporal June 
1, 1862; to sergeant March 1, 1863; mustered 
out with company September 9, 1864. 

Michael Menges, sergeant, mustered in August 7, 
1861, three years; promoted to sergeant; 
wounded May 28, 1864; transferred to Cumpany 
D battalion. First Pennsylvania Calvary ; vet- 

George Way, sergeant, mustered in September 1, 1861, 
three years ; promoted to sergeant ; wounded 
July 28, 1864 ; transferred to Company D battal- 
ion September 9, 1864; promoted to sergeant 
Company A battalion; mustered out August 7, 
1865 ; veteran. 

James P. Landis, sergeant, mustered in August 10, 
1861, three years; promoted to sergeant; chief 
bugler May 1, 1863 ; veteran. 

Albert Strong, corporal, mustered in August 10, 1861, 
three years ; died at Camp Pierpont, Va., Decem- 
ber 16, 1861. 

Edwin Lock, corporal, mustered in August 10, 1861, 
three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
January 4, 1862. 

A. N. McDonald, corporal, mustered in August 10, 
1861, three years; died August 14, 1862. of 
wounds received at Cedar Mountain, Va., Au- 
gust 9, 1862. 

Michael BottoflT, corporal, mustered in August 10, 
1861, three years ; discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate December 10, 1862. 

W. V. B. Coplin, corporal, mustered in September 2, 
1861, three years ; discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate January 19, 1863. 

Edwin Lochey, corporal, three years; discharged on 
surgeon's certificate July 4, 1863. 

N. Walker Scott, corporal, mustered in August 10, 
1861, three years; died July 2, 1863, in Libby 
Prison, Richmond, Va., of wounds received at 
Brandy Station June 9, 1863. 

J. A. Davidsizer, corporal, mustered in August 7, 1861, 
three years ; wounded May 9, 1864 ; transferred 
to Company D battalion September 9,1864; mus- 
tered out as sergeant Company A battalion by 
Special Order June 20, 1865; veteran. 

John Hoft'man, corporal, mustered in August 10, 
1861, three years; wounded July 28, 1864; trans- 
ferred to battalion September 9, 1864 ; veteran. 

George AV. White, corporal, mustered in August 10 
1861, three years; wounded May 9, 1864; pris- 
oner June 21,1864; transferred to Company D 
battalion September 9, 1864 ; veteran. 

John M. Mahan, corporal, mustered in August 10, 
1861, three years; wounded June 21, 1864; trans- 
ferred to Company D battalion September 9, 
1864 ; mustered out in Company A by Special 
Order June 20, 1865 ; veteran. 

Charles A. Rice, corporal, mustered in August 10, 
1861, three years; promoted to corporal May 1, 
1863 ; mustered out with company September 9i 

William Ready, corporal, mustered in August 10, 1861, 
three years; promoted to corporal June 1, 1863; 
wounded July 28, 1864 ; mustered out with com- 
pany September 9, 1864. 

William Baird, corporal, mustered in August 10, 1861, 
three years; promoted to corporal November 1> 
1863 ; mustered out with company September 9, 
Anthony Assadalia, corporal, mustered in August 7, 
1861, three years; promoted to corpora! January 
1, 1864; wounded at Fredericksburg December 
12, 1862, and May 28, 1864 ; absent, in hospital, 
at muster out. 



Joseph Akley, private, mustered in August 10, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company Septem- 
ber 9,1864. 

Jesse J. Alexander, private, mustered in August 10, 
1861, three years ; discharged January 8, 1863, 
for wounds received in action. 

Robert W. Betts, private, mustered in August 10, 
1861, three years; mustered out witli company 
September 9, 1864. 

Martin Bottoff, private, mustered in August 10, 1861, 
three year<; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
September 9, 1862. 

Jacob Bottnff, private, mustered in August 10, 18G1, 
three years; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
March 19, 1863. 

Robert M. Brillhant, private, mustered in August 10, 
1861, three years; mustered out with company 
September 9, 1864. 

William Bradford, private, mustered in August 10, 
1861, three years; discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate, date unknown. 

David A. Baker, private, mustered in August 10, 1&61, 
three years ; died May 16, 1862, of wounds re- 
ceived accidentally. 

William Barefoot, private, mu.stered in August 10, 
1861, three ye.irs ; discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate October, 1862. 

William B. Cutler, private, mustered in August 10, 
1861, three yewrs ; mustered out with company 
September 9, 1864. 

James H. Crissman, private, mustered in August 10, 
1861. three years ; mustered out with company 
September 9, 1864. 

John Cherry, private, mustered in August 10, 1861, 
three years ; transferred to Company D battalion 
September 9, 1864; veteran. 

William Clare, private, mustered in .June 15, 1863, 
three years ; wounded June 21, 1864; transferred 
to Company D battalion September 9, 1864. 

John Chamberhiin, private, mustered in February 9, 
1864, three years ; transferred to battalion Sep- 
tember 9, 1864. 

John A. Crissman, private, mustered in February 4, 
1864, three years ; transferred to Company D 
battalion September 9, 1864. 

James Castner, private, mustered in February 4, l*^64, 
three years; wounded, date unknown; trans- 
ferred to Company D battalion September 9. 

J. H. Chirpman, private, three years ; not on muster- 
out roll. 

Jacob F. Derr, private, mustered in February 17, 
1864, three years; transferred to battalion Sep- 
tember 9, 1864. 

Jeremiah Decker, private, mustered in February 24, 
1864, three years ; transferred to battalion Sep- 
tember 9, 1864. 

John H. Deal, private, mustered in August 10, 1861, 

three years ; killed at Culpeper Court-House, 
Va., September 13, 1863. 

John Dippery, private, mustered in August 10, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company Sep- 
tember 9, 1864. 

Joseph M. Deveny, private, three years ; discharged 
on surgeon's certificate, date unknown. 

John H. Ebbs, private, mustered in August 10, 1861, 
three years. 

George W. Graham, private, mustered in .\ugust 10, 
1861, three years ; wounded June 21, 1864 ; mus- 
tered out with company September 9, 1864. 

George W. Gilford, private, mustered in July 21, 1863, 
three years ; transferred to Company D bat- 
talion September 9, 1864. 

Joseph K. Gates, private, mustered in August 10, 
1861, three years; transferred to Company D bat- 
talion September 9, 1864; mustered out as cor- 
poral Company A battalion by Special Order 
June 20, 1865 ; veteran.- 

H. W. Huft'nagle, private, mustered in August 10, 
1861, three years; mustered out with company 
September 9, 1864. 

J. O. Hildebrand, private, mustered in February 24, 
1864, three years; transferred to b.attalion Sep- 
tember 9, 1864: mustered out in Company D bat- 
talion June 15, 1865. 

S. M. Jennings, private, mustered in August 7, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company Septem- 
ber 9, 1864. 

William Kerliu, private, mustered in August 16, 1861, 
three years; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
January 4, 1862. 

Jonathan Kring, priv.ate, mustered in August 7, 18C1, 
three years ; died September 6, 1862, of wounds 
received in action; buried in Alexandria, Va., 
grave 222. 

J. A. Kearns, private, mustered in August 10, 1861, 
three years ; not on muster-out roll. 

G. W. Kline, private, wounded June 21, 1864 ; not on 
muster-out roll. 

L. A. Lynch, private, mustered in September 1, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company Septem- 
ber 9, 1864. 

Jos. H. Livingston, private, mustered in August 10, 
1861, three years; mustered out with company 
September 9, 1864. 

Isaac Lintherst, private, mustered in February 24, 
1864, three years; transferred to battalion Sep- 
tember 9, 1864. 

William Link, private, mustered in August 10. 1861, 
three years; died August 22, 1862; buried at 
Alexandria, grave 165. 

George W. Latchford, private, mustered in August 
10, 1861, three years; transferred to Company D 
battalion September 9, 1864 ; mustered out as 
corporal Company A battalion by Special Order 
June 20, 1865 ; veteran. 



G.W.Miller, private, wounded June 21, 1864; not 

on muster-out roll. 
John McCann, private, mui5tered in August 10, 1861, 

three years ; not on muster-out roll. 
John S. Murray, private, mustered in August 10, 
1861, three years ; mustered out with company 
September 9, 1864. 
James McBride, private, mustered in August 7, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company Septem- 
ber 9, 1864, 
J. H. McClenahan, private, mustered in August 10, 
1861, three years; discharged on surgeon's certifi- 
cate August 16, 1861. 
O. H. McCalister, private, mustered in August 10, 
1S61, three years ; dischargedon surgeon's certif- 
icate January 31, 1863. 
Andrew J. Murray, private, mustered in August 10: 
1861, three years; transferred to Company D 
battalion September 9, 1864; veteran. 
John T. Murray, private, transferred to Veteran Re- 
serve Corps August 18, 1863. 
James L. McDonald, private, mustered in August 10, 
1861, three years ; discharged on surgeon's certi- 
ficate June, 1862. 
Percival Neitz, private, mustered in August 10, 1861, 
three years ; prisoner at Brandy Station, Va., 
June 9, 1863 ; missing in action May 9, 1864. 
Henry H. Nale, private, mustered in August 10, 1861, 
three years ; transferred to Company D battalion 
September 9, 1864; promoted to corporal Com- 
pany A; veteran. 
Felix Nolan, private, mustered in August 16, 1861, 

three years. 
Asa Odelia, private, mustered in August 10, 1861, 

three years ; not on muster-out roll. 
Benjamin Pollard, private, mustered in September 1, 
1861, three years; discharged on surgeon's certi- 
ficate September 15, 1861. 
James Postlewaight, private, mustered in August 10, 
1861, three years ; discharged on surgeon's certif- 
icate, date uuknown. 
Charles F. Eowe, private, mustered in August 10, 
1861, three years ; mustered out with company 
September 9, 1864. 
Samuel Ross, private, mustered in August 10, 1861, 
three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
January 15, 1863. 
James Robison, private, mustered in August 10, 1861, 
three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
January 4, 1862. 
James Eager, private, mustered in December 28, 1861, 
three years ; transferred to Company D battalion 
September 9, 1864. 
Alfred Robison, private, mustered in February 19, 
1864, three years ; transferred to battalion Septem- 
ber 9, 1864. 
Paris G. Rollin, private, mustered in August 7, 1861, 
three years. 

John Ruble, private, mustered in August 10, 1861, 
three years ; wounded July 28, 1864 ; transferred to 
battalion ; mustered out as corporal Company D 
June 20, 1865 ; veteran. 
Albert Ramsey, private, mustered in February 4, 
1864, three years ; died at Philadelphia February 
17, 1864. 
Palmer Stewart, private, mustered in August 10, 
1861, three years; mustered out with company 
September 9, 1864. 
David C. Scott, private, mustered in August 10, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company Sep- 
tember 9, 1864. 
Christian Seachrist, private, mustered in August 10, 
1861, three years ; mustered out with company 
September 9, 1864. 
Benjamin F. Stokes, private, mustered in August 10, 
1861, three years ; discharged on surgeon's certif- 
icate Novembers, 1861. 
Henry Swarm, private, mustered in August 10, 1861, 
three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
May 9, 1862. 
Samuel Slocum, private, mustered in August 10, 
1861, three years; wounded June 21, 1864; 
transferred to Company D battalion September 9, 
1864 ; veteran. 
William Stillinger, private, mustered in November 25, 
1863, three years ; transferred to Company D 
battalion September 9, 1864. 
John F. Sutton, private, mustered in April 25, 1862, 
three years ; transferred to Company D battalion 
September 9, 1864. 
James H. Stull, private, mustered in August 7, 1861, 
three years; died at Camp Pierpont, Va., Feb- 
ruary 7, 1862. 
William Snyder, private, mustered in August 10, 
1861, three years; killed at Cedar Mountain, Va., 
August 9, 1862. 
Amos Shank, private, mustered in August 10, 1861, 
three years ; died October 24, 1863, of wounds re- 
ceived at Auburn, Va., October 14, 1863; buried 
at Alexandria, grave 1024. 
A. B. Selheimer, private, mustered in August 10, 
1861, three years; discharged on surgeon's certif- 
icate June, 1862. 
Marshall J. Stall, private; died at Camp Pierpont, 

Va., February 17, 1862. 
Edmund F. Teats, private, mustered in August 16, 
1861, three years ; discharged on surgeon's certif- 
icate September 23, 1861. 
Patrick M. Tarl, private, mustered in March 31, 1864, 

three years ; not on muster-out roll. 
John M. Wible, private, mustered in August 10, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company Septem- 
ber 9, 1864. 
David Whiles, private, mustered in August 10, 1861, 
three years ; mustered out with company Septem- 
ber 9, 1864. 



Thomas Wliitmore, private, mustered in November 
4, 1863, three years; transferred to battalion Sep- 
tember 9, 1864. 

Albert P. Wagoner, private, mustered in August 10, 
1861, three years; mustered out with company 
September 9, 1864. 

George W. Wilson, private, mustered in August 10, 
1861, three years ; not on muster-out roll. 

John H. Yeager, private, mustered in August 10, 
1861, three years ; died at Alexandria, Va., June 
26, 1863. 

William Yontz, private, mustered in August 10, 1861, 
three years; captured July 14, 1864; mustered 
out February 1.5, 1865. 


The Forty-fifth Regiment, of which Colonel 
Thomas Welch, of Lancaster County, was the 
first commanding officer, contained a consider- 
able number of men from Juniata and Union 
Counties and one company of men recruited at 
Belleville, Mifflin "County, called the Belleville 
Fencibles, and commanded by Captain William 
G. Bigelow. The regiment was organized on 
the 21st of October, 1861, and on the 23d it 
went to Washington. It was assigned to How- 
ard's brigade of Casey's division. 

It was engaged in unimportant duty till No- 
vember 19tli, wlien it embarked at Baltimore 
for Fortress Monroe, whence, on the 6th of De- 
cember, it sailed for Port Royal, S. C, where it 
iiccupied the sea islands, among which it was 
distributed in detachments. Here it remained, 
occasionally engaging in skirmishes and minor 
actions, till the 9th of June, 1862, when it em- 
barked on a steamer and landed on James 
Island, eight miles from the city of Charleston, 
where it encountered and engaged a force of the 
enemy. On the 16th it was again inaction, 
but without loss. It was engaged in f>icket and 
fatigue duty till the 18th of July, when it em- 
barked for Fortress Monroe. It remained in 
that vicinity, engaged in drill, till the 4th of 
August, when it was assigned to the First 
Brigade, First Division, Ninth Army Corps, 
and went to Acquia Creek, in the vicinity of 
which it remained till the Gth of September, 
when it moved by water to Washington. Thence 
it marched to Brookville, Frederick City and 
Middletown, Md., where it arrived on the 13th, 
anil on the 14th was hotly engaged in the battle 

of South Mountain, where it suflFered a loss of 
one hundred and forty-five men killed, wounded 
and missing. On the 17th it was actively en- 
gaged at the battle of Antietam, where its loss 
was thirty killed and wounded. 

From the battle-field of Antietam it marcheil 
successively to Frederick City, Point of Rocks, 
Berlin, Snicker's and Ashby's Gaps, Rector- 
town, Orleans, Waterloo, "NVarrenton and Fal- 
mouth, and on the 19th of November it 
encamped on the north bank of the Rappahan- 
nock, opposite Fredericksburg. In the battle 
at that place it was not engaged, but remained 
in its camp till the 11th of February, 1863, 
when it removed to Newport News, and en- 
camped on the banks of James River, where 
it remained during three months. In this time 
Colonel AVelsh Avas promoted to the rank of 

On the 22d of iNIay the regiment was ordered 
to the Mississippi, and arrived in the vicinity of 
Yicksburg on the 19th of June. After the 
capture of Vicksburg the regiment, with its 
brigade, made a painful and severe march to 
Jackson, Miss., where it arrived on the Kith of 
July, and bore an active and important part in 
the engagements that took place there. After 
these actions it returned to Vicksburg, whence 
it went by water to Cairo, then to Cincinnati, 
from which place it marched to Blue Springs, 
Tenn., where, on the 10th of October, it was 
sharply engaged with the enemy. It then 
moved with its brigade by R\il to Knoxville. 
Here, on the 16th of November, owiirred an 
engagement with the rebel General Longstreet, 
in which the Forty-fifth bore a part, iiud during 
the siege which followetl it was engage<l, with 
other troops, in the defense of the place. 

January 1, 1864, four hundred and forty-six 
of the Forty-fifth re-enlisted and received a 
veteran furlough. On the 19th of March the 
veteran regiment went to Annapolis, Md., 
whence it proceeded into Virginia, and in May, 
1864, engaged in the Wilderness campitign, and 
in the action on the Gth it lost one hundrwl and 
forty-five killed and wounded. From this 
time it was almost constantly engaged or under 
fire, and in the battles of Cold Harbor, on the 
1st, 2d and .3d of June, the aggregate loss 



was one hundred and sixty-three, killed and 
wounded out of three hundred engaged. Dur- 
ing the remaining operations of that year, in- 
cluding the Petersburg mine, the Forty-fifth 
was cou.'tuitly on duty, and on the 1st of Octo- 
ber it numbered only ninety-two men present 
for duty. During the winter of 1 864-65 its 
ranks were filled up, and it bore its part in the 
final campaign. It participated in the grand 
review, and on the 1 7th of July, 1865, it was 
mustered out of the service. 

Company C, Mifflin County. — Following 
is given a roll of the Mifflin County comjjany 
(C) of the Forty-fifth : 

William G. Biglow, captain, mustered in August 31, 
1861, three years ; resigned November 1, 1862. 

John F. Trout, captain, mustered in September 2, 
1861, three years ; promoted from second lieu- 
tenant Company H to captaiu January 15, 1863; 
to major March 31, 1865. 

Benjamin C. McMauigal, captain, mustered in Octo- 
ber 18, 1861, three years ; promoted to first ser- 
geant June 1, 1864 ; to first lieutenant September 
2, 1864; to captain May 12, 1865 ; prisoner from 
September 30, 1864, to March 3, 1865; mustered 
out with company July 17, 1865; veteran. 

Jesse W. Horton, first lieutenant, mustered in August 
31, 1861, three years; resigned July 30, 1862. 

Jesse M. Bulick, first lieutenant, mustered in August 
31, 1861, three years ; promoted from second to 
first lieutenant August 1, 1862; discharged on 
surgeon's certificate January 15, 1863. 

Samuel B. Little, first lieutenant, mustered in Sep- 
tember 25, 1861, three years; promoted to ser- 
geant September 28, 1861 ; to first lieutenant 
April 20, 1863 ; resigned April 20, 1864. 

Jas. P. Gibbony, first lieutenant, mustered in Octo- 
ber 18, 1861, three years; promoted to sergeant 
January 1, 1864; to first lieutenant May 31. 
1864; killed on picket at Petersburg July 18, 
1864; veteran. 

A. A. McDonald, first lieutenant, mustered in August 
31, 1861, tliree years; wounded at Petersburg 
July 30, 1864; promoted to sergeant January 1, 
1865 ; to second lieutenant February 1, 1865 ; 
brevetted first lieutenant April 2, 1865 ; to first 
lieutenant May 12, 1865; mustered out with 
company July 17, 1865 ; veteran. 

Isaac Steely, second lieutenant, mustered in August 
31, 1861, three years; discharged June 7, 1863. 

John A. Osborn, second lieutenant, mustered in Sep- 
tember 26, 1831, three years ; promoted to ser- 
geant September 28, 1831 ; to second lieutenant 
July 7, 1863; resigned July 26, 1864. 

Michael Hiney, second lieutenant, mustered in Sep- 

tember 6, 1861, three years ; wounded July 30, 
1864 ; promoted from sergeant to second lieu- 
tenant May 12,1865; mustered out with com- 
pany July 17, 1865 ; veteran. 

George McMichaels, first sergeant, mustered in Au- 
gust 31, 1861, three years; promoted to first sir- 
geant July 7, 1863 ; killed at Blue Springs, Ky., 
October 10, 1863. 

James S. Mitchell, first sergeant, mustered in Octo- 
ber 6, 1861, three years; promoted to sei'geant 
February 22, 1865; to first sergeant May 12, 
• 1865 ; mustered out wiih company July 17, 1865 ; 

Josiah McManigal, sergeant, mustered in October 21, 
1861, three years ; promoted to sergeant May 30, 
1864 ; prisoner from September 30, 1864, to March 
3, 1865; mustered out with company July 17, 
1865 ; veteran. 

Harrison Oburn, sergeant, mustered in September 24, 
1861, three years ; wounded at Wilderness May 
6, 1864; promoted to sergeant September 1, 
1864; captured September 30, 1864; mustered 
out July 17, 1865; veteran.. 

John Shaffer, sergeant, mustered in September 2, 
1861, three years; wounded in action May SI, 
1864; promoted from corporal to sergeant May 
12, 1865; mustered out with company July 17, 
1865; veteran. 

A. F. Alexander, sergeant, mustered in September 
27, 1861, three years; promoted from corporal to 
sergeant July 1, 1865; mustered out with com- 
pany July 17, 1865; veteran. 

John Young, sergeant, mustered in August 31, 1861, 
three years ; prisoner from September 30, 1804, to 
March 3, 1865 ; discharged on surgeon's certifi- 
cate June 30, 1865 ; veteran. 

James H. Musser, sergeant, mustered in October 
18, 1861, three years ; promoted to sergeant June, 
1863; to quartermaster-sergeant January 18, 
1865 ; veteran. 

Jacob Zerby, sergeant, mustered in September 6, 

1861, three years ; promoted to sergeant Septem- 
ber 28, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
April 11, 1862. 

John A. Pressler, corporal, mustered in March 1, 

1862, three years ; wounded at Cold Harbor June 
9, 1864; mustered out with company July 17, 
1865 ; veteran. 

Samuel A. Glick, corporal, mustered in September 6, 
1861, three years ; absent, on furlough, at muster 
out; veteran. 

Wm. W. Pressler, corporal, mustered in February 24, 
1864, three years ; prisoner from September 30 
to October 7, 1864; mustered out with company 
July 17, 1865. 

Theoph. C. Thomas, corporal, mustered in August 31, 
1861, three years ; wounded at Cold Harbor June 
3, 1864; captured April 2.1865; mustered out 
with company July 17, 1865; veteran. 



James H. Bigelow, corporal, mustered in March 1, 
1862, three years ; prisoner from May (i to De- 
cember 11, 1864; mustered out with company 
July 17, 1865; veteran. 

John H. Tarner, corporal, mustered in September 24, 
1861, three years; wounded at Wilderness May 
5, 18G4; promoted to corporal May 12, 1865; 
mustered out with company July 17, 1865 ; 

Joseph Oburn, corporal, mustered in February 26, 
1864, three years; prisoner from June 0, 1863, to 
March, 1865 ; promoted to corporal July 1, 1865; 
mustered out with company July 17, 1865. 

Peter R. Rupert, corporal, mustered in September 
26, 1861, three years ; mustered out October 20, 
1864, expiration of term. 

John A. Myers, corporal, mustered in September 19, 
1861, three yeai-s; discharged June 30, 1865, for 
wounds received at Cold Harbor June 3, 1864; 

John Bice, corporal, mustered in August 31, 1861, 
three years; killed at Wilderness May 6,1864; 
buried in Wilderness Burial-Grounds; veteran. 

F. A. Hazlett, corporal, mustered in September 6, 
1861, three j'ears; died May 10, 1864, of wounds 
received at Wilderness May 6, 1864; veteran. 

John R. De Arment, corporal, mustered in September 
21, 1861, three years; died at Audersonville June 
3, 1864, grave 1541. 

Jacob Hamm, corpofal, mustered in September 26, 
1861, three years ; died June 29, 1864, of wounds 
received at Spottsylvania June 18, 1864; veteran. 

John W. Bailey, corporal, mustered in August 31, 
1861, three years; died at Washington, D. C, 
July 26, 1864, of wounds received in action ; 

William J. Wise, musician, mustered in August 31, 
1861, three years; mustered out with comjiany 
July 17, 1865 ; veteran. 

Peter Smith, musician, mustered in October 9, 18G1, 
three years; mustered out October 20, 1864, ex- 
piration of term. 

R. B. Alexander, private, mustered in September 20, 
18(;i, three years; mustered out; discharged on 
surgeon's certificate September 20, 1862. 

John H. Alexander, private, mustered in September 
26, 1861, three years; mustered out October 20, 
1864, expiration of term. 

J. B. Alexander, private, mustered in March 2, 1862, 
three years ; discharged December 21, 1864, of 
wounds received in action ; veteran. 

Cy. R. Alexander, private, mustered in March 2, 1862, 
three years; wounded at Cold Harbor June 3, 
1864; mustered out with company July 17, 1865; 

Christian Andirich, private, mustered in December 
21, 1864, three years; substitute; absent, sick, at 
muster out. 

James Baird, private, mustered in October 9, 1861, 
three years ; killed at South Mountain Septem- 
ber 14, 1862. 

D. K. Bigelow, private, mustered in August 31, 1861, 
three years; discharged December 1, 1862, for 
wounds received at South Mountain Septem- 
ber 14, 1862. 

James T. Black, private, mustered in March 1, 1862, 
three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
J.anuary 7. 1863. 

Seneca H. Bordell, private, mustered in September 
26, 1861, three years; discharged January 17, 
1865, for wounds received at Wilderness May 6, 
1864; veteran. 

Harvey Brown, private, mustered in October 12, 

1861, three years ; mustered out October 20, 1864 ; 
expiration of term. 

Thomas M. Bullock, private, mustered in September 
6, 1861, three years; discharged December 19, 

1862, for wounds received at South Mountain 
September 14, 1862. 

David C. Barr, private, mustered in February 23, 
1864, three years ;" mustered out with company 
July 17, 1865. 

William Barr, private, mustered in February 23, 1S64, 
three years ; mustered out with company July 17, 

Lebius S. Bigelow, private, mustered in February 23, 
1864, three years ; mustered out with company 
July 17, 1865. 

Jacob Babb, private, mustered in December 23, 1864, 
one year ; substitute ; mustered out with company 
July 17, 1865. 

Joseph Brannon, private, mustered in July 30, 1864, 
three years ; transferred to Western army March 
8, 1865. 

Timothy Breman, priv.ate, mustered iu December 30, 
1864, one year ; substitute ; absent, sick, at muster 

Ludwig Bremer, private, mustered in December 21, 
1864, one year; substitute ; died May 2,1865, of 
wounds received in action April 2, 1865. 

Charles Brown, private, mustered in August 10, 1864, 
three years; substitute; mustered out with com- 
pany July 17, 1865. 

John Brown, private, mustered in December 31, 1864, 
three years; substitute. 

Charles Burns, private, mustered in July 21. 1864, 
three years; substitute; captured September 30, 
1864; died at Salisbury, N. C, December 28. 

Henry Byrnes, private, mustered in July 28, 1864, 
three years; substitute; captured September 30, 
1864; escaped and returned May 12, 1865 ; mus- 
tered out with company July 17, 1865. 

John Bovel, private, mustered in July 30, 1864, three 
years; substitute; absent, sick, at muster out. 

Michael Brophy, private, mustered in July 28, 1864, 



three years; substitute; absent, sick, at muster 

James Bice, private, mustered iu February 25, 1864, 
three years; captured September 30, 1S64; died 
at Salisbury, N. C, February 9, 1865. 

Abraham Brindle, private, mustered in February 19, 
1864, three years; drowned in James River, Va., 
June 15, 1864. 

James M. Caldwell, private, mustered in October 18, 
1861, three years ; died May 12, 1864, of wounds 
received at Wilderness May 6, 1864; veteran. 

Francis G. Carney, private, mustered iu September 
26, 1861, three years; discharged on surgeon's 
certificate March 4, 1863. 

Robert Carson, private, mustered in October 13, 1861, 
three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
October 17, 1863. 

Daniel Caliill, private, mustered in March 4, 1862, 
three years ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
December 30, 1862. 

Robert S. Cook, private, mustered in September 27, 
1861, three years. 

Stephen Cumin, private, mustered in October 4, 
1861, three years; discharged on surgeon's certifi- 
cate December 12, 1864; veteran, 

Patrick Carney, private, mustered in November 30, 
1864, one year ; substitute. 

John H. Civits, private, mustered in February 26, 
1864, three years: discharged December 28, 1864, 
for wounds received at Wilderness May 6, 1864. 

John Cormish, private, mustered in March 16, 1865, 
one year ; substitute ; mustered out with com- 
pany July 17, 1865. 

James Cadmore, private, mustered in December 29> 
1864, one year; substitute; mustered out with 
company July 17, 1865. 

George L. Culp, private, mustered in August 6, 1864, 
three years; substitute; mustered out with com- 
pany July 17, 1865. 

Samuel P. Davis, private, mustered in October 9, 
1861, three years; prisoner from July 30, 1864, to 
February 6, 1865 ; mustered out with company 
July 17, 1865 ; veteran. 

William De Arment, private, mustered in Septem- 
ber 19, 1861, three years; wounded at Cold 
Harbor June 1, 1864 ; mustered out with com- 
pany J