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MM. P. Bethune, A. Cauchie, G. Doutrepont, R. Maere, Ch. Moeller. E. Rcmy, 
L Van der Essen et A. De Meyer 





Archdiocese of Cincinnati 




Professor of Church History at Mount St. Mary Seminary 
Cincinnati, Ohio 



bet at: 


Censor Librorum. 



Archbishop oj Cincinnati. 


CINCINNATI, December 8, 1920. 











H- I 
























INDEX .. 401 













Rev. John H. Lamott, S.T.D., 

Mount St. Mary Seminary. 

Dear Doctor: 

AM agreeably surprised at the promptness 
with which in the midst of your arduous 
duties as professor in the Seminary you have 
succeeded so admirably in writing the History 
of the Archdiocese of Cincinnati from its 
struggling beginning in 1821 up to the prosperous condition 
of to-day. You have cleverly grouped in three comprehensive 
divisions, chronological, geographical and educational, the 
various salient happenings which occurred in the diocese of 
Cincinnati during the hundred years that have elapsed since 
its natal day. This partition lends itself to treat in an 
orderly and an all-embracing way the numerous and diversified 
events that form part and parcel of the history of the diocese. 
First, after your introductory chapter, you give brief but 
truly characteristic glimpses of the apostolic Fenwick, the in 
defatigable Purcell, and the saintly Elder. It would indeed be 
regrettable if the lives and deeds of these eminent prelates were 
allowed to pass into oblivion. Your comprehensive sketch of 
these truly great men will serve to preserve the memory of 
them for the edification and inspiration of future generations. 
Next, you delineate the original boundaries of the diocese 
of Cincinnati and describe the divisions and subdivisions to 
which it has been subjected during the lapse of one hundred 
years. This presentation reveals the consoling fact that the 
territory which constituted the struggling diocese of Cincin 
nati a hundred years ago now embraces four flourishing dioceses. 


The Catholic population of each of these dioceses is more than 
three thousand times larger than that of the original diocese of 
Cincinnati. Wonderful indeed! Has not the parable of the 
mustard seed been strikingly verified in the marvelous growth 
of the infant diocese of Cincinnati? 

Finally, the array of facts, relating to the educational 
development within the diocese, that you have gathered to 
gether compels the strong admiration of the reader. Your 
statements in regard to this development make it quite evident 
that the diocese has in no way been remiss in promoting educa 
tion ; on the contrary that it has kept abreast with the larger 
and wealthier dioceses in the East, West and Middle- West. 

I must especially compliment you on the tactful manner in 
which you review the financial embarrassment of Archbishop 
Purcell. You have stated the case clearly and frankly, sup 
porting your contentions by evidences that no one can reason 
ably question. Persons who with an unbiased mind will read 
your account of the catastrophe will refrain from harshly cen 
suring the great and zealous Patriarch of the West. The so- 
called financial failure saddened the last days of his wonderful 
career, impaired his brilliant mind, and broke his truly paternal 
and kind heart. You did well in connection with this financial 
crash to call attention pointedly to the strict injunction given 
from the very commencement of the litigation to the attorneys, 
representing the archdiocese, not to deprive the creditors of 
any money or property to which they could establish a shadow 
of a claim. The archdiocese of Cincinnati at all times was 
ready to pay to the creditors what justly was due. 

I assure you, dear doctor, I appreciate and feel grateful to 
you for the very satisfactory manner in which you have faith 
fully fulfilled the laborious task which I imposed upon you. 
I feel confident that the extensive circulation which I augur 
your History of the Diocese of Cincinnati will have among 
priests, religious and laity, will be a gratifying compensation 
for your self-sacrificing work. 


On June 21st, of next year, the diocese of Cincinnati will 
celebrate the first centenary of its establishment. The time of 
jubilee should be a day of joy and thanksgiving. Your history 
will stimulate this joy and thanksgiving of the faithful by 
calling to their minds the splendid work accomplished for God 
and the salvation of souls in the diocese of Cincinnati during 
the span of one hundred years. 

Once more I cordially thank you for the service which you 
render religion by your history; and I pray God to bless and to 
reward you for your praiseworthy labors. 

Sincerely yours in Christ, 


Archbishop of Cincinnati. 

Cincinnati, O., Feast of St. Thomas, December 21, 1920. 


O COMMEMORATE the establishment one 
hundred years ago of the diocese of Cincin 
nati, His Grace, the Most Reverend Arch 
bishop of Cincinnati on September 5, 1918, 
requested the author to undertake the writing 
of a history of the archdiocese of Cincinnati. 
The task was cheerfully accepted, even though the time which 
could be devoted to it had to be limited to spare moments and 
the months of vacation in the scholastic year. The present 
work is offered as the result of these labors. It was begun 
and prosecuted according to the basic principle which Pope 
Leo XIII in a letter, issued on the occasion of the opening of 
the Vatican archives in 1883, laid down for the guidance of 
historical writers. "The first law of history," wrote the 
Pontiff, "is to dread uttering a falsehood; the next, not to 
fear stating the truth; lastly, let the historian s writings be 
open to no suspicion of partiality or animosity." 

The subject, the History of the Archdiocese of Cincinnati, 
enters necessarily into the general history of the Catholic 
Church, since a diocese or an archdiocese constitutes a definite 
part of the territory over which the Church exercises her 
authority. Until 1850 Cincinnati was only a diocese. In that 
year it became an archdiocese and entered into special relation 
ship with the dioceses in its metropolitan district. These 
relations have demanded that consideration be given not only 
to diocesan, but also to archdiocesan history. According to 
time the subject is limited to the hundred years, from 1821 to 
1921, during which the diocese has existed. 

The plan followed has been evolved from the three-fold kind 
of treatment of which most historical subjects are susceptible, 
viz. : chronological, geographical and institutional. To this 
triple consideration there has been prefixed a preliminary 
study of the beginnings of Catholicity in the diocese. The 
chronological development is presented in the history of the 
lives and activities of the four bishops who have ruled the 
diocese during the century of its existence. The geographical 


development relates to the contraction and expansion of the 
boundaries of the diocese and the archdiocese. The institu 
tional development is concerned, first, with the establishment 
of the diocese and the propagation of the Faith in the communi 
ties of diocesan territory; secondly, with the material means 
at the disposal of the bishops and clergy for the welfare of the 
diocese; thirdly, with the legislation regulating ecclesiastical 
matters; fourthly, with the establishment of regular communi 
ties; and lastly, with the various phases of social activity 
under ecclesiastical auspices in the diocese. 

In this work we have not had the advantage of an historical 
treatise on the archdiocese of Cincinnati, as the history of the 
archdiocese has never before been written. We have tried to 
obtain our information wherever possible from first-hand 
sources: bulls, briefs, decrees, letters, contemporary writers 
and witnesses. Herein we had to overcome the inconvenience 
of having practically no diocesan archives at Cincinnati. 
We were rather fortunate, however, to find the more important 
documents from those archives either at Mount St. Joseph, 
Ohio, or in the National Catholic Archives at Notre Dame 
University, Indiana. 

The search for documents has taken us to many places and 
has been one of our greatest delights, for universally we have 
received singular attention and genuine kindness. It was 
such a pleasure to find that historical endeavor met with the 
utmost appreciation in ecclesiastical circles. We have many to 
thank for their very kind assistance and co-operation. Es 
pecially do we wish to express our appreciation to his Emi 
nence, Cardinal Gibbons, to Archbishop Moeller, Archbishop 
Messmer, Archbishop Glennon, Rt. Rev. John J. Tannrath, 
Rt. Rev. Bernard J. Bradley, A.M., LL.D., Rt. Rev. Bernard 
Moeller, Rt. Rev. Francis J. Beckmann, S.T.D., Sister Mary 
Agnes McCann, Ph.D., Very Rev. Victor F. O Daniel, O.P., 
S.T.M., Very Rev. Andrew Morrissey, C.S.C., Rev. Paul 
Foik, C.S.C., Ph.D., Rev. Gilbert J. Garraghan, S.J., Very 
Rev. Silvan McGarry, C.P., Rev. C. A. Freriks, C.PP.S., 
Rev. Sebastian Erbacher, O.F.M., Rev. A. C. Breig, D.D., 
Rev. Francis J. Walsh, Ph.D., and Mr. Thomas P. Hart, Ph.D. 
We wish also to express our appreciation to the superiors of the 
religious communities as well as to our beloved brethren of the 


clergy in the archdiocese of Cincinnati who have been most 
ready in their assistance to us. 

In a composition wherein a great number of details are 
found, inaccuracies as well as lacunae may be detected. To 
persons who have information to supply the corrections or 
missing information, the author will be very grateful for the 
transmission of such information to him. Especially thankful 
will he be for this in view of future work which he has in mind. 
The time allotted to him for this work did not permit him to 
give a detailed history of the development of the parishes or 
biographical sketches of the priests who have been greatly 
responsible for the progress of religion in Ohio. To this end 
the author will continue his work. 


Mount St. Mary Seminary, 

Feast of the Immaculate Conception, 1920. 



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S ORIGINALLY constituted in 1821, the 
diocese of Cincinnati embraced the entire 
state of Ohio, an area of 41,060 square miles. 
Nature had favored this state by bounding 
it on the north as well as on the south by 
waterways, which furnished ready-made paths 
for traders and explorers from the east. Lake Erie on the 
north was the link between Lake Ontario and Lake Huron, 
while the navigable Ohio, the "Beautiful River", as the 
Indians styled it, and which the French immediately trans 
lated into "La Belle Riviere", coursed for the greater part 
between the state which received its name and the states of 
Pennsylvania, West Virginia and Kentucky to the east and 
south. To the west the state of Indiana was its neighbor, 
while Michigan supplied the small adjoining territory neces 
sary to complete its northern line with Lake Erie. Within 
these boundaries, Ohio lies between 3827 and 4157 north 
latitude, and 8034 and 8449 / longitude west of Greenwich. 
Traversing this tract of land from northeast to southwest is a 
low ridge of hills, beginning east of Buffalo, New York, enter 
ing Ohio near the line between the counties of Ashtabula and 
Trumbull, and passing the western state line near the line 
between Mercer and Darke counties. There is thus formed a 
divide of the waters of the state north and south. Because of 
its situation and its general altitude above sea level, the climate 
of Ohio has always been healthful; and because of its numer 
ous waterways serviceable for transportation, Ohio early experi 
enced a wonderful development, after it had begun to be 
populated by the white man. 

But many, many years before the white man set foot upon 
the soil of Ohio, other peoples of unknown name had inhabited 
this vast wilderness and had left mute, but certain vestiges of 
their presence in the great number, perhaps some ten thousand, 
of earthen mounds, which are to be found dotting the rolling 



plains of Ohio, especially in or near the valleys of the two 
Miamis, the Scioto, and the Muskingum. The riddle of their 
origin has baffled the many explorers who have sought a solu 
tion. The name "Mound Builders", applied to the supposed 
race or people by whom they were constructed, is but a sign 
of impotence to give an answer to the question. In general, 
two opinions have been advanced. One is that the people who 
built the mounds were a nation which had been expelled from 
this part of the continent and became extinct, a nation 
entirely distinct from the Indian, whom they far surpassed by 
the degree of civilization to which they attained. The other 
is that these people were ancestors of the American Indians, 
who had degenerated from their earlier higher grade of civiliza 
tion. For a time, the former opinion numbered more admirers; 
but today, even though all the materials have not yet been 
gathered and collated, and the conclusion reached therefore not 
absolute, the more advanced students yield consent to the 
latter opinion, as it was expressed by Judge Manning F. Force 
in a paper read by him before the Literary Club in 1874: "The 
mystery which enveloped the builder of these and similar 
works is now largely dispelled and it is generally accepted that 
they were tribes of Indians differing little from the sedentary 
and fortified tribes which inhabited the country of the St. 
Lawrence and the Lakes in the time of Cartier and Champlain, 
or from the tribes which now inhabit the pueblos of New 
Mexico and Arizona." 1 Be this as it may, certain it is that the 
white man found the red man of America roaming the vast 
wilderness of Ohio in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 
For Ohio was the hunting ground of the Iroquois Indians, 
known at that time as the Five Nations. The first settlers 
in Ohio did not, however, come into contact with the Iroquois, 
whose influence in Ohio was great and whose title to. the land 
was a matter of much subsequent discussion. It was rather 
with the second of the great Indian families, the Algonquins, 
who occupied the Western and Middle States, that these 
settlers had to contend. The Algonquins had gradually 
wandered into the hunting grounds of the Iroquois, as these 
became more and more preoccupied with the French settle- 

1. RANDALL AND RYAN, History of Ohio, vol. I; GREVE, Centennial History of Cin 
cinnati, vol. I, p. 34. 


ments about Quebec, and the English settlements about 
Albany, New York. 

A more accurate determination of the homes of the various 
branches of the Algonquin family is possible late in the seven 
teenth or early in the eighteenth century. The part east of 
the Muskingum, together with the country on the upper Ohio 
and Alleghany rivers, was held by the Mingoes, chiefly Senecas 
and Cayugas, who were outlaws of the Five Nations. The 
Wyandots, a remnant of the terribly beaten and persecuted 
Hurons, among whom the Jesuits had labored not without 
success, after being driven from the St. Lawrence across upper 
Canada to the northwest and back again, had seated them 
selves opposite Detroit; some of the party had gone further 
south to the Sandusky river, and thence to the Scioto. Their 
chief village in 1750 was on the Tuscarawas, near its junction 
with the Walhonding. Certain clans of the Miamis extended 
from the Wabash to the upper valleys of the Big and Little 
Miami rivers, having a fort and large town near present Piqua. 
The Shawnees were on the Ohio, Muskingum and Scioto, 
their chief town being on both sides of the Ohio, at the mouth 
of the Scioto. The Delawares were scattered among the 
Mingoes, Shawnees and Wyandots. 

Previous, however, to the occupation of Ohio by these 
Algonquin families, two other families of Indians, the Eries 
(or Cats, as the French styled them,) and the Andastes held 
title to the lands south and west of the Five Nations. The 
extermination of both of these tribes by the Five Nations 
transferred the title to these lands, so it is claimed, to the 
Iroquois. By virtue of the dependence of the Iroquois upon 
Great Britain, as the Iroquois acknowledged themselves sub 
jects of Great Britain and were expressly recognized as such 
by France in the 15th Article of the Treaty of Utrecht (1713), 
Great Britain laid claim to the country north of the Ohio as 
far west as the Mississippi. The claim thus advanced by the 
English Cabinet towards the middle of the eighteenth century 
met with determined opposition on the part of France, which 
by preoccupation was gaining rapid strides in title to the land. 
Neither did the Indians themselves in Ohio admit such a claim 
on the part of the English, nor would they abandon the ground 
until they had been thoroughly beaten by General Wayne in 


the Battle of Fallen Timbers, on August 20, 1794, long after 
the country had been deeded to the United States. 2 

During this period Ohio was not reckoned as a distinct 
district, but as a portion of the trans-Alleghany territory, and 
as a result title to the land of Ohio was confounded with title 
to this more extensive stretch of land from the Alleghany 
mountains to the Mississippi river. Each of the three coloniz 
ing governments of America, Spain, France and England laid 
claim at one time or another to this rich western country. 
The title of Spain was never recognized, whilst the claim of the 
two other powers required a war to adjudicate. 

The only one of the great powers to attempt a defence of her 
title by explorations and discoveries in this territory was 
France. While Spain exerted her activities along the southern 
boundaries of the United States, and England contented her 
self with acquiring and strengthening her hold on the eastern 
colonies, France sent out her explorers from Quebec, the center 
of activities in the New World. Sending her intrepid leaders 
through the Great Lakes, she commissioned them to proclaim 
her sovereignty over the lands which they discovered. She 
then followed up their discoveries by a chain of forts which she 
established and manned at strategical points along the line. 
Men of God, inspired by the loftier aspiration of spreading the 
faith among the natives, likewise accompanied the expedi 
tions. Not long did the trapper and fur-trader delay to follow 
in the footsteps of the explorer, and amicable relations with the 
Indians always ensued. In this way a chain of French colonies 
had been established along the Great Lakes, and thence on to 
the Mississippi. 

Foremost among the Canadian explorers of the western 
country to enter into the history of Ohio was Robert Cavelier, 
Sieur de la Salle, about whose visit to the Ohio country in 
1669 much discussion has been evoked. It is claimed that 
La Salle discovered the Ohio river in 1669 and descended it as 
far as the rapids at Louisville. If this be true, La Salle was the 
first white man to pass the site of the present episcopal city of 
Cincinnati. Having heard from the Senecas, the most westerly 
tribe of the Five Nations, of a river called the Ohio, which rose 
in the country of the Senecas and flowed into the sea at a point 

2. RUFUS KING, Ohio (1903) 


distant an eight or nine months journey, and believing this 
to be the passage to China, La Salle started on an expedition 
with two priests, Dollier and Galline e, and twenty-one other 
men. After casually meeting Joliet near the western end of 
Lake Ontario, La Salle lost the aid of the two missionary 
Fathers, who were counselled to abandon the southern trip 
for the northern one to the Ottawas, who were in need of their 
services. At this point the thread of the history of La Salle s 
expedition becomes entangled, if not completely lost. Ac 
cording to an anonymous manuscript, which essays to give the 
history of La Salle as taken down fron the lips of the explorer 
himself when he was back in his native France (1674-1678), 
La Salle continued his journey to the south, where he came into 
the Ohio and descended it to the rapids at Louisville, whence 
he retraced his steps because of the refractory spirit of his men. 
In another manuscript, a memoir addressed by La Salle to 
Count Frontenac in 1677, which completes the original sources 
of this interesting story, it is stated that he discovered "la 
grande riviere d Ohio" and followed it to the falls after passing 
another large river, which comes into it from the north (per 
haps the Miami or Scioto). Internal criticism of these two 
sources has divided authorities on this subject. Parkman con 
tends for the discovery of the Ohio by La Salle; but, if the 
question is ever answered, it will have to be from sources thus 
far undiscovered. 3 It may be that like to some other questions 
of history, an answer will never be forthcoming. 

Just at this time occurred the invasions of the western 
territory by the Iroquois, in which the Andastes in Pennsylvania 
were extirpated about the year 1676. The Iroquois pursued 
their triumphal march further west into the country of the 
Illinois, where they were finally repulsed. Pushed further 
and further back near their own homes, they left the territory 
to be occupied by the various Algonquin tribes. But this 
obstacle to further success in these parts and their enforced 
retirement did not prevent them from boasting of their conquest 
of the West as far as the Mississippi. Peace was finally con 
cluded between the various hostile tribes at the large assembly 
of the Indians at Montreal in 1701. 

3. GREVE, ut supra; KING, ut supra, PARKMAN, La Salle and the Discovery of the Great 
West (Boston, 1907), pp. 28-33. 


In the meantime England had begun to take a hand in 
trying to wrest the power over the West from the hands of the 
French. Such a campaign had already been launched by 
Colonel Thomas Dongan, the provincial governor of New York, 
who in 1686 urged the New York traders to invade the hitherto 
undisputed territory of the French traders along the Great 
Lakes. A similar policy was pursued by the English governors 
of Carolina and Pennsylvania, so that frequent attempts were 
made to establish trade with the Indians in Ohio, who previ 
ously had dealt with the French from Detroit and Sandusky. 
Some of the Indians, too, the Miamis particularly, had become 
disaffected from the French, a situation which was quickly 
perceived as dangerous by the Marquis de la Galissoniere, 
who had been appointed governor ad interim in 1747, after 
Jonquiere, the regularly appointed governor of Quebec, had been 
captured by the English. After reinforcements and supplies 
had been sent to Detroit and Mackinac early in 1748, the 
Indian insurrection of the Miamis on the Maumee was thwarted, 
but Galissoniere was now bent on publicly proclaiming the 
sovereignty of France over Ohio. For this purpose, which 
was indeed to force an issue with the English provincial govern 
ors, he ordered de Celoron to fit out an expedition of French 
and Indians, and early in the next year to cross Lake Erie to 
the upper Ohio. 

We have become very well acquainted with the places 
visited on this expedition from the excellent report made under 
the orders of Ce"loron by Father Joseph Peter de Bonnecamps, 
S.J., who accompanied the expedition as chaplain. 4 Father 
Bonnecamps was the first to give us a good map of Ohio of that 
time, and was the first priest, apparently, who offered the 
sacrifice of the Mass in southern Ohio. The report was dated 
October 17, 1750, though it is given in journal form, telling of 
the events day by day during the expedition. 

Comprising about 250 men, French and Indians, and 

4. Joseph Pierre de Bonnecamps was born at Vannes, France, on September 5, 1701; 
entered the Society of Jesus at Paris November 3, 1727; came to Canada in 1741 or 1742; 
was assigned the chair of hydrography at the College of Quebec; returned to France in 1759, 
becoming teacher of mathematics in the Jesuit College at Caen; in 1766 (perhaps earlier, 
shortly after 1762) was ministering to the French refugees on the islands of St. Pierre and 
Miquelon; about 1767 retired to the chateau of Francois 1 Olliver at Tronjoly near Gourin 
in Brittany, where he died on May 28, 1790 (Jesuit Relations I, XIX, 288; LXX, 83; 
LXXT, 271). 


occupying 23 canoes, the party left La Chine, near Montreal, 
on June 15, 1749, and arrived at La Presentation, the mission 
near Ogdensburg, New York, under Father Picquet, on the 
25th of the month, and two days later at Cataraconi (Kingston). 
On July 6th they reached Niagara, which greatly attracted the 
attention of Father Bonne camps. Proceeding through Lake 
Ontario and entering Lake Erie, they made their way via 
Chatauqua portage to the Alleghany river, which they entered 
on July 29th. This river is called the "beautiful river" by 
Bonnecamps, the Alleghany having been considered as part 
of the Ohio river. At this point, now known as Warren, Pa., 
Cloron buried the first of a number of lead plates on the south 
bank of the river. 5 By these notices Celeron solemnly an 
nounced the sovereignty of France over the contiguous regions. 
Similar plates were deposited at five other points along the 
route, viz.: below Venango (now French Creek), on the north 
bank of Wheeling Creek at its juncture with the Ohio, at the 
mouth of the Muskingum, 6 on the south bank of the Ohio and 
the east bank of the Great Kanawha of Virginia, 7 and at the 
mouth of the Great Miami. After leaving the Conewango, 
where the first plate was deposited, Celoron proceeded to a 
spot near Pittsburgh, where he first met English traders whom 
he ordered to quit the country. Like action was taken at 
Chiningue (or Logstown) below Pittsburgh where the party 
arrived on August 8th. 

Nothing further of consequence occurred to attract the 
attention of Father Bonne camps till the party neared the 
Scioto river in Ohio. Celeron had sent Joncaire and Niver- 
ville to the Shawnees in the village on the Scioto to announce 

5. The following is a translation of the inscription found on the first of these plates: 
"In the year 1749, of the reign of Louis XV., King of France, we, Celoron, commandant of a 
detachment sent by Monsieur the Marquis de la Galissoniere, General Commandant of New 
France, to re-establish tranquility in certain Savage villages of these districts, have buried 
this plate at the confluence of the Ohio and Tchadakoin, this 29th of July, near the River Oyo, 
otherwise Belle Riviere. This we do as a monument of the renewal of possession we have 
taken of the said River Oyo, and of all the rivers which discharge into it, and of all the lands on 
both sides as far as the sources of the said rivers, even as they have been possessed, or ought 
to have been possessed, by the preceding Kings of France, and as they have maintained their 
authority therein by arms and by treaties, especially by those of Riswick, of Utrecht, and of 
Aix-la-Chapelle." The plate whence this inscription was taken was forwarded to the Lords 
of Trade at London soon after 1750. A fac-simile of the original inscription is given in New 
York Colonial Documents, vol. VI., p. 611 (Jesuit Relations LXIX, p. 296). 

6. This plate was found in 1798 and is preserved by the American Antiquarian Society , 
Worcester, Massachusetts. 

7. This plate was found in 1846 and is preserved by the Virginia Historical Society. 


the coming of the party. Their reception was anything but 
gracious. They were greeted with bullets, were made prison 
ers, and would have been executed except for the mediation of 
a friendly Iroquois. After Ce"loron came up, he erected a fort 
opposite the Scioto; friendly councils were held with the 
Indians on August 23th, 24th and 26th, whilst the English traders 
among them were ordered to withdraw from the territory. 

Pursuing their journey down the Ohio, the party reached 
the Little Miami, where they encamped on the 28th and found 
a small band of Miamis with their chief, named "the Barrel". 
These Indians had established themselves here only a short 
time previously, having located their cabins, to the number of 
seven or eight, about a league from the river. They were per 
suaded to accompany Celeron to the village of "la Demoiselle" 
up on the Great Miami. The entire party embarked on the 
morning of the 31st and at 4 o clock in the afternoon entered 
the Great Miami, where they buried the last plate on the 
western bank of that river. Ascending the river, they arrived at 
the village of the Miamis on Loramie Creek on September 13th. 
This was the village under the leadership of "la Demoiselle", 
the friend of the English, who named him "Old Britain". 
"La Demoiselle" refused to yield to the entreaties of Celoron 
to return to the old settlements on the Maumee, but made his 
village a center of English trade and influence. A week was 
spent by Ce*loron on this spot, as it was not till September 20th 
that he resumed his journey northward by land. After five 
days journey they reached the old camp of the Miamis and 
the French fort on the Maumee, near the present site of Ft. 
Wayne, Ind., where they refitted themselves with canoes and 
provisions and proceeded to Detroit, which they reached on 
October 6th. The return journey to Montreal was then made by 
way of the lakes, and their destination was reached on Novem 
ber 10th. Eight days later Celoron and Bonnecamps arrived 
at Quebec, the point of departure of the expedition, five months 
and eighteen days having passed since they had left the town. 

Before continuing our narrative, we wish to call attention 
to a point of ecclesiastical interest. On such expeditions as 
this undertaken by Celoron, accompanied by Father Bonne- 
camps, it was customary for the chaplain to exercise the func 
tions of his ministry for the members of the party. Though 


no mention of such ministrations occurs in the entire relation, 
we think ourselves not at all stretching the bounds of great 
probability when we state that Father Bonnecamps celebrated 
the holy sacrifice of the Mass whilst the party was encamped 
at the mouth of the Little Miami between August 28th and 
31st, and at the village of "la Demoiselle" on Loramie creek in 
Shelby county between the days of September 13th and 20th. 
We single these places out as they are still within the confines 
of the present Cincinnati archdiocese, and deserve especial 
mention for the purposes of our local ecclesiastical history. 

The expedition of Celoron undertaken at the orders of 
Galissoniere was really the inception of Ohio history. We 
heartily endorse the sentiment of Rufus King when he writes: 
"The state may be proud of the auspices under which she first 
emerged from obscurity." 8 

When Celoron was made commandant at Detroit in the 
next year, 1750, he established a fort at the upper end of San- 
dusky bay. It is at this location, near Sandusky, Ohio, that 
Shea says Father de la Richardie, S.J., who had worked with 
great success among the Huron Indians about Detroit, built 
a chapel in 175 1. 9 

To the hypothesis of Rev. William V. Bigot that Pierre 
Loramie, who conducted the trading store at Loramie, Ohio, 
from 1769 to 1782, was a French Jesuit Father, and therefore 
entitled to the honor of being the first priest stationed in the 
Cincinnati archdiocese, we cannot subscribe. 10 For not one 
convincing proof is adduced for the hypothesis, nor have we 
been able in our investigation of the matter to find a trace 
anywhere of any such Jesuit Father in the New World. 

After the solemn proclamations of the French authorities, 
made through Celoron in the expedition of 1749, the British 
colonial authorities became more determined to send traders 
into the Ohio country and gradually assume the preponderance 

8. RUFUS KING, Ohio, p. 61. 

9. SHEA, History of the Catholic Church in the United States, 1808-1843, p. 330; com 
munication in Catholic Universe, Cleveland, September 15, 1881. We have been unable to 
verify this statement of John Gilmary Shea, who though he mentions no source in either of 
the above citations, certainly did not make the statement without reason. Still the docu 
ments in the Jesuit Relations contain nothing about the fact in question, nor do the Archives 
of the Jesuit Fathers at St. Mary s College, Quebec, where search for this purpose was made, 
contain aught concerning the building of the chapel at Sandusky, Ohio. 

10. BIGOT, Annalen der St. Michaels gemeinde, Loramie, Shelby County, Ohio (Sidney, 
1907), Chap. V, p. 77 ff. 


of power, a policy which finally terminated in the Seven Years 
War. However unjust the title of the English to the land of 
Ohio might have been, the great superiority in number of their 
soldiers brought the war to a close in their favor, and France 
by the treaty of Paris which was signed on February 10, 1763, 
lost not only her possessions in the New World between the 
Alleghany mountains and the Mississippi river, but also the 
territory of Canada. The King of England, however, enjoyed 
full title to the western country, independently of the colonies 
on the eastern coast. One other provision of the Treaty of 
Paris deserves notice, that, namely, which granted to the 
inhabitants of the ceded territories the liberty of the Catholic 
religion and worship, according to the rites of the Catholic 
Church (Article 4). In 1774 the Parliament of England 
changed the form of authority over the western country, in that 
by the Quebec Act of June 22nd the country between the Alle- 
ghanys and the Mississippi was annexed to the government of 
Quebec, which was to administer these territories according 
to the French laws in vogue at Quebec. This measure was 
but an act of justice to the French inhabitants of the western 
territory, who for ten years had been deprived of all civil 
administration. Our own continental Congress did not ap 
prove of this act, which it judged arbitrary and dangerous; an 
act of intolerance on the part of the first members of Congress. 
We all know how the War of Independence finally gave title 
in this western country to the independent American colonies. 
After serious controversies between several of the original 
colonies concerning their rights to the new territory, it was at 
last agreed that the new territory should belong to all the states 
in general, and under that interpretation an ordinance was pre 
pared and passed on July 13, 1787, for the government of the 
territory northwest of the Ohio. For the entire territory, now 
embracing the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, 
Wisconsin and Minnesota, a governor, three judges and a 
secretary were appointed. To two of the six articles of this 
ordinance is especially due the early progress of the state of 
Ohio. They are: 

Article III: "Religion, morality and knowledge being necessary 
to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the 
means of education shall forever be encouraged. The utmost good 


faith shall always be observed towards the Indians; their lands and 
property shall never be taken from them without their consent; and 
in their property, rights, and liberty they never shall be invaded or 
disturbed, unless in just and lawful wars authorized by Congress; 
but laws founded in justice and humanity shall, from time to time, 
be made for preventing wrongs being done to them, and for preserving 
peace and friendship with them." 

Article VI: "There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary 
servitude in the said territory, otherwise than in the punishment of 
crimes, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted: Provided 
always, that any person escaping into the same, from whom labor 
or service is lawfully claimed in any one of the original states, such 
fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed, and conveyed to the person claim 
ing his or her labor or service, as aforesaid." 11 

Ohio, as part of the Northwest territory, continued to be 
administered by its five officers until 1799, when, a legislative 
body having been formed, the second grade of territorial gov 
ernment began. But this was of short duration for the district 
later to be known as the state of Ohio, since Congress passed a 
law in April, 1802, allowing the people of this division to form a 
constitution. This was done in the same year, and in 1803 
Ohio was admitted to full rank as one of the constituent states 
of the United States of America. 

The officers appointed under the Ordinance of 1787 had 
not yet begun to function in the Northwest territory before en 
terprising parties from the colony of Massachusetts began the 
first expedition under General Rufus Putnam, who with forty- 
six men proceeded in the spring of 1788 to clear ground at the 
site of Marietta, where the Ohio Company, formed by officers 
and men of the Revolutionary Army, had contracted with 
Congress for a transfer of 1,500,000 acres of land. Upon a 
private purchase by John Cleves Symmes of land between the 
two Miamis in southwestern Ohio, three other parties had 
settled, the settlers this time being mostly from New Jersey. 
A third group of immigrants came to Ohio from still farther 
shores, those of France, and was to meet a tragic fate. As 
this group, whose membership was in all likelihood entirely 
Catholic, had plans of fostering the Catholic Faith, we must 
devote more space to its consideration. 12 

11. Ordinance of 1787, Confederate Congress, July 13, 1787 Transcript in HENRY 
Hows, Historical Collections of Ohio, vol. I, pp. 217-221. 

12. Articles in the Catholic Historical Review, vol. II, pp. 195-204 and vol. IV, pp. 415-451, 
give excellent bibliographical notes on the history of the Gallipolis Colony. 


As has been stated, the Ohio Company in 1787 bought 
from the United States Board of Treasury 1,500,000 acres of 
land in Ohio extending from the 7th to 17th range of townships 
north of the Ohio. At the same time, it took an option on 
3,000,000 to 3,500,000 acres in an adjacent tract from the same 
U. S. Board, for which it agreed to pay $1 an acre. Rev. 
Manasseh Cutler, a Congregationalist minister of Massachu 
setts, and W. Sargent closed these contracts with the govern 
ment. But instead of the government dealing with one com 
pany, as it thought it was doing, it was really dealing with two, 
as Cutler had agreed to turn over the option on the adjacent 
tract, called the Scioto tract, extending between the Ohio and 
the Scioto and the 17th range of townships, and north of the 
Ohio Company s tract from the 7th to the 17th range, to Col. 
Wm. Duer, of New York, who was then Secretary of the U. S. 
Board of Treasury. Cutler fulfilled his promise and trans 
ferred the right of pre-emption, which was all he had bought, 
in the Scioto tract to Duer and his associates of the Scioto 
Company, these associates being Cutler himself and W. Sar 
gent. Duer then sent Joel Barlow to Paris to sell some of the 
Scioto tract, or rather the right of pre-emption to the tract. 
For a couple of months, Barlow had little success in Paris, 
where he arrived in June, 1788. But his stock took a high 
jump after he met an Englishman, named Wm. Playfair, 
whose name, however, was no index to his character. A com 
pany called "La Compagnie du Scioto", altogether independent 
of the American company of that name, bought the 3,000,000 
acres of land in the Scioto tract at $1.20 an acre, which it then 
began to re-sell in small lots to prospective immigrants, con 
veying "all the right, title, interest and claim of said society". 
Of course, many people accepted the deeds as conveying and 
warranting a perfect title. Sales became numerous after the 
prospectus which Barlow and Playfair had composed, had been 
given wide circulation. 

Preposterous claims had been put forth in this prospectus, 
as the following extract shows: 

"A climate wholesome and delightful, frost even in winter almost 
entirely unknown, and a river called, by way of eminence, the beauti 
ful, and abounding in excellent fish of a vast size. Noble forests, 
consisting of trees that spontaneously produce sugar (the sugar maple) 
and a plant that yields ready-made candles. Venison in plenty, the 


pursuit of which is uninterrupted by wolves, foxes, lions or tigers. 
A couple of swine will multiply themselves a hundredfold in two or 
three years, without taking any care of them. No taxes to pay, no 
military services to be performed." 13 

The criticism of this prospectus which Volney makes in his 
"View of America", wherein he recounts his visit to this 
country in 1795, deserves repetition: 

"These munificent promisers forgot to say, that these forests 
must be cut down before corn could be raised; that for a year, at least, 
they must bring their daily bread from a great distance ; that hunting 
and fishing are agreeable amusements, when pursued for the sake of 
amusement, but are widely different when followed for the sake of 
subsistence; and they quite forgot to mention, that though there be 
no bears or tigers in the neighborhood, there are wild beasts infinitely 
more cunning and ferocious, in the shape of men, who were at that 
time at open and cruel war with the whites." 14 

The French Scioto Company itself failed at Paris, but a 
new and more pretentious company, called the Company of the 
Twenty-four, took over all the rights and obligations of the 
Scioto Company in January, 1790. Neither the failure of the 
first company, nor the extravagant promises of this wild-cat 
adventure, against which even the French government had 
seen fit to direct ridicule, could prevent the people from buying 
the new land. The French Revolution had turned men s 
minds, and many there were who expected to find a glowing 
paradise of ease in the New World. They were mostly of the 
better sort of the middle class, carvers and gilders to his 
majesty, coach and peruke makers, friseurs and other artists 
as little fitted for a backwoods life. 

Before the first colony was ready to leave Havre in May, 
1790, affairs had also shaped themselves for the undertaking 
in the ecclesiastical sphere. Catholic emigrants would be 
interested to know what spiritual assistance they could expect 
in the new land, a consideration which no land company to this 
day has ever neglected. It also occurred to the members of 
the Company of the Twenty-Four, who chose a Benedictine 
monk of St. Maur, Dom Didier, to be the spiritual head of the 
new colony. After an interchange of views had passed between 

13. Prospectus: copy in Cincinnati University Library. 

14. VOLNEY, Tableau du Climat et du Sol des fctats- Unis d Ameriqne, Paris, 1803; Eng 
lish translation, London, 1804. 


the monk and the Apostolic Nuncio at Paris, memoirs, giving 
the reasons for the appointment of a spiritual head independent 
of the bishop of Baltimore, such reasons as the distance of the 
colony from Baltimore, the custom of the French people to be 
always abundantly supplied with spiritual pastors, and the 
great number of the prospective colonists, were presented to 
the Nuncio both by Didier and by certain members of the 
enterprise. A bishop or a vicar apostolic at least was desirable. 
The Nuncio was requested, therefore, to make representation 
of the need to the Holy Father. 15 The memoir of the members 
of the company, signed the same day as that of Dom Didier 
himself, on March 22, 1790, asked the Nuncio to further Dom 
Didier s petition at Rome and announced that they had 
chosen Dom Didier himself to head the colony. 16 On the 
receipt of the two memoirs on March 22, 1790, the Nuncio dis 
patched the memoirs together with a letter written by himself 
to Cardinal Antonelli, Prefect of the Sacred Congregation of 
Propaganda Fide, informing him of the project and of his own 
request made to the company for more detailed information 
concerning the colony. 17 When this information had come 
to him a week later, on March 29th, the Nuncio wrote again to 
Cardinal Antonelli telling him that three or four ecclesiastics 
were ready to leave shortly with a number of French families 
for Scioto, and that Dom Didier had been chosen the head of 
everything that had regard to the worship, administration of 
sacraments and education. 18 Acting upon the various re 
quests thus made of it, the Sacred Congregation of the Propa 
ganda appointed Dom Didier prefect apostolic with faculties of 
Formula IV for seven years in the territory of Scioto, "with 
complete jurisdiction over all the French who emigrate with 
him, on condition that the lands and place where they should 
found their lands and colony should not be within the diocese 
of any Bishop within the limits of the government and sway of 
the United States, which altogether lies under the jurisdiction 

15. Archives of Propaganda, America Centrale, vol. II (1776-1790), ff. 380-381 (Tran 
script in Catholic Historical Review, vol. II, No. 2, pp. 199-200). 

16. Archives of Propaganda, America Centrale, ut supra, f. 379 (Catholic Historical 
Review, II, 198). 

17. Archives of Propaganda, America Centrale, ut supra ff. 381-382 (Catholic Historical 
Review, 200-201). 

18. Archives of Propaganda, America Centrale, ut supra f. 378 (Catholic Historical 
Review, II, 201). 


of the Bishop lately appointed in Baltimore by the Apostolic 
See. Further, Father Didier can in no way use the above 
faculties unless by the consent of the said Bishop." 19 

As it would require some time to communicate with the 
bishop of Baltimore, and Didier s faculties would therefore be 
inapplicable, it was urged upon the Nuncio by d Espre*mesnil, 
who it seems was the leading spirit of the new organization, 
to have Rome give Didier the use of these faculties till he could 
at least obtain the consent of Bishop Carroll. The Nuncio 
wrote accordingly to the Propaganda on May 10, 1790, for 
that purpose. 20 Propaganda Congregation answered, but 
Didier had already left Paris (before May 10, 1790) and the 
Nuncio did not know whether he could still overtake him at 
Havre where he intended to set sail about the middle of the 
month. The letter, however, would be forwarded to him in 
America, if he could not be found at Havre. 21 But in the same 
letter of May 17, 1790, the Nuncio informed the Cardinal- Pre 
fect of the Propaganda that a priest at Paris desired to become 
the bishop of this new colony, and to this effect d Espremesnil 
and his associates had drawn up a memoir presenting the name 
of the Abbe Du Boisnantier for the new bishopric. It would 
appear that they were not satisfied with a prefect apostolic, 
but wanted a bishop, who might preside over doctrine and 
discipline, and restrain mercenary ecclesiastics who might join 
in the new enterprise from love of lucre. Especially was this 
urged as the new colony would be out, of reach of a bishop in 
the United States for ordinations, confirmations and dispensa 
tions. 22 We know of no further action having been taken 
concerning the proposition. Rome, probably, did not deem 
the creation of a diocese within a diocese just recently estab 
lished a desirable thing. 

Be that as it may, the emigrants were all prepared for their 
journey to the New World. A number of ships had been char- 

19. Copy of the decree in Catholic Archives, Notre Dame, Indiana. Translation in 
Researches of the American Historical Society (vol. XII [1895], pp. 50-51) and Catholic Historical 
Review, II, 202. 

20. Archives of Propaganda, America Centrale, ut supra, ff. 384-385 (Catholic Historical 
Review, II, 203). 

21. Archives of Propaganda, America Centrale, ut supra, f. 387 (Catholic Historical 
Review, II, 203-204). As these emigrants did not leave Havre till May 26, 1790, the letter was 
probably received by Father Didier at Havre. 

22. Archives of Propaganda, America Centrale, ut supra, ff. 388-389 (Catholic Historical 
Review, II, 197). 


tered for the various parties, who were all to meet at Alexandria, 
Virginia, preparatory to their march westward over the moun 
tains. What must have been their disappointment to learn 
at Alexandria that they would have to wait some months there, 
as the first colony in Ohio at Marietta, which was to prepare 
the way for them, had been stricken by small pox as well as by 
famine the previous winter! More disastrous still was the 
sorrowful information that their titles to the lands which they 
had bought were invalid. The laborers upon whom they had 
depended to work the new colony began to seek for employ 
ment around Alexandria, so that it surely was not the most 
enthusiastic party which left Alexandria in the fall of 1790 for 
the long desired spot in the West. 

Reaching their destiny in October they found a stockade 
built to house them small, narrow, boarded huts to cover 
some 800 persons. One of their first acts was to give the town 
a name Gallipolis, the city of the French. 

Their greatest trials and difficulties were ahead of them. 
The Indians, on whom they had not counted, began to 
make good their claims to the land by marauding attacks 
upon the colony. Famine added to the distress, and many 
yielded to the call of finding more hospitable quarters else 
where. Traces of the dispersed colony have been found and 
excellently described by Father Kenny, S.J., in his article 
"The Gallipolis Colony". 23 Ohio, Kentucky, Virginia, Penn 
sylvania, Missouri and Louisiana especially have harbored the 
most of these distressed emigrants. Even the shepherd of the 
flock, Father Didier, abandoned his sheep, as a baptismal entry 
of July 21, 1792, in the records of St. Charles Borromeo s 
church, St. Charles, Mo., attests. Father Peter Joseph 
Didier signs himself missionary pastor there on that date. 24 
His example was evidently soon followed by every one of the 
other priests who may have accompanied the expedition, for as 
early as 1793 Fathers Stephen T. Badin and M. Barrieres on 
their way to Kentucky were hailed with delight when they 
tarried in the town a few days in September of that year. 

23. LAWRENCE J. KENNY, S.J., The Gallipolis Colony, in Catholic Historical Review, 
IV, 415-451. 

24. KENNY, The Gallipolis Colony, Catholic Historical Review, IV, p. 445. Father 
Didier after working for five years in and about St. Louis, died about the end of October, 1799. 


High Mass was sung by them in the garrison and forty children 
baptized. 25 

Religion, indeed, lapsed from bad to worse with the years; 
though deprived of a priest, some few kept the faith, as Father 
Badin writes to Bishop Carroll on January 7, 1808: "On 
Christmas day I officiated at Gallipolis, where I found still a 
spark of faith; that settlement has much declined since I 
visited it first; but they assure me that there are many Irish 
Catholic families in the vicinity." 26 The light of faith became 
dimmer and dimmer as the middle of the century approached. 
Sad, indeed, was the heart of Bishop Purcell when he made a 
visitation of the town in 1848, and wrote the following notes 
to the editor of the Catholic Telegraph: 

"We have never passed this place, on the River, without a feeling 
of sadness. It seemed to us as if it was forsaken of God. We had no 
facilities we knew of for offering the Holy Sacrifice in a town where all 
were once, at least, baptized Catholics; but we afterwards, although 
too late for this occasion, discovered with heartfelt pleasure that a 
most respectable and fervent German Catholic, M. Dages, had re 
cently moved hither with his family from Portsmouth, who would have 
preferred to any earthly treasure that his residence should have been 
so highly honored." 27 

Five years later the spark of faith was again beginning to 
glow, though it was due to the life infused into it by the arch 
bishop of Cincinnati. Writing on another visitation to Galli 
polis, Archbishop Purcell says: "This place is still pretty much 
of a blank on the Catholic map of Ohio. It is retrograding in 

every sense The only means of checking its 

downward course is to establish in it a new and faithful and 
vigorous Catholic colony. This with God s blessing we shall 
do." A lot was donated for a church, $600 were subscribed, 
to which the archbishop himself added $400. 28 A couple of 
years later, Father John C. Albrinck, then stationed at Pom- 
eroy, started to build a small chapel at Gallipolis and had it 

25. BADIN, Origine et Progres de la Mission du Kentucky, Paris, 1821, p. 16; SPALDING, 
Sketches of the Early Catholic Missionaries of Kentucky, pp. 61-62. 

26. Letter, Stephen T. Badin, Bardstown, January 7, 1808, to Bishop Carroll, Baltimore. 
Baltimore Archives, Case 1,15. 

27. Bishop Purcell, Visitation of August 24, 1848, Catholic Telegraph, vol. XVII, p. 270. 

28. Archbishop Purcell, Visitation, 1853, Gallipolis, Catholic Telegraph, XXII, June 25, 


ready for dedication in 1858. 29 We greatly rejoice with the 
same archbishop, who as the shepherd of the lost sheep at 
Gallipolis had gone out to find them, and who in 1864, after 
having confirmed fifteen persons and communicated the Bread 
of Life to sixty, the result of a four days mission held in the 
church of St. Louis, wrote exultantly: 

"Thank God, a brighter day has dawned upon it, and a church 
three times the size of the present one could not contain the eager 
crowd that now thronged to see the worship and hear the doctrine 
brought to Gallia County by the first, but unfaithful settlers. Many 
of their descendants, with some edifying and honorable exceptions, 
are followers of we know not what sects. Among the confirmed was 
a lady who left Paris at the fall of the first Bonaparte, and some of the 
communicants had not approached the Holy Table for a dozen years." 30 

A new church has been built since and a resident pastor is 
assigned there. The faith, indeed, never completely died out, 
though it was reduced to the terrible extremities which we 
have seen. 

Only a few years intervened between the founding of 
Gallipolis in southeastern Ohio in 1790 and an ineffectual at 
tempt to establish the Catholic faith among the Indians in the 
northwestern corner of the state of Ohio, where the English, 
contrary to the intention of the Treaty of Paris of 1783, had 
held the northern country and had established a fort on the 
Maumee river. 

In 1790 Rev. Edmund Burke, 31 professor in the seminary at 
Quebec, impressed by the lack of spiritual aid afforded the 
Indians in northwestern Canada, and feeling the personal call 
to an active missionary life, interested Archbishop Troy of 
Dublin in the Indian missions. 32 The latter in turn com 
municated with the Propaganda, which referred the question 

29. Letter, John C. Albrinck to Archbishop Purcell, Cincinnati Archives, preserved at 
Mount St. Joseph, Hamilton County, Ohio. 

30. Archbishop Purcell, Visitation Report, Catholic Telegraph, XXXIII, 318, September 
28, 1864. 

31. Rt. Rev. Edmund Burke was born in the parish of Maryborough, County Kildare, 
Ireland, in 1753; was ordained priest at Paris; returned to Ireland, whence he went to Quebec 
in the summer of 1786, and was made professor in the seminary in September. After seven 
years on the Western Missions, 1794-1801, he was sent to Halifax, Nova Scotia, as Vicar- 
General of Quebec, was made Vicar-General of Nova Scotia in 1815, and consecrated Bishop 
of Zion in 1818. (Article, Burke, Edmund, by Alexander McNeil, in Catholic Encyclopedia, 
III, 79.) 

32. Rev. Edmund Burke to Most Rev. John Troy, December 31, 1790 (J. G. SHBA, 
Life of Archbishop Carroll, p. 475). 


to the bishop of Quebec, Monsignor Hubert. Bishop Hubert 
then, in September, 1794, appointed Rev. Edmund Burke 
administrator of Upper Canada. 33 Before the year came to a 
close Father Burke was at work on Raisin river (Monroe), 
Michigan, where he dedicated the church of St. Anthony of 
Padua. Then he became engaged with the Miami Indians 
on the Maumee river near the fort Miami within the present 
limits of Maumee City. The British government encouraged 
him in his ministry, as it assigned to him the office of distribut 
ing corn to the Indians. 34 After a vain endeavor to have the 
Propaganda Congregation erect a prefecture independent of 
the jurisdiction of the bishops of Quebec, Baltimore and 
Louisiana, 35 and after the withdrawal of the British troops, 
Father Burke had to yield his authority over the district, 
withdrawing therefrom probably in the early spring of 1796, 
having thus passed an entire year on the banks of the Mau 
mee. 36 

The return of Father Burke to Canada left Ohio without a 
priest. Bishop Carroll, whose sole jurisdiction over the terri 
tory began to be recognized after the departure of the English 
troops from the territory, could give no relief, sorely pressed 
as he was for priests in the eastern states. Hardly had the 
troops been recalled when great numbers of emigrants from the 
East began to settle in Ohio. Nor long need we wait to hear 
the cry of appeal for the ministrations of the anointed of the 
I v ord in the promising wilderness of Ohio, where small groups 
of families had begun to clear tracts in the forests for dwelling 
places. Shortly after his arrival in Ohio in 1802, Jacob Dittoe 
wrote to Bishop Carroll of Baltimore concerning the establish 
ment of a church in Ohio. This letter may never have reached 
its destiny, but it was followed by a second in the very be 
ginning of the year 1805, dated January 5th, and addressed to 
Reverend John Carroll, Bishop of Baltimore, Maryland. The 

33. Rev. Edmund Burke to Most Rev. John Troy, September 14, 1794 (SHEA, o. c., 
p. 475). 

34. Rev. Edmund Burke to Most Rev. John Troy, February 2, 1795 (SHEA, o. c., p. 477); 
HOUCK, The Church in Northern Ohio, pp. 205-206. 

35. Cardinal Antonelli to Bishop Hubert, January 16, 1796; Bishop Hubert to Rev. 
Edmund Burke, October 13, 1796 (SHEA, o. c., p. 478). 

36. Father Burke was at Detroit in May, 1796; in a letter written at Quebec to Arch 
bishop Troy on August 17, 1796, he says he received the archbishop s letter of November 30, 

1795, when he was still at the Miamis in February. SHEA, o. c., p. 478; HOUCK, o. c., p. 206. 


writer, of German nationality, was not perfectly familiar with 
the English tongue. While we have preserved the exact 
phrasings and order of words, we have corrected some mis 
spelled words. 

Lancaster, January 5, 1805. 
Revd. Sir: 

Since my arrival in this country, I wrote you, satisfied that every 
exertion would be made to establish a church in this part of the country, 
as it has been and is my greatest expectation in coming here. I must 
still press the subject upon you, not doubting but every means in y r 
power will be used to that end, every days acquaintance in this country 
brings to my knowledge some of that profession tossed about through 
this country, by the vicissitudes of fortune, deprived of the advantages 
of Church Communion, and (is) extremely anxious for an establishment 
of that kind, and contribute as far as in their power to support it. 
As you know that an appropriation of a piece of land would go to make 
an establishm 1 of that kind more permanent than any other profession. 
I still hope that the contemplated application to Congress to that effect 
has been made with success; if not, a preemption (or the exclusive 
right of purchasing at two Dollars p r acre) might be granted; in either 
case the object would be secured. I before sent you the number of 
the Section or Lot to be applied for, which is Sec. 21 in Township 17 
and Range 17; if not the whole, the South half of which would answer 
a good purpose: There are of our profession in this place that I am 
acquainted with, about 30 souls, two families of my acquaintance that 
will be here this ensuing spring; adding the probable migration from 
the neighbourland of Conawago under similar expectations with me 
(when I saw them) leaves but little doubt with me but a considerable 
congregation may be made here in a little time. I have information, 
whether the authority may be depended upon as correct, that an ordi 
nation of both Bishops and priests will take place this spring, some of 
which or of both you design for Kentucky ; if so, this place will be on 
their way to that country and wishes your directions to any that you 
would send, to give us a call. I live near Lancaster, State of Ohio; 
any person coming under such directions from you, will not only be 
directed where to find me but gladly received by a Mr. Boyle of the 
said town who with his family are of the same church. I hope to hear 

from you soon, and in good health. I remain with much respect 

Yours sincerely, 


Two years later another appeal for a priest was directed to 
Bishop Carroll from a neighboring town, Chillicothe. The 
letter, written even with worse mistakes of spelling than the 

37. Jacob Dittoe to Bishop Carroll (Baltimore Archives, Case 3, D 7). 


letter of Jacob Dittoe, was signed by Whaland Goodee and 
Major Philips. 

February 1st, 1807. 

State of Ohio, Ross County, Chillicothe. 
To the Rev. Mr. Carroll. 
Dear Sir: 

We join our hands as one man in supplication to you desiring a 
priest, as there is no teacher of our Church in this part of the country; 
and if it is convenient for you to send us one we will do everything that 
is reasonable to support him. We have made no calculation of what 
might be collected yearly as we did not know whether we could be 
supplied or not; neither can we give a true account of the number of 
Catholics; but as nigh as we can come, is betwixt 30 and 40 which 
came from the Eastern Shore; and, I suppose, numbers from other 
parts which I am not acquainted with. Dear Sir, if you would be so 
kind as to make a trial and send a priest, there is nothing would give 
us more pleasure on account of our children as well as ourselves. 
Please write as soon as possible. 

I am yours with Res 1 

WHALAND (torn off) 


Bishop Carroll wrote on the back of the letter: "M. Mr. 
Goodee and Philips, Chillicothe". 38 

We have been unable to ascertain what action Bishop Car 
roll took in the matter. 

From a subsequent letter of Jacob Dittoe, February 1, 
1808, we learn that the Catholics had taken an option on some 
land of which the United States possessed the title, and from 
the regulations in force on such transactions, we judge that 
about June 4, 1807, this option had been taken: 

John Carroll, Bishop, D.D. 
Living in Baltimore. 
Dear Father and Vicar of Jesus Christ: 

I solicit your assistance the second time to make up the money 
to pay for the Church land. There are $480 to be paid on or before 
the 4th day of June next with $58 interest and in one year s time the 
land will be forfeited to the United [States] or paid with $160 interest. 
John Shorb and Henry Fink were with us one year ago. Mr. Shorb 
did say he believed there might some money be collected at Conawago 
if any man would undertake it. Therefore I sent four subscription 
papers, of which you received one, John Mathias one, Henry Fink 
one, and Joseph Sneering one. Therefore please to let your word go 

38. Goodee and Philips to Bishop Carroll (Baltimore Archives, Case 10, I 6). 


unto them to exert themselves in gathering this sum of money and not 
to suffer this noble tract of land to be lost with the money paid thereon; 
or any other person that would advance a little money. To give you 
some idea of this noble tract of land I will say a few words; it is so 
situated; about 40 acres of the best bottom [land] with a running 
stream with a spring near the middle of the land, where the upland 
begins: (the bottom) about 150 acres of upland without a break in it; 
the remainder has a few breaks, but all well timbered with oak, hickory 
and walnut. In short, it is the best of lime stone land. We will exert 
ourselves in making improvements on the said land, if you have any 
prospect of sending a priest. We will have a good house for him to go 
in with a tenant and maid. Perhaps a tenant and some decent woman 
to wait upon the priest, might be found in your part of the world to 
come with the priest. We will provide clear land for him. 

N.B. Neither will it be so lonesome for a priest on account of 
the highway; it being but two miles off. For certainly there will 
always be priests back and forth, if you will be so kind and give charge 
to your priests to give us a call as we now live on the highway 14 miles 
from Lancaster towards Baltimore. N.B. We have heard that in 
your part of the world there was a great talk of this country being so 
sickly; but by all the truest accounts that we could learn it has been 
more healthy these three years in our part of the world than in your 
part of the world. We have all been as healthy as could be expected 
in any part of the world. Where we now live and the Church land lies, 
it is particularly healthy. 

Your humble servant, 

New Lancaster JACOB DITTOE. 39 

February the first. 

As regards the tract of land in question, Bishop Carroll 
probably had not the means to secure it, for no record of that 
land in the hands of the Catholics is to be found. But the 
bishop did not consider it a matter to be neglected, as he 
indorsed the letter "important". If he did not communicate 
on the subject with the Dominicans in Kentucky, certainly 
he did not allow the opportunity of Father Fenwick s visit 
to him at Baltimore in the spring or fall of 1808 to pass without 
calling the attention of the friar to these neglected people in 
Ohio. 40 Acting upon the suggestion, Father Fenwick hunted 

39. Jacob Dittoe to Bishop Carroll, February 1, 1808 (Baltimore Archives, Case 3, D 8). 

40. Fenwick was at Baltimore before June 23, 1808, as Father Stephen T. Badin, after 
acknowledging the receipt of Bishop Carroll s letters of the 20th, 22nd and 23rd of June in his 
letter to the bishop on August 29th, writes of the recent interview of the bishop with Father 
Fenwick (Badin, Bardstown, August 29. 1808, to Carroll, Baltimore, p. 4. Baltimore Archives, 
Case 1, I 10). Page 23, of the same letter shows that it was just previous to June 23rd that 
Fenwick was there. On July 10, 1808, Fenwick was at Lexington, Ky., whence he wrote to 
Father Concanen at Rome (Dominican Master General s Archives, Rome, Codex XIII, 731). 
In this letter no mention is made of any activities in Ohio, whilst relation is given of Fenwick s 


up the spot near the present Somerset, indicated in the last 
letter. 41 The residence of Jacob Dittoe was a couple of miles 
off the National highway, and it is told us that Father Fen- 
wick was attracted to it by hearing the sound of the axe as it 
struck the trees of the forest, which the Dittoe family were 
then felling. The joy of the old man Dittoe who for many years 
had been deprived of the consolation of religion both for him 
self and his family, knew no bounds. He quickly informed the 
other two families of the neighborhood and together "they 
welcomed him (Fenwick) as an angel sent from heaven" into 

activities in Kentucky. In his letter to Bishop Carroll of October 7, 1808, Father Badin men 
tions that Father Fenwick was at Baltimore or on his way thither at the time of his writing 
(Badin to Carroll, October 7, 1808; Baltimore Archives, Case 1, I 11). From these data 
we would conclude that Fenwick, having been informed on his first visit in 1808 by Bishop 
Carroll of the people at Somerset, sought them out either on his way to Baltimore in order to 
report of their condition to the bishop, or on his return journey. 

41. After weighing the various discordant testimonies concerning Father Fenwick s 
first visit to Ohio, we have concluded in favor of the year 1808, which is vouched for by the 
Father s own accounts when not mutilated, viz.: Notice sur la Mission de VOhio, undoubtedly 
prepared by Fenwick in 1823-1824; found in the Propaganda archives, America Centrale, 
Scritture, vol. 8 (no folio numbers assigned); Fenwick s Relation of his diocese in 1823, also 
in the same volume 8 Scritture; in four circular letters, inspired by Fenwick, but prepared in 
four countries, Italy, Spain, France and England (copy of Italian letter December 13, 1823, in 
Louisville Diocesan Archives; of Spanish version in Dominican Master General s Archives, 
Rome, Codex XIII, 731; French version, Paris, 1824, cited by SPALDING, Life of Flaget, 
p. 202; English letter in London Catholic Miscellany, 1824, vol. Ill, p. 428 ff. Finally there 
is a communication to the United States Catholic Miscellany, vol. VI, p. 246, February 24, 
1827, entitled "Notice on the State of the Catholic Religion in the State of Ohio", contributed 
probably by the earliest companion of Father Fenwick in Ohio, Father Nicholas D. Young, 
O.P., which likewise explicitly states the year 1808 as that in which Fenwick visited Ohio at the 
instance of his superior and found some Catholic families there. In favor of the year 1810 
are the following testimonies: London Catholic Miscellany, December, 1824, vol. Ill, p. 590; 
Memoire prepared by STEPHEN BADIN, printed by Ambrose Cuddon, 62 Paternoster Row, 
London (on reverse side of letter of Badin, London, October 5, 1825, to Edward Fenwick, 
Notre Dame Archives); Annals of the Association of the Propagation of the Faith, Lyons, 
1826, vol. II, pp. 84-85; historical notice on Fenwick by Rese in Annals, ut supra, 1833, vol. 
VI, p. 135; SPALDING, Review of the State and progress of the Catholic Church in the U. S. of 
America, Berichte of the Leopoldine Association, Vienna, 1834, VI, p. 16; SPALDING, Sketches 
of the Early Catholic Missionaries in Kentucky, p. 157, who says he got it from Fenwick himself 
that he first entered Ohio in 1810. That, however, which has caused the greatest confusion 
concerning the year of Fenwick s entrance into Ohio for missionary work, is the article from the 
pen of Father Badin in the Catholic Spectator of London of 1824. This account was composed 
by Badin from three letters of Fenwick dated Cincinnati, May 20th, Bordeaux, August 8th 
and 1 1th, to Badin, in Paris. The originals were in French. Badin at Paris made the trans 
lations, which were very much scratched up and corrected, and sent the translations to Keating, 
London. The letters were jumbled together, and in them Fenwick writes: "When I first came 
to the State of Ohio, nine years ago, I discovered only three Catholic families from Limestone 
to Wheeling." This would make the year 1814 the one designated; a date which is entirely 
erroneous, as we may see from letters which passed between Jacob Dittoe and Bishop Carroll, 
and Jacob Dittoe and Father Fenwick as early as 1810 and 1812 (Jacob Dittoe, New Lan 
caster, August 19, 1810, to Bishop Carroll, Baltimore, Baltimore Archives, Case 8A, F4; Ed 
ward Fenwick, Rose Hill near Springfield, Washington Co., Ky., May 25 [1812] to Jacob 
Dittoe, Esq., Fairfield County near Lancaster, Ohio, in St. Joseph Priory Archives, not ar 
ranged) . 


their wilderness, to give them the consolations of religion. 
The old man at whose house he stopped, sent for his children 
and his grand-children, told them that a priest had arrived, 
and ordered them to prepare themselves in prayer. They 
obeyed instantly, went that evening to confession, and next 
morning received holy Communion. 42 The bishop tells us 
that on this occasion he found three German Catholic families, 
numbering twenty persons. 43 They were the families of Peter 
Dittoe and John Fink, brother-in-law of Peter Dittoe, and 
another Dittoe or Fink family. 

This visit of Father Fenwick marked the beginning of that 
priest s great love for missionary work in Ohio. Though he 
was not free to devote his entire time to missionary work in this 
state, since he was still to be active on the missions under his 
care in Kentucky and in his office as procurator or syndic in 
his monastery at St. Rose, Kentucky, still he would manage 
to minister to this newly-found flock as often as occasion 
offered. Once or twice a year thereafter he visited the people 
near Somerset. A letter of Jacob Dittoe to Bishop Carroll, 
dated New Lancaster, August 19, 1810, bears witness to Father 
Fenwick s presence with the Dittoes just previous to that date. 
Father Fenwick was on his way east to New York state and 
had aroused the hopes of Jacob Dittoe of having the newly 
nominated bishop of Bardstown visit him on his way back to 
his see. 

New Lancaster, August 19, 1810. 
Dear Father: 

We have understood by Mr. Finnic 44 that there was a Bishop going 
on to Kentucky, and we desire you to inform him of this place, a settle 
ment of Roman Catholics 22 miles from Zanesville towards Lancaster, 
14 miles from the latter, which will be a place of rest and refreshment; 
for there are some young Catholics in this place that do wish to join 
in marriage that are waiting upon that head of his coming, as it is a 
point of some importance ; and should he not come, we will thank you 
to write to us whether they will be allowed to be joined by an esquire, 

42. An Account of the Progress of the Catholic Religion in the Western States of North 
America (London, Keating and Brown, 1824); original in Wisconsin Historical Society Ar 
chives; copy in Mount St. Mary Seminary, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

43. Fenwick s Relation of his diocese at Rome, 1823, Propaganda Archives, America 
Centrale, Scritture, vol. 8; Notice sur la Mission de 1 Ohio; idem. Likewise, the appeals for 
help in Italy and Spain, ut supra. 

44. Thus was Fenwick pronounced. 


who is also a Roman Catholic, or not, as quick as possible, if he should 
not come. I am, dear Father, 

Yours etc., etc., 

Mr. John Carroll, D.D. 

The old man, however, was to suffer disappointment, as 
it was not until the next year that Bishop Flaget, after his 
consecration and a subsequent delay of six months in the Bast 
was to be able to take possession of his diocese; and then the 
bishop went down the Ohio and did not pass over the National 
road, which would have taken him to Lancaster. Dittoe felt 
this disappointment keenly, and as Father Fenwick, too, had 
for some time been unable to visit him, on account of the de 
mands made upon him by the building operations at St. 
Rose s, he sent another note of entreaty for spiritual succor, 
which Father Fenwick answered on May 25, 1812, from Rose 
Hill, near Springfield, Kentucky. 

Mr. Dittoe. 

Dear Sir: Yours of the 9th inst. is before me. I am sorry you 
have been so much disappointed and so long neglected & am the more 
sorry that it is not in my power to visit you at present, having my hands 
& head all full. But take courage & patience a little longer & you 
shall be comforted. I will be with you if possible in August or Sep 
tember at latest the Bishop of Kentucky will also be with you & 
between us both we can surely satisfy you and give you all advice &c 

necessary I have built a large church here 110 by 40 

ft., all brick & am building a dwelling house or college about 80 feet 
long have just finished a new saw mill, & a grist mill & have actually 
3 companies of workmen about me, carpenters, bricklayers, & brick- 
makers, all lodged & boarded besides a large plantation & 6 congre 
gations to attend to thus you see I have no time now to spare I have 
mentioned you all to the good Bishop ; he pities you & will do his best 
to provide for you my best wishes to all your family and friends and 
am, Dr Sir, Yours &c. 


This time, indeed, the Bread of Life was not to be with 
held from the famishing souls of these humble but pious people, 
and though Father Fenwick was not to be the companion of 
Bishop Flaget, that honor having fallen to Father Badin, the 
Dittoe and Fink families were nevertheless rejoiced exceedingly 

45. Baltimore Archives, Case 8 A, F. 4. 

46. Archives St. Joseph Priory. 


by having Bishop Flaget celebrate the holy sacrifice in their 
midst. Bishop Flaget with Father Badin on his way to Balti 
more to attend a Council, crossed the Ohio river at Maysville, 
on October 7, 1812. They soon found a German Catholic by 
the name of William Cassel, whose four children they baptized. 
At Chillicothe they found a few Catholics who were ashamed 
to confess their faith and were accustomed to frequent the 
Protestant services. Between Chillicothe and Lancaster they 
rejoiced in the warm hospitality of a Catholic family, still 
staunch in the faith. They arrived at New Lancaster on 
October 9th, where, finding three or four Catholic families, they 
baptized five children. On the way to Somerset they found 
the Fink and Dittoe families, at one of whose houses the 
bishop heard confessions and celebrated Mass on October 10th. 
They also viewed the 320 acres of land which Jacob Dittoe 
had bought for church purposes, a portion of which was al 
ready cleared. Here the bishop urged them to erect a house 
to serve as a residence for a priest and a temporary chapel. 47 
The bishop and Father Badin then pursued their journey to 

Referring to this visitation in Ohio Bishop Flaget reported 
to the Propaganda on April 10, 1815, as follows: 

"On my journey to Baltimore I found 50 Catholic families in the 
State of Ohio. I hear that there are many others scattered in various 
parts of the same state, but those who have migrated into those regions 
have never seen a priest (since they left their former homes). Hence 
many of those I met have almost forgotten their religion, and they are 
bringing up their children in complete ignorance. And this neglected 
portion of the flock committed to me, I am compelled to leave on 
account of lack of workers, for I can scarcely send a missionary to them 
even once a year." 48 

In these first years, then, it would appear that Father 
Fenwick did not visit Ohio more than once a year. But as he 
continued his visits, he also extended the sphere of his activities 
in Ohio. In 1815, indeed, we find him writing to the Dittoes 
on August 6th, from Georgetown, that he intends to visit them 
between September 20th and 30th and to continue on to Cin- 

47. Journal of BISHOP FLAGET, October 7 to October 11, 1812, in Records of the Ameri 
can Catholic Historical Society, September, 1918, vol. XXIX, pp. 235, 245-248. 

48. Propaganda Archives, America Centrale, vol. Ill, fol. 323-326 (Catholic Historical 
Review, I, p. 308). 


cinnati. He is also solicitous for the Catholics at Newark, 
Owl Creek, and Walnut Creek. 49 Spalding says that Fenwick 
actually executed this intention, as he visited Cincinnati and 
many other parts of Ohio in 1815. 50 After again visiting the 
state in 1816 Father Fenwick reported to Bishop Flaget that 
at least four priests were needed to attend the increasing 
Catholic flocks. 51 It was in the fall of this year, 1816, when the 
missions in Kentucky had been supplied with recently-ordained 
priests, that Father Fenwick began to give his uninterrupted 
service to Ohio. 52 He began to traverse the whole of Ohio 
in such wise that he became known as an itinerant preacher, 
not having been at his convent of St. Rose s for two whole years. 
Upon visiting Gallipolis in 1817 he found many young people 
eighteen years old not yet baptized, while nearby were sixteen 
Catholic families unattended. 53 When he opened a baptismal 
register at Somerset on December 24, 1818, the day of the first 
recorded baptism (that of Nicholas J. Rian [Ryan]), he summed 
up his previous activities as follows: 

"In the year 1817 and 1818 I baptized in different parts of the 
Ohio State 162 persons both young and old whose names and sponsors 
cannot now be recollected, as I was then an Itinerant missioner and 
such persons were generally discovered and brought to me accidently 
R. M. Young during his journey to Maryland and back to Ohio in this 
year of 1818, baptized about 30 in a similar manner " 


The Rev. Mr. Young alluded to above had been ordained 
on December 18, 1817, and soon after was assigned to assist 
his reverend uncle in Ohio. The two missionaries had decided 
on making Somerset their headquarters, where they had been 
favored by Jacob Dittoe in the transfer on May 23, 1818, of the 
west half of section number 23 in township number 16 in range 
number 16, which Jacob Dittoe himself had bought from the 

49. Mss. copy by Rev. Stephen Byrne, O.P., of original letter (now lost) in Archives of 
St. Joseph Priory, Somerset, Ohio. 

50. SPAWNING, Life of Flaget, p. 203. 

51. SPALDING, o. c., quoting Journal of Bishop Flaget, December 6, 1816. 

52. Letter, Edward Fenwick, Springfield, Ky., January 25, 1822, to Prefect of Propa 
ganda, Propaganda Archives, America Centrale, vol. VII, No. 1; Edward Fenwick to friend 
in London, November 8, 1818, printed in Diario di Roma, January 23, 1819. 

53. SPALDING, Life of Flaget, p. 204. 

54. Baptismal Record, St. Joseph s Priory, Somerset, Ohio. 


U. S. Government on August 19, 1809. 55 Upon this land the 
Catholics about Somerset, who now numbered ten families, 
built a log house to serve as a chapel a plain unornamented 
one-story structure built with the ground to serve as a floor 
and another log house of two rooms to serve as the convent 
for the Fathers. This first church of Ohio, the mother church 
of the state, was blessed by Fathers Fenwick and Young on 
December 6, 1818. 56 Whilst this church was being built, 
Father Fenwick began the erection of a second log church in 
Ohio at Lancaster. 57 The first church had been dedicated to 
St. Joseph; the second was placed under the patronage of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary. About the same time a third chapel 
was begun in the state at Cincinnati, Bishop Flaget having 
visited this city in the spring of 1818 and having during his 
presence there daily urged the erection of a chapel as the surest 
means of obtaining a priest. He arrived at Cincinnati on 
May 19th and spent two days there. 58 His memory of this 
visit was quite vivid and accurate as we may judge from the 
following extract from the memoir which he wrote in 1836 for 
the Cardinal- Prefect of the Propaganda, explaining the state of 
his diocese in 1810 and after: 

"In the beginning of the spring of 1818 I left for Cincinnati, the 
chief city of the State of Ohio, taking with me Messrs. Bertrand and 
Janvier, whom I had to place with Mr. Richard, the cure of Detroit 
and the only priest in all Michigan. The eagerness with which the 
small number of Catholics of the city of Cincinnati received my visit, 
persuaded me to remain there a few days in order to give them the aid 
of my ministry. They were so poor that they were unable to build a 
church, so that we held our meetings in one of their homes. My 
exhortations to them always concluded with the words that they build 
a church as a sure means of obtaining a missionary. They gave the 

55. Record of Deeds, Perry County, Ohio, vol. A., p. 22, recorded May 23, 1818 (see 
Appendix No. I). 

56. Baptismal record, St. Joseph s Priory, Somerset, Ohio, p. 1; letter, Fenwick to a 
friend in London, November 8, 1818, in Diario di Roma, January 23, 1819; letter, Nicholas 
D. Young, St. Joseph s, Perry Co., near Somerset, Ohio, December 4, 1818, to Nicholas Young, 
Esq., Nonesuch, near Washington City (St. Joseph Priory Archives); letter, Hill, S. Rose 
Convent, January 27, 1822, to Rev. P. Olivieri (Propaganda Archives, America Centrale, 
Scritture, vol. 929); communication signed "Missionary", dated Ohio, January 12, 1829, in 

U. S. Catholic Miscellany, January 31, 1829, p. 238; also U. S. Catholic Miscellany, Febru 
ary 24, 1827, VI, 246. 

57. Letter, Fenwick, November 8, 1818, in Diario di Roma, ut supra. 

58. Journal of BISHOP FLAGET, May 19, 1818, quoted by SPALDING, Life of Bishop Flaget, 
p. 183. 


most solemn promise that they would do so, and they kept their word ; 
for a year later it was under roof." 59 

The bishop passed on north through Dayton, Springfield 
and Urbana, saying Mass at the last named place on May 
24th. After spending the entire winter in the north, he came 
back to Cincinnati on June 21, 1819, when he found that the 
church had already been used for divine service. 60 

The successful termination of the efforts of the few Catholic 
families at Cincinnati in building a church had come, however, 
only after several attempts had met with failure. The first 
of these attempts was made as early as the year 1811, as the 
following advertisement, on December llth, culled from the 
weekly Liberty Hall of Cincinnati, shows: 


As the Constitution of the United States allows liberty of con 
science to all men, and the propagation of religious worship, it is earn 
estly requested by a number of the Roman Catholics of Cincinnati 
and its vicinity, that a meeting be held on the 25th of December, next, 
at the house of Jacob Fowble, at 12 o clock A.M., when it is hoped all 
those in favor of establishing a congregation and giving encourage 
ment will attend and give in their names, and at the same time appoint 
a committee of arrangements. 

Repetitions of the advertisement occur in the editions of 
December 18th and 25th. 61 

No evidence has come down to us as to how many persons 
attended the meeting or what occurred at it, and since Father 
Fen wick had not reached Cincinnati as early as 1811, we were 
at a loss to know the occasion of the advertisement, until we 
chanced upon an obituary notice in the same periodical of an 
earlier date, October 16, 1811: 

Died On Friday evening last, after an illness of about thirty 
hours, Mrs. Margaret Fowble, aged 36 years, consort of Mr. Jacob 
Fowble, of this place, a few years since from the city of Baltimore. 
For fifteen years past, she has been the rneek and humble follower of 
the Lord Jesus Christ. She had a confidence of her acceptance with 
her God and has gone to take her seat with the blessed. She was a 

59. Memoire of Flaget, 1836, to his Eminence Cardinal Franzoni, Prefect of Propaganda 
(St. Louis Diocesan Archives). 

60. SPALDING, o. c., p. 201. 

61. Liberty Hall, Cincinnati, December 11, 1811, p. 3, col. 4; December 18, p. 3, col. 1; 
December 25, p. 1, col. 1 (Public Library, Cincinnati). 


tender and affectionate wife and mother, a sincere friend, and beloved 
by all who had the pleasure of her acquaintance; and has left a hus 
band and several children to lament a loss that can never be made up 
to them in this world. A large concourse of friends and relatives at 
tended her remains to the Methodist meeting house, where a solemn 
and impressive discourse was delivered by Bishop McKendree on the 
mournful occasion, to a very attentive congregation, whose counte 
nances bespoke the share she held in their affections. 62 

The sudden death of his dear wife, without the last rites 
of the Catholic religion, the necessity of her burial from the 
Methodist church, and the danger of a similar fate overtaking 
himself and his Catholic neighbors, aroused the energies of 
Jacob Fowble to consult with the other Catholics, few though 
they were, regarding the erection of a church. 

A second attempt, which was to meet a similar sad fate, 
was made in 1817 by Michael Scott, at whose house Father 
Fenwick lodged on his visits to Cincinnati. Advertisements 
were inserted in two of the weeklies, the Liberty Hall and 
Cincinnati Gazette, and the Western Spy, both of which carried 
requests to the Ohio Watchman of Dayton to give three inser 
tions. We quote from the Gazette in its issue of September 8, 


The Catholics of the town and vicinity of Cincinnati and those of 
the county of Hamilton, are requested to attend a meeting to be held 
at the house of Mr. Michael Scott, Walnut Street, a few doors below 
the Seminary, on Sunday, October 12th, for the laudable purpose of 
consulting on the best method of erecting and establishing a Catholic 
Church in the vicinity of Cincinnati. They will likewise please to 
take notice that great encouragement is already held out to them. 

"Looking unto Jesus the author and finisher of our faith; who, 
for the joy that was set before him, endured the cross despising the 
shame, and is set down at the right hand of the Throne of God." 

Cincinnati, Sept. 8, 1817. Hebrews Chap. 12 v.ii. 63 

Speaking of this meeting of 1817 on the occasion of the 
cornerstone laying in 1858 of St. Francis Seraph church, 
which now occupies the site of the first church of Cincinnati, 
Rev. Edward Purcell, who, no doubt, had his information from 

62. Liberty Hall, Cincinnati, October 16, 1811. 

63. Liberty Hall and Cincinnati Gazette, September 8, 1817; September 22nd and Sep 
tember 29th; The Western Spy, Cincinnati, September 5, 12, 19, 1817 (Public Library, Cin 


living witnesses, said that nine Catholic men, seven women and 
four children answered the call of the advertisement. 64 The 
undertaking had again to be abandoned for the time being, 
but a new impulse was given to the enterprise by Bishop 
Flaget the next May when he visited Cincinnati for a few days 
on his way north. It was as a result of his encouragement that 
a committee of Catholic men at Cincinnati, seeing themselves 
unable to procure among themselves the means necessary for 
the building of a church, sent out an appeal for help to the 
Catholics of the East, an appeal that was given consideration 
by the Mirror of Baltimore. 

Cincinnati, Ohio, Nov. 23, 1818. 

Sir: Permit us to address you on a subject which we deem 

We are authorized to acquaint you in behalf of ourselves and the 
Roman Catholics of this town, that considering ourselves like the lost 
sheep of the house of Israel, forlorn and forsaken, destitute of the means 
of exercising the duties of our Holy Religion, without Guide, Church, 
or Pastor, while we behold all other members of the community en 
joying those benefits; we are compelled, from the paucity of our 
numbers and consequent want of pecuniary resources, to call upon our 
brethren throughout the Union for their assistance towards the erec 
tion of a Catholic Church. 

For the speedy accomplishment of so desirable an object, we enter 
tain a confident hope of your hearty co-operation. We therefore, 
respectfully but earnestly solicit your aid and your influence. 

Relying on your zeal and promptitude, we shall shortly expect to 
be favored with your reply directed to Mr. P. Reily, of the firm of 
Perrys and Reilly, Brewers, Cincinnati. 

We are, Sir, Respt, Your Ob t Servants. 



John Carrere, Esq., JOHN WHITE ( 

Baltimore, Md. P. WALSH, Secretary 65 

This appeal shows these Irish Catholics of Cincinnati to 
have been sincere in their promise to Bishop Flaget to build a 
church. 66 After they had perhaps heard from the East, they 
called another meeting to be held this time in the house of 
John White. Notice was again given in the Western Spy: 

64. Catholic Telegraph, 1858, XXVII, 4. 

65. Idem 1867, XXXVI, 4. 

66. Memoir e of FLAGET, 1836, to Prefect of Propaganda. 



A general meeting of the Roman Catholics of Cincinnati and the 
county of Hamilton is requested, at the house of John White, in Colum 
bia street, near Broadway, on Sunday, 7th of March next. 

On business of importance. 

By order of the Committee. 
February 26, 1819. JOHN SHERLOCK, Sec ry. 67 

We are not left long to conjecture what this "business of 
importance" was; it was none other than the organization of 
the congregation and the building of the church, for which 
moneys were needed, as we may discern from the next notice 
inserted in the Western Spy on Saturday, March 13th: 


The Roman Catholics of Hamilton County are requested to for 
ward to the Treasurer, in the course of the next 68 and the following 
month, as large a portion of their subscriptions as they possibly can, 
as the committee will thereby be enabled to have the church ready for 
Divine Service by next Easter Sunday. 

By order of the Committee 


The site chosen for the church was on lots one and two in a 
tract of land adjoining the northern boundary of the city of 
Cincinnati, which James Findlay had laid out into fifty-two 
lots, and had denominated the Northern Liberties. 70 Lots one 
and two are now occupied by the present St. Francis church 
at the northwest corner of Vine and Liberty streets. The 
reasons 71 prompting the Catholics in the choice of that site were 

67. The Western Spy, Cincinnati, February 27 and March 6, 1819 (Public Library, 
Cincinnati) . 

68. Ought we to read "of this and the following month"? 

69. The Western Spy, March 13, 1819; also March 20th and 27th. 

70. Liberty Hall and Cincinnati Gazette, May 27, 1818; Plat recorded May 21, 1819 
(Hamilton County Recorder s Office, Bk. R2, p. 334); deed James Findlay to Trustees of 
Christ Church, recorded in Bk. V-l, pp. 525-26, Hamilton County Recorder s Office, May 
19, 1821. 

71. Many recent writers on Cincinnati history, without investigating the truth of the 
statement, have allowed themselves to accept the statement that a city ordinance forbade the 
erection of the first Catholic church in the city limits. We find this statement in the Col 
legian (a student paper of St. Xavier College, Cincinnati), vol. I, No. 1, p. 7, April, 1887; 
J. G. SHEA, History of the Catholic Church in the United States, 1808-15 to 1843, pp. 337-338, 
(New York, 1890); Souvenir Album, Catholic Churches of Cincinnati and Hamilton County, 
Ohio, p. 15 (Cincinnati, 1896); article, Cincinnati, The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. Ill, p. 773, 
(New York, 1908); SISTER MARY AGNES McCANN, M.A., The History of Mother Seton s 
Daughters, vol. I, p. 158 (New York, 1917); V. F. O DANiEL, O.P., The Centenary of Ohio s 
oldest Catholic Church, in Catholic Historical Review, April, 1918, vol. IV, p. 34 (this Very 


that it was a more central site for the county, as the advertise 
ments given above show that the interests of the people out 
side the boundaries of the city were also consulted; secondly, 
the paucity of their numbers and their very limited means did 
not permit them to buy property within the city limits, as this 

Reverend author, in a later communication to the same Review, November 19, 1919 (vol. V, 
p. 428 ff.) at least throws doubt on the existence of such an ordinance. But nowhere is there 
any evidence of such an ordinance having been passed in Cincinnati. A thorough examina 
tion of the ordinances as well as the minutes of the Council of Cincinnati has not discovered 
either the enactment of such an ordinance or its repeal (Ordinances, vol. I, March 5, 1802- 
October 12, 1826; Minutes, vol. I, April 13, 18 13, -November 13, 1818; vol. II, November 
20, 1818- July 21, 1824; vol. Ill, July 28, 1824-May 2, 1827). In no instance, where the 
difficulty of the early Catholics of Cincinnati in building their church is mentioned, is there 
even a suggestion of an ordinance, though strong prejudice was to be found. The earliest of 
these witnesses which we have found, is the article, Bishop England in Cincinnati, signed M. 
(probably Rev. James I. Mullon), communicated to the United States Catholic Miscellany, 
June 29, 1830 (vol. X, p. 29, July 24, 1830) : "Were we to indulge our feelings on this pleasing 
occurrence (viz.: the presence of four bishops in Cincinnati at the same time) we could not 
refrain from expressing our surprise at the rapid advances, which our faith has made in Cin 
cinnati, in the short space of a few years, against an opposition of the most stubborn cast. 
We could trace it in its progress from the refusal of as much ground as was necessary to inter 
the remains of those, who professed it, when living, to a complete triumph over public preju 
dice, and the discomfiture of its open and avowed opponents." The author of this article 
became the editor of the Catholic Telegraph, and in the second issue of that periodical, 1831, 
vol. I, No. 2, p. 14, in an editorial, recalls how a few years before, it was with no small difficulty 
the Catholics succeeded in obtaining a spot of ground for the erection of a chapel a difficulty 
that had its origin in the strong prejudice which at that time prevailed against the name of 
Catholicity. The Wahrheitsfreund (Cincinnati) in its issue of May 27, 1841, speaking of the 
first arrangements to obtain a church in Cincinnati in 1817, says that no citizep of Cincinnati 
dared to sell a lot in the town to Catholics, because of the bigotrous hatred of Catholicity. 
In his sermon on the occasion of the laying of the cornerstone of St. John Baptist s church, 
Cincinnati, in 1845, Bishop Purcell is reported in the Catholic Telegraph of April 3rd, as point 
ing "to the declining sun, which," he said, "in his revolving course that day, had not surely 
shone upon a scene more pleasing to God, more consoling to man. With a pathos that moved 
every heart, he recurred to the trials and conflicts of our ancestors in the faith in Cincinnati. 
When they sought to procure a lot whereon to raise a little church, they met with contumely 
and reproach. They were told to go beyond the corporation line, to seek the brickyards, there 
they might find a place sufficiently good for them. The followers of a meek and lowly Saviour, 
they bore all with patience and resignation. They went beyond the limits of the city, rented 
the small square, now known as the Old Graveyard, on Vine street, raised a small building, 
in which they devotedly assembled to adore the God of their fathers." The last quotation 
which we shall give is from the letter of one who had arrived in Cincinnati only in 1843 and 
wrote ambiguously: "As the Catholics were not allowed (granted) a place within, they built 
the first chapel of boards outside the corporation line." "Diese errichteten ausserhalb der 
Corporations-Linie, da man den Katholiken innerhalb derselben keinen Platz gestattete, die 
erste Kapelle aus Brettern" (letter, Rev. Wm. Unterthiner, Cincinnati, September 12, 1845, 
to Prince-Bishop of Vienna, Berichte der Leopoldinen Stiftung, Number XIX, 1846, p. 84). 
Nowhere, therefore, do we find mention of a city ordinance passed to forbid the erection of a 
Catholic church in Cincinnati. Indeed, besides the lack of witnesses in its favor, there are 
others against it. The third article of the ordinance of 1 787 for the government of the North 
west Territory expressly fostered religion: "Religion, morality, and knowledge being necessary 
to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall 
forever be encouraged." No city council would stultify itself by passing a law in contravention 
to the law of its government on a matter of such importance. Everyone knows, too, that no 
man who is anxious to develop his district by immigrants will engender religious animosity. 
And the first thing the bishop did when he came to Cincinnati as bishop in 1822, was to select 


property was high priced. 72 On the other hand they obtained 
very easy terms from James Findlay, who had advertised that 
he would sell under "easy terms". 73 As a matter of fact, the 
congregation agreed to purchase the two lots from Mr. Findlay 
for $1,200 ; 74 but on the day of the transfer of the property, 
they executed a mortgage to James Findlay for $750, a transac 
tion which speaks for itself in reference to the poverty of the 
Catholics at Cincinnati. 75 

a more convenient site for himself in the city itself; previously he had not lived in the city; 
but now, finding the road out to the church from his lodging place in the city, almost unfit 
for travel in the early spring, he has the church moved nearer to him in the fall of 1822. In 
deed, the prejudice of which we read so much grew only after the Catholics began to succeed 
on Sycamore street, after 1826. The missionaries from Kentucky who knew Cincinnati before 
the erection of the diocese in 1821, speak in a different strain. Witness the following extract 
from the letter of Rev. Thomas Wilson. Convent of Kentucky, March 6, 1820, to Rev. Augustine 
Hill, Rome: "Cincinnati, one of the most flourishing cities of the Western States, would be 
preferred to every other city, as there is there a good church. The Protestants as well as the 
Catholics of that city would contribute generously to the establishment of that see; as they 
well realized the importance of having a Catholic Bishop for the advancement of their city, 
and to induce the Catholics to settle in the neighborhood." (Propaganda Archives, America 
Centrale, 1818-1820, vol. 4, No. 138). The notes of Father De Raymaecker, O.P., one of the 
Fathers who accompanied Bishop Fenwick to Cincinnati in 1822, say that the Protestants even 
helped to bring the first church into the city. When Fenwick was at Rome in 1823-24 he gave 
information concerning his diocese, which was incorporated in an article Notice sur la Mission 
de I Ohio. In this we read of his efforts to build a church in Cincinnati as follows: "A sub 
scription was opened. The amount was insufficient, although many non-Catholics contributed 
to it" (Propaganda Archives, America Centrale, Scritture Originali, vol. 8). Finally, we learn 
that some of the Catholics themselves were opposed to transferring the church from Vine and 
Liberty to Sycamore street, which opposition created a schism so that Bishop Fenwick had the 
property, which, up till then, had been held in the name of the Trustees of Christ Church, 
transferred to himself. Thus writes Father Rese from Cincinnati, May 5, 1825, to Rev. M. 
Roimondo, Rector of Propaganda College, Rome (Propaganda Archives, America Centrale, 
Scritture, 1823-1826, vol. 8). From this we may rightly draw the conclusion that the church 
was built in the Northern Liberties, at least to an extent, to satisfy the demands of Catholics 
who lived beyond the city limits. 

72. It will suffice to quote DRAKE, Picture of Cincinnati, 1815, pp. 131-132, to give an 
estimate on city property: "For several years after the settlement of Cincinnati, the lots along 
the principal streets were sold for less than $100 each. They gradually increased in price until 
the year 1805, when from a sudden influx of population, they rose for a short time with rapidity. 
Their advancement was then slower, till 1811; since which the rate of increase has been so 
high, that for a year past the lots in Main, from Front to Third streets, have sold at $200 per 
foot, measuring on the front line; from thence to Sixth street at $100; in Broadway, Front 
and Market streets, from $80 to $120; and on the others, from $50 to $10, according to local 
advantages. Out-lots and land adjoining to the town plat, bring from $500 to $1,000 per 

73. Liberty Hall and Cincinnati Gazette, May 27, 1818. 

74. Deed of transfer Findlay to Trustees, ut supra. 

75. Mortgage of the Roman Catholic Congregation to James Findlay, given on April 20, 
1821, received and recorded May 23, 1821, Hamilton County Recorder s Office, Deed Book 
W-l, pp. 175-176. That balance had not been paid as late as the year 1835, when an effort was 
being made to collect it with interest (letter of Bishop Purcell, Cincinnati, January 15, 1835, 
to Bishop Rese, Detroit; Notre Dame Archives). 


In this connection it may be interesting to follow up the 
names of the early Catholics of Cincinnati in the Cincinnati 
Directory of 1819: 

Byrne, James W., 12 E. New Market (no occupation given; 1825 

Directory says: brewer, Water b. Main and Walnut). 
Boyle, Wm., millwright, 47 Lower Market. 
Gazelles, Peter, silversmith, 112 Main St. 
Fowble, Jacob, grocer, 2 1 Water St. 
Lynch, Edward, tailor, 20 E. Front. 

Moran, Michael, grocer, Congress b. Broadway and Ludlow. 
Reily, Patrick, brewer, h. Congress b. Lawrence and Pike. 
Scott, Michael, house-carpenter, Walnut, b. Third and Fourth. 
Sherlock, John, distiller, 56 W. Front Street. 
Walsh, Patrick, 57 Broadway. 

Ward, Robert S., house-carpenter, 60 Fifth, b. Walnut & Vine. 
White, John, innkeeper, Second, b. Sycamore and Broadway. 

Three names, those of Thomas Dugan, John M. Mahon and 
James Gorman, signatures to the petition in 1820 to Archbishop 
Marechal, appear neither in the Directory of 1819 nor of 1825. 
It is possible that they lived outside of Cincinnati. 

Taking advantage of an act for the incorporation of religious 
societies, passed by the General Assembly of the State of Ohio 
on February 5, 1819, 76 these men organized themselves into 
a congregation of the Roman Catholic Church at Cincinnati, 
to be known as Christ Church with the following five trustees : 
Patrick Reily, John Sherlock, Thomas Dugan, Edward Lynch 
and Michael Scott. 77 

The actual work on the church did not occupy much time. 
Mr. Michael Scott, a house-carpenter by profession, prepared 
the plans, which were given to Mr. Wm. Reilly, of Alexandria, 
Kentucky. The latter tells us in his diary: 

"Having followed carpentering in Cincinnati, and having put up 
a number of frame buildings, I was employed by a gentleman of the 
denomination of Catholics, to build them a frame Church, which I 
agreed to do. I got all the timber on my own land and framed it on 
my own premises, about a mile east of Alexandria, hauled the timber 
to the river, rafted and landed it down low in Cincinnati. It was 
hauled out to a vacant lot, no house of any kind near it. We put up 
the house and they paid me honestly for my work." 78 

76. Laws of Ohio, vol. XVIII, p. 6-8 (second pagination). 

77. Deed, James Findlay to the Trustees of the Roman Catholic Congregation, April 20, 
1821 ; recorded May 23, 1821, Hamilton County Office of Recorder, Book V-l, pp. 525-26. 

78. Extract given in letter to Editor of Catholic Telegraph, signed Weibald, Covington, 
Ky., January 20, 1886 (Catholic Telegraph, February 3, 1886). 


The church, a plain frame structure, measuring about 
55 feet by 30 feet, was probably completed according to inten 
tion for Easter Sunday, 1819, and on that day Mass was said 
in it for the first time. It is not difficult to imagine the senti 
ments of the one hundred Catholics who attended that first 
celebration of the sacred mysteries in the little chapel at Cin 
cinnati. Years of disappointment had melted finally into a 
new year of grace. Long periods of time when no missionary 
could minister properly to them were now to be superceded by 
regular services. No longer need the aged or infirm fear the 
advent of the angel of death without anointment with oil in 
the name of the Lord at the hands of the priest of God. Now, 
too, might be experienced the interior joy of the Saints of God, 
gathered together in the conventicle, partaking of the same 
table, and holding one another in the love of brethren in 
Christ, imitating once more those early Christians who were 
known to the pagan world because they "loved one another". 

Towards the end of this year Bishop Flaget of Bardstown, 
in whose diocese lay the entire state of Ohio, wrote to the 
Cardinal- Prefect of the Propaganda, giving a short account of the 
Catholic prospects in Ohio and advising the erection of a 
bishopric in the state. He wrote: 

"The State of Ohio may contain from 250 to 300 Catholic families, 
scattered here and there. Two Dominicans officiate in that country. 
The people generally are very religious, and very well disposed towards 
the Catholic religion. Monsignor Du Bourg and myself are convinced 
that a Bishop there would do a great deal of good." 79 

It was, no doubt, as the result of Father Fenwick s report 
to him that Bishop Flaget wrote thus to the Propaganda. 
The two Fathers then in Ohio had, indeed, formed churches 
or congregations at Somerset, Lancaster and Cincinnati, but 
as we learn from the Baptismal Register started by Father 
Fen wick in 1818, Father Fen wick visited many other places in 
the state where he found Catholics. In 1820 Father Fen wick 
himself estimated the number of Catholics in Ohio at 3,000 
persons, composed principally of Germans and Irish, the former 

79. Relation of diocese of Bardstown by Flaget, Bardstown, October 18, 1819, to Cardinal 
Litta, Prefect of Propaganda (Propaganda Archives, America Centrale, vol. IV, No. 124, 
p. 13). 



exceeding the latter. The Propaganda Congregation was 
not long in giving ear to the advice of the American prelates 
relative to the erection of a see in Ohio, so that in June, 1821, 
the diocese of Cincinnati was erected with Right Reverend 
Edward Fenwick, O.P., as its first bishop. 

80. Letter, Edward Fenwick, Georgetown College, B.C., June 1, 1820, to Rev. John 
Augustine Hill, O.P., Rome (Propaganda Archives, America Centrale, vol. IV, No. 151 ; printed 
in part in Catholic Historical Review, IV, 28-29). 




jS THE time became propitious, the erection of 
new episcopal sees in the Central West was 
proposed by those to whom the territory had 
been entrusted, the bishops of Bardstown and 
Louisiana. Correspondence on the subject 
passed between Bishop Flaget and Bishop 
Dubourg in the spring of 1819, when it was thought prudent 
by them to ask Archbishop Marechal to petition Rome for the 
erection of a see at Detroit, and perhaps of a second one on the 
Ohio river. 1 Writing in the winter of that year to Bishop 
Dubourg, Bishop Flaget sees the necessity of new sees at 
Vincennes, Cincinnati and Detroit. 2 In the following spring, 
Bishop Flaget takes up the matter with the archbishop of 
Baltimore and gives his views as well as those of Bishop Du 
bourg on the persons to be nominated to Cincinnati and 
Detroit. Both he and Dubourg propose Benedict Fenwick, 
S.J., for Ohio, who, says the bishop of Bardstown, is capable 
on account of his theological knowledge and preaching; has 
the advantage of being an American and a Jesuit, for which 
last reason he can expect help in his diocese from the Society 
of Jesus; and he adds that the people of Cincinnati would be 
very proud to have him, as they have told Flaget himself. 
For second choice he proposes Edward Fenwick, O.P., who, 
he says, has great knowledge of the state of Ohio and the 
Catholics therein, is very popular, and a Dominican, and can 
likewise expect help in his diocese from the order. He men 
tions him second, however, because he has very little knowledge, 

1. Letter, Dubourg, Seminary of St. Mary, Barrens, Mo., May 7, 1819, to Archbishop 
Marechal, Baltimore (Baltimore Archives, Case 16, A 8). 

2. SPALDING, Life of Flaget, p. 216, quoting Flaget s Journal of December 30, 1819. 



whilst his practice is very easy and convenient. For the 
diocese of Detroit, he proposes Father Gallitzin first, and Father 
Lartigne, Sulpician, of Montreal, second. 

In these proposals, the bishop states that both he and 
Bishop Dubourg are one. But he wishes to express an opinion 
which is his own alone and which he thinks would serve the 
purpose better. Since there are perhaps 400 families in Ohio 
who understand German only, and since Father Gallitzin alone 
of all those proposed knows German, Gallitzin would be the 
proper man to nominate; but not being a Dominican, and the 
Dominicans being already at work in Ohio, he would be unable 
to accomplish anything single-handed. He would, therefore, 
have Archbishop Marechal suggest to Father Gallitzin that 
Rome wants to make him a bishop, and that he will be made 
bishop of Ohio on the recommendation of the bishops of 
America, if he will join the Dominican order, either by solemn 
vows or as a member of the Third order. Having informed 
Bishop Dubourg of this proposition, who expressed himself 
pleased with it, Bishop Flaget tells Archbishop Marechal that 
if he, too, thinks well of it, they will present the name of 
Gallitzin alone for Ohio; and in this event, they would pro 
pose Benedict Fenwick, S.J., for Detroit. 3 

Ten days had not passed before Bishop Flaget was found with 
pen in hand again advocating to Archbishop Marechal the ap 
pointment of Father Gallitzin as the best man for the see of 
Cincinnati. But as "insurmountable obstacles" might present 
themselves to the affiliation of the same reverend gentleman 
with the order of St. Dominic, he is of the opinion that Edward 
Fenwick should then be presented, a 

"missionary full of zeal and humility, of an admirable ability to make 
converts if he has not all the knowledge which it is proper for him to 
have, he has, according to all appearances, as much as I (Flaget) have; 
besides belonging to an Order as he does, it will be easier for him to 
obtain learned counsel, which may supply what he lacks. Having 
asked of Edward Fenwick his opinion on the most suitable person for 
Ohio, he named (Rev.) Mr. Wilson, his superior, living in Kentucky. 
It is certain that Mr. Wilson has great qualities for the episcopate 
he is a learned theologian, an excellent literateur, a very retired man 
but with these great talents this good man does not preach or rather 
does not wish to preach, ever since he has had three or four young 

3. Letter, Flaget, March 7, 1820, to Marechal (Baltimore Archives, Case 16, T 12). 


Dominicans ordained priests; besides he has great difficulty in travel 
ing on account of rheumatic pains which trouble him. Perhaps the 
episcopate might provide an efficacious remedy to those two small 

The bishop concludes that if the name of Rev. Mr. Gallitzin is 
not to be presented, one of the two Dominicans ought to be, 
since they know the state of Ohio and will do all in their power 
to make the new see prosper. 4 

Acting upon these letters from Bishop Flaget, Archbishop 
Marshal wrote on April 4, 1820, to the Cardinal-Prefect of 
the Propaganda to the effect that he favored the erection of 
Cincinnati, but that the erection of Detroit was premature. 
For Cincinnati, he proposed Bishop David, the vicar-general 
of Bardstown, as there was no prospect of David who was so 
much older than Flaget succeeding him at Bardstown, and one 
bishop was sufficient for Kentucky; secondly, David had 
experience and would do good in the new diocese; and finally, 
as he was a friend of Flaget s, the two dioceses would continue on 
the best of terms. For his second choice to the new see he 
proposed Edward Fenwick, who had worked a long time in 
Ohio, and who was learned, prudent, zealous and pious. 5 
Archbishop Marechal then wrote an answer to Bishop Flaget 
informing him that Rome intended Gallitzin for Philadelphia. 
To this Flaget answered that he did not intend to change 
Rome s opinion concerning Gallitzin, but he thought that 
Gallitzin would not be able to hold his own in Philadelphia. 
He still thought Gallitzin best for Ohio, even though he did not 
become a Dominican, as he would find the Dominicans in Ohio 
a tractable clergy. 6 

Having received this letter and having had an interview 
with Edward Fenwick, Archbishop Marechal wrote to the Propa 
ganda a second time, proposing Fenwick as in every way pre 
ferable to David, being more active, practical, an American 
by birth, and a Dominican, which would insure him help from 
the order. 7 

4. Letter, Flaget, Bardstown, March 16, 1820, to Marechal, Baltimore (Baltimore 
Archives, Case 16, T 11). 

5. Letter, Archbishop Marechal, Baltimore, April 4, 1820, to Cardinal-Prefect of Pro 
paganda (Propaganda Archives, America Centrale, vol. IV, No. 155). 

6. Flaget, Bardstown, May 23, 1820, to Marechal (Baltimore Archives, Case 16, U 13). 

7. Propaganda Archives, Acta, 1821, fol. 272 a, May 21, 1821. 


In the meantime Bishop Dubourg had also written to the 
Propaganda on April 25, 1820, advising the erection of the two 
sees. 8 As the Propaganda had not yet heard from Bishop 
Flaget, in whose territory the new diocese lay, the Cardinal- 
Prefect wrote to him on June 14 (24), 1820. On November 
5th, two days after he had received this letter, the bishop of 
Bardstown answered, stating that in the previous May the 
bishop of Louisiana had written to the Cardinal- Prefect of the 
Propaganda, describing the limits of the two new dioceses, 
Cincinnati and Detroit, and proposing for them the names of 
Edward Fenwick and John Grassi, S.J., respectively. Of this, 
both himself and his coadjutor approved. If Detroit were not 
to be erected, that territory together with a part of Virginia 
should be annexed to the territory of the diocese of Cincinnati. 
But he begged the Cardinal to pass over Bishop David, his 
coadjutor, the only one whom he could consult in his diffi 
culties. Bishop David was sixty years old and corpulent, so 
that he could not ride on horseback, a necessity for the mis 
sionary in Ohio. The loss of David to Kentucky would mean 
the breaking up of his seminary. 9 

With full information from all concerned, Propaganda Con 
gregation in a general session on May 21, 1821, decreed the 
erection of Cincinnati with Edward Fenwick as its first bishop. 10 
The bull erecting the diocese and appointing Edward Fenwick 
to the see of Cincinnati was issued on June 19, 182 1. 11 (See 
Appendix IV.) 

The recipient of this new office, Edward Dominic Fenwick, 
O.P., was born on August 19, 1768, in St. Mary s county, on 
the Patuxent river, Maryland. 12 His parents were Ignatius 

8. Propaganda Archives, ut supra Note 7. 

9. Flaget, Bardstown, November 5, 1820, to Cardinal-Prefect of Propaganda (Propa 
ganda Archives, America Centrale, vol. IV, No. 139; Propaganda Archives, Acta, May 21, 
1821, fol. 272a). The letter of Flaget mentions the letter of the Cardinal to himself as dated 
June 14th; the Acta of Propaganda mentions it as of June 24th. 

10. Decree of Propaganda, May 21, 1821 (Secretary of State, Vatican, Archives of the 
Secretary of Briefs, vol. 4670; Propaganda Archives, Acta, May 21, 1821, fol. 272a). 

1 1 . Bull of erection of Cincinnati (Vatican, Secretary of State, Archives of the Secretary 
of Briefs, vol. 4670; copy made at Rome, preserved in Notre Dame Archives [not filed] ; copy 
in Baltimore Archives, Copy Book and Record of Roman Documents, 1784-1862, vol. II, p. 31; 
portion of the bull printed in Jus Pontificium De Propaganda Fide [Rome, 1891 j, vol. IV, 
p. 593). 

12. The best life of Bishop Fenwick is that recently published by REV. V. F. O DANIEL, 
O.P., in which the original sources have been abundantly reproduced. Other lives and bio 
graphical notices are: BONA VENTURE HAMMER, Der Apostle von Ohio (Herder, Freiburg im 
Breisgau, 1890); PALMER, MSS. Anglia Dominicana, Part III A, p. 722, Sketch of E. D. 


Fenwick, of Wellington, a descendant of Cuthbert Fenwick, of 
the Fenwicks of Fenwick Tower, Northumberland, England, 
through the cadet branch of the Longshaws, and Sarah Taney, 
daughter of Michael Taney and Sarah Brooke. Edward was 
the fourth child of a family of eight children, six boys and two 
girls, James, Mary, Sarah, Edward, Michael, Thomas, 
Nicholas and Charles. He was deprived of the loving care of 
his mother at an early age; at the time of his father s death in 
March, 1784, he was but fifteen, while his oldest brother alone 
had reached majority. The family, however, had been 
amply provided for, as Ignatius Fenwick had been a large 
landowner in Maryland. Edward s early education was 
probably received privately in the Fenwick manor, but on 
December 24, 1784, we find him entered at Holy Cross college, 
Bornheim, Belgium, conducted by refugee Dominican monks 
from England. 13 

Having completed his humanities in the scholastic year of 
1787-1788, and having traveled in Europe during the vacation 
to recuperate his health, which had never been strong, he en 
tered the order of St. Dominic on September 4, 1788, 14 adding 
to his baptismal name of Edward that of Dominic. He was 
professed a Friar Preacher on March 26, 1790, at Bornheim, 
being then 21 years old. 15 The next eighteen months were 
devoted to the study of theology, though even this short time 
was interrupted by weeks and months, 16 owing to the dis 
orders accompanying the French Revolution. Edward Fen 
wick was then ordained subdeacon at Ghent on March 24, 

Fenwick; PALMER, Obituary Notices of the Friars Preacher, p. 26, September 25, 1832: Rt. 
Rev. F. Edward Dominic Fenwick; RESE, Historical Notice of Bishop Fenwick, in the Annales 
of the Society of the Propagation of the Faith, Lyons, 1833, vol. 6, XXXII, p. 133 ff.; Be- 
richte der Leopoldinen Stiftung (1848-49), No. XXI, p. 2 ff.; The Catholic Almanac, 1848; 
SPALDING, Sketches of the Early Catholic Missionaries of Kentucky, pp. 149-155; Biography 
of Bishop Fenwick by R, in Catholic Telegraph, vol. II, 1833, p. 85; RICHARD H. CLARKE, 
Lives of the Deceased Bishops of the Catholic Church in the United States, vol. I, p. 328 ff. 

13. Sketch of E. D. Fenwick, by PALMER, MSS. Anglia Dominicana, Part III A, p. 722 
(Archives of the Dominican Fathers, Haverstock Hill, London, England). 

14. PALMER, ut supra. 

15. Profession of Edward Dominic Fenwick, from Book of Professions of Holy Cross 
Convent, Bornheim (Archives of the Dominicans, Haverstock Hill, London, England), in 
O DANiEL, Life of Fen-wick, p. 38. 

16. Letter, Edward Fenwick, Carshalton Academy, Surrey, England, March 15, 1803, 
to Concanen, Rome (Dominican Master General s Archives, Codex XIII, 731); letter, Fen 
wick, Turin, May 12, 1824, to Cardinal-Prefect of Propaganda (Propaganda Archives, America 
Centrale, vol. VIII, Scritture). 


1792, deacon on June 2, 1792, and priest, in all probability, 
on February 23, 1793. 17 

After teaching a year in the college, he was put in charge 
of the convent in the spring of 1794, when the invasion of the 
French Revolutionary troops caused the English Dominicans 
at Bornheim to take flight to England. It was thought that 
Father Fenwick s American citizenship would protect him and 
the convent from harm at the hands of the French troops. 18 
Taken prisoner, he was released when it became known that he 
was an American citizen, 19 but only after he had suffered many 
hardships and had been exposed to imminent danger of death, 
deliverance from which Father Fenwick attributed to the in 
tercession of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 20 He then joined his 
former companions, who had now established themselves in 
a college at Carshalton, County of Surrey, ten or twelve miles 
from London, England. He resumed his duties as professor 
in the college, remaining until November 11, 1800, when he was 
sent to Woburn Lodge to avail himself of the talented Father 
James Vincent Bowyer s instructions in theology. 21 Returning 
to his former duties at Carshalton, on June 21, 1802, he was 
made procurator for the convent. On April 2, 1803, he under 
went his first biennial examination for faculties to preach and 
hear confessions in the order. 22 

During this time, Father Fenwick had been nurturing fond 
hopes of establishing a house of the English Dominicans in 
the country of his birth, and with the design of seeing his hopes 
realized, began in 1803 to correspond with Father Richard L. 
Concanen, assistant to the Superior General of the order at 
Rome, that he might present the subject to the General. 23 

17. Records of the Cathedral of St. Bavon, Ghent. The dates for subdeaconship and 
deaconship are given exactly, but the date for priesthood must be inferred from an entry on 
February 13, 1793, which informs us that after an examination, dimissorial letters for the sacred 
priesthood were issued on that date to Brother Dominic Fenwick, O.P., deacon, of Bornheim 
Convent. As the ordination times were observed, Saturday of Ember Week falling on 
February 23rd, Edward Fenwick was most likely ordained on that day. 

18. PALMER, Life of Philip Thomas Howard, O.P., Cardinal of Norfolk, p. 225 ff. 

19. Sketch of Life of Edward Fenwick, by PALMER, MSS. Anglia Dominicana, ut supra. 

20. Life of Edward Fenwick in The Catholic Almanac, 1848, p. 58. 

21. Sketch by PALMER, MSS. Anglia Dominicana, ut supra. 

22. PALMER, MSS. Anglia Dominicana, ut supra. 

23. The original letters pertaining to this subject are to be found in the Archives of the 
Dominican Master General at Rome, Codex XIII, 731; in the Archives of the Dominican 
Fathers at Haverstock Hill, London, England; and in the Archives of St. Joseph s Province, 
Ohio. They are printed extensively in Father O DANIEL S Life of Bishop Fenwick, chapters 
III, V and VI. 


When permission had been granted for the enterprise by the 
superior general, Father Fenwick corresponded with Bishop 
Carroll of Baltimore, 24 who was delighted with the project. 
Having made all the necessary arrangements in Europe, he 
sailed from London in September, 1804, accompanied by Father 
Robert Angier, a brother Dominican, and landed at Norfolk, 
Va., towards the end of November. 

Disappointed in not being able to carry out his original 
design of founding a college and a convent of the order in 
Maryland, as Bishop Carroll considered Maryland sufficiently 
supplied with two colleges, one at Baltimore and another at 
Georgetown, he acted upon the counsel of the bishop to visit 
Kentucky in the spring of 1805 for the purpose of investigating 
the possibilities of a foundation in that state. Favorably im 
pressed by the opportunities in Kentucky, of which he made a 
report to Bishop Carroll and to his superior at Rome, who 
appointed him superior of the new province in the United States 
on June 22, 1805, 25 he sent Fathers Wilson and Tuite on ahead 
of him in October, 1805. Father Fenwick himself was detained 
in Maryland trying to convert his inherited properties into 
ready money for use in the proposed establishment, so that he 
reached Kentucky only in July, 1806. Here he bought 500 
acres of land, situated about two miles from the town of 
Springfield, Washington county, and upon them he began the 
construction of a convent and a college, and finally of a church, 
to be known as St. Rose s. In October, 1807, upon his own 
petition, he was released of the superiorship over the newly- 
founded province of Dominicans in the United States of 
America, whereupon he began his missionary work among the 
people of Kentucky. 

This was the kind of activity which he most desired. For 
the next fourteen years he was to devote himself to ministering 
to the Catholics in Kentucky and Ohio, seeking out the "lost 
sheep". His many wanderings in these two states and fre 
quent journeys to the East won for him the soubriquet of the 
"itinerant preacher", whilst his missionary endeavors in Ohio 
merited for him the glorious title of "Apostle of Ohio". We 

24. Original letters to be found in Baltimore Archives, Case 3, R. 

25. Archives of St. Joseph s Province, Ohio, O DANIEL, Life of Bishop Fenwick, p. 100. 
Letter from the Vicar-General Pius Joseph Gaddi (Archives Dominican Master General, Rome, 
Codex XIII, 731). 


have seen how his labors in Ohio finally gained for him the 
recognition of the bishops of America and the appointment by 
Rome to the see of Cincinnati on June 19, 1821. 

At the time of the arrival in Kentucky late in the year 1821 
of the bulls of the erection of the see and the appointment of 
himself as bishop, Father Fen wick was as usual at work "in the 
woods" of Ohio. 26 When he was informed of the appointment, 
he was not only surprised, since he thought Bishop Flaget had 
nominated Father Wilson for that position, 27 but also, humble 
man that he was, considered himself unfitted for the office, 
and gave signs of his unwillingness to accept the dignity. He 
himself says in a letter to Archbishop Marechal that most re 
luctantly was he compelled by the counsels, admonitions and 
even threats of superiors to go to Cincinnati; 28 and in another 
letter to the Cardinal- Prefect of the Propaganda he writes that 

26. There are two diverse testimonies as to the date of the arrival of the bulls in Ken 
tucky in 1821. Rt. Rev. Wm. Poynter, Vicar Apostolic of London, writes to Archbishop 
Marechal from London on July 30, 1821, that he is sending him a letter from Propaganda to 
be forwarded to Bishop Flaget, of Bardstown (Baltimore Archives, Case 19, Y 11). On Janu 
ary 4, 1822, writing from Bardstown to the Cardinal-Prefect of Propaganda, Bishop Flaget 
says he received the letter containing the bulls for Edward Fenwick from the bishop of London 
in the month of December [i.e., 1821 ], and that he sent them on to the provincial of the Domini 
cans, to be in turn forwarded to Edward Fenwick (Propaganda Archives, America Centrale, 
vol. VII, No. 24). On the other hand, Bishop Spalding (Life of Bishop Flaget, p. 217) says that 
the bulls erecting Cincinnati, dated June 19th, arrived in Kentucky on October 13th. Spalding 
does not mention his source of information, though throughout his sketch he quotes the Journal 
of Flaget. In a letter written from St. Rose, Ky., November 21, 1821, to the editor of the 
London Catholic Miscellany (vol. I, No. 7, pp. 327-28), we read: "You have heard that Mr. 
Fenwick is made bishop of the Ohio, his bulls are arrived from Rome." Finally, we have 
another source of information which may furnish a clue to the solution of the difficulty. The 
writer of the article Mission de I Ohio, in the Annales de V Association de la Propagation de la 
Foi (Lyons, 1826), No. II, p. 88, says that Father Fenwick was notified of his election to Cin 
cinnati by Father Hill, who brought the bulls with him. From other sources, we know that 
Father Hill, who had been at Rome for several years, arrived in Kentucky in the fall of 1821. 
Is it possible that Spalding takes the notice which Hill brought and which was no doubt for 
warded to Bishop Flaget as that of October 13th, whilst the true bulls of erection were received 
through London only at a later date in December, as the first documents would assert? Did 
Father Hill bring only notification of the appointment, or likewise a copy of the bull? Or did 
Bishop Flaget err when he stated that he received the bulls in December? It may have been 
a slip of the pen on his part. Since Bishop Flaget s letter is dated January 4th, we are inclined 
to believe that the bishop s memory was accurate enough to distinguish between one or three 
months in the arrival of the bulls. As Fenwick was consecrated on January 13, 1822, three 
months would have elapsed from the time of the arrival of the bulls and his consecration. 
Finally, Father Hill, who, as we just remarked, arrived in Kentucky in the fall of 1821, writing 
from St. Rose Convent, Ky., on January 27, 1822, to Rev. Olivieri, Commissary of the Holy 
Office, says that the humility and repugnance of Father Fenwick to the episcopal dignity, as 
well as the delay of the bulls, kept them waiting a long time before they could go on with their 
plans for the evangelization of Ohio (Propaganda Archives, Scritture Originali, vol. 929). 

27. Letter, Edward Fenwick, Georgetown, Md., June 1, 1820, to John A. Hill, Rome 
(Propaganda Archives, American Centrale, vol. IV, No. 151). 

28. Edward Fenwick, Kentucky, February 9, 1823, to Archbishop Marechal (Baltimore 
Archives, Case 16, W 1). 


when he first heard of his nomination, realizing his insuffi 
ciency and his lack of knowledge, he informed the bishop of 
Bardstown and his superior in the order that he could not in 
conscience accept the office; that at the exhortation of Flaget 
and the absolute command of his superior 29 he was forced to 
submit, only, however, after a solemn promise had been made 
by the superior (Father Wilson) to help him in every way, even 
in person. 30 His consent having been obtained at last, Father 
Fenwick was consecrated in St. Rose s church, Kentucky, 
on Holy Name Sunday, January 13, 1822, by Bishop Flaget, 
assisted by Fathers Wilson and Hill. 31 Father Gabriel Richard 
read the Mandatum, and Bishop David, the coadjutor bishop 
of Bardstown, preached the sermon to a congregation which 
crowded the church. 32 

Before leaving St. Rose s, Bishop Fenwick on January 25th 
wrote a letter of thanks for the favors shown him by the 
Cardinal-Prefect of the Propaganda and in a postscript of the 
same date gave a relation of the condition of the Catholic 
Church in Ohio, a state, he says, which is 264 miles long and 
281 miles wide; having 581,434 inhabitants, of which 6,000 are 
Catholics, scattered through the state. Having entered the 
state alone six years ago, he built a church at Somerset in 1819, 
when there were nine families in that vicinity; now there are 
150, all Catholic families. Since that time 14 (4?) other 
churches had been erected in various parts of the state; more 

29. The command of the superior, Father Wilson, is somewhat intelligible in the light of 
his letter of March 6, 1820, from Kentucky, to Rev. J. A. Hill, at Rome, that he suspected 
Bishop Flaget of intentions to have a French bishop appointed for Ohio, which would not be a 
good appointment for the Dominicans in Ohio. He, therefore, asked Father Hill to have the 
Vicar-General of the Dominicans at Rome send to Kentucky from Rome a Dominican who 
was to be made bishop of Ohio. He would stand the expenses of the journey. As for support 
of the bishop in Ohio, he could live with his brethren at Cincinnati, which would be the proper 
place to establish the new see (Propaganda Archives, America Centrale, vol. IV, No. 138). 

30. Edward Fenwick to Prefect of Propaganda, April 16, 1823 (Notre Dame University 
Archives). Other evidences of his unwillingness to accept the office are to be found in letter of 
Rev. J. A. Hill, St. Rose Convent, Ky., January 27, 1822, to Rev. Olivieri, Rome (Propaganda 
Archives, America Centrale, Scritture Originali, (vol 929); letter to editor of London Catholic 
Miscellany, dated St. Rose, Ky., November 21, 1821 (London Catholic Miscellany, vol. I [1822] 
No. 7, pp. 327-28); letter of February 9, 1822, signed W. Y., to editor of London Catholic 
Miscellany (Idem, vol. I, 1822, p. 55); letter, Edward Fenwick, Leghorn, Italy, September 10, 
1823, to Cardinal-Prefect of Propaganda (Propaganda Archives, America Centrale, vol. VIII). 

31. Certificate of Consecration , signed by Bishop Flaget, Convent of St. Thomas, January 
14, 1822 (Preserved in Notre Dame Archives). Permission for the choice of two priests to 
assist Bishop Flaget in the consecration was granted in the bull of erection itself. 

32. Letter, Gabriel Richard to M***, in Annales de I Association de la Propagation de la 
Foi, Lyons, III, 337. 


than 100 adults and 300 children had been baptized. The 
majority of the inhabitants were sober, industrious, and de 
sirous of religious instruction. Six Dominican priests are to 
accompany him from Kentucky, the rest remaining to work 
under the bishop of Bardstown. The Catholics intrusted to his 
care were poor Germans, many Swiss and Irish, all of whom, 
as was the custom of poor immigrants to America, had com 
mitted themselves as bond-servants for five or six years to a 
shipowner in order to defray their expenses to America. 
From this it might be seen how little help he and his compan 
ions could expect from them. Concluding with an account of 
conditions in the Northwest, he asks the Cardinal to erect a 
see at Detroit, for which he presents the name of Benedict 
Fenwick, SJ. 33 

Bishop Fenwick was, indeed, to be bishop in a state of great 
size and of over half a million inhabitants. Between the years 
1810 and 1820 the population in Ohio had more than doubled, 
having grown from 230,760 in 1810, to 581,295 in 1820, the re 
sult of immigration from the eastern and southern states. 
The people were, however, mostly poor, who had bought from 
the Government all the land they could pay for on first pay 
ment, expecting to make subsequent annual payments from the 
produce of their newly cut and tilled farms; hopes which many 
never saw realized. The war of 1812 had brought in its wake 
a heavy governmental debt, whilst banking transactions during 
the second decade had caused heavy personal financial losses. 
The southern part of the state saw new visions of prosperity 
when it beheld the first steamboat Orleans pass down the 
Ohio from Pittsburgh to Louisville in October, 1811, though a 
return passage up the river was not to occur until 1817 when the 
steamer Washington was to accomplish that feat. Partly 
because of its water facilities, and partly because of its immense 
agricultural back country, Cincinnati and the southwestern 
part of the state was the most flourishing portion of Ohio. 
Other towns that had acquired some importance were Marietta, 
Zanesville, Lancaster, Chillicothe and Columbus. The entire 
northern section had just begun to emerge from the darkness 

33. Letter, Edward Fenwick, St. Rose, near Springfield, Washington Co., Kentucky, 
January 25, 1821 [1822], to Cardinal- Prefect of Propaganda (Propaganda Archives, America 
Centrale, vol. VII, No. 1). 


of the forests, the towns of Cleveland, Fairport, Painesville, 
Sandusky, Warren and Youngstown being noticeable. Means 
of communication inland were scarce, as the only road was 
that known as Zane s Trace, from Wheeling to Limestone, 
Kentucky. To other parts of the state the traveler had to find 
his way mostly through dense forests. 

Of the half million inhabitants, there were 6000 Catholics 
in 1821, says Bishop Fenwick, though in 1820 he states there 
were but 3,000. Of other denominations there were many 
more; Presbyterians, Methodists and Baptists counted the 
majority of the church-going public. Presbyterian ministers 
were to be found in all the principal towns. Camp meetings 
were ordinary occurrences. Religious revivals were resorted 
to. 34 Such was the field wherein Father Fenwick had been 
laboring and wherein Bishop Fenwick was to exercise epis 
copal jurisdiction. 

Previous to his departure from St. Rose s, Bishop Fenwick 
exercised his new powers of ordination for the first time by 
ordaining four Dominican priests, Fathers Thomas H. Martin, 
John Hyacinth McGrady, John Thomas Hynes and John 
Baptist Vincent De Raymaecker, of whom the two latter, 
together with the superior, Father Wilson, and Father Hill, 
were to accompany the bishop to Cincinnati. 35 Supplied by 
the convent with a few vestments, linens, four missals, four 
chalices and a ciborium, 36 and with money collected by the 
people of St. Rose s, the episcopal party left St. Rose s in horse 
and wagon. They traveled over roads which recent building 
and abundant rains had rendered poor. They had to swim 
the Kentucky river, but they managed to reach Cincinnati, 
unexpected though they were, on Saturday evening, March 
23rd. They partook of supper at the home of the good old 
Irishman, Michael Scott, whose home had ever furnished 
hospitality to missionaries on their visits to Cincinnati and had 

34. RUFUS KING, History of Ohio, passim; CHADDOCK, Ohio before 1850, pp. 111-112. 

35. For the journey to Cincinnati and arrival there we follow mostly the account written 
by one of the party, REV. J. B. V. DE RAYMAECKER, O.P., in some notes on the Creation of the 
first Episcopal Seat of the City of Cincinnati, preserved in the Archives of the Dominican House, 
Louvain, Belgium. Other sources are letters of Bishop Fenwick to the Secretary of the Asso 
ciation of the Propagation of the Faith, Lyons (Annales, 1826, II, 89-90), and to Stephen T. 
Badin, 1827 (Annales, 1828, III, 291). 

36. A Memorial to the General of the Dominican Order by Fenwick, Rome, October 11, 
1823 (Propaganda Archives, America Centrale, Scritture, 1823-1826, vol. VIII). 


been hallowed in consequence by the celebration of the sacred 
mysteries within its walls up to the time of the building of the 
chapel in the Northern Liberties. An empty house was ob 
tained for lodging over night, and mattresses were thrown upon 
the floor of a large room to serve as beds for the tired travelers. 
The word was soon passed around among the Catholics that 
the bishop had come, and before long they assembled to wel 
come him. Probably on the next morning, which was Sunday, 
the bishop took possession of his see by celebrating Mass in 
the little chapel. In this cathedral an unfinished frame 
building, without ceiling or plaster, Bishop Fenwick was 
installed "with humble ceremony and silent panegyric". 37 

His arrival at Cincinnati was a signal for rejoicing among 
the non-Catholics as well, as the following communication to 
the Liberty Hall and Cincinnati Gazette, of March 30th, 
testifies : 


We congratulate the Roman Catholics of this city and environs on the 
arrival of the Right Rev d Dr. Fenwick, lately consecrated Catholic 
Bishop of Cincinnati and the State of Ohio. This circumstance in 
terests not only the Catholics, but all the friends of literature and useful 
knowledge, as we understand that his intention is ultimately to open 
a school, aided by the members of his order so long distinguished for 
their piety and learning. 38 

The first necessity of the bishop evidently was to provide 
himself with a home. A house was rented by him in the square 
known as Flat Iron Square, bounded by Lawrence, Ludlow 
and Third streets. This was a small building with a room 
below and a room above, the latter being reserved for sleeping 
quarters, and the former for chapel, parlor and living room. 39 
For it he was charged $200 a year rent, a sum of money which 
he found hard to gather together. The small amount of money 
given him by the people of Kentucky had been partly spent on 
the journey to Cincinnati and had depreciated one-half after 

37. Notice on the State of the Catholic Religion in the State of Ohio ( U. S. Catholic 
Miscellany, February 24, 1827, p. 246). 

38. Liberty Hall and Cincinnati Gazette, March 30, 1822, p. 2. 

39. Historical notice of Fenwick by Rese (Annales, 1833, VI, 137); Fenwick s account 
of his diocese to Propaganda, 1823 (Propaganda Archives, America Centrale, vol. VIII); 
letter, Fenwick to Archbishop Marechal, Kentuck} , February 9, 1823 (Baltimore Archives, 
Case 16, W 1). 


crossing the Ohio. 40 His collections amounted to two or three 
dollars a Sunday. 41 And yet he had the utmost confidence in 
Divine Providence to assist him. Having experienced great 
difficulty in reaching his chapel because of the impassability 
of the mud road, he decided on moving the chapel into the city. 
For this purpose he did not hesitate on July 6, 1822, to buy on 
credit a lot of twenty-five feet on Sycamore street. 42 Thither 
he had the frame church transferred, though it had really to 
be reconstructed, as in the moving the frame began to fall 
apart. 43 The dimensions of the new chapel were the same as 
those of the old one, 55 by 30 feet. 44 It was finished and 
services were held in it before December 5, 1822. 45 

The removal of the church was the cause of a schism among 
the trustees, on which account the bishop had the title to the 
property at Vine and Liberty streets transferred to himself. 
A new mortgage to secure the $750, which remained unpaid 
on the lots, was then given to James Findlay on the three lots 
Nos. 1, 2 and 3, this last lot having been bought for cemetery 
purposes from James Findlay by Michael Scott on August 27, 
1821. This mortgage was one of the bishop s last acts before 
leaving for Rome at the end of May, 1823, as the mortgage 

40. Letter, Fenwick to Secretary of Association of Propagation of the Faith, Lyons 
(Annales, 1826, II, 89-90). 

41. Letter, Fenwick to Marechal, ut supra Note 39. 

42. Deed, David Wade to John Austin Hill, July 6, 1822, consideration, $700; recorded 
April 20, 1825, Hamilton County Recorder s Office, Deed Book No. 22, pp. 573-574. Letter, 
Fenwick to Secretary of Association of Propagation of Faith, Lyons, ut supra Note 40. 

43. Letter, Rese, Cincinnati, May 5, 1825, to Rev. M. Roimondo, Rector of Propaganda 
College (Propaganda Archives, America Centrale, Scritture, 1823-26, vol. VIII); Rese, His 
torical Notice of Bishop Fenwick (Annales, 1833, VI, 137); Fenwick, Bordeaux, August, 1823, 
to Badin (Louisville Archives); Fenwick, Cincinnati, April 16, 1823, to Badin, Paris (Louis 
ville Archives). 

44. Fenwick, Bordeaux, 1823, to Badin, ut supra. It would seem that a twenty-five-foot 
lot had been bought upon which to place a thirty-foot house. The lot upon which the church 
was placed was a lot of twenty-five feet owned by David Wade, in whole lot No. 73 of Spencer s 
Division of the original plan of Cincinnati. This was a lot beginning twenty-five feet from the 
northern line of lot No. 73, and measured twenty-five feet on Sycamore and 198 feet westward 
from that street. It was purchased on July 6, 1822, for $700. The next fwenty-five feet 
north of this Wade lot was owned by Benjamin M. Piatt and was sold to John Austin Hill, 
Bishop Fenwick s vicar-general, on June 17, 1823 (Recorder s Office, Book 21, pp. 158-9), 
for $500. From this it would appear that the thirty-foot church was placed on a twenty-five 
foot lot; a surmise that is borne out by the letter of Fenwick to Father Badin, from Cincin 
nati, April 16, 1825, in which he says that upon his return from Europe in 1825 he found 
"a small brick house twenty by sixteen adjoining the present church, which forms my episcopal 
palace" (letter in Louisville Archives). 

45. Letter, Cincinnati on the Ohio, December 5, 1822, to (London Catholic Miscel 
lany, March, 1823, II, 141): "Our little church here is finished and is very decent; unfortu 
nately it is not yet paid for. It is well attended by other professions." 


bears the date of May 21, 1823, though it was not signed by 
the bishop till May 29, 1823. 46 This new church, which, to 
gether with the lot, had cost $1,800, was dedicated to St. Peter. 47 
The change in name, from Christ Church to St. Peter s, was 
made perhaps not without some reflection upon the schism, 
but mostly in memory of St. Peter s at Rome. The basement 
of the church, which had been divided into four or five rooms, 
served to house the priests and the bishop. 48 

In a visitation of the Northwest territory which the bishop 
made in the summer of 1822, 49 he became convinced of the 
necessity of another bishopric in that territory. He likewise 
experienced a sense of desolation and inability in Ohio when he 
learned that the Cardinal-Secretary of the Propaganda on 
July 27, 1822, had written to the superior of the Dominicans in 
Kentucky to the effect that he was not to withdraw his men 
from the missions in Kentucky and place them in Ohio without 
consulting with Bishop Flaget of the diocese of Bardstown, 50 
who had protested to Rome against the withdrawal which 
might have taken the last Dominican from Kentucky. 51 
Finally, foreseeing the impossibility of supplying the needs of 
the Church in Ohio and of procuring his own livelihood on 
collections which amounted at Cincinnati in all to about $80 
a year, 52 he determined to lay his case before Rome, first of 
all, by letter of April 16, 1823, in which he asked the Propa 
ganda to reconsider its decision not to allow him priests and 
goods from St. Rose, Kentucky, without the consent of the 
bishop of Bardstown, and also to divide the province of the 
Dominicans in Kentucky into two, establishing a novitiate 

46. Office of Recorder, Hamilton County, Mortgages, Book 149, pp. 361-62. 

47. Letter, Fenwick, Turin, May 12, 1824, to Prefect of Propaganda (Propaganda 
Archives, America Centrale, Scritture, 1823-1826, vol. VIII). 

48. Account of De Raymaecker, ut supra. 

49. London Catholic Miscellany, October, 1822, I, 475; letter, Gabriel Richard, Detroit, 
July 4, 1822, to Bishop Flaget (Louisville Archives) ; letter, Eliza Ann Godfroye, River Raisin, 
July 19, 1822, to Bishop Flaget (Louisville Archives); Fenwick, Kentucky, February 9, 1823, 
to Archbishop Marechal (Baltimore Archives, Case 16, W 1). 

50. Letter, C. M. Pedicini, Secretary of Propaganda, July 27, 1822, to Superior of Do 
minicans in Kentucky (Archives of St. Joseph s Province, Ohio); Fenwick, Cincinnati, April 
16, 1823, to Prefect of Propaganda (Notre Dame Archives, Fenwick Letters). 

51. Letter, Pietro Caprano, Secretary of Propaganda, August 9, 1823, to Vicar-General 
of Dominicans at Rome (Dominican Master General s Archives, Codex XIII, 731). 

52. Letter, Fenwick, Bordeaux, August, 1823, to Badin; letter, Fenwick, Kentucky, 
February 9, 1823, to Marechal, ut supra. 


likewise in Ohio. 53 But before his letter had even reached 
its destiny Bishop Fenwick had made up his mind to plead his 
cause in person at Rome. Rome was not unfavorable, if we 
may judge from a letter of August 2, 1823, of the Sacred Con 
gregation of the Propaganda informing the superior of the 
Dominicans in Kentucky of the Congregation s desire that he 
aid Bishop Fenwick both with priests and with temporal sup 
port. 54 The bishop had arrived at his determination to visit 
Rome only after consultation with the bishops of New Orleans 
and Bardstown. 55 

Fortunate enough to be able to borrow $300 without in 
terest from a Catholic layman of Cincinnati for his expenses to 
Europe, 56 the bishop left Cincinnati on May 30, 1823, em 
barked at New York and landed at Bordeaux in France on 
August 6th. 57 Disappointed in not finding Rev. Stephen T. 
Badin at Bordeaux, he was nevertheless rejoiced by the hos 
pitality which he received from the archbishop and citizens of 
Bordeaux, and particularly from Abbe Rigagnon, a vicar in the 
city, whom he made his agent and vicar-general in Europe for 
the diocese of Cincinnati. 58 Having stopped at Marseilles 59 
and Leghorn 60 on his way south, he arrived at Rome on Sep 
tember 26th, two days before the election of Pope Leo XII. 
On October 6th, the day after the solemn enthronization of 
Leo, Bishop Fenwick was received in audience by the new 
Pope. Writing of this audience to the Secretary of the Asso 
ciation of the Propagation of the Faith of Lyons, the bishop 

53. Fenwick, April 16, 1823, to Prefect of Propaganda (Fenwick Letters, Notre Dame 
Archives) . 

54. Letter, Pietro Caprano, Secretary of Propaganda, August 2, 1823, to Superior of 
Dominicans in Kentucky (Archives of St. Joseph s Province). 

55. Fenwick, Steamboat Putnam, Wheeling, June 3, 1823, to Archbishop Marechal 
(Baltimore Archives, Case 16, W 2). 

56. Fenwick, Cincinnati, May 20, 1823, Bordeaux, August 8 and 11, 1823, to Badin 
(The Catholic Spectator, London I, 350 ff .) ; Fenwick to Secretary of Association of Propagation 
of Faith, Lyons (Annales, 1826, II, 91). 

57. Letter to Badin, ut supra. 

58. Annales de I Association de la Propagation de la Foi, Lyons, 1826, II, Mission de 
TOhio, p. 92. 

59. Permission to celebrate Mass, Bordeaux, August 20 (?), 1823, on reverse side of 
Certificate of Consecration of Bishop Fenwick (Notre Dame Archives). 

60. Letter, Fenwick, Convent of St. Catherine, Livorno, September 10, 1823, to Cardinal- 
Prefect of Propaganda (Propaganda Archives, America Centrale, vol. VIII). 


"I entreated him to receive the resignation of my bishopric, in 
order to place it in better hands. The Pope smiling forbade me to 
ever pronounce that word, exhorting me to continue the work which 
God had begun by me. He assured me that he would cause to be 
given to me all necessary assistance. Indeed, he accorded me two 
young priests of the Propaganda, 1200 dollars for our traveling ex 
penses; church utensils, sacred vessels, ornaments, books, linens, etc., 
to the value of nearly 1,000 dollars. As a result, I left Rome well 
satisfied in having venerated the tomb of the Apostles SS. Peter and 
Paul, contented with and resigned to my lot, quia per multas tribula- 
tiones oportet intrare in regnum Dei; not only grateful, but filled with 
respect and veneration for the common father of the faithful." 61 

We learn of Bishop Fenwick s intentions at Rome from his 
original petition to the Holy Father, two relations made verb 
ally by him to the Congregation of the Propaganda, the Con 
gregation s actions thereupon, and some notes of the Congre 
gation. 62 He proposed the erection of Detroit as a bishopric 
with Father Richard for bishop. On December 1, 1823, the 
Propaganda decided to postpone the erection of this see and to 
write to the bishop of Baltimore to make inquiry with the 
bishop of Cincinnati concerning conditions at Detroit. He 
proposed the erection likewise of a bishopric in Indiana, for 
which he nominated in order Rev. Charles Bonaventure 
McGuire and Stephen T. Badin. He asked for a coadjutor to 
himself at Cincinnati in the person of Rev. Thomas Cippoletti, 
O.P., prior of the convent della Pace at Rome. It would seem 
that Father Cippoletti himself successfully opposed this. He 
asked for and obtained permission to take Rev. Frederic Rese 
from the Urban college to attend the Germans in Ohio, whilst 
he asked permission also to receive the profession of Rev. 
Daniel Joseph O Leary, O.P., then at work in Ohio, but who 
refused to be professed in the order for Kentucky. He re 
quested a means of livelihood for himself and his clergy. 
To this end the Secretary of the Propaganda on the command 
of the Pope given in audience of November 8, 1823, had com 
municated with the vicar-general of the Dominicans at Rome, 
who for the purpose of providing forever for Bishop Fenwick 

61. Letter, Fenwick to Secretary of Association of the Propagation of the Faith, Lyons 
(Annales, 1826,11,92). 

62. Propaganda Archives: Fenwick s petition to the Holy Father, America Centrale, 
Scritture Originali, vol. IX; Ada of Propaganda, December 1 , 1823, fol. 375 a, 375 b; America 
Centrale, Scritture Originali, vol. VIII and vol. IX. 


in the bishopric of Cincinnati, was disposed to establish a fund 
from the properties of the convent of St. Rose in Kentucky, a 
convent which had been founded by the patrimony of the 
bishop. It was thought that this together with the offerings 
of the faithful would support him. Next, he petitioned for 
8,000 dollars to defray the expenses of the lot which he had 
bought for his new cathedral, the debt of the old church, and 
the purchase of a house and 50 acres of land for a seminary. 
The Pope, who personally had presented Bishop Fenwick with 
a violet chasuble and a finely-wrought gold chalice, advised the 
Treasurer of the Propaganda to concur with the Apostolic 
Chamberlain in providing a subsidy for the bishop. The 
Propaganda was to give him as much pecuniary assistance as it 
possibly could, consistent with its own finances and the extent 
of the bishop s needs. Lastly, the bishop drew up a list of 
ecclesiastical objects and books which he needed. These the 
Propaganda was also instructed by the Pope to procure for 

As a result of his visit at Rome, he was given $1,200 by 
Pope Leo XII, 63 whilst a trunk filled with ecclesiastical ar 
ticles from the Pope, the Propaganda and others was sent to 
Marseilles in June, 1824, for shipment to Cincinnati. 64 From 
Cardinal Fesch, uncle to Napoleon Bonaparte, he received 
twelve fine paintings. 65 

One other matter engaged Bishop Fenwick s attention at 
Rome, the division of the Dominican province of Kentucky into 
two, a proposition to which the provincial of the Dominicans 
in Kentucky had agreed and for which he as well as the bishop 
had petitioned the general of the order. 66 On January 11, 
1824, the province of St. Louis Bertrand was erected in Ohio, 
with Father John Austin Hill as superior. This erection, how- 

63. Letter, Secretary of Propaganda, Rome, January 12, 1824, to Fenwick (Notre Dame 
Archives) . 

64. Letter, Pietro Caprano, Secretary of Propaganda, Rome, June 26, 1824, to Fenwick, 
Paris (Notre Dame Archives). 

65. Letter, Re se , Cincinnati, May 5, 1825, to Prefect of Propaganda (Propaganda 
Archives, America Centrale, Scritture, 1823-1826, vol. 938). Rese, Cincinnati, May 5, 1825, 
to Rev. M. Roimondo, Rector of Propaganda College (Propaganda Archives, America Centrale, 
Scritture, 1823-26, vol. VIII). 

66. Joint letter of Wilson and Fenwick (Propaganda Archives, America Centrale, vol. I X) . 
Petition of Fenwick to Pope Leo XII (Propaganda Archives, America Centrale, Scritture, 
vol. 938). 


ever, was conditional on the consent of the majority of the 
friars in Kentucky. 67 

Leaving Rome early in January, 1824, 68 and accompanied 
by Father Rese, who acted as his secretary, Bishop Fenwick in 
the interest of his diocese visited Florence, Leghorn, Genoa, 
Savona and Turin in Italy. 69 He reached Lyons probably in 
the second half of May, and there exposed the sad condition 
of his diocese to the Association of the Propagation of the Faith. 
His cause was recommended to the grand almoner of the so 
ciety, who accorded him eight thousand francs with the promise 
of annual allocations. 70 At Paris, where he was on Pentecost 71 
in the company of Rev. Stephen T. Badin, the bishop dispensed 
with the services of Father Rese, whom he dispatched to Cin 
cinnati, together with two priests, Jean Bellamy and Pierre 
Dejean, and a nun, Sister St. Paul of the Sisters of Mercy. 72 
It was at Paris, too, that he first became acquainted with John 
Baptist Purcell, his successor as bishop of Cincinnati, who 
as a student paid him a visit in the French capital. From 
France he passed alone into Belgium, 73 whilst he had Father 
Badin instigate collections in Holland. 74 From Belgium he 
crossed to England where he again instituted collections. 

He was now at the end of his journey in Europe. That it 
was a very successful one we may judge from what was given 
to him at Rome; from the fact that the Pontifical Vice- 

67. This consent was never obtained, due in great measure to the opposition of Father 
Tuite, who assumed the reins of authority upon the death of Father Wilson, in 1824. In 1827, 
the erection of the province of St. Louis Bertrand was annulled by the Vicar-General at Rome, 
Father Joseph Velzi, O.P. (letter of reunion, August 23, 1827, to Rev. Thomas Tuite, Archives 
of St. Joseph s Province). 

68. From Florence, Bishop Fenwick wrote a letter on January 21, 1824, to Cardinal- 
Prefect of Propaganda, thanking him for the 1500 francs which he sent him just as he (Fenwick) 
was leaving Rome (Propaganda Archives, America Centrale, Scritture Originali, vol. 938). 

69. From Turin, May 12th, Bishop Fenwick wrote to Cardinal-Prefect of Propaganda, 
in answer to the Cardinal s reproving letter of May 1st, telling him that he had been away from 
his diocese long enough. 

70. Annales, 1826, Mission de 1 Ohio, II, 93-94. 

71. Letter, Rese, Paris, Pentecost, 1824, to the Rector of Propaganda College (Propa 
ganda Archives, America Centrale, Scritture, 1823-26, vol. VIII). 

72. Letter, Rese, Cincinnati, May 5, 1825, to the students of Propaganda, Rome (Pro 
paganda Archives, America Centrale, Scritture, 1823-1826, vol. VIII) ; Fenwick, Paris, July 13, 
1824, to Archbishop Marechal (Baltimore Archives, Case 16, W 3). 

73. He was at Bruges on September 8, 1824, when he wrote a letter to the pastors and 
Dominican Fathers (Memoir printed at London, 1825, Archives of Notre Dame University). 
At Antwerp he became acquainted with J. M. Frere, Esq., and wife, from whom he received a 
large gold ciborium, which is still in service at the cathedral of Cincinnati. 

74. Letter, Badin, Chelsea, England, April 7, 1825, to Fenwick (Archives of Notre Dame 


Consul at Marseilles, Mr. Anthony Perier, in October, 1824, 
shipped to New Orleans for him ten trunks full of articles, 
upon which he had placed a security of 21,000 francs; 75 from 
the fact that at Wright & Co., Bankers of London, there were 
three thousand two hundred and thirteen pounds to his credit; 76 
from the fact that he had been able to secure recruits for his 
diocese in the priests Rese, Bellamy, Dejean and Mufios, and 
in the Sister St. Paul ; and finally, from the consideration that 
he now felt obliged to make a will, constituting Bishop Flaget 
heir in trust to all his property as bishop of Cincinnati to be 
handed over to his successor. 77 

Sailing from England in October, 1824, 78 Bishop Fenwick 
arrived at New York towards the first of December "after a 
boisterous, rough and dangerous voyage of forty days". 79 
After a short time spent in assisting the bishop of New York, 80 
and then a visit to Philadelphia, 81 he arrived at Baltimore, 
where he delayed some two months. It was not until spring 
that he was to set foot in his episcopal household. His return 
from Baltimore by stage coach came nearly being tragical for 
himself as it had been for Mr. John S. Dugan, of Zanesville, 
Ohio, who with his own coach had gone to Baltimore to bring 
the bishop to Ohio. The party consisted of the bishop, Father 
Gabriel Richard, then a member of Congress, and Father 
Nicholas D. Young, O.P. Taking fright, the horses ran away, 
the coach was severed in twain, the baggage strewn upon the 
ground and the occupants thrown out. The three ministers 
of God were unscathed, but the generous Mr. Dugan suffered 
injuries, from which he died a few hours afterwards in the arms 
of the bishop. 82 

75. Letter, Perier, Marseilles, October 28, 1824, to Cardinal Caprano, Secretary of Pro 
paganda Fide (Propaganda Archives, America Centrale, vol. VIII). 

76. Letter, Rt. Rev. William Poynter, London, December 14, 1824, to Fenwick (Notre 
Dame Archives). 

77. Letter, Fenwick, London, September 22, 1824, to Flaget (Fenwick Letters, Notre 
Dame Archives); Fenwick, Paris, July 27, 1824, to Cardinal-Prefect of Propaganda (Propa 
ganda Archives, America Centrale, Scritture, 1823-1826, vol. VIII). 

78. Fenwick bade Father Badin farewell from London, October 10, 1824 (letter, Fen 
wick, October 10, 1824, to Badin, London Catholic Miscellany, December, 1824, III, 593). 

79. Fenwick, New York, December 5, 1824, to Badin, London (London Catholic Mis 
cellany, May, 1825, IV, 201). 

80. Letter, Fenwick to Badin, ut supra Note 79. 

81. U. S. Catholic Miscellany, III, 398 ff. 

82. Rese, Cincinnati, May 5, 1825, to the students of Propaganda, Rome (Propaganda 
Archives, America Centrale, Scritture, 1823-1826, vol. VIII); Rese to ****, Annales of Pro- 


Upon reaching Cincinnati towards the end of March, 83 the 
bishop was lodged in a new brick residence, twenty by sixteen 
feet, three stories high, which in the absence of the bishop had 
been built beside the frame church by Father Hill. 84 Fathers 
Bellamy and Dejean had gone to Michigan directly upon their 
arrival in the United States, while Father Rese had directed 
his attention to reclaiming the German Catholics of the city 
of Cincinnati. 

The bishop lost no time in putting into execution the designs 
for which he had traveled to Europe. Even whilst in Europe 
he had heard from Father Hill that the church on Sycamore 
street had become too small to accommodate the crowds which 
came to hear the course of lectures delivered by Father Hill. 
The Catholics themselves filled the little church, and as the 
lectures were apologetic, their purpose would have been de 
feated by not having the Protestants attend; on which account 
the lectures were discontinued. 85 On April 12, 1825, when two 
weeks had hardly passed since the bishop s return to Cincin 
nati, Father Hill wrote to Rev. Mr. Scott, S.J., London: 
We are now busily engaged in building our new Cathedral. 
It will be about 100 by 50, vast dimensions for the house of 
God in this country." 86 The lot upon which the new cathedral 
was to stand had been bought on February 15, 1825. It com 
prised the southern half of lot No. 73, already owned by the 
Catholic Church of Cincinnati, on Sycamore street, and meas 
ured 49^ feet by 198 feet. The price paid for it was $1,200. 87 

On April 16th, the bishop wrote to Father Badin at Paris 
that the plan for the cathedral was then being made by Michael 
Scott. 88 The cornerstone of the building was laid on May 

pagation of the Faith, Lyons, III, 284; Badin, London, August 12, 1825, to Fenwick (Archives 
of Notre Dame University); J. A. Hill, Cincinnati, April 12, 1825, to Rev. Mr. Scott, London 
(Archives Maryland-New York Province of Society of Jesus, Stonyhurst Letters). 

83. Letter, Fenwick, Cincinnati, March 29, 1825, to Mr. P. Pallavicini, Turin, Italy 
(Cincinnati Catholic Telegraph, April 2, 1891). 

84. Letter, Fenwick, Maryland, December 24, 1824, to Badin (London Catholic Mis 
cellany, May, 1825, IV, 201); letter, Fenwick, Cincinnati, April 16, 1825, to Badin (Notre 
Dame Archives). 

85. Letter, Hill, Cincinnati, August 23, 1824, to Fenwick in Europe (Notre Dame Ar 

86. Archives Maryland-New York Province of Society of Jesus, Stonyhurst Letters. 

87. Deed of Elmore Williams to Edward Dominic Fenwick, recorded April 30, 1825, 
Office of Hamilton County Recorder, Book 23, pp. 54-55 (printed in Supreme Court of Ohio 
Records in Church Case, vol. II, pp. 932-33, exhibit No. 213). 

88. Letter, Fenwick, Cincinnati, April 16, 1825, to Badin, Paris (Louisville Archives). 


19th, and work progressed so rapidly that by August 5th the 
bishop could write to Archbishop Marechal that the walls were 
nearly finished. The building was 90 feet long by 45 feet wide, 
exclusive of a sacristy, 20 by 18 feet. 89 Though the building 
was not finished, Mass was said in it on June 29, 1826, whilst 
the dedication in honor of St. Peter occurred later, on Sunday, 
December 17, 1826. 90 "Cincinnati now possesses a Catholic 
Cathedral, justly admired for the elegance of its structure, 
correctness of taste, and above all for its chaste simplicity," 
writes an informant to the U. S. Catholic Miscellany, early in 
1827; "the building, which reflects credit on the architect, 
Mr. Michael Scott, is 110 feet in length, 50 in breadth, and 30 
in height. Between the five Gothic windows on each side, 
hang some valuable Italian paintings, the altar piece is an 
excellent painting of the Rosary by the Flemish artist Ver- 
schoot. This Cathedral was opened on the third Sunday of 
Advent." 91 

Another subscriber to the same periodical gives an appre 
ciation of the cathedral as follows: 

"The Cathedral is a neat and elegant building of about one hun 
dred feet by fifty, distinguished on the outside only by the regularity 
of the brick work, fine Gothic windows, a large cross formed by the 
pilasters, in front, and a small spire, not yet finished, designated to 
support a clock ; a handsome iron gate and railing separate it from the 
street. The interior is remarkable for grand simplicity and chaste- 
ness of design, finished in the Gothic order. The altar, pulpit, and 
Bishop s chair are handsomely finished and richly decorated. The 
effect produced by the splendid bronze tabernacle, surmounted by a 
beautiful crucifix, in the midst of ten superb candlesticks of the same 
material, is truly imposing. There is nothing light, frivolous or gaudy 
to be seen; dignity is sustained throughout, and imparts an awful 
solemnity to the performance of the divine service. Thirteen large 
and choice paintings, presented to the Bishop, I understand, by his 
Eminence Cardinal Fesch, uncle of Napoleon Bonaparte, embellish 
the walls. There is a handsome well-toned organ in the gallery; on 
each side of which I perceived the confessionals, where the priests 
attend to discharge that awful part of their ministry. The floor of the 
church is paved with tile, which must render it cool in summer, and 
prevents the great noise occasioned by walking up the aisles, which is a 
considerable annoyance in churches, where the floor is of wood. The 

89. Fenwick, Somerset, August 5, 1825, to Marechal (Baltimore Archives, Case 16, W 6). 

90. Annales, 11,107-08; 111,275; U. S. Catholic Miscellany, VI, 246. 

91. Article, "Cincinnati", U. S. Catholic Miscellany, February 24, 1827, VI, 246. 


good Bishop assured me that he was wholly indebted to the Common 
Father of the faithful, and to the benefactors in Europe, for his estab 
lishment in Cincinnati, which is, in truth, like himself, modest and 
unaffected; he has, doubtless, made a judicious, economical and pru 
dent application of the funds, which he received from his trans-atlantic 
friends; he has received none from any other source. No prophet 
is received in his own country ." 92 

The second institution for which the bishop had gone to 
Rome was a seminary. Upon his return to Cincinnati, he 
found that a seminary had been begun in the priests house, 
and had been in charge of a priest, who by reason of a previous 
promise of affiliation to New Orleans, had to leave Cincinnati 
for that diocese in 1825. The bishop had a seminary, therefore, 
without a professor and without a proper building. 9 3 Upon the 
completion of the new cathedral, the old frame church was re 
moved to the rear of it, and converted into a seminary. 94 The 
bishop could no longer entertain hopes of securing for a semi 
nary the piece of property of five acres with a large house, 
150 by 100 feet, containing 23 fire-places, a property upon which 
he had taken a lease in 1823. He found the price $26,000.00 
far out of his reach. 95 The twelve thousand dollars, which 
his European trip had netted him, had been used up in the 
building of the cathedral. The necessity of a seminary, how 
ever, ever presented itself to him. He had Father Badin make 
overtures in Europe for a priest to conduct his seminary. A 
young man, by name de Gaussancourt, of the seminary of 
St. Nicolas du Chardonnet, Paris, had been obtained in 1825, 
but in 1826 disappointed both Father Badin and Bishop Fen- 
wick by taking up other work in Italy. 96 The loss of any 
prospective candidate for the diocese of Cincinnati was always 
a keen blow to the bishop, as he never had an abundance of 
priests, and in this instance, since the plan of establishing the 
new province of Dominicans in Ohio was not meeting with the 

92. Article, "Ohio," in U. S. Catholic Miscellany, May 3, 1828, VII, 342-3. 

93. Letter, Fenwick, Cincinnati, March 29, 1825, to Mr. P. Pallavicini, Turin (Catholic 
Telegraph, April 2, 1891). 

94. Letter, Fenwick (probably 1826) to Badin (Annales, III, 279) ; Travels through North 
America during the years 1825 and 1826 by His Highness Bernhard, Duke of Saxe-Weimar 
Eisenach, II, 137 (American Catholic Historical Researches, VII [1890], 13); Purcell, Cincin 
nati, October 1, 1834, to Leopoldine Association (Berichte, 1836, IX, 9). 

95. Letter, Fenwick, Cincinnati, April 16, 1825, to Badin, ut supra Note 88. 

96. Letter, Badin, Chelsea, London, August 12, 1825, to Fenwick; same, Paris, August 2, 
1826, to same (Notre Dame Archives). 


desired success, the bishop was, indeed, sorely tried. He strove 
to obtain recruits wherever possible, and in spite of his great 
poverty, which did not seem to be lessened even by the growing 
numbers of converts to the faith, both in Cincinnati and 
throughout the state, he ever yearned for the establishment of a 
seminary to furnish the necessary quota of missionaries. A 
seminary to train native clergy had the advantage of producing 
priests who did not require two or three years to learn the 
English language after reaching America. Having been forced 
to suspend the first attempt in establishing a seminary in 1825, 
it must have rejoiced the heart of the bishop to be able to open 
a theological seminary in the frame building on May 11, 1829, 
with ten students, four in theology and six in the humanities. 97 
New subsidies having been accorded him by the Association 
of the Propagation of the Faith, for $3,000 he bought lot No. 74, 
measuring 100 by 195 feet to the north of the cathedral proper 
ty, from Henry Gregory on August 1, 1829. 98 A new building 
was then planned by Alpheus White of Cincinnati. The cor 
nerstone of it was laid on May 14, 1830, by Rev. James Ignatius 
Mullon, duly authorized by the vicar-general of the cathedral, 
and the dedication of it to St. Francis Xavier took place in the 
next year." 

A third object of Bishop Fenwick s trip to Rome was the 
establishment of a province of the Dominicans in Ohio. Upon 
his return to Cincinnati in 1825, the bishop charged Father Hill 
to effect this. But the establishment proved abortive and was 
formally annulled by the Dominican Master General at Rome in 
1827. Another arrangement was sought, therefore, as a result of 
which the foundation of the Dominicans in Ohio and Kentucky 
were united and Bishop Fenwick was constituted their superior 
for life as vicar-general of the order in Ohio. 100 By this 
arrangement, it was possible to call into Ohio more priests 
from the Kentucky convent. 

97. Letter, J. B. Clicteur, Cincinnati, June 28, 1829, to the Association of Propagation 
of the Faith, Lyons (Annales, IV, 514 ff). 

98. Deed, Henry Gregory to Edward Fenwick, recorded December 17, 1829, Hamilton 
County Recorder s Office, Book of Deeds, No. 33, pp. 408-09. 

99. Original inscription in cornerstone, preserved in Archives of St. Xavier College, 

100. Agreement between Propaganda and Very Rev. Joseph M. Velzi, Vicar-General 
of the Dominicans, Rome, April 20, 1828, and the Apostolic Brief of Confirmation, May 2, 
1828, in Jus Pontificium de Propaganda Fide (Rome, 1891), IV, 694-96. 


For the purpose of bringing more priests into Ohio, Bishop 
Fenwick made overtures through Father Badin to the Jesuits 
and Benedictines in England in 1825 and 1826, though neither 
the one nor the other could look with favor upon the project. 101 
Shortly before his death in 1832 he was to rejoice upon the 
arrival from Austria of some Redemptorist Fathers. He was 
more successful in obtaining sisters for the conduct of a school 
in Cincinnati and at Somerset. The first to come to Cincinnati 
was a Sister of Mercy, Sister St. Paul, from a convent in 
France. Her coming to Cincinnati in September, 1824, had 
been heralded to Cincinnati by Father Re*se, so that upon her 
arrival in the city, the people turned out to see "what kind of a 
creature a nun was". 102 She proved of great assistance to 
Bishop Fenwick, having together with a neophyte from Ken 
tucky formed a school of twenty-five girls, 103 so that her death 
at the early age of 25 in the year 1827, was a severe blow to the 
bishop s prospects of establishing a religious order in the 
diocese. At her death she was not the only nun in the diocese, 
for she had been joined the year previous, 1826, by the Collet- 
tine Poor Clares from Bruges: Sisters Francoise Vindevoghle 
and Victoire de Seilles, and a Beguine from Ghent, Sister 
Adolphine Malingie. They, too, established a school for girls 
and in the beginning of 1827, had seventy scholars, besides 
attending a numerous school of poor children on Sundays. 104 
Of their assistance, however, the bishop was deprived early in 
1828, for two of them had gone to Pittsburgh to establish 
a convent of their order, whilst the third, Miss Malingie, 
having quitted them, remained at the cathedral of Cincinnati 
as a singer and directress of the choir. 105 The departure of 
the sisters was an unfortunate step, for on April 19, 1828, two 
other Poor Clares, Benedicta and Bernadina, had sailed from 
Havre for Cincinnati to join their former companions. 106 Not 
finding them at Cincinnati, they followed them to Pittsburgh. 

101. Letter, Badin, Chelsea, April 7, 1825, to Fenwick; same, Lille, April 19, 1826, to 
same; same, Paris, August 2, 1826, to same (Notre Dame Archives). 

102. Letter, Rese, Cincinnati, May 1, 1825, to the students of Propaganda College 
(Propaganda Archives, America Centrale, Scritture, 1823-1826, vol. VIII). 

103. Letter, Fenwick, Cincinnati, 1827, to Badin (Annales, III, 289). 

104. U. S. Catholic Miscellany, February 24, 1827, VI, 246. 

105. Letter, Fenwick, Cincinnati, April 10, 1828, to Bishop Rosati (copy in St. Louis 
Archives; original in Archives of American Catholic Historical Society of Philadelphia). 

106. Letter, Rese, Rome, May 22, 1828, to Fenwick (Notre Dame Archives). 


Who knows but that if all had remained at Cincinnati, a fairer 
page might have been written of these poor sisters of Pittsburgh ? 

Upon this failure, two or three Catholic laymen, one of 
whom had gone to Emmitsburg for the purpose, proposed the 
establishment of the Sisters of Charity. 107 Bishop Fenwick 
graciously received the proposition, even though his former 
application in 1825 for Sisters of Charity had been refused for 
the reason that he could not assure Father Dubois, superior 
of the sisters, of his ability to carry out the conditions which 
that Father had demanded for the establishment. 108 He 
wrote a second invitation, therefore, to the mother-superior 
on May 9, 1829, asking for three or four sisters to take charge 
of a female orphan asylum. 109 In October of that year the 
request was granted, and on October 27, 1829, Sisters Francis 
Xavier, Victoria, Beatrice and Albina arrived at Cincinnati, 
where they opened a school with six children. 110 

The last of the sisterhoods brought to the diocese by Bishop 
Fenwick was that of the Sisters of St. Dominic, four of whom, 
Sisters Emily Elder, Agnes Harbin, Catherine Mudd and 
Benvin Sansbury left St. Magdalen s monastery, Kentucky, 
for Somerset, Ohio, on January 11, 1830, and arrived there on 
February 5th, taking possession of a small house purchased for 
them on February 25th, and opening a school on April 5, 
1830. 111 

Whilst these greater projects were being carried out, Bishop 
Fenwick did not neglect the lesser duties of his office. At 
times he was assisted at Cincinnati by only one priest, which 
necessitated the bishop engaging in all the ministerial offices 
of the lower clergy. Whilst Cincinnati itself was the scene of 
his labors during the winter months, the rest of Ohio and the 
state of Michigan were visited regularly by him in the summer 
months. Due to his visitations, as well as to the zeal of his 
few co-laborers and assistants, the Catholic religion gained 

107. Letter, Rev. J. B. Clicteur, Cincinnati, February 17, 1829, to Propagation of Faith, 
Lyons (Annales, 1830, IV, 512). 

108. Letter, Dubois, Mount St. Mary s, December 30, 1825, to Fenwick (Notre Dame 
Archives) . 

109. Letter, Fenwick, Cincinnati, May 9, 1829, to Mother Superior of Emmitsburg 
(Archives St. Joseph College, Emmitsburg, Letter Book 6). 

110. SISTER MARY AGNES MCCANN, The History of Mother Seton s Daughters, I, 162, 
referring to Marianne Reilly s Journal. 

111. Letter, Rev. George A. Wilson, O.P., Somerset, Ohio, February 17, 1847, to Bishop 
Purcell (Cincinnati Diocesan Archives, at Mount St. Joseph, Ohio). 


many adherents. The old parish churches became too small 
for the congregations, so that additions had to be made to 
them; new parishes arose in all parts of the state. It was as a 
consequence of this increase, which brought in its train numer 
ous defections from the Protestant denominations, as when 
Father Rese nearly ruined the Lutheran Church at Cincinnati 
by unearthing 33 Catholic German families, 112 that religious 
prejudice soon found expression in some pulpits and periodicals. 
Among the latter, the Christian Journal of Cincinnati was most 
bitter and was assailed for its attitude by even the non-Catholic 
editor of the Chronicle, who took occasion on September 4, 
1830, to write: "I have never been the emessary of popery 
except so far as to rebuke the intolerance that the Christian 
Journal is accustomed to exhibit towards the Roman Catholic 
Church." 113 To give an answer to such enemies and to explain 
the position of the Church to those seeking the truth, as well as 
to expound Catholic doctrine to members of its own faith was 
the object which brought into existence the Catholic Telegraph 
of Cincinnati in October, 183 1. 114 At the end of that year, 
Bishop Fenwick could write: 

"My diocese in Ohio and Michigan is flourishing. (It) contains 
twenty-four priests, missionaries, twenty-two churches and several 
more congregations without churches, whereas fourteen years ago 
there was not a church, and I the only missionary in the State of Ohio. 
Our College in Cincinnati is in complete operation, excepting the 
Philosophical Department, for which the apparatus long expected is 
not yet arrived. Our seminary, which (is) united to the College and 
Cathedral, contains 13 seminarians preparing for Holy Orders. All 
seculars; as these establishments (are) secular. We have a private 
press and a weekly paper entitled the Catholic Telegraph of Cincin 
nati." 115 

One cannot help admiring the enormous work performed 
and the remarkable success achieved by this truly apostolic 
bishop of Ohio, especially when one reflects that it had all to be 
done out of such rough materials by one who never enjoyed 
robust health, but, on the contrary, was scarcely ever well. 
An indication of his poor health was his suffering from a poly- 

112. Letter, Fenwick, Cincinnati, March 29, 1825, to P. Pallavicini, Turin, ut supra. 

113. The Chronicle, September 4, 1830. 

114. The Catholic Telegraph, October 22, 1831, vol. I, No. 1. 

115. Letter, Fenwick, Cincinnati, December 1, 1831, to Rev. P. Potier, Weybridge, 
Surrey, England (Haverstock Hill Archives, London, England). 


pus of the nose in 1827 and 1828. 116 It was on account of his 
failing health as well as his humble estimate of his own abilities 
that throughout his episcopate he begged for a coadjutor in 
the diocese. His request for Father Cippoletti, O.P., having 
been nullified by that Father s decided opposition, he asked 
on May 5, 1825, for Reverend Francis Kenrick of the diocese 
of Bardstown, a request which he repeated on February 1, 
1826. 117 Father Kenrick s appointment, however, was suc 
cessfully opposed by his ordinary, Bishop Flaget, who did 
not wish to be deprived of that excellent man s assistance. 118 
The bishop then besought Rome in 1828 to appoint Father 
Rese his coadjutor. For three years no answer was received 
to this petition, though other bishops had seconded the nomi 
nation. Bishop Fenwick then began to lose hopes of getting 
him, fearing that Father Rese", caring more for an appointment 
as bishop of Detroit, had eluded the appointment to the co- 
adjutorship of Cincinnati. 119 This, indeed, proved to be true, 
and the bishop, therefore, in August, 1832, made Father 
Jeanjean of New Orleans the bearer of a letter to the Pope and 
to the Cardinal-Prefect of the Propaganda, requesting the 
appointment of Father Kenny, S.J., of Maryland, as coadjutor 
to Cincinnati, and Father Re"se as bishop of Detroit. 120 Before 
that petition could have reached Rome, Bishop Fenwick had 
succumbed to a dread disease, which was then sweeping the 
Great Lakes. 

Accompanied by Father Jeanjean of New Orleans, Bishop 
Fenwick left Cincinnati June 14th, on his annual visitations 
through Ohio and the Northwest. At the time he was in 

116. Letter, Rese, Rome, September 29, 1827, to Fenwick, Cincinnati; same, Vienna, 
December 10, 1828, to same (Notre Dame Archives). 

117 Letter, Rese-Fenwick, Cincinnati, May 5, 1825, to Cardinal- Prefect of Propaganda; 
letter, Fenwick, Cincinnati, February 1, 1826, to Cardinal-Prefect of Propaganda (Propa 
ganda Archives, America Centrale, Scritture, 1823-1826, vol. 938); Fenwick, February 24, 
1826, to Archbishop Marechal (Baltimore Archives, Case 21 A, C 2). 

118. Letter, Fenwick, September 29, 1826, to Archbishop Marechal (Baltimore Archives, 
Case 16, Y 12); Rese, Rome, June 30, 1827, to Fenwick (Notre Dame Archives). 

119. Letter, Fenwick, Cincinnati, April 3, 1830, to Bishop Rosati, St. Louis (St. Louis 
Diocesan Archives); Rosati, St. Louis, April 7, 1830, to Fenwick; same, April 13, 1830, to 
same (Notre Dame Archives); Fenwick, Cincinnati, February 9, 1831, to Rosati, St. Louis 
(St. Louis Diocesan Archives). 

120. Fenwick, Detroit, August 22, 1832, to Archbishop Whitfield (Baltimore Archives, 
Case 23, H 6); Fenwick, Detroit, August 23, 1832, to Bishop Rosati (St. Louis Archives); 
Fenwick, Canton, September 1, 1832, to Flaget (Notre Dame Archives). 


feeble health and had a presentiment of approaching death. 121 
At St. Joseph s, Somerset, Ohio, he gave Father Re"se instruc 
tions for the administration of the diocese in the event of his 
death. 122 Having visited Lancaster and Canton, he passed 
on to Cleveland, whence he sailed in the early part of July for 
Detroit. Here, because of the cholera, his boat was subjected 
to rigid quarantine, though allowed to proceed on the following 
day. The disease broke out, however, on his boat and he was 
detained two days at Fort Gratiot on the St. Clair river. On 
July 14th, the bishop was attacked at Sault Ste Marie by chills 
and fever, which indisposition increased on his way to Mackinac, 
where he arrived on the 17th. He began to feel better, how 
ever, on the 18th, 123 and after his recovery visited Arbre Croche 
and Green Bay, returning to Mackinac and Detroit, at which 
last place he was to be found at the middle of August. 124 In 
the middle of September he ordered the collect pro mtanda 
mortalitate to be said in the Mass every day "to avert the dread 
ful pestilence raging in Europe and the largest cities of America 
with violence". 125 Tiffin and Norwalk were visited on his way 
back to Canton, Ohio. 126 Accompanied by Father Henni, the 
pastor of Canton, he went to Steubenville to administer the Sac 
rament of Confirmation. He next visited Pittsburgh, returned 
to Ohio and confirmed at New Lisbon, Columbiana county, 
on September 23d. Back at Canton, he heard of the death of 
Father Gabriel Richard, a victim of the cholera at Detroit. 
On Tuesday, September 25th, he journeyed to Wooster, Wayne 

121. After Pontifical High Mass on Pentecost, 1832, at Cincinnati, Bishop Fenwick 
exclaimed: "This is the last time in my life that I celebrate Mass in this church". These 
words were noted by Father Jeanjean at Cincinnati and shown to Father Mazzuchelli, O.P., 
at Mackinac in July, 1832 (Memoirs of Father Mazzuchelli, O.P., p. 75). Letter, Fenwick, 
Cincinnati, May 25, 1832, to Rev. F. B. Jamison, Emmitsburg (Archives of Mount St. Mary 
College, Emmitsburg, Md.); Flaget to Rese, November 9, 1832 (Notre Dame Archives). 

122. RijSE, Historical Notice on Fenwick, in Annales, 1833, VI, 138. 

123. Letter, Fenwick, Mackinac, July 18, 1832, to Rese (Notre Dame Archives). 

124. Catholic Telegraph, I, p. 358, August 25th; p. 391, September 22d; Annales, 
VI, 197-98; Fenwick, Detroit, August 22, 1832, to Archbishop Whitfield (Baltimore Archives, 
Case 23, H 6). 

125. Catholic Telegraph, I, 383, September 15, 1832. 

126. HENNI, Ein Blick ins Ohiolhal, quoted by HAMMER, Der Apostel von Ohio, pp. 140- 
141 ; Catholic Telegraph, I, p. 391, September 22d. 


county, in the company of Miss Eliza Rose Powell, who was to 
be his companion to Cincinnati. 127 

A letter from this lady to Father Rese describes the last 
hours of the bishop: 

Wooster, Sept. 26. 

The Rt. Rev. Bishop and I left Canton yesterday at noon. He 
complained of weakness and the dysentery, which he said had been 
with him for six weeks or more occasionally. At 4 o clock he com 
plained greatly of the cramp, so that he stood up two or three times in 
the stage. We got here just at sunset; he took a cup of tea and went 
to bed 15 minutes after. We had two doctors with him before eleven 
o clock. We despaired of his recovery at that hour. I told him I 
was writing for Mr. Henny, as the stage would start for Canton at 
two o clock. He said, "tell him to bring the Blessed Sacrament and 
Holy Oil, for I may be dead before he arrives." I started the Post-boy 
two hours sooner on that account. As he had some baggage for Mr. 
Galegher, I sent for him this morning. The physicians have all re 
tired all are afraid of his disease. I am quite alone with him this 
morning. When I asked him if he knew me, he said, no. I told him 
who I was as he leaned against me. While I prayed, and strove to 
make him sensible, by reciting the Litany or some words of the Psalms, 
he reached (out) his arms and said, "Come let us go to Calvary." This 
is all he has said since sunrise. It is now 10 o clock he breathes easy 
now but has neither sense nor feeling. 

He was attended by Doctors Colter 12 * and Bissel, of this place, 
who were attentive to their utmost, and passed the night with me and 
the negro man I had to assist. They took their turns in rubbing his 
legs to solace the cramp. We wrapped him above the knees in flannel 
and spirits of wine. Mustard was applied with spirits of wine occa 
sionally. From his knees downward is nearly drawn to a blister, 
since which his violent cramp, which had continued nearly five hours, 
has subsided. Every stimulus was administered, but nothing could 
raise his pulse, which is hardly sensible to the touch. Oh! how it 
pierced my soul, when the landlady came in and said, "Yes he has 
administered to many, but there is no one to administer to him now." 

127. Eliza Rose Powell was born in 1801 in Woodford county, Ky., of Owen Powell and 
Mary Ruth McCracken. She was converted in 1817 by Father Fenwick and sent to the 
academy of the Sisters of Charity at Nazareth, Ky., to complete her education. After Father 
Fenwick became bishop of Ohio, he requested her to come to Ohio to take any school which 
most needed her services. She came to Cincinnati and was probably the neophyte who assisted 
Sister St. Paul, 1825-1826. In 1832 she was teaching school at Canton, Ohio. Seeing the 
delicate state of the health of the bishop in 1832, at Canton, and that he was alone, she deter 
mined to accompany him to Cincinnati. After his death, she returned to her home in Ken 
tucky, where she died on August 20, 1872, in Midwey. Her funeral obsequies were held at 
St. Pius church by Father Bowe (Catholic Telegraph, January 9, 1879). 

128. FATHER O DANIEL, Life of Bishop Fenwick, p. 424, thinks Miss Powell made a slip 
of the pen in mentioning the name of the hotel Colter, in place of Dr. Stephen F. Day, as 
assisting Dr. Samuel N. Bissell. 


Nevertheless, I still hope he will live till night, when Mr. Henny will 
be sure to be here. Perhaps it may be the quantity of opium he took 
last night, which induces his present lethargic state ; but in the opinion 
of everyone no hope remains. 

Your affectionate child, 

Rev. Mr. Rese, 
P.S. We are at Mr. Colter s Hotel. 

It was unfortunate that Father Henni did not arrive at 
Wooster in time to see the bishop alive or even at all. The 
post-boy had neglected to fulfill his charge of informing Father 
Henni until 10 o clock on the morning of the 27th, as his 
letter to Father Rese states : 

Wooster, 7 P.M., Sept. 1832. 
Dear Friend: 

As I understand, Miss Powell has communicated in writing to you 
the sad condition of the bishop. The continuation sorrowful con 
tinuation of the story ends with the death of our Rt. Rev. Bishop. 
He is no more I did not see him, for he died on Wednesday at about 
12 o clock and was buried on the same evening. 

I saw only the mound which covered his remains, as I was in 
formed of his death at Canton only at 10 o clock today. I left imme 
diately for Wooster, with fear even of ever seeing Miss Powell alive 
as they informed me of her at Massillon but I found her as composed 
as such circumstances permit. 

Had I been informed on time so that I could have been here 24 
hours previous something that must be charged to the neglect of the 
post-boy I would have had the body buried in the ground concerning 
which we had previously arranged with Messrs. Gallagher and Chris- 

Father Henni goes on to tell that he was sorry he had not 
accompanied the bishop, as he had done on his trip to Pitts 
burgh, but several disastrous cases of cholera about Canton had 
prevented him from doing so. The expenses incurred by the 
bishop s illness, death and burial amounted to $23.30, which 
was paid out of the money which the bishop carried on his 
person, $275 in bills and $18 in cash. 130 

The bishop s remains, however, were not suffered to lie 
long at Wooster before plans were formulated to bring them to 

129. Catholic Telegraph, October 6, 1832, I, p. 406; translation in French in Annales, 
1833, VI, 142-143. 

130. Letter, John Henni, Wooster, September 27, 1832, to Re se, Cincinnati (Notre Dame 
Archives). The original, of which the above is a translation, is in German and most difficult 
to decipher. 


Cincinnati. For that purpose Mr. Alpheus White, a convert 
of the bishop s, set out for Wooster in January, 1833, 131 and 
about the first of February had the body disinterred. 132 It 
was then transferred to Cincinnati, where on February llth 
after a solemn Requiem Mass, attended by the clergy of the 
cathedral and the students of the seminary, it was deposited in 
the vault under the cathedral of St. Peter. 133 On Monday 
morning, March 13, 1848, it was again transferred by Bishop 
Purcell to a place beneath the high altar of the new St. Peter s 
cathedral at Eighth and Plum streets. 134 Lastly, on March 23, 
1916, the body of Bishop Fenwick was laid to rest in the new 
mausoleum in St. Joseph s cemetery, Price Hill. 135 The fol 
lowing inscription is found on the slab enclosing the niche : 


BORN 1768, 

DIED 1832. 



It did not take Rome long to act in the appointment of a 
vicar-administrator of the diocese of Cincinnati; for on De 
cember 22, 1832, Cardinal Pedicini, Prefect of the Propaganda, 
wrote to Father Rse that he had been given all the faculties 
of the deceased bishop, except such as required the episcopal 
character. 136 But a much longer period was to pass before the 
second bishop of Cincinnati was chosen. We have seen how 
Bishop Fenwick by letter committed to Father Jeanjean, had 
forwarded the petition to Rome to have Father Peter Kenny, 
S.J., of Georgetown College, appointed his coadjutor, and how 

131. Letter, N. D. Young, O.P., Somerset, December 19, 1832, to Rese; same, January 
23, 1833 to same (Notre Dame Archives). 

132. Letter, Henni, Canton, February 6, 1833, to Rese, Cincinnati (Notre Dame Archives). 

133. Catholic Telegraph, 1833, II, 127. 

134. Idem, March 16, 1848, XVII, 86. 

135. Idem, March 30, 1916. 

136. Letter, Cardinal Pedicini, Rome, December 22, 1832, to Rese, Cincinnati (Notre 
Dame Archives). 


he had written letters to Archbishop Whitfield and to Bishops 
Rosati and Flaget, asking them to second the nomination. 137 
The two bishops did as requested, the reason which Bishop 
Fenwick advanced for the choice, namely, the necessity of a 
religious community to conduct the Athenaeum properly, 
strongly appealing to them, though Bishop Flaget thought 
that the petition would hardly meet with a favorable response, 
as Father Kenny was far advanced in age and decidedly 
opposed to such a dignity. 138 Father Kenny did, indeed, 
manifest much repugnance for the office, and having stated his 
reasons, which were those of age, infirmity, lack of knowledge 
of conditions in the diocese, and the opposition of the clergy 
of Ohio to a person of the Society of Jesus, urged Archbishop 
Whitfield to oppose his nomination at Rome. 139 

It was this decided opposition on the part of Father Kenny 
that favored the introduction of another candidate for the office. 
Eventually this nomination was to be approved. Bishop 
Francis P. Kenrick, coadjutor bishop of Philadelphia, wisely 
proposed to Bishop Rosati of St. Louis to offer the name of 
John Baptist Purcell along with that of Father Kenny, whom 
he thought Rome would not appoint, though he, too, knew of 
no one better qualified than Father Kenny. In speaking of 
Father Purcell, then President of the college at Emmitsburg, 
Bishop Kenrick said: "His youth as well as his health, which 
is not robust, are the chief obstacles which occur to my mind; 
but his spotless virtue, together with his learning and his other 
amiable and illustrious qualities render him, in my opinion, 
worthy of so great an honor." The terna which he, therefore, 
proposed was Kenny, Purcell and Rese in order. 140 This sug 
gestion appealed to neither Bishop Rosati nor Bishop Flaget, 
who proposed Father John Hughes of Philadelphia, if Father 
Kenny were not appointed. 141 One other name, that of Father 

137. Letters as in Note 120. 

138. Letters, Rosati, St. Louis, October 11, 1832, to Rese, Cincinnati; Flaget, October 19, 
1832, to R6se (Notre Dame Archives); Rosati, St. Louis, February 14, 1833, to Whitfield, 
Baltimore (Baltimore Archives, Case 23, S 5). 

139. Letter, Peter Kenny, S.J., Bohemia, December 10, 1832, to Whitfield, Baltimore 
(Baltimore Archives, Case 23, K 4); letter, same, Georgetown, December 30, 1832, to same 
(Baltimore Archives, Case 23 A, H 4). 

140. Letter, Kenrick, Philadelphia, November 5, 1832, to Rosati, St. Louis (St. Louis 
Archives) . 

141. Letter, Bishop England, Rome, May 14, 1833, to Archbishop Whitfield, Baltimore 
(Baltimore Archives, Case 23, G 5). 


Richard P. Miles, O.P., was spoken of among the Dominicans 
of Ohio, though this name received no consideration on this 
occasion. 142 

At Rome, the Cardinals of the Propaganda accepted the 
opposition made by the Jesuit General to the appointment of 
Father Kenny, the reasons of age and infirmity influencing 
them. Father Rese was appointed to the diocese of Detroit, 
as the late Bishop Fenwick had requested. Bishop England, 
then at Rome, was asked his opinion of Hughes and/Purcell, 
and after having stated his views on the merits of each and the 
difficulties of their removal, concluded that the appointment 
of either one to Cincinnati would be acceptable. The Cardinals 
then held a meeting at the Vatican on February 25, 1833, 
nominating Purcell to Cincinnati, though they held the ap 
pointment in abeyance, as Purcell spoke French, and a bishop 
with a knowledge of that language was soon to be chosen for 
Vincennes, Indiana. The influence which had secured the 
nomination of Purcell was that of Cardinal Weld. 143 

Complications arose shortly. Archbishop Whitfield was 
strongly opposed to Purcell s nomination; he had never 
entered him on his terna, and after Purcell s nomination had 
been made, the Cardinals received a letter from him, seeking 
to have Father Dubuisson s name substituted for that of 
Purcell. The reason of Archbishop Whitfield s opposition was 
the consideration that the removal of Father Purcell from the 
college at Emmitsburg would be ruinous to the college and a 
serious inconvenience to the archdiocese of Baltimore, which 
had no priests to spare. 144 This stopped the sending of the 
bulls of nomination to Father Purcell. Bishop England was 
still at Rome, and when informed of the opposition of Arch 
bishop Whitfield, spoke his mind freely on the subject to the 
Cardinals. Cardinal Weld then saw the Pope on the same 
evening, May 12th, and the next day Father Purcell s papers 
were in the hands of the clerk for instant expedition. 145 

142. Letter, Rosati, St. Louis, April 22, 1833, to Rese, Cincinnati (Notre Dame Archives). 

143. Letter, England, Rome, February 25, 1833, to Purcell, Emmitsburg (Notre Dame 
Archives) . 

144. Letter, Purcell, Baltimore, May 18, 1833, to Rev. Jamison, Emmitsburg (Archives 
Mount St. Mary s College, Emmitsburg). 

145. Letters, England, Rome, May 14, 1833, to Whitfield, Baltimore (Baltimore Archives, 
Case 23, G 5); same, May 14, 1833, to Purcell, Emmitsburg; same, Charleston, July 1, 1837, 
to same (Notre Dame Archives). 


Examination of the official documents confirms this ac 
count. On May 18, 1833, Cardinal Pedicini wrote to Father 
Purcell that with the enclosed mail he would receive the 
Apostolic Brief of Gregory XVI appointing him bishop of 
Cincinnati. 146 The brief of nomination is dated March 8, 
1833, a date which justified Bishop England writing to Father 
Purcell that the brief much antedated its confirmation by the 
Pope on May 12. 147 Bishop England s letter to Father Purcell 
reached New York on July 22d and was received by him 
probably the day after. The brief of nomination sent to 
Archbishop Whitfield was received at Baltimore on July 27th, 
and on August 2d was conveyed by Rev. Mr. Wainright of 
the cathedral of Baltimore to Father Purcell at Emmitsburg. 148 

From the foregoing it may be seen how well-grounded and 
yet how premature was the notice which the editor of the 
Catholic Telegraph gave on May 11, 1833, of the "authentic 
information received during the week that the court of Rome 
has accorded to us a bishop in confirming the nomination by 
our Hierarchy of the Rev. John B. Purcell, the talented, 
amiable, learned and pious President of Mount St. Mary s 
College, Emmitsburg, Maryland, to the See of Cincinnati". 149 
The news spread fast, and Father Purcell began receiving letters 
from clergy as well as laity, telling of the "retrograde condition" 
of the diocese of Cincinnati. 150 

Now, who was this newly appointed bishop of Cincinnati? 
John Baptist Purcell was born on February 26, 1800, in the 
town of Mallow, County Cork, Ireland, of Edward and Johanna 
Purcell, both pious Catholic parents. 151 Edward Purcell was 
a nail-maker by trade, and was not blessed with more than the 
ordinary means with which to rear his family of four children, 
Catherine, Margaret, John and Edward. John was given an 
excellent classical training in the school at Mallow. He 

146. Letter, Cardinal Pedicini, Rome, May 18, 1833, to Purcell (Archdiocesan Archives, 
at Mount St. Joseph s, Ohio). 

147. Brief of nomination, in Notre Dame Archives. 

148. Letter, Whitfield, Baltimore, July 27, 1833, to Purcell; Purcell, Emmitsburg, 
August 2, 1833, to Whitfield, Baltimore (original, Baltimore Archives, Case 23 A, L 6; auto 
graph copy, Notre Dame Archives). 

149 Catholic Telegraph, May 11, 1833, II, 222. 

150. Letter, M. P. Cassilly, Cincinnati, July 1, 1833, to Purcell, Emmitsburg (Mount St. 
Mary College Archives, Emmitsburg); Purcell, Emmitsburg, June 19, 1833, to Whitfield 
(Baltimore Archives, Case 23 A, L 5). 

151. Purcell s Journal, February 26, 1834. 


finished his course when he was eighteen years of age, and was 
in hopes that the richer branch of the Purcell family, which, 
however, was Protestant, would contribute to his education 
for the priesthood, towards which state of life he aspired even 
when quite a young boy. Disappointed in his hopes, he saw 
no other opportunity of reaching his goal quickly than by going 
to America. For America, therefore, he sailed from Ireland 
when he was eighteen years old. 152 In the United States, he 
made his way to Baltimore, where he determined to take ad 
vantage of his classical knowledge by obtaining from the 
faculty of Asbury college a certificate of qualification to teach. 
Successful, he became private tutor in the family of Dr. Wisson, 
resident on the eastern shore in Maryland. 153 After two years at 
this, he applied for admission as a student to Mount St. Mary s 
college, Emmitsburg. Father Dubois received him, and al 
ways had a good report to make of him to the archbishop of 
Baltimore. 154 

Persevering in his vocation, he was given tonsure and the 
four minor orders by Archbishop Marechal on May 4, 1823. 155 
His talents and application had made a most favorable im 
pression upon his superiors, who designed him accordingly 
to fill a place in the faculty of the college in which he was 
studying. It was decided, therefore, to give him the benefit 
of further study in the Sulpician seminary at Paris, for which 
destination he set sail on March 1, 1824, accompanied by 
Father Brute. 156 Upon the completion of two years at St. 
Sulpice, Paris, he was ordained priest in the cathedral of 
Notre Dame on May 20, 1826, by Archbishop de Quelen, of 
Paris. 157 

Father Purcell did not return immediately to America. 
Indeed, there was a possibility that he would not return as a 
diocesan priest. During the summer of 1826, he began to 
grow troubled whether or not he should join the Sulpician 

152. Statement of Archbishop Purcell, Catholic Telegraph, December 26, 1878. 

153. Report, John Dubois, Mount St. Mary s College, to Archbishop Marechal, 1821. 

154. Report of John Dubois, 1820; McSwEENY, Story of the Mountain, I, 94. 

155. MARECHAI/S Diary (Notre Dame Archives). 

156. McSwEENY, o. c., I, 115. 

157. Letter, L. Eugene Heynault, Chartres, France, November 16, 1875, to Purcell, 
Cincinnati (Notre Dame Archives). Bishop Heynault was a companion of Archbishop Pur 
cell at the ordination, and in this letter of November 16, 1875, invites Archbishop Purcell to 
come to Chartres to celebrate the golden jubilee in the next year. 


Society. In consultation with Father Hamon, of the Society 
of St. Sulpice, he was advised that in sending him to St. Sul 
pice his superiors intended that he should join the society. 158 
But this counsel was not followed, though Father Purcell con 
tinued his studies at St. Sulpice for two years more. 

He returned to his Alma Mater at Emmitsburg, where he 
became professor, and then vice-president in October, 1828. 
Upon the resignation of Father McSherry in the following year, 
Father Purcell became President, in November, 1829. It was 
this position which he was so ably filling when the summons 
to Cincinnati came. It was precisely because Archbishop 
Whitfield had realized his sterling qualities as the head of the 
institution that he had so vehemently and so persistently 
opposed his nomination. But the archbishop as well as Father 
Purcell had to yield the obedience which they had promised in 
ordination. Father Purcell had not sought the appointment 
in any way; he had even hoped that the news which had spread 
so rapidly, might prove false. When official information of 
his appointment was brought to him on August 2d, he penned 
these prophetic words: "Humbly do I hope that Almighty 
God has not permitted this appointment in his wrath; but 
rather in mercy and in the furtherance of the decree of his 
Divine Providence, wisdom and love in favor of the growing 
Church in the United States." 159 

Having made a first retreat with the seminarians at the 
college to obtain the light of the Holy Ghost to know whether 
or not to accept the appointment, Father Purcell began an 
eight days retreat on October 1st at St. Remigius church, 
Conewago, Pennsylvania, where Father Hickey joined him 
to act as his confessor and guide up to the time of his consecra 
tion. 160 This was to occur on Sunday, October 13th, in the 
Baltimore cathedral, Archbishop James Whitfield being the 
consecrator, assisted by Bishops John Dubois, of New York, 
and Francis Kenrick, of Philadelphia. Bishops Rosati and 

158. Letter, Hamon, Bordeaux, October 20, 1826, to Purcell, St. Sulpice, Paris (Arch- 
diocesan Archives, at Mount St. Joseph s). 

159. Letter, Purcell, Emmitsburg, August 2, 1833, to Whitfield, Baltimore (Baltimore 
Archives, Case 23 A, L 6). 

160. This and many of the following items are taken from the bishop s Journal, begun in 
November, 1833. 


Res6 assisted in the choir, and Rev. Mr. Eccleston preached 
the sermon. 161 

The second provincial council opened on the following 
Sunday, and attendance at this made the residence of Bishop 
Purcell in Baltimore obligatory. He remained in the city till 
November 2d, when he returned to Mount St. Mary s college, 
where on the following day, Sunday, he sang pontifical Mass 
for the first time. On the following Thursday, he set out 
for Cincinnati, but not alone. He was accompanied by Rev. 
N. D. Young, O.P., the new provincial of the Dominicans, 
three seminarians O Mealy, O Laughlin and McCallion, two 
Sisters of Charity, Alphonsa and Cephas, little Willy Ryan 
and Miss Ann Marr, who was to become his housekeeper. 
For this party the bishop had to pay the expenses, which were 
not light, and especially distressing, since he had to borrow the 
money from his friends in the East. Traveling by stage he 
reached Wheeling on Sunday at 5 o clock in the morning. 
The whole day was spent in religious exercises and preaching. 
On the following day he embarked on the steamboat Emigrant 
for Cincinnati. Upon his arrival at Cincinnati on Thursday, 
November 14th, he went to the house-of Mr. Santiago, opposite 
the cathedral on Sycamore street, vested and went in proces 
sion to the church, where he was installed in his new see by the 
venerable Bishop Flaget. 162 

The reports about Cincinnati which Bishop Purcell had 
been receiving in the East had not been encouraging. Now 
he could see for himself. He found no assured income for the 
support of the clergy or the seminary, and a considerable debt. 
To meet expenses, Father Rese, the administrator, had had to 
turn over the cathedral school opposite the cathedral to Mr. 
White, the architect, and had contracted besides a debt of 
over $500 in groceries, dry goods, etc., for the college and the 
seminary, for which Bishop Purcell had to give his note. 
Neither the principal nor the interest for three years on the 
mortgage of $750.00 for the first church and cemetery had been 
paid. Seven hundred and twenty dollars had been collected 
for the German Catholics in Cincinnati, and this had been 

161. Signatures on reverse of brief of nomination, signed October 27, 1833 (Notre Dame 
Archives) ; Catholic Telegraph II, 415 (October 26, 1833). 

162. Journal, ut supra; Catholic Telegraph, November 29, 1833. 


spent for the maintenance of the cathedral house. The build 
ings, too, stood in need of great repairs. 163 In the territory 
now constituting the archdiocese there were but the one church 
at Cincinnati, the one at St. Martin s, Brown county, and the 
one in construction at Hamilton. In the rest of the state of 
Ohio there were thirteen churches, of which nine had been 
willed by Bishop Fenwick to the Society of St. Joseph of the 
Dominicans in Ohio. These nine churches were located at 
Somerset (two), Zanesville, Canton, St. Paul s near New Lis 
bon, Beaver (Guernsey county), Jonathan Creek (Morgan 
county), St. Patrick s (Perry county), Lancaster, and Sapp s 
Settlement near Danville (Knox county). The four others, 
which, together with the three mentioned above, had been 
willed to the new bishop, were located at Tiffin, Clinton, St. 
Alphonse near Norwalk, and one near Canton. 164 These 
sixteen churches were frequented by 6,000 to 7,000 persons, 
who were attended by fourteen priests, diocesan and regular. 
The first care of Bishop Purcell was the settlement of the 
will of the former bishop. All the papers of the will had been 
turned over by two of the executors, Fathers N. D. Young, 
O.P., and Fred. Rese, to a third executor, Father Anthony 
Ganilh, who left Cincinnati for Bardstown and remained there 
with the papers. 165 Upon request, he refused to deliver the 
papers, and Bishop Purcell had to go to Bardstown to argue 
him into handing them over. The deed of transfer was 
then made on December 4, 1833, but Ganilh refused to sign the 
deed, which of course led to difficulties. 166 Ganilh went even 
so far as to institute suit against the bishop for the property 
which had been willed to Bishop Purcell as the successor to 
Bishop Fenwick in Cincinnati. The Court decided against 

163. Letter, Purcell, Cincinnati, August 12, 1834, to Propagation of Faith, Lyons (auto 
graph copy in Notre Dame Archives); Journal of Purcell; letter, Rese, Detroit, July 3, 1835, 
to Purcell, Cincinnati (Notre Dame Archives). 

164. Will of Bishop Fenwick, probated October 1, 1832, Hamilton County Will Record 
10, pp. 375-78 (printed in Church Case, Supreme Court of Ohio, vol. 4, exhibit 16, pp. 18-20); 
U. S. Catholic Almanac, 1833, pp. 50-51. 

165. Letter, Rese, Fredericktown, November 18, 1833, to Purcell, Cincinnati (Notre 
Dame Archives); Journal of Purcell. 

166. Deed of transfer, recorded June 12, 1845, Book 102, p. 470; letter, Res, Detroit, 
July 3, 1835, to Purcell, Cincinnati; N. D. Young, St. Joseph s, January 16, 1835, to Purcell, 
Cincinnati (Notre Dame Archives). 


the plaintiff and the bishop was relieved of further worry on 
the subject. 167 

In the first year of his rule in Ohio, Bishop Purcell began 
his visitation tours, which contributed so much towards the 
growth of Catholicity in the state of Ohio. Like the first 
bishop of Cincinnati he made a very winning appeal to the 
Protestants in all parts of the state, who were only too anxious 
to invite him to speak in the courthouse or even in their own 
churches. It was not a very enjoyable procedure to travel 
to these various communities on horseback through unbroken 
forests, to ford streams where death might be lurking, or even 
when railroads began to be operated to travel on a hand-car, 
which was propelled by the sturdy arms of some good-hearted 
Irish Catholic roadsmen. But the results showed that the 
blessing of God was upon the work. In 1837 the churches in 
Ohio numbered 24, and the stations 16; in 1840, the churches 
numbered 40, the stations 16; in 1842, the churches 45, the 
stations 20; in 1844, the churches 70, the stations 50; whilst 
the population of Catholics in 1846 had grown to 50, 000. 168 

A great proportion of credit for this must be given to the 
bishop s able defense of the Catholic doctrines, which were 
maligned by Alexander Campbell, a Baptist minister in the city 
of Cincinnati. Bishop Purcell and Alexander Campbell were 
members of an association, called the College of Teachers, 
which was in convention, beginning October 3, 1836. The 
discussions in the convention led to further discussions, and 
finally on December 19, 1836, Bishop Purcell wrote a letter to 
the Cincinnati Gazette "accepting the gauntlet of a public 
debate" thrown down to him by Alexander Campbell in that 
paper. This resulted in the "Purcell-Campbell Debate", 
which was held in the Campbell church, converted later on 
into the Catholic church of St. Thomas on Sycamore street. 

The debate, which was conducted morning and afternoon, 
opened on January 13, 1837, and closed on Saturday noon, 
January 21st. So large was the audience that fears were en 
tertained for the building. Public opinion was unanimous 
in acclaiming a victory for the bishop, whilst some of the 

167. Letter, Purcell, Cincinnati, January 12, 1838, to Marianne Reilly (Archives Mount 
St. Joseph s). 

168. The U. S. Catholic Almanac, respective years. 


sectarian journals became exasperated. Others among them 
gave the palm of victory to Bishop Purcell. "Protestantism 
gained nothing, Catholicism suffered nothing," wrote the 
Cincinnati Gazette. The Cincinnati Whig remarked that the 
Rev. Mr. Campbell was "pretty well used up". The Repub 
lican said Campbell "retired from the contest pretty much 
after the manner of the sorry knight of La Mancha from his 
assault upon the windmill, crippled and discomfitted". The 
Catholic Telegraph in its comment, stated: "We repeat what 
we said last week, that an event more propitious for Catholics 
could not have occurred." 169 

A book was next prepared containing the controversy, 
though not exactly as it was debated. Rev. Mr. Campbell 
tried to take advantage even here by having seven pages added 
to the end of the book without submitting the manuscript to 
Bishop Purcell. The editors, however, refused to consent to 
such malpractice. The book appeared and by May 25th the 
fourth edition had been sent to press. The proceeds were 
devoted by Bishop Purcell to his orphanage. 170 

But even the converts which had been gained for the 
Catholic Church by the bishop s brilliant defense could not 
satisfy his demands for growth. He needed more laborers 
in the vineyard of the Lord. For this purpose as well as for 
others he undertook the first of his seven trips to Europe. 
This journey, which was begun at New York on June 16, 1838, 
brought him to Liverpool on July 7th, whence he visited in 
Ireland, England, Belgium, France, Germany, Austria and 
Italy. It was his first visit as a bishop to Europe and he be 
came a much sought for person, though he, too, did much of 
the seeking for purposes of alms, as he tells us himself: 

"They were the spiritual and temporal necessities of my flock that 
compelled me to leave them for a time. For their sakes, despising 
shame, I knocked with the pilgrim and the beggar at the gate of the 
rich and the cottage door of the poor in Europe. The little ones, who 
ask for bread when there is not any found to break it unto them, the 
destitute congregations who cannot go up with their more favored 
brethren to the beauteous festivals of Jerusalem, the sinful who, though 
they loathe sin, are yet too timid and too weak for virtue, the dying 

169. Catholic Telegraph, VI, 99, March 2, 1837. 

170. CAMPBELL-PUR CELL, A Debate on the Roman Catholic Religion, 1st edition. J. A. 
James & Co., Cincinnati, 1837. 


whom there are none to comfort in the departing of their spirit, the 
prejudiced against our matchless faith, whom there are none to en 
lighten, all were heard through their unworthy representative, in the 
halls of the charitable associations in the fatherland their sighs were 
fervently breathed in the ears of the humane, and their sorrows and 
wants deposited in the bosom of the common Father of the Faithful." 171 

During the year spent in Europe Bishop Purcell incited 
anew the generous spirit of the societies of the Propagation 
of the Faith at Lyons, Munich and Vienna; he gained the 
Jesuits for Cincinnati; and he brought with him to New 
York, where he landed on August 22, 1839, the seven priests, 
Gacon, Cheymol, Machebeuf, Lamy, Navarron, Olivetti and 
Huber, O.F.M. 172 

The bishop s next concern was the building of a cathedral 
at Cincinnati. To him is due the present exceptional piece of 
art, St. Peter s cathedral, which has attracted the attention 
of beauty-loving and discerning men and women of all creeds. 
All the more credit is due to Bishop Purcell, since he designed 
the characteristic features which are to be found in the present 
building. 173 

Subsequent trips to Europe were made in 1841, 1843, 1851, 
1862, 1867 and 1869. On April 25, 1851, Archbishop Purcell 
received from the hands of the Pope the pallium of the newly- 
created archdiocese of Cincinnati. In 1867 he attended the 
centennial celebration of SS. Peter and Paul at Rome, where 
on June 29th in the solemn Papal Mass in St. Peter s he en 
joyed the distinction of being the first assistant at the pontifical 
throne, as he had been appointed an assistant at the pontifical 
throne by Gregory XVI in 1839. On his last visit to Rome 
in 1869 for the Vatican Council, which defined the infallibility 
of the Pope when speaking ex cathedra on matters of faith and 
morals, Archbishop Purcell received international notice, 
though he had become well known in nearly all the European 
countries during his former visits. 

Archbishop Purcell was opposed not only to the oppor 
tuneness of the definition, but also, before it was clearly stated 

171. Letter, Purcell to Committee of St. Peter s Benevolent Society, Cincinnati, Sep 
tember 19, 1839 (Catholic Telegraph, VIII, 350). 

172. Catholic Telegraph, August 29, 1839; Fifty Years in Brown County Convent, p. 28. 

173. Letter, Purcell, Cincinnati, October 27, 1840, to Thomas Spare, Architect, Somerset, 
Ohio (St. Joseph s Priory Archives). 


just what was meant by the Pope s infallibility, to the defini 
tion of the doctrine itself. Years before, in his debate with 
Mr. Campbell in 1837, he said: "Appeals were lodged before 
the Bishop of Rome, though he was not believed to be infallible; 
neither is he now. No enlightened Catholic holds the Pope s 
infallibility to be an article of faith. I do not; and none of 
my brethren, that I know of, do. The Catholic believes the 
Pope, as a man to be liable to error, as almost any other man 
in the universe. Man is man, and no man is infallible, either 
in doctrine or morals." 174 In the activities of the American 
prelates who met at the American college and sent a respectful 
petition in Latin, imploring the Pope not to allow the subject 
to be brought up, Archbishop Purcell took a leading part; for he 
composed that Latin petition, which was signed by twenty-seven 
other bishops and archbishops, all Americans save three. 175 On 
June 16th, the Catholic Telegraph carried in editorial: "A 
correspondent in Rome, in whose ability to judge we have full 
confidence, writes: I may predict that the Pope s personal, 
absolute, separate infallibility will not be made an article of 
faith, but only when he speaks in conformity with the teach 
ings of Holy Scripture, tradition, the sacred councils and 
canons! May it be so!" On May 31, 1870, the archbishop of 
Cincinnati was heard in a Latin address, four pages of which 
have been preserved, written in his own hand. In this he 
objected to the definition because the state of the question 
had never been clearly put and therefore the minds of the 
Fathers of the Council were not intelligible; and he argued 
that if Pius I X were to be declared infallible, then all his pre 
decessors were. And how could this be maintained in the 
instances which he cites of Popes Honorius, Gregory II or III, 
Stephen II, Nicholas I, John VIII, Sergius III, Stephen VI, 
Romanus I, Theodore II, John IX, and Celestine III? 176 

Before the final vote on the question was taken, permission 
was granted to some of the bishops, and among them Arch 
bishop Purcell, to return home. When once the question had 
been decided, Archbishop Purcell in accordance with the 

174. PUR CELL-CAMPBELL, Debate, 1837, p. 23. 

175 Purcell s Speech at Cincinnati, August 21, 1870 (Catholic Telegraph, August 25, 

176. Archdiocesan Archives, at Mount St. Joseph s, Ohio; Speech of August 21, 1870, 
ut supra. 


sentiment which he had expressed at the opening of his speech 
in the Council, immediately accepted the definition with his 
whole mind and heart. In the public welcome which was 
accorded him in Mozart hall, Cincinnati, on August 21, 1870, 
a few days after his return to Cincinnati, he publicly read the 
fourth chapter on the Papal Infallibility and professed his 
belief in it according to the full tenor of the words. More 
over, on December 5, 1870, he wrote a personal letter to Pope 
Pius IX signifying his acceptance of the decree. To this the 
Pope answered on January 11, 1871, expressing his great 
pleasure in the letter which he received, especially as the 
expression of the sincere heart and fulness of faith in the dogma 
recently defined, destroyed all the evil things which the news 
papers contained about the archbishop. He concluded by 
assuring the archbishop that his love towards him had not 
only not diminished, but had been the more confirmed. 177 

In his own archdiocese Archbishop Purcell was an ardent 
worker. His pastoral visitations were made with great 
regularity. Constant reports of them were made to the 
Catholic Telegraph. When at home in his cathedral, he 
preached masterly dogmatic sermons, much needed then as 
now, not only to instruct the Catholic, but also to open the 
mind of the Protestant. He was constant in the confessional, 
took part in the regular offices of the parish priests, and tended 
to sick-calls. Indeed, in every service which he asked of his 
priests he set them the example. His pastoral letters, which 
were frequent, are masterpieces of literary expression as well 
as careful exposition of doctrine. He was always in demand 
on festive occasions. Nor did he ever refuse, if it were possible 
for him to accept an invitation to deliver an address. He was 
ready to serve the humblest of his own churches, or those of 
other bishops; he welcomed the occasion to speak to Protestants 
as a means of bringing them nearer to the Catholic Church. 
He traveled east and west and north and south to further 
Catholic enterprises or to rejoice in the happy jubilees of his 
friends. He was most accessible to the down-trodden. To 
his presentation to Rome in 1858, of the case of Father Isaac 
Hecker was particularly due the solution of the case which 

177. Letter, Pius IX, Rome, January 11, 1871, to Purcell, Cincinnati (Notre Dame 
Archives) . 


Rome gave in the spring of that year. 178 Even age did not 
suppress his energy or love of truth, so that when sixty-seven 
years old he hesitated not to enter the lists of controversy with 
a Congregationalist minister, Thomas Vickers at Cincinnati, 179 
and again with Rev. A. D. Mayo on the question of religion in 
the common schools. One cannot but marvel at the greatness 
of this "little Bishop" as he styled himself. 180 In stature he 
was of moderate, inclining to small proportions. His health 
was not robust at any time, but like other men, whose names 
come to memory, he knew well how to husband his resources. 
A cry for help was sent out by him on several occasions. 
As early as 1846 he desired a coadjutor for himself, James 
Frederic Wood then being his choice, as designated to Arch 
bishop Eccleston. 181 This request, which was sent to Rome, 
was referred to the provincial council to be held at Baltimore 
in 1849. 182 The council, which petitioned for the erection of 
Cincinnati into an archbishopric, did not take up the question 
of a coadjutor. In 1856 the archbishop again appealed to 
Rome for a coadjutor, and on this occasion he was "bluffed 
off" by his Holiness with the answer "He who perseveres unto 
the end, shall be saved". 183 When he proposed the question 
to the bishops of the province in the council at Cincinnati in 
1858, they answered that he was too young to give up, and that 
Father Rosecrans, whom he desired as coadjutor, was too 
young to preside over the province. 184 In the next provincial 
council of 1861, when the question was again brought up, 
the bishops refused to consent to his resignation, or even to the 
appointment of a coadjutor to Cincinnati with the right of 
succession. 185 The consequence was that Father Rosecrans 
was appointed auxiliary to Cincinnati in 1862. But when 

178. Letters, C. A. Walworth to Purcell: December 25, 1857, and April 6, 1858; B. 
Smith, Rome, March 4, 1858, to Purcell (Archdiocesan Archives at Mount St. Joseph s). 

179. JOHN B. PURCELL, The Vickers and Purcell Controversy, Benziger Bros., 1868. 

180. Letter, Purcell, May 18, 1836, to Margaret Reilly (Archives Mount St. Joseph, 

181. Letter, Purcell, Cincinnati, February 11, 1846, to Eccleston, Baltimore (Baltimore 
Archives, Case 25, Q 16). 

182. Letter, Cardinal Franzoni, October 9, 1848, to Purcell (Notre Dame Archives). 

183. Letter, Rev. Bernard Smith, Rome, January 22, 1857, to Purcell (Archdiocesan 
Archives, at Mount St. Joseph s) ; Purcell, Cincinnati, March 26, 1876, to Archbishop Bayley, 
Baltimore (Baltimore Archives, Case 40, N 4). 

184. Letter, Purcell, Cincinnati, May 26, 1858, to Kenrick, Baltimore (Baltimore Ar 
chives, Case 31, D 28). 

185. Letter, same to same, Cincinnati, July 6, 1861 (Baltimore Archives, Case 31, D 36). 


Bishop Rosecrans was appointed bishop of Columbus in 1868, 
Archbishop Purcell was again left alone, and in this condition 
he had to continue the rest of his days until the sad final days 
of 1878 were to make imperative the appointment of a coad 
jutor in 1880. 

Self-sacrificing and abstemious all his life, the blow of the 
financial failure in 1878 shattered his strength. Poor, so poor 
that he had to borrow the money to allow him to come to 
Cincinnati, he loved his poverty so much as to be content 
always to live with his priests at the cathedral and to partake 
of their sustenance. As late as 1858 he had never received a 
cent of cathedraticum. 186 He knew not how to retain money. 
Offerings received in the morning were given out in charity 
before night. He freely confessed to having "no mind" on 
financial matters, and entrusted all to the care of his reverend 
brother, who had had more experience in those things than 

After the break came and the archbishop s health began to 
feel the effects of the strain, he was advised to take up his 
residence in the Brown county convent of the Ursulines, and 
thither he repaired towards the end of November, 1879. In 
the following April he resigned all affairs into the hands of the 
new coadjutor and administrator, Bishop William H. Elder. 
What remained to him of life he spent in preparing for the day 
of death. 

Did he wish to consider the labors which he had performed 
for the salvation of his soul and the glory of the Church of 
God in the archdiocese of Cincinnati, he could have reflected 
that whereas there had been but 16 churches for about 7,000 
Catholics served by 14 priests in the state of Ohio when he 
came in 1833, there were in 1883, 500 churches with a Catholic 
population of 500,000, served by 480 priests. During this 
period he had introduced the Jesuits, the Franciscans, the 
Lazarists, the Fathers of the Precious Blood, the Passionists, 
the Fathers of the Holy Ghost, the Fathers of the Holy Cross, 
the Brothers of Mary and the Brothers of the Poor of St. 
Francis; the Sisters of Notre Dame of Namur and of Muel- 
hausen, the Sisters of the Precious Blood, the Ursulines, the 
Sisters of the Good Shepherd, the Sisters of Mercy, the Sisters 

186. Catholic Telegraph, XXVII, No. 21, p. 4. 


of the Poor of St. Francis, the Little Sisters of the Poor, the 
Ladies of the Sacred Heart, the Sisters of the Third Order 
Regular of St. Francis, and the Sisters of Christian Charity. 
Asylums, hospitals, institutions for every necessity, and num 
erous parochial schools, academies and colleges were conducted 
by these co-operators. Here was sufficient to show that whilst 
his hands were not burdened with earthly dross, they were full 
of fruits for eternity. His will bequeathed all (a mere formality) 
to his successor in office. 187 

A first stroke of paralysis was suffered by the archbishop 
on October 31, 1880; the fourth and last on June 29, 1883. 
The last breath of life was breathed in St. Martin s convent, 
Brown county, at 11:45 P.M., on July 4, 1883. 188 The body 
was transferred to the cathedral residence on the following 
Saturday, and the solemn obsequies were held by Archbishop 
Elder in the cathedral on Wednesday, July llth. The remains 
were then carried back to St. Martin s, Brown county, where 
on the following day they were laid to rest in the convent 
cemetery, where lay the remains of his mother, brother, and 
sister Catherine. A low marble slab now covers the spot and 
upon it one may read the inscription : 





BORN FEBRUARY 26, isoo. 

DIED JULY 4, 1883. 

187. Will in Hamilton County Probate Court, vol. 32, p. 424; re-recorded vol. 30, p. 230. 

188. Obituary Notice by Chancellor, July 5, 1883. 




Upon the death of Archbishop Purcell, Bishop Elder became 
at once the archbishop of Cincinnati, since his appointment to 
Cincinnati on January 30, 1880, as coadjutor to Archbishop 
Purcell carried with it the right of succession. The nomination 
of Bishop Elder, then bishop of Natchez, to the coadjutorship 
of Cincinnati had been made upon the unanimous recommenda 
tion of the bishops of the Cincinnati province, and was then 
urged at Rome by the archbishop of Baltimore. 189 

William Henry Elder, son of Basil Spalding Elder and 
Elizabeth Snowden, was born on March 22, 1819, at Baltimore, 
Maryland. He was one of thirteen children, three of whom 
had died in infancy. The eldest sister Eleanora became a 
vSister of Charity, a second sister married Mr. Jenkins, a third 
married Mr. Baldwin, whilst the seven brothers in order were 
Francis W., Basil T., James C., Joseph E., Thomas S., William 
H., and Charles D. After a private school education in Balti 
more, William Henry at the age of twelve was sent to Mount 
St. Mary s college, Emmitsburg, where in August, 1831, he was 
welcomed by Father John B. Purcell, then President, with 
these words addressed to Mr. Liver, the driver of the old stage 
coach: "How many Elders have you aboard?" 190 Here 
William continued for the next six years, graduating from the 
classical course in June, 1837. During the last year, if not 
previously, he began to reflect on his vocation, and in a letter 
to his sister writes that he is entertaining the idea of becoming 
a priest. 191 When the vacation days of 1837 had passed, 
William returned to Emmitsburg to enter the seminary de 
partment of Mount St. Mary s. At the close of his philosophical 
course, he received tonsure and the four minor orders on 
June 9, 1839, at Emmitsburg from the hands of the archbishop 
of Baltimore. 192 The following three years were spent in the 

189. Sermon of Cardinal Gibbons on occasion of golden jubilee of priesthood of Arch 
bishop Elder, 1896. 

190. Letter, William H. Elder, Natchez, Miss., April 23, 1876, to Purcell, Cincinnati 
(Notre Dame Archives). 

191. Character Glimpses of Most Rev. Wm. Henry Elder, p. 17. 

192. Catholic Telegraph, VIIT, 222, June 30, 1839. 


study of theology at Mount St. Mary s, but after ordination to 
the diaconate, he was sent, about the end of 1842, to the Urban 
college, Rome, in order to repeat his theological course in pre 
paration for further designs which his superiors had concerning 
him. He was introduced to his first class in ecclesiastical 
history at Rome on January 23, 1843, by James F. Wood, 
then a student of Cincinnati studying at the college. 193 Hav 
ing completed his course of four years, he was ordained priest 
by Monsignor Brunelli in the chapel of the college on Passion 
Sunday, March 29, 1846. 

Returning to his native land and archdiocese he was imme 
diately appointed professor of dogmatic theology in his Alma 
Mater at Emmitsburg, a position which he occupied until his 
resignation in 1857, when he was appointed bishop of Natchez, 
Mississippi. 194 His consecration as bishop of this see occurred 
on May 3, 1857, in the cathedral at Baltimore, where Arch 
bishop Kenrick, assisted by Bishops John McGill of Richmond, 
and James F. Wood of Philadelphia, performed the ceremony. 195 
It was a most happy circumstance for the bishop that both his 
father and mother were alive to attend the consecration of their 
beloved son. 

Bishop Elder lost no time in proceeding to his diocese, 
which embraced the entire state of Mississippi, but counted 
only some poor, widely scattered missions of few Catholics, 
attended by nine priests. Traveling to the various missions 
was extremely difficult and could only be done in private con 
veyances or on foot. The labors of the bishop soon won the 
hearts of his faithful, and an abiding love and simple trust in 
their bishop were harbored by them upon the outbreak of the 
Civil War. 

Speaking of the terrible days which ensued, Archbishop 
Keane in his eulogy of the deceased archbishop in 1904, said: 

"Whatever Christ-like zeal and charity could do, he did to alle 
viate the horrors of war for the living and to bring the mercies of God 
to the dying, irrespective of party or side. The boys in gray and the 
boys in blue were all the same to his fatherly heart. He could not 

193. Letter, J. F. Wood, Rome, January 23, 1843, to Purcell, Cincinnati (Notre Dame 
Archives) . 

194. McSwEENY, Story of the Mountain, I, 446, 500-510. 

195. Book of Ordinations of Archbishop Kenrick, Baltimore, p. 64; The Metropolitan, \, 
327; Catholic Telegraph, May 9, 1857. 


settle the quarrel between them, but, whether their cause was right or 
wrong, they were all equally honest and equally dear to him. In this 
spirit he labored among them, and this spirit he breathed into the de 
voted band of priests and sisters, who under his command toiled for 
the bodily and spiritual welfare of the combatants night and day, 
whatever flag claimed their allegiance. Such a man ought to have been 
beyond the reach of partisan animosity, but he was not so fortunate. 
A Union official issued a decree that in all churches, prayers should be 
offered for the President of the United States and the success of the 
Union arms. Bishop Elder saw at once that this order could not be 
obeyed. Whatever might have been his own personal convictions, he 
knew that to submit to such a decree would be to offer insult to the 
people among whom his lot had been cast. Moreover, the soul of the 
Bishop arose in honest indignation against the upstart, who pretended 
to dictate what the worship in the churches should be. At first he 
expostulated with the gentleness of argument that ought to have con 
vinced a reasonable adversary. But when the command was re 
iterated with all the bitterness of both partisan hatred and religious 
bigotry, then the Bishop recalled the warning of St. Paul, that in the 
hour of trial and danger, the man of God must remember the God who 
giveth life, and the Saviour who suffered under Pontius Pilate. In the 
majestic dignity of that thought, he told the petty tyrant that his 
behest could not and would not be obeyed. And when angry words 
were followed by threats and violence, the gentle Bishop showed that 
he had both the courage of a man and the heart of a martyr, and went 
with unflinching calmness to exile, and virtually to prison. 

"Such an outrage could have but one result; his sentence was 
revoked and no such folly was afterward attempted." 196 

In 1867 and 1869 Bishop Elder journeyed to Rome to assist 
at the centennial celebration of SS. Peter and Paul and the 
Vatican Council. In 1878 he spent himself even unto the 
point of death in his ministrations to the sick and the dying 
in the dreadful yellow fever plague which afflicted and deci 
mated his flock. Whilst he attended Natchez, he sent the 
priests of that city to Vicksburg, where their help was im 
peratively needed. Stricken by the plague himself, it was only 
as if by a miracle that his life was saved. 

His days at Natchez, however, were drawing to a close. 
His labors there had borne fruit. Instead of the eleven mis 
sions, nine priests and 10,000 Catholics whom he had found 
in the diocese upon his arrival in 1857, he could now count 

196. Obituary sermon by Archbishop Keane, in Character Glimpses of Most Rev. Wm. 
H. Elder, pp. 43-44. The entire correspondence which passed on this subject may be found in 
the above Character Glimpses, pp. 44 59; Catholic Telegraph, September 21, 1864; History 
of Mount St. Mary s of the West, pp. 388 403. 


forty-one churches, twenty-five priests, six religious houses 
for men, five convents, thirteen parish schools, and a popula 
tion of 12,500 Catholics. 

In the beginning of 1879 Bishop Elder received a notice 
dated December 10, 1878, from Cardinal Simeoni, Prefect of 
the Propaganda, that the bulls of his appointment as coadjutor 
to Archbishop Alemany of San Francisco would soon be sent 
to him. 197 He received the bull transferring him to Avara 
and exempting him from residence there, but he received no 
bull directing him to San Francisco. The terrible plague had 
cost the diocese of Natchez six of its twenty-five priests, and 
in writing of the condition of the diocese to Rome Bishop Elder 
said that in his judgment it would be disastrous to religion 
for him to leave the diocese at that time. He did not, however, 
refuse to go to San Francisco. The Cardinal-Prefect answered 
that he should remain at Natchez for the time being, and let 
him know when conditions would allow the change. Bishop 
Elder next wrote to the Cardinal-Prefect in August, 1879, but 
heard nothing from him until he was directed to go to Cincin 
nati as coadjutor with right of succession to Archbishop 
Pur cell. 198 

We have seen that this appointment was made at Rome on 
January 30, 1880. Official news of it came to Cincinnati 
before February 12th. 199 The next two months were spent 
by the bishop in preparing his diocese for the change, and at 
4 o clock on Sunday morning, April 18th, Bishop Elder arrived 
at the railroad depot in Cincinnati to take up his new charge. 
Proceeding to the cathedral he celebrated Mass and then at 
tended the High Mass, in which he spoke to the people on the 
glories of St. Joseph, whose patronal feast was being celebrated 
that day. In the afternoon, he confirmed a class of 138 chil 
dren at the cathedral. 200 What a simple, yet characteristic 
introduction of this prelate to Cincinnati! His formal in 
troduction to the people by Archbishop Purcell occurred at 

197. Letter, Elder, New Orleans, January 22, 1879, to Archbishop (Baltimore 

Archives, Case 49, H 1). 

198. Letter, Elder, Cincinnati, March 27, 1 896, to Archbishop (Baltimore Archives, 

Case 49, O 1). 

199. Catholic Telegraph, February 12. 1880. 

200. Idem, April 22, 1880. 


the High Mass in the cathedral on the following Sunday, 
April 25. 201 

The prospects of the new coadjutor were disheartening. 
The task for which he had been summoned to Cincinnati was 
to straighten out the financial failure of Archbishop Purcell 
and Father Purcell. Stouter hearts than that of Archbishop 
Elder would have quailed to undertake to restore calm and 
order to the chaotic conditions which prevailed at Cincinnati, 
and which grew to gigantic proportions in the embroglio which 
ensued from malpractices of the defaulting assignee. Others 
had already realized that the task was an impossible one and 
had counselled the archbishop in that fashion. But the 
history of the archbishop s activities in this matter, as related 
farther on, shows that the archbishop was earnest and sincere 
in his desire to pay off even the large debt, which justice did 
not demand of him. The failure of the assignee simply ren 
dered a solution of the debt an impossibility. Archbishop 
Elder himself was poor. In order to buy the various episco 
pal insignia of Archbishop Purcell rather than to allow them 
to be auctioned, he went into debt for $4,000, taking out an 
insurance policy to guard his creditor. And poor, too, was he 
to die, without moneys of any kind. He allowed his love of 
poverty and his regard for the payment of debt upon the 
cathedral to persuade him in April, 1895, to refuse the generous 
offer of the palatial residence of Mrs. Bellamy Storer to serve 
as the archiepiscopal residence in Cincinnati. 202 

His great work lay in the organization of the administration 
of the archdiocese. Primitive ways were still being pursued 
in the various channels of episcopal and parochial administra 
tion. To remedy this situation prudence was required. Re 
forms seldom succeed when initiated abruptly, which is the 
more true when they have to be made among those who have 
themselves known the privileges of authority. Gradually, 
but none the less effectively, Archbishop Elder systematized 
the inner workings of the archdiocese; he instituted the office 
of chancellor, insisted on the annual reports of his clergy and 
their parishes, established the various courts and counselling 
bodies necessary for ecclesiastical matters. He brought to a 

201. Idem, April 29, 1880. 

202. Catholic Telegraph, April, 1895. 


possibility the insistent petition of the late Archbishop Purcell 
to open as soon as possible the seminary which had to close 
its doors in 1879, and which he again opened in 1887. 

The striking trait in his character was his personal sanctity. 
All who knew him have testified thus of him, and that, too, 
was the dominant note which was struck by everyone on the 
occasion of his death. This personal sanctity flowed out into 
his people, two particularly loving devotions receiving from him 
mighty impulses: the devotion to the Most Blessed Sacrament 
of the Altar in the Forty Hours Exposition, and the devotion 
to the Sacred Heart of Jesus on the first Fridays of the month. 

His many labors in the archdiocese and the infirmities of 
old age caused Archbishop Elder at the end of 1902 to desire a 
coadjutor for himself at Cincinnati. His petition was granted 
in the appointment on April 27, 1903, of the Right Reverend 
Henry Moeller, D.D., bishop of Columbus, to the coadjutor- 
ship with the right of succession. After the arrival of the 
coadjutor in June, 1903, Archbishop Elder practically relin 
quished the administration of the archdiocese, though he con 
tinued to be active to the day of his death. But he knew that 
that day could not be far distant. By a codicil to his will on 
February 1, 1904, he constituted his coadjutor sole heir to all 
his property and effects. 203 

Before that year had passed, Archbishop Elder had gone to 
his eternal reward. He had returned to his residence on 
October 28, 1904, from Mount St. Joseph convent, after having 
read Mass there in the morning, and having assisted the pre 
vious day at the diamond jubilee of the Sisters at Mount St. 
Vincent academy, when shortly after dinner he was found 
in his room prostrate on the floor in a semi-comatose condition 
by Fathers Magevney and Bailey. Father Magevney ad 
ministered the Last Sacraments to him that same evening, and 
on the following day, when he was conscious, he was trans 
ferred to Seton hospital. There, attended by his coadjutor 
and others, he died at 11:50 P.M. on October 31, 1904. 204 

Through a long line of sorrowing faithful, his body was 
conveyed the following Sunday, November 6th, to St. Peter s 
cathedral, where on Tuesday morning the solemn pontifical 

203. Hamilton County Probate Court, Wills, vol. 93, p. 401. 

204. Obituary Notice of Chancellor. 


obsequies were observed. The remains were then carried out 
to St. Joseph s (new) cemetery, Price Hill, where the last 
rites were performed by the archbishop s faithful companion 
of many years at Cincinnati, Archbishop Henry Moeller. 
The grave of Archbishop Elder, located in front of the cruci 
fixion group on the priests lot, is covered with a low marble 
slab, upon which, beneath the archiepiscopal coat of arms, 
is carved the inscription: 




BORN MARCH 22, 1819. 

DIED OCTOBER 31, 1904. 

R.I. P. 


// Cor. XIV, 15. 



Upon the death of Archbishop Elder, his beloved coadjutor 
became at once his successor in the see of Cincinnati. Arch 
bishop Henry Moeller is the fourth bishop to preside over the 
spiritual destinies of the diocese, forming the last link in a 
strong chain of four excellent bishops in the space of one hun 
dred years. In him is shown the fruit of the labors of three 
bishops who throughout their episcopates strove to establish 
a native clergy. In the present archbishop Cincinnati enjoys 
the distinction of having one of her own sons directing the 
spiritual welfare of her faithful. 

Henry Moeller was born at Cincinnati on December 11, 
1849, of Bernard Moeller and Teresa Witte, who had been 
joined in wedlock at St. Joseph s church on January 21, 1849, 
Both parents were emigrants from Westphalia about the year 
1845, and both began to earn their living at their trades in 


Cincinnati. Bernard Moeller was a cabinet-maker and car 
penter, a trade which he abandoned for that of bricklayer and 
building contractor. After his marriage with Teresa Witte, 
he settled on Clark, between Linn and Cutter streets, moving 
later to Hopkins street, but always remaining a member of 
St. Joseph s parish. From his marriage there resulted six 
children : Henry, Herman, who died when an infant, Ferdinand, 
Bernard, Anna, Joseph and Herman. The only daughter 
entered the convent of the Sisters of Charity at Mount St. 
Joseph, Ohio. Three of the five remaining sons were chosen 
by the Lord for his especial service, Ferdinand having entered 
the Society of Jesus on August 15, 1871, whilst the eldest, 
Henry, and the fourth son, Bernard, became affiliated with 
the archdiocese of Cincinnati. The two latter were destined 
to become the mutual support of each other in the guidance 
and administration of the archdiocese as archbishop and 

The day after his birth, Henry was baptized in St. Joseph s 
church, Cincinnati, by the pastor, John Henry Luers, the 
future bishop of Ft. Wayne. His primary education was ob 
tained in the parochial school of St. Joseph s. When this had 
been completed in 1862, he was sent to St. Xavier college, 
where he received his collegiate education. His talents soon 
attracted the attention of his archbishop, the Most Reverend 
John B. Purcell, who chose him as a companion to John F. 
Schoenhoeft and John F. Brummer to pursue his studies in 
philosophy and theology at the American college in * the 
Eternal City. The arrival at Rome on October 16, 1869, 
marked the beginning of a seven years course of study, during 
which time the young levite applied himself as assiduously 
as he had done in his former Alma Mater. As a result, the 
reports of his Rector, the Reverend Silas M. Chatard, to the 
archbishop of Cincinnati were loud in his praise. On August 27, 
1874, the Rector wrote: "I am glad, in this connection, to 
be able to report the brilliant success of Mr. Henry Moeller 
at the examinations this year. He carried off, without drawing 
for them with any successful competitor, three first prizes in 
theology; and for a fourth 1st, though he ranked the rest in 
excellence, others were so near him that he had to draw with 
them. In consequence of this success, in competition with the 


students of the Propaganda, the Greek and the Irish Colleges, 
he received the golden medal." 205 

The year previous, Henry had been received into the ranks 
of the clergy, as he received tonsure and probably the first two 
minor orders also on May 23, 1873; the last two minor orders 
were received the following week on May 30th. Two years 
later witnessed the decisive step into major orders. Sub- 
deaconship was received by him on November 2d, and deacon- 
ship on November 10, 1875. Priesthood was conferred upon 
him by Archbishop Lenti in the basilica of St. John Lateran s 
on June 10, 1876. For the next two weeks Father Moeller 
tasted of the spiritual delights which come from celebrating 
Mass at the tombs and shrines of the martyrs of Rome; and 
then, on June 28th, he left his Alma Mater for his native 
country. 206 

Returning to Cincinnati in August, he celebrated his first 
solemn Mass in the parish church of his youth. In the follow 
ing September he was appointed to Bellefontaine, Ohio, where 
for the next year he exercised his ministry amidst a flock which 
much appreciated his services. In October, 1877, he was re 
called to Cincinnati to become professor in Mount St. Mary 
seminary, a position which he held until November 13, 1879. 

In the meantime his former Rector of the American college, 
Rome, had become bishop of Vincennes, Indiana. For as 
sistance, he turned his eyes at once to Doctor Moeller, who was 
granted a leave of absence from Cincinnati and became imme 
diately the secretary to Bishop Chatard. But this was not 
for long. When Bishop Elder came as coadjutor to Cincinnati 
in the following April, he, too, realized the need of able assist 
ance and recalled Doctor Moeller, appointing him his own 
secretary on July 14, 1880. In this position, but especially in 
that of chancellor, to which he was appointed in 1886, Doctor 
Moeller became the right hand of Archbishop Elder in the 
organization of the administration of the archdiocese. He 
continued in this work until the summons came in 1900 for 
him to take up the reins of government in the diocese of 

205. I/etter, S. M. Chatard, Rector American College, Rome, August 27, 1874, to Purcell 
(Notre Dame Archives). 

206. Letter, Chatard, Rome, August 31. 1876, to Purcell (Notre Dame Archives). 


The diocese of Columbus was in dire financial straits; 
so much so that its dissolution and division between Cincin 
nati and Cleveland had been discussed. It was decided, how 
ever, to give it another trial. The trial was to cost Archbishop 
Elder his right hand at Cincinnati, but though it was a heavy 
blow to the aged archbishop, he willingly made the sacrifice. 
On April 6, 1900, the Reverend Henry Moeller, D.D., was ap 
pointed bishop of Columbus. Official news of the appoint 
ment reached Cincinnati on May 26th. On August 25th next, 
the consecration of the new bishop of Columbus was performed 
in St. Peter s cathedral, Cincinnati, by Archbishop Elder, 
who was assisted by Bishops H. J. Richter and T. S. Byrne, of 
Grand Rapids and Nashville, respectively. 

In the diocese of Columbus Bishop Moeller had no easy 
task. The greater part of the diocese was backward in growth 
and development, due in the main to the lack of natural re 
sources. But that the work of the new bishop was successful 
no one may doubt when he considers that in less than three 
years of residence in the diocese a new financial foundation was 

Deprived of the assistance of his former chancellor, Arch 
bishop Elder felt the weight of the administration of the arch 
diocese becoming too heavy for his drooping shoulders. He had 
passed the age of four-score years, and he determined upon 
obtaining a coadjutor. The regular method of selection then 
in vogue was followed. In the terna which was proposed by 
the consultors and permanent rectors of Cincinnati in a meeting 
at the cathedral on January 14, 1903, Bishop Moeller of Co 
lumbus headed the list, followed by Bishops Maes and Denis 
O Donoghue. In the terna proposed on January 21st by the 
ten bishops of the Cincinnati province Bishops Moeller and 
Maes received four votes each. As the result remained the 
same in six successive ballots, the bishops resolved to present 
the two names and state the action to the Holy See. Bishop 
Richter became the third member of the terna. 207 When the 
matter came before the authorities at Rome, Bishop Henry 
Moeller was chosen to be promoted as archbishop of Areopolis 
i. p. i. and coadjutor with right of succession to Archbishop 
Elder at Cincinnati. The bulls of appointment, which bore 

207. Letter, Archbishop Elder, January 27, 1903 (Baltimore Archives, Case 49, O 5). 


the date of April 27th, were received at Cincinnati on Friday, 
May 22, 1903. 208 On the 26th of the following month Arch 
bishop Moeller came to Cincinnati. The Catholic laymen of 
Cincinnati had prepared for his arrival in leasing the home of 
Mr. John J. Sullivan, at 505 W. Eighth street, but as this was 
found not suitable, the Roberts Home at 636 W. Eighth street 
was secured and presented to him. 209 

For over a year Archbishop Moeller assisted Archbishop 
Elder in the administration of the archdiocese. Upon the 
death of the beloved archbishop on October 31, 1904, Arch 
bishop Moeller became the archbishop of Cincinnati. The 
insignia of the office of archbishop, the pallium, was bestowed 
upon him by Cardinal Gibbons in St. Peter s cathedral, Cin 
cinnati, on Wednesday, February 15, 1905. 210 

For obvious reasons, it must be left to a future historian 
to recount the arduous labors performed and the noble enter 
prises undertaken by the present archbishop. Upon his 
advent into the archdiocese new life was infused into the 
parochial development and organization, twenty-eight new 
parishes having been formed since 1904. Under his adminis 
tration the diocese received an increase in its religious com 
munities by the establishment of the Sisters of St. Ursula, with 
a convent on McMillan street, and by the advent of the Do 
minican Nuns of St. Catherine de Ricci as well as those of the 
Second Order of St. Dominic. To him is due also the existence 
of the Fenwick Club, the Bureau of Catholic Charities and the 
Apostolic Mission Band, whilst a crown is to be added to his 
enterprises in the erection of a new theological seminary 

208. Catholic Telegraph, May 28, 1903. 

209. Catholic Telegraph, June 18 and July 2, 1903. 

210. Catholic Telegraph, February 16, 1905. 



[S IS well known, the first Catholic diocese in 
the United States was created November 6, 
1789, by the bull Eoc hac apostolicae sermtutis 
specula of Pius VI, whereby the city of Balti 
more was chosen as the episcopal see, and the 
Right Reverend John Carroll, previously 
elected by the clergy of Baltimore, appointed bishop of the 
United States. 1 With the growth of the Catholic Church in 
the Bast as well as in the West, it was found necessary in 1808 
to erect four new dioceses in the United States and to elevate 
the diocese of Baltimore to the rank of a metropolitan see. 
Philadelphia, New York, Boston, and Bardstown were the 
cities selected for this preferment, and on April 8, 1808, the 
bull Ex debito pastoralis officio was issued by Pius VII, officially 
calling these dioceses into existence. 2 By this bull the present 
territory of the diocese of Cincinnati was constituted part of the 
diocese of Bardstown, to which was assigned as its territory 
"the states of Kentucky and Tennessee, and until otherwise 
provided by this Apostolic See, the territories lying northwest 
of the river Ohio, and extending to the Great Lakes, which 
lie between them and the diocese of Canada, and extending 
along them to the boundaries of Pennsylvania". 3 

Bardstown, therefore, enjoys the distinction of having been 
the mother-diocese of Cincinnati, though in time the daughter 
was to surpass the mother in dignity. The first bishop of 
Bardstown was Right Reverend Benedict Joseph Flaget, of the 
Society of St. Sulpice. Having made a visitation of the North 
west territory in 1819, Bishop Flaget became convinced of 
the necessity of the erection of at least one diocese, and perhaps 
two, in that territory, and solicited the erection of Cincinnati 

1. Bull in Jus Pontificium de Propaganda Fide (Rome, 1891), IV, 344-46. 

2. Jus Pontificium de Propaganda Fide, IV, 509-10. 

3. Idem, p. 510. [97l 


and Detroit. After inquiry had been instituted among the 
other members of the hierarchy, Rome, considering the great 
increase of Catholics in the state of Ohio, the distance from the 
episcopal city of Bardstown, the scarcity of priests in the ter 
ritory, and the consequent inability of Bishop Flaget to care 
properly for the state of Ohio, established the see of Cincinnati 
on June 19, 1821, with Bishop Fenwick as the first bishop, and 
with the "entire state of Ohio" as its territory, attaching 
Michigan and the Northwest temporarily under the spiritual 
administration of the bishop of Cincinnati. 4 Upon Bishop 
Fenwick s death in 1832 and the advent of Bishop Purcell to 
Cincinnati in 1833, the entire state of Ohio continued to form 
the boundaries of the diocese of Cincinnati, though the adminis 
tration of Michigan and the Northwest was withdrawn from 
the bishop of Cincinnati by the erection of Detroit in 1833. A 
dispute having arisen over the boundaries of the two dioceses 
between Bishop Rese, the first bishop of Detroit, and Bishop 
Purcell, the latter, who had referred the matter to Rome late 
in 1838 or early in 1839, was informed by Cardinal Franzoni 
on April 6, 1839, that the dispute had been given its solution 
by the Apostolic letter Benedictus Deus of Gregory XVI, 
June 17, 1833, in which letter the diocese of Cincinnati was con 
stituted to contain all the state of Ohio. 5 

Such continued to be the boundaries of the Cincinnati 
diocese until 1847, when, upon the petition of the Sixth Pro 
vincial Council of Baltimore, 1846, Pope Pius IX, by the bull 
Universalis Ecclesiae of April 23, 1847, erected Cleveland, Ohio, 
into a diocese, with all the part of the state north of latitude 
forty degrees and forty-one minutes for its territory, reserving 
the southern part of the state for Cincinnati. Owing to the 
building of canals to the lake and of more accessible roads to 
and through the northern part of the state, this district became 
better known and developed, and with the great immigration 
movements of the forties, bringing in their train hundreds and 
thousands of Catholics, Bishop Purcell after several visitations 
of the state realized his inability to administer the entire state 

4. Idem, p. 593; also bull of erection as found in the Archives of the Vatican, Secretary 
of Briefs, Secretary of State, vol. 4670; Baltimore Archives, Copy Book and Record of 
Roman Documents, 1784-1862, vol. II, pp. 31-32. 

5. Letter, Cardinal Franzoni, Rome, April 6, 1839, to Bishop Purcell (Cincinnati Arch- 
diocesan Archives, at Mount St. Joseph s, Ohio). 



properly. On February 11, 1846, he wrote to Archbishop 
Kccleston of Baltimore that it would please him if the Fathers 
at the next provincial council would erect a new diocese in 
northern Ohio with the episcopal seat at Cleveland, Sandusky 
or Toledo. 6 The Sixth Provincial Council was opened at Bal 
timore on May 10, 1846, and acting upon Bishop Purcell s 
request, petitioned the Holy Father for the erection of the 
diocese of Cleveland with Bishop Amadeus Rappe as its 
bishop. 7 The Holy Father, therefore, on April 23, 1847, 
erected the diocese of Cleveland, thus dividing the diocese of 
Cincinnati into two parts, north and south of the line 40 41 
north latitude. 8 The reason for the choice of this line has not 
been found by us. It was an impractical line. For it cut the 
counties of Mercer, Auglaize, Hardin, Marion, Morrow, Knox, 
Holmes, Tuscarawas, Carroll and Jefferson in such wise as to 
make the interpretation of ecclesiastical jurisdiction quite 
difficult. Nor was it long after the constitution of the diocese 
of Cleveland until the two bishops of the state resolved to 
come to an agreement on the subject, the result of which was 
published in the Catholic Telegraph, January 14, 1849: 

"In order to prevent any misunderstanding or uncertainty with 
regard to the extent of jurisdiction as defined only by the geographical 
line of 40 degrees 41 minutes, the Right Rev. Bishops of these two 
dioceses have agreed among themselves, and they direct us to publish, 
that the counties of Mercer, Auglaize, Hardin, Marion, Morrow, Knox, 
Tuscarawas, Carroll, Jefferson, which belong to the diocese of Cincin 
nati shall constitute the northern boundary of the diocese of Cincin 
nati. And that all the counties, north of the just named shall compose 
the diocese of Cleveland. Holmes county, which is for the greater 
part south of the line above traced, is by mutual consent, assigned to 
the diocese of Cleveland. Any new counties that may hereafter be 
formed by the authority of the Legislature, will belong to that diocese 
in which the largest portion of them will be situated. Application 
will be made, as early as possible, to the Holy See, to sanction this 
arrangement. In the meantime, the clergy of the two dioceses can 
regard it as having already received such sanction." 9 

6. Purcell, February 11, 1846, to Eccleston (Baltimore Archives, Case 25, Q 16). 

7. Letter, Cardinal-Prefect of Propaganda, Rome, July 3, 1847, to Archbishop Eccleston 
(Sixth Provincial Council of Baltimore, 1846, in Acta et Decreta Sacrorum Conciliorum Recenti- 
orum, Collectio Lacensis (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1875), III, 106). 

8. Bull of erection of Cleveland, Jus Pontificium de Propaganda Fide, VI, 25. 

9. Catholic Telegraph, XVIII, 14. 


It was far easier to interpret such a line of division, and that 
line was maintained. 

At the same time that the northern part of Ohio was de 
tached from the diocese of Cincinnati, a small district on the 
other side of the Ohio river was attached to the diocese of 
Cincinnati. Having a very large territory to cover in the state 
of Kentucky, with Louisville as the center of activity, the two 
bishops of Louisville, Flaget and Chabrat, united their prayers 
to those of Bishop Purcell to the Pope to have the towns of 
Covington and Newport, with the adjacent territory to the 
distance of three miles, joined to the diocese of Cincinnati. 
The Holy Father heard their united prayer, and on April 11, 
1847, through the Secretary of the Propaganda informed 
Bishop Purcell of the decision by which Newport and Covington 
became part of the diocese of Cincinnati. 10 These two towns 
were then administered by the bishop of Cincinnati and his 
clergy until the erection of a diocese in one of them in 1853, 
the diocese of Covington. 1 1 

The next and last reduction of the territory of the diocese 
occurred in 1868. Under the fostering hand of Bishop Purcell, 
the southeastern part of the state had grown until it counted 
40,000 Catholic souls, attended by 43 priests, divided among 
41 churches, 23 chapels and stations. Twenty-three parochial 
schools, 5 religious institutions, 1 academy, and 1 hospital gave 
evidence of other religious activity. The territory, therefore, 
was in a position to be given its own independent organization 
under a bishop, who could develop its resources better by 
frequent visitation. Consequently, Rome acceded to the 
wishes of the Fathers assembled in the Second Plenary Council 
of Baltimore, held in October, 1866, and as expressed in a 
meeting of the archbishops of the United States at Rome in 
1867. On March 3, 1868, Pius I X by the bull Summi Aposto- 
latus Munus divided the territory of Cincinnati in such wise 
"that that part in the state of Ohio which lies between the 
Ohio river on the east and the Scioto river on the west, with the 
addition of the counties of Franklin, Delaware and Morrow, 
as far up as the southern limit of Cleveland diocese", should 

10. Apostolic Brief, April 11, 1847 (Cincinnati Archdiocesan Archives, Mount St. Joseph s, 

11. Catholic Telegraph, XVI, 190, June 17, 1847. 


belong to Columbus diocese, "and the rest of the state south 
of Cleveland diocese, including Union, Marion and Hardin 
counties," should remain as the archbishopric of Cincinnati. 12 

The territory of Cincinnati thus defined remains to the 
present day, embracing twenty-eight out of eighty-eight coun 
ties of Ohio, viz., Mercer, Auglaize, Hardin, Marion, Darke, 
Shelby, Logan, Union, Miami, Champaign, Clarke, Madison, 
Preble, Montgomery, Greene, Fayette, Butler, Warren, Clinton, 
Hamilton, Clermont, Brown, Highland, Adams, and the 
western part of Pickaway, Ross, Pike and Scioto counties. 
As originally constituted in 1821 with the entire state of Ohio, 
the diocese of Cincinnati covered about 41,000 square miles. 
In 1847, 15,000 square miles were attributed to the new diocese 
of Cleveland, which parted with 6,969 square miles in the divi 
sion with Toledo in 1910. Of the 25,728 square miles which 
Cincinnati possessed after the erection of Cleveland in 1847, 
it lost 13,685 square miles to Columbus in 1868, retaining for 
itself 12,043 square miles. 

The frequent assemblies of the American bishops at the 
provincial councils of Baltimore every third year seemed, to 
some of the western bishops especially, to make too great a 
demand upon their dioceses and their persons, so that letters 
passed between them in the early forties suggesting the de 
mand for the creation of new metropolitan sees. In 1847, the 
first of these western archbishoprics was established at St. 
Louis, though at the time no suffragan bishops were assigned 
to it for the reason that other metropolitan creations were in 
mind. In the year 1850 the dioceses throughout the United 
States had increased to the number of twenty-six. This large 
number as well as the exceeding inconveniences of travel from 
the west and the northwest to the archdiocese of Baltimore 
for the holding of councils prompted the twenty-three bishops 
and two archbishops of the United States in session at the 
VII Provincial Council of Baltimore in 1849 to petition Rome 
on May 13th for the erection of new metropolitan sees at New 
Orleans, Cincinnati and New York, and the assignment of 

12. Bull of erection of Columbus, in Jus Pontificium de Propaganda Fide, VI*, 12; Catholic 
Telegraph, XXXVII, July 22, 1868; letter of Cardinal Barnabo, Prefect of Propaganda, 
January 24, 1868, to Archbishop Spalding, Baltimore (II Plenary Council of Baltimore 
Collect Lacensis, III, 387). 


suffragans to St. Louis. 13 Upon examination by the Sacred 
Congregation of the Propaganda, the petition for the erection 
of the metropolitan sees was sent to the Pope, who erected the 
new sees according to the wishes of the Fathers of the council. 
Accordingly, by the bull In Apostolicae Sedis of July 19, 1850, 
Pope Pius IX elevated the diocese of Cincinnati to the rank 
of an archdiocese, assigning to it the dioceses of Louisville, 
Detroit, Vincennes and Cleveland as suffragan sees, 14 On 
August 6, 1850, Cardinal Franzoni, Prefect of the Propaganda, 
despatched the Apostolic brief and a letter to Bishop Purcell, 
informing him of the new dignity to the diocese and himself. 
This letter together with the bull was received at Cincinnati 
on Tuesday, October 8, 1850. 15 

The four suffragan sees assigned to the archdiocese of Cin 
cinnati placed under the metropolitan jurisdiction of this see 
the four states of Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana and Michigan. 
The oldest diocese was that of Bardstown-Louisville, 16 which 
had been established in 1808 and had been given its first bishop 
in Bishop Flaget, who was born at Coutournat, in the diocese of 
Clermont, France, on November 7, 1763, ordained priest 
probably in 1787 or 1788 at Issy, Paris, and consecrated bishop 
on November 4, 1810. He continued in office until 1832, when 
his resignation of the see of Bardstown was accepted by Rome, 
and Rt. Rev. John Baptist David, coadjutor to Bishop Flaget, 
was appointed the second bishop of Bardstown in November, 
1832. After a very short period, Bishop David resigned. His 
resignation was accepted in April, 1833, when Bishop Flaget 
was reappointed, thus becoming the third bishop of Bards 
town. When he was at Rome, 1836-1837, Bishop Flaget 
proposed to the Holy Father the transfer of the see of Bards 
town to Louisville, as this city, the largest in the state, had 
become the great centre and commercial emporium of the state. 
As was customary, the Holy Father, Gregory XVI, referred the 
matter to the Congregation of the Propaganda, 17 but as the 

13. Petition, VII Provincial Council of Baltimore (Collectio Lacensis, III, 118). 

14. Original bull of erection of Archdiocese of Cincinnati (Notre Dame Archives) . Letter, 
Cardinal Franzoni, Prefect of Propaganda, August 9, 1850, to Archbishop of Baltimore (Col 
lectio Lacensis, III, 119-120). 

15. Letter, Cardinal Franzoni, August 6, 1850, to Bishop Purcell (Notre Dame Archives); 
Catholic Telegraph, XIX, October 12, 1850; XIX, October 26, 1850. 

16. WEBB, The Centenary of Catholicity in Kentucky (Louisville, 1884). 

17. SP ADDING, Life of Flaget, p. 314. 


bishop remained in Europe till 1839, nothing was done until 
his return to his diocese. Early in the year 1841 the bishop 
of Bardstown received the pontifical rescript authorizing the 
transfer of the see of Bardstown to Louisville, though it was 
not till the fall of that year that he moved his residence to the 
new and larger city. 18 From this city Bishop Flaget continued 
with the aid of his coadjutors to rule his diocese until his death 
on February 11, 1850. He was then succeeded by the Rt. 
Rev. Martin John Spalding, the fourth bishop of Louisville. 
Upon his elevation to the archdiocese of Baltimore in 1864, he 
was succeeded at Louisville by Rt. Rev. Peter Joseph Lavialle, 
the fifth bishop of Louisville (1865-1867). His successor was 
Rt. Rev. William George McCloskey, the sixth bishop of 
Louisville (1868-1909). The present bishop, Rt. Rev. Denis 
O Donaghue, succeeded to the see of Louisville in 1910. 

The second oldest of the suffragan sees assigned to the 
archdiocese of Cincinnati in 1850 was Detroit, established on 
March 8, 1833, by the bull Maximas inter gravissimasque cur as 
of Gregory XVI with Michigan and the Northwest territory 
as its boundaries. At the same time that Flaget in 1819-1820 
had written to Archbishop Marechal on the necessity of erecting 
a diocese in Ohio, there was included the suggestion of a like 
necessity existing in Michigan for a diocese at Detroit. Bishop 
Dubourg was of the same opinion as was Flaget, but Archbishop 
Marechal thought the erection of Detroit could be deferred, 
and the Propaganda, acting upon the latter view, gave to 
Bishop Fenwick of Cincinnati the spiritual administration of 
Michigan and the Northwest territory. 19 But hardly had the 
oils of consecration become dry before Bishop Fenwick on 
January 25, 1822, wrote to the Cardinal- Prefect of the Propa 
ganda, asking for the erection of Detroit into a separate diocese 
with Benedict Fenwick, S.J., as bishop. 20 The matter was 
referred to Archbishop Marechal, who wrote a letter to Bishop 
Fenwick inquiring as to the means of support for a bishop at 
Detroit. Bishop Fenwick in answer on February 9, 1823, 
detailed the situation at Detroit, which he characterized as 

18. SPALDING, o. c., p. 335. 

19. Propaganda Archives, Acta, May 21, 1821, fol. 272a. 

20. Fenwick, Kentucky, January 25, 1822, to Cardinal-Prefect of Propaganda (Propa 
ganda Archives, America Centrale, vol. VII, No. 1). 


better than his own at Cincinnati. 21 When he was at Rome 
in this year, the bishop of Cincinnati again insisted upon the 
erection of a see at Detroit, and on November 8, 1823, Pope 
Leo XII issued a rescript to proceed to the erection of that 
see, referring the matter to the Propaganda. The Propaganda 
in a general congregation of December 4, 1823, decided to have 
Archbishop Marechal and Bishop Fenwick come to an agree 
ment and arrange matters at Detroit. A letter to that effect 
was written to Archbishop Marechal by the Propaganda, and 
Bishop Fenwick was made the bearer of it to the archbishop. 22 
The disagreement between Fenwick and Marechal was on the 
person of the new bishop, Fenwick nominating Benedict 
Fenwick, S.J., and Marechal, Enoch Fenwick. Writing from 
Paris to Archbishop Marechal on July 13, 1824, Bishop Fen 
wick proposed Gabriel Richard for the new see and asked the 
archbishop to second the nomination. 23 The introduction 
of the name of Father Richard complicated matters, but finally, 
in 1826, the agent of Archbishop Marechal at Rome, Mr. 
Robert Gradwell, could write to the archbishop that Michigan 
had been formed into a distinct diocese under Rev. Mr. Rich 
ard. 24 In the following March, the bull Inter mulliplices 
gramssimasque cur as was prepared and issued by Leo XII, 
erecting Michigan and the Northwest territory into a diocese 
at Detroit; 25 but it never left Rome. Bishop Fenwick did 
not despair, however, and just as it had been one of his first, 
so it was to be one of his last cares to solicit in August, 1832, the 
erection of Detroit. This time the petition succeeded, though 
the bishop of Cincinnati had passed to his reward before the 
petition had even reached Rome. In a general congregation 
of the Cardinals of the Propaganda held at the Vatican on 
February 25, 1833, it was decided to create a diocese at Detroit 
and to appoint Doctor Frederic Rese thereto. 26 Accordingly, 
the bull Maximas inter gravissimasque curas of Gregory XVI 

21. Baltimore Archives, Case 16, W 1. 

22. Letter, Cardinal Somaglia, Pro-Prefect of Propaganda, Rome, January 24, 1824, to 
Fenwick, Turin (Notre Dame Archives). 

23. Baltimore Archives, Case 16, W 3. 

24. Letter, Robert Gradwell, Rome, June 18, 1826, to Archbishop Marechal (Baltimore 
Archives, Case 17, G 5). 

25. Bull of erection, March 20, 1827 (Jus Pontificium de Propaganda Fide, IV, 681-82). 

26. Letter, Bishop England, Rome, February 25, 1833, to Rev. John B. Purcell, Em- 
mitsburg, Md. (Notre Dame Archives). 


of March 8, 1833, was despatched with a brief of nomination 
to Rev. Frederic Rese, administrator of the diocese of Cin 
cinnati since the death of Bishop Fenwick. 27 

In the year 1837 Bishop Rese repaired to Rome never to 
return to Detroit, though he retained the title of bishop of that 
see till the day of his death, December 30, 1871. As a conse 
quence Rt. Rev. Peter Paul Lefevre, who was appointed 
coadjutor and administrator of Detroit in 1841, never became 
the bishop of Detroit, as he died on March 4, 1869. The second 
bishop of Detroit was Rt. Rev. Caspar Henry Borgess, who had 
become coadjutor and administrator of the diocese in 1870, 
succeeding to the title of bishop of Detroit on the death of 
Bishop Rese, December 30, 1871. He resigned the office on 
April 16, 1887. The third bishop was Rt. Rev. John Samuel 
Foley (1888-1918). The present bishop, Rt. Rev. Michael 
James Gallagher, was transferred from Grand Rapids to 
Detroit, July 18, 1918. 

The third of the suffragan sees assigned to the archdiocese 
of Cincinnati in 1850 was Vincennes, 28 then embracing the 
entire state of Indiana. After the erection of the diocese of 
Cincinnati in 1821, Indiana and Illinois still belonged to the 
diocese of Bardstown. When the bishops of the United States 
assembled in the Second Provincial Council at Baltimore in 
1832, they petitioned Rome for the erection of a new diocese 
at Vincennes to embrace the entire state of Indiana and the 
eastern half of Illinois, the western half of Illinois to be at 
tached to the diocese of St. Louis. 29 In response to this re 
quest, Gregory XVI issued on May 6, 1834, the bull Maximas 
inter gravissimasque curas erecting the diocese of Vincennes 
with the boundaries requested by the Fathers of the council, 30 
and appointed thereto as its first bishop Rt. Rev. Simon 
Gabriel Brute" (1834-1839). Under the second bishop of Vin 
cennes, Rt. Rev. Celestine de la Hailandiere (1839-1847), the 
diocese was reduced to the boundaries of the state of Indiana, 

27. Bull of erection, March 8, 1833 (Jus Pontificium de Propaganda Fide, V, 70-71). 

28. ALERDING, History of the Catholic Church in the Diocese of Vincennes (Indianapolis, 

29. Decreta Concilii Provinciae Baltimorensis II, Decree No. 1 (Collectio Lacensis, 

30. Bull of erection of Vincennes (Jus Pontificium de Propaganda Fide, V, 99) ; letter, 
Cardinal Pedicini, Prefect of Propaganda, July 26, 1834, to Archbishop of Baltimore (Collectio 
Lacensis, III, 43). 


the diocese of Chicago having been created in Illinois in 1843. 
After the resignation of Bishop de la Hailandiere in July, 1847, 
Rt. Rev. John Stephen Bazin became the third bishop of Vin- 
cennes in October, 1847, but died six months afterward, on 
April 23, 1848. The fourth bishop was Rt. Rev. Maurice de 
St. Palais (1849-1877), during whose episcopate the northern 
half of Indiana was erected in 1857 into the diocese of Fort 
Wayne. The fifth bishop was Rt. Rev. Francis Silas Chatard 
(1878-1918). During Bishop Chatard s incumbency, the epis 
copal residence and name of the diocese were changed from 
Vincennes to Indianapolis by authority of a brief from Pope 
Leo XIII, March 28, 1898. The present bishop of the diocese 
is Rt. Rev. Joseph Chartrand who had been coadjutor in the 
diocese since 1910, and became bishop of Indianapolis upon the 
death of Bishop Chatard on September 7, 1918. 

The last of the suffragan sees attributed to Cincinnati in 
1850 was Cleveland, 31 erected, as we have seen, on April 23, 
1847, and consisting, by the mutual agreement of the bishops 
of Cleveland and Cincinnati in 1849, of the northern part of 
Ohio above the counties of Mercer, Auglaize, Hardin, Marion, 
Morrow, Knox, Tuscarawas, Carroll and Jefferson. The first 
bishop of Cleveland was Rt. Rev. Amadeus Rappe (1847-1870), 
who resigned his dignity on August 22, 1870, and was succeeded 
by Rt. Rev. Richard Gilmour (1871-1891). The third bishop 
was Rt. Rev. Ignatius Frederick Horstmann (1892-1908). 
The present bishop is Rt. Rev. John P. Farrelly, who was 
appointed March 18, 1909, and consecrated May 1, 1909.t 
In the first year of his administration, on April 15, 1910, 
the diocese was divided into two, so that the territory west 
of the western boundaries of the counties of Erie, Huron and 
Richland formed the diocese of Toledo. 

With these four suffragan sees, the archdiocese of Cincin 
nati in 1850 comprised the four states of Ohio, Kentucky, 
Indiana and Michigan. The number of its suffragan sees was, 
however, to be more than doubled by divisions in each of the 
original five sees, and by the addition of the entire state of 
Tennessee. The first diocese to suffer division was Louisville, 
from which the eastern part of the state of Kentucky to the 

31. HOUCK, The Church in Northern Ohio and in the Diocese of Cleveland (1887). 
tBishop Farrelly died February 12, 1921. 


counties of Carroll, Owen, Franklin, Woodford, Jessamine, 
Garrard, Rock Castle, Laurel and Whitley inclusive, was de 
tached from the mother-diocese upon the petition of the 
bishops assembled at the First Plenary Council of Baltimore, 
1852, with the consent of the archbishop of Cincinnati and the 
bishop of Louisville, and erected by Pius I X by the bull 
Apostolici ministerii of July 29, 1853, into the diocese of Coving- 
ton. 32 This was the best solution of the controversy which 
had been waged on the subject by the archbishop of Cincinnati 
and the coadjutor bishop of Louisville at the VII Provincial 
Council of Baltimore in 1849, and which came up again at the 
First Plenary Council in 1852. 33 The bishops of Covington 
have been Rt. Rev. George Aloysius Carrell, S.J. (1853-1868); 
Rt. Rev. Augustus Maria Toebbe (1870-1884); Rt. Rev 
Camillus Paul Maes (1885-1915). The present bishop is the 
Right Reverend Ferdinand Brossart, appointed December 9, 
1915, and consecrated January 25, 1916. 

This same plenary council of Baltimore had likewise 
recommended the erection of a vicariate-apostolic in the 
northern peninsula of the state of Michigan, 34 to be separated 
thus from the diocese of Detroit. Pius I X, therefore, on July 
29, 1853, issued the bull Postulat apostolicum officium, creating 
the desired vicariate-apostolic to be administered by a bishop. 35 
By a brief of the same date Rev. Frederick Baraga was appoint 
ed bishop of Amyzonia in partibus infidelium and vicar-apostolic 
of Upper Michigan. 36 When at Rome in the spring of 1854, 
Bishop Baraga requested the Holy Father to raise the vicariate 
to the dignity of a bishopric, 37 but it was not until the petition 
had been investigated and approved by the First Provincial 
Council of Cincinnati, 1855, 38 and then forwarded to Rome 
that the favor was granted. On January 9, 1857, the vicariate 

32. Bull of erection of Covington, July 29, 1853 (Jus Pontificium de Propaganda Fide, 
VI, 186). 

33. Letter, Cardinal Franzoni, Rome, January 23, 1852, to Archbishop Purcell (Arch- 
diocesan Archives, at Mount St. Joseph s, Ohio); first private session of First Plenary Council 
of Baltimore, May 10, 1852 (Collectio Lacensis, III, 138). 

34. REZEK, History of the Diocese of Sault Ste. Marie and Marquette, 2 vols. (Houghton, 
Mich., 1906-07). 

35. Bull of erection of Vicariate Apostolic of Upper Michigan (Jus Pontificium de Pro 
paganda Fide, VI, 187-188; facsimile in RBZEK, o. c., I, 101). 

36. Facsimile of briefs in REZEK, o. c., I, 75 and 79. 

37. Copy of petition by Baraga, Rome, March 5, 1854 (Notre Dame Archives). 

38. First Provincial Council of Cincinnati, 1855 (Collectio Lacensis, III, 187-88, 195, 201). 


was elevated to a diocese with the same boundaries as it 
previously possessed, to be known as the diocese of Sainte 
Marie. 39 Bishop Baraga (1857-1868) became the first bishop 
of the diocese of Sault Ste. Marie. By virtue of a decree from 
the Congregation of the Propaganda on October 23, 1865, the 
seat of the bishopric was changed to Marquette, though the 
name of Sault Ste. Marie was to be retained along with that of 
Marquette. 40 Marquette received its second bishop in the 
person of Rt. Rev. Ignatius Mrak (1869-1878), who was con 
secrated on February 7, 1869. Under Bishop Mrak the diocese 
had to sever its relations with the Cincinnati archdiocese, as 
upon the elevation of Milwaukee to the rank of a metropolitan 
see on February 12, 1875, the diocese of Sault Ste. Marie-Mar- 
quette was made a suffragan of that see. 41 

When the First Provincial Council of Cincinnati sent its 
request to Rome for the erection of Sault Ste. Marie, it also 
requested the division of the diocese of Vincennes, Indiana, 
into two parts, north and south, the territory north of the 
southern boundaries of the counties of Fountain, Montgomery, 
Boone, Hamilton, Madison, Delaware, Randolph and Warren 
to form the diocese of Fort Wayne. 42 The reason given for 
the division was that the state of Indiana with its increasing 
Catholic population had become too extensive for proper 
administration by the bishop of Vincennes. The Sacred Con 
gregation of the Propaganda thought well of the petition, and 
on January 8, 1857, Pius I X by the bull Ex debito pastoralis 
officii established the diocese of Fort Wayne. A gross mistake, 
however, was made in the assignment of the territory. Where 
as the First Provincial Council of Cincinnati had suggested the 
counties above named to form the southern line of division 
between the dioceses of Vincennes and Fort Wayne, the bull of 
erection named these counties, namely, Fountain, Montgom 
ery, Boone, Hamilton, Madison, Delaware, Randolph and 
Warren, as properly forming the diocese of Fort Wayne. 4 3 The 

39. Facsimile of bull of erection, in REZEK, o. c., I, 101. 

40. Copy of decree in REZEK, o. c., I, 190. 

41. Bull Quae nos sacri, February 12, 1875 (Jus Pontificium de Propaganda Fide, VI, 
[second part] 260) . 

42. AI.ERDING, The Diocese of Fort Wayne (1907); First Provincial Council of Cincin 
nati, 1855 (Collectio Lacensis, III, 188, 195, 201). 

43. Bull of erection of Fort Wayne (Jus Pontificium de Propaganda Fide, VI, 273). The 
wording in question is: "Itaque matura nostra deliberatione atque ex plenitudine apostolicae 
auctoritatis a dioecesi Vincennopolitana sequentes regiones seu comitatus, ut vocant, sejungimus 


mistake was so flagrant, since the episcopal seat Fort Wayne, 
situated in Allen county, was entirely outside of any one of 
the counties named, and all the northern counties would have 
been separated from the diocese of Vincennes by the inter 
vening diocese of Fort Wayne, that no account was taken of 
the incorrect wording of the bull. That the mistake might 
be corrected the present bishop of Fort Wayne referred the 
matter to Rome. By a decree of the Consistorial Congrega 
tion on March 29, 1912, Pius X ordained that the diocese of 
Fort Wayne should comprise the entire northern part of the 
state of Indiana as governed formerly by the bishop of Vin 
cennes,. and that its southern boundary should be formed by 
the southern boundaries of the counties of Warren, Fountain, 
Montgomery, Boone, Hamilton, Madison, Delaware and 
Randolph. 44 

For the first bishop of Fort Wayne, the First Provincial 
Council of Cincinnati had recommended Rev. James Frederic 
Wood, but as he received the appointment of coadjutor to 
Philadelphia, the Propaganda bade the bishops of the province 
of Cincinnati to propose other names. 45 Rev. John Henry 
Luers (1858-1871) was, therefore, chosen and appointed on 
September 22, 1857. 46 He was followed by Rt. Rev. Joseph 
Dwenger, C.PP.S. (1872-1893), Rt. Rev. Joseph Rademacher 
(1893-1900), and the present bishop, Rt. Rev. Herman Joseph 
Alerding, appointed bishop of Fort Wayne, August 30, 1900, 
and consecrated November 30, 1900. 

The eighth suffragan see of the province was to be created 
out of the diocese of Cincinnati proper in 1868, when the 
southeastern part of the state of Ohio was erected into the 
diocese of Columbus. 47 The first bishop of Columbus was the 
former auxiliary bishop of Cincinnati, Rt. Rev. Sylvester 
Horton Rosecrans (1868-1878). The second bishop was Rt. 

ac dismembramus, nempe comitatus Fountain, Montgomery, Boone, Hamilton, Madison, 
Delaware, Randolph et Warren, easdemque regiones seu comitatus in veram ac proprie dictam 
dioecesim erigimus et constituimus, ejusque episcopalem sedem sitam volumus in oppido cui 
nomen Fort Wayne, atque exinde novam hanc dioecesim Wayne-Castrensem nuncupari manda 

44. Decree of the Sacred Consistorial Congregation, Cardinal De Lai, Secretary, March 
29, 1912 (Fort Wayne Diocesan Archives). 

45. Letter, Cardinal Barnabo, Prefect of Propaganda, February 16, 1857, to Archbishop 
Purcell (First Provincial Council of Cincinnati, Collectio Lacensis, III, 201). 

46. Brief of nomination, September 22, 1857 (Notre Dame Archives). 

47. See note 12 of this chapter; Diocese of Columbus, the History of Fifty Years (1918). 


Rev. John Ambrose Watterson (1880-1899). Upon his death, 
April 17, 1899, it was proposed either to suppress the diocese 
of Columbus entirely, dividing its territory between the two 
dioceses of Cincinnati and Cleveland, or to give it new bound 
aries. The reason for the proposition was the heavy debt 
which lay upon the diocese of Columbus, and which, because 
of its small number of Catholics, it was considered unable to 
pay. 48 It was finally decided, however, to continue the 
previous status of the diocese, and Columbus received its third 
bishop in Rt. Rev. Henry Moeller (1900-1903). The present 
bishop is the Rt. Rev. James J. Hartley, appointed December 
23, 1903, and consecrated February 25, 1904. 

The ninth diocese to be made a suffragan of Cincinnati was, 
unlike the former dioceses which had been created out of the 
original five, an addition from without the province, and added 
the entire state of Tennessee to the metropolitan jurisdiction 
of Cincinnati. This was the diocese of Nashville, for the 
erection of which the III Provincial Council of Baltimore in 
1837 had petitioned Rome 49 and received a favorable answer 
in the establishment of the diocese by the bull Universi dominici 
gregis of Gregory XVI, July 28, 1837. 50 Up to this period, 
the state of Tennessee had formed part of the diocese of Bards- 
town. Upon its erection into a diocese it was assigned as a 
suffragan to the archbishop of Baltimore. When in 1850 the 
dioceses were divided among the five archdioceses of the United 
States, Nashville was assigned to the archdiocese of St. Louis. 51 
But this was not pleasing to the bishop of Nashville, Rt. Rev. 
Richard Pius Miles, who sought to have the diocese attached 
to the province of Cincinnati. Having obtained the consent 
of the archbishop of St. Louis to the transfer of Nashville to 
the Cincinnati archdiocese, he informed Archbishop Purcell of 
the situation shortly before the holding of the Second Pro 
vincial Council of Cincinnati, 1858, and asked admission into 
Cincinnati. 52 He came on to the council, which opened on 

48. Letter, Cardinal Ledochowski, Prefect of Propaganda, June 12, 1899, to Archbishop 
Elder (Archdiocesan Archives, at Mount St. Joseph s, Ohio). 

49. Ill Plenary Council of Baltimore, 1837 (Collectio Lacensis, III, 54, 59). 

50. Bull of erection of Nashville, 1837 (Jus Pontificium de Propaganda Fide, V, 190). 

51. Bull of assignment of suffragans to St. Louis (Jus Pontificium de Propaganda Fide, 
VI, 99). 

52. Letter, Bishop Miles, Nashville, April 5, 1858, to Archbishop Purcell (Notre Dame 


May 2, 1858, and asked entrance in order to discuss the ap 
pointment of a coadjutor for himself and the settlement of some 
difficult affairs, for which he had obtained permission from the 
archbishop of St. Louis. Having accepted him into the 
council, without giving him any vote, however, the Fathers 
of the council petitioned Rome according to his desires. In 
answer, Rome allowed him to have a coadjutor, though the 
nomination had to be made according to the approved form, 
but it refused to allow him to withdraw from the metropolitan 
jurisdiction of St. Louis, since the difficulties which had been 
alleged as the reason for the withdrawal could be met by the 
common law of the Church. 53 Thus was Nashville left a 
suffragan of St. Louis, a condition which continued until after 
the promotion of its third bishop, Rt. Rev. Patrick A. Feehan, 
to Chicago on September 10, 1880. In the spring of the fol 
lowing year, Archbishop Elder, coadjutor to Archbishop 
Purcell at Cincinnati, received official notice from Cardinal 
Simeoni, Prefect of the Propaganda, together with a copy of 
the Roman decree announcing that henceforth the diocese of 
Nashville would be accredited to the province of Cincinnati. 54 
It was not until 1883 that Nashville was to receive a successor 
to Bishop Feehan in the person of Rt. Rev. Joseph Rade- 
macher, who was consecrated on June 24, 1883, and became the 
first bishop of Nashville who was a suffragan of Cincinnati. 
The bishops of Nashville who preceded him were Rt. Rev. 
Richard Pius Miles (1838-1860); Rt. Rev. James Whelan 
(1860-1864); Rt. Rev. Patrick A. Feehan (1865-1880). To 
Rt. Rev. Joseph Rademacher (1883-1893) succeeded the 
present bishop, Rt. Rev. Thomas Sebastian Byrne, who was 
appointed May 10, 1894, and consecrated July 25, 1894. 

The tenth suffragan see to Cincinnati was added in 1882, 
when the diocese of Detroit suffered the second division of its 
original territory. On May 19h of that year, Leo XIII erected 
the diocese of Grand Rapids to comprise the counties of the 
lower peninsula of Michigan north of the southern line of the 
counties of Ottawa, Kent, Montcalm, Gratiot, and Saginaw, 
and west of the eastern line of the counties of Saginaw and Bay. 

53. II Provincial Council of Cincinnati (Collectio Lacensis, III, p. 205); letter, Cardinal 
Barnabo, Prefect of Propaganda, November 10, 1858, to Archbishop Purcell (Collectio Lacensis, 
III, p. 213). 

54. Catholic Telegraph, June 30, 1881. 


The adjacent islands were also to form part of the diocese of 
Grand Rapids. The first bishop of Grand Rapids was Rt. 
Rev. Henry Joseph Richter (1883-1916). The second bishop 
was Rt. Rev. Michael James Gallagher (1916-1918), and the 
present bishop is Rt. Rev. Edward D. Kelly, consecrated 
titular bishop of Cestra and auxiliary to the bishop of Detroit 
January 26, 1911, and promoted to Grand Rapids January 16, 

The youngest of the suffragan sees of Cincinnati is the 
diocese of Toledo, which was formed out of the diocese of Cleve 
land and made to comprise the northwestern part of the state 
of Ohio, lying north of the southern boundaries of Crawford, 
Wyandot, Hancock, Allen and Van Wert counties, and west 
of the eastern boundaries of Ottawa, Sandusky, Seneca and 
Crawford counties. This diocese was established by Pius X 
on April 15, 1910, and was given its first bishop in the present 
incumbent Rt. Rev. Joseph Schrembs, who was consecrated 
auxiliary bishop of Grand Rapids on February 22, 1911, and 
promoted to Toledo on August 11, 1911. 

Of its suffragan sees Cincinnati has lost but one in its 
seventy years of existence, the bishopric of Sault Ste. Marie- 
Marquette; but whilst it thus lost the upper peninsula of 
Michigan from its original territory, it gained the entire state 
of Tennessee. As now constituted with its ten suffragan sees, 
the archdiocese of Cincinnati comprises an area of almost 
200,000 square miles, an area that falls little short of the 
207,107 square miles of the entire country of France. In this 
territory there are approximately 2,010,447 Catholics, served 
by one archbishop, ten bishops and 2,573 priests, diocesan and 
regular. 55 By order of all the bishops of the province, the 
province was dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus on New 
Year Day, 1874. 56 

55. The Official Catholic Directory, 1920. 

56. Letter of all the bishops of the province of Cincinnati, 1873 (Catholic Telegraph, 
XLII, December 18, 1873). 


THE many letters which we have been able 
to examine on the establishment of the first 
diocese in the state of Ohio, we have not 
found any of the writers of the letters selecting 
a site other than that of Cincinnati for the 
episcopal city of the new diocese, though 
Spalding records that an effort was made to locate the new see 
at Somerset, and that Bishop Dubourg preferred Chillicothe 
as being more central than Cincinnati. l In favor of Somerset 
was the consideration, indeed, that Father Fenwick had made 
it the center of his missionary activities and had dedicated 
there the first church in the state. Chillicothe had been the 
capital of the state, a position, however, which it soon had to 
yield to Cincinnati, whilst Catholicity had not even taken root 
there at the time of the erection of the diocese. Those who 
knew Cincinnati in the second decade of the nineteenth century 
entertained no doubts as to the propriety of selecting that city 
for the home of the bishop. Bishop Flaget as well as the 
Dominicans of Kentucky never considered any other city. 

Of all the cities west of the Alleghanies none gave promise 
of such future greatness. Its location appealed to everyone on 
account of its natural beauty and its commercial opportunities. 
Situated in Hamilton county on the north bank of the Ohio 
river, almost directly opposite the mouth of the Licking 
river in Kentucky, it is the center of a region extending about 
two hundred miles in every direction, which for fertility and 
natural beauty of the simpler kind is unsurpassed in the world. 
The rich bottom lands of the Miami valley, of which Cincin 
nati is the central point, watered annually by the spring floods 
have almost verified the extravagant accounts of the earliest 
visitors to the district, so that a not inapt comparison has been 
made of the valley of the Miami with the valley of the Nile. 
In those early days of rugged travel, Cincinnati was excep- 

1. SPALDING, Sketches of the Life, Times and Character of Bishop Flaget, p. 217 [113] 


tionally favored, as the route west of Pittsburgh became a 
comparative luxury, even though a flat boat or an incommodious 
steamer happened to be the only means of travel. As the great 
waterways of the North were the pathways of the early in 
trepid trader and the zealous missionary seeking the Indians 
of the Northwest, so the beautiful Ohio bore upon its bosom 
the impoverished, but industrious American of the East, and 
the liberty-loving immigrant from across the waters to the 
rapidly expanding country of the Southwest. Many a beauti 
ful pen-picture was drawn by those immigrants as they veered 
round the bend of the lower Ohio and caught their first glimpse 
of the rising town of Cincinnati. 

"It was a still, sunny morning," wrote Charles Fenno Hoffman, 
"when in rounding one of those beautiful promontories, which form so 
striking a feature in the scenery in the Ohio river, we came suddenly 
upon a cluster of gardens and villas, which indicated the vicinity of a 
flourishing town, and our boat, taking a sudden sheer from the shore, 
before the eye had time to study out their grouping and disposition, 
the whole City of Cincinnati, embosomed in its amphitheatre of green 
hills, was brought at once before us. It rises on two inclined planes 
from the river, the one elevated about fifty feet above the other, and 
both running parallel to the Ohio. . . . The girdle of green hills 
on some of which the primeval forest still lingers in the aged trees, 
command some of the most beautiful views you can imagine, of the 
opposite shores of Kentucky, with the two pretty manufacturing 
villages on either side of the Licking river, which debouches opposite 
to Cincinnati. . . . Verily, if beauty alone can confer empire, 
it is in vain for thriving Pittsburgh, or flourishing Louisville, bustling 
and buxom as they are, to dispute with Cincinnati her title of Queen 
of the West ." 2 

The city of Cincinnati today has spread over all the hills 
which were such objects of beauty. Business, though not ex 
clusively, still is mostly limited to the two lower plateaus of the 
city, whilst beautiful residences now adorn the wide stretches 
of elegant shrubbery on the tops of the hills. We know of no 
city which can compare with Cincinnati for the extensive 
reaches of beautiful homes upon all her suburbs. 

This beautiful as well as promising industrial site was first 
chosen for a place of settlement in 1788, when two parties of im- 

2. CHARLES FENNO HOFFMAN, A Winter in the West, 1834 (second edition, New York, 
1835,11, 110-111). 


migrants from New Jersey left Limestone (Maysville), Kentucky, 
for their new homes in the district of Cincinnati. The entire 
tract between the Miamis had been purchased from Congress 
by Judge Cleves Symmes of New Jersey, who had been in 
terested in the country by Capt. Benjamin Stites. Prominent 
among other purchasers was Mathias Denman, of Springfield, 
Essex county, New Jersey, who bought of Judge Symmes the 
entire section 18 and fractional section 17 in township 4. All 
the leaders of the enterprise had surveyed the lands in Septem 
ber, 1788, and after the unaccountable disappearance of John 
Filson, one of their number, returned to Limestone, Kentucky. 
On November 16, 1788, the first party set out under Captain 
Stites for their new home and on November 18th disembarked 
from their flatboat on land about three-quarters of a mile 
below the Little Miami. This was the beginning of the 
settlement known as Columbia. Though plans for a city 
were laid out by Stites, they were never to be executed, as 
nature with its spring floods soon forced the settlers to realize 
the undesirability of the location A far better site had been 
chosen by the second party, which under Col. Robert Patterson 
and Israel Ludlow, partners of Mathias Denman in the pur 
chase of the land of Cincinnati proper, had left Limestone on 
December 24, 1788, and after a difficult boat-ride through 
rifts of ice on the Ohio river landed, very probably on December 
28th, on the northern bank of the Ohio opposite the mouth of 
the Licking. The settlement was first known as Losantiville, 
as the ingenious, though unfortunate schoolmaster John Filson, 
of Lexington, Kentucky, had styled the new settlement. 3 In 
the beginning of January, 1790, the name Losantiville was 
changed by Governor Arthur St. Clair to Cincinnati in honor 
of the society of that name, composed of ex-officers of the 
Revolutionary Army. This site was to prove successful not 
only over the one at Columbia, but likewise over the one at 
North Bend, which was chosen the following January, 1789, 
by Judge Symmes himself. When the selection of Cincinnati 
proper was made for the location of a fortress to serve as a 

3. Some writers on early Cincinnati, if they do not entirely discredit the appellation of 
the city as Losantiville, have spent their shafts of ridicule upon the author, who intended the 
word to express the city opposite the mouth of the Licking, L-os-anti-ville, a combination of 
Latin, Greek and French words. 


bulwark against the marauding Indians, the success of Cin 
cinnati was assured. 4 

Not for many years, however, was Cincinnati to make much 
progress. The depredations of the Indians prevented great 
immigration to the Central West. Not until 1795, when the 
treaty of Greenville was effected, did these conditions change 
for the better. In 1795 Cincinnati could number only 500 
souls; in 1800 only 750; in 1805, 960; in 1810, 2,320. In 
1819, when the first Catholic church was built in Cincinnati, 
there were 10,283 persons in the city of Cincinnati, composed 
of peoples not only from all the states of the Union, but also 
from many countries of Europe. This rapid increase was due 
to the migration west from the Atlantic States incident to the 
British War of 1812, the fertility of the soil about Cincinnati, 
the low price of the lands and the security of the titles to them, 
the high price of labor, the exclusion of slavery in the territory, 
and especially to the introduction of the steamboats on the 
Ohio, which caused Cincinnati to become immediately a com 
petitor in the markets with older and less productive regions. 
Cincinnati in 1819 with its 1003 dwelling houses and 887 
shops, warehouses and public buildings had begun to assume 
a role of activity which was to presage her growth into the 
"Queen City of the West". 

Of the 10,283 inhabitants of Cincinnati, Father Fenwick 
could number only about one hundred poor, Irish Catholics, 
though religiously in other denominations Cincinnati was not 
at a disadvantage. In the original plat of Cincinnati the square 
bounded by Main, Walnut, Fourth and Fifth streets was set 
aside for a church, a jail, a courthouse and a school. 5 As the 
majority of the settlers of Losantiville, including two of the 
proprietors, Denman and Patterson, were Presbyterians, the 
first church built on the southern half of this square, near the 
corner of Fourth and Main streets, was a Presbyterian church, 
which was organized in 1790 by Rev. David Rice and incor 
porated in 1807 as the First Presbyterian Society. In 1819 a 
large brick church 68 by 65 feet had replaced the original frame 
church at Fourth and Main, and was attended by 233 commu- 

4. The excellent work of CHARLES GREVE, Centennial History of Cincinnati, vol. I, will 
aid anyone desiring more information on the early civil history of Cincinnati. 

5. Hamilton County Recorder s Office, Book E 2, pp. 62-63. 


nicants. 6 The second Church in Cincinnati was the Methodist 
Episcopal Society, which was founded in 1804. It possessed 
two churches in 1819, one on Fifth street between Sycamore 
and Broadway, the other at Fourth and Plum, and numbered 
nearly 300 communicants. The third Church was the New 
Jerusalem Society (Swedenborgians), instituted in 1811, and 
numbering between 40 and 50 members in 1819 under a pastor 
who was preparing to build a church. The Society of Friends, 
formed in 1813, numbered 180 individuals in 1819, worshipping 
in a meeting house west of Western Row (Central Avenue), be 
tween Fourth and Fifth streets. The Baptists, organized in 
1813, built a church at Sixth and Lodge alley, after having 
worshipped for a short time in a log church on Front street. 
A division of this Church, known as the Enon Baptist Society, 
of 250 members had in 1820 its own place of worship on Walnut, 
between Third and Fourth. The German Christian Church 
was started in 1814 by Lutherans and Presbyterians. The 
Methodist Episcopal Church and Benevolent Society of Cin 
cinnati, which had been incorporated in 1817, had its church 
on Vine street, between Fourth and Fifth, and was served by 
Rev. Wm. Burke. The Second Presbyterian Church was 
organized in 1817 and had a church on Walnut street. The 
Protestant Episcopal Church, known as Christ Church, was 
organized in 1817, and in 1819 numbered 70 families, with 
between 20 and 30 communicants. 7 

It was in a city of such variety of religious opinions that 
Bishop Fenwick was to begin his episcopal administration in 
1822, and, as we shall see presently, the field was ripe for the 
sower of the good seed. The religious divisions among the 
people soon led them to seek for the Church which through her 
ministers could speak with authority. Numerous conversions 
were the result. 

If we pass for a moment to consider conditions throughout 
the state, we find that the episcopal city had progressed even 
more rapidly than had the state. The reason is not far to 
seek; for the very causes which conduced to the progress of the 

6. REV. F. C. MONFORT, D.D., History of the First Presbyterian Church in One Hundred 
Years of Presbyterianism in the Ohio Valley, p. 6. 

7. Cincinnati Directory, 1819; DRAKE, Picture of Cincinnati, 1815; DRAKE AND MANS 
FIELD, Cincinnati in 1826; GREVE, Centennial History of Cincinnati, p. 481 ff.; Goss, Cin 
cinnati, the Queen City, I, 467 ff. 


state were in greater activity at Cincinnati and in southwestern 
Ohio than anywhere else. In the year 1800 the state of Ohio 
had a population of 42,000 persons. After passing through 
the stage of territorial administration Ohio was admitted into 
the Union in 1803, and slowly but surely began her march of 
progress with the advancing hosts of immigrants from the 
eastern states. Her first settlements in the beginning were as 
so many colonies of the original states of the Union. At 
Marietta, the pioneers came from Massachusetts and other 
New England states; at Cincinnati, they had come chiefly 
from New Jersey, though there was added a mixture of Hugue 
not, Swedish, Holland and English blood; in the Virginia 
Military District between the Scioto and the Little Miami with 
the center at Chillicothe, the settlers were from Virginia; on 
the "Seven Ranges", they were principally from Pennsylvania, 
some of Quaker, others of German, Irish and Scotch stock; 
on the Western Reserve with a center at Cleveland, they were 
from Connecticut. 8 The bulk of this population was in the 
southwestern part of the state, with Cincinnati and Chillicothe 
the most important towns. By the year 1810 the population 
in Ohio had grown to 230,760; the year 1820 saw over half a 
million 581,434 people within the confines of Ohio, a truly 
remarkable development. In religion, these people, like the 
people at Cincinnati, were divided into all kinds of belief, but 
the three sects which numbered the greatest number of ad 
herents were the Presbyterians, the Methodists and the Bap 
tists, of whom the former were to be found in almost every 
village of the state. The Catholics throughout the state, 
most of whom were immigrants from Maryland and Pennsyl 
vania, were variously estimated by Bishop Fenwick at from 
3,000 to 6,000 to 8,000. It is doubtful, however, whether there 
were actually as many as that at the time of the creation of 
the diocese in 1821. 

But what a field was this for the missionary bishop of Cin 
cinnati and his handful of co-laborers in the vineyard of the 
Lord! Six years of continued travel throughout the southern 
and central part of the state before 1822 had made the bishop 
realize the immensity of the task which lay before him, and we 

8. Ohio Centennial Anniversary Celebration, Chillicothe, 1903; B. R. COWEN, Ethnolo 
gical History of Ohio, pp. 543-44. 


do not wonder that he sighed to be relieved of such a burden. 
We thank God in his Providence for giving his servant the 
courage to endure the fatigues of incessant travels and the 
inhospitality of the primeval forests, through which he had 
to find his way and at times pass the night with only the saddle 
for a pillow and the neighing of his faithful horse to sound an 
alarm in case of danger. Add to this the anxieties of an empty 
purse to satisfy the demands of his religion-craving subjects. 
Nor were his own the only ones whom he had to satisfy, as the 
following extract from a letter of his to a friend in London, 
England, witnesses: 

"A short time ago, a colony of thirteen families, having by chance 
found a Catholic book, conceived the desire of embracing our holy 
religion; and although I was three hundred miles away, they wrote 
me a letter, in which they made their desire known to me. I made my 
way to this colony, which I had the good fortune to find, instructed 
them in all those things that are necessary to be known, and had the 
consolation of baptizing them. The people in general are anxious to 
learn, and disposed to receive the Word of God with docility." 9 

This spirit of zeal evinced by the missionary was never lost 
by the bishop. So much did it actuate him that the priests 
associated with him were filled with the same religious zeal. 
The following letter will show to what extent such a spirit pre 
vailed at Cincinnati. It will describe also the method followed 
by the priests in the missions which they gave. It was written 
very probably by Father Hill, O.P.: 

"I have received several invitations from large societies of Metho 
dists and other Sectaries to go and preach the gospel to them. They 
have discovered that they have been deceived and led into error, 
especially with regard to our religion, and they are anxious to learn the 
truth. They have offered to pay the expense of my journey; and I 
hope to be able to run over a hundred leagues of circumference of this 
country during the course of the summer. Our mode of conducting 
these missions may perhaps interest you. These establishments are 
composed of families amounting sometimes to the number of one or 
two hundred, living in forests, across which they have opened a passage 
through the trees. Their cabins are made of the trunks of trees, cov 
ered with boards. They principally live upon pork, bread made with 
Indian corn, and water. In some places, the population consists of 
forty or fifty houses, situated here and there; but there is generally 

9. Letter, Fenwick, Georgetown, D. C., November 8, 1818, translated from Diario di 
Roma, January 23, 1819, in Catholic Historical Review, IV, 24-25; Annales de V Association 
de la Propagation de la Foi, 1826, II, 98-99. 


a sort of town-house, which serves both for a church, a school, and the 
general rendezvous of their meetings. 

When a missionary arrives, the news soon spreads about. Mes 
sengers are immediately sent in different directions, and it is astonish 
ing with what rapidity they proceed, for before sunset whole crowds 
assemble round the spot where the missionary has taken up his abode ; 
and they will absolutely receive some instruction before they retire, 
and, if the priest were strong enough, they would willingly hear him till 
midnight. He then fixes a time to receive them the next day; and if 
there (are) any Catholics among them, he also appoints the hour for 
Mass; afterwards, he hears confessions, and baptizes the children; 
he then explains the Mass, and preaches again until noon for one or 
two hours, and does the same in the evening, when time permits, and 
there is neither a house or barn large enough, he preaches in the open 
air, and mounts the trunk of a tree or a palisade, and harangues the 
people until he is fatigued. But they are not satisfied with this; 
several accompany him upon the road, propose their doubts, ask ques 
tions, and when they are convinced, demand baptism. We instruct 
them at the time, as much as possible, and leave among them some 
Catechisms, if we are able to procure any. After three or four visits, 
we receive them into the bosom of the Catholic Church. There are in 
this state, six hundred thousand souls, the most of whom live in the 
manner I have described above." 10 

This zeal of the missionaries for the conversion of souls dis 
played itself first of all in the city of their residence, Cincinnati. 
Whilst Bishop Fenwick was in Europe in 1823 and 1824, 
Father Hill began a course of apologetic lectures, which were 
attended by the Catholics and Protestants in such numbers 
that they climbed upon the shoulders of one another and upon 
the window sills in order to see and hear the preacher. 1 1 Father 
Hill himself writes of the lectures to Bishop Fenwick: 

"Our lectures are crowded at an early hour by the chief people in 
the town; all the ministers have attended, except Mr. Root. They 
do not attempt to reply. It is agreed amongst the better informed, 
that the arguments in favor of the Catholic Faith are unanswerable. 
I have finished the subject of the Infallibility of the Church, the Pope s 
Supremacy, and the Real Presence. The minds of the candid part are 
satisfied." 12 

Before the summer had passed, Father Hill could write to 
the bishop that "John Lytle, young Piatt, several Lawyers and 

10. London Catholic Miscellany, III, 93, February, 1824, article, AMERICA: Extract from 
a letter received from a Catholic Missionary at Cincinnati, Ohio. 

11. Letter of a missionary from Cincinnati, 1825, to the Secretary of the Association 
of the Propagation of the Faith, Lyons (Annales, 1826, II, 48). 

12. Letter, Hill, Spring of 1824, to Fenwick, Europe, published in An Account of the 
Progress of the Catholic Church in the Western States of North America (London, 1824). 


Doctors have declared themselves convinced; also General 
Findlay". 13 At last the lectures had to be abandoned, because 
the crowds had become unwieldy and the strain upon Father 
Hill too exhausting. 

Upon the arrival of Father Rese, a new field was opened 
up at Cincinnati towards the end of 1824 and in the spring of 
1825. This missionary could appeal to the German immi 
grant with great success. The bishop writes that when he 
himself came to Cincinnati in 1822, there were only ten or twelve 
Catholic families in the city. In March, 1825, there were more 
than one hundred and ten, of whom one-fifth were converts. 
Father Rese had nearly ruined the Lutheran Church, having 
unearthed thirty-three Catholic German families, as a conse 
quence of which "the pastor of the congregation was spitting 
fire and flame against him". 14 

It cannot be said that such efforts were spasmodic: they 
continued year after year. When conversions once began, 
they prepared the way for many more. During the year 1829 
one hundred and fifty Protestants in Cincinnati alone were 
converted to the true faith. 15 On Low Sunday, April 28, 
1829, about fifty young persons made their first Communion, 
and more than that number were confirmed previous to May 

"Some Protestants," writes Father John B. Clicteur, secretary 
to the bishop, "would come to the Catholic Church to mock the cere 
monies, which they had heard from their own preachers were idolatrous ; 
being present, however, they learn to respect them. Some are 
attracted by the good music. Curiosity helps them to listen attentively 
to the sermon on the Gospels by one of the priests they become 
struck by an explanation of some text; an accusation against the 
Church is disproven, a Catholic truth demonstrated all of which 
makes them think. After the Mass they find their way to the room of 
the missionary, give their objections, make daily visits, become in 
structed and embrace the Faith. They then communicate with their 
friends and bring in two or three others." 17 

13. Hill, Cincinnati, August 23, 1824, to Fenwick (Notre Dame Archives). 

14. Letter, Fenwick, Cincinnati, March 29, 1825, to P. Pallavicini, Turin (printed in 
Catholic Telegraph, April 2, 1891). 

15. Letter, Rese, Cincinnati, January, 1830, to Leopoldine Association (Berichte I, 11). 

16. U. S. Catholic Miscellany, June 6, 1829, Communication, OHIO. 

17. Letter, Clicteur, Cincinnati, June 28, 1829, to Central Council of Lyons, Association 
de la Propagation de la Foi (Annales, 1830, IV, 514-15). 


We learn from this same letter that the charity of the priests 
at Cincinnati went out to the poor and neglected as well as to 
the influential and learned. A poor dying negress of the 
Methodist belief sent for a Protestant minister to visit her. 
He refused his services. She called then for a Catholic priest. 
He visited her, instructed her, and she died a Catholic. The 
same story was told of other neglected Protestants. 18 Father 
Baraga, who came to Cincinnati at the beginning of 1831, also 
mentions two instances of negroes being attended in like 
circumstances by himself and the priests at Cincinnati. 19 

The reward for such generous conduct was a great increase 
in the number of conversions throughout the state of Ohio. 
It must not be imagined, however, that no obstacles retarded 
the progress of the Catholic Church in Ohio. The laborers 
were few indeed, and even these few were reduced by the with 
drawal of two of them in 1824 by their superior in Kentucky, 
when differences arose between the Dominicans in Kentucky 
and those in Ohio. 20 The distances which had to be covered 
by the missionaries were very great; the roads were few and 
poor; and the only dependable means of travel was on horse 
back. The lack of priests forbade the stationing of any of 
them in a certain locality, whilst lack of money prevented the 
bishop from being able to execute his good intention of having 
two or three missionaries go about continually, to preach 
wherever they could. 21 Add to the natural difficulties of 
forsaking a belief in which one had been trained, the opposition 
of family relations. 22 The very success of the Church created 
new and bitter enemies in the ministers of the denominations 
whose ranks were being thinned by converts to Catholicism. 
The non- Catholic editor of the Cincinnati Chronicle referring 
to this spirit, wrote on August 14, 1830: 

"It is not to be denied that there is a spirit of intolerance abroad in 
regard to religious opinions, that but illy comports with the boasted 
intelligence and freedom of the age. The church in this city to which 

18. Idem, ut supra. 

19. Letter, Baraga, Cincinnati, March 19, 1831, to his sister (Leopoldinen Berichte, 1832, 

20. Letter, Hill, Cincinnati, August 23, 1824, to Fenwick (Notre Dame Archives). 

21. Annales, 1826, II, 114-116. 

22. Letter, Hill, 1824, to Fenwick, ut supra Note 12. 


the Asylum (St. Peter s Orphan Asylum) is attached, and of which 
these Sisters of Charity are members, has been occasionally the subject 
of this spirit to no inconsiderable degree." 23 

The greatest opponents in 1831 were the Presbyterians, 
who attacked the Catholic Church from the pulpit. Shortly 
before, in August, 1831, a public debate which lasted four 
hours took place between the chief Presbyterian preacher and 
a Catholic priest of Cincinnati. 24 The language of the Cin 
cinnati Journal, of which Rev. Amos Blanchard was the editor 
in 1831, would not be reiterated today by any respectable 
journal. 25 Other journals attacking the Church were the 
Methodist Correspondent, the Standard, and the Christian 
Advocate. It was to offset the ignorance and calumnies of such 
attacks that the Catholic Telegraph was founded in 1831. The 
editor of that paper, writing in 1833, says: 

"We live in the midst of a people who have been taught to look 
upon us with suspicion, by the interested policy of sectarian leaders 
we are habitually accused, before the public, by the malice and crafti 
ness of these men, of holding doctrines at variance with the religion 
which our blessed Saviour communicated to the world; and, notwith 
standing we have refuted these odious charges a thousand times over, 
they reiterate the blighting calumny with such apparent zeal, that many 
are imposed on, and led to believe, that it is not wholly without founda 
tion. It is to vindicate our belief from such aspersion, and to undeceive 
a generous and confiding people, that we adopt the resolution of making 
the defense and explanation of our holy faith a leading consideration 
in the columns of The Telegraph. " 26 

The obstacles just enumerated were to continue for a long 
time. Not until 1867 could Bishop Purcell write that the 
vocations in the diocese corresponded to the wants of the 
diocese. 27 Prejudice had always to be overcome, though great 
prestige was won for the Catholic cause after the victory of 
Bishop Purcell in the debate with Rev. Alexander Campbell in 
1837, and on account of the commanding position which 
Archbishop Purcell acquired in civil as well as religious affairs. 
The great difficulty then appeared to be the ability to build 

23. The Cincinnati Chronicle, August 14, 1830. 

24. Letter, Rese, Cincinnati, August 3, 1831, to Leopoldine Association (Berichte, 1832 
III, 12-13). 

25. See the Cincinnati Journal, issues of July 27, 1831, and August 5, 1831. 

26. Editorial, Catholic Telegraph, November 29, 1833. 

27. Catholic Telegraph, 1867, XXXVI, No. 7, p. 4. 


churches rapidly enough to take care of the fast increasing 
ranks of the Catholics throughout the diocese. 

To the above enumerated causes of the rapid growth of 
Ohio must now be added the construction of two long water 
ways north and south through the state, the Ohio canal from 
Portsmouth to Cleveland and the Miami-Maumee canal from 
Cincinnati to Toledo on Lake Erie. Starting at Portsmouth 
the Ohio canal passed through Chillicothe ; Circleville, Lock- 
bourne, Carroll, Newark, New Philadelphia, Bolivar, Clinton 
and Akron before reaching Cleveland, whilst the Miami canal 
passed through Hamilton, Franklin, Dayton, Troy, Piqua, 
Minster, St. Mary s, Delphos and Defiance, where it entered 
the Maumee canal, continuing to Napoleon, Maumee and 
Toledo. The terminus of both canals was Lake Brie, which 
thus enabled both the eastern and western parts of the state of 
Ohio to have direct water communication with the Hudson 
river and New York City, as well as with the St. Lawrence 
river and Montreal and Quebec. The Ohio river to the south 
made access easy to the Mississippi and New Orleans and the 
Gulf of Mexico. The Legislature authorized the construction 
of the two canals in 1825 and in July of that year work was 
already begun. Operations proceeded simultaneously on both 
canals, so that two years after the inception of the work, parts 
of the two canals were opened for service; one part between 
Akron and Cleveland, the other between Cincinnati and Mid- 
dletown. It was not until the close of the next decade, how 
ever, that the two canals were completed. This work brought 
into Ohio thousands of immigrants, who thus found continued 
employment. Many a visit was made by the Catholic priest 
to these places of construction along the two lines ; many were 
the Masses offered; and many the souls shriven of the hard 
working, sturdy Irishmen, who appreciated the services of the 
newly found Soggarth-Aroon. Towns arose from the tents 
along the cuts, whilst prosperous times soon spread all over the 
state, as arms of the canals stretched out east and west to 
embrace practically the entire state. 28 

These canals had not been in complete operation before 
new projects were set in motion. There arose another great 

28. DUNBAR, A History of Travel in America, III, 818 ff. ; ATWATER, History of Ohio, 
pp. 275-278. 


factor in the growth of Ohio, steam railroads, which could 
penetrate into parts of the state not covered by the canals. 
One of the earliest roads in Ohio was the Sandusky, Mansfield 
and Newark railroad, which was chartered on March 9, 1835, 
as the Monroeville and Sandusky City railroad. It ran first 
from Sandusky to Monroeville, then from Mansfield to Huron. 
The two were then connected and extended to Newark and to 
Columbus. In the southwest the Mad River railroad, 
chartered on March 11, 1836, ran from Cincinnati to Milford 
in 1842; was extended to Xenia in 1845 and to Springfield 
in 1846. This was the beginning only of greater enterprises, 
as a result of which Ohio today ranks among the leaders in 
railroad mileage. This, too, brought abundant work, and in 
turn hundreds of thousands of workingmen. Along these lines 
sprang up other parishes, for the German as well as the Irish 
immigrant was ever alive to the spiritual needs of himself and 
his family. 

Previous to the canals and the railroads Ohio had been 
favored by the National road, which serves to this day and un 
doubtedly is more traveled by the automobile of this genera 
tion than it was by the stage of two or three generations ago. 
The first road which ran into and through Ohio to Kentucky 
was known as Zane s Trace, from Wheeling to Zanesville to 
Lancaster to Chillicothe to Limestone, Kentucky. Congress 
had authorized its construction in 1796. The first contract 
for the new road, the National road, which was to extend from 
Cumberland, Maryland, to the Mississippi, was let in 1811, 
and the eastern section to Wheeling was opened in 1818. Im 
mediately an a my of immigrants and pioneers were en route 
to the west over this great highway. Another ten years were 
required, however, before work on the road in Ohio reached any 
high degree. From Wheeling the road went through Belmont 
county to Cambridge in Guernsey county, to Zanesville in 
Muskingum county, through Licking county (south of New 
ark) to Columbus in Franklin county, through Madison county 
to Springfield in Clarke county, through Montgomery county 
(northern extremity), and Preble county to Richmond, Indiana. 29 
It was along the first half of its stage through Ohio that the 

29. HULBERT, Old National Road in Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society Publica 
tions, 1900, IX, 405-5 19. 


first expansion of parishes in the diocese of Cincinnati was to 
occur. According to these three means of communication, 
therefore, roadway, canal, and railroad, may we look for the 
growth of the diocese in the development of its parishes. 

As has been seen in the previous chapter, the diocese of 
Cincinnati originally embraced the entire state of Ohio, but 
suffered division in 1847, when the northern part of the state 
was erected into the diocese of Cleveland, and again in 1868, 
when the southeastern part of the state was erected into the 
diocese of Columbus. Naturally, then, to be complete and 
comprehensive the consideration of the parochial development 
in the archdiocese of Cincinnati should include all the parishes 
of the state up to the time when the territory, in which they 
are situated, became part of another diocese. But to trace 
them all would go beyond our scope; we limit ourselves to 
an account of the parochial development of what is now the 
archdiocese of Cincinnati; for the rest, a list will be affixed, 
arranged alphabetically and with notation of the time of organi 
zation of the parishes, which owed their origin to the efforts of 
priests and people who were members of the archdiocese of 
Cincinnati at the period of the formation of the parishes, but 
which are situated at present in the dioceses of Cleveland, 
Columbus and Toledo. It may be noted, however, that the 
same method, which has been followed in working out the 
history of the parochial organization in the Cincinnati arch 
diocese, might be followed in the central and southeastern part 
of Ohio by taking as starting points the mother-parishes at 
Gallipolis, Somerset, Danville, Steubenville, Temperanceville, 
Columbus, Calmoutier, Marietta, Portsmouth and Ironton; 
and in the northern part of Ohio the mother-parishes of Dungan- 
non, Canton, Cleveland, Akron, Peru, Tiffin, Glandorf and 

In the archdiocese of Cincinnati, we shall sketch the de 
velopment of the parishes from the mother-parishes at Cin 
cinnati, St. Martin s in Brown county, Hamilton, Minster, 
Petersburg, Jacksonville, Dayton and Chillicothe. 

When the state of Ohio was constituted the diocese of Cin 
cinnati in 1821, there was but one church in the territory of 
the present archdiocese of Cincinnati. It was located at 
Cincinnati. We have seen how this church was built in 1819 


by the Catholics of Cincinnati and how Bishop Fenwick a few 
months after his arrival in March, 1822, arranged to have this 
church transferred from Vine and Liberty streets to Sycamore 
street, between Sixth and Seventh streets. This little frame 
church growing too small for the increasing numbers of Catho 
lics, and money to the amount of ten or twelve thousand dollars 
having been obtained by the bishop when in Europe during 
the years 1823 and 1824, a new church was begun in 1825 on 
the lot adjacent to the old church, and dedicated on December 
17, 1826. 30 The cost of the building was between ten and 
twelve thousand dollars, all that had been collected. 31 This 
building continued to serve the purposes of worship until 
February 20, I860, when the work of dismantling and demolish 
ing it began; but at this latter date it was no longer the 
cathedral parish church. That honor had passed in 1845 to 
the new church which had been begun in 1841 on the lot 
293 by 192 feet, bounded by Eighth street, Central avenue, 
Plum street and an alley to the south. This lot had been 
bought by Bishop Purcell on December 1, 1840, for $24,000.00 
from Jacob Burnet. 32 The building was consecrated to God 
in honor of St. Peter in Chains on November 2, 1845, by Arch 
bishop Eccleston of Baltimore. 33 

The reader will pardon a short digression, which will allow 
us to show from two documents the part which Archbishop 
Purcell had in the plans of the cathedral, and the appreciation 
which was felt by Cincinnatians in the very beautiful piece of 
architecture with which their city became newly adorned. 

The first document is an extract from a letter of Archbishop 
Purcell to an architect, Mr. Thomas D. Spare, of Somerset, 

"The lot is 383 feet on 8th street, on which street I intend the 
building to front, by 192 feet deep. I would wish to have a male 
orphan asylum, or seminary on one side of the cathedral, and a female 
orphan asylum on the other; or at least two buildings of about 100 feet 
front each, with the cathedral in the centre. The cathedral I would 

30. Letter, Fenwick, Cincinnati, February 1, 1826, to Propaganda (Propaganda Archives, 
Scritture Originali, vol. 938); Rese, Cincinnati, November 18, 1826, to Propaganda (Propa 
ganda Archives, Scritture, vol. VIII); Annales, III, 275; II, 109. 

31. Letter, Rese, February 24, 1826, to Secretary of Association of Propagation of the 
Faith, Lyons (Annales, II, 109). 

32. Deed, Jacob Burnet to John B. Purcell, December 1, 1840 (Hamilton County Re 
corder s Office, Deed Book 79, p. 14). 

33. Catholic Telegraph, November 6, 1845. 


propose to have about 70 by 100 feet, Grecian style of architecture, 
with portico and colonnade in front, with vestibule, all about 30 or 40 
feet deep, and with a steeple carried up from the foundation. The 
ceiling I am inclined to have flat, or but slightly caved. Also an organ 
loft, but I am not much inclined for galleries. It is intended to have a 
basement story destined for Sunday schools and places of meeting, 
chiefly above ground. The roof is to be covered with zinc, or copper. 
These specifications, I presume, will be sufficient. I shall only add, 
that, in all probability, the house shall be of brick (with stone foundation 
about three feet above ground) and that we shall probably do no more 
than build the foundation next year." 34 

The second document is a transcript of the description of 
the cathedral as it appeared in 1851 : 

"This fine building, belonging to the Roman Catholic Society, 
is completely finished, excepting the portico in front, after being ten 
years in progress of construction; and is worthy of all the labor and 
expense it has cost, as an architectural pile and an ornament to our city. 
It is the finest building in the West, and the most imposing, in appear 
ance, of any of the cathedrals in the United States, belonging to the 
Roman Catholic Church, the metropolitan edifice in Baltimore not 

St. Peter s Cathedral is a parallelogram of two hundred feet in 
length, by eighty in breadth. It is fifty-five feet from floor to ceiling. 
The roof is partly supported by the side walls, which as well as the 
front, average four feet in thickness, but principally upon eighteen free 
stone pillars, nine on each side, which are of three-and-a-half feet 
diameter and thirty-three feet in height. The ceiling is of stucco-work, 
of a rich and expensive character, which renders it equal in beauty to 
that of any cathedral in the world, as asserted by competent judges, 
although executed, in this instance, by J. F. Taylor, a Cincinnati 
artist, for a price less than one-half of what it would have cost in 
Europe. The main walls are built of Dayton marble, of which this 
building furnishes the first example in Cincinnati. The basement is 
of the blue limestone of the Ohio river, and forms an appropriate con 
trast with the superstructure. The bells, not yet finished, which will 
be a chime of the usual number and range, played by machinery, such 
as is employed in musical clocks, are in preparation for the edifice. 
The steeple is two hundred and twenty-one feet in height. The cathe 
dral is finished with a center aisle of six feet, and two aisles for proces 
sional purposes, eleven feet each, adjoining the side walls. The residue 
of the space forms one hundred and forty pews ten feet in length. The 
roof is composed of iron plates, whose seams are coated with a composi 
tion of coal-tar and sand, which renders it impervious to water. 

An altar of the purest Carrara marble, made by Chiappri, of Genoa, 

34. Letter, Purcell, Cincinnati, October 29, 1840, to Thomas D. Spare, Somerset (Arch 
ives St. Joseph s Dominican Priory). 


occupies the west end of the cathedral. This is embellished with a 
center piece, being a circle with rays, around which, wreaths and flow 
ers are beautifully chiseled. It is of exquisite design and workmanship. 
At the opposite end, is put up an immense organ, of forty-four stops 
and twenty-seven hundred pipes, lately finished by Schwab, of our city, 
which cost $5,400. One of these pipes alone is thirty-three feet long 
and weighs four hundred pounds. There is no doubt, that this is an 
instrument superior in size, tone and power, to any on this continent. 

The following paintings occupy the various compartments in the 
cathedral : 

St. Peter liberated by the Angel. 

Descent from the Cross. 

Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin. 

St. Jerome in the attitude of listening to the trumpet announcing 
the final judgment. 

Christ in the Garden. 

Flight into Egypt. 

The St. Peter is by Murillo, well known as the head of the Spanish 
school; and was a present to Bishop Fenwick, from Cardinal Fesch, 
uncle to Napoleon. The others are by some of the first artists in 

The two windows next the altar are of stained glass, and serve to 
give us, of the west, an idea of that style of imparting light, through 
edifices devoted to religious purposes, in the old world. 

Not a drop of ardent spirits was consumed in the erection of the 
cathedral, and, notwithstanding the unmanageable shape and size of 
the materials, not an accident occurred in the whole progress of the 
work. Every man employed about it, was paid off every Saturday 
night; and, as the principal part of the labor was performed at a season 
of the year when working hands are not usually employed to their 
advantage, much of the work was executed when labors and materials 
were worth far less than at present. The Dayton marble alone, at 
current prices, would nearly treble its original cost. The heavy dis 
bursements have proved a seasonable and sensible benefit to the 
laboring class. The entire cost of the building is $120,000." 35 

Returning to our consideration, the present cathedral 
parish is the first English-speaking filial congregation of the 
mother-church of Cincinnati on Sycamore street, the site now 
occupied by St. Francis Xavier s church in charge of the Jesuit 
Fathers. We may then take the two cathedral parishes, the 
new and the old, as mother-parishes of the English-speaking 
congregations of the city of Cincinnati, and arrange the de 
velopment in the western and eastern parts of Cincinnati 

35. CiST, Cincinnati in 1851, pp. 326-327. 


It was not long before even the spacious cathedral church 
was not large enough to accommodate the many Catholics 
who came to worship there, and as a large Irish colony had 
grown to great proportions in the southwestern portion of the 
city, it was proposed in 1850 to build a church for the English- 
speaking Catholics in that section. A lease on the northeast 
corner of Third and Mill streets was executed on May 1, 1850, 
by Messrs. Page, Bonte and Chambers to Rev. John B. Purcell 
for $1,800 with privilege of purchase at $7,000, which privilege 
was exercised in May, 1853. 36 Upon this site,. Father Cahill, 
to whom the organization of the parish had been entrusted, 
built the church of St. Patrick in the same year, having it 
blessed by Bishop Lamy on November 24th. 37 

Out of St. Patrick s parish in union with the cathedral came 
the parish of the Atonement on West Third street, which was 
begun in 1870 as a chapel for the Sisters of Mercy, but was 
transformed in 1873 into a parish church with Father Homan 
as pastor. 38 The second filial church of St. Patrick s was St. 
Vincent de Paul s, Sedamsville, where the great distance to 
town necessitated the building of a new church in 1861, Father 
McLeod organizing the parish, 39 A division occurred in this 
church in 1878, when the German-speaking Catholics who 
desired a Catholic school were organized by Father Otto Jair, 
O.F.M., on January 27th into the parish of Our Lady of Per 
petual Help. An old stone school-house was then purchased; 
the upper part was dedicated to church services, whilst the 
basement served for school purposes and a teacher s residence. 39 a 
The third filial church of St. Patrick s was the Blessed .Sacra 
ment church, to care especially for the Irish people who had 
settled to the number of 125 families in the West End of the 
city below Price Hill. Father John M. Mackey, the pastor 
of St. Patrick s, rented a lot on Depot street in May, 1874, 

36. Souvenir Golden Jubilee, St. Patrick s, Cincinnati, 1900; deed of lease, Lemuel Page, 
John Bonte and John T. Chambers to John B. Purcell, May 1, 1850 (copy in Supreme Court of 
Ohio, Church Case, printed records, IV, exhibits, pp. 67-70); Catholic Telegraph, May 4, 1850. 

37. Catholic Telegraph, June 29 and November 30, 1850. 

38. Catholic Telegraph, September, 1870; July 3, 18.73; deed, Sisters of Mercy to J. B. 
Purcell, March 15, 1873, recorded in Hamilton County Recorder s Office, Book 409, p. 237 
(Supreme Court of Ohio, Church Case, printed records, II, 18; IV, exhibit 52, pp. 76-77). 

39. Deed, Henry F. Sedam to John B. Purcell, October 26, 1861 (Hamilton County 
Recorder s Office, Book 286, p. 480; Supreme Court of Ohio, ut supra, IV, exhibit 28, p. 34-35) ; 
Catholic Telegraph, November 23, 1861, XXXI, 252. 

39a. Catholic Telegraph, January 31 and May 12, 1878. 


and upon it built a combination church, school and parsonage, 
which was opened on the first Sunday in Advent of that year. 40 

The need of a second English-speaking parish out of the 
cathedral parish was felt in 1852 to the northwest, in the 
vicinity of the convent of the Ursulines on Bank street. The 
building of this new parish church, undertaken by Father 
Edward Purcell and dedicated to God under the title of St. 
Augustine, was made to serve a double purpose, that of a 
chapel to the nuns as well as a parish church. Father Boulger 
was appointed the pastor in the year of the dedication, 1853. 41 
In 1857, however, the congregation had to be transferred to the 
German-speaking Catholics. But the need of an English- 
speaking parish to the northwest was nevertheless imperative, 
and on February 23, 1864, Archbishop Purcell bought from the 
Cincinnati Wesleyan Female College a lot on Clark street, 
where in the same year St. Edward s church was opened for 
services by the pastor, Father Bender. 42 

Still further to the northwest, in Cumminsville, where many 
Catholic laborers of the Cincinnati, Hamilton and Dayton 
railroad had located in numbers sufficient to demand a separ 
ate parish, St. Aloysius (now St. Patrick s) congregation was 
organized and a church built by Father Lange in 1852-1853. 43 
With a great increase of German-speaking Catholics in the 
parish a division occurred in 1862, when the parish of St. 
Boniface was organized by Father Wittier. 44 From St. Boni 
face s two parishes were formed recently to care for the Catho 
lics to the north of the parish in College Hill and to the south 
in South Cumminsville. The former parish was organized 
in 1909 by Father Stein, and the latter in 1910 by Father John 
Berning. The last parish to be organized from St. Patrick s, 
Cumminsville, as well as from the parish of St. Clement in 
St. Bernard, Ohio, was the church of St. Bernard to care for 
the Catholics living in Winton Place. Father Martin Varley 
began the organization in the spring of 1919. 

40. Idem, May 14 and August 7, 1874; Souvenir Ruby Jubilee, Blessed Sacrament 
Parish, Cincinnati, 1914. 

41. Wahrheitsfreund, XVII, 99; Catholic Telegraph, October 22, 1853. 

42. Supreme Court of Ohio, Church Case, printed records, I, 148 ff.; Catholic Telegraph, 
XXXIII, 52, 172,366. 

43. Catholic Telegraph, XXI, No. 38, p. 4; XXII, February 5, 1853. 

44. Catholic Telegraph, 1863, XXXII, 156, 404; Wahrheitsfreund, XXVII, 211. 


Such has been the development of the English-speaking 
parishes in the western part of the city of Cincinnati, all filial 
parishes of the present cathedral parish. The eastern part of 
the city was developed in parishes from the original cathedral 
parish on Sycamore street, now the parish of St. Francis 
Xavier. Simultaneous with the need of another English- 
speaking congregation in the western part of the city in the 
early forties there was felt the need of a like parish in the eastern 
part of the city, which was then better known as Fulton. 
Father Olivetti, in charge of the organization of the parish 
toward the end of June, 1845, bought a Methodist church, 
situated on Goodlow street opposite Kemper Lane, and had it 
repaired and ready for dedication on November 9, 1845. 45 
Known as Christ Church originally, the parish has since be 
come known as All Saints parish. 

Separated by quite a distance from this church, forty 
Catholic families of East Fulton who attended Christ Church 
were organized by Father Sullivan into the parish of Holy 
Angels in February, 1859, and steps were immediately taken to 
build a church, which was completed in 1861 upon the lot 
which had been donated for the purpose by Mr. Wm. C. 
Peters. 46 

The first congregation to be organized from Holy Angels 
church in union with St. Francis de Sales and St. George 
churches, was the church of the Presentation of the Blessed 
Virgin (now known as the church of the Assumption). Father 
O Neil, the pastor of Holy Angels , presided at the meeting of 
organization at Crowley s hall on McMillan avenue on June 
12, 1872, when it was decided to rent quarters on the second 
floor of the building on the southeast corner of Curtis and 
Gilbert avenues. Father Hazelahd was assigned to the parish 
in October, but it was not until the arrival of Father Kennedy 
as pastor in 1873 that failure in the organization was forestalled 
and success achieved, a church being dedicated in July of the 
next year. 47 The church of the Assumption in its turn was to 
become, together with the churches of St. George and St. 

45. Catholic Telegraph, November 13, 1845; Wahrheitsfreund, July 3, 1845. 

46. Catholic Telegraph, February 26, March 5, April 16, May 7, 1859; XXX, 1861, 
No. 19, p. 5; Souvenir Golden Jubilee, Holy Angels Parish, Cincinnati, 1909. 

47. History of the Church of the Assumption, in The Fair Journal, Walnut Hills, June 25, 


Xavier, the parent church of the church of the Holy Name, Mt. 
Auburn, which was organized in 1904 by Father Joseph 
Denny. Father Denny bought the Zimmermann homestead 
at McMillan and Mt. Auburn avenues and: celebrated the 
first Mass therein on Christmas day, 1904. 

The second filial church of Holy Angels was founded in 
1898 by Father O Rourke, pastor of Holy Angels , to provide 
for the increasing number of Catholics who were seeking homes 
in the newly-opened suburb of Hyde Park. Services were 
held, beginning Pentecost, 1898, in a small store on Wabash 
avenue, though in a short time a more suitable location on 
Erie avenue was obtained through the generosity of Mr. 
Nicholas J. Walsh, and the present building erected thereon. 

So rapid was the growth of this section of the city that in 
1908 a section to the east in St. Mary s parish was organized 
at Oakley by Father Deasy into the parish of St. Cecilia. A 
number of families was likewise drawn from the parish of St. 
Anthony in Madisonville. 

The pastor of St. Anthony s in Madisonville in 1866, Father 
Walburg, had the honor of being pastor and builder of the 
church of St. Jerome, California, in 1865-1866, though the parish 
had been organized as a mission of All Saints church by Father 
McMahon in 1853, when Mass began to be celebrated in the 
home of William Taney, Sr., on Front street. The formal 
organization took place in 1863 under Father Walker, the 
successor of Father McMahon at Holy Angels . 48 

The honor which All Saints church enjoyed of having been 
a filial church of the first cathedral parish of Cincinnati, was 
shared by it in 1853 with St. Thomas church on Sycamore, 
between Fifth and Sixth streets. This church, which bore the 
distinction of having been the church in which the Purcell- 
Campbell debate had been held in 1837 and was destined to 
take care of the overflow of St. Francis Xavier s church, was 
purchased by Archbishop Purcell towards the end of the year 
1852 from the Soule Chapel Society, Methodist Episcopal 
Church South, and was blessed the following January second. 
It was transferred, however, to the Jesuit Fathers on Sep 
tember 6, I860. 49 It was demolished in 1918. 

48. Catholic Telegraph, May 28, 1853; XXXIV, 212; XXXV, May 9, 1866. 

49. Deed of transfer, Soule Chapel Society to J. B. Purcell, June 20, 1853, recorded in 


Here, too ; might we assign a place to the parish of St. 
Andrew in Avondale, where some Catholics, mostly domestics, 
were organized under the guidance of the archbishop and pro 
ceeded to purchase a lot on Prospect Place from John Dickson 
on June 29, 1874. Father Martin Walsh was assigned as the 
first pastor in December, 1875. 50 

Finally, in the development of the English-speaking 
parishes must be noted the church of the Annunciation in 
Clifton, which was the result of Catholic families, who formerly 
attended one or other of the following six churches, Holy 
Name, St. George, St. Andrew, St. Clement, St. Patrick (Cum- 
minsville), Sacred Heart (Camp Washington), being organized 
into a separate parish by Father James M. Kelly in 1910. 

Having traced the development of the English-speaking 
parishes in the city of Cincinnati, let us turn our attention to 
the German-speaking parishes. The second church in the city 
was a German-speaking church, though more than a decade of 
years from the time of the establishment of the diocese was to 
pass before this second church was to grace the city of Cin 
cinnati. The beginning of this second congregation is to be 
traced to the advent of Father Frederic Rese in September, 
1824. The efforts of this priest among the Germans of Cin 
cinnati were so successful that in 1827 and thereafter separate 
services for the German Catholics of the city had to be held in 
the cathedral on Sycamore street. In 1833, when 5,000 Ger 
man Catholics could be counted as members of the cathedral 
parish, it was realized that a new church was necessary. A 
collection for the purpose of building the church netted $720; 51 
but as Cincinnati was without a bishop, the matter was held 
in abeyance till the arrival of Bishop Purcell. On March 1, 
1834, Bishop Purcell decided to build the church, and on March 
16th announced his intention to the people. 52 On April 15, 

Hamilton County Recorder s Office, Book 191, p. 243; deed, J. B. Purcell to Rev. Maurice 
Oakley, September 6, 1860, recorded in Book 263, p. 558; Catholic Telegraph, November 20, 
1852; January 1, 1853. 

50 Deed, John Dickson to J. B. Purcell, June 29, 1874 (Hamilton County Recorder s 
Office, Book 461, p. 341 ; Supreme Court of Ohio, Church*Case, printed records, I, 176 ff). 

51. Letter, Purcell to Leopoldine Association, October 1, 1834 (Berichte, 1836, IX, 9); 
letter, Purcell, Cincinnati, August 12, 1834, to the editor of the Annales of the Association of the 
Propagation of the Faith, Lyons (Notre Dame Archives); Rese, Detroit, July 3, 1835, to 
Purcell (Notre Dame Archives, Detroit, Rese, 1835). 

52. Purcell s Journal (printed copy in Catholic Historical Review, V, 251-53). 


1834, the Bishop laid the cornerstone 53 of the first German 
Catholic church in Cincinnati, and, indeed, the first west of the 
Alleghanies. Three thousand dollars was paid for the lot. 54 
Father Henni became the first resident pastor and was the 
actual organizer of the parish, though before him Fathers 
Rese and Baraga had tilled the soil in which he worked. In 
less than six months the church was dedicated under the name 
of Holy Trinity on Holy Rosary Sunday, October 5, 1834. 55 
This first filial church of St. Peter s cathedral, Cincinnati, was 
to become a most fruitful mother-church, surpassing the parent 
in the number of offspring. 

We shall divide the city into three parts, north, east and 
west, where we find three direct descendants of Holy Trinity 
parish, St. Mary s of 1840, St. Philomena s of 1846 and St. 
Joseph s of 1846. The number of parishioners of Holy Trinity 
becoming too great, it was resolved at a meeting held in the 
basement of the church in the fall of 1840 to erect another 
German Catholic church to care especially for the northern 
portion of the city, which was quite removed from Holy 
Trinity. A committee selected for the purpose under the 
presidency of Father Henni chose a site on Thirteenth between 
Clay and Main streets. 56 A larger plot of ground than was 
necessary for church purposes was bought in January, 1841, 
it being the intention to sell off the extra lots to defray the 
expenses of the ground for the church. Accordingly, lots 157, 
158, 159, 160, 161 and 162 on the east side of Clay street, 
between Twelfth and Thirteenth streets, and lots 171, 172, 
173, 174, 175 and 176 on the west side of Main street, between 
Twelfth and Thirteenth streets, were bought from Messrs. 
Josiah Lawrence, Hiram Sloop, Stephen G. Brown and Bzekiel 
Haines for the consideration of $16,080.00. 57 The corner 
stone of the church was laid on March 25, 1841, under the 

53. Catholic Telegraph, April 18, 1834, III, 167. 

54. Deed, recorded in Hamilton County Recorder s Office, Book 49, p. 398; Supreme 
Court of Ohio Records, Church Case, Mannix v. Purcell, II, 20; IV, 84, exhibit 60. 

55. Catholic Telegraph, October 10, 1834, III, 365. 

56. Wahrheitsfreund, October 25, 1840. 

57. Deed, Josiah Lawrence to John B. Purcell, recorded April 29, 1841; Hiram Sloop to 
same, recorded January 21 , 1841 ; Stephen G. Brown to same, recorded April 29, 1841 ; Ezekiel 
S. Haines to same, recorded April 29, 1841 (Hamilton County Recorder s Office, Book 78, 
p. 354; Supreme Court of Ohio Records, Church Case, I, 45-57; IV, 60-63). 


invocation of the Blessed Mary, Virgin and Mother of God, 58 
whilst the solemn consecration, the first of its kind in the 
diocese, was performed by Bishop Purcell on the seventh Sun 
day after Pentecost, July 3, 1842. 59 Father Clement Hammer 
was appointed the first pastor of the parish. 60 

The first filial church of St. Mary s was St. John Baptist s, 
which was rendered necessary in 1844 by the continued influx 
of German Catholic immigrants to the northern part of Cin 
cinnati. The parish was organized from St. Mary s by Father 
Joseph Ferneding. 6 1 The property situated on the north side 
of Green street, between Bremen (New) and Race streets, was 
bought in 1844, lots 1 to 7 and 20 to 26 inclusive, being re 
served for church purposes. 62 The cornerstone was laid on 
March 25, 1845, and the following November 1st the church 
was dedicated under the invocation of St. John Baptist. 63 
Father Clement Hammer was thereupon appointed the first 
pastor, a position which he retained for three months until the 
Franciscan Father William Unterthiner was given charge. 

Under the direction of the Franciscan Fathers, this church 
grew so much in membership on account of the immigrants who 
continued to settle in the territory, that to relieve the con 
gestion the superior, Father Otto Jair, felt himself obliged in 
1858 to build another church in the neighborhood. Permission 
was obtained from Archbishop Purcell to build a church on the 
site of the first Catholic church and cemetery in Cincinnati at 
the corner of Vine and Liberty streets. 64 The cornerstone 
of the new church of St. Francis Seraph was laid on November 
7, 1858, 65 and the solemn consecration was performed by 

58. Inscription in cornerstone, Wahrheitsfreund, April 1, 1841; Catholic Telegraph, 
April 3, 1841, X, 110. 

59. Wahrheitsfreund, July 7, 1842; Catholic Telegraph, XI, 222; Leopoldinen Berichte, 
1844, XVII, 5. 

60. Diamond Jubilee Souvenir, St. Mary Church, 1917. 

61. Gedenk- Biichlein der St. Joannes Baptista Gemeinde, Cincinnati, 1895. 

62. Deeds, Elizabeth Hammond and others to Joseph Ferneding, recorded Hamilton 
County Recorder s Office, Book 99, pp. 27-28; Supreme Court of Ohio, Church Case, printed 
records, IV, exhibits, pp. 80-81. 

63. Telegraph, March 27, 1845, XIV, 94; Wahrheitsfreund, VIII, 238; IX, 68; letter, 
Sister Margaret, Cincinnati, November 1, 1845, to Mother Etienne, Emmitsburg (Archives 
St. Joseph College, Emmitsburg, Book 6). 

64. Souvenir Golden Jubilee, St. Francis Seraph Parish, Cincinnati, 1909; Gedenk-Buch 
der St. Franziskus Seraphicus Gemeinde (Cincinnati, 1884), p. 66 ff. 

65. Inscription in cornerstone, Wahrheitsfreund, November 11, 1858, XXII, 138. 


Bishop James F. Wood, of Philadelphia, on December 18, 
1859. 66 

The population continued its advances further north, 
particularly as the hill-tops came to be regarded as the better 
locations for residences. A large number of Catholics, who 
lived at Corryville, on the hill overlooking Vine street, and who 
were accustomed to frequent either the church of St. John or 
that of St. Francis, petitioned Father Jair for a new parish. 
The petition was laid before the archbishop and permission 
for the establishment of the new parish granted in 1868. 67 
The cornerstone of a combination church and school was laid 
on July 5th. and the building was dedicated in honor of St. 
George on November 15, 1868. 68 Father Jerome Kilgenstein, 
O.F.M., became the first pastor in 1870. 

As a number of Catholic families began to settle along the 
western boundary of St. George s parish at Fairview Heights, 
where they found themselves inconveniently situated to attend 
any of the churches of St. George, St. Francis, St. John, St. 
Augustine or Sacred Heart, several attempts to organize them 
into a parish were made between the years 1897 and 1910. 
In the fall of the last named year the efforts of Father Henry 
Schumacher met with success. Services were held regularly, 
first in a frame church, dedicated to St. Monica, on Herman 
street; then in a combination church and school which was 
blessed on September 13, 1913. 

The second filial of St. Mary s church was St. Paul s 
church, which was organized in the winter of 1847rl848 by 
Father Joseph Ferneding, of St. Mary s church, to pro vide for the 
overflow of the members of that church east of Thirteenth and 
Clay streets. 69 On February 15, 1848, the four blocks between 
Broadway and Pendleton, and Woodward and Hunt streets, 
were purchased for $95,000.00 from Messrs. Pendleton and 
Hunt. On the lot of 124 by 180 feet which had been reserved 
for ecclesiastical purposes and which was bounded by Abigail, 
Spring, and Pendleton streets and an alley, the cornerstone of 

66. Wahrheitsfreund, December 22, 1859, XXIII, 210; Catholic Telegraph, December 
24, 1859. 

67. Catholic Telegraph, June 3, 1868; Souvenir Golden Jubilee, St. George s Church, 
Cincinnati, 1918. 

68. Catholic Telegraph, November 18, 1868. 

69. STEVTENPOHI,, Stray Leaves from the History of St. Paul s Congregation, Cincinnati, 


St. Paul s church was laid June 25, 1848, whilst the dedication 
occurred on January 20, 1850. 70 

This new church, however, could not satisfy the Catholics 
on Walnut Hills who were so far distant from it. They, 
therefore, organized the church of St. Francis de Sales in 1849. 
The cornerstone of a church to be built at the corner of Hack- 
berry and Forest streets was laid on May 12, 1850, and on 
November 3d of the same year the church was dedicated. 71 
Father Michael Stephen Herzog was appointed the first pastor. 

Fourteen families living at or near Madisonville found the 
distance to St. Francis de Sales church too great and organized 
themselves into a parish in 1858, mainly through the zeal of a 
layman, Mr. Michael Buckel, who bought a tract of land from 
Mr. L. Cornuelle and with the aid of other members, set about 
building a brick church, 72 which was dedicated under the in 
vocation of St. Michael on October 9, 1859. 73 Father Michael 
Sullivan became the first pastor. The second filial parish of 
St. Francis de Sales in union with St. Elizabeth s of Norwood 
was St. Mark s parish in Evanston, which was organized in 
1905, when it was ascertained that there were more than one 
hundred families in the district. 74 Before the end of May, 1905, 
the archbishop had decided on the organization of the parish 
under the direction of the Fathers of the Precious Blood. 
Father Mark Hamburger, C.PP.S., was chosen pastor. On a 
lot 200 by 510 feet on Montgomery avenue, donated by Miss 
Mary Klinckhamer, a temporary frame structure was first 
built, to be superceded in 1906 by a combination church and 
school, and finally by a new church in 1916. 

The third and last filial church of St. Mary s was that of 
St. Louis at Eighth and Walnut streets, which was purchased 
for $30,000 from the Campbellites by Louis Hudepohl, who 
on January 5, 1870, transferred the property to the archbishop. 75 
After alterations the church was dedicated on March 13, 1870, 

70. Catholic Telegraph, February 17, 1848; June 29, 1848; January 26, 1850; Wahr- 
heitsfreund, XI, 513; XIII, 222. 

71. Catholic Telegraph, May 18 and November 9, 1850. 

72. Catholic Telegraph, September 4, 1858; Golden Jubilee Souvenir, History of St. 
Anthony Parish, Madisonville, 1909. 

73. Catholic Telegraph, October 15, 1859. 

74. Souvenir of Dedication, St. Mark Church, Cincinnati, 1916. 

75. Deed, Louis Hudepohl to J. B. Purcell, January 5, 1870, recorded Hamilton County 
Recorder s Office, Book 374, p. 368; Supreme Court of Ohio, Church Case, records, I, 196 ff. 


under the invocation of St. Louis. Father Schweninger was 
appointed pastor. 76 

Turning our attention now to the eastern section of the 
city, we find that a growing German Catholic population 
which had been attending Holy Trinity church in 1846, began 
under the supervision of Father Huber, O.F.M., the organiza 
tion of St. Philomena church, the fourth German Catholic 
church in the city. A site having been chosen on Congress 
(now East Pearl) street in March, and a 99-year lease of a lot 
101 by 165 feet having been executed on April 1, 1846, for an 
annual rental of $720.00 with the privilege of purchase at 
$12,000, 77 the cornerstone of the church was laid on August 
23d of the same year, and the church was dedicated on May 21, 
1848. 78 The first pastor was Father Hengehold. 

The first filial parish of St. Philomena s was built to ac 
commodate the Catholics whose homes lay on and about the 
hill of Mt. Adams, and as a votive offering of Archbishop 
Purcell to the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary. 79 The parish was organized under the archbishop s 

76. Catholic Telegraph, 1870, XXXIX, No. 11, p. 5. 

77. Deed, M. S. Wade to Bishop Purcell, April 1, 1846, recorded in Hamilton County 
Recorder s Office, Book 111, p. 585 (Supreme Court of Ohio, Church Case, IV, exhibits, p. 22); 
Wahrheitsfreund, IX, 244, April 9, 1846; Catholic Telegraph, XV, 102, March 25, 1846; 
XV, 207. 

78. Inscription in cornerstone, Wahrheitsfreund, IX, 405; XI, 453; Catholic Telegraph, 
XV, 278; XVII, 166. 

79. It is in connection with this church as well as with the church of Holy Cross, its 
neighbor, on Mt. Adams, that a story was invented and given credence by not a few that 
President John Quincy Adams in his speech on the occasion of the laying of the cornerstone 
of the Cincinnati Observatory on Mt. Adams, in 1843, expressed the hope that the observatory 
should be "a beacon of true science that should never be obscured by the dark shadows of 
superstition and intolerance symbolized by the Popish Cross", to which Archbishop Purcell 
was made to utter an oath that the prophecy should fail. The examination of this question 
and the conclusion reached by Mr. Martin I. J. Griffin in the early nineties, denying the founda 
tion for such a story, has not stilled the voices of subsequent speakers nor broken the plumes 
of writers on local history. But we ought to be and must be fair. The speech of John Quincy 
Adams on that occasion was printed. In it one looks in vain for the words referred to. 
Indeed, the following words in the peroration would not let one even infer the words attributed 
to him: "Let us proceed, then, so to do; and here, in the presence of the vast multitude of 
the free citizens of the United States of America, of the State of Ohio, and of the city of Cin 
cinnati, I do lay this cornerstone, invoking the blessing of Him in whose presence we all stand, 
upon the building which is here to rise," etc. (Oration, p. 65). If the words attributed to Mr. 
Adams had been uttered by him in 1843, they would have been, without a doubt, recorded in the 
files of the Catholic Telegraph, of that date, as the Telegraph summoned Mr. Adams to account 
for a gross misstatement to the effect that Galileo had been persecuted by the Inquisition, an 
institution, which, so Mr. Adams stated, had been founded by St. Ignatius Loyola. A boy in 
high school would be able to tell you that Ignatius Loyola lived in the sixteenth century only, 
whilst the Inquisition existed in the late Middle Ages. Surely, if the Catholic Telegraph would 
make capital of such ignorance on the part of Mr. Adams, it would not have hesitated to take 


special guidance in 1859 and then entrusted to Father Brun- 
ner. 80 To accommodate the English-speaking Catholics of 
the Immaculate Conception church, the Passionist Fathers 
who came to Cincinnati in 1872 built the church of Holy Cross 
on Mt. Adams, a frame building which was dedicated on June 
22, 1873. 81 The second daughter of St. Philomena s in union 
with St. Francis de Sales was St. Rose s congregation, which 
was organized in the East End on January 15, 1867. In the 
next month a lot 236 by 500 feet down to the Ohio river, on 
the southeast corner of Eastern avenue and Lumber street, 
was purchased from John F. Torrence for $10,000. The first 
pastor was Father Ratte. 82 

From the same two mother-parishes as St. Rose s arose the 
parish of St. Stephen s, at Eastern and Donham avenues, the 
great distance to church being the impelling motive for its 
organization by Father Engbers in 1867. 83 A daughter of St. 
Stephen s church in union with St. Jerome s at California is 
the church of Guardian Angels at Mt. Washington, where 
thirty families were organized into a parish in 1892 and at 
tended by the professors of St. Gregory seminary. 84 The 
second daughter of St. Stephen s was the parish of Our Lady 
of Loretto, Linwood, where in 1903 seventy to eighty Catholic 
families were organized into a congregation by Father Lamping 

him to task for that which would have shown greater virulence towards the Catholic Church 
in Cincinnati. Nowhere, however, is there to be found the slightest hint of this in the Tele 
graph. On the contrary, its first editorial mention of the subject is a denial. The story took 
form when the Passionist Fathers bought the Observatory in 1872, converted it into a monas 
tery and built the church of Holy Cross adjoining it. When the church was dedicated on 
June 22, 1873, the story was taken up generally. It appeared in the daily papers as well. In 
its editorial on June 26, 1873, the Telegraph states: "The Cincinnati Gazette gave a character 
istic account of the Catholic Ceremony on Observatory Hill last Sunday, in its Monday issue. 
We think it is utterly false that John Q. Adams prophecied that no cross should ever be placed 
on that hill. We know it is utterly false that Archbishop Purcell registered an oath that this 
prophecy should fail." Archbishop Purcell was still alive when this note appeared, and we are 
inclined to believe, as our experience in other instances has taught us, that he prompted its 
insertion. Our conclusion, therefore, is that the story has no historical foundation. Despite 
the editorial of June 26, 1873, or perhaps rather in ignorance of it, the editor of the Catholic 
Telegraph, in August, 1895, takes Martin I. J. Griffin to task for his denial of a foundation to 
the story and enlarges much in trying to substantiate it. Needless to say, the article can not 
stand historical criticism. 

80. Catholic Telegraph, August 27, 1859; Wahrheitsfreund, December 13, 1860, XXIV, 

81. Catholic Telegraph, April 11, 1872, and June 26, 1873. 

82. Catholic Telegraph, X X XVI, No. 42, p. 4; Souvenir Golden Jubilee, St. Rose Church, 
Cincinnati, 1919. 

83. Catholic Telegraph, XXXVI, No. 46, p. 4. 

84. Catholic Telegraph, November 17, 1892. 


of St. Gregory seminary. The town hall, which had been 
purchased by James Heekin, was transferred to the archbishop 
in that year and services begun. 85 

Having thus considered the northern and eastern sections 
of the city, we turn now to the western section of the city as it 
developed into parishes from Holy Trinity parish. "Texas", 
as the section was known in which St. Joseph s church is 
situated, was organized into a parish from Catholics who 
attended Holy Trinity as well as St. John s church, by Father 
William Unterthiner, O.F.M., pastor of the last named church. 
A lot 96 by 200 feet at Linn and Laurel streets was purchased 
in March ; 1846, and upon it was laid the cornerstone of a com 
bination church and school on September 6, 1846. It was 
soon found necessary to build a new church, of which the cor 
nerstone was laid on March 19th and the blessing performed 
on December 10, 1848. 86 Father Luers became the first 

The first filial parish of St. Joseph s was St. Michael s in 
Storrs township, where forty-five persons organized themselves 
into a congregation in the early part of 1847 and drew up a 
constitution for the church. 87 A strip of property from Storrs 
to Sixth street was donated to the parish by Innocent Troenle, 
whilst two contiguous pieces of property were bought in April 
and May, 1847, for $2,500 and $3,000 respectively. 88 On the 
lots reserved for church purposes the cornerstone of the church 
was laid August 1, 1847, and the church was dedicated 
June 4, 1848. 89 Father Zoppoth was selected as the first pastor 
of the congregation. 

The first filial congregation of St. Michael s was that of 
St. Lawrence on Price Hill, which was benefited greatly, 
though only temporarily, by the building of the seminary chapel 

85. Souvenir Tenth Anniversary, Our Lady of Loretto Parish, Cincinnati, 1913. 

86. Catholic Telegraph, XV, 102, 414; XVI, 94; XVII, 398; Wahrheitsfreund, I X, 
244; X, 13, 124, XI, 350-51. 

87. Souvenir of Seventieth Anniversary, St. Michael Parish, Cincinnati, 1917; Supreme 
Court of Ohio, Church Case, printed records, I, 75-79. 

88. Deed of Anthony Donnesberger and others to J. B. Purcell, April 1, 1847, recorded 
Hamilton County Recorder s Office, Book 119, p. 410; deed of Thompson and Charles Neave 
to J. B. Purcell, May 27, 1847, recorded Book 122, p. 175; Supreme Court of Ohio, Church 
Case, printed records, II, 13; IV, pp. 55-58, exhibits 33 and 34. 

89. Letter, Purcell, Cincinnati, December 8, 1847, to Leopoldine Association, Vienna 
(Berichte, 1848-49, XXI, 7); Catholic Telegraph, XVI, 246; XVII, 182; Wahrheitsfreund, 
XI, 466, 477. 


of St. John Baptist in 1857. The new parish was not formally 
organized till 1868, when on July 13th a lot containing over an 
acre of ground was purchased for $3,000 by Father Bonner. 90 
In the following year Father Richter took charge and saw his 
efforts materialize in the dedication by Bishop Toebbe of a 
combination church and school under the invocation of St. 
Lawrence O Toole on June 12, 1870. 91 

St. Lawrence church became in turn the mother of four 
parish churches on Price Hill, the first of which was the parish 
of Holy Family, organized on January 13, 1884, with Father 
John H. Menke pastor. 92 As the people continued to move 
from the city to the suburbs, the western part of Price Hill 
grew to such extensions as to demand another Catholic parish 
in 1909, when St. William s parish was organized by Father 
Roth among 243 Catholic families who had until then wor 
shipped at St. Lawrence church. The rapid growth of a new 
section at Overlook demanded another parish out of St. Law 
rence and St. William congregations. The organization was 
effected in August, 1916, under the pastor, Father Joseph B. 
Mueller, and a temporary church dedicated on December 24, 
1916. The fourth filial church of St. Lawrence congregation, 
the church of the Resurrection, was formed to the northwest of 
the mother-parish in 1919 by Father Grusenmeyer, who built 
a combination church and school. 

The second offspring of St. Joseph s church was St. Augus 
tine s, which was organized by Father Edward Purcell in 1852 
as an English-speaking congregation. The cornerstone of the 
church, which was to serve likewise as a chapel for the Ursuline 
Sisters on Bank street, was laid on August 29, 1852, and the 
dedication occurred on October 16, 1853. Father Boulger 
was named as pastor. Failing of support, however, and with a 
great influx of German-Catholic immigrants, the congregation 
was made over to the German-speaking Catholics of the 
vicinity on June 14, 1857 for $15,000, and Father Hengehold 
was made its pastor. 93 The growth of Camp Washington to 

90. Souvenir Golden Jubilee, St. Lawrence Parish, Cincinnati, 1920; Catholic Telegraph, 
May 26, 1869. 

91. Catholic Telegraph, 1870, XXXIX, No. 24, p. 4; Supreme Court of Ohio, Church 
Case, printed records, II, 813-24. 

92. Catholic Telegraph, August 28, 1884; Souvenir of Dedication of New Church, Holy 
Family Parish, Cincinnati, 1916. 

93. Catholic Telegraph, October 22, 1853; Wahrheilsfreund, XVII, 99; XX, 526. 


the northwest of St. Augustine s necessitated the organization 
of Sacred Heart of Jesus parish in July, 1870, drawing not only 
from St. Augustine s, but also from St. Boniface s, Cummins- 
ville. A combination church and school was dedicated on 
December 18, 1870. 94 Father Joseph Goebbels became the 
pastor. The distance which the Catholics of Fairmount had 
to travel to attend either Sacred Heart church or St. Bona- 
venture s church, Lick Run, led to the organization of St. Leo 
congregation in 1886 under the presidency of Father Albrinck. 
The pastorate was entrusted to Father Varelman. 95 

The third and last filial church of St. Joseph s in union 
with Holy Trinity church was formed in 1860 to the southwest, 
where numbers of Catholics had settled and found themselves 
inadequately provided for at the two churches. In February, 
1860, Anton Donnesberger sold to St. Anthony s congregation 
a lot 205 by 192 feet on Budd street and 285 feet on Donnes 
berger street for $25,000. Under the supervision of Father 
Ferneding a combination church, school and parsonage was 
built and made ready for dedication to St. Anthony on Sep 
tember 20, 1860. A church was begun the following year and 
dedicated on June 14, 1863. 96 The excessive crowding of St. 
Anthony s, St. Augustine s and St. Joseph s necessitated the 
erection in 1873 of a church to the north of St. Anthony parish. 
The organization was effected under the vicar-general, Father 
Otto Jair, and a combination church, school and parsonage 
built. Father Ullrich was appointed pastor of the new parish 
of St. Henry. 97 

As a development in the western part of the city we have 
reserved for the last place the church of St. Peter, Lick Run, 
or as it is now known St. Bonaventure, though if we were to 
consider the time of its organization, we should have to place 
it even before St. Joseph s church. For the assertion in the 
Souvenir Album that there was a small church of St. Peter 
about a mile from the present St. Bonaventure church as early 

94. Catholic Telegraph, XXXIX, No. 35, p. 5; Jubilee Souvenir, Sacred Heart Church, 
Cincinnati, 1914; Year Book of Sacred Heart Parish, January, 1919. Souvenir Golden 
Jubilee, October, 1920. 

95. Catholic Telegraph, August 25, 1887; April 26, 1888. 

96. Article, Der erste Kunstgaertner von Cincinnati in Der Deutsche Pionier, II, 3-4; 
Catholic Telegraph, XXX, No. 50. p. 4; XXXII, p. 196. 

97. Catholic Telegraph, December 18, 1873; August 25 and September 1, 1892. 


as 1844 is in all likelihood correct, since we have discovered 
in a deed of property that on January 1, 1845, John Weber and 
wife transferred to Francis Riess, John Beck and Joseph F. 
Riess, their associates and successors thirty-nine hundredths of 
an acre on Lick Run road for the benefit of the Catholic Ger 
man congregation in Lick Run. On April 2, 1848, the congre 
gation in a meeting decided to have the trustees deed over this 
property to John B. Purcell. 98 In 1866 the church began to be 
administered from St. Francis of Assisi church. Finding the 
church building going to ruins and situated at an inconvenient 
place, the pastor, Father Jacob Menchen, O.F.M., resolved 
to build a new church, which was begun in 1868 and dedicated 
in the next year to St. Bonaventure. 99 

Having thus completed the consideration of the develop 
ment of the English and German speaking congregations of 
Cincinnati, we turn to that of the other national churches and 
the church for the colored people in the city of Cincinnati. 
Of these the first to be organized was the church of St. Anne 
to take care of the colored folks of the city. The organization 
was begun in 1865 by Father Weninger, S.J., who collected 
$4,000 for a church and school. On May 10, 1866, a lot was 
purchased on the north side of Longworth street, between 
Race and Elm streets, and there church services were held and 
classes taught. A change of site occurred in 1873 to New street, 
and again in 1908 to John street, between Richmond and 
Court streets. 100 

A Dutch church was organized in 1852. The Lutheran 
church at the corner of Liberty and Walnut streets was pur 
chased in the summer of that year and converted into a Catho 
lic church, dedicated in honor of St. Willibrord. The parish 
obtained a Dutch priest for its pastor in May, 1853, when 
Father John Van Luytelaar, who later became a Redemptorist, 
arrived at Cincinnati. 101 

98. Deed, John Weber and others to Rt. Rev. J. B. Purcell, signed April 8, 1848, recorded 
September 18, 1866, Hamilton County Recorder s Office, Deeds, Book 329, pp. 559-561. 

99. Catholic Directory, 1867; Sketch, Pater Jacob Menchen, in Der Deutsche Pionier, 
XIII, 192; Catholic Telegraph, September 9, 1868; Souvenir Album, St. Bonaventure Church. 

100. Letter, Weninger, May, 1866, to Leopoldine Association, Vienna (Berichte, 1866, 
XXXVI, pp. 1-2); warranty deed, City of Cincinnati to Charles Driscoll, recorded May 10, 
1866, Hamilton County Recorder s Office, Book 326, p. 235; Catholic Telegraph, April 11, 

101. Catholic Telegraph, July 17, 1852; November 27, 1852. 


The Polish parish, St. Stanislaus, was organized under the 
direction of the Franciscan Fathers, Father Candid Koslowski, 
O.F.M., beginning the organization in 1873 and buying the 
Lutheran church at the corner of Liberty and Cutter streets 
in March, 1875. 102 

Efforts were made quite early to provide for the Italian 
immigrants to Cincinnati in the fifties and sixties. An at 
tempt at organization was made in 1867, but it proved un 
successful as Archbishop Purcell met with disappointment in 
his endeavor to have the Fathers of the Society of the Mission, 
London, take up the work in Cincinnati. Not until 1890, 
when Father Angelo Chiariglione gathered the Italians together 
for Mass in the basement of St. Peter s cathedral, and then in 
September of that year in St. Clara chapel at Third and Lytle 
streets, did affairs take a prosperous turn, culminating in the 
erection and dedication in 1893 of the Sacred Heart church on 
Broadway, between Fifth and Sixth streets. 103 

The Syrian mission was begun upon the arrival of Father 
Kayata in February, 1910, and the parish was organized in 
December of that year, Mass in the Maronite rite being said 
for the congregation in the basement of Sacred Heart church 
on Broadway, Christmas day, 1910. Upon the advent of 
Father Tobias Dahdah, July 20, 1911, services were held in St. 
Thomas church for two years, until the church of the Atone 
ment on Third street was given to him for the Syrians of Cin 
cinnati. 104 

The last of the national churches in Cincinnati is the church 
of St. Joseph of Nazareth at Liberty and Elm streets, though 
this property was bought only in March, 1919. In the be 
ginning services were held by Father Neurihrer, Hungarian, 
in St. Stanislaus church, but new quarters were obtained in 
1915 in the old convent of the Good Shepherd on Baum street. 
When the change was made to Liberty and Elm streets in 

102. Catholic Telegraph, June 12, 1873; March 18, 1875. 

103. Letter, Rev. Ae. Kirner, S.M., St. Louis, February 24, 1868, to Archbishop Purcell; 
same, London, England, December 5, 1868, to same (Cincinnati Archdiocesan Archives, Mount 
St. Joseph, Ohio); Catholic Telegraph, January 1, 1868; September 11, 1890; October 6, 1892; 
August 31, 1893. 

104. Catholic Telegraph, February 17 and December 22, 1910. 


September, 1919, the Franciscan Father, Sigismund Pimm, 
took charge. 105 

Such has been the splendid growth in the city limits of that 
little frame church on Vine and Liberty streets in 1819. But 
it was to be the mother-church also of other churches in the 
county of Hamilton beyond the city limits, and of the other 
churches in the rest of the diocese. In the southwestern cor 
ner of the county, the first church to receive organization from 
Cincinnati traces its history back to the early thirties, when 
Father Henni, the pastor of the newly-formed Holy Trinity 
parish, visited and said Mass for the Catholics in Delhi 
township, though formal organization did not occur until 
about 1843, when a lot on Rapid Run pike was donated by 
Adam Emge for a church site and a log church dedicated the 
following year under the patronage of St. Stephen. The 
site was changed in 1853, when the new church was placed 
under the patronage of Our Lady of Victory. 106 

The growth of lower Delhi, which is now within the corpor 
ation limits, caused the establishment of a filial parish of Our 
Lady of Victory in 1868, when a school house was built and 
dedicated to St. Aloysius. From this parish Father Scholl 
in 1886 organized the parish of St. Joseph, North Bend, to care 
for the Catholics of that village and the village of Cleves. 

In the northwestern section of the county, the mother- 
parish, a filial of Cincinnati, was St. James parish, White Oak, 
which was organized in 1844 by Father Joseph Ferneding to 
care for the Catholics, mostly Germans, in the entire northern 
section of the county. 107 Its first filial parish, the Assumption, 
was established to the northeast at Mt. Healthy by the pastor 
Father Pabisch in 1854, to provide for the Catholics of that 
village and of Mt. Pleasant, who had to travel five and six 
miles in order to fulfill their religious obligations. 108 To the 
southwest, its second filial, St. John s, Dry Ridge, was organ- 

105. Catholic Telegraph, December 17, 1914; September 16, 1915; March 27, 1919; 
May 15, 1919; September 11, 1919. 

106. Catholic Telegraph, December 10, 1853; Wahrheitsfreund, XVII, 173; Souvenir 
Seventy-fifth Anniversary, Our Lady of Victory, Delhi, 1918; Tagliches Cincinnatier Volks- 
blatt, August 14, 1918, p. 4. 

107. Catholic Telegraph, May 11, 1844; November 29, 1849; Wahrheitsfreund, XIII, 

108. Deed, Joseph Hackenger to J. B. Purcell, September 21, 1854, recorded Hamilton 
County Recorder s Office, Book 208, p. 6 (Supreme Court of Ohio, Church Case, records, IV, 
exhibit 25, pp. 31-32); Catholic Telegraph, October 21, 1854; August 11, 1855. 


ized in 1860 by Father Stehle and was attended from Mt. 
Healthy up to 1867. 109 The neighboring parish to Dry Ridge, 
St. Aloysius at Bridgetown, was next organized by Father 
Stehle in 1866, 110 and in the following year the parish of St. 
Bernard at Taylor Creek was founded. 111 Both of these 
parishes were then placed under the charge of Father George 
Veith, who resided at Bridgetown. The first filial parish of 
Bridgetown was St. Catharine s, Westwood, the organization 
of which was begun on January 1, 1902 by Father Ellerbrock 
of Bridgetown, and completed in 1903 by Father Tieken. 112 
Out of this parish, as well as out of Bridgetown, was 
formed the parish at Cheviot, where the Catholics, after en 
during many inconveniences of distance and bad roads in at 
tending either of the above churches, were organized into St. 
Martin s parish by Father Auer. 

The furthermost parish in the northwestern part of the 
county of Hamilton was organized at Harrison from Cincinnati 
in 185 1, when a large number of Catholics bought a lot of ground 
and began the building of a church, to be dedicated in honor of 
St. John the Baptist. Father Nicholas Wachter, O.F.M., 
first tended the parish. 113 

Passing over to the northern and northeastern part of the 
county, we find two parishes, which were to serve as mother- 
parishes, being organized in 1850, the parishes of St. Clement 
in St. Bernard and SS. Peter and Paul in Reading. The former 
resulted from the offer of a plot of ground and eight hundred 
dollars for church purposes to the Franciscan Fathers by Messrs. 
Joseph Kleine and J. B. Schroeder, who were planning the new 
village of St. Bernard and saw the advantage of having a church 
in the proposed village. The offer was accepted and a church 
begun in 1850. 114 The other of the two churches was organ 
ized by Father Joseph Ferneding, and after its dedication in 
the following year was given in charge to Father Joseph Andrew 

109. Deed, Samuel Bevis (Betscher?) to J. B. Purcell, March 13, 1860, recorded in Hamil 
ton County Recorder s Office, Book 329, p. 416 (Supreme Court of Ohio, ut supra, IV, exhibit 
21, p. 27); Catholic Telegraph, June 9, 1860. 

110. Catholic Telegraph, XXXVI, No. 46, p. 4; XXXVII, November 4, 1868. 

111. Catholic Telegraph, XXXVII, June 24, 1868. 

112. History St. Catherine Parish, Westwood, 1914. 

113. Catholic Telegraph, September 20 and October 4, 1851. 

114. H. A. and MRS. KATE B. FORD, History of Hamilton County, p. 345; Regula el 
Testamentum S. P. D. Francisci, Pars III, Relatio, p. 15; Catholic Telegraph, June 29, 1850; 
November 29, 1851. 


Stephan. 115 In 1874 Father Kress, the pastor of Reading, 
organized a second parish in the village under the invocation 
of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart to be at the service of the 
English-speaking Catholics. 116 From this second church in 
Reading Father Charles McCalleon organized the church of 
St. James in the neighboring village of Wyoming in 1886. 

The pastor of SS. Peter and Paul visited also some Catholic 
families to the north of his parish in Glendale, and after the 
construction of the Cincinnati, Hamilton and Dayton railroad 
had caused an increased in the population of that village, 
Father Albrinck, the pastor of Reading in 1859, organized St. 
Gabriel parish at Glendale. The railroad yards situated to the 
east of Glendale and north of Reading caused an increase of 
population likewise at Sharon, where the church of St. Michael 
was organized by Father James Conroy in 1919. 

From the two mother-parishes, St. Clement s and SS. Peter 
and Paul, arose the parish of St. Charles Borromeo in 
Carthage, where the Catholics, who had experienced the 
inconveniences of the distance of three and four miles to St. 
Bernard and Reading respectively, organized themselves in 
1869 and under the supervision of Father Albrinck began at 
once the construction of a combination church, school and 
residence. 117 From Carthage and St. Clement s, St. Bernard, 
seventy-five families at Elmwood Place formed the parish of 
St. Aloysius in 1887, and under the direction of Father Drufner 
of Carthage proceeded to build a combination church, school 
and residence at the northeast corner of Township avenue and 
Carthage pike. 1 18 The distance which people living in Bond Hill 
had to travel to attend this parish in Elmwood Place or to Carth 
age or Norwood soon occasioned the church of St. Agnes at Bond 
Hill, which was organized in 1892 by Father Von der Ahe who 
was then stationed at St. Aloysius Orphan Asylum, Bond Hill. 

To the northeast of Cincinnati a new subdivision, in which 
about 30 Catholic families had invested, was opened in 1884 
by Messrs. Mills and Kline in West Norwood. To further the 

115. Catholic Telegraph, May 31, 1851; Geschichle der Si. Peter und Paulus Kirche, 
Reading, Ohio, 1901. 

116. Idem, August 20, 1874. 

117. Souvenir Golden Jubilee, St. Charles Borromeo Church, Carthage, 1919. 

118. Catholic Telegraph, December 20, 1888; Souvenir Dedication, St. Aloysius Church, 
Elmwood Place, 1918. 


enterprise lots for church purposes were donated by the two 
gentlemen, and shortly after, on August 31st, an organization, 
called the St. Joseph s Catholic Men s Society of Norwood, was 
effected and on October 6th incorporated. Under the guidance 
of Father Albrinck a combination frame church, school and 
parsonage was built and dedicated in honor of St. Elizabeth 
in 1886. 119 The growth of Norwood southward rendered im 
perative a second congregation in 1906, when Father Frederick 
Gallagher undertook the establishment of St. Matthew s 
congregation. The third church of Norwood, SS. Peter and 
Paul, was organized by Father Bernard Beckemeyer in 1906 in 
North Norwood or Norwood Heights. The entire section to 
the northeast on Montgomery pike, was formed into a parish 
in 1891, when Father Albrinck organized St. John s church 
at Deer Park. When the Catholics at Pleasant Ridge became 
numerous enough, the church of the Nativity of Our Lord was 
founded by Father William J. Egan in 1917. 

With the consideration of the development of the parishes 
in Hamilton county completed, we pass on eastward to the 
counties of Clermont, Brown, Highland and Warren, in which 
the parishes are to be traced to the mother-parish of St. Mar 
tin s, Brown county, the first filial parish of Cincinnati and the 
second parish, therefore, of the archdiocese. As early as 1820 
several Catholic families had settled upon land thirty miles 
northeast of Cincinnati on the east branch of the Little Miami 
river. To make the colony prosper, Wm. Lytle, the pro 
prietor, offered a tract of land to the Catholics for ecclesiastical 
purposes. Upon accepting the offer missionaries from Cin 
cinnati visited the place occasionally, but not until 1830 did 
they undertake to organize a parish. This was done by Father 
Kundig, who was sent to St. Martin s sometime after his ordi 
nation in 1829, and in 1831 was completing the church which 
he had begun. 12 In the year 1837 the foundations of two fil ial 
parishes of St. Martin s were laid at Fayetteville and Arn- 
heim in Brown county. The first of these, St. Patrick s, was 
organized under the guidance of the priest at St. Martin s, 

119. Catholic Telegraph, October 6, 1886; September 18, 1890; October 31, 1912. 

120. Letter, Roman Catholic Committee of Cincinnati, September 25, 1820, to Arch 
bishop Marshal, Baltimore (Baltimore Archives, Case 22, B 1; printed in Catholic Historical 
Review, IV, 30-31); London Catholic Miscellany, I, 475; Catholic Telegraph, 1831, I, 14. 


Father Masquelet. 121 From this filial church Father Daly 
in 1852 formed the parish of St. Mary s, Hillsboro, in the 
neighboring county of Highland, where ten to fifteen families 
wished to have more suitable quarters for religious services 
than were furnished in the home of a family, which had up 
till then been generously offered to Father Butler upon his 
visits to that town in 1849 and 1850. 122 The pastor of Hills 
boro, Father J. B. O Donoghue, organized two filial parishes: 
one, St. Andrew s at Milford in 1854-55, though Milford 
strictly was in the territory of a parish other than Hillsboro, 
but had been attached to Hillsboro as a mission in 1853; the 
other, St. Benignus at Greenfield, where a church was built 
in 1857. 123 From Milford, Father J. B. O Donoghue organ 
ized St. Columbanus parish at Loveland in Clermont county, 
the pastor of which in 1871 undertook to establish the con 
gregation at Lebanon, but failed. The church at this last 
place, St. Francis de Sales, was finally organized in 1883 by 
Father Brinkmeyer. 

The second of St. Martin s filial parishes, the foundations 
of which were laid in 1837, resulted from the zeal of the Catholic 
laymen at Arnheim, a village to the northeast of Georgetown in 
Brown county. Catholics resided there since 1827 and heartily 
welcomed the visit of a passing priest for the consolations of 
religion which it brought. Foremost in the community was 
Wendel Klein, who donated one-half an acre of ground, upon 
which a log church, dedicated in honor of St. Wendelin, was 
built in 1837. It was nearly fifty years before this mission 
was erected into a congregation under Father Mesmer in 1882. 

The third and last filial of St. Martin s was the parish at 
Stonelick in Clermont county, which was formed to accommo 
date the French and German immigrants who had settled in 
that vicinity. Fathers Gacon and Cheymol of St. Martin s 
established the parish in 1840 when the log church of St. 
Philomena was dedicated. 124 This church was in turn the 
mother-parish of St. Louis church at Owensville, which was 

121. Catholic Telegraph, August 31, 1837; October 9, 1841; Wahrheitsfreund, Sep 
tember 14, 1837; October 7, 1841. 

122. Catholic Telegraph, November 13, 1852; July 30, 1853; Illustrated History St. 
Mary s Church, Hillsboro, Ohio, 1898. 

123. Catholic Telegraph, XXVI, No. 42, p. 4; XXVIII, January 1, 1859; Dedication 
Souvenir, St. Benignus Church, Greenfield, Ohio, 1905. 

124. Catholic Telegraph, October 31, 1840. 


organized in 1856 by Father Stehle, who immediately began 
the erection of a brick church and completed it in 1859. 125 

In the four counties now being considered there remain 
three parishes which were not, strictly speaking, filial parishes 
of any which we have considered: Morrow in Warren county, 
which is a filial of Xenia in Greene county; New Richmond in 
Clermont county; and Ripley in Brown county. The first will 
be considered in its relation to Xenia. St. Peter s in New 
Richmond on the Ohio was organized in 1849 and a church 
blessed in the next year. 126 As early as 1842, its neighbor at 
Ripley had a frame church, dedicated in honor of St. John the 
Baptist, although services were held therein only as rare 
occasions brought a priest to the village. 127 The invocation 
of the saint was changed subsequently to St. Michael. 128 

The second filial church of the cathedral of Cincinnati out 
side the city of Cincinnati, the third parish in the archdiocese 
as it is at present confined to southwestern Ohio, bears a 
unique history in its organization. For in response to the 
preaching in 1829 of Bishop Fenwick and Father Mullon in the 
courthouse at Hamilton, Butler county, the inhabitants of the 
town, though there was but a solitary Catholic man in it, took 
up a subscription for the purpose of buying ground and building 
a Roman Catholic church in their midst. The ground was 
bought, the deed of conveyance was presented to the bishop, 
and a building to cost $2,000 was begun in 1831. For some 
reason or other the building was not completed until 1836, 
when it was dedicated in honor of St. Stephen. 129 This church 
was to be the mother-church of the churches in the counties 
of Butler, Preble, Miami and Shelby (central part). 

With the increase of German immigrants in Hamilton, 
Father Hallinan, the pastor of St. Stephen s in 1847, advised the 
formation of a second parish to satisfy the demands of the 
Germans of the town. 130 Accordingly, a society into which 

125. Idem, December 20, 1856; July 23, 1859. 

126. Idem, December 6, 1849; November 16, 1850. 

127. Idem, June 25, 1842; Wahrheitsjreund, June 30, 1842. 

128. Catholic Telegraph, January 18, 1865. 

129. Letter, J. B. Clicteur, Secretary of Bishop Fenwick, Cincinnati, February 17, 
1829, to Central Council of Lyons, France (Annales, IV, 510); U. S. Catholic Miscellany, 
February 20, 1830, p. 270; letter, Rese, Cincinnati, August 2, 1831 , to Leopoldine Association, 
Vienna (Berichte, III, 6); Catholic Telegraph, V, 308, August 25, 1836. 

130. Letter, D. M Hallinan, Hamilton, May 31, 1847, to Bishop Purcell (Notre Dame 
Archives) . 


monthly dues were to be paid for the building of a church, was 
formed in July, 1847. 131 But instead of building a church the 
German Catholics offered $3,000 for St. Stephen s to the 
English-speaking Catholics, who then bought the Episcopalian 
church and had it dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary on 
July 23, 1848. 132 The growth of the southern and south 
western part of Hamilton, with the ever increasing number of 
German Catholics, caused another division in St. Stephen s 
parish in 1865, when St. Joseph s church was organized by 
Father Nicholas Wachter, O.F.M., of St. Stephen s. In 1867, 
when the Franciscans gave up the church, with the building 
under roof and the tower partly built, Father Steinlage took 
charge and pushed the work to completion. 133 

From St. Joseph s parish, three parishes were later to be 
organized, the first of them having been the parish of St. 
Veronica in 1894; the second, likewise in 1894, of St. Peter on 
the west side of the Great Miami river. Both of them were 
organized by Father Varelmann, the pastor of St. Joseph s, 
and both of them were given Father Proeppermann for their 
first pastor. The third parish, that of St. Anne, was organ 
ized in 1908 by Father Holthaus. 

To St. Stephen s, Hamilton, must be traced also the parishes 
at Piqua, Sidney, Middletown and Oxford. When in the middle 
forties Father Hallinan was the pastor at St. Stephen s, he 
hearkened to the cry of religious distress as it was voiced in 
the upper Miami valley from Middletown, Piqua and Sidney. 
Short pastoral visits were then paid to those localities, and con 
gregations organized later. Thus it happened that at Piqua 
thirty Catholic families were organized by Father Hallinan in 
1844 and a church, to be dedicated under the patronage of 
the Blessed Virgin Mary, was built under his direction as well 
as that of Father James P. Cahill. To the latter the parish 
was entrusted in 1845. 134 In 1855, when the German immi 
grants at Piqua became numerous enough to have a separate 

131. Letter, same to same, July 21, 1847 (Notre Dame Archives). 

132. Letter, same to same, July 12, 1848 (Notre Dame Archives); Catholic Telegraph, 
July 27, 1848; Wahrheitsfreund, XI, 574. 

133. Catholic Telegraph, XXXIV, 244; XXXVI, No. 39, p. 5, September 18, 1867. 

134. Wahrheitsfreund, VII, 404 (August 22, 1844); letter, D. M. Hallinan, Piqua, 
January 24, 1844, to Bishop Purcell (Notre Dame Archives); letter, J. P. Cahill, Piqua, Janu 
ary 22, 1846, to Bishop Purcell (Archdiocesan Archives, Mount St. Joseph, Ohio); Catholic 
Telegraph, XV, 94 (March 12, 1846); U. S. Catholic Magazine, V, 231. 


church, St. Boniface church was organized by Father Hem- 
steger. Under the direction of the two pastors at Piqua in 
1858, Fathers Hemsteger and Kennedy, two congregations were 
organized south from Piqua at Troy and Tippecanoe City, 
where sites for churches were chosen and the buildings begun, 
to be dedicated in honor of St. Patrick and St. John Baptist 
respectively. 135 

Continuing his apostolic mission further north, Father 
Hallinan organized the congregation at Sidney in 1844, pur 
chased a frame church in 1845, and had it dedicated in honor 
of the Angels of Heaven. 136 The sole filial church of Sidney 
is the congregation at St. Patrick s, Shelby county, which was 
organized by Father Henneberry in 1862. The third of the 
towns visited by Father Hallinan was Middletown in Butler 
county. The congregation of Holy Trinity, however, was not 
organized by him, but by his successor in 1852, Father Kearney, 
who undertook the building of the church in the next spring. 
To care for the German-speaking Catholics of the city a 
parish was organized in 1872 by the Franciscan Fathers, 
then in charge of St. Stephen s, Hamilton, by whom a church 
was begun in the summer of 1872 and, when completed, dedi 
cated under the title of St. Boniface. This invocation was 
retained until 1882, when it was changed to St. John Baptist. 
In the early fifties there lived a number of Catholics to the 
north of Middletown at Franklin, where Father Terence Smith 
of Holy Trinity, Middletown, organized the congregation of 
St. Mary in 1854, though the congregation did not own a 
church until after the arrival at Middletown of Father Boulger, 
who built a frame church at Franklin. 

The last of the filial churches of Hamilton, but more properly 
of St. Mary s church, since the organization occurred after the 
division of St. Stephen s, was Oxford in Butler county, where 
Father Kearney had visited in 1852, but where his successor, 
Father Jeremiah O Connor, organized the parish, purchasing 
a house on the northwest corner of Poplar and Collins street, 
and dedicating it in 1853 under the invocation of the Blessed 

135. Souvenir, Dedication St. Patrick Church, Troy, 1916; Catholic Telegraph, April 10, 
1858; October 2, 1858; October 1, 1862. 

136. Letter, D. M. Hallinan, Piqua, January 24, 1844, to Bishop Purcell (Notre Dame 
Archives); Catholic Telegraph, April 3, 1845. 


Virgin Mary. 137 The same procedure was followed in the 
parish of the Visitation at Eaton in Preble county, which was 
visited first by Father Kearney in 1852, and organized by 
Father O Connor in 1853. 

The fourth mother-parish out of the city of Cincinnati 
within the present limits of the archdiocese was the parish of 
St. Augustine at Minster, Ohio, which became the first parish 
of the four counties of Shelby, Darke, Mercer and Auglaize. 
Here a colony of German immigrants, mostly from Munster, 
Westphalia, settled in 1831 under the guidance of Franz Joseph 
Stallo, after whom the settlement was named Stallostown. 
The settlement was entirely Catholic, so that when Bishop 
Purcell turned the steps of Father Horstmann northward in his 
diocese to seek lands for a settlement of the band of immigrants 
accompanying him from Germany, the arrival of the Father 
at Stallostown in December, 1833, brought indescribable joy 
to the former settlers, especially after Father Horstmann had 
sent a messenger to Father Collins at Dayton for the loan of 
church utensils necessary for the celebration of Mass. The 
Father tarried with them till Christmas day, when he set out 
for Detroit to make the necessary negotiations for property 
in Putnam county, where he located in 1834. From Glandorf, 
as he named the new town, he failed not to visit the mission 
at Stallostown and to form new missions at Petersburg and 
Wapakoneta. He visited Stallostown in 1834 and established 
the mission. Bishop Purcell visited it the same year and 
entered into an agreement with it on December 30th. But 
the organization of the parish occurred two years later on 
October 30, 1836, when a constitution was drawn up by 
Father Horstmann for the people, and signed by himself, 
by six chosen trustees, and by Father Francis Bartels, who had 
become the resident pastor of the congregation on September 21, 
1836. 138 The congregation worshipped then in a log church, 
which had been built the previous year or perhaps even in 
1834. When the constitution was drawn up, it also included 
a consideration of the neighboring settlement at St. John s, 
Maria Stein, which could receive the ministrations of the pastor 

137. Catholic Telegraph. September 10, 1853. 

138. Constitution of Church at Stallostown, 1836, in Latin and German (Notre Dame 


of Minster, if it contributed to his support 100 of the 400 
dollars to be collected by the people at Minster. 139 The offer 
was accepted and a log church constructed the following year. 
The second parish out of Minster was formed the next year on 
July 4, 1838, when fifty families which had been brought to 
gether at Fort Loramie, largely on account of the work to be 
had on the Miami canal, united to form the congregation of 
St. Michael. 140 

The third filial parish of Minster was St. Rose s, about four 
miles west, where a log church was built in 1839 to take care 
of about seventy-eight families in the neighborhood. St. 
Rose s bore two new parishes, one St. Mary s at Casella in 1847, 
the other at St. Sebastian in 185 1 . The latter became a mother- 
parish in 1895, when the parish of the Most Precious Blood was 
organized at Chickasaw, and again in 1903 when Our Lady of 
Guadalupe parish was formed at Montezuma. 

The fourth filial parish of Minster was founded at St. 
Henry, where twenty members were organized into a parish, 
and a frame church built by them in 1839. St. Henry parish 
was in time to be the mother-parish of others, among them 
being, first, the church of St. Mary at Philothea, which was 
organized in 1851 to obviate the difficulties of traveling over 
bad roads to attend church ; secondly, the church of St. Francis 
at Cranberry Prairie, which was organized in 1858; and 
thirdly, St. Bernard s church, which was organized in 1874 out 
of St. Wendelin s as well as St. Henry s. To the first of the 
three belongs the distinction of having been the mother-parish 
of Holy Trinity church, Coldwater, which was established in 
1867. 141 

The fifth filial parish of Minster was formed at Victoria, 
about two miles east of Ft. Recovery, where some German 
immigrants as well as former inhabitants of Perry county, 
Ohio, had settled and built a log church in honor of St. Joseph 
in 1839, though the church was not blessed until 1845. A 
distance of about ten miles to church caused a number of Ger 
man Catholic families living northwest of St. Joseph s to 
organize themselves in 1852, and under the direction of Father 

139. Idem. 

140. Archives of St. Michael s Congregation, Fort Loramie (BIGOT, Annalen der St. 
Michaelsgemeinde, Ft. Loramie, 1769-1903, p. 140). 

141. Souvenir Golden Jubilee, Holy Trinity Congregation, Coldwater, Ohio, 1918. 


Albrecht, C.PP.S., to build a log church, to be known as the 
church of St. Anthony of Padua. The same cause led to the 
formation in 1856 of the second filial church of St. Joseph s 
in union with St. Henry s, the church of St. Wendelin, north 
west of St. Henry. Out of St. Wendelin s was organized in 
1868 the parish of St. Paul, about three miles south of St. 
Wendelin s. The third filial parish of St. Joseph s arose in 
1868, when difficulties, occasioned by the erection of a new 
church at St. Joseph s, caused twenty-seven families to or 
ganize the parish of St. Peter, just to the northwest of Victoria. 
The church of Our Lady, Help of Christians, at Fort Recovery, 
which was organized in 1880 to satisfy the Catholics of that 
town, is the last of the filial churches of St. Joseph s, Victoria. 

A crowded church at Minster and bad mud roads leading 
thither caused the Catholics living one-half mile south and 
three miles west of Minster at Egypt, to form the congregation 
of St. Joseph of that place and to build a church in the year 
1852. 142 The seventh filial parish of Minster was formed in 
1854 at St. Mary s, Ohio, where a frame church was built and 
dedicated to Our Lady of the Rosary. St. Mary s, situated 
at the eastern extremity of the Grand Reservoir, has the honor 
of having been the mother-parish of the town of Celina at the 
western extremity of the reservoir, where Father Dwenger, of 
St. Mary s, organized the congregation of the Immaculate 
Conception in 1864 143 and proceeded to the erection of a church. 
Out of St. Mary s was likewise formed the congregation of 
St. Patrick, formerly called St. Thomas, at Glynwood, where 
thirteen families were gathered together in 1860 and a frame 
church erected in the same year. The last filial parish of 
Minster was McCartyville, where Father Schunck, of Minster, 
formed a congregation of twenty Irish families into the parish 
of the Sacred Heart of Jesus in 1881. 

The second foundation of Father Horstmann out of Glan- 
dorf was the congregation, now defunct, of Petersburg, Aug- 
laize county, about one mile south of Freyburg and two and 
one-half miles northeast of Botkins. Here a log chapel was 
built in 1836, but just as in the case of Minster or Stallostown, 

142. Catholic Telegraph, January 15, 1853. 

143. Letter, Dwenger, December 20, 1864, to Bishop Purcell (Notre Dame Archives); 
Catholic Telegraph, XX XIV, 412. 


the formal organization did not occur till later. It was on 
January 1, 1840, as the records of that church tell us, that the 
parish counting seventy-two families was organized by Father 
Horstmann. The church, blessed under the invocation of the 
Apostles Peter and Paul, was to serve as the central point for 
the German Catholics at Freyburg, Botkins and Rhine. But 
distance and mud roads, which became practically impassable 
in winter and rainy seasons, caused the Catholics of each of 
these places to build their own churches. The first church thus 
erected was the church of St. John Baptist at Freyburg in 
1849; 144 the second was the church of St. Lawrence at Rhine 
in 1856-57; and the third was the church of the Immaculate 
Conception at Botkins, built in 1866, by the congregation which 
had been organized the previous year. 145 The people of the 
county-seat, Wapakoneta, likewise attended the church at 
Petersburg until 1839, when they built their own frame church, 
which was first served by Father Herzog, but received its 
greatest care from his successor, Father Navarron. 

Father Louis Navarron was one of the French priests whom 
Bishop Purcell succeeded in recruiting in 1839 from the diocese 
of Clermont, France. Upon his arrival in Cincinnati in that 
same year, Bishop Purcell lost no time in dispatching him to the 
colony of French Catholics which had grown up about the 
present towns of Frenchtown, Versailles and Russia in Darke 
and Shelby counties. As none of the places alone could sup 
port a church, and to give opportunity to all, a site between 
Frenchtown and Russia was selected three miles northeast of 
Versailles in Darke county, where a log church was built and 
dedicated to God on December 4, 1840, under the patronage of 
St. Valbert, a saint chosen to gratify the donor of the ground, 
Mr. Marechal. 146 The history of Petersburg in Auglaize 
county was, however, to be repeated here, each one of the three 
towns erecting independent churches, and the mother-church 
abandoned. From the very beginning the inconvenience of 
attending the church of St. Valbert was felt, not only by the 
people at Russia in Shelby county, but by Father Navarron 
himself, who divided the one room in which he lived into a 

144. Catholic Telegraph, XVIII, 378. 

145. Idem, XXXV, June 20, 1866. 

146. Letter, Navarron, Shelby County, November 27, 1839, to Bishop Purcell (Arch- 
diocesan Archives, Mount St. Joseph, Ohio). 


chapel and a living room, and therein celebrated Mass on week 
days. A small cemetery had been started on the farm where 
Father Navarron lived, and where Mr. Jean Jacques Debrosse, 
the owner of the farm, intended that a chapel should be built 
some day. That day occurred in 1846 when the people at 
Russia built the log church which was dedicated that year 
under the invocation of St. Remy. The parish may be said, 
however, to have been definitely established in 1850, when the 
following boundary line was set up to divide the two parishes 
of St. Remy, Russia and Holy Family, Frenchtown: "the 
county road running from Berlin, Shelby county, to St. 
Valbert s church, then to the junction of the aforesaid road 
with Sydney s to Versailles road (half a mile from Versailles 
town, east), then to Stillwater river, by a straight line to Still- 
water river, south". Thus the old church of St. Valbert and 
the town of Versailles were included in the parish of Holy 
Family, Darke county. 147 What has been said of St. Remy, 
Russia, applies of course to Holy Family parish at Frenchtown, 
for this congregation also proceeded in 1846 to erect a log 
church. The third town bought the Baptist church, which it 
dedicated to God in honor of St. Denis, to replace the one of 
vSt. Valbert in 1864. 148 St. Valbert s as a consequence became 
isolated, and the cemetery there today marks the historic spot. 
The zeal of Father Navarron carried him northwest, north 
east and southwest from the church of St. Valbert s. Every 
where his ministrations were anxiously awaited and joyously 
received, whilst in some places small log churches soon arose 
as testimonies to the love of souls of this missionary. To the 
northwest and to the northeast he visited alone all the parishes 
in Mercer and Auglaize counties, which had suffered the loss 
of the services of the priest at Minster. To the southeast 
he visited near Greenville, where he found about twelve poor 
German Catholic families, among whom was Mr. Carron who had 
taken the chief part in building a chapel at the place even before 
Father Navarron s arrival in November, 1839. The chapel 
had not been blessed and contained no altar. 149 This log 

147. Letter, Navarron, Piqua, February 8, 1850, to Bishop Purcell (Archdiocesan Ar 
chives, Mount St. Joseph, Ohio). 

148. Catholic Telegraph, XXXIII, 332. 

149. Letter, Navarron, Shelby County, November 27, 1839, to Purcell (Archdiocesan 
Archives, Mount St. Joseph, Ohio). 


church was to serve for many years, however, before the 
parish was formally organized in the town in 1863, the 
United Brethren meeting house having been purchased and 
dedicated in that year. 150 

To the northeast of St. Valbert s, Father Navarron visited 
the town of Newport in Shelby county, where he was in Jan 
uary, 1842, but where no church was built till 1858, when the 
people built the church, it seems, without any particular eccle 
siastical guidance. Two later establishments in the north 
eastern corner of Darke county, filials of St. Valbert s, were 
the church of St. Louis at North Star, which was organized 
in 1892, 151 and the church of St. Nicholas at Osgood, which 
was organized in 1906. 

A parish which has a genesis different than the ones we 
have been considering is that of St. Aloysius, Carthagena, 
Mercer county, where Catholic families settled about the St. 
Charles seminary and became so numerous in 1861 as no longer 
to be able to be taken care of comfortably in the chapel of the 
seminary. Accordingly, the parish of St. Aloysius was founded 
at the seminary, and the parish fully organized in 1865. 

The seminary at Carthagena is the seminary of the priests 
of the Congregation of the Most Precious Blood. To these 
Fathers, who came to the archdiocese in 1844 and took up the 
work where Father Navarron left off in Mercer and Auglaize 
counties, the greatest credit is due, as by their zeal they have 
so well cultivated the vineyard of the Lord entrusted to their 
care that one can scarcely be in any part of the territory with 
out being able to perceive a church spire directing one s thoughts 

Having considered thus far the organization of the parishes 
in the western part of the archdiocese, we pass to the con 
sideration of the eastern part, where the churches in the two 
towns of Dayton and Chillicothe served as mother-parishes, the 
former of the northeastern district, and the latter of the south 
eastern district. 

In the letter of Father Navarron mentioned above, Father 
Collins had been visiting Dayton in December, 1833, prepared 

150. Letter, J. N. Thisse, Piqua, February 6, 1863, to Purcell; same, June 26, 1863, to 
same (Archdiocesan Archives, Mount St. Joseph, Ohio); Catholic Telegraph, XXXII, 268. 

151. Souvenir Silver Jubilee, St. Louis Church, North Star, Ohio, 1917. 


with the requisites for the celebration of Mass, since it was the 
loan of these which prompted the letter. The real founder of 
the first church in Dayton, however, was Father Emmanuel 
Thienpont, who in 1835 was collecting money in Dayton to 
erect a church on a lot 96 by 166 feet that had been given 
to the bishop by Mrs. Prudence Pierson. As in Hamilton, 
the Protestants came to the assistance of the Catholics, and that 
not unstintingly, as $1,300 had been donated by them in 1835. 162 
It required two years, however, before the church could be 
dedicated to God under the title of Emmanuel. 153 All the 
churches in Dayton and the counties of Montgomery, Greene, 
Clarke, Champaign, Madison, Logan, Hardin and Marion are 
to be traced back to this church. 

In Dayton itself, the first filial church was that of St. 
Joseph at Second and Madison streets, which was organized 
in 1846 by Father Patrick O Mealy to care for the Irish families 
in the eastern part of the town. These families found the distance 
to Emmanuel church rather great, and the necessity of German 
sermons for some of the people of Emmanuel an inconvenience 
to themselves. 154 With the growth of East Dayton and the 
settlement there of a great number of German Catholics who 
had to frequent Emmanuel church, a combination church, 
school and parsonage was begun in 1859 by Father Schiff in the 
newly organized parish of St. Mary s. 155 Only one year later 
the third filial church of Emmanuel was organized, likewise 
in the eastern section of the city. Father Goetz was given 
charge of the organization, and had the church, which was 
dedicated to the Holy Trinity, completed in 1861. 156 The next 
filial church out of the territory proper to Emmanuel church 
was St. John s church in Edgemont, which was organized in 
1891 by Father Charles J. Hahne in the formation of the St. 
John s Church Building Society, though a church was not 
built and accepted by the archbishop until 1893, when Father 
Franz was placed in charge of the parish. The last filial parish 

152. Catholic Telegraph, IV, 317. 

153. Catholic Telegraph, VI, 414; Wahrheitsfreund, I, 157. 

154. Letter, Patrick O Mealy, Dayton, November 18, 1846, to Purcell (Archdiocesan 
Archives, Mount St. Joseph, Ohio); Catholic Telegraph, XVI, 230; XVIII, 22. 

155. Catholic Telegraph, XXVIII, April 30, 1859; Berichte der Leopoldinen Stiftung, 
XXXVI (1866), pp. 72-73. 

156. Catholic Telegraph, XXX, August 24, 1861. 


of Emmanuel s was that of St. James, which was begun to the 
southwest of Emmanuel in 1919 by Father Kock. 

The first of the filial churches of Emmanuel s to become a 
mother-church was St. Joseph s, whose excessive membership 
occasioned the organization in 1883 by Father Hugh J. McDe- 
vitt of the Sacred Heart church, west of Emmanuel s. Soon 
after this Holy Trinity church became a mother-parish. For it 
was to relieve the congestion of this church and to facilitate 
the attendance of children at school without endangering their 
lives on their way to school that Holy Rosary parish was 
formed in 1887 by Father Frohmiller. 

The more recent parishes generally have been formed out 
of the territory which was attended from several of the older 
parishes. Of these, Holy Angels in the southern part of the town 
was formed in 1901 by Father Neville from members who had 
frequented, or for one reason or another had ceased to frequent 
orie of four churches, Emmanuel, St. Joseph, St. Mary and Holy 
Trinity. Holy Family parish in the extreme east end of the 
city was formed in 1905 to provide church facilities, and par 
ticularly school accommodations for the children of one hun 
dred and ninety-four families of that district. 157 In the 
middle of the year Father Downey began the establishment of 
the parish. Next, in 1911 followed the organization by Father 
Gallagher of Corpus Christi church from the three parishes of 
Emmanuel, St. Joseph and Sacred Heart. From St. Mary s 
parish was formed the parish of St. Anthony in 1913 by Father 
Francis Kuenle, and then, from the three parishes of Em 
manuel, Sacred Heart and Corpus Christi was formed the 
parish of St. Agnes in Dayton View by Father Sailer in 1915. 
The last of the churches in Dayton, that of the Resurrection, 
in the extreme western section of the city was organized by 
Father Stich in the fall of 1920. 

In recent years the industries of Dayton have attracted 
a great many foreign immigrants, for whom it became 
necessary to found national churches. Thus St. Adalbert 
church was founded in 1902 by Father Strzelczok for the 
Polish Catholics; Holy Name church, the beginnings of which 
may be traced to Father Luebbermann, who organized a 
Holy Name Society among the Hungarians in 1895 to provide 

157. Souvenir Tenth Anniversary, Holy Family Church, Dayton, 1915. 


eventually for a church, was founded in 1906 by Father Sommer; 
Holy Cross church was established for the Lithuanians in 1914 
by Father Gricius ; and lastly, St. Gabriel s church was founded 
for the Roumanians in 1916 by Father Popo-Lupu. At 
Dayton there is likewise a National Military Home, to which 
a Catholic chaplain has been assigned since 1892, though from 
the beginning of its existence at Dayton in 1867, Catholic 
priests visited the Home in an unofficial capacity to minister 
to the religious needs of the Catholic soldiers. 

This is indeed quite a different picture of Dayton than that 
which was drawn by Father Baraga in 1831 when he visited 
there with Bishop Fenwick. He tells us that at Dayton he 
found "some lazy Catholics". He celebrated Mass in a private 
Catholic home, and gave a talk from a Protestant pulpit. 158 
Were he to come back today he would find nineteen churches 
in the town, frequented by people who have become known for 
their progressive spirit. 

Besides being the mother-church of Dayton, Emmanuel 
church must likewise be credited with the honor of having 
been the mother-church of the northeastern section of the 
archdiocese. For, from it between the years 1844 and 1849 
Father Juncker was wont to visit the Catholics who had settled 
at Springfield in Clarke county. Their number grew to such 
proportions in the late forties, that ground was purchased in 
1848 for a church, and in the following year the complete 
organization of the parish occurred under Father Kearney, 
who built the church. The church, which bears the name of 
the Archangel Raphael, was dedicated in 1850. 159 To care 
for the German-speaking Catholics of the town the parish of 
St. Bernard was organized in 1861, and when in 1882 St. 
Raphael s could not conveniently accommodate all the English- 
speaking Catholics in Springfield, the parish of St. Joseph was 
organized in the southeastern part of town by Father Sidley, 
the pastor of St. Raphael s. 

To St. Raphael s belongs the honor also of having been the 
mother-parish of the churches at Xenia, Urbana, Yellow 
vSprings and London. At Xenia, where ministerial visits had 

158. Letter, Baraga, Arbre Croche, August 22, 1832, to Leopoldine Association (Berichte. 
1832,1V, 7). 

159. Catholic Telegraph, XI X. December 14, 1850; Souvenir Golden Jubilee, St. Raphael 
Church, Springfield, 1899. 


been paid to the Catholics by the pastors of Dayton and Piqua 
in the forties, Father Kearney began to organize a parish in 
1849. But success attended the efforts of neither Father 
Kearney nor his successor, Father Howard. It required the 
appointment of a resident pastor, Father Blake, to put spirit 
into the inhabitants for the erection of St. Brigid s church in 
1852. 16 Father Blake s zeal would not allow him to be con 
fined to Xenia, and his ministrations were given far and wide 
in this territory, Morrow in Warren county, at present a mis 
sion of West Chester, Butler county, owing its organization to 
him in 1852. 1G1 Nor did his zeal abate with age, as in 1872 he 
founded and built the church of St. Augustine at Jamestown 
to provide for twenty families living within a radius of seven 
or eight miles of that town. 162 It was he, too, who first visited 
and tried to organize the churches at Wilmington in Clinton 
county and Washington Court House in Fayette county, 
though only later, in 1866, were churches built in these towns; 
St. Columbkille s at Wilmington and St. Colman s at Wash 
ington C. H. At Urbana, where many Irish immigrants had 
made their homes owing to the work which was to be obtained 
in the construction of railroads in the vicinity, Father Kearney, 
of Springfield, began the organization of St. Mary s church, 
though here, too, the real work of organization and the building 
of the church was done by Father Grogan, who was appointed 
resident pastor in 1853. 163 It was as a mission from Urbana 
that St. Patrick s church was organized in 1852 at Belief on- 
taine, though the band of Catholics of that town had been 
gathered together in 1849 and had been visited regularly, first 
from Springfield and then from Urbana. 164 A similar story 
may be told of the parish of St. Mary s at Marion, which de 
veloped into a parish from having been a mission of Bellefon- 
taine in 1854, though visits had been made from Columbus at 

160. Catholic Telegraph, XXI, June 12, June 19 and November 6, 1852; Souvenir, 
St. Bridget s Church, Xenia, 1898. 

161. Letter, Thomas Blake, Xenia, December 19, 1852, to Purcell (Archdiocesan Archives, 
Mount St. Joseph, Ohio); Catholic Telegraph, XXII, August 13, 1853. 

162. Letter, Blake, August 29, 1872, to Purcell (Archdiocesan Archives). 

163. Catholic Telegraph, XXII, June 4, 1853; Official Service Book, St. Mary s, Urbana, 

164. Catholic Telegraph, XVIII, 386, December 6, 1849; letter, Rev. Thomas Sheehan, 
December 27, 1852, to Bishop Purcell (Archdiocesan Archives, Mount St. Joseph s) ; Illustrated 
History, St. Patrick s Church, Belief on taine, 1899. 


regular intervals as early as 1 844. 1 6 5 To the zeal of Father 
John Mackey, who arrived at Marion in 1865, is much of the 
organization in Marion county due; for in 1869 Bishop Purcell 
blessed the churches of St. Joseph and St. Lawrence, which 
had been organized in that year by Father Mackey to care for 
twenty and fifteen families of railroad workers at La Rue and 
Caledonia, respectively. 1 6 6 

Here we must assign a place to the parish of the Immaculate 
Conception at Kenton in Hardin county. The first attempt 
at organization occurred in 1849, when a lot for a church was 
donated to the Fathers who visited the town from Tiffin and 
Seneca county. 167 No organization resulted, however, until 
after other visits by priests from Bellefontaine, Sidney and 
Wapakoneta. It was Father Henneberry who succeeded in 
having a church built at Kenton in 1864. 

The third filial parish of St. Raphael s, beyond the limits 
of Springfield, was the church of the Assumption, later known 
as St. Paul s, at Yellow Springs, where after many previous 
visits to the Irish immigrants who had settled there, a parish 
was organized and a church built in 1856 by Father Howard. 168 
During the same year Father Howard built a frame church 
for the parish of St. Patrick, London, which he had organized 
that year, but which, too, had had services by other priests 
before him, notably by Father Blake of Xenia. Two filial 
churches are to be accredited to this last church : one, St. Charles 
Borromeo s at South Charleston, established in 1865, and the 
other, SS. Simon and Jude at West Jefferson in 1866, both by 
the pastor of London, Father John M. Conway. 

There is one county, that of Union, in this northeastern 
section of the archdiocese, which does not owe the genesis of 
its parish churches directly to Springfield or Cincinnati, but 
only indirectly to Cincinnati through Columbus and Delaware. 
The county seat, Marysville, was organized as a parish in 
1865 by Father Fehlings, the pastor of Delaware, and dedicated 
under the title of St. Peter, though it is known now as Our 

165. Catholic Telegraph, XIII, January 13, 1844; letter, John F. McSweeny, Belle 
fontaine, January 11, 1860, to Purcell (Archdiocesan Archives, Mount St. Joseph, Ohio); 
Souvenir, St. Mary s Church, Marion, 1898. 

166. Letter, John M. Mackey, February 23, 1869, to Purcell (Archdiocesan Archives, 
Mount St. Joseph); Catholic Telegraph, XXXVIII, September 29, 1869. 

167. Catholic Telegraph, XVIII, 386, December 6, 1849. 

168. Catholic Telegraph, XXV, No. 35, p. 4; XXXIII, 270. 


Lady of Lourdes. Being a great agricultural center, the villages 
have not grown much in population and six or seven mission 
churches only resulted. These received spiritual ministration 
from Delaware, Marysville and Urbana. One of them, Plain 
City, was given rank as a parish in 1904, but lost it again in 
1909. The title was transferred to Sacred Heart church at 
Milford Center in July, 1917. 

Such has been the splendid growth of the seed sown at 
Springfield from Emmanuel church, Dayton. Two other 
towns within a radius of ten miles from Dayton may also be 
traced back to Dayton. One of these, Miamisburg, ten miles 
south of Dayton, where many German immigrants had settled 
in the beginning of the thirties and where Father Baraga had 
found some Catholics in 1831, was formed into a parish in 
1852, when a church was dedicated under the patronage of 
St. Michael. The parish now bears the title which it received 
in 1881 of Our Lady of Good Hope. 169 The other of the two 
towns, Osborn, distant ten miles east of Dayton, was organized 
as a parish by Father Charles H. Hahne in 1868. 17 The con 
struction of the immense dam to care for the floods at Dayton 
in annihilating the old town of Osborn, has borne along with 
it the closing of the doors of the parish church. 

The last of the mother-churches in the present jurisdiction 
of the archdiocese of Cincinnati is the church of St. Mary, 
which was organized at Chillicothe in 1837. There were Catho 
lics in the town much earlier indeed, but some of them had 
become apostates and heretics from want of attention. As 
belonging to this class Bishop Flaget, who visited the place on 
his way to Baltimore, singled out for particular mention a 
Mr. Lamb, the owner of a great cotton factory, and a young 
Spaniard, a cigar maker by trade. 17 l But it was not long before 
Catholics who were earnest in their faith came to Chillicothe, 
and since Chillicothe lay on the only road to Kentucky at that 
time, many was the visit which it received from passing mis- 

169 Letter, Baraga, Arbre Croche, August 22, 1832, to Leopoldine Association (Berichte, 
1832, IV, 6); Catholic Telegraph, June 10, 1880; July 14, 1881. 

170. Letter, Charles Hahne, Dayton, July 28, 1868, to Archbishop Purcell; same, 
April 10, 1869, to same (Archdiocesan Archives, Mount St. Joseph s); Catholic Telegraph, 
XXXVIII, August 25, 1869; Souvenir Golden Jubilee, Church of Mary Help of Christians, 
Osburn, 1918. 

171. Journal of BISHOP FLAGET, 1812 (American Catholic Historical Society Records, 
XXIX, 246). 


sionaries. Not until 1837, however, was the parish established, 
as it was in that year that Father Juncker bought the Episco 
palian church on Walnut street and had it dedicated to God 
under the especial patronage of Mary. When the congrega 
tion grew to such proportions in 1845 that the church could no 
longer contain the members, a church was built on a new site 
and placed under the invocation of St. Peter. But with con 
tinued growth it was thought advisable to divide the congre 
gation in two; as a consequence, the English-speaking Catholics 
went back to the old church in 1849, when with Father Carrell, 
S.J., as their pastor they began the St. Mary s parish which 
exists today. 172 

There is little territory within the present limits of the 
archdiocese in which Chillicothe served as the mother-church. 
More could be said of her fruitfulness in the diocese of Colum 
bus, upon the boundary of which she is situated. In the 
county of Adams and in the western halves of the counties of 
Scioto, Pike, Ross and Pickaway, there is but one other or 
ganized parish, at Otway in Scioto county, and it is to be noted 
more as serving for the residence of the pastor of Otway, 
McCullough and Pond Creek missions in Scioto county. The 
territory is not thickly settled, and there is little prospect of it 
ever being so, since its natural and commercial advantages are 
very limited. 

If we were to generalize on the method which was followed 
in starting new congregations, we should say that in the be 
ginning the missionaries went out seeking the "lost sheep". 
Catholics had settled in various parts of the state of Ohio, 
but for want of ministers had lost the faith or were unable to 
practise it. These were then renewed in the faith and parishes 
organized to be served on the occasional visit of a priest. With 
the opening of better roads, canals, and railroads German and 
Irish immigrants flocked to Ohio, settling generally along the 
new thoroughfares. Here they were visited by a priest who 
lived in the neighborhood, Mass was celebrated in a private 
house, the visits became more frequent, definite Sundays of 
the month were determined as days when the priest would 

172. Catholic Telegraph, VI, 333; Berichte der Leopoldinen Stiftung, XIX, 86; Wahr- 
heitsfreund, VIII, 349; X, 4-5; Historical Sketch of the Catholic Church in Chillicothe, Ohio, 


come, the number of the Catholics increased, and finally a 
parish church was built, to be served first as a mission and then 
as a parish by a resident priest. In many instances provision 
for increase was made in that a parochial school was begun 
contemporaneously with the church, or a combination church 
and school constructed. Stability was thus given to the 
parish, for when the children grew up, they were ready to 
assume the places of their parents and continue in the dis 
charge of their spiritual obligations. 

We might make another study of the development of the 
parishes from a statistical point of view. In 1821, when the 
diocese of Cincinnati was established, there were but five or 
six congregations in the entire state of Ohio, and but one in 
the present archdiocese, at Cincinnati. Upon the advent of 
Bishop Purcellin 1833, there were sixteen parishes in the entire 
state, and of these, three were within the present boundaries 
of the diocese: Cincinnati, St. Martin s, Brown county and 
Hamilton, Butler county. In 1846 there were seventy churches 
and about fifty missions in the entire state, with a Catholic 
population of 70,000, served by seventy-three priests. The 
creation of the diocese of Cleveland in the following year re 
duced the number of churches in the Cincinnati diocese to fifty, 
the number of stations to ten, the population to 50,000 and the 
number of priests to fifty-seven. In 1867 there were one 
hundred and fifty-four churches and sixty stations for a popu 
lation of about 150,000, served by one hundred and fifty-nine 
priests. This was reduced the following year, when the diocese 
of Columbus was formed, to 115 churches, 42 stations, 13 chap 
els and a population of 139,000 Catholics, served by 135 priests. 
In 1883, the year of the death of Archbishop Purcell, there were 
157 churches, 32 chapels, 26 stations, and 189 priests attend 
ing a population of 150,000. In 1904, the year of the death of 
Archbishop Elder, there were 151 churches with resident 
pastors, 30 missions with churches, 20 stations, and 52 chapels 
to accommodate a population of 200,000 Catholics, served by 
294 priests. In 1920 there were 186 churches with resident 
priests, 33 missions with churches, 15 stations and 63 chapels, 
for a population of about 210,000, served by 391 priests. 173 
This of itself is sufficient to inspire admiration and wonder, 

173. Statistics taken from the respective issues of the Catholic Directory. 


when we reflect upon the condition of the diocese of Cincinnati 
one hundred years ago; but we are astounded when we com 
pare those humble beginnings in 1821 with the present status 
of the Catholic Church in the entire state of Ohio, the original 
Cincinnati diocese. There are now within the state 590 
churches with resident pastors, 126 missions with churches, 
more than 51 stations and 99 chapels for a population of 
877,074 Catholics, who are served by 1,146 priests. 

Many, indeed, were the sacrifices which the faithful offered, 
to build up such a wonderful parochial establishment in the 
state. Many, too, were the labors performed, journeys under 
taken, hardships endured and self-abnegations imposed by a 
devoted clergy. In 1827 a communication from Cincinnati 
to the U. S. Catholic Miscellany stated that "the missionaries 
of this Diocese have no fixed salary. They content themselves 
with the trifling collection made in the church on Sundays, the 
produce of the farm of St. Joseph s, or what little the faithful 
are able or willing to spare. ... To convey an idea of the 
fatiguing duty of the missionaries in Ohio in 1826, it has been 
ascertained by correct computation, that two Dominican mis 
sionaries, between the beginning of May, 1826, and the end of 
December, 1826, traveled on horseback 2,500 miles, exposed 
to heat and cold." 174 Neither did these priests revel in 
luxuries at their homes, as the following list of articles, which 
were lent Father Kundig when he was sent out to the mission 
at St. Martin s, eloquently testifies: 

Note of effects given to Mr. Kundig. Articles lent to Rev. Mr. 
Kundig for the mission of St. Martin s: 

Plates 8 Pillow-cases 2 Cotts 2 

Knives and Forks 4 Towels 3 Beds 2 

Tablespoons 4 Small Pot 1 Drawer 1 

Bowls 2 Chalice 1 Chairs 4 

Saucers 2 Chasuble 2 Oil Stock 1 

Tea-spoons 2 Albe 1 Two Chairs 2 175 

Sheets 4 Matrasses 2 

The great need in those early days was priests. Both 
Bishop Fenwick and Bishop Purcell sent out cries for help. 
When Bishop Fenwick took charge of Ohio as bishop in 1822, 

174. U. S. Catholic Miscellany, February 24, 1827, p. 246. 

175. Original note, Archdiocesan Archives, Mount St. Joseph s. 


he brought three priests with him into the diocese. Others 
from Kentucky followed in their wake, but in 1828 after the 
death of Father Hill, the vicar-general, there were but four 
priests left in the whole diocese. 176 In 1833 there were nine 
teen priests in the diocese, ten diocesan, eight Dominicans and 
one Redemptorist, 177 a number which was very shortly to be 
reduced to fourteen, all told. 178 In 1840 when the diocese 
counted 35 priests, 50 additional clergymen could have found 
ample employment in Ohio. 179 In 1843 the priests in the 
diocese numbered 50, among them being 9 Americans, 12 
Germans, 11 French, 10 Irish, 4 Italians, 3 Belgians, and 1 
Spaniard. 180 In 1856, despite the loss of twenty priests in the 
erection of the diocese of Cleveland in 1847, Cincinnati ranked 
second to Philadelphia in the number of its priests, there 
having been in that year 110 priests in the Cincinnati arch 
diocese. 181 In 1865, when there were 163 priests in the arch 
diocese, Archbishop Purcell wrote: 

"One of the heaviest cares that we have bourne in the office 
imposed on us by Divine Providence, was that of providing for this 
diocese a sufficiently numerous body of saintly, learned and devoted 
priests. For this purpose we have spared no pains. We have in 
curred debts. We have written innumerable letters. We have made 
repeated voyages to Europe and knocked as suppliants at the doors 
of bishops and Seminaries. Had we succeeded to the extent of our 
wants and wishes, we would have, today, more priests and churches, 
and there would be fewer souls lost, and more saints in heaven." 182 

Two years later, when he had 80 students in the seminary, 
of whom all save one was for the Cincinnati archdiocese, the 
archbishop wrote in a more happy strain "that diocesan voca 
tions are as many, we thank God, as the wants of the diocese 
require". 183 

176. Letter, Rev. J. I. Mullon, Cincinnati, October 7, 1828, to Rev. J. M. McCaffrey, 
Emmitsburg (Archives Mount St. Mary College, Emmitsburg) . 

177. Letter, Rese, Detroit, November 9, 1833, to Leopoldine Association (Berichte, 
1835, VII, 1). 

178. U. S. Catholic Almanac, 1833, p. 51. 

179. Editor, Catholic Telegraph, May 16, 1840. 

180. Letter, Purcell to Association of Propagation of Faith, Lyons (Annales, 1843, 
XV, 365). 

181. Catholic Almanac, 1857. 

182. Letter, Purcell, May 29, 1865, to Clergy and Laity (Catholic Telegraph, XXXIV, 

183. Catholic Telegraph, 1867, XXXVI, No. 7, p. 4. 


Whilst the exertions of these priests were great and their 
sorrows many, God in his Providence allowed them not un- 
frequently to be mingled with great spiritual consolation. 
We shall single out but a few instances. In 1846, when Bishop 
Hailandiere of Vincennes was in Cincinnati on his way to the 
Provincial Council of Baltimore, he assisted Bishop Purcell 
on the afternoon of May 3d to administer the sacrament of 
Confirmation in St. Peter s cathedral to 795 persons, among 
whom many converts were to be found. The administration 
of the sacrament occupied them till 6 o clock in the evening. 184 
In the following year, on the occasion of the Jubilee proclaimed 
by the Holy Father, the number of persons who received Holy 
Communion in the city of Cincinnati exceeded twelve thousand. 
In that year there were at Cincinnati more Catholics than had 
been the total population of Cincinnati in 1832. 185 On Decem 
ber 31, 1848, upon the close of a mission conducted by the cele 
brated Jesuit missionary, Father Weninger, in St. John s church, 
Cincinnati, five thousand persons approached the Holy Table, 
there being among them fifteen hundred married men. A few 
months later one thousand young men received Holy Com 
munion upon one day in the same church. The bishop himself 
helped to distribute Communion, taking two hours to do it. 
On this occasion, the bishop could not restrain the emotions 
of his pious soul, and during the administration of the sacra 
ment wept tears of joy. 186 

As the complement of this chapter we have prepared several 
lists of the parishes and priests of the archdiocese. These 
lists may be found in the Appendix. 

184. Idem, XV, 150, May 7, 1846. 

185. Idem, XVI, 126, April 22, 1847; letter, Purcell, May 1, 1847, to Association of 
Propagation of Faith, Lyons (Annales, 1847, XIX, 524). 

186. Catholic Telegraph, XVIII, 6, January 4, 1849; Annales, XXIII, 106-107; 
letter, Unterthiner, Cincinnati, August 2, 1850, to Leopoldine Association, Vienna (Berichte, 
1851, XXIII, 62). 


HE wonderful development in the archdiocese 
which we have just depicted was due, not only 
to the zeal of the chief shepherds of the flock, 
nor alone to the activities of the many shep 
herds guarding the flock throughout the arch 
diocese, but in great part also to the pecuniary 
sacrifices offered by the faithful both within and without the 
archdiocese. Indeed, without this hearty cooperation of the 
generous Catholic, such a wonderful growth would not have 
been possible, for in the beginning, the ecclesiastical property 
of the diocese was inconsiderable. We have read in a previous 
chapter of the extreme poverty and dire needs of the first 
apostolic bishop of Ohio. "When I was made bishop," wrote 
Bishop Fenwick to Father Badin, "I had not a sou of my own, 
having used all my patrimony to found the convent of St. 
Rose." 1 According to his rule and vows he had to render an 
account even of all books and furniture, which he had been 
allowed to use previously. 2 With a few vestments and altar 
requisites, and some money for his journey to Cincinnati, the 
bishop came to Cincinnati at the opening of spring in 1822. 
"As regards money," wrote Father Hill, "we have none at all, 
and I desire to tell you that in the whole church there is no 
bishop as poor as ours; the cross, the ring which he wears he 
has from charity; the bishop of Bardstown gave him some old 
garments." 3 

On coming into Ohio as bishop, he found two log churches; 
one at Somerset, the other at Cincinnati, and a barn fitted up 
into a chapel at Lancaster. At Cincinnati, the only church 
then within the present boundaries of the archdiocese, a mort 
gage of $750 lay heavily upon the congregation which had 

1. Letter, Fenwick to Badin, 1827 (Annales, III, 291). 

2. Letter, Fenwick to Badin, 1823 (Louisville Archives). 

3. Letter, Hill, St. Rose, Ky., January 27, 1822, to Rev. Olivieri, Rome (Propaganda 
Archives, America Centrale, Scritture, vol. 929). [171 ] 


paid $1,200 for the lots upon which the church had been built. 
After a year s residence the bishop wrote: Although a bishop, 
I have no revenue but the rent of 25 or 30 pews in the Cincin 
nati chapel, which produce, at most, a yearly income of 80 
dollars." 4 

This situation became intolerable to the bishop, and with 
no prospect of success in Ohio before him, he resolved in May, 
1823, after consultation with the bishops of Bardstown and 
New Orleans, to visit the Holy Father to lay his case before 
him, and, if permitted, to resign his office. Providence came 
to his aid for his traveling expenses, a Catholic layman loaning 
him 300 dollars without interest. 

His trip to Europe proved a consolation to him spiritually 
and a success financially. The Holy Father Leo XII gave 
him $1,200, with ecclesiastical objects to the value of $1..000, 
among them being a purple chasuble arid a gold chalice, and 
recommended his poverty highly to the treasurer of the Propa 
ganda at Rome. 6 The Propaganda took up his cause generously 
and a trunk full of objects was gathered together at Rome and 
shipped to Cincinnati via Marseilles, the Congregation stipulat 
ing that the articles were to belong to the successors of Fen- 
wick at Cincinnati, whether regular or secular. 6 Like success 
attended his quests in other cities of Italy, France, Belgium, 
Holland and England, so that in all he collected on his trip 
$10,000 in money. 7 This arfiount was even surpassed by the 
value of the articles which he collected for the missions. Of 
these articles, ten trunks, containing the gifts of Italy and 
lower France, and insured to the value of 21,000 francs, were 
shipped from Marseilles in the fall of 1824; 8 twelve paintings, 
among them being a painting by Murillo, of St. Peter in 
Chains, which now hangs in the cathedral, were donated by 

4. Letter, Fenwick to Badin, 1823, ut supra Note 2. 

5. Letter, Fenwick to Secretary of Association of the Propagation of the Faith, Lyons 
(Annales, 1826, II, 92); Propaganda Archives, Acta, 1823, fol. 375 b; America Centrale, 
Scritture, vols. VIII and IX; letter, Cardinal de Somalia, Rome, June 26, 1824, to Fenwick, 
Paris (Notre Dame Archives). 

6. Letter, Cardinal de Somalia, June 26, 1824, to Fenwick, ut supra Note 5. 

7. Letter, Fenwick, October, 1825, to Archbishop Marechal, Baltimore (Baltimore 
Archives, Case 16, W 7). 

8. Letter, Perier, Pontifical Vice-Consul, Marseilles, August 12, 1824, to Cardinal Caprano 
(Propaganda Archives, America Centrale, vol. VIII); letter, same to same, October 28, 1824 
(Propaganda Archives, vol. VIII). 


Cardinal Fesch, the uncle of Napoleon. 9 Charles X, King of 
France, the day after his coronation, gave 2,000 francs to Cin 
cinnati. 10 Northern France, Belgium, Holland and England 
likewise contributed generously, not only in 1824, but also 
in subsequent years. A large gold ciborium, donated by Mr. 
J. M. Frere and wife, of Antwerp, is still serving excellently 
in the cathedral. In 1825 a collection was ordered taken up 
in all the churches of Holland. 11 On December 14, 1824, 
there was to the credit of Fenwick at Wright & Company, 
Bankers of London, a balance of 32 13:3: II. 12 Ecclesiastical 
ornaments, utensils and books continued to come to Cin 
cinnati in such quantities for some time that Bishop Fenwick 
himself had to caution his agents in Europe that, on account of 
his poverty he could not accept any more articles unless their 
transportation and customs had been paid. 13 That this was 
not an inconsiderable item may be judged from the fact that 
the charges on the articles which the bishop received from 
Europe in 1824, amounted to $1,600, a sum which he had not 
paid by February 1, 1826. 14 

The most fertile source of charity, however, was the treas 
ury of the Association of the Propagation of the Faith with its 
headquarters at Lyons, France. This society, which embodied 
the working principles of the sister of a seminarian at the 
seminary of St. Sulpice, Miss Jaricot, who had formed a society 
at Lyons in 1820, for the support of the Seminary of the Foreign 
Missions, was organized in 1822, at Lyons, upon the petition 
of Bishop Dubourg, of New Orleans. The alleviation of any 
particular mission was not, however, to be its sole aim. The 
Catholic missions wherever situated were to receive its alms. 
To this society Bishop Fenwick had his attention drawn in 
December, 1823, by Father Badin, who was then in Paris. 
Writing to the bishop of Cincinnati, then at Rome, Father 
Badin invited him to come to Paris to visit Monsieur Didier 

9. Letter, Rese, Cincinnati, May 5, 1825, to Cardinal-Prefect of Propaganda (Propa 
ganda Archives, America Centrale, 1823-26, vol. 938). 

10. Letter, S. T. Badin, Chelsea, London, August 12, 1825, to Fenwick (Notre Dame 
Archives) . 

11. Letter, Badin, Chelsea, England, April 7, 1825, to Fenwick (Notre Dame Archives). 

12. Letter, Rt. Rev. William Poynter, London, December 14, 1824, to Fenwick (Notre 
Dame Archives). 

13. Letter, Fenwick, 1827, to Badin (Annales, III, 292). 

14. Letter, Fenwick, Cincinnati, February 1, 1826, to Cardinal-Prefect of Propaganda 
(Propaganda Archives, Scritture originali, vol. 938). 



[CHAP, v 

Petit, the secretary-general of the association, who was dis 
posed to give him aid for his mission. 15 Coming up from Rome 
early in 1825, Bishop Fenwick stopped at Lyons in the month 
of May and took up his lodging in a small hotel When his 
presence in the city became known, he was visited by the 
President of the Central Council of the Association at Lyons 
and invited to attend an extraordinary session of the council. 
After an exposition by the bishop of the needs of the diocese, 
the council did not wait for the bishop to solicit aid, but 
decided at once to have the President recommend him to the 
grand almoner for the amount which the Central Council of 
Lyons had contributed to the general treasury at Paris. The 
bishop was then given 8,000 francs, with the assurance of an 
annual allowance according to the means of the society. 16 
That this was not an empty promise is to be seen from the sums 
mentioned in the following list, taken from the annual reports 
of the association: 

Year Francs 

1823 8000 

1824 12540 

1825 17600 

1826 9500 

1827 27600 

1828 20000 

1829 8610 

1830 13925 

1831 5600 

1832 5600 


1834 5610 

1835 17150 

1836 23620 

1837 18000 

1838 20727/50 

1839.. ..39827 


. .45200 

1841.. ..41820 


1843. . 

. . .28571/42 
. .50800 





. . 10530/36 








1851 19000 

1852 10000 

1853 20050 





. 8400 

1861 . 



1869.. . 1875 


. .33500 

Total 602846/28 

15. Letter, Badin, Paris, December 9, 1823, to Fenwick (Notre Dame Archives). 

16. Annales, 1826, II, 93-94; article, MISSION DE I/OHIO. 


Six hundred and two thousand, eight hundred and forty-six 
francs and twenty-eight centimes, valued in American dollars, 
approximates one hundred and twenty thousand dollars. The 
official report of the Society for the Propagation of the Faith, 
issued at New York in 1912, reckons the amount contributed 
to Cincinnati at $118,569.00. In considering this amount, 
one must remember that until the year 1847, when Cleveland 
became an independent diocese, it was distributed to all parts 
of the state of Ohio, and that until 1868, when Columbus be 
came an independent diocese, it was distributed to the entire 
southern part of Ohio. After 1869, Cincinnati never received 
any allocations from the society, but as early as 1852 had begun 
to contribute its share to the society for the propagation of the 
Faith elsewhere. It began its charities to the society with ten 
thousand francs in 1852, and up to 1912 had contributed 
$55, Oil. 64. 17 From 1912 to 1920 Cincinnati contributed 
$170,573.17. The two sums total $225,584.81, which, it will 
be seen, exceeds the amount received by one hundred and seven 
thousand dollars, a great credit, indeed, to the archdiocese of 

Giving this list of money has caused us to anticipate some 
what; we must return to the years 1825 and 1826, when Bishop 
Fenwick beheld himself the proprietor of belongings of the 
Church in Ohio, and in the presence of a difficulty which needed 
solution by higher ecclesiastical authority. He was the bishop 
of the diocese, and the money and articles which had been 
given to him by the Pope and the Propaganda had been stipu 
lated as property, not of the order of which he was a member, 
but of the incumbent of the office which he held, whether the 
incumbent were secular or regular. 18 On the other hand, with 
one or two exceptions, his assistants in Ohio were members of 
the Dominican order, and were acquiring title to the church 
property in Ohio in the name of the order and not of the bishop. 
This was creating a difficult situation, not only for Bishop 
Fenwick, who received no fruits from that property for his 
support, but more so for his successor, should that person not 
be a Dominican. The bishop felt the situation keenly and, 

17. Official Report The Society for the Propagation of the Faith and the Catholic 
Missions, New York, 1912. 

18. Cardinal Somalia to Fenwick, June 26, 1824, ut supra Note 5. 


seeing no other way out of it, resolved to have the matter in 
vestigated at Rome. In the following letter to Archbishop 
Marechal, he states his case very pointedly: 

Most Rev. and very dear Sir: 

I am informed that R. R. Bp. Dubourg is on his way to see your 
Grace and then to Rome. I regret much my absence from Cincinnati 
at the time he was there I have much to say to him, much to request 
of him to do for me when at Rome; to lay before the Propaganda a 
statement of my situation and that of church property in this state. 
I humbly request of you, Most Rev. Sir, to communicate to him what 
I shall here st^te and request him to obtain a decision and adjustment 
from the Sac. Congregation. Bp. Dubourg saw at Cincinnati all the 
property I possess in the diocese, consisting of the lot on which the 
church stands and the buildings, and if he was there on a Sunday, he 
might have witnessed all the income I receive from the whole diocese, 
which consists in the collection made in the church on Sundays, and 
amounts to 2 dol 50 cs and sometimes $3 rarely to 4 on those days 
not a cent do I receive other ways, or elsewhere, except now and then 
for marriage, a rare and scanty fee. I have once or twice received 
retribution for mass in all 5% dols since I live in Cincinnati. 

When I went to Europe I appointed R(ev.) M(r.) Hill my Grand 
Vicar, a Bro r Dominican; expecting he would act in all temporal con 
cerns for the interest of the Bp. of Cincinnati. I had the promise 
from a Gentleman J. L. of a donation of 1 or 200 acres of land in Brown 
County, O. 35 miles from Cincinnati. I expected the deed of con 
veyance would have been made to me in my absence it was made to 
R. M. Hill and society of St. Joseph s, incorporated by act of the 
legislature investing them with 200 acres. At Canton a church was 
built and 5 acres of land adjoining was also deeded to the same society 
by R. Mr. Hill s suggestion and influence. I had encouraged the build 
ing of the church and the collection of money for the purpose before 
my departure. At Zanesville a lot was given to R. M. Montgomery, 
and a church is built on it, and another lot is purchased by the money 
raised by collection, under my authority and recommendation. The 
Church and lots are conveyed to R. M. Montgomery the Bp. having 
no power or claim over it. In a similar manner, two or three other 
small churches and lots are conveyed to R. M. Young and R. Mr. 
Martin, so that the Bp. holds nothing but the Church and lot at Cin 
cinnati. All this was done in my absence and by a presumptive or 
tacit consent, on which the clergyman, my Bro r Dominican acted. I 
wish to know from Propaganda if it is correct, and if I can consent to it; 
or what is to be done. You will please, in case Bp. Dubourg is gone, 
and does not see this statement, to transmit the substance of it when 
you write to Rome and request an answer instructing what to do. 

I have penned this statement in haste that it may go by first mail. 
It is correct. I will consider a day or two and consult God on the 
propriety of repairing to Bait myself to consult your Grace and Bp. 


Dubourg personally on this subject and others. If I determine on 
going, shall set off, Deo juvante, after two days more, on horseback 
or perhaps in carriage. Could Bp. Dubourg detain few days for me, 
he will greatly oblige me. 

I am Most Rev. 
and very dear Sir 

Your most obed 1 

and affectionate serv 1 
Somerset, St. Joseph s t EDWARD 

26 May, 1826 Bp. Cincinnati 19 

Not satisfied with this, Bishop Fenwick wrote a statement 
of his case to the Propaganda, which on December 9, 1826, 
wrote to Archbishop Marchal, of Baltimore, to investigate 
and to report to Rome on the complaint lodged by Bishop 
Fenwick that he had no support, because the title to nearly 
all the property of the diocese was vested in the Dominicans. 20 

Before the middle of the next month Bishop Fenwick had 
decided on the course to be followed. He instructed Father 
Rese with his intentions, gave him plenipotentiary powers to 
act for him, and started him out on his way to Rome. He 
made him likewise the bearer of a letter to the Holy Father, 
dated January 15, 1827, of another to the Propaganda, dated 
January 12, 1827, and of a third to the general of the order, 
the last written by Father Hill, January 12, 1827. 21 

The petition in both letters of the bishop reads the same : 

"To put religion in our diocese of Cincinnati on a firm footing, we 
perceive no other means than that it become a Dominican province, 
to be governed by the Sons of St. Dominic alone. That this might 
be effected successfully, the following seems to be required: 1. That 
the bishop be always chosen from the Dominican order; 2. That 
some Fathers be chosen by the Holy See to assist him. 

"The reason why the Catholic religion can be firmly established 
in the diocese in no other way is this. From the cradle of religion in 
this province, the Dominican Brethren were exclusively the only mis 
sionaries who were wont to plant in the vineyard of the Lord and to 
irrigate it with their sweat; hence, whatever donations or legacies 
were made, they were given without a doubt to those Fathers and their 
churches. Wherefore, a secular clergy can by no means be introduced 
without great disturbance and danger to religion. Besides, it appears 

19. Baltimore Archives, Case 16, Y 10. 

20. Copy of letter, Peter Caprano, Rome, December 9, 1826, to Archbishop Marechal, 
in Copy Book and R.ecord of Roman Documents, 1784-1862, vol. II, 219 (Baltimore Archives) 

21. Propaganda Archives, America Centrale, vol. IX. 


congruous that those who have borne the heat of the day and the labor, 
should not be cast off in the evening. Moreover, it is most certain 
that unless you, Most Eminent Fathers, acquiesce in our petition, 
that this Dominican province will be extinguished in a protracted 
agony; for I shall then have the opposition of others everywhere, 
and the progress of religion, which now proceeds so prosperously, 
will be impeded." 22 

The bishop concludes by introducing Father Rese, to whom 
he gives full powers to act for him. Whatever Father Re"s6 
does for him at Rome, he ratifies. 

The letter of Father Hill to the general of the order at 
Rome presents the same condition of affairs, but points out 
what plan should be followed in giving a status to the order. 
He suggests the reunion of the two provinces of St. Joseph and 
St. Louis Bertrand so as to form one province, that of St. 
Louis Bertrand in Ohio. 

Provided with amplest powers to represent the bishop at 
Rome, Father Rese arrived in the Eternal City in May or 
June, 1827, and immediately set about the work assigned him. 
In his first letter from Rome to Bishop Fenwick, on June 30th, 
after he had spent some time there, he wrote to the bishop that 
it was impossible to say just how the affair would terminate; one 
day things seemed favorable, another day unfavorable. "Our 
affairs," he writes, "are of the same nature as those of the 
Jesuits, and if they decide in favor of the Dominican order, 
they fear of doing wrong to the Jesuits of Maryland. They 
have decided against them, and have obliged them to pay 
$800 to the archbishop; but let us keep this a secret. The 
Holy Father appears decidedly desirous of favoring the re 
ligious orders." 23 

In his second letter from Rome, on September 29th, he 

"I have written a rather long letter to Mr. Hill, and another to 
Mr. Mullon. In that to Mr. Hill I have explained how things go; 
which is, that they have written to Mgr. Flaget to obtain his ideas also 
on the subject. I hope that all will be decided according to the peti 
tion. If the Holy Father should wish to invest the bishop of Cincin- 

22. Translation of Latin letter of Bishop Fenwick to Propaganda, ut supra Note 21. 

23. Letter, Rese, Rome, June 30, 1827, to Fenwick, Cincinnati (Notre Dame Archives). 
In the property dispute between the Jesuits and the archbishop of Baltimore, the Propaganda 
decided in 1826 that the Jesuits should pay the archbishop of Baltimore, Marechal, $800.00 


nati with the vicariate of the order, then he will be the vicar; in which 
case, everything that the diocese possesses, will become property of 
the order, and having thus concentrated all its forces, the order will be 
very able to succeed in establishing itself. The general then will take 
every possible care to send capable subjects, as he ardently desires 
that the mission, of which the order has once taken hold, should be 
administered well. This will not prevent having secular priests in 
case of need, under condition, however, that they will not be able to 
hold civil titles to property, since all the possessions of the Church will 
belong to the order; the secular priests will enjoy the usufruct. 
Religious orders of every class may be admitted, because religious do 
not precisely possess property of the Church, which has been given 
pro cura animarum; but if they obtain donations, this will be for the 
education of children. I have always thought that there would be no 
other means of firmly and successfully establishing this mission except 
in doing what we are about." 24 

As a guide, the following schema of property of the Domini 
cans in Ohio was drawn up and deposited with the Propaganda: 

Place Houses Capital Annual 

Number Value Acres Value Revenue 

1. Cincinnati 3 4,500 

2. Somerset 1 1,000 320 5,000 300 

3. Canton 1 1,000 5 3,000 

4. Zanesville 1 500 1 1,000 

5. Bambers 1 100 400 1,000 100 

7 7,100 726 10,000 400 

"Observations: The value, whether of capital or revenue, is by 
approximation. The houses are inhabited by the religious, the mis 
sionaries and the monks; wherefore they produce no revenue. The 
place at Somerset is the convent of St. Joseph s. The land at Canton 
is valued highly, because it is in the city; it produces no revenue, as 
they intend to build on it. Land at Zanesville and Bambers produces 
nothing, for a like reason of building. Besides this, there is an unde 
fined revenue from the pews in the churches, the produce of which 
partly furnishes the clergy with the needed support. Over and above 
the churches or chapels, therefore, the Order of Preachers possesses 
seven houses of the value of $7,100 with no annual revenue; 726 acres 
of land, worth $10,000, with an annual revenue of $400. The entire 
capital amounts to $17,100." 25 

Nearly a year passed before a decision was given. An agree 
ment was then reached and signed on April 20, 1828, by the 

24. Letter, Rese, Rome, September 29, 1827, to Fenwick, Cincinnati (Notre Dame 

25. Propaganda Archives, America Centrale, Scritture, vol. IX. 


Cardinal-Prefect of the Propaganda, the Secretary of the 
Propaganda, and the Vicar-General, Joseph M. Velzi, of the 
Dominicans. A pontifical brief, containing the agreement, was 
prepared and issued by Leo XII on May 2, 1828. The agree 
ment covered six points: 1. The division of the provinces of 
St. Joseph and St. Louis Bertrand is annulled, and the older 
province, that of St. Joseph, maintained as the only province 
of the Dominicans in the United States; 2. Bishop Fen wick 
is to be both bishop of Cincinnati and commissary-general of the 
order during his whole life, the Pope expressly derogating from 
the constitutions of the order whatever might be contrary to 
this assignment; 3. If the bishop of Cincinnati happens not 
to be a member of the order, the order is to pay him from 
its funds an annual revenue of $300; 4. In future, whatever 
might be given by pious benefactors or others to the Dominican 
Fathers as such, is be belong exclusively to them, just as what 
ever might be given in future to the bishop or the cathedral, 
is to belong to the bishop exclusively; 5. The cathedral at 
Cincinnati, with lots and houses annexed, is to remain in full 
possession of the episcopal see; 6. The ornaments, however, 
and sacred furnishings, then in existence, are with the excep 
tion of those belonging particularly to the Dominicans, to 
pertain to the cathedral. 26 

Having obtained the settlement, Father Rse left Rome 
on May 23, 1828, after some kind of enrollment in the order of 
St. Dominic. 27 Aware of the intentions of the bishop of Cin 
cinnati, another diocesan priest, Stephen Theodore Badin, 
had entered the novitiate of the Dominicans at the Minerva, 
Rome, on April 21, 1827. He received the habit on May 5th, 
but withdrew from the order after six months in the novitiate. 2 8 

It was in accordance with the above agreement that Bishop 
Fenwick made his will on July 3, 1830, distinguishing the 
property which was to belong to his successor at Cincinnati 
from that belonging to the Dominican order. This will was 
recorded on October 1, 1832, and executed on December 4, 

26. Brief of Leo XII, Quum sicut nobis relatum esl, May 2, 1828 (authenticated copy in 
Notre Dame Archives; printed copy in Jus Pontificium de Propaganda Fide, IV, 693-697). 

27. Letter Rese, Rome, May 22, 1828, to Fenwick, Cincinnati (Notre Dame Archives). 

28. Letter, S. T. Badin, Minerva, Rome, April 27, 1827, to Fenwick; same, at sea, 
June 20, 1828, to same (Notre Dame Archives); letter, Joseph Velzi, O.P., Vicar-General, 
Rome, February 3, 1828, to Prior at St. Rose, Kentucky (Archives of St. Joseph O. P. Province). 


1833, by the Reverend Fathers Rese, Young and Ganilh. 
Property to pertain to the ordinary at Cincinnati included: 
(1) the church, houses and lots in Cincinnati; (2) property 
in Brown county, Ohio; (3) property at Hamilton, Butler 
county; (4) property at Tiffin, Seneca county; (5) property 
at Clinton, Portage county; (6) property near Norwalk, in 
Huron county; (7) property near Canton, in Stark county, 
and all the books, paintings, furniture and movables then in 
the church or houses of the bishop at Cincinnati, save those 
which were disposed of in the following schedule, wherein was 
listed the property which was to belong to the incorporated 
literary society of St. Joseph s in Ohio (the Dominicans); 
(1) the church and lot of Trinity church in Somerset, Perry 
county; (2) the church of St. John and two lots in Zanesville, 
designated in a deed made to the bishop by Stephen H. Mont 
gomery; (3) the church of St. John Baptist and lots annexed 
to it, and purchased by Fenwick in Canton; (4) the church 
of St. Paul, and lot annexed to it, in Columbia, near New 
Lisbon; (5) church and lot of St. Dominic in Beaver, Guern 
sey county; (6) church and lot of St. Barnabas on Jonathan 
creek, |M organ county; (7) church and lot of St. Patrick, 
Perry county; (8) church and lot of St. Mary, Lancaster, 
Fairfield county; (9) all the books in the bishop s house 
marked with the names of Robert Angier and F. Joseph 
O Finan; (10) all Dominican breviaries and other office books 
of that order; (11) the large painting, by Verschoot, which 
hung behind the altar in Cincinnati; (12) church and lot in 
Sapp s Settlement, Knox county, which had been donated to 
Fenwick by George Sapp. 29 

The third article of the agreement, which would have the 
Dominicans pay $300 a year to the bishop of Cincinnati in 
case he were not a Dominican, was to cause ill-feeling for twenty 
years or more, as the Dominicans declared it a burden which 
they could not bear. Father Nicholas D. Young wrote to 
Bishop Purcell that "the $300 was put in the brief to satisfy 
an old man, but it was never intended that the Dominicans 
should actually pay the burthen". 30 Late in 1837 (October 3d) 

29. Original will, Hamilton County Probate Court; printed copy in Supreme Court of 
Ohio, Church Case, printed records, vol. IV, exhibit 16, pp. 18-20. 

30. Letter, N. D. Young, St. Joseph s, Ohio, April 10, 1838, to Bishop Purcell (Notre 
Dame Archives). 


Bishop Purcell referred the matter to the Propaganda, and when 
at Rome in person in 1839, had a meeting at the Propaganda 
with the general of the Dominicans, who then offered the 
bishop the property of the Dominicans in Ohio, if they refused 
to pay the debt, which they had not paid for any of the five 
years since 1833. 31 The general then wrote to the provincial 
in Ohio to pay it. 32 But in 1842 Bishop Purcell had again to 
report to the Propaganda the refusal of the payment; where 
upon the Congregation of the Propaganda wrote on March 14, 
1843, to Charles Montgomery, O.P., prior provincial of St. 
Joseph province, to pay the $300, the Pope himself ordering 
him to execute the command. 33 On February 17, 1847, the 
provincial, Father George A. Wilson, replied to a letter from 
Bishop Purcell on the subject, that the bishop must be laboring 
under a mistake respecting the facts and intrinsic merits of the 
case ; about four years previously the Dominicans had stated the 
case to the Propaganda, giving the history of the decree, and prov 
ing according to principles of canon law that it was nothing less 
than "subreptitium et irreptitium" ; since which time they had 
received no directions either from the Propaganda or the 
general to pay. 34 In the summer of that year Fathers Charles 
Montgomery, O.P., and Eugene Hyacinth Pozzo, O.P., were 
at Rome, appealing for a review of the decree obliging them to 
pay $300 to the bishop of Cincinnati. Their arguments were: 

(1) that according to the constitutions of the order, the general 
of the order, Father Velzi, had no power to act as he did; 

(2) that according to the schema of 1828, their revenues did not 
exceed $400, which left only $100 for the province; (3) that, 
though their churches supplied something for the support of 
their clergy, the $100 was all that remained for the support of 
students, novices and lay converts to religion; (4) that the 
original schema was not correct, as the Bamber farm, valued 

31. Letter, Cardinal Franzoni, Prefect of Propaganda, Rome, January 13, 1838, to 
Purcell (Notre Dame Archives); Purcell, Rome, March 12, 1839, to Archbishop Eccleston 
(Baltimore Archives, Case 25, Q 9). 

32. Letter, Cardinal Franzoni, Rome, April 6, 1839, to Purcell (Cincinnati Archdiocesan 
Archives, Mount St. Joseph, Ohio). 

33. Letter, Cardinal Franzoni, Rome, March 25, 1843, to Purcell (Cincinnati Archives, 
ut supra). 

34. Letter, Wilson, Somerset, Ohio, February 17, 1847, to Purcell (Cincinnati Archives, 
ut supra). 


at $1,000, was said to yield $100 a year, 10 for every 100, 
though it was there noted that on account of building, little 
revenue was at hand. Likewise, in the description of the fields, 
the revenue was stated as $400 and the acres numbered 726 
the value of it was said to be first $6,000, then $10,000; (5) that 
according to the declaration made in 1839 by Catherine Dittoe 
Mark, the widow of the man who gave the chief farm at 
Somerset, the donation was given in such a way as to be for 
ever the property of the order. They added that according 
to the original agreement the province was to be allowed to 
acquire property in the future; but as all the land was being 
given to build churches on, Bishop Purcell refused to let them 
take the title to the property; he, therefore, did not observe 
his part of the agreement. 35 

Bishop Purcell was then asked by the Propaganda to make a 
statement of the finances of the diocese and of the Dominican 
province. As we have not found the decision, we can only 
conjecture it from the letter which Cardinal Franzoni wrote 
to Bishop Purcell on May 11, 1848, wherein he states that the 
Dominicans have again appealed to Rome against paying the 
$300, alleging the impossibility of payment. The Cardinal 
subjoins that the Congregation is going to give a final answer. 36 
This decision was given in a general session of the Propa 
ganda in 1850, when the Dominicans were directed to pay the 
$300, and not to postpone payment for the year 1850. Bishop 
Purcell also was asked for further information on the economic 
status of the diocese and of the Dominican province. 37 The 
bishop replied in the following April, and there ends our infor 
mation, as we have found no further sources on the subject. 
It is not unlikely that the payment of the $300 was allowed 
to lapse. 

As we remarked above, Father Rese left Rome at the end 
of May, 1828, passing through northern Italy to Vienna in 
Austria, where he was instrumental in forming an association 

35. Letter, Cardinal Franzoni, Rome, September 24, 1847, to Purcell; same, October 5, 
1847, to same (Cincinnati Archives, ut supra). 

36. Letter, Cardinal Franzoni, Rome, May 11, 1848, to Purcell (Cincinnati Archives, 
ut supra); letter, Purcell, Cincinnati, July 14, 1848, to Archbishop Eccleston (Baltimore 
Archives, Case 25, Q 20). 

37. Letter, Cardinal Franzoni, Rome, November 15, 1850, to Purcell (Cincinnati Archives, 
ut supra; Notre Dame Archives). 


patterned after the Association of the Propagation of the Faith 
of Lyons, which was likewise to prove a very great benefactor 
of the diocese of Cincinnati. Reaching Vienna in the fall of the 
year, he succeeded in having both the Emperor of Austria and 
the King of Bavaria proclaim the formation at Vienna of the 
Society of the Propagation of the Faith for the American 
Missions. 38 After working on the matter for seven months, he 
attended the first meeting of the Leopoldine Association 
towards the end of March or the beginning of April, 1829. 39 
The society was officially established, however, on May 13, 
1829, in the archbishop s palace at Vienna, under the protec 
torate of the Archduke Rudolph, Cardinal Archbishop of 
Olmutz, and brother of the Bmperor, and was named the 
"Leopoldinen-Stiftung" in memory of Leopoldine, Arch 
duchess of Austria and Empress of Brazil. It had for its 
object to support in a special way by prayer and alms-deeds the 
Catholic missions of America. In its organization it copied 
greatly its sister organization at Lyons, appealing to all classes 
of people, the ordinary alms being one kreuzer a week, which 
was given to a leader of a band of ten members. The money 
was transferred in turn to the cure* of the parish, the dean of the 
canton, and the bishop, the last despatching it according to the 
instruction of the Central Direction at Vienna. 40 

Cincinnati had not long to wait before it received munificent 
charity from this association; for on April 17, 1830, it was 
allotted 22,220 florins ($10,256.04), and on August 24, 1830, 
12,200 florins, and on December 9, 1830, 15,580 florins. As a 
result, the Athenaeum came into existence at Cincinnati. 
In the following list of money received by Cincinnati from the 
society we have been able to list up to 1867 only, with the 
addition of the two years 1884 and 1885. This list cannot 
pretend to be complete, for in some years itemized statements 
did not appear in the annals of the society, but one large sum 
was noted as distributed to America. 

38. Letter, Rese, Vienna, December 10, 1828, to Fenwick, Cincinnati (Notre Dame 
Archives) . 

39. Letter, Rese, Vienna, April 5, 1829, to Fenwick (Notre Dame Archives). 

40. Berichte der Leopoldinen Sliftung, 1831, I, 1-11; REV. FRANCIS J. EPSTEIN, The 
Leopoldine Association in the Illinois Catholic Historical Review, III (July, 1920), 88 ff. 


Year Florins 

1830 April 22,220 

August 12,200 

December 15,580 

1831 7,000 

1832 15,000 

1833 2,000 


1837 4,000 

1838 4,000 

1839 8,000 

1840 to orphanage for boys 20 


1842 3,000 


1844 5,000 

1845 100 

1846 3,000 

1847 Holy Cross Church, Columbus 1,000 

1850 4,000 


1852 4,000 


1856 Traveling expenses, missionaries 1,100 

1857 Mrs. Sarah Peter for two religious houses in 

Cincinnati 2,000 

1858 Traveling expenses, missionaries 2,600 


1861 1,000 

1862 1,600 


1884 F. X. Weninger, SJ 500 

1885 F. X. Weninger, SJ 500 

Total 119,420 

Estimated in United States coin, this approximates $50,000. 
But this was not all. On several occasions boxes full of re 
ligious articles were sent to the diocese of Cincinnati. In 1831, 
the Leopoldine Association sent to Cincinnati 3 complete sets 
of Mass vestments, 10 stoles, 6 altar linens, 6 cushions, 3 albs, 
2 rochets, 6 corporals, 27 purificators, 3 burses, 1 antependium, 
2 large Madonnas, other oil paintings and engravings, 3,000 
rosaries and crosses. 41 A second chest was sent to Cincinnati 
in 1832, this time containing 1 silver oil stock, 1 ciborium, 

41. Berichte,\83l,II,l6. 


1 Mass vestment, 2 albs, a piece of linen, 800 pictures, 19 large 
oil paintings, censor and accessories, 1 silver chalice, 6 towels, 

2 complete sets of vestments, 4 chasubles, 2 veils, 2 stoles, 
9 rochets, 4 albs, 126 pieces of altar cloths, 1 altar cushion, 
burse and pyxes, laces, 1,259 rosaries and crucifixes, 26 oil 
paintings, 29 large crucifixes and statues, 2,627 pictures, 
224 prayer-books, 304 prayers and songs. 42 In like manner, 
a chest was sent in 1833, and again in 1839. 43 

Another benefaction to the diocese, procured by Father 
Rese when at Vienna, is deserving of mention. On April 4, 
1829, Father Rese arranged with a priest of Vienna, named John 
Baptist Jeoffroy, for a legacy of a double nature to the diocese 
of Cincinnati. 44 The first was a sum of 2,778.75 scutata (or 
5,850 florins), which he deposited in 1829, with the Sacred 
Congregation de Propaganda Fide, which in turn was to pay 
to Cincinnati 5 scutata on a hundred, or 5 per cent, interest. 
At the same time he wished that this interest should be used 
to educate three students for the bishop of Cincinnati, these 
students after ordination to say two Masses annually for 
Jeoffroy s intention. Then in 1832, he deposited 2,394 scutata 
(5,040 florins) with Baron Badenfeld at 6 per cent, interest, 
to be paid by the nuncio of Vienna to Cincinnati to bring the 
Gospel to the Indians in the Cincinnati diocese. With the 
creation in 1833 of the diocese of Detroit in Michigan, which 
up to that time had been administered by the bishop of Cin 
cinnati, a difficulty arose in the distribution of this legacy, 
a difficulty which the Propaganda solved by having the nuncio 
at Vienna despatch the revenue of the second legacy (i.e. 2,394 
scutata) to the bishop of Detroit, whilst relative to the first 
legacy (i.e. 2,778.75 scutata) for the education of students, 
two of the students were to be chosen by Cincinnati and 
Detroit alternately, and the third by Detroit and Cincinnati 
alternately. 45 

For some reason or other this arrangement was not put into 
execution, but a part only paid by the nuncio to Detroit and 

42. Berichte, 1832, IV, 24. 

43. Berichte, 1834, VI, 53; 1840, XIII, 3. 

44. Letter, Rese, Vienna, April 5, 1829, to Fenwick (Notre Dame Archives). 

45. Copy of despatch No. 68, written by Sacred Congregation of Propaganda Fide to the 
Nuncio at Vienna, December 13, 1834; letter, Nuncio of Vienna, December 29, 1834, to Pur- 
cell (Notre Dame Archives). 


the other part to Cincinnati. This was done regularly up to 
1847, when political disturbances in Europe interrupted pay 
ment. In 1853, upon the order of Bishop Purcell, the nuncio 
paid the bishop of Osnabrueck, 951.30 florins, and again in 
1855, 240 florins; in all, 476.52 scutata. No payment was 
made thereafter, as a consequence of which Bishop Purcell 
wrote on November 20, 1869, to Cardinal Barnabo, Prefect 
of the Propaganda, that the nuncio was no longer sending the 
annual legacy. When at Rome for the Vatican Council, 
Bishop Purcell took the matter up with the Cardinal. The 
accounts were gone over and a statement rendered in May, 
1872, that from the interest which had accumulated on the 
two legacies, the Propaganda, up to 1871, owed 5,238.09 
scutata, or 3,334.56 scutata as revenue on the first legacy and 
1,903.53 scutata as revenue on the second legacy. Bishop 
Purcell was then asked to confer with the bishops of Detroit, 
Cleveland, Columbus and Marquette relative to its proper 
distribution in the education of priests. The report was made 
back to Rome on June 11, 1872, and on September 4, 1873, the 
Propaganda gave its decision in the matter. Relative to the 
first legacy, two burses, called the Jeoffroy burses, were estab 
lished in the college of the Propaganda at Rome. One of these 
belongs to Cincinnati forever, even if the diocese should be 
later divided into other dioceses; the other belongs to Detroit, 
Cleveland, Columbus, Marquette and any other diocese in the 
territory of the diocese of Cincinnati as it was in 1829; the 
dioceses to take turns according to time of creation in sending a 
student to the college. Such students then after ordination 
are to say two Masses annually according to the intention of 
Jeoffroy. Relative to the second legacy, beginning with 
1874, the interest is to be paid for the propagation of the faith 
among the Indians in the territory of Cincinnati as it was in 
1829, if there are any Indians in the territory; if there are 
none, then for wheresoever they might be in the United States. 
This agreement was approved by the Pope on August 24, 
1873. 46 

46. Letter, Cardinal Barnabo, Prefect of Propaganda, Rome, May, 1872, to Purcell; 
same, Rome, September 4, 1873, to same (Notre Dame Archives). It is interesting to learn 
that the first students sent to Propaganda college to avail themselves of the first legacy of 
Father Jeoffroy were two young Ottawa Indians, William Maccatebinessi and Augustine 
Hamelin, who in 1829 had been placed by Bishop Fenwick in his own seminary and then on 


A third society of Europe, which, like the societies for the 
propagation of the Faith at Lyons and Vienna, contributed 
to the archdiocese of Cincinnati, was the Ludwig Verein of 
Munich, Germany, which accorded a sum of money in 1841, 
for the new foundation of the Sisters of Notre Dame at Cin 
cinnati. 47 This was probably not the only instance of their 
charity towards Cincinnati, but sources of information con 
cerning that society have not yet become available. 

As a tribute to the beautiful work performed in charity 
towards Cincinnati by these three societies, we can do no better 
than to quote the tribute paid to them by Bishop Purcell 
himself in 1839. 

"Constant as had been the drain of the charity of Europe," says 
the bishop, "by the nascent churches of the East and West, that 
charity is still inexhaustible. It has enabled us to liquidate a large 
portion of the debts which we had contracted in the building of churches 
throughout the state, in the purchase of the orphan asylum, in the 
support of the seminary and maintenance of the clergy. It has fur 
nished vestments for the sanctuary, and paintings to decorate our 
churches. It has replenished our libraries with works of science, 
learning and piety; it has added to the number of our missionaries, 
men whose piety and zeal have induced them for Christ s sake, to 
abandon the loved land of their birth, the parents that doted upon them, 
and the flocks by whom they were honored with obedience and affec 
tion. They are now associated with the devoted priests who have thus 
far borne, unaided and alone, the burden and heat of the day, in the 
diocese. These are favors which call for our liveliest thanksgiving to 
Almighty God, and which should induce us to address our most fer 
vent petitions to the throne of grace for every temporal and eternal 
blessing to the various countries which have thus munificently respond 
ed to our call for relief and sympathy." 48 

Such generosity surely merits the appreciation and grati 
tude of our own generation, which ought with prayerful sup- 

April 10, 1832, sent to Rome. At the end of his first year at Rome, William died of the breaking 
of an artery in his chest, the result probably of an injury he had sustained in the United States, 
when a wagon had rolled over him. His companion did not persevere in his vocation, but 
returned to Michigan (Catholic Telegraph, I, 215, 302, 403; III, 71, 176); letter, Fenwick, 
Cincinnati, September 5, 1829, to Ravignon, Bordeaux (Annales, 1830, IV, 521); letter, Rese, 
September 23, 1829, to Fenwick; letter, Cardinal Pedicini, Rome, July 13, 1833, to Rese, 
Detroit (Notre Dame Archives). 

47. Letter, Brassac, Paris, February 16, 1841, to Purcell (Cincinnati Archdiocesan 
Archives, at Mount St. Joseph s). 

48. Letter, Purcell, Cincinnati, September 19, 1839, to Committee of St. Peter s Benevo 
lent Society, Cincinnati (Catholic Telegraph, VIII, 350). 


plication to beg the Lord to bestow a crown of everlasting glory 
upon the souls of those benefactors, now departed. 

But whilst great donations, which made the beginning of 
the Church in Ohio possible, came from Europe, it must not be 
forgotten that much larger sums of money and far greater 
sacrifices were offered by the faithful of the diocese. Most 
generous were the Catholics of Ohio in the institution of 
parochial churches, schools and orphanages. Lands upon 
which these buildings were constructed, were very often do 
nated for the purpose. Subscriptions for the buildings were 
given in large as well as small amounts by the faithful, while 
innumerable smaller alms for ecclesiastical purposes were con 
tributed in bazaars, fairs, picnics, musical concerts, lectures 
and parties. A list of Catholic benefactors in the archdiocese 
would become exceedingly long. A contributor whose charities 
were most bountiful was Reuben R. Springer, whose known 
alms-deeds reached into hundreds of thousands of dollars, and 
whose unknown ones, and they were many God alone knows. 

Besides the extraordinary means of income, the diocese 
had as its regular means of support the money received from 
pew-rents and the offerings on Sundays. No foundation or 
benefice existing in the diocese, it is easy to see how great 
amounts of money must have been realized in this way. Indi 
vidual bequests and legacies, too, have been made by pious 
and charitable Catholics, so that, though no steady source of 
income sufficient for all needs could be ever realized, God 
in his Providence has never allowed the diocese to want com 
pletely the means necessary for its support. 

But a dark cloud passed over the archdiocese on the day 
when it seemed as if the sun shone brightest upon it. A pall of 
gloom fell heavily upon it, and for a number of years it appeared 
as if there would be no silver lining to it. At last the sun 
shone forth, scattering and dissipating the sombre forces, but 
it had lost the brightness of its former splendor. 

Shortly after the ordination of his brother Edward in 1838, 
Bishop Purcell, on May 2, 1838, constituted Edward Purcell his 
attorney with full power and authority to act for him in all 
financial matters. 49 The bishop thereby turned over to his 

49. Copy of authorization, in Supreme Court of Ohio, Church Case, printed records, 
vol. IV, exhibit 9, p. 15. 


brother full charge of his own and the diocesan finances. A 
financial panic throughout the United States in 1837, which 
was felt at Cincinnati, had caused some of the people to de 
posit their savings with the bishop, who undertook to pay them 
interest on their money. This incipient business was then, in 
1838, placed in the hands of Edward, the bishop himself having 
little ability to manage financial affairs, and having a sense of 
his own unfitness in that regard. These deposits of the people 
grew, especially after several failures of banks, notably those 
in 1842, of the Miami Exporting Company and the Cincinnati 
Bank, which had issued irredeemable currency. As a conse 
quence of their failure, the people in their fury incited mob 
riots in Cincinnati, breaking into these banks, as well as those 
of John Bates and Noah Longee. 50 A more stringent financial 
panic occurred in 1857, resulting in the closing of other banks, 
loss of confidence in the banks, and heavier deposits with 
Edward Purcell, though he, too, had been put to a test, as we 
may judge from the bishop s words to Archbishop Blanc, of 
New Orleans: "Thank God, we, of the cathedral, are getting 
through the epidemic financiere bravely." 51 After the 
failures of 1854, the bishop had contemplated a suspension of 
all the financial activities of his brother and a liquidation of 
the affairs; for he wrote to Archbishop Kenrick, of Baltimore: 

"I have reason to bless God that my brother has been enabled 
so well to meet all the demands made on him in the crashing of banks 
and the failure of so many mercantile houses during the past year 
and this notwithstanding a most heavy outlay for our orphan asylum. 
Now, with the blessing of God, we anticipate easier times. I have 
property of no special use for any religious, or charitable objects in 
this city, which I could sell for at least $130,000. I shall, as soon as 
times improve, sell it, pay my debts, and have something, I hope, to 
invest for the contemplated college in Rome, or the Orphans. I think 
it better to do this than to have it taken out of my hands by some such 
iniquitous legislation as that of Michigan, actually consummated 
and threatened elsewhere." 52 

But the deposits continued and each panic served only to 
increase them. After the great disaster in 1873, precipitated 

50. Catholic Telegraph, XI, January 15, 1842; Goss, The Queen City, II, 184-185. 

51. Letter, Purcell, Cincinnati, December 5, 1857, to Blanc, New Orleans (Notre Dame 
Archives) . 

52. Letter, Purcell, Cincinnati, May 23, 1855, to Kenrick, Baltimore (Baltimore Archives, 
Case 31, C 15). 


by the suspension in New York of the banking firm of Jay 
Cooke & Co., the deposits with Father Purcell in 1875, leaped 
beyond a million dollars. 53 In the next year the treasury of 
Father Edward received a hard blow in the failure of John 
Slevin, who was heavily in debt to the bishop of Cincinnati. 54 
In the two following years, when several banks, among them 
those of Joseph A. Hemann & Co. and C. F. Adae & Co., 
failed for large amounts, a run upon Father Edward, which 
had begun in the summer of 1878, due to the pinch of hard times 
felt by the people, soon developed into large proportions, 
especially when it was rumored, unfoundedly, however, that 
Father Edward was heavily involved in the two banks above 
named. In December, 1878, when crowds clamored for their 
money at the cathedral residence, it had finally to be announced 
that there was no more money with which to pay. But it was 
never thought that final payment would not be made. It was 
supposed that the assets doubled the liabilities, which would be 
cancelled as soon as means were found to convert the assets into 
cash. 55 

On January 20, 1879, Archbishop Purcell concluded to raise 
what was thought to be sufficient money to meet the liabilities 
by means of a trust mortgage to five "Diocesan Trustees", 
P. A. Quinn, J. C. Albrinck, Joseph H. Rogers, F. A. Grever and 
Charles Stewart. By this he conveyed certain real estate, 
estimated at about one million dollars, to the trustees in trust, 
for the purpose of securing $700,000 worth of bonds, to be 
issued to pay off all the liabilities. 56 After working six weeks 
in auditing the accounts, the trustees discovered that the 
estimate of the liabilities was far short of the claims presented, 
which totaled $3, 874,371. 57. 57 Thereupon, on March 4, 
1879, with the consent of the trustees, eight of the pieces of 
property which had been deeded to them on January 20th, 
were conveyed by John B. Purcell to Edward Purcell for the 
purpose of being conveyed by the latter in a general assign- 

53. List of deposits, in Brief of Argument before the Supreme Court of Ohio by S. A. 
MILLER, attorney for I. J. Miller and Gustav Tafel, page 39. 

54. Letter, Purcell, Cincinnati, December 30, 1875, to Archbishop Bayley, Baltimore 
(Baltimore Archives, Case 43 A, M 1). 

55. Catholic Telegraph, January 2 and 23, 1879. 

56 Certified copy of mortgage, in Supreme Court of Ohio, Church Case, printed record, 
IV, 8-14; Catholic Telegraph, January 23. 1879. 

57 Copy of report of Diocesan Trustees, in printed records, II, 498-500. 


ment to John B. Mannix. 58 At the same time Edward Purcell 
made a general assignment to Mannix for the benefit of his 
creditors. 59 Then, owing to the action of the creditors, John 
B. Purcell was compelled to an assignment on March 11, 1879. 

One paragraph of the archbishop s assignment must be 
cited for its bearing on the case: "And whereas, I desire, in 
making such provision, to include all the property, real and 
personal, wheresoever situated, of which I hold the legal or 
equitable title, to the extent that the same may be subjected 
to the payment of my debts by any proceeding at law or in 
equity, and not including such property as is held by me in 
trust, or in which my interest is not liable to be subjected to the 
payment of my debts." 60 

In an inventory of the estate which was filed in Probate 
Court on May 23, 1879, by the appraisers P. A. Quinn, G. A. 
Roberg and Joseph Niehaus, the assets were estimated at 
$1,181,609.47, divided into real estate, $543,987.00; stocks 
and bonds, $45,874.00; moneys, $3,026.88; promissory 
notes, good, $176,795.24; doubtful, $241,741.04; worthless, 
$163,057.91; ground rent due, $662.19; household furniture, 
$676.60; office furniture, $40.00; cemetery, $5, 748.61 ; whilst 
the liabilities were estimated at $3, 735,432.03. 61 

Considering a settlement under these conditions impossible, 
and realizing that the various means which were being tried to 
collect money for the payment of the debt, were proving futile, 
the assignee, Mr. Mannix, entered suit in the Court of Common 
Pleas at Cincinnati, on January 7, 1880, which he followed up 
by a supplemental petition on December 4, 1880, for all the 
ecclesiastical property under the name of John B. Purcell, in 
the diocese, alleging that the debts were not the individual 
debts of the archbishop, but contracted for diocesan purposes, 
for which reason the church property was chargeable with the 
payment of the debts; that all the property in the diocese 

58. Deed, John B. to Edward Purcell, March 4, 1879 (printed record, IV, exhibit 1, pp. 

59. Deed of assignment, Edward Purcell to Mannix, March 4, 1879 (printed record, IV, 
exhibit 2, pp. 4-5). 

60. Deed of assignment, John B. Purcell to Mannix, March 11, 1879 (printed record, IV, 
exhibit 3, pp. 5-6). 

61. Exhibit No. 1 in Bill of Exceptions in re assignment J. B. Purcell to J. B. Mannix, 
No. 76278, Court of Common Pleas, filed December 31, 1887; Cincinnati Commercial, May 24, 


passed to him as assignee in the assignment of the archbishop; 
and, that there was no trust of which the civil courts could take 
cognizance, or assume control, or which could stand in the way 
of the ordinary course of administration of the assignment. 62 

This suit caused the clergy of the archdiocese to meet on 
January 27, 1880, with the consent of the archbishop, for the 
defense of the churches and institutions of the archdiocese. 
It was resolved that it was not the intention of the clergy, 
through their counsel, to withhold from execution any church, 
school, seminary, hospital, orphan asylum, or any church 
property whatsoever then in use in the archdiocese, when it 
could be shown that the property had been acquired by moneys 
furnished by Reverend Edward Purcell, or by the archbishop, 
and not repaid by the congregation. In the event that church 
property had been acquired or improved in part by moneys of 
the congregation and in part by moneys furnished by Rev. 
Edward and Most Rev. John B. Purcell, counsel was not to 
resist fair and equitable appropriation of such part of property, 
as determined by court. In cases where property was not ac 
quired by moneys furnished by Rev. Edward or Most Rev. 
John B. Purcell, counsel was instructed to make all fair and 
legal defenses to the recovery of the property by John B. 
Mannix, assignee, and to preserve the same for the congregation 
and the special creditors thereof. 63 The committee of the 
priests, representing the interests of the churches, then en 
gaged Messrs. T. D. Lincoln, Stanley Matthews and Alexander 
Long, of the firms of Lincoln, Stephens and Slattery, Matthews, 
Ramsey and Matthews, Long, Kramer and Kramer, to act 
as their counsel, and on October 5, 1880, entered into an agree 
ment with them to pay them a fee of $15, 000. 64 

Then, according to counsel, the various congregations filed 
answers and cross-petitions, wherein they represented that 
according to the doctrines and tenets of the Holy Roman 
Catholic Church, each church was unincorporated; that by 
the rules of the government of the Roman Catholic Church, 

62. Petition of Mannix, January 7, 1880, filed in Court of Common Pleas (printed record, 
I, 1-37); supplemental petition, December 4, 1880 (printed record, I, 200-235). 

63. Catholic Telegraph, January 29, 1880. 

64. Letter, Albrinck, Cincinnati, February 14, 1880, to the priests of the diocese; copy 
of agreement, October 5th, and letter of T. D. Lincoln, October 6th, to John C. Albrinck 
(Cincinnati Archdiocesan Archives). 


the naked legal title to the property was required to be placed 
in the name of the archbishop or bishop of the diocese, his 
heirs and assigns forever; the title, however, was held by the 
bishop or archbishop in trust and for the benefit of the congre 
gation so purchasing and paying for the same, and for no other 
purpose whatsoever. The plaintiff, Mr. Mannix, answered, 
denying that the several defendants and cross-petitioners had 
any interest legal or equitable in the property described, and 
he maintained that each piece of property was held by John B. 
Purcell free from any trust whatever, and was thus conveyed 
in the assignment to J. B. Mannix. 

For the trial, an entry pro forma was made in the Court of 
Common Pleas, but the action was taken to the District Court 
of Hamilton county, where it was heard in the months of 
April, May and June, 1882, so far as it related to fourteen 
pieces of property, which had been selected with the consent 
of counsel as sufficient to present the general questions of law 
and fact applicable to all. The trial opened on Tuesday, of 
Holy Week, April 4, 1882, and after sixty-six days of argument, 
ended on June 24, 1882. 65 On December 1, 1883, Judges 
Robert A. Johnston, Fayette Smith and F. W. Moore, of the 
District Court, rendered a decree to the effect that all the 
property except the St. Joseph cemeteries was held by John 
B. Purcell in trust for religious and charitable uses, and although 
the legal title was in him, it could not pass to John B. Mannix 
by the assignment, nor could it be subjected by the assignee 
to the payment of the debts referred to and included in said 
assignment; but that as to certain churches and properties 
known as the Church of St. Patrick s, Cincinnati; St. Patrick s, 
Curnminsville; the Cathedral; the Cathedral School; St. 
Joseph Orphan Asylum and Mount St. Mary s Seminary of the 
West, the assignee was entitled to recover whatever sums of 
money had been advanced by John B. Purcell or Edward 
Purcell for buying or building or improving, repairing or other 
wise maintaining the same; and that so much of St. Joseph 
cemeteries as had not been sold into burial lots or otherwise 
appropriated for the burial of the dead, was subject to sale by 

65. Transcript of docket and original entries, District Court of Hamilton County (printed 
record I, 291). 


the assignee for the payment of debts under the assignment. 66 
For the purpose of fixing the amounts due from the institutions 
named, and the amount of unsold ground in the cemeteries 
subject to the operation of the decree, the Court appointed 
Alexander B. Houston, Special Master. 

A motion for a new trial being overruled, 67 Mr. Mannix 
prosecuted error from the decree to the Supreme Court of 
Ohio. But before the case was tried in the Supreme Court, 
complications arose. Death had claimed Father Edward Pur- 
cell as early as January 21, 1881, whilst his most reverend 
brother had passed to his reward on July 4, 1883. Immediately 
upon a realization of the state of affairs in December, 1878, 
the archbishop had sent his resignation to Rome. The priests 
had protested unanimously against its acceptance by Rome, 
and Rome yielded; but it sent Bishop Elder, of Natchez, to 
Cincinnati, in April, 1880, with full powers of coadjutor and 
administrator. 68 

The financial affairs were in the hands of Mr. Mannix, to 
whom they had been assigned on March 4 and 11, 1879. 
But unfortunately, though all who knew Mr. Mannix, credited 
him with good intentions, some albeit doubting the propriety 
of his choice as assignee, Mr. Mannix took to speculating with 
the assets of Edward and John B. Purcell, as he began to 
convert them into cash. For nearly five years no report of his 
trust had been made to Probate Court by Mr. Mannix. Pro 
ceedings were begun in Probate Court to force him to file an 
account, which was effected on November 30, 1885, Mr. 
Mannix alleging $444,793.54 in receipts and $370,817.50 in 
expenditures. 69 Exceptions were taken to the account and on 
December 10, 1885, Mr. Mannix was ordered to appear for 
examination before Mr. R. S. Fulton, Referee. On the same 
day, Mr. Mannix resigned as assignee, 70 and Messrs. Isaac J. 
Miller and Gustav Tafel were appointed trustees, to whom 

66. Decree of District Court of Hamilton County, December 1, 1883 (printed record, I, 
302 ff). 

67. Transcript of docket and original entries, District Court of Hamilton County, Decem 
ber 1, 1883 (printed record, I, 321). 

68. Letter, Cardinal Simeoni, Prefect of Propaganda, Rome, March 21, 1879, to Purcell; 
Catholic Telegraph, April 10, 1879; January 30, 1879; April 24, 1879; April 29, 1880. 

69. Court of Common Pleas, Hamilton County, exhibit No. 2, Bill of Exceptions No. 76, 
278 (Court of Insolvency, Hamilton County). 

70. Court of Insolvency, Hamilton County, assignment docket, I, 98. 


Mannix was ordered to transfer his accounts on January 4, 
1886. 71 

The Referee reported to Probate Court on January 13, 
1886, and thereafter the hearing continued for some weeks, 
finally resulting in the finding of the Court on May 13, 1886, 
fixing the amount due from Mannix, as assignee of John B. 
Purcell, at $55,827.46, and as assignee of Edward Purcell, at 
$305, 827. 70. 72 Thereupon Mannix appealed to the Court of 
Common Pleas. 73 The case was tried before Judge Schroder, 
in April and May, 1887, continuing for thirteen days. On 
July 7, 1887, Judge Schroder gave his decision. Speaking of 
the acts of Mr. Mannix, he said : 

"It appears from the evidence that from an early period of his 
trust Mannix used the trust funds in bond and stock transactions. 
The document filed by him as his account professes to set forth in 
numerous items, his purchases, sales and income therefrom. His 
examination as a witness and his admissions unfold to the Court 
that those items, to a great extent, are fictitious, and that they were 
embodied in the account for the purpose of concealing his perversion 
of the trust and of deceiving the Court. No book account was kept 
of them. The memoranda of his dealings were upon slips of paper, 
which the assignee destroyed before filing his report. To unravel this 
part of the exhibit of his dealings has imposed a task of extraordinary 
difficulty, enhanced by avowedly false and fraudulent entries in the 
account. The evidence discloses that at various times the assignee, in 
stock speculations, deposited trust moneys and bonds as pledges or 
margins . Those deposits were swept from him by adverse fortune, 
and appropriated by his brokers or bankers to meet his losses. To 
cover these conversions, and to make his account present the appear 
ance of his still possessing these bonds, he made fraudulent entries of 
purchases of bonds, crediting himself accordingly with pretended pur 
chases of the same. He also charged himself, from time to time, with 
the imaginary quarterly interest received from these imaginary 
bonds. "74 

It was shown in his trial that Mr. Mannix had bought his 
first stock of this kind on August 3, 1882, consisting of 200 
shares of New York Central stock from Pitts H. Burt & Co., 
brokers, and his last purchase was on August 6, 1884. 75 The 
defalcation of Mannix was fixed at $314,410.91, but in the final 

71. Idem, p. 102. 

72. Probate Court, Hamilton County, Journal, vol. 151, p. 200. 

73. Court of Common Pleas, Cases 76278 and 76279, filed August 16, 1886. 

74. Decision of Judge Schroder, printed in Catholic Telegraph, July 14, 1887. 

75. Stenographic report of Referee Fulton to Probate Court, January 13, 1886. 


entries, made on December 30, 1887, John B. Mannix was 
represented as indebted to the estate of John B. Purcell in the 
sum of $53,903.33 and to the estate of Edward Purcell in the 
sum of $285,227.58, totalling $339,130.91. This then in 
volved the bondsmen of Mr. Mannix, namely Messrs. H. H. 
Hoffman and M. Clements, who had signed bond of $50,000.00 
in the estate of John B. Purcell, and Messrs. John Holland, 
George Hoadly, Charles Stewart and Michael Walsh, who 
had signed bond of $250,000.00 in the estate of Edward Purcell. 
George Hoadly paid $62,500.00 to be relieved of further re 
sponsibility. For the rest of the amount much litigation 

In the meantime, the original case had been taken to the 
Supreme Court of Ohio. On November 16, 1885, John B. 
Mannix filed a petition in error to the Supreme Court, in appeal 
from the District Court of Hamilton county. Archbishop 
Purcell having died, Archbishop Elder was made defendant. 76 
Mannix himself having resigned, I. J. Miller and Gustav Tafel, 
trustees, were substituted for plaintiffs in error. The trial 
was set for December 16, 1887, the firms of Lincoln, Stephens 
& Lincoln, Matthews, Ramsey & Matthews, representing the 
defendants, all the churches and institutions; and the firms 
of S. A. Miller, Hoadly, Johnson & Colston, Mannix & Cos- 
grave, Stallo & Kittredge, Wilby & Wald, representing the 
plaintiffs, the assignee and the creditors. The decision of the 
Court, which was given on the 21st of December, 1888, and 
read by Judge C. J. Owen, confirmed the decision of the District 
Court. A few extracts will show the tenor of the decision : 

"All the church edifices involved in this controversy, except three 
(which includes the cathedral) were severally bought, built and paid for 
wholly by the gifts of the members of the several congregations wor 
shipping therein, respectively, and others, for the sole purpose of public 
religious worship therein. To the purchase and building of the three 
excepted as above, John B. and Edward Purcell advanced money by 
way of loan, (and otherwise than as gifts,) which, as to the Cathedral 
and St. Patrick s Church, Cumminsville, has not been repaid. Except 
the money so advanced, these church buildings were paid for by con 
tributions from members of the respective congregations, and others, 
and the legal title vested in the archbishop, to be held by him in trust 

76. Petition in error, John B. Mannix vs. Wm. Henry Elder et al, No. 645 (printed record, 


for the use of the congregations, respectively, using them as places of 
public worship. 

"These congregations were not incorporated, or organized under 
any law of the state, nor were they unincorporated associations whose 
members incurred any personal liability; none of the congregations 
nor any bodies of individuals representing them, were so organized as 
to be capable of holding the legal title to the church property. 

"The other properties held and used for ecclesiastical purposes, 
asylums, schools, cemeteries, were, like the churches, openly, notori 
ously, continuously, and exclusively possessed and used for the pur 
poses for which they were acquired and deeded to the archbishop. 
But they were so possessed, used and managed by persons with whom 
it was impracticable to invest the legal title, by reason of the want of 
permanency in the personnel of their possession and management. 

"Except as to the claim of John G. Hendricks for improvements 
put upon the cathedral property, the central and controlling question 
in the case is whether the church property, including all the property 
above mentioned, is liable for the debts of the archbishop, contracted 
as above, and passed to the assignee by the deed of assignment. 

"A few fundamental facts to be kept in mind: The archbishop in 
his official capacity has made no assignment. The diocese of Cin 
cinnati has not gone into insolvency, nor have any of the churches or 
other institutions involved in this controversy. John B. Purcell, the 
individual, made an assignment in insolvency of all his individual 
property to an assignee to be by the latter applied to the payment of 
his individual debts. No property held by him in trust for others 
could, or was intended to pass by deed of assignment. 

"The questions before us are very similar to those which would 
have arisen if John B. Purcell, claiming to be in possession of this 
property, had brought suit to quiet his alleged title against those who 
now assert the trust, or as if, claiming to be the unqualified owner in 
fee-simple, had brought his actions against them to recover possession 
of the several properties held by them. The practical and substantial 
subject of the present inquiry is, have these supposed beneficiaries an 
interest in this property which they can assert is superior to the right 
of John B. Purcell or his creditors to subject it to the payment of his 

"The proof from the canons and laws of the Church is overwhelm 
ing that he was not invested with an absolute title to it as his own. 
It is practically conceded that he held it in trust; but the parties are 
very far from a concurrence of views concerning the terms of the 

"Was the dominion of the archbishop over this property such as 
to render it subject, at law or in equity, to the payment of his debts? 
The debts are, almost, if not quite, exclusively, such as were contracted 
in the business of receiving money on deposit upon the terms of paying 
interest upon it while on deposit, and finally restoring the principal. 
It surely cannot be seriously claimed that this important branch of the 


banking business was within the terms or powers of the trust upon which 
the property was held. It originated with, and was prosecuted by the 
vicar-general, Edward Purcell. The archbishop stated, among other 
things upon this subject, that this business had its origin in the failure 
of the banks, and the desire of the depositors that Father Edward 
should take their money and keep it for them, they refusing any se 
curity, but trusting to his integrity and good faith. There is no serious 
attempt by any creditor to trace moneys deposited by him into any 
specified property. There was but one fund. The book-keeping was 
crude and primitive. While some money deposited must have gone 
into church property, donations must have gone to pay interest upon 
and repay the principal of deposits. 

"The theory that these are diocesan debts to be satisfied out of 
diocesan or general church property, is untenable. The diocese is not 
constituted to hold either the legal or equitable estate in any property 
which is devoted to church purposes. 

"Our conclusion is that the property sought to be subjected to the 
payment of the individual debts of John B. Purcell (except so much of 
the cemeteries as was devoted to such purposes), was held in trust 
for others , and did not pass to the assignee by the deed of assignment." 77 

The great contention, therefore, that a considerable part 
of the money obtained from depositors, had been used in ac 
quiring property for church purposes, a contention which in 
the beginning had given the suits an apparently strong basis, 
was not sustained by the testimony in the trial. 

The trustees, through their attorneys, next made an appli 
cation at Washington, D. C., first, to Mr. Justice Harlan, of 
the United States Supreme Court, for a writ of error to the 
vSupreme Court of Ohio for the purpose of reviewing the judg 
ment of the State Court. This application having been denied 
with leave to apply to the full bench, it was subsequently re 
newed in 1889 before the U. S. Supreme Court, but was denied. 
The decree of the District Court, therefore, remained intact. 

In the meantime, the case had been remanded by the 
Supreme Court of Ohio to the Circuit Court of Hamilton 
county, which had succeeded to the District Court. Hearings 
were thereupon begun and continued through 1889 and 1890 
before the Master, who had been appointed by the original 
order of the District Court to determine the amount of the 
liability of the six churches and institutions and the St. Joseph s 
cemetery matter, as provided in the original decree of the 

77. Decision of Judge C. J. Owen, Supreme Court of Ohio, 1888 Mannix, assignee vs. 


District Court. It finally resulted in a decree of the Circuit 
Court holding four of the six properties for the following 
amounts, for which were collected the following sums: 

Amount Col 
lected includ- 
Decree ing Interest 

St. Patrick s, Cumminsville $ 4,901.30 $ 5,195.90 

Cathedral 114,182.92 120,042.26 

Cathedral School 15,442.48 6,547.41 

Mount St. Mary s Seminary 8,635.18 8,994.98 

$ 143,161.88 $ 140,780.55 
Sale of lots in St. Joseph Cemetery furnished $16,360.14. 

As soon as the trustees began to realize on their assets, 
the Court of Insolvency ordered them to pay dividends to the 
creditors. The first dividend of one and one-half per cent, 
was ordered on November 29, 1886. 78 Thirty-one hundred 
and eighty creditors received pro rata $56, 203. 15. 79 On 
April 13, 1888, a second dividend of one and one-half per cent, 
was ordered to be paid to the creditors. 80 On October 29, 1892, 
a third dividend of one and one-half per cent, was declared, 
and on this occasion $53,592.25 was paid to 2885 creditors. 81 
On June 3, 1893, Probate Court ordered a fourth dividend of 
one and one-half per cent, to be declared. 82 

Before the next dividend was declared, other unfortunate 
circumstances presented themselves. With the filing in Pro 
bate Court on August 1, 1898, of the seventh report of the 
trustees, Miller and Tafel, there was shown a total of receipts 
from the beginning of their trusteeship in 1886, to August 1, 
1898, of $355,401.27, and a total of disbursements aggregating 
$352,621.83, leaving a balance of $2,779.44. Exceptions were 
filed to this account on August 1, 1898, by the creditors of the 
estate, and on December 3, 1898, a Special Master Commis 
sioner, Harlan Cleveland, Esq., was appointed by the Court 

78. Court of Insolvency, Journal, vol. 110, p. 352. 

79. Book of Receipts, first dividend, Purcell Case (Court of Insolvency). 

80. Court of Insolvency, assignment docket, T, 100. 

81. Hamilton County Probate Court, Journal, vol. 143, p. 445; Book of Receipts, third 
dividend, Purcell Case (Court of Insolvency). 

82. Probate Court, Journal, vol. 147, p. 318; Court of Insolvency, assignment docket, 
II, 539. 


of Insolvency. 83 In his report to Court on May 31, 1899, the 
commissioner submitted that the trustees, instead of showing 
a balance of only $2,779.44, should show a balance of $44,- 
755.75 to the credit of the estate, as in their report of August 1, 
1898, they had credited themselves with unlawful fees to the 
amount of $29,731.75, and had omitted sales of real estate to 
the value of $2,743.76. The interest on these sums amounted 
to $9, 500. 80. 84 Judge Aaron McNeill, of the Court of In 
solvency, accepted the report and gave his decision accordingly 
on June 13, 1900. 85 On the appeal of the trustees, the Court 
of Common Pleas, on April 7, 1903, ordered the reduction of 
the amount in the decision of Judge McNeill, so as to make a 
balance of $15,000.00 in favor of the trust. 86 This then allowed 
the declaration of another dividend to the creditors, but of only 
one per cent., which was filed on April 7th, and allowed and 
confirmed by the Court of Insolvency on May 2, 1903. 87 A 
final dividend of one-eighth of one per cent, was declared on 
December 17, 1903. 88 In this dividend vouchers amounting 
in all to $3,249.16 were made out to 1717 creditors. 89 On May 
11, 1905, the resignation of Miller and Tafel, trustees, was filed 
and accepted, William List, to whom a balance of $1,763.46 
was entrusted, being made the new trustee, 90 and the case 
practically closed. 

Such was the legal aspect of the question. There was 
another aspect of it, however, which was not neglected by the 
ordinary or the priests. If, in justice to the donors of the church 
property in the diocese, the property could not be sold, charitable 
donations might undo some of the untold harm resulting from 
the disaster. In a diocesan synod held at the cathedral on 
Wednesday, February 19, 1879, when the enormity of the debt 
had not yet been ascertained and it was thought that the debt 
could be held to within $1,000,000, three plans for the payment 
of the sum were adopted. First, a diocesan fair should be 

83. Court of Insolvency, Journal 10, pp. 233-234. 

84. Report of Harlan Cleveland, May 31, 1899, to Court of Insolvency (Court of In 
solvency , Hamilton County) . 

85. Court of Insolvency, Journal, vol. 13, pp. 433, 463. 

86. Decision and entry in Court of Insolvency, Journal, vol. 17, p. 535 ff. 

87. Court of Insolvency, Journal, vol. 18, p. 20. 

88. Court of Insolvency, Journal, vol. 19, p. 7. 

89. Final report of Trustees Miller and Tafel to Court of Insolvency, April 21, 1905. 

90. Court of Insolvency, Journal, vol. 21, pp. 186, 230, 556. 


held every year for the purpose. At Cincinnati it should be 
held in May, and all the churches should be represented thereat. 
Secondly, a Diocesan Debt Society should be established in 
every congregation of the diocese. Thirdly, the archbishop 
should write to the bishops of the dioceses of the country, 
asking permission for some priests of his diocese to appeal to 
the charity of their spiritual children to aid him in this great 
work of paying off all the indebtedness. 91 A fourth plan was 
debated and considered favorably, though not definitely 
adopted, as there had to be obtained first from the State 
Legislature the repeal of a law forbidding lotteries. The 
Montana Lottery Company offered to undertake to raise 
$3,000,000 in one year, the diocese not being required to fur 
nish any money, or assume any financial obligations towards 
the lottery company. As great opposition was shown to this 
plan by the citizens in general, it was not accepted. 92 

In March of the same year a list of contributors from all 
parts of the country, Catholic and Protestant alike, was 
opened. 93 In April, upon the suggestion of a bishop, a list of 
contributors of $1,000.00 each, payable in ten yearly install 
ments, was opened. It was thought that 3,000 of such con 
tributors should be found in the country. The list was opened 
by twenty-two local subscribers, clergymen, laymen and 
ecclesiastical institutions. 94 On May 26, 1879, when the arch 
bishops and bishops of the country, Archbishop Purcell among 
them, met at New York on the occasion of the dedication of 
the new cathedral, means of helping the archdiocese of Cin 
cinnati were likewise proposed. A letter from Cardinal 
Simeoni was read, expressing gratification at the evidence 
already given of the Catholics of the United States coming to 
the aid of Archbishop Purcell. A statement was read showing 
the liabilities, assets and surplus indebtedness, and measures 
were taken toward arriving at a practical solution. In the 
address of Cardinal McCloskey, stress was laid on the willing 
ness of the creditors to cancel half or a great part of their 
claims, as a very large proportion of the debt was due to ac- 

91. Catholic Telegraph, XLVIII, February 20, 1879. 

92. New York Herald, February 28 (29), 1879; Catholic Telegraph, November 23, 1882; 
Cincinnati Daily Gazette, November 24, 1882. 

93. Catholic Telegraph, March 27, 1879. 

94. Catholic Telegraph, April 3, 1879. 


cumulated compound interest. The bishops assembled agreed 
to have subscription lists opened in every parish of their dio 
ceses for special contributions, to be paid at once, or in install 
ments of five years. In each parish a collection was to be taken 
up on some Sunday previous to the first of November, 1879. 
The bishops personally pledged $15,500.00, and an appeal was 
made to the clergy and laity in the country. 95 

We shall let Archbishop Elder summarize for us what was 
done in the way of charity up to August 29, 1892, when he 
wrote the following letter to an esteemed prelate for the en 
lightenment of the Propaganda. After a statement of the 
trouble, the archbishop says: 

"But probably the Sacred Congregation would like to know what 
has been done, and what it is proposed to do in the way of charity. 

"When I came here in April, 1880, I learned that at the first 
appearance of the difficulty, when it was thought a few thousand 
dollars would tide the business over , a temporary embarrassment, 
the priests contributed of their own, $14,000.00. Some of them had 
to borrow what they gave; and one of them told me last year, he had 
only lately been able to repay what he borrowed. Some lay gentlemen 
followed the example. Altogether $40,000.00 was raised on that 
occasion. They stopped, because they found the amount was too 

"A Bazaar was held and some $18,000.00 raised and distributed 
among the poorer creditors. I consulted the diocesan Council, talked 
with the prominent priests, and held meetings of the pastors. The 
common sentiment was that the law suit against the Church made the 
people unwilling to give charity to the creditors. On occasion of the 
archbishop s funeral, July, 1883, there was such an outpouring of regard 
and affection for him, that I thought we could take advantage of it. 
But the same difficulty was made. 

"Later on in 1889 [1886], we tried to overcome that difficulty by 
promising that the money contributed should be used not to make 
partial payments on the notes; but only to buy up notes entirely, 
and have them assigned to a treasurer for the benefit of the churches, 
in case the suit should cause the selling of the churches. Under this 
arrangement w r e collected $21,871.04, and bought up notes to the 
amount of $163,433.88. But the peoplis would not continue their 
contributions in this way. The common sentiment was opposed to 
these efforts which brought no conclusion. They said, if you can make 
a definite arrangement which will put an end to all the litigation and 
close the whole business, we will give liberally. 

"I undertook to test the strength of that sentiment, by soliciting 
subscriptions made on condition of terminating all the business. I 

95. Address of Cardinal McCloskey, May 26, 1878, in Catholic Telegraph, May 29, 1879. 


got signatures of priests for $11,000.00 and of laymen for $20,000.00 
more; some paid in cash without condition. Then I suspended my 
work, until I could see more nearly the fulfillment of the condition, 
that is, a conclusion of all the litigation. This is what we have done 
in the diocese towards raising charitable contributions for the creditors. 

"A number of the Rt. Rev. Bishops of the country whom Arch 
bishop Purcell appealed to at the consecration of the Cathedral of 
New York made collections and sent contributions to the amount of 
$65,000.00. This money was placed at interest and from this fund a 
great deal of relief has been given every year to the most needy of 
the creditors chiefly in monthly payments amounting to more than 
$3,000.00 a year. 

"What efforts have we made to come to an agreement with the 
creditors? As soon as the first decision was given in the lower Court, 
that the churches could not be sold for the archbishop s debts, I wrote 
to the assignee, that if he judged proper to be content with that de 
cision, and not appeal, I was ready to make solicitation for contribu 
tions; and I believed I could raise quite as much as they could expect 
to obtain by an appeal ; and they would save both the expense and the 
delay. I told him, if he thought his duty required him to appeal, 
he should put my letter on file; and perhaps in some later stage, they 
might think better of it. He made the appeal. 

"Soon after the decision of the Supreme Court in our favor, I was 
told that the assignee had said, if I would raise $250,000.00 he would 
take it in lieu of all his claims against the pieces of property which were 
indebted. My own conviction and that of our attorney, is that all our 
indebtedness to the estate amounts to less than $30,000.00. But the 
assignee expected a great deal more and as I expected to raise liberal 
contributions, I sent him word that I believed I could raise the sum he 
had named; and if he promised to accept it, I would undertake the 
work. But he drew back from his offer. And he did so a second time, 
when a gentleman had gotten from him a memorandum of what he 
expected, amounting to something more than $250,000.00. When I 
accepted that, he said he had not power to make such an arrangement. 

"Afterward a committee of creditors made a proposal that we 
should pay a percentage amounting to about $220,000.00 and as much 
more as I could obtain by a general appeal to the people of this diocese 
and of the country. I accepted that also; and signed an obligation 
to do all that I could to obtain generous contributions; if they would 
suspend their proceedings in court a few months, to see how I should 
succeed. But the meeting which had appointed that committee re 
fused to adhere to their agreement." 96 

This letter of Archbishop Elder had been provoked by 
inquiry from the Congregation of the Propaganda. In the pre 
vious June, the creditors had appealed to the Pope asking for 

96. Letter, Elder, Cincinnati, August 29, 1892 to (typed copy, signed September 22, 

1892, by William Henry Elder, Cincinnati Archdiocesan Archives). 


aid in the matter. It was not the first appeal made to the 
Pope by the creditors. The first had been addressed to him 
on August 24, 1880. A second was prepared and printed on 
September 16, 1882. 97 Archbishop Elder himself on February 
27, 1888, had addressed a very tender and appealing letter to 
the archbishop of Baltimore, begging him to use his influence 
with the Holy Father for some signal assistance in the matter 
of Archbishop Purcell s debts, hoping that thereby "that de 
plorable stain" might be wiped out. 98 

As we just noted, the matter had indeed gone to Rome, and 
after the statement of Archbishop Elder had been sent to the 
Propaganda Congregation in the fall of 1892, Cardinal Ledo- 
chowski, Prefect of the Propaganda, to whom the letter was re 
ferred, answered that Rome refused to interfere in the matter, 
because the courts had decided that it was a private debt, in 
which Rome consequently could not interfere." 

As a conclusion to the consideration of the Purcell Failure, 
as it came to be called, we might summarize the causes and 
effects of the disaster. When the diocesan trustees had 
finished the auditing of the liabilities and assets of Edward 
Purcell, they submitted their report at the beginning of March, 
1879, in which, after stating that 3,485 creditors had presented 
claims to the amount of $3,672,371.57, to which $202,000.00 
owing to banks and three holders of mortgages had to be 
added, they said : 

"As the system of receiving deposits has been going on for nearly 
forty years, and as Father Purcell has always been paying heavy 
interest, without receiving much in return, as the accrued interest was 
in many cases annually drawn and added to the capital, this compound 
interest has, in many cases, exceeded the original investment. In the 
absence of regular accounts, it is impossible to give an exact account 
of the amount of money paid as interest. 

"In all our investigations, we have found no reason to suspect any 
dishonesty on the part of Father Purcell, but we do find, in addition 
to the large amount paid as interest, bad investments, shrinkage in 
value, misplaced confidence, and unbusiness-like management are the 
causes of the sad calamity, which we most deeply deplore, and which 
we have in vain endeavored to remedy." 100 

97. Copies of the Memorials to the Pope, in Cincinnati Archdiocesan Archives. 

98. Letter in Baltimore Archives, Case 49, L 2. 

99. Letter, Elder, Cincinnati, November 1, 1892, to (Baltimore Archives, Case 49, 

Mil); Catholic Telegraph, December 8, 1892. 

100. Supreme Court of Ohio, Church Case, printed records, II, 499. 


In the various trials of the case, testimony was produced to 
justify these assertions. From the claims presented it was 
ascertained that between the years 1847 and 1862 the lowest 
receipts taken in annually amounted to $220,454.00 and the 
highest, $668,061.00; between 1863 and 1877, the lowest was 
$44,591.00 and. the highest, $1,011,675.00. The entire re 
ceipts totaled $13,349,847.00; this, indeed, from an incom 
plete record. 101 To begin with, this was too large a business 
for any one man to handle alone. And Father Purcell, besides 
his duties as chancellor of the diocese, and the editorship, for 
a time, of the Catholic Telegraph, was the sole administrator 
and clerk of the business. On the money received the lowest 
interest paid was 6 per cent., and on some 7 J/^ and 8 per cent. 102 
It was calculated that about two million of the four million 
dollars of liabilities were due to compound interest alone. 
When he loaned out the money, Father Purcell demanded no 
securities other than a note to pay. 103 Sometimes he gave out 
the money and demanded not a cent of interest in return. 104 
Worse, his system of book-keeping was crude and simple. He 
kept no book of bills payable, so that no record was had of the 
money loaned him and for which he was responsible, 105 nor 
had he a book of disbursements. 106 When noting interest on 
deposits, he would write out an entirely new note. When the 
auditors tried to disentangle the affairs, they had nothing 
more than the claims which might be presented by the creditors. 
Bad loans of money were made in business enterprises. Ad 
verse times, financial panics and property depreciation likewise 
added heavy losses. 

There is no doubt but that the archbishop believed himself 
authorized to deal in such a banking business, despite the 
prohibition of the canons of the Church to the contrary. Of 
this his own testimony and that of other witnesses in the trial 
leave not the shadow of a doubt. And this contributed much 
to the dissatisfaction aroused in the trouble. The archbishop 

101. Brief to Supreme Court, of S. A. Miller, attorney for I. J. Miller and Gustav Tafel, 
Trustees, p. 39. 

102. Answer and cross-petition of Besuden and Mann, in printed records, I, 37-40; 41-45. 

103. Report to Probate Court by Referee Fulton in trial of Mannix, January 13, 1886. 

104. Testimony of John P. Doppes, Supreme Court of Ohio, printed records, II, 343. 

105. Testimony of W. C. Miller, auditor for trustees, Supreme Court of Ohio, printed 
records, III, 1270. 

106. Brief of S. A. Miller to Supreme Court, argument, pp. 40, 41. 


placed mortgages on parish property without consulting the 
will of the parish. 107 That he had misgivings in this business, 
we have already shown. 108 It was just at that time, too, in 
1855, that he forbade the clergy of the diocese to receive money 
on deposit, or for safe-keeping. 109 

That one cent of this money ever clung to the hands of 
either the archbishop or of his brother, was a thought which 
even their bitterest enemies in this trouble never suggested. 
The inventories of their estates, as appraised and filed in 
Probate Court in 1879, are a striking proof that they both were 
then the poorest of the poor, and had always lived self-sacrific 
ing and abstemious lives. The estate of the archbishop, 
exclusive of the ecclesiastical apparel of his office as bishop, 
was appraised at $526.10, whilst that of his brother was ap 
praised at $111.50. 110 

That the effects of such a calamity were disastrous, needs 
no imagination to picture. Whilst there were some large 
accounts among the deposits, the majority of accounts were held 
by people who had labored hard to "put something by for a 
rainy day", and when this was taken from them, sickness, loss 
of work, and misfortunes in the family fell heavily upon them. 
Many became despondent and many fell away from the faith. 
Conversions became less frequent and more difficult. The 
ecclesiastical seminary had to be closed until 1887. Growth 
in parishes ceased automatically; only within the last ten or 
fifteen years have new parishes been formed to provide for 
large communities or new groupings of Catholics. New en 
terprises could not be considered. But the failure served, 
not only in the archdiocese, but also throughout the United 
vStates, to purge a growing Church from financial cancers, 
which would in due course have eaten ravenously into the 
organism of a healthy ecclesiastical body. It has served, too, 
to clarify the bishop s title to property, so that instead of hold 
ing title in fee simple, the archbishop of Cincinnati holds title 
in trust to all ecclesiastical property in the archdiocese, with 
the exception of property which is held by the various religious 
congregations and societies in their own corporate name. 

107. Answer of St. Gabriel s church, Glendale, in printed records, I, 155. 

108. See page 190. 

109. Notice of Archbishop Purcell to his Clergy, in Catholic Telegraph, September 15, 1855. 

110. Exhibit No. 1 in Bill of Exceptions, Court of Common Pleas, No. 76278 in re assign 
ment Purcell to Mannix. 



ROM the time of the Apostles, the regulation 
of faith and discipline in the Church has been 
largely effected by assemblies of the members 
of the hierarchy of the Church. Such as 
semblies have been provoked very often by 
errors of faith or abuses of practice in the 
Church, and have served, therefore, as a means of self-pre 
servation and self-defense to the Church. The proper object 
of councils is the determination of matters pertaining to faith, 
morals and discipline, so that should meetings of members of 
the hierarchy be held for other purposes, they are not desig 
nated by the title of council. 

As the Church is composed of various groups, such as 
dioceses, provinces and countries, various kinds of councils 
may be held according as the members are from any of these 
particular groups. We have, therefore, diocesan councils, 
provincial councils and national councils. Strictly speaking, 
a meeting of the clergy of a diocese under the bishop is not a 
council, as such a meeting enjoys the privilege of deliberation 
only. Hence, the term synod is more properly applied to a 
meeting of the diocesan clergy, deliberating mostly on matters 
of discipline; whilst the term council is more properly applied 
to the meeting of the bishops of a metropolitan province, in 
which all the bishops enjoy not merely the privilege of delibera 
tion, but likewise that of legislation. A study of both the 
diocesan synods and the metropolitan or provincial councils 
is one that is very useful to discern the condition of a diocese 
or an archdiocese. Therein are made manifest the obstacles 
which retarded the growth of the Church in that particular 
district, and the means which were used to overcome those 
impediments, to warn the faithful of danger, and to insure the 
attainment of the purposes of the Church of Christ upon earth. 



In the archdiocese of Cincinnati there have been held both 
diocesan synods and provincial councils, though their number 
has not been large. As regards the diocesan synods, records of 
few of them have come down to us. In the earlier days much 
formality did not attend them. Generally, they accompanied 
the holding of a spiritual retreat for the clergy of the diocese, 
and up to 1865 no written record had been made, either of their 
convocation and meeting, or of their deliberations. That 
they were held, we have no doubt. One was held by Bishop 
Purcell and thirteen priests of the diocese on the days of 
November 19 to 21, 1837. Five sessions were held on the three 
days. The Catholic Telegraph, of November 23, 1837, informs 
us that "the utmost harmony prevailed during, as well as before 
and after its sessions, and we cherish a confident hope, relying 
upon Him who alone can begin and perfect any good work, 
that this edifying assemblage of the clergy will result in sub 
stantial blessings and a great increase of holiness throughout 
the various congregations of the diocese". But we are left in 
darkness as to the questions discussed or the decrees promul 
gated in the synod. Father Joseph Stokes, who had been 
commissioned to write up the synod, complained to Bishop 
Purcell that he could not perform his task, since Father Badin 
had taken the notes of the synod along with him to Kentucky. * 
The Telegraph records another diocesan synod held at Cin 
cinnati, October 17, 1857, when diocesan conferences were 
established at Columbus and Dayton. 2 Lastly, the first col 
lection of diocesan laws, which was made in 1865 in the synod 
of that year, held from Sunday, September 3d, to Tuesday, 
September 5th, entitled Statuta Dioecesana ab Illustrissimo 
et Reverendissimo P. D. Joanne Baptista Purcell, Archiepiscopo 
Cincinnatensi, in Variis Synodis, Quae Hue Usque in Ecclesia 
Sua Cathedrali Vel in Sacello Seminarii, Celebratae Sunt, 
Lata et Promulgata (Diocesan Statutes, enacted and promul 
gated by the Most Reverend John Baptist Purcell, Archbishop 
of Cincinnati, in various synods, which have been celebrated 
up to the present time [1865] in his Cathedral Church or 
Seminary Chapel), recognizes the holding of various synods 

1. Letter, Joseph Stokes, Cincinnati, December 19, 1838, to Purcell, Rome (Cincinnati 
Archdiocesan Archives at Mount St. Joseph s). 

2. Catholic Telegraph, 1857, XXVI, No. 43, p. 4; 1859, XXVIII, January 29, 1859. 


without a written record of the deliberations and enact 

The synod of 1865 was solemnly opened on Sunday, Sep 
tember 3d, with Pontifical High Mass, celebrated in the pres 
ence of Archbishop Purcell and the bishops of Philadelphia and 
Mobile, by Right Reverend Sylvester Rosecrans, auxiliary- 
bishop of Cincinnati. The synod was opened immediately 
after by the most reverend archbishop according to the pre 
scriptions of the Roman Pontifical. The second session was 
held on the next day, Monday, September 4th, and the last 
session on Tuesday, September 5th. The priests attending the 
synod numbered seventy-seven. The collection of laws made 
at that synod and at the previous synods was classified into 
three sections, according to the triple object of the sacerdotal 
state, viz.: divine worship, edification of the people, and per 
sonal sanctification of the priest. In the first section, consider 
ation is given to the preparations for properly building a 
church, to the correct furnishing of the interior of the church, 
and the instruments serving for the celebration of the sacrifice 
of the Mass. In the second section, the administration of each 
sacrament is considered, the proper administration demanded 
and pointed out., and various abuses singled out for eradication. 
In the second part of the same section, the legislation concerns 
preaching, the management of schools, and the management 
of churches by means of church wardens. In the third section, 
precepts and admonitions are given to the priests for the regu 
lation of their own lives, for the practice of virtue, and the 
avoidance of vice. Prayer, work, charity, chastity, justice, pru 
dence, simplicity, fortitude, temperance, study, and knowledge 
of their flock form the topics of legislation of this last section. 3 
Serious abuses hardly existed, if we are to judge from the 
regulations of this synod. The wearing of beards by some of 
the priests was a practice which it was thought should be 
abrogated, and the ancient law of the Western Church in that 
regard observed. 

The next diocesan synod of Cincinnati, which was given 
the title of second diocesan synod, was held in 1886, though 
other informal synods, if we may use the term, were held before 
that, as e.g., the synod held after the retreat of August 23 to 29, 

3. Statuta Dioecesana, Cincinnati, 1865. 


1868. On that occasion Archbishop Purcell held a synod, pro 
mulgating the laws of the Plenary Council of Baltimore, 1866, 
as amended by Rome, and legislating on other matters in his 
own diocese. 4 But it is most likely that no synod in the strict 
sense of the word was held on that occasion. The title of 
second diocesan synod belongs, therefore, to the synod which 
was convoked by Archbishop Elder on September 13, 1886, 
and opened on October 19th of that year in St. Peter s cathe 
dral, Cincinnati. The order of the Roman Pontifical was 
followed as in 1865, and the synod opened after Pontifical High 
Mass by the archbishop. The sessions, attended by one 
hundred and seventy priests, continued for three days, closing 
on Thursday, October 21, 1886. The legislation of this synod 
was drawn up in two sections: the duties of priests in spiritual 
matters, and the duties of priests in temporal matters. We 
shall select, however, such points only as serve to bring into 
relief the differentiating features of this synod from its pre 
decessor. The purpose of this synod was to give organiza 
tion to the diocese, or rather to systematize the various ele 
ments in the diocese. To this end several enactments were 
made. Nine parishes of the diocese were made irremovable, 
viz.: Holy Trinity, St. Joseph s, St. Patrick s, St. Mary s, 
and St. Paul s, in Cincinnati; Emmanuel and St. Joseph s, in 
Dayton; St. Raphael s, Springfield, and St. Mary s, Urbana. 
The diocese was divided into four parts or deaneries, a dean 
being placed over each part. The first deanery embraced the 
county of Hamilton; the second, the counties of Brown, 
Clermont, Adams, Highland, Butler, Warren, Clinton, Preble, 
and the western sections of the counties of Ross, Scioto and 
Pike; the third, the counties of Montgomery, Fayette, Green, 
Madison, Darke, Shelby and Mercer; and the fourth, the 
counties of Miami, Champaign, Logan, Union, Marion, Aug- 
laize and Hardin. In these districts ecclesiastical conferences 
were to be held; to render them more effective, Hamilton 
county was divided into three sections. The number of 
synodal examiners was placed at ten; that of diocesan con- 
suitors at six; their mode of choice was likewise prescribed. 
The organization of the diocesan chancery and curia was 
effected. Of the vices existing among the people, the synod 

4. Catholic Telegraph, September 2, 1868. 


inveighed very strongly against two, blasphemy and intemper 
ance, proposing very apt means for the uprooting of the two 
bad habits. Finally, on the morning of the last session, Arch 
bishop Elder appealed to the clergy to use all their might in 
trying to pay off the debt of the deceased Archbishop Purcell, 
even though justice did not bind them to its cancellation. It 
was as a result of this appeal that a commission consisting of 
the consultors, the synodal examiners, the deans, and the 
vicar-general was appointed, and many thousands of dollars 
obtained towards the settlement of many claims of the credit 
ors. 5 

After a lapse of twelve years from the holding of the second 
synod, Archbishop Elder appointed four priests, Fathers John 
C. Albrinck, John B. Murray, Aemilian Sele and Henry 
Moeller to examine the diocesan statutes for revision. Having 
received their report, the archbishop took counsel with his 
consultors, who advised consultation with all the priests on the 
principal points. Accordingly, a letter containing twelve 
questions was sent to the priests on November 4, 1897. After 
the receipt of their answers by December 8th, new meetings 
were held with the four priests and the consultors, by whom a 
printed copy of the proposed new statutes was prepared and 
sent out to the priests for opinions on July 18, 1898. On 
July 21, 1898, the archbishop announced the convocation of a 
synod for November 9th, of that year. The answers of the 
priests having been received by September 1st, several correc 
tions were made in the proposed statutes, which were then 
submitted on the day of the synod, November 9th, and accepted 
as the particular law of the diocese. One hundred and ninety- 
four priests attended the synod, which was held on one day 
only, the morning session being taken up with the Pontifical 
High Mass and the opening of the synod according to the Roman 
Pontifical. The afternoon session was devoted to the publica 
tion of the decrees and of the officials of the curia. 

The order followed in the composition of the decrees was 
the same as that of the second synod, viz. : two sections, one 
concerning the duties of priests in spiritual affairs, and the 
other in temporal affairs. The former decrees were in the 
main repeated, slight additions being made to accommodate 

5. Acta et Decreta Synodi Secundae Cincinnatensis, 1886. 


them to the times. Two parishes, St. Francis de Sales, Cin 
cinnati, and Holy Trinity, Dayton, were added to the nine 
irremovable parishes of the former synod; the number of 
synodal examiners was raised from ten to twelve, whilst that 
of the deans was reduced from four to three. The first deanery, 
that of Cincinnati, embraced the counties of Hamilton, Butler, 
Clermont, Warren, Brown, Clinton, Adams, Highland, and the 
western portions of Scioto, Pike and Ross ; the second, that of 
Springfield, embraced the counties of Union, Champaign, 
Clarke, Madison, Preble, Montgomery, Green and Fayette; 
and the third, that of Sidney, embraced the counties of Mercer, 
Hardin, Auglaize, Marion, Logan, Shelby, Darke and Miami. 6 
In order to make conditions in the archdiocese conform to 
the standard of the new code of Canon Law, Archbishop Moeller 
in the spring of 1919 proposed to his consultors the holding of 
the fourth diocesan synod. Acting upon the suggestion, the 
consultors met regularly to discuss in order the regulations of 
the last synod of 1898, so as to reform them wherever necessary. 
Their work continued for about a year, when a printed copy of 
the proposed legislation was sent to the priests of the diocese 
for corrections and recommendations. The various enact 
ments formed subjects of discussion likewise at the clerical 
conferences in the spring of 1920. When the reports of the 
priests had been received, the consultors met again to prepare 
the final draft of the new diocesan law. The letter of indic- 
tion, announcing the date for the holding of the synod as De 
cember 14, 1920, and inviting all priests to attend, was sent out 
by the archbishop on November 18th. At nine o clock in the 
morning of the day appointed, the synod was opened by the 
archbishop with the celebration of Pontifical High Mass, which 
was attended by about two hundred priests. In the session 
which followed immediately, profession of faith was made by all 
present, whereupon the secretary was instructed to read the 
changes which had been effected in the statutes according to 
the suggestions made by the clergy. By a secret ballot the 
statutes were then approved. Following a recess of an hour, 
a second session was held in the afternoon, when the diocesan 
officials took the oath of office to which they had been ap 
pointed. The synod closed with the declaration of the arch- 

6. Synodus Dioecesana Cincinnatensis Tertia, habita die 9a Novembris, 1898. 


bishop that the statutes were diocesan law, to go into effect 
on the first Sunday of Lent, 1921 ; with an exhortation to the 
priests for the observance of the new law; and with the bene 
diction as prescribed by the Roman Pontifical. 

The number of diocesan synods has indeed been small, only 
four having been held. But the need of conciliar legislation 
was supplied by the five provincial councils of Cincinnati, held 
in 1855, 1858, 1861, 1882 and 1889. As the diocesan synods 
were held in 1865, 1886, 1898 and 1920, the gaps which might 
otherwise appear, have been suitably abridged. 

After a preparatory session in the archbishop s residence, 
on Saturday afternoon, May 12, 1855, the First Provincial 
Council of Cincinnati was solemnly opened with Pontifical 
High Mass, celebrated by Archbishop Purcell on Sunday, 
May 13th. All the bishops of the Cincinnati province, as it 
was then constituted of the sees of Cincinnati, Cleveland, 
Covington, Louisville, Vincennes, Detroit and the vicariate- 
apostolic of Upper Michigan, were present. The superiors 
of the Dominicans, the Franciscans, the Jesuits, the Fathers of 
the Holy Cross and of the Precious Blood likewise attended. 
Bishop Martin J. Spalding and Father J. Frederic Wood were 
the promoters of the council. During the course of the week 
there were held, besides the solemn sessions prescribed by the 
Roman Pontifical, four private and five public sessions, in 
which free discussion on many topics ensued. In the decrees 
which resulted from these discussions, the council petitioned 
Rome for the erection of the vicariate-apostolic of Upper 
Michigan into a diocese to be called Sault Ste. Marie, and the 
division of the diocese of Vincennes, Indiana, into two dioceses, 
the diocese of Fort Wayne to embrace the northern half of the 
state. For the double purpose of obtaining a sufficiently large 
corps of professors and body of students, it was determined to 
make the seminary of Mount St. Mary at Cincinnati a provincial 
seminary, without, however, abolishing any of the diocesan 
seminaries. During the discussions on the subject each bishop 
of the province promised to send at least two students to Cin 
cinnati. A board of seminary administration of five bishops 
was appointed, the bishops of Detroit and Upper Michigan 
being relieved of serving on account of the distance from Cin 
cinnati. To enhance further the dignity of the provincial 


seminary, Rome was petitioned to make it a pontifical seminary 
in some way or other, allowing it to confer doctorate degrees 
in philosophy and theology. To this petition Rome answered 
through the Cardinal-Prefect of the Propaganda that the peti 
tion had been deferred. 7 To provide for students in a pre 
paratory seminary a similar arrangement was made, a pro 
vincial preparatory seminary being determined upon, and St. 
Thomas seminary at Bardstown, Ky., selected. Other salu 
tary decrees were passed concerning annual or biennial clerical 
retreats, support of the bishop, loans of money to priests for 
safe-keeping, the support of infirm priests, the practice of 
medicine by priests, the erection and support of parochial 
schools, the support of foundlings, orphans, the infirm, the deaf, 
the dumb, and the blind, and the transfer of priests from one 
diocese to the other, or by religious superiors without the 
knowledge of the bishop. 8 

With the exception of the decree relating to the pontifical 
seminary and the privilege of conferring degrees, the decrees 
were accepted practically as adopted, and a letter of appro 
bation was sent from Rome on February 16, 1857. On Shrove 
Tuesday of the following year Archbishop Purcell formally 
published the decrees as approved by Rome. 9 

Having determined upon the holding of a second provincial 
council, which was to be opened on the fourth Sunday after 
Easter in 1858, the council was solemnly closed on Sunday 
morning, May 20th, with Pontifical High Mass celebrated by 
Bishop Lefevre, administrator of Detroit. 

Conformable to this determination the Second Provincial 
Council was solemnly opened on May 2, 1858, in the same 
manner as on the first occasion, Archbishop Purcell celebrating 
the Mass of the Holy Ghost, and Bishop Spalding preaching 
the sermon. The number of the bishops attending was in 
creased by one, the diocese of Fort Wayne having been erected 
the previous year. To Bishop Spalding, of Louisville, again 
fell the office of promoter of the council, an office which he was 
to fill likewise in the next council of 1861. Four public and six 
private sessions were held during the course of the week, as a 

7. Letter, Cardinal Barnabo, Rome, February 16, 1857, to Archbishop Purcell. 

8. Concilium Cincinnatense Provinciale I, habitum anno 1855 (Collectio Lacensis, torn 
III, 183-202). 

9. Catholic Telegraph, February 20, 1858. 


result of which thirteen decrees were enacted. Besides con 
sidering questions connected with the administration of the 
sacraments, the Fathers of the council gave much consideration 
to the question of education. So much importance was at 
tached to the establishment of parochial schools, that pastors 
were obligated under pain of mortal sin to provide a parochial 
school wherever conditions warranted. To render the schools 
efficient, the Holy Father was petitioned to commend to the 
superior of the Congregation of Christian Schools the estab 
lishment of a normal school within the province of Cincinnati. 
To appeal to the spiritual interests of the children, the Associa 
tion of the Holy Childhood for the redemption of children was 
ordered to be established in all the schools of the province. 
To induce uniformity in the celebration of feasts in the province, 
Rome was petitioned that the dioceses of Vincennes and Fort 
Wayne might add to the four feasts of precept which they 
observed, the feasts of the Circumcision, Epiphany, Corpus 
Christi and the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin. The two 
great evils, mixed marriages and intemperance, both productive 
of disastrous results to religion as well as to individuals, were 
made subjects of caution. To strengthen the tone of morality 
among the people, pious confraternities and the conducting of 
parochial missions at regular intervals were recommended. 
The acts and decrees of the council received approbation from 
the Congregation of the Propaganda on September 28th, and 
from Pope Pius I X on October 3d, a decree to that effect being 
issued on November 10, 1858. 10 

Three years having elapsed, the Third Provincial Council 
of Cincinnati was solemnly opened on April 28, 1861, and was 
held during the ensuing week. The same bishops as had at 
tended the council of 1858 were in session during this council. 
A greater variety and number of topics, however, occupied 
the attention of the Fathers, though only a few of them passed 
into legislation. * Besides several mandates relative to sacer 
dotal conduct, the Fathers of the council ordered the teaching 
of Gregorian music in the parochial schools and the introduc 
tion of boy choirs in the divine offices; the proper instruction 
of youth for Confession and Communion; the manner of 

10. Concilium Cincinnatense Provinciale II, habitum anno 1858 (Colleciio Lacensis, 
torn III, 195-214). 


affiliation of students and their financial relation to the diocese. 
Two topics, however, of wider import were made subjects of 
legislation. One was the formation of the Society for the 
Diffusion of Catholic Books. All the bishops of the province 
under the presidency of the archbishop were to be members of 
the society, whilst a commission of eight or nine persons, two 
or three of them laymen, was to be appointed to take charge 
of the matter. The purpose of the society was the promotion 
of cheap editions of the best books so that all Catholics might 
be possessed of good literature. The second topic was the 
organization of parish wardens. For the administration of 
the temporal affairs of the parish, a. board of wardens with the 
pastor as moderator was to be selected. Four or eight men 
were to be chosen, two or four of them to be chosen by the 
people, if they wished; if not, by the pastor. Rules were also 
laid down for their selection. These rules were taken from the 
seventh decree of the Council of New York of 1861, which in its 
turn had taken them from the instructions of Pius VII and of 
Leo XII, of April 3, 1823, and August 16, 1828, respectively. 
The council of Cincinnati in conclusion mentioned no time for 
reconvening, doubtless due to the uneasy times. The Civil 
War was impending and the Fathers in their pastoral letter 
showed their increasing anxiety by appealing to God to avert 
or mitigate that "awful calamity, which would arm brother 
against brother in fratricidal strife, and would result in wide 
spread ruin to the whole country", whilst they concluded their 
letter with an urgent exhortation to the people "to pray fer 
vently for peace and prosperity to our beloved country, now 
threatened with the manifold and unspeakable evils of dis 
sension and civil war". 

In its approval of the decrees of the Third Provincial 
Council of Cincinnati, given on December 8, 1861, Rome took 
exception to the universal introduction of the trustee system, 
as it had caused so much trouble in the United States previously. 
It approved of their institution, therefore, only where necessity 
demanded it, and according to the interpretations given by 
Pius VII and Leo XII." 

Twenty years were to pass before the Fourth Provincial 

11. Concilium Cincinnatense Provinciale III, habitum anno 1861 (Collectio Lacensis, 
torn III, 215-232). 


Council was to be summoned. Every one of the bishops who 
had taken part in the former councils, with the exception of 
Archbishop Purcell, had died, whilst Archbishop Purcell him 
self, a victim of the unfortunate financial disaster Jof 1878, was 
in retirement at the Ursuline convent, Brown county, and 
Bishop Elder, his coadjutor, was administering the archdiocese. 
Affairs of great importance demanded the convocation of a 
provincial council, so that Bishop Elder applied to Rome and 
obtained permission on August 28, 1881, to hold such a coun 
cil. 12 Accordingly, Bishop Elder sent out the letter of indic- 
tion on December 27th, of the same year, and at the same time 
assigned certain subjects to various bishops. That of Secret 
Societies was assigned to Bishop McCloskey, of Louisville; 
Tenure of Property, to Bishop Gilmour, of Cleveland; Ad 
ministration of Temporals, to Bishop Borgess, of Detroit; 
Matrimony, to Bishop Dwenger, of Fort Wayne; Schools, 
Catholic and Public, to Bishop Watterson, of Columbus, whilst 
that of Ecclesiastical Discipline was reserved to Bishop Elder 
himself. 13 

On March 5, 1882, the council was solemnly opened by the 
coadjutor of Cincinnati, Bishop Elder, with Pontifical High 
Mass, in which Bishop Borgess, who was to be promoter of the 
council, preached the sermon. The bishops of Louisville, 
Covington, Detroit, Cleveland, Fort Wayne, Vincennes and 
Columbus, and the administrator of Nashville attended, be 
sides the superiors of the religious orders of the province, with 
the exception of the abbot of the Cistercians, who was excused. 
The work in hand could not be completed in the one week in 
tended, so that the close of the council had to be deferred 
till March 19th. During the two weeks eight general or public 
sessions and twenty-two private sessions were held. As a 
result of this great activity, a great number of decrees were 
passed on ecclesiastical discipline, the administration of eccle 
siastical property, marriage, Catholic and public schools, 
Catholic societies and confraternities, secret societies and eccle 
siastical chant. As the question of church wardens had not 

12. Letter, Cardinal Simeoni, Prefect of Propaganda, Rome, September 5, 1881, to 
Archbishop Elder. 

13. Letter, Bishop Elder, Cincinnati, January 2, 1882, to Bishop Dwenger, Fort Wayne 
(Notre Dame Archives). 


received final settlement in the previous council, the Fathers 
decreed that it was the province of the bishop to decide on the 
necessity of having church wardens and the manner of their 
selection; that such wardens should have no legal standing 
in the civil court, but were to be only assistants of the pastor; 
that they had to be approved in writing by the bishop, and were 
susceptible to removal at his wish ; that wherever it was judged 
expedient to have them, they were to be chosen only from the 
names proposed by the pastor; that in their selection those 
men only enjoyed a vote, who had reached the age of twenty- 
one, had made their Easter duty, had held and paid for a pew 
in the church for a year, or contributed in some other way to 
the support of the church, had their children educated in 
Catholic schools, and were not members of any secret society. 
Of the board constituted by these men the pastor was to be 
president, without whom no meetings could be held, much less 
affairs be transacted. On the subject of administration of 
Church property, very important decrees were passed, demand 
ing annual financial reports, and regulating the contracting 
of debts by a parish. Insistence was laid upon the duty of 
parents to send their children to parochial schools, whilst 
regulations were passed for the establishment of the various 
grades of education. Divorce, mixed marriages and civil 
marriages called forth reproof. Rules were established for the 
right conduct of Catholic societies and the discernment of 
forbidden secret societies. In its decisions on Church music, 
the council was guided by the principle that "the duty of the 
choir is to direct the attention of the people to the altar. 
Music that fails to do this is not Church music, and must be 
excluded from the services of religion". 

The council likewise concerned itself very much with the 
spirit of unrest prevalent in the social and political world. 
Its words of wisdom on the mutual relation of capital and labor 
are deserving of repetition, as they are even more necessary 

"A man s labor is his own. The strong arm of the poor man and 
the skill of the mechanic is as much his stock in trade as the gold of the 
rich man, and each has a right, as he pleases, to sell his labor at a fair 
price. Men have also a right to band together and agree to sell their 
labor at any fair price within the limits of Christian justice, and so 


long as men act freely and concede to others the same freedom they 
claim for themselves, there is no sin in labor banding together for 
self -protection. But when men attempt to force others to work for a 
given price, or by violence inflict injury, bodily or temporal, they sin. 
If men are free to band together, and agree not to work for less than a 
given price, so others are equally free to work for less or more as they 
please. All men have a right to sell their labor at such price as they 
deem fair, and no man, nor Union, has a right to force another to join 
a Union, or to work for the price fixed upon by a Union. Here is 
where Labor Unions are liable to fail, and in which they cannot be 
sustained. If one class of men is free to band together and agree not 
to sell their labor under a given price, so are others equally free not to 
join such Unions, and also equally free to sell their labor at such price 
as they may determine upon. 

"Catholics can not be partners in any attempt to coerce others 
against their just rights; nor can they by overt or secret acts, or vio 
lence, do injury to the person or property of another. What one man 
claims for himself he must concede to another. 

"On the other hand, capital must be liberal towards labor, and 
share justly and generously the joint profits which labor and capital 
have produced, being mindful of the command not to muzzle, the ox 
that trampeth out the corn , nor to defraud the laborer of his wages . 
Capital has no more right to undue reward than labor, nor should 
capital be unduly protected at the expense of labor. Capital and 
labor should work hand in hand, and proportionately share the values 
they have mutually produced. Nature gives the raw material; labor 
and skill gives it its value; capital gives direction, and advances 
reward to labor and skill, waiting until in turn it can realize on its 
outlays. They are mutually dependent on each other, and should 
mutually labor for each other s interest capital recognizing the 
rights of labor, and labor in turn recognizing the rights of capital." 

The decrees of this Fourth Provincial Council of Cincin 
nati were approved by Pope Leo XIII on June 22, 1886. 14 

As no date had been set for the next provincial council, it 
devolved upon the bishops of the province to instigate such a 
council when conditions warranted. Such happened after 
seven years had passed since the holding of the last council, 
so that on January 1, 1889, Archbishop Elder, who had suc 
ceeded to the see of Cincinnati upon the death of Archbishop 
Purcell on July 4, 1883, sent out the call for the Fifth Provincial 
Council to be opened at Cincinnati on May 19, 1889. The 
topics proposed for deliberation were societies, tenure of eccle 
siastical property, curial procedure, Christian doctrine for 

14. Concilium Cincinnatense Provinciate IV, habitum anno 1882. 


children, theological conferences and observance of feasts. 
On the appointed day the archbishop opened the council, 
having designated Bishop Dwenger, of Fort Wayne, promoter. 
Present at the opening were the bishops of Cincinnati, Louis 
ville, Fort Wayne, Vincennes, Columbus, Grand Rapids, 
Covington and Detroit. The bishop of Cleveland, detained 
by serious business, did not arrive until Thursday, whilst the 
bishop of Nashville was on a pilgrimage in Europe. The 
latter was represented by his temporary administrator. The 
subjects which had been assigned for discussion, were distri 
buted among five commissions. The activities of five general 
and eight private sessions resulted in the enactment of eleven 
decrees. The majority of these decrees bore more or less upon 
particular practices. Religious communities not exempt from 
diocesan jurisdiction or otherwise provided for by pontifical 
constitutions were ordered to incorporate themselves in order to 
hold their property in their incorporated name. Any and all 
charitable institutions should be subject to the bishop of the 
diocese, and no such institution should be begun without his 
sanction. In order to have all properly instructed in the faith, 
pastors were to conduct their sermons in such a way that on the 
Sundays of the year instructions, following the arrangement of 
the Roman Catechism, should be given; three or four years 
were to be spent in the study. These decrees were signed by 
the archbishop of Cincinnati, eight bishops of the province, 
the administrator of the diocese of Nashville, and the abbot 
of St. Meinrad, Indiana. It required a rather long period of 
time before these decrees could be published at Cincinnati, for 
although Rome had given its approval on May 31, 1891, the 
decree was subject to other delays. It was sent finally on 
July 3, 1893. 15 

No provincial council has been held since 1889. The 
province had been organized sufficiently even before the 
last council, so that general legislation was scarcely necessary. 
The district was assuming more and more the aspect of an 
organized Catholic community, where the various elements 
could work to the attainment of their proper ends. Correction 
was undoubtedly necessary in certain cases; reforms had to be 
inaugurated here and there; but the means were ready at 

15. Concilium Cincinnatense Provinciate V, habitum anno 1889 (Cincinnati, 1893). 


hand for the individual bishops of the respective dioceses. 
That the provincial councils of Cincinnati supplied a demand 
and legislated prudently, is apparent from the decrees of the 
councils and the fruits which they bore. For by them the faith 
was safeguarded, illustrated and adorned by Christian discip 
line; education was promoted; the poor and the orphan were 
provided; and a pure and elevated morality in the clergy and 
the faithful was established. 



HUS far we have considered the establishment 
and development of the Catholic Church in 
the archdiocese of Cincinnati in her bishops 
and clergy, in the foundation and develop 
ment of her parishes, in her financial resources, 
and in her legislation for both shepherd and 
flock. But the work of the Church is not limited to even that 
sufficiently large sphere. From the first centuries of her 
existence, the Church has tried to mitigate the social evils of 
the day; she has promoted the performance of works of 
charity not only by her individual members, but also by her 
incorporated societies ; she has taught the intellect to advance 
in science as well as in art; she has cultivated the nobler 
emotions of the soul; finally, by the earnest entreaties and 
devout supplications of special communities of men and women, 
she has implored God to be appeased in His avenging wrath and 
to send down His inestimable blessing upon the enterprises of 
men. For one or other of these purposes, she has sanctioned 
the formation of religious communities and assigned to each 
one a peculiar object and end. The archdiocese of Cincinnati, 
too, has experienced the benefactions of such religious orders 
and societies. We must now consider, even though it be but 
briefly, the beginnings of these institutions in the archdiocese. 


The first religious garb to be worn and to be seen in the 
diocese of Cincinnati was the white robe of the Dominican 
priest or Friar Preacher. The history of the beginning of this 
order in the diocese of Cincinnati synchronizes with that of the 



beginning of Catholicity in the state of Ohio and the foundation 
of the diocese of Cincinnati. For, when the diocese was 
established in 1821, there were at work in the entire state but 
two priests, Fathers Fenwick and Young, both of whom were 
members of the order of St. Dominic. It was their lot to be the 
heralds of Catholicity in Ohio, the sowers of the seed which was 
to multiply a hundred-fold, the shepherds of the wandering 
sheep, who were but blindly groping their way in the primeval 
forests of Ohio. Other Dominican priests accompanied the 
first bishop to Ohio in 1822, as we related in the coming of 
Bishop Fenwick to Cincinnati. Whilst the original foundation 
was made at St. Rose, Ky., where the provincial lived, the 
bishop of Cincinnati became in 1828 the commissary-general of 
the entire order in America. This position Bishop Fenwick 
held till the year of his death, despite his desire to be relieved 
of the office. 

It so happens that nearly all the foundations which the 
Dominican Fathers made in Ohio, lie without the present 
limits of the archdiocese of Cincinnati. Their establishments 
centered about Somerset, where they had established their 
convent. There the convent continues today, heir to the 
traditions of the first church founded in Ohio. It formed 
part of the archdiocese of Cincinnati until the year 1868, when, 
with the creation of the diocese of Columbus in the southeastern 
part of the state, it passed under the jurisdiction of the bishop 
of Columbus. There is no Dominican institution in the arch 
diocese of Cincinnati today. 


Providence was not to be even so kind to the second regular 
community of men, who came to Cincinnati upon the urgent 
appeal of Father Rese, in 1829, to the provincial of the trans 
alpine province of the Redemptorists at Vienna. For the 
foundation to be made in the diocese of Cincinnati, the pro 
vincial selected three priests, Fathers Simon Saenderl, Francis 
Xavier Haetscher, Francis Xavier Tschenhens, and three lay 
brothers, Jacob Koller, Aloys Schuh, Wenceslaus Witopill. 
Having provided them with requisites for the celebration of 


Mass, with an ostensorium, a thurible, a small organ, and other 
articles, he sent them on their way from Vienna in April, 1832. 
Sixty-six days were spent on their way through Germany and 
France, and on the ocean, before they landed at New York on 
June 20, 1832. 1 After a week s rest they proceeded via the 
Erie canal to Buffalo, thence to Cleveland, to Chillicothe, to 
Portsmouth, and to Cincinnati, where they arrived on July 
17th, only to learn that Bishop Fenwick was in Michigan. 2 
Father Re"s, who received them at Cincinnati, sent four of the 
party on to the bishop in Michigan, reserving Father Tschen- 
hens to take charge of the German parish at Cincinnati, and 
Brother Jacob to be the cook at the seminary. 3 

In Michigan, Bishop Fenwick offered the Fathers a site 
with three or four hundred acres of land at Detroit and the 
mission at Green Bay. 4 Father Haetscher and Brother Aloys 
remained at the first place, whilst the superior of the band, 
Father Saenderl, and Brother Wenceslaus went on to Green 
Bay. In the next spring, when the diocese was being ad 
ministered by Father Rese, Bishop Fenwick having died the 
previous September, Father Tschenhens was detailed to Nor- 
walk, Ohio, where after a fourteen days mission he succeeded 
in establishing order in a disorganized parish. 5 The Fathers 
withdrew entirely from Michigan in 1835, when they found 
that they could not establish a community house as their rules 
demanded, and took up their residence at Norwalk, Ohio. 6 
There Bishop Purcell wished them to establish a community 
house, though he did not fancy them relinquishing their work 
in other parishes of the diocese. The Fathers found the task 
at Norwalk impossible, as the town could support only one 
priest. They then petitioned for charge of Holy Trinity 
church at Cincinnati, where they thought they might be 
suitably supported in a community house; but their petition 
was rejected. In January, 1840, the Fathers received peremp- 

1. Letter, Simon Saenderl, New York, June 20, 1832, to Fenwick, Cincinnati (Notre 
Dame Archives). 

2. Letter, Simon Saenderl, Detroit, August 28, 1832, to Central Direction, Leopoldine 
Association, Vienna (Berichte, 1832, V, 24). 

3. Idem as in Note 2. 

4. Idem as in Note 2. 

5. Letter, F. X. Tschenhens, Norwalk, July 3, 1833, to Leopoldine Association (Berichte, 
1835, VII, 26). 

6. Letter, Rese, Detroit, June 16, 1835, to Purcell, Cincinnati (Notre Dame Archives). 


tory orders from the superior at Vienna to leave their places in 
the diocese of Cincinnati and to repair to Pittsburgh. 7 


Far more successful was to be the establishment of the third 
regular community of men in the archdiocese, that of the 
Society of Jesus, though the efforts which had been made 
fifteen years earlier than the actual foundation, had proved 
sterile. In 1825 Father Stephen T. Badin, acting as vicar- 
general in Europe for Bishop Fenwick, had presented a long 
memorial to Father Sewall, S.J., Stonyhurst, England, to have 
him undertake a foundation in the diocese of Cincinnati. 8 
Father Se wall s final answer in the next year blasted all hopes. 
"I should be happy," wrote Father Sewall, "if I could find any 
zealous missionaries for Dr. Fenwick s diocese; but at present 
we are so distressed for want of men, that it is impossible; 
and from what we hear from America, I fear much that George 
town College will soon be of no service to that country." 9 

When Bishop Purcell came to Cincinnati, he determined 
to take up the matter of obtaining Jesuits to conduct a college 
in Brown county, Ohio, for which purpose he was going to 
solicit the general of the Jesuits in his visit at Rome in 1838- 
1839. 10 He was successful in his petition, for the general 
promised him that the first house to be established by the 
society in America should be in the diocese of Cincinnati. 
In thanksgiving for this favor Bishop Purcell wrote to Bishop 
Blanc, "L/aus Deo". 11 The bishop had already determined 
on his plan, and on March 10, 1839, received permission 
from Pope Gregory XVI to transfer to the Jesuits for the 

7. Letter, Rev. Joseph Prost, C.SS.R., Rochester, New York, October 23, 1837, to Pur 
cell, Cincinnati (Archdiocesan Archives, Mount St. Joseph, Ohio); letter, F. X. Tschenhens, 
C.SS.R., Norwalk, January 3, 1840, to Purcell (Notre Dame Archives); U. S. Catholic Al 
manac, 1841, p. 123 

8. Letter, Badin, Chelsea, London, April 7, 1825, to Fenwick, Cincinnati (Notre Dame 
Archives) . 

9. Letter, Badin, Lille, France, April 19, 1826, to Fenwick (Notre Dame Archives). 

10. Letter, Purcell, Cincinnati, March 23, 1838, to Archbishop Eccleston, Baltimore 
(Baltimore Archives, Case 25, Q 4). 

11. Letter, Purcell, Rome, February 12, 1839, to Blanc, New Orleans (Notre Dame 


maintenance of a college some property which had been given 
for educational purposes to Bishop Fenwick. 12 

The general kept his promise and in the following spring 
wrote to the provincial, Father P. J. Verhaegen, S.J., at St. 
Louis, to ask if it were possible for the society there to take 
charge of the college at Cincinnati. Negotiations were then 
opened with Bishop Purcell by Father Verhaegen in a letter of 
August 10, 1840, inquiring about conditions at Cincinnati. 13 
We shall allow the bishop himself to state his offer to the society 
in his letter of August 17th: 

"Your letter of the 10th has just reached me and I lose no time in 
telling you of the joy, which it has afforded us. There is no mistake 
about, or within the matter 

"I propose then, V. Rev d & Dear Friend, to give you up forever, 
on condition that they should ever be held sacred for Church and 
School, the College, Seminary and Church, with the real estate on 
which these buildings, which I now occupy, are located that you may 
have there a College and a Parish Church to be served by y society 
in perpetuity. This property is about two hundred feet long, to the 
best of my knowledge, without including an Engine house, which I 
have rented for my (part) support. The College is in good repair, at 
present, having been newly shingled (on tin, its former covering) since 
I have been here. In it is a new Cabinet of Nat. Philosophy, which I 
have had imported from France, for two thousand Dollars, and which 
should be yours. 

"The Pews of the Church (Cathedral) now rent for, I think, 2500 
Dollars. And we are in treaty for a lot on which we propose to com 
mence a new Cathedral. Your acceptance, right off, of the present 
one, would be the very thing we want to push ahead this essential 
project for a new church 

"In addition to, or instead of the foregoing, just as you please, 
I would give you 300 acres of Land in Brown County, forty miles from 
Cincinnati, with a first-rate McAdamized road, 22 miles of which are 
completed, passing by the door of the small, brick college already built 
thereon I should think a college in the country indispensable or 
instead of this in Brown County, you can have sixteen hundred acres, 
or 2,000, as you prefer, in Gallia County, 12 miles from the Ohio River 
and 18 from Gallipolis, which property has just been deeded to me, for a 
College, by a wealthy and enlightened Irish Catholic. I have visited 

12. Brief of authorization, Rome, March 10, 1839 (Archdiocesan Archives, Mount St. 
Joseph s). 

13. Letter, P. J. Verhaegen, S.J., St. Louis, Mo., August 10, 1840, to Purcell, Cincinnati 
(Archdiocesan Archives, Mount St. Joseph s). 


his residence, lately. He has 6,000 acres in one body, there. All I 
would ask, is the support of 5, or 6 seminarians annually, or in equiv 
alent " 14 

The offer of the bishop of Cincinnati was accepted relative 
to the college on Sycamore street, and by the middle of Sep 
tember arrangements were being made at St. Louis to supply 
Cincinnati with some priests and their necessities on the 
mission. Father Gleizal had been chosen their leader; Father 
Elet was to be in the party. 15 The news spread through the 
country, so that on September 30th Bishop Purcell could write 
to Father John McCaffrey, President of Mount St. Mary 
College, Emmitsburg: "You will have seen that the Jesuits 
have come to Cincinnati. There is a growling indistinctly 
heard among the dens of the bigots, like that of a distant and 
unf eared menagerie. Rev. T. R. B[utler] is superintending 
extensive preparations for the opening of the College. He will 
probably join the Society." 16 

The Fathers had come, indeed, to Cincinnati, taking charge 
of the college on October 1st, under the presidency of Father 
John A. Elet, to whom Bishop Purcell kept his promise by 
executing on March 13, 1841, for the consideration of $1, a 
deed of transfer of 193 feet of property on Sycamore street, 
the engine house not being included in the transfer, to John A. 
Elet, Peter J. Verhaegen, and James Van de Velde, all of the 
Society of Jesus, "to have and to hold to the said Elet, Ver 
haegen, and Van de Velde, the survivors and survivor of them, 
and the heirs of said survivor forever in trust to set apart 
a portion for a church or a chapel, for the permanent accommo 
dation of the Society of the Roman Catholic Church in said 
city the residue thereof to appropriate for the permanent 
support and promotion of education on the premises, in default 
thereof, to the use of the said J. B. Purcell". 17 

In the following year a charter of a temporary kind was 

14. Letter, Purcell, Cincinnati, August 17, 1840, to P. J. Verhaegen, S.J., St. Louis 
(St. Xavier College Archives). 

15. Letter, P. J. Verhaegen, S.J., St. Louis, September 19, 1840, to Purcell, Cincinnati 
(Archdiocesan Archives, Mount St. Joseph s). 

16. Letter, Purcell, Cincinnati, September 30, 1840, to John McCaffrey, Emmitsburg 
(Mount St. Mary College Archives, Emmitsburg, Case, McCaffrey, vol. I, P). 

17. Warranty Deed, J. B. Purcell, to Elet, Verhaegen and Van de Velde, March 31 , 1841 
(St. Xavier College Archives). 


granted to the college by the General Assembly of Ohio, and 
in 1869 a perpetual charter was granted. 

The Fathers of the society today are limited in the exercise 
of their mission to educational work, to parochial work in St. 
Xavier s church, and to chaplaincies in several of the city s 
institutions. Late in the forties they undertook parish work 
at several places, at St. James, White Oak, at Chillicothe, Ohio, 
and at Newport, Ky., at that time under the jurisdiction of 
Cincinnati. But the provincial did not take kindly to that 
kind of work, which caused the Fathers to live away from the 
college, and he, therefore, had them relinquish the parishes 


One year before the black robe of the Jesuit was seen in 
Cincinnati, the brown garb of the sons of St. Francis of Assisi 
had become a familiar sight to the German Catholics in Holy 
Trinity parish, Cincinnati. The same trip of Bishop Purcell 
to Europe in 1839, which had resulted in interesting the general 
of the Jesuits at Rome in the diocese of Cincinnati, was like 
wise the occasion of Cincinnati gaining its first Franciscan 
friar, Francis Louis Huber, who had volunteered his services 
to Bishop Purcell and had obtained the consent of his superior 
at Munich to proceed to Cincinnati. Accordingly, he formed 
one of the party of seven priests accompanying Bishop Purcell 
to Cincinnati in 1839, the other priests being Father Olivetti 
from Turin, and Fathers Machebeuf, Lamy, Gacon, Cheymol and 
Navarron, from France. 18 This but whetted the appetite of 
the bishop of Cincinnati, so that on October 27th, of the same 
year, he wrote to the minister-general at Rome for more sub 
jects, but he was referred by him to the Propaganda. 1<J Thwart 
ed in his first efforts, he did not lose heart, and on May 5, 
1843, entered into an agreement to place the church of Holy 
Trinity, Cincinnati, where Father Huber had been exercising 

18. Letter, Hercules Brassac, Paris, July 4, 1839, to Purcell (Archdiocesan Archives, 
Mount St. Joseph s); letter, Rev. Joseph F. Mueller, Munich, June 8, 1839, to Purcell (Notre 
Dame Archives). 

19. Letter, Rev. Joseph M. ab Alexandria, Rome, Aracoeli, January 30, 1840, to Purcell, 
Cincinnati (Notre Dame Archives). 


his ministry, into the hands of one or more Franciscans who 
should come from Germany. 20 On the strength of this, Father 
Huber wrote to his superior at Munich, who in the following 
year sent him two lay brothers, Leander Stroeber and Arsacius 
Wieser, but not having priests to spare, he was perhaps in 
strumental in having the superior of another province of 
Franciscans, that of St. Leopold at Innsbruck, commission 
Father William Unterthiner of that province to come to Cin 
cinnati and assist Father Huber. 21 Having left Havre on 
May 26th, the three persons designated arrived at Cincinnati 
during the week of July 21, 1844. 22 

The relations between Father Huber and his new com 
panions, as well as those between Father Huber and his 
bishop, soon proved unsatisfactory, so that in 1850 orders 
came from his superiors for him to return to Europe. He did 
so, leaving Cincinnati on March 11, 1850. 23 

But Cincinnati was not to be deprived of the brethren of 
St. Francis, as in the meantime the provincial of the Tyrolese 
province had sent priests and brothers to assist Father Unter 
thiner, Fathers Edmund Etschmann, Nicholas Wachter, Otto 
Jair, Sigismund Koch, and Theophilus Kraph having been sent 
to Cincinnati during the years 1846 to 1849. When relations 
with Father Huber grew unfriendly, the church of St. John 
Baptist at Cincinnati was given to their charge immediately 
after its organization on February 22, 1846. The Fathers 
assumed charge also of the parish of St. Stephen, Hamilton, 
in 1848; of St. Boniface, Louisville, in 1849; and of St. 
Clement, St. Bernard, Ohio, in 1850. 

Bishop Purcell then thought it opportune to begin a monas 
tery of the order of St. Francis at Cincinnati, and to that effect 
made overtures to the general of the order at Rome, who in his 
turn seconded the matter to the Prefect of the Propaganda 
Congregation. 24 These desires, however, were not so easily 

20. Letter, Huber, Cincinnati, May 24, 1848, to Archbishop Eccleston, Baltimore (Balti 
more Archives, Case 25, D 9). 

21. Idem as in Note 20. 

22. Letter, Huber, Cincinnati, July 31, 1844, to Purcell (Archdiocesan Archives, Mount 
St. Joseph s); Annales de I Association de la Propagation de la Foi, Lyons, 1844, XVI, 443-44; 
Wahrheitsfreund, August 1,1844. 

23. Letter, Huber, Springfield, Ohio, March 12, 1850, to Purcell (Archdiocesan Archives, 
Mount St. Joseph s); Catholic Telegraph, March 23, 1850. 

24. Letter, Cardinal Franzoni, Prefect of Propaganda, Rome, March 3, 1851, to Purcell, 
Cincinnati (Archdiocesan Archives, Mount St. Joseph). 


gratified; for, although the provincial, Joseph a Cupertino 
Friedl, had urged the erection of a house at Cincinnati, his 
successor in 1857, John a Capistrano Sojer, reversed his opinion, 
and in a chapter held in that year sent out an order to the 
Franciscans of the Tyrolese province in America to return to 
Innsbruck. This hastened negotiations, as the Fathers at 
Cincinnati wished to remain, and were encouraged in their 
intentions by the minister-general at Rome, who did not 
care to give up the American missions. To render it pos 
sible for them to continue, however, a college from which 
to recruit vocations for the American missions, had to be 
started. 25 

Archbishop Purcell showed every favor to the Fathers in 
this affair, giving them permission to build the college, and 
confirming the transfer in perpetuity of the property of the 
church of St. John Baptist and of the property at Vine and 
Liberty streets. Upon the latter site they were to build a 
monastery, a gymnasium or college, and a church to be dedi 
cated to St. Francis. 26 The archbishop then, in 1858, peti 
tioned the provincial at Innsbruck, as well as the minister- 
general at Rome, for the erection of a custodia. All condi 
tions being satisfactory, and the approbation of Pope Pius IX 
having been obtained on December 17, 1858, the custodia of 
St. John Baptist at Cincinnati was erected by decree of 
the minister-general, Bernardino a Montefranco, on February 
19, 1859, 27 By the same decree, Father Otto Jair, O.F.M., 
was appointed guardian of the new establishment. In order 
to conform to the constitutions of the order, Archbishop 
Purcell agreed to hold the title of the property in trust for them. 

This form of government continued for twenty-seven years, 
when the Fathers, who had witnessed great growth in their 
establishment, solicited Archbishop Purcell to petition the 

25. Letter, John Capistran Sojer, Innsbruck, October 9, 1857, to Purcell (Notre Dame 
Archives) . 

26. Letter, Purcell, Cincinnati, September 8, 1858, to Minister-General at Rome, in 
Relalio de Origine Pravinciae S. Joannis Baptistae; authentic copy of letter also in Notre Dame 

27. Relatio de Origine Provinciae S. Joannis Baptistae, Cincinnatensis , Ordinis Fralrum 
Minorum; letter, Archbishop Purcell, Cincinnati, September 8, 1858, to Minister-General 
Bernardino a Montefranco, Rome; letter, Purcell, Cincinnati, Feast of St. Francis (October 
4), 1858, to Provincial John a Capistrano, Innsbruck (Archives of Minister.General of Fran 
ciscans, Rome; printed in Relalio de Origine Provinciae S. Joannis Baptistae, Cincinnatensis) ; 
Decree of erection, February 19, 1859. 


general of the order for the erection of the custodia into a 
province. The general in turn petitioned the Holy Father, 
Leo XIII, as a result of which the Sacred Congregation on 
Regular Discipline granted the petition on September 1 1 , 
1885. 28 In response to the mandate of the minister-general, 
Archbishop Elder put the decree into effect on March 25, 
1886, Father Hieronymus Kilgenstein being proclaimed the 
first provincial. 

In the archdiocese of Cincinnati, the order of St. Francis 
has charge of St. John Baptist church, Cincinnati (February 22, 
1846); St. Francis monastery and church, Cincinnati (De 
cember 18, 1859); St. Francis seminary, formerly gymnasium 
and college, Cincinnati (October 4, 1858); St. Bonaventure 
church, Cincinnati (January, 1849); St. George church, 
Cincinnati (November 13, 1868); St. Anthony s novitiate, 
Mt. Airy, Cincinnati (November 28, 1889); St. Clement 
church and monastery, St. Bernard, Ohio (November 3, 1850); 
vSt. Stephen church, Hamilton, Ohio (July, 1848); Mt. 
Alverno protectory, near Cincinnati (February 2, 1883). 

The work of the Fathers has not been confined to Ohio, 
however, as there are under their charge about forty churches 
and many attached missions in the states of Kentucky, In 
diana, Michigan, Illinois, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Arizona, 
New Mexico, and the province of Ontario, Canada. 29 


The history of the Lazarist Fathers in the archdiocese of 
Cincinnati begins with the invitation addressed by Bishop 
Purcell on January 31, 1842, to Very Reverend John Timon, 
then visitor-general of the Lazarists in the United States. 
The bishop requested a superior and a professor of the Con 
gregation of the Mission for his seminary, which he proposed 
to locate in Brown county, where 300 acres of ground were 

28. Decree of erection of province of St. John Baptist, Cincinnati (copy in Relatio de 
Origins Provinciae, ut supra). 

29. BONAVENTURE HAMMER, O.F.M., Die Franziskaner in den Vereinigten Staaten 
Nor darner ika s; HERIBERT HOLZAPFEL, O.F.M., Geschichte des Franziskaner Ordens; notes 
furnished by VERY REV. RUDOLPH BONNER, O.F.M. 


available for the purpose. 30 To this invitation Father Timon 
answered that he would visit Cincinnati in the spring, when the 
subject could be discussed. He would rather have the seminary 
nearer to the city of Cincinnati, so that the seminarians might 
take part in the liturgy at the cathedral. As regards the 
property which the bishop offered him, he remarked that that 
would have to be returned to the diocese in case the society 
left the diocese. 31 

The negotiations which ensued, terminated prosperously, 
as in July the announcement was made that the seminary would 
henceforth be directed by priests of the Congregation of the 
Mission. 32 Two Fathers and Brothers had been promised 
for the work, and in answer to the bishop s inquiry as to the 
time of their coming, Father Timon answered that they would 
leave Missouri on September 1st. 33 The two Fathers and 
Brothers left St. Louis according to promise on September 
1st, 34 and were conducted to their new home, the seminary 
of St. Francis Xavier in Brown county, Ohio. Father James 
Francis Burlando, C.M., was the superior, and Father Charles 
Boglioli, C.M., was his assistant. Between them they dis 
charged all the duties of the seminary for the succeeding three 
years. But it was found that, with the attending difficulties 
of very slow travel, the location in Brown county was unde 
sirable for an ecclesiastical seminary, and in 1845 the seminari 
ans were brought back to the episcopal city, the two Fathers 
of the Congregation of the Mission returning to their homes. 


A little more than six months before the Franciscan Father 
Huber had been joined by Father Unterthiner, O.F.M., Cin 
cinnati had given welcome to a band of seven priests and a few 

30. Letter, Purcell, Cincinnati, January 31, 1842, to Timon, St. Mary Seminary, Mo. 
(Notre Dame Archives). 

31. Letter, Timon, St. Mary Seminary, Mo., February 10, 1842, to Purcell (Notre 
Dame Archives). 

32. Catholic Telegraph, XI, 231, July 16, 1842. 

33. Letter, Purcell, Cincinnati, July 24, 1842, to Timon; letter, Timon, St. Louis, Mo., 
July 29, 1842, to Purcell; same, August 29, 1842, to same (Notre Dame Archives). 

34. Letter, Bishop Kenrick, St. Louis, September 1, 1842, to Purcell, Cincinnati (Notre 
Dame Archives). 


students who had come with their superior, Father Sales Brunner, 
of the Congregation of the Most Precious Blood. Father 
Brunner had entered the Benedictine order at Maria Stein, 
Canton of Solothurn, Switzerland, on July 12, 1812, had pro 
nounced his vows in the order on June 13, 1813, and had been 
ordained priest on March 19, 1819. For ten years he labored 
as a Benedictine in the order, but feeling himself called to a 
stricter life, he left the order on July 21, 1829, with the permis 
sion of his abbot to enter the convent of the Trappists at 
Oelenberg, in Alsace. With the trouble incident to the revo 
lution he was ordered to go back to Switzerland. It was then 
that he felt the call within him to found an order in 
America according to the strict letter of the rule of St. Benedict, 
and that he succeeded in having Abbot Placidus of Maria Stein 
espouse his cause. Thereupon, on March 18, 1831, the abbot 
wrote a letter to Bishop Fenwick, detailing the intentions of 
Father Brunner to form a religious community in America to be 
directed by the rule and the spirit of St. Benedict, to obtain 
food and clothing by manual labor and to send out mis 
sionaries from the convent to work on the missions. At the 
time, Father Brunner was living in a poor little house with a 
few brethren, who were being supported by alms and the labor 
of their hands. The abbot commended him for his great 
talents and success on the missions. 35 

Cincinnati was not then to be favored with such a founda 
tion; and Father Brunner subsequently, in 1838, joined the 
Congregation of the Most Precious Blood, in Italy, going back 
to Loewenberg in the next year to establish there the congre 
gation which he had joined. 

The call to Cincinnati soon came in a new form, whether on 
Bishop Purcell s or Father Brunner s initiative, we know not; 
but Father Brassac, acting as vicar-general for Bishop Purcell, 
was the intermediary between the bishop and Father Brunner 
in July, 1842. 36 Negotiations continued for some time until 
the bishop s presence in Europe in 1843 terminated the matter. 
Father Brunner prepared a band of seven priests and six stu- 

35. Letter, Abbot Placidus, Maria Stein, Switzerland, to Fenwick, Cincinnati (Notre 
Dame Archives). 

36. Letter, Brassac, Marvejol, July 30, 1842, to Purcell (Archdiocesan Archives, Mount 
St Joseph s). 


dents for the journey across the Atlantic in the fall of 1843. 37 
On September 29th he was given testimonial letters from the 
bishop of Chur, stating his mission to Cincinnati, 38 and on 
October 4th, he left Basle for Havre, which he reached on 
October 13th. There he and his companions had to wait some 
time for favorable weather to allow their sailing vessel to de 
part, and at that time had the unexpected pleasure of meeting 
their future ordinary, who had missed his boat of the previous 
day. The Fathers set sail on the Vesta from Havre on Octo 
ber 19th, but left Liverpool only on November 5th. 39 The 
bishop had left the sailing vessel on October 31st on account 
of its slow progress and set off on a steamer. Not until De 
cember 21st did the Fathers reach their destination, New 
Orleans, whence they made their way to Cincinnati by Janu 
ary 1, 1844. 

The bishop, who had arrived home much ahead of them, 
received them with open arms, entrusting to their care the 
church of St. Alphonse, Peru, near Norwalk, Ohio. The priests 
who had thus become affiliated to the diocese of Cincinnati 
were, besides Father Brunner himself, Fathers M. Anton 
Meyer, M. John Wittmer, Martin Bobst, Jacob Ringele, Peter 
Anton Capeder, John Van den Broek and John Baptist Jaco- 
met. With these companions Father Brunner set himself up 
at St. Alphonse s in truly monastic fashion. But finding the 
place ill-suited for a monastery, he began the erection of a 
convent at New Riegel, Seneca county. This new convent 
was never occupied by the Fathers, but became the home of 
the Sisters of the Precious Blood who arrived in 1844. Having 
to pass through Thompson and Tiffin on their visits to New 
Riegel, the Fathers had to remain over night with some Catho 
lics at Thompson. To overcome this inconvenience, Father 
Brunner resolved on the erection of a convent at Thompson. 
This became the mother-house of the congregation in 1847, 
when the Fathers built there the seminary of St. Aloysius. 
From this place the Fathers were wont to attend the many 
congregations in the northern part of Ohio. To them great 
credit must be given for the development of the parishes in 

37. Catholic Telegraph, January 6,1844. 

38. Copy of testimonial in Leben und Wirken des hochw. Franz Sales Brunner, p. 36. 

39. Letter, Brunner, at Sea, November 3, 1843, to Purcell (Notre Dame Archives). 


northern Ohio, as nearly all of them have become flourishing 
parishes. In the archdiocese of Cincinnati the most of their 
work has been done in Auglaize and Mercer counties. The 
mother-house and theological seminary of St. Charles Borro- 
meo are now located at Carthagena, Ohio; the novitiate and 
preparatory seminary are at Burkettsville. The Fathers are 
in charge of nineteen parishes in the archdiocese of Cincinnati. 
Other establishments are to be found in northern Ohio, Indi 
ana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Missouri, Texas, Nebraska, 
Feldkirch, Austria and Schellenberg, Liechtenstein. 40 




Nearly thirty years were to pass before Cincinnati was to 
receive its next accession of a regular community. In 1863, 
Archbishop Purcell extended an invitation to the Passionist 
Fathers at Pittsburgh to settle at Chillicothe, Ohio. Upon the 
report of the two Fathers, Dominic and Luke, who had in 
vestigated the possibilities of an establishment in the town 
designated, the provincial, J. Dominick Tourlattini, respect 
fully declined the offer of the archbishop. 41 The idea of es 
tablishing a house in the archdiocese was abandoned until the 
year 1869, when Mrs. Sarah Peter, a convert to the Catholic 
Faith, and a zealous charity worker, interested herself in the 
congregation and sent a petition to the provincial chapter at 
Hoboken, New Jersey, for the establishment of a house in 
Cincinnati. Disappointment was experienced a second time 
when the answer came that, on account of the new founda 
tion being made at Baltimore, it was impossible for them to 
undertake one at Cincinnati. 

The third attempt, made directly by the archbishop in the 
next year, was to prove more successful. When two of the 
Fathers, Guido and Philip, came to Cincinnati in 1870, and were 

40. Leben und Wirken des hochwuerdigen P. Franz Sales Brunner, passim; notes from 
provincial archives, Carthagena, Ohio; Official Catholic Directory, 1920. 

41. Letter, J. Dominick Tourlattini, Birmingham, Allegheny county, Pa., August 12, 
1863, to Purcell, Cincinnati (Notre Dame Archives). 


offered the church of the Immaculata on Mt. Adams, they 
expressed delight with the situation and reported in favor of 
the foundation to the provincial. One of them, Father Guido, 
was then sent to the archbishop on May 23, 1871, to signify 
acceptance of the offer. The archbishop himself, who had 
personally supervised the organization of this church of his 
predilection, conducted Father Guido to the church and the 
pastoral residence. After a few days, Fathers Sebastian and 
William, and Brothers Bonaventure and Ignatius, came to 
form the first community. 

In February, 1872, the Fathers leased the Cincinnati 
Observatory property for ninety-nine years with the privilege 
of purchase at $50,000. This building was then remodeled 
and converted into a monastery. At the same time a new 
frame church was built for the English-speaking Catholics 
on the hill, and dedicated together with the monastery under 
the title of the Holy Cross on June 22, 1873. To replace the 
frame, a new church was dedicated on August 23, 1895, and a 
new monastery, which was begun in September, 1899, was 
completed and blessed on June 2, 1901. The monastery is 
now the theological seminary of the western province for young 
men studying for the Passionist congregation. The two 
churches and monastery on Mt. Adams have continued to be 
administered by the Fathers. 42 


In the second year after the arrival of the Passionists, Cin 
cinnati became the haven of refuge for four Holy Ghost Fathers, 
who had been expelled from Alsace upon the assumption of 
the government of that province by the German Emperor. 
In January, 1873, Fathers George Ott, Francis Schwab, 
Charles Steurer and John B. Kayser, were received at Cincin 
nati, and stationed soon after at St. Boniface church, Piqua, 
to attend the neighboring German and French congregations 
and missions. 43 The object of the society, whether in its 

42. History of the Passionists in Catholic Telegraph, August 15, 1895; notes furnished 

43. Catholic Telegraph, January 15 and May 8, 1873. 


first form as the Congregation of the Holy Ghost founded by 
Claude-Frangois Poullart des Places, or in its second form in 
its amalgamation in 1848 with the Society of the Immaculate 
Heart of Mary under Francis Mary Libermann, was the 
training of missionaries for the care of the most abandoned 
souls, whether in Christian or pagan lands. Their work of 
greatest excellence has been performed in darkest Africa, 
where in the space of sixty years 700 missionaries laid down 
their lives in the care of souls. 

In the archdiocese of Cincinnati, the four Fathers were 
joined by four more in 1874, but two years later the Fathers as a 
body had left the archdiocese. Two of the Fathers had applied 
for and obtained authorization from Rome to leave the com 
munity and become diocesan priests. It was this perhaps 
which occasioned the removal of the other Fathers; for when 
the superior-general learned in 1874 that several of the mem 
bers of his congregation in the Cincinnati archdiocese con 
templated secularization, he wrote to Archbishop Purcell that 
he did not favor such action and would recall all the Fathers 
to Paris. 44 


Fathers of the Holy Cross came from the provincial house 
at Notre Dame, Indiana, to open St. Joseph college at Cin 
cinnati on October 2, 1871. The college is the only establish 
ment of the Fathers in the diocese. 


As early as 1826, efforts had been made by Bishop Fenwick 
through his vicar-general in Europe, Father Badin, to obtain 
a body of Benedictine Fathers to labor in the diocese of Cin 
cinnati. To that end Father Badin visited Douay to pro 
pose to the general of the English Benedictines the establish 
ment of a community in the "backwoods" of Cincinnati. 

44. Letter, Superior-General, Schwindenhammer, Paris, December 21, 1874, to Purcell, 
Cincinnati (Notre Dame Archives). 


The matter was then presented to the chapter in session at 
Downside college, near Bath, but nothing came of it. 45 

In September, 1892, Reverend Emmeran Singer, O.S.B., of 
St. Vincent s archabbey, Pennsylvania, took charge of St. 
Michael s church, at Ripley, Ohio, but left the parish after a 
three months residence. In 1896, Archbishop Elder petitioned 
Rt. Rev. Benedict Menges, O.S.B., abbot of St. Bernard 
monastery, Cullman, Alabama, to take charge of the same 
parish at Ripley and the parish of St. Mary s at Arnheim. 
Accordingly, two Fathers of the order became pastors on Sep 
tember 15, 1896, of St. Michael s, Ripley, with missions at 
Manchester, Adams county, and Buena Vista, Scioto county, 
and of St. Mary s, Arnheim, with the mission at Georgetown, 
Brown county. The two parishes are administered by 
Fathers of the order at present, though no community house 
exists in the archdiocese. 


In 1849 an invitation to come to Cincinnati was addressed 
by Father Francis X. Weninger, S.J., then stationed at Cin 
cinnati, to two houses of teaching Brothers in Europe, the 
Brothers of the Society of Mary, founded in 1817 at Bordeaux, 
and the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools, 
founded in 1680 at Rheims by St. John Baptist de la Salle. 
The petition to the former society had been directed in April 
of that year to the central house at Ebersmunster in Alsace, 
whilst the petition to the latter society had been directed to 
the house at Paris. Both societies accepted the invitation 
and sent men on their way to Cincinnati. One can imagine 
the surprise of the two parties when they met on board ship, 
to learn that both were destined for the same place. Upon 
landing in the new world, the Brothers of the Institute of 
the Christian Schools directed their steps to Montreal before 
going to Cincinnati, and related the occurrence. Brother Facile, 
visitor-general of the society in America at the time, made 
further inquiry, to which he received no reply, and instead of 

45. Letter, Badin, Paris, August 2, 1826, to Fenwick, Cincinnati (Notre Dame Archives). 


sending the Brothers to Cincinnati, sent them to St. Louis 
in the same year. 46 

The members in the party of the Society of Mary, however, 
Father Leo Meyer and Brother Charles Schultz, after arriving 
at New York on July 4, 1849, traveled on to Cincinnati, which 
they reached on the sixteenth of the month. Their arrival was 
announced to the people of Cincinnati by the Catholic Tele 
graph on July 19th. The invitation which had been addressed 
to them by Father Weninger, had offered them the parish 
school of Holy Trinity, Cincinnati. But the summer season 
being on, and a terrible cholera epidemic raging, the archbishop, 
in great need of German priests, asked Father Meyer to assist 
Father Juncker at Emmanuel church in Dayton. Father 
Meyer accepted the charge at once, which proved providential 
indeed, as at the end of the month of July he met Mr. John 
Stuart, of Dayton, who offered to sell to him his country estate 
of 125 acres of land to the southeast of Dayton on the Lebanon 
road. Father Meyer at once related the offer by letter to the 
superior-general in France, and advised the purchase of the 

Returning to Cincinnati, Father Meyer was granted formal 
permission by the bishop to open schools in any part of the 
diocese. Accordingly, he made arrangements with the pastors 
of Holy Trinity and St. Paul congregations, Cincinnati, to fur 
nish each school with two Brothers by the first of November, and 
on August 10th wrote to the superior-general, requesting four 
Brothers for the purpose. The four Brothers from Alsace re 
sponding to the call of the superior were {Brothers Andrew 
Edel, John B. Stintzi, Maximin Zehler and Damian Litz. The 
departure of the Brothers was delayed until October, so that 
Father Meyer had to assist Brother Schultz in the school at 
Holy Trinity, whilst other teachers had to be engaged at St. 
Paul s. 

At last the four Brothers arrived at Cincinnati at midnight 
of December 3d, spending the rest of that night in a grocery 
store, the hospitality of which had been offered to them by its 
proprietor. After a welcome from Father Meyer at Holy 

46. Letter, Frere Facile, Montreal, December 3, 1850, to Purcell, Cincinnati (Notre 
Dame Archives). 


Trinity school, Brothers Litz and Stintzi were stationed at that 
school, whilst the two other Brothers were reserved for the 
foundation which Father Meyer planned for Dayton. Upon 
the departure of Father Juncker for Europe in February, 1850, 
Father Meyer took charge of Emmanuel church, Dayton. 
On the 19th of the following month, he signed the contract for 
the purchase of the Stuart property at $12,000. The intention 
of Father Meyer was to make this a central house of the Society 
of Mary in America. Three of the Brothers were called at 
once to Dayton to take possession of the property. The name 
of the estate was changed, in honor of the Holy Family, to 
Nazareth. On the first of July St. Mary s school for boys 
opened with fourteen day scholars, though the institute was to 
be conducted for both day and boarding scholars. 

Misfortune came to the Fathers on the night of December 
26, 1855, when all their buildings were burned and the inmates 
left without a home. Temporary quarters were soon fitted 
up, and in March, 1856, the community was back on the 
Dayton property. School buildings were built and made ready 
for September, 1857. 

The novitiate of the society was approved by Rome and 
canonically established on August 5, 1864. It was located 
upon the same site as the college until the year 1911, when it 
was transferred to a new location five miles southeast of Dayton 
on the road to Xenia. With the purchase of additional land, 
making the entire tract 101 acres, the normal school and the 
provincial administration building were likewise moved to this 
place, now known as Mount St. John. These buildings were 
opened in the fall of 1915 with the blessing of the new chapel 
and the normal school by the archbishop of Cincinnati. 

The expansion of the society has not been limited to the 
archdiocese of Cincinnati, wherein the Brothers conduct six 
parochial schools in the city of Cincinnati and three in Dayton, 
but it has progressed north to Canada, south to New Orleans, 
east to New York and west to California, and even to the 
Hawaiian Islands. Schools are taught by them in the states 
of New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Ohio, Kentucky, 
Michigan, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Louisiana, Texas, in the 
Hawaiian Islands, and in Manitoba, Canada. To care for 
these institutions, the American province of the society was 


divided into two provinces, the Bast and the West, with central 
houses at Dayton and St. Louis respectively. 47 


The Brothers of the Poor of St. Francis were founded in 
1857, at Cologne, Germany, for the care of orphans and the 
education of the youth of the poorer classes. Through Mother 
Frances Schervier, the foundress of the Sisters of the Poor of 
St. Francis, and practically also of these Brothers, they were 
invited to Cincinnati in 1868. In that year Brother Bernar- 
dine opened the protectory for boys on Lock street. On 
February 26, 1869, the Brothers became incorporated under the 
laws of the state of Ohio. In 1870 they secured a farm of 
100 acres at Mt. Alverno, Delhi, where they built their 
monastery and school for the education of the neglected poor 
boy. St. Vincent s home on Bank street is likewise conducted 
by them. 


When the first bishop of Cincinnati made his notable visit 
to Europe in 1823-1824, among the recruits whom he obtained 
for work in his diocese, was a Sister of Mercy from France. 
She was not the only one who was eager to come to America; 
there were others of her order quite as willing to follow, but 
they had first to obtain the permission of their bishop, 
something which was not necessary for Sister St. Paul. This 
Sister had not been professed, and the superioress was willing 
to allow her to prepare the way for others at Cincinnati. 
She was twenty-two years of age, and "sufficiently prudent and 
learned". She formed one, then, of the party which the bishop 
had recruited, and together with Fathers Bellamy, Dejean and 
Rse, the latter acting as chaperon of the party, she sailed from 
Bordeaux on July 25, 1824, and arrived at New York on August 

47. JOHN E. GARVIN, S.M., The Centenary of the Society of Mary (Dayton, 1917); notes 
furnished by VERY REV. B. P. O REILLY, S.M.; The Official Catholic Directory, 1920. 


30th. 48 The two Fathers, Bellamy and Dejean, went directly 
to Michigan, whilst Father Re se and Sister St. Paul proceeded 
to Philadelphia, Baltimore, Somerset and Cincinnati. Father 
Re se had notified Father Hill at Cincinnati that he was bring 
ing a nun along with him. The news spread rapidly, so that 
when the party arrived at Cincinnati, they were met by many 
people who had come out to see "what kind of a creature" a 
nun was. 49 Curiosity had been aroused among the Cincin- 
natians, who had scarcely become accustomed to the white 
robes of the Dominicans. As a companion the Sister was given 
a Kentucky neophyte of the bishop s, Eliza Rose Powell, the 
same who later was to conduct school at Canton, Ohio, and to 
attend the bishop on his death-bed. 

The work of the Sister at Cincinnati attracted the notice of 
the bishop shortly after his return from Europe in 1825. After 
having given a glowing account of the Sister s work, he appealed 
on July 8th to the superioress of the Sisters of Mercy in France 
to send two or three Sisters to aid Sister St. Paul in making a 
foundation of the institute in Cincinnati. 50 A school of 
twenty-five girls was conducted by the Sister and her com 
panion at Cincinnati. 51 

But other Sisters of Mercy were not forthcoming. Father 
Badin had corresponded in 1825 with some nuns at Bruges, 
who, he thought, could answer the purpose. 52 The bishop, too, 
had visited them when at Bruges in 1824. They were two 
Collettine Poor Clare nuns, Francoise Vindevoghel and Vic- 
toire de Seilles, who had obtained the necessary permission 
of the abbess and of the vicar-general of Ghent to establish 
their order in Cincinnati. A Beguine of Ghent, Sister Adol- 
phine, was likewise gained for the undertaking. 53 The three 
nuns, chaperoned by Father Lutz and two other clergymen, 

48. Letter, Rese", New York, September 5, 1824, to Fenwick (Notre Dame Archives). 

49. Letter, Rese, Cincinnati, May 5, 1825, to the students of Propaganda College, 
Rome (Propaganda Archives, America Centrale, Scritture dal 1823-1826, vol. VIII). 

50. Letter (copy), Fenwick, Cincinnati, July 8, 1825, to Madame la Superieure (Notre 
Dame Archives). 

51. Letter, Fenwick to Badin (Annales de I Association de la Propagation de la Foi, 
Lyons, III, 289). 

52. Letter, Badin, Chelsea, London, August 12, 1825, to Fenwick, Cincinnati (Notre 
Dame Archives). 

53. Letter, Badin, Lille, April 19, 1826, to Fenwick, Cincinnati; letter, same, Paris, 
August 2, 1826, to same (Notre Dame Archives). 


destined for St. Louis, sailed from France on August 14, 1826. 54 
After their arrival at Cincinnati, they joined Sister St. Paul in 
the school work, so that in the next February they conducted 
a school for girls, which numbered seventy scholars, and in 
structed besides a large class of poor children on Sundays. 55 

The trials of the Sisters and the bishop were soon to begin. 
In the summer of 1827, Sister Adolphine wanted to give up 
her vocation and to leave her companions. When Father 
Rse heard of this, he advised the bishop to hold them 
together till he could return from Europe. For if the Beguine 
were to leave, it would prevent others from coming from 
Flanders, as well as cause the parents of Frances to hesitate 
to send her money for the foundation of the institute. 56 

But a greater trial was the loss of Sister St. Paul, upon 
whom the bishop had relied to become the superior of the new 
establishment, and without whom the whole enterprise was 
doomed to failure, the two Poor Clares being judged not suffi 
ciently capable for the undertaking. In September, 1827, Sister 
St. Paul lay upon her death-bed at Cincinnati. No medical 
assistance could profit her, and she passed to her reward after 
three years service in the city of Cincinnati. 57 

The fears of the bishop were well founded, for early in the 
next spring, 1828, the two Sisters, Francoise and Victoire, left 
Cincinnati for Pittsburgh. The bishop wished the Sisters to 
teach school at Canton, Ohio, but the Sisters, having misgivings 
of that town went, about the first of April, to Pittsburgh, 
where they placed themselves under the direction of the Fran 
ciscan Father, C. B. McGuire. 58 The third lady of the party, 
Sister Adolphine, the Beguine, did not follow them, but, 
assuming her family name of Malingie, quitted their company 

54. Letter, Badin, Marseilles, September 25, 1826, to Fenwick, Cincinnati (Notre Dame 
Archives); Fenwick, Cincinnati, February 6, 1827, to Rosati, St. Louis (St. Louis Archdio- 
cesan Archives). 

55. Communication to U. S. Catholic Miscellany, VI, 246, February 24, 1827. 

56. Letter, Rese, Rome, September 29, 1827, to Fenwick, Cincinnati (Notre Dame 

57. Letter, Fenwick, Cincinnati, September 8, 1827, to Rigagnon (Annales de V Associa 
tion de la Propagation de la Foi, Lyons, III, 293). 

58. Letter, C. B. McGuire, Pittsburgh, April 28, 1828, to Fenwick, Cincinnati (Arch- 
diocesan Archives, Mount St. Joseph s). 


and remained at the cathedral as a singer and directress of the 
choir. 59 

The dissolution of the community at Cincinnati was un 
fortunate. Had they remained, perhaps a more edifying 
chapter of history might have been written of their sojourn in 
the United States. For on April 19, 1828, two Flemish Sisters, 
named Benedicta and Bernardina, had sailed from Havre in 
the care of Father de Raymaecker, O.P., to join the Sisters at 
Cincinnati. 60 They reached New York on May 28th, and 
proceeded to Cincinnati during the course of the next month. 
There they met with disappointment, as their Sisters had left 
the town more than two months before. To the invitation of 
Bishop Flaget, offering them affiliation with one of his com 
munities in Kentucky, they answered that they were not at 
liberty to join any of them. 61 They probably joined their 
Sisters at Pittsburgh. There, serious difficulties were en 
countered by the community, resulting in the dissolution of 
their house and the return of the Sisters to Belgium in 1839. 62 


The failure of the Poor Clares at Cincinnati caused Bishop 
Fenwick to urge the Sisters of Charity to undertake an estab 
lishment in his diocese. His former request in 1825 had pro 
duced no fruit, as Father Dubois, the superior of the Sisters at 
Emmitsburg, insisted on funds being secured to ensure the 
stability of the establishment in the diocese, a guarantee which 
Bishop Fenwick could not give. 63 But the departure of the 
Poor Clares made the acquisition of other Sisters imperative, 
so that two or three laymen proceeded to make arrangements 

59. Letter, Fenwick, Cincinnati, April 10, 1828, to Bishop Rosati, St. Louis (original 
sent to American Catholic Historical Society, of Philadelphia; copy in St. Louis Archdiocesan 
Archives) . 

60. Letter, Rese, Rome, May 22, 1828, to Fenwick, Cincinnati (Notre Dame Archives). 

61. Letter, Flaget, Bardstown, July 28, 1828, to Fenwick, Cincinnati (Notre Dame 

62. For the subsequent history of the Poor Clares at Pittsburgh, see Diary and Visita 
tion Record of the Rx. REV. FRANCIS PATRICK KENRICK, pp. 64, 110, 111, 117, 142, 176, 177; 
LAMBING, A History of the Catholic Church in the Dioceses of Pittsburgh and Allegheny (1880), 
pp. 483-485 ; LAMBING, Foundation Stones of a Great Diocese, pp. 329-33 1 . 

63. Letter, Dubois, Emmitsburg, December 30, 1825, to Fenwick, Cincinnati (Notre 
Dame Archives). 


with the Sisters of Charity for an establishment at Cincinnati. 
For this purpose one of the men left Cincinnati for Emmits- 
burg before February 17, 1829. 64 Bishop Fenwick seconded 
their efforts, and to make the invitation personal, wrote the 
following letter to the mother-superior: 

Cincinnati, 9th May, 1829. 
Venerable & Dear Mother: 

Confident that great good may be done in this city by the estab 
lishment of a female orphan asylum under your zealous & charitable 
care, I have written to the Rev d Mr. L. Deluol of Baltimore, your 
Superior, to beg of him 3 or 4 of your pious Sisters who are well cal 
culated to conduct such an establishment in this place, & now have 
to request that you will consent to send me not less than three of your 
worthy community for that purpose. 

Mr. M. P. Cassilly & others have engaged to furnish you a good 
& comfortable house, rent free, as long as you wish to occupy it, & 
$200 in cash annually towards your support & to refund, if required, 
all expenses of your journey to this place. 

I am myself unable to contribute anything in a pecuniary way 
towards your establishing yourselves here, but will do all in my power 
to give you spiritual comfort & advice & endeavor to render you 
happy & content. 

I hope you will set out in time to de[s]cend the river before it 
becomes too low for boating. 

My compliments & blessing to all your community & beg[g]ing 
your prayers, 

I remain very affectionately 

Your cordial friend, 


This letter was followed up in October by a visit from the 
bishop himself. His entreaties were favorably received, so 
that on October 19th, he could write that he was sending 
Father Mullon back to Cincinnati with a band of the Sisters. 66 
The first Sisters of Charity destined for Cincinnati were Sisters 
Francis Xavier Jordan, Victoria Fitzgerald, Beatrice Tyler 
and Albina Levy, the first of whom was in charge as sister- 
servant. 67 After tedious travel by stage, the Sisters reached 

64. Letter, Rev. J. B. Clicteur, Cincinnati, February 17, 1829, to Central Council of 
Association of Propagation of Faith, Lyons (Annales, 1830, IV, 512). 

65. Archives of St. Joseph College, Emmitsburg, Md., Letter Book 6. 

66. Letter, Fenwick, Baltimore, October 19, 1829, to Rev. John McElroy, S.J., Frederick, 
Md. (Archives of Maryland-New York Province of the Jesuit Fathers, McElroy Papers, 
Case 12 B). 

67. Archives of St. Joseph College, Emmitsburg, Md. 


Cincinnati on the morning of October 27th, and were lodged at 
the house of the Reilly family until November 3d, when the 
two-story frame house, situated on Sycamore near Sixth street, 
which had been promised to them by Mr. Cassilly, was ready 
and placed at their disposal. The Sisters took charge imme 
diately of five orphans, and opened a school with six other 
children. 68 When, within a year s time, this school and or 
phanage became too small, a larger dwelling was secured on 
Sixth, near Sycamore street. A second change was made in 
1836, when Major Ruffner s mansion on Third and Plum streets 
was bought for an academy, school and asylum. 

The female orphans of the city of Cincinnati were thus 
well provided for, but, whilst means had been raised by the 
German Catholics for a boys orphanage, the question of the 
personnel of the institution remained a perplexing problem to 
the bishop. He determined, however, to solve the problem, 
and on May 15, 1842, wrote to Mother Xavier, of Emmits- 
burg, asking for Sisters to take charge of the German boys 
asylum at Cincinnati. 69 Further correspondence followed 
before the mother-superior decided to accept the invitation. 
On August 23d, she missioned three Sisters, Seraphina McNulty, 
Germana Moore and Genevieve Dodthage to Cincinnati, 
giving the sister-servant Seraphina certain instructions on 
the conditions on which they accepted the charge. These 
conditions were (1) that the Sisters were not to be under the 
control of the board of directors of the asylum; (2) that the 
boys were not to go to school in the basement of Trinity 
church; (3) that a new and larger house was to be built in the 
following spring. To all these conditions the bishop con 
sented. 70 The Sisters remained in charge of this institution 
till their recall to Emmitsburg in June, 1846. At that time 
charge over boys in orphanages and schools was a question 
which was perplexing the authorities at Emmitsburg. It had 
resulted at New York in the separation of the Sisters of 
Charity from the mother-house at Emmitsburg. A like 
separation was to occur shortly at Cincinnati, after the su- 

68. Letter, Fenwick, Cincinnati, February 25, 1830, to Rigagnon, Bordeaux (Annales, 
1830, IV, 533). 

69. Letter, Purcell, Cincinnati, May 15, 1842, to Mother Xavier (St. Joseph College 
Archives, Emmitsburg, Book 6). 

70. Letter, Purcell, Cincinnati, August 25, 1842, to Mother Xavier (Book 6, ut supra). 


periors at Emmitsburg had decided in 1849 upon affiliation 
with the Daughters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul in 
France. The affiliation was accepted by the Fathers in France 
on July 18, 1849. 

When the changes which this affiliation occasioned in the 
dress, customs and vows of the Sisters were sought to be 
introduced at Cincinnati in 1852, six of the Sisters stationed 
there under the sister-servant, Margaret Cecilia George, de 
clined the affiliation. Their action met with the approval of 
the archbishop of Cincinnati. It was decided to continue the 
former status of the Sisters in Cincinnati. Accordingly, on 
March 25, 1852, the six professed Sisters with their sister- 
servant made their vows to Archbishop Purcell as their 
superior. They were joined soon after by a seventh professed 
Sister from New Orleans, and by novices. The regular novi 
tiate was begun with the advent of Sister Vincent O Keefe 
on April 2, 1852. Sister Margaret retained her office as 
sister-servant until February 7, 1853, when she was elected 
the first mother-superior of the community. 

In the following year, the Sisters were incorporated under 
the title of "The Sisters of Charity of Cincinnati, Ohio". 
St. Peter s academy, orphan asylum and school, located at 
Third and Plum streets, served as the first mother-house. 
In the fall of 1853, property on Mount Harrison (Price Hill) 
was obtained, and, when remodeled, was constituted as the 
mother-house. Mount St. Vincent s academy was also opened 
there. At the same time the Sisters assumed charge of the do 
mestic affairs of the new Mount St. Mary seminary. In 1857 
they exchanged the Mt. Harrison property and the property 
at Sixth and Park streets, known as St. Mary s academy, 
for the home of Judge Aldersen, now known as Cedar Grove, 
on Glenway avenue, Price Hill. There they laid the corner 
stone of a new mother-house on October 25, 1857. But there, 
too, the number of novices and pupils outgrew the accommo 
dations; the academy which they conducted became crowded; 
the suburb of Price Hill was developing fast; and a site further 
removed from the city was desirable. Negotiations followed 
for a tract of land, then known as "Biggs Farm", at Delhi, 
and when these came to a successful issue on September 29, 
1869, preparations were made at once for the new mother- 


house. This location now serves for the mother-house, no 
vitiate, academy and college, known as Mount St. Joseph s. 

In the archdiocese today, the Sisters instruct in thirty-three 
parochial schools and three academies, whilst they are in charge 
of St. Joseph s orphanage, the Santa Maria institute, and the 
four hospitals, Seton, Good Samaritan, St. Joseph maternity 
hospital and infant asylum, and the Antonio hospital, at 
Kenton, Ohio. 

Beyond the archdiocese, the Sisters of Charity conduct 
establishments like to those in their native archdiocese, in the 
states of Tennessee, Michigan, Illinois, Colorado and New 
Mexico, whilst they have likewise served as the models and 
instructors of the Sisters of Charity, who have their mother- 
houses at Convent Station, New Jersey and Greensburg, 
Pennsylvania. 7 l 


Under this heading we shall class three diverse communities, 
all of which have had relations with the archdiocese of Cincin 
nati. The three communities are the Sisters of St. Dominic, 
recently designated by Rome as the "American Congregation 
of Dominican Tertiaries of the Blessed Virgin Mary", the 
Dominican Nuns of the Congregation of St. Catherine de Ricci, 
and the Dominican Nuns of the Second Order. 

Of these the Dominican Tertiaries of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary were the first to come to Ohio, following the Sisters of 
Charity by not quite three months. Founded originally in 
1822 by the provincial Father Wilson, O.P., at St. Magdalen s, 
now St. Catharine s, near Springfield, Ky., they were called by 
Bishop Fen wick, the superior of the order in 1830, to form an 
establishment in the diocese of Cincinnati. Four Sisters, Emily 
Elder (the superior), Agnes Harbin, Catherine Mudd andBenvin 
Sansbury, formed the first party to leave St. Magdalen s 
monastery on January 11, 1830, arriving at Somerset, Ohio, 
on February 5, 1830. On the 25th of the month they took 
possession of a small house which had been purchased for them, 

71. Archives Mount St. Joseph, Ohio; SISTER MARY AGNES McCANN, M.A., The 
History of Mother Seton s Daughters, vols. I, II; The Official Catholic Directory, 1920. 


and therein on April 5th, opened a school with forty pupils. 72 
A novitiate also was begun, Sister Rose Lynch becoming the 
first novice. Before the end of the year, the society was in 
corporated under the title of "St. Mary s Female Literary 

The school grew, especially as it had been changed during 
its first year from a day to a boarding school. A new three- 
story convent and school was then built and made ready for the 
winter of 1 83 1 . 7 3 The Sisters had gained the favor of the people 
so well that they were employed in 1832 by the school directors 
of their district to teach in the district school. 74 The convent 
as well as the school prospered, so that by 1860 the Sisters had 
made establishments at Memphis and Nashville, Tennessee; 
Monterey, California; Benton, Wisconsin; and Zanesville, 
Ohio. A great misfortune befell the Sisters in 1866, when their 
establishment at Somerset was completely destroyed by fire. 
The disaster served to stimulate the generosity of Mr. Theodore 
Leonard, of Columbus, Ohio, who offered them a site and finan 
cial assistance for a new convent near the city of Columbus, 
at a place now called Shepard, Ohio. The offer was gratefully 
accepted; the new convent of "St. Mary s of the Springs" was 
built; and the Sisters took possession of it on September 1, 
1868. As in the spring of that year the diocese of Columbus 
was formed out of the archdiocese of Cincinnati, the Sisters 
passed from the territory of the archbishop of Cincinnati to 
that of the bishop of Columbus. 

In point of regular jurisdiction, the Sisters had been subject 
until 1865 to the immediate jurisdiction of the provincial of the 
Dominican order in the United States. But this was with 
drawn by the master-general of the order in 1865. The com 
munity received its present organization, that of a congrega 
tion under the orders of a mother-superior, in 1893, when 
their new constitutions, based upon the rule of the Congrega 
tion of the Most Holy Rosary, were approved temporarily 
by the Sacred Congregation of the Propaganda, Rome, and 
approved finally in 1903. 

72. Letter, Rev. George A. Wilson, O.P., Somerset, Ohio, February 17, 1847, to Purcell 
(Archdiocesan Archives, Mount St. Joseph). 

73. Prospectus in Catholic Telegraph, March 3, 1832, I, 159. 

74. Letter from Somerset, May 7, 1832, Catholic Telegraph, I, 247. 


The only establishment which the society has in the arch 
diocese of Cincinnati at present, is at Bellefontaine, Ohio, where 
the parochial school is conducted by some of its members. 75 

The second of the congregations devoted to St. Dominic to 
come into the archdiocese of Cincinnati, was that of the Domini 
can Nuns of the Congregation of St. Catherine de Ricci, the 
American foundation of which was made at Albany, New 
York, in 1880, by Mother Catherine de Ricci (nee Lucy Smith). 
Upon the solicitation of the present archbishop of Cincinnati, 
three nuns, Sister M. Aime e, M. Reginald and M. Gabriel, the 
first of whom was the superior, came to Cincinnati in the month 
of August, 1912. The Sisters repaired to Dayton, Ohio, where 
in accordance with the purpose of their society, that of giving 
spiritual retreats and providing homes for business women, 
they opened the "Dominican House of Retreats" on Septem 
ber 9th. This was followed five years later, on December 6, 
1917, by the foundation in the same city of the "Loretto Guild", 
a home for business women. The two institutions are managed 
by the same direction. 

The third and most recent foundation of a community of 
Dominican Sisters in the archdiocese is that of the Second Order 
of St. Dominic, founded originally in 1206 by St. Dominic 
himself, at Prouille, France. This is a cloistered order, the 
members of which devote themselves to a contemplative life. 
The singular privilege of perpetual adoration of the Blessed 
Sacrament was accorded in 1868 to the monastery of the order 
at Quellins, near Lyons, France, which communicated the 
privilege to two foundations of the convent in the United States; 
one at Newark, New Jersey, the other at Hunt s Point, New 
York City. The first of the two was established in 1880 by 
Archbishop Corrigan, when he was ordinary of Newark. 

It was in consequence of the gracious response of the present 
archbishop of Cincinnati accorded to the petition of the Sisters 
at Newark, that seven professed Sisters from the monastery 
of St. Dominic in that city came to Cincinnati in May, 1915, 
and opened the "Monastery of the Holy Name, Cincinnati, 
Ohio". Under this title the order has been incorporated 
under the laws of the state of Ohio. 

75. The Official Catholic Directory, 1920. 



We have seen above that one of the purposes of Bishop 
Purcell in going to Europe in 1838 was to obtain some Jesuits 
to teach in his diocese. With like intentions he tried to obtain 
some Ladies of the Sacred Heart from France. So confident 
of success was he that he obtained authorization from Rome 
on March 10, 1839, to transfer to them some property which 
had been given to Bishop Fenwick for educational purposes, 
probably that in Brown county. 76 In accordance with these 
plans, Bishop Purcell visited the Madames of the Sacred Heart 
in Paris, and offered them the property. Although he had re 
ceived no final answer, he thought that he had sufficient security 
to announce in the U. S. Catholic Almanac of 1840, the opening 
of an institution by these Ladies. 77 On this same trip in 1839, 
accompanied by Father Brassac, his vicar-general in Europe, 
he visited the mother-house of the Sisters of Notre Dame at 
Namur, but made no request for their services, expressing only 
the desire of seeing the Sisters one day in America. The bishop 
then returned home, leaving his vicar-general to tend to 
affairs in Europe. 

Immediately upon receiving Madame Barat s final answer in 
March, 1840, that the Ladies of the Sacred Heart could not 
come to Cincinnati for at least two years, Father Brassac wrote 
from Paris to Ignatius, the sister-superior, at Namur, making a 
formal request for Sisters. 78 To this request he received a 
favorable reply, in which Sister Ignatius stated her conditions 
of acceptance, which were: a suitable house with a garden 
for the Sisters, help in constructing suitable buildings for the 
establishment of their work, and transfer of the title to the 
property. 79 This answer was dictated only after the mother- 
superior had consulted Father Varin, S.J., and the bishop of 
Namur. The latter also took the matter into his own hands, 

76. Brief of authorization (Archdiocesan Archives, Mount St. Joseph). 

77. U.S. Catholic Almanac, 1840, p. 98. 

78. Letter in translation, in Records of American Catholic Society, of Philadelphia, 1900, 
XI, 321; letter, Brassac, Paris, March 10, 1840, to Purcell, Cincinnati (Archdiocesan Ar 
chives, Mount St. Joseph). 

79. Letter, Brassac, Paris, April 6, 1840, to Purcell, Cincinnati (Archdiocesan Archives, 
Mount St. Joseph). 


and, on April 24th, wrote to Bishop Purcell to have him per 
sonally make a formal demand for the Sisters; to give assurance 
of a suitable house with the necessary furniture and a garden; 
assurance likewise of assistance, provided the Sisters could not 
obtain support from the pensions of scholars; and an oppor 
tunity of conducting classes for poor children, as the rule of the 
society demanded. 80 To this the bishop of Cincinnati was only 
too eager to consent, and he set out in detail what he could offer 
the Sisters : the choice of a location at Cincinnati, Fayetteville 
or Chillicothe, and three parochial schools to meet their con 
dition of having to teach poor children; but he found himself 
a little embarrassed to provide a suitable house with a garden 
in the city of Cincinnati. 

Although this letter did not contain all the guarantees de 
sired, it proved acceptable notwithstanding to the bishop of 
Namur, who thereupon gave his consent for the departure of the 
Sisters. 81 The mother-superior chose eight Sisters, Louis de 
Gonzaga, Xavier, Melanie, Rosine, Ignatia, Marie Pauline, 
Humbeline and Louise, of whom she made the first, superior. 82 
Arrangements for the voyage having been completed by Father 
Brassac, and the Sisters preparations all made, Mother 
Ignatius started from Namur with the band of eight on Sep 
tember 3d, conducting the party in person to Antwerp, where 
she resigned them into the hands of Father Amadeus Rappe. 
Leaving Antwerp on September 10th, they came in sight of 
America on October 18th, sailing into New York harbor the 
following day. 83 Not wishing to attract attention on their 
way to Cincinnati, they changed their religious garb for a 
secular one, but found that by so doing they effected that 
which they wanted to avoid. They reached the city of Cin 
cinnati on November 1st, and found Bishop Purcell at the 
wharf waiting to receive them. After giving them a kindly 
welcome to Cincinnati, the bishop offered them the large 

80. Letter, Nicholas Joseph, Bishop of Namur, April 24, 1840, to Vicar-General of Cin 
cinnati (Notre Dame Archives). 

81. Letter, Brassac, Paris, July 7, 1840, to Purcell, Cincinnati (Archdiocesan Archives, 
Mount St. Joseph). 

82. Letter, Nicholas Joseph, Bishop of Namur, August 24, 1840, to Purcell, Cincinnati 
(Notre Dame Archives). 

83. Letter, Brassac, Antwerp, September 9 and 10, 1840, to Mother Ignatius; letter, 
Sister Louis de Gonzague to same (Records of American Catholic Society, of Philadelphia, 1900, 
XI, 320 ff). 


property in Brown county, but Sister Louis de Gonzaga de 
clined the offer for the reason that, as the property was in the 
country, they would be unable to receive poor children for 

The Sisters were then brought to the house of the Sisters of 
Charity in Cincinnati, where they were lodged for the next six 
w r eeks, at the end of which time they occupied a small house on 
Sycamore street, opposite the cathedral. The garden about 
which the Sisters had been so solicitous was, according to the 
description of it by Sister Louis de Gonzaga, about the size of 
an apron. But it proved to be only temporary, as they were 
able to conclude negotiations for the house of Mr. Josiah 
Lawrence, known as the Spencer Mansion", on Sixth street, 
between Sycamore and Broadway, which they purchased for 
$24,000.00, and were able to occupy by Christmas day. 84 
Here they at once prepared for a school to be known as a 
Young Ladies Literary Institute and Boarding School, which 
they opened on January 18, 1841. 85 

The success of the Sisters was immediate and continuous, 
thereby allowing them to erect their first building in 1844. 
Other additions as well as new locatioas followed, so that the 
Sisters today have three convents and academies in the city of 
Cincinnati, and a convent and academy in the cities of Reading, 
Hamilton and Dayton, whilst they teach in twenty-seven 
parochial schools. The mother-house and novitiate, located 
on Grandin road, Walnut Hills, has houses affiliated to it in 
Ohio, Illinois, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Rhode Island and 
Massachusetts. 86 

The Sisters of Notre Dame are represented in the arch 
diocese by a second branch of the order. At the present time 
this branch has its American mother-house and novitiate at 
Cleveland, Ohio, and its general mother-house at Muelhausen, 
Germany. The first institution in Germany at Coesfeld, 
Westphalia, had to close its doors and send its Sisters into exile 
in 1871 upon the orders of the German Emperor. Then upon 
the entreaty of Father Westerhold, of Cleveland, they were 

84. Letter, Purcell to Mother Ignatius (Records, as in Note 84). 

85. Prospectus in Catholic Telegraph, X, 21, January 16, 1841. 

86. The Official Catholic Directory, 1920, p. 732; Catholic Telegraph, October 23, 1890; 
Golden Jubilee Souvenir, 1890; Records American Catholic Society, of Philadelphia, 1900, XI, 
pp. 320-339. 


invited by Bishop Gilmour to take refuge in Cleveland. The 
superior-general of the order arrived with eight Sisters on 
July 6, 1874. In the same year they were invited by Bishop 
Toebbe, to Covington, Ky., where they established their 
mother-house temporarily. 

In need of Sisters to take charge of the St. Aloysius orphan 
asylum, the directors of the St. Aloysius orphan society of 
Cincinnati began negotiations for Sisters of this community. 
A contract was drawn up, approved by the society and entered 
into by the directors and the Sisters, whereby the Sisters were 
to assume charge of the asylum on May 1, 1877. On the day 
appointed, Sisters M. Garzia, M. Agnes, M. Theresia and M. 
Bibiana arrived with their superior, Sister M. Odilia. The 
order has continued in charge of this orphanage at Bond Hill 
ever since. 87 


The next to come to the archdiocese were the Sisters of the 
Most Precious Blood. These Sisters were founded in 1833 by 
the mother of the Rev. Francis de Sales Brunner, C.PP.S., at 
Loewenberg, in the Canton of Grisons, Switzerland, with the 
mission of particularly honoring the Most Precious Blood of 
Jesus in perpetual adoration and in teaching. In 1843 Father 
Brunner led seven priests and some students into the diocese 
of Cincinnati and settled at Norwalk, Ohio. There he came 
into contact with a former nun of Divine Providence, who, 
during the troublous revolutionary times in France, had taken 
refuge there with her family and others from Alsace. This 
nun was leading a solitary life in a block-house in the district, 
and. before the arrival of the Precious Blood Fathers, had 
urged her neighbors to build the church of St. Alphonse. 
Learning of the Sisters of the Precious Blood at Loewenberg, 
she seized the first opportunity to request permission of Bishop 
Purcell for their call into the diocese of Cincinnati. Negotia 
tions were not long pending, as Father Brunner himself had 
been practically the founder of the community at Loewen- 

87. Denkschrift fuer die 50-jaehrige Jubel-Feier der St. Aloysius Waisen Vereins, January 
30, 1887, pp. 41-45; Catholic Encyclopedia, XI, 131. 


berg. As early as July 24, 1844, Sisters Maria Anna Albrecht, 
her daughter, Rosa Albrecht, and a novice, Martina Catherine 
Disch, arrived at St. Alphonse s. They immediately built a 
log-house next to that of the nun of Divine Providence. They 
did not have long to wait before they were joined by postu 
lants, whose numbers caused the house to become too small for 
their purposes. The same fall a new convent was erected at 
Wolf s Creek or New Riegel, Seneca county; in it, though 
uncompleted, they began their vigils before the Blessed Sacra 
ment with midnight Mass on Christmas day, 1844. In June 
of 1845, there were fourteen Sisters in the convent. At New 
Riegel they opened a school for girls as well as an orphanage. 
On September 24th, of the following year, they established the 
convent at Maria Stein, where they introduced the perpetual 
adoration of the Blessed Sacrament. There, too, the Sisters 
are in possession of a chapel devoted to the special veneration 
of a great many precious relics. When the original mother- 
house in Switzerland was sold in 1850, the foundation in the 
archdiocese of Cincinnati became the headquarters of the 

At present the Sisters possess three convents in the arch 
diocese, at Maria Stein, Casella and Minster; at this last 
place they conduct a boarding school for girls. Girls bereft of 
mother or father may find a home there. The Sisters are in 
charge also of St. Joseph s orphan home, at Dayton, Ohio; 
of the culinary department of the archbishop s residence and 
the Fen wick club; and of sixteen parochial and two district 
schools. Other establishments have been made beyond the 
limits of the archdiocese of Cincinnati in northern Ohio, 
Indiana, Missouri, Arizona and California. 88 


The beginnings of the relations of the Ursulines to the 
archdiocese of Cincinnati are to be traced back, like those of 
the Jesuits and the Sisters of Notre Dame, to the trip to Europe 
undertaken by Bishop Purcell in 1838. Passing from England 

88. Notes from the Annals of the Community at Maria Stein; Leben und Wirken des 
hochw. P. Franz Sales Brunner (1882), pp. 17-20; 69-70; 115-120; 131-137. 


to the continent of Europe, the bishop took charge of two young 
ladies going from London to the Ursuline convent at Boulogne- 
sur-Mer, France. At the convent he was welcomed by the 
Sisters and their chaplain, Father Amadeus Rappe, the latter 
becoming so interested in the mission of Cincinnati that he 
applied for entrance into the diocese, and came in 1840, as the 
escort of the Sisters of Notre Dame. Stationed at Toledo, 
Father Rappe saw an opportunity for the establishment of a 
convent at that place. But the bishop, too, had his designs 
at the same time on a foundation by the Ursulines in Brown 

With permission to visit his home near Beaulieu in France 
for the purpose of settling family financial affairs, Father 
Machebeuf was commissioned by Bishop Purcell, in July, 1844, 
to act as his agent in obtaining some Sisters from the convent 
at Boulogne-sur-Mer. Father Machebeuf visited the Sisters 
at Boulogne, and, presenting the letters of introduction from the 
bishop as well as from Father Rappe, proposed the foundation 
in Brown county, Ohio, where 300 acres of ground awaited 
their coming. The proposition seemed acceptable to the 
mother-superior, who wanted time, however, for consultation. 89 
Thereupon, Father Machebeuf proceeded to his home at Riom. 

Meanwhile, he learned from the superior of the Ursulines at 
St. Halyre, near Clermont, that the community of the Ursulines, 
consisting of fourteen persons in the diocese of Tulle who had 
suffered and were suffering much at the hands of the civil 
authorities, would likely wish to go to the United States. 90 
Indeed, hearing of the invitation addressed to Boulogne, the 
mother-superior at Beaulieu wrote to Boulogne in August to 
ascertain if it were true, and in the event of acceptance, if some 
of her Sisters might accompany the party. The reply of Sep 
tember 10th showed that it was thought at Boulogne that the 
Sisters could not accept the invitation to Cincinnati. This 
caused the chaplain, M. Graviche, superior of the Ursulines at 
Beaulieu, to open correspondence with Father Machebeuf, 
who in all likelihood soon received authorization from Bishop 
Purcell to proceed in the negotiations with Beaulieu. A per- 

89. Letter, Bishop Machebeuf, April 13, 1889, to the Colorado Catholic. 

90. Letter, Machebeuf, Riom, France, September 5, 1844, to Purcell, Cincinnati (Notre 
Dame Archives). 


sonal visit to Beaulieu by Father Machebeuf had the effect 
of obtaining all the consent necessary for the enterprise. He 
next proceeded to obtain the permission of the Rt. Rev. Bishop 
Bertrand, of Tulle, who granted it very reluctantly. Applica 
tion was then made to the Boulogne convent for two Sisters, 
who could speak English, to accompany the party. 

Preparations for the departure of the entire community 
were being made; Father Machebeuf went to Bordeaux to 
arrange for their sailing on March 1, 1845; and the word was 
passed that the Sisters were going to leave. Those who before 
had been their enemies, now appeared at the convent, the 
sub-prefect of the department, the mayor and the municipal 
council, offering every promise of support should they remain. 
Some relatives of the nuns likewise interposed with the bishop, 
who retracted the general permission. Several of the fourteen 
then failed to persevere in their intentions. 

The Sisters received great consolation, however, when they 
learned on February 28th, that their request for Sisters from 
Boulogne had been granted. It was found impossible to leave 
as was intended on March 1st, but the project was never given 
up; the Sisters continued their preparations, and contrived 
means to leave the town of Beaulieu secretly, if necessary. 
Two of them left thus on April 7th. Six others left together 
on April 15th, joining their comrades at Paris, the place desig 
nated for the meeting. At Paris, under the guidance of Father 
Machebeuf, they consecrated themselves and their new estab 
lishments to the Blessed Virgin Mary in joining the Arch- 
sodality of the Sacred Heart of Mary, established in the church 
of Notre Dame de Victoire. 91 On April 19th, all repaired to 
Havre, where on the 30th they met the three Sisters from 
Boulogne. The party then numbered eleven: Sisters Stanis 
laus Laurier, St. Peter Andral, Augustine Bouret, Angela 
Demotat, as choir sisters, and Sisters Martial, Mary, Bernard 
and Christine, as lay sisters, from Beaulieu; Sister Julia Chat- 
field, choir sister, Sister Hyacinth Eiffe, novice, and Miss 
Matilda Dunn, postulant, from Boulogne. 

Sailing from Havre on May 4th, accompanied by Fathers 
Machebeuf and Peudeprat, the latter also a recruit for Cin- 

91. Letter, Machebeuf, Havre, April 29, 1845, to Purcell, Cincinnati (Notre Dame 


cinnati, the Sisters landed at New York on June 2, 1845. 92 
They did not reach Cincinnati until June 19th, when they 
were received and welcomed by Bishop Purcell. They were 
then conducted to the home of Mr. and Mrs. David Corr, who 
offered their hospitality to them until they determined on a 
definite location. 93 The bishop offered them their choice 
of Brown county or Chillicothe, to both of which places two 
of the Sisters repaired to look over the prospects of a foundation, 
but returned with the determination to leave the selection to 
the bishop himself, who chose Brown county for them. Thither 
they went on July 21st, and found the seminarians under 
Father Burlando, still at the seminary. The bishop s instruc 
tions to repair to Cincinnati soon reached the seminarians, and 
the Sisters were then lodged in the seminary, which became 
their convent. Besides this building, there were the residence 
of Fathers Gacon and Cheymol, the workmen s house, and St. 
Martin s church. This last was made to serve as the convent 
chapel. About these houses lay 300 acres of land. 

The Sisters began to teach school to some children in the 
neighborhood, and on October 4, 1845, received their first 
boarding scholars into their young ladies academy. Plans 
were prepared at once for a new convent, which was completed 
and occupied in September, 1847. In the previous year the 
school had been incorporated under the title of "The St. Ursula 
Literary Institute". New buildings have been built on this 
original site, whilst new foundations have been made ir other 
parts of the United States. In the archdiocese of Cincinnati 
the Sisters conduct two academies, one in Brown county, and 
the other at Oak street and Reading road, Cincinnati. 94 

Difficulties having arisen, a division of the community was 
occasioned in April, 1910, when an independent Ursuline com 
munity was established on McMillan street, Walnut Hills. 
Mother Fidelis became the superior, Mother Baptista, assist 
ant, Mother Berchmans, zelatrice, and Sister Adelaide, 
treasurer. 95 The Sisters conduct an academy in connection 

92. Letter, Machebeuf, New York, June 3, 1845, to Purcell, Cincinnati (Notre Dame 
Archives) . 

93. Letter of the Sisters to the Superior at Beaulieu (HowLETT, Life of Bishop Machebeuf, 
pp. 135-37). 

94. Official Catholic Directory, 1920; Fifty Years in Brown County Convent (Cincinnati, 
1895); article, Our Convents, VI, in The Metropolitan, Baltimore, 1856, IV, 155-57. 

95. Catholic Telegraph, April 14, 1910. 


with the convent and have charge of three parochial schools in 

For a short time after 1847, Cincinnati harbored some Ursu- 
line nuns who had left Charleston on the breaking-up of the 
convent in that city. At Cincinnati they conducted a school 
on Bank street in the former residence of Major Gano, but 
closed the school on April 12, 1855, and disbanded, some going 
to Brown county, Ohio, some returning to Cork, Ireland, the 
larger number, however, under the guidance of Mother Joseph 
entering the Ursuline convent at Springfield, Illinois. The 
property which they occupied is that upon which now stands 
the St. Vincent home for boys, 918 Bank street. 

The next four foundations of religious communities of 
women in Cincinnati were due to the charity and burning zeal 
of a convert to the Catholic Faith, Mrs. Sarah Peter, of whom 
we hope to say more in the next chapter. The four founda 
tions were those of the Sisters of the Good Shepherd, the 
Sisters of Mercy, the Sisters of the Poor of St. Francis, and 
the Little Sisters of the Poor. 


The first of the four to be made at Cincinnati was that of 
the Sisters of the Good Shepherd or of Our Lady of Charity 
of the Good Shepherd; a cloistered order, the members of which 
add to the three ordinary vows of poverty, chastity and obedi 
ence, a fourth vow, to work for the conversion and instruction of 
"penitents". The purpose of the order is to provide a retreat, 
where girls and women of dissolute habits may take refuge in 
order to lead a penitential and a better life. Such women are 
likewise admitted when consigned to the institution by civil 
or parental authority. Many of them, after tasting the effects 
of seclusion, wish to remain forever, and they are then admitted, 
after the taking of vows, to the class of "Magdalens", to be 
under the care of the Sisters. Finally, the Sisters undertake 
to protect and train children, who, endangered by their 
home environment, have been entrusted to their care for 


proper education. As first established in 1641 by Blessed John 
Eudes at Caen, France, the order was called the Order of Our 
Lady of Charity of the Refuge, but in a reorganization by 
Mother Euphrasia Pelletier, which affected chiefly the adminis 
tration and was officially approved by Pope Gregory XVI on 
April 3, 1835, the branch at Angers assumed the name of "Our 
Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd of Angers". 

The new organization proved a great stimulus to further 
foundations. 96 Already on December 1, 1842, a house was 
begun at Louisville upon the solicitation of Bishop Flaget. 97 
From this city, the Sisters made the foundation at Cincinnati 
in 1857 upon the request of Mrs. Sarah Peter and with the 
approbation of Archbishop Purcell. An extract from a letter, 
written by one of the Sisters on February 19, 1887, to Mrs. 
Rufus King, daughter-in-law of Mrs. Peter, will serve to tell 
the story of the foundation : 

"Mother M. of St. Ignatius Ward and myself left Louisville, Ky., 
on the 16th of February, 1857. We arrived in Cincinnati the following 
day; repaired at once to St. Philomena Church, where Rev. Father 
Hengehold kindly received us. After serving us with breakfast, con 
sisting of coffee mixed with tea, and heavy black bread with butter, his 
reverence introduced us to dear Mrs. S. Peter, jestingly telling her we 
were fit to begin the work of the Good Shepherd, as we knew how to 
practice mortification. Accompanied by Rev. Pere Hengehold and 
our venerated foundress, Mrs. Peter, we paid our obeisance to his 
grace, the Most Rev. J. B. Purcell, and then made arrangements to 
purchase the property we occupy. During our first week s abode in 
the city we shared dear Mrs. Peter s hospitality. At her residence 
we became acquainted with Mr. and Mrs. R. R. Springer, Mr. and Mrs. 
J. Slevin, and Mr. A. Geis, who conjointly provided us with beds and 
bedding, and other necessaries, for the accommodation of our first 
penitents. Our kind hostess presented us with the sum of $100, and 
on the 27th of the above-named month, she brought us eighteen female 
prisoners for the opening of our penitent class. We ourselves took 
possession of the frame building on corner of Bank and Baymiller, 
at present occupied by a number of colored girls under our care, on the 
26th of February, 1857. I must here remark that among the eighteen 
specimens of degradation was a special notorious character, called the 
Tigress of Cincinnati . No force could restrain her. This poor 
object of compassion is still with us; her ferocious disposition has long 
since assumed the amiable qualities of a gentle lamb, and we trust she, 

96. Catholic Encyclopedia, VI, 647. 

97. SPALDING, Sketches of the Life of Bishop Flaget, pp. 336-39. 


like many of her former associates in vice, will end her days in the 
peaceful Home of the Good Shepherd. 

"In 1863, March 9th, Mother M. of St. Stanislaus, and her sisters, 
took charge of the poor prisoners at Front street. When, in 1873, the 
city authorities withdrew this charge, our Fulton colony removed to 
their present locality, on Baum street, March 31st, bringing with them 
forty penitents and twenty preservation children. 98 

"The 1st of May, 1865, the house of the Angel Guardian was 
opened. Its first situation was on Lytle street. April 22, 1867, our 
sisters moved to Pearl street, where, on the first of October, 1872, the 
good Mother M. of the Annunciation died. Their next move was to 
Newport, Ky., January 6, 1875, where they now own an extensive 
property." 99 

Additions were made to the institution on Bank street as 
conditions demanded, but in 1870 it was found imperative 
as well as useful to purchase a farm at Carthage, where the 
provincial monastery of the Good Shepherd, "Our Lady of the 
Woods," is now located. The other establishment of the 
Sisters in the city of Cincinnati is on Price Hill, where, in 1904, 
they purchased the commanding and beautiful site of Mount 
St. Mary seminary. Branch houses of the Sisters are to be 
found in the cities of Columbus, Cleveland and Toledo, Ohio; 
Newport, Ky. ; Detroit and Grand Rapids, Mich.; Indian 
apolis, Ind.; and Louisville, Ky. 10 


The second of the communities which was brought to 
Cincinnati by Mrs. Peter, was that of the Sisters of Mercy, 
from Kinsale, Ireland. When in Ireland in 1854, Mrs. Peter 
had visited their convent and had become acquainted with 
their work. After her return to Cincinnati in 1855, and 
her subsequent residence there for two years, she resolved on 
obtaining an establishment of these Sisters at Cincinnati. 
For this she gained the ready consent of the archbishop of 
Cincinnati, who was himself well acquainted with their work. 

98. This location was changed for that of Price Hill in 1904. 

99. Letter printed in Memoirs of the Life of Mrs. Sarah Peter, by MARGARET R. KING, 
vol. II, 344-46. 

100. Official Catholic Directory, 1920. 


Mrs. Peter left the United States on May 6, 1857, proceeding 
to Liverpool, and before the end of the month was a guest at the 
convent of the Sisters of Mercy at Kinsale. In order to over 
come partially the one serious obstacle to the acceptance of her 
proposition by the Sisters, Mrs. Peter offered the Sisters one- 
fourth of her income, about $4,000, and an insurance policy 
on her life. The Sisters, however, upon taking counsel, es 
pecially with their bishop at Cork, the Rt. Rev. William Delany, 
wrote to Archbishop Purcell for his guarantees in the matter. 
They were answered by his Grace: "The Sisters of Mercy 
shall never want their daily bread while I have a crust to share 
with them, and I may give the same assurance in the name of 
my successor." 

In the meantime, Mrs. Peter had left Ireland for the con 
tinent of Europe, where she expected to take up collections 
for the furtherance of her plans. Furnished with the highest 
letters of recommendation from the Pope as well as from 
cardinals and princes, she was eminently successful. When 
she had prepared the Sisters of the Poor of St. Francis at Aix- 
la-Chapelle for a foundation in Cincinnati, she returned to 
Kinsale, where on July 15, 1858, she wrote: "I am helping 
the good Sisters here in their active preparations for their de 
parture. There will be eleven. They are ladies who are 
coming who would grace any circle." 101 

The Sisters had decided upon the foundation early in the 
summer. Five professed Sisters were all who were allowed to 
go, though they were to be increased by three novices and one 
postulant. The superior of the band of nine which came was 
the mother herself, Teresa Maher, whilst her companions were 
Sisters M. Gertrude O Dwyer, M. Francis Nunan, M. Baptist 
Kane, M. Joseph Leahy, M. Xavier Scully, M. Angela Kiely, 
M. Stanislaus Murphy and Mary Campbell. 

The Sisters left their convent on July 23d for Southampton, 
where they embarked five days later with Mrs. Peter. After a 
voyage of thirteen days they landed at New York on August 
9th, but did not proceed to Cincinnati till August 17th. On the 
following evening, they became the guests at Cincinnati of 
Mrs. Peter in a part of her own residence, which she had pre 
pared as a convent. On the following morning, the archbishop 

101. Letter in Memoirs of the Life of Mrs. Sarah Peter, II, 421. 


welcomed them to Cincinnati, celebrated Mass for them in 
the temporary chapel, and named their institution the "Con 
vent of the Good Will". Here the Sisters continued to live 
until October llth, when they moved to a poorly conditioned 
house on Sycamore street, behind St. Thomas church. In 
this building the good Sisters began their work according to the 
mission of their society, which is to teach the children, to nurse 
the sick, and to care for distressed women of good character. 
Night and day schools were opened on October 25th and 26th 
respectively. Miss Agnes McCoy was the first to be received 
as a Sister of Mercy on November 7, 1858, whilst the first 
candidates from Cincinnati entered the convent on the follow 
ing February 2d. 

The location on Sycamore street proved unhealthy; where 
fore, aided by generous benefactors, the Sisters purchased 
the home of the orphan boys on Fourth street, between John 
street and Central avenue, 102 whither they moved on June 
4, 1860. This house was to serve by way of exception 
as a hospital during the next few years of the Civil War and 
the cholera, when the Sisters gave themselves over to the work 
with heart and soul. Its ordinary purpose was to serve as a 
house of refuge and academy. With the development of the 
city this location became undesirable also, and a new site was 
purchased on Freeman avenue, where the convent and mother- 
house are now situated. The Sisters teach in ten parochial 
schools, conduct two academies, a hospital, a House of Mercy 
for destitute children, and the Mt. Carmel Home for working 
girls and women, all of these institutions being within the arch 
diocese of Cincinnati. 103 


The Sisters of Mercy were still the guests of Mrs. Peter 
when that good lady went to the railroad depot at Cincinnati 
to welcome the Sisters of the Poor of St. Francis. It 

102. Deed of trustees of St. Aloysius Society to Sisters of Mercy, April 27, I860, recorded 
Hamilton county Recorder s Office, Book 259, p. 174 

103. Leaves from the Annals of the Sisters of Mercy, vol. IV, pp. 286-330; Official 
Catholic Directory, 1920. 


was the Little Sisters of the Poor, whom she wanted particu 
larly, but could not obtain. Disappointed, she was referred 
to Mother Frances Schervier, the foundress of the Sisters of 
the Poor of St. Francis in the archdiocese of Cologne, Ger 
many, 104 In furthering her plans, Mrs. Peter used as inter 
mediary Miss Augusta von Tietz, of Dantzig, whom she had 
met at Vienna and who was herself anxious to join the Sisters. 
Cardinal von Geissel was at once won to the cause, in which 
he interested Mother Frances. Mrs. Peter herself paid the 
mother a visit at Aix-la-Chapelle in the spring of 1858, and soon 
prevailed upon her to make the foundation. When Mrs. Peter 
returned in the summer to take the Sisters with her, they were 
not prepared to go, but promised to follow very shortly. 
Mrs. Peter went on to Ireland for the Sisters of Mercy. 

The Sisters kept their word. Five professed Sisters and a 
postulant under the charge of Sister Augustine as superioress, 
and Sister Felicitas as assistant, bade adieu to the convent at 
Aix-la-Chapelle on August 10, 1858. Leaving Havre on the 
24th of the month, they arrived at New York on September 
8th. In this first city of the new world they were welcomed by 
Father Edward Purcell, who conducted them to Cincinnati, 
where, as was said, they were met by Mrs. Peter. Mrs. Peter 
had arranged for them at the convent of the Good Shepherd on 
Bank street. On September 14th, the Sisters took up their 
quarters temporarily in the boys orphanage on Fourth street, 
between John street and Central avenue. After the Sisters of 
Mercy had been provided for in the house on Sycamore street in 
October, they were welcomed to the home of Mrs. Peter, by 
whom they were given free disposition of all save two rooms in 
the second-story, which were reserved for the good lady herself. 
They were donated also the adjoining ground upon which to 
build a chapel. The Sisters themselves purchased other 
adjacent ground, and upon it built the convent of St. Clara, 
completed in 1866. Mrs. Peter then deeded over to them 
half of her own property, the other half to be theirs upon her 

The mission of these Sisters is particularly for and among 
the poor: the alleviation of distress in the home and the care 

104. Letter, Mrs. Sarah Peter, Muenster, Westphalia, 1858 (Memoirs of the Life of 
Mrs. Sarah Peter, II, 414). 


of the sick in hospitals. For the latter purpose they opened 
St. Mary s hospital on Betts street, Cincinnati, in December, 
1859. Their work has increased in that they now have a 
hospital for incurables at Fairmount, Cincinnati, and a hos 
pital at Dayton. Their convent, formerly located at Third 
and Lytle streets, the old home of Mrs. Peter, has been aban 
doned and destroyed for park purposes; a new convent and 
mother-house has been built at Hartwell, Ohio. The Sisters 
have reached out also into other parts of the United States, 
having establishments in the states of New York, New Jersey, 
Kentucky, Illinois and Kansas. 105 


The fourth religious foundation made by Mrs. Sarah Peter 
at Cincinnati appealed very much to her, and, though she could 
not obtain consent for a foundation in 1858, she succeeded in 
1868, when six Sisters, Theodore Marie (superior), Maria de 
Ste. Therese, Joseph de Jesus, Madeleine du Sacre Coeur, 
Ste. Barbe, Ste. Nathalie and Marie Flavie, left their mother- 
house in Brittany, France, to establish a house at Cincinnati. 
Here they arrived on October 15, 1868, almost penniless, 
having ten cents in money and two statuettes, one of the 
Blessed Virgin and the other of St. Joseph. They were taken 
to the convent of the Sisters of Notre Dame on Sixth street, 
near Sycamore, where they were given a hospitable welcome. 

The mission of the Sisters is to provide a refuge for the aged 
poor of both sexes, without restriction as to creed or nationality. 
They began their work in an old, abandoned school-house on 
George street. They were there for only a short time when 
they moved into a house on Lock street, which adjoined the 
old Good Samaritan hospital. In 1873, they built a convent 
on Florence avenue, in Duck Creek valley. In 1889, they 
built their second convent on Riddle road, Clifton. In these 
two houses, during the space of fifty years, the Sisters have 
cared for ah out 25,000 of the aged and needy, a very grand 

105. JEILER, Life of the Venerable Mother Frances Schervier, 1895. p. 232 ff.; Memoirs 
of the Life of Mrs. Sarah Peter, II, 353-56; 414; Catholic Telegraph, October 5, 191 1 ; Official 
Catholic Directory, 1920. 


work, indeed, when it is considered that the Sisters never have 
had and never will have, according to their rules, any other 
than a precarious means of subsistence. The Sisters as well 
as their inmates live upon what charity gives them from day 
to day. Two Sisters may be found daily making their 
rounds in the city begging for alms, whilst two others go about 
in a wagon calling for the necessaries of life which charitably 
inclined persons may offer them. The house of the Sisters at 
Cincinnati was the second of the society in the United States, 
the first having been established at Brooklyn. That the work 
of the Sisters appeals to all is manifest from their numerous 
foundations throughout the United States. 106 


Before starting on his first episcopal visit to Europe in 
1838, Bishop Purcell had determined on securing the Ladies 
of the Sacred Heart from Paris for higher education in his 
diocese. 107 When in Paris, he visited their convent, but, in the 
temporary illness of Madame Barat, he was asked to call on 
September 13, 1838, for a final answer. Keeping the appoint 
ment, the bishop was gratified to learn that some ladies of the 
society would be ready to return to the States with him. 108 
Happy in his prospects, the bishop proceeded to Rome, where 
in the next spring he obtained a brief of authorization from 
Pope Gregory XVI to transfer to the Ladies of the Sacred 
Heart some property, which had been given to his predecessor 
for educational purposes. 109 

Upon his return to the diocese, the bishop announced that 
all arrangements had been made to have the Madames of the 
Sacred Heart open an institution. 110 It was a disappointment, 
therefore, to learn from Father Brassac, in the spring of 1840, 

106. Catholic Telegraph, October 21 , 1868; April 24, 1919; notes from the records of the 
convent of the Little Sisters of the Poor, Florence avenue; Memoirs of the Life of Mrs. Sarah 
Peter, 11,414, 441. 

107. Letter, Puree!!, Cincinnati, March 23, 1838, to Archbishop Eccleston (Baltimore 
Archives, Case 25, Q 4). 

108. Letter, Purcell, Paris, September 12, 1838, to Marianne Reilly, Cincinnati (Archives 
Mount St. Joseph s, Ohio). 

109. Brief of authorization. March 10, 1839 (Archdiocesan Archives, Mount St. Joseph). 

110. U. S. Catholic Almanac, 1840, pp. 95, 98. 


that the ladies were to go to New York, which had asked for 
them ten years previous to the request from Cincinnati, and 
that they could not undertake the establishment at Cincinnati 
for two years more. 111 

Thirty years later Archbishop Purcell renewed his request 
for a foundation by the society in the archdiocese, and this 
time he was favored with the coming to Cincinnati in Novem 
ber, 1869, of four choir religious and three lay sisters under their 
superioress, Mother Ellen Hogan. In this year the Madames 
of the Sacred Heart opened their school on Sixth street, near 
Stone, where they remained for several years. Their present 
convent, with academy and college, is located on L,a Fayette 
avenue, Clifton, a beautiful suburb of Cincinnati. Their 
mission is preeminently that of teaching. 112 


The last of the communities to establish a convent and 
novitiate in the archdiocese was that of the Sisters of St. Joseph, 
of Bourg, France. The history of the entrance of this society 
into the archdiocese is unique, being the culmination of an 
establishment known as the Sacred Heart Home for homeless, 
young working girls. In the beginning of 1893, the institution 
was in charge of Miss McCabe, a woman of great charity 
towards the poor young working girl and boy. In this estab 
lishment for young girls, she was assisted by a corps of young 
ladies, who were leading exemplary lives in the home, and, 
though bound by no vow of a religious, were performing their 
religious duties in common. 

On February 6, 1893, eight of these young ladies applied to 
the mother-superior of the Sisters of St. Joseph at New Or 
leans, for affiliation as a body to the community. The names 
of the young ladies were Bridget Madden, N. Cleary, Elizabeth 
Donihen, Julia Dindy, Anne Costello, Catherine Joyce, Ellen 

111. Letters, Brassac, Paris, February 22, March 10 and July 12, 1840, to Purcell, Cin 
cinnati (Archdiocesan Archives, Mount St. Joseph). 

112. MGR. BAUNARD, The Life of Blessed Madeleine Sophie Bar at; JANET E. STUART, 
The Society of the Sacred Heart; The Life of Aloysia Hardey; notes from the archives of the 

convent, Clifton 


Greaney and Anna J. Trownsdell. 113 The mother-superior 
took counsel with Archbishop Janssens of New Orleans, who 
on February 24th, wrote to Archbishop Elder for his views on 
the subject. The archbishop of Cincinnati replied on March 
18th as follows: 

"Some ten years ago or more, a very pious and very energetic 
lady, having some means of her own to begin with, opened a home for 
respectable girls out of employment. Some other ladies and working 
women joined her. Now they have some forty girls ordinarily with 
them; and they have also eighty or more working girls from factories, 
coming there to dinner. I do not judge them capable of forming a 
religious community by themselves. The originator, Miss Margaret 
McCabe, does not even feel assured herself of having a vocation to 
religion. I told them that if an approved community would receive 
them, I would be glad to see them become religious. The most of 
them are very desirous to enter a community. Some are not so strongly 
bent on it. 

"I am very much satisfied with their work, and with their conduct; 
and the spirit of religion and humility which they manifest. There 
will be no change of superior; because at present Miss McCabe does 
not claim to be a religious and superior. She is simply the directress 
of the establishment. Of course, she keeps them in observance of 
duties and hours. They have some spiritual exercises in common 
every day. They have a chapel, which is used at present by the Italian 
congregation for all their worship. 

"They have no approved habit. They wear all the same dress 
according to their own agreement. 

"I do not know how far it will be advantageous to the Sisters of 
St. Joseph. I understand that they desired the arrangement, because 
they thought that having a house in Cincinnati would obtain candidates 
for them. There are a good many religious vocations here 

"I have not taken any part in negotiating the terms. I have left 
them to arrange the matter between themselves." 114 

This letter proved satisfactory to the archbishop of New 
Orleans, who so expressed himself to the mother-superior and 
counseled her to begin the arrangements for the aggregation 
of the ladies to the society. 115 Two days later the mother- 
superior was the recipient also of a letter to the same purport 
from Archbishop Elder. 116 

113. Letter of application, Cincinnati, February 6, 1893 (Archives St. Joseph Mother- 
house, New Orleans). 

114. Letter, Elder, Cincinnati, March 18, 1893, to Janssens, New Orleans (Archives St. 
Joseph Mother-house, New Orleans). 

115. Subscription to above letter of March 18, 1893. 

116. Letter, Elder, Cincinnati, March 20, 1893, to Rev. Mother Colette, New Orleans 
(Archives St. Joseph Mother-house, New Orleans). 


In the following June, Mother Maria and Sisters St. Rose, 
Nativity, and Veronica came to Cincinnati to take charge of 
the home and to open a novitiate in the home for those who 
desired to become affiliated to the society. Arrangements 
concerning the property were made on September 29th follow 
ing. 117 Miss McCabe did not enter the community, since 
from the beginning it had hardly been her intention to do so. 
She then began a similar establishment known as the Boys 

The novel arrangement, though it had its difficulties, 
proved successful. The Sisters have continued in charge of 
the home on Broadway, whilst they purchased also a "country 
home" at Mt. Washington in October, 1893, and there in a new 
building opened St. Joseph s academy in 1915. A novitiate 
is likewise conducted there. 


The mother-house of this community is located at Olden 
burg, Indiana, where, with one professed Sister of the order 
from Vienna, Austria, Father Rudolf began the establishment 
in 1851. The mission of the society is preeminently that of 
education of youth. Three Sisters of the community, Sisters 
M. Veronica, M. Blandina, and M. Ludgardis were the first 
to come into the archdiocese of Cincinnati, where the Francis 
can Fathers in charge of the church of St. Clement at St. 
Bernard, Ohio, had invited them in 1876, to instruct in the 
school attached to their church. Four years later they were 
invited to their second school in the archdiocese at Carthage. 
Succeeding years have seen new schools added to their list, 
which now contains twenty-four parochial schools. The 
Sisters have no community house in the archdiocese; they 
live in the houses attached to the parish schools. 118 

117. Agreement in Archives of St. Joseph Mother-house, New Orleans. 

118. Notes furnished from records of mother-house at Oldenburg, Indiana; Andenken 
an das Goldene Jubilaeum, pp. 117-18. 



The second of the teaching communities to take up work in 
the archdiocese of Cincinnati, but without a convent therein, 
was that of the Sisters of Divine Providence, who were founded 
at Metz, Moselle, France, in 1762. Their first establishment 
in the United States was at Covington, Ky., whither they were 
invited by Bishop Maes in 1889. Three years later they began 
their first labors in the archdiocese of Cincinnati in the school 
of St. Aloysius, Elmwood Place. To this first establishment 
they have since added the schools at Mt. Healthy, Dry Ridge, 
and Ripley, which they have taught since 1894, 1905 and 1912 
respectively. Their general mother-house is now located at 
St. Jean-de-Bassel, Moselle, France. 119 


Like the two former communities, the Sisters of the Blessed 
Sacrament for Indians and Colored People have no community 
house in the archdiocese, but are in charge of the school of 
St. Anne, conducted for the poorest of God s charges in the 
archdiocese, the negroes. As almost every one knows, these 
Sisters are the daughters of Mother Catherine Drexel, who 
abandoned the world, where her every wish could have been 
gratified, to found in 1893 an order to care for the Indians and 
colored people. It was in response to the solicitation of the 
late Rev. Edward T. Cleary, then in charge of St. Anne s 
church, that five Sisters, Philip Neri, Andrew, Helena, Eulalia 
and Mariette, came to Cincinnati in July and August, 1914, 
to begin their work among the negroes resident in Cincin 
nati. 120 


This congregation of Sisters was founded by Mother Pauline 
von Mallinckrodt, at Paderborn, Germany, on August 21, 1849. 

119. Archives, St. Anne Convent, Melbourne, Kentucky. 

120. Notes from the records of the community mother-house, Cornwells, Pa.: The 
Indian Sentinel, 1907; The Queen s Work, March, 1919, p. 61 ff. 


Their first foundation in the United States was made at 
Wilkesbarre, Pennsylvania, in 1873, the same year in which 
Mother Pauline was invited by Archbishop Purcell to make an 
establishment in the archdiocese of Cincinnati. It was not till 
August, 1881, however, that upon the invitation of Father 
Steinlage, then stationed at Piqua, Ohio, four Sisters of the 
congregation, Sisters Sixta, Meinwerka, Irene and Maxentia, 
came to the archdiocese to take charge of St. Boniface school, 
Piqua. This is the only foundation the Sisters have in the 
archdiocese. Their mother-house is located at Wilmette, 
Illinois. 121 


The mother-house of these Sisters is located at St. Louis, 
Missouri, where they were founded in 1901. In keeping with 
their mission of teaching in Polish schools, they were invited by 
Father R. Baranski, of St. Adalbert s, Dayton, Ohio, to as 
sume charge of the parish school under his direction. Ac 
cordingly, Sisters Leonarda, Ferdinand, Bergitta, and Jacobine 
were commissioned by their superior to undertake the charge 
in 1915. 

121. Notes from the records of the mother-house, Wilmette, Illinois. Life of Mother 
Pauline von Mallinckrodt. 


HE energy of the Catholic Church which is 
spent for the salvation of men, has never in 
the history of the Church been confined solely 
to explanations of theological doctrines; but 
it has also been guided by the consideration 
of the relation in man of soul to body. In the 
first days of her existence, the Catholic Church gathered her 
neophytes together to provide sustenance for the body as well 
as to strengthen them in the faith. The surplus funds of the 
individuals were passed into the general coffers to be adminis 
tered by the deacons for the alleviation of the miseries of the 
poor, the sick, and the oppressed. Indigent members were 
maintained from the public treasury; imprisoned members 
were visited, nourished, consoled and fortified for the mortal 
combat in which they were listed; and after their torn and 
mangled bodies had been left by the pagans lying on the sands 
of the amphitheatre or in the open fields as prey to carrion 
dogs and birds, the Christians in concerted or private action 
hastened in the darkness of night to collect the fragments of 
the bodies for Christian burial. When Christianity had tri 
umphed over paganism, and the Church could undertake the 
regeneration of a corrupted civilized race or the softening of 
harsh customs by the infusion of nobler instincts into the wild 
roving bands of the East or the colder races of the North, new 
social institutions were created by the Church to provide for 
the necessities of the newly-born European races. Schools of 
primary as well as of higher education were formed; hospices 
were founded to care for the pilgrim as well as for the aged and 
the infirm; guilds were established to promote the spiritual 
as well as the temporal interests of the artisan and laborer; 
orders were instituted to redeem captives in barbarian lands; 
and associations were organized to insure decent burial after 
death. Such was only the beginning of the works of education 
and charity, which the Church inaugurated for the protection 



and guidance of the members who were entrusted to her. The 
book of the history of the Church s social activity has only 
recently been opened and read. Those who have peered into 
it, have been astounded at and enamoured with the story. 

In that book of history, we wish now to turn to the page 
whereon is written the history of the social activities of the 
Catholic Church in the archdiocese of Cincinnati during the 
span of the one hundred years of her existence. There we 
shall read how she has provided a place for the care of mothers 
and of foundlings ; a home for the orphan ; schools, academies, 
colleges and universities for the training of youth; literature 
for all classes; homes for the homeless working boy and girl; 
charitable associations to assist the poor, to lift up the down 
trodden and the out-cast; missions for the deaf-mute; hos 
pitals for the sick ; asylums for the aged and infirm; and even 
hallowed resting-places under the shadow of the Cross of 
Calvary for the dead. 

From the earliest years of its existence, the diocese of 
Cincinnati endeavored to erect and maintain parochial schools 
for the primary education of its children. The first two 
bishops of the diocese considered the necessity of such schools 
as a matter of course, so that wherever Catholic churches 
were built, the Catholic parochial school was sure to follow, 
if indeed it had not even anticipated the church. It was only 
after opposition to the parochial schools began to manifest 
itself in 1853, that the necessity of providing parochial schools 
became a matter of legislation, and then each and every dio 
cesan synod and provincial council held in the archdiocese of 
Cincinnati concerned themselves with the subject. We shall 
quote from two of the pastoral letters issued by the Fathers 
of the first and third provincial councils, as all requisite con 
sideration is given to the subject by them. In the letter of the 
Council of 1855 to the clergy and laity, the Fathers write: 

"Wherefore, beloved brethren, we beseech you to contend earnestly 
for the faith once delivered to the saints, to preserve it untarnished in 
your own hearts, and to transmit it, in its integrity, to your children. 
The simplicity of these little ones, whom God has confided to the care 
of their parents, is easily imposed upon by wicked men who lie in wait 
to deceive (Ephesians IV, 14). False maxims are carefully instilled 
into their unsuspecting minds by the emissaries of evil ; and under the 
appearance of godliness, deadly poison is infused into their young 
hearts. The tender lambs of the flock are thus devoured by the 


prowling wolves or roaring lions, who go about seeking whom they may 
devour (I Peter V, 8). We beseech you, Christian parents, by the 
bowels of the mercy of God, that you be ever mindful of your solemn 
obligation to guard your children from a danger so imminent, and to 
rear them up, both by word and example, in the knowledge and prac 
tice of their religious duties. Else, you will have to give an awful 
account of their souls at the dread bar of God, who will demand their 
blood at your hands. 

"Religion is an essential element nay the very foundation 
of all sound education. Religious instruction should be combined with 
the elements of merely human learning, that our youth may grow up 
in the fear of the Lord, which is the beginning of wisdom (Proverbs I, 
7; IX, 10). It is religion alone that can effectually curb that evil 
concupiscence which we all unhappily inherit from our first parents, 
and its holy influence alone can check those headlong passions which 
else would precipitate thoughtless youth into the abyss of vice. Chil 
dren reared up and educated without suitable religious instruction and 
training often become, by their perverseness, the pests of that society 
of which they should be the ornament and support; and instead of 
being the solace of their parents in declining age, they sadden their 
hearts by reckless vice and stubborn disobedience. We beseech you, 
then, Christian parents, to bear this solemn obligation constantly in 
mind, and to provoke not your children to wrath, but to bring them up 
in the discipline and correction of the Lord (Ephesians VI, 4). Co 
operate zealously with your pastors in promoting the religious instruc 
tion of your children; teach them daily at home, and see that they 
attend punctually the classes for catechetical instruction; above all, 
encourage the erection and support of parochial schools in which re 
ligious principles are inculcated along with the elements of learning. 

"Earnestly do we desire to see a parochial school in connection 
with every Catholic Church in this province; and we hope the day is 
not distant when this wish nearest our hearts shall be fully realized. 
With all the influences constantly at work to unsettle the faith of our 
children, and to pervert their tender minds from the religion of their 
fathers, and with all the lamentable results of these influences con 
stantly before our eyes, we can not too strongly exhort you to contribute 
generously of your means to enable your pastor to carry out this great 
work. The erection of Catholic schools is, in many respects, as im 
portant an object as the building of new churches. The Catholic 
Church has ever been the greatest promoter of education ; she erected 
colleges and universities and she covered the earth with free schools, 
reared under the shadow of her church edifices, centuries before the 
fatal troubles of the sixteenth century came to unsettle the faith, by 
severing the unity of Christendom; and she is as great a friend of 
education now as she was then; but she wishes it not to be severed 
from religion, which is its main support and solid foundation." 1 

1. Pastoral Letter of the First Provincial Council of Cincinnati to the Clergy and Laity, 


In the pastoral letter of the third provincial council of 
Cincinnati to the clergy and laity, in paragraph IV, under the 
heading System of Common Schools, we read: 

"We think that few candid observers will fail to have remarked 
the progressive demoralization among the youth of our country, and 
to regret that the system of Common School education has not cer 
tainly succeeded in obviating this downward tendency, to which we 
may fairly ascribe much of the present alarming condition of our affairs. 
Under the influence of this plausible, but most unwise system, the rising 
generation has been educated either without any definite religious 
principles at all, or with false, at least, more or less exaggerated and 
fanatical principles. The system itself, if carried out according to its 
alleged intent of abstaining from any definite religious instruction is 
well calculated to raise up a generation of religious indifferentists, if 
not of practical infidels ; and if not thus carried out, its tendency is to 
develop false or very defective, if not dangerous principles. The facts, 
we believe, sufficiently prove that the influence of our Common 
Schools has been developed either in one or both of these directions. 
We can scarcely explain in any other way the manifest moral deteriora 
tion of the country, which is probably the worst feature in our present 
troubles. No candid man will deny, that public virtue is now very far 
below the standard to which it was raised in the earlier and purer days 
of the republic, when our fathers admired the moral heroism, and were 
guided by the political wisdom of a Washington. 

"We have not ceased, on all suitable occasions, to warn our country 
men against the dangerous tendency of this system as it has been prac 
tically carried out, not merely because its operation is very unjust to 
ourselves, but because we consider it radically defective and wrong; 
but our appeal has been made calmly and with due regard for the feel 
ings and even what we might consider the prejudices of others. We 
feel it to be our most sacred and our most solemn duty to rear up our 
children in the knowledge, fear, and love of God; and we regard this 
as the essential element as the very foundation, the life and soul of all 
sound education among Christians; that which, in fact, distinguishes 
the latter from education among pagans. As this religious training is 
not possible in the Public Schools as at present organized and conducted, 
our children are necessarily excluded from them, as effectually as they 
would be by locks and bolts; unless, indeed, we were to become so 
dead to faith as to be willing to sacrifice the religious education of our 
children for a merely worldly convenience. But thank God! we have 
some faith yet left in the midst of this cold world of utilitarianism; 
and hence, after paying our due proportion of the common taxes for 
the support of schools which are thus virtually closed against us, we 
feel constrained to erect others, at enormous expense for the Christian 
education of our own children. Whatever else may be said of us in 
explanation or denunciation of our opposition to the Common School 
system, our worst adversaries cannot but admit our sincerity, proved 


as it is by what is usually regarded as a conclusive argument in this age 
the large expenditure of our money for this purpose. 

"In a country so divided in sentiment as ours is on the subject 
of Religion, the only system which would be fair and equitable to all, 
would be that which would make education, like religion and like all 
other important pursuits, entirely free; and if taxes are collected from 
all for its encouragement and support, to apportion the amount of 
these taxes fairly among the scholars taught certain branches up to a 
certain standard, no matter under what religious or other auspices. 
This system would elicit educational industry and talent, by stimu 
lating competition; and we have not a doubt that it would lessen the 
cost of education, greatly extend its blessings, and render it both 
sounder and more widely diffused. It would satisfy all classes, and it 
would render the schools really Public and Common which they 
certainly are not at present except in name." 2 

Such are the words of wisdom spoken sixty years ago by 
the bishops of the Cincinnati province. Further legislation 
has made these words so stringent that pastors have been obliged 
under pain of mortal sin to provide a parochial school wherever 
conditions warranted, whilst according to diocesan legislation, 
parents who fail to send their children to parochial schools 
without definitely assigned reasons approved by the ordinary, 
are not permitted to receive the sacraments. 3 

From theory in legislation let us pass to practice to see the 
manner in which the bishops of Cincinnati interpreted their 
obligations in this matter. We stated above that the first 
bishops of Cincinnati had practiced even before they legislated 
on this subject. Indeed, as early as 1825, under Bishop Fen- 
wick, there was a school at Cincinnati in connection with the 
only Catholic church in the city. Twenty-five girls attended 
a school taught by Sister St. Paul and Miss Powell. 4 In Febru 
ary, 1827, the Poor Clares counted seventy scholars, besides 
the poor children they instructed on Sundays. 5 With the 
money which he received in 1827 from the Association of the 
Propagation of the Faith, of Lyons, Bishop Fenwick built a 
brick school opposite the cathedral on Sycamore street. 6 

2. Pastoral Letter of the Third Provincial Council of Cincinnati to the Clergy and 
Laity, 1861. 

3. Decree VI, of the II Provincial Council of Cincinnati, 1858; Synodus Cincin- 
natensis III (1898), section I, No. 3. 

4. Letter, Fenwick, Cincinnati, July 8, 1825, to Badin (Annales de I Association de la 
Propagation de la Foi, Lyons, III, 289). 

5. U. S. Catholic Miscellany, VI, 246, February 24, 1827. 

6. Letter, Fenwick, Cincinnati, 1829, to Association of Propagation of the Faith, Lyons 
(Annales, 1830, IV. 504). 


When the school had to be closed for lack of teachers in 1828, 
the bishop succeeded the following year in procuring the 
Sisters of Charity, who immediately opened a school in con 
nection with their orphanage. 7 In 1832, not long after the 
organization of the second parish within the present limits of 
the archdiocese of Cincinnati, at St. Martin s, Brown county, 
Father James Reid opened the St. James seminary for boys. 8 

The successor to Bishop Fenwick was just as zealous and 
insistent upon the erection of parochial schools. We may 
judge this from the consideration that in every one (nine in all) 
of the parishes of the city of Cincinnati in 1848, there was a 
parochial school, the lowest number of pupils attending any 
one school being 70, and the highest, 650 the total being 
2,607. In this we do not include academies taught by the 
religious communities. In 1854, nearly every church in the 
archdiocese had its school, filled with pupils. 9 In 1860, there 
were 61 schools, and in 1870, 103 schools. In 1908, in the 
First Annual Report of the Superintendent of the Parish Schools 
of the Cincinnati Archdiocese, there were, scattered in eighteen 
of the counties of Ohio subject to the jurisdiction of Cincin 
nati, 110 parochial schools, frequented by 27,233 pupils, and 
taught by 575 teachers. In the following year there were 114 
parochial schools, frequented by 27,641 pupils, and taught by 
602 teachers. 10 For the coordination of the various elements 
in the parochial schools with a view to greater efficiency, a 
superintendent of the schools was appointed in 1907. In the 
1919 census of parochial schools there were 123 schools at 
tended by 33,960 pupils. 11 

Such has been the interpretation which the bishops of 
Cincinnati have given to their laws regulating the establish 
ment of parochial schools. It requires but little mind to con 
ceive what an amount of work is required in such an organiza 
tion, or what an expense is entailed in the maintenance of so 
large a number of schools. The task would be an impossible 
one were it not for the generous offerings made by Catholic 

7. Letter, Fenwick, Cincinnati, February 25, 1830, to Rigagnon, Bordeaux (Annales, 
1830, IV, 533). 

8. Catholic Telegraph, II, 15. 

9. Catholic Almanac, 1854, p. 104. 

10. First Annual Report oj Superintendent of Parish Schools of the Archdiocese of Cin 
cinnati, 1907-08; Second Report, etc., 1908-09. 

11. The Official Catholic Directory, 1920, p. 74. 


parents, or the more generous sacrifices made by the sister 
hoods and brotherhoods, which to a love of great poverty add 
the zealous devotion of ardent men and women laboring to 
win the souls of children for all eternity. 

It must not be imagined, however, that such progress in the 
parochial schools of Cincinnati came of itself, or that it en 
countered no obstacles other than the ordinary hardships 
incident to such an organization. Efforts were made publicly 
to destroy these schools, if it were possible. In 1853, an at 
tempt was made to force a law through the Ohio Legislature 
to compel parents and guardians, under a penalty of $20 for 
every offence, to send their children and wards for three 
months in every year to one of the common schools. This 
was an insidious attack, to which Archbishop Purcell, after 
a review of the objections of Catholics to the common school 
system, replied: "For ourselves we can only say, as guardians 
of some 300 orphans, that we pray God to permit that our life 
be tramped out by a mob in the streets of the Queen City 
before we obey it, if it be ever sought to be enforced." 12 Lan 
guage like this was intelligible to the most hardened, and no 
law of the kind intended was ever passed. 

Twenty years later a second effort was made to cripple the 
parochial school system by levying taxes on the school property. 
In 1873, John Gerke, treasurer, and Walker M. Yeatman, 
auditor of Hamilton county, placed thirty-five pieces of 
Catholic school property upon the tax duplicates under the 
head of forfeitures and delinquencies. On January 24, 1873, 
Archbishop Purcell, through his attorneys, Messrs. Pugh and 
Throop, filed a petition for an injunction against the treasurer 
and auditor from collecting the taxes. The injunction being 
granted, the defendants filed an answer denying that any of 
the Catholic schools was in any sense a public school, or a free 
school, or that it should be exempted from taxation; they 
charged that these schools were denominational, and not 
public or common schools, and that instruction in the religious 
tenets of the Roman Catholic Church was the chief and per 
manent object with which they had been established. Testi 
mony was taken and the case was heard for three days, be 
ginning March 21, 1873, before Judge T. A. O Connor, of the 

12. Catholic Telegraph, XXII, April 9, 1853. 


Superior Court of Cincinnati, when, the evidence being con 
cluded, the Court reserved the cause for the consideration of all 
the judges in General Term. The Judges sitting in General 
Term in June, 1873, after excepting a few pieces of property, as 
either being out of their jurisdiction or not serving for educa 
tional purposes, enjoined the defendants and their successors 
from levying any taxes upon all the rest of the school proper 
ties. Motion for a new trial was likewise refused. 13 This 
was the last attempt made publicly to hamper the parochial 

With the progress of the times, parochial schools could not 
supply all the preparatory education expected of those in the 
professions or even of the ordinary business man. The drain 
upon the resources of the Catholics was too great to permit 
of great exertions along the lines of secondary or high school 
education generally. Recently, several successful parochial 
high schools have been established; further development is 
not far distant. But the archdiocese of Cincinnati never 
suffered much for lack of facilities for the education of boys 
in either secondary or collegiate departments, as St. Xavier 
college and St. Joseph college in the city of Cincinnati, and 
St. Mary college, Dayton, afforded opportunities for day as 
well as boarding scholars. The situation in academies for 
girls was always better, as academies were more numerous and 
more widely distributed in the archdiocese. 


St. Xavier college may trace its history back almost ninety 
years, being the heir to the old Athenaeum, of which the cor 
nerstone was laid by Father James I. Mullon on May 14, 1830, 
and the opening made on October 17, 1831. 14 The Athenaeum 
was intended to serve both as a day and boarding school, the 
bishop so designing as to recruit a native clergy for his seminary. 

13. Printed record, September, 1873, J. B. Purcell, plaintiff, vs. John Gerke, treasurer 
of Hamilton county, Ohio, and Walker M. Yeatman, auditor of Hamilton county, defendants, 
Superior Court of Cincinnati. 

14. Original inscription in cornerstone (Archives St. Xavier College) ; Catholic Telegraph, 
I, 6, October 22, 1831. 


Rev. Frederic Rese, D. D., was made vice-president of the 
institution until the organization in the following spring, 
when Rev. James I. Mullon, M.A., was appointed president, 
and a full classical course of six years was arranged. 15 The 
members of the faculty were chosen from the diocesan clergy. 
From the very beginning this was felt to be an almost impos 
sible arrangement. Bishop Fenwick himself realized this; for 
he was guided in his selection of Father Kenny to succeed him 
as bishop of Cincinnati by the thought of obtaining a com 
munity to conduct the college. During the interregnum of 
1832-1833, conditions became worse; 16 and after only a few 
years Bishop Purcell determined on securing the Jesuits to 
take charge of the college. We have seen how he succeeded 
in having the Jesuits take over the college on October 1, 1840, 
under the presidency of Father John Anthony Elet, S.J. The 
name was then changed to St. Xavier college, suggested very 
likely by the name of the seminary, St. Francis Xavier s, which 
was conducted in connection with the college. 17 St. Xavier s 
continued to be conducted as a boarding college until 1854, 
when the number of scholars from the city of Cincinnati made 
it advisable to close the boarding department. 

On March 5, 1842, St. Xavier college was incorporated in 
the state of Ohio, with John B. Purcell, J. A. Elet, P. M. Pin, 
I. J. Gleizal and Edward Purcell, trustees, and became em 
powered to confer degrees of colleges and universities of the 
state. 18 As this was but a temporary incorporation for thirty 
years, the president and secretary of the college (Fathers W. H. 
Hill and S. A. H. Fastrd), acting for the Board of Trustees of 
the college, in 1869, sent a copy of the resolution of the trustees 
to the Secretary of the State of Ohio, accepting the act which 
had been passed by the General Assembly of the state of Ohio 
on May 7, 1867, entitled "An act to provide for the incorpora 
tion of certain colleges as therein described". 19 The college 
thereby became incorporated in perpetuity. 

15. Prospectus of the Athenaeum, Catholic Telegraph, I, 6; 207. 

16. Letter, Mullon, Cincinnati, July 28, 1833, to Purcell, Emmitsburg (Archdiocesan 
Archives, Mount St. Joseph). 

17. Catholic Telegraph, IX, 319, October 3, 1840. 

18. Certified copy of act of incorporation by Secretary of State of Ohio, April 28, 1842 
(St. Xavier College Archives). 

19. Memorandum to Secretary of State of Ohio, June 4, 1869 (St. Xavier College Ar 


Before this had transpired, the college had found it neces 
sary to erect another building. In 1863, ground was bought to 
the north of the old college building, 20 which gave the college 
access to Seventh and Sycamore streets, where the cornerstone 
of the Hill faculty building was laid by Archbishop Purcell 
on May 12, 1867. 21 This property as well as all the rest 
of their property was held in the name of individuals up to 
1869, when, after the incorporation, all the property was trans 
ferred to St. Xavier college. 22 To the rear of the Hill faculty 
building the Moeller building was added in 1885, to provide 
for the growing needs of the college. Following the destruc 
tion of the old Athenaeum, in 1890, the class-room building 
with the chapel and Memorial hall were built. This was as 
extensive a development as the site allowed, and with new 
demands a new location had to be secured. 

Once before an attempt had been made to provide a subur 
ban college. As early as 1844, property of eight and one-fourth 
acres was purchased on Walnut Hills, where a preparatory 
department for St. Xavier college was opened in 1847, by 
Rev. H. G. Aelen, S J., and then directed by Rev. G. A. Carrell, 
S.J. 23 But the venture was premature and the preparatory 
department was brought back to the city. Not until 1906 
was a second venture made, this time by the President Rev. 
Albert A. Dierckes, S.J., who bought property at Gilbert and 
Lincoln avenues, Walnut Hills. A branch high school was 
begun, but the site not being very suitable, a new location at 
Dana avenue and Winding way, Avondale, was secured in 
1911 and there the high school was opened in 1912. In the 
fall of 1919 the college department was transferred from 
Sycamore street to Avondale, and in 1920 the college of St. 
Xavier developed into St. Xavier university. 

20. Deeds, Merchants Bank of Boston to Desmet, Keller and Coosemans, April 17, 1863 
(recorded. Book No. 283, p. 140) ; H. G. W. Lewis, May 1 , 1863, to Desmet and others (recorded, 
Book No. 283, p. 341). 

21. Catholic Telegraph, May 15, 1867. 

22. Property deeds, recorded October 21, 1869, Hamilton County Recorder s Office, 
Book No. 373, pp. 159, 163. 

23. Deed of Francis Fortman to Van de Velde and others, May 20, 1844 (recorded. 
Book No. 93, p. 405); Catholic Almanac, 1848, p. 148; Catholic Telegraph, February 8, 1849. 



The second of the colleges of the Cincinnati archdiocese 
traces its beginnings back to the school which was begun at 
Dayton on July 1, 1850, by Father Leo Meyer, assisted by 
three of his brethren of the Society of Mary. Like St. Xavier 
college, it was opened as a day and boarding school, which it 
has had the good fortune to be able to continue to this day. 
Misfortunes attended the college on several occasions, when it 
seemed as if the enterprise had to be abandoned. On Decem 
ber 26, 1855, all the buildings on the place burned, but the 
Brothers came back in the following March, and by September, 
1857, had new buildings in readiness for the twenty pupils 
who entered St. Mary s institute, as it was then called. The 
institute began to prosper, and in the spring of 1860 an addition 
was made to the boarding-school in the form of a three-story 
building. Other additions were to follow: a new wing was 
added to the college in June, 1865 ; in 1868 the new chapel was 
begun, and in 1869 completed; a new college building, St. 
Mary s hall, was begun in 1 869 and completed in 1871. Therein 
were then transferred all the college departments, and the 
remaining buildings were dedicated entirely to the novitiate 
and normal school. After the burning of the normal school 
building in 1883, the St. Joseph hall was built to replace it in 
1885. In the following year the appointment of Brother 
Kim as Inspector of Schools was made, and from that time on 
the advance in the intellectual development of the college was 
rapid. This progress has continued from year to year. When 
the normal school was transferred in 1915 to Mount St. John, 
St. Mary college occupied the building which had been vacated. 
New courses have been added, and large numbers of students 
have been affiliated. In the fall of 1920 the college began its 
career as a university, to be known as Dayton university. 



The Fathers of the Holy Cross, who have their provincial 
house at Notre Dame, Indiana, opened the college of St. 
Joseph on October 2, 1871. On May 3, 1873, the college, 
which afforded a classical and commercial education, was 
incorporated under the laws of the state of Ohio. For a time 
it prospered, but adverse times came to strip it of all its former 

Two other attempts at establishing Catholic colleges in the 
archdiocese may be recorded. One was St. Peter s college, 
Chillicothe, Ohio, the establishment of Father Michael Forde, 
in 1855. He was assisted by Father J. O Mealy and several 
lay professors, but the college was a dismal financial failure; 
the buildings had been erected by the money of creditors, 
who had to take what they could get at the close of the first 
and only year of the college. The institution had never won 
the genuine affection of Archbishop Purcell. 24 The other was 
the Catholic institute, founded in 1859, at Vine and Longworth 
streets, Cincinnati. The cornerstone of a three-story building, 
which was to cost sixty to seventy thousand dollars, was laid 
on June 23d of that year. 25 A polytechnic college, the object 
of which was to impart a liberal and business education, was 
opened as a branch of the institute on September 3, 1860. If 
there was any success attained, it was short-lived, as we learn 
from Archbishop Purcell, chairman of the trustees of the 
institute, who inspired, or more probably wrote, the following 
editorial in the Catholic Telegraph on December 21, 1864: 
"Ever since the establishment of the Institute a large and in 
fluential portion of the Catholic community has been arrayed 
against it. We never could understand the motive of this 
opposition. Owing to the opposition, or management, or 
some other reason, the Catholic Institute has ceased to be 

24. Catholic Almanac, 1856, pp. 306-07; letters, Michael Forde, Chillicothe, October 4, 
1855; Dayton, July 23, 1856; Chillicothe, August 21, 1856; Cincinnati, September 23, 1856, 
to Archbishop Purcell (Archdiocesan Archives, Mount St. Joseph). 

25. Catholic Telegraph, July 2, 1859; Berichte der Leopoldinen Stiftung, 1859, XXX, 


what it was intended to be. It is no longer identified with 
our faith or people." 26 A little more than two years later, 
on May 12, 1867, when he laid the cornerstone of the new 
Hill faculty building of the Jesuits, Archbishop Purcell said: 
"I here publicly proclaim that the Catholic Institute has 
proved a grand failure, and I have but lately signed a paper by 
which it was concluded that the entire concern should be sold. 
It has proved unworthy of our support. On Good Friday 
there was performed in its hall a scandalous piece in which 
religion was ridiculed and scoffed at. Shortly after a lecturer 
appeared upon its stage to outrage God and religion, and hence 
I would not have my name associated with it, nor own one 
dollar of its stock." 27 


As we have already remarked, greater facilities for second 
ary education were offered to the girls than to the boys of 
Cincinnati. The first academy established by the Sisters in 
Cincinnati was the St. Peter s academy of the Sisters of Charity, 
which was opened in 1836, in the mansion at Third and Plum 
streets. In 1853, the same Sisters opened Mount St. Vin 
cent s academy on Mt. Harrison, at the present site of Grand 
and Lehman road, Price Hill. This academy, as well as that 
of St. Mary, which was opened at Sixth and Park streets, 
likewise in 1853, was replaced in 1857 by the present Mount 
St. Vincent academy, Cedar Grove, on Glenway avenue, Price 
Hill. In 1869, a, beginning was made of the new and present 
motherhouse at Mount St. Joseph, Hamilton county, where 
the Sisters opened St. Joseph s academy. A college was begun 
there the past fall. 

The first academy of the Sisters of Notre Dame of Namur, 
known as the "Young Ladies Literary Institute and Boarding 
School", was opened on January 18, 1841, on Sixth street, near 
Broadway. There they erected a one-story building in 1844, 
and soon after another building, two stories high. The in 
stitution continues on the same site to this day, though addi- 

26. Catholic Telegraph, XXXIII, 412. 

27. Catholic Telegraph, XXXVI, No. 21, p. 4. 


tions have been made to it. But additions alone could not 
suffice to accommodate the number of girls applying for ad 
mission, so that at the end of 1859, seventy acres of land were 
purchased at Reading, Ohio, and the main building of the 
academy of Mount Notre Dame built thereon in 1860. Other 
buildings have been added since. Upon the suggestion of 
Archbishop Purcell, an academy was established at Court 
and Mound streets in 1867, to allow girls in the western parts 
of the city opportunity to attend a Catholic high school. 
This academy held its final commencement in the summer of 
1920. The last development of the Notre Dame academy in the 
vicinity of Cincinnati occurred in 1890, when the erection of 
a new convent and academy, known as "Our Lady s Summit," 
on Grandin road, Walnut Hills, was begun. The Sisters of 
Notre Dame have extended their sphere of activity beyond 
the episcopal city, and have built academies at Franklin and 
Ludlow streets, in Dayton, Ohio, and at Second and Washing 
ton streets, in Hamilton, Ohio. 

The Sisters of the Precious Blood conduct a boarding school 
for girls at Minster, Ohio, where the foundation was made in 

An academy of the Ursuline Sisters was opened shortly 
after the arrival of the Sisters at St. Martin s, Brown county, 
in 1845, when, on October 4th, three boarding pupils were re 
ceived. A new building was begun in the following spring, 
though it was not completed till 1847. The school had by that 
time been incorporated (June 6, 1846), as "The St. Ursula 
Literary Institute". A second building of three stories in 
height was added in 1860, and a new chapel was begun in 
1884. In the city of Cincinnati the Sisters conduct the Ursu 
line convent of Our Lady of Victory at Oak street and Reading 
road. Upon the division in the society which was occasioned 
in 1910, a new convent was established on McMillan street, 
Walnut Hills, where the Sisters conduct the St. Ursula convent 
and academy. 

The Sisters of Mercy opened their first academy in 1860, 
on Fourth street, near Central avenue, where they continued 
for forty years till the development of that part of the city 
rendered the location undesirable. They then opened their 
new academy of Our Lady of Mercy on Freeman avenue. 


A recent development has been the Mother of Mercy Villa 
academy, Westwood, Cincinnati.. 

The college and academy of the Sacred Heart, Clifton, was 
begun in 1869 by the Ladies of the Sacred Heart. Their 
teaching met with success and won approbation, so that, to 
supply the demands made upon the establishment, new build 
ings had to be erected in 1882, 1887 and 1893. 

The privilege of being the youngest of the academies in the 
archdiocese belongs to St. Joseph s academy, which was opened 
in 1915 by the Sisters of St. Joseph at Mount Washington. 


The institution of learning which has the oldest history in 
the archdiocese, and which was of the greatest concern to each 
of the four bishops, was the seminary for the education of 
priests. Bishop Fenwick turned his thoughts to the erection 
of a seminary as soon as he began to plan a cathedral building 
to take the place of the frame structure, which had been trans 
ferred from Vine and Liberty to Sycamore street. 28 When 
he had built his cathedral in 1826, he converted the old frame 
into a seminary building, where students as well as priests 
lived. 29 But the plan did not prove successful. The bishop 
had no seminary in 1827, and in 1828 sent the three students, 
Henni, Kundig and Clicteur, to Bardstown, as he had neither 
seminary nor professor. 30 To remedy this situation, he de 
termined to purchase a lot of one hundred feet next to 
the cathedral property, a transaction which took place on 
August 1, 1829, Henry Gregory selling the bishop lot No. 
74, in Spencer s Subdivision, for $3,000. 31 The bishop s 
intention was to build a college and seminary upon this ground ; 
the seminarians were to teach in the lower classes of the col- 

28. Letter, Fenwick, Cincinnati, 1825, to Association of Propagation of the Faith, 
Lyons (Annales, 1826, II, 47-48). 

29. Letter, Rese, Cincinnati, 1826, to Secretary of Association of Propagation of the 
Faith, Lyons (Annales, 1826, II, 109). 

30. Letter, Fenwick ^Cincinnati, January 3, 1827, to Duke of Lucca (Notre Dame Ar 
chives); same, January 20, 1827, to Association of Propagation of Faith, Lyons (Annales, 
III, 287); same, September 10, 1828, to M. D. N. P., Paris (Annales, III, 298). 

31. Deed, Henry Gregory to Edward Fenwick, recorded December 17, 1829, Hamilton 
County Recorder s Office, Book No. 33, pp. 408-09. 


lege. 32 He did not wait, however, for the new building in 
order to begin his theological seminary; but in the old frame, 
which Father Rese characterized as a "stable", he organized 
and commenced his seminary on May 11, 1829, appointing the 
R.ev. Stephen H. Montgomery, O.P., his vicar-general and 
superior of the seminary. 3 3 Having dedicated the seminary 
to St. Francis Xavier, he gave an address in which he read the 
rules to the seminarians. This first body of seminarians was 
composed of four students in theology and six in preparatory 
Latin class. In gratitude for the alms which had made the 
new seminary possible, the bishop ordered the daily recitation 
of a special prayer for the associates of the Propagation of the 
Faith, of Lyons. 34 By the following January the number of 
students had been increased by three, two of them being 
Indian boys from Michigan. 35 A year later Father Baraga 
was living in this seminary and wrote concerning it as follows : 

"The order of the house which reigns here, pleases me much; it 
is so monastic. The bishop is our Guardian. The bell for rising is 
rung at 5 o clock in the morning. Before and after meals prayers are 
always said according to monastic custom, and after meals the pious 
prelate leads us at all times into the church (which is in direct com 
munication with the priests house) there to hold a short adoration 
to the Blessed Sacrament. Five priests and four students preparing 
for the ministry, reside in this house. Just as I viewed with regret the 
wide and long chinks and cracks in the walls of this priests house, 
which threaten the near collapse of the same, so I viewed with joy and 

satisfaction the newly-building college This building has 

three stories, each of which has two large class rooms and eight rooms. 
Under the entire roof a dormitory will be placed for future students." 36 

The new building of which Father Baraga speaks, was 
destined to be called the Athenaeum, to be opened to students 
in the fall of 1831. The walls and roof of the building 
alone cost $7,500, whilst $4,000 more was counted on for the 

32. Letter, Fenwick, Cincinnati, 1829, to Lyons, France (Annales, IV, 504-05). 

33. Letter, Rese, Cincinnati, January 15, 1830, to M. P. (Annales, IV, 527); U. S. 
Catholic Miscellany, June 6, 1829, VIII, 382. 

34. Letter. J. B. Clicteur, Cincinnati, June 28, 1829, to Lyons, France (Annales, 1830, 
IV, 516-17). 

35. Letter, Rese, January 20, 1830, to Cardinal-Prefect of Propaganda, Rome (Propa 
ganda Archives, America Centrale, Scritture, vol. X). 

36. Letter, Baraga, Cincinnati, January 22, 1831, to Leopoldine Association, Vienna 
(Berichte, 1831, II, 13). 


furnishings and the completion of the building. 37 When the 
building was completed, the seminarians were transferred to it. 
Father Rse became the vice-president of the college till April, 
1832, when Father J. I. Mullon became the rector. The old 
building was then destroyed, and, according to a letter of Father 
Rese from New York in 1832, a seminary building proper was 
then being erected in its place. 38 

The first seminarians in the old building were James Reid, 
Denis A. Deloughery, Emmanuel Thienpont and James H. 
Clarkson. 39 In 1833-34, the following students attended: 
Messrs. Juncker, Conlan, Dillon, O Mealy, O Laughlin, All will, 
Wiirtz, Mullon, McCallion, Young, Americus Warden. 40 It 
was at the end of this year that Bishop Purcell himself became 
the rector and professor in the seminary, Father Mullon having 
gone to New Orleans. But the duties of bishop and professor 
were never intended to harmonize, and in 1835 Rev. Francis B. 
Jamison became the rector, to be succeeded in 1837 by Rev. 
Joseph Stokes, and he in turn, in 1839, by Rev. Joseph J. 
O Mealy. It was in this last year that it was thought 
advisable to move the seminary to St. Martin s, Brown 
county, as affording advantages in the country for the semi 
narians. Without a doubt, the city had many disadvantages, 
but it was soon discovered that the location at St. Martin s 
was entirely too remote in those days for the location of the 

The personnel of the seminary had been quite a care to the 
bishop, who determined in 1840 to obtain relief on this score by 
securing a community of religious to conduct the seminary. 
His application through Father Brassac to the Eudist Fathers, 
whose special mission was the management of ecclesiastical 
seminaries, had to be refused by the Abbe Louis, of Rennes, 
France, for want of subjects. 41 His efforts with the Lazarists 
were more successful, as in 1842, Fathers Burlando and Boglioli 
of that society, arrived in Brown county to take charge of the 
seminary. 42 After three years of administration by these 

37. Better, Baraga, January 22, 1831, ut supra Note 36. 

38. Letter. Rese to Leopoldine Association, Vienna (Berichie, 1832, IV, 4). 

39. Catholic Telegraph, October 22, 1831. 

40. Journal of Bishop Purcell, January 12, 1834 (Catholic Historical Review, V, 244). 

41. Letters, Brassac, Paris, July 12 and August 20, 1840, to Purcell, Cincinnati (Arch- 
diocesan Archives, Mount St. Joseph). 

42. See Chapter VTI, Priests of the Congregation of the Mission. 


Fathers, the seminarians were recalled to Cincinnati, and placed 
in the scholasticate attached to St. Xavier college under the 
charge of Rev. Leonard Nota, S.J. 43 The very nature of the 
arrangement shows that it was intended only as a temporary 
expedient. In 1848, the students were withdrawn from St. 
Xavier college and scholasticate, and placed in charge of Rev. 
David Whelan at the new residence of the bishop at Eighth 
and Central avenues, where they were quartered in the rooms 
upon the third floor. This move added to the long series of 
difficulties in the management of the seminary, and gave rise 
to universal discontent. 

The bishop was the first to realize the necessity of a better 
and more permanent site, and appealed for a new seminary. 
His cry was heard, especially by two charitable families, in 
January, 1847, when Messrs. John and James Slevin instructed 
the bishop that he could call upon them for five to ten thousand 
dollars, and by Patrick Considine, who offered him a tract of 
five acres of land at the summit of Price Hill, a location which 
was admirable as sufficiently and not too far remove4 from the 
city. The offers were accepted ; Patrick Considine transferred 
the five acres of land to the bishop on May 29, 1847, and in 
that same spring the Messrs. Slevin undertook to build, at 
their own expense, a stone structure eighty feet square in 
dimensions, four stories in height. The building cost them 
$22, 166. 05. 44 The cornerstone of the building was laid by 
the bishop on July 19, 1848, when he changed the name from 
that of St. Francis Xavier to that of Mount St. Mary Semi 
nary of the West. 45 At the request of his clergy, the bishop 
made the first appeal for financial assistance in a pastoral letter 
which he issued on January 18, 1849. 46 

The bishop s next solicitude was for his faculty. On this 
account he wrote to the visitor-general of the Sulpicians then 
at Montreal, the Rev. C. V. Guitter, offering charge of the 
seminary to the priests of St. Sulpice, Paris. Father Guitter 
had to leave Montreal for Paris immediately upon the receipt 
of the letter, as he was called thither upon the death of the 

43. U. S. Catholic Almanac, 1846, p. 91. 

44. Deed, Patrick Considine to J. B. Purcell, recorded in Book No. 129, p. 470; First 
Report of Mount St. Mary Seminary, 1848-52 (Catholic Telegraph, January 30, 1852). 

45. Catholic Telegraph, XVII, 238, July 27, 1848; Wahrheitsfreund, X, 574. 

46. Catholic Telegraph, XVIII, January 25, 1849. 


superior- general; but he promised Bishop Purcell to lay the 
matter before the new superior-general, whilst he did not 
hesitate to say that the first new house undertaken by the 
Sulpicians in the United States would be that at Cincinnati. 47 
The new superior, Father Carriere, wrote to Bishop Purcell on 
June 6th, that there were many difficulties which militated 
against them taking charge of the seminary at Cincinnati. 
The chief difficulty was the lack of subjects and the con 
sequent inability of the society to furnish and govern the 
two other establishments of the society then in America. 48 
This letter helped to influence Bishop Purcell to visit Rome 
for the purpose of receiving the pallium of the archdiocese of 
Cincinnati, and to spend some time with the Sulpicians at 
Paris to further the cause of his seminary. 49 

Archbishop Purcell arrived at Paris on January 15, 1851, 
and made the house of the Sulpicians his centre of activity for 
the next six or seven months, returning thereto after various 
side-trips to parts of France, Germany and Austria. But even 
his presence at Paris could not induce the Fathers to accept 
the charge at Cincinnati. He informed Father Deluol on 
July 7th that he had then lost all hope of getting them. It 
seems that the archbishop wanted to establish a "mixed" 
seminary, i. e., a seminary proper and a college for lay students, 
in which latter institution he might foster vocations to the 
priesthood. To this, Father Carriere objected, as all their 
institutions had to be put on the same footing as they were in 
France, namely, theological seminaries only. At the end of 
July Archbishop Purcell left for England a disappointed man. 50 
It was indeed a hard blow to the archbishop, who now saw 
himself obliged to revert to the system he had tried before on 
Sycamore street and had found wanting. His new endeavor, 
however, was to be more glorious; one of the grandest works 
which the archbishop accomplished in his later years, was the 
assembling of a learned faculty. No seminary in the country 
could boast of a faculty excelling or even equaling the one which 

47. Letter, Guitter, Montreal, May 21, 1850, to Purcell, Cincinnati (Notre Dame Ar 

48. Letter, Carriere, Paris, June 6, 1850. to Purcell, Cincinnati (Notre Dame Archives). 

49. Letter, Purcell, Cincinnati, October 30, 1850, to Archbishop Blanc, New Orleans 
(Notre Dame Archives). 

50. Journal of Father Deluol (Archives of St. Sulpice, Paris). 


Archbishop Purcell had the wisdom to choose and to prepare 
for his seminary at Cincinnati. 

Upon his return to America, Archbishop Purcell placed the 
seminary in charge of Rev. Michael M. Hallinan, assigning 
Rev. David Whelan and Rev. Jeremiah O Connor to assist 
Father Hallinan in the management and teaching. The 
seminary was solemnly dedicated and opened with twelve 
seminarians on October 2, 185 1. 51 

The maintenance of the seminary during the next few years 
proved more burdensome than the archbishop felt the arch 
diocese could bear. Accordingly, he offered it in 1855 as a 
provincial seminary to the bishops o c the province. There 
upon a board of the bishops was appointed to administer the 
institution, and the privilege of conferring degrees was asked of 
Rome. Rome did not take kindly to the petition, as Pius IX, 
in his letter to Archbishop Purcell, on June 14, 1858, and Car 
dinal Barnabo also, of the Propaganda, pointed out that Rome 
was just then establishing the American college at Rome, 
whither the students could be sent for the purpose of obtaining 
degrees. 53 Archbishop Purcell did not give up the point, 
however, as again, in 1861, he personally petitioned for the 
privilege. 53 

To procure students for the seminary, Archbishop Purcell 
persisted in his idea of having a college in connection with the 
seminary. He never looked with favor on the establishment of 
St. Peter s college, at Chillicothe, which had been designed for 
that purpose; but upon its failure in 1856, after one year s 
trial, he at once opened Mount St. Mary college, in a building 
which had been erected to the south of the main building of 
the seminary. A regular classical and scientific course of 
eight years was instituted on September 15, 1856, under Rev. 
S. H. Rosecrans, D.D., president. The college was then in 
corporated and chartered by the state with powers to confer 
degrees. It continued to be operated until the summer of 
1863, when circumstances attending the Civil War forced its 
discontinuance. The students of Cincinnati who had been 

51. Catholic Telegraph, January 31, 1852. 

52. I Provincial Council of Cincinnati, 1855; letter, Pius IX, Rome, June 14, 1858, 
to Purcell (Notre Dame Archives). 

53. Relatio Status Dioecesis Cincinnatensis, 1861 (Notre Dame Archives). 


frequenting it, were adopted as preparatorians in the theological 

The construction of the south wing for the college proceeded 
apace with that of the chapel of St. John Baptist, of which 
the cornerstone was laid on June 22, 1856, and its dedication 
effected on June 24, 1857. The fire of 1863, occasioned by the 
thoughtlessness of tinners repairing the roof, completely de 
stroyed this building, and all except the first story of the south 
wing. Plans for rebuilding the two structures were prepared 
at once. The chapel was rebuilt with the old walls, which 
necessitated its demolition in 1871, to be replaced then by an 
entirely new chapel, which was dedicated on December 14, 
1871. In the previous year the north wing of the seminary 
had been completed to take care of the numerous students who 
were frequenting the seminary, 130 having been enrolled in 

The misfortunes of the financial failure of 1878 forced the 
closing of the seminary doors the following summer, not to be 
reopened until September 12, 1887, when the generous bequest 
of $100,000 by Reuben R. Springer made this possible. The 
seminary continued to be conducted at the site on Price Hill 
until 1904, when, the old site having been sold to the Sisters 
of the Good Shepherd, the site at Mount Washington, then 
occupied by St. Gregory preparatory seminary, was chosen 
for the theological seminary. 54 

The following have been the rectors of the seminary: S. H. 
Montgomery, O.P., 1829; F. Rese, 31; J. I. Mullon, 32-34; 
Rt. Rev. J. B. Purcell, 34-35; F. B. Jamison, 35-37; J. 
Stokes, 37-39; J. J. O Mealy, 39-42; J. F. Burlando, C.M., 
42-45; L. Nota, S.J., 45-48; D. Whelan, 48-51; M. M. 
Hallinan, 51-54; J. Quinlan, 54-59; W. Barry, 59-63; D. 
O Regan, 63; F. J. Pabisch, 64-79; T. S. Byrne, 87-94; 
J. B. Murray, 94-1904; Most Rev. H. Moeller, 04; Rt. Rev. 
J. M. Mackey, 05-08; J. A. Shee, 08-13; Rt. Rev. F. J. 
Beckmann, 13 . 

A seminary, where boys might be especially trained pre 
paratory to entrance into the theological seminary, did not 
take form in the archdiocese of Cincinnati proper until 1890; 

54. Files of the Catholic Telegraph, passim; KELLY and KIRWIN, History oj Mount 
St. Mary s Seminary of the West, Cincinnati, Ohio. 


but long before this it had been a subject of earnest considera 
tion by Archbishop Purcell. In the earliest years the students 
of Cincinnati were sent either to St. Thomas seminary, Bards- 
town, Ky., or to St. Mary s of the Barrens, Missouri. In 
1855, the college at Chillicothe was begun, and in the following 
year Mount St. Mary s college, though neither the one nor the 
other was intended as a strictly preparatory theological semi 
nary, where none but boys preparing for the priesthood were 
admitted. In 1853, Archbishop Purcell had been offered a 
farm of 320 acres, worth $35 an acre, and about $10,000 worth 
of property by a young Irish priest for a "petit seminaire" in 
the diocese, but that offer was not accepted, perhaps because 
of the archbishop s preference for a "mixed" college. 55 After 
the preparatory students had been taken into Mount St. Mary 
seminary for a few years, it began to be realized that the situa 
tion was not ideal, and towards the end of 1872 or the begin 
ning of 1873, plans concerning a college and preparatory semi 
nary were under discussion. Hearing of the plans, Father B. 
H. Kngbers wrote to the archbishop on January 16, 1873, 
explaining his views on the subject. He concluded by offering 
his opinion that a strictly preparatory theological seminary, 
distinct in location as well as in administration from the the 
ological seminary itself, should be undertaken. His plan was 
to begin with one class of boys and build up the classes 
annually to the six years necessary. He offered his own 
services gratis, if it were necessary. 56 

Seventeen years were to pass before such an institution was 
begun, but Father Engbers had lost none of his earlier fervor, 
and began then in Holy Trinity school, Cincinnati, just as he 
had planned in 1873. Father Albrinck, vicar-general of Cin 
cinnati, had interested himself in the project of a preparatory 
seminary, and having obtained the sanction of Archbishop 
Elder in 1889, set about his plans. The bequest of Reuben 
R. Springer was again to be the touchstone of the enterprise. 
A tract of 57J/2 acres of land at Cedar Point, Ohio, some ten 
miles from the centre of the city of Cincinnati, was purchased 

55. Letter, Purcell, Cincinnati, October 7, 1853, to Archbishop Blanc, New Orleans 
(Notre Dame Archives). 

56. Letter, Engbers, Cincinnati, January 16, 1873, to Archbishop Purcell (Archdiocesan 
Archives) . 


for $5,625.00 from the executor of the Brackman estate. 
Plans were prepared in 1890 and the main building was begun. 
With the class of boys which Father Engbers had been teaching 
for a year at Cincinnati, and with the new class just entering 
twenty-three students in all the seminary was opened on 
September 8, 1891, the day of the solemn dedication. Father 
Albrinck served as president of the institution till the appoint 
ment of Rev. Henry Brinkmeyer, in July, 1892. In January, 
1893, an adjoining tract of 13 1/2 acres of land was bought for 
$2,100, from C. L. Bogart, and on November 29th, of the fol 
lowing year, an addition to the south of the main building was 
blessed. Upon the completion of its thirteenth year at Cedar 
Point, the seminary was transferred to 220 West Seventh 
street, between Elm and Plum streets, where it was conducted 
as a day school up to 1907, when it closed its doors until a new 
building should be erected for it. 57 

The Franciscan Fathers conduct the St. Francis prepara 
tory seminary at 1615 Republic street, Cincinnati, and a 
novitiate at the convent of St. Anthony, on Mount Airy, 
Hamilton county. The Precious Blood Fathers conduct a 
preparatory seminary and novitiate at Burkettsville, Ohio, 
and the St. Charles Borromeo theological seminary at Car- 
thagena, Ohio. The Passionist Fathers on Mt. Adams con 
duct the theological seminary of the western province. The 
Brothers of Mary conduct their novitiate at Mount St. John, 
Dayton, Ohio. 

Having thus provided well for the instruction of youth in 
almost all forms, the bishops of Cincinnati have likewise been 
promoters of good Catholic literature, and have sought, by 
periodicals in the two languages spoken by the majority of the 
people of the archdiocese, to foster Catholic intelligence. Cin 
cinnati has a double honor in the two periodicals which it 
established. The Catholic Telegraph today is the oldest 
Catholic periodical in the United States, whilst the Wahrheits- 
freund was the first Catholic German periodical published in 
the United States. 

57. Catholic Telegraph, April 17, May 8, May 15, July 24, August 21, 1890; April 23, 
August 13, September 24, October 22, 1891; July 7, November 10, 1892; February 2, 1893; 
December 6, 1894; June 27, 1907. 


From the first issue of the Catholic Telegraph, published at 
Cincinnati, on Saturday, October 22, 1831, we extract a few 
paragraphs to learn therefrom its purposes and aims. "The 
primary object," writes the editor (Rev. James I. Mullon), "in 
issuing the Catholic Telegraph, is to aid in disusing a correct 
knowledge of the Roman Catholic faith. By doing this, we 
are conscious of discharging a two-fold duty; namely, of 
contending earnestly for the faith once delivered to the saints ; 
and of removing some of the difficulties which prevent our 
dissenting brethren from rendering that justice to the ancient 
faith, which a correct knowledge of its tenets would, generally, 
lead them to concede." At the close of the first issue, we 

"The Catholic Telegraph is intended to contain: 

1. The explanation and defence of the Roman Catholic Faith. 

2. Information of occurrences connected with Catholic religion 
in the United States, and in various parts of Europe; especially in 
England, France, Italy and Austria. Arrangements have been made 
whereby we shall be enabled to lay before our readers, the most in 
teresting particulars regarding our faith, in the three last mentioned 

3. The occasional review of publications calculated to convey 
erroneous opinions of our religion. 

4. Public occurrences, selections of articles of a literary, scientific 
and miscellaneous character, to avoid, measurably, the sameness of an 
exclusively religious course. The Telegraph will be published every 
Saturday for $2.50 per year, in advance; otherwise $3.00 per year." 

From this it will be seen that the Telegraph was founded 
mostly as a controversial paper, suited to the times through 
which the Church in Cincinnati was then passing. This 
character was retained for many years, so that the historian 
today often wishes that items pertaining to local history had 
been accorded more attention. But it had its advantages, 
too, as far more learned and interesting articles pertaining to 
the faith appeared in its pages, and more profitable reading was 
given to its readers. The Telegraph has passed through many 
crises; several times it was on the verge of discontinuance, but 
it has weathered all storms, and today enjoys a wide patronage. 

Froni the issue of April 20, 1837, of the Telegraph, we ex 
tract the following prospectus of the Wahrheitsfreund or 
Friend of Truth: 


"The great increase of the German Catholic population in the 
western country, and the inconvenience to which they are subjected by 
the want of a periodical in their own language, have become so obvious, 
that the publication of a paper has been determined upon, as a matter 
of imperative necessity. 

"To make the Friend of Truth acceptable to its readers, will be 
the unceasing desire of those to whose care it will be entrusted. Every 
effort will be made to render its contents instructive and pleasing. 
The paper will be divided into two departments, the Religious and 

"The first will contain clear and lucid expositions of the Roman 
Catholic doctrine, as taught by Christ to his apostles and delivered 
to the saints , to be practised and perpetuated to the end of time. 
Our Holy Faith will be illustrated by frequent allusions to the history 
of its progress, its trials and triumphs, by the conversion of nations and 
the sublime piety, which in so many instances has been displayed by 
individuals, who faithfully practised its precepts. The reader will also 
be informed of the present state of Catholicity in the United States and 
the other nations of the earth. 

"The Secular Department will comprise a faithful synopsis of the 
principal and most interesting events whether foreign or domestic. 
It must, however, be well understood, that no interference with politics 
will be permitted in its columns, nor any adherence whatever to any 
political party. The German Emigrant will receive the earliest in 
telligence of the situation of affairs in his native land, and particular 
attention will be paid to the progress of events in France, Germany 
and Switzerland. 

"We anticipate for the Friend of Truth a wide circulation, and 
we feel assured, that every good German Catholic family will joyfully 
aid in extending the sphere of its usefulness. It will be conducted for 
the benefit of the orphans and the surplus funds will be regularly paid 
to the St. Aloysius Orphan Association. The paper will, therefore, 
have a double claim upon the German Catholic, which, we feel confi 
dent, he will not disregard. 

"The Friend of Truth will be published upon a super-royal sheet, 
at two dollars and fifty cents, if paid in advance, or three dollars at the 
close of the volume. All letters and communications, until a General 
Agent be appointed, must be directed postpaid to the Rev. John M. 
Henni, Cincinnati, Ohio." 

The Wahrheitsfreund appeared for the first time on July 20, 
1837, reiterating in its prospectus what it had proclaimed in the 
Telegraph. Father Henni continued to be the editor of it 
until August 31, 1843, when he resigned his charge with a view 
of taking up his prospective duties in the new diocese of Mil 
waukee. The publication of the paper, however, was con 
tinued until the need which had brought it into existence, had 


passed, and on June 19, 1907, the last number was issued. 
Many of the historical lacunae of the Telegraph may be sup 
plied from the Wahrheitsfreund, as a more historical spirit 
actuated it from the very beginning of its career. 

Periodicals issued by the Franciscan Fathers at Cincinnati 
are : Der Sendbote des goettlichen Herzens Jesu, appearing since 
1874; The Sodalist, since 1884; the St. Franziskus Bote, 
since 1892; and St. Anthony s Messenger, since 1893. 

Neither has the Cincinnati archdiocese failed to furnish its 
quota of literary writers. The following list which we publish 
is scarcely exhaustive, as we have but culled the names of 
authors and books in passing. No attempt has yet been made 
to give a complete list. The first book issued by priest or 
layman in the Cincinnati archdiocese is the Algonquin prayer 
book, published in June, 1830, by Father PETER JOHN DEJEAN, 
for the Indians in Michigan. This was the forerunner of a long 
series of Indian books in Ottawa and Chippewa by Father 
BARAGA, later bishop of Sault Ste. Marie. Books in Ottawa by 
him are six different prayer books of the years 1832 (Detroit), 
1837 (Paris), 1842 (Detroit), 1846 (Detroit), 1855 (Cincinnati), 
and 1858 (Cincinnati), and a Life of Jesus, published at Paris in 
1837. Books in Chippewa by him are: Prayer books of 1837 
(Paris) and 1848 (Detroit); Chippewa Primers of 1837 (Buf 
falo) and 1845 (Detroit); Sermons in Chippewa, 1846 (Detroit); 
Bible Stories in Chippewa, 1843 (Laibach); Life of Jesus, 1837 
(Paris); Catechism, 1849 (Detroit); Catholic Christian 
Meditations, 1850 (Detroit); Theoretical and Practical Gram 
mar of the Otchipwe Language, 1850 (Detroit); Dictionary of 
the Otchipwe Language explained in English, 1853 (Cincin 
nati) ; Eternal Truths always to be remembered by a Catholic 
Christian, 1855 (Cincinnati). 58 Father JOHN M. HENNI 
published a German Catholic Catechism in 1835. At a much 
later date Father F. X. WENINGER, S.J., published a similar 
work. The Rt. Rev. Louis DE GOESBRIAND, D.D., was the 
author of Early Converts to Catholicity in Vermont and New 
Hampshire , a History of Confession; Devotion to the Blessed 
Sacrament; Christ on the Altar, instructions for Sundays and 

58. For information concerning Father Baraga s books, consult the article by RICHARD 
R. ELLIOTT, The Chippewas and Ottawas: Father Baraga s books in their language, in American 
Catholic Quarterly Review, XXII, pp. 18-46, January, 1897. 


Festivals of the year. Father XAVIER DONALD McLEOD 
published Pynnhurst, 1852; Life of Sir Walter Scott, 1852; 
Bloodstone, 1853; Life of Ferdinand Wood, Mayor of New 
York, 1856; The Elder s House or The Converts; Chateau 
Lescure or The Last Marquis; Life of Mary, Queen of Scots, 
1857; Our Lady of Litanies (poems); Haroun al Raschid 
(play) ; Devotion to the Blessed Virgin in North America. 
Father WILLIAM J. BARRY wrote The Sacramentals of the Holy 
Catholic Church, 1857. Father BONA VENTURE HAMMER, 
O.F.M., in 1888, translated Lew Wallace s Ben Hur into 
German so successfully that in 1894 it had appeared in its 
twenty-fifth edition. He is the author besides of many English 
and German books, the latter exceeding thirty in number, 
among them being Die Katholische Kirche in den Vereinigten 
Staaten, 1898. In English, besides various devotional books, 
he wrote Explanations of the Epistles and Gospels; Life of 
Mother Schervier; Life of Christ; Outlines of Church History. 
Father HUGH McGEVNEY published Legacy of Lectures and 
Verse. Father BONIFACE LUEBBERMAN published a pastoral 
theology, a book on philosophy, and translated Scheeben s 
Divine Glories. Father F. J. PABISH and T. S. BYRNE trans 
lated Alzog s Church History. Father HENRY BRINKMEYER 
published a devotional work, A Lover of Souls. MRS. BEL 
LAMY STORER has published several novels of great merit. 
Miss EMILY O CALLAGHAN has published the Memoirs and 
Writings of Very Reverend James F. Callaghan, D.D. Miss 
ANNA C. MINOGUE has composed the Annals of Loretto, 
written the history of her community in the work called 
The History of Mother Seton s Daughters; she has published 
also Little Blossoms of Love, Kindness and Obedience. MR. 
JOHN BUNKER, now resident in the East, has become known 
for his poetical verses. Two of the most productive authors 
of the archdiocese are FATHER FRANCIS X. LASANCE, who 
occupies today the foremost rank as a devotional writer, 
his books being constant companions of all Catholic families; 
and Father FRANCIS J. FINN, S.J., whose boy stories of college 
life have made him the most beloved author of all American 
boys. Two Catholic artists, FRANK DUVENECK and CLEMENT 
BARNHORN, have reflected great lustre upon the city of Cin- 


cinnati. Their creations in painting and sculpture have 
won universal praise and have placed them prominently among 
the leading contemporary representatives of their respective 

Thus far it has been seen how the Catholics of the archdio 
cese of Cincinnati have been most generous in the means which 
they have provided for the education of youth, as well as of 
able men and women. Not less generous have they been 
toward their less fortunate brethren in the archdiocese. Hardly 
an avenue of sorrow has been opened that some Catholic 
Good Samaritan has not trodden, pouring in wine and oil to 
heal a festering sore or a gaping wound. In many instances 
Catholics have not hesitated to admit to their charities others 
than themselves, even though the burdens which they bore, 
weighed most heavily upon them. 

To afford a haven of refuge to distressed and unfortunate 
mothers, and the infinite mercy of God ought surely to be 
imitated by his servants there was instituted St. Joseph s 
maternity and infant asylum at Norwood, Ohio, where the 
first eight acres of property were donated for the purpose by 
a non-Catholic, Joseph C. Butler. Three Sisters of Charity, 
Agnes Regina, Clotilda and Agnes opened the two-story frame 
house on September 27, 1873, the day of its dedication. Addi 
tions to the building followed the very next year. A chapel 
was erected in 1884, and dedicated on November 13th, of the 
same year. Sisters of Charity are in charge of the institution. 

One of the earliest necessities experienced in the diocese 
was an orphanage. It was to assume charge of such an in 
stitution that the Sisters of Charity came to Cincinnati in 
1829, and with five orphan girls began the orphanage known as 
St. Peter s Orphan Asylum. The house, situated two doors 
from the cathedral on Sycamore street, was owned by Mr. M. P. 
Cassilly, who gave the Sisters free rent of the house until 1834, 
when his wife, who was a bitter Protestant, complained of his 
charity. 59 This necessitated a new house, which was pro 
cured in 1836 when Bishop Purcell, on April 26th, bought the 
residence of Major Ruffner, at Third and Plum streets, for 
$15,905.00, from the United States bank. 60 For the support 

59. Bishop Purcell s Journal (Catholic Historical Review, V, 243-44). 

60. Bishop Purcell s Journal, April 26, 1836. 


of this institution, the St. Peter s Benevolent Society was 
founded in the Athenaeum at Cincinnati on Christmas Day, 
1833. 61 This orphanage served the girls only, and while there 
was St. Aloysius German orphan asylum for boys, it was 
though: advisable, after the diocesan organization of the 
Sisters of Charity, to have the Sisters begin an orphanage for 
boys. For that purpose 11.67 acres of land in Cumminsville 
were bought on October 20, 1852, for $8,220.00, from Jacob 
Hoffner, who remitted one-half of the price when he under 
stood that it was for an orphanage. 62 To support this orphan 
age, St. Joseph s Benevolent Society was organized on March 
14, 1852, under the presidency of Dr. S. Bonner. 63 A building 
having been constructed on the grounds and completed, the 
orphan boys then in charge of the Sisters were transferred to it 
on June 1, 1854. On the 19th of March, of the following year, 
the new chapel was dedicated and on September 8th, of that 
year, the orphan girls were also transferred to Cumminsville. 
The Sisters of Charity continue the first work upon which they 
entered on their arrival at Cincinnati. 

The Sisters of Charity did not, however, and would not, in 
1836, accept boys into an orphanage. The bishop s request at 
Emmitsburg for the Sisters to undertake a separate boys 
orphanage for the German Catholics of Cincinnati was re 
fused. 64 But the German Catholics organized the St. Aloysius 
Orphan Society on January 27, 1837, under the presidency of 
J. B. Germann. Father Henni was the guiding spirit. The 
need of an orphanage for boys was pressing, and the orphan 
society placed the boys in its charge in families until such a 
time as a building could be provided. To assist in obtaining 
funds, the society decided on publishing the Wahrheitsfreund 
under the editorship of Father Henni. On May 18, 1839, the 
society succeeded in purchasing a house of nine rooms on West 
Sixth street, twenty-five feet from the northeast corner of 
John street. This house was then dedicated on the feast of 
St. Aloysius. Miss Angelica Siemers became directress of 

61. Catholic Telegraph, January 10, 1834. 

62. Deed, Jacob Hoffner, to J. B. Purcell, October 20, 1852, recorded in Book No. 178, 
p. 602. 

63. Articles of Constitution in Catholic Telegraph, March 20, 1852. 

64. Notation on letter of Bishop Purcell, Cincinnati, February 23, 1836, to Mother Rose 
White, Emmitsburg (St. Joseph College Archives, Emmitsburg, Letter Book 6). 


the house, in which charge she was assisted by her sister up 
to May 8, 1842, when the Sisters of Charity consented to take 
over the establishment. They retained it only until 1846. 

The orphan society became incorporated on March 2, 1843. 
A year later it was deprived of the services of Father Henni, 
who had been appointed bishop of Milwaukee. Father Joseph 
Ferneding succeeded him in 1844, when, the house having 
become too crowded, a new site on Fourth street, between 
John street and Central avenue, was purchased for $10,800. 
A lot extending back to Third street was bought with the in 
tention of building thereon a girls orphanage. To supply 
this need, the society rented a house on Abigail street, between 
Spring and Pendleton, and opened it on July 8, 1850. 

The boys orphanage was growing by leaps and bounds, so 
that new accommodations were becoming necessary. These 
were retarded, however, by a fire on October 15, 1851, which 
destroyed most of the buildings and occasioned the death of 
three of the boys. After temporary expedients the buildings 
were reconstructed on Fourth street, and the girls also were 
transferred to Third street. But it became evident that re 
moval to the country was imperative, and on a tract of land 
of sixty acres in Bond Hill, which had been purchased on Sep 
tember 15, 1849, buildings were constructed for the orphans. 
The boys were first moved thither in 1856, to be joined five 
years later by the girls. The asylum had the misfortune to be 
visited by fire once more, in October, 1891, but renewed sacri 
fices were forthcoming and new modern buildings replaced the 
old ones. Sisters of Notre Dame (Cleveland) under the direc 
tion of a chaplain have attended the institution since May 1, 

Three other institutions in the archdiocese serve like pur 
poses, the House of Mercy for destitute children, conducted by 
the Sisters of Mercy at Freeman avenue and Kenner street, 
Cincinnati; St. Joseph orphan home, on St. Paul avenue, 
Dayton; and St. Mary s institute, on Fifth street, Minster, O.; 
the last two institutions being conducted by the Sisters of the 
Precious Blood. 

A third class of institutions in the archdiocese is formed by 
boys and girls homes. Circumstances of one kind or another 

65. Denkschrift fuer die 50-jaehrige Jubd-Feier des St. Aloysius Waisen Vereins, 1887. 


have deprived some of the working boys and girls, young men 
and young women, of the comforts of a parental home. No 
one is unconscious of the danger to faith which confronts such 
persons, who in tender years must make their own livelihood 
and are thrown willy-nilly into all sorts of associations. To 
gather together young persons placed in such circumstances, 
to afford them a home, to render more easy the practice of the 
obligations of their faith, and in this manner to prevent loss 
of souls to the faith, homes for boys and girls have been estab 
lished in the two largest cities of the archdiocese. 

To give a home at Cincinnati to the boy of the street, the 
boot-black and the newsie, Father John Poland, S.J., began the 
boys home, in 1885, in a house which he rented for the pur 
pose on Seventh, east of Main street. The institution was 
opened and organized on December 3d, with six boys, but the 
numerous applications made new quarters imperative on sev 
eral occasions: first, in February, 1886, to Fifth street, 
between Broadway and Pike; then, after four years to Broad 
way, between Fifth and Sixth streets; in 1893, to Sycamore 
between Fifth and Sixth streets; and finally, in 1915, to 423 
Pioneer street, in union with the Fenwick club. Up to the 
last change in 1915, when a reorganization was made and 
Father Charles E. Baden was placed in charge of the institu 
tion, the directress was Miss Margaret McCabe, who had been 
the directress of the girls home, on Broadway, previous to 
assuming her duties at the boys home in 1893. The boys 
home was incorporated on August 25, 1895, and has been 
placed on a very solid financial basis, thanks to its benefactors 
and especially to the "Mission of Our Lady of Pity". Its 
inmates are not restricted to boys of the Catholic Faith, but 
non-Catholic boys have always been admitted. The benefits 
of the institution may be conjectured from the consideration 
that useful citizens have been made of the 4,000 boys who have 
passed through its portals. 

Of a kindred character, providing a home and giving an 
education to poor and homeless boys, is the St. Vincent home 
for boys, which is conducted by the Brothers of the Poor 
of St. Francis Seraph, at 918 Bank street. 

To provide a Catholic home for young men, who were able 
to support themselves, but were forced, through circumstances, 


often not of their own making, to live away from their home 
town, Father Baden, in 1915, conceived the plan of founding 
a Catholic young men s club, managed similarly to the 
Y. M. C. A. houses throughout the country, but wherein the 
Catholic young man might have ready access to the advantages 
and obligations of his Catholic religious life. This plan re 
ceived realization on April 1, 1915, when the Fen wick club 
was opened at 319 Broadway. The success of the club neces 
sitated new and larger quarters, as a consequence of which a 
site was purchased on Pioneer street, and on February 9, 
1917, ground was broken for a magnificent nine-story club 
building, which was dedicated on April 28, 1918. The venture 
has proved a great success, and being the first institution of its 
kind, serves as the model for others in the United States. 

If the boys and young men have been cared for so well, the 
girls and young ladies have not been neglected, though there is 
need of more being done for them. To afford the homeless, 
working young lady a home, Miss Margaret McCabe rented a 
four-room cottage on Seventh street, which Archbishop Elder 
blessed on the feast of the Sacred Heart, June 16, 1882, and 
thus opened the Sacred Heart home for girls. The institu 
tion was a long-felt necessity, so that success immediately 
attended it, and new quarters had to be obtained several times. 
In August, 1887, it was transferred from the quarters at 171 
Sycamore street to 142 Broadway, or as it is now numbered, 
416 Broadway, between Fourth and Fifth streets, that property 
having been bought for $35,000. Beyond the success which 
the institution had in accomplishing its purpose, it has had the 
inestimable blessing of having been conducted in such a pru 
dent and saintly fashion, that in 1893 the majority of the young 
ladies assisting in the care of the institution became affiliated 
as a body to the Sisters of St. Joseph of Bourg, France, with their 
mother-house in this country at New Orleans. Since June, of 
that year, the Sisters of St. Joseph have conducted the estab 

Other institutions of like purpose in the archdiocese are the 
Mount Carmel home for working girls and women, man 
aged since June, 1905, by the Sisters of Mercy, at 1413 Freeman 
avenue, Cincinnati; and the Loretto guild for business women, 
conducted by the Dominican Sisters of the American Congre- 


gallon of St. Catherine de Ricci, at 217 North Ludlow street, 

To care for homeless and wayward boys the Brothers of the 
Poor of St. Francis Seraph were invited to Cincinnati in 1868, 
when under Brother Bernardine, O.S.F., they opened the pro 
tectory for boys on Lock street, to be soon transferred to 
Third and Plum streets, and in 1870 to Mount Alverno, Delhi 
township, Hamilton county, where a farm of 100 acres was 
obtained by them. Here the boys are given an education in 
the primary grades and then taught various trades to enable 
them to make a living in the world. 

The same kind of charity is undertaken for wayward girls by 
the institutions of the Sisters of the Good Shepherd at Cincin 

Two institutions, serving particular classes of people, are 
the Santa Maria institute and the St. Rita school for the deaf. 
The former was inaugurated on August 22, 1897, when Mother 
M. Blanche Davis, of the Sisters of Charity, commissioned 
Sisters Justina and Blandina to do mission work among the 
Italians of Cincinnati. It was the intention to offset prosely- 
tism among these immigrants. The authority and blessing 
of Archbishop Elder was readily obtained for the work, which 
was begun on October llth, when the Sisters started a class in 
the Holy Trinity school building for the Italian children in the 
western part of the city. To obtain financial support for the 
mission, the Society of the Santa Maria Willing Workers was 
organized. On the following December 8th, the Santa Maria 
was incorporated under the title of "The Santa Maria Italian 
Educational and Industrial Home". A permanent residence 
was obtained on October 4, 1899, when the Sisters took pos 
session of the former convent of the Sisters of St. Francis, at 
Third and Lytle streets. In the next year the Sacro Cuore 
school was opened for Italian children in the eastern part of the 
city. The Sisters had to look for other quarters in 1905, when 
the city of Cincinnati purchased the site at Third and Lytle 
streets for park purposes. A house was obtained at 534 West 
Seventh street, and therein the institute was installed in May, 
1905. But this was only temporary, as the greatly expanded 
activities of the institute required larger quarters. The present 
residence at 640 West Eighth street was then acquired. Two 


additional pieces of contiguous property have been obtained 
since for the needs of the mission. The activities of the insti 
tute have increased from year to year, so that today the workers 
of the institute conduct welfare work among the Italians, a 
home for motherless or fatherless girls, a temporary home for 
stranded working girls, an employment bureau, a domestic 
science department, a kindergarten, a day nursery, sewing 
classes, boys clubs, girls clubs, Sunday schools, visits to families 
and institutes, the Santa Maria welfare center at 632 West 
Eighth street, and the Kenton street welfare center, Walnut 
Hills. Sisters of Charity have continued in the direction of the 
institute since its commencement in 1897. 

The St. Rita school for the deaf, a boarding school for deaf- 
mute children at Lockland, Cincinnati, is the culmination of 
work which was begun among the deaf-mutes forty years ago 
by Sister Louise, provincial of the Sisters of Notre Dame, 
Cincinnati. To impart the necessary instruction to these 
forlorn Catholic souls, classes were first opened by her on 
Sundays, and then on week-days. For five years she toiled at 
this work, and was then succeeded by another Sister of her 
community. Jesuit as well as Franciscan Fathers aided in the 
work, until the present archbishop sought, in 1907, to organize 
the deaf-mutes under one of his priests, Father Henry Buse. 
For four years this priest gave weekly religious instructions 
in the basement of the Springer institute. In 1912, he was 
succeeded by the present chaplain, Father Henry Waldhaus, 
who, as assistant at St. Philomena church, gathered the deaf- 
mutes there for instruction. On May 3, 1914, Father Wald 
haus opened the Catholic mission for the deaf at 419 West 
Fourth street, and on October 17, 1915, he opened the St. 
Rita s school for the deaf at Lockland, where the children are 
boarded and taught. The mission for the adult deaf in the 
city is conducted at Eighth and Walnut streets. 

An institution which serves a great many people is the 
hospital. Few men and women pass through life without 
falling heir to the ills of the flesh. Few, too, when sick, do not 
give serious thought to the illness of their souls or to the eternal 
paradise for which they yearn. Special inspirations often 
accompany the sickness which a providential hand allows to 
fall sometimes upon the pious as well as upon the callous soul, 


and in the introspective glances which the sick person allows 
himself to take, he is not unfrequently aided by the ministering 
angels at his bedside. What a fruitful opportunity is afforded 
for the gaining of souls as well as for the alleviation of pain 
and sorrow! 

For thirty years the diocese of Cincinnati had not been 
provided with a Catholic hospital to soothe the pains of its 
sick members. The first hospital to be established at Cincin 
nati was the St. John s hospital, which was opened by the 
Sisters of Charity on November 13, 1852, at the corner of 
Broadway and Franklin streets, in the old "Hotel des Invalides". 
In 1855 this hospital was transferred to Third street, between 
Plum street and Central avenue. There it was located at the 
opening of the Civil War. When the call for nurses was sent 
throughout the country, the Sisters generously volunteered 
their services. Foremost in their ranks stood Sister Anthony, 
whose works were never forgotten by friend or foe of the 
Union, and who upon her return to Cincinnati resumed her 
work in St. John s hospital. It was in the performance of 
charitable work to the sick there that she became known to 
Mr. Joseph C. Butler, of the Lafayette bank. This person 
had sent a sick man, named Cooper, to the St. John s hospital, 
despatching a note to the superintendent to take care of him 
and that he himself would stand the costs. Receiving no bill 
for a long time, he called at the hospital, where he knew no 
one, not even Sister Anthony. Mr. Butler was not a Catholic. 
Mr. Cooper had convalesced, but was still at the hospital. 
No charges were made for him, and Mr. Butler was not long 
in coming to the aid of the hospital, which was crowded and 
could not accommodate all its patients. On August 15, 1866, 
he, together with Mr. Louis Worthington, handed to the 
Sisters the deed to the old marine hospital, at Sixth and Lock 
streets, which the two men had bought for $75,000.00. This 
was the beginning of the Good Samaritan hospital, as it then 
became known. For nearly fifty years it remained upon this 
site, until the new building was erected at Clifton and Dix- 
myth avenues, Clifton, and the hospital transferred thither 
in 1915. 

The Sisters of Charity had thus firmly established their 
hospital in a beautiful suburb of Cincinnati. In the lower 


section of the city they still conduct Seton hospital, which they 
established in 1902, on West Eighth street, but transferred 
later to its present undesirable location on West Sixth street. 
They have one other hospital foundation in the archdiocese, 
at Kenton, Ohio, where, under the zealous care of the Reverend 
Pastor, Anthony Siebenfoercher, they opened the Antonio 

Like the Sisters of Charity, the Sisters of the Poor of St. 
Francis have two hospitals in the city of Cincinnati, and one 
elsewhere in the archdiocese. The first, St. Mary s hospital, 
at Linn and Betts streets, was begun in the year after the arrival 
of the Sisters at Cincinnati, the cornerstone being laid on May 
10, 1859, and the building ready for occupancy on Christmas 
of the same year. Several additions have had to be made to 
the original building to accommodate the ever increasing 
number of poor patients who come to their charge. This, as 
well as Seton hospital, has been serving the emergency cases in 
the lower city, especially since the Cincinnati general hospital 
was removed to the suburbs. 

The second of the hospitals conducted by the Sisters of the 
Poor of St. Francis is the St. Francis hospital on Queen City 
avenue, in Fairmount, where, on condition that they would 
build a hospital thereon, they were presented with the property 
which had at one time been the possession of St. Peter s ceme 
tery association. The large building which they constructed, 
was dedicated by Archbishop Elder on December 27, 1888, and 
devoted to the care of patients suffering from incurable diseases. 

The third hospital conducted by these Sisters is St. Eliza 
beth s hospital, on Hopeland avenue, Dayton. It was through 
the efforts of Father John F. Hahne, of Emmanuel church, 
Dayton, that this hospital was founded in 1878, the building 
being dedicated on August 15th, of that year. A new building 
had soon to be erected. The cornerstone of it was laid on 
September 8, 1881, and the dedicatory exercises observed on 
November 19, 1882. 

The last of the hospitals in the archdiocese under Catholic 
auspices is the Mercy hospital on Dayton street, Hamilton, 
Ohio, conducted by the Sisters of Mercy. The Sisters took 
charge of this hospital in August, 1892. Six weeks later, on 


October 4th, when the dedicatory exercises were held, the keys 
to the hospital and the deed to the property were formally 
handed over to the Sisters. Adjoining property was purchased 
in 1894 and converted into hospital purposes. In ten years 
these two houses had grown too small for the number of 
patients applying for admission, so that plans for a new struc 
ture, costing $165,000, were drawn. The old buildings were 
torn down, and in October, 1904, the new hospital was com 
pleted. In 1915, three houses west of the hospital were pur 
chased to form an annex where male patients are treated. 
Other improvements are contemplated to provide for the growth 
of the hospital. 

The archdiocese has also provided a home for the aged poor 
and infirm. The history of this institution synchronizes with 
the history of the Little Sisters of the Poor, who came to Cin 
cinnati in 1868 precisely to undertake this work. The Sisters 
opened their first house on George street; transferred it after 
a brief period to Lock street, adjoining the old Good Samaritan 
hospital; and in 1873 built the home for the aged on Florence 
avenue. In 1889 they built their second home for the aged 
poor on Riddle road, Clifton Heights. In these two institu 
tions men and women who have walked the long weary road 
of life and find themselves poor and alone without a guide 
in the twilight of their destiny, obtain solace in the tender 
ness of the hands which are stretched out to assist them and 
to point out the way which leads to the happiness of eternity. 

But there may be, and there actually are, as experience has 
shown, aged persons, husband and wife, who have trodden life s 
path together many a year, and who find separation one of the 
hardest trials which they have to meet. To provide a home for 
such as these, who have some means of support and wish to 
remain united, but are unable longer to stand the hardships 
of advanced age, the St. Teresa s home for the aged was 
founded in March, 1910, under the direction of Miss Mary 
Shanahan. The old Philip s homestead at Estelle and Auburn 
avenues was secured and the home opened on August 1, 1910. 

Lastly, there are persons so circumstanced that institutions 
cannot benefit them, and yet they deserve help and considera 
tion. To provide spiritual and temporal relief for the sick 


and indigent of this class, there was formed about the year 
1836, a Mary and Martha society, consisting of the charitable 
ladies of St. Peter s congregation, Cincinnati. These ladies 
contributed twelve and one-half cents monthly to a treasurer 
for the purposes of the society, but besides this, a visiting com 
mittee of eight was elected every month to seek out the dis 
tressed, to afford them present succour, and to report their 
condition to the society at the next meeting. 66 This society 
did excellent work for many years until its activities were taken 
over by the St. Vincent de Paul societies, which have been 
established in most of the parishes of the archdiocese. By 
means of these societies, much poverty and distress have been 
relieved where the recipients of charity have been often too 
constrained by worldly vanity or pride to beg for a helping 

In looking over this long array of charitable and social 
work, which begins with the cradle and ends with the grave, one 
cannot fail to be impressed by its magnitude as well as by the 
love which brought it into existence and still prompts its activi 
ties. It was with a view to determine that such charities be 
not abused that the present archbishop of Cincinnati established 
a bureau of Catholic charities at Cincinnati. The constitution 
of the bureau sets out its purpose as follows: "to organize, 
centralize, co-ordinate, perfect and supervise the various 
Catholic charitable societies and institutions, religious and lay, 
and societies doing incidental charity, and individuals interested 
in such work, within the archdiocese of Cincinnati; to promote, 
extend, harmonize and systematize Catholic charitable work; 
to approve and recommend legitimate charity; to discourage 
and prevent improper, useless and needless charitable work 
and to recommend and order that a charity devote its energies 
in new channels and to compel the proper observance of the 
laws of the state of Ohio." 67 The bureau was opened in 1916 
on West Ninth street. After several changes of location, it is 
now located at 125 East Ninth street. It is divided into five 
departments : children s department, relief department, central 
purchasing and book-keeping department, diagnostic clinic 
department, and the salvage department. 

66. Catholic Telegraph, VII, 38, January 11, 1837. 

67. Article II, Section I. 


The support of so many charitable institutions, of which 
scarcely one is self-supporting, has meant an immense drain 
upon the resources of the Catholic people of the archdiocese. 
Were it not for the alms, great and small, which have been so 
lovingly given, the good which these institutions have done, 
could not have been recorded in the Book of Life. These alms 
have come from every one, rich and poor, in thousands of 
dollars and in widows mites. God alone knows the number 
of persons and the amounts given to charitable purposes in the 
archdiocese. We cannot begin to tabulate either, the one or 
the other. Nor would we wish to do so if we could; for, often 
given by the right hand that the left might not know what was 
given, the alms were intended to win glory in heaven, and not 
on earth. We wish only to incarnate in three persons the 
various classes of persons who have contributed so generously 
to the cause, viz.: the religious in care of the institutions, and 
the men and women whose alms-deeds have rendered these 
institutions possible. For this purpose we choose to give a 
short sketch of Sister Anthony to represent the first, of Mrs. 
Sarah Peter, and of Mr. Reuben R. Springer, to represent the 
second and third. 

Sister Anthony O Connell was born in County Limerick, 
Ireland, and when a young girl was brought to the United 
States by her parents. At the age of twenty she entered the 
convent of the Sisters of Charity at Emmitsburg, on June 5, 
1835. Shortly thereafter she came to Cincinnati, and served 
in the St. Peter s orphan asylum until 1852, when she became 
associated with the boys orphan asylum, first on George street, 
then at Cumminsville. From that charge she passed to St. 
John s hospital; thence, in 1866, to its successor, the Good 
Samaritan; and in the fulness of her days, to the foundling 
asylum at Norwood. Nearly everybody knew Sister Anthony. 
She had volunteered to nurse the soldiers when a hurry call 
came after the battle of Pittsburgh Landing, and her work 
among the soldiers won for her their undying praise. From 
these men she received the title of The Angel of the Battle 
field, whilst others who knew her have christened her the 
Florence Nightingale of America. A life of long days filled 
with goodness came to an end with her death on December 8, 


1897. Her mortal remains were buried beside those of her 
sisters at Mount St. Joseph, Ohio. 

Mrs. Sarah Peter, the name by which she was best known at 
Cincinnati, was the eldest daughter of Thomas Worthington, 
one-time Senator of the United States and the first Governor 
of Ohio. Born at Chillicothe on May 10, 1800, she was but 
sixteen years of age when she was married on May 15, 1816, 
to Edward, the fourth son of Rufus King, of revolutionary 
fame. For fifteen years she lived with her husband at Chilli 
cothe, following the Episcopalian religion of her parents. 
In 1831, Mr. and Mrs. Edward King moved to Cincinnati with 
their family, and five years later Edward King died. Mrs. 
King was married again in 1844, this time to Mr. William 
Peter, the English Consul at Philadelphia, in which city she 
then lived for ten years. Mr. Peter died in 1853, leaving Mrs. 
Sarah Peter a widow once more. Before her husband s death, 
in 1851, she undertook her first trip to Europe, which carried 
her to Jerusalem, where she became deeply touched by the 
majestic ceremonies of the Catholic Church. Passing through 
Europe, she had the first seeds of faith watered by the charitable 
and social work which she witnessed in the Catholic Church. 
Upon her return to America, she made further inquiries into 
the Catholic Faith, and on a second visit to Rome in 1854, 
received instructions from the Abbe Mermillod of Geneva, later 
bishop of that city. She made her abjuration on the last Sun 
day of March, 1854, in the convent church of the Sisters of the 
Sacred Heart at Trinita di Monte. 

Returning to Cincinnati, she took up her residence at Third 
and Lytle streets, and there planned her future charitable 
work. She was the instrument that God used to bring to the 
archdiocese the Sisters of the Good Shepherd, the Sisters of 
Mercy, the Sisters of the Poor of St. Francis, the Little Sisters 
of the Poor, and the Passionist Fathers. She aided all of these 
financially in their various enterprises. Nor did she limit 
herself to Catholic endeavors. She was really the soul of the 
Ladies Academy of Art, which blossomed into the Art Museum 
in Eden Park, at Cincinnati. Speaking of her activities after 
1833, Mr. E. D. Mansfield says: "The activity, energy, and 
benevolence of her mind accomplished in the next forty years 
probably more of real work for the benefit of society, than 


any one person, and that work has made her widely known 
both at home and abroad." 68 

Mrs. Peter made six trips to Europe, where she was known in 
all circles, Pope Pius IX showing a tender interest in all her 
undertakings. After a long life replete with benefactions, she 
died on February 6, 1877. Her obsequies were held in St. 
Francis Xavier church, Archbishop Purcell himself preaching 
the sermon, and her body was laid to rest in a mortuary chapel 
in St. Joseph s cemetery, Price Hill. 69 

Reuben R. Springer was likewise born in the century year 
1800, in the month of November. His father was Charles 
Springer, a native of West Virginia, and his mother was Cath 
erine Runyan, of Princeton, N. J. After an education in the 
common schools, Reuben, at the age of thirteen, clerked under 
his father in the post-office, but after two years he became a 
clerk on a steamer running between Cincinnati and New 
Orleans. After twelve years of steam-boating he succeeded 
Henry Kilgour, whose daughter Jane he had married in 1830, as 
a member of the once-famous grocery house of Taylor & Co. 
For ten years he continued in the business, and was then com 
pelled to retire on account of poor health. By that time he had 
already amassed a fortune. In 1842, he became a convert to 
the Catholic Faith. He was a most ready and liberal bene 
factor to all of Cincinnati s institutions, Catholic as well 
as non-Catholic. His benefactions to Catholic institutions 
amounted to hundreds of thousands of dollars. For the estab 
lishment of Music Hall and the College of Music he gave 
$420,000. No account was ever kept of his private charities, 
though his intimate associates conjectured that these amounted 
to at least $75 a day or $30,000 a year. The Lord blessed 
him with a long life, which he knew how to beautify by good 
deeds for eternity, so that when the summons of death came 
to him on December 10, 1884, he was not found unprepared. 

In conclusion, we may refer to the Catholic cemeteries, 
which have been provided as hallowed depositories of the 
bodies which in life had served as temples of the Holy Ghost. 
Having taken care of her children from birth, through youth, 
maturity and old age, the Church has considered it her duty 

68. E. D. MANSFIELD, Personal Memories, 1803-1843, p. 264. 

69. MARGARET R. KING, Memoirs of the Life of Mrs. Sarah Peter, 2 vols., passim. 


also, in conformity with her doctrine of the resurrection of the 
body, to provide even the hallowed grave, where their mortal 
remains may repose. Nearly every village Catholic church 
has provided a cemetery for its departed members. Often the 
shadow of the cross on the church spire is cast upon the hun 
dreds of white crosses which dot the green sward about the 
church. The weary feet which trod the beaten path to the 
humble village church, now find rest at the spot where the 
prayers of the "saints" are wont to be wafted on high, and 
where the sprinkle of the hyssop has cast out the demon of 
darkness and his angels. 

Such a place was the first Catholic cemetery at Vine and 
Liberty streets in the city of Cincinnati. Such continued to be 
the use which that spot served even after the removal of the 
church in 1822 within the corporation limits. But it was to be 
replaced shortly, since Bishop Fenwick had, on April 30, 1828, 
purchased for $1,218.75 five (4.87) acres of land between the 
present Clark and Court, Linn and Cutter streets. 70 This 
cemetery became known as the Catherine Street Cemetery, 
Catherine being the former name of Cutter street. A cloud, 
however, rested upon the title, as Nicholas Goshorn had only 
a life interest in the property, which belonged to his wife, who 
for some reason or other failed to sign the deed of transfer. 
Trouble was occasioned thereby twenty years later; a lawsuit 
on the subject was decided against the bishop of Cincinnati in 
1849, and it was only after a law had been passed by the legis 
lature in 1857, for the validation of defective deeds with re 
troactive force, that the Supreme Court of Ohio settled the 
litigation by a decree on January 18, 1858, in favor of the 
archbishop of Cincinnati. 71 At the time of this last decree the 
property had long ceased to be used for cemetery purposes. 
In 1867, Archbishop Purcell sold the tract to Mr. John Bickett 
for about $125,000. 

To replace this cemetery, Archbishop Purcell, on August 
2, 1842, through his brother Edward, bought 19.22 acres of 
land on Price Hill. 72 On January 14, 1843, Edward Purcell 

70. Deed, Nicholas Goshorn to Edward Fenwick, recorded May 27, 1828, Book No. 28, 
pp. 423-24. 

71. Wahrheitsfreund, XXI, 359, January 21, 1858. 

72. Deed, William Terry to Edward Purcell, Hamilton County Recorder s Office, Book 
No. 85, p. 522. 


deeded one-half of this tract to Joseph Gohs, and Gohs in turn 
on April 14, 1843, deeded it for a German Catholic cemetery to 
the German Catholic Cemetery Society, which had been char 
tered on March 10, 1843. 73 Both cemeteries were called 
St. Joseph s cemetery and were consecrated on May 7, 1843. 74 

On January 14th, in this same year, the German Catholic 
Cemetery Society bought property in Fairmount, where St. 
Peter s cemetery was consecrated on the 25th of January by 
Bishop Purcell. Trustee difficulties caused changes in the 
name of the association from the German Catholic Cemetery 
Association of Cincinnati on March 10th, to the German 
Catholic Congregation of Cincinnati on December 30, 1843; 
back again to the former on March 12, 1844; and finally, 
to St. Peter s Cemetery Association on January 7, 1845. 
When the trustees became insubordinate and allowed burial 
of persons not in communion with the Church, despite the 
prohibition of the bishop, interdict was laid upon the cemetery 
on September 9, 1849. 75 The Courts, whither the trustees 
carried the case, decided against the trustees. The interdict 
upon the cemetery was never raised, but in 1882 the property 
was presented to the Sisters of the Poor of St. Francis, who 
built thereon the St. Francis hospital. 

When all the lots were sold in the St. Joseph cemetery, 
which had been purchased by Edward Purcell in 1842, Arch 
bishop Purcell bought 61.31 acres two miles west of the old 
site on Price Hill on November 22, 1853, and consecrated the 
greater portion of it on August 17, 1854. It, too, is known as 
St. Joseph s cemetery. 76 After the failure of 1878 the two 
cemeteries, the old and the new, became incorporated as the 
St. Joseph s Cemetery Association, August 7, 1880. 

In 1849, when the interdict was placed upon the St. Peter s 
German Catholic cemetery, German Catholics of the associa 
tion which owned also the St. Joseph cemetery on Price Hill, 
bought a new site on Carthage pike, St. Bernard. This ceme- 

73. Deeds, Edward Purcell to Joseph Gohs, Book 87, p. 281; Joseph Gohs to German 
Catholic Cemetery Society, Book 92, p. 350. 

74. Catholic Telegraph, May 13, 1843; Wahrheilsfreund, May 18, 1843. 

75. Wahrheitsfreund, XIII, 19; XIV, 246-47; Catholic Telegraph, XX, January 18, 

76. Deed, John Terry to J. B. Purcell, recorded in Book No. 192, p. 433. 


tery was consecrated on October 7, 1849, as St. John s ceme 
tery. 77 In 1873, the St. Mary s cemetery on Ross avenue, 
St. Bernard, not far removed from St. John s cemetery, was 
purchased and opened. Both of these cemeteries as well as 
that of St. Joseph, are under the management of the German 
Catholic Cemetery Society. The last Catholic cemetery in 
the city of Cincinnati, Calvary cemetery on Duck Creek road, 
was begun as the parochial cemetery of St. Francis de Sales 
church, Walnut Hills. 

77. Catholic Telegraph, October 11, 1849. 


ROM the study which we have made of the 
history of the diocese and archdiocese of Cin 
cinnati, we are enabled to draw up the follow 
ing resume. Coming into existence in 1821, 
amid surroundings which were very primitive, 
and dangers which were the results of nature s 
untoward development, the diocese of Cincinnati began its 
youthful days under the guiding strings of foreign charity. 
Its parochial development was slow, yet extensive, embracing 
the furthermost parts of the state of Ohio. Its members, 
settlers mostly from the eastern states, were few and their 
resources were scanty. Its period of youth, however, soon 
ripened into maturity. The advent of its second bishop 
brought to it indefatigable energy and literary ability, which 
were made to unfold unto the full development of parish life 
with schools and social activities. Multiplied by tens and 
hundreds and thousands, its earlier membership was molded 
into an amalgamation of the various branches of European 
immigrants. Guides for these poor, though none the less be 
loved, members were obtained from the countries represented, 
chiefly from France, Germany, Austria and Ireland. With the 
new needs came new establishments, academies, colleges, 
orphanages, hospitals, and new directors for these institutions, 
in the many regular communities which were invited to the 
diocese. That growth of the diocese in its maturity was 
wonderful; so wonderful, indeed, that twice had a division 
of its territory to be made; once in 1847, when the northern 
part of Ohio was severed from it, and a second time in 1868, 
when the southern part of Ohio suffered bisection. 

Restricted to its present boundaries, the diocese, or rather 
the archdiocese, since that honor had come to it in 1850, did 
not lose strength for a decade of years. Then suddenly a 
mortal blow was dealt it, and the giant at once grew pale. The 
hands which had been tending it, became feeble, and in 1880 
a third guide and director had to be summoned. It was a sick 
diocese which he inherited, and its sickness was of a most 



irritating kind. Patient, pains-taking, and enticing care was 
required to keep it in life at all. Such care it received. A new 
organization was effected; the old elements were gathered in 
and reassembled. So well was the work done that when 
twenty years had passed, new hopes began to be entertained. 
Then a fourth guide and director was provided. New life was 
infused. A period of steady convalescence ensued. The 
diocese began to develop where it had left off in 1878. New 
parishes began to be formed, new institutions established, 
better social relations and agencies engendered. A second 
spring appeared, in which the burgeoning branches gave evi 
dence of the new vigor which had been infused into the mighty 
oak of eighty summers. Gradually its leaves, too, began to 
unfold. The rains of sweet charity and the sunshine of God s 
blessing will cause them, no doubt, to cover the green earth 
abundantly. But into the future the historian may not peer. 
Knowing the past bounties of Divine Providence, he awaits 
with complacency the execution of the plans which that same 
Providence has designed for the archdiocese of Cincinnati. 




I. Deed of Jacob Dittoe to Edward Fenwick 321 

II. Deed of James Findlay to the Trustees of the Roman Catholic 

Congregation 322 

III. Decree of Erection of the Diocese of Cincinnati 323 

IV. Bull of Erection of the Diocese of Cincinnati 324 

V. Bull of Erection of the Archdiocese of Cincinnati 326 

VI. Parishes of Cincinnati Archdiocese according to Filiation 328 

VII. Churches in Cincinnati Archdiocese with Resident Pastors, 

1920 332 

VIII. Mission Churches in Cincinnati Archdiocese, 1920 344 

I X. Stations in Cincinnati Archdiocese, 1920 346 

X. Churches in Northern Ohio with Resident Pastors, 1847 346 

XI. Mission Churches in Northern Ohio, 1847 347 

XII. Stations in Northern Ohio, 1847 349 

XIII. Churches in Southeastern Ohio with Resident Pastors, 1868 .... 349 

XIV. Mission Churches in Southeastern Ohio, 1868 350 

XV. Stations in Southeastern Ohio, 1868 351 

XVI. Priests of Cincinnati Archdiocese 351 

Priests of Cincinnati Who Became Bishops 351 

Diocesan Priests: 1. Deceased 355 

2. Living 368 

Regular Priests: 1. Deceased 377 

2. Living . .389 



JACOB DITTOE This Indenture made this twenty-third day of 

TO May in the year of our Lord one thousand eight 

EDWARD FENWICK hundred and eighteen between Jacob Dittoe & 

Catharine, his wife, of the county of Perry and State 

of Ohio of the one part and the Rev d Edward Fenwick of St. Thomas col 
lege in Washington county in the state of Kentucky of the other part 
Witnesseth: that the said Jacob Dittoe & Catharine, his wife, for and in 
consideration of the friendship and confidence which they entertain for 
and in the said Edward Fenwick do by these presents alien, convey, release, 
assign, grant and confirm unto the said Reverend Edward Fenwick and his 
successors and by him and them to be owned, held and possessed, willed 
and remised forever, for the use and benefit of the Roman Catholic Church 
in the said county of Perry near Somerset, a certain tract, or parcel of land 
situate in the said county of Perry, known by being the west half of Section 
number twenty-three, Township number sixteen in Range number sixteen, 
be the same more or less. 

Together with all the improvements, profits, appurtenances, rents, 
issues and profits thereof and all the estate, right, title, interest, claim and 
demand of them the said Jacob Dittoe & Catharine, his wife, of, in and to 
the same. 

To have and to hold the lands aforesaid, so as aforesaid and for the uses 
of aforesaid unto the aforesaid Edward Fenwick and his successors, forever 
free and clear of all incumbrance whatever. 

Done or suffered to be done by them the said Jacob Dittoe & Catharine, 
his wife, In Witness Whereof they the said Jacob & Catharine have here 
unto set their hands and seals the day and year aforesaid. 

Signed and delivered JACOB DITTOE (Seal) 

in presence of us CATHARINE DITTOE (x her mark) (Seal) 


State of Ohio, Perry. SS: 

Before me, a Associate Judge in and for said county personally appeared 
the above signed grantors Jacob Dittoe & Catharine, his wife, and ac 
knowledged the foregoing instrument of writing to be their voluntary act 
and deed for the purposes therein expressed. The said Catharine having 
been examined separate and apart from her said husband touching her 
execution thereof, acknowledged that she signed and ensealed the same 



without fear or coercion of her husband and of her own free and voluntary 

In Testimony Whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and seal this 23rd 
day of May A. D. 1818. 


Received and recorded 23rd May, 1818. 

Vol. A. Page 22, Record of Deeds, Perry county, Ohio 

Attest: PETER DITTOE, Recorder. 


Reed and recorded May 23rd, 1821. 

This Indenture made and entered into this twentieth day of April, in 
the year of Our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and twenty-one, by and 
between James Findlay, of the city of Cincinnati in the county of Hamilton 
and state of Ohio and Jane Findlay, his wife, of the one part and Patrick 
Rielly, John Shorlock, Thomas Dugan, Edward Lynch and Michael Scott, 
Trustees, duly elected, and sworn into office to do and transact, represent 
and perform all things necessary for, to be done for and on account of the 
Roman Catholic Congregation Incorporated and known as Christ Church 
in the Northern Liberties of the city of Cincinnati which Incorporation 
has taken place and in all things has been in obedience to and conformable 
with a law of the state of Ohio passed on the fifth day of February in the 
year 1819, entitled an Act for Incorporation of Religious Societies, of the 
other part Witnesseth that the said James Findlay and Jane, his wife, for 
and in consideration of the sum of twelve hundred dollars, paid or secured 
to be paid to them by the said trustees bargained, sold, released, conveyed 
and confirmed and by these presents doth give, grant, bargain, sell, release, 
convey and confirm unto the said trustees for and on behalf of the said 
incorporated religious society their successors in office and assigns forever. 

All those two certain lots of ground numbers one and two as laid down 
and numbered on a plan of the Northern Liberties of the city of Cincinnati 
laid out and recorded by the said James Findlay in the records of Hamilton 
county in Book R, No. 2, p. 334, measuring on Vine street, one hundred and 
twenty feet eight inches, one hundred and twenty-six feet eight inches 
on Northern Row, eighty feet on New street and one hundred and twenty 
feet on the north side and binding thereon on a twelve feet alley as the an 
nexed map of said lots exhibits and sets out (N.B. : the platting of the map 
as on the original is here omitted as a reference has to the above page 334, 
Book R, No. 2, will shew the original map). 

And all the Estate right, title, interest, property, claim and demand of 
them the said James Findlay and Jane, his wife, of, in, to or over the same 
either in law or equity or otherwise howsoever. Together with all and 


singular the privileges and appurtenances to the same belonging or in any 
wise appertaining and the rents, issues and profits thereof. To have and 
to hold the said lots and premises with the appurtenances to the said trus 
tees aforesaid for the benefit of the said Christ Church to the only proper 
use, benefit and behoof of the said trustees their successors and assigns for 
the use and benefit of the said Christ Church forever. 

And the said James Findlay for himself and for his heirs, covenants and 
agrees to and with the said trustees their successors and assigns that he is 
lawfully seized of the herein granted premises and has good right to sell and 
convey the same in manner and form aforesaid. 

And also that he will warrant and forever defend the said lots and prem 
ises with their appurtenances unto the said trustees their successors and 
assigns from and against the lawful claims and demands thereon of all 
manner of persons whatsoever they may be. 

In Witness Whereof the said James Findlay and Jane, his wife, have 
hereunto set their hands and seals the day and year first above written. 

Sealed and delivered JAMES FINDLAY (Seal) 

in the presence of us JANE FINDLAY (Seal) 


The State of Ohio 
Hamilton County. SS: 

Before me the subscriber, one of the associate Judges of said county, 
personally came the within named James Findlay, together with Jane, his 
wife, who being examined separate and apart from her said husband as the 
Statute in such case provides and they have severally acknowledged the 
within Indenture to be their voluntary act and Deed for the only use and 
purpose therein mentioned. 

Given under my hand and seal at Cincinnati this nineteenth day of 
May, 1821. 

PETER BELL, A.J. (Seal) 


Cum diu Regionibus, quae Kentuckyo in foederatis Americae Provin- 
ciis conterminae sunt, ita Catholicorum numerus, Divina favente gratia., 
sit auctus, ut Bardensis Episcopus, cujus administrationi Terrae illae 
commissae fuerant, turn locorum distantia, turn operariorum paucitate 
earum Curam jam gerere nequeat, Sacra Congregatio, referente R. P. D. 
Carolo Maria Pedicini Secretario, ex Archiepiscopi Baltimorensis, aliorum- 
que Episcoporum consilio, censuit ac decrevit, supplicandum esse SSmo pro 


erectione Novae Episcopalis Ecclesiae in Civitate Cincinnati, quae totam 
Ohio Provinciam complectatur, ac pro electione R. P. Eduardi Fenwick 
Ordinis Praedicatorum, viri pietate, prudentia, ac studio maxime com- 
mendati, in novum Cincinnatensem Episcopum cum facultatibus turn 
ordinariis, turn extraordinariis, quae ceteris eorumdem Provinciarum 
Episcopis concedi solent, et cum spirituali adjacentium Provinciarum 
Michigan, et Northwest administratione cum iisdem facultatibus, donee 
aliter per Sanctam Sedem provideatur. 

Hanc autem S. Congnis sententiam SSmo Dno Nro Pio VII, relatam 
in Audientia habita per eumdem D. Secretarium Die 27 Maii 1821, Sanc- 
titas Sua in omnibus approbavit, Litterasque Apostolicas expediri jussit. 

Datum Romie ex aedibus dictae S. Congnis Die 2 Junii 1821. 

F. CARD. FONTANA, Praefectus 
C. M. PEDICINI, Secnus 

(Archives of the Secretary of Briefs, vol. 4670, Secretary of State, Vatican, 


JUNE 19, 1821 

Dilecto Filio Eduardo Fenwick Fratrum Ordinis Praedicatorum Pro- 
fessori in novum Episcopum Cincinnatensis Ecclesiae electo 


Dilecte Fili Salutem et Apostolicam Benedictionem. 

Inter multiplices, gravissimasque Apostolatus Nostri curas non exiguam 
tenet partem ea, quae Dioecesium per universum orbem distributarum 
respicit statum; siquidem supremae potestatis judiciique nostri est illas 
moderari, earumque limites constituere vel immutare, prout habita tem- 
porum ac circumstantiarum ratione, Fidelium utilitate conducere dignosci- 
mus. Quum autem, sicut accepimus in Regionibus, quae Kentuckyo in 
foederatis Americae Provinciis conterminae sunt, ita Catholicorum numerus, 
Divina favente gratia, sit auctus, ut Bardensis Episcopus, cujus administra- 
tioni Terrae illae commissae fuerant, turn locorum distantia, turn operari- 
orum paucitate, earum curam jam gerere nequeat; Nos de Venerabilium 
Fratrum Nostrorum S. R. E. Cardinalium negociis Propagandae Fidei 
praepositorum consilio, hujusmodi necessitatibus prospicere cupientes 
statuimus atque decrevimus, ut nova Episcopalis Ecclesia in Civitate Cin 
cinnati, quae totam Ohio provinciam complectatur, erigeretur, prout 
Auctoritate Apostolica, tenore praesentium, in novam Episcopalem Ec- 
clesiam Cincinnatensem cum omnibus juribus et praerogativis juxta sacros 
canones ac facultatibus turn ordinariis, turn extraordinariis Episcopis pro 
tempore concedendis, quae caeteris earumdem Provinciarum Episcopis 
concedi solent, erigimus. Nos quoque ad praedictae novae Ecclesiae sic 


erectae provisionem celerem atque felicem, in qua nullus, praeter Nos, se 
intromittere potest, paterno ac sollicito studio intendentes, post delibera- 
tionem, quam de praeficiendo eidem novae Ecclesiae personam utilem ac 
fructuosam cum praedictis Venerabilibus Fratribus Nostris S. R. E. Car- 
dinalibus negociis Propagandae Fidei praepositis habuimus diligentem, 
demum at Te, qui ex legitimo matrimonio procreatus, et in aetate etiam 
legitima constitutus existis cujusque apud Nos de vitae munditia, morum- 
que honestate, deque pietate, studio, atque doctrina ac Christianae Religi- 
onis, et Catholicae Fidei zelo, ac spiritualium providentia, et temporalium 
circumspectione, fide digna testimonia perhibentur, oculos mentis Nostrae 
direximus, quibus omnibus debita ratione pensatis, Te a quibusvis excom- 
municationis, suspensionis et interdict!, aliisque ecclesiasticis sententiis, 
censuris et poenis a jure, vel ab homine quavis occasione, vel causa latis, 
ad effectum praesentium dumtaxat consequendum harum serie absolventes, 
et absolutum fore censentes, eamdem novam Episcopalem Ecclesiam Cin- 
cinnatensem de persona tua Nobis, et nominatis Cardinalibus ob tuorum 
exigentiam meritorum accepta, de eorumdem Fratrum consilio, auctoritate 
et tenore praefatis providemus, Teque illi in Episcopum cum facultatibus 
turn ordinariis turn extraordinariis, quae caeteris earumdem Provinciarum 
Episcopis concedi solent, praeficimus et Pastorem, curam, regimen et 
administrationem ipsius Ecclesiae Cincinnatensis tibi in spiritualibus et 
temporalibus plenarie committendo, Teque pariter adjacentium Pro 
vinciarum Michigan, et Northwest administratorem in spiritualibus, cum 
iisdem facultatibus donee aliter per hanc S. Sedem provideatur, deputando; 
in Illo, qui dat gratiam et largitur dona, confisi, ut, dirigente Domino actus 
tuos, praedicta Ecclesia Cincinnatensis, et administratio memorata earum 
dem Provinciarum, per tuae circumspectionis industriam et studium, utiliter 
et prospere dirigentur; grataque in ipsis spiritualibus et temporalibus 
incrementa suscipient. Jugum igitur Domini tuis impositum humeris 
prompta devotione animi accipiens, curam et administrationem praedictas 
ita studeas fideliter, prudenterque exercere, ut Ecclesia Cincinnatensis 
gaudeat se provide gubernatori, et fructuoso administratori esse commis- 
sam, Tuque, praeter aeternae retributionis praemium, Nostrum quoque, 
et Sedis Apostolicae uberius exinde consequi merearis benedictionem et 
gratiam. Ceterum ad ea, quae in tuae cedere possunt commoditatis 
augmentum favorabiliter respicientes, Tibi, ut a quocumque, quern tu 
malueris, Catholico Antistite Sanctae Nostrae Sedis gratiam et communi- 
onem habente, accitis, et in hoc ei assistentibus duobus aliis Episcopis, vel 
quatenus hi commode reperiri non poterunt, duobus eorum loco Presbyteris 
saecularibus, seu cujuscumque Ordinis et Instituti Regularibus, similem 
praedictae hujus Sedis gratiam et communionem habentibus, munus con- 
secrationis recipere libere et licite possis ac valeas, ac eidem Antistiti, ut 
receptis a te, prius Catholicae Fidei professione, juxta articulos pridem a 
Sancta Sede Nostra propositos, ac Nostro, et Romanae Ecclesiae nomina 
fidelitatis debitae solito juramento, praedictum munus tibi Auctoritate 
Nostra impendere licite valeat, eadem Auctoritate Nostra plenam et 
liberam harum serie tribuimus facultatem. Volumus autem, et eadem 
Auctoritate praecipimus, atque decernimus, quod nisi receptis a Te per 


dictum Antistitem juramento, et Professione Fidei hujusmodi, ipse Antistes 
Consecrationis munus tibi impendere, tuque illud suscipere praesumpseritis, 
idem Antistes a Pontificalis officii exercitio, et tarn ipse, quam tu, a regimine, 
et administratione Ecclesiarum vestrarum suspensi sitis eo ipso. Non 
obstantibus Apostolicis, ac in Universalibus Provincialibusque et Synodali- 
bus Conciliis editis generalibus, vel specialibus Constitutionibus et Ordinati- 
onibus caeterisque etiam speciali ac expressa mentione seu derogatione 
dignis contrariis quibuscumque. 

Datum Romae apud Sanctam Mariam Majorem sub annulo Piscatoris 
die 19 Junii 1821 Pontificatus Nostri A 22. 


(Vatican, Secretary of State, Archives of the Secretary of Briefs, vol. 4670.) 


JULY 19, 1850 


Ad perpetuam rei memoriam. In Apostolicae Sedis fastigio, Deo sic 
volente, constitutis, deque Catholicae Religionis incremento sollicitis illud 
Nobis accidit perjucundum ut novas per Catholicum Orbem Metropoliticas 
Sedes pro re ac tempore constituamus. Jamvero quum Archiepiscopus 
Baltimorensis, et Episcopi ex Concilio VII Provinciali anno superior! habito 
Nobis supplicandum curaverint, ut pro aucto Catholicorum, et Episcoporum 
numero in foederatis Americae Septentrionalis Statibus Episcopalem Sedem 
Cincinnatensem in Archiepiscopalem erigamus, quae Suffraganeas habeat 
Episcopales Ecclesias Ludovicopolitanam, Detroitensem, Vincennensem, 
et Clevelandensem, Nos de consilio VV. FF. NN. S. R. E. Cardinalium 
Propagandae Fidei praepositorum porrectis hujusmodi precibus obsecun- 
dandum censuimus. Itaque motu proprio, certa scientia, ac matura deli- 
beratione Nostra, deque Apostolicae Auctoritatis plenitudine praedictam 
Episcopalem Ecclesiam Cincinnatensem in Archiepiscopalem erigimus, et 
instituimus cum omnibus et singulis facultatibus, juribus, praerogativis, 
quae Sedium Archiepiscopalium propriae sunt. Eidem porro Ecclesiae 
Cincinnatensi in Archiepiscopalem sic erectae Suffraganeas esse volumus, 
ac decernimus Episcopales Sedes Ludovicopolitanam, Detroitensem, 
Vincennensem, et Clevelandensem praevia alterius cujusque vinculi Metro- 
politici solutione, a quo vinculo dictas Episcopales Ecclesias Auctoritate 
Nostra Apostolica dissolvimus ac solutas declaramus. Porro hodierno 
Antistiti Cincinnatensi, ejusque in posterum Successoribus omnia et singula 
jura, facultates, privilegia concedimus, atque attribuimus, quae Metro 
politan! Antistitis propTia sunt. Decernentes has Litteras firmas, validas, 
et efficaces esse, et fore, suosque plenarios, et integros effectus sortiri ac 
obtinere, iisque ad quos spectat, et spectabit hoc, futurisque temporibus 


lenissime suffragari, sicque in praemissis per quoscumque Sudices Ordinaries, 
et extraordinarios etiam S. R. E. Cardinales, sublata eis, et eorum cuilibet 
quavis aliter judicandi, et interpretandi facultate judicari ac definiri debere, 
ac irritum et inane quidquid secus super his a quoquam quavis Auctoritate 
scienter vel ignoranter contigerit attentari. Non obstantibus Nostra et 
Cancellariae Apostolicae Regula de jure quaesito non tollendo, et quatenus 
opus est, fel. rec. Benedicti XIV Praed 18 Nostri super Div e Mat. aliisque 
Apostolicis, ac in Universalibus, Provincialibusque, et Synodalibus Con- 
ciliis editis generalibus, vel specialibus Constitutionibus, et Ordinationibus 
necnon legis fundationis dictae Ecclesiae Cincinnatensis, etiam juramento, 
confirmatione Apostolica, vel alia quavis firmitate roboratis statutis, et 
consuetudinibus ceterisque contrariis quibuscumque. Datum Romae 
apud S. Petrum sub Annulo Piscatoris die XIX Julii Anno MDCCCL 
Pontificatus Nostri Anno Quinto. 


A. PICCHIONI, Substitutus 

(Original in Notre Dame Archives). 




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College Corner Butler Oxford 

Dunkirk Hardin La Rue 

Forest Hardin La Rue 

Richwood Union La Rue 

Somerville. . . . Butler . . Oxford 

PASTORS, 1847* 

Town County Name of Church Organized 

Canton Stark St. John Baptist 1823 

Canton Stark St. Peter 1845 

Cleveland Cuyahoga . . St. Mary . . 1835 

Delphos Allen St. John Evangelist 1844 

Doylestown Wayne St. Peter 1827 

Dungannon Columbiana .St. Paul 1817(?) 

Glandorf Putnam St. John Baptist 1834 

Louisville Stark St. Louis 1826 

Massillon Stark St. Mary 1839 

New Riegel Seneca St. Boniface 1833 

Sandusky Erie Holy Angels 1834 

Thompson Seneca St. Michael 1834 

Toledo Lucas St. Francisjde Sales 1841 

*HOUCK, The Church in Northern Ohio, 1887. 











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Archbold Fulton Toledo 

Bucyrus Crawford Thompson 

Cuyahoga Falls Summit . . Doylestown 

Delaware Bend Defiance Toledo 

Elyria Lorain Cleveland 

Findlay Hancock New Riegel 

Fostoria Seneca New Riegel 

Hicksville Defiance Toledo 

Junction Paulding Toledo 

Lima Allen Delphos and Glandorf 

Mansfield Richland Thompson 

Marblehead Erie Sandusky 

Marshallville (Bristol) Wayne Doylestown 

Napoleon Henry Toledo 

Oak Harbor Ottawa Toledo 

Ottoville Putnam Glandorf 

Painesville Lake Cleveland 

Port Clinton Ottawa Sandusky 

Ravenna Portage Cleveland and Doylestown 

Six-Mile Woods Lucas Toledo 

South Thompson Geauga Cleveland 

Summitville Columbiana Dungannon 

Toussaint Ottawa Sandusky 

Vermillion Erie Cleveland 

Wellsville Columbiana Dungannon 

Woodville Wood Toledo 

Wooster Wayne Massillon 

Youngstown Mahoning Doylestown 

PASTORS, 1868 f 

Town County Name of Church Organized 

Bellaire Belmont St. John 1854 

Bremen Fairfield Sacred Heart 1855 

Canal Dover Tuscarawas St. Joseph (St. Peter). . 1840 

Chapel Hill Perry St. Francis 1840 

Circleville Pickaway St. Joseph 1848 

Columbus Franklin Holy Cross 1837 

Columbus Franklin St. Mary 1863 

*HOUCK, The Church in Northern Ohio, 1887. 

1 Diocese of Columbus, The History of Fifty Years, 1868-1918. 









Good Hope 

Jackson Township. 




Lick Run 



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Mt. Vernon 








Union Township . . 




Zanesville . . 

County Name of Church Organized 

.Franklin St. Patrick 1851 

.Coshocton St. George 1843 

.Delaware St. Mary 1838 

.Noble Immac. Con. B. V. M..1853 

. Hocking Our Lady Good Hope . 1853 

.Perry St. Patrick 1827 

. Lawrence St. Joseph 1863 

. Lawrence St. Lawrence 1850 

.Fairfield St. Mary 1819 

.Scioto St. Peter 1851 

.Hocking St. John 1840 

.Washington St. Mary 1838 

. Holmes St. Genevieve 1842 

. Knox St. Vincent de Paul. . . 1842 

. Licking St. Francis de Sales. . . 1842 

Meigs Sacred Heart 1848 

.Scioto Holy Redeemer 1853 

Scioto Nativity 1842 

. Perry Holy Trinity 1825 

Perry St. Joseph 1818 

Jefferson St. Peter 1830 

Washington St. John 1852 

Vinton St. Mary 1847 

Vinton St. Sylvester 1864 

Muskingum St. Nicholas 1842 

Muskingum St. Thomas. . . . 1820 


Deavertown . . 
Fox Settlement 

Morgan . . . 
. Muskingum 
Coshocton. . 
Morgan . . . 
Moreran . 

Name of Church ( 

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. 1842 Logan 
.1824. .. Mt. Vernon 
.1824. . .Chapel Hill 
. 1843. . . . Coshocton 

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.St. Barnabas 
. St. Matthew 
St. Patrick 

. St. Louis 
.St. Elizabeth 
.St. John 
. St. Francis Xavier 
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. 1850. 

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. Canal Dover 

Little Scioto . . 

Meigs Creek . . . 
Pond Creek . . . 
Stockoort . . 

. Holy Trinity 

1855. . 

. Portsmouth 

. St. Tames . 




Town County Name of Church 

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South Fork . . . Perry St. Pius 

Wills Creek Coshocton. . .St. Anne . . 

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. Somerset 


Town County 

Archer Settlement Monroe 

Cardington Morrow 

. Monroe 
. Franklin 

Doherty Settlement 


Hanging Rock 


Long Bottom 

Monroe Furnace 

Mattingly Settlement Washington 

Pine Grove 





Attended From 





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. Jackson Zaleski 

. Meigs Pomeroy 

. Jackson Lick Run 


Lawrence Ironton 

Meigs Pomeroy 

Muskingum Zanesville 

Franklin Columbus 

Franklin . . Columbus 


Priests of Cincinnati Who Became Bishops 

"It has been the constant aim of the First Pastor of this Diocese, dis 
regarding the calculations and suggestions of economy, to endow it with 
learned and holy priests. How far he has succeeded may be seen in the 
numerous episcopal sees whose illustrious prelates have been selected from 
our clergy, and their many successors who continue to labor with us." 
(Extract from Appeal for seminary by Archbishop Purcell, May 10, 1863, 
in Catholic Telegraph, xxxii, p. 156, May 13, 1863.) 

MoELLER, MOST REV. HENRY, D.D. ; born at Cincinnati, Ohio, Decem 
ber 11, 1849; ordained June 10, 1876, at Rome; in the diocese since ordi 
nation; consecrated Bishop of Columbus August 25, 1900, at Cincinnati; 
promoted Archbishop of Areopolis and Coadjutor to Cincinnati, April 27, 
1903; succeeded to Cincinnati, October 31, 1904. 

Spain, July 13, 1814; ordained March 27, 1837, at Viterbo, Italy; in the 
diocese since 1840; elected Bishop of Monterey, Cal., May 31, 1850; con 
secrated June 30, 1850, at Rome; promoted to Archbishop of San Fran 
cisco, July 23, 1853; died April 14, 1888, Valencia, Spain. 


GRACE, MOST REV. THOMAS LANGDON, O.P., D.D.; born at Charles 
ton, South Carolina, November 16, 1814; ordained December 21, 1839, 
at Rome; in the diocese since 1844; consecrated Bishop of St. Paul, 
July 24, 1859, at St. Louis, Mo.; promoted titular Archbishop of Sicenia, 
September 24, 1889; died February 22, 1897, at St. Paul, Minn. 

HEISS, MOST REV. MICHAEL, D.D.; born at Phahldorf, Bavaria, 
April 12, 1818; ordained October 18, 1840, at Nymphenburg, Bavaria; 
in the diocese since 1844; consecrated Bishop of LaCrosse, Wis., Septem 
ber 6, 1868, at Milwaukee; preconised Archbishop of Adrianople, i.p.i., 
and Coadjutor of Milwaukee, March 14, 1880; became Archbishop of Mil 
waukee, September 7, 1881; died March 26, 1890, at LaCrosse, Wis.; 
buried at St. Francis Seminary, Wis. 

HENNI, MOST REV. JOHN MARTIN, D.D.; born at Misanenga, parish of 
Obersaxen, Switzerland, June 15, 1805; ordained February 2, 1829, at 
Cincinnati; in the diocese since ordination; consecrated Bishop of Mil 
waukee, March 19, 1844, at Cincinnati, Ohio; promoted Archbishop of 
Milwaukee, June 3, 1875; died September 7, 1881, at Milwaukee; buried 
at Milwaukee, Wis. 

LAMY, MOST REV. JOHN BAPTIST, D.D.; born at Lempdes, France, 
October 11, 1814; ordained December 22, 1838, at Clermont, France; 
in the diocese since 1839; consecrated Bishop of Agathon, i.p.i., and Vicar- 
Apostolic of New Mexico, November 24, 1850, at Cincinnati, Ohio; made 
Bishop of Sante Fe, July 29, 1853; promoted Archbishop of Sante Fe, 1875 ; 
died February 13, 1888, at Sante Fe. 

WOOD, MOST REV. JAMES FREDERIC, D.D.; born at Philadelphia, Pa., 
April 27, 1813; ordained March 25, 1844, at Rome; in the diocese since 
ordination; consecrated Bishop of Antigone, i.p.i., and Coadjutor of Phila 
delphia, April 26, 1857, at Cincinnati; succeeded as Bishop of Philadelphia, 
January 5, 1860; promoted Archbishop, June 17, 1875; died June 20, 1883, 
at Philadelphia, Pa. 

BARAGA, RT. REV. FREDERIC, D.D.; born at Dobernic, Illyria, June 
29, 1797; ordained September 21, 1823, at Laibach; in the diocese since 
1831 ; consecrated Bishop of Amyzonia, i.p.i., and Vicar-Apostolic of Upper 
Michigan, November 1, 1853, at Cincinnati, Ohio; made Bishop of Sault 
Ste. Marie, January 9, 1857; died January 19, 1868, at Marquette, Mich.; 
buried at Marquette, Mich. 

BORGESS, RT. REV. CASPAR HENRY, D.D.; born at Adrup, Oldenburg, 
Germany, August 1, 1826; ordained December 10, 1848, at Cincinnati; 
in the diocese since ordination; consecrated Bishop of Calydon, i.p.i., 
and administrator of Detroit, April 24, 1870, at Cincinnati; became Bishop 
of Detroit, December 27, 1871; died May 3, 1890, at Kalamazoo, Mich. 

BYRNE, RT. REV. THOMAS SEBASTIAN, D.D.; born at Hamilton, Ohio, 
July 29, 1841; ordained May 22, 1869, at Cincinnati; in the diocese since 
ordination; consecrated Bishop of Nashville, July 25, 1894, at Nashville. 

CARRELL, RT. REV. GEORGE ALOYSIUS, D.D.; born at Philadelphia, 
Pa., June 13, 1803; ordained December 20, 1827, at Philadelphia; in the 
diocese since 1847; entered the Society of Jesus, August 19, 1835; conse- 


crated Bishop of Covington, November 1, 1853, at Cincinnati; died Sep 
tember 25, 1868, at Covington, Ky.; buried at Covington, Ky., (St. Mary 
Cemetery) . 

DURIER, RR. REV. ANTHONY, D.D.; born at St. Bonnet Desquarts, 
Loire, France, August 8, 1832; ordained October 28, 1856, at Cincinnati; 
in the diocese since ordination; consecrated Bishop of Natchitoches, La., 
May 19, 1885, at New Orleans; died February 28, 1904, at New Orleans, La. 

Stein, Ohio, September 7, 1837; ordained September 4, 1859, at Cincinnati; 
in the diocese since ordination; consecrated Bishop of Fort Wayne, Ind., 
April 14, 1872, at Cincinnati; died January 23, 1893, at Fort Wayne, Ind.; 
buried at Fort Wayne, Ind. 

FITZGERALD, RT. REV. EDWARD, D.D.; born at Limerick, Ireland, 
October 26, 1833; ordained August 22, 1857, at Cincinnati; in the diocese 
since ordination; consecrated Bishop of Little Rock, Arkansas, February 3, 
1867, at Columbus, Ohio; died February 21, 1907, at Hot Springs, Ark.; 
buried at Little Rock, Ark. 

GILMOUR, RT. REV. RICHARD, D.D.; born at Glasgow, Scotland, 
September 28, 1824; ordained August 30, 1852, at Cincinnati; in the 
diocese since ordination; consejcrated Bishop of Cleveland, April 14, 1872, 
at Cincinnati; died April 13, 1891, at St. Augustine, Florida; buried at 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

DE GOESBRIAND, RT. REV. Louis M.J., D.D.; born at St. Urbain, 
Finisterre, France, August 4, 1816; ordained July 13, 1840, at Paris; in 
the diocese since 1840; consecrated Bishop of Burlington, Vermont, 
October 30, 1853, at New York; died November 3, 1899, at Burlington, Vt. 

HYNES, RT. REV. JOHN THOMAS, O.P., D.D.; born in Ireland; or 
dained in 1822; in the diocese since 1822; appointed titular Bishop of 
Leros and Zephalonia in 1838; appointed Vicar- Apostolic of British 
Guiana, in 1843; died February, 1869. 

JUNCKER, RT. REV. HENRY DAMIAN, D.D.; born at Fenetrange, 
Lorraine, August 22, 1809; ordained March 16, 1834, at Cincinnati; in 
the diocese since ordination; consecrated Bishop of Alton, April 26, 1857, 
at Cincinnati, Ohio; died October 2, 1868, at Alton, 111.; buried at Alton, 

LUERS, RT. REV. JOHN HENRY, D.D.; born at Luetten, Oldenburg, 
Germany, September 29, 1819; ordained November 11, 1846, at Cincin 
nati, Ohio; in the diocese since ordination; consecrated Bishop of Fort 
Wayne, January 10, 1858, at Cincinnati, Ohio; died June 29, 1871, at 
Cleveland, Ohio; buried at Fort Wayne, Ind. 

France, August 11, 1812; ordained December 21, 1836, at Clermont; 
in the diocese since 1839; consecrated Bishop of Epiphania, i.p.i., and 
Vicar- Apostolic of Colorado and Utah, August 16, 1868, at Cincinnati, 
Ohio; promoted Bishop of Denver in 1887; died July 10, 1889, at Denver, 
Col.; buried at Denver, Col. 

MILES, RT. REV. RICHARD Pius, O.P., D.D.; born in Prince George 
County, Maryland, May 17, 1791; ordained September 15, 1860, at St. 


Rose, Ky.; in the diocese since 1828; consecrated Bishop of Nashville, 
September 16, 1838, at St. Rose, Ky.; died February 21, 1860, at Nash 
ville; buried at Nashville, Tenn. 

Prachatitz, Bohemia, March 28, 1811; ordained June 25, 1836, at New 
York City; in the diocese since 1841; entered the C.SS.R. January 16, 
1842; consecrated Bishop of Philadelphia, March 28, 1852, at Balti 
more; died January 5, 1860, at Philadelphia; buried at Philadelphia; 
pronounced Venerable December 15, 1896. 

QUINLAN, RT. REV. JOHN, D.D.; born at Cloyne, County Cork, Ire 
land, October 19, 1826; ordained August 30, 1852, at Cincinnati; in the 
diocese since ordination; consecrated Bishop of Mobile, December 4, 1859, 
at New Orleans, La.; died March 9, 1883. 

RAPPE, RT. REV. Louis AMADEUS, D.D.; born at Andrehem, Pas de 
Calais, St. Omer, France, February 2, 1801; ordained March 14, 1829, at 
Arras; in the diocese since 1840; consecrated Bishop of Cleveland, October 
10, 1847, at Cincinnati; died September 7, 1877, at St. Albans, Vermont; 
buried at Cleveland, Ohio. 

RE;SE;, RT. REV. FREDERIC, D.D.; born at Vienenburg, Germany, 
February 6, 1791; ordained 1822, at Rome; in the diocese since 1824; 
consecrated Bishop of Detroit, October 6, 1833, at Cincinnati; died Decem 
ber 30, 1871, at Hildesheim, Germany; buried at Hildesheim, Germany. 

RICHTER, RT. REV. HENRY JOSEPH, D.D.; born at Neuenkirchen, 
Germany, April 9, 1838; ordained June 10, 1865, at Rome; in the diocese 
since ordination; consecrated Bishop of Grand Rapids, April 22, 1883, at 
Grand Rapids; died December 26, 1916, at Grand Rapids, Mich.; buried 
at Lima, Ohio. 

Ohio, February 5, 1827; ordained June 5, 1853, at Rome; in the diocese 
since ordination; consecrated titular Bishop of Pompeiopolis and auxiliary 
to Cincinnati, March 25, 1862, at Cincinnati; transferred to Columbus, 
May 3, 1868; died October 31, 1878, at Columbus, Ohio; buried at 
Columbus, Ohio. 

TOEBBE, RT. REV. AUGUST MARY, D.D.; born at Meppen, Hanover, 
Germany, January 15, 1829; ordained September 14, 1854, at Cincinnati; 
in the diocese since ordination; consecrated Bishop of Covington, January 
9, 1870, at Cincinnati; died May 2, 1884, at Covington, Ky.; buried at 
Covington, Ky. 

WHELAN, RT. REV. JAMES, O.P., D.D.; born at Kilkenny, Ireland, 
June 8, 1823; ordained August 2, 1843, at Somerset, Ohio; in the diocese 
since ordination; consecrated Bishop of Marcopolis and Coadjutor to 
Nashville, May 8, 1859, at St. Louis; succeeded to the see of Nashville, 
February 21, 1860; died February 18, 1878, Zanesville, Ohio. 

YOUNG, RT. REV. JosuE MOODY MARIE, D.D.; born at Shapleigh, 
Maine, October 29, 1808; ordained March 10, 1838, at Cincinnati; in the 
diocese since ordination; consecrated Bishop of Erie, Pa., April 23, 1854, 
at Cincinnati; died September 18, 1866, at Erie, Pa.; buried at Erie, Pa. 




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. .Chaplain Our Lady s Summit, Cinci 
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. .Ass. St. Boniface s, Piqua, O 
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. .Sacred Heart, Reading, O 
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. .St. Monica s, Marshfield, Oregon . . . 

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. .West Jefferson, O 
.Loughinisland, Ireland 
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The following list contains the names and a brief note of identification 
of priests who labored in the archdiocese, but of whom, for one reason or 
another, the desired information could not be obtained: 

Ackley, Thomas J. : at London, Ohio, 1872-73. 

Arnold, J. Anthony : at Pomeroy, 1848. 

Bakowski or Bukowski, Adalbert: at St. Stanislaus, Cincinnati, Ohio, 
November, 1878. 

Baumgartner, John B.: at Arnheim and Stonelick, 1849. 

Becker, Anthony: at Harrison, Ohio, 1864-67. 

Bellamy, Jean: in Michigan, 1824-27; 011 China missions, 1828. 

Berthaud, F. : native of France; on missions of New Orleans 7 years; 
at Mount St. Mary Seminary, 1864; at Napoleon, Salt Creek, Ohio, 

Bliesz, Adam: Hungarian Church, Dayton, Ohio, 1908. 

Bojanowski, Stanislaus: Nazareth, Ohio, 1853. 

Brand, Joseph: Minster, Ohio, April to November, 1835. 

Brisard, Cyril: came from Chicago; at Russia, Ohio, 1859-67; in New 
Brunswick, Nova Scotia, 1867. 

Brogard, Joseph N.: Chapel Hill, Ohio, 1862; Delaware, Ohio, 1863. 

Brunner, George: at Immaculate Conception, Mt. Adams, Cincinnati, 
Ohio, 1861. 

Calderini, J. C.: Cincinnati, 1865. 

Chatenay, Spirit: Reading, 1861 ; Chaplain Betts St. Hospital, 1861. 

Cogan, Daniel J.: Springfield, Ohio, 1863-64; left for Arkansas, Janu 
ary 23, 1864. 

Convers, P. Matthew: Frenchtown, Ohio, 1852-56. 

D Arcy, William: exeat from Covington, June 1, 1865; at Sidney, Ohio, 
June, 1865. 

Dejean, Peter John: native of France; came to diocese 1824; worked in 
Michigan; returned to France, 1831. 

Frere or Faure, T.: Nazareth, Ohio, attending Frenchtown, 1858. 

Guy, J. M.: Calmoutier, 1862-64; returned to France, 1864. 

Haberthuer, Peter: exeat from Basic, September 3, 1856; stationed at 
Egypt, Ohio, 1856. 

Hardy, Richard B.: Marietta, Ohio, 1856-57. 

Hartlaub, Peter: Covington, Ky., 1849. 

Herman, Apollinaris: native of France; ordained in Kentucky, 1825 or 
1826 or 1827; sent to Michigan by Bishop Fenwick; left for Mar 
tinique, 1827. 

Hoffman, Francis de Sales: native of France; exeat from Metz, 1828; 
came to Cincinnati, 1836; at Canton, Ohio; left 1837. 


Horan, J.: Assumption Church, Cincinnati, 1887. 

Huggard, J. J.: came to Cincinnati November, 1889; stationed at Vera 

Cruz, Ohio; returned to England, 1892. 
Joyce: at Newark, Ohio, 1857. 

Kelleher, Robert: Dayton, Ohio, November, 1860; Zaleski, 1865; went 
to Wheeling, West Virginia, 1866. 

Kertsen, George Stanislaus: came to Cincinnati, 1865; at Zaleski, 1865- 
left 1866. 

Kirner, Ae., C.M. : at Cathedral, Cincinnati, 1868. 

Kornbrust, J.: originally from Treves, Germany; stationed at St. Augus 
tine s, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1906-08. 

Korphage, H.: at St. Augustine s, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1861. 

Kovacs, Alexander, at Holy Name, Dayton, Ohio. 

Kraph, Theophilus: Pomeroy, Ohio, 1849. 

Kristoffey, Rt. Rev. Julius: native of Hungary; at Mount St. Mary 
Seminary, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1872. 

Kuepfer, Lawrence: from Hermann, Mo.; at St. Mary s, Cincinnati, Ohio, 
1851; at Corpus Christi, Newport, Ky., 1851-52. 

Kuetter, Edward: St. Paul s, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1901; St. Stanislaus, 
Cincinnati, Ohio, 1903. 

Langlois, Bartholomew: ordained June, 1857, at Cincinnati for New 
Orleans; stationed at Frenchtown, Ohio, 1857. 

McGrath, R. F.: Marysville and Plain City, Ohio, 1869. 

McSorley, Matthew: came to Cincinnati, Ohio, February 28, 1900; St. 
Patrick s, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Macynski, John: from Denver, Col.; stationed at St. Stanislaus, Cincin 
nati, Ohio, 1892. 

Marion, F. H.: native of France; at Hillsboro, Ohio, 1860. 
Mathies, Monsignor Paul de: ordained September, 1906, Hamburg, Ger 
many; at St. Gregory Seminary and St. Paul s, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1906. 
Murphy, Richard: Portsmouth, 1843-52; left 1852. 
Nagle: at Orphanage, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1874. 

Neurihrer, Edmund Francis: St. Stephen s (Hungarian), Cincinnati, Ohio, 

O Beirne, John: St. Martin s, Brown county, 1834-36. 

O Meara, James: at Canton, Ohio, 1835; left 1840, for Illinois. 

Palzer, M.: at St. Louis Church, Cincinnati, 1874. 

Pemmen, B.: at St. Willibrord s Church, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1858. 

Phew, William: native of Ireland; at Chapel Hill, Ohio, 1859-61. 

Pois: St. Aloysius Orphan Asylum, 1865. 

Popo-Lupu, G.: St. Gabriel s, Dayton, Ohio, 1916. 

Prendergast, Michael: native of Ireland; at Sidney, Ohio, 1858-62. 


Ratte, H.: came from Alton, 111., 1860; stationed at Piqua, Ohio, I860- 
Fulton, Cincinnati, 1868-71; left for Nashville, Tenn., 1871. 

Reilly, P.: St. Joseph s, Dayton, Ohio, 1872. 

Sannar, Sebastian: came from Basle, 1846; at Canton, Ohio, 1847. 

Schafroth, Charles: at Wapakoneta, Ohio, 1853-55. 

Schmitz, Bartholomew: at New Boston, Ohio, 1863; Ripley, Ohio, 1868-70. 

Schrandenbach, Charles: native of Bavaria; ordained 1845; at Newark, 
Ohio, May- July, 1858. 

Seling, Bernard: native of Wessum, Osnabrueck; at Holy Cross Church, 

Columbus, O., 1861; died February, 1863, Germany. 
Sheehan, Thomas: at Sidney, Ohio, 1852-56. 

Solymos, Oscar: Holy Name Church, Dayton, Ohio, September 29-Decem- 

ber 14, 1910. 

Sommer, Bernard: Holy Name Church, Dayton, Ohio, 1906-1908. 
Theves, Anthony: St. Patrick s Church, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1855. 
Vliegen, J. W.: at Somerset, Ohio, 1831. 

Vogeler, Jerome: Cincinnati, Ohio, 1833; Zanesville, Ohio, 1839-41. 
Walsh, F. F.: Holy Angels Church, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1860. 
Woltermann, B.: Emmanuel s, Dayton, Ohio, January- August, 1853. 
Zang, Christian: St. Francis, Mercer county, Ohio, 1886. 



For Girls in Cincinnati Diocese 285 

Conducted by Sisters of Charity in 

Cincinnati 285 

Conducted by Sisters of Notre Dame 

of Namur in Cincinnati Diocese. .285, 286 
Conducted by the Ursuline Sisters .... 286 
Conducted by the Sisters of Mercy . . 286, 287 

Act of Quebec 12 


Alleged Remarks of 139 

Cited 139 

Proof of unauthenticity of words at 
tributed to 139, 140 

Administrator of Upper Canada, Rev. 

Edmund Burke 21 

Admission of Ohio to Statehood 13 

Agreement on property dispute between 
Bishop Fenwick and the Domini 
cans 179, 180 


At Gallipolis 19 

Interest in St. Gregory Seminary, 

Cincinnati, of 294 

President of St. Gregory Seminary, 

Cincinnati 295 

Alemany, Most Rev. Joseph S., bio 
graphical notice of 351 

Alerding, Rt. Rev. Herman Joseph, 

present Bishop of Fort Wayne 1 09 

Algonquin Indians in Ohio 4, 5 

Algonquin Prayer-book, by Rev. P. J 

. Dejean 298 


Alpheus White, architect of 62 

Laying of cornerstone of 62, 280 

Dedication of 62 

Built by money from the Leopold ine 

Association 1 84 

Opening of the 280 

Constitution of the 280, 281 

Faculty of the 281 

Conducted by the Jesuits 281 

Name changed to St. Xavier College . . 28 1 

Description of 288 

Cost of erection of 288 

All Saints Church, Cincinnati, organi 
zation of 132 

Andastes Indians in Ohio 5 

"Angel Guardian", house of Sisters of 

the Good Shepherd, opened 262 

Annunciation Church, Cincinnati, or 
ganization of 1 34 

Antonio Hospital, Kenton, 308 

Apostolic Nuncio at Paris, and Gallipolis 

colony 16 


Appeal from Chillicothe for a priest 22, 23 

Appeals to Bishop Carroll for priests in 

Ohio 21 

Appointment of prefect apostolic of 

Gallipolis reasons for 16 

Art Museum, Cincinnati 312 

Assumption Church, Cincinnati, organi 
zation of 132 

Assumption Church, Mt. Healthy, O., 

organization of 146 

Association of the Holy Childhood, 
establishment in parochial schools 
of Cincinnati Archdiocese of the .... 216 

Atonement, Cincinnati, organization of 

Church of 130 

Atonement (Syrian), Cincinnati, or 
ganization of Church of 145 

Attempt by England to wrest the West 

from France 8 


In charge of Boys Home 303 

Foundation of Fenwick Club by 304 


At Gallipolis (1793) 18 

Cited 19 

Proposed Bishop of Vincennes 55 

Enters Dominican Order 180 

And notes of Cincinnati Diocesan 

Synod of 1837 209 

Petitions for foundation of Jesuits 

in Ohio 226 


Visit of Edward Fenwick to 24 

Erection of Diocese of 97 

Erection of Archdiocese of 97 

Baptism in Ohio, first recorded 29 

Baptismal register of Edward Fenwick .... 29 

Baptist Church at Cincinnati 117 


Appointed vicar-apostolic of Upper 

Michigan 107 

First Bishop of Sault Ste. Marie 108 

Conversion of negroes by 1 22 

At Dayton, Ohio, 1831 162 

Letter to Leopoldine Association 288 

Books in Ottawa and Chippewa by. ... 298 

Biographical notice of 352 


Erection of diocese of 97 

Mother diocese of Cincinnati 97 

Boundaries of diocese of 97 

Transfer to Louisville of diocese of . . . 102, 103 

Barlow and Playfair, prospectus of, 

cited 14, 15 





Barlow, Joel and the Scioto Company. ... 14 

Barnhorn, Clement, sculptor 299, 300 

Barrieres, Rev., at Gallipolis (1793) 18 

Barry, Rev. Wm. J., book published by. . 299 
Battle of Fallen Timbers, Indians de 
feated in 5,6 

Bazin, Rt. Rev. John Stephen, third 

Bishop of Vincennes .... 106 

Bellamy, Rev. Jean, recruit for Cin 
cinnati diocese 57, 242, 243 

Bellefontaine, O , organization of St. 

Patrick s Church 163 

Bellefontaine, Ohio, Dominican Ter- 

tiaries in charge of school at 25 1 

Benedicta, Colletine Poor Clare Nun 

at Cincinnati 245 


Invited to Ohio (1826) 63 

For Cincinnati diocese, effort to obtain, 238 
In Cincinnati diocese, history of the, 238, 239 
Parishes in Cincinnati diocese in 

charge of 239 

Ben Hur, translation in German by 

Father Hammer of 299 

Berichte der Leopoldinen Stiftung, cited . . 35 
Bernardina, Colletine Poor Clare Nun 

at Cincinnati 24 S 

Biggs Farm, Delhi, purchased by .Sisters 

of Charity 248 

Blake, Father, missionary labors of 162 

Blessed Sacrament Church, Cincinnati, 

organization of 130 

Boisnantier, Abbe du, proposed Bishop 

for Gallipolis 17 

Bonnecamps, Father, report of 8 

Bonne camps, Father, first Mass in Ohio 

by 8 


Resignation of See of Detroit by 1 05 

Second Bishop of Detroit 105 

Promoter of Fourth Provincial Council 

of Cincinnati (1882) 218 

Biographical notice of 352 

Boston, erection of diocese of 97 

Botkins, O., organization of Immacu 
late Conception Church at 157 

Boyle, William, pioneer Catholic of 

Cincinnati 37 

Boys Home, Cincinnati, history of the .... 303 

Boys homes in Cincinnati diocese 302 

Brassac, Rev. Hercules, request for 
Sisters of Notre Dame to come to 

Cincinnati, of 252 

Brinkmeyer, Rev. Henry, president of 

St. Gregory Seminary, Cincinnati .... 295 
Brinkmeyer, Rev. Henry, book pub 
lished by 299 

Brossart, Rt. Rev. Ferdinand, present 

Bishop of Covington 107 


Brothers of the Christian Schools, in 
vited to Cincinnati 239 

Brothers of Christian Schools, sent to 

St. Louis instead of to Cincinnati . . 239, 240 
Brothers of Mary, in Cincinnati diocese, 

history of the 239 

Brothers of the Poor of St. Francis 

Seraph, history of the 242 

Brothers of the Poor of St. Francis, in 
charge of St. Vincent s Home for 

Boys 303 


Sketch of life of 234 

Intention to found an order in America 

(1831), of 234 

Foundation of C.PP.S. in Cincinnati 

by 234,235 

Companions of (1843) 235 

Brut<, Rt. Rev. Simon Gabriel, first 

Bishop of Vincennes 105 

Bull of Erection of Cincinnati Diocese, 


Bull of Erection of Cincinnati Arch 
diocese 326,327 

Bunker, John, poet 299 

Bureau of Catholic Charities, Cincin 
nati, history of the 310 


Biographical sketch of 20 

In Northwestern Ohio (1790) 20, 21 

Administrator of Upper Canada 21 

Among the Miami Indians 21 

On Raisin river 21 

Withdrawal from Ohio of 21 

Burkettsville, O., preparatory seminary 
and novitiate of Precious Blood 

Fathers at 236,295 

Buse, Rev. Henry, organization of deaf- 
mutes at Cincinnati by 306 

Butler, Joseph C., gift of property for 

hospital of Good Samaritan from. . . . 307 
Butler, Rev. T. R., preparing college for 

Jesuits at Cincinnati (1840) 228 

Byrne, James W., pioneer Catholic of 

Cincinnati 37 


Present Bishop of Nashville Ill 

Translation of Alzog s Church His 
tory by 299 

Biographical notice of 352 

Caledonia, O., organization of St. 

Lawrence Church 164 

Calvary Cemetery, Cincinnati 316 

Campbell, Alexander, debate with Bishop 

Purcell 78, 79 

Canada, Rev. Edmund Burke, adminis 
trator of Upper 21 

Canals in Ohio 124 





Capital, relation of labor to 219, 220 

Capital and Labor, legislation of Fourth 
Provincial Council of Cincinnati 

(1882) concerning 219,220 

Carrell, Rt. Rev. George Aloysius, first 

Bishop of Covington 107 

Carrell, Rt. Rev. George Aloysius, bio 
graphical notice of 352, 353 


Letter of Jacob Dittoe to 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27 

Letter of Major Philips to 22, 23 

Letter of Whaland Goodee to 22, 23 

Appeals for priests in Ohio to 21 

Nomination to Baltimore of 97 

Carthagena, O., organization of St. 

Aloysius Church at 159 

Carthagena, O., St. Charles Borromeo 

Seminary at 295 

Casella, O., organization of St. Mary s 

Church at 155 

Cassel, William , pioneer Catholic of Ohio . . 28 

Offer of house to Sisters of Charity, 

Cincinnati, by 246, 247 

Free rent of house for orphan asylum, 

Cincinnati, given by 300 


Cincinnati, history of 314 

Cincinnati, lawsuit concerning 314 

Cincinnati, sale of 314 

Catholic Institute, Cincinnati, history 

of the 284,285 

Catholic Settlement at Chillicothe, Ohio. . 23 
Catholic Settlement at Lancaster, Ohio . . 22 

Establishment of 65 

Reason of establishment of 123 

Oldest Catholic periodical in U. S 295 

History of the 295, 296 

Purposes and aims of the 296 

Prospectus of the 296 

First issue of the 296 

Cited, . . 35, 37, 73, 81, 99, 123, 140, 209, 279, 
284, 285, 296, 297 

Catholicity at Cincinnati in 1818 30 

Catholics in Ohio (1819) 38 

Catholics in Ohio (1820) 38,39 

Gazelles, Peter, pioneer Catholic of Cin 
cinnati 37 

Cedar Grove, Price Hill, purchase by 

Sisters of Charity of property at 248 

Celina, O., organization of the Church 

of the Immaculate Conception at. ... 156 

Expedition to Ohio of 8-11 

Lead plates deposited by 9 

Inscription of lead plate deposited by ... 9 
Cemeterie?, Catholic, in Cincinnati diocese, 3 1 3 
Center of French activities at Quebec .... 6 


Charles X, King of France , gift to Cin 
cinnati from 173 

Chartrand, Rt. Rev. Joseph, present 

Bishop of Indianapolis 106 

Chatard, Rt. Rev. Francis Silas, letter to 

Archbishop Purcell (cited) 93-94 

Chatard, Rt. Rev. Francis Silas, fifth 

Bishop of Vincennes 106 

Chicago, erection of diocese of 106 

Chickasaw, O., organization of Church 

of Most Precious Blood at 155 


Appeal for a priest from 22, 23 

Catholic settlement at 23 

Bishop Flaget at 28,165 

Catholics at 28 

Suggested episcopal site of Ohio 113 

Organization of St. Mary s Church . . 165, 166 
Organization of St. Peter s Church .... 166 
Proposed establishment of Passionist 

Fathers at 236 

History of St. Peter s College 284 

Chippewa devotional books by Rev. 

Frederick Baraga 298 


Christ Church, Cincinnati 30 

William Reilly, builder of 37 

Incorporation of 37, 322 

Building of 37, 38 

First Mass in 38 

Removal into city of 52 

Schism among trustees of 52 

Mortgage on 52, 53 

Name changed to St. Peter s 53 

Christ Church Cemetery, Cincinnati 314 

Christ Church (Protestant) at Cincinnati . . 117 

Chronicle, cited 65 

Church land in Ohio, purchase by Jacob 

Dittoe of 28 


Constituted a diocese 3 

La Salle, the first white man to pass 

site of 

Edward Fenwick at (1815) 

In 1810 

Bishop Flaget at 30, 

Christ Church at 

First Church at 

First Church completed at 

Meeting of Catholics (1811) at 

Meeting of Catholics (1817) at 

Obituary notice of Mrs. Jacob Fowble . 

Organization of Christ Church at 

Few Catholics (1818) at 

Poverty of Catholics at 

James Find lay, landowner at 

Site of first church at 

. 6 
. 30 
. 30 
. 30 
. 31 
. 31 
. 31 
. 31 
. 33 
. 34 




CINCINNATI.- Continued. Page. 

Reasons for first church being beyond 

corporation limits of 34 

Ordinance forbidding Catholic Church 

within corporation limits of 34 

Removal of first church of 35, 36 

High price of property at 36 

Prejudice of Protestants of 36, 65 

Schism at 36 

Pioneer Catholics at 

William Boyle 3" 

James W. Byrne 37 

Peter Gazelles 37 

Thomas Dugan 37 

Jacob Fowble 31,37 

James Gorman 37 

Edward Lynch 37 

John M. Mahon 33, 37 

Michael Moran 37 

Patrick Reily 37 

Michael Scott 32, 34. 37 

John Sherlock 33,34,37 

Patrick Walsh 33, 37 

Robert S. Ward 37 

John White 33,37 

Incorporation of Christ Church 37 

Building of Christ Church 37, 38 

First Mass in Christ Church 38 

Edward Ken wick, Bishop of 39 

Prosperous city ( 1 822) 49 

Arrival of Bishop Fenwick at ( 1 822) ... 50, 5 1 
Bishop Fenwick s residence at (1825). . 59 

Plans of St Peter s Cathedral (1825) 59 

Religious condition of (1833) 76, 77 

Part of Bardstown diocese 97 

Suffragan dioceses of 102 

Catholics of (1819) 1 16 

Early religious denominations of .... 1 1 6, 1 1 7 

Choice as episcopal site in Ohio 113 

Fertility of region about 113 

Commercial opportunities of 113 

Natural beauty of 113 

Description of 114 

Beautiful suburbs of n 4 

Early means of communication with .... 114 

Settlements of 1788 at 1 14, 1 15 

Change of name from Losantiville to . . 115 

U. S. fortress at 115,116 

Early population of . 1 1 6 

Conditions of (1819) 1 16 

Baptist Church at 117 

Christ Church (Protestant) at 117 

Enon Baptist Society at 117 

German Christian Church at 117 

Methodist Episcopal Church at 117 

Methodist Episcopal Society at 117 

New Jerusalem Society at 117 

Presbyterian Church at 1 16, 1 17 

Protestant Episcopal Church at 117 

Society of Friends at 117 

Early settlers at 

Zeal of missionaries at . . . . 
Success of missionaries at . 
Methods of missionaries at 


. . . 118 

119, 122 

... 120 

. 121 

Conversions to Catholicity at 120, 121 

German Catholics at 121 

Converts from Lutheran Church at. ... 121 

Spirit of intolerance at 122, 123 

Organization of first Catholic Church 

at 126, 127 

Spiritual consolation of the clergy at. ... 170 

Mortgage on Christ Church 171, 172 

Gifts from Pope Leo XII to 172 

Gifts from the Propaganda to 172 

Donations from Europe to 172, 173 

Revenues of Church at 176 

Failure of banks at 190 

Title to Church property in 207 

Diocesan synods of 209 

First diocesan synod of (1865) 210 

Second diocesan synod of (1886) .. .210, 21 1 

Third diocesan synod of (1898) 212, 213 

Fourth diocesan synod of (1920) .. .213, 214 

Provincial Councils of 214 

First provincial council of (1855) 214 

Second provincial council of (1858). ... 215 

Third provincial council of (1861) 216 

Fourth provincial council of (1882) .... 217 

Fifth provincial council of (1889) 220 

Observatory, leased by the Passionists . . 237 

Cholera at (1849) 240 

First Catholic school at (1825) 243, 277 

Catholic schools of 277 

Catholic high schools and colleges for 

boys at 280 

Catholic academies and colleges for 

girls 285 

First Catholic cemetery at 314 


Erection of 101, 102 

Suffragan dioceses of 102 

Boundaries of 106 

Area of 112 

Catholic population of 112 

Clergy of 112 

Dedication to Sacred Heart, of 112 

Bull of erection of 326, 327 


Erection of 38, 43 

Condition of (1822) 48, 49 

Erection of 97 

Causes for erection of 98 

Boundaries of 98 

Dispute with Detroit over boundaries 

of 98 

Impractical boundary line with Cleve 
land of 99 

Agreement with Cleveland on bound 
ary line of 99; 





Area of 101 

Jurisdictional dispute between Cov- 

jngton and 107 

Division of 109 

Development of parishes in 126 

Organization of parishes of 129 

Statistical study of parishes in 167 

Number of priests in 169 

Poverty of 171 

Donations from Europe to 172, 173 

Proposed exclusive Dominican province, 177 

Churches in (1832) 181 

Contributions received from the 

Leopoldine Association by the 184 

Contributions from Ludwig Verein to. . 188 

Sources of revenue of 189 

History of the Dominicans in the .... 223, 224 
History of the Redemptorists in the . . 224, 226 

History of the Jesuits in the 226 

History of the Franciscans in the 229 

History of the Lazarists in the 232, 233 

History of the Precious Blood Fathers 

in the 233 

History of the Passionists in the .... 236, 237 
History of the Holy Ghost Fathers 

in the 237,238 

History of the Order of St. Benedict 

in the 238 

History of the Holy Cross Fathers in the, 238 
History of the Brothers of Mary in the . . 239 
History of the Brothers of the Poor 

of St. Francis Seraph in the 242 

Colletine Poor Clare Nuns in 243 

History of the Sisters of Charity in the . . 245 
History of the Sisters of St. Dominic 

in the 249 

History of the Sisters of the Second 

Order of St. Dominic in 257 

History of the Dominican Nuns of 
the Congregation of St. Catherine 

de Ricci in 25 1 

History of the Sisters of Notre Dame 

of Namur in 252 

History of the Sisters of Notre Dame 

(Muehlhausen) in 254, 255 

History of the Sisters of the Precious 

Blood in 255,256 

History of the Ursuline Sisters in 256 

History of the Sisters of the Good 

Shepherd in 260 

History of the Sisters of Mercy in .... 262 
History of the Sisters of the Poor 

of St. Francis in 264 

History of the Little Sisters of the Poor 

in 266, 267 

History of the Society of the Sacred 

Heart in 267,268 

History of the Sisters of St. Joseph 

in the . 268 

History of the Sisters of the Third 

Order Regular of St. Francis in ... 270, 27 1 
History of the Sisters of Divine Provi 
dence in 271 

History of the Sisters of the Blessed 

Sacrament in the 271 

History of the Sisters of Christian 

Charity in 271, 272 

History of the Polish Franciscan 

School Sisters in the 272 

Deaneries of 211,213 

Communities of men in the 223 

Communities of women in the 242 

Social activities of the Catholic 

Church in the 273 

Parochial schools in 274 

Parochial schools in (1854) 278 

Parochial schools in (1860) 278 

Parochial schools in (1908) 278 

Parochial schools in (1909) 278 

High schools and colleges for boys in . . 280 

St. Xavier College and University 280 

St. Mary College and University, 

Dayton, 283 

St. Joseph College 284 

Catholic Institute 284 

Academies and colleges for girls in .... 285 

St. Peter s Academy 285 

St. Mary s Academy 285 

Mount St. Vincent s Academy 285 

Young Ladies Literary Institute and 

Boarding School 285, 286 

Academy of Our Lady s Summit 286 

Our Lady of Victory Academy 286 

St. Ursula Academy 286 

Establishment of Academy of Sisters 

of the Precious Blood at Minster, O. . . 286 

Our Lady of Mercy Academy 286 

Mother of Mercy Villa Academy, 

Westwood 287 

Academy of the Sacred Heart 287 

St. Joseph Academy, Mt. Washington . . 287 

Ecclesiastical seminaries in the 287 

Mount St. Mary Seminary 287 

Literary activities in the 295 

Catholic social work in 300 

Orphanages in the 300 

Boys homes in 302 

Girls homes in 302 

Catholic hospitals in 306 

Homes for the aged poor in 309 

Catholic cemeteries in 313 

Decree of erection of 323, 324 

Bull of erection of 324-326 

Cincinnati Chronicle, cited 122, 123 

Cincinnati Directory (1819) cited 37 

Cincinnati Journal, spirit of intolerance of, 123 
Cippoletti, Rev. Thomas, proposed 

coadjutor of Cincinnati 55 





Cist, cited 129 

City ordinance forbidding Catholic 
Church within corporation limits 

of Cincinnati 34 

Cleveland, Harlan, Special Master Com 
missioner in Church Case, Cincin 
nati 200,201 


Area of diocese of 101 

Suffragan diocese of Cincinnati 102 

Bishops of 106 

Division of diocese of 106 

Erection of diocese of 98 

Boundaries of diocese of 98 

Impractical boundary line with Cin 
cinnati 99 

Agreement with Cincinnati on bound 
ary line of diocese of 99 

Settlers at 118 

Clicteur, Rev. J. B., letter to Associa 
tion of Propagation of the Faith 121 

Clicteur, Rev. J. B., student at Bards- 
town, Ky 287 

Climate of Ohio 3 

Coldwater, O., organization of Holy 

Trinity Church at 155 

College of Music, Cincinnati 313 

Colleges for girls in Cincinnati diocese .... 285 

In Cincinnati 63, 243 

Arrival at Cincinnati of 244 

.School at Cincinnati of 63, 244, 277 

Sunday school at Cincinnati of 244 

Trials at Cincinnati of the 244 

Departure from Cincinnati of 63, 244 

Establish Convent at Pittsburgh 63 

Return to Belgium of the 245 


Condition of diocese of (1868) 100 

Erection of diocese of 100, 101, 109 

Boundaries of diocese of 100, 101 

Area of diocese of 101 

Bishops of 109 

Dire straits of diocese of 110 

Ecclesiastical conference established 

at (1857) 209 

Compagnie du Scioto. La 14 

Company of the Twenty-four 15 

Company of the Twenty-four, Memoir 

of the 16 

Conferences, ecclesiastical, establish 
ment of (1857) 209 

Congregation of the Propaganda, cited ..16,17 
Congregation of the Propaganda, and 

the Gallipolis colony 16, 1 7 

Congregation of the Most Holy Re 
deemer, history of the 224 

Congregation of the Mission 232, 233 

Congregation of the Most Precious Blood . . 233 

Congregation of the Most Holy Cross 

and Passion 236, 237 

Congregation of the Holy Ghost 237, 238 

Congregation of the Holy Cross 238 

Considine, Patrick, gift of land for 

Mount St. Mary Seminary by 290 

Controversy on church property between 
Bishop Fenwick and the Domini 
cans, settlement of the 179, 180 

Corporation limits of Cincinnati, reasons 

for first church being beyond 34 

Convent of the Good Will, foundation of. . 264 
Corpus Christi Church, Dayton, O., 

organization of 161 

Corr, David, host to Ursuline Sisters at 

Cincinnati (1845) 259 

Council, distinction between synod and. . 208 

Councils, object of 208 

Councils, Provincial, of Cincinnati 214 

Court Street Academy of Sisters of 

Notre Dame of Namur, Cincinnati. . 286 

Part of diocese of Cincinnati 100 

Erection of diocese of 106, 107 

Jurisdictional dispute with Cincin 
nati of 107 

Bishops of 107 

Cranberry Prairie, O., organization of 

St. Francis Church at 155 

Cutler, Rev. Manasseh, and the Ohio 

Company 14 


Proposed for Cincinnati 42, 43 

Second Bishop of Bardstown 102 

Resignation of See of Bardstown, of. ... 102 

Bishop Flaget at 31 

Organization of Catholic churches in .... 159 

Catholicity in (1831) 162 

Ecclesiastical conference established 

at (1857) 209 

Establishments of the Dominican 
Nuns of the Congregation of St. 

Catherine de Ricci at 25 1 

History of St. Mary College and 

University 283 

Academy of Sisters of Notre Dame 

of Namur at 286 

History of St. Elizabeth Hospital 308 

Deaf-mutes in Cincinnati diocese, care of. . 306 

Deaneries of Cincinnati diocese 211 

Decree of erection of Cincinnati diocese 323, 324 
Deed of Jacob Dittoe to Edward 

Fenwick 321,322 

Deed of James Findlay to the trustees 
of the Roman Catholic Congrega 
tion, Cincinnati .. ..322.323 




Defence of title to land in the West by 

France 6 

Dejean, Rev. Pierre J., recruit for Cin 
cinnati 57, 242, 243 

Dejean, Rev. Pierre J., Algonquin 

prayer-book by 298 

Delaware Indians in Ohio 5 

Delhi, Mount St. Joseph Academy 285 

Delhi, Protectory for Boys 305 

Deposition of lead plates by Celoron 9 

d Espremesnil, leader of Gallipolis colony . . 17 

Proposed erection of diocese 40, 49, 55 

Dispute with Cincinnati over bound 
aries of diocese of 98 

Suffragan diocese of Cincinnati 102 

Erection of diocese of 103 

Bishops of 105 

Division of diocese of 107, 1 11 

Redemptorists at (1832) 225 


Prefect- apostolic of the Gallipolis colony, 15 

Memoir of 16 

Death of , 18 

Difficulties of missionaries in Ohio 122 

Diocesan laws, collection of Cincinnati, 209, 210 

Discovery of the Ohio by La Salle 7 

Disaffection of Miami Indians from the 

French 8 

District Court of Hamilton Co., trial 

of Church Case before 194 

District Court of Hamilton Co., decision 

of Judges in Church Case before ... 194, 195 

Arrival in Ohio of 21 

Residence in Ohio of 25 

Letters to Bishop Carroll, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27 

Letter of Edward Fenwick to 27 

Purchase of church land in Ohio by .... 28 
Transfer of property to Fenwick by .... 29 

Deed to Edward Fenwick of 321, 322 

Dittoe, Peter, pioneer Catholic in Ohio .... 26 

Divide of the waters of Ohio 3 

Dollier, Father, on expedition of La Salle . . 7 
Dominican House of Retreats, Dayton, 

Ohio 25 1 

Dominican Province, division of (1824) .... 56 
Dominican Sisters in the Cincinnati 

diocese, history of the 249 

Dominican Sisters of the Congregation 
of St. Catherine de Ricci, history 

of the 251 

Dominican Sisters of the Second Order, 

history of the 251 

Dominican Sisters of the Second Order, 

privilege of perpetual adoration held by 5 1 2 
Dominican Sisters of the Second Order, 
establishment of Monastery of the 
Holy Name, Cincinnati, by the 251 


Dominican Tertiaries of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary, original foundation in 

the U. S. ( of the 249 

Dominican Tertiaries of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary, in the Cincinnati 

diocese, history of the 249, 250 


Withdrawal from Ohio of the 122 

Title to church property in Ohio held 

by the 175 

Schema of property in Ohio of the .... 179 
Agreement on church property in 
Ohio between Bishop Fenwick and 

the 179,180 

And the $300 to be paid the Bishop 

of Cincinnati 181 

Arguments against annual payment 

of $300 by the . 182 

In Cincinnati diocese, history of the, 223, 224 

Foundations in Ohio of the 224 

Dubourg, Bishop, and the erection of 

Cincinnati 40, 43 

Dubourg, Bishop, and the erection of 

Detroit 40 

Dubuisson, Father, proposed as Bishop 

for Cincinnati 72 

Duer, William, and the Scioto Company. . 14 

Dugan, John S., killed 58 

Dugan, Thomas, pioneer Catholic of 

Cincinnati 37 

Durier, Rt. Rev. Anthony, biographical 

notice of 353 

Duveneck, Frank, painter 299,300 

Drake, cited 36 

Drexel, Mother Catherine 271 


Second Bishop of Fort Wayne 109 

Promoter of Fifth Provincial Council 

of Cincinnati (1889) 221 

Biographical notice of 353 

Earthen mounds in Ohio 3 

Eaton, O., organization of church of 

the Visitation at 154 

Egypt, O., organization of St. Joseph 

Church at 1 56 


Coadjutor of Cincinnati 84 

Archbishop of Cincinnati 86 

Nomination to Cincinnati of 86 

Biographical sketch of 86 

Parents of 86 

Time and place of birth of 86 

Education of 86 

Student at Mount St. Mary s, Em- 

mitsburg 86 

Vocation to priesthood of 86 

Reception of tonsure 86 

Reception of Minor orders 86 





Student at Rome 87 

Ordination to priesthood of 87 

Professor at Emmitsburg, Md 87 

Consecrated Bishop of Natchez 87 

Work in Natchez diocese of 87, 88 

And the Civil War 87, 88 

Journeys to Rome of 88 

Stricken by yellow fever 88 

Labors in diocese of Natchez of 88, 89 

And coadjutorship of San Francisco .... 89 

Arrival at Cincinnati (1880) 89 

Organization of administration of 

Cincinnati archdiocese by 90 

And the Purcell failure 90 

Poverty of 90 

Labors at Cincinnati of 90, 91 

Sanctity of 91 

Last illness of 91 

Will of 91 

Death of 91 

Obsequies of 91 , 92 

Burial of 92 

Inscription on tomb of 92 

Letter concerning Purcell debt 203, 204 

And Purcell debt 212 

And Fourth Provincial Council of 

Cincinnati (1882) 217 

And Fifth Provincial Council of 

Cincinnati (1889) 220 

Opinion on foundation of Sisters of 

St. Joseph at Cincinnati 269 

Letter to Archbishop Janssens, New 

Orleans, cited 269 

Sanction of plans for erection of St. 

Gregory Seminary by 294 

Approval of Santa Maria Institute by . . 305 

Emigrant, steamboat 76 

Emigrants from France (1790) 15 


Organization of 159, 160 

Irremovable parish 211 

In charge of Rev. Leo Meyer, S.M. 

(1850) 241 

Engbers, Rev. B. H., proposal concern 
ing preparatory theological semi 
nary of 294 

England, attempt to wrest the West 

from France by 8 

England in the New World , supremacy of . . 12 
England, Bishop,. and the appointment 

of Purcell to Cincinnati 72 

Enon Baptist Society at Cincinnati 117 

Eries, Indians in Ohio 5 

Expedition of Celoron to Ohio 8-11 

Expedition of La Salle 7 

Eudist Fathers, offer of charge of theo 
logical seminary, Cincinnati, to 289 


Failure of banks at Cincinnati 190 

Fallen Timbers, Indians defeated in 

battle of 5, 6 

Farrelly, Rt. Rev. John P., fourth 

Bishop of Cleveland 106 

Feehan, Rt. Rev. Patrick A., third 

Bishop of Nashville Hi 


Proposed as Bishop for Cincinnati 40 

Proposed as Bishop for Detroit ... 41 , 49, 104 

Visit to Baltimore (1808) 24 

First visit at Somerset, Ohio 24, 25 

Annual visits to Ohio 26 

At Cincinnati (1815) 28,29 

In Ohio (1816) 29 

Headquarters at Somerset of 29 

At Gallipolis (1817) 29 

Itinerant preacher 29, 46 

Baptismal register of 29 

Transfer of property by Jacob Dittoe to 29 

Cited 36 

Causes removal of first church of 

Cincinnati 35, 36 

Bishop of Cincinnati 39 

Proposed for Cincinnati 40, 42 

Appointed Bishop of Cincinnati 43 

Biographical sketch of 43 

Time and place of birth of 43 

Parents of 43 ( 44 

Early education of 44 

At Bornheim, Belgium 44 

Enters Dominican Order 44 

Studies in theology of 44,45 

Ordained subdeacon 44, 45 

Ordained deacon 45 

Ordained priest 45 

Teacher at Bornheim 45 

Arrested 45 

At Carshalton, England 45 

Establishment of Dominicans in the 

United States by 45 

In Maryland 46 

In Kentucky 46 

Construction of St. Rose s Church, 

Kentucky, by 46 

Arrival of bulls of appointment to 

Cincinnati of 47 

Unwilling to become Bishop 47, 48 

Consecration of 48 

Relation of diocese of Cincinnati 

(1822) by 48,49 

First ordination of priests by 50 

Companions to Cincinnati, of 50 

Journey to Cincinnati (1822) 50 

Arrival at Cincinnati (1822) of 50 

Installation at Cincinnati 51 

House rented by 51 




Page. Page. 

FENWICK.RT. REV, EDWARD DOMINIC, O.P., Financial success of European trip of . 172, 173 

Means of support at Cincinnati, of, At Lyons 174 

52, 55, 56, 172, 176 Title to church property in Ohio of 175 

Poor means of support of 53 Petition to Rome concerning church 

Poor prospects in Ohio of 53 property in Ohio 177, 178 

Visitation of Northwest territory by . . 53 And the Dominicans, agreement on 

Report to Rome of condition of diocese church property in Ohio between .. 179, 180 

(1823) of 53, 54 Account of work of Sister St. Paul by . . 243 

At Bordeaux 54 Petition for Sisters of Mercy of (1825) . . 243 

At Rome 54, 1 72 Request for Sisters of Charity by 245 

At Leghorn 54, 57 Second request for Sisters of Charity 

At Marseilles 54 at Cincinnati . 246 

Audience with Pope Leo XII 54, 55 At Emmitsburg, Md. (1829) 246 

Gifts from Leo XII to 55 Invitation to Dominican Tertiaries 

Petitions at Rome 55, 56 to enter Cincinnati diocese from .... 249 

Gifts of paintings from Cardinal Parochial school established at Cin- 

Fesch to 56 cinnati by 277, 278 

In Belgium 57 Plans of theological seminary by 287 

In England (1824) 57 Dedication of St. Francis Xavier 

Success of trip to Rome of 57, 58 Seminary by 

At Florence Deed of Jacob Dittoe to . . .. .321, 322 

At Savona 57 Letter to Jacob Dittoe of 27 

At Genoa 57 Letter to Concanen 45 

At Turin 57 Letter to Association of Propagation 

At Lyons 57 of the Faith, Lyons 54, 55 

At Paris 57 Letter to Rev. P. Potier, England 65 

Return to America (1824) 58 Letter to a friend in London of 1 19 

At New York (1824) 58 Letter to S. T. Badin of 172 

At Philadelphia (1824) 58 Letter to Archbishop Marechal of . . 176, 177 

At Baltimore (1824) 58 Letter to the Propaganda of 177, 178 

Mishap (1825) 58 Letter to Mother Superior of Sisters 

Return to Cincinnati (1825) 58 of Charity, Emmitsburg 246 

Residence at Cincinnati (1825) of 59 Fenwick, Rev. Enoch, proposed as 

Commissary-general of the Domini- Bishop for Detroit 104 

cans in the United States 62, 224 F enw j c k Club, Cincinnati, history of . .303, 304 

Episcopal visitations of 64 p e rneding, Rev. Joseph, in charge of 

Poor health of 65 St A i oys i us Orphan Asylum, Cin- 

Episcopal visitation (1832) of 66 cinnati 302 

Asks for coadjutor 66 ^^ Cardinal) gift of twelve pain tm gs 

Last illness of 66 ^ Cincinnati diocese f rom . . .56, 172, 173 

Presentiment of approaching death , .., 

* -7 Filson, John, disappearance of 115 

of oo , o / 

111 of cholera 67 FINDLAY, JAMBS, 

At Wooster, Ohio (1832) 67, 68 Landowner at Cincinnati 

Last illness of 68 Mortgage of Catholics at Cincinnati to 36 

At Canton, Ohio (1832) 68 Deed to the trustees of the Roman 

Burial at Wooster, O., of 69 Catholic Congregation, Cincinnati, 

Funeral expenses of 69 from . . 

Transfer of remains to Cincinnati 69, 70 Fink, John, pioneer Catholic in Ohio . 

Burial in Cathedral of Cincinnati 70 Finn, Rev. F. J., S.J., author 

Transfer of remains to St. Peter s First church at Cincinnati, site of .. 

Cathedral (1848) 70 First church of Cincinnati, removal of .... 35, 36 

Buried in St. Joseph s Cemetery, Cin- First church in Ohio at Somerset 30 

cinnati 70 First Mass in Christ Church, Cincinnati . . 38 

Inscription on tomb of 70 First Mass in Ohio by Father Bonnecamps, 8 

Will of 77, 78, 180 First Provincial Council of Cincinnati 

Labors in Ohio of 1 18, 1 19 (1855), cited .274-276 

Zeal of 119 First recorded baptism in Ohio, Nicholas 

Poverty of 171 J.Ryan 29 





Fitzgerald, Rt. Rev. Edward, bio 
graphical notice of 353 


Cited 28, 30, 38 

At Maysville, Ky 28 

Visit to Ohio of 28 

At Chillicothe, 28, 165 

At New Lancaster, Ohio 28 

At Somerset 28 

Mass in Ohio of 28 

At Cincinnati 30,31,33 

At Dayton, Ohio 31 

At Springfield, Ohio 31 

At Urbana, Ohio 31 

And erection of Cincinnati 40 

And erection of Detroit 40 

And erection of Vincennes 40 

Letter to Archbishop Marechal of 41,42 

Protest against departure of Domini 
cans from Kentucky by 53 

Bishop of Bardstown 97 

Visitation of Northwest by 97 

Birth of 102 

Ordination of 102 

Consecration of 102 

Third Bishop of Bardstown 102 

At Rome (1837) 102 

Resignation of Bardstown by 102 

Death of 103 

Flat Iron Square, Cincinnati 51 

Foley, Rt. Rev. John Samuel, third 

Bishop of Detroit 105 

Force, Judge M. F., cited 4 

Forde, Rev. Michael, establishment 
of St. Peter s College, Chillicothe, 

Ohio, by 284 

Fort Loramie, Ohio, organization of 

St. Michael s Church at 155 

P ort Recovery, Ohio, organization of 
Church of Our Lady, Help of 

Christians, at 156 


Erection of diocese of 108, 214 

Boundaries of diocese of 108, 109 

Bishops of 109 

Fowble, Jacob, pioneer Catholic of 

Cincinnati 31,37 

Fowble, Mrs. Jacob, obituary notice of .... 31 

Title to land in Ohio of 5 

Defence of title to land in the West by . . 6 
Gallisoniere proclaims sovereignty 

over Ohio of 8 

England s attempt to wrest the West 

from 8 


In Cincinnati Diocese, history of 229 


Agreement concerning Holy Trinity 
Church, Cincinnati, between Bishop 

Purcell and the 229, 230 

Arrival at Cincinnati from the Tyrol of . 230 
Charge of St. John Baptist Church, 

Cincinnati, given to the 230 

Charge of St. Clement, St. Bernard, 

Ohio, assumed by the 230 

Establishment at Cincinnati of monas 
tery of the 230, 231 

Establishment at Cincinnati of col 
lege of 231 

Transfer of property at Cincinnati 

to the 231 

Erection of custodia of St. John Bap 
tist of the 23 1 

Erection of province at Cincinnati 

of the 232 

Institutions in the Cincinnati diocese 

of the 232 

Institutions in the United States of the, 232 
Preparatory seminary, Cincinnati, of . . . 295 

Novitiate at Mt. Airy, Ohio, of the 295 

Periodicals published at Cincinnati, 

by the 298 

Franklin, Ohio, organization of St. 

Mary s Church at 153 

French activities, center at Quebec of .... 6 
French, disaffection of Miami Indians 

from the 8 

French emigrants to Ohio (1790) 15 

French colony at Gallipolis, Ohio 18 

Frenchtown, Ohio, organization of Holy 

Family Church at 157, 158 

Frere, J. M., gift to Cincinnati of gold 

ciborium from 173 

Freyburg, Ohio, organization of St. John 

Baptist Church at 157 

Friars Minor, Order of see Franciscans 

Friars Preacher, Order of see Dominicans 

Frontenac, memoir of La Salle to 7 

Galissoniere proclaims sovereignty of 

France over Ohio 8 

Gallagher, Rt. Rev. Michael James, 

present Bishop of Detroit 105 

Gallagher, Rt. Rev. Michael James, 

second Bishop of Grand Rapids 112 

Gallinee, Father, on expedition of La Salle, 7 

Gallipolis, Ohio 13 

Spiritual administration of 15 

Dom Didier, prefect-apostolic of 15 

Reasons for appointment of prefect- 
apostolic of 16 

And Apostolic Nuncio at Paris 16 

And the Congregation of the Pro 
paganda 16, 17 

d Espremesnil, leader of colony of 17 





The French colony at 18 

Indians at 18 

Colony, dispersion of the 18 

Stephen T. Badin at (1793) 18 

Barrieres at (1793) 18 

Decay of religion at 19 

Visitation of Bishop Purcell at 19 

Rev. John C. Albrinck at 19 

Visitation (1864) of Bishop Purcell at. . 20 

Church at 20 

Father Fenwick at (181 7) 29 


Proposed for Cincinnati 41 

Proposed for Detroit 41 

Proposed for Philadelphia 42 

Ganilh, Rev. Anthony, executor of will 

of Bishop Fenwick 77, 78 

Ganilh, Rev. Anthony, suit against 

Bishop Purcell of 77, 78 

Gazelle, cited 32 

George, Sister Margaret Cecilia, first 
Mother Superior of Sisters of Char 
ity, Cincinnati 248 

German Boys Orphanage, Cincinnati, 

beginning of 247 

German Catholic Cemetery Society, 

Cincinnati 314,315 

German Christian Church at Cincinnati. . 117 
Gilmour, Rt. Rev. Richard, second 

Bishop of Cleveland 106 

Gilmour, Rt. Rev. Richard, biographical 

notice of 353 

Girls homes in Cincinnati diocese 302 

Glandorf, Ohio, settlement under Father 

Horstmann at 154 

Glynnwood, Ohio, organization of St. 

Patrick s Church at 156 

Goesbriand, Rt. Rev. Louis de, books 

published by 298, 299 

Goesbriand, Rt. Rev. Louis de, Bio 
graphical notice of 353 

Good Samaritan Hospital, Cincinnati, 

history of 307 

Goodee, Whaland, letter to Bishop 

Carroll of 22,23 

Gorman, James, pioneer Catholic of 

Cincinnati 37 

Goshorn, Nicholas, defective deed of 

transfer of property by 314 

Government of the Northwest terri 
tory, ordinance for the 12,13 

Grace, Most Rev. Thomas L-, bio 
graphical notice of 352 


Erection of diocese of Ill 

Boundaries of diocese of Ill 

Bishops of 112 

Grassi, Rev. John, S.J., proposed for 

Detroit . .43 

Graviche, Rev., chaplain of the Ursu- 

lines at Beaulieu, France 257 

Great Britain, title to land in Ohio of .... 5 

Green Bay, Redemptorists at (1832) 225 

Greenville, Ohio, organization of St. 

Mary s Church at 158, 159 

Gregorian music, introduction ordered in 

parochial schools of Cincinnati 

archdiocese of 216 

Guardian Angels Church, Cincinnati. 

organization of 140 

Guitter, Rev. C. V., S.S., offer of charge 

of Mount St. Mary Seminary, 

Cincinnati, to 290, 291 


Second Bishop of Vincennes 105 

At Cincinnati (1846) 170 

Hallinan, Rev. M. M., rector of Mount 

St. Mary Seminary, Cincinnati 292 

Hamelin, Augustine, Indian student of 

Cincinnati diocese at Rome 187, 188 


Organization of churches of 151 

Academy of Sisters of Notre Dame 

of Namur at 286 

History of Mercy Hospital 308, 309 

Hammer, Rev. Bonaventure, O.F.M., 

books published by 299 

Hartley, Rt. Rev. James J., present 

Bishop of Columbus 110 

Hecker, Rev. Isaac, Archbishop Purcell s 

presentation of case of 82, 83 

Heiss, Most Rev. Michael, biographical 

notice of 352 

Hengehold, Rev. Bernard, reception of 

Sisters of the Good Shepherd by 261 


Letter to Father Rese 69 

Student at Bardstown, Ky 287 

Editor of the Wahrheilsfreund 297 

Catechism of 298 

Biographical notice of 352 

Hickey, Father, confessor of Father 

John B. Purcell 75 

High schools in Cincinnati diocese 280 


Superior of Dominicans in Ohio