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Full text of "The History Of The Church Missionary Society Its Environment Its Men And Its Work vol 1"

the Compliments of the 
Secretaries of the 
Church Missionary Society. 



SALISBURY SQUARE, 
LONDON. 




The Right Hon the EARL OF CHiCHESTER 

Piesulent of the Church Missionary Society, 18314886. 



THE 



HISTOKY 

OF THE 

CHUECH MISSIONARY SOCIETY 

ITS ENVIRONMENT, ITS MEN 
AND ITS WORK 



EUGENE STOGIC. 

KIHTOKIAL SBOUKT VRY" 



IN 

VOL, I 



thy hogianiiipf was ^^jftir^jwre thy lattor end should greatly 
increases. For oiufiurc, T pray thoo, of Iho f owner a#o, o-ntl prapara thyttolf to 
tho search oC thy fathers. . , , Hhall not they touoh thoo, and toll Ihoo, and 
utter words out) of their heart ? " JOB viii. 7, 8, 10, 

" That they might sot fchoir Iiopo in, (Soil, mil not. forgot tho works of 0*01^ 
but koop His commatiduionts. "!*. Ixxviii, 7* 



LONDON 

CHUECH MISSIONAIiy SOCIETY 
SALISBURY SQXJARB, B.C. 

1800 
[All rights rmrwti] 



LONDON 

. BT_GILBEET AND KIVINGTON, T.D., 
Gj$N'% HWUSE, CLEKKtHWELT*, V C, 



THE MOST REVEREND 

FREDERICK 
LORD ARCHBISHOP OP CANTERBURY 

PRIMATE OP ALL ENGLAND 
AND METROPOLITAN 

THIS WORK IS, BY HIS GRACE'S PERMISSION, 

DEDICATED 



PBEFACE. 



MY friend and fellow-worker gives me the privilege of writing 
a few words of preface for his interesting and valuable contribu- 
tion to the due celebration of our Centenary, of which I gladly 
avail myseli. 

If, as we earnestly hope, the completion of one hundred 
years of effort and of blessing is but the introduction to and 
the starting-point of the greater efforts and fuller blessings 
which our Heavenly Father has in store for us, it is surely 
right that we should be reminded of the faith and perseverance 
of the early founders of our Society, which enabled them to 
surmount obstacles from which our path is free, and overcome 
difficulties of which we have little conception. 

The expansion of England, the stages of its development 
from the little kingdom of Alfred to the Empire within whose 
bounds nearly a third of the human race own. allegiance to 
Queen Victoria, has for us all an absorbing interest. Little 
less marvellous, even more absorbing, is the record of the stops 
by which God has led us on our way. What joy it is to toll 
how there has been given to us day by day and year by your 
that of which we have had need : how door after door hun 
been opened, and one after another has been raised up to enter 
in or to go out and tako up the work that lay to our hand to do. 

Side by side with the story of the C.M.S., nay, closely inter- 
woven with it throughout, is the story of the awakening of the 
Church of England from a state of torpor and deatlness to an 
increasing sense of its high vocation, its great responsibility. Wti 
read of the efforts made to remedy the results of past neglect, 
and to seize the glorious and ever-widening opportunities of to- 
day. Light will be thrown by these pages on the methods of tha 
revival, and on the men who were the chief actors in it, I do 



vi PREFACE 

not think that more honour has been given to the Evangelicals 
than may be fairly claimed for them ; nor has it been sought 
to depreciate the efforts of those who in all loyalty have 
sought to bring into greater prominence the teaching of the 
Prayer-book and to add beauty and dignity to the worship of 
Almighty G-od. 

It is often assumed that the Evangelical movement lias spent 
its force, and that it is no longer to be accounted as a power in 
the Church. To statements of this character the histoiy as 
recorded here,, not of thirty or forty, but of a hundred years of 
missionary work conducted on Evangelical lines, affords a full 
and adequate answer. 

From the beginning to the end of the period under review, 
and even to this hour, we may claim for it an inspiring and 
continuing power which has made and is making its influence 
felt far outside the limits of its own party, and indeed of any 
particular school of religious thought. That this influence may 
be continued and extended to the end, even through the perilous 
times of the latter days upon which even now we may be entering, 
should be our earnest prayer. 

May it be that when we shall have passed away, and the 
history of our time comes to be written, it shall be possible 
to say of us that we have not been unworthy of the groat men 
who have gone before us, nor unfaithful to the great principles 
which they handed down to us. May ours be the honour to 
strive to keep alight the missionary torch which they placed in 
our hands nay, more, so to feed and fan the flame that the 
dark places of the earth may be illuminated with increasing 
force and with brighter and clearer light. 

JOHN H. KKNNAWAY. 

ESCOT, January, 1899. 



AUTHOR'S PBEFACE. 



THE History of the Church Missionary Society was first planned, 
in view of the coming Centenary, in 1891. The work was 
entrusted to the liev. Chailes Hole, Lecturer on Ecclesiastical 
History at King's College, London. Mr. Hole's intimate know- 
ledge of the Church history of the century, and particularly of 
the period at which the Society was founded, marked him out 
as pre-eminently the man for such a task. The plan was that 
he should compile what might be called the Library History 
of the Society, probably in four or five substantial volumes. 
But the thoroughness with which he executed the earlier part 
of his work became an insuperable obstacle to the accomplish- 
ment of this scheme. The time available was nearly half gone 
before he could complete the first volume, and that volume 
only brought the narrative to the year 1814. Moreover Mr, 
Hole's other engagements stood in the way of his continuing so 
large a work. What lie had actually done was therefore pub- 
lished under the title of The Early History of the Church 
Missionary Society ; and that book remains a monument of 
industrious research and skilful arrangement of materials, and 
must always be of the deepest interest to students of tho period 
covered, as well as to all who love to tract) out the providence 
of God in the beginnings of great enterprises. 

It was then proposed to continue the J fistory in much the namo 
form, though on a smaller scale ; and for thin purpose the Com- 
mittee engaged Dr. W. P. Moars, late of the South China Mission. 
He began admirably; but lie was presently compelled by tho 
state of his health to abandon the task. 

Then it was found necessary to commit tho work to mo, and, 
for that purpose, to relieve me of my ordinary editorial duties* 
The time still available, however, did not allow of a compilation 
being prepared which should be a continuation of Mr. Hole's 
book, upon the same scale. A new History, therefore, had to 
be written independently from the beginning ; although it could 
not but be largely indebted as it is to Mr. Hole's able and 
comprehensive account of the Society's earlier years. 



viii AUTHORS PREFACE 

The candid critic will probably complain of the size of the work. 
It may perhaps be pleaded that if biographies of individual men 
of the century required three and four volumes Bishop Wilber- 
force three, Lord Shaftqsbury three, Dr. Pusey four, a History 
which contains in a condensed form materials for a hundred 
individual biographies is not unduly exacting in demanding 
three. 

This consideration may be more fully appreciated if the scope 
and design of the History are explained. Let it be noticed that 
they are expressed in its title, THE HISTOBY or THE G.M.S. : 
ITS ENVIRONMENT, ITS MEN, AND ITS WOKK. I have de- 
liberately set myself to try and describe the Society's environ- 
ment at home and abroad ; and a very large part of the book is 
devoted to that attempt. 

II. 

There are the Environment abroad and the Environment at 
home. The treatment of the former has involved the inclusion 
of much collateral matter. Men are necessarily, and naturally, 
introduced who were not O.M.S. workers, and events that belong 
rather to general than to missionary history. For instance, 
Bishop Selwyn is a prominent character in some chapters ; and 
both his struggle for what he regarded as the liberties of the 
Colonial Churches, and the sad story of the Maori war, are 
noticed more fully than the mere history of the New Zealand 
Mission would itself require. Again, the West Indies Mission 
was but short-lived; but the painful narrative of the oppression 
of the slaves is not omitted, nor the strenuous labours of Fowell 
Buxton in obtaining their freedom. Again, a good deal more is 
told of the origin and extension of the Colonial and Missionary 
Episcopate than is absolutely necessary to the story of the 
C.M.S. Missions. In the Africa chapters, also, and in those 
oh China and North-West Canada, there is a good deal that 
is collateral. But naturally this feature of the work is most 
conspicuous in the India chapters. Eulers like Bentmck, 
Dalhousie, Canning, the Lawrences, Montgomery, Frere, and 
many others, are prominent figures. So are Bishops Heber, 
Wilson, Cotton, Milman, Dealtry, Gell, &c. The reforms under 
Bentinck, the developments under Dalhousie, the struggle with 
Caste, the Sepoy Mutiny, the Neutrality Controversy, the bold 
Christian Policy of the Punjab men, the Brahmo Sainaj and 
similar movements, pass before us in succession. 

On the same principle, the operations of other Societies, both 
within and without the Church of England, are frequently 
noticed. It has been my special desire to do justice to the 



AUTHORS PREFACE ix 

Society for the Propagation of tlie Gospel, tlie elder sister 
of the C.M.S., as the founders and early leaders of the C.M.S. 
always called it. A careful study, indeed, of the missionary 
history of the century shows how much the C.M.S. owes to other 
organizations, of which its supporters are for the most part 
unconscious, while on the other hand there can be no doubt 
that others are more indebted to the C.M.S. than is commonly 
acknowledged. What do not all Missions in India owe to the 
educational work of Duff and other missionaries of the Presby- 
terian Churches of Scotland ? What do not Missions in China 
owe to the China Inland Mission? What do not Missions in 
East Africa owe to the influence of Livingstone and to the 
linguistic labours of Bishop Steere ? 

Eoman Catholic Missions also find frequent mention ; gene- 
rally, it is to be regretted, in regard to their aggressions on the 
work of Protestant Societies, of the S.P.G. and others as well 
as of the C.M.S.; particularly in India and New Zealand, and 
more recently in Uganda, 

III. 

The treatment of the Environment at homo involves the study 
of the history of the Evangelical School or Party (or whatever 
it may be called) in the Church of England. It is usually 
said that the Church Missionary Society is the most impor- 
tant Evangelical achievement. I do not at all agree with this 
common opinion ; but the fact that it prevails certainly shows 
that the Society's position at home, and its relations with the 
Church and with other Church organizations, call for special 
attention in such a book as the present. IB short, the history 
of the Society is quite a different thing from the history of the 
Society's Missions. Accepting this fact as a guiding principle, 
I have devoted probably one-third of the whole work to the 
affairs of the Church and the Society at homo. 

But I have had another motive in doing this. The Evan- 
gelical body in the Church of England is constantly spoken of 
as dying or dead ; and this view is fostored by the Church 
Histories of the period. They unanimously praise the men of 
the Evangelical Eevival at the end of the last century the men 
who in their own day were utterly despised, and" altogether 
excluded from the counsels of the Church; and they affirm, 
with the most extraordinary inaccuracy, that the Evangelical 
School was dominant in the Church during the first forty 
years of the nineteenth century. But then they absolutely 
ignore all it has done in the past half-century with possibly a 
passing acknowledgment that the O.M.S., after all, is alive, 



x AUTHOR'S PREFACE 

and doing something. In fact, they treat the Evangelicals, in 
regard to the practical work of the Church, as' " a negligeable 
quantity." My hope is that this History may do something to 
correct this curious misconception. 

The chapters now referred to are, however, not merely a sketch 
of the history of the Evangelical School. They aim at being a 
sketch very inadequate and imperfect, indeed, but still a sketch 
of the history of the Church of England as a whole, from the 
Evangelical point of view. The growth of what may be called 
"Church feeling," as witnessed by the revival of Convocation, 
the establishment of the Church Congress, Diocesan Conferences, 
the Lambeth Conference, &c,, &c., and the extension of the 
S.P.GK, is traced out and traced out, it is hoped, in an 
appreciative spirit. 

In these chapters, I have not attempted to conceal what soein 
to me to have been the mistakes and the weaknesses of the 
Evangelical body. Although a writer who essays to be a his- 
torian cannot be neutral, he ought to strive to be fair and 
honest. That has been my unreserved desire and aim ; and 
honesty and fairness are never manifested where a writer has 
only good words for his own "party," and only hard words 
for other " parties." But whatever mistakes may be admitted, 
it is nevertheless true that a large part of the immense 
development of the Church's practical work is due to Evan- 
gelical Churchmen. This, of course, is not the common 
opinion; but I think I have presented a good deal of in- 
disputable evidence that it is the correct one. The general 
failure to perceive the fact is probably owing in part to the 
circumstance that some of the movements and agencies which 
have given warmer life to the Church of England during the 
last ^ forty years have had a "non-denominational" origin; 
and it is true that a considerable section of the Evangelical 
clergy ^ have held aloof from them on that account. But 
their influence has been great nevertheless : great for Evan- 
gelical religion; great for the progress of spiritual life in 
the Church of England. They have, in fact, corresponded in 
many respects to the revival movements of the eighteenth 
century : mainly, as then, carried on by Churchmen ; though 
mainly, as then, not definitely " on Church lines." It is not 
wise to prophesy; but my expectation is that, although so 
ignored ^ now, they will be recognized fifty years hence, just as 
the revival movements of the eighteenth century, not less 
ignored at the time, came to be recognized long afterwards. 

For these reasons, the Home Chapters are not limited to an 
account of C.M.S. personnel and of the growth of its organiza- 



AUTHORS PREFACE xi 

tion. Among prominent characters in these pages appear such 
personages as Bishops Blomfield and S. Wilbeiibrco and Aieli- 
bishops Tait and Benson, as well as Canon Hoare, Mr. Penne- 
father, and Sir Arthur Blackwood to say nothing of living men. 
But of course the officers of the Society naturally occupy 
the most conspicuous place. Henry Venn is without doubt the 
leading figure in the whole book. Josiah Pratt and Edward 
Bickersteth are also in the front, and Henry Wright and 
F. E. Wigram ; and Lord Chichester, the President for more 
than half a century; and Principals Childe and Green; and 
the editors of the Intelligencer, Kidgeway and Knox. Ridge- 
way's utterances on important questions are more often quoted 
than those of any other person except Venn and Pratt. 

IV. 

But undoubtedly the larger part of the work consists of the 
history of the Missions , and the student will bo able to trace 
out the story of any particular Mission in which he is interested. 
Sierra Leone, for instance, or New Zealand, or Tinnovelly, or 
the Punjab, or China, or North-West Canada, or Uganda, can 
be studied period by period. 

The missionaries themselves are naturally among the most 
important characters; and it is hoped that speakers at mis- 
sionary meetings, and others, will find abundant material for 
sketches of the lives of men like W. A. B. Johnson, W. Jowett, 
S. Gobat, Henry and William Williams, H. W. Fox and 

B, Noble, T. G. Eagiand, J. Thomas, J. Peet, C. G. Pfander, 

C. B. Leupolt, E. Sargent, G. M. Gordon, H. Tuwnsend, Krapf 
and Eebmann, Bishop Hordcn, Bishops G. Smith and Bussell, 
Bishop French and J, W. Enott, Bishop Hannington and 
Alexander Mackay. Or of living men like Robert Clark and 
W. S. Price,, Bishop Monlo and J. B. Wolfe, Bishop Ridley and 
Bishop Tucker. Or of Native clergymen and other coiivorts, 
such as Abdul Masih, John Devasaguyum, Paul Daniel, W. T. 
Satthiauadhan, V, Smulosham, Nohomiah Goreh, Jani Alii, 
Imad-ud-dm and Bafdar AH, Dilawar Khan and Fazl-i-Haqq, 
Manchala Ratnaru and Aiuala Bhushaiuuu, Samuel Crovythur 
and other Africans, Legaic the Tsimshcan, Dzing Ta-ning, 
Tamihana Te llauparaha and John Williams Hipango. 

Many great questions of missionary policy are touched upon 
in these pages, not, indeed, in the way of formal discussion, "but 
rather of historical record. Tho relations of a voluntary aociety 
of Churchmen to the official authorities of the Ohurch come 
into view in many chapters; and so do its relations to the 
bishops of the dioceses in which it works, particularly in con- 



xii AUTHOR'S PREFACE 

nexion with Bishops Wilson, Selwyn, Alford, and Copleston. 1 
The great problem of Church organization in the Mission-field 
has two chapters to itself, one on Colonial Churches 3 and one 
on Native Churches. 8 The varied methods in Missions, evan- 
gelistic, pastoral, educational, literary, medical, industrial, all 
receive more or less notice in various parts of the work. The 
political relations of Missions present important questions which 
are illustrated in many of the episodes recorded : particularly 
in India, 4 but also in Turkey, 5 in China/ in New Zealand, 7 in 
the West Indies, 8 and in the Yoruba Mission. 9 The duty ^ of 
missionaries in times of danger is a question that may arise 
suddenly at any moment ; and the utterances on it of Henry 
Venn in the name of the Society 10 deserve special attention. 
In the home organization and conduct of societies, the C.M.S. 
has initiated most of the methods which -have come to be 
generally adopted, such as Public Meetings, Provincial Asso- 
ciations, Association Secretaries, Unions of different kinds, 
Missionary Boxes and Sunday-school Collections, Sales of 
Work and Exhibitions, Missionary Training Colleges, Finance 
Committees, a Working Capital, &c , &c , the origin and growth 
of which appear in these pages 11 Some developments supposed 
to be quite modern are found to have been thought of, and some 
of them acted on, in bygone days. The plan of a family or a 
parish supporting its " own missionary " turns out to have 
been formulated in Annual Sermons preached sixty years ago. 13 
What is now called the Policy of Faith the sending out 
of all missionaries who appear to be chosen of God for the 
work in faith that He will also supply the means necessary 
is found solemnly set forth by the C.M.S. Committee in 1853 ; 1; * 
while evidence is afforded by the experience of the years 
1 865-72 u that if the contrary principle of Eetrenchment is 
acted upon, and men are kept back, the result may only be 
heavier deficits than before, while the total number of labourers 
actually shows retrogression. 

v. 

The history contained in these volumes cannot be regarded 
merely as the history of a Society, or of a School of Eeligious 
Thought, or of a Church ; nor does it merely illustrate lines of 
policy, methods of work, systems of organization ; nor does it 

I Chaps, vn , x , XL, xxvi., XXVIL, xxxm,, xxxvm., LXIV., LXIX,, LXXX., 

LXXXIY., LXXXYIL, &C. 

3 XXXVIII. 3 LV. 4 XUV,, XLV, XLVI., LIX., &C. 

5 XII., LXXV. 6 XLIX., LXIV., LXXXI. 7 XXVIII., LXVII. 

8 xxin. 9 LVI. 10 XLV., LYI., j see also xvi. 

II X.J.XI., XIX., XXXI,, XXXV., LIII,, LIV., IiXXI , LXXII., LXXXV,, LXXXVI., &0, 
13 XIX. XXXY M LI., III., LIII., LIV., LXXL 



AUTHOR'S PREFACE xiii 

merely commemorate the lives of men, however good and noble. 
It is concerned with something much greater and higher than 
these. The true idea of Missions is not grasped unless we 
have eyes to see, on the one hand, a human race needing a 
Saviour; on the other hand, a Divine Saviour for all; and, 
between the two, the men who know Him, commissioned by 
Him to proclaim His Message to those who know Him not. The 
history of a missionary society is the history of an association 
of some of His servants for the purpose of fulfilling that Com- 
mission ; which Commission, therefore, is the subject of the 
First Chapter of the present work. Bealizing this, we are at 
once lifted on to a level far higher than that of a rallying-point 
for a religious party, or of an instrument for the propagation of 
particular views. It is right and wise, indeed, remembering 
the wide diversity of opinion among Christian men upon all 
sorts of theological and ecclesiastical questions, for those who. 
are substantially of one mind upon these questions to combine 
and work together. In so imperfect a state as the present, this 
method of doing God's work is the most practically successful. 
But while each association may rightly claim this liberty, and 
allow it to others, let its members rise in motive and aim to'the 
height of their calling. If they are Churchmen, indeed, let them 
say so, and not be ashamed of it. If they are Evangelical Church- 
men, let them say so, and not be ashamed of it. But let them, 
first of all and above all, be Christians, humbly rejoicing that 
they know Christ as their God and King, and working their 
association, consciously and purposely, for no object whatever 
however good in itself lower than the object of bringing their 
fellow-men to the knowledge of the same Christ. 

The history of the Church Missionary Society, then, is the 
history of an attempt, through the medium of such an associa- 
tion, to take a definite part in the work of God in the wojjd,' 
the work of calling men back to their allegiance to their One 
Eightful Sovereign, and of proclaiming His gracious offer of 
pardon and restoration, through His Incarnate, Crucified, and 
Exalted Son, for all who return to Him. 

This is the greatest of all " the principles of the Society," 
Three others naturally follow. The first is that those only are 
qualified to call men back to God's allegiance who are His true 
servants themselves. Perhaps we are too ready to bjast of 
what is called " the C.M.S. principle, Spiritual men for spiritual 
work," considering our own spiritual failures and unworfhiness ; 
but the principle, nevertheless, is obviously and indisputably, 
right. The second is that we are to be content, in actual 
missionary work, with nothing short of the real return to God 
of those who by nature are alienated from Him, that is, 



xiv AUTHOR'S PREFACE 

real conversion in heart and life. The third is that the 
qualifying of men for such a service, and the success of their 
efforts, are the work of the Holy G-host alone. 

The indirect and collateral influence of Missions is not to 
be despised, and is now generally acknowledged. They have 
promoted civilization ; they have facilitated colonization ; they 
have furthered geographical discovery ; they have opened doors 
for commerce , they have done service to science ; they have 
corrected national and social evils ; they have sweetened family 
life. Many Christian communities in the Mission-field are very 
imperfect , but at least they are better than the Heathen. The 
shipwrecked sailor loses his fear of being robbed and murdered 
when he spies a Bible in a native hut. The Bible may belong 
to *one who never reads it, and by whom its precepts are 
neglected ; but its very presence is an indication of better 
things. Nevertheless, all these indirect and collateral results 
are not the primary aim of a Christian missionary society. That 
aim is the salvation of men. 

There are also results of missionary work which, unlike those 
of a scientific or material character, cannot be called indirect. 
Missions extend the visible and organized Christian Church, or 
Churches ; and, in due time, they make Christian nations. 
Such results as these are to be aimed at, and prayed for. 
Viewed, however, in the light of eternity, they are not the end, 
but the means to an end ; they are chiefly valuable in so far as 
they promote the salvation of men. The grand aim of Missions 
is (1) to fulfil the Lord's command to preach the Gospel as 
a witness to all nations, which affects eternity because His 
Coming depends upon it ; and (2) to gather out of the world 
the spiritual Church which is the true Body of Christ, and 
which will live on into a future when all earthly Church 
organization is forgotten. 

While, therefore, the pages of this History which deal with 
ecclesiastical controversies, problems of organization, social 
reforms, and the like, may seem to be specially important, the 
reader who thinks of the salvation of men will turn with even 
m*ore interest to those which sketch the story of the individual 
servant of the Lord who goes forth in His Name, or of the 
convert whose life and whose death illustrate the power of 
Divine Grace. Many pages that are thus occupied will, it is 
hoped, evoke songs of praise and thanksgiving,, deepen the 
reader's faith in his Saviour and Lord, and send him to his 
knees in fresh and humble dedication of himself to the pro- 
motion of a cause so sacred, so blessed, so certain of ultimate 
triumph. He will learn that missionary advance abroad 
depends upon spiritual advance at home ; that the increase of 



AUTHORS PREFACE xv 

men and the increase of means follow upon seasons of revival, 
of the reading of the "Word of God, of united and believing 
prayer, of personal consecration to the Lord's service. He will 
God grant it! yield himself more wholly to his "glorious 
Victor," his u Prince Divine," and realize that even he, sinful 
and unworthy as he is, may, through the gracious condescension 
of his Heavenly Master, have a small share in the work of 
" bringing the King back." 

VI. 

It is right to say something touching the sources oi this 
History. For the first fifteen years of the Society's existence, 
I am chiefly indebted to Mr. Hole's previous researches, em- 
bodied in the important volume before mentioned. The 
Eleventh Chapter in particular, on the first Associations and 
Deputations, is almost entirely based upon his work. The 
Society's Beports from the first, and its principal Periodicals, 
have of course been studied page by page. The forty-two 
volumes of the old Missionary Register, 1813 to 1854, are of 
extraordinary value to the student of the period, as containing 
the current history, not of the CM.S. only, but of every other 
Society. I have described that wonderful periodical at the 
end of my Tenth Chapter. For the second half-century, the 
Church Missionary Intelligence is the best source of informa- 
tion on C.M.S. affairs; but the Miftwonary Register has had no 
successor, and my notices of the work of other Societies become 
fewer and fewer in later years, because an examination of their 
several Beports would have been an utter impossibility in the 
time at my disposal. I have, however, made frequent use of the 
valuable S.P.G. Digest, and of several books of recent date 
describing the work of the London Missionary Society, the Uni- 
versities' Mission, the China Inland Mission, &c. The Minute 
Books of the C.M.S. have of course been carefully examined, 
and also a host of documents, written and printed, on all sorts 
of subjects ; but I have not followed Mr. Hole's good example 
of industry in reading the thousands and thousands of MS, 
letters among the Society's archives. He did search out those 
of the first fifteen years. To do so for a hundred years would 
be a task quite beyond my power consistently with other duties. 
Mr. Venn's Private Journals, and many of his letters, however, 
have been kindly placed at my disposal by his son and daughter, 
and have naturally supplied important information. The cream 
of them, however, had already been published in Mr. Knight's 
Biography, which book has in other wayn also been a help to me. 

BiograpliieR, in fact, have been my best and most interesting 
authorities next to the current Beports and Magazines. They 



xvi AUTHOR'S PREFACE 

have continually thrown side-lights on the history, and furnish 
the personal touches which, it is hoped, will be found to add 
much to its interest. No historian of a century could in two 
years examine the letters, &c. 3 of a host of the leading men of 
the century, even if they were accessible to him ; but when this 
has been done by their biographers severally, and the results 
published, the historian may rightly make good use of them, 
and is wise to do so. I certainly owe much to biographies 
such as those of Wilberforce and Buxton, Scott and Pratt and 
Bickersteth and Simeon, Martyn and Heber and Daniel Wilson, 
Marsden and Henry Williams and Selwyn, Carey and Duff and 
John Wilson, Cotton and Milman and French, the Lawrences 
and Herbert Edwardes and Bartle Frere, Fox and Noble and 
Eagland, Gobat and Bowen, Q-. M. Q-ordon and Hanniagton and 
Mackay to name only a few of the more prominent. Upon 
Church affairs at home, besides some of those just mentioned, 
there have been the Lives of Bishops Blonrfield and S. Wilber- 
force, Archbishop Tait and Lord Shaftesbury and Dr. Pusey, 
and many others. 

A host of miscellaneous books might be mentioned, particu- 
larly those on Indian affairs by Sir John Kaye, Sir E. Temple, 
Dr. G. Smith, &c. ; but a complete bibliography would occupy 
many pages, and most of the books are tolerably well known 
and easily accessible. I ought, however, to refer to the value of 
the old volumes of the Christian Observer, a leading Evangelical 
organ for more than seventy years. Nowhere else can one gather 
a more accurate impression of the actual contemporary opinions of 
Evangelical Churchmen. Through the kindness of the Editors 
of the Record and the Guardian, I have also been able to examine 
all the files of the former paper, and many of those of the latter, 
For the past half-century. Of the Record, I have turned over 
every single page for the past twenty years, and made careful 
notes, before writing the brief chapters on recent Church history. 

References are everywhere given at the foot of the page to 
the various collateral sources of information. But I have not 
ordinarily given references to the Society's Eeports and Maga- 
zines, except in some specially important and interesting cases. 
They are more frequently given in Yol. III., because the history 
of later years, especially of older fields like India, is so con- 
densed that the reader is necessarily referred to the Eeports, 
&c. ? and these later Eeports are generally accessible. It should 
be explained that the Annual Eeport is always referred to by 
the year of its issue; thus " Eeport of 1895 " means the Eeport 
for 1894-95. It should also be mentioned that the Memoir of 
Henry Venn used is the "revised and compressed edition " of 1882. 



AUTHORS PREFACE xvii 

Here and there I have not hesitated to insert, without definite 
indication of the fact, particularly in two or three of the 
earlier chapters on Africa and Japan, extracts from my own 
writings in the G.M. Intelligencer, the C.M. Atlas, and else- 
where. The whole amount of matter thus borrowed is probably 
less than half a dozen pages ; but it is right to acknowledge the 
fact. It must be further explained that in the small book 
entitled One Hundred Years of the C.M.S., which was written 
after the first two volumes of the History, but before the third 
volume, paiagraphs and sentences are frequently taken from the 
present work. 

VII. 

I have not thought it well to interrupt the narrative with 
the insertion of official documents and tables of statistics. 
There ought properly to be a fourth volume, for appendices 
containing lists of missionaries, of institutions, of Bible trans- 
lations ; important Minutes of the Committee and other docu- 
ments; comparative statistical tables, &c. To prepare this, 
however, for the Centenary Year, has been impossible. But 
many extracts from official statements and reports occur in 
these pages, when they are necessary to make the story com- 
plete and are in themselves interesting. 

No attempt has been made to secure scientific correctness, or 
even absolute uniformity, in the spelling of foreign names. 
The orthography usually to be found in the C.M. 8. publications 
of recent years has been adopted. For example, the sacred book 
of Islam is written Koran, not, with some high authorities, 
Goran or Quran. The Province of the Five Eivers is called the 
Punjab, not Punjaub as formerly or Panjtil as more scientifi- 
cally correct. When, of two missionaries who know a certain 
town in China well, one spells it Z-ky'i and the other T#l-ckee t 
an Englishman unlearned in the Chinese language may be 
pardoned for abandoning the attempt to make his spelling of 
foreign names acceptable to all experts alike. 

This History is not, in the ordinary sense of the word, 
" illustrated/ 7 But portraits are given of many of the loading 
men who appear in its pages \ and a very few small illustrations 
are placed at the end of certain chapters. There are also repro- 
ductions of three old maps of special interest ; one, from the 
Missionary Register of 1816, showing the mission stations of the 
world at that time ; the second, from the CMf. Intelligencer of 
1850, Rebrnann's first attempt at delineating Bast Afriaa ; and 
the third, also from the Intelligencer, Erhardt's famous map of 
1856, showing the " monster slug " (as it was called), the sup- 

a 



xviii AUTHOR'S PREFACE 

posed vast inland sea, which led to the first exploring journey 
of Burton and Speke. Many modern maps would be needed to 
make the work complete ; but it is hoped that every reader will 
have the Church Missionary Atlas open at his side. That 
Atlas contains maps of all the Society's Mission-fields, and 
information concerning the countries and the people which may 
be regarded as preliminary to the study of the History. 

I have, in conclusion, to thank very warmly several friends 
who have most kindly read the proofs of the work. In the 
earlier chapters, the Eev. 0, Hole made important suggestions. 
The Eev. H. E Perkins has done so throughout, particularly in 
the India chapters. The China chapters have been read by 
Archdeacon A. B. Moule; the New Zealand chapters by the 
Bishop of Waiapu; the North-West Canada chapters by the 
Archbishop of Rupert's Land. A large part of the work has 
been read by the Rev. Henry Venn (son of the Hon. Secretary) 
and the Eev. John Barton ; some chapters by Archdeacon Long, 
who was a co-secretary with Mr. Venn ; and others by the Eev, 
T. W. Drury and the Eev. Dr. S. Dyson, Principal and Vice- 
Principal of Islington College. The chapters on the Church 
history at home of the last forty years have been read by the 
Rev. Prebendary Barlow, the Eev. Prebendary Webb-Peploe, 
and the Rev. Dr. Moule. Although none of these friends, nor 
my fellow-secretaries who have also read the proofs, nor the 
C.M.S. Committee as a body, are to be held responsible for 
the views here and there expressed in these pages, it will be 
acknowledged that I have taken the best pains to secure the 
general approval of the most competent judges, as well as the 
substantial correctness of my statements. I must also thank the 
members of the staff of the Editorial Department in the Church 
Missionary House for important help cheerfully rendered 
in various ways , and, in particular, Mr. John Alt Porter, for 
many valuable corrections and emendations, and for the very 
complete Index at the end of the Third Volume. 

I respectfully thank his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury 
1 to whose ardent advocacy the cause of the Evangelization of 
the World is so .deeply indebted for permission, cordially 
given, to dedicate the work to him ; and also the President of 
the Society, Sir John H. Kennaway, Bart., M.P., for the Preface 
he has kindly written. 

Finally, I commit the book to Him who alone can make it 
helpful and useful in the promotion of His holy cause. 

E. S, 

CHUBCH MISSIONARY 
February Isi, 1899. 



OUTLINE OF THE WORK. 



THE History is divided into Ten Parts, Five of these are in Vol. t, 
two in Vol. II , and three in Vol. III. The Nine Parts after the first 
cover Nine Peiiods of unequal length. In each Part after the first throe, 
the Society's environment and history at home are reviewed in the 
earlier chapters, and then the Mission-fields in turn, concluding in some 
cases with a windmg-up chapter. 

VOL, I. 

Part I. is preliminary. First, the Lord's Great Commission to His 
Church is recalled, Then in Chaps, n, and in, a rapid sketch is given 
of the work of the Church in executing that Commission during eighteen 
centuries Primitive Missions, Mediaeval Missions, Kornan Missions, 
and Modern Protestant Missions, are glanced at. In particular, the 
establishment and early enterprises of the S,P,C,K, and S.P.Gr, are 
briefly noticed. We are thus brought on towards tho close of the 
Eighteenth Century, the period which saw the foundation of the C.M.S, 
and several other missionary organizations, 

Part II, is entitled "One Hundred Years Ago 1 '; but it looks back 
over sixty years of the Eighteenth Century, and brings us clown to the 
thirteenth year of the Nineteenth Century. It is essential to a right under- 
standing of the origin and early years of the Church Missionary Society 
that the condition of the Church of England in tho Eighteenth Century 
should be realized. Chap, iv,, therefore, sketches its leading features, 
and notices both the earlier Methodist Revival and the later Evangelical 
Circle within the Church ; distinguishing, as it is important to do, the 
first generation of Evangelicals, among whom Henry Venn of Huddcrs- 
field was a leading figure, and the second generation of Evangelicals, of 
whom his son John Venn of Clapham was a leader. Thon in Chap, v, 
we turn aside to view the condition of "Africa and the East" when the 
Society was founded, bringing the narrative of Wilborforce's efforts 
down to the year 1800* Chap, vi. concentrates our attention on tho 
events, especially in 1786, which led to the Missionary Awakening, and 
introduces us to the Eclectic Society and its discussions Chaps. VIL 
and vin. tell the story of the actual establishment of the Society and 
the going forth of the first missionaries, In Chap, ix* wo resume the 
review of African and Indian affairs, and rejoice with Wilborforca uver 
both the Abolition of the Slave Trade and the Opening of India to the 
Gospel under the Charter of 1813. 

a 2 



XX OUTLItfk OF THE WORK 

Part HL is entitled "A Period of Development." The Society emerges 
from its feeble infancy and moves forward with the vigour of youth. 
Chap. x. describes a host of " forward steps " that marked the years 
1812-18 Chap. xi. tells the story of the first Provincial Associations 
and Deputations. In Chap. xn. we turn aside to notice other Societies, 
both their work and progress and their relations with the C.M.S. In 
particular we see the very curious circumstances of the revival and 
expansion of the S.P.G. in 1818. The next five chapters take us into 
the Mission-field, and we read of the early trials and successes in West 
Africa (xm.) 7 the deaths of faithful labourers there (xni., xiv.); the 
commencement of work in North and South India (xv.), and in New 
Zealand, Ceylon, &c. (xvi.); the Society's plans and efforts for the 
revival of the ancient Eastern Churches (xvn ), both m the Turkish 
Empire (as it was then) and in Travancore. Chap, xvui , from the 
standpoint of 1824, the date of Josiah Pratt's retirement from the 
Secretaryship, surveys the position and prospects of the work at home 
and abroad, and shows how hard experience had moderated the sanguine 
expectations of the early leaders of Missions. 

Part IV. only contains six chapters, but they are long and important 
ones. The first two are devoted to home affairs. Chap xix. introduces 
to us the Personnel of the Society, the Secretaries and Committee-men, 
the Preachers and Speakers at the Anniversaries, the Candidates and 
Missionaries, and those friends and fellow-workers who died in the 
period. Chap. xx. shows us the Society's Environment during the 
Period, particularly dwelling on the state and progress of the Church 
of England, with especial reference to the relations of the Evangelical 
school or party to other schools and parties. In this chapter we see 
something of the condition of England when Queen Victoria ascended 
the throne, the great improvements within the Church, certain internal 
differences among Evangelicals, and the rise of the Tractarian or Oxford 
Movement. The other four chapters take us again to the Mission-field 
India absorbs two of them. Chap, xxi. is an important chapter, parallel 
to the " Environment " chapters at home. It notices the changes and 
developments in India in the period of the 'thirties, particularly the 
reforms of Lord W. Bentmck; also the episcopate of Daniel Wilsoi>, 
and his struggle with Caste ; also the advent of Alexander Duff and 
the commencement of Educational Missions under his auspices. Then 
Chap. xxii. turns our attention to the C.M.S. Missions, and takes a 
survey of them all round India, with a glance at the work of other 
Societies, and at Ceylon. Chap, xxin, carries us back to Sierra Leone, 
and then across the Atlantic to the West Indies, telling the painful 
story of Slavery there and of Buxton's successful attack upon it. All 
the other Missions are grouped together in Chap xxiv., Mediterranean, 
Naw Zealand, and Rupert's Land, and the short-lived attempts at work 
in Abyssinia, and m Zululand, and among the Australian Blacks* 

Part V. is the shortest in regard to the length of time covered, 
comprising barely eight years, from the spring of 1841 to the Jubilee 
Commemoration, November, 1848, though in one or two chapters the 



OUTLINE OF THE WORK xxi 

narrative is necessarily continued a little beyond that epoch, The first 
chapter, xxv., combines the Personnel and the Environment, introducing 
us to the new Secretary, Henry Venn, and his fellow-workers, and also 
noticing various controversies at home, and Missions, Protestant and 
Roman, abroad. It is supplemented by two chapters which take up definite 
subjects, and in doing so show us more of both the Personnel and the 
Environment. Chap, xxvi describes the relations at the time between 
the C M.S. and the Church, and relates the adhesion to the Society of 
the Archbishops and Bishops, the attitude towards it of men like Blom- 
field and S. Wilberforce, and its attitude towards the rising Tractarianism. 
Chap, xxvii, tells the story of the Colonial and Missionary Episcopate, 
and, in particular, of the establishment of the Colonial Bishoprics Fund, 
of the New Zealand Bishopric, and of the Anglican Bishopric in Jeru- 
salem ; also of the Society's controversy with Bishop D. Wilson, Then 
follow three chapters on the Missions, India is omitted in this Part, the 
history of the work there m the 'forties having been practically covered 
in the preceding Part. Chap, xxvm gives a full narrative of the events 
and controversies of the period in New Zealand, with special reference to 
Bishop Selwyn and Sir G-. Grey, Chap. xxix. comprises several interest- 
ing episodes in the history of Missions in Africa, the story of Crowther, 
the first Niger Expedition, the origin of the Yoruba Mission, and Krapf's 
commencement on the East Coast. Chap. xxx. takes us for the first time 
to China, and summarizes the events before and after the first Chinese 
War. The last two chapters are special ones. Chap. xxxi. reviews the 
Finances of the Society, the Contributions and the Expenditure, during 
the half-century. Chap. xxxn. describes the Jubilee Commemoration. 



VOL. II. 

The two Parts comprised in Vol. II, cover twenty-four years, 1849 to 
1872. It would have been better to divide this period into throe Parts, 
of about eight years each. As it is, the Parts are too long and full, and 
the chapters overlap more than is desirable. For example, the reader 
will find himself in the Revival period of 1860 at homo before ho comes 
to events abroad ten years older; and Dr. Pfander's later work at 
Constantinople has to be taken before his earlier work in India, But 
there need be no confusion if the dates are carefully noted. 

The first two chapters of Part VI. deal with the Environment, Many 
of the events recorded in Chap, XXXIIL, the Gorham Judgment, the 
Revival of Convocation, <fec., aro the commonplaces of modern Church 
Histories ; but those of Chap, xxxiv., the new Evangelical Movements 
and their effect upon the Church, although equally important, ^re 
generally ignored. Chap. xxxv. introduces the Personnel, as in previous 
Parts. Chaps, xxxvi. and xxxvn. also introduce persons the candidates 
from the Universities, and the Islington mon with many biographical 
details. Then, in turning to the Missions, we take New Zealand first 
i.), because we have to review Bishop Selwyn's plans for Church 



xxii OUTLINE OF THE WORK 

organization and the resulting controversies, thus continuing certain 
discussions in Chap. xxxm., the first in this Part. 

The rest of the Part, comprising twelve chapters, is devoted to the 
Mission-field, Chap, xxxix,, on West Africa, touches such matters as 
the interest taken by the Queen and Lord Palmerston in African affairs, 
the efforts of H. Venn to promote industry and commerce, and the brief 
episcopates and deaths of the first three Bishops of Sierra Leone. 
Chap. XL. introduces the story of Bast African exploration; and 
Chap. XLI, the " proselytism " controversy regarding Bishop Gobat, and 
the British relations with Turkey after the Crimean War. Chap. XLIX. 
also touches political matters, in reference to China, the T'aip'ing 
Rebellion, and the Opium Controversy ; but Chaps XLVIII. and L., on 
Ceylon and North-West America, are purely missionary. 

But the six chapters on India, taken together, form one of the most 
important sections of the whole History, including the great epoch of 
Dalhousie's Governor-Generalship (XLII.), the conquest of the Punjab 
(XLIV.), the Mutiny (XLV.), the Neutrality Controversy in both India 
and England (XLV., xivi.) ; with the remarkable development of Missions 
during the period, both in the North and in the South, especially in 
Tinnevelly and Travancore (XLIII.) ; the work of Pfander and French at 
Agra (XLII.), of Noble at Masulipatam (XLIII.), of Leupolt and Long in 
the North (XLYII.) ; and above all, the thrilling story of the commence- 
ment in the Punjab and on the Afghan Frontier (XLIV.) under the auspices 
of the Lawrences, Edwardes, Montgomery, and others. 

Part VII., like Part VI., would have been better if a somewhat shorter 
period had been included in it. The fact, little known but very im- 
portant, that the years 1865-72 were a time, not only of depression, but 
actually of retrogression, would have come out more clearly. Let it be 
emphasized here, however, that in 1872 the Society had actually twelve 
men less on the roll than in 1865. The careful reader will find why it 
was so. 

The first two chapters of this Part also are devoted to the Environ- 
ment. The " High" and " Low " movements are not taken separately, 
however, as they were in Part VI. One chapter is occupied with the 
controversies of the period, and the other with Church affairs and some 
Home Mission developments. Then Chaps. LIII and LIV. give us, as in 
previous parts, the personnel and inner history of the Society ; the account 
of the candidates in Chap. LIV. leading up to the establishment of the 
Day of Intercession. 

Chap LV., on Native Church Organization, is complementary to 
Chap, xxxviii. in the preceding Part The next twelve chapters again 
take us round the Mission-field, First, West Africa, telling, on the one 
hand, of the discouragements and repulses everywhere (LVI.), and, on 
the other hand, of Bishop Crowther 7 s work on the Niger (LVII.) ; then 
Mauritius, and the short-lived Mission in Madagascar (LVIII.); then 
five chapters on India. Of these five, four are arranged neither geo- 
graphically nor chronologically, but topically, introducing us to the great 
Anglo-Indians of the period (LIX.), to the Brahmo Samaj and similar 



OUTLINE OF THE WORK xxiii 

movements (LX.), to the varied missionary methods and agencies (LXI.), 
and commemorating the noble missionaries who died in the period 
(LXII.) ; while the fifth (LXIII.), on the Punjab, is notable for its narra- 
tives of converts from Islam. Advances and trials in China (LXIV.), the 
opening of Japan (LXV.), the establishment of Metlakahtla (LXVI.), follow 
in succession; and, lastly, comes a full account (LXVII.) of the dark 
period of war in New Zealand 

The last chapter of the Part, LXVIII , winds up the history of the 
period with a sketch of Henry Venn's latter days, closing with his death, 

VOL. III. 

Part VIII. covers the eight years of Henry Wright's Secretaryship, but 
carries on the history two years after his death, partly that the great 
epoch of change in Salisbury Square, 1880-82, may clearly appear, and 
partly to mark the epoch in English Church history of Archbishop Tait's 
death at the end of 1882. 

We begin, as before, by surveying the Environment, first the Church 
Movements and leading men of the period (LXIX.), and then (LXX.) 
the Evangelistic and Spiritual Movements associated with the names of 
Aitken, Moody, Pennefather, Battersby, &c. Then we come to the 
Society itself, and note the men and work of these energetic years 
(LXXI.)J stopping, however, just before Mr. Wright's death, and 
leaving that event and its issues to come at the end of the Pnrt. A 
supplementary chapter (LXXIL) describes the Society's homo organisa- 
tion. 

The chapters on the Missions are eleven in number. First wo see 
the revival of vigorous efforts in and for Africa (LXXIII.), mostly con- 
sequent on the death of Livingstone; and, in particular (LXXIV.), the 
commencement in Uganda. Then we take up Missions to Moham- 
medans (LXXV.) in Palestine, Persia, <fcc. India absorbs four chapters 
this time, three of them reviewing the work by dioceses. First, Calcutta 
and Bombay (LXXVL), introducing the Prince of Wales's visit, Vaugbm's 
struggle with Caste in Krishnagar, and some educational questions; 
then Lahore (LXXYIL), and the work of French, Clark, Bateman, and 
Gordon ; and then Madras (ixxvm.)> with Bishops Sargont and Cald- 
well in Tinnevelly, the. Great Famine, the Travancore Kevival and 
Schism, <fec. The fourth Indian chapter (LXXIX.) narrates the efforts to 
influence the non-Aryan Hill Tribes, Santals, Gonds, <&c. Chap. LXXX, 
discusses the ecclesiastical questions that arose in both India and Ceylon 
at this time, and, in particular, tells tho story of the famous Ceylon Con- 
troversy. The China chapter (LXXXT.) tolls of development and advance 
amid many difficulties ; and a short section at the end of it summarises 
the few yet important incidents of the period in Japan. Chap. LXXXII, 
takes us back to North America, reviews the work by dioceses, and, at 
the end, begins the story of Bishop Ridley's episcopate on the North 
Pacific coast. 

The closing chapter of the Part (LXXXIII.), as above indicated, relates 



xxiv OUTLINE OF THE WORK 

the important events of 1880-82, Mr, Wright's death, the changes in the 
Church Missionary House that followed, and the emergence of the 
Society from the Period of Retrenchment into the Period of Expansion. 

Part IX, is devoted to the period of Mr. Wigram's Secretaryship, 
except that the events of his first two years, 1881-2, have been mostly 
included in Part VIIL The Home Chapters are relatively fuller in this 
Part than in any other, the Period having been marked by so many new 
developments. Commencing with the Environment as usual, Chapter 
LXXXIV, introduces us to Archbishop Benson's Primacy and many of 
the events that occurred in its earlier years ; also to the rise of the 
modern missionary movements at Cambridge and in connexion with the 
Keswick Convention. In Chap. LXXXV, the Personnel d the Society during 
the period is described, and the incidents are noticed which made 18834 
the commencement of a new era of progress, Chap, LXXXVL is entirely 
devoted to the " three memorable years" that followed, 1885-7, dwelling 
on their encouraging features, while Chap. L xxxvii.notices various con- 
troversies of the period, touching the Jerusalem bishopric, &c, In 
Chap. LXXXVIIL the numerous missionary recruits of the period are 
introduced. 

Then, turning to the foreign field, we have three long and full chapters 
on African affairs. The first two are entitled " High Hopes and Sore 
Sorrows": Chap. LXXXIX. relating the developments, difficulties, and 
deaths in the West Africa Missions, particularly on the Niger; and 
Chap, xc, the advances and the trials of the period in East Africa and 
Uganda Chap xci. continues the latter story, with especial reference 
to the steps which led to the establishment of the Uganda Protectorate, 
The following seven chapters, XCIL to XCVIIL, take us in succession to 
India, Ceylon, and Mauritius ; to Persia, Palestine, and Egypt ; to China 
and Japan ; to New Zealand and the Dominion of Canada. 

Finally, Chaps, xcix. and o, resume the Home narrative, showing us, 
more especially, the results of " seven years of the Policy of Faith," and 
reviewing the proceedings of various Conferences and Congresses held 
during the period, 

Parf X., in a few closing chapters, reviews the events of the past four 
years, and seeks to draw from the whole history lessons for our guidance 
and encouragement in the time to come, 



CONTENTS OF VOL. I. 

PA.0K 

OUTLINE OF THE WOSK xix 

fart 1 
PRELIMINARY CHAPTERS. 

CHAPTER I. 



THE GREAT COMMISSION , 



CHAPTER IL 

MISSIONS BEFOftE THE REFORMATION, 

The Apostolic Age Conversion of the Roman Empireof the 
Northern Nations Patrick, Anschar, Kaymund Lull, &c. 
Nestorian Missions in Asia Mohammedanism .... 6 

CHAPTER III. 

MISSIONS AFTER THE REFORMATION. 

Roman Missions Francis Xavier Early Protestant Efforts Eliot 
and the Red Indians Cromwell, Robert Boyle, Dr. Bray 
SP.C.K. and S.P.G. Bishop Berkeley Ziegcnbalg and 
Schwartz Hans Egede The Moravians Brainerd 16 



H. 
ONE HUNDRED YEARS AGO, 

CHAPTER IV, 

THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY AND THE EVANGELICAL REVIVAL. 

The Church under the Georges Butlor and Wesley The 
Methodist Movement Wesleyans, Calvinists, Evangelicals 
The Last Decade Second Generation of Evangelicals The 
ClaphamSect , 81 

CHAPTER V, 
AFRICA AND THE EAST WAITING, 

The Dark Continent England and the Slave Trade Granville 
Sharp, Clarkson, Wilberforce The Struggle for Abolition- 
The East India Company Religion in British India in the 
Eighteenth Century Charles Grant and Wilberforce The 
Dark Period in India Other Eastern Lands, Waitiag . . 45 



xxvi CONTENTS 

CHAPTER YI. 

THE MISSIONARY AWAKENING, PAG 

The Twelve Events of 1786 Charles Simeon - Carey; The 
Baptist and London Missionary Societies The Eclectic Dis- 
cussions Botany Bay Simeon in earnest Josiah Pratt and 
John Venn Why form a new Society ? L M S. not desirable, 
S.P.G. not possible 57 

CHAPTER VII. 

THE NEW SOCIETY AND ITS EARLY STRUGGLES. 
April 12th, 1799 The Men and their Plans Waiting for the 
Archbishop Men, Money, and Openings wanted The First 
Five Sermons Thomas Scott and Josiah Pratt ... 68 

CHAPTER VIII. 
THE FIRST MISSIONARIES. 

Henry Martyn's Offer The Men from Berlin Their Training 
The First Valedictory Meetings The First Voyages Out The 
First Englishmen accepted Ordination Difficulties ... 81 

CHAPTER IX. 

AFRICA AND INDIA: STRUGGLE AND VICTORY. 
Renewed Anti-Slave-Trade Campaign Wilberforce's Triumph 
Sierra Leone India in the Dark Period Carey and Seram- 
pore Claudius Buchanan The Vellore Mutiny Controversy 
at Home The Charter Debates Another Victory India 
Open 92 



A PERIOD OF DEVELOPMENT: 1812-1824. 
CHAPTER X. 

FORWARD STEPS. 

Signs and Causes of Coming Development The President New 
Rules Salisbury Square Annual Meetings and Sermons 
Valedictory Meetings Public Affairs : Fall of Napoleon : 
State of the Country More Openings for Work Transla- 
tional Undertakings Samuel Lee Offers of Service Special 
Funds The Missionary Register 107 

CHAPTER XI. 

ROUSING THE COUNTRY : THE ASSOCIATIONS. 
Growing Needs Plans for Associations The Start at Bristol- 
Basil Woodd's Yorkshire Journey Features of the Campaign : 
Obstacles, Opposition within and without the Church, Suc- 
cesses, Spiritual Influence, Hymns Norwich, Cambridge, 
Liverpool, Ireland Grandfathers of the Present Generation . 129 

CHAPTER XII. 

C.M.S. AND OTHER SOCIETIES. 

The S.P.C.K. and S.P.G. at this Period The Archdeacon of Bath's 
Attack on C.M.S. Awakening in S.P.G. : the Royal Letter 
Pratt's Propaganda Heber proposes union of S.P.G. and 



CONTENTS xxvii 

PAGE 

O.M.S. The Bible Society, Jews' Society, Prayer Book and 
Homily Society, Religious Tract Society, Nonconfoimist 
Missionary Societies Foundation of the American Church 
Missions ........... 144 

CHAPTER XIII. 

SIEBRA LEONE : THE WHITE MAN'S GRAVE ; THE BLACK MAN'S LIFE, 

Early Efforts The Susu Mission Edward Bickersteth's Visit- 
Work among the Liberated Slaves W. A. B Johnson and 
H. During The Revival at Regent The Fever and its Victims 
West Africa not a Debtor but a Creditor .... 156 

CHAPTER XIV. 
THE FINISHED COURSE. 

Miss Childe's Book Some Martyrs for Christ in West Africa 
Rev. W. Garnon Gates A Negro's Wail Mr. arid Mrs, 
Palmer C. Knight and H, Brooks Nylander's Daughters 
Kissy Churchyard 173 

CHAPTER XV. 

INDIA: ENTERING THE OPENED DOOR. 

C M.S. Work begun before the Opening The Calcutta Corre- 
sponding Committee Corne and Abdul Masih The First 
Missionaries The Bishopric of Calcutta Bishop Middloton 
Bishop's College Bishop Heber Burdwan and its Schools 
Miss Cooke's Girls' SchoolBenares, Agra, Moi'rut The 
Sepoy Convert Madras and Tmnevelly Hough and Rhenius 182 

CHAPTER XVI. 
INSULAR MISSIONS : NEW ZEALAND, CEYLON, WEST INDIES, MALTA. 

Samuel Marsden and the Maoris The New Zealand Mission 
Christmas Day, 1814 The Lay Settlers Trials and Dis- 
appointmentsHenry and William Williams Tho Openings 
in Ceylon and the First Missionaries Antigua, Barbacloes, 
Honduras Malta as a Centre of Influence . 203 

CHAPTER XVII. 

THE EASTERN CHURCHES : EFFORTS FOR THEIR REVIVAL, 

The Committee's Eyes upon the East An Appeal from Malta- 
William Jowett C.M.S. Policy with the Eastern Churches 
The Bible for the Eastern Churches Promising Beginnings 
Turkish Atrocities The Syrian Church of Travancore 
Buchanan and Colonel Munro C.M.S, Designs Fexm. Bailey. 
Baker . . . ! 221 

CHAPTER XVIII, 

THE OUTLOOK AFTER TWENTY-FIVE YEARS, 
Josiah Pratt retires Sombre Tone of his Last Report Cunning- 
ham on the Great Enemy Discouragement and Repulse in 
the Mission Field Deaths New Friends The Anniversaries 
Men and Means Ordinations New N.-W. America Mission 
The S.V.M.U. Motto anticipated -The One Hope, an Out- 
pouring of the Spirit 2 



xxviii CONTENTS 

Sart W. 

FROM PRATT'S RETIREMENT TO VENN'S ACCESSION: 
18241841. 

CHAPTER XIX, 

THE PERSONNEL OF THE PERIOD. PAGE 

Dandeson Coates Edward Bickersteth The Committee Lord 
Chicliester President The two Bishops Sumner The 
Preachers and Speakers B. Noel and Dale suggest "Own 
Missionaries" The Missionaries The C.M. College Deaths 
Simeon and Wilberforce 251 

CHAPTER XX. 
THE ENVIRONMENT OF THE PERIOD. 

Public Affairs The Reform Bill and the Bishops Accession of 
Queen Victoria Church Reform Evangelical Improvements 
The C.P A S. Growth of S.P.Gk Bishop Blomneld Open- 
ing of Exeter Hall Bible Society Controversies Prayer at 
Public Meetings Calvinistic Disputes Edward Irving 
Plymouth Brethren Prophetical Studies Pratt warns 
against Disunion The Tractarian Movement: Keble and 
Newman Attitude of the Evangelicals ; and of C.M.S. . 270 

CHAPTER XXI. 
INDIA: CHANGES AND DEVELOPMENTS. 

The Bishops Daniel "Wilson Lord W. Bentmck Social Reforms 
Abolition of Suttee Government Patronage of Idolatry 
Charles Grant the Younger and the Company Resignation 
of Sir P. Maitland Work and Influence of R. M. Bird- 
Steam Communication New Bishoprics Bishop Corne 
Bishop Wilson and the Caste Question Education Alexander 
Duff ; his Father and C. Simeon Duff 's Plan Ram Mohun 
Roy Duff's College The Early Converts Duff and Macaulay 
The Friend of India and Calcutta Review Duff at home 
His C.M.S. Speech 290 

CHAPTER XXII. 

INDIA. PROGRESS OF THE MISSIONS. 

The North India Stations The Awakening in Krishnagar Bishop 
Wilson's Hopes Why they failed Bishop Wilson declines 
Ladies Mrs, Wilson Bombay Tmnevelly Rhenius : his 
Work, his Disconnexion Progress under Pettitt The Tinne- 
velly Christians : Nominal Christianity ; Persecution ; C.M.S. 
and S P.G-. Travancore : Syrians and Heathen ; Changed 
Policy of the Mission Madras Seminary Telugu Mission : 
Fox and Noble John Tucker Controversies with the Corre- 
sponding Committees Bishop's College Other Missions in 
India Ceylon 312 

CHAPTER XXIII. 
THE NEGRO ON BOTH SIDES THE ATLANTIC, ENSLAVED AND FREE. 

Continued Slave Trade in West Africa Sickness and Sorrow at 
Sierra Leone Progress notwithstanding Can the Negro be 



CONTENTS xxix 



elevated ? West Indian Slavery Wilberforce and Buxton 
The Parliamentary Campaign "West Indian Cruelties Perse- 
cution of Missionaries Trial and Death of John Smith 
Oppression of Negroes in Jamaica An Amendment at 
Exeter Hall Abolition of Slavery Death of Wilberforce 
'' Compensation for the Slave " The Day of Emancipation 
Missionary Plans for the Negroes C M.S. in Jamaica 
British Guiana Mission Zachary Macaulay , . 333 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

GREEK, COPT, ABYSSINIAN, ZULU, MAORI, AUSTRALIAN, CREE. 
Malta, Syra, Smyrna Egypt and Abyssinia S. Gobat , Liecler ; 
Isenberg and Krapf The Zulu Mission . Francis Owen New 
Zealand : First Baptisms ; New Missionaries ; Extension ; 
Charles Darwin ; Bishop Broughton ; Marsden's Last Visit 
and Death New Holland Mission- the Australian Blacks 
Rupert's Land : the Cree and the Soto , Cockiau and Cowley ; 
Bishop Mountain's Visit 349 



FROM VENN'S ACCESSION TO THE JUBILEE: 1841-1848. 
CHAPTER XXV. 

HENRY VENN; AND SURVEY OF MEN AND THINGS. 
The Year 1841 an Epoch in Church, in State, in C.M.S. Henry 
Venn Deaths of Pratt and Coates The Committee, Vice- 
Presidents, Preachers and Speakers C.M.S. Missions and 
Missionaries Missions of Other Societies Roman Missions 
Controversies at Home , Maynooth, Irish Church Missions, 
Evangelical Alliance Scotch Disruption -O.M.S and Scotch 
Episcopal Church 367 

CHAPTER XXVI. 

THE SOCIETY AND THE CHUBCH. 

Improved Condition of the Church Church Unions H, Venn's 
Defence of M.S." Sanction of Convocation " F. Close's 
Sermon Bishop Blomfield's Proposals for C.M.S, and S.P G, 
F. Close and Lord Chichoster on the Proposals Revision 
of C.M.S. Laws Archbishops and Bishops join C.M.S. Hugh 
StowelTs Sermon, and Bishop Blotnfiold's Results, Expected 
and Actual S.P.G. and C.M S. Samuel Wilberforce, Bishop 
of Oxford: his Career and Influence J. B. Sunnier, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury Tractarian Controversies and Seces* 
^sions Attitude of C.M.S 382 

CHAPTER XXVII. 

THE COLONIAL AND MISSIONARY EPISCOPATE. 
S.P.G. Appeals in Eighteenth Century First Bishops for America 
and Canada The Colonial Episcopate at Queen Victoria's 
Accession Growth of S.P.G, The Colonial Church Society 
The Colonial Bishoprics Fund, 1841 Attitude of G.M.S.-*- 
New Zealand Bishopric C.M.S. Relation thereto Bishop 
Selwyn StowelFs Sermon Other new BishopricsJerusalem 



xxx CONTENTS 

i 4 *. cue 

Bishopric Bunsen, Lord Ashley, Gladstone The first Bishop 
consecrated C M S. Controversy with Bishop Daniel Wilson 
The Concordat and H. Venn Case of Mr. Humphrey 
shop D. Wilson's Visit to England His C.M.S. Sermon . 404 

CHAPTER XXVIII 

NEW ZEALAND: THE BISHOP, THE COLONY, AND THE MISSION. 
Advent of Colonists Annexation of New Zealand Arrival of 
Bishop Selwyn: his Testimony, Travels, and Trials His 
Difficulties with C.M.S His Tardy Ordinations Colonial 
Encroachment and Maori Discontent Governors Fitzroy and 
Grey The Missionary Lands Question Grey's Secret Des- 
patch Archdeacon H. Williams disconnected and reinstated 
The Maori Bible Komanist Mission Extension and Suc- 
cesses of C.M S. Mission Sir G Grey's Testimony The 
Melanesian Mission 427 

CHAPTER XXIX. 

NEW ENTEKPRISES IN AFBICA NIGER EXPEDITION, YOBUBA MISSION 

EAST COAST. 

Story of Adjai the Slave-boy Fowell Buxton's New Plans The 
River Niger Prince Albert's First Speech The Expedition 
of 1841 Its Failure and Fruits Buxton's Death The 
returning Egba Exiles S. Crowther's Ordination Townsend 
and Crowther to Abeokuta Krapf in Shoa His Voyage 
to Zanzibar Mombasa Death of Mrs. Krapf The Appeal 
of her Grave 449 

CHAPTER XXX. 
THE OPENING OP CHINA. 

Nestorian and Roman Missions in China China in the First 
Report of C.M.S Morrison, Milne, Gutzlaff E. B. Squire's 
Attempt The Chinese War Lord Ashley and the Opium 
Trade New Moves Forward Vincent Stanton The C M.S. 
Mission The First Missionaries Bishop George Smith . . 463 

CHAPTER XXXI. 

THE SOCIETY'S FINANCES. 

Earliest Contributions The Associations in 1820 London and 
the Provinces in 1848 Comparison with the Present Time 
A Missionary-box at Sea The Expenditure of the Half- 
Century The Financial Crisis of 1841 Plans of the Special 
Committee What are the "Talents" given to a Society? 
An Income Tax for C.M.S. An Appeal on Protestant 
Principles Its Results 475 

CHAPTER XXXII. 

THE JUBILEE* 

Europe and England in 1848 Survey of the Half-Century's 
Work Jubilee Tracts Jubilee Services and Gather 



The Great Meeting : Lord Chichester, Sir R, Inglis, Bishop 
Wilberforce, Cunningham, Bickersteth, Hoare Observances 
in the Provinces and m the Mission Field Death of H. W. 
Fox The Fox Sermon at Rugby The Jubilee Fund The 
Queen becomes a Life Governor Fox's Jubilee Hymn . 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



VOL. I. 

PORTRAITS TA.GE 

The Right Honourable the Earl of Chichestcr . . Frontispiece 

Thomas Clarkson, Zachary Macaulay, Willicim Wilber- 

force, John Bacon, Henry Thornton . . . Facing 31 

The Revs John Venn, Thomas Scott, Charles Simeon, 

John Newton, Richard Cecil ,,57 

Charles Grant, the Revs. Henry Martyn, Abdul Masili, 

Claudius Buchanan, Daniel Come . ,,92 

Lord Gambier, tho Revs. Basil "Woodd, Josiah Pratt, 

William Goocle, T. T. Bicldulph .... ,,107 

The Revs, John W. Cunningham, "William Jovyett, 
and Edward Bickersteth ; Bishop Ryder ; Sir T. 
Fowell Buxton ,,251 

Bishop Heber, Dr. Alexander Duff, Bishop Daniel 
Wilson, Bishop Cotton, the Revs, J. J. Weitbrecht 
and Benjamin Bailey 290 

Tho Revs Hugh McNcile and Hugh Stowell, Arch- 
bishop Sumner, Dean Close, Bishop Samuel Wil- 
berforce 382 

Archdeacon Henry Williams, the Rev. Samuel 
Marsden, Bishop G. A. Selwyn, Bishop W, 
Williams, Mrs. W. Williams 427 



Facsimile of Map and accompanying Notes as* inserted 

in tho Missionary Roister for 1816 ... 128 

The First Picture in a Missionary Magazine, the Mis- 
sionary Register of April, 1816, representing a 
Scone in West Africa 128 



Many of the portraits m the History aro from oil-paintings or engravings 
presented to tho Society , others from photographs or prints kindly lent 
by friends, for which the Author here makes gratoi'ul acknowledgment. 



|)art J* 
PRELIMINARY CHAPTEES. 



VOL. I, 



NOTE ON PAET I. 



THE Three Chapters in this Part are preliminary. First, the Lord's 
Great Commission to His Church is recalled Then in Chaps. IT. and III 
a rapid sketch is given of the work of the Church in executing that 
Commission during eighteen centuries. Primitive Missions, Mediaeval 
Missions, Roman Missions, and Modern Protestant Missions, are glanced 
at. In particular, the establishment and early enterprises of the S.P.C K. 
and S.P.G. are briefly noticed. We are thus brought on towards the 
close of the Eighteenth Century, the period which saw the foundation 
of the C.M.S. and several other missionary organizations. 




CHAPTER I. 

THE GREAT COMMISSION. 

" Remember the words of the Lord Jesus." Acts xx 35 

|HE History of Missions begins with the Day of Pente- PART I. 
I cost Our familiar Cieed, after affirming the facts of Chfli P- 1 - 
the Incarnation, Sufferings, Death, Burial, and Besur- ' 
rection of the Son of God, continues, "He ascended The Vcucs 
into heaven ; And sitteth on the right hand of God creed, 
the Father Almighty : From thence He shall come to judge the 
quick and the dead." The Past "He ascended into heaven." 
The Future " From thence He shall come." Between the Past 
and the Future is the Present " He sitteth at the right hand of 
God." But what of the Present on earth ? The Creed goes on, 
"I Relieve in the Holy Ghost, the Holy Catholic Church."' 
While the Son of God is sitting on the Father's right hand, it is 
the dispensation of the Holy Ghost ; and the work He is doing is 
the calling out of the Ecclesia, the "Holy Catholic Church." 
That is the purpose of Missions ; and so tho History of Missions 
begins with the Day of Pentecost. 

One of the first parts of the work of the Holy Ghost was to The Voic 
inspire the writers of the New Testament. The Four Evangelists TeSiSnT 
were guided by Him to write their records of the Life of tho Sou 
of God on earth. When we examine these precious records, 
nothing is more significant than the brevity of the accounts of 
His visits to His disciples after the Besurrec'tion. The narratives 
of the Sufferings and Death are full and detailed. The narratives 
of the Kesurrection and the Forty Days are short and slight, St. 
Luke tells us in his second work, the Acts of the Apostles, that 
Christ, during those Forty Days, " gave commandments unto the 
apostles whom He had chosen," and that He spoke to them "of 
the things pertaining to the Kingdom of God." Tho same evange- 
list^ in his Gospel, shows us tho Lord expounding to them the 
ancient Scriptures, the things "written m the Law of Moses, and 
in the Prophets, and m the Psalms." Now the interesting 
question is, Out of all these instructions and exhortations and 
expositions, what were the Evangelists guided by the Holy Ghost 
bo record? The answer is most significant. 

St. Matthew gives us only one fragment. It is this : " All in St. 
power is given unto Me in heaven and in earth. Go ye therefore, M * tth<!W ' 

B 2 



4 THE GREAT COMMISSION 

PAST I. and teach [disciple] all nations, baptizing them in the name of 

Gha P L the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost- teaching 
them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you * 
and lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world/' 

st. Mark. St. Mark i.e the postscript to His Gospel . into the textual 
question we need not enter gives us only one fragment. It is 
this : " Go ye into all the world, and preach the Gospel to every 
creature," with the appended promise to him that believes and 
warning to him that believes not, and the reiterated insistence 
upon baptism as the public confession of Christ and sign of 
separation unto Him. 

st Luke. St. Luke gives us the episode of the Walk to Emmaus ; but in 
the narrative of the Lord's interview with His disciples as a body, 
there is again only one fragment of His instructions. In that 
fragment He lays definite stress upon three things. " Thus it is 
written, and thus it behoved Christ to suffer, and to rise from the 
dead the third day, and that repentance and remission of sins 
should be preached in His name among all nations, beginning at 
Jerusalem." Three things put on a level, as apparently of equal 
importance in the work of redemption, viz., (1) the Death of 
Christ, (2) His Resurrection, (3) the preaching of repentance and 
remission of sins among all nations. 

st. John. gk John records the Lord's first appearance to the disciples on 
that first Easter-Day evening, when, after the word of salutation, 
" Peace," He instantly gives them, as the one thing of transcen- 
dent importance, their commission, " As My Father hath sent Me, 
even so send I you." It is interesting to notice further that, in 
the last and supplementary chapter of the Gospel, we have their 
work represented under two figures. First, we see them as 
fishers . " Cast the net on the right side of the ship, and ye shall 
find " Secondly, as shepherds (for the injunctions to Peter 
cannot be regarded as merely personal to himself)* "Feed My 
lambs," "Tend My sheep/' "Feed My sheep." Here we have 
the two grand divisions of all work for Christ, at home and abroad, 
(1) the evangelistic, (2) the pastoral. 

So we find that whatever the instructions and exhortations and 
expositions of those Forty Days were, and however numerous, 
the Evangelists were divinely inspired to record only one Great 
Commission, and that this is recorded by them all. There are 
but few things in the life and teaching, of Christ that have a four- 
fold record, "We have it of His Sufferings and Death ; we have it 
of His Eesurrection ; we have it of one Miracle, and one only, the 
Feeding of the Five Thousand. We have it not of His Birth, nor 
of His Circumcision, nor of His Baptism, nor of His Temptation, 
nor of His Transfiguration, nor of His Ascension. The Great 
Commission, therefore, occupies an exceptional position in having 
a fourfold record. 

And hot an exceptional position merely. Its position is unique. 
For it actually has a fivefold record. We turn to the first chapter of 



THE GREAT COMMISSION 5 

the Acts. We are there back again in the Forty Days. But there, PART I 
too, only one thing is definitely mentioned. The disciples come Glm P * 
to the Lord with a speculative question. Instantly, " It is not for TheTcts 
you to know . . . but " But what? He would not give them 
the knowledge they asked for, but He would give them power. 
Power for what? " Ye shall receive power, after that the Holy 
Ghost is come upon you ; and ye shall be witnesses unto Me ... 
unto the uttermost part of the earth" "And when He had 
spoken these things, as they beheld, He was taken up, and a 
cloud received Him, out of their sight," Tho very last words of 
Jesus : " uttermost part of the earth " ! 

How could the Holy Ghost have emphasized more strongly 
what work was to be done upon earth during the period between 
the Ascension and the Second Advent, while the Son of God 
" sitteth on the right hand of God the Father Almighty " ? 

In a word, that work is the Evangelization of the "World. Tho Th 
Evangelization whatever that word may include ; not necessarily gdued 
the Conversion. Without entering into the difficult questions 
clustering round the Promise of the Second Coming, there seem 
to be two passages in the Now Testament which indicate the two 
purposes of the present work of Evangelization. The first is 
Matt. xxiv. 14, " This Gospel of the kingdom shall bo preached 
in all the world for a witness unto all nations ; and then shall the 
end come," The second is Acts xv. 14, " God did visit tho 
Gentiles, to take out of them a people for His name," The first 
announces the universal proclamation of the Gospel ; the second 
announces the gathering out of tho Ecclosia, "tho Holy Catholic 
Church." 

It is the Divine plan that the Church is to do this work, guided, B the 
administered, empowered, by the Holy Ghost, The Church is to h ' 
evangelize the World. The Church is to gather out the Church. 
She is to be self-extending, self-propagating. 

It is a humiliating thought that this one great Commission 
which the Church's Bison Lord gavo her to execute is the very 
thing she has not done. She has accomplished nwgmficeut work. 
She has covered Christendom with splendid buildings for the 
worship of God. She has cared for the poor, tho sick, tho in- 
firm, the aged, the young. She has taught tho world to build 
hospitals and schools. But her Lord's one grand Commission 
she has almost entirely neglected. It should have had the first 
place in her thoughts, sympathies, and prayers. It has had tho 
last place, if indeed it can be said to have had a place at all And 
all the while, her Lord and Saviour " sitteth on the right hand of 
God the Father Almighty/' " cf^eclmg" as the Epistle to tho 
Hebrews expresses it. 

But a few of tho Church's members, sometimes as individuals, 
sometimes in bands and associations, have remembered their 
Lord's command and tried to do something The story of one of 
these associations is the subject of the present volume, 



CHAPTER II, 

MISSIONS BEFOM TEE REFORMATION, 

The Apostolic AgeConversion of the Roman Empire-Of the Northern 
Nations Patrick lona Augustm of Canterbury Boniface 
Anschar Dark Ages Crusades Raymund Lull Nestonan 
Missions in Asia Islam and Christianity, 

u Je M rm well ; wlio &i& Un&er you ? " Gal, v, 7, 

iwjKjP||BFOEE inquiring into the origin of the Society whose 

Chap 2 p P^J S * i01i y ^ s kk * s * * e ^' an ^ m * ^ ie c i rcums t ances 

80-1584! W K| am ^ ^ida it was established, let us take a brief 

IfeyilsJI survey of the Church's evangelistic work during the 

preceding eighteen centuries 

The Acts The Acts of the Apostles is the Book of Evangelization. There 
Missions! we see the Church commencing the work given her to do, directed 
at every step by the Divine Administrator of her Missions, the 
Holy Ghost. That book is but a fragment, It gives us only a 
few illustrations of what the Apostles and their companions and 
followers did towards executing the great Commission. Yet its 
value is supreme, and its teachings regarding the conduct of 
Missions are most important. Into these we cannot now enter j 
but there is one fact revealed to us m the Acts which throws 
much light upon the history of the Church ever since 
Work of It is this, Prom the very beginning, the work of evangelization 
Christians, was but partially we might say feebly taken up by the Church 
as a whole, The pictures sometimes drawn of the early Christians 
going forth by thousands in all directions as missionaries arc 
entirely imaginary, Only once in the Acts is there anything in 
the least like this. They that were "scattered abroad" by the 
persecution which arose at Jenisalena after the murder of Stephen, 
and in which Saul of Tarsus took so leading a part, " went every- 
where preaching the word," But they were fugitives, not mis- 
sionaries, They were "all" scattered, men and women and 
children ; the scattering was, for the most part, " throughout the 
regions of Judaea and Samaria," not even so far as Galilee, and 
apparently the majority returned to the capital when the perse- 
cution was over, and formed a large part of the " thousands of 
Jews that believed" whom we meet with later, and of "the 
poor saints which were at Jerusalem." There were some, how- 



MISSIONS BEFORE THE REFORMATION- 7 

ever, who went further, who "travelled as far as Phenice and PART I. 
Cyprus and Antioch"; but they also were fugitives, and not S^Sg?' 
missionaries, and the Church of Antioch is the great typical ex- " '_ ' 
ample of God's blessing upon the personal and unofficial efforts of 
private Christians. 

When the Church of Antioch itself, under the direction of the 
Holy Ghost, sent forth a Mission to the Heathen, it consisted of 
two missionaries and one " minister " or assistant ; and the latter 
soon returned home. As this is the only recorded case, we have 
no other direct evidence ; but to all appearance the Gospel was 
earned to Borne by converted Jews having business or other con- 
nexions there, of the type of Aquila and Priscilla. Of the foreign 
missionary work of the original Apostles no account is given. 
We may accept the traditions that they went in different directions 
preaching Christ ; but of extensive evangelization by members of 
the Church generally there is little or no trace. 

St. Paul's words in the Epistle to the Colossians, " The gospel its results, 
which ye have heard, and which was preached to every creature [JJ^ 1 ? b * 
which is under heaven " (kv -jracn? rfj /mo-a -H} foro TOV ovpavov), have stated, 
been much misunderstood. It is obvious that they cannot, as they 
stand in our Authorized Version, be taken literally. No one 
supposes that, at the time of St. Paul's first imprisonment at 
Eome, every Pict and Scot in North Britain, every Teuton in the 
German forests, every Scythian and Parthian and Chinaman, had 
heard the Gospel. The Revised Version is, "Preached in all 
creation under heaven"; and Bishop Barry, in his note on the 
passage,* well says, " In idea and capacity the Gospel is universal ; 
although in actual reality such universality can only be claimed 
by a natural hyperbole," If we put aside the literal English ex- 
pression, "every creature," there is no difficulty in understanding 
the passage. Christian writers in all ages have quite rightly 
pointed to the rapid spread of Christianity in the first century as 
one of the evidences of its truth and power ; but the tendency of 
the ordinary reader has been to over-estimate the results. Bishop 
Lightfoot, in his admirable survey of the question, t shows that 
the evidence of the early Christian Fathers testifies " rather to the 
wide diffusion than to the overflowing numbers of the Christians." 
His conclusion is that two centuries after Christ they were 
probably one-twentieth of the subjects of the Roman Empire, and 
one hundred and fiftieth of the whole human race, That they 
were mainly confined to the towns is evident from the curious 
fact that the word pagani, villagers, became a synonym for non- 
Christians, and is preserved to us in our familiar " Pagans," 

But while we guard ourselves against an exaggerated view of Nor under, 
the missionary zeal of the early Church, we must not ignore what stated - 
was actually done. Antioch sent out other missionaries besides 
St. Barnabas and St. Paul ; and to this day the ancient Syrian 

* Ellicott's Commentary, in loco. 

f Comparative Pi ogress of Ancient and Modem Mmionn* S.P.GK 



8 MISSIONS BEFORE THE REFORMATION 

PART I. Church of Southern India looks to Antioch as its ecclesiastical 
Chap 2, centre. In Alexandria, Pantsenus presided over what we may call 
30-1534. ^ e rg jj ]\ lsslonai y College, and then went forth himself to 
" India," though it has been doubted by some whether Ethiopia 
or Arabia is not really meant by the term in this case. The 
British Church of that day was m itself a brilliant result of mis- 
sionary enterprise. An excellent summary of early Missions 
occurs in a remarkable Essay on the Progress of the Gospel, 
written by the Rev. Hugh Pearson (afterwards Dean of Salisbury) 
in 1812, to which was adjudged by the University of Oxford the 
Buchanan Prize of 500. An article by him, embodying much 
of the Essay, was printed in the second and third numbers of 
the first English missionary periodical, the Missionary Register. lc 
It pointedly refers to Justin Martyr's well-known statement t 
that (about the middle of the second century) " there was not a 
nation, either of Greek or Barbarian or any other name, even 
of those who wander m tribes or live in tents, amongst whom 
prayers and thanksgivings were not offered to the Father and 
Creator of the Universe by the name of the crucified Jesus"; 
but Pearson remarks, " These expressions may be admitted to be 
somewhat general and declamatory." 

E^nai The great external triumph of Christianity came when Con- 
o?chns- stantine, in A D. 312, accepted the message, In hoc signo vinces, and 
tiamty. established the new religion upon the ruins of the old Paganism 
died hard ; if indeed it can truly be said to have died at all. Is 
not the ancient bronze image of Jupiter m St Peter's at Eome, 
which for centuries, as the supposed statue of the apostle, has 
been adored by countless multitudes until their kisses have worn 
away the foot, a sign and token of the practical paganization of 
a large part of Christendom ? And the establishment of Chris- 
tianity under Constantme and Theodosius was by no means "of 
unmixed benefit to the cause of true religion. Prosperity and 
pomp succeeded to crucifixion and the lions ; and Dr. George 
Smith scarcely uses too strong language when he says,]. " From a 
purely missionary point of view, it began the system of com- 
promise with error, of nationalism instead of individualism in 
conversion, which in the East made the Church an easy prey to 
Mohammedanism, and in the West produced Jesuit Missions." 
Nevertheless the fact remains, and it is a great and glorious fact, 
that for many centuries there has not been a nation perhaps 
not one single person on the face of the earth worshipping the 
gods of Greece and Eome. Jupiter and Juno, Mars and Minerva, 
Venus and Apollo, are names familiar to every schoolboy ; but they 
are gods no longer. The Jericho of classic Paganism reared its 

* The first number of the Missionary Register, edited by the Eev Josiah 
Pratt, then Secretary of C M.S., was published in January, 1813. (See p. 126 ) 
Kr. Pearson's article appears in the February and March numbers. 

f Dial, cum Tryph., Ill fin 

J Short History of Christian Missions, chap. v. 



MISSIONS BEFORE THE REFORMATION 9 

mighty walls before the apostolic Israel ; yet, like Joshua eighteen PART 1, 
centuries before, the despised little Christian army " took the city." Chap ^ 2. 

Then came the overthrow of the Roman Empire by the Northern 3Q ~ l034 - 
Barbarians ; but this did not involve the overthrow of the Church, conversion 
Some of the Gothic tribes already professed Christianity In their ^d ths 
earliest raids, they had carried off many Christian captives, parti cu- Vandals, 
laiiy from Cappadocia ; and these captives proved true mission- 
aries of the cross, winning their savage masters to Christ, and 
then sending for more teachers to carry on the work, Ulfilas, the 
Apostle of the Goths, was the chief instrument in the enterprise ; 
and his name will always be honoured as the translator of the 
Bible into the Gothic tongue ; an achievement of which Professor 
Max Muller thus speaks . " At this time there existed in Europe 
but two languages which a Christian bishop would have thought 
himself justified in employing Greek and Latin. All other 
tongues were considered barbarous. It required a prophetic 
sight, and a faith in the destinies of those half -savage tribes, and 
a conviction also of the effeteness of the Roman and Byzantine 
empires, before a bishop could have brought himself to translate 
the Bible into the vulgar dialect of Ins barbarous countrymen." ;: 
Others of the invaders of the Empire, though they came in as 
Pagans, quickly embraced the religion of the conquered peoples ; 
and Jerome wrote from his cell at Bethlehem, " Lo, the Armenian 
lays down his quiver; the Hims arc loam ing the Psalter; the 
frosts of Scythia glow with the warmth of faith ; the ruddy armies 
of the Goths bear about with them the tabeinacles of the Church ; 
and therefore, perhaps, do they fight with equal fortune against us, 
because they trust in the religion of Christ equally with us," I 

The history, however, is a sadly chequered one. Gothic Chris- 
tianity was Arian, and the heresies which the Council of Nicsea 
had condemned again overspread Europe and North Africa. 
Religious wars ensued, and the " Christian " Vandals persecuted 
the orthodox believers as cruelly as Pagan Rome had done. But 
they destroyed the old heathen temples with still greater ferocity ; 
and it cannot be denied that in the fourth and fifth centuries the 
religion of the Prince of Peace, like the religion of the False 
Prophet afterwards, was propagated by the sword. In the sack 
of Rome by Alaric, the churches were spared while the temples 
were razed to the ground ; but there was little of the spirit of the 
Gospel in the Christendom of the Dark Ages that followed. 

Except m our own country, While Arians and Pelagians waged British 
war against the truth in East and West, while ecclesiastical pomp JSwt. 
and pride were superseding the simplicity and devotion of earlier 
centuries, while the bishops of Rome wore laying the foundations 
of Papal supremacy, England, Ireland, and Scotland presented 
scenes and illustrations of true missionary enterprise, Patrick, Patrick* 
the Apostle of Ireland, deserves to rank with the greatest of 

* Lectures on the Science of Langmge, Edn. 1861, p. 175- 
f Epist, 107, 2. 



10 MISSIONS BEFORE THE REFORMATION 

PART L missionaries. In his preaching from the Scriptures, in his schools 
Chap 2. for the children, in his training of evangelists, in his employment 
30 " 1534 of women, he anticipated our modern methods ; while his spirit is 

revealed by his celebrated hymn, one verse of which, translated 

from the Keltic, runs thus : 

Christ, as a light, 

Illumine and guide me ! 
Christ, as a shield, o'ershadow and cover me ' 
Christ, be under me ! Ohnst, be over me ! 

Christ, be beside me 

On left hand and right ! 
Christ, be before me, behind me, abont me ' 
Christ, this day, be within and without me ' 

The result of his labours was wonderful. Ireland became known 
as "the Island of Saints," and the European scholars who fled 
from the turmoil and bloodshed of the Continent to its peaceful 
shores called it " the University of the West." Then, as Scotland 
had in the fifth century sent Patrick to Ireland, so Ireland in the 
onat sixth sent Columba to Scotland; and on the little island of lona 
arose the abbey and monastery whence missionaries evangelized 
all North Britain, and afterwards spread themselves over Europe. 
From Lindisfarne m Northumberland to Bobbio in the Appenmes 
missionary centres were established; and a purer Gospel was 
diffused from them by Aidan and Cuthbert and Columbanus and 
Gallus and Fndolin and WiUibrord than was by that time preached 
at Alexandria or at Rome, " The libraries of Milan preserve to this 
day the copies of Holy Scripture which belonged to those early 
evangelists, and which bear witness to their love of Scripture study 
by the numerous interlineations and comments which they exhibit 
in the Irish tongue." * 

Augustin. Meanwhile Augustin the monk had been sent by Gregory the 
Great to transform the Angh into angek. The ancient British 
Church had been overwhelmed by the Saxons, and survived only 
in Wales and Cornwall, as well as in Scotland and Ireland ; and 
while the evangelists of lona brought the Gospel from the North 
into what had become a heathen country, Augustin from the 
South introduced the Papal system, so far as it had then been 
developed, and, with it, concessions to heathen customs which 
marred not a little the purity of the faith. The mission of 
Augustin was a great event in the ecclesiastical history of England, 
and its thirteenth centenary was rightly celebrated m 1897 by 
the gathering of Anglican bishops at Canterbury from all parts 
of the world ; but the purer British Christianity of the North and 
the West, which prevailed before Augustin came, must never be 
forgotten,' The Anglo-Roman Church thus founded also sent 
forth its missionaries to the Continent, who not only planted the 
Church among many of the Teutonic tribes, but were the chief 
promoters of civilization, by means of the industrial and agricul- 

* Bp. Pakenham Walsh, H&oe* of the Mission Field, chap iii. 



MISSIONS BEFORE THE REFORMATION 

tural settlements that sprang up around the mission stations; 
while the monasteries, then in the earlier and purer stage of their Glia P- 
history, were the centres of Scripture study and teaching. Of the 30 " 1534 
agents of this important work, Boniface, the Apostle of Germany, Bomface 
was the greatest ; but although he was in some respects a true 
missionary, he was undoubtedly the chief instrument of bringing 
German Christianity into union with the Papacy. Neander thus 
sums up the character and results of the rival Missions : " The 
British and Irish missionaries certainly surpassed Boniface in 
freedom of spirit and purity of Christian knowledge ; but Kome, 
by its superior organization, triumphed in the end, and though it 
introduced new and unscriptural elements into the Church, it 
helped at the same time to consolidate its outward framework 
against the assaults of Paganism." 

The epoch of Charlemagne was an epoch of progress, but of 
progress achieved mainly by the sword. The great emperor 
imposed the profession of Christianity upon the nations he 
subdued, despite the protests of his learned English friend Alcuin, 
who, trained m the purer religion of Northumbria, urged that the 
baptism of pagans was useless without faith, and that faith came, 
not by compulsion, but by the grace of God. Our own King 
Alfred was the one example of a monarch in those ages who seems 
to have understood spiritual religion. 

The next great missionary was Anschar, the Apostle of the Anschar. 
North. His whole history is deeply interesting. Neander com- 
pares Bomface to St. Peter and Anschar to St. John. Prom a 
child he was the subject of divine grace, While still a boy he, 
in a dream, saw the Saviour in His glory, fell, like John in 
Patmos, "at his feet as dead," and received His forgiveness, 
awaking from the dream with an assurance of salvation that 
lasted all his life. He became the evangelist of Denmark and 
Sweden, and did a mighty work amid penis and persecutions as 
great as have been encountered by any missionary in any age. If 
his divinity school in Schleswig does not entitle him to be called 
the first educational missionary, seeing that the training of native 
teachers was an accepted method before his time, it may be truly 
said that he was the first medical missionary, the cures wrought 
at his hospital at Bremen giving rise to a belief among the ignorant 
people that he wrought miracles a power which he always dis- 
claimed. It is noteworthy also that he anticipated Wilberforce by 
nearly ten centuries m his denunciation of the slave trade. For 
thirty-four years he laboured among the very Norsemen who were 
about to descend upon Europe ; and it has been well observed 
that the harvest from the seed he sowed appeared long after, when 
the Dane Canute, having become King of 1 England, suppressed the 
remnants of heathenism and sent missionaries back to the North 
to complete the evangelization of Scandinavia. * 

* Dr. G. Smith, Short History of Christian Msftions, chap. viii. 



11 MISSIONS &&FOR& THE REFORMATION 

PAET I. Goths and Vandals, Huns and Franks, Celts and Saxons and 
Chap. 2. Norsemen had now been brought within the pale of Christendom. 
3Q ~ loa4 ' In Europe there still remained the Slavs. Cyril and Methodius, 
Cyni and Greeks of Thessalonica, did a noble work in the ninth century by 
Methodius, translating portions of Scripture into the old Sclavonic tongue , 
Adalbert of Prague preached the Gospel in Bohemia and Eastern 
Prussia ; and the baptism of Vladimir established Christianity in 
Russia, as that of Clovis had established it m France, 
the Dark One thousand years of the Christian era had now run their 
Ages * course, and Christendom, in respect of spiritual tone and practical 
morality, was at the lowest point it has ever touched. Ignorance 
and superstition everywhere prevailed, and it might be said of 
Christian Europe what has often been said of Heathen Asia and 
Africa, that " the dark places of the earth were full of the habita- 
tions of cruelty." Eehance on the virtue of supposed relics of 
saints had practically superseded the believer's humble access to 
the Father through the Son. The clergy, debased as a body 
as they have never been before or since, traded upon all kinds 
of imposture, and descended to "unspeakable abominations."* 
Borne was governed by abandoned women, who put their lovers in 
the papal^ chair; and the principal dignitaries of the Church, 
being " past feeling," had " given themselves over unto lascivious- 
ness, to work all uncleanness with greediness." Suddenly, in the 
year 1000 A.D , a cry arose that the end of the world was at hand, the 
" thousand years " of Revelation being completed ; and an extra- 
ordinary account of the panic that ensued is given by Mosheim, 
the ecclesiastical historian. But, like other panics, it soon sub- 
sided, and Christian Europe went upon its wicked way. 

No wonder that the Lord's great Command was forgotten, and 
that even when Missions were carried on, they bore little re- 
semblance indeed to the Acts of the Apostles. Meanwhile, the 
Mohammedan power had for four centuries wrought havoc in the 
lands of the Bible and of the Early Church. It had robbed the 
Eastern Empire and Church of some of its fairest domains ; it 
had overrun a great part of Western Asia , it had totally destroyed 
the North African ChurcH ; it reigned supreme in Spain. Chris- 
tendom in its decadence stood face to face with the Saracen and 
The the Moor in the fulness of their vigour. Then arose Peter the 
rusa es ' Hermit; and the cry "Dieu le veut," rang through Europe, 
summoning Christians to a holy war. But the weapons of this 
warfare were carnal, and the purpose of the Crusades was not the 
evangelization of the Mohammedans, but their expulsion from the 
Holy Land. The purpose was not fulfilled ; the Holy Sepulchre, 
rescued for a time, once more fell into the hands of the Saracens ; 
and in Moslem hands it has remained ever since. But just as 
the Crusades were coming to a disastrous close, there was born in 
the island of Majorca, in 1236, the man who was to" proclaim a 

* Canon George Trevor's .Rome, (1868), p, 159 Canon Trevor was m his 
day a prominent High Churchman. 



MISSIONS BEFORE THE REFORMATION 13 

truer method of warring the Lord's war, and to become the first, PART I. 
and perhaps the greatest, missionary to Mohammedans. C ^P- 2 - 

There is no more heroic figure in the history of Christendom ;_ 
than that of Eaymund Lull. Though much less generally known, Raymund 
he deserves to be ranked with Francis of Assisi, who preceded Lull, 
him by a few years, who anticipated him in his desire to preach 
Christ to the Moslems, but who, in view of the revival work done 
in Europe by his preaching friars, may rather be regarded as the 
father of itinerant home missions, Baymund Lull, like St. 
Augustine, spent his earlier years in a life of sensuality, and like 
St. Augustine in his Confessions, recorded his spiritual experiences 
in a book, On Dimne Contemplation. Converted to Christ at 
the age of thirty, the young noble thenceforward gave himself 
and all he possessed to the service of His Saviour. He soon saw 
what a true crusade ought to be. " The Holy Land," he said, 
" can be won in no other way than as Thou, Lord Christ, and 
Thy Apostles won it, by love, by prayer, by shedding of tears and 
blood." He began, however, by writing a philosophical book, 
which was to convince all men, the Moors included, that Chris- 
tianity was the only true religion ; and then he persuaded the 
Council of Vienne to order the establishment of professorships of 
Arabic and other Oriental languages at the universities, Oxford 
included. Europe admired his philosophy, and the "Lullian 
Art " was famous for two centuries ; but his appeals for missions 
and missionaries fell unheeded. At last, having learned Arabic 
from a Moorish slave, he resolved to go forth himself ; and in 
North Africa, and Cyprus, and even Armenia, ho patiently toiled 
among the Mohammedans. Thus he himself reviews his life : HIS sdf- 
" Once I was rich ; I had a wife and children ; I led a worldly Mo. denial 
All these I cheerfully resigned for the sake of promoting the 
common good and diffusing abroad the holy faith. I learned 
Arabic ; I have gone abroad several times to preach the Gospel to 
the Saracens , I have, for the sake of the faith, been cast into 
prison ; I have been scourged ; I have laboured during forty-five 
years to win over the shepherds of the Church and the princes of 
Europe to the common good of Christendom. Now I am old and 
poor ; but still I am intent on the same object, and I will perse- 
vere in it until death, if the Lord permit " Persevere he did, 
"until death." When nearly eighty years old, he once more 
crossed the Mediterranean and ministered to a little fiock of 
converts. Then, in his unconquerable courage, he stood forth 
and called on the Moors who had imprisoned and banished him 
before to embiace the Gospel. Their response was to drag him 
out of the city and stone him to death. The motto of his great tyrdom 
book, despite its elaborate system of philosophy, was "He* who 
loves not lives not ; he who lives by the Life cannot die," Eay- 
mund Lull loved, and lived ; and while he now lives for ever in 
the presence of the Lord he loved, his example lives on earth for 
missionaries in every age, 



14 MISSIONS BEFORE THE REFORMATION 

PART I. All through the centuries comprised in this brief sketch of 

Chap.^2. Missions in Europe, the Churches of the East were also at work 

30-1534 - m ^^ Corrupt as they became, and sorely as they afterwards 

Missions suffered from Mohammedan oppression, the evangelization of the 

in Asia. Heathen was not wholly forgotten. Persia received the Gospel as 

early as the second century, and the terrible persecutions endured 

by the Church there under the Sassanian kings furnishes one of 

the most appalling chapters of Christian rnartyrology, The 

tradition that the Syrian Church of Malabar, in South India, 

whose members call themselves "Christians of St Thomas," 

was founded by the Apostle Thomas himself is not accepted by 

the best authorities ; and it is more likely that the saint buried at 

the now familiar "St. Thomas's Mount," near Madras, was a 

monk of the eighth century. But it is certain that this interesting 

Church is very ancient. At the Council of Nicsea, A.D. 325, one of 

the assembled bishops was " Johannes, Metropolitan of Persia and 

the Great India." Two hundred years later, Cosmas, a merchant 

of Alexandria, who had made several voyages to the Far East, 

published a book called The Christian Topography of the Whole 

World, to prove from his travels that the earth was flat and not 

globular. This work Dr. G. Smith calls the first Indian Missionary 

Beport, and he quotes an interesting passage from it.* "Even 

in Taprobane" [Ceylon], says Cosmas, "there is a Church of 

Christians with clergy and a congregation of beheveis. ... So 

likewise among the Bactrians, and Huns, and Persians, and the 

est of the Indians. . . . there is an infinite number of churches 

yith bishops and a vast multitude of Christian people. ... So 

also in Ethiopia, . . . and all through Arabia." 

Nestorian The Nestorian Church is honourably distinguished by its 
Missions, missionary zea i j n Asia. At the very time that Mohammedanism 
was beginning its destructive course in Western Asia, Nestorian 
Christianity was spreading even to China and Tartary ; and while 
Europe was in its darkest period of superstition, the tenth and 
eleventh centuries, Christian bishops were presiding over dioceses 
in Turkestan, Kashgar, and other parts of Central Asia where 
now, and for long ages past, Islam and Buddhism have divided 
the land. Although Zingis Khan, the Mongol conqueror and 
scourge of Asia, persecuted the Christians, his grandson Kublai " 
Khan, in the thirteenth century, favoured them, and Marco Polo 
the Venetian traveller gives a deeply interesting account of 
Asiatic Christendom under his tolerant sway. By this time 
Eome was competing with the Nestorians for the spiritual 
dominion of Asia, and Kublai Khan sent from Peking to the Pope 
for wise and earnest Christian teachers to be posted all over the 
A i os t empire. The Church failed to respond, and to this day has never 
kad a second chance of evangelizing Central Asia. |- In the 

* Conversion of India, p 29 

f Dr. G. Smith mentions as a sad illustration the Island of Soootra, whose 
rocky eminence is now familiar to thousands of English travellers across the 



MISSIONS BEFORE THE REFORMATION" 1$ 

fourteenth century, the Turks and the Tartars destroyed the PAET I 
churches and put thousands of Christians to death with horrible 
tortures, while many others saved their lives by apostasy, The 
only remaining evidence to-day of the great Nestorian Missions is 
the celebrated monument at Si-ngan-fu in North-Western China, 
which records the fact that in the seventh century " the illustrious 
religion had spread itself in every direction, and Christian temples 
were in a hundred cities." * 

Thus in the fifteenth century the tide of evangelization had christi- 
actually ebbed, and Christendom occupied a smaller area than it 
had done two centuries before. In the eloquent words of Dr. 
Fleming Stevenson," Christianity had overrun Europe, but it 
had almost disappeared from Asia, where it was born. The very 
Palestine of Christ was in possession of the infidel. Antioch, 
that had stretched its patriarchate over the East, and fostered 
churches as far as the wall of China, was trodden by the feet of 
Moslem conquerors. The schools of Alexandria were silenced by 
the sword of Mohammed. Every sacred spot of the African 
Church, the memories of Augustine, of Alypius, of Cyprian and 
Terbullian, of Monica and Perpetua, the regions that had been 
hallowed by innumerable martyrs, were all overrun by Moham- 
medanism. Christianity was assailed even in Europe itself. The 
cry of the muezzin was heard from a hundred minarets in the 
city where Chrysostom preached to Christian emperors. The 
fierce, strong faith of the Arab not only held Constantinople but 
almost reached to Rome. Nothing but the narrow waters of the 
Adriatic lay between the centre of Latin Christendom and the 
eager outposts of the Turk Hundreds of years before this, there 
had been a chain of mission churches from the Caspian almost to 
the Yellow Sea; the little Christian Kingdom of the Tartars, 
ruled by its Prester Johns, may not have stood alone ; but now, 
the Nestorian occupation of Western China had shrunk down to 
a tablet with an inscription, and Tamerlane had swept every 
trace of Christianity off the face of Central Asia. Ground had 
been lost, century by century ; and for half a millennium no 
.ground had been won." t 

Indian Ocean So far back as the second century, Panteonus found Christians 
there. Marco Polo tells of bishop, clergy, and people. lu the seventeenth 
century the inhabitants called themselves Christians, but mingled Moslem 
and Pagan rites with their corrupt worship Now Islam reigns there 
undisturbed. Socotra, he observes, is "a living example of the failure of a 
false or imperfect Christianity to regenerate a people." 

* A picture and full account of this remarkable monument are given in 
Dr, G. Smith's Conversion of India, p. 20. 

t Dawn of the Modern Mm ion, p. 6. Edinburgh, 1887, 



CHAPTER HI. 

AFTER TRE REFORMATION. 

Roman Missions Xavier Erasmus Early Protestant Efforts Eliot 
and the Red Indians Cromwell, Boyle, Dr. Bray S.P.C K. and 
S P G. Bishop Berkeley Lutheran Mission in India : Ziegenbalg 
and Schwartz Hans Egede Moravians Brainerd. 

"Bow lo,ig aie ye slacl to go to possess the land?" Josh, xvin 3 
:( While men slept, his enemy came and sowed tones," Matt xm 25 

lEBWBSF * s a remar kable an ^- a humbling thing that the great 

PART I. vjjm p|9 movement which delivered Northern Europe from the 

Chap 3. MS ||d| Papacy, and restored to the individual Christian the 

1534-1786. KJ^ggl freedom of direct access to God through Christ, did 

why were little or nothing for the evangelization of the world. 

post-Re- It did lead to Foreign Missions on a more extensive scale than 

fiSsioSf the world had yet seen ; but these Missions were organized, not 

andhwt ^ ^e Churches that were rejoicing in their light and liberty, but 

Pro- n by the old corrupt Church whose yoke they had shaken off. 

testant? ;ft ome I QS ^ fa Q na tions that were destined to be in the van of 

progress in the following centuries ; but she responded by sending 

her emissaries to the newly discovered America, and the East and 

"West Coasts of Africa, and by the new sea-route to the mysterious 

East of Asia. To use Canning's famous phrase, she called a new 

world into existence to redress the balance of the old. 

The question may fairly be asked, How came it that the 
Eeformed Churches were so slack while the unreformed Church 
was so vigorous ? Various answers have been suggested to this 
question : for example, that the Reformers were too much occu- 
pied in making good their position at home to think of the 
Heathen abroad,* or that the Erastianism which subjected them 
to the secular power dulled their zeal. It does not, however, 
seem necessary to find reasons of this kind. A simple and suffi- 
cient cause is supplied by the fact that the navigating and 
exploring nations of the day were Spam and Portugal. As a 
Spanish Admiral (though himself a Genoese), Columbus discovered 
America ; the Portuguese Yasco da Gama circumnavigated Africa 

* <c A victim escaping from the folds of a boa-constrictor is presumably 
not in the condition of a vigorous athlete " Dr. A. C Thompson, Protestant 
Their Rise and Early Progress, New York, 1891 



MISSIONS AtTER THE REFORMATION 1 7 

and opened up the new route to India and China. It was natural PAST L 
that the first missionaries to the yast territories thus rendered 9^ a P 3 
accessible should be Spaniards and Portuguese , and being so, they _/ 
were of course Eomanists It is the same principle that was em- 
bodied long afterwards in Livingstone's pregnant words, "The end of 
the geographical feat is the beginning of the missionary enterprise " 

Still, if the opportunity was to be used, the agent was required. 
The hour had come for the extension of Eoman Christianity ; but 
with the hour there must be the man. In this case there were 
two men, Ignatius Loyola and Francis Xavier Loyola founded 
the Order of the Jesuits, the most potent instrument Eome has 
had for extending her influence. Xavier was one of the seven Francis 
men who, in the crypt of St. Denis on the heights of Mont- Xavier * 
martre, banded themselves together to form that Order, in 
the very year, 1534, m which the Act of Supremacy severed 
England from the Papacy ; and he became the one missionary of 
the Boman Church whom all Christendom honours. He led the 
way to India and to Japan, and he died in the attempt to knock at 
the closed door of China. But much undeserved glamour attaches 
to Xavier 's work. The marvellous results attributed to his labours 
exist only in the imagination of those whom a Eoman Catholic 
historian, Mr. Stewart Eose, calls his "unwise biographers." 
He never learned an Oriental language Although he ' ' made 
Christians " (feci Ghristianos is his expression) rapidly in India 
by baptizing Heathen infants and the most ignorant of the Tamil 
fishermen, yet the Abbd Dubois, a Jesuit writer, says of him that 
he was "entirely disheartened by the invincible obstacles he 
everywhere met," and ultimately "left India in disgust", and 
this is confirmed by his own letters to Loyola. Indeed, so hope- 
less did he regard any attempt to win the Heathen by preaching, 
that Jbe called on King John of Portugal to lay upon the governors 
of his possessions in India the duty of forcing the Church upon 
the Natives, and to punish severely any governor whose " con- 
verts" were few. Bishop Cotton, most tolerant of Anglican pre- 
lates, considered Xavier's methods " utterly wrong, and the results 
in India and Ceylon most deplorable." Nevertheless, his zeal and 
devotion call for unstinted admiration. He did love his Divine 
Master ; he did love the souls for whom his Master died. His toils 
and privations were heroically borne, and he never descended 
to the fraud and falsehood by which some of his successors 
sought to spread the religion of Christ as they understood it. Somo 
great men are patterns ; some are beacons. Xavier was both,* 

But most of his comrades and successors were beacons, and 
not patterns, The history of Jesuit Missions, as told by theJeswt 
Jesuits themselves, is one of the saddest portions of the Church's I5sions ' 
annals, Their identification with the aggrandizement of the 

*. The most instructive, and perfectly fair, Life of Xavier, is that by Henry 
Yenn, Hqn Sec. of the O.M.S. (London, 1862 ) See Chapter LXTIII. 
VOL. I. 



iS MISSIONS AFTER THE REFORMATION 

PAET I nations that sent them forth, their use of the secular arm, their 
Chap 3 establishment of the Inquisition in Malabar, in Japan, in the 
1534J786. ph^ppine islands, in Mexico and South America ; the frightful 
tortures inflicted by them on both Heathen and heretics (e.g the 
burning alive at Goa of the Metropolitan of the Syrian Church in 
1654); their ''unholy accommodation of Christian truth and 
observances to heathenish superstitions and customs," as Mr. 
Eowley of the S.P.G. expresses it ; the impostures practised by 
Eobert de Nobili in the hope by their means of winning the 
Brahmans ; these are only some of then* principal features. And 
what were the results ? On both sides of Africa, on the Congo 
and in Mozambique, countries once nominally Christian are now 
Heathen, though some of the cities (like San Salvador) still bear 
Christian names. The really shocking story of the Congo Mission 
is told by a sympathizer, the Italian Pigafetta, Chamberlain to 
Pope Innocent IX. In India the adherents of Eome are numerous, 
but Bishop Caldwell of Tmnevelly was only one of the many 
witnesses to the same fact when he wrote, " The Roman Catholic 
Hindus, in intellect, habits, and morals, do not differ from the 
Heathen in the smallest degree." * Similar testimony comes from 
China, t 

Men While, therefore, we are bound to acknowledge the self-denial 

methods an< ^ devotion of many of the Roman missionaries, and not to 
wrong. doubt that there have been among them not a few who, knowing 
Christ as their own Saviour, have earnestly preached Him to the 
Heathen, it is impossible to shut our eyes to the plain facts of 
history as recorded by themselves ; and these facts of history 
exhibit a work which, upon the whole, however zealously done, no 
well-instructed Christian can suppose to have commanded the 
Divine blessing. The methods of the Jesuit missionaries, indeed, 
were repeatedly condemned by the Popes themselves ; and it is 
right to say that the Dominicans and Franciscans have been less 
open to the same censure. The societies, orders, and other mis- 
sionary bodies within the Roman Church are almost as numerous 
as those of Reformed Christendom, although to some extent they 
have been generally supervised by the College De Propaganda 
Fide, established at Rome in 1622. 

We now turn to the beginnings of Protestant Missions. In the 

Erasmus very year in which the Jesuit Order was founded, Erasmus wrote 

Missions, his famous Treatise on Preaching. He was only in a partial 

sense a Reformer, but his brilliant mind realized, as neither Luther 

nor Calvin nor Oranmer did, the duty of the Church to evangelize 

the world. 

" Everlasting God ! " he wrote ; " how much ground there is in the 
world where the seed of the Gospel has never yet been sown, or where 
there is a greater crop of tares than of wheat ! Europe is the smallest 



Digest, p 54,1. 

f Further evidence is given in a paper read hy the Author of this Hiifcory 
at tlio Anglican Missionary Conference of 1894. Report, p 171. 



MISSIONS AFTER THE REFORMATION* 19 

quarter of the globe. , . . What, I ask, do wo now possess in Asia, PART I 
which is the largest continent ? In Africa what luve we ? There are Chap 3. 
surely in these vast tracts barbarous and simple tribes who could easily 1534-1786. 

be attracted to Christ if we sent men among them to sow the good seed. 

Regions hitherto unknown are being daily discovered, and more there 
are, as we are told, into which the Gospel has never yet been carried. 
. . . Travellers bring home from distant lands gold and geins , but it is 
worthier to carry hence the wisdom of Christ, more precious than gold, 
and the pearl of the Gospel, which would put to shame all earthly riches. 
Christ orders us to pray the Lord of the harvest to send forth labourers, 
because the harvest is plenteous and the labourers are few. Must we 
not then pray God to thrust forth labourers into such vast tracts P . . . 
Bestir yourselves, then, ye heroic and illustrious leaders of the army of 
Christ. . . . Address yourselves with fearless minds to such a glorious 
work ... It is a hard work I call you to, but it is the noblest and 
highest of all. Would that God had accounted me worthy to die m so 
holy a work ! " * 

But the Eef ormed Churches were slow to respond to this stirring 
appeal. For a century and a half Missions were mainly the work 
of isolated individuals. Apparently the very first attempt was First 
that of the noble Huguenot, Admiral Coligny, in 1556. 
obtained a band of men from Calvin at Geneva and sent them to 
Brazil, in connexion with a projected French colony there ; but 
they were cruelly treated, and some of them killed, by a treacherous 
governor; and the enterprise came to naught. The second 
Protestant Mission was sent from Sweden to the Laplanders, Swedish, 
under the patronage of Gustavus Yasa, in 1559. Early in the 
next century, the Dutch, now freed from the tyranny of Spain, Dutch, 
began to engage in colonial enterprise, and, as in the case of 
Spain and Portugal, this led to Missions being planned also. In 
1612, ten years before the establishment of the Propaganda at 
Eome, a missionary college was founded at Ley den by Anthony 
Walssus. Men were sent to the new colonies in the East Indies ; 
and Grotius wrote for their use his great work on the Truth of 
Christianity. But the methods adopted cannot be commended. 
What Xavier had asked tho King of Portugal to do, the Dutch 
governors did. They made the profession of Christianity a con- 
dition of civil rights, and the Natives were baptized by the thousand 
with the smallest modicum of instruction. The immediate external 
success, of course, was immense ; but it did not last. Wherever 
the Dutch rule ceased, by British conquest or otherwise, thene 
multitudes of nominal Christians reverted to Heathenism. 

It was in Germany that the truer missionary spirit began to German, 
show itself here and there. Peter Hoyling of Lubeck went to 
Abyssinia in 1632, and there translated tho New Testament into 
Amhanc. Von Welz, an Austrian baron, appealed to the German 
nobility in 1664 to send the Gospel to the Heathen, and projected 
for the purpose a Society of the Love of Jesus ; but Lutheranism 

* The whole passage, a long and most eloquent one, is given by Dr. G-. 
Smith., Short History of Christian Missions, chap. x. 

o 2 



20 MISSIONS AFTER THE REFORMATION 

PART I. had then become almost dead and cold, and a leading theological 
Obap 3. professor protested against casting such pearls as " the holy things 
_ of God " before " dogs and swine " like Tartars and Greenlanders. 
" As for the Society of the Love of Jesus," he added, " God save 
us from it I " But the Pietist movement was commencing, which 
was destined to be in Germany what the Methodist movement 
was in England ; and under devoted leaders like Francke at Halle 
and Spener at Berlin, the evangelistic spirit gradually spread 
which afterwards provided the English Church Societies with 
many of their earliest missionaries, This, however, would bring 
us into the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Before leaving 
the seventeenth, we must come to England and America, 
jp ngiish. English Missions also grew out of colonial enterprise The very 
first missionary contribution in England was Sir "Walter Ealeigh's 
gift of 100 to the company which founded the Elizabethan colony 
of Virginia, " for the propagation of the Christian religion in that 
settlement." In the charter given by James I. to the same com- 
pany, it was provided that " the word and service of God be 
preached, planted, and used, not only in the said colony, but, as 
much as may be, among the savages bordering among them "; 
and on November 13th, 1622, Dr. John Donne, Dean of St Paul's, 
delivered before this company what may fairly be regarded as the 
first missionary sermon preached in England. But the Pilgrim 
Fathers who colonized New England were the first to produce a 
John Ehot, genuine missionary, in the person of John Eliot. He was for 
sixty years the minister of the- village of Boxbury, now a suburb 
of Boston ; but the Bed men of the Iroquois and other tribes, 
familiarized to a later generation by the picturesque tales of 
Fenimore Cooper, then peopled the forests covering what is now 
the prosperous state of Massachusetts ; and among them Eliot 
laboured with a devotion and success that earned for him the title 
of Apostle of the Indians. It is a pathetic feature of his work 
that, inspired by his own motto, " Prayer and pains, through faith 
in Jesus Christ, will do anything," he mastered and reduced to 
writing the Mohican language, ^ and translated into it the whole 
Bible ; which translation is still extant as a curiosity, but there is 
now not a single person on earth who can read it. Many of the 
Bed Indian tribes utterly disappeared before the advance of the 
white settler. All the moie must we honour the man who " served 
his own generation by the will of God" and evangelized them 
while there was time. 

But who paid for the printing of the book, and otherwise Blip- 
ported Eliot's work ? Shortly after he began his labours, England 
as a nation very nearly became a great missionary society. The 
Cromwell House of Commons, under Cromwell's auspices, took up the ques- 
tSSiret tion. Its journals record that, in 1648, " the Commons of England 

"S,P,G." 

* What the tn&k \\as may be guessed if we pnut here one ^oj 
meaning " catechism' 1 .Kummogolcdonattoottammoctiteaoti(jahnunwinaiih t 



MISSIONS AFTER THE REFORMATION 21 

assembled in Parliament, having received intelligence that the PART I. 
heathens in New England are beginning to call upon the name of 
the Lord, feel bound to assist in the woik." A " Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel in New England " was established, the 
first of three distinct organizations which have borne the initials 
S.P G. A collection was made for it throughout England, which, 
invested in land, produced an income of 600 a year ; and from 
this fund grants were made to John Eliot Cromwell had also a 
project for converting the old Chelsea College into a great mis- 
sionary institution, dividing the world into four great Mission- 
fields, and directing the work in them by four secretaries paid by 
the State ; but his death, and the Restoration, put an end to these 
plans. Under Charles II the Society was leorganized by the 
energy of the Hon Robert Boyle, and may be said to have become 
a second SPG. It still exists under the name of the New Second 
England Company, and disburses its funds in Nova Scotia and s ' p G ' 
New Brunswick. :: Robeit Boyle was a man of true missionary 
ardour, The Lectureship he endowed, and which bears his name, 
was designed for missionary appeals. He paid for a translation 
into Arabic of the treatise by Grotius before mentioned, and also 
for a translation of part of the New Testament into Malay, 
evidently foi the use of the Dutch missionaries. He bequeathed 
a large sum to found a " Christian Faith Society " for the 
evangelization of Virginia ; which society also still exists, apply- 
ing its funds, since the secession of the United States, to the 
benefit of the British West Indies and Mauritius. About the 
same time, Dean Pndeaux set forth a scheme for Missions in 
India ; the result of which was that at the next revision of the 
East India Company's charter, in 1698, Parliament enacted that 
the ministers sent to India for the English traders {< should apply 
themselves to learn the language of the country, the better to 
enable them to instruct the Gentoos [Gentiles or Heathen] who 
should be the servants of the Company in the Protestant religion." 
This enactment, however, was not obeyed until the days of Henry 
Martyn, more than a century afterwards. 

We now come to a great epoch in the history of English 
Missions. The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge was The 
founded m 1698, and the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel Ld's'p b 
in 1701. epoch.' ' 

These two great societies owed their origin to the zeal and energy 
of one man, Dr. Thomas Bray, Rector of Sheldon, Warwickshire. Dr. Bvay* 
He was one of a little group of men to whom the Church of Eng- rts ' 
land at that day owed much, The most striking figure among them 
was that of Robert Nelson, the typical High Church layman, as 
the term "High Church" was then understood | The group 

* See CM Intelligencer, May, 1886. 

f See the extremely interesting essay by 0. J, Abbey, in Abbey anfl 
Overton's English Church in the Eighteenth Century, on " Kobert Nelson' and 
his Friends," 



22 MISSIONS AFTER THE REFORMATION 

PART I. included both Jurors and Non-jurors, that is, those who did and 
Chap.3 those who did not take the oath of allegiance to William III. 
_ Dr. Bray was a supporter of the new regime ; Nelson was not , 
but they worked together with exemplary cordiality in various 
schemes of moral and social reform. Bray's thoughtful energy 
took two directions : he devised plans for establishing libraries for 
poor clergy at home and abroad, and his interest in the Colonies 
took him across the Atlantic to Maryland under a special commis- 
sion from the Bishop of London. In these two enterprises we see 
the germs of the S P.C K. and SPG. respectively. 

The S P O.K. was founded m 1698, as a voluntary and, one may 
almost say, private society, by Dr Bray and four lay friends, who 
signed their names to the following statement " Whereas the 
growth of vice and immorality is greatly owing to gross ignorance 
of the principles of the Christian religion, we whose names are 
underwritten do agree to meet together as often as we can con- 
veniently to consult (under the conduct of the Divine Providence 
and assistance) how we may be able by due and lawful methods to 
promote Christian knowledge." But Dr. Bray wanted more than 
this. The new society was to provide schools and literature, and 
to subsidize other institutions with the same object. It was not 
proposed to employ living agents, and it was living agents that the 
Colonies required. The good doctor therefore planned another 
organization for that purpose, and drew up a petition to the King 
for the incorporation of a new society, which was backed by the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, Simultaneously with this, the atten- 
tion of Convocation was called to the needs of the Colonies, and a 
Committee was appointed to consider them. The two movements 
appear to have been quite independent, and possibly both may 
have had influence ; but the charter granted by the Crown was 
certainly in response to Dr. Bray's petition.* The name of the 
Third n &w body thus established was The Society for the Propagation of 
S.P.G. the Gospel in Foreign Parts, the same title as had been borne by 
the two associations before mentioned, but with the words " in 
Foreign Parts" added. This was therefore the third "S.P.G.," 
and the permanent one. 

The S.P C K and the S.P.G. differed, not only in object, but 

also in constitution. The former was a private society, to the 

membership of which, at first, even bishops were only elected 

" after inquiries " ; and for many years it published no historical 

its con. account of itself and held no anniversary. The SPG, though 

station. a i go a yoiuntary society, in that it was not established by the 

Church as such, and even the President was not the Archbishop 

of Canterbury ex officio, but was elected annually ,f yet was a 

great public organization, with eleven bishops among its incor- 

* See S P.Gr. Digest, pp 4-7 ; also Hole, Early History of O.M S , p. xxvii. 

f This continued to be the case until recently, under the original Charter. 
The new Charter, granted in 1882, provides that the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury for the time being shall be President. 



MISSIONS AF'iER THE REFORMATION 23 

porated members, an anniversary sermon and meeting, and a PART 1. 
printed annual report. IKO??^ 

By " Foreign Parts " in the title of S P.G. was understood the 1M * im 
colonies and dependencies of Great Britain , and the purpose of its scope, 
the society, as denned in the charter, was the spiritual benefit of 
" our loving subjects " who were in danger of falling into " atheism, 
infidelity, popish superstition, and idolatry." In the very first 
annual sermon, however, Dr. Willis, Dean of Lincoln, announced 
that the design was " first, to settle the state of religion, as well as 
may be, among our own people there, . . . and then to proceed in 
the best methods . . . toward the conversion of the Natives " ; 
and, from the first, the Society took measures to reach both the 
Bed Indians and the Negro slaves in the American Colonies. But 
Heathen and Mohammedan nations outside the limits of the 
British Empire were not included m the range of the Society's 
direct work until it had been in existence a century and a half. 
It was owing to this limitation that the Danish Mission to India, 
presently to be noticed, was not taken up by the S. P.G , but by the 
S.P.C K. ; for it was in territory not then belonging to England. 
The S P.G. did indeed, when only eight years old, show its 
sympathy with that Mission by a gift of 20 from some of its 
members ; a gift memorable as the first English contribution to the 
evangelization of India. But after that, for a whole century, the s P.C,K. 
India Mission was supported in England only by the S.P.C. K. ; in India ' 
and not only supported, but virtually directed. The missionaries 
were all Germans or Danes, of the Lutheran Church, trained in 
their own country and ordained according to their own rite. 
But they came to England for instructions before sailing ; and 
excellent " Charges" were delivered to them by clergymen 
of reputation. ' :: It is interesting to notice that when the most 
eminent of them, Schwartz, ordained, according to the Lutheran 
use, a catechist named Satyanadhan, to be what was called a 
" country priest," the S.P.C. K. recorded this ordination, not by 
a bishop, but by a Lutheran minister, with special pleasure. " If 
we wish," said the venerable Society in its next Eeport, " to 
establish the Gospel in India, we ought in time to give the 
Natives a Church of their own, independent of our support . . . 
and secure a regular succession of truly apostolical pastors, even 
if all communication with their parent Church should be annihi- 
lated," The Mission was transferred to the S.P.G. in 1824, after 
just one hundred years' labour. 

The most important British Colonies being those on the 
American Continent, viz,, what are now the United States, the 

* A volume of these " Charges" was published by tho S.P.C. K. in 1822. 
One, by Archdeacon Middleton, afterwards first Bishop of Calcutta, delivered 
to a German missionary, Jacobi, in 181.3, is very able and interesting, and is 
particularly notable for its fearless condemnation of Roman Missions, and 
its warm recognition of tho work of tho Lutherans and of the Natives they 
had ordained. 



24 MISSIONS AFTER THE REFORMATION 

PART 1. West Indies, and also Canada after its conquest from the French, 
Chapes the S P.G. operations were for a long period chiefly concentrated 
153 t^ 86 tnere > an< ^ a no ^ e wor ^ was ^ one both am o n g the settlers and 
S.P G. m among the Indians and Negroes. It is a memorable fact that 
and 6 Afrfca w ^ en ^"^ n Wesley went to Georgia in 1736, it was as an S.P.G. 
' clergyman. The most interesting of the Society's other enter- 
prises in the eighteenth century was in "West Africa. One of its 
clergy in America, a Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge, the 
Eev. T. Thompson, offered to go to the Gold Coast, and actually 
laboured there for three or four years from 1752 An African 
boy whom he sent to England to be educated, Philip Quaque, 
was ultimately ordained as his successor, " the first of any non- 
European race since the Reformation to receive Anglican orders," ^ 
and for fifty years laboured amid painfully difficult surroundings. 
One other Church movement m this century must be noticed. 
Bishop In 1725, Bishop Berkeley, Bishop of Cloyne in Ireland, set forth 
Berke ey ft p r0 p OSa i f or establishing a college at Bermuda, and making that 
island a modem lona, as a base for Missions to the Bed Indians 
and the Negro slaves. Having, by dint of indomitable perse- 
verance, obtained a royal charter and a parliamentary grant of 
20,000 for the endowment of the college, he actually himself 
sailed for America, intending to purchase land as an investment 
for its support. But every obstacle was thrown in his way by 
the Colonial Office ; the money promised was never paid ; and 
Berkeley had ultimately to abandon the scheme. t "A glaring 
instance," says Dr. Overton, "of the blighting effects of the 
Walpole Ministry upon the Church." J "Betrayed by Walpole," 
is the comment of Dr. G Smith 

We now revert to the Pietist movement in Germany, to find 
the origin of that India Mission which the S P.C.K. adopted. 
True missionary zeal is ever preceded by a quickening of spiritual 
life ; and it was the revival of spiritual religion in the midst of the 
cold latitudinarianism into which the Lutheran Church had fallen 
that led to the most effective missionary work of the eighteenth 
Danish century. But it was a king of Denmark (Frederick IV ) to whom 
^ 0( ^' s messa e ^ rst came m 1705, through a petition from a poor 
widow whose husband had been murdered by natives in the 
Danish settlement at Tranquebar, on the south-east coast of 
India. The king reflected that " for ninety years there had been 
a Danish East India Company ; for ninety years Danish ships had 
sailed to Tranquebar , Danish merchants had traded and grown 
rich in the settlement, Danish governors had ruled it, Danish 
soldiers had protected it ; but no ship had ever carried a Danish 
missionary to preach the Gospel." || He appealed to his chaplain 

* S P a. Digest, p, 256. 

t Bishop S. Wilberforoe, History of the American Church, p. 155. 

t English Church in the Eighteenth Century, chap. viii. 

Life of Bishop Heler, p. 5 

| W. Fleming Stevenson, Dawn, of the Modern Mission, p 56, 



MISSIONS AFTER THE REFORMATION 25 

for men ; the chaplain wrote to the Pietist leaders, Francke and PART I. 
Lange, they sent him a young Saxon, Bartholomew Ziegenbalg, ,pk a P 3 
and a fellow-student of his, Henry Plutscho ; and these two were 7 
sent to India at the king's own expense. The story of the arrival 
and landing of these two pioneers, of the opposition of the Danish 
governor and their consequent trials, of their extraordinary industry 
and patience and devotion, is one of the most thrilling in the whole 
history of Missions. ;: No truer missionary than Ziegenbalg ever 
went to Heathendom. His greatest work was the translation of 
the New Testament and pait of the Old into Tamil, the first 
Indian version of the Scriptures. He visited Europe in 1715, and 
came to England; and here he was warmly received by King 
George I. and the Archbishop of Canterbury. Beturning to India, 
he died in 1719 at the age of thirty-six, leaving behind him three 
hundred and fifty Tamil converts, some schools, the Tamil 
Scriptures just mentioned, and a Tamil dictionary and grammar. 

The greatest of Ziegenbalg's immediate successors was Schulze, 
a learned scholar and capable organizer. In later years the names 
of Fabncms, Kohlhoff, Gericke, and Js&nicke appear. But as an 
historic character, the first name of all in importance is that of 
Christian Frederick Schwartz, who must always be regarded as Schwartz, 
standing in the front rank of Indian missionaries. Like most of 
the others, he was a fruit of the Pietist movement ; and he 
was enlisted in missionary service by Schulze, who had retired to 
Germany. He went out in 1749, the very year in which Von 
Bogatsky composed the first German missionary hymn, with the 
title, " A Prayer to the Lord to send faithful labourers into His 
harvest, that His Word may be spread over all the world." It 
begins thus : 

Wcidi aw/, du deist der ersten Zeugen 
Awake, Thou Spirit, Who of old 

Didst fire the watchmen of the Church's youth, 
Who faced the foe, unshrinking, bold, 

Who witnessed day and night the eternal truth ; 

Whose voices through the world are ringing still, 

And bringing hosts to know and do Thy will ! 

Under Schwartz the Mission was extended far beyond the little 
Danish settlement of Tranquebar. From Madras to Tinnevelly, 
over the whole Tamil country, in particular in what was then 
the independent kingdom of Tan] ore, its influence spread, and 
numerous congregations were gathered. These Missions, unlike 
Tranquebar itself, were not under the Danish administration, but 
were more directly the work of the S.P.C E., though the mis- 
sionaries came from the same German sources. The external 
results were considerable. At least fifty thousand Tamils were 
baptized before the close of the century. Schwartz himself gained 

* It is picturesquely told by Dr. Fleming Stevenson la The Dawn of t'he 
Modern, Mission (Edinburgh, 1887), and by Dr. A, 0. Thompson in Protestant 
Missions (New York, 1894), 



26 MISSIONS AFTER THE REFORMATION 

PART I extraordinary influence over both Europeans and Indians. No 
Chap. 3 other missionary has ever wielded such political authority. What 

lo3 ^ 86 would be dangerous, and compromising to a Mission, in almost 
any one else, became in Schwartz a power for good Hyder Ali, 
the farnousBajah of Mysore, certainly the most formidable Native 
ruler with whom England has had to cope, on one occasion 
declined to receive any emissary from the British authorities 
except Schwartz. "Send me the Christian," he exclaimed; "I 
can trust him I " When Schwartz died in 1798, after almost half 
a century's unbroken labouis for he never returned to Europe, 
the Kajah of Tanjore gave a commission, which Flaxman the 
sculptor executed, for a monument to be put up in the garrison 
church at Tan j ore; and there this monument, representing the 
Bajah himself receiving the benediction of the dying missionary, 
may be seen to this day. 

Decay i But while Schwartz and his comrades are to be admired and 

Mission. ^eir memoi T cherished, their missionary policy was not one that 
can be altogether approved. They baptized inqun*ers far too 
readily; they tolerated many heathen customs; they chose, as 
Mr. Sherrmg expresses it/ to make caste a friend rather than an 
enemy, and thereby admitted a traitor within the citadel and 
prepared" the way for the rum of the work. After Schwartz's 
death the professing Christians relapsed by thousands into 
Heathenism ; and when the eighteenth century closed, there was 
comparatively little to show as the result of its labours A few 
Lutheran missionaries were still at woik; but the funds of the 
SP.C.K. were slack at the time, and the whole enterprise 
languished for many years. Slower progress, we can now see, 
would have been surer ; and if a more solid foundation had been 
laid, the edifice would not have fallen into ruin. How the Mission 
revived under the S.P G , in the present century, will appear 
hereafter. 

To go back to King Frederick IV of Denmark. It was not 
only India that owed its first Protestant Mission to him. Under 

Hans his royal and godly auspices, too, Hans Egede, the Norwegian 
pastor, went with his noble wife to Greenland The story of 
their sufferings is most touching, Egede returned, a solitary 
widower, after fourteen years' indescribable privations and 
bitter disappointments, and after preaching on these words in 
Isaiah xlix. : " I said, . . , I have spent my strength for nought, 
and in vain : yet surely my judgment is with the Lord, and my 
work with my God." His own labours had indeed seemed 
almost fruitless; but their fruits appeared afterwards, and in- 
directly they led to one of the grandest missionary enterprises of 
modern times. 

For it was in the same year, 1722, in which Egede sailed for 
Greenland, that a band of those old Moravian Christians who had, 

* JTwfory of Protestant Missions in India, edition of 1884., p 50. 



MISSIONS AFTER THE REFORMATION 2J 

since the fifteenth century, borne the name of Unitas Fratrum, PART I. 
migrated into Saxon Silesia to escape persecution. There, welcomed 1 9]? P ,A 
by that devoted servant of the Loid, Count Zmzendorf, they _ 86 ' 
established their famous settlement of Heraihut Eleven years Moravian 
later, Count Zinzendorf was at Copenhagen representing Saxony Mlsslons - 
at the coronation of a new king of Denmark. This new king had 
commanded Egede's Mission in Greenland to be given up that is, 
that no more supplies be sent to it ; and the Count, stirred by the 
sight of two Eskimo boys whom Egede had baptized and sent to 
Europe, went back to Herrnhut, and told the Brethren of the 
crisis. Just at the same time, they heard of the sufferings of the 
Negro slaves in the West Indies. These two pieces of intelligence 
were God's message to the Unitas Fratrum. Two men volunteered 
for Greenland, and two for the island of St. Thomas ; and the 
Moravian Missions began. No Church has obeyed the Lord's 
command with the same devotion and self-forgetfulness that have 
been manifested by the Church of the United Brethren. In 
Greenland and Labrador, in Central and South America, in West 
and South Africa, on the borders of Thibet, and among the 
Australian aborigines, they have fearlessly preached the Gospel of 
Christ. This little community, never exceeding 70,000 souls, has 
sent forth two thousand missionaries. 

In the meantime, besides the Missions among the American 
Indians and Negroes carried on by the S P.G., the Christian com- 
munities of New England, Pennsylvania, and other colonies were 
engaged in the same work. Of the many faithful men who gave 
their lives to it in the eighteenth century, the most celebrated was 
David Brainerd. In 1709 a " Society for Piopagating Christian Brainerd. 
Knowledge " had been founded in Scotland. Its primary object 
was home missions in the Highlands ; but for a time it gave the 
Presbyterian colonists of New York and New Jersey a grant to 
maintain two missionaries to the Indians, In 1744 Braiuerd was 
chosen as one of these two. He laboured among the Delaware 
tribe less than three years, and died of consumption at the age of 
twenty-nine ; but in that short time a wonderful workof the Spirit 
of God was done. But Brainerd did less in his lifetime than his 
biography, by President Edwards, did after he was gone. In its 
pages is presented the picture of a man of God such as is rarely 
seen. No book has, directly or indirectly, borne richer fruit. It exer- 
cised a definite spiritual influence upon William Carey and Samuel 
Marsden and Henry Martyn and Thomas Chalmers, and, through 
them, indirectly, upon countless multitudes. Sometimes God 
ordains for His servants a long life of blessing. Sometimes He 
calls them away after a few brief years' service, but then makes 
their names and memories an inspiration to others. Such have 
been David Brainerd, Henry Martyn, and James Hannington. 
Being dead, they yet speak. 

This long and yet brief sketch of the , Missions of eighteen 
centuries will show that the Lord has never suffered His great 



28 MISSIONS AFTER 'THE REFORMATION 

I Command to be wholly forgotten, In every age the Gospel has 

134^86 ' )een P reacne( ^ as a W1 toess somewhere among the Heathen 
} '_i nations The eighteenth century itself, with all its spiritual 
deadness, was, as we have seen, a period whose Missions are not 
to be despised Nevertheless, one can find in the England of this 
period scarcely any trace of the true missionary spirit which seeks 
Missionary the evangelization of the world. Our hymn-writers, indeed, had 
Hymns a l rea dy caught the inspiration, Watts rendered the great mis- 
sionary Psalm into English verse, in his " Jesus shall reign 
where'er the sun," as far back as 1719 ; and within the next three 
or four years Wilhams's " O'er the gloomy hills of darkness " and 
Shrubsole's " Arm of the Lord, awake, awake ' " were written, 
But they failed to suggest to Christians who sang them their 
personal duty in the matter The great awakening only came in 
the closing years of the century, 




From Cohmbu^ by C, E, Markliam (G, Philip & Son). 



ONE HUNDRED YEARS AGO: 
1786-1811. 



THIS Part is entitled " One Hundred Years Ago '' ; but it looks back 
over sixty years of the Eighteenth Century, and brings us down to the 
thirteenth year of the Nineteenth Century. It is essential to a right 
understanding of the origin and early years of the Church Missionary 
Society that the condition of the Church of England m the Eighteenth 
Century is realized Chap. IV., therefore, sketches its leading features, 
and notices both the earlier Methodist Kevival and the later Evangelical 
Movement within the Church ; distinguishing, as it is important to do, the 
first generation of Evangelicals, among whom Henry Venn of Hudclers- 
field was a leading figure, and- the second generation of Evangelicals, of 
whom his son John Venn of Clapham was a leader. Then in Chap. V. 
we turn aside to view the condition of " Africa and the East " when the 
Society was founded, bringing the narrative of Wilberforce's efforts 
down to the year 1800, Chap. VI, concentrates our attention on the 
events, especially in 1786, which led to the Missionary Awakening, and 
introduces us to the Eclectic Society and its discussions. Chaps. VII. 
and VIII tell the story of the actual establishment of the Society and 
the going forth of the first missionaries. In Chap. IX. we resume the 
review of African and Indian affairs, and rejoice with Wilberforce over 
both the Abolition of the Slave Trade and the Opening of India to the 
Gospel under the Charter of 1813. 





THOMAS CLARKSOM 



2ACHARY MACAU LAY 




WILLIAM JWMLBER FORCE 





JOHN BACON 



HENRY THORNTON. 



Thomas Claikson, Leader in Anti-Slave Trade Campaign. (Photograph ]jy 

Walker & Boutall, (Jliiloul's Lim ) 

Zachary Macaulay, Leadci m Auti-Slavo Tiade Campaign 
William Wilberiorco, M P , Loadei an Auti- Slave Tiade ( 1 uni])ugu 
John Bacon, Sculptor, Meiiibet ot On^uial CMS Committee 
Henry Tliorntori, Baiikei and Philanthic)piht 




CHAPTER IV. 

Jte EIGHTEENTH CMTURY AND TEE EVANGELICAL REVIVAL 

The Church under the Georges Butler and Wesley The Methodist 
Movement Wesleyans, Calvinists, Evangelicals The Last Decade 
Second Generation of Evangelicals The Clapham Sect. 

" Owrfttfliers understood not Thy wonders . . . they remembered not tlicmidti' 
tude of Thy mercies ; . . Nevertheless Ee saved them for His name's safee, that 
He m^ht male Bs mghty power to le Inown " Ps cvi. 7, 8, 

||BT us take our stand in England one hundred years PART II. 
ago, and survey the worldthe world which God 1 ^- 1811 - 
loved, the world for which the Son of God became p 
incarnate, and died, and rose again the world A survey 
which He gave in charge to His Church, that 
might proclaim to every creature the good tidings of His redemp- 
tion. Nearly eighteen centuries have run their course since He 
went up from Olivet to the right hand of the Father . what 
has the Church done ? 

Europe but for the ruling race in Turkey is Christian, that 
is, Christian by profession, Christian according to statistical tables. 
Asia is Mohammedan or Heathen. In India the English con- 
querors have done almost nothing to pass on the great Message to 
the multitudes lately come under their sway, A handful of 
Germans have laboured in the south, and gathered a good many 
small congregations of converts; and a self-educated English 
cobbler has just settled in Bengal with a like object in view ; 
and that is all. In Ceylon, the Dutch rfrjitne has compelled 
thousands to call themselves Christians, who, at the first con- 
venient opportunity, will slip back into Buddhism, China is 
closed, though within her gates there are scattered bands of men 
acknowledging " the Lord of heaven " and owning allegiance to 
the Pope of Borne, Japan is hermetically sealed ; the Jesuit 
tyranny of the sixteenth century is one of the most hateful of 
national memories, and no Christian has been allowed to land for 
nearly two hundred years. Africa is only a coast-line: the 
interior is unknown ; and the principal link between Christendom 
and the Dark Continent is the slave-trade. South America, for 
the most part nominally Christian, is sunk in superstition ; North 
America is Christian in a more enlightened sense ; but neither in 
the South nor in the North are there any serious efforts to 



32 THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY AND 

PART II. evangelize the Red men of the far interior, still less those towards 

1 fSf" 18 i 1 ' tne Arctic Circle or Cape Horn though Europe has sent devoted 

ap " -' Moravians to Greenland. The countless islands of the Southern 

Seas are not yet touched, though a band of artizan missionaries 

has lately sailed in that direction. Such, in the closing years of 

the eighteenth century, is the condition of God's earth, and, 

standing in thought in England at that date, we may add, Who 

cares ? 

The We have looked around l let us look hack "What has been the 

underthe conc htion of our Church and nation during this eighteenth 
Georges, century ? 

The century opened with some little promise. Notwithstanding 
the virulent hostility of rival ecclesiastical parties at the time, the 
Church was certainly not asleep. The two newly-formed Societies, 
for Promoting Christian Knowledge and for the Propagation of 
the Gospel in Foreign Parts, were just starting on their beneficent 
career , and, as we have already seen in our Third Chapter, 
did, during the whole century, practically all that was done by 
Englishmen for the evangelization of the world. But after the 
death of Queen Anne, and the advent of the Hanoverian kings, 
there came a time of decadence and depression ; one may almost say 
of despair, remembering that the great Bishop Butler refused the 
Lament ^ >r i mac y because he thought it too late to save a falling Church, 
m ' and penned that sad sentence in the Preface to his Analogy, " It 
is come, I know not how, to be taken for granted by many persons 
that Christianity is not so much as a subject for inquiry, but that it 
is now at length discovered to be fictitious. And accordingly they 
treat it as if, in the present age, this were an agreed point among 
all people of discernment." The sneering attacks of the Deists 
were indeed among the most formidable that the Christian religion 
had encountered ; and although they were successfully resisted by 
Butler himself, and Paley, and Warburton, and other doughty 
champions of the faith, it must be acknowledged that the majority 
of tho clergy were led by the assumed necessity of arguing 
against them to neglect the preaching of the Gospel altogether ; 

" Men were pondering over abstract questions of faith and morality 
"who else might have been engaged in planning or carrying out plans for 
the more active propagation of the faith, or a more general improvement 
in popular morals. The defenders of Christianity were searching out 
evidences, and battling with deistical objections, while they slackened in 
their fight against the more palpable assaults of the world and the flesh, 
Pulpits resounded with theological arguments where admonitions were 
urgently needed. Above all, reason was called to decide upon questions 
before which man's reason stands impotent; and imagination and 
emotion, those great auxiliaries to all deep religious feeling, were bid to 
stand rebuked in her presence, as hinclerers of the rational faculty, and 
upstart pretenders to rights which were not theirs, ' Enthusiasm' was 
frowned down, and no small part of the light cind firo of religion fell 
with it." * 

* C. 3 Abbey, tinglnh Church in the Eighteenth Century, 2nd Edn , p. 4. 



THE EVANGELICAL REVIVAL 33 

Indeed, many of the clergy, following Bishop Hoadly's Lati- PAST II. 
tudmarian views and even Dr. Samuel Clarke's openly-avowed 1786-1811. 
Anan opinions, wrote pamphlets to justify their nevertheless ctiap< 4< 
subscribing to what they acknowledged to be Trinitarian Articles condition 
and formularies, And meanwhile, numbers of thoughtful men jj* e 
were led astray by Hume, Gibbon, and Voltaire. 

Blackstone's oft-quoted remaik, that he had gone from church 
to church in London, and that " it would have been impossible for 
him to discover, from what he heard, whether the preacher were a 
follower of Confucius, of Mahomet, or of Christ," though it may 
give a somewhat exaggerated view of the actual fact, yet is most 
significant of what the actual fact must have been. Nor were the 
Nonconformists of the period any better One of them, Dr. Guyse, 
wrote, " The religion of Nature is the darling topic of our age ; and 
the religion of Jesus is valued only for the sake of that ... All 
that is distinctively Christian ... is waived and banished and 
despised." ;: Of the clergy themselves Bishop Eylo writes . 

" The vast majority of them wore sunk m woildliness, and neither knew 
nor cared anything about their profession They neither did good 
themselves, nor liked any one else to do it for them. They hunted, they 
shot, they farmed , they swore, they drank, they gambled. When they 
assembled, it was generally to toast * Church arid King/ and to build one 
another up in earthly-nnndedness, prejudice, ignorance, and formality. 
When they retired to their own homes, it was to clo as little and preach 
as seldom as possible And when they did preach, their sermons were so 
unspeakably bad, that it is comforting to reflect that they were generally 
preached to empty benches " f 

This is severe, and perhaps it generalises too much, and fails 
to allow for numerous exceptions ; but what shall we say of 
BoswelTs statement to Wilberforce that Dr. Johnson, strong 
Churchman as he was, had affirmed that he had never been 
acquainted with one "religious clergyman"?! Dr. Overton, 
though he balances the favourable and unfavourable evidence in 
more neutral fashion than Bishop Eyle/yet gives actual facts 
which go far to justify Bishop Eyle's strictures. Plurality and 
non-residence, in particular, were colossal evils. Bishop Watson And the 
of Llandaff held sixteen livings in different parts of England, Bish P s * 
taking the tithes from them all, and employing a curate in each 
probably one of those who were < passing rich on forty pounds 
a year"; and living, not in his diocese, but at Windermere, he 
occupied most of his own time " as an improver of land and planter 
of trees," thinking, as he himself said, " the improvement of a 
man's fortune by cultivating the earth was the most useful and 
honourable way of providing for a family." When only twenty- 

* Quoted by Eyle, Christian Leaders of the Last Century, p. 16. 
| Christian Leaders of the Last Century, p. 17. 
j Life of Witter/or ce, p 423. 

The English Church in the Eiyhteenth Century, chap, viii,, "Church 
Abases." 

VOL. I. T) 



34 THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY AVZ> 

PART II. seven years of age, he had been appointed Professor of Chemistry 

1786-1811. a t Cambridge, though he says himself that he "had never read 

Chap 4 a syllable on the subject, nor seen a single experiment in it "; and 

seven years later he was appointed Eegms Professor of Divinity, 

whereupon, he writes, " I immediately applied myself with great 

eagerness to the study of divinity." - : " This is the Bishop Watson 

who wrote an Apoloyy for the Able, which led to George III.'s 

remark that he did not know the Bible needed any apology ! One 

example is perhaps sufficient. Dr Overton gives many more. 

Green's Naturally the general condition of the people corresponded. Let 

Future, ug q U ote Mr. Green's striking description of it : 

" In the higher circles ' everyone laughs,' said Montesquieu on his visit 
to England, if one talks of lehgion.' Of the prominent statesmen of 
the time the greater part were unbelievers in any form of Christianity, and 
distinguished for the grossness and immorality of their lives. Drunken- 
ness and foul talk were thought no discredit toWalpole. . . . Purity and 
fidelity to the marriage vow were sneered out of fashion. ... At the 
other end of the social scale lay the masses of the poor. They were 
ignorant and brutal to a degree which it is hard to conceive, for the vast 
increase of population which followed on the growth of towns and the 
development of manufactures had been met by no effort for their religious 
or educational improvement. Not a new parish had been created. Hardly 
a single new church had been built Schools there were none, save the 
grammar-schools of Edward and Elizabeth The rural peasantry, who 
were fast being reduced to pauperism by the abuse of the poor-laws, were 
left without moral or religious training of any sort. l We saw but one 
Bible in the parish of Cheddar/ said Hannah More at a far later time, 
' and that was used to prop a flower-pot. ' Within the towns they were 
worse. There was no effective police; and in great outbreaks the mob 
of London or Birmingham burnt houses, flung open prisons, and sacked 
and pillaged at their will The introduction of gin gave a new 

impetus to drunkenness. In the streets of London gin-shops invited 
every passer-by to get drunk for a penny or dead drunk for twopence." f 

The great victory, therefore, which, by the instrumentality of 
Butler, "Warburton, and many others, the Church had gained over 
the assailants of Christianity as a system, left her still helpless 
before the more dangerous assailants of Christianity as a life, the 
world, the flesh, and the devil, " Intellectually," remarks Dr. 
Overton, " her work was a great triumph, morally and spiritually 



it was a great failure." 



Then came the Evangelical Movement, the leaders of which 
flung themselves into the harder battle with sin and Satan. But 
TWO both divisions of the army of the Lord were needed. To quote 
of?he ns Overton again, " Neither could have done the other's part of the 
arm*' 8 work. Warburton could no more have moved the heaits of living 

* One is not surprised to find the sister University of Oxford expelling 
six students for praying and reading* the Scriptures in private houses, which 
led to the remark that though extempore swearing \ias permitted at Oxford, 
extempore praying could not be borne. 

f Short History of the English People, cnap x , sect 1, 
Church in the Eighteenth Century, chap. ix. 



THE EVANGELICAL REVIVAL 35 

masses to their inmost depths, as Whitefield did, than Whitefield PART U. 
could have ^utten the Divine Legation Butler could no more 1V86-1813. 
have earned on the gieat crusade which Wesley did, than Wesley p> 
could have written the Analogy. But without such work as 
Whitefield or Wesley did, Butlei's and Warburton's would have 
been comparatively inefficacious ; and without such work as Butler 
and Warburton did, Wesley's and Whitefield 's work would have 
been, humanly speaking, impossible." - 1 

In one short paragraph, Green thus describes the revolution 
that ensued 

" In the middle-class the old piety lived on unchanged, and it was 
from this class that a religious revival burst foith, which changed in a 
few years the whole temper of English society. The Church was restored 
to life and activity Religion carried to the hearts of the poor a fresh 
spirit of moral zeal, while it purified our literature and our manners A 
new philantlnopy reformed our prisons, infused clemency and wisdom 
into our penal laws, abolished the slavo-trado, and gave the first impulse 
to popular education." 

This, however, is a compendious statement, which leaps over 
long years of struggle. Bishop Butler wrote the sad sentence 
before quoted in 1736 As \\ e stand surveying the century in its 
last decade, most of the triumphs of moral reform enumerated by 
Green are, after sixty years, still in the future. Yet over those 
sixty years we can look back with profound thankfulness. Seven 
years prior to 1736, John Wesley had formed his little society of ^ es i ey 
praying friends at Oxford ; when that year opened he was on his Whitefield, 
voyage across the Atlantic to Georgia, whence he returned with & c *. enn> 
new light as to his own sinfulness and inability to save himself,- 
and as to the all-sufficiency of Christ , and two years later he began 
that wonderful career of preaching and organizing which continued 
uninterrupted for more than half a century. On Trinity Sunday 
in that same year, 1736, George Whitefield was ordained at 
Gloucester, and preached his first sermon in St. Mary-le-Crypt, 
which, as was complained to the Bishop, " drove fifteen persons 
mad 1 " To these two great names, we must add those of Grim- 
shaw, Berridge, the first Henry Venn, Eowlands, Eomaine, Hervey, 
Toplady, and Fletcher of Madeley ; every one of them, be it re- 
membered, a clergyman of the Church of England. To them, in 
the main, was due, under God, the Evangelical EevivaL 

How was their work done ? Let Bishop Eyle reply : - 

"The men who wrought deliver ance for us wore a few individuals, 
most of them clergymen, whoso hearts G-od touched about the same 
time in various parts of the country. They were not wealthy or highly 
connected. They were not put forward by any Church, party, society, 
or institution. They were simply men whom G-otl stirred up and 
brought out to do His work, without previous concert, scheme, or plan, 
They did His work in the old apostolic way, by becoming evangelists. 
They taught one set of truths. They taught them m the same way, 

* English Church in the Eighteenth Century, chap, ix. 
D 2 



36 THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY AND 

PAST II, with fire, reality, earnestness, as men fully convinced of what they 
1786-1811 taught They taught them in the same spirit, always loving, corn- 
Chap. 4. passionate, and, like Paul, even weeping, but always bold, unflinching, 

and not fearing the face of man. And they taught them on the same 

plan, always acting on the aggressive ; not waiting for sinners to come 
to them, but going after and seeking sinners , not sitting idle till sinners 
offered to repent, but assaulting the high places of ungodliness like men 
storming a breach, and giving sinners no rest so long as they stuck to 
their sins," 

These striking words accurately sum up the features of the 
movement, as revealed m biographies, memoirs, journals, letters, 
and sermons innumerable. Bishop Eyle goes on to describe both 
the methods of the evangelists and the substance of their preach- 
ing They preached everywhere : * in parish churches when 
permitted ; " in the field or by the road-side, on the village-green 
or in the market-place, in lanes or in alleys, in cellars or in 
garrets, on a tub or on a table, on a bench or on a horse-block ; 
no place came amiss to them." They preached simply, following 
Augustine's maxim, " A wooden key is not so beautiful as a golden 
one, but if it can open the door when the golden one cannot, it is 
far more useful." They preached fervently and directly. " They 
believed that you must speak from the heart if you wish to speak 
what they to the heart." Then as to the substance of their preaching : it 
preached. wag a ^ ove a jj things doctrinal, one may say dogmatical. They 
believed they had definite truths to set forth, and they set 
them forth definitely. They taught that men were dead in sins 
and guilty before God ; that Christ died to save men from sin's 
penalty, and lives to save them from sin's power; that only faith 
in Him could give them His salvation ; that absolute conversion 
of heart and life was needed by all, and that the Holy Ghost alone 
could convert and sanctify them. Standing in thought in the 
closing decade of the eighteenth century, we find that the procla- 
mation of these essential and fundamental truths has, by the 
power of the Spirit, directly revolutionized thousands of lives, 
and is indirectly and gradually revolutionizing the Church of 
England. 

But the revolution, we observe, is very gradual. Its force has 

been minimized by its divisions. EVorn the beginning of the 

The three movement there were lines of cleavage. Three distinct sections 

parties, among the men of the Eevival are easily traced. There were, 

first, the Methodists proper, under John Wesley. They were 

(a) The gathered into communities called the "Methodist Societies," 

Wesieyans although as long as Wesley lived they continued in at least a 

loose connexion with the Church of England, and certainly 

repudiated the term " Dissenter," But notwithstanding Wesley's 

* But to this there were exceptions among those whose names are giveu 
above. Some of them worked only within parochial limits; Bomaine, for 
instance. Bishop Kyle's words apply rather to Wesley and Whitefield and the'r 
followers. 



THE EVANGELICAL REVIVAL 37 

repeated declaration that " if the Methodists left the Church he PART II 
would leave them," separation was really inevitable. Many of 1786-1811. 
the bishops were personally kind to Wesley, but the clergy Gha P- 4 - 
generally could not abide either the teaching or the ways of the 
Methodists. Itinerant preaching was of the essence of their 
method, and itinerant preaching was regarded as utterly sub- 
versive of the parochial system. In the last decade of the century, 
in which we are in imagination standing, the Wesley an Methodists 
(John Wesley having died in 1791) have practically become a 
distinct religious body. 

The second section were the Calvinistic Methodists, under {Jjj^JJ 
Whitefield, with the Countess of Huntingdon as their great 
patroness and in some respects virtual leader, who succeeded in 
bringing many of the aristocracy under the sound of the Gospel. 
A duchess ' ! might complain of Methodist preaching as " tinctured 
with impertinence and disrespect towards . . . superiors," and 
consider it " monstrous to be told she had a heart as sinful as the 
common wretches " of the lower orders ; but still she did not 
refuse Lady Huntingdon's invitations, nor did scores of the most 
distinguished denizens of the political and fashionable world. It 
was the poor, however, who were chiefly reached by the preaching 
of Whitefield and his associates ; and it was chiefly in their interest 
that Lady Huntingdon built chapel after chapel for what m time 
came to be called " The Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion." 
She was, indeed, as reluctant as Wesley to be a "Dissenter"; 
but undenominational preaching-halls were then illegal, and a 
building could only be used for worship if properly registered ; 
and as her chapels were not churches, they had, to her vexation, 
to be registered as " dissenting." Her preachers, however, were 
all known as Methodists, which was a generic term and by no 
means confined to Wesley's followers ; but the Calvinistio con- 
troversy, which was conducted for many years with a bitterness 
and rancour quite inconceivable even in these latter polemical 
days, clave a great gulf between the two sections. 

Then, thirdly, there was a section that clung steadfastly to the () The 
Church, and submitted to the limitations involved in so doing. c 
To this section belonged Eomame, Venn, Toplady, Walker of 
Truro, and many others. They were allied with Whitefield and 
Lady Huntingdon in the Calvinistic controversy, against Wesley 
and Fletcher. Indeed Toplady was the principal antagonist of 
Arminian views, and, it must be regretfully added of the author of 
' ' Eock of Ages," one of the most bitter. The extreme predestinarian 
views, however, of Toplady and Eomame were not held by Venn 
and many others of the clergy of this section. But while they 
were supporters of the Methodist movement generally, they disap- 
proved of the itinerant preaching which ignored the parochial 
system and intruded even into parishes where, as in Venn's, 

* The Duchess of Buokinglmu. 



38 THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY AND 

PA.UT II. Evangelical teaching prevailed ; and though for a time they were 
1786-1811. enrolled as members of Lady Huntingdon's Connexion, while it 

Chap^4. wag a g ocle v TOthm the Church, they withdrew from it when her 
chapels were registered as " Dissenting places of worship." 

As, therefore, we survey England in the last decade of the 
century, we see that the Bevival movement, while it has done 
God's work nobly in saving multitudes of individual souls, has 
yet not leavened the Church at large; and still less has it 
leavened the regular Nonconformist denominations, the Inde- 
pendents and the Baptists. There have been honoured names in 
those denominations during the century, notably those of Isaac 
Watts and Philip Doddndge ; but the great revival movement has 
only influenced them indirectly. The Wesleyan Methodists are 
organized on their own lines ; the Calvinistic Methodistsexcept 
in Wales, where they already form a distinct community 
correspond roughly with the numerous but unorganized non- 
denommationalists of a century later. The Evangelicals, properly 
so called, are but a small body, within the Church; distinct 
from either section of Methodists, though often called by that 
despised name ; and totally distinct from the old Puritans of the 
seventeenth century, though even that title is sometimes applied 
to them. For, to quote Overton again, 

"The typical Puritan was gloomy and austere; the typical Evan- 
gelical was bright and genial. The Puritan would not be kept within 
the pale of the National Church ; the Evangelical would not be kept out 
of it. The Puritan was dissatisfied with our liturgy, our ceremonies, our 
vestments, and our hierarchy , the Evangelical was perfectly contented 
with them. If Puritanism was the moi e fruitful m theological literature, 
Evangelicalism was infinitely more fruitful in works of piety and benevo- 
lence ; there was hardly a single missionary or philanthropic scheme of 
the day which was not either originated or warmly taken up by the 
Evangelical party The Puritans were frequently in antagonism with 
' the powers that be,' the Evangelicals never : no amount of ill-treatment 
could put them out of love with our constitution in both Church and 
State."* 

What, then, was really the condition of the Church in that 

Were closing decade? Was Evangelicalism dominant, as is so often 

geiicais 11 " carelessly affirmed ? That it was growing in influence, and was 

dominant ? indisputably the strongest spiritual force in the country, is true. 

But it still represented only a small minority ; it was either 

NO. hated despised or hated by most Churchmen; one bishop wrote, 

despised. " Church-Methodism is the disease of my diocese ; it shall be the 

business of my life to extirpate it." t The report that one of 

"the serious clergy" (as they were called) was appointed to a 

parish was in many cases the signal for an outcry as great as if a 

pestilence were coming ; | Trinity College, Cambridge, declined 

* English Church in the Eighteenth Century, chap ix. 

f See Hole's Eaily History of C.M.8 , p. 53 

} See The English Church in the Nineteenth Century , chap, hi, 



THE EVANGELICAL REVIVAL 39 

to receive their sons as undergraduates ; * Hugh Pearson, after- PART II 
wards Dean of Salisbury, narrowly escaped rejection by his 1786-181L 
ordaining bishop because he spoke favourably of Wilberforce's ^J^ 
Practiced View of Christianity^ if the Bishop of London's 
carnage conveyed a visitor from his house to that of a leading 
Evangelical rector, it must put her down at a neighbouring 
public-house, to avoid being seen to stop at such a clergyman's 
door , f and when Henry Martyn visited his native Cornwall after 
his ordination, he, though Senior Wrangler and Fellow of his 
College, was not allowed to preach in any church in the county 
except his brother-in-law's The Bishops were continually 
uttering warnings against "Methodists" in their charges, and 
were careful to explain that they included under that name 
the "serious clergy" within the Church. Not a* few even 
doubted their loyalty to the Government and the Constitution. 
William Wilberlorce relates the difficulty he had in re-assuring 
Pitt on this point From their great opponent, Tomlino, Bishop 
of Lincoln, Pitt had learned to think them "great rascals," 
and even to question their moral character. || On the other 
hand, High Churchmen, as the phrase would now be under- 
stood i e men of what are colloquially, however inaccurately, 
termed "Catholic" principles, had been few and far between 
ever since the days of the N on -jurors , but there was a small 
body of them afterwaids known as the " Clapton Sect," in contra- 
distinction to the Evangelical " Clapham Sect," and because 
some of its leaders lived at Clapton or Hackney, notably Joshua 
Watson, the typical Church layman of those days. The vast Who were 
majority of the bishops and clergy would perhaps be best de- doimnant ? 
scribed, as to their teaching and general attitude, by the Scotch 
term "Moderate." They were equally opposed to Borne and to 
Dissent, and they hated " enthusiasm " of any kind. The union 
of Church and State, with the State practically ruling the Church, 
was their ideal, one may say their idol. " Our happy Establish- 
ment " was their favourite phrase. 

Had the religious condition of the clergy and people improved cJjf irch at 
in the preceding half-century ? No doubt it had ; but abuses and the end 
scandals were still sadly rife. In the country districts few Sen 

* John Venn was so refused, "not that he was either dissolute or ignorant, 
but because he was the son of Henry Venn." Moule, diaries iSiweon, p. 65. 
f Private Journal of H Vomi the younger, December, 3852 
J " A near relative of the Bishop, after being a guest at Fulham Palace, 
was to visit Mr. Yonn at Clapham Wo wore ourselves sent to wait at tho 
Bull's Head, 300 yards from the Koctory, and to bring the visitor round The 
Bishop could not'let his carriage bo scon to draw up at Mr Venn's Rectory, 
though it might bo seen to sot down a lady at a small public-house." Chris- 
tian Observer, January, 3870. The writer is evidently Henry Venn tho 
younger (the CMS Secretary), who in 1870 was editing the Christian 
Observer 

:Dr. G-, Smith, Henry Ifcwf i/n, p. 41, 
Life of Willer/orce, chap, MI. 



46 THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURA AND 

PART II attended church, and too many of the clergy were glad enough 
1786-1811. when none appeared at all, and they were relieved from the 
^kap 4 necess ity of holding a service. They were pluralists; they 
were keen sportsmen ; some of them drank heavily ; not a few 
were openly vicious * Few of the bishops set a good example. 
" We hear," says Dr. Overton, " strange tales of one bishop 
examining his candidates for ordination in a tent on a cricket- 
field, he himself being one of the players; of another sending 
a message, by his butler, to the candidate, to write an essay; 
of another examining a man while shaving, and, not unnaturally, 
stopping the examination when the examinee had construed 
two words " j The sermons of the day called forth the sarcasm 
of Sydney Smith. " We have," he says, " persevered in dignified 
tameness so long, that while we are freezing common sense 
for large salaries in stately churches, amid whole acres and 
furlongs of empty pews, the crowd are feasting on ungrammatical 
fervour and illiterate animation in the crumbling hovels of 
Methodists." Any "semi-delirious sectary," he complains, could 
"gesticulate away the congregation of the most profound and 
learned divine of the Established Church, and in two Sundays preach 
him bare to the very sexton/' { Few new churches were built 
only six in all London during the fifty-nine years of George III.'s 
reign , and great parishes like Marylebone and St. Pancras, with 
populations even then of 50,000 and 60,000, had only one church 
Evan- apiece. Meanwhile the despised handful of Evangelicals were 
geiicai crowding their proprietary " episcopal chapels," multiplying 

improve- ,, . r r J r r t r rj& 

ments. Communions and communicants, introducing week-day services 
and even the dreaded innovation of evening services, and lending 
brightness to their worship by the use of hymns, to the horror of 
the clergy generally, and even of so able a prelate as Bishop 
Marsh, who strongly condemned them in one of his charges. And 
William Wilberforce, solemnly called of God, as he believed, to 
work for " the reformation of manners," was pushing the Society 
he had formed for that purpose, despite the warning he had 
received from a nobleman he called upon, who pointed to a picture 
of the crucifixion, saying, "See there the end of reformers"; 
and followed this up by his great work, A Practical View of 
Christiamty, which immediately sold by thousands, and has since 
gone through fifty editions. 
The decade in which we are surveying the country was in other 

* English Ohwch in the Nineteenth Century, chap i. Even at a much 
later period, the daily service m Chester Cathedral changed its hour in the 
race-week, to enable the clergy and congregation to attend the races ! (Ohm* 
tian Observer, July, 1863, p, 540 ) 

f Ibid. The particulars of these cases are given in the Memoir of Bishop 
Slomfield, vol. i. p. 59. Ifc there appears that the cricketer was not the 
bishop himself, but his examining chaplain. 

t Quoted in The English Chw ch m the Nineteenth Century, chap v Of 
course there were exceptions to Sydney Smith's sweeping statements Bishop 
Porteus, for instance, had immense congregations at St James's, Piccadilly. 



THE EVANGELICAL REVIVAL 41 

respects a dark and discouraging period The French Bevolution PART II. 
filled the British mind with terror and dismay, and all the more 1 Sf" 18 i lt 
because sympathy with it on the part of some who called them- a ^' ' 
selves " patriots " led to open disaffection, the king being violently The 
mobbed on his way to open Parliament, and the most inflammatory "dark 7 : 
publications being actively distributed/ 1 ' Tom Pame's Eights o/penod. 
Man leaped into popularity, while it was regarded by the majority 
of sober citizens as subversive of the constitution, To subsidize 
the Continental Powers that were fighting France, taxes were 
heaped upon taxes, and the national debt rose by leaps and bounds. 
In 1797 the Bank of England stopped payment, \ and a mutiny on 
board the fleet that was guarding our- shores brought the country 
into more imminent peril than it had incurred for centuries. All 
this affected the Church seriously. On the one hand, her position 
was strengthened by the general desire to stand by all that was 
stable and respectable in the national institutions. On the other 
hand, the dread of any and every innovation, which was the 
natural result of the alarm excited by the revolutionary excesses in 
France, was a great obstacle to any new plans for the religious 
improvement of the people. 

It was at such a time as this that the little band of Evangelical 
Churchmen began to consider their responsibilities regarding the 
evangelization of the world. Let us now take our stand again in 
the year 1796, and see who these men are and what they are 
doing. 

It is the second generation of Evangelicals with whom we have Second 
now to do All the leaders of the great revival movement are If Evan 1 - n 
dead. Henry Venn was the last to be taken, He is succeeded s ellcals - 
in the counsels of the brethren by his son John, Rector of 
Clapharn, a man of culture, judgment, and sanctified common 
sense, well fitted to be the leader of the coterie of friends living m 
his parish to whom by-and-by is to be given the nickname of the 
" Clapham Sect." A nickname indeed, but one that will be held ciapham 
in honour in years to come by many who have had no connexion Sect ' 
with the " Sect " ; for the men to whom it is given are the salt of 
the earth among the laity of the period William Wilberforce, 
the brilliant and fascinating M,P. for Yorkshire, ranking in Parlia- 
ment with Pitt and Fox and Burke, and, through his intimate 
friendship with Pitt, exercising no small influence on public affairs ; 
Henry Thornton, the excellent and munificent son of an excellent 
and munificent father, spending, like his father, an ample fortune 
in doing good ; Charles Grant, of the East India Company, one of 
the chief instruments in opening up India to the Gospel ; James 
Stephen, the legal adviser of the Evangelicals, father and grand- 
father of still better known men , Zachary Macaulay, the devoted 

* See Life of Willerforce, chap, x, 

f A national subscription of two millions sterling was raised to assist the 
Treasury to pay the expenses of the war. Wilberforoo subscribed an eighth 
of his income. 



42 THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY AND 

PART II. friend of Africa, who is presently to become editor of the Bvan- 
1 ^nf " 18 i 1 ' ^ lca ^ or g an > fatter, too, of a more famous son ; Lord Teign- 
^ ap mouth, returned from the Governor-Generalship of India; all 
these belong to the " Sect " 

A brilliant picture is drawn of this coterie of friends and fellow- 
workers in Sir James Stephen's famous Essay on " The Clapham 
Sect " - ;: But still more graphic and hfe-like are the pictures of 
Sends at ^ r ^' * Colquhoun, in his delightful volume, Wilberforce and His 
ciapham, Friends.] Henry Thornton, in 1792, bought a house and grounds 
on Battersea Eise, at the west end of Clapham Common. On the 
estate he built two other houses, one of which was presently 
occupied by Charles Grant, and the other by William Wilberforce ; 
and these three friends, with Zachary Macaulay and James 
Stephen, formed the inner Cabinet whence so- many philanthropic 
and Christian enterprises emanated. Let us read a few brief 
fragments of Colquhoun' s vivid description of a summer evening 
in Thornton's demesne : [ 

"The sheltered garden behind, with its aibeil-trees and elms and 
Scotch firs, as it lay so still, with its close-shaven lawn, looked gay on a 
May afternoon, when groups of young and old seated themselves under 
the shade of the trees, or were'scattered over the grounds Matrons of 
households were there, who had strolled in to en] oy a social meeting; 
and their children busied themselves in sports with a youthful glee 
which was cheered, not checked, by the presence of their elders. For 
neighbourly hospitality and easy friendship were features of that family 
life. 

" Presently, streaming from adjoining villas or crossing the common, 
appeared others who, like Henry Thornton, had spent an occupied day 
in town, and now resorted to this well-known garden to gather up their 
families and enjoy a pleasant hour. Hannah More is there, with her 
sparkling talk ; and the benevolent Patty, the delight of young and 
old ; and the long-faced, blue-eyed Scotchman, with his fixed, calm 
look, unchanged as an aloe-tree, known as the Indian Director, one of 
the kings of Leadenliall Street ; and the gentle Thane, Lord Teignmouth, 
whose easy talk flowed on, like a southern brook, with a sort of drowsy 
murmur ; and Macaulay stands by listening, silent, with hanging eye- 
brows , and Babmgton, in blue coat, dropping weighty words with husky 
voice; and young listeners, starting into life, who draw round the 
thoughtful host, and gather up his words the young Grants, and young 
Stephen, and Copley J| a ' very clever young lawyer.' . . . 

" But whilst these things are talked of in the shade, and the knot of 
wise men draw close together, in darts the member for Yorkshire f 
from the green fields to the south, like a sunbeam into a shady 
room, and the faces of the old brighten, and the children clap their 
hands with joy. He joins the group of the elders, catches up a thread 
of their talk, dashes off a bright remark, pours a ray of happy illumina- 

* In Ms Essays in Ecclesiastical Biography. But the term " Clapham Sect" 
seems to have originated with Sydney Smith. 
t Longmans, 1867. 

t J. C. Colquhoun, Wilberforce and Jus Friends, pp. 306-308. 
Charles Grant. |] Afterwards Lord Lyndhurst. 

f Wilberforce. 



THE EVANGELICAL REVIVAL 43 

tion, and for a few moments seems as wise, as thoughtful, and as constant PART II. 
as themselves, But this dream will not last, and" these watchful young 1786-1811. 
eyes know it. They remember that he is as restless as they are, as fond Chap 4. 

of fun and movement, So, on the first youthful challenge, away flies the 

volatile statesman A bunch of flowers, a ball, is thrown in sport, and 
away clash, in joyous rivalry, the children and the philanthropist. Law 
and statesmanship forgotten, he is the gayest child of them all. 

" But presently when the group is bioken up, and the friends have 
gone to their homes, the circle under Henry Thornton's roof gatheis for 
its evening talk In the Oval Library, which Pitt planned, niched, and 
fringed all round with books, looking out on the pleasant lawn, they 
meet for their more sustained conversation. In this easy intercourse 
even the shy G-isborne * opens himself. . . 

" Or they vary their summer evenings by strolling through the fresh 
green fields into the wilder shrubbeiy which encloses Mr. mlberforce's 
demesne, Bioomfield, not like Battersea Rise, with trim parterres and 
close-mown lawn, but unkempt, a, picture of stray genius and irregular 
thoughts As they pass near the windows that look out on the north, and 
admire the old elms that shade the slopes to the stream, the kindly host 
hoais then voices, and runs out with his welcome. So they aie led 
into that charmed circle, and find there the poitly Dean,t with Ins 
stentorian voice, and the eager Stephen, Admnal Gambler and his wife, 
and the good Bishop Poiteus, who has come from Fulham to sec his old 
friends, the Mores 

"Another evening the party cross the common, and drop into the villa 
of the Teigmnouths, or spend a pleasant hour in Robert Thornton's 
decorated grounds, to look into his conservatory full of rare plants, and 
his library with its costly volumes. On Sunday they take their seats in 
the old church, with the Wilberforces' and Macaulays' and Stephens' 
pews close to their own, and in the front gallery the Teigmnouths' ; and 
they listen to the wise discourses of Venn. Another Sunday they sit 
enchanted under the preaching of Gisborne." 

Let us now leave Clapham, and come into the great metropolis Evan- 
itself, At St. Mary Woolnoth, at the corner of Lombard Street, ondon, m 
is old John Newton, once a slave-dealer and immersed in the 
grossest vices, now tho venerated Nestor of the Evangelical 
body, to whom Wilberforce, Thomas Scott, Cowper the poet, 
Milner the Church historian, Claudius Buchanan, and Hannah 
More, owe much of their spiritual enlightenment, and who (in 
the language of his own hymn) has taught hundreds of less-known 
souls " How sweet the name of Jesus sounds in a believer's 
ear." f At St. Anne's, Blackfriars, there is William Goode, wise 
and patient counsellor and committee-man. Only two or three 
other London parishes are in Evangelical hands ; but there 
are licensed proprietary " episcopal chapels" with able pastors, 
exercising a wide influence . such as St. John's, Bedford Bow, 
where Richard Cecil is still ministering, scholarly, refined, 
brilliant, -" the one clerical genius of his party," Bishop S. 
"Wilberforce calls him ; or Bentmek Chapel, Marylebone, where 

* Key, Thomas Q-isborne, of Yoxall Lodge, Needwood Forest. 
f Isaac Milner, Dean of Carlisle. 

J Mr. Lecky calls Newton " one of the most devoted and single-hearted of 
Christian ministers " 



44 THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY, &c. 

PAET II. Basil Woodd is surrounded by an influential and liberal congrega- 
1786-1811. tion ; or the Lock Chapel (then near Hyde Park Corner), where 
Gha P- 4 Thomas Scott is manfully preaching righteousness to an ultra- 
Calvinistic people whose Hves differ widely from their high 
professions, eking out his miserable income by walking fourteen 
miles every Sunday to give " lectures " in two other churches at 
7s. 6d. apiece, and writing the great Commentary which crushes 
him by the expense of its production, though its sale in the next 
half-century is to produce half a million of pounds sterling. 
And m the In the provinces there are by this time not a few faithful and 
Provinces. success | u j Evangelical clergymen, such as Eobmson of Leicester 
and Eichardson of York ; above all there is Charles Simeon at 
Cambridge, still "boycotted" (to use a word not yet in the 
English language) by both "town " and " gown," but " increasing 
the more in strength," and laying the foundation of that unique 
influence which will make him for forty years the most con- 
spicuous figure in Cambridge. 

These are some of the men of light and leading in the sparse 
and scattered ranks of the Evangelical clergy and laity as the 
eighteenth century draws to its close. Not a single bishop gives 
them the slightest recognition beyond what he is officially obliged 
to give/ ;: Only one dignitary Isaac Milner, Dean of Carlisle is 
counted among them. But the power of the Lord is with them. 
They are not only, by His grace, bringing thousands of individual 
souls out of darkness into light, but they are gradually leavening 
the teaching of the Church, to such an extent that the doctrines 
which they alone in 1796 are setting forth in Scriptural fulness 
will, fifty and a hundred years later, although still hated by some 
and ridiculed by others, be admitted, even in derision, to be " the 
popular theology," that is, the theology which ib in fact the 
religion of the English people. 

* It is usually said that Bishop Porteus of London was, if not an Evan- 
gelical himself, favourably disposed towards them He certainly joined them 
in philanthropic enterprises like Wilberforce'a against the slave-trade , and 
he manifested some religious sympathy with them. Probably he felt obliged 
to be cautious. 



CHAPTER V, 

AmiGA AND THE EAST WAITING. 




The Dark Continent England and the Slave Trade Granville Sharp, 
Clarkson, Wilberforce The Struggle for AbolitionThe East 
India Company Religion in British India in the Eighteenth 
Century Charles Grant and Wilberforce The Dark Period in 
India Other Eastern Lands, Waiting, 

" Thou wicked and slothful servant " Matt xxv 26. 

" The name of God IB blasphemed among the Gentiles through i/oit," Bom. ii 24 

j|HEN the Evangelical Eevival had reached the point to PART II, 
which our last chapter brought it, Africa and India W86-181L 
had waited two hundred years for Christian England p ' 
to give them the Gospel. English intercourse and 
traffic with both the Dark Continent and the East 
Indies had begun in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. In West 
Africa, as we have before seen, the S.P.G. had one missionary, 
for three or four years, in the middle of the eighteenth century, 
and a Negro clergyman for fifty years following. In the Tamil 
country of South India the S.P.C K had done a great work by 
the agency of German Lutherans. That was all, Let us now 
briefly review the connexion of England with both India and 
Africa before the epoch of extended missionary effort began, 

Africa was thta a Dark Continent indeed. Dark it is still ; 
but dark it was a century ago in a sense we can hardly realize 
now. Eor many years past, in successive editions of the Church 
Missionary Atlas, the article on Africa has commenced with 
these words: "Africa has been described 'as one universal 
den of desolation, misery, and crime ' ; and certainly, of all the 
divisions of the globe it has always had an unfortunate pre- 
eminence in degradation, wretchedness, and woe." Gleams of 
light are to be seen now, here and there, athwart the moral 
darkness; yet those old words need little modification to-day. 
But when the Church Missionary Society was founded, Africa 
was a dark continent in another sense. It was almost wholly 
unknown. The coast-line had been traced by the Portuguese 
explorers of the fifteenth century; but although the course of 
some of the rivers and the position of some of the lakes had been 
fairly guessed at by Mercator, Ogilby, and other map-makers of 
the seventeenth century, the more careful accuracy of the 



46 AFRICA AND THE EAST WAITING 

PART II. eighteen tli century had discarded this guess-work, and in 1788, 
1786-1811 the newly-formed African Association said in its prospectus that 
Chapes _Aj r i ca S t 00( ^ a | one m a geographical view" because it was 
" penetrated by no inland seas, nor overspread with extensive 
lakes like those of North America, nor had, like other continents, 
rivers running from the centre to the extremities " ' The only 
British traveller who had made any discoveries was James Bruce, 
and his narratives of journeys in Nubia and Abyssinia had been 
received with scepticism. Mungo Park was then on the travels 
which in 1796 revealed the existence of the Niger, though its 
course to the sea was not determined till 1830. That was all. 
Very happily did William Jowett, the first Cambridge missionary 
of the CMS., when considering the peoples and religions of 
Africa from his watch-tower at Malta, exclaim, "Even the 
geographer, whose task lies merely with the surface of the land 
and sea, confesses that all he has to show of Africa is but as the 
hem of a garment ! " 

Dark also, in a moral sense, was the connexion of England 
with Africa It is a humiliating fact that for more than two 
The slave centuries England was the chief slave-trading nation. She did 
Trade. no in ^ eec i begin the detestable traffic. It was the Portuguese 
and the Spaniards who first kidnapped Negroes, and carried them 
across the Atlantic to provide labour for the early settlements in 
the New World, because the Natives they found there proved 
incapable of steady work ; and in the first decade of the sixteenth 
century, a Papal bull authorized the opening of a slave-market at 
Lisbon. But in 1562 an Act was passed by the English Parlia- 
ment legalizing the purchase of Negroes ; and Queen Elizabeth's 
famous naval commander, Sir John Hawkins", sailed at once to a 
small peninsula in West Africa, named by the Portuguese Sierra 
Leone, forcibly and fraudulently seized three hundred Negroes, 
carried them across the Atlantic to Hayti, and sold them there. 
During the hundred years preceding 1786, the number of slaves 
imported into British Colonies exceeded two millions In 1771, 
no less than 192 slave-ships left England for Africa, fitted up for 
a exactly 47,146 slaves. Slaves formed an important part of the 
L property of well-to-do families in England Most people of 
consideration had estates in the West Indies, and thence they 
brought Negroes home as domestic servants. So late as 1772, 
advertisements appeared in the London newspapers of black boys 
and girls to be sold/ 1 But it was in that year, 1772, that the 
freedom of the slave on British soil was secured. Granville 

* Hero is the advertisement of an auction . " Twelve pipes of rawin wine, 
two boxes of bottled cyder, six sacks of flour, three negro men, two negro 
women, two negro boys, one negro girl " Here is a bill of lading "Shipped 
by the grace of G-ocl, in good ordci and woll-contiitioned, in and upon the good 
ship Mary Borough, twenty-four prime slaves, six prime women slaves, marked 
and numbered as in the margin "the marks being branded on a certain part 
of the body The Liverpool Privateers (London, 1897), quoted in the Times, 
December 4th, 1897. 



AFRICA AND THE EAST WAITING 47 

Sharp, then a clerk in a government office, whose sympathies had PART II. 
been drawn out by the sufferings of some Negio slaves who had 
been cruelly treated, had determined to test the legality of slavery 
in England , and his unyielding perseverance, in the face of all 
sorts of obstacles, brought the question, at last, to a plain issue English 
before Lord Chief Justice Mansfield. On June 22nd, 1772, was ^! ery 
delivered the memorable judgment which settled the controversy JIJ^ 6 * 1 
once for all. " The claim of slavery," said the Lord Chief Justice, * ega ' 
" never can be supported. The power claimed never was in use 
here, or acknowledged by the law . . . As soon as any slave sets 
his foot on English ground he becomes f ice." 

This judgment did not stop the slave-trade as between Africa 
and the Colonies ; but it at once set free all the slaves in the 
British Isles The immediate result, however, was not good. 
Claiming their liberty, they deserted then masters, and then suddenly 
found themselves without employment 01 means of subsistence ; 
and the streets of London began to swarm with Negro beggars. 
Granville Sharp now turned his energy into schemes for their 
benefit , and it was in 1786 that, with the help of Government, Sierra 
he formed a plan for settling them on that very peninsula of Sierra colony 
Leone where Hawkins had kidnapped the first British slave- founded - 
cargo. Pour hundred liberated Negro slaves were shipped thither, 
under English superintendence; and a district twenty miles square 
having been purchased from a Native chief, the British flag was 
hoisted, and the Negroes were planted out upon the land. Other 
shiploads followed; about a thousand Negroes came over from 
Nova Scotia, whither they had fled from the United States ; a 
good many English, farmers and artissans, sought their fortune m 
the new settlement , and the population grew apace. Disaster 
after disaster, however, fell upon the colony . the Native chiefs 
plundered it, and sickness carried oft most of the English settlers 
which led to Sierra Leone receiving the sobriquet of the White 
Man's Grave. To promote the safety and prosperity of the 
people, the Sierra Leone Company was foirned in 1791, to 
introduce trade, industry, and Christian knowledge. Henry 
Thornton was the chairman, and Wilberforce a director , and among 
the leading men were other magnates of the " Clapham Sect." But 
further disasters ensued ; and in 1794, Freetown, the capital, was 
destroyed by a French squadron, and the inhabitants treated with 
merciless barbarity. Zachary Macaulay, father of the great 
historian, was governor of the settlement at that time A 
previous governor, Lieutenant Olarkson, should also be men- 
tioned, for his singular devotion and genuine piety. : ' 

In the meanwhile, at the very time that Granville Sharp was 
forming his first plans for sending liberated slaves to West Africa, 
the University of Cambridge had propounded, as the subject for 

* Lieut. Clarkson's Journal, a touchingly interesting narrative, is published, 
by Bishop Ingham m his Sierra Leone after a Hundred Years (Seeley, 1894). 



48 AFRICA AND THZ EAST -WAITING 

PART II the Latin Essay of 1785, the question, " Is it right to make slaves 
1786-1811. of others against their will ? " The prize was awarded to Thomas 
^jSkaf. 5 Clarkson; and on gaining it he reflected that "if the contents of 
ciarkson's ^ s essa y were true, it was time that some one should see these 
Essay. calamities to their end," He republished it in English, and it 

became a classic in the controversy of the next twenty years, 
wiiuam "William Wilherforce, too, had begun his great campaign against 
fb?ce. er " the Slave Trade itself. Even in his earlier years there had been 
signs that God had marked him out to be the leader in the great 
enterprise. " His abomination of the slave-trade," wrote a school- 
fellow long afterwards, " he evinced when he was not more than 
fourteen years of age." He wrote to the newspapers on the 
subject while still a boy ; and even amid the gaieties of his 
early adult life the sufferings of the slaves in the West Indies 
oppressed his spirit "In 1780," he afterwards wrote, "I 
expressed my hope that I should redress the wrongs of those 
wretched beings." But the youthful lover of freedom had not yet 
entered into the liberty wherewith Christ makes His people free, 
and did not yet see that the deliverance of the slave from earthly 
bondage must, if any real good was to be done, be accompanied by 
efforts, in the name and in the strength of the Lord, to deliver 
him also from spiritual bondage. It was in 1785 that Wilberf orce, 
while on a continental tour with his friend Isaac Milner," was 
His con- awakened by reading Doddridge's Eise and Progress of Religion in 
version. ^ ie ^^ . an ^ on October 21st, in that year, it pleased God to make 
His gracious promise of the Spirit to those that ask Him, m 
Luke xi. 13, the turning point of the young statesman's life, and 
by that Spirit to enable him to yield his whole self, body, soul, and 
spirit, to the service of his Divine Master, t Then Wilberf orce 
advanced from feeling to action; and it was in the memorable 
succeeding year, 1786 concerning which more will be said m 
Hisdedi-i the next chapter, that he wrote, " God has set before me two 
cation. ^^ objects, the suppression of the slave-trade and the reforma- 
tion of manners "and that under the celebrated oak at Keston, 
he devoted himself definitely to the campaign against the traffic 
in human flesh and blood 

That Wilberforce was specially raised up by God for this great 
work, no one can doubt who reads the long story of the twenty 
years' struggle. Edmund Burke had formed plans a few years 
previously for mitigating the horrors of the slave-trade and 
ultimately suppressing it, but had given up the idea as hopeless. 
No mere political movement could have accomplished it. "The 
powerful interests with which the battle must be fought," writes 
Wilberforce's son and biographer, " could be resisted only by the 
general moral feeling of the nation. There was then no example 
upon record of any such achievement, and in entering upon the 

* Afterwards Dean of Carlisle and President of Queens', Cambridge 
f But Wilberforce, though undoubtedly converted to God in October, If 85, 
did not fully realize his new state of salvation for some few months See -D. 57. 



AFRICA AND THE EAST WAITING 49 

struggle it was of the utmost moment that its leader should be PART II 
one who could combine, and so render irresistible, the scattered 1786-1811 
sympathies of all the religious classes." This Wilberforce alone hap d 
could do, and did do. 

It is important to distinguish between the Slave Trade and 
Slavery. Slavery on British soil was declared illegal by Lord 
Chief Justice Mansfield's judgment. Slavery in the British West 
Indies was not touched by that judgment ; and its abolition was 
not to corne for half a century, and then not by Wilberforce's 
hands, but by Button's. Wilberforce's campaign, though inspired HIS anti- 
by his distress at the sufferings of the West Indian slaves, was ^adc 
not against Slavery for that the time had not come but against campaign 
the Slave Trade. 

At first it seemed to Wilberforce and his comrades that the 
abolition of the Slave Trade would be speedily decreed They 
had with them the sympathies of the three foiernost statesmen 
and orators of the day, Pitt, Fox, and Buikc , and Wilbeiforce's 
intimate friendship with Pitt, who was then almost at the height 
of his power as Prime Minister, gave him exceptional opportunities 
of pushing the cause. They little anticipated the piolonged 
struggle that was before them. They quite failed to estimate the 
strength of the vested interests of a great trade. And it very soon 
appeared that the walls of Jericho would not fall at the first 
trumpet blast. The slave-traders and slave-holders boldly dis- Opposition 
pnted the very facts on which the abolitionists relied. Yet the trade?" 
horrors of the "middle passage " across the Atlantic were already 
notorious. One example will suffice A slave-ship with 562 
slaves on board lost fifty-five by death in seventeen days. They 
were stowed between decks under grated hatchways. They sat 
between each othei's legs, and could neither lie down nor in any 
way change their position night or day. They were branded like 
sheep with the marks of various owners, these being burned on 
their breasts with a red-hot iron. Zachary Macaulay actually 
crossed the Atlantic in a ship full of slaves, on purpose to see 
these horrors for himself But " the tiade " gravely affirmed that 
the slave-ships were "redolent with frankincense"; that tho 
voyage across the Atlantic was the happiest period of the Negro's 
life ; and that the involuntary convulsions caused by the heavy 
irons on his body camo from his lovo of dancing. !: They declared 
that insubordination and crime would be tho only result of milder 
treatment. They raised the cry of " Property ! property 1 " and 
thus appealed to all the selfishness of British human nature. 
And they hinted that the abolitionists were no better than the 

* These actual statements, from the evidence given before the Parliamen- 
tary Committee, are quoted in tho Life of TFW&er/orcc, chap. vu. In 1788, a 
slave-ship that was being fitted out m the Thames was visited by some 
members of Parliament, and the result -was an Act limiting the number of 
slaves, which was passed at the very beginning of the controversy. But it 
was totally disregarded, and never enforced. 

VOL. I, B 



50 AFRICA AND THE EAST WAITING 

PART II republicans who were then deluging Paris with blood. One 
1186-1811 result was that Mr. Ramsay, a clergyman who had lived in the 
Chap 5t West Indies, and spoke the truth concerning the traffic, literally 
died under the distress caused by the calumnies which were heaped 
upon him.* Another result was that their audacious misrepre- 
sentations were successful, year after year, in staving off the final 
decision. 

In 1789 Wilberforce made his first great speech in Parliament 
on the subject, occupying three hours and a half. The Bishop 
of London, Dr. Porteus, wrote that it was " one of the ablest and 
most eloquent speeches ever heaid in that or any other place," 
and added, "It was a glorious night for the country." The 
slaveholders, however, succeeded in getting the motion deferred 
till after the examination of witnesses ; which involved a post- 
ponement to the next session. The collection and marshalling 
of evidence involved immense labour, and "Wilberforce's diary 
shows that for months he gave nine hours a day to the task. 
Entries abound like this, "Slave-trade quite exhausted." 
Zachary Macaulay, who knew West Africa, and James Stephen, 
who knew the West Indies, were his chief lieutenants, and 
rendered important service. For three years the struggle went 
on, and in 1791 the question again came before a full House. 
Wesley's It was at this point that John Wesley sent fiom his dying bed 
message. n ^ s memorable message to Wilberforce, probably one of the last 
things, if not the very last thing, that he ever wrote. Encouraging 
the young statesman to be an " Athanasius contia mundum," the 
aged saint adjured him to be "not weary in well-doing." "If 
God be for you, who can be against you ? Go on m the name of 
God, and in the power of His might, till even American slavery, 
the vilest that ever saw the sun, shall vanish before it. That 
He who has guided you from your youth up may continue to 
strengthen you in this and all things, is the prayer of your 
affectionate servant, John Wesley." But on this occasion "the 
trade " triumphed by a large majority. 

The cruel attempt to identify the abolitionists with the infidel 
followers of Tom Paine, on the ground that, like them, they 
aimed at overthrowing property and civil oider, had its effect 
upon the mind of King George III., and he became their 
determined opponent, as already were the Prince of Wales (after- 
wards George IY.) and other of the royal dukes. This added 
Hope greatly to the difficulty of the position , but Wilbei force, strong 
deferred. ^ n ^ r ighteousness of his cause, persevered year after year, 

* Wilbcrforce himself incurred great oblui]uy, uuu wuuy stones to hia 
discredit were put in circulation bj Ins enemies On one occasion Glarkson 
was travelling by coach, and tlio passengers \vcro discussing tlio $lct\c-trade 
question "Mr. Wilbeiioico," s-aid one, " is no doubt a, great philanthropist 
in public , but I happen to know that he is a cruel husband and beats his 
wife " In point of fact, "Wilberforce was not yet married ! Harford's 
Recollections of Wilberforw, p Ul. 



AFRICA A fib THE EAST WAITING 51 

although in 1795, in 1796, in 1798, in 1799, he -was beaten, PAKT PI. 
sometimes in one way, sometimes in another. 1786-1811, 

Having thus brought Wilberforce and his campaign to the close 0ha P 5> 
of the century, let us now turn to India. 

In the gradual " Expansion of England" as manifested in the 
growth of the Empire in all parts of the world, an important part 
has been borne by those voluntary yet, in a sense, authorized 
associations called Chartered Companies. In the present work we 
shall see something, by-and-by, of the influence, generally for 
good, of the Hudson's Bay Company, the British East Africa 
Company, and the Eoyal Niger Company. The first led the way . 
to the greatness and completeness of the Dominion of Canada. 
The second has given us the East Africa and Uganda Protectorates, 
with all their illimitable possibilities. The third, in preparing the 
basin of the great river for the Niger Protectorate, has done 
excellent work. So has the British South Africa Company, which 
has already extended over vast regions the Pax Bntannica. But 
the greatest of all these associations has been the East India 
Company. 

On the last day of the sixteenth century, December 31st, 1600, 
Queen Elizabeth granted a royal charter to " one Body Corporate 
and Politick, in Deed and m Name, by the name of The Governor The East 
and Company of Ma chants of London trading into the East Indies." company. 
So was born the famous " John Company," which for two hundred 
and fifty-seven years represented Great Britain in India. " During 
one half of this period it was a trading, and during the other half 
a political and administrative organization ; while all through its 
history, when it departed from the principles of toleration, it was 
hostile to Christian Missions from a blinded selfishness. Yet it 
was used by the Sovereign Euler of the human race to prepare 
the way and open wide the door for the first hopeful and ultimately 
assuredly successful attempt), since the Apostolic Church swept 
away Paganism, to destroy the idolatrous and Musalmau cults of 
Asia." :: 

The early agents of the Company were very different men from 
the early " pilgrims " to tho American Colonies. To the efforts 
made to evangelize the Ecd Men of New England there was no 
parallel in India ; and the impression made by Englishmen on 
the Hindu mind may be gathered from the oft-quoted words English , 
addressed to the chaplain who accompanied Sir T. Eoe, the I^nSa? 
British Ambassador to the Mogul Emperor, " Christian religion 
devil religion ; Christian much drunk, much do wrong, much beat, 
much abuse others," Job Oharnook, the founder of Calcutta and 
first Governor of Bengal, became an avowed Pagan under the 
influence of his Native wife, and after her death annually sacrificed 
a cock upon her tomb. Civil and military officers kept their 

* Dr. G. Smith, Conversion of India, p, 84 

J3 2 



52 AFRICA AND THE AST WAITING 

PART II. zenanas , ' ' where, ' ' as one described it, ' ' they allowed their numerous 
1786-1811. black wives to roam about picking up a little rice, while they 
oha P-_ 6 ' pleased them by worshipping their favourite idol." The pages of 
Sir John Kaye's History of Christianity in India teem with similar 
illustrations and worse of the social and moral condition of 
Anglo-Indian society in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 
After this, it is a small thing to say that the East India Company 
was eighty years in India before a church was built When two 
or three had been supplied, it became fashionable at Madras to 
atteud public worship twice a year, on Christinas and Easter 
days; and on these occasions the Natives crowded to see the 
strange spectacle of Europeans going to " do pujah " The new 
charter before mentioned issued by William III. in 1698, which 
required the Company to provide a chaplain in every garrison 
and principal factory, and enjoined on such chaplains the 
duty of learning the native languages, " the better to enable 
them to instruct the Gentoos that are servants or slaves of 
the same Company in the Protestant religion," produced little 
effect, * and so late as 1795 Sir John Shore (afterwards Lord 
Teignrnouth), then Governor- General, reported officially that the 
clergy in Bengal, " with some exceptions," were "not respectable 
characters." "A black coat," he added, "is no security from 
the general relaxation of morals." Some of them returned home 
with large fortunes, made by trading and even gambling. 
First^ Meanwhile, all through the eighteenth century, missionary 

Missions. wor k amon g {fog Natives was going on in the south of India. 
It began, indeed, in Danish territory, but it spread both into 
Native States and into the districts occupied by the Company. 
This was the Mission founded by Ziegenbalg and Plutscho 
under the auspices of King Frederick IV. of Denmark, and 
subsidized and in great part directed by the S P.C.K , as men- 
tioned in our Third Chapter. But this was only in the Tamil 
country. In 1758, however, Clive, whose victories really laid the 
Kier- foundation of English supremacy in India, invited Kiernander, 
nander. one | fa & Danish missionaries, to Calcutta, and thus began 
Missions in the North. In 1771, Kiernander built a church, 
and called it by the Hebrew name Beth Tephillah (House of 
Prayer). It was generally known as the Mission Church, but m 
later years as the Old Church. His labouis, however, were 
mainly confined to the poor Portuguese and Eurasians, from 
amongst whom he gathered a small congregation , a few adherents 
won from Heathenism being also baptized. He worked well 
Charles According to his lights, but the character of his teaching may be 
Grant. imagined from the fact that when Charles Grant, then a young 

* Occasionally "black servants" were bow fa, and then baptized and in- 
structed; and "Portuguese" (le half-castes) in humble life were to some 
extent cared for. The earliest recorded " convert," mentioned as far back as 
16%, was, curiously enough, named John Lawrence. See an article in the 
Madras Mail, July 21st, 1897. 



AFRICA AND THE EAST WAITING 53 

official of the Company, who had been awakened to a sense of sin PART II. 
and of the ]ust claims of a holy God, went to him m deep concern, 1786-1811. 
" my anxious inquiries," writes Grant, " as to what I should do p 5 " 
to be saved embarrassed and confused him exceedingly , and he 
could not answer my questions " His old age was clouded by 
heavy pecuniary embarrassments, and his church in 1787 was 
seized by the Sheriff of Calcutta in behalf of his creditors. 

Then Charles Grant, : < who had risen rapidly in the Company's 
service, and held what was then the high rank of Senior Merchant, 
stepped forward, and, in conjunction with Mr. William Chambers, 
the Company's chief linguist, and the Eev. David Brown, a friend David 
of Charles Simeon's, who had conie out as chaplain to the Military Brown - 
Orphan Asylum, purchased the church, and having vested it in 
their three names, wrote to the S P.C K. m England to send out 
a clergyman, Grant offering to pay him 3 GO/ a year out of his own 
pocket The S P C K. did (1789) send out a clergyman named 
Clarke, who was really the first English missionary sent to India ; 
but as he did not turn out well, and only stayed a few months, he 
is not usually counted. Not till eight years afterwards (1797) did 
the S P C.K succeed in finding a successor, and he, like the mis- 
sionaries in the South, was a Dane in Lutheran orders, Mr. 
Ringeltaube, but, after a year or two, he joined the London 
Missionary Society,f and the S.P C.K. never sent a third man. 
Meanwhile David Brown had resigned his post at the Asylum to 
take charge of the church on Clarke leaving ; and, except during 
Eingeltaube's tenure of the post, continued to minister to a growing 
and influential English and Eurasian congregation, without pay, 
for twenty- three years. [ He was also appointed a Company's 
chaplain, and ministered for part of the time simultaneously in the 
official church, St. John's , and he constantly attended the 
hospital and the gaol He never took furlough. In the whole 
period he was only once absent, lor a short trip up the Ganges. 
" In the religious progress of the European community," writes 
Sir John Kaye, " he found his reward. He lived to see the 
streets opposite to our churches blocked up with carnages and 
palanquins, and to welcome hundreds of communicants to the 
Supper of the Lord. He lived to see the manners and conversa- 
tion of those by whom he was surrounded purified and elevated ; 
the doctrines of his Master openly acknowledged in word and 

* An extremely interesting sketch of Charles Grant's career, by Mr. Henry 
Morris, has been recently published at Madras by the Christian Literature 
Society for India, and in London by the S.P.C K. See also Dr. George Smith's 
chapter on Grant in Twelve Indian Statesmen 

f Ring-eltaube afterwards began tho great work of tho London Missionary 
Society in Soubh Travancore. Though a man of groat devotion, he was very 
eccentric, and after labouring for some years and baptising many converts, 
he suddenly disappeared in 1815, and was never heard of again. 

; The church continued m the hands of trustees till 1870, when it was 
handed over to the Church Missionary Society. 

Christianity in India, p. 165, 



54 AFRICA AND THE EAST WAITING 

PART II. deed, where once they had been scouted by the one and violated 
. by the other." The religious history of Calcutta during a quarter 

of a century is the history of David Brown's life 
Plans of The three fiiends, Grant, Chambers, and Brown, together with 
Brown and another Company's official, George TJdny, : < formed, in 1786, a 
large scheme for a Bengal Mission under Government auspices, 
and submitted it to influential persons in England, as we shall see 
hereafter Nothing came of it directly, but it was one of the 
causes which led indirectly to the establishment of the Church 
Missionary Society. Giant, however, made a small beginning 
himself by commissioning, at his own charges, a ship's surgeon 
named Thomas to start a Mission at a place called Gomalty ; but 
this scheme failed also 

Grant's Grant returned to England in 1790, and was at once in com- 
mfluence, mumca ^ on w ith William Wilberforce and other influential 
Christian men regarding possible plans for the evangelization of 
India. He published an able and elaborate pamphlet entitled 
" Observations on the State of Society among the Asiatic Subjects 
of Great Britain," which is characterized by Sir John Kaye and 
other good authorities as one of the most statesmanlike papers ever 
written upon British influence in India. He became a Director of 
the East India Company, and was three times Chairman of the 
Board , and for many years all his energies were thrown into the 
arduous work of supervising the government of the great Depen- 
dency. Sir John Kaye thus writes of him : 

" The headpiece of the Company in Leaclenhall Street, the mouthpiece 
of the Company in St Stephen's, the oracle on all subjects of Indian 
import, of that little knot of warm-hearted, earnest-minded men who dis- 
cussed great measures of humanity on Clapliam Common, Charles Grant so 
tempered the earnestness of his spiritual zeal with sound knowledge and 
strong practical sense, that whatever lie said carried a weighty signifi- 
cance with it. Such a man was much needed at that time He was 
needed to exercise a double influence an influence alike over the minds 
of men of different classes in India, and of his colleagues and compatnots 
at home." 

And Dr. George Smith sums up his career in these eloquent 
words ; 1 

" In the seventy-seven years ending 1823 Charles Grant lived, a servant 
of the East India Company in Bengal, and then Chairman of its Court 
of Directors ; a member of Parliament, and father of two statesmen as 
pure as himself and only less able Lord Glenelg and Sir Robert Grant, 
Governor of Bombay Charles Grant saw and mitigated the greatest 
famine on record, which swept off four millions of beings in Bengal, 
Behar, and Orissa, a century and a quarter ago. He purged the Com- 

* In 1893, the Commissioner of Peshawar, a descendant of Udny's, and 
hearing the same name, held a drawing-room meeting at his house at that 
frontier city, which was addressed by the Author of this work and the late 
Rev. B. TV. Stewart. 

t In an article in Good Words, September, 1891; reproduced, in substance, 
in Twelve Indian Statesmen, 1897 



AFRICA AND THE EAST WAITING 55 

party's government of abuses at the worst penod of its history. A friend PART IT. 
of Schwartz, the great missionary, he helped Carey to Serampore, he sent 1786-18U. 
out the Evangelical chaplains through Simeon, ho founded Haileybury Chap. 5. 

College, he was the chief agent * in the institution of the Church Mission- 

ary and Bible Societies, he fought for the freedom of the Afiican slave 
as wisely as for the enlightenment of the caste-bound Hindu. He was 
the authority from whom Wilberforce derived at once the impulse and 
the knowledge which gained the first battle for toleration m the Hon. 
East India Company's charters of 1793 and 1813. Above all, Cttarles 
Grant wrote in 1792 the noblest treatise on the Asiatic subjects of Great 
Britain, and the means of improving their moral condition, which the 
English language has ever yet seen." 

It was in 1793 that William Wilberforce, influenced by Grant, 
first moved Parliament to afford facilities for Missions in India. 
The East India Company's Charter had to be renewed, and he 
proposed resolutions in favour of promoting the moral and religious Defeat of 
improvement of the Natives. These resolutions were carried in * 
Committee of the House, but before the third reading of the 
Charter Bill the East India Directors took alarm, and the result 
was that Wilberforce had in sorrow to write, " All my clauses 
were struck out last night, and our territories in Hindostan, 
twenty millions of people included, are left in the undisturbed 
and peaceable possession, and committed to the providential 
protection, of Brama." 

From that year, 1793, may be reckoned what has been well 
called the Dark Period of twenty years in the history of Chris- The Dark 
tiamty in India, during which all possible discouragement was Penod - 
given by the East India Company to every effort to spread the 
Gospel. It is significant that, in that same year, Lord Macartney, 
on his embassy from Great Britain to China, made the following 
humiliating declaration : " The English never attempt to disturb 
or dispute the worship or tenets of others ; they come to China 
with no such views ; they have no priests or chaplains with them, 
as have other European nations." Chaplains, however, there 
were in India ; and we may thank God for them. During the 
twenty years, all that was done in India, by the Church of 
England, for the spread of the Gospel, was done by them, and 
especially the famous " Five Chaplains," David Brown, Claudius 
Buchanan, Henry Martyn, Daniel Come, and Thomas Thomason. 

It is a curious coincidence that this same date, 1793, was 
the date of Sir John Shore's accession to the Governor-General- Lord 
ship, For Shore was a godly Christian, who made no secret of his J^outh. 
personal religion, refusing to transact business on Sundays, and 
getting churches built at the civil and military stations. But 
more than this he could not do. To Wilberforce, who had written 
to him about Missions, he replied that the English in India would 
not tolerate them : indeed " they needed first to Christianize them- 
selves." After four years he returned to England, became Lord 

* Bather, " one of the chief agents,*' 



56 AFRICA AND THE EASTWAITING 

PART II. Teigmnouth, joined the Evangelical coterie atClapham, and, when 
17864811. the Bible Society was established, was elected its President, 
Qbap^S. j^ meanwhile India continued waiting. 

Thus we have seen Africa and India waiting. But India is 
The rest of not the whole of "the East." What of the lest of Asia? First 
waiting!"" there was the Turkish Empire. The Levant was not in those days 
the scene of holiday tours. Few Englishmen had ever visited 
Syria or Asia Minor But the Lands of the Bible, where the first 
Christian Churches had been planted, and in particular the Holy 
Land itself, the sacred ground on which the Lord's own feet had 
trod, were not forgotten by the few large-hearted souls that could 
look beyond the bounds of their own parishes. Those lands, 
however, were practically inaccessible. Mohammedan tyranny 
ruled undisturbed. European Powers had not yet begun to inter- 
fere in the East. It was but a few years before that the Turk 
was thundering at the gates of Vienna. Moreover, in the closing 
decade of the century, the Mediterranean was the battle-field of 
hostile fleets. So "the East," in so far as it meant the Levant, 
was still waiting. But had it not, all this while, its own Chris- 
tianity ? Yes, the ancient Churches of " the East " still lived, and 
had, through the wonderful providence of God, been preserved 
through twelve centuries of Moslem oppression. But if alive m 
one sense, they were dead, or all but dead, in another. Not one 
of them was even attempting to win the Mohammedan to Christ ; 
and, their presence notwithstanding, the Lands of Islam were still 
waiting waiting for an aggressive Gospel. 

So also was it with Persia ; so with Tartary ; and as for Central 
Asia, no one knew anything of it Ceylon and the other East 
Indian possessions of Holland had had a dull and formal Pro- 
testant Christianity imposed upon them by their well-meaning but 
unspiritual Dutch rulers. China, on the other hand, was the scene 
of extensive Eoman Missions, but the converts were scarcely 
distinguishable from the Heathen, and had only exchanged 
painful though it is to state the actual truth one idolatry for 
another. Moreover, although, in the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries the Jesuits had contrived to get into the country, and by 
their scientific attainments to maintain a position there, China, at 
the close of the eighteenth century, was closed against foreigners. 
Still more securely was Japan locked and barred against all inter- 
course with the outer world. The great nations of the Far East 
were still waiting. 

And in the heavens, the Lord of all these Eastern lands, the 
Lord of the whole earth, was wo/ding. Nearly eighteen centuries 
had passed away since He started His Church on what should 
have been her career of world- wide blessing; and while the 
Church 'had corrupted herself, torn herself to pieces with 
internal dissension, and at last gone to sleep, the Church's 
Lord was still waitino. 





REV JOHN VENN 



REV THOMAS SCOTT 




REV CHARLES SIMEON 





REV JOHN NEWTON 



REV RICHARD CECIL 



John Venn, Rectoi of Clapham "First Chairman of C M S Committee 
Thomas Scott, Commentator , Fii&t Secietaiy of C M S 

Chailes Simeon, Incumbent of Trinity, Cainbncl>e , Orig-inator of idea of C AI S 
John Newton, Bectoi ot St Mary "Woolnoth u ' 

Richard Cecil, Mmi&tei of St John's Chapel, Bedfcoicl Row. 




CHAPTER VI 

THE MISSIONARY AWAWING, 17861799. 

The Twelve Events of 1786 Charles Simeon Carey The Baptist and 
LondoiKMissionary SocietiesThe Eclectic Discussions Botany 
Bay-Sirrteon in earnest-Josiah Pratt and John Venn Why form 
a new Society ? L.M S. not desirable, S.P G, not possible. 

"When ite shall sfo these things com to pass, Iww that it is nijh" 
St Markxin 29 
" What Ime I now done 1 Is thei e not a cause * " 1 Sam xvn 29. 

|N oui 1 Fourth Chapter we took a rapid survey of the PABT IL 
World, the Country, and the Church, from the point WB8-18II 
of view of the closing decade of the Eighteenth Gen- Chapl ^ 
tury, Our Fifth Chapter showed us " Africa and the 
East Waiting," till the Evangelical Revival should ' 
set on foot the forces for their evangelization. We must now 
trace out the story of the Missionary Awakening, and particularly 
the story of the Chmch Missionary Society, 

The year 1786 was an epoch-making year in the history of th< 
Missions, In that year twelve different events occurred, many of y 
them quite unconnected with one another, but most of them 
combining to'produoe the Missionary Awakening which led to the 
establishment of the Church Missionary Society, while others of 
them were more or less connected with that Awakening. 

(1) In 1786, William Wilberf orce entered into the peace o! God, 
received the Lord's Supper for the first time on Good Friday, 
solemnly resolved " to live to God's glory and his fellow-creatures* 
good," and, as before mentioned, dedicated himself, under the 
oak-tree at Keston, to the task of abolishing the slave-trade, 

(2) In 1786, Thomas Clarkson's essay against the slave-trade 
was published, and began its work of influencing the public mind, 

(3) In 1786, Granville Sharp formulated his plan for settling 
liberated slaves at Sierra Leone, 

(4) In 1786, David Brown, the first of the "Five Chaplains/' 
landed in Bengal, 

(5) In 1786, Charles Grant at Calcutta conceived the idea of a 
great Mission to India, 

(6) In 1786, William Carey proposed at a Baptist ministers' 
meeting the consideration of their responsibility to the Heathen, 
and was told by the chairman to sit down. 



he 
year v 



58 THE MISSIONARY AWAKENING, 17861799 

PART II. (7) In 1786, the first ship-load of convicts was sent to Australia, 
^SS-lSll. an ^ a chaplain with them 

_L ( 8 ) In 178 6, ^e Eclectic Society discussed Foreign Missions for 
the first time. 

(9) In 1786 occurred the visit of Schwartz, the S.P.C K. 
Lutheran missionary in South India, to Tmnevelly, which led, 
more than twenty years after, to the establishment of the C.M.S. 
Tmnevelly Mission, 

(10) In 1786, Dr. Coke, the great Wesley an missionary leader, 
made the first of his eighteen voyages across the Atlantic to 
carry the Gospel to the negro slaves in the West Indies, an 
enterprise afterwards joined in by the CMS and several other 
societies. 

(11) In 1786 was passed the Act of Parliament which enabled 
the Church of England to commence its Colonial and Missionary 
Episcopate. 

(12) In 1786, Dr. Thurlow, Bishop of Lincoln, preaching the 
annual sermon of the S.P.G , advocated the evangelization of India. 
" Can we," he urged, " withhold from so many millions of rational 
beings, unhappily deluded by error or degraded by superstition, 
the privilege of an emancipation from their chains of darkness 
and an admission into the glorious liberty of the children of 
God? " And he appealed to the East India Company to build 
churches and support clergymen for them. 

Some of these events have been noticed before. Some will 
demand our attention by-and-by. Let us now take No. 5, with 
Nos. 4 and 12, and then Nos. 6, 7, and 8. 

Grant's It was a similar plan to Bishop Thurlow's that Charles Grant 
scheme. na ^ conceived, as before mentioned. Upon the Company and the 
Government he relied for the propagation of Christianity in 
Bengal. He, together with his three coadjutors before named, 
David Brown, Chambers and Udny, addressed letters regarding 
the great scheme for a Bengal Mission to the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, and alsp to influential members of Parliament. The 
two men in England, however, on whom they relied to push it 
forward were William Wilberforce and Charles Simeon. Both 
were young; neither had yet gained their subsequent unique 
influence ; but with an instinct in which we must see the guidance 
of God, Brown, who had been Simeon's intimate friend at 
Cambridge, and Grant, who must have heard of Wilberforce' s 
new fame as a religious man, fixed on the clergyman and the 
layman who, above all others, were likely to influence godly 
people in England. Wilberforce has been already introduced. 
Let us now introduce Simeon. 
Charles Charles Simeon, on first entering King's College, Cambridge, 

Simeon f rom a ^f Q | Qr 



summons of the Provost to receive the Lord's Supper , and had 
found light for his perplexed mind and peace for his quickened 
conscience by reading Bishop T, Wilson's book on the Sacrament, 



THE MISSIONARY AWAKENING, 17861799 59 

During his undergraduate days he had gradually grown in the PART II. 
Christian life, though meeting with not a single man who knew 1 
the doctrines of grace. Just before his ordination on his fellow- 
ship in 1782, he had come across John Venn,' 1 ' of Sidney Sussex 
College, who became his life-long friend. He served as curate 
at St Edward's for a few months, at once crowding the church by 
his awakening sermons, and then was appointed by the Bishop of 
Ely, who was a fuend of his father's, to Trinity Church. The 
parishioners, alarmed at the advent of a " Methodist," locked the 
pews and stayed away from church; but the aisles were soon 
thronged by casual hearers When he started an evening service 
an outrageous novelty in those days, 'the churchwardens, to 
prevent it, locked up the church. For years Simeon underwent 
persecution of all kinds, from both town and gown ; but he always 
said, " The servant of the Lord must not strive ", and his quiet 
but unconquerable patience giadually won a complete victory. 
This was the clergyman to whom Charles Grant and David 
Brown sent from Calcutta their scheme for a great official Church 
Mission to India. 

The evangelization of India, however, was, in God's purposes, 
not to come that way. It was the Dutch method of Missions,! 
and it had been tried and found wanting. Not by the official 
action of Government, but by the devotion of an obscure Baptist 
cobbler, was a Bengal Mission to be established. Yet the letters 
of Brown and Grant bore fruit Nearly half a century afterwards 
Simeon endorsed the original joint letter he had received from the 
Calcutta friends with the words, " It shows how early God enabled 
me to act for India, to provide for which has now for forty-two 
years been a principal and an incessant object of my care and 
labour. ... I used to call India my Diocese. Since there has been 
a Bishop, I modestly call it my Province. 1 ' I If it were only for 
his having, at a time when godly clergymen were so sorely needed 
in the Church at home, influenced such men to go out as Claudius 
Buchanan, Henry Martyn, Daniel Corrio, and Thomas Thomason 
the other four of the " five chaplains," India owes to Charles 
Simeon an untold debt of gratitude. 

The obscure Baptist cobbler was of course William Carey. 
Carey owed his interest in the heathen world to the perusal of 
Cook's Voyages ; but his spiritual fervour he owed, under God, 
to Thomas Scott, afterwards the first' Secretary of the Church 
Missionary Society. Long afterwards he wrote, " If I know 
anything of the work of God in my soul, I owe it to the preaching 
of Mr. Scott." It was in 1786 that he in vain invited his brethren 
to give attention to the Lord's last command, " Sit down, 

* Who had been excluded from Trinity Col] ego because he was tho sou of 
one of the " serious" clergy Seo p, 89. 

t See p 19 

J This document, with Simeon's eiidorsemenfc, is noiy in the possession of 
Ridley Hall. 



60 THE MISSIONARY AWAKENING^ 1786 1799 

PART II young man/' said the chairman of the meeting ; " when it pleases 

1786-1811 God to convert the Heathen, He'll do it without your help, or 

Q> mme " Although his first attempt to awaken a missionary spirit 

failed, he went on praying and studying, learning Latin, Greek, 

Hebrew, French, and Dutch. In 1792 he published his famous 

Enquuy into the Obligations of Ghiiztians to use Means foi the 

Conversion of the Heathen In the same year, on May 30th, 

he preached his memorable sermon before his fellow-ministers 

at Nottingham, on Isa. liv. 2, 3, " Enlarge the place of thy tent," 

c , dividing it under those two heads which have been an 

inspiration to the whole Church of Christ from that day to this, 

"(1) Expect gieat things fiom God ; (2) Attempt great things for 

Baptist God' 1 On October 2nd the first fruit of it sprang up : the Baptist 

Soci S ety. ary Missionary Society was formed , and in the following year Carey 

himself sailed for India as its first missionary. 

Carey's enterprise also led to the formation, in 1795, of the 
second great missionary society of that period. Its founders 
were Dr. Haweis, Sector of Aldwinkle, and Mr. Pentycross, Vicar 
of Walhngford, together with some Independent and Presbyterian 
ministers, not Baptists, and not Wesley ans ; and its basis was 
undenominational It was called simply The Missionary Society ; 
but as, shortly afterwards, two Scotch associations were founded, 
which were called respectively the Edinburgh and the Glasgow 
London Societies, it quite naturally came to be known as the London 
Society ary Missionary Society, and ultimately adopted that title. Its esta- 
blishment was hailed with great enthusiasm by a wide circle of 
Christian people, which culminated when, in the following year, 
the ship Ditjf sailed with its first party of missionaries for the 
South Sea Islands. Although its constitution has always remained 
unsectanan, it has practically, from the first, been the missionary 
organization of the Congregationahsts. No society has had greater 
names on its roll : it may suffice to mention Morrison, John 
"Williams, Moffat, Livingstone, Ellis, Mullens, and Gilmour 

The two Scotch societies just mentioned were founded in 1796. 
An attempt in the same year to induce the General Assembly to 
take up Missions officially was not successful, despite Dr Erskine's 
memorable appeal to Scripture " Moderator, rax me that Bible ! " 
Let us now turn to the Evangelical leaders within the Church 
of England. .They had begun to consider the subject of Missions 
Society some years before. The Eclectic Society had been founded in 1783 
^ a ^ ew c l er gy men an d laymen, for the discussion of topics 
interesting to them. They met fortnightly in the vestry of St. 
John's Chapel, Bedford Eow, of which Eichard Cecil was then 
minister. A missionary subject came before them for the first 
time on November 13th in that epoch-making year, 1786, when 
the question for consideration was, " What is the best method of 
planting and propagating the Gospel in Botany Bay ? " " Botany 
a y " s ^ 00< ^ ^ or w ^ ia ^ we now k&ow as the Australian Continent, 
Bay. and was a familiar name to the readers of the Voyages of Captain 



THE MISSIONARY AWAKENING, 17861799 61 

Cook, by whom the eastern coast of that portion of Australia now PART IT. 
called New South Wales had been explored The new continent 1786-1811. 
had been chosen by the British Goveinment as a penal settlement, p _'.^' 
and the first ship-load of convicts was, as above-mentioned, 
despatched to Botany Bay : ' in this same year, 1786. One of 
Wilberforce's first efforts for the good of his fellow-creatures was 
in their behalf. He and John Thornton interviewed Pitt, and 
induced the young Prime Minister to send a chaplain with them 
which circumstance was to Henry Venn the elder, then in 
his old age, the token of coining blessing for the distant regions 
of the earth Throughout the world, he wrote on the occasion, 
" a vast multitude whom no man could number should call upon 
the name of the Lord." Though he, " stricken m years," would 
not live to see it, he " would be well informed of it above," " All 
heaven," he goes on, " will break forth in that song of praise, 
Alleluia, for the Lord God Omnipotent reigneth." The first 
chaplain was Bichard Johnson , | his assistant and successor, 
appointed in 1793, was Samuel Marsden, afterwards the Apostle 
of New Zealand, whose heroic labours resulted in an abundant 
fulfilment of Venn's piophocy 

In 1789, the Eclectic Society again discussed a missionary 
subject, " What is the best .method of propagating the Gospel in The Gospel 
the East Indies ?" In the propounding of this question we see for India * 
the influence of the communications received by Simeon and 
Wilberforce from Brown and Grant ; but there is no record of the 
discussion. 

In 1791, a third missionary question was considered at an 
Eclectic gathering, via., " What is the best method of propagating 
the Gospel in Africa?" which carries us back to two other The Gospel 
of the events of 178G. The subject was no doubt suggested for Afnca> 
both by Wilberforce's Parliamentary campaign against the Slave 
Trade and by the then struggling freed-slave settlement at Sierra 
Leone ; both which have been already noticed. Of this discussion, 
again, no account has been preserved, 

Not until 1796 did the Eclectic brethren again discuss Foreign 
Missions ; and in the meanwhile the Baptist and London Mis- 
sionary Societies had been founded. In the year that saw the 
birth of the latter, 1795, Charles Simeon and other Evangelical 
Churchmen were discussing at two clerical meetings at Eauccby 
m Lincolnsliiie tho possibility of using a legacy of ^4000, loft to 
the Vicar to lay out " in the service of true religion," m training 
young men for missionary service. Nothing came of this, and 

* The name of Botany Bay long remained a synonym for a place of 
punishment, but the Bay itself: was soon superseded as a landing-place by 
Port Jackson, a few wiles north, now the magnificent harbour of Sydney. 

f A curious and interesting Memoir of Richard Johnbon has lately been, 
published, under tho title of Australia's First Preacft-er, by James Bonwick 
(S Low and Co., 1898) His little-known history deserved to be ferreted out j 
but the author might have spared his reflections on Marsden. 



62 THE MISSIONARY AWAKENING, 1786 1799 

PART II. the money was used, it is believed, for a similar purpose for the 

1786-1811. home ministry ; but the incident shows that Simeon and others 

p 6 * were not forgetting the Lord's Command, though as yet the way 

in which they could do their part in fulfilling it had not appeared 

But on February 8th, 1796, Simeon opened a discussion at an 

Eclectic meeting on the question, " With what propriety, and in 

what mode, can a Mission be attempted to the Heathen from the 

Established Church?" 

The very form of the question marks a step in advance. No 
longer do Botany Bay, or the East Indies, or Africa, fill up the 
The Gospel field of vision. It is " the Heathen " that are thought of. The 
Evangelization of the World is contemplated, however remotely. 
And the mention of "the Established Church" indicates, what 
was the fact, that while the brethren gave hearty God-speed to 
the non-denominational "Missionary Society" lately founded, 
and some of them contributed to it, they felt nevertheless that 
the Church of England must have its own Missions. 

Some particulars of the discussion have been preserved 1: Only 
" two or three " out of the seventeen members present pre- 
sumably Simeon, Scott, and Basil Woodd were favourable to any 
definite attempt being made. The majority were afraid of the 
bishops, or shrank from seeming to interfere with the S P.G. and 
S P C K., or doubted the possibility of obtaining men, or urged 
the claims of the Church at home. Nevertheless, the "two or 
three" ardent spirits did not lose heart, and long afterwards 
Basil Woodd wrote acioss his MS. notes of the discussion, " This 
conversation proved the foundation of the Church Missionary 
Society." 

Three years, however, elapsed before action was taken ; and we 
have only a few occasional hints that the great subject was not 
Simeon in forgotten. At Charles Simeon's suggestion, the clerical society at 
earnest. j^^]^ above mentioned, and the Elland Society, which 
supported young men of Evangelical principles at the Universities 
with a view to holy orders (as it does still), were considering 
the question , and on their behalf the Eev 0, Knight, a leading 
member, was in correspondence with the Bishop of London. Of 
this correspondence the Minutes of the Elland Society (still extant) 
give an interesting account ; but nothing came of it Again, in 
the Life of Wilberfw cc we find the following two entries in his 
journal : 

1797. July 27th. " To town, and back to dine at Henry Thornton's, 

where Simeon and Grant to talk over Mission scheme." 
November 9th. "Dined and slept at Battersea Rise for mis- 
sionary meeting ; Simeon, Charles Grant, Venn. Something, 
but not much, done. Simeon in earnest." 

4 They were summarized IB an Appendix to the Fnueral Sermon preached 
bj the younger Henry Venn (Hon Sec of C M S ) en the death of Josmh 
Pratt. This Appendix is printed at the end of Pratt's Life See also 3. H. 
Fratt's Eclectic Notes. 



THE MISSIONARY AWAKENING, 17861799 63 

That dinner at Clapham on November 9th was more important in PART II. 
the world's history than the Lord Mayor's banquet at the Guildhall 1 n" 18 g 1 ' 
the same evening I JL ' 

It was in this year, 1797, that a young clergyman, lately come 
to London as curate to Cecil, joined the Eclectic Society. This j osiah 
was Josiah Pratt, whom we shall often meet hereafter. His first Pratt, 
religious impressions, as a youth at Birmingham, had come through 
hearing the impressive reading of the Vemte Jl by Charles Simeon, 
then also quite a young man ; and it was the solemn utterance, by 
Thomas Bobmson of Leicester, of the words, " Let us pray," 
before the sermon, that led to his conversion of heait to God. 
On February 4th, 1799, he, the youngest of the Eclectic brethren, 
proposed this question for discussion : " How far may a. Periodical 
Publication be made subservient to the interest of Religion?" 
This discussion bore fruit. It led to the starting, two years later, of 
the Ghnstian Observer, which quickly became, and for three quarters 
of a century continued, a valuable organ of Evangelical principles 
and work Pratt himself was the first editor, but was soon 
succeeded by Zachary Macaulay, It is mentioned here, partly to 
introduce Pratt, and partly because his proposal was immediately 
followed, at last, by a reconsideration of the subject of Missions. 

For on February 18th, 1799, the Eclectic Society once more 
faced the question. There was, indeed, only what is recorded as 
" a general conversation on the subject of a Mission connected 
with the Evangelical part of the Church of England"; but it 
issued in a notice for a more regular discussion on March 18th, 
when John Venn himself would introduce the subject in the 
following form: "What methods can we use more effectually to "What 
promote the knowledge of the Gospel among the Heathen?" 5 G 
This again was a further advance upon the thesis of three years 
before. The question was now not merely "What ought the 
Church to do ? " but " What can we do 9 " 

John Venn's wisdom and judgment are very manifest in the 
summaries of his address which have been preserved. | _ He laid 
down three principles: (1) Follow Gods leading, and look for 
success only from the Spirit. This was the primitive policy. 
" The nearer we approach the ancient Church the better." 
(2) Under God, all will depend on the typo of men sent forth. A 
missionary " should have heaven in his heart, and tread the world 
under his foot," And such men only God can raise up, (8) Begin 
on a small scale. " Nature follows this rule. Colonies creep 
from small beginnings. Christianity was thus first propagated." 
In applying these principles Mr. Venn deprecated beginning by 
collecting money. Bather, let each member (1) admonish his 
people to promote Missions, (2) pray constantly for guidance, 

* The singing of the* Canticles?, except by cuthodial clioirs, was a later 
Evangelical innovation 

f Notes by both W. Goode and Josiah Pratfc are pimted in the Appendix 
cited in a previous Note. 



64 THE MISSIONARY AWAKENING, 17861799 

PART II. (3) study and inquire as to possible future plans, (4) speak to 
1786-1811 Christian friends on the subject. Finally, the Mission must be 
c ap> 6> founded upon "the Church-pi mciple, not the high-Chuich pnn- 
ciple"; and if clergymen cannot be found, send out laymen. 

The remarks of Grant, Pratt, Simeon, Scott, and Goode are 
also briefly recorded Simeon, with characteristic directness, 
proposed three questions * "What can we do? "When shall we 
do it ? How shall we do it ^ " and answered them thus, (1) " We 
must stand forth before the public" , (2) "Not a moment to be 
lost. We have been dreaming these four years, while all Europe 
is awake " [with the excitement of the great war] ; (3) " Hopeless 
to wait for missionaries ; send out catechists " Ultimately it was 
Must form resolved to form a Society immediately. On April 1st, another 
Society, meeting was held to prepare the Eules , and on Friday, April 12th, 
1799, the public meeting took place which established the Church 
Missionary Society. 

But why > But why was the new Society established at all? Were there 
not Church Societies already in existence ? And was there not 
also a younger Society which, though not conducted by Churchmen 
only, was one in which Churchmen could certainly, if they would, 
exercise great influence? The answer to this last question is 
found in John Venn's dictum that the projected Missions must be 
based on the " Church-principle." It may be doubted whether 
even his foresight could then perceive that while simple evangelistic 
preaching can be carried on in common by Evangelical Christians 
divided on Church questions, the non-denominational method 
becomes impracticable when converts are being gathered into 
communities , but if not, it was a true instinct that led him to 
the conclusion. A Native Christian community must either be 
linked with an existing body or become a new independent body 
itself. In the former case it cannot help following some de- 
nominational lead ; in the latter case it adds one to the number of 
distinct bodies that already divide Christendom On the Con- 
gregational principle, the latter result is unobjectionable ; but 
neither Presbyterianism nor Methodism accepts that principle, and 
L.M.S. still less does the Church of England do so, The decision of the 
desirable Evangelical brethren, therefore, not to throw their energies into 
the new London Missionary Society, was inevitable. And not 
only inevitable. It was not because they could not help it that 
they formed a Church Society. With all their true love for the 
godly men outside the Church, and their large-hearted readiness 
to unite with them in every religious and philanthropic enterprise in 
which union did not compromise principle as, for instance, in 
the Eeligious Tract Society, founded in that same year, 1799, and 
in the Bible Society, founded in 1804, they nevertheless were 
ex ammo loyal members of the Church of England They 
thoroughly believed in Episcopacy and Liturgical Worship ; and 
while no doubt, in common with Churchmen of all schools at that 
time, they set a higher value on " Establishment " than men of any 



THE MISSIONARY AWAKENIN^ 1786 1799 65 

School do now, they were far too well instructed to imagine that PART II. 
the Church of England only dates from the Beformation. As we 1786-1811. 
shall see presently, they looked back to the primitive Church for Glia P *> 
guidance in the details of their enterprise. One of their leaders, 
Joseph Milner, had but recently published his great History of the 
Church of Christ, in which, while faithfully setting forth Evan- 
gelical doctrine as the life of the Church, he showed the continuity 
of the Church from the Apostolic Age downwards, and dwelt 
lovingly on the characters and careers of the holy men of even tho 
darkest periods of mediaeval superstition. 

The answer to the other question, Why did not the Evangelical s P.C.K. 
leaders throw their energies into the existing Church Societies, not S " P G * 
the S P C K, and S.P G, ? is not fully seen in Venn's other dictum, possible, 
that the projected Missions must not be based on the "High- 
Church principle " There is more behind than appears on the 
surface. The expression " High-Church principle " would, m the 
present day, mean that missionary work could only be effectively 
done by the Church in her corporate capacity, or by missionaries 
of a Church holding the apostolical succession. But it is doubtful 
whether Venn meant that. As stated in the previous chapter, 
real High Churchmen were but few then. The S. P.C.K. and 
S.P.G. had both been founded as voluntary societies, and though 
the latter had a royal charter, it would be the extrernest Erastianism 
to suggest that a royal charter represented " the Church in her 
corporate capacity " Moreover tho S P.C.K. was at that very 
time employing and supporting missionaries in Lutheian orders 
in India, and rejoicing over the news of those missionaries them- 
selves ordaining Natives after the Lutheran use/-' More probably 
Venn meant two other things, viz , (1) that no Church enterprise 
ought to be undei taken by individual clergymen, without the 
bishops at their head, and (2) that every man ordained by a bishop 
was ipso facto fit to be a missionary If those two propositions Because 
constituted what Venn meant by the " High-Church principle," it principles 
is no marvel that he objected to it ; for (1) the question he pro- dlffered 
pounded to the Eclectic brethren was "What can we do?" we 
individual men of a despised school , and (2) the leading principle 
he laid down was that all would depend, under God, on the 
type of men sent out, and that God only could provide the 
right ones Here, in fact, we have the two essential and un- 
changing principles of the Church Missionary Society, viz., (1) It 
is the right of Christian men who sympathize with one another 
to combine for a common object, (2) Spiritual work must be done 
by spiritual men, 

Apart, however, from all differences of opinion on points like 
these, there was one sufficient reason for not working through 
the S.P.C.K. and SP.G John Venn and several other of 
his associates were subscribers to both Societies ; but at that 

* See the qttotation from an S.P.G K. fteport, anfr, p 23. 
VOL. I, 3? 



66 THE MISSIONARY AWAKENING, 17861793 

PART II. time they had not the slightest chance of being permitted to 
1786-1811. exercise any influence in the counsels of either. Illustrations 
Cba P- 6 - have been given in the previous chapter of the hatred and 
Because contempt with which the " feeble folk " of the still small though 
bo"nu?- a " Creasing body of " serious clergy " were regarded by their fellow- 
welcome, Churchmen. It is fashionable now to allow that they did good 
in their day ; but all they got then was the barest toleration. 
" Your fathers killed the prophets, and ye build their sepulchres " 
In a letter written some years afterwards, Pratt stated that at this 
time so exclusive a spirit reigned in the S P.C K. that although 
he and his brethren were subscribing members, any offer of active 
co-operation with a view to Missions would have been instantly 
rejected, and mentioned the fact that "a most worthy man" 
bad been refused admission to membership because he was 
recommended by Wilberforce 1 * If, therefore, the Evangelicals 
were to do anything at all for the evangelization of the Heathen, 
they must act for themselves ; and this being so, they naturally 
and rightly determined, under God, to work upon their own lines 
and in accordance with their own principles. 

Because It must be added that both the S.P.C.K. and the S.P.G. were 
feeble! 1011 ^ en at ^ e lwest point of energy and efficiency. The zeal and 
earnestness that had set them going a hundred years before had 
almost died out , and the wonderful vigour and resourcefulness 
that have given both of them world- wide spheres of usefulness m 
our own day had not yet been awakened The S P.C.K was so short 
of funds that its India Missions were starved, and the Native 
Christian communities were rapidly diminishing ; while the S.P G. 
was only able to keep up its grants to the Colonies by means of 
the interest on its invested funds, its voluntary income being then 
under 800 a year \ As we shall see hereafter, the S.P.G. owed 
its revival in no small degree to the Church Missionary Society ; 
not merely through the natural action of a healthy emulation, 
but through the direct efforts of some of the Evangelical leaders. 
In later times, owing to the rise of the Tractanans and their suc- 
cessors, theological differences have become more acute , and it is 
inevitable that a Society which, on its own legitimate principle, is 
as broad as the Church, should have some men upon its staff 

* See 0, Hole, Eosrly Hilary of Q M 8 , p 407 At a much later period, 
between 1820 and 1824, Charles Simeon , when proposed as a member of the 
S.P C K , was "black-balled," and he was only admitted subsequently owing 
to the personal efforts of C. J. Blomfield, afterwards Bishop of London. 
(See Christian Observer, July, 1863, p 530) This was m the very mitUt of 
the period when, according to most Church writers, the E\angelicals YUTG 
dominant ! 

f The S.P.GK had, however, a considerable public position, When Edward 
Bickersteth was a lad (probably in 1801), he was present at the Anniversary 
Sermon at Bow Church in Cheapside, and was much impressed by the 
equipages of the Lord Mayor and Sheriffs, who attended in state, and also by 
the handsome carriages of the Archbishops of Canteibury and York and many 
of the Bishops. Ltfe o/JEf. Biden>teth t vol. i. p 6. 



THE MISSIONARY AWAKENING, 1786 1799 67 

whose views and methods cannot be approved by most supporters PART II. 
of the C.M.S ; but this should not blind any of us to the magnin- 1786-1811. 
cent work which, with whatever deductions, the S.P.G. has done Cha P 6 * 
and is doing all round the globe. 

But John Venn's address on that memorable 18th of March, 
perhaps without his seeing the full bearing of what he said, laid 
down other important missionary pi inciples. (1) " Follow Gods John Venn 
leading." This seems a trite remark ; but in the practical conduct Jnpies. 
of missionary enterprise nothing is more important It is one 
thing to lay a large map on the table and say, " We will go here, 
and we will not go there." It is quite another thing to watch the 
indications of the Divine will, not moving till they are clear, but, 
when they aie clear, moving fearlessly. Many illustrations of the 
importance of this principle will appear in this History. (2) ' ' Begin 
on a small scale/' This, again, seems a kite thing to say; but 
experience has shown its value Very likely Venn had m his 
mind the virtual collapse of the London Missionary Society's first 
expedition to Tahiti, attempted on too grand a scale, sent forth 
with immense I'clat, and furnishing even then useful lessons on 
the vanity of human plans though it was so greatly blessed 
afterwards. (3) "Put money in the second place, not the Hist; 
let prayer, study, and mutual converse precede its collection " 
Even at the end of the nineteenth century, we are only 
beginning to see the bearing of this all-important principle. 
(4) "Depend wholly upon the Spirit of God." This seems a 
matter of course ; yet nothing is more often forgotten. Tho 
Church is only slowly learning that fundamental article of her 
Creed, " I believe m the Holy Ghost." 

The full significance of Venn's utterances does not appear ever to 
havo been pointed out before. Only fragmentary notes of them 
survive, and these secrn to have been regarded as merely of a mild 
historical interest. We shall see presently that the Hector of 
Clapham was the author also of the .Rules of the now Society, and 
of its first Account of itself for the public. Justly does the 
Society's Jubilee Statement (1848) desciibe him as "a man of such 
wisdom and comprehension of mind that he laid down on that 
memorable occasion, before a small company of fellow-helpers, 
those principles and regulations which have formed the basis of 
the Society," and upon which its work has been earned on ever 
since. Truly the name of Venn deserves to be held in honour by The three 
all its members. Henry Venn the First was one of the chief Venns - 
leaders in the Evangelical Kevival which necessarily preceded 
Evangelical Missions. His son John Venn took a principal part 
in building and launching the new Society. Henry Venn the 
Second was afterwards, for thirty years, its wise and indomitable 
Honorary Secretary and virtual Director. 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE Nm SOCIETY AND m EAELY STRUGGLES. 

April i2th, 1799 The Men and their Plans Waiting for the Arch- 
bishopMen, Money, and Openings wanted The First Five 
Sermons Thomas Scott and Josiah Pratt, 

" Who liatli despised the day of small tlmgs ?" Zeoli iv 10. 

PART II. IBWtfjjMlE have seen the principles and objects of the founders of 
1786-1811. Q a HM the new Missionary Society, Let us now take up the 
Cha P- fr* m il in story of its birth and early years. 
Apni lath, l|yy|| It is Friday, the 12th of April, 1799. We are in a 

1799. ' first-floor room in a hotel in Aldersgate Street, the 

Castle and Falcon. It is not an unfamiliar hostelry. In it were 
held the earlier meetings of the Eclectic Society, before they were 
moved to the Vestry of St. John's, Bedford Eow. In it the 
London Missionary Society was founded, four years before. And 
the three windows of this first-floor room on the right will still be 
pointed out a hundred years after as marking the birthplace of 
the largest missionary organization in the world. 
The In this " upper room " are gatheied, on this 12th of April, 

room p ." r sixteen clergymen and nine laymen.* The Eev. John Venn, 
Sector of Clapham, is in the chair. The speeches are short and 
business-like. All know what they have come for, and there is no 
occasion for moving oratory, Four Eesolutions are adopted, The 
first puts the fundamental principle of Missions in the fewest 
possible words : 

(1) "That it is a duty highly incumbent upon every Chris- 
tian to endeavour to propagate the knowledge of the Gospel 
among the Heathen " 

Not " the Church," merely, be it observed ; but " every Chris- 
tian." Then if the Church does not move, individual Christians 
must move. Thus simply is justified the establishment of tho 
new Society The second Eesolution justifies it in regard to 
another point : 

(2) " That as it appears from the printed Exports of the Societies 
for Propagating the Gospel and for Promoting Christian Kuow- 

* The list has often been given, but as some who were present soon with- 
drew from the infant Society, it is more interesting to print the names 
of the first Committee. Moreover, at this first meeting, some of the most 
ardent leaders, as Simeon, Cecil, Ghant, and H Thornton, were not present. 



THE NEW SOCIETY AND ITS EARLY STRUGGLES 69 

ledge that those respectable societies confine their labours to the PART II 
British Plantations in America and to the West Indies,* there 1786-1811. 
seems to be still wanting in the Established Church a society for Chap 7. 

sending missionaries to the Continent of Africa, or the other parts 

of the heathen world." 

The next Resolution forms the Society and adopts the Rules The new 
submitted:- formed 7 . 

(3) " That the persons present at this meeting do form them- 
selves into a Society for that purpose, and that the following rules 
be adopted." 

(In the original Minutes the Rules follow.) 
Then a fourth Resolution directs the first practical step : 

(4) " That a Deputation be sent from this Society to the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury as Metropolitan, the Bishop of London as 
Diocesan, and the Bishop of Durham as Chairman of the Mission 
Committee of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 
with a copy of the Rules of the Society and a respectful letter " 

Then conies the election of the officers and committee. It is 2Jj c 5 rs 
resolved to request Mr. Wilberforce to be President ; but he proves rmtteel m " 
to be unwilling to take this prominent position in the infancy of 
the Society, and he therefore becomes a Vice-President, along 
with Sir R. Hill, Bart., M.P., Vice- Admiral Gambler, Mr. Charles 
Grant, Mr. Henry Hoare, Mr Edward Parry, and Mr. Samuel 
Thornton, M.P. The Treasurer appointed is Mr, Henry Thornton, 
M.P. The Committee chosen number twenty-four, as follows 

Rev W J. Abcly, Curate of St John's, Horsleydown, Southwark. 

Rev. R. Cecil, Minister of St. John's Chapel, Bedford Row, 

Rev E, Outhbert, Minister of Long Acre Chapel. 

Rev J. Davies, Lecturer at two London churches. 

Rev. H. Foster, Lecturer at four London churches. 

Rev. W. Goode, Rector of St. Anne's, Blackfiiars.f 

Rev. John Newton, Rector of St. Mary Woolnoth, Lombard Street. 

Rev. Dr. J W. Peers, Rector of Morden. 

Rev. G. Pattriok, Lecturer at two London churches. 

Rev. Josiah Pratt, Curate of St. John's, Bedford Row. 

Rev. T. Scott, Minister of the Lock Chapel. 

Rev. John Venn, Rector of Clapham, 

Rev. Basil Woodcl, Minister of Bentinck Chapel, Marylobono. 

Mr. John Bacon, R.A., Sculptor. 

Mr. J. Brasier, Merchant. 

Mr. W, Cardalo, Solicitor. 

Mr. N. Downer, Merchant, 

* It has sometimes been suggested that "West" hero is an accidental 
slip, and that "Bast" was meant, But is this so? The S P,G. had, even 
then, some little connexion with the West Indies ; and although Uio S.P.G.K, 
was supporting with its funds the Lutheran missionaries in tho East Indies, 
it is quite possible that the Bosolution did not refer to what was not strictly 
an English Mission. 

f Properly St. Andrew-by-the-Wardrobe, with which St. Anne's Jiad boext 
united. 



yo THE NEW SOCIETY AND ITS EARLY STRUGGLES' 

PABT II Mr. C. Elliott, Upholsterer. 
1786-1811. Mr. J, Jowett, Skinner. 
Chap 7 Mr Ambrose Martin, Banker. 

Mr. J. Pearson, Surgeon. 

Mr. H. Stokes, Merchant. 
Mr. E. Venn, Tea-broker. 
Mr. W. Wilson, Silk-merchant. 

It will be observed that of the thirteen clergymen, only four 
were benefioed. Four had proprietaiy chapels licensed by the 
Bishop of London. The rest were curates or lecturers. The 
" serious clergy" had then few chances of being appointed to 
livings, and it speaks much for the good sense of the bishops that 
they were willing to license the proprietary chapels for Church 
services. As for the lectureships, they were usually endowed 
offices to which the parishioners had the appointment ; and a 
good many Evangelical clergymen found employment that way. 

Among the lay members, the most remarkable was John Bacon, 
E.A., the celebrated sculptor, * who, after executing so many 
elaborate monuments, was commemorated, as directed by his will, 
only by a tablet with the following epitaph : " What I was as an 
artist seemed to me of some importance while I lived ; but what I 
really was as a believer in Jesus Christ is the only thing of 
importance to me now " Mr. Elliott is notable as the father and 
grandfather of distinguished children and grandchildren, among 
them the two famous Brighton clergymen (B. B. and H V. Elliott), 
the authoresses of " Just as I am " and of Gopslcy Annals, and 
Sir Charles Elliott, late Lieut -Governor of Bengal. Mr. Jowett 
was the father of the first Cambridge graduate sent out by O.M.S., 
William Jowett, who was 12th Wrangler in 1812. Mr. Wilson 
was uncle to Daniel Wilson, afterwards Bishop of Calcutta. 

Bacon, Jowett, andPattrick died very shortly, and Cecil resigned 
owing to ill-health. Among the four who filled their places, two 
should be mentioned, viz., the Bev. Samuel Crowther, Vicar of 
Christ Church, Newgate, after whom was named, long afterwards, 
the rescued slave-boy who became the first Bishop of the Niger ; 
and Mr. Zachary Maeaulay, governor of Sierra Leone, editor of 
the Christian Observer, and father of the historian. 

It will be observed that of all men f Simeon's name was not 

on the list. This was because, in those days of slow travelling, it was 

essential that the Committee should consist of London men. But 

C e U1 bers soon a ^ erwar ^ s twenty-six country members were elected in ad- 

mem ers. ^'^ a)lnon g w hom, besides Simeon, were Biddulph and Vaughan 

of Bristol, Dikes of Hull, Fawcett of Carlisle,*! Melville Home of 

Macclesfield, Eobinson of Leicester, and Richardson of York, all 

men of mark and influence. 

* Bacon presented a silver teapot to the Eclectic Society for use at its 
meetings ; which teapot is still preserved in the Chnrch Missionary House. 

| Mr. Fawcett was the only one of the founders who lived to be presont afc 
the Jubilee, 



THE NEW SOCIETY AMD ITS EARLY STRUGGLES 71 

What was the name of the new Society ? The Eesolutions PART II. 
passed at the meeting did not give it a name ; nor did the original 1786-18] I. 
Kules. But six weeks afterwards a second General Meeting was Ghap> '* 
held, at which the Eules were revised, and the name settled, The new 
61 The Society for Missions to Africa and the East," But this ^f y>s 
title never came into practical use. For some years the words 
"The Missions Society," or "The Society for Missions," were 
colloquially used. Gradually people began to add the word 
" Church," to distinguish the Society from others ; but not until 
1812 was the present full title formally adopted, " The Church 
Missionary Society for Africa and the East." 

It is not necessary here to give the original Bules. Suffice it to The Rules, 
say that they made (as at present) every subscriber of a guinea (or, if 
a clergyman, half a guinea) a member ; that they provided for the 
appointment of a General Committee of twenty-four, one-half of 
whom were to be clergymen (the rule making all subscribing clergy- 
men members of the Committee not being added till 1812) ; also a 
Committee of Correspondence to obtain, train, and superintend 
the missionaries ; and that they directed that the acceptance of 
missionary candidates should be voted on by ballot. The present 
Law XXXI, "A friendly intercourse shall be maintained with 
other Protestant Societies engaged in the same benevolent design 
of propagating the Gospel of Jesus Christ," was No XX. ; and the 
concluding Eule, commending the Society to the prayers of its 
friends, was the same as the last Law now. There was no 
provision for the appointment of Patrons, or of Secretaries. 
Thomas Scott, who became the first Secretary, was appointed by 
the Committee. 

The next thing was to prepare a statement for publication ; and J h e e c r s " 
John Venn drew up a paper entitled An Account of a Society /or 
Missions to Africa and the East.* This paper has one singular 
feature. It contains no reference to what is, after all, the one 
great reason and motive for Missions, viz., the solemn Commission 
given by our Lord to His Church, and binding upon every 
member. But it dwells impressively on the blessings of the 
Gospel, and the world's need of them ; and it touchingly refers to 
the condition of Europe at the time, expressing the hope " that 
since God had so signally defended this Island with His mercy as 
with a shield, His gracious hand, to which, amidst the wreck of 
nations, our safety had been owing," would be " acknowledged, 
and His goodness gratefully recorded, even in distant lands." It 
refers to the S.P.C.K. and S P G., notes the work they were doing, 
and shows the openings left by them for a fresh organization, 
explaining that the words in the title, " for Africa and the East," 
indicate that the new Society would not interfere with the S.P.G., 
whose principal field was North America. It also lays down 
clearly the principle of " Spiritual men for spiritual work," stating 

* One copy of t,he original Account is preserved at the O.K. House, It was 
reproduced in fao-simile, and republisljed, in 3886, 



72 THE NEW SOCIETY AND ITS EARLY STRUGGLES 

PART II. that it would be the Committee's aim to recommend such men 
on "^ as " ^ ave ^ emse l yes experienced the benefits of the Gospel, 
and therefore earnestly desire to make known to their perishing 
fellow- sinners the grace and power of a Eedeemer, and the 
inestimable blessings of His salvation." It also has some remark- 
able paragraphs on the proposed appointment of " catechists," or 
as we should now call them, lay evangelists It is explained that 
men not fitted by education for English ordination might yet prove 
good missionaries to " savages rude and illiterate," and it appeals 
(with references to Hooker and Bmghani) to the usage of the 
primitive Church for authority to use such men as " catechists," 
Lay missionaries do not need any apology in the present day ; but 
at that time the proposal was a bold one, and, as a matter of fact, 
such serious" objections were urged against it by some of the 
Evangelical leaders themselves, including even John Newton and 
an ultra-Calvimst like Dr. Hawker of Plymouth, that it had soon 
to be dropped altogether ; and in the Account as printed with the 
First Annual Eeport these paragraphs have disappeared. So 
strict were the ecclesiastical principles of men whom some 
regarded as scarcely Churchmen at all. 

A deputation, to consist of Wilberforce, Grant, and Venn, was 
and the now appointed to wait upon the Archbishop of Canterbury, and to 
bishop, present to him the Account and the Eules, together with a letter, 
signed by Venn as chairman of the Committee It does not 
appear that the deputation was ever received by the Archbishop, 
though the letter and papers were sent to him, His communica- 
tions seem to have been with Wilberforce only. The letter did 
not ask for patronage, nor even for permission to go forward. It 
only stated that the Committee "humbly trusted that his Grace 
would be pleased favourably to regard their attempt to extend the 
benefits of Christianity, an attempt peculiarly necessary at a 
period in which the most zealous and systematic efforts had been 
made to eradicate the Christian faith." It was dated July 1st, 
but not until the end of August did Wilberforce succeed in seeing 
the Archbishop, whom he reported as " appearing to be favourably 
disposed," but " cautious not to commit himself " But the other 
bishops had to be consulted, and in those days such a consultation 
was not easily managed ; and not until nearly a year afterwards, 
on July 24th, 1800, was Wilberforce able to communicate the 
result to the Committee. He wrote : 

" I have had an interview with the Archbishop, who has spoken in 
very obliging terms, and expressed himself concerning your Society in 
as favourable away as could be well expected I will tell you more at 
large when we meet, what passed between us, Meanwhile, I will just 
state that his Grace regretted that he could not with propriety at once 
express his full concurrence and approbation of an endeavour in behalf 
of an object he had deeply at heart, He acquiesced in the hope I 
expressed, that the Society might go forward, being assured he would 
look on the proceedings with candour, and that it would give him 
pleasure to find them such as he could approve," 



THE N&w SOCIETY AND ITS EARLY STRUGGLES 73 

What Wilberforce did tell Venn further when they met seems PART II. 
only traceable in a speech and a letter of Pratt 's some years 1786-1811. 
later. The Archbishop and the Bishop of London, said Pratt, Ghap 7t 
" encouraged us to proceed, and promised to regard our pro- 
ceedings with kindness, and to afford us countenance and 
protection when our proceedings should have attained such 
maturity as to commend themselves to their approbation." 

Meanwhile, during the waiting-time, the Committee had been Committee 
meeting regularly, in Mr Goode's study at St. Anne's Rectory on mee mgs> 
St. Andrew's Hill. Indeed that study remained their meeting- 
place for twelve years, a fact afterwards commemorated by a 
tablet on the chimney-piece, which may be seen there to this 
day.* But, pending the Archbishop's reply, the members had 
little business to transact. They corresponded with friends in the 
country, they formed the nucleus of a library, and in their 
private capacity they subscribed one hundred guineas for the 
London Missionary Society as a mark of sympathy when its 
missionary ship the Dufl was captured by the French. 

When at length the Archbishop's reply through Wilberlorce 
was received, the Committee met to consider it. Some members 
thought the encouragement it gave too slight to proceed upon, 
but Venn and Scott took a more hopeful and courageous 
view, and ultimately the decisive resolution was adopted, " That 
in consequence of the answer from the Metropolitan, the Com- 
mittee do now proceed in their gnat design with all the activity 
possible." 1 

Three requisites for the Society's work had now to be sought <rlu j e 

i> i i> ** * 1 neeas : 

for, viz., men, money, and openings for Missions, As regards (a) Men, 
men, sympathizing clergymen in all parts of England were 
written to, but not one gave much hope of likely candidates. Mr. 
Jones of Oreaton knew of one young shopman, " a staunch 
episcopalian, somewhat contemptuous of Dissenters, and aiming at 
ordination," and doubted if he would do. Mr. Fawcett of Carlisle 
knew two " apparently suited,' 5 but " could it be right to break the 
hearts of their mothers ? " Mr. Dikes of Hull knew no one. 
Mr. Powley of Dewsbury knew no one. Mr. Vaughan of Bristol 
knew no one. Dr. Hawker of Plymouth protested against 

* A photograph of the room, showing the tablet, hangs in tho C,M, House j 
and a reproduction of it will be found at page 80, 

f There was also an answer from the S.P.O.K. Tho Minutes of that? 
Society for November 4th, 1800, include the following entry :-" Head a 
letter from the Rev Thoa Scott, Secretary to a { Society for Missions to 
Africa and the East,' dated tho 3rd inst , which had accompanied a present 
to the Board of fifty copies of an account of that Society, and in which he 
expressed a hope that their additional institution will bo considered as a 
sincere though feeble coadjutor, in tho groat and arduous attempt of pro- 
moting Christianity through the nations of the Earth, and will accordingly 
be looked upon by this Society with a favourable eyo. Agreed that the 
thanks of this Society be returned to that Society for this mark of their 
attention," 



74 THE NEW SOCIETY AND ITS EARLY STRUGGLES 

PAST IT. sending out laymen at all even if they could be found. Simeon 

1786-1811. h a ,i sounded the " serious men " at Cambridge, but was sorry to 

Chap^T. ga y ^ a t not one responded with " Here am I, send me," and 

added, "I see more and more Who it is that must thrust out 

labourers into His harvest." 

(5) Money, Money, naturally, was not much wanted until men had been 
found ; but the first two donations were given at the very first 
meeting, 100 each from Mr. Ambrose Martin, the banker, and Mr. 
Wolff, the Danish Consul-General. The first published contribu- 
tion list, which is for two years, comprises also donations of 50 
from Wilberforce and three Thorntons, and various other dona- 
tions and subscriptions, amounting to 912 altogether: against 
which the only expenditure was 95 for printing. Several of the 
country clergy wrote that the distress was so great, owing to the 
war and bad harvests, that no money could be spared from the 
relief of the starving. " High prices, taxes, and the condition of 
the poor," wrote Vaughan of Bristol, "bring extraordinary 
demands on every one " 

of labour 5 Meanwhile the third requisite for missionary work, openings, 
was engaging the careful attention of the Committee West 
Africa, as already mentioned, was prominent in their thoughts ; 
but other fields were considered, including Ceylon, China, Tartary, 
and Persia, and the great Arabic-speaking peoples of the East. 
Suggestions were also made by friends that the Society might 
undertake the enlightenment of the Greek Church, and that it 
might ransom Circassian slaves in the Eussian territories near the 
Caspian Sea, with a view to teaching them Christianity ; but the 
Committee did not take kindly to either of these proposals. 
Meanwhile, in the absence of missionaries, they fell back upon 
the printing-press as an agent of evangelization ; and the earliest 
practical steps taken after the receipt of the Archbishop's com- 
munication were in that direction. Plans were formed for the 
preparation of a version of the New Testament in Persian ; and 
of a grammar and vocabulary and simple tracts, in the Susoo 
language ; and a grant was made to the Professor of Arabic at 
Cambridge, Mr. Carlyle, to assist him in producing the Scriptures 
in that language. An interesting memorandum by him on the 
subject is appended to the Society's first Annual Eeport. So also 
are copious extracts from a pamphlet on the possibility of pro- 
ducing the Scriptures in Chinese, which had been written by a 
dissenting minister named Moseley. This pamphlet called atten- 
tion to a manuscript, containing portions of the New Testament 
in Chinese, which had lain unnoticed for sixty years in tho 
British Museum. The prosecution of this work was soon after- 
wards handed over by the infant Society to the S.P.C.K. ; the 
Committee " being confident that in consequence of the superior 
funds of that Society, and the rank, talents, and influence of many 
of its members," the scheme might by them " be more completely 
carried into execution," The S.P.C.K., however, soon afterwards 



THE NEW SOCIETY AND ITS EARLY STRUGGLES 75 

resigned the work into the hands of a still younger organization, PART II. 
which at this time was not yet founded, viz., the British andiW-lSIL 
Foreign Bible Society. C1 ^ 7 - 

We now come to the Society's first Anniversary This was two Mistake of 
years after its foundation ; for pending the Archbishop's reply, Date * 
no public demonstration could be made. A curious consequence 
ensued. The first Anniversary being in 1801, and the second in 
1802, and the tenth m 1810, and so on, a general impression came 
to prevail that the Society was one year old in 1801, two years old 
in 1802, ten years old m 1810, and so on, and therefore that the 
date of its foundation was 1800. This mistaken idea was actually 
perpetuated for many years in official documents ; and the earliest 
reference to the true date that Mr. Hole has been able to find 
occurs in the appendix to Mr. Venn's funeral sermon on Josiah 
Pratt in 1844:. Not till the period of the Jubilee did the title-page 
of the Annual Eeport give the fact correctly. 

The early Anniversaries were different indeed in character from The early 
those of later years. The Sermon was the principal thing ; the ^i 
Meeting was quite secondary, so far as public interest was 
concerned Almost from the first, it was ck rigueur for men 
and women from the few Evangelical congregations in London 
to hear the Sermon, which was preached in the forenoon. The 
Meeting immediately followed it, and consisted of the members of 
Committee and a few other subscribing members ; all the names 
being duly entered in the Society's minute-book. Men only 
attended, just as they only would attend a political or commercial 
meeting ; and the presence of ladies was not expected/ 1 In fac,t, 
the purpose of the Meeting was simply that the members might 
formally adopt the Eeport, pass the accounts, and elect the 
committee and officers for the ensuing year. Great speeches on 
these occasions were yet in the future. There being for the first 
twelve years no President, a Vice-President or member of Com- 
mittee took the chair. At the first Anniversary, John Venn 
presided ; after that, it was always a layman. There was no 
collection ; nor was there after the Sermon on the first three 
occasions. At subsequent Sermons the contributions much 
exceeded the usual amount at the present day. This is easily 
accounted for. There were as yet no Local Associations, and 
therefore contributors naturally put into the church plates 
offerings which would now be paid to local treasurers. For the 
first dozen years (aftor collections began) the amount averaged 
nearly 300. 

There is much that is deeply interesting about these early 

* It was thought quite improper {or ladioa to attend public meetings. 
Some years later than this, a RiwHop was publicly rebuked by a Baron of the 
Exchequer for bringing in Tns own wii'o upon his arm ; and even so late as when, 
Blomfield was Bishop of Chester, a few ladies who were admitted to an 
S P Gr meeting in that diocese wore carefully concealed behind the organ ! 
See Clmstian Observer, January, 1861, p. 40, 



76 THE NEW SOCIETY AND ITS EARLY STRUGGLES 

PART II. Sermons. The venerable John Newton -was invited to preach 
1786-1811. t he first, in 1801 (two years after the Society's birth, as above 
Chap * explained) After some hesitation, owing to his doubts about the 
scheme for employing catechists, he consented, but ill-health 
prevented his fulfilling his promise, and, a few days before the 
time, the Committee had to request their Secretary, Thomas 
whit Scott, to preach. The day appointed was Whit Tuesday, May 
Soif day ' 26th, and the church St. Anne's, Blackfnars, Mr, Goode's. The 
weather was unfavourable, and only some four hundred persons 
assembled. That does not seem a failure, at eleven o'clock on a 
week-day, considering the obscurity of the infant Society ; but 
Scott no doubt thought the congregations of St. John's, Bedford 
Bow, and Bentinck Chapel, and the Lock Chapel, and Clapham 
Church, and the half-dozen others likely to sympathize, would 
have sent larger contingents ; and Mrs Scott wrote to her son at 
Hull, " We did expect a crowded church on this most important 
occasion ; but alas ! our hopes were damped " In subsequent 
years the " crowded church " became a fact , and from those days 
to the present, the C.M S Annual Sermon has never lost its 
attractiveness. To preach it was once called by the late Bishop 
Thorold " the blue riband of Evangelical Churchrnanship " ; !: and 
certainly the list of the preachers is a list of the most eminent of 
Evangelical clergymen during the whole century. 

The first The first five preachers were Scott, Simeon, Cecil, Biddulph of 
preachers. Bristol, and John Venn ; and it is interesting to read and compare 
their sermons. Scott's, in the judgment of the present writer, is 
incomparably the best. It is long, comprehensive, and admirable 
every way. Simeon's is very short, less than one-third the length 
of Scott's, and much simpler, but full of fervour. Cecil's is in- 
cisive and epigrammatic, but scarcely bears out his reputation as 
"the one Evangelical genius." Biddulph' s is plainer, but has 
impressive passages. John Yenn's is more like the average 
sermon of the day than any of the others, the first half of it being 
1 of the moral essay type ; but it is valuable nevertheless. There 
are features common to all. In not one of them is the Lord's 
Last Command prominent. The leading thought usually is the 
wickedness and misery of Heathendom ; and the motive chiefly 

T Scott's appealed to is that of pity. Scott's text is Eph. ii. 12, " Having 
Sermon. 



an w fthout God in the world." He reviews the cruelty 
and licentiousness of ancient Paganism, quoting Terence and 
other classical authors in illustration, and affirms that African and 
Asiatic Heathenism is no better. He refers, as do most of the 
early preachers, to the question of the future state of the Heathen 
who have not heard the Gospel a subject that frequently came 
up at the Eclectic meetings Generally speaking, the preachers 
do not dogmatize on the point ; but they urge that as we certainly 
have no positive knowledge that the Heathen are saved, it is our 

* And by Archbishop Magee, when Dean of Cork. See Chapter LIII, 



THE NEW SOCIETY AND ITS MARLY STRUGGLES 77 

plain duty to try to save them. Scott deals in a masterly way PART II. 
with the charge of " unchantableness " urged against those who 1786-1811. 
feared they might be lost. 0ha P- * 

11 Our opinions/' lie says, " concerning the etoinal condition of our 
fellow-men will not alter that condition, whether we groundlessly pie- 
sume that they are safe, or needlessly tremble lest they should perish 
everlastingly" "Either they are peiislnng, or they are not: and it is 
very strange that love should in this instance lead men to that very 
conduct which, if adopted by a parent towards a child even supposed to 
be in danger, would be ascribed to brutal selfishness and want of natural 
affection ' and that malevolence should dictate those anxious fears and 
expensive self-denying exertions which, in any case affecting the- health 
01 temporal safety of others, would be looked upon as indubitable proofs 
of strong affection and tender solicitude ! " 

Continuing, he asks whether our Lord was lacking in " chanty " 
when He wept over Jerusalem, and whether the opposite conduct 
would have been " benevolence " ; and he observes that, after all, 
it IB those Christians that are "uncharitable" who do the most, 
not only to spread the Gospel, but to relieve temporal distress. 
When Scott comes to the practical part of the sermon, he is 
certainly loss "straight" (to use a modern phrase) than mis- 
sionary advocates would be now. Considering that no one had 
yot offered to go as a missionary, nor that any likely person had 
been heard of, his caution in disclaiming any desire to excite 
"disproportionate and romantic zeal" scums lather needless. 
IIu does quote Gluist's command, and says that "no doubt" it 
was still in force , but this point is timidly set foith. Instead of 
summoning Christians to evangelize the world, he only suggests 
that " something " should be attempted. And he is careful 
rightly caieful, and yet, at that time, perhaps unnecessarily 
careful to assuic his hearers that faithful pastors at home, 
"prudent and active men" who form and direct missionary plans, 
business men who contribute money, and those that use thoir 
influence and reputation to " patronixo and protect their designs 
against the opposition of worldly men," "are all serving the 
common cause "; " nor would it he advisable to remove them 
from iheir several stations, oven to employ them as missionaries," 
Still, he appeals ciuncstly lor help in some form. "Let us," he 
urges, " nut nuTi'ly inquire what wo arc bound to do, but what 
we can do." Then he reviews the obstacles that will be en- 
countered, and illustrates the power of the Spirit to do what man 
cannot do by referring to " the impediments to cultivation from 
snow and frost/ 1 which aic "insuperable by all the power of 
man," but \\luch ure effectually removed "when the Almighty 
Ruler of the seasons sends the wann south wind, \\ith the beams 
of the vernal sun," Ho then proceeds to argue that several . 
societies are better than one, but that they should work in 
harmony ; that those who object that home work is more urgent 
are ml " the most xealous in bringing sinners to repentance and 



78 THE NEW SOCIETY AND ITS &ARLY STRUGGLES 

PART II. faith in their own neighbourhood"; and that zeal for the con- 

^Ck" 18 ^ 1 ' vers i n ^ ^ e Heathen will certainly kindle increased zeal for 
ap ' souls at home. 

Simeon's. Simeon's text was Phil. ii. 5-8, " Let this mind be in you, which 
was also in Christ Jesus," &c ; and his mam point is seen in this 
question, " What would have been the state of the whole world, 
%f the same mind had been in Christ that is in us % " 

Cecil's. Cecil took Isa. xl. 3, "Prepare ye the way of the Lord," and 
divided his sermon thus : the Moral state of the Heathen, the 
Means of their recovery, and the Motives to attempt it. It con- 
tains some very striking passages. For instance, referring to the 
need of care lest "specious but unsound characters" should go 
out into the Mission-field, he says that though "such carnal 
Gospellers" may take upon themselves, like some at Ephesus, to 
exorcise the evil spirits that possess the Heathen, the evil spirits 
will probably reply, " Jesus I know, and Paul I know, but who 
are ye ? " and they will " return from their rash attempt ' naked 
and wounded.' " So again, " while the Sons of Earth, the slave- 
traders particularly, entail an odium upon the very name of 
Christianity," and "the Sons of Hell are endeavouring, and that 
with horrid strides of late [alluding obviously to the infidel 
measures of the French ^Revolution] to root out the very remem- 
brance of it from the earth," " may we," he says, " as the Sons of 
God, ' in the midst of a crooked and perverse generation,' ' shine 
as lights in the world.' " Once more . If any ask, What have we 
to do with the religion of other nations ? he replies, 

" Suppose the Heathen millions to be sick, and this through a poison 
which was artfully introduced as a medicine, arid which must destioy 
both them and their postenty ; suppose also that any one had a specific, 
and the only specific, which could relieve them under the effects of 
that poison ; I ask what notion the Objector would form of a person 
who should live and die with this specific in his cabinet, crying ' What 
have I to do with the remedies of other nations ? ' Would not he say, 
* This Querist has either no faith in his remedy, or no feeling in his 
heart'?" 

Much in the same way did Biddulph, whose text was the 
" Golden Eule " m Matt, vn , apply that Eule. Imagining the 
case of the Susoos being Christians and ourselves Heathen, he 
thus speaks : 

" Bring the matter home, my Christian brother, personally to your- 
self. Fancy yourself to be a poor Heathen, wandering in your native 
woods, without any distinct knowledge of God, or any acquaintance tit 
all \\ith a crucified Saviour, yet conscious of guilt, harassed by fear, and 
destitute of all consolation under the certain prospect of death and a 
subsequent state of existence. Now what would you wish that the 
enlightened Susoos, enjoying your present advantages, should do to you $ 
Let conscience determine the part which you would have them to act ; 
and this is the tule of your own conduct, when you again contemplate 
yourselves as Christians." 

John Venn's text was 1 Cor. i, 21, " After that in the wisdom 



THE NEW SOCIETY AXD its &ARLY STRUGGLES 79 

of God," &c. He reviewed the vain attempts of ancient philoso- 
phers to reform mankind making, m a striking note, an excep- k^ 18 * 1 ' 
tion in favour of Socrates, and then set forth the Gospel as the p ' 
one remedy for human sin and woe. 

The next four preachers were Edward Burn of Birmingham, others. 
Basil Woodd, T. Eobmson of Leicester, and Legh Bichmond, 
Eobmson was a very eminent preacher, and his sermon in 1808, 
on Bom. x. 13-15, is one of the most powerful, and one of the 
most finished, in the entire series. Its utterances were solemnized 
by the death of Newton, and the paialytic stroke of Cecil, which 
had lately occurred, Claudius Buchanan was the preacher in 
1810. He was followed by Melville Home, Goode (the rector of 
the church), Dealtry (afterwards Archdeacon of Surrey), and 
Dean Byder of Wells (afterwards Bishop of Lichfield). Some of 
these sermons will claim notice by-and-by. All were delivered 
in St. Anne's (or, more accurately, St, Andrew's, as before 
explained). St, Bride's was first used in 1817. 

Of these preachers, the two who were pre-eminently identified 
with the earliest struggles of the Society were Thomas Scott and Scott 
John Venn Venn's remarkable wisdom in laying down the secretary. 
Society's principles, drafting its rules, and guiding its first pro- 
ceedings from the chair of the Committee, has already been 
noticed. Of scarcely less value was the indomitable energy of 
Scott. For three years and a half he plied the labouring oar as 
Secretary. Although active opeiations had scarcely begun when 
he retned, he was until ing in working out the preliminaries, and 
his courage and faith again and again caniod the day when more 
timid counsels nearly prevailed. Scott's deeply interesting narra- 
tive of his own gradual enlightenment and conversion to God is 
entitled The FW ce of Truth. Truth indeed has force , and so has 
character , and the force of character in Scott was a distinct factor 
in the development of the newly-born Society. He was deficient 
in popular gifts , he was m some ways, like John Newton, a rough 
diamond; but, as W. Jowett says, 1 " being endued with a strong 
and capacious understanding, and possessing un.wuu.ncd perse- 
verance, he made himself a thoroughly learned man, especially 
in theology " ; and as Dr. Overtoil says, I "ho was a noble speci- 
men of a Christian, and deserved a much wider recognition than 
he ever received in this world." He resigned his Secretaryship 
at the close of 1802, on his appointment to the vicarage of Aston 
Sandford, Bucks 

His successor was Josiah Pratt, who haa boon already introduced. Pratt the 
Pratt was only thirty -four years of age when he was appointed | e e co r "f a 
Secretary, and he held oilice for more than twenty-one years, * cre aiy 
The growth of the Society's influence at home, and the extension" 
of its work abroad, was mainly due, under God, to him, For the 

* C M 8 Jubilee Tract, Fowidm mid fii'bt Wive Years. 
f Eittjltbh Ch'imli in the Eighteenth Century, chap. ix. 



8d THE NEW SOCIETY AND ITS EARLY STRUGGLES 

PABX II. first nine years of his Secretaryship, his salary was 60 a year ; 
17864811, then 100 a year ; and, from 1814, 300 a year. He had two 

Cha P 7 - Sunday lectureships and one on Wednesday evenings ; but almost 
the whole of his week-day time, often up till late at night, was 
absorbed by the work of the Society , and his house, 22, Doughty 
Street, was for several years practically the Society's office. 

There he studied the needs of the great dark world, the possi- 
bilities of its evangelization, the problems of so vast an enterprise ; 
and there, as we shall see, he in alter years compiled month by 
month the current history of all its branches, There he thought 
out, and prayed over, his plans for his own infant Society There 
he interviewed likely, and (more often) unlikely, candidates for 
missionary service. There he wrote his long letters to Africa and 
India and New Zealand, in days when shorthand-writers and 
copying-presses were unknown, and when there were no mail- 
steamers to carry his correspondence or bring back the answers. 
There he bore the burden of what became a rapidly growing 
organization, and there, in simple faith, he daily and hourly cast 
his burden upon the Lord. 




The Study in St. Alice's Rectory, in which the first Committee Meetings 
were held, showing the tablet on the chimney-piece (see page 73). 



CHAPTEE VIII. 

TEE FIRST MISBIONARTES. 

Henry Martyn's Offer The Men from Berlin Their TrainingThe 
First Valedictory Meetings The First Voyages out The First 
Englishmen accepted Ordination difficulties. 

u Whom shall I send, and who will go for Us?" Isa vi. 8 




more and more," wrote Charles Simeon, when PART IL 
all inquines after likely missionaries only resulted in g?^ I 1 ' 
disappointment, " Who it is that must thrust out _ ' 
labourers into His harvest." These words, already From 
quoted in a previous chapter, indicate the gravest of come'mis- 
the difficulties to be encountered by the new Society, and indicate swnanes? 
also the true solution of those difficulties, It will be remembered 
that the original idea of the founders, in their despair either of 
finding ordained men willing to go abroad, or of inducing the 
bishops to ordain men for foreign work, was to send out lay 
" catechists." This plan fell through; and it pleased God to 
show Mo could thrust out labourers by sending them as their first 
English candidate a Senior Wrangler and Fellow of his College, 
who could be ordained on his fellowship. This, it need hardly be 
Said, was Henry tytartyn, 

Henry Martyn was Senior Wrangler and First Smith's Prize- 
man in 1801, It is interesting to notice that the Third and ' 
Fourth Wranglers that year were Eobert and Charles Grant, sons 
of the Charles Grant whom we have already met as one of the 
originators of India Missions and as one of the founders of the 
Society, Eobert, afterwards Governor of Bombay, is known to 
us by his hymns, " Saviour 1 when in dust to Thee " and " When 
gathering clouds around I view." Charles (afterwards Lord Glenelg) 
became Minister for India, in which capacity he sent the first Daniel, 
Wilson as Bishop to Calcutta. Martyn was ordained, and became 
Simeon's curate, in 1803 ; but before that, in the autumn of the 
previous year, he was in communication with the new Society. 
The reading of David Brainerd's Life * had stirred his heart about 
the Heathen, and shown him also the blessedness of a life of self- 
sacrifice in the Lord's service ; and the news that kept coming to 
Simeon of Carey's work in Bengal drew out his sympathies to 
India, Obstacles, however, arose to his going out under the 

* See p. 27, 
VOL. I, G 



82 THE FIRST MISSIONARIES 

PART II. Society. Family losses and responsibilities made it impossible for 
1786-1811. him to take the bare allowance of a missionary ; and besides this, 

Cha P 8 - it would have been difficult even for Mr. Grant to obtain leave for 
his sailing in an East India Company's ship with the direct object 
of preaching to the Heathen But an appointment as a Company's 
chaplain was obtained for him ; and the Society's Report in 1805 
stated that the Committee had " cheerfully acquiesced, as the 
appointment was of considerable importance," and might " ulti- 
mately lead, under God, to considerable influence among the 
Heathen." He sailed for India in 1805, laboured untiringly for 
six years in such work as was possible, then journeyed to Persia 
in failing health, suffered there for a year the bitter enmity of the 
Mohammedan moulvies, and, on his way home thence, yielded up 
his heroic spirit to God at Tokat in Armenia, on October 16th, 1812, 
at the age of thirty-two. Though his name does not actually 
honour the C.M S. roll of missionaries, it is a recollection to be 
cherished that he was really the Society's first English candidate; 
and though his career was brief, and he was never technically 
a missionary, yet his unreserved devotion to Christ's cause, and 
the influence of his name and character upon succeeding genera- 
tions, entitle him to be for ever regarded as in reality one of the 
greatest of missionaries. " God measures life by love ", and by 
that measure Henry Martyn's life was a long one indeed. 

Before, however, Martyn approached the Society, an unlooked- 
for opening had appeared for obtaining missionaries elsewhere. 
Through two foreign Protestant ministers residing in London, 
Mr. Latrobe, of the Moravian Church, who was acting as agent 
here of the Moravian Missions, and Dr. Stemkopf, of the 
Lutheran Savoy Chapel, the Committee heard of a Missionary 
Seminary lately established at Berlin. This new institution in 
. Q erman y was rea ^y ^ e outcome of the missionary awakening in 
England. A certain Baron von Schimdmg saw in a Hamburg 
newspaper a notice of the formation of the London Missionary 
Society, and wrotfe to the Directors about it. Their reply he 
communicated to other godly men in Germany of the Pietist 
school, and ultimately, with a view to the promotion of a missionary 
spirit, and to the supply of men to any societies that might be 
formed, the Berlin Missionary Seminary was started, under the 
auspices, and partly at the expense, of the good Baron, and under 
the direction of a Lutheran pastor, the Rev. John Jaenick^. The 
frugality expected from the students may be gathered from the 
fact that they were to be allowed two nx-dollars (about 65. Sd.) 
per week for their entire maintenance. From this institution the 
perplexed Committee of the new Church Society, in what seemed 
the hopeless backwardness of Englishmen, now hoped to obtain 
missionaries. The second Annual Report, presented in June, 1802, 
began with these words ; " It is with much regret that your 
Committee meet the Society without having it in their power to 
report tot any iidBfiiowies are actually engaged in fulfilling t]w 



THE FIRST MISSIONARIES 83 

pious designs of the Society. They had indulged the hope that, PART II 
in consequence of their earnest apphcations to a very numerous 1786-1811, 
body of clergymen in almost every part of the kingdom, several Ghap 8t 
persons in whose piety, zeal, and prudence the Committee might 
confide would ere this have offered themselves to labour among 
the heathen. Their hope has however been disappointed." After 
lamenting " the evident want of that holy zeal which animated the 
apostles and primitive Christians," the Committee went on to 
announce that, " following the steps of the Society for Promoting 
Christian Knowledge," they were now looking to the Continent 
for men, and expressed a hope that the now Berlin Seminary 
would presently supply them. 

Within a month of this Eeport being presented, two of the 
Berlin students, Melchior Eenner, of the Duchy of Wurtemberg, J^jJjJ 
and Peter Hartwig, a Prussian, had been accepted by correspon- sionanes. 
deuce , and in November of that same year, 1802, they arrived in 
England at the very time when Henry Martyn was in communi- 
cation with the Society, Germans and Englishmen did not study 
each others' language then as they do now , and when the two 
men appeared before the Committee in the library of St. Anno's 
Bectory there was no means of conversing with them. A few days 
after, however, the Committee received them again along with 
Dr Steinkopf , who acted as interpreter ; and having accepted them 
as " missionary catechists " for West Africa, sent them to lodge at 
Clapham, where they could learn a little English before going out. 
When they were ready to sail, Dr. Steinkopf offered to arrange for 
their receiving Lutheran orders ; and the Committee, to avoid what 
they thought would be the ecclesiastical irregularity of this being 
done for a Church society within an English diocese, gave them 
leave to go back to Germany and be ordained there, They went 
accordingly, and came back Lutheran clergymen, and therefore on 
a par ecclesiastically with the German and Danish missionaries of 
the S.P.C K in South India, The Committee then accepted them 
as full "missionaries"; and the "catechist" difficulty was thus 
disposed of, as the friends who objected to laymen being sent out 
were, quite willing to recognize Lutheran orders. A passage 
having been engaged for them concerning which more presently, 
and Hartwig having married Sarah Windsor, late governess in 
Mr. Venn's family, it now only remained to bid them God-speed. 

This first Valedictory Dismissal is deeply interesting to us First Vale- 
who now, year by year, witness the wonderful scenes on similar Sfa^lSstu 
occasions. It was what was called " an Open Committee," held 
at the New London Tavern in Cheapside. Subsequently, these 
Valedictory gatherings, when held in public halls, were called 
Special General Meetings of the Society; but in course of years 
they came to be regarded as technically meetings of the General 
Committee, and the proceedings were entered in a regular way in 
the Minute Books. The altered procedure in recent years will 
appear hereafter, At that first Dismissal, on January 31st, 1804, 

a 2 



84 THE FIRST MISSIONARIES 

PAJIT ii. there were present twenty clergymen and twenty-four laymen. 
1786-1811. Ladies were not yet invited to the Society's public meetings , the 

bhap^s. rs ^. occas i on O f fogfa b em g present was at the fourth Valedictory 
Dismissal, in 1811. At the fifth Dismissal, in 1812, there was 
also a service at St. Lawrence Jewry, with a collection which 
amounted to 72. Reverting to this first one, the chair was taken 
by the Eev. Henry Foster, one of the most regular members of 
the Committee ; the Instructions were read by Pratt ; the two 
missionaries, unable to speak English with sufficient fluency, 
responded by presenting a written letter to the Committee , and 
that was all. The most interesting incident of the gathering, to us, 
was the presence of Henry Martyn, who was then still expecting 
to join the Society. In his journal we find the following entry : 

"At one o'clock we went to hear the charge delivered to the mis- 
sionaries at the New London Tavern m Cheapside. There was nothing 
remarkable in it, but the conclusion was affecting. I shook hands with 
the two missionaries, and almost wished to go with them, but certainly 
to go to India." 

"Nothing remarkable": no, Henry Martyn could not foresee 
Pratt's in- with what deep interest those first Instructions would be read 
structions. n i ne ty years after But even when set side by side with the 
ablest of the long series of masterly state papers produced in later 
years by Henry Venn the Younger in the form of Instructions to 
departing missionaries, Josiah Pratt's " charge " will not suffer by 
the comparison. It does not convey injunctions regarding personal 
conduct , it does not give spiritual counsel. For these it refers 
the brethren to some more private Instructions separately given. 
But it ably reviews the position of affairs in West Africa at the 
time, and directs the missionaries as to the course they shall 
pursue in various contingencies It expresses thankfulness that 
when the Society had " the means and the will " to send forth 
messengers of the Gospel, but was "destitute of proper instru- 
ments," these men, having no pecuniary means, had " depended on 
the providence of God to furnish them," and had in faith gone to 
the Berlin Seminary to be prepared for missionary service. It ex- 
presses the opinion that the best plan of operations for a Mission 
would be a " Settlement," " consisting of several Christians of 
both sexes living as a small Christian community, and exhibiting 
to the Natives the practical influence of Christianity in regulating 
the tempers and the life, and in thus increasing the domestic 
1 felicity "; but that until, if ever, it should be " in the power of 
the Society to accomplish this plan upon any considerable scale," 
which "must be left to the gracious Providence of God/' the 
Committee would " imitate the example of our Lord, when He 
sent His disciples two and two to declare the glad tidings of His 
Kingdom." One passage, in which the missionaries are instructed 
how to deal with slave-traders, is especially worth quoting for its 
wisdom : 
" You will take all prudent occasions of weaning the Native chiefs 



THE FIRST MISSIONARIES 85 

from this traffic, by depicting its criminality, the miseries which it PART II. 
occasions to Africa, and the obstacles which it opposes to a more 1786-1811. 
profitable and generous intercourse with the European nations. But Chap. 8. 

while you do this, you will cultivate kindness of spirit towards those 

persons who are connected with this trade. You will make all due 
allowances for their habits, their prejudices, and their views of interest. 
Let them never be met by you with reproaches and mvectives, however 
debased you may find them in mind and manners. Let them never 
have to charge you with intriguing against them and thwarting their 
schemes ; but let them feel that, though the silent influence of Chris- 
tianity must, whenever truly felt, undermine the sources of their gam, 
yet in you, and m all under your influence, they meet with openness, 
simplicity, kindness, and brotherly love." 

At the second Valedictory Meeting, January 13th, 1806, which second 
may conveniently be noticed at this point, there was given, m ^^ 
addition to the formal written Instructions read by the Secre- Meeting, 
tary, a spiritual address by a clergyman ; which custom has been 
adhered to ever since. On that occasion the speaker, with great 
appropriateness, was John Venn ; and his address, printed with J. Venn's 
the Annual Eeport, is every way admirable, and might be de- charge - 
livered now, almost word for word, to any departing missionary 
band. He dwells on the example of John the Baptist, of our 
blessed Lord Himself, and of the Apostles ; and then also on that 
of the modern missionaries whose names, even at so early a date, 
were known and honoured, Eliot, Bramerd, and Schwartz, and 
the Moravians in Greenland. One lesson drawn from the example 
of John the Baptist is worth noting. Venn observes that " *in 
external appearance of sanctity" in him "seems to have had a 
wonderful effect in impressing the minds of the Jews "; and 
urges that " the same impression, in some way, must be made 
upon the people, that we are above the world. In vain," he adds, 
" will those who are eager about the accommodations and enjoy- 
ments of the world persuade mankind that they are truly in 
earnest in their religion " And take this striking description of a 
true missionary's character . 

" He is one who, like Enoch, walks with God, and derives from constant 
communion with Him a portion of the divine likeness. Dead to the 
usual pursuits of the world, his affections are fixed upon things above, 
where Christ sitteth at the right hand of God. He is not influenced, 
therefore, by the love of fame and distinction, the desire of wealth, or 
the love of ease and self-indulgence. Deeply affected by the sinful and 
ruined state of mankind, especially of the Heathen, he devotes his life, 
with all its faculties, to promote their salvation. Undaunted by dangers, 
unmoved by sufferings and pain, he considers not his life dear, so that 
he may glorify God. With the world under his feet, with Heaven in his 
eye, with the Gospel in his hand, and Christ in his heait, he pleads as an 
ambassador for God, knowing nothing but Jesus Christ, enjoying nothing 
but the conversion of sinners, hoping for nothing but the promotion of 
the Kingdom of Christ, and glorying in nothing but in tlio cross of 
Christ Jesus, by which ho is crucified to the world and the world to 
him. Daily studying the woul of life, and transformed himself more 
and more into the midge which it sets before him, he holds it forth to 



86 THE FIRST MISSIONARIES 

PART II. others as a light to illuminate the darkness of the world around him, 
1786-1811. as an exhibition of the light and glory of a purer and higher world 
Chap. 8. above." 

A valedictory address by Thomas Scott, in 1811, is also 
singularly wise and comprehensive ; but, like his first Annual 
Sermon, very long, occupying thirty-two octavo pages. 
The first But to appoint men to West Africa, and to send them there, 
voyages. were wo yer y ( ^ 1 f eren | j things. The only conveyance that could 
be heard of was a slave-ship, regularly fitted up for the trade ; 
but though there would be plenty of room in her until she arrived 
off the Coast, application for a passage was refused. Zachary 
Macaulay, who was now a member of the Committee, was " re- 
quested to seek for some other vessel "; and at length he " found " 
the John, belonging to a firm of woollen drapers, proceeding to 
Sierra Leone, and succeeded in engaging passages for the two 
missionaries at thirty guineas each. The John sailed, with other 
merchant-vessels bound elsewhere, under the protection of an 
armed convoy ; and this first voyage of C.M.S missionaries proved 
more prospeious than some later ones, as they reached Sierra 
Leone safely after fifty-seven days' sailing, only four times longer 
than the fortnight occupied by steamers to-day. But the voyage 
of the second party three men, Nylander, Butscher, and Prasse 
illustrates vividly the delays and inconveniences, to say nothing 
of dangers, to which the travellers in those days were exposed. 
After five weeks of waiting at Liverpool, their ship sailed on Feb- 
ruary 12th, 1806, but was stranded on the Irish coast. After seven 
more weeks' delay in Ireland, they sailed again on April 22nd 
from Bristol ; but the ship had to put into Falmouth to join others 
sailing under convoy. While the brethren were on shore, the 
captain suddenly weighed anchor without giving them notice, 
and resumed his voyage. They hastily engaged an open boat, 
hoping to catch up the vessel, which, before steam made ships 
independent of the wind, was generally possible ; but the attempt 
failed, and after being long tossed about by a violent gale, and in 
imminent peril, they had the- mortification of being obliged to 
return to Falmouth. Providentially the wind changed, and the 
whole fleet had to put back. Thus they were enabled to em- 
bark again, and after losing the convoy and narrowly escaping 
a French privateer, they reached Madeira on June 2nd. There 
the captain, who had been drinking, suddenly died, and the ship 
was detained more than three months until fresh orders could 
come from England. At last, on September 22nd they safely 
reached Sierra Leone, more than seven months after their first 
sailing 

The next party from Berlin came to England under difficulties 
of another kind, which are thus referred to in the Eeport : - 
" These brethren left Berlin on July 2nd, embracing the oppor- 
tunity afforded between the time of signing the Armistice between 
the Bussians and the French, and the conclusion of the Peace of 



THE FIRST MISSIONARIES 87 

Tilsit. By avoiding the great roads, and travelling on foot, they PART II 
arrived -without interruption, through many difficulties, at Werni- 1786-1811 
gerode. From Wernigerode they went to Altona; from that place Qha P 8 
to Tonningen, and thence they embarked for this country " 

At this point it may be of interest to glance at the Society's J/gJjJ 868 
published accounts, and see its expenditure upon these early mission- 
missionaries. In the account for 18034, the following items aries - 
occur . 

s. d. 

By the Education of Four Students at the Semi- 
nary at Berlin, Six months 72 3 

By Expences on Account of the Missionaries 
Renner and Hartwig, during their Stay in England, 
for Board, Lodging, Washing, Apparel, Education, 

and Incidents 224 5 11 

By their Passage to and from Germany to obtain 
Ordination, and necessary Expences . . . . 39 12 7 

By Conveyance of them and Mrs. Hartwig to Ports- 
mouth with their Baggage, &c., and Expences duimg 
their Stay there, previous to their sailing . . . 21 13 

By their Passage for Sierra Leone, thirty guineas 
each, with sundry Articles of Clothing suitable for 
that Climate, and other Necessaries .... 222 3 8 

In the account for 1805-6, one of the items is as follows . 

Sundry small Articles of Apparel and incidental Ex- 
pences, with Board, Washing, Lodging, &c., for the 
five Missionaries, Woman and Child, during their stay 
in England, with Charges for their Instruction in the 
English Language, Apothecary's Attendance, and 
Medicine for two of them in a dangerous illness, &c. 324 10 11 

And in the account for 1806-7 are these items : 

For the Passage of Three Missionaries to Africa, 
with Appai el and other Necessaries . . . . 193 11 4 

Expences of the said Missionaries in Ireland, in 
consequence of the Vessel being stranded off Wex- 
ford . 73 14 

Further Expences m Madeira, during a stay there 
of several Months, in consequence of the Death of 
their Captain 267 7 6 

Very early in the history of their enterprise, the Committee of Anxieties 
the young Society had to learn by experience how the work of 
God may be marred by the infirmities of men. First they were 
perplexed by getting very little news of the missionaries. At 
one time eight months elapsed without any tidings from Sierra 
Leone at all. Then came criticism from onlookers, that the men 
were slow at the language, and not getting at the people. Then 
followed plain indications of friction among the brethren. At 
first the Committee had appointed Banner " Senior." Then they 
made all equal. Then they re-appointed Benner " Superior." 
These are troubles which some of the younger Societies in our 



88 THE FIRST MISSIONARIES 

PART II. own day have had to go through, though the public hear nothing 
1786-1811. of it. The old Societies are not free from the difficulties ; but 
0faa P- 8 they have learned by long experience the best ways of dealing 
with such matters. The early Committee were often perplexed, 
though never in despair ; often cast down, though never 
"destroyed." Of the first five missionaries, already named, 
three proved excellent and faithful workers, accomplished what 
for West Africa may be called long service (Eenner seventeen 
years, Nylander nineteen, Butscher eleven), and died at their 
posts. One, Prasse, was also excellent, but died two years after 
landing. This is a satisfactory record, notwithstanding that the 
fifth, Hartwig, turned out badly, and caused grave mischief m 
Hartwig's Africa and untold sorrow to the Committee. He engaged in 
fal1 ' the slave-trade, and in many other ways proved himself quite 
unworthy of the name of missionary. His poor wife, Venn's 
former governess, had to leave him and come home. For several 
years Hartwig wandered about in Africa, and at length, " coming 
to himself" in the " far country" of sin, wrote home to Pratt in 
penitence and remorse. The Society declined to reinstate him 
as a 1 missionary, but consented to engage him on trial as an 
interpreter and translator; and his brave wife went out again 
and rejoined him. He died, however, almost immediately, and 
Mrs. Hartwig a few months afterwards. 

Pratt's letters to the brethren on these various difficulties are 
full of both wisdom and tenderness. God had indeed manifested 
His gracious favour to the Society in giving it such a Secretary. 
It is also worth noting how entirely open the Committee were 
regarding these trials. The fall, and the penitence, of Hartwig 
were fully recorded for all men to read ; and so were the minor 
infirmities of others from time to time. But it must be remem- 
bered that the printed accounts rarely went into the hands of any 
one who would not regard such troubles with prayerful sympathy. 
To publish a man's unsatisfactory conduct in these days would be 
to ruin him for Me. 

At the very beginning of even the less serious of these painful 
Plans for experiences, the Committee made up their minds to send out no 
men who were not trained under their own eye ; and in 1806 
much time and thought were given to the subject of a Seminary 
in England. In consultation with Thomas Scott, who was now 
Eector of Aston Sandford, Bucks, they ultimately arranged for 
their candidates to reside at Bledlow, a village five miles off, 
where Nathaniel Gilbert, formerly chaplain at Sierra Leone, was 
rector. They were to reside with William Dawes, a gentleman 
who had been twice governor of Sierra Leone, and who knew 
something of the Susoo language, as well as of Hindustani, 
Persian, and Arabic , and they were to go over to Scott once a 
week for further theological teaching. The third party of 
Germans, Barneth, Klein, Wenzel, and Wilhelm the party/ 
already mentioned as having to journey from Berlin by byways 



THE FIRST MISSIONARIES 89 

and on foot, were thus sent to Bledlow ; also two English candi- PART II. 
dates, who, however, proved unsatisfactory, and only stayed a 1786-1811. 
few weeks. Nor did the four Germans stay long, though this was Chap 8t 
not their own fault, but because Mr. Dawes moved from Bledlow. 
Then Scott, with his indomitable spirit, although much occupied 
with his biblical work, consented to take the candidates himself ; T - Scott 
and he continued this important service for some years, until in 1815 as tramer * 
failing health compelled him, after most courageous struggles, to 
give up the work. Under him the men did well ; they were true 
and humble Christians, won the hearts of the Buckinghamshire 
farmers and labourers, and responded readily to Scott's teaching. 
He shrank from no labour. Shortly after he took them, the 
Committee wrote and requested him to instruct the candidates in 
Susoo and Arabic, he being totally ignorant of both languages ! 
It is amazing to find that he really set to work, though over sixty, 
to learn both. He and his pupils together, by means of those 
linguistic works upon which the infant Society had incurred its 
earliest expenditure, did manage to get a fair knowledge of Susoo ; 
and though Arabic was far more difficult, his familiarity with 
Hebrew helped him, and within a few months he set about 
reading the Koran with the students. 

Not long after Scott began his work, the first two Englishmen First 
sent out by the Society came on to the roll, but without going 
under his instruction. They were in fact not " missionaries" in anes 
the -Society's sense of the word, but Christian artizans, engaged to 
go to New Zealand as pioneers of industry and civilization, though 
with the object, through these, of introducing the Gospel ; and 
they were called in the Beports " lay settlers." These were 
William Hall, a joiner from Carlisle, and John King, a shoemaker 
from an Oxfordshire village. They proved the first agents in one 
of the Society's greatest and most fruitful enterprises, the initiation 
of which will have to be reviewed m an early chapter. 

But in October, 1809, just two months after Hall and King 
sailed, the Committee accepted for training a married shoemaker 
named Thomas Norton, a man of real ability, who had already, like 
Carey, studied Greek in the intervals of his trade, and who 
ultimately received holy orders and was one of the first two 
English clergymen sent out by the Society. At first it was con- 
templated to send him to one of the Universities ; but Scott 
urged that the university life of the period was not favourable to 
the cultivation of the missionary spirit or of missionary habits of 
life, and it was resolved to send him and his wife to Aston Sand- 
ford. They must come, wrote Scott, by the coach which ran 
three times a week from the Bull, Holborn. They should be met 
in the evening in a tilted cart, the best conveyance for those 
roads. 

The next English candidate accepted was William Greenwood, 
a blanket manufacturer from Dewsbury, in 1811; and in the 
following year came Benjamin Bailey and Thomas Dawson, from 



THE FIRST MISSIONARIES 

PART II ^tlie same town. Nine other Germans were also received, one of 
w ^ om was afterwards the famous South Indian missionary 
Rhenms. A little later, the Committee declined the offer of a 
Shropshire curate who required at least 700 a year in order to do 
missionary work effectively. Meanwhile Scott's bodily infirmities 
were increasing , and offers from the Eev. John Buckworth, of 
Dewsbury, and the Eev. T. Bogers, of Wakefield, in 1814, to 
train some of the candidates were accepted. The first candidate 
sent to the latter clergyman, an Essex farmer's son, bore a 
name that was to be highly honoured in after years Henry 
Baker. 

And now the very difficulty presented itself that had led, at the 
beginning, to the adoption of the abortive catechist scheme before 
referred to. Norton and Greenwood were ready for ordination ; 
HOW but how were they to obtain it ? ^The bishops had not yet smiled 
d?nat?on r ? u P n &e new Society at all, and when two or three were cautiously 
approached through personal friends, they entirely declined to 
ordain men for work outside their own dioceses, or even for 
curacies within their dioceses if understood to be merely stepping- 
stones to foreign work, Those who were thus applied to were not 
the Archbishop of Canterbury or the Bishop of London, to whom 
in the present day we go; for Archbishop Moore, who had 
promised to "regard the Society's proceedings with candour," and 
Bishop Porteus, who had supported the Evangelicals in philan- 
thropic movements, were dead, and Dr. Manner s-Sutton and Dr. 
Bandolph, who now filled the two posts respectively, were quite 
beyond the reach of the " serious clergy." Scott would have taken 
Norton for his own curacy, but Buckinghamshire was then in the 
diocese of Lincoln, and Bishop Tomhne was at that very time 
fulminating against the Evangelicals (who were very mild Cal- 
vinists) in his Befutation of Calvinism. At last, a Cheshire 
clergyman who wanted a curate succeeded in obtaining ordination 
in Chester diocese for Greenwood, on Trinity Sunday, 1813 , and 
the incumbent of St. Saviour's, York, persuaded the northern 
Archbishop (Harcourt) to ordain Norton for him at the following 
'Christmas. Norton was rather closely examined on certain points 
of Calvinistic doctrine, because he had been trained by Scott; but 
he wrote, " Through mercy I was enabled to answer the Arch- 
bishop either in Scripture language or that of our Articles." 

Thus, fourteen years after the foundation of the Society, two 
bishops were induced to perform acts that assisted its plans; 
though, be it observed, they did not perform these acts for the 
Society's interests, nor at its request, but only for work (albeit 
temporary) under the clergy in their own dioceses. The circum- 
stance throws light on the patient faith of the Committee, in 
going on with an enterprise which by this time, as we shall see 
hereafter, was growing rapidly under their hands, but for which 
they could as yet perceive no certain way of obtaining fit instru- 
ments duly commissioned by their own Church. They could not 



THE FIRST MISSIONARIES 91 

foiesee that their missionary candidates would in after years form PART II. 
a distinct element in the London ordinations, and that again and W86-181L 
again men trained by them, and without the advantage of Urn- p 8t 
versity education, would take the first place in the strictest exami- 
nation any Church of England diocese has, and read the Gospel 
accordingly in St. Paul's Cathedral, 

The obstacles in the path of the Committee emphasize also the 
debt that English Church Missions owe to Lutheran Germany. Our 
As we have already seen, all the S P.O.K. men m India were 
Lutherans. In the Church Missionary Society's first fifteen years, 
it sent out twenty-four missionaries. Of these, seventeen were 
Germans ; and of the seven Englishmen, only three were ordained, 
viz,, the two above-mentioned, and "William Jowett, the first 
University graduate on the Society's roll, having been 12th 
Wrangler in 1810. Of him we shall have more to say in a future 
chapter. Meanwhile, we can understand the feelings of Melville 
Home, one of the leading Evangelicals of that day, when in eloquent 
language, in a speech at Leicester, he compared England and 
Germany. On the one hand, England had stood alone " as the 
forlorn hope and supporting pillar of the lawa, liberties, and 
religion of the vanquished Continent," when all Europe was 
under the iron heel of Buonaparte. On the other hand, Germany, 
amid all her sufferings from the horrors of war, was " advancing 
with the sacred standard of the cross of Christ and reviving tho 
drooping zeal of the Church of England." But he was not happy 
in the prospect. "Highly," he said, "as I honour the pious 
Lutheran ministers, who are bold to suffer and die in our cause, 
I cannot brook the idea of their advancing alone into the field with 
the standard of our Church in their hands. Where are our own 
ministers ? What happy peculiarity is there in the air of Ger- 
many ? What food is it which nourishes these pious Lutherans ? 
I cannot allow these good men to stand in our place. Let us 
assert our own dignity and that of the Church to which wo 
belong ! " In after years, some of the noblest of the Society's 
missionaries were Germans ; but they were not Lutherans. They 
were for the most part trained at Islington, and received English 
orders from the Bishop of London. Though England cannot 
claim them, the English Church can. And now we have lived to 
see the day when in England itself the missionary vocation is at 
last widely recognized as worthy of the very best of our young 
men, and to send forth year by year increasing numbers of those 
who are manifestly the Lord's chosen vessels to bear His name 
before the Heathen, 



CHAPTEE IX. 
AFEICA AND INDIA : STRUGGLE AND VICTORY, 

Renewed Anti- Slave Trade Campaign Wilberforce's TriumphSierra 
Leone India in the Dark Period Carey and Serampore Claudius 
Buchanan The Vellore Mutiny Controversy at Home The 
Charter Debates Another Victory India Open. 

" Let no flwwi's hewrtfwl because of Iwm; tliij servo/nit will go omd fight with 
ths Philistine . . . 80 JDawd jwwiZed "1 Sam. xvii. 32, 50. 

PART II |lrWWM|AYING started the new Society, let us now resume 

W88-1811. If 111 a the story of the two great mission-fields that were 

Cbap, 9. Kr^|p| "waiting," Africa and India. In our Fifth Chapter, 

irBm we k^ * e British Sl^e ^ ra( k s '^ ^anipant in West 

Africa at the close of the eighteenth century, and the 

Dark Period of twenty years just beginning in India in 1793. 

First Meanwhile, missionary work had been commenced m South 

to Sea. Africa. The Moravians were first, as they have been in other 

fields. George Schmidt went out as early as 1737, and laboured 

six years among the Hottentots ; but it was not until the last 

decade of the century that the Dutch, who then reigned at the 

Gape, allowed others to go. The British, however, conquered the 

colony, and in 1798 the new London Missionary Society sent that 

remarkable Hollander, Dr. John Vanderkemp, to work among 

both Hottentots and Kaffirs, How the Gospel was sent to West 

Africa will appear in a future chapter. 'We now turn again to the 

battle of the Slave Trade. 

Year after year, as we have seen, Wilberforce's efforts had been 
baffled; and when the eighteenth century closed, the question 
seemed no nearer solution. Yet, notwithstanding the opposition 
of the slave-traders, of the royal dukes, and of King George 
himself, conviction gradually forced itself upon the minds of 
most honest men. The Evangelical Churchmen, the Methodists, 
the regular Dissenters, and the Quakers, combined to use all 
their influence in getting petitions sent to Parliament; and 
some of the bishops did good service in the House of Lords, 
Political events, and the overwhelming anxieties about the 
War, prevented any definite steps being taken in the first three 
years of the new century; but in 1804 Wilberforce again 
advanced to the attack. The change in the minds of men was at 
once apparent, The bill passed all stages in the Commons by 





REV CLAUDIUS BUCHAMAN 



REV DANIEL CORRIE 
. .ji-r^ East India Director. 

Darnel Come, East India Ohaplam? *rt Bishop of Madras 



AFRICA AND INDIA : STRUGGLE AND VICTORY 93 

laro-e majorities. But the House of Lords deferred it for a year ; PART 3Bf. 
and in 1805, owing to the absence of many friends " through 1 l 8 h 648 ^ L 
forgetfulness, or accident, or engagements preferred from luke- p 
warmness," it was thrown out in the Commons. Wilberforce 
was deeply pained. "I could not sleep," he wrote; "the poor 
blacks rushed into my mind, and the guilt of our wicked land." 
Then came the death of Pitt, heart-broken at Napoleon's crushing 
victory at Austerlitz ; and then the death of his old rival, but 
comrade-in-arms against the slave-trade, Fox Wilberforce had 
now to contend, not only with the last desperate energies of " the 
trade," and the active hostility of the royal dukes, out with the 
lukewarmness of leading statesmen who professed to be allies, 
But he was the central figure of an increasing body of resolute 
men, bent not only upon the abolition of the slave-trade, but upon 
many other philanthropic objects Mr. Colquhoun draws several 
pictures of Wilberforce's daily life, first in Palace Yard, and|nein 
afterwards at Kensington. Here is a fragment describing the Yard" 
scene in Palace Yard, while Pitt was yet alive : 

" Its bell is always tinkling, and the knocker never still , up the crowded 
door-step and down again there flows a stream of men, which runs on 
without stopping from morning to night, and such queer visitors, black 
and white, rosy-faced Saxons, and woolly-haired Africans; bustling, 
warm men from the city, spruce peers and baronets from the West End, 
stout squires from Yorkshire, broad-cloth manufacturers from Bradford 
and Leeds, broad-brimmed quakers from London, York, and Norwich, 
yellow-faced nabobs who have been burnt under the tropics ; and mixed 
with these, black-coated clergymen, and grave dignitaries, and smooth- 
shaven preachers of many sects. Here you meet that stout Scotchman, 
East India Director. Mr. Grant, whose sons are just beginning to be 
noticed, and that stern, silent man, with quick step and keen grey eyes, 
the father of a son more famous, Zachary Macaulay ; and that grave, 
austere banker, whose word the City of London takes as a bond, who 
has a name and note in the House of Commons Henry Thornton ; and 
that long, shy, bashful clergyman, Mr Gisborne, who- comes up un- 
willingly from his Staffordshire woods ; and that stout, portly dean, Mr. 
Milner, who walks and talks as if he had borrowed the voice of Dr. 
Johnson; and that gentle layman, Mr. Babington, from Leicestershire ; 
and the acute and energetic William Smith, member for Norwich ; and 
the courteous peer from the Mis of Cumberland, Lord Muncaster. That 
quick step and keen legal eye belong to Mr Stephen. Mixed with these, 
you have the bustling Secretary of the Treasury, and the eagle-eyed 
Scotchman with his broad accent, omnipotent to the north of the Tweed; 
and then (for the House is up) a notable pair, the tall figure of the 
Premier [Pitt], with the ruddy features, cheerful voice, and pleasant joke 
of Addington." 

Not till the winter of 1806-7 did Wilberforce at last witness the 
triumph of his cause. Then, in division after division, he proved 
victorious ; obstacle after obstacle was overcome ; the Lords passed 
the bill ; then it came to the Commons. On February 23rd the 
second reading was proposed. The opposition now made little 
show. Sir Samuel Romilly touched the House to its heart's core 



94 AFRICA AND INDIA : STRUGGLE AND VICTORY 

PART II. when lie " entreated the young members of parliament to let that 
1786-1811 day's event be a lesson to them, how much the rewards of virtue 
Chap 9 exceeded those of ambition; and then contrasted the feelings of 
Napoleon Buonaparte in all his greatness with those of the 
honoured man who would that night lay his head upon his pillow 
siave h an( ^ remem ^ er ^ na ^ * ne Slave Trade was no more ", and shouts of 
Trade acclamation burst forth such as had rarely been heard in the 
abolished. House. The second reading was carried by 283 to 16 , the bill 
went safely through committee, and back to the Lords for final 
acceptance , and on March 25th, 1807, it received the royal assent 
" God will now bless the country/' wrote the victorious champion : 
" the first authentic account of the defeat of the French has come 
to-day." It was true From that time the tide in the great 
European struggle turned In the very year which abolished the 
hateful traffic, began the series of events in Spain which cul- 
minated in the victories of Wellington and the fall of Napoleon. 
" Oh, what thanks/' continues Wilberforce's journal, "do I owe 
the Giver of all good, for bringing me in His gracious providence 
to this great cause, which at length, after almost nineteen years' 
labour, is successful f " 

In the same year, 1807, other events occurred of great impor- 
tance to the Colony of Sierra Leone First, the misfortunes of 
the Sierra Leone Company, which had often given great anxiety 
to Wilberforce and the Thorntons, led to a parliamentary inquiry, 
Transfer of and this to the transfer of the settlement to the direct admimstra- 
Eeoneto ^ on ^ ^ ie Crown, which was effected on January 1st, 1808. 
the Crown. The directors of the Company, in a final report, justly pleaded 
that, notwithstanding the tremendous obstacles they had had to 
encounter, and the heavy financial losses incurred m the enter- 
prise, much good work had been done. They had " established a 
colony which, by the blessing of Providence, might become an 
emporium of commerce, a school of industry, and a source of 
knowledge, civilization, and religious improvement, to the in- 
habitants of the African Continent "; and they declined to regard 
this as an unworthy return for the pecuniary sacrifices of the 
shareholders. Like another African Company long afterwards, 
they were " content to take out their dividends in philanthropy." 
New plans Then secondly, Government arranged for the reception at 
slaves? Sierra Leone of slaves who might be rescued from slave-ships still 
plying in defiance of the law and captured by the British cruisers 
sent to enforce the law. The population thereupon began to 
increase rapidly, some two thousand " liberated Africans," as they 
were called, being added to it annually for several years. These 
having been kidnapped from all parts of West Africa, there were 
gathered at Sierra Leone representatives of more than a hundred 
tribes, almost all speaking different languages or dialects. Their 
moral condition was deplorable, and for some years the settlement 
presented sad scenes of barbarism, immorality, and superstition. 
But, thirdly, for the improvement and civilization of the people, a. 



AFRICA AND INDIA : STRUGGLE AND VICTORY 95 

new Company was formed called the African Institution. The PART II. 
Duke of Gloucester, one of the royal princes, was president ; and 1786-1811. 
several bishops, statesmen, and philanthropists formed the govern- c kap 9. 
ing body, including Wilberforce, Clarkson, Granville Sharp, four 
Thorntons, Zachary Macaulay, Charles Grant, James Stephen, 
and others whose names will become familiar in this History 
Energetic steps were taken for the benefit of the Colony. Schools 
were opened ; the growth of profitable products was encouraged ; 
and the people were incited to engage in both agriculture and 
trade. But it must be acknowledged that the success of these 
measures was very partial ; and it was not until the direct teaching Yet one 
of the Gospel was undertaken from which the African Association faJkf n s 
was precluded by its constitutionthat any real and marked ac mff 
improvement began to be seen in Sierra Leone 

How this teaching came to be given will appear hereafter. 
But we can now see how natural it was for a new missionary 
society founded by men of the " Clapham Sect " to bear the name 
of Africa upon the forefront of its title. In the Instructions 
delivered to the first two missionaries sent out, in 1804, the facts 
that had directed the minds of the Committee to West Africa are 
clearly stated 

" The temporal misery of the whole Heathen Woild has been dread- 
fully aggravated by its intercourse with men who bear the name of 
Christians ; but the Western coast of Africa between the Tropics, and 
more especially that part of it between the Lino and the Tropic of Cancer, 
has not only, in common with other heathen countries, received from us 
our diseases and our vices, but it has ever been the chief theatre of tho 
inhuman Slave Trade ; and tens of thousands of its children have been 
annually torn from their clearest connexions to minister to the luxuries 
of men bearing the Christian name, and who had no more right to exercise 
this violence than the Africans had to depopulate our coasts with a 
similar view The wickedness and wretchedness consequent upon this 
trade of blood have deeply and extensively infected these shores ; and 
though Western Africa may justly charge hoi sufferings from this trade 
upon all Europe, directly or remotely, yet the British Nation is now, and 
has long been, most deeply criminal. We desire, therefore, while we 
pray and labour for the removal of this evil, to make Western Africa the 
best remuneration in our power for its manifold wrongs." 

Nobly indeed was this noble purpose fulfilled. There are few 
episodes in all missionary history more moving than the story of 
the early efforts of the Church Missionary Society in West Africa. 
It is a story of faith tested and tested again and again, of patience 
having her perfect work, of disappointment and disaster, and of 
the mighty power of Divine grace in the hearts of the most 
degraded of mankind, 

Let us now turn to India. One result of Wilberforce's unsuc- East n 
cessf ul attempt to obtain a modification of the East India Company's excTu ny 
charter in 1793 was that the Company stiffened its regulations m ! ssion 
the admission into its territories of persons merchants ane5 ' 



96 AFRICA AND INDIA: STRUGGLE AND VICTORY 

PART II or others not sent by itself. " A man without a ' covenant ' was 
1. a dangerous person ; doubly dangerous the man without a ' cove- 



embarked in a Company's ship, but it being discovered, just before 
she sailed, that he had no licence, he and his baggage were sent 
ashore again Then he obtained a passage in a Danish ship ; but 
on his arrival at Calcutta, having no licence from the Company to 
reside in Bengal, which at that time was necessary, Mr. Udny 
entered his name as an indigo-planter, stood surety for his good 
conduct in a large sum of money, and sent him to manage one of 
his own indigo factories a hundred and fifty miles from Calcutta. 
There, and in that capacity, lived for six years the one representa- 
tive in India of the missionary zeal of Christian England , and in 
that obscure one may say ignominious way began English 
Missions in her great dependency. 

In 1796 came another Baptist missionary, Mr. Fountain, who 
succeeded in entering the country in the character of a servant 
on Mr. Udny's estate ; but his outspoken sympathy with French 
republican notions caused alarm, and brought upon him the 
censure of his Society. It was the avowal of similar views that 
prevented that noble Scotchman, Mr. Haldane, who had sold his 
large estate to go out and found a Mission in Bengal, from 
obtaining leave from the Company to go ; and when, in 1799, 
four more Baptist missionaries arrived in an American ship, great 
alarm prevailed in Calcutta, more especially as a Calcutta paper, 
mistaking the word "Baptist," stated that four Papists had 
come, who were at once assumed to be French spies In our 
Fourth Chapter we saw something of the reasons for the horror 
and detestation with which any democratic opinions were then 
regarded; and as Buonaparte was at that very time in Egypt, 
and was known to have designs on India, we are not surprised 
to find that the Governor- General was taking steps to expel 
" all Frenchmen and republicans " Thirteen years after, when 
Napoleon's Grand Army had been destroyed in Eussia, the Mis- 
sionary Eegister opened its number for April, 1813, with an article 
headed " India secured to Britain by Eussian Victories " which 
has in our day a curious sound. 

The four missionaries were instantly ordered to leave the 

country ; but they contrived to get up the Hooghly in a boat by 

night to Serampore, a small Danish settlement fifteen miles north 

Danish of Calcutta. " It was a sort of Alsatian receptacle," says Sir John 

reives cnt Kaye,t " for outcasts of all kinds. Fugitive debtors from Calcutta 

them. found there an asylum where English law could not reach them ; 

and even that most perilous and pestilential of all suspected 

persons, the missionary of the Gospel, might lie there without 

molestation." For the Danish governor, on being challenged by 

the Calcutta authorities to give them up, refused to do so. The 

* Kaye's Christianity in India, p. 223. f *&*'& P- 22 8. 



AFRICA AND INDIA: STRUGGLE AND VICTORY 97 

result was that Carey left his indigo factory and came and joined PART II 
them, and so, in January, 1800, began the great Serarnpore 1 ^ 86 " 1811 ' 
Mission, which was to be a power in India for many a long year. p 

A remarkable man must now be introduced, to whom, perhaps 
more than to any one else, the coming opening of India to the 
Gospel was due. Claudius Buchanan was a young Scotchman ciaudms 
who had left his studies at Glasgow University to wander over Buchan& n. 
Europe with his violin, but, finding himself destitute in England, 
had " come to himself m the far country," had been led to Christ 
by old John Newton, and sent to Cambridge at the expense of 
Henry Thornton. Subsequently Simeon obtained for him an 
East Indian chaplaincy, and he arrived in Calcutta in 1797. He 
quickly became a power in Bengal, and in 1800 was appointed to 
preach before the Governor-General, the Marquis Wellesley, on a 
memorable occasion. Nelson had destroyed the French fleet at 
the Battle of the Nile, and their Syrian campaign had failed ; and 
a Thanksgiving Day was proclaimed at Calcutta " for the ultimata 
and happy establishment of the tranquillity and security of the 
British possessions in India." Lord Wellesley was so stirred by 
Buchanan's sermon, that he ordered copies to be circulated all 
over India and sent home to the East India Directors; and 
almost immediately afterwards he put David Brown and Buchanan 
at the head of a great College he was founding for the education 
of young Englishmen in the Indian languages, and generally for 
the promotion of Western literature and science. As the only 
man in India competent to teach Bengali was Carey, Brown per- 
suaded the Governor-General to appoint him, assuring him that 
he was "well affected to the Government." The large salaries 
attached to the offices held by these three good men were 
unreservedly devoted to preparing the way for further Missions 
by printing translations of the Scriptures. 

Buchanan spent some of his money in another way. He sent 
home no less than 1650 to the universities and public schools of 
England, Scotland, and Ireland, to be offered in prizes for the Buchanan 
best essays and poems, English, Latin, and Greek, on subjects pnzes * 
that would set the competing students thinking of the spread of 
the Gospel in India. The subject of the Greek Ode, IW<r0o> <f>fa, 
is worth noting in view of what will be related presently. The 
successful English poem was sent in by young Charles Grant, son 
of the great Anglo-Indian above-mentioned, and fourth Wrangler 
in Henry Martyn's year. Buchanan followed this up by giving 
Oxford and Cambridge 500 each for the best English prose work 
on certain missionary topics, one of them being the History of 
Missions in all ages, At Oxford, the prize was won by Hugh 
Pearson, afterwards Dean of Salisbury, and biographer of 
Schwartz, and of Buchanan himself. His Essay has been already 
referred to, and quoted from, in this History/ 1 - At Cambridge the 

* See p. 8. 
VOL. I. H 



98 A FA ic A AND INDIA : STRUGGLE AND Vic TOR v 

PART II best Essay (though a technicality deprived it of the prize) was by 
1786-1811. John W Cunningham, Fellow of St. John's, fifth Wrangler m 
Chap^9 ^gQ2 ? an< j afterwards Yicar of Harrow. All these three successful 
competitors became active CMS men. 

Meanwhile Buchanan was vigorously using his own vigorous 
pen, sending home his works for publication in England One of 
these, the Memoir of the Expediency of an Ecclesiastical Establish- 
ment in British India, had great influence afterwards. Another, 
entitled Christian Researches in the East, describing a visit he 
paid to Travancore, in order to inquire into the condition of the 
ancient Syrian Church there, led, ten years later, to the establish- 
ment of the C M.S. Travancore Mission. 

Successor All this time the Serampore Mission had been growing in 
Mission, strength and influence. Not only was its literary and translational 
work most extensive and valuable, but it was gaming converts. 
In six years ninety-six adults had been baptized, including six 
Brahmans and nine Mohammedans. Sir William Jones, the great 
Orientalist, had declared that no Brahman could be converted , and 
again and again, even to our own day, has it been asserted that no 
Moslem ever is converted Sir William knew the power of caste, 
and the critics know the power of Islam. But he forgot, and they 
forget, the power of the Cross ; and the Serampore converts were but 
the first of a long series of proud Brahmans and fanatical Moslems 
who have come to the feet of the Son of God There were some, in- 
deed, as there have been some in all ages from Ananias and Sapphira 
downwards, who proved unworthy members ; but others became 
conspicuous examples of the transforming power of the Gospel. 
Encouraged by these successes, and by the high character and 
tolerant policy of Lord Wellesley, the Baptist missionaries began 
to distribute tracts, and even to pi each and teach, in Calcutta, and 
in the surrounding rural districts ; but these proceedings were 
quickly checked, and an unfortunate tract attacking the character 
of Mohammed led to greater vigilance on the part of the 
authorities. It was at this time, too, but after Lord Wellesley had 
left India, that the Government passed a special Act taking the 
Temple of Juggernaut, with all its honors and immoralities, undor 
State protection and patronage. 

Then, in 1806, occurred an event which threw back the progress 
veiiore O f liberty for seven years. Some of the Sepoy troops at Vellore, 
utiny ' near Madras, mutinied. A mighty panic was engendered ; and it 
suited the purpose of the Anglo- Indians who were opposed to 
Missions to attribute the outbreak to alarm caused by the presence 
of missionaries * From that time the Company and its officers 
became more and more hostile. Two Baptist missionaries who 
More mis- arrived in 1807 were ordered off at once, and one of them pro- 
cee ^ e( * to Burmah instead, and started a Mission there. In 1811, 

* Apropos of this panic Sir John Kaye obseives, " It is always religion that 
is to blame If a man catches cold, he caught it at church j such accidents 
never happen at the theatie " Clu i^tiainty in Iiuha, p 252. 



AFRICA AND INDIA : STRUGGLE AND VICTORY 99 

one of the Serampore men, Mr. Chambeilain, went up to Agra, PART II 
but was instantly sent back under a guard of Heathen Sepoys ; ^ " 1811> 
and on being invited again to the North- West to be tutor to an ap> 
officer's children, he was a second time ordered back by Lord 
Hastings, then Governor-General, who said that "one might fire 
a pistol into a magazine and it might not explode, but no wise 
man would hazard the experiment." In 1812, three English and 
five American missionaries arrived at Calcutta. The latter were 
the very first sent forth by the newly-formed American Board of 
Commissioners of Foreign Missions, a body similar in constitution 
to the London Missionaiy Society, but, like it, virtually the society 
of the Congregationahsts. All the eight were peremptorily refused 
permission to land Two of the Americans, one of them being the 
heroic Judson, became Baptists, and got leave to go to Burmah. 
After a series of difficulties enough to try the faith and patience of 
the boldest, but which cannot be detailed here, the other three, 
who had escaped in a coasting vessel to Bombay, wore allowed to 
remain there; and they ultimately laid the foundation of the 
prosperous American Mission in that Presidency. Of the English- 
men one was deported, one escaped to Serampore, and one to a 
Dutch settlement ; but this one was eventually expelled, and the 
Mission was ordered to pay 500 to cover the expense of sending 
him home. Even at Madras, the Government of which was 
usually more tolerant, and had just put up a monument to 
Schwartz at the Company's expense, a missionary of the London 
Missionary Society was expelled in the same year, 1812. 

The Veilore Mutiny caused greater alarm in England oven than J r " tr< j^ 
in India. A war of pamphlets ensued, opened by a member of the sfngfami 
East India Company named Twining, who quoted from Buchanan's 
Memoir before mentioned, and moved the Court of Proprietors to 
expel all missionaries from India and stop all printing of the 
Scriptures in Indian languages ; and this motion was only defeated 
by the strenuous efforts of Charles Grant, who was now an 
influential Director of the Company. A Bengal officer, Major 
Scott- Waring, published a Vindication of the, Hindoos from the 
Aspersions 0} the fiev. G. Buchanan. Well might Wilberforee 
write of the Anglo-Indians who, " having lived among Pagans 
for many years," had now " come home with large fortunes, and 
manifested their heathenish principles by openly espousing the 
cause of the Vedas against the Scriptures and the Hindoo against 
the Christian faith." Among the replies was one by Lord Teign- 
mouth himself. Sydney Smith published his famous and furious 
attack on Indian Missions in the Edinburgh Review (April, 1807), 
aiming his bitterest shafts at the ''consecrated cobblers" who 
were engaged in such a work. Southey rejoined in the very first 
number of the Quarterly Review (April, 1808). 

Buchanan now came home, and threw himself into the conflict Bu cha~ 
with characteristic impetuosity. But instead of flinging pamphlets campaign, 
at his opponents, he preached sermons to his friends. If only the 

H 2 



100 AFRICA AND INDIA , STRUGGLE AND 

PABT II. Christian public could be stirred up to care for the evangelization 

1786-1811, O f India, he cared little for what the critics might say. His great 

Chap^9. sermon at Bristol on February 26th, 1809, which (said a paper of 

the day) " kepD the minds of a large auditory in a state of most lively 

sensation for an hour and twenty-five minutes," and which was 

in T th e e Star published with the title " The Star in the Bast," may be truly said 

East." to have first awakened the interest in India which was presently 

to win so remarkable a victory in Parliament. He described the 

labours of both the little band of S.P.O.K Lutheran missionaries 

in the South and the Baptist brethren in the North. He told the 

story of two converts from Mohammedanism, one of whom had 

died a martyr for Christ. He appealed powerfully for the people 

he loved so well, and closed with these striking words : * 

" "While we are disputing here whether the faith of Christ can save the 
Heathen, the Gospel hath gone forth for the healing of the nations. A 
congregation of Hindus will assemble on the morning of the Sabbath, 
under the shade of a banyan-tree, not one of whom, perhaps, ever 
heard of Great Britain by name. There the Holy Bible is opened , the 
Word of Christ is preached with eloquence and zeal ; the affections are 
excited , the voice of prayer and praise is lifted up ; and He who 
hath promised His presence when two or three are gathered together 
in His name, is there in the midst of them to bless them, according to 
His woicl. These scenes I myself have witnessed ; and it is in this 
sense in particular I can say, We have seen His Star in the East." 

Then, in 1810, he preached the C M.S Annual Sermon, on 
the words, " Ye are the light of the world." This text, and the 
" star in the east," are both of them interesting as embodying the 
same thought as the subject he had chosen five years before for the 
Greek Ode ; and on the very words of that subject, " Let there be 
light," he preached in the University Church at Cambridge m this 
same year. Light for India's darkness was thus repeatedly his 
theme ; and, in tho C.M S. Sermon, very impressively docs he 
dwell on both the darkness and the light. 

In these ways the public mind was becoming familiarized with 
the great questions about to be raised when the Company's 
Charter should have to be renewed in 1813 A year before that, 
Christian men began to form plans for influencing Parliament, 
wdber- Wilberforce, mindful of his defeat on the same question nineteen 
front,* the y ears before, would remember that it took exactly nineteen years 
to get the Slave Trade abolished, and would be encouraged by the 
victorious issue which God had graciously granted to his African 
campaign to hope for a similar interposition of the same Lord of 
Hosts in the Indian campaign he was about to undertake. " It is 
a shocking idea, "he wrote to a, friend, " that we should leave sixty 
millions of our fellow-subjects, nay of our tenants (for we collect 
about seventeen millions sterling from the rent of their lands), to 
remain in a state of barbarism and ignorance, the slaves of the most 
cruel and degrading superstition." To Hannah More he wrote, 

* C.M.8. Report, 1809, Appendix, p. 515. 



AFRICA AND INDIA : STRUGGLE AND VICTORY 101 

"Now that the Slave Trade is abolished, this is by far the greatest PART II. 
of our national sins " In his diary we see him using dinner- 1T86-1811. 
parties and all sorts of other opportunities to influence leading men p * 9> 
to help him to use his own words in " getting leave for Gospel 
light to pass into India." " This," he wrote, "is indeed a cause 
for which it is worth while being a public man " 

The battle now began. "Wilberforce marshalled his forces; 
Buchanan wielded his vigorous pen ; Grant and Parry used every 
effort to influence their fellow-Directors , Pratt threw his energies 
into the work of rousing the country. On the other side pamphlet 
after pamphlet, article after article in newspaper and review, held 
up to the contempt of the world the miserable and hopeless 
attempts of "consecrated cobblers" to convert the mild Hindu, 
and at the same time, with glorious inconsistency, tried to frighten 
the English people into the belief that unless they put a stop to 
the said " consecrated cobblers " they would infallibly lose India. 

The campaign was opened on April 24th, 1812, by an important JfQ^g 8 
Public Meeting on the India question, arranged by the Church 
Missionary Society, at which four hundred gentlemen assembled, 
including many M.P.'s and other influential persons. Wilberforce 
in his diary calls it " a grand assemblage," and adds, "I spoke 
with acceptance " A few days later he attended a meeting of 
the S P. O.K. for the same object at the office of that Society, 
which also had been stirred up by Buchanan's works, and which 
was employing its more recognized influence in the same cause,' 1 ' 

Besides the pressure brought to bear on the Government in 
this way, and by personal influence, two measures of importance 
were taken, chiefly at the instance and at the cost of the Church 
Missionary Society. One was the rousing of the Christian public 
to send petitions to Parliament from all parts of the country. 
Pratt worked at this with untiring energy ; and the number sent 
in (about 850) was the largest ever known up to that time upon 
any subject. The other was the commissioning Buchanan to 
take up his pen once more ; and two powerful pamphlets were 
the result, one on the general subject of religion in India and the 
other on the importance of an " ecclesiastical establishment " 
there. These were printed at the Society's expense, sent to all 
M.P.'s, and circulated by thousands in the country. In the midst 
of the agitation arrived the news of Henry Martyn's death, at 
Tokat in Armenia, on his way home from India and Persia. Such 
an event, at such a moment, stirred the hearts of the workers in 
the cause, and spurred them on to more strenuous efforts for the 
opening of India to the Gospel. 

"The harvest," writes Sir John Kaye, "now appeared ready 
for the sickle. The labours of those busy workmen, Grant, 
Teignmouth, Thornton, Wilberforce, Buchanan, and their com- 

* In the recently-published History of the S P O.K. the entire credit is given 
to that Society, and the OJ(.S 19 not mentioned. But this is not " history." 



102 AFRICA AND INDIA : STRUGGLE AND VICTORY 

PART IT. panions, were at length about to be rewarded. They had toiled 
1 p 8 1 f" 1811 an< ^ striven manfully for years; they had encountered public 
p opposition and private ridicule ; they had been shouted at by the 
timid and sneered at by the profane ; they had been described as 
dangerous intermeddlers, and as imbecile fanatics They had 
contended only against the open official suppression of Christianity 
in India ; they had asked only for toleration ; they had demanded 
that, in the midst of opposing creeds, the faith of the Christian 
might be suffered to walk unveiled and unfettered. They had 
been seeking this liberty for many years ; and now at last the day 
of emancipation was beginning to dawn upon them." * 

Proceedings in the House of Commons began with the exa- 
mination of witnesses in Committee of the whole House. Two 
former Governors -General were examined. Warren Hastings, 
now an old man, was very cautious, and would not commit 
himself to either approval or disapproval of missionaries, or of 
the proposal for a bishop ; but, to be quite safe, he adopted the 
familiar excuse that the time was not opportune Then came 
House of Lord Teignrnouth. Let us hear Kaye's graphic account of his 
examination : \ - 



Lord 

Teign- " The Committee seemed to know the kind of man they had to deal 
mouth. yrijj^ an( } assailed him at starting by putting an extreme case ' Would 
it be consistent with the security of the British Empire in India that 
missionaries should preach publicly, with a view to the conversion of the 
Native Indians, that Mohammed is an impostor, or should speak in 
opprobrious terms of the Brahmins, or their leligious iites?' To this, 
of course, Lord Teignmouth replied that there might be danger in such 
indiscretion j but that no one contemplated the conversion of the Natives 
of India by such means ; and when, soon afterwards, the question was 
put, ' Is your Lordship aware that an opinion prevails in India that it 
is the intention of the British Government to take means to convert the 
Natives of the country to the Christian religion p ' he answered, without 
a moment's hesitation, ' I never heard it or suspected it.' One would 
have thought that there was little need after this to put the case 
hypothetically j but the witness was presently asked whether, allowing 
such an opinion to exist among the Natives, the appearance of a Bishop 
on the stage would not increase the clanger. 'I should think,' said 
Lord Teignmouth, 'it would be viewed with perfect indifference.' 
Determined to work the hypothesis a little more, the Committee asked 
him whether, ' were the Hindus possessed with an idea that we had an 
intention of changing their religion and converting them into Christians, 
it would be attended with any bad consequences at all?' 'I will 
expatiate a little in my answer to that question/ said Lord Teignmouth ; 
and he then delivered himself of the following explanation, the admirable 
good sense of which is not to be surpassed by anything to be found in 
the entire mass of evidence elicited, throughout the inquiry, upon all 
the points of the Company's charter 

" ' Both the Hindus and Mohammedans, subject to the British Govern- 
ment in India, have had the experience of some years, that, in all the 
public acts of that Government, 4 every attention had been paid to their 
prejudices, civil and religious, and that the freest toleration is allowed 

* C/u ist KHHfy n India, p. 257. f M , P 2G4 



AFRICA AND INDIA : STRUGGLE AND VICTORY 103 

to them ; that there are many regulations of Government which prove P^RT II. 
the disposition of Government to leave them perfectly free and un- 1786-1811. 
molested m their religious ordinances ; and that any attempt at an Chap. 9. 

infringement upon their religion or superstitions would "be punished by 

the Government of India. With that conviction, which arises from 
experience, I do not apprehend that they would be brought to believe 
that the Government ever meant to impose upon them the religion of 
this country.' 

u But the Committee had not yet done with their hypothesis, and were 
determined not to let the witness, whatever might be his opinion of its 
absuidity, escape without giving a direct answer ; so they assailed him 

r" LI by asking, ' Should the state of things be altered, and we not 
rve the conduct we have hitherto observed, but introduce new modes 
and enact new laws, for the carrying into effect the conversion of the 
Natives to Christianity, would not that be attended with disagreeable 
consequences ? ' To this, of course, but one answer could be given ; 
and Lord Teignmouth gave that answer, leaving the Committee to make 
what use of it they could ' If a law were to be enacted,' he said, ' for 
converting the Natives of India to Christianity in such a manner as to 
have the appearance of a compulsory law upon their consciences, I have 
no hesitation in saying that, m that case, it would be attended with very 
great danger ' Who ever doubted it p Who ever contended for anything 
so preposterous so insane F " 

The Charter Bill introduced by Lord Castlereagh in 1813 was charter 
debated in Committee of the House of Commons on a series of debatcs - 
Resolutions, and Nos, 12 and 13 showed that the Government, 
after some hesitation and under considerable pressure, had re- 
cognized the strength of feeling in the country They were, in 
fact, framed upon lines suggested by Wilberforce and the C.M.S. 
Committee : 

" XII. Resolved, That it is the opinion of this Committee [i e. of the 
House of Commons] that it is expedient that the Church Establishment 
in the British territories in the East Indies should be placed under the 
superintendence of a Bishop and three Archdeacons, and that adequate t 
provision should be made from the territorial revenues of India for their 
maintenance. 

"XIII. Resolved, That it is the opinion of this Committee that it is 
the duty of this country to promote the interest and happiness of the 
native inhabitants of the British dominions in India, and that such 
measures ought to be adopted as may tend to the introduction among 
them of useful knowledge and of religious and moral improvement. 
That in the furtherance of the above objects, sufficient facilities shall be 
afforded by law to persons desirous of going to, and remaining in, India 
for the purpose of accomplishing those benevolent designs. 

"Provided always that the authority of the Local Governments 
respecting the intercourse of Europeans with the interior of the country 
be preserved, and that the principles of the British Government on 
which the natives of India have hitherto relied for the free exercise of 
their religion be inviolably maintained/' 

No. 12 passed easily; but No. 13 led to long and heated 
debates, certain Anglo-Indians and their sympathizers straining 
every nerve to defeat it. One member, Mr, Marsh, gave a glow- 
ing description of the Hindus and of Hinduism, dwelling on " the 



104 AFRICA AND INDIA : STRUGGLE AND VICTORY 

PABT II benignant and softening influences of religion and morality " that 
1786-1811 prevailed in India, and expressing "horror at the idea of sending 
p< 9 out Baptists and Anabaptists to civilize and convert such a 
people, at the hazard of disturbing or deforming institutions which 
appeared to have been the means ordained by Providence of 
making them virtuous and happy." Among the speakers on the 
Christian side were the two Chailes Grants, father and son, stand- 
ing shoulder to shoulder in the cause of the Master they loved. 
Wilberforce rose about midnight on June 22nd, and spoke for 
two hours, " Nobody," wrote a hostile critic, " seemed fatigued : 
all indeed were pleased, some with the ingenious artifices of his 
manner, but most with the glowing language of his heart. Much 
as I differed from him, it was impossible not to be delighted with 
his eloquence." Early next morning he wrote to Mrs. Wilber- 
victoryat force, " Blessed be God, we carried our question about three 
astt this morning" ; and a few days later, "I heard afterwards that 
many good men had been praying for us all night." The Bill 
quickly followed the Eesolutions, and received the royal assent 
on July 21st. * In the autumn of that very year Napoleon was 
totally defeated by the allied armies at Leipsic, and Wellington 
drove Soult over the Pyrenees and finally delivered Spain from her 
invaders. The East India Act came into force in the following 
April ; and in that very month Napoleon was banished to Elba, 
and peace proclaimed. " Them that honour Me I will honour." 

Thus what Professor Seeley calls the period when Anglo-Indian 
life was " braknnnizcd" when " the attempt was made to keep 
India as a kind of inviolate paradise, into which no European, 
and especially no missionary, should be suffered to penetrate- 
came to an end," and " England prepared to pour into India the 
civilization, the Christianity, and the science of the West." t 

"And now," wrote Buchanan, "we are all likely to be dis- 
whatisto graced. Parliament has opened the door, and who is thereto 
follow? g j n p ji rom ^ e Qhu^jh no t one man !" it was too true. 

Southey, m his Quarterly Bevieiv article five years before, had 
taunted the Church, strong Churchman as he was, with the 
remark that " the first step towards winning the Natives to our 
religion was to show that we had one " ; and this remark was just 
as applicable now. But the first two English clergymen for the 
work were at this very time serving curacies ; and in 1815 they 
landed in India, the pioneers of a long succession of able and 
holy men. The first Bishop, too, was duly appointed in accordance 
with the new Act, as we shall see by-and-by. Wilberforce was 
not wrong when he wrote, after his great victory, " I am persuaded 
that we have laid the foundation-stone of the grandest edifice that 
ever was raised in Asia." 

* The Sections of the Bill embodying in an enlarged form the Resolutions 
given above are printed at length in the M.S. Report of 1814, 
f JSxpcmswn of England) p. 310 



A PERIOD OF DEVELOPMENT: 
1818-1834. 



NOTE ON PAET III. 



THIS Part is entitled " A Period of Development." The Society emerges 
from its feeble infancy and moves forward with the vigour of youth. 
Chap. X describes a host of " forward steps " that marked the years 
1812-18. Chap. XL tells the story of the first Provincial Associations 
and Deputations. In Chap. XII. we turn aside to notice other Societies, 
both their work and progress and their relations with the C.M.S. In 
particular we see the very curious circumstances of the revival and 
expansion of the S P.O. in 1818. The next five chapters take us into 
the Mission-field, and we read of the early trials and successes in West 
Africa (XIII.), the deaths of faithful labourers there (XIII , XIV ) ; the 
commencement of work in North and South India (XV.), and in New 
Zealand, Ceylon, &c (XVI); the Society s plans and efforts for the 
revival of the ancient Eastern Churches (XVII.), both in the Turkish 
Empire (as it was then) and in Tiavancore. Chap. XVIII., from the 
standpoint of 1824, the date of Pratt's retirement, surveys the position 
and prospects of the work at home and abroad, and shows how hard 
experience had moderated the sanguine expectations of the early loaders 
of Missions. 





LORD GAMBIER 



REV BASIL WOODD 




REV JOS1AH PRATT 





REV WILLIAM GOODE 



REV T T BIDDULPH 



T T Bitldulph, Incimihent oi 



CHAPTER X. 

FOWARD 




Signs and Causes of Coming Development The PresidentNew Rules 
Salisbury Square Annual Meetings and Sermons Valedictory 
'Meetings Public Affairs . Fall of Napoleon State of the Country 
More Openings for Work Translational Undertakings Samuel 
Lee Offers of Service Special Funds The " Missionary Register," 

" Speak unto Hie children 0} Israel, that they go JorMml " Eiod. xiv. 15. 

50M time to time, in the history of the Church Mis- PAET III, 
sionary Society as indeed of most other enterprises 1812-24. 
there have been epochs marked by very distinct Chay> 10> 
advance, followed perhaps by periods of slower and 
quieter progress Such an epoch we find in the years ^ST* 
1812-1816. Before that time, the Society was but an infant, 
In 1812-13, it seemed to shoot up suddenly into vigorous growth, 
Not, indeed, in respect of what is after all the essential function 
of a missionary society. Only three men were sent out in 1812, 
all German mechanics ; and only one in 1813, an English school- 
master. Not till 1815 did the first three English clergymen, 
Greenwood, Norton, and Jowett, actually sail Nevertheless, 
these years were years of very marked advance in the influence 
of the Society at home, and the interest of the Christian public in 
Missions generally. 

The infant Society had indeed been growing all along, and there 
had been signs of coining development. West Africa was no 
longer the only field of labour, Samuel Marsden had come home 
from Australia on leave, and had induced the Society to plan a 
settlement in New Zealand; and he had gone back to his post 
among the convicts, taking with him two mechanics to send to 
the Maori cannibals. A Corresponding Committee had been 
formed at Calcutta, and grants of money had been voted to it, for 
translational purposes and to employ native readers, Above all, 
Claudius Buchanan had come home from India, and had (as we 
have before seen) been employing his vigorous and resourceful 
mind in planning schemes for the evangelization of that great 
dependency. 

Then came Melville Home's sermon in 1811, which is in- 
disputably the most eloquent and moving of all those preached in 



io8 FORWARD STEPS 

PAST in the earlier years. Taking as a text the inspiring utterance of 
1812-24. st. Paul, " I can do all things through Christ which strengtheneth 

Chap^io. me ^ ^ Denounced i n burning words the backwardness of the 
Church, and appealed for a courageous resolve to do the Lord's 
will "Away," he cried, "with the wretched cant of false 
humility, ' We can do nothing.' " His exhortation was especially 
to the clergy : why were they not pressing into the foreign field 
themselves ? But in one notable passage he addressed wives and 
mothers, and this, as the first appeal of the kind put forth in a 
C M S. sermon, it will be interesting to quote here : 

Appeal to Christian Matrons ' from whose endeared and endearing lips we first 
women. heard O f the wondrous Babe of Bethlehem, and were taught to bend our 
knee to Jesus ye who first taught tliese eagles how to soar, will ye now 
check their flight in the midst of heaven p ' I am weary/ said the ambitious 
Cornelia, ' of being called Scipio's Daughter. Do something, my sons, to 
style me the Mother of the GraccH ' ! And what more laudable ambition 
can inspire you than a desive to be the Mothers of the Missionaries, 
Confessors, and Martyrs of Jesus ? Generations unborn shall call you 
blessed. The Churches of Asia and Africa, when they make grateful 
mention of their founders, will say, ' Blessed be the wombs which bare 
them, and the breasts which they have sucked ! ' Ye Wives, also, learn 
to rejoice at the sound of the battle. Bouse the slumbering courage of 
your soldiers to the field, and think no place so safe, so honoured, as the 
Camp of Jesus Tell the missionary story to your little ones, until their 
young hearts burn, and in the spirit of those innocents who shouted 
Hosanna to their lowly King, they ciy, ' Shall not we also be the Mis- 
sionaries of Jesus Christ * ' '' 

But while the pleading of Marsden and Buchanan for the South 
Seas and India, and the eloquence of Melville Home, gave a 
decided impetus to the Society, the two immediate causes of the 
great steps forward at the epoch we are now to review were the 
agitation for the opening of India to the Gospel and the journeys 
of some of the clerical leaders all over the country to start Branch 
Associations. The India movement began, as we have seen, 
with the holding of a public meeting attended by four hundred 
gentlemen, the largest the Society had yet held , and it at once 
showed the world that a powerful institution was springing up. 
The Deputation movement raised the Society's income m one 
year from 3000 to 13,000. This latter movement will be 
described in a separate chapter. 

The year 1812 witnessed several forward steps in the home 
administration of the Society. Up to this time there had been no 
The first President. Now Admiral Lord Gambier was appointed. He was 
President, Qne Q J ^ mog ^. ^ s ^ m g u i s hed of naval officers at a period 
memorable for brilliant examples of naval skill. In 1807 he com- 
manded the naval squadron to which the Danish fleet (then under 
Buonaparte's control) surrendered, and, in 1809, the Channel fleet 
which defeated and partially destroyed the French ships opposed to 
it ; for the first of which services he received a peerage, and for the 
second the thanks of both Houses of Parliament) When Thomas 



109 

Scott was at the Lock Chapel, the Admiral was one of his flock ; PART III 
and he was a Governor and hearty friend of the new Society from 1812-24. 
the very first As the Society's work and responsibilities grew, it kapj.0, 
was necessarily brought much into contact with the Government, 
indeed much more than it is now, when the liberty of individuals, 
or of companies or societies, to engage in enterprises of all sorts 
all over the world, is so much greater than it was then ; and in 
the absence of recognition by the bishops, the Society had to look 
to laymen of position to represent it. At the Anniversary of 1812, 
therefore, not only was a President appointed in the person of 
Lord Gambler, but sixteen Vioe-Presidents also, including four And Vice- 
peers and eight members of paihament Among these were Lord presidents - 
Teignmouth, formerly (as Sir John Shore) Governor-General of 
India, and now President of the Bible Society; Sir Thomas 
Baring, father of Bishop Baring, and of Loid Northbrook; 
Thomas Babington,* the intimate friend of Wilberforce, after 
whom Zachary Macaulay named the son who was by-and-by to 
become so famous ; and Nicholas Vansittart, who became, only 
three weeks later, Chancellor of the Exchequer, succeeding Mr. 
Perceval, who was shot dead in the lobby of the House of 
Commons on May 9th. Perceval himself, who was Premier as 
well as Chancellor, and a man of high character and (in a sense 
uncommon in those days) irreproachable life, had himself shown 
courtesy and kindness to the Society more than once. So did 
Lord Liverpool, who succeeded him as Premier ; and so did Earl 
Bathurst, who at the same time became Secretary for the Colonies. 
Vansittart, while , Chancellor of the Exchequer, and afterwards as 
Lord Bexley, spoke at the Annual Meetings. Without the favour The need 
of the Ministers, many of the Society's early enterprises would forthem - 
not have been possible. Missionaries frequently had passages 
granted them in Government ships; and those proceeding to 
Colonies, like Sierra Leone, or Ceylon, or New South Wales, had 
to take letters of commendation from the Colonial Office in 
London Those for India had of course to get leave from the 
East India Company. A President, therefore, had important 
functions in those days , and Lord Gambler, who held the office 
twenty years, proved far more than a figure-head. He took an 
active part, not only in high official negotiations, but in the 
ordinary labours of the Committee It is almost needless to add 
that in this respect he has boon imitated by his two successors, 
the Earl of Chichester and Sir John Kennaway. 

In the same year, 1812, the Society's Laws were revised. 
most important alteration was in the constitution of the Corn- t 
mittee. Hitherto it had consisted of clergymen and laymen in 
equal numbers. Now the twenty-four elected members were all 
to be laymen ; but all subscribing clergymen were to be members 

* Father of Car on John Babingtou, und uncle of C. C. Babington, Professor 
of Botany at Cambridge. 



no FORWARD STEPS 

PART III likewise ;: This was the constitution previously invented by 
1812-24 p ra tt for the Bible Society, \ and it was now adopted for the 
Ch !L. 10 ' Church Missionary Society. One cannot but admire the courage 
and faith of the Society in adopting such a constitution. The new 
law practically put it at the mercy of whatever party m the Church 
might choose to take advantage of the position to secure a majority. 
From that day to this there has been nothing whatever in the 
laws of the Society to prevent its principles and methods of action 
being entirely changed. Membership in the Church of England 
is the sole qualification for the governing body. It is needless to 
say that those Churchmen who are not m accord with the distinc- 
tive Evangelical principles, doctrinal and ecclesiastical, which 
have ever guided the Society, have always been a majority among 
the clergy. Why have they never exerted the power the laws 
give them, qualified themselves for the Committee by a half-guinea 
subscription, and come and out-voted the old members ? John 
Henry Newman, who was at one time an active member of the 
Oxford Church MissionaiyAssociation, did think of planning such 
a coup.\ We have no ground for blaming him : he was as much 
a member as any one else, and had a perfect right to get the views 
he honestly held adopted if he could. But a Society has traditions 
as well as laws ; and although the Church Missionary Society's 
laws say nothing whatever about Evangelical doctrines or 
principles or methods, every one knows that these are m fact, and 
have been from the first, the life of the Society , and it is greatly 
to the credit of the cleigy generally that they have always, with 
the honourable fairness of English gentlemen t recognized its 
traditions, and, while not always approving of its proceedings, 
have abstained from interfering with them. Still more con-" 
spicuously generous is the conduct of those bishops who, though 
not in accord with the Society's traditions, are willing to be 
identified with it by membership and by the acceptance of the 
office of Vice-President. But the day for episcopal recognition of 
this kind had not come at the time we are now leviewmg. In 
1815, however, Bishop Bathurst of Norwich and Bishop Eyder of 
Gloucester, the first on the Bench to do so, gave their names to 
the Society as Vice-Presidents. 

The Com- To revert to the amended laws of 1812. Two Committees sub- 

mittees ' ordinate to the General Committee already existed, viz. (1) of 

Correspondence, to receive and tram missionary candidates, and 

to administer the Society's foreign work, and (2) of Accounts, 

* At the General Meeting in May, it was only provided that clerical 
members of the Society might attend the Committee, but as this proved a 
privilege which they did HOD appreciate, another General Meeting was held 
in December, and the law was altered to make them fall voting members. 

f See p. 152. 

| So Henry Venn says. See Chapter XXXVI 

Three years later, the Committee of Coriespondence wns divided into 
four sections, viz , (1) Africa, (2) India and Ceyion, (8) New Zealand, (4) 



FORWARD STEPS m 

the name of which sufficiently explains its functions Two others PART III. 
were now added, viz , (3) of Patronage, to nominate Vice-Presi- 1812-24 
dents and otherwise obtain the support of influential persons, and Chap 10 - 
(4) of Funds, to circulate missionary information and devise 
measures for obtaining contributions. One more new law may.be 
mentioned. The Committee were empowered to appoint persons 
who had " rendered essential service to the Society" to be 
Honorary Governors or Members for Life. Acting on this law, Hon Life 
they soon opened the list of Hon. Life Governors by placing on Governors 
it four names, viz., Thomas Scott, Claudius Buchanan, Basil 
Woodd, and the Rev, J Jaenicke of the Berlin Seminary ; ' : and 
two years later they added the names of Goode, Burn, Biddulph, 
and Daniel Wilson, of the home clergy ; Samuel Marsden, the 
Australian chaplain; and Coirie, Thomason, and Thompson, 
Indian chaplains. \ 

The year 1812 also saw a small foreshadowing of the future The first 
Church Missionary House Up to this time the Committee meet- offices< 
ings had been held, as befoie mentioned, m Mr. Goode's Rectory; 
and the "office" was in Piatt's house in Doughty Street. In 
January, 1812, a room for Committee meetings was hired at Mr. 
Seeley's bookselling shop at 169, Fleet Street,} but Pratt con- 
tinued to do his own official work at home. In the following year 
it became necessary to provide a regular office, and No. 14, Salis- 
bury Square was rented, the Committee meeting there for the first 
time on December 13th, 1813. Subsequently it became the 
residence of an Assistant Secretary, with quarters for missionary 
candidates , office, college, and Secretary's house being thus under 
one roof. The hours were nine to seven, for Secretary, Assistant 
Secretary, and clerks. In 1820, a house in Barnsbury Park was 
taken for the Assistant Secretary and students; and No. 14, 
Salisbury Square became an office only. 

Mediterranean and Home Thus the "Group" system of recent years was 
anticipated. So also was the modem " pt dcis " system The despatches were 
to be "abstracted and indexed" for the use of tho Committee. 

* Jolm Yenn was on his death -bed at the time, or doubtless his name would 
have been added. He died July 1st, 1S13 

_t This List has grown in subsequent years, until, in 1882, it was arranged 
to limit it to one hundred names; and now, )ear by year, much interest is 
taken in the selection of names to fill up' vacancies The authority to 
appoint Hon. Life Members was not made uso of until 1888, when it was 
availed of to find a place for ladies. 

| Messrs. Seeley afterwards moved to the other side of Fleet Street. 
J7o. 169 became the office of the Jtecmd newspaper, and for some years 
its upper floors were occupied by the Church of England Sunday School 
Institute. 

Many readers will remember that by the side of the M House as it 
was in 1883 there was a small, old-fashioned Scotch hotel That hotel was 
No 14, which had been occupied by the Society from 1813 to 1862. In 1862 
it was given up for the large new House erected hard by. In 1883 it was 
purchased, pulled down, and a new wing to the existing House built on the site 
The east end of the present large Committee-room, therefore, is the identical 
spot where the Committee met for the first time in 1813. 



H2 FORWARD 

PART III That resident Assistant Secretary was Edward Bickersteth. 

1812-24. He did not come into the Society's service until 1815, and we 
if- 10 ' sna ^ mee ^ ki m m an ^ er chapter, before that time, at Norwich ; 

Edward but this seems a convenient place to introduce him, as his appoint- 

steth er ~ men * was asg uredly ne f ^ ne s ^ e P s forward which we are now 
tracing out. At this time he was a solicitor at Norwich, in 
partnership with his wife's brother, Mr. T. Bignold ; He had 
been educated for his profession in London, and while there 
had taken some interest in Missions. He had heard Claudius 
Buchanan's Annual Sermon, and read Buchanan's writings, 
which had opened, he writes, " a new scene of the vast impor- 
tance of studying m every way to promote the Gospel of Christ " 
"By the grace of God," he adds, " I will bend my soul more and 
more to this gloiious end. I may do much more by self-denial. 
My Saviour died for me, and shall I not abstain from luxuries for 
His Gospel?" Thus began a career which afterwards gave the 
Church Missionary Society a Secretary, and in later years gave a 
bishop to Exeter in his son, a bishop to Japan in his grandson, 
and at least five missionaries to India and Africa in a daughter, a 
grand-daughter, and three grandsons.* 

To resume. The Anniversaries were now becoming much 
more important and interesting. St. Anne's Church was crowded 
at the Sermons. Even in 1810, Buchanan estimated that two 
thousand persons were present. In 1812, the preacher was Mr. 
Goode, the Eector, himself ; and in 1813, the Eev. W. Dealtry, 
Fellow of Trinity, Cambridge, and also F E.S. He was mathe- 
matical professor at the East India Company's College, and just 
then was at Clapham, serving the parish church for John Venn. 
Venn died in the same year, and Dealtry succeeded him as Eector. 
In 1814, the first dignitary of the Church to preach for the 
Society occupied the pulpit, This was the Hon. and Eev. Henry 
Dudley Eyder, Dean of Wells, who in the following year became 
Bishop of Gloucester, the first decided Evangelical raised to the 
Episcopal Bench, Dean Eyder's sermon will come before us 
again presently. Then in 1815, the Eev E. T. Yaughan of 
Leicester (father of Dean C J Yaughan) was the preacher. 
He was one of the ablest of the Evangelical clergy, and his work 
for the missionary cause at Leicester became a pattern to be 
pointed to for imitation; but he subsequently adopted strange 
views. In 1816, a second representative of India was selected, 
another of the godly chaplains whom Simeon had sent out, 
and whose names should be had in everlasting remembrance 
Daniel Corrie. His text, Isa. xliv. 20, was suggested by 
his personal experiences of Indian religion " He feedeth on 
ashes : a deceived heart hath turned him aside, that he cannot 
deliver his soul, nor say, Is there not a lie in my right hand ? " 

* Mrs. E Durranfc, Miss E. B. Dnrrant, Eev. H. B. Durrant, Dr. Albert E, 
Cook, Dr. J. H. Cook. 



FORWARD STEPS 113 

Very moving is his account of the misery and hopelessness of the PART III 
Hindu. This, let it be remembered, was at a time when suttee, 1812-24 
child-murder, and other crimes were rife, which have since been Gha13 10 
abolished by law 

Gome's was the last Sermon preached at St Anne's, Blackfriars. 
In 1817, Daniel Wilson began the long series of Sermons at First Ser- 
St. Bride's, Fleet Street : He was at that time Minister of stBnde's. 
St. John's Chapel, Bedford Bow, having succeeded Cecil in 1809. 
He was an active member of the Committee, both m its delibera- 
tions in London, and m preaching and speaking over the country ; 
and he continued so after he became Vicar of Islington m 1824, 
and until his appointment to the Bishopric of Calcutta in 1832. 
His St Bride's sermon, on the words, " Lift up your eyes, and look 
on the fields," is remarkable for its compiehensive survey of the 
world, and of the Missions actually carried on. Other preachers 
had enunciated principles, he sets forth facts. And the appeal Appeal to 
to "the younger clergy" at the end is something quite new* Sergy er 
" Listen to the call ' Think, and think again, on the question. 
Do not mistake cowardice and indolence for humility " To which 
succeeds a passage which could only with partial truth be spoken 
even now; and then it was an ideal representation of the fact 
indeed . " Say not that your parents and friends discountenance 
your design. You mistake their meaning. They intend only to 
try your constancy. ... All the Church accounts those families 
blessed who give a son to this cause." When this ideal repre- 
sentation is realized, the Evangelization of the World will not be 
very far off ! 

The Anniversary Meetings at this time changed their character ; j^"* 1 s 
and the change marks another forward step. In 1813, for the mee mgs ' 
first time, ladies attended ; and instead of a formal gathering of a 
hundred gentlemen to do necessary business, six hundred members 
crowded the large room in the New London Tavern. For the 
first tune, a President presided. For the first time, important 
speeches were made, by Wilberforce, Simeon, Dean Eyder, and 
others. But it was not an Anniversary Meeting that was to 
engage for the first time what was then the regular place for great 
London gatherings, Freemasons' Hall. It was a Valedictory And vale* 
Dismissal that took the Society to that historic building. This dlctory< 
was on January 7th, 1814, and the occasion was a great event 
indeed. The first four missionaries for India were taken leave of, 
Bhenius, Schnarre", Greenwood, and Norton ; and these last two 
were the first clergymen of the Church of England to go to Asia 
definitely as missionaries | The other two, like the S P.O. TV. 
men, and like the C.M S. men in Africa, were in Lutheran orders. 
Lord Gambier presided ; Wilberforcc and Henry Thornton spoke, 

* St Bride's has been used OVPV sine?, oxccpt m 1823, 1831, 1832, arid 
1833, IE which years respectively four othor City churches received the 
Society 

f With one exception not uinallv reckoned See p C3. 

VOL I, ' J 



H4 FORWARD STEPS 

III. and also a young Fellow of St John's, Cambridge, who was to be 
1812-2-i a power in after years, John W Cunningham of Harrow Pratt 
OhapjLO Delivered the Instructions, and a masterly address, written by 
Buchanan, was read for him (he being ill) by Dealtry, Some 
fifteen hundred people attended , and for the first time tickets of 
various colours were used, and members of the Committee acted as 
stewards. Gieenwood and Norton did not sail for more than a 
year after; but Ehemus and Schnarre* proceeded at once to 
Portsmouth to join an East Indiaman, a passage by which had 
been granted by the Company. Portsmouth friends had before 
been privileged to see the last of missionaries ; and this time an 
enthusiastic lady there wrote to Pratt, 

" They brought the apostolic age forcibly before me, and I thought of 
Barnabas and Paul, and could not help saymg to myself, Surely the 
barbarous people will call dear Mr. Rhenius ' Mercurms,' Dear Sir, 
what highly-privileged days are these ! 

All the promises do travail 

With a glorious day of grace." 

Crowds The Committee did not venture to engage Freemasons' Hall for 
attending. ^ nex j. Anniversary ; but in 1815 they did so, and were rewarded 
by an attendance as crowded as at the Dismissal. Wilberforce 
in particular, wrote Pratt, "carried away with him, even more 
than usual, the hearts of his hearers by a full stream of Christian 
feeling and sublime piety"; and James Stephen, "in a style of 
grand and vehement eloquence, made an indelible impression." 
The numbers of friends desiring to attend the annual gatherings 
now increased year by year ; and in 1817 tickets were issued to 
members only. As, however, nearly two thousand were at once 
applied for, some hundreds failed to get into the hall ; and Pratt 
expresses, in some comments he wrote at the time, the wish that 
a building might be erected to hold 3000 people, and so constructed 
that all should hear with ease. Exeter Hall was then yet in 
the future. Not till 1831 was it ready for the Anniversaries, 
Another difficulty that was growing was the length of the Beport 
to be read , and in 1819 it was arranged to read an Abstract only. 
But even the Abstract " occupied nearly two hours", and twelve 
speeches followed. And n must be remembered that the Meeting 
at this time did not begin till noon, the Sermon having been 
preached the same morning at 10 am. The Monday Evening 
Service did not begin till 1821. It is true that there was no 
meeting on the Tuesday evening ; yet still it must have been a 
fresh and living interest that brought crowds to gatherings of such 
length. There were no missionaries to tell thrilling stories of 
converts There were almost no converts to tell about. No one 
asked, What are the results? They met to do the will and the 
work of the Lord they loved ; and they rejoiced to do it 
?eedi p ns ^ e ^ ner development in the Meetings of this period is worth 
noting. In the early years, all the Besolutions, except the one 



FORWARD STEPS 115 

which adopted the Report, were votes of thanks to all sorts of PART III. 
people, patrons and committee-men, treasurers and secretaries, 1812-24. 
preachers and speakers ; and the natural result was that the Cha P 10 - 
speeches tended to flow into the channel of mutual admiration. 
The plan of carefully framing the Resolutions to refer to the 
events and circumstances of the year seems to have been invented 
by Yaughan of Leicester, and it was at once highly praised by 
Pratt, and recommended for general adoption. "The usual 
motions of thanks," he says, ''might be consolidated, in order to 
give time for Resolutions declaratory of the mind of the Meeting 
on the real business of the Society." Some later remarks of his, 
suggested by the various May Anniversaries of 1817, are worth 
quoting, and worth digesting : 

" A very improved spirit has prevailed. There has been less mingling 
of human infirmity with the work of God' less of mutual praise a more 
devout and heavenly spirit more unfeigned affection toward other 
Christians in their exertions and a more single eye to the glory of God 
We urge it on all our Christian brethren to invoke the outpouring of a 
gracious influence on the minds of preachers, speakers, and hearers, that 
a pure fire may be kindled and cherished, which shall diffuse itself on all 
sides, and warm every heart ; and we advise such a modification of the 
Resolutions as may rather lead the speakers and the audience into an 
intelligent view of the various objects and measures of the Societies, 
than to search out and listen to some ingenious form of paying com- 
pliments one to another " * 

Other Valedictory Meetings were held from time to time ; and 
one of them calls for special notice. On October 28th, 1817, no 
less than eight ordained Englishmen were taken leave of, with 
two Lutheran clergymen and six wives, sixteen in all, going to Sou 
four different parts of the world, viz., Collier \ and Decker to ^ ken leave 
Africa, Connor to the Levant, Joseph Fenn, Henry Baker, and 
Barenbruek, to India ; Knight, Lambrick, Mayor, and Ward, to 
Ceylon. This was another great occasion. There was a service 
at St. Bride's, at which J. W. Cunningham preached, on the 
singularly suitable words, " Though I am sometime afraid, yet put 
I my trust in Thee" (P.B.V. of Ps, Ivi. 3). Freemasons' Hall 
was crowded for the Meeting, over which Lord Gambier presided. 
Pratt read the Instructions again admirable; and then four 
missionaries (Collier, Connor, Fenn, Lambrick), representing the 
four fields, replied in behalf of themselves and their brethren, 
a plan rarely followed in after years, until, quite recently, the large 
numbers going out have necessitated its revival. The Address 
was given by Charles Simeon. \ The collection was 111, and 
two 50 donations were sent in afterwards as thankofferings for 
such a sight. One clergyman wrote, alluding to the death of the 
Princess Charlotte, which had just plunged the whole country into 
grief, " At this moment of national sorrow, and perhaps of 

* Missionary Register, 1817, p. 197. 

t Mr. Collier went as chaplain to Sierra Leone. See p. 163. 

| Printed, with the Instructions, in. the Report of 1818, 

i 2 



ii6 FORWARD STEPS 

PAST III. national chastisement, may Institutions like these be our safeguard 
1812-24. and defence!" 

.!L- ^ ne reat European events at this period could not fail to affect 
Events m the feelings and utterances of the Society's advocates. Englishmen 
Europe: were ca u e( ^ upon to show their gratitude to the God of battles and 
throw of of nations by spreading His Gospel. Napoleon's Grand Army 
Napoleon k a p^g^e^ on the frozen plains of Eussia in 1812, and in the 
autumn of 1813, when the first CMS. deputations were travelling 
over England, the Allied forces on the Continent were pressing the 
great usurper back on to the French fiontier, while Wellington 
was clearing Spam of the invaders and driving them back across 
the Pyrenees. " Surely," writes a Huddersfield clergyman in 
a paper circulated after Basil Woodd's visit, " the wonderful 
interposition of Divine Providence in behalf of our nation at this 
awful crisis will excite the members of the Established Church 
to exert themselves in promoting the increase of the Kedeemer's 
Kingdom." A Liverpool clergyman writes, " "What glorious 
intelligence 1 How thankful we should be to the Great Arbiter 
of nations for His ' mighty hand and stretched-out arm ' in 
breaking the yoke of the oppressor 1 May it stimulate us to 
renewed "efforts ' " A hymn composed at the time, and sung at 
the first Bristol Anniversary in the following year, contains this 
verse : 

Amidst our isle, exalted high, 

Do Thou our glory stand ; 

And like a wall of guardian fire 

Surround Thy fav'rifce laud 

That the "isle exalted high" might prove worthy of being the 
Divine " favourite" was one aim of the missionary advocates. 
The Annual Report presented in May, 1814, just after the banish- 
ment of Napoleon to Elba, opens by calling attention to the " new 
and extraordinary circumstances " of the country : 

" After two-aiicl-twenty years of "bitter animosity, or of treacherous 
peace more injurious than open war, the good providence of Him Who 
doeth after the counsel of His own will has'brought within our reach that 
state of repose for which we often and earnestly prayed, but under 
mournful forebodings that it was removed to a distance incalculable. A 
generation has grown up under the din of arms. The youth and early 
manhood of our children have been familiarised with tales of infamy and 
of blood. The whole frame of human society in this more civilized part of 
the world has been disorganized. One of the most powerful and refined 
of nations was making rapid and systematic strides toward a state of 
barbarism, All the vanecl occupations which form the peculiar character 
of civilized life were likely soon to be absorbed in those of the cultivator 
and the soldier of the man who should till the ground in order to feed 
another who might disturb and oppress the world. But the good 
providence of God has rescued Europe from this enormous evil, and, by 
means which so distinctly mark His irresistible hand, that even the 
thoughtless are compelled to exclaim, ' Verily there is a God that judgeth 
the earth. 1 '" 

Dean Dudley Eyder, the preacher on that same day, must have 



FORWARD SPEPS 117 

startled the congregation when he gave out his text, and no doubt PART III. 
stirred their deepest emotions too " Thou hftest me up above 1812-2-i. 
those that rise up against me : Thou hast delivered me from the Gha P 10. 
violent man ('man of violence/ inarg) Therefore will I give The u man 
thanks unto Thee, Lord, among the Heathen, and sing praises Jf^",, 
unto Thy name." " Behold," said the Dean, " our deliverance, 
even from the Man of Violence Behold our Deliverer, even 
the Mighty Jehovah. And behold in the Society for which 
I plead the -humble instrument of accomplishing our purpose of 
gratitude." 

It is difficult for us to realize the intensity of hatred and indig- 
nation with which England regarded Buonaparte. Two facts 
incidentally but significantly recorded in the Society's publica- 
tions at the time may illustrate what cause there was for it. 

(1) Before his invasion of Eussia, he told the Eussian Ambassador 
that he would destroy that empire. "Man proposes/' was the 
reply, "but God disposes." "Tell your master/' thundered 
Napoleon, " I am he that proposes, and I am he that disposes." 

(2) He did invade Eussia ; he returned, leaving the bulk of his 
vast army dead upon its frozen plains ; and the official returns 
of the Eussian authorities showed that they had had to biun 
213,516 French corpses and 95,816 dead hoses. It was to 
Englishmen horrified by such impiety and such shocking results 
of unbridled ambition, that the good Dean appealed in his 
memorable Sermon. 

In the following year, 1815, when Napoleon, having escaped 
from Elba, again threatened Europe, the Committee opened their 
Eeport by adverting, with deep regret, to the disappointment 
of these anticipations. " The portentous gloom which seemed 
scattered by the Divine Hand is again gathering round. The 
threatening clouds are again darkening the heavens, and a dread 
night of horrors seems fast coming upon this fair portion of our 
world." Within seven weeks of these words being read, the Peace at 
"mighty Hand and outstretched Arm" once more intervened, last 
and the crowning victory of Waterloo ushered in the thirty years' 
peace. The unhappy two years' war with the United States had 
already come to an end, and Vaughan of Leicester, in the Sermon 
of 1815, had exclaimed, " May Britain and America, now re-united, 
know no other rivalry than the rivalry of efforts to bless the 
world ! " 

But the internal state of the country was by no means c 
favourable to appeals for Christian enterprises, The increase c 
of wealth during the war had, indeed, been enormous, England 
had for a time possessed the colonies of France, Spain, and 
Holland; "manufactures profited by the great discoveries of 
Watt and Arkwnght ; and the consumption of raw cotton in the 
mills of Lancashire rose from fifty to a hundred millions of 
pounds." At the same time, agriculture was in a state of 
"feverish and unhealthy prosperity/' the price of wheat rising 



Ii8 FORWARD 

PART III. to 5 per quarter. But the new wealth was not evenly dis- 
^12-24 tributed : both the introduction of machinery and the high prices 
ap ' f produce, while enriching the few, reduced multitudes to rum ; 
and the rapid increase of population increased the difficulty of 
the position, while the distress was enhanced by the pressure of 
the now enormous national debt, exceeding 800 millions sterling, 
and of the immense yearly expenditure, the budget of 1815 
being for ninety millions, a figure only again reached within 
quite recent years, when the population has doubled, and the 
wealth of the country increased almost beyond calculation. 
Pauperism was rife to an extent inconceivable m these days : for 
instance, at one time, every third person in Birmingham was a 
pauper , and the poor-rate rose fifty per cent. Eiots broke out, 
which were only suppressed by military force; "and with the 
increase of poverty followed its inevitable result, the increase of 
crime." * It was in the midst of a social condition like this that 
the small fraction of the nation that could look beyond material 
interests and care for the Eternal Lord and His Kingdom was 
being summoned to a holy war in His name. 

Nevertheless, the proclamation of peace had filled all hearts 
New hopes with joy ; and the Committee fully believed that a wide extension 
and plans. O f the Society's operations would be the result Dean Eyder 
expressed their feelings in the Sermon already lef erred to : 

"All the signs and circumstances of the times concur with the 
stupendous event of our deliverance to press tins great duty, the object 
of the Society, upon your minds. The weapons of our warfare seem to 
have been preparing by gradual and almost silent operation, till the 
moment is at last armed, and the feeling and principle communicated, 
by which these weapons should be wielded for the conversion of the 
world, the fulfilment of the primary design of creation, the consumma- 
tion of redeeming love." 

And five years after this, hi the Eeport of 1819, the Committee 
were still full of the same thoughts. " We are labouring," they 
said, "ma Pacified World 1 The sword is beaten into the 
ploughshare and the spear into the pruning-hook." 

]?or some time, the eyes of the Committee had been directed to 
the East, where the Oriental Churches still kept the lamp of 
Christianity burning albeit feebly and dimly amid the darkness 
and tyranny of Islam ; and now that the Mediterranean was no 
longer continually traversed by hostile fleets, the way was open 
for a Mission to the Levant. Of that enterprise a future chapter 
will tell. Here it need only be noticed that William Jowett, 
Mow of St John's, Cambridge, and Twelfth Wrangler in 1812, 
sailed for Malta with a special commission from the Society about 
two months after the Battle of Waterloo Eussian Tartary, and 
Persia, were also pressed upon the attention of the Committee, 

* Paitly from Gieen's Short History of the English People, chap, x., sect, 4. 



FORWARD STEPS 119 

and Astrachan, on the Caspian, seriously considered as an inviting PART III. 
city for a central station , but the Edinburgh Society was already 1812-24. 
in occupation of it. Ceylon was much upon their mind, and an p 
active correspondence had been going on with the excellent 
Chief Justice, Sir Alexander Johnston, who presently, on his 
return to England, became a Vice-President of the Society. The 
two English clergymen who, as before stated, were the first 
missionaries of the Society, and of the Church of England, to 
India, were originally designated to Ceylon. With the West 
Indies, also, the Committee were in correspondence, Mr. W. 
Dawes, the former Governor of Sierra Leone, who had for a few 
months undertaken the training, at his house in Buckingham- 
shire, of the early German missionaries, being now resident at 
Antigua; and a call also came from Honduras, in Central 
America; while, all this time, Africa and India occupied the 
largest share of attention, and the openings m distant New 
Zealand gave promise of a rich harvest of souls. 

Literary and translational work also occupied much time and Literary 
thought at this period, and a prominent place in the Annual work 
Eeports. The Bible Society was for the most part engaged in 
printing and circulating the Scriptuies in English and in the 
Continental languages ; while a considerable part of the similar 
work, and still more, the preparation of tracts, &c,, and the 
translation of the Prayer-book, in Asiatic and African tongues, 
was undertaken by the Church Missionary Society. There were 
in hand the Old and New Testaments in Syriac, portions of 
Scripture in Malay, and some of the Gospels in two West African 
languages, Susoo and Bullorn ; also parts of the Prayer-book in 
Arabic, Persian, Hindustani, and Bullom ; and various tracts, 
catechisms, &c., in some of these languages. Modern Greek, and 
Maltese, and even Italian publications were taken in hand, in 
connexion with the Society's plans for the Levant ; and a newly- 
discovered MS. of the Scriptures in Ethiopic, the ecclesiastical 
language of the Abyssinian Church, was edited and printed. In 
particular, the Committee were very keen upon completing the 
important works in Hindustani and Persian left unfinished by specially 
Henry Martyn. They actually had a new fount of type made to foy persi *- 
reproduce the Persian character more exactly, paid for it out of 
C.M.S. funds, and placed it at the disposal of the Bible Society. 
Special mention is made of one work accomplished, not by 
the Society, but m Russia, viz., the printing of Henry Martyn's 
Persian New Testament, which had been received by the Persian 
Mohammedans with eagerness, and even by the Shah himself. 
Thus, said the seventeenth Keport, " the dear Martyn, though dead, 
was still preaching the Gospel to that numerous people." He 
himself, indeed, was not forgotten in Persia. The testimony of 
English travellers is from time to time adduced in the Society's 
publications. One, Captain Gordon, is cited as saying, "You 
little think how generally the English Moollah, Martyn, is 



120 FORWARD STEPS 

PART III. known throughout Persia, and with what affection his memory is 
1812-24 cherished. 1 '* 



^ 

Samuel remarkable young man, Samuel Lee. He was a carpenter's 
Lee - apprentice at Shrewsbury, who, while working at his trade, had 
acquired a knowledge of Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Synac, Arabic, 
Persian, and Hindustani, before he was twenty-five years of age. 
He carae under the notice of Buchanan, who introduced him to 
Pratt , and the Committee arranged for him to go to Cambridge 
at the Society's expense.! There he quickly made his mark as a 
scholar, and for some years he was employed by the C.M S Com- 
mittee, and called "the Society's Orientalist." His name, and 
the works upon which he was engaged, frequently occur in the 
Reports of this period He afterwards became Professor of 
Arabic and Canon of Bristol. 

Help to Another task undertaken by the Society after the Peace was 
nentaii the rousing of the Protestant Churches of the Continent to take a 
Christians. s ] 2are m misslonai y wor t i n the Eeport of 1816 the Committee 
say. 

"The return of Universal Peace opening the friendly intercourse 
which all true Christians in the world will ever desire to maintain, the 
Committee have availed themselves of the opportunity to diffuse in- 
formation on the subject of Missions, and to offer to foreign Protestants 
every practicable degree' of co-operation . . . They have opened an 
intercourse with a Missionary Institution established at Basle, and they 
will render every aid in their power to any other Societies which may 
rise among the Foreign Churches, The return of Peace has brought 
many Colonies again under the powei of the Continental States ; and 
your Committee trust that the Christians of those States will unite and 
exert themselves in diffusing, in and aiound these Colonies, the blessings 
of the Gospel. The Missions of the Danes in India have long lan- 
guished for aid. The Kingdom of the Netherlands has an extensive 
Held for exertion m the Eastern Archipelago; and the vast countnes 
of Northern Asia are opening themselves before the other States of tho 
Continent." 

Among instances of practical help given in accordance with these 
designs, may be mentioned the temporary carrying on of the 
Danish Mission schools at Tranquebar in South India, and a grant 
of 100 to the new Basle Seminary, which had been founded by 
some Christians in that city as a thankoffering for its preservation 
from threatened disaster and rum in the last year of the Great 
War.J It is also a striking and little-known fact that the 

* Missionary Register, January, 1821, p 36. 

t It is a curious fact that one of the first uses to which the newly-hired 
house in Salisbury Square was put was to receive Lee's family while lie was 
at Cambridge, " as the most economical means of providing for them." 

J The contending armies were on opposite sides of the town Bombs were 
thrown into it. Suddenly (said Mr Blumhardt, the Director, at a CMS 
meeting at Cambridge in 1822), " the Lord of the elements sent a very strong 
east wind, and the bombs were exhausted m the air before they could reach 
our homes."~lfis$i<ma7 \j Register, June* 1822 



FORWARD STEPS 121 

Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society of the Protestant Epis- PAET III. 
copal Church of America owes its origin to suggestions made by 1812-24. 
Pratt to some of the bishops of that Church, as will be seen Ohap ' 
hereafter. 

In fact, in the Seventeenth Year, as Dr. Hears observes,* " the 
wide reach of the Society, nerved, as it were, by the strength and 
energy of youth, seemed suddenly to embrace the whole world. Enlarged 
The Society saw before it the prospect, not only of bringing plans * 
civilization to West Africa and New Zealand, of diffusing education 
throughout India and Ceylon, and of aiding evangelization in all 
these countries and in the Mohammedan world, not only of 
awakening missionary interest among Churchmen in America, 
and of reviving evangelistic zeal among the Protestants of Europe ; 
but also of assisting in the recovery from their long sleep of the 
ancient Syrian and Greek Churches " Well might the Committee 
exclaim, " Who is sufficient for these things? " And well might 
they ' ' affectionately urge the duty of intercession on all the 
members of the Society," informing them that they themselves 
were now meeting eveiy Saturday evening to " invoke the blessing 
of God on all their plans and proceedings " 

And in the Report of 1818, they survey the position in striking 
language . 

"In the adoption of these Missions, the Committee woie led by 
degrees, as the Providence of God opened opportunities befoio them. 
No Society could have at once planned such a series and system of 
Missions ; and it is no small satisfaction to your Committee to review, 
in this respect, the steps of the Society, and to see how God has 
graciously led it forward, as by the hand, and fixed it in positions most 
favourably situated for influence on the Mohammedan and Heathen 
World 

" On the review of these Missions it will be seen that the Society has 
to deal with man in almost every stage of civilization ; from the noble 
but uncultivated New Zealancler, upward through the more civilized 
African, and the still more refined Hindoo, to the acute and half- 
enlightened Mohammedan, and the different gradations in which 
Christianity is enjoyed by the Abyssinian, the Syrian, and the Greek 
Churches. 

" These varied shades of light and civilization require all the varied 
means and instruments which the Society is now calling into action ; 
from the blacksmith, the ropo-maker, the boat-builder, and the farmer, ' 
who meet the first necessities of the New Zoalaiuler, up through the 
schoolmaster who follows his fugitive children into the woods, and the 
reader who collects the more lettered Hindoos around him in the bazaar, 
to the catechist who instils principles into inquiring minds, and the 
missionary who preaches the glad tidings of salvation. All are needed ; 
and all are occupying an important post in that great work, which it 
pleases God to assign to our various Institutions." 

And these various projects were not fruitless. Dr. Hears 

* Dr. Hears, who was for a time a C M S missionary, was engaged to 
prepare a portion of this History ; but ill-hoalth put a stop to his work. The 
passage above is extracted from his MS. 



22 FORWARD STEPS 

PAST III. thus Happily summarizes the encouragements of the Society's 

Seventeent31 y ear > endin S A P ril > 1817 : ~- 

" The seventeenth year saw in Africa the first* grand result of direct 
Evangelization by its own European agents; in India and in New 
Zealand, its first successes from a combination of Medical Work with 
preaching ; m the former country, the first employment for Educational 
purposes of native teachers trained by the Society ; in the latter Islands, 
the first material result of Technical Education ; in Europe, the p st 
practical effects from the Society's endeavours to awaken missionary 
interest in the Continental Protestant Churches ; in the Mediterranean, 
the fit st advantages accruing from the appointment of a Literary Repre- 
sentatne; in America, the first fruits of the suggestion of co-operation 
made by the Committee to the Episcopal Church of the United States ; 
while it witnessed, for the Syrian, the Hindu, the Malay, and the African, 
the fi) st versions of the Holy Scriptures committed to them in modern 
times at the hands of the first Missionary Translators of the Society," 

candidates Offers of service, too, were now becoming numerous ; and the 
increasing. omm ft|j ee were beginning to find the necessity of exercising that 
caution in receiving them which has often exposed the Society to 
the censures of unthinking people, but which has again and again 
been so abundantly justified. In 1816, the Committee in their 
Eeport said, " Not a few offers have been of such a nature, that 
they cannot but earnestly advise all who think of proposing 
themselves for this arduous work, well to count the cost, and 
to view impartially their own situation and character, and the 
Committee are the more urgent on this head, as their reasonable 
expectations and hopes have not been without disappointment, 
from caprice, self-will, or worldly -mmdedness, after considerable 
expense had been incurred." And in the following year, in which 
no less than fifty offers had to be reported, they mentioned that 
" the general want of employment," owing to the distressing 
condition of the country, had compelled them to " scrutinize with 
peculiar care into the motives which led to these numerous offers." 
And it is evident that an experience familiar enough in later days 
led them to add these significant words : 

" It will be obvious to all considerate persons that the Secretaries and 
Committee of the Society have more' ample means of appreciating the 
qualifications of candidates than can be enjoyed by others. The friends 
of any person who offers himself as a Candidate for this work naturally 
incline to think well of his spirit and qualifications : they feel a measure 
of personal or local interest in his success : nor have they had the 
opportunity of being convinced by experience that something more than 
genuine piety and a desire of engaging in this service is absolutely 
requisite to the character of a Missionary." 

Cautions Only a few months later, Pratt wrote the following admirable 
cates andi " r e m arks on missionary character. The extract is long, but no 
reader will wish it shortened :* 

"Not a few of the present race of Missionaries emulate the virtues of 
the best of their predecessors, and are the happiness and honour of the 

* Missionary Reyistei , January, 1817. 



FORWARD STEPS 123 

bodies to which they belong ; and many more are devoting with all PART III. 
simplicity, the talents entrusted to them, to the honour of their Lord 1812-24. 
but there are some of less weight of character. Chap 10. 

" We do not speak of those shades and gradations of character which 

are inevitable in such a body of men ; nor of that variety of talents which 
the Great Householder commits, for wise purposes, to His servants : but 
we speak of those imperfections which have, in different degrees, disap- 
pointed the reasonable expectations of the Societies by whom such persons 
have been prepared and sent forth, at a great charge on Public Charity. 

"It may be beneficial to trace the operations of a mind of this de- 
scription in offering itself to the Missionary Service. An honest zeal 
springs up in a man newly awakened to feel his own obligations to 
Redeeming Mercy, to communicate the knowledge of Salvatioivbo others. 
Missionary Sermons, or Meetings, or Publications, awaken his attention 
to the awful state of the Heathen World- he offers himself to this service 
he persuades himself that he is sincere , and he really is sincere ; 
prudent counsellors advise him to much prayer, self-examination, and a 
diligent study of the Missionary work and its difficulties, with his own 
fitness for the labour ; and they give him faithful intimations of their 
own judgment respecting him these may happen to be somewhat 
humbling, and he receives a little check in his view, of himself , but he 
goes to his preparatory work under the strong bias of new-kindled zeal, 
with little real self-suspicion, and with little actual discernment of 
motives ; and his conclusions are, of course, favourable to his wishes : 
he perseveres, and prevails ; and, at length, sets forth on his high errand, 
not to teach, alas ! so much as to learn ! to learn that he has deceived 
himself and misled others ; that he is not sufficiently dead to the world ; 
that he is unreasonably careful about his conveniences and comforts ; 
that he cannot deny his whole self ; that he cannot, in lowliness of mind, 
esteem others better than himself ; that he cannot keep his eyo off his 
own things, to look with kind consideiation and strict impartiality on 
the things of others ; that he cannot lie at the feet of his Master, and at 
the feet of his Brethren for his Master's sake he learns somewhat of Painful 
these painful lessons before he reaches the Heathen shores ; and when he lessons to 
enters on his work, still he has much to learn, before he can effectually earnfcd - 
teach: he counted little, in theory and at home, of privations, and 
difficulties, and opposition, and enmity, and strange manners, and new 
modes of thinking, and prejudices, and dulness, and disappointments : 
he read of all these, and thought lightly of them ; but he has now to 
learn that he is come to this arduous work inadequately prepared ; that, 
as he knew but little of himself, so he knows but little of those among 
whom he is to live ; that he wants that good sense, that intelligence, 
that self-command, that unwearied patience, that condescending kindness, 
and that knowledge of the heart, winch are absolutely requisite to tho 
full discharge of his high calling. And well will it be for him if he 
discern this ; and if, feeling his own deficiencies, he go humbly to his 
Heavenly Father, and diligently learn, that he may be enabled well to 
occupy such talents as may have been entrusted to him in teaching 
others, The wisest and best of our Missionaries must learn in this way : 
but they know this ; and their good sense, and their diligent study of 
their own hearts and of mankind, have prepared them to learn with 
rapidity, when on Heathen ground, the best methods of commending 
their message to the men among whom they are to live : while others will 
give way to discontent, and peevishness, and selfishness ; and will grow 
listless, and, ultimately, unless Divine mercy arrest their progress, utterly 
unprofitable in the great work which they nave undertaken, 



124 FORWARD STEPS 

PART III. " We have no pleasure in drawing such a sketch of human infirmities ; 
1812-24. and rejoice to believe, that but a few, in any considerable degree, 
Chap 10. answer to this picture : but we sincerely hope that this statement of 

facts, which, ui various measures, have too often occurred, may act as 

a caution to those who are purposing to offer themselves to this service. 

" We know the difficulties under which the different Societies labour, 

Deeded i* 1 their judgment of candidates Where there are apparent integrity 

quahfica- and piety and zeal, there is yet sometimes an absence of DECIDED 

tlons ' MISSIONARY TALENT , and, where there is talent, and even sincerity, there 

is too often a want of the MISSIONARY SOUL : there is, not seldom, 'a 

moderate portion of various missionary virtues, which together fonn a 

character that you cannot disapprove, and are reluctant to reject ; but 

there is an absence of those decided and "positive MISSIONARY GIFTS and 

GRACES, which would lead you to send such an one forth with confidence 

and joy 

"We would not be supposed to undervalue men of a heavenly character, 
though not of a superior mind No ! such men, by; their humility, their 
faith, their love, and their prayers by their readiness of service, and 
unwearied kindness of spirit are the stay and comfort of their Brethren: 
they conciliate and win the Native mind ; and they call down the blessing 
of then: Lord on the undertaking in which they are engaged 

" But, perhaps, Christians have failed here in the duty of Prayer. The 
devoted Missionary is the greatest character in the Church of Christ : 
all the mere dignities of outward station sink before the grandeur of his 
mind and purpose. But the greatest of all human Missionaries was 
specially prepared and trained for his arduous service ; and the more we 
study the history of those men who have most fully imbibed his spirit 
and imitated his labours, the more clearly shall we discern the provi- 
dential and gracious influence which guided them, from their earliest 
years. The true Missionary must be a man peculiarly called and pre- 
pared of Him, who divideth to every man severally as He will. 
Let prayer " Let us then, Christians, in all our prayers for the success of Missions, 
b hed Ulti " never fa ^ to k eseecn the I^d of the Harvest, that He would send forth 
labourers into His harvest that He would graciously prepare, from their 
youthful years, by the leadings of His Providence and the influences of 
His Holy Spirit, able and devoted servants for the advancement of His 
Kingdom in the world 

" Oh, how does the heart cling to the name and deeds of such men of 
God ! We need not point out these CHRISTIAN heroes. Every Society 
actively engaged in promoting the knowledge of Christ in the world is 
blessed with such men. May every returning year multiply their number 
manifold ! " 

One result of the increasing number of English, candidates was 
that the Committee in 1817 resolved upon receiving no more from 
the Berlin Seminary. No doubt, however, there were other 
reasons for this step ; for in the following year two Germans were 
received from the newly-opened Institution at Basle, These were 
J. A. Jetter and W. J. Deerr, both of whom proved valuable 
missionaries and fulfilled long periods of service. 

Women It was in 1815 that the Society received its first offers of service 
wanted, &orn women. Three ladies at Clifton, Misses Hensman, Weales, 
and W. Wilton, offered to go anywhere in any capacity. Daniel 
Corrie, who was home from India at the time, expressed a strong 
opinion that they might be of great value for work among the 
Hindu women, for whom nothing had then been done ; but the 



FORWARD STEPS 125 

Committee, after discussion at two meetings, resolved not to send PABT Hi- 
unmarried women abroad, except sisters accompanying or joining 
their brothers. No other decision could be looked for at that period, 
and it is rather a token of the Committee's readiness for "new 
departures" that they did not say No at once without debate. 
Four years more passed before the first two "female mission- 
aries" were sent out, " schoolmistresses " for Sierra Leone ; but one 
of them went with her brother, W. A. B. Johnson She afterwards 
married. The other, Mary Bouffler, died soon after landing. 

How the money was raised to meet all the enlarged and ex- 
panding work foreshadowed in this chapter will appear in the 
next one Here we need only note two special funds started at 
this .time, which were "forward steps" indeed, but of the kind 
that have to be retraced. 

One of these Special Funds was to purchase and fit out a special 
missionary ship. Both Marsden and Buchanan had urged such Funds 
a plan on the Society ; the former, however, only asking for a, 
small vessel for local use in the South Seas, while Buchanan, 
with his usual large conceptions, aimed at a ship that would 
convey missionaries and stores to all parts cf the world, facilitate 
visitation of the Missions, and secure speedier and more regular 
communication. Our ocean greyhounds, as the great mail- 
steamers have been so happily termed, were of com so then in 
the future. 1 ' The scheme was at first warmly received, but 
never came to maturity. It was arranged to name the ship the 
William Wilberforce; but although a good deal of money was 
contributed, the fund did not prove large enough for the purpose, 
and was at length applied to cover the expenses of the Active, 
Marsden' s brig in the South Seas. The other Special Fund was 
for the maintenance of African children. At first, gifts of 5 
were invited, for the "redemption" of the children of slaves; Redemp- 
but this "redemption" looked so much like purchase which 
word was actually used now and then by inadvertence, that 
strong anti-slavery friends protested, and the plan was abandoned, 
"to avoid," said the Committee, "the appearance of evil." In 
lieu of it, regular subscriptions of 5 a year were invited, towards 
the expense of feeding and clothing boys and girls rescued from 
slave-ships and handed over to the care of the Sierra Leone 
missionaries by the Government. A great many such contributions 
were given, including some by Quakers who could not support the 
Society in a general way. Tho suggestion was made at the same 
time that the children might be named after the donors, which 
much added to the interest of the plan. Ths first case of the 
kind was a gift from a Welsh friend named Llewellyn, who 
requested that four boys supported by his money should be called 
David, Morgan, Owen, and Evan 'Llewellyn; and four girls, 

* It is a curious fact that even forty years later, when. Pratt* s Memoir was 
pnbhshed in 1849, his biographer mentions, as a reason why the Society at. 
that date needed no ships of its own, that letters had como from New Zealand 
in ninety days They now come in thirty-five. 



126 FORWARD STEPS 

PART III Anne, Martha, Lucy, and Sarah Llewellyn. Very soon almost 
1812-24. all the familiar Evangelical names in England were reproduced 
Ckap^lO ID Africa , and we find Eichard Cecil, Marty n Buchanan, John 
Newton, Gloucester Byder, John Venn, Edward Bickersteth, 
Eichard Gurney, Hannah More, Mary Clapham, and so forth. 
Thus began a system which was very attractive at first sight, 
and seemed reasonable at Sierra Leone, where children of various 
tribes, without parents and without names, were taken up 
though even there it proved awkward in after years, when a 
grown-up " Edward Bickersteth " or " Hannah More " happened 
to turn out badly and was convicted of crime ; but which, when 
subsequently adopted in India, produced very untoward effects, 
denationalizing the children and condemning them to be identi- 
fied all through life as children of charity. 

It only remains here to notice the fresh efforts made at this 
time to diffuse missionary information by means of periodicals, 
Up to 1812, the Society had nothing for its friends to read except 
the Annual Sermon and Eeport ; the latter of course very meagre, 
but having the journals of the early West African missionaries 
appended. But in 1813, Josiah Pratt commenced the publication 
The" Mis- of a monthly paper called the Missionary Register, which he earned 
Register" on ^ or five-and-twenty years with quite extraordinary industry 
and vigour. It began with thirty-two small pages (fscap 8vo), 
but very soon became thicker, and after three years was enlarged 
to demy 8vo. In type and paper it has to a modern eye a very 
old-fashioned and uninviting look ; but its contents are most 
valuable, collected with what must have been astonishing patience, 
and arranged with great skill. From first to last, it was not 
confined to C.M S. information, but definitely aimed at giving a 
systematic account of all Missions of all Societies Taking up at 
random the eighth volume, for 1820, we find that it contains 
540 pages, and that of these only 140 are devoted to the Church 
its com- Missionary Society. For completeness there has never been 
pieteness. ^y^g at all like it. From 1813 to 1855 one could obtain from 
it almost all the materials for a general History of Missions. 
From the time it was given up until now there has been no such 
work, and the historian would be compelled to search all the 
Eeports of the various organizations. In the first ten of these 
forty-three volumes, for example, one can read of the triumph of 
Christianity in Tahiti (so curiously like the modern story of 
Uganda), the destruction of idolatry in the Sandwich Islands, 
the commencement of the Madagascar Mission, the now forgotten 
but most interesting enterprise of the L.M.B. in Siberia, the 
Scottish Mission on the Caspian Sea, the earliest work of Eobert 
Moffat and of that strange man Joseph Wolff, the beginnings of 
S.P.G. in India and South Africa,* the wonderful translational 

* It is interesting to find that the first Church work in South Africa was 
an S.PG-. school at Wynberg a place near Cape Town which is now 
conspicuous for its missionary zeal in support of C.M S. 



FORWARD STEPS 127 

work of the Serampore Baptists, the first inception of the Basle PART III. 
Missions, the formation of the great American Societies, and, in 1812-24 
particular, the first efforts of the A B C F M m Bombay and Gha P- 10 ' 
Turkey, the foundation of the Freed Slave Colony of Liberia, the 
patient labours of the Moravians m many lands, the Methodist 
work in the West Indies, the progress of Morrison's Chinese 
Bible, Judson's start in Burmah, and several Missions in such 
oft-forgotten fields as the Malay Archipelago and Central America. 
The work of the Bible Society and the Jews' Society on the 
Continent of Europe is described at length, with information 
from their branches in Germany, Russia, &c. The S P.G colonial 
operations in Canada are included ; and so are the proceedings 
of home Societies like the S P.C.K. and Eeligious Tract Society 
(on their home side), the Naval and Military Bible Society, the 
Prayer-book and Homily Society, and even the National, British, 
and Sunday-school Societies, together with, of course, philan- 
thropic organizations like the African Institution and the Anti- 
Slavery Society. 

A few further particulars of the early contents will be in- 
teresting. The funny little first volume, in its brown leather its con- 
covering, opens with " An Appeal, particularly to Churchmen, tents - 
on the Duty of Propagating the Gospel " ; and the rest of the 
thirty-two pages of No. 1 are occupied with a brief account of 
the Church Missionary Society. Nos. 2 and 3 are entirely taken 
up with a contribution from Hugh Pearson (afterwards Dean of 
Salisbury) entitled "Historic View of the Progress of the Gospel 
since its first Promulgation" a reproduction, in abbreviated 
form, of his Essay which gained the Buchanan Prize at Oxford,* 
No. 4 is devoted to India, the Charter Bill of 1813 being then before 
Parliament, and concludes with an obituary notice of Henry 
Martyn, whose death had just been announced. No. 5 contains 
a brief sketch of all the chief Missionary and Bible Societies in 
the world ; a narrative of the shipwreck of an African missionary 
party ; and notices of the May Meetings. Here it should be 
mentioned that the Register, like other periodicals at that time, 
was published at the end of the month it belonged to, so that 
the May number in each year gives the account of the May 
Anniversaries. The next few numbers give a serial sketch of 
the life of Schwartz, some of the speeches at the inauguration 
of the Bristol C.M.S. Association, and much information about 
other Societies. The systematic and complete review of the 
various Mission-fields and societies does not begin till the fourth 
year, when the magazine became an octavo one. This fourth 
volume opens with a list of all the (Protestant) missionaries in 
the world at that time (1816), two hundred and sixty in number; 
and the fifth volume opens with an alphabetical list of all mission 
stations, with a few notes to most of their names and the names 
of the missionaries working at them. Summaries of this kind, 
* See p 97. 



128 



FORWARD STEPS 



Its pic- 
tures. 



PART III varying in form, are given m most of the January numbers. 
Biographical sketches of deceased missionaries and Native con- 
ver ^ s are numerous, and give the minutest details of the last 
days and hours of some of them. Descriptions of idolatry, and 
of heathen customs like suttee, &c , are inserted, often taken from 
the very first authorities of that day, such as Sir W Jones and Dr. 
Ward. In the volume for 1820 we find printed, for the first time, 
the familiar prayer used to this clay at G M.S General Meetings. 

Illustrations occur frequently, from 1816 onwards, very rough 
woodcuts which would not pass muster now, but which excited 
keen interest eighty yeais ago. Before, however, these begin, 
two illustrations are found, of another kind. One is a striking 
diagram or chronological chart showing the progress and relative 
position of Christianity, Mohammedanism, and Paganism, in the 
eighteen Christian centuries ; and the other is a map of the world 
with all the Missions of all Societies marked. 

This Missionary Register was unquestionably a great power 
in its early years. Though not an official publication of the 
Church Missionary Society, it was naturally identified very closely 
with it by Pratt being the editor , and the Society purchased 
some thousands of copies every month for free distribution among 
subscribers and collectors. It was ultimately superseded by the 
various periodicals started at different times by the Societies 
themselves in their individual interest, but the forty-three 
volumes will always remain a monument of sanctified industry 
and a storehouse of valuable information concerning the progress 
of the Kingdom of God. 




The First Picture in a Missionary Magazine, the Missionary Register of 
April, 1816 ; representing a scene in West Africa. 




OHAPTEE XL 

ROUSING THE COUNTRY: TEE Fim ASSOCIATIONS 
DEPUTATIONS. 

Growing Needs Plans for Associations The Start at BristolBasil 
Woodd's Yorkshire Journey Features of the Campaign. Obstacles, 
Opposition within and without the Church, Successes, Spiritual 
Influence, Hymns Norwich, Cambridge, Liverpool, Ireland- 
Grandfathers of the Present Generation. 

" The Spirit of the Lord came upon Gideon, and he Uew a trumpet . . . And 
he sent messengers throughout dl Mana&seh . . . and he sent messengers unto 
Asher, and unto Zebulun, and unto Nayhtali." Judges YI. 34, 35 

IE have now to look at one particular movement of the PAST IIL 
year 1813 which, as already indicated, was one of the n^ 12 ' 2 ^ 
principal "forward steps" of the period, and the ^' 
cause of many others. This movement was the 
sending out of Deputations to preach and speak in 
behalf of the Society, and the establishment of Local Associations. 
Apparently it was the need of money that led to the initiation of 
the movement; but money was not the chief burden of the 
sermons and speeches 

In 1812, having thirteen men already in the field and ten under 
training, with heavy responsibilities in Africa, and (as we shall 
see) New Zealand and India and Ceylon beginning to demand 
attention, the Committee, conscious that an income of 2500 to 
3000 a year would not meet the growing expenditure, were much 
occupied in devising plans for widening the area of interest in the Plans to 
country and thus increasing the Society's resources. Pratt at raisefunds - 
length matured a scheme, adapted from one already started by a 
younger but more flourishing institution, the Bible Society, for 
establishing Church Missionary Associations in town and country 
in aid of the Society ; nay, as the original scheme phrased it, 
" throughout the Empire." The main idea was to obtain not 
only collections in churches, which needed no regular local 
Associations, to secure them, but more especially penny-a-week 
subscriptions from young and old, rich and poor, which were to 
be raised by each member undertaking to collect at least twelve 
such subscriptions, say Is, a week or 2 12$ a year. 

The first of these new Associations was formed within a few 
Aveeks, for London itself ; but this soon became practically only a 

VOL. i. K 



130 ROISING THE COUNTRY 

PAST III committee of leadeis of the various paiochial and congiegational 
associations which giadually came into existence, and which 
severally retained then independence Of pi ovmcial Associations, 
o- Mr Hole's reseaiches show that the first, organized m Febiuaiy, 

ciations ig;^ wag a |j D ews bury J a town which had alieady given the 
Society two of its eaihest English missionaiy candidates, Gieen- 
wood and Bailey The Vicai, Mi Buckwoith, was one of the 
warmest fiiends of the missionary cause Collections on Mi 
Piatt's plan were begun about the same time at Caihsle, Beading, 
and foui 01 five smaller places, without the foimation of a legular 
Association The honour of being the first paush of all to organize 
one has been claimed foi Hatheileigh in Devonshire , but this 
was for the M S and the Jews' Society (then an undenomina- 
tional body) jointly In hke mannei, at St Chad's, Shrewsbury, 
an Association was foimed to collect jointly for the CMS, 
the Bible Society, and the Piayei-book and Homily Society 
Dewsbury in England and Glasbury m Wales ceitamly stand 
fizst with legulaily-orgamzed Associations foi C M S only But 

Bristol Bustol had been planning opeiations on a laige scale before, 
appai entry, any of the otheis, and probably the only reason why 
its date is not actually the earliest is because so laige a scheme as 
it was pioposing needed time to matuie When it did stait, on 
March 25th, it at once took the lead, and kept it foi many years 
if indeed it does not still keep it, seeing that the thiee 01 foui 
Associations that now laise a laiger sum covei a much laigei aiea 
The chief founders and leaders of the Bustol Association aie 
worth naming They weie the Eev T T Biddulph, alieady 
mentioned as the pieacher of the fouith Annual Seimon , the Eev 
James Yaughan, fathei of a well-known cleigyman of later yeais, 
James Vaughan of Bughton , the Eev John Hensman, whose 
name, by-and-by, came to be given to children in a Tamil boai ding- 
school, and eventually to be borne by a Native clergyman in 
Ceylon and a leading Native Christian layman at Madias, the 
Eev Fountain Elwm, long a piomment Evangelical cleigyman , 
and Mi J S Harfoid, of Blaise Castle, an intimate fuend of 
Wilbeiforce,1 and uncle of Canon Harfoid-Batteisby, the foundci 
of the Keswick Convention These men ananged for the m- 
auguiation of the Bnstol C M Association by pioceedmgs lasting 
ovei five days, comprising sermons m seven chinches, with 
collections (which included 60 woith of ladies' ]ewelleiy), and a, 
gieat public meeting m the Guildhall, at which eleven resolutions 
were moved and seconded by twenty- two speakeis, besides whom 

* In tho Jubilee Statement of the Committee, in 1848, seveial places aro 
mentioned as having had Associations at an earliei date, Olney in 1802, 
Aston Sandford in. 1804, &o , but these were not regular Associations, and 
this word ne\ei occurs in tho Exports until 1813 

f Mr Hnrford was quite a young man at this time Fifty year* aftoi, he 
published a most interesting book, BcLolhdiona of Willwan Wilherforco 
(London, 1864), which contains many striking anecdotes of tbo gieat 
philanthropist 



THE FIRST ASSOCIATIONS AND DEPUTATIONS 131 

theie weie the Mayoi m the chaii, and Mi Piatt, who had come PART III 
from London on pmpose How long the meeting lasted we aie 1812-24 
not told , but in those days five and six houis were not thought P J- 1 
too long on an impoitant occasion Some of the speeches are 
still extant, and they aie not shoit Mi Piatt's must have 
occupied an hour , and Mi Haifoid's, which is descnbed in a Harford's 
contemporary notice as "very elegant," and which is leally speech 
eloquent and able, piobably three-quaiteis of au houi One 
passage is so stiikmg that it must be quoted heie Mr Harford 
is leplymg to the objection, " What right have we to disturb the 
ancient faiths of the East ? " He says 

"To tins question I would simply ieply, What right had St Paul 
[whom lie supposes to have brought the Gospel to Bntam , but the 
argument would apply equally to any one else] to visit tins country when 
thu thick film of Pagan darkness involved the minds of its inhabitants p 
What right had he to biave the tenors of our stoimy seas, and to 
encounter the still moie savage manneis of our ancestors ? What light 
had he to oppose himself to their hoi rid customs, to thiow clown by ms 
doctrine their altais stained with the blood of human sacrifices, and to 
regenerate the code of their morals clisgiaced by the permission of every 
crime which can brutalise and degiade human nature ? What right had 
he to substitute for the furious imprecations of the Diuids the still small 
voice of Him who was meek and lowly in heait ? What nght had he to 
exchange their homcl pictures of the invisible woild foi the glorious 
prospects of the heavenly Mount Zion, the innumerable company of 
angels, and the spuits of just men made perfect ? What right had he to 
plant by such a procedure the sommal principle of all our subsequent 
glory and prosperity as a nation, our boasted liberty, our aclmuable 
code of law, the whole inimitable flame and constitution of oui govein- 
nient in Church and State > 

" This quanel with the rnemoiy of St Paul I shall leave to the oppo- 
nents of Missionary Institutions to suttle , and when they hnve made up 
their minds as to the degree of infamy which is to cleave to him, for 
having been (m a remote sense at least) the fiist conveyancer to us of 
the best blessings which we now oii]oy ; I will then consign over the 
Missiontuies of the piesomt clay to tluni severest ropiohonsionl" 

This speech is lemaikable also foi a glowmg eulogy of Hetuy 
Maityn, the news of whose death had just beon icceivcd The 
addiesses geneially consist of aigumonts justifying tho existence 
and objects of the Society Theie are appeals neithei for men 
nor for money It was no doubt supposed that when the claims 
of the Heathen woild came to be leahzod, both would bo foith- 
coming If tins expectation ^as ontoi tamed, it was not fuliillod 
as legcuds men ISfo mibbionaiy on tho Society's loll appeals to 
have hailed fiom Bustol foi many yeais aftci wards | But as 
regaids money, this gieat meeting initiated the movement which 
quadiupled the Society's income within the year Its immediate 

* In vol i of the Niaaionwy Register 

f But it is true that m some cases the pmticulai town whence a man 
came 13 not named And theie may have been candidates who were not- 
accepted 



132 MOUSING THE COUNTRY* 

PAST III result was the mapping out of the whole cityfoi systematic weekly 
1812-24 an d monthly collections , and m its first yeai the Bristol Associa- 
fL, 11 h n raised 2300, a sum equal to the whole average annual 
receipts of the Society before that time 

An important featuie m these mauguial proceedings was the 
presence of Mi Pratt His visit to Biistol was the first instance 
First "de- ( of what is now known as a "deputation" But that woid was 
potions ' not used then in this connexion It often occuis in the eaily 
recoids, but it means a deputation to wait upon a bishop 01 a 
ministei of state In this yeai, 1813, began the piactice of sending 
leading cleigymen to diffeient counties and towns to preach 
seimona and addiess meetings , but they weie looked upon as a 
soit of vanety of the "itinerants " of Wesley's day, and were a 
good deal suspected in consequence The first demand for such 
a visitor came fiorn Leeds , an eminent surgeon theie, Mr W 
Hey, F E S , a friend of Wilberforce, suggesting that a toui might 
be made through the West Biding Piatt applied to Basil Woodd, 
and Woodd' s leply shows what such a proposal looked like at 
first sight " I do not see the expediency of sending ministers 
from London to Yoikshue it has an aspect of publicity which 
I do not like I am willing to succour the cause m my own little 
sphere, but do not ask me to take long jouineys " Nevertheless 
he gave way, yielding, it may he supposed, to Pratt's reasoning 
01 importunity , and within thiee weeks, on July 21st, he was on 
B woodd's his way to Yorkshne with his wife, taking the torn in lieu of a 
tour holiday, tiavellmg m a postchaise, and undeitakmg, if lequued, to 
pieach twice a day " This is a glorious object," he mote, " and 
it is an honoui to collect if but one stone 01 bnck for the spiritual 
temple I tiust I have yom prayers m this very impoitant and 
unexpected engagement, foi this day thiee weeks I as much 
expected to be in the moon ! " 

Leeds, Bradfoid, Huddersfield, Wakefield, Pudsey, Tadcaster, 
Knaiesboiough, Yoik, Scaiboiough, Bndhngton, Malton, Ponte- 
fiact, Bainsley, and many smallei places, weie visited on this 
journey, and, on the leturn journey southwards, Ketteimg, 
Petei borough, and some Midland villages The torn took two 
months and a hah 8 The tiavelhug, in pie-iailway days, and hotel 
expenses, came to 150 , but Mi Woodd collected 1060 He 
preached fifty sermons, and started twenty-eight associations, in- 
volving, it may be presumed, a good many public meetings, besides 
pnvate conferences, &c , and he distubuted over 7000 papeis 
In Biadf oid parish chinch he preached thiee times on Sunday, the 
collections amounting to 73 , and he " could not lesist " address- 
ing the childien also " Who knows," he said, " but it may bring 
some child to the blessed Saviour?' 5 Missionary Exhibitions 
weie yet seventy yeais off, but, "I biought two Hindoo gods 
with me , one has a snout like an elephant I find they enteitain 
everybody, 'and plead the cause of Missions as well as if they were 
missionaries themselves " He returned full of joy and thank- 



THE FIRST ASSOCIATIONS AND DEPUTATIONS 133 

fulness " Om exclusion," he mote, " has been attended with PABT III 
a succession of mercies, kindnesses, and endearing interviews, 
which I trust will piove a foretaste of oui eternal meeting" 
" I have expenenced gieat encoiuagement foi fresh exeition 
May the Ghuich Missionaiy Society flouiish till the Son of Man 
cometh in His glory ' Amen " His hosts appear to have been as 
pleased as he was One cleigyrnan wiote about " the tiuly gieat 
and good Eev Basil Woodd, who, with his deal and interesting 
timlkure moiti6, wherevei they go kick the beam of hospitality 
by their own intrinsic excellence " 

This memoiable journey was quickly followed by others, undei- 
taken by such men as G-oode, Burn, Henry Budd, Legh Eichrnond, 
Melville Home, Haldane Stewait, William Maish, Daniel Wilson, 
and, a little latei, E W Sibthorp and J W Cunningham Theie 
was also an M P , Mr T E Kemp, who took a torn in the north, 
carrying the clerical deputation with him in his carnage Mi Hole 
has tiaced out the touts from the middle of 1813 to the end of 1814 
with infinite pains and accuracy, devoting to them nearly half of 
his large volume The lecords aie full of inteiest They give 
significant glimpses of the Chuichlife of the penod, they nanate 
the small beginnings of associations which have done noble woik 
in latei yeais, and are doing it still , and they introduce us to the 
fatheis and grandfatheis of oiu own contempoianes in all paits of 
the countiy In the piesent woik we can but gather up some of 
the geneial featuies of these early deputation touts, with a few 
illustiative incidents 

1 The inconveniences of travelling m those days, and the Risks m 
weary length of the journeys, must be boine in mind In the travclhn ff 
first toui, already described, Basil Woodd wiote, " Om carnage 

has ciacked two axle-boxes and two spimgs, loads very lough " 
After a Cornish trip he wiote, " Last Satuiday at Plymouth was 
the fiist legular dinner I had foi eight days " On one occasion 
Daniel Wilson travelled from Gam to 5pm in a coach diagged 
by " four wietched horses," with seven other passengers inside 
and ten out, accomplishing foity miles in the time , aftei which 
he had twenty-si 1 ? miles furthei to go m a postchaise, at the 
late of five miles an horn, arriving at his destination at 10 p m 
" Theie was a suffocating dust the whole way " One journey 
cost the Society and the Chuich deai Mi Goode went to 
Ipswich on a frosty night, the floor of the coach was out of 
repair, and let in chilling diaughts > and the illness that resulted 
ended a most valuable life 

2 Much more serious than these external discomforts were 
the opposition and objections met with Here and there, letters 
m the local newspapersanonymous, of course reproduced the 
cavils of East India traders and the sarcasms of Sydney Smith , 

* It was this Mr Kemp on whose estate at Brighton Kemp Town was 
built 



134 MOUSING THE COVNTRY 

PART III and cuticisms of this kind, of which we think lightly now, had a 
qmte :factltl Ils impoitance then Still gieatei was the difficulty 
caused by the lack of episcopal pationage Eleven bishops weie 
on the list of pations of the Bible Society and, it may be added 
heie, six loyal pnnces, the Dukes of Yoik, Kent, Cambridge, 
Cumbeiland, Sussex, and Gloucestei (Kent and Sussex spoke at 
the Anmversanes in these very yeais) , but not one had given his 
name to the Church Missionary Society Some of the bishops 
sition weie even P en opponents " We have got a new bishop," writes 
f bishops one fiiend, " who is deteimmedly hostile to every society, and 
declaies openly that he looks on them as dangeious to the State 
and the Establishment " Bishop Law, of Chester, whose diocese 
extended fiom Bummgham to Westmoi eland, chaiged his clergy 
not to leceive " those itinerant preachers who, neglecting then 
own parishes, went about thiough the country to draw all the 
money they could for the suppoit of societies self -constituted, 
and unauthorized by either Church 01 State " Evening services, 
too, and week-day services, weie sometimes objected to, not only 
by bishops, but by othei lespectable people who dieaded inno- 
vations The Bishop of Exeter foibad evening services when 
Basil Woodd visited Devonshire , and even John Scott of Hull, 
son of Thomas Scott, and for many years aftei wards one of the 
warmest of C M S men, was afraid to hold a special service on a 
week-day " It would be very distasteful to church folk," he 
said, " and give the whole affan an nregulai and unchuichhke 
appeaiance " We aie not suipnsed, after all this, to find many 
excellent clergymen holding aloof One at Liverpool letuined 
the papers sent to him, saying, " A society having foi its object 
the inciease of puie leligion seems to me essentially defective 
if it has not the pationage and support of those to whom I owe 
deference as exeicismg the apostolic office and functions in our 
Ghmch " To which Piatt replied, " Youi pimciple would have 
stifled the Reformation m its birth It implies that nothing can 
become a duty in the subordinate members of the Church m 
which their superiors do not countenance them We have but 
one point to aim at in this lespeot to desewe that countenance, 
and we have no doubt it will, in due time, be obtained 1 ' 
Objection was also frequently made that the new Society was 
interfering with the old ones geneially, of course, by those who 
did nothing for the old ones 1 The most conspicuous, and indeed 
amusing, instance occuned in 1817 at Bath, when an Aichdeacon 
interrupted a meeting by a public piotest, but this will be noticed 
m the next chaptei Piatt's oidmary reply to such objections 
will easily be divined In a word it was this, that neither 
S P C K noi S P G was sending any Church of England mis- 
sionaries to either Africa, or Asia But he replied m another 
way in at least one case A Norwich clergyman offeied him his 
pulpit, provided the collection might go to the S P C K instead 
of the CMS Pratt at once consented, saying, "We seek not 



THE FIRST ASSOCIATIONS AND DEPUTATIONS 135 

ouiselves, but Christ Jesus the Lord His Kingdom, His glory, PART HI 
His spirit, is what we seek to advance m all things " m? 12 " 24 

3 A good deal of difficulty was encountered from an opposite p 
quaiter The London Missionaiy Society, quite naturally, as a Rivalry of 
non-denominational body, sought the suppoit of Churchmen as L M s 
well as of Nonconfoirmsts, and was at this time paiticularly 
vigorous in pushing its claims all over the countiy It had no 

high ecclesiastical authorities to appease, and it had aheady 
aroused widespread enthusiasm among the Dissenters Much 
rnoie jealousy was aroused m this way than on account of S P G 
01 S P C K , neithei of which would have dreamed of employing 
"itinerant pieacheis" m those days Again and again we find 
local friends, who desned the new Chuich Society to be suppoited 
writing uigent letters to Piatt for deputations, " or the London 
Missionary Society would occupy the field first " Bristol itself 
was loused m the fiist instance by the L M S obtaining sermons 
and collections in no less a church than St Mary Bedcliffe On 
the othei hand, the Dissenteis in many places were very generous 
to the Chuich Society Repeatedly, when Legh Bichmond or 
Haldane Stewait 01 Daniel Wilson was to pi each m the parish 
church, the Independent, Baptist, and Methodist rnmisteis closed 
their chapels, and took their people to hear the visitor At Stoke- 
upon-Tient, " the Methodists enlivened the service by their loud 
Amens " At Kettenng, Andiew Fuller, the fuend of Girey, and 
secretary of the Baptist Missionaiy Society, held one of the plates 
at the doois 

4 One effect of these difficulties on both sides was that the church 
advocates of the new Society took especial pains to insist on its of ST?! 1 " 
Chuich basis and character Thus, at the mauguial meeting at JJJJ] 1 *" 
Bnstol, the principal resolution appioved the new Society because 

it was undei stood to be " decidedly attached to the doctrines 
and episcopal government of the United Church of England and 
Ireland", and on the same occasion Mi Biddulph, the Evan- 
gelical leader at Bustol, said, " It is in the chaiactei of Church- 
men that we appear this day , happy in an oppoitunity of testifying 
our attachment to our Zion, and of proving that attachment by 
zeal foi her honour "; and he goes on to quote fiom the Prayer- 
book, to show that " om past omissions are not chargeable on our 
Venerable Paient " This phiase, and " oiu Veneiable Mother 
the Established Chuich," aie not infrequent A Suffolk gentle- 
man, in giving in his adhesion to the Society, wrote, " Satisfied 
as I am of the supeuor excellence of our veneiable Church 
Establishment, from its stnct adherence to the great truths 
of the Gospel in its Liturgy, Ai tides, and Homilies, I cannot 
but wish for the success of a plan to extend its influence ", and 
similar expressions abound m sermons, speeches, and letters 
Especially do we find them in Irish utteiances "However 
gieat," says one, "the blessings of religion under any really 
Christian form, sho appeal <3 with a peculiar grace when she is 



136 ROUSING THE COUNTRY 

PART IE made known through that pure and evangelical medium [the 
1812-24 Chuich] which unites a dignity to command the lespect of the 
Chap ll mog ^ Im p en0 us " Again, an lush judge rejoices to have " no 
doubt that the Heathen will flock m larger bodies into the Chuich 
of England than into any other religious community " John 
Cunningham of Hariow, for many years a leader among Enghsh 
Evangelicals, wiote a pamphlet m 1814 on Chuich of England 
Missions, m which he appeals to "those who believe in the 
supenonty of our Church to every other religious society," who 
" discovei in its formulanes the exact impress, the sacied image, 
the embodied spuit of the Gospel," who " attiibute the moial and 
intellectual advancement of the country in great measure to the 
character of the religion diffused by the Establishment," who 
believe that the " stieam of puie and undefiled piety " having 
" suffeied so little pollution in this country since the Apostolic 
ages " is due to " the meicy of God in confining it to this pai- 
ticulai channel " And, again and again, Chuichmen aie called 
to greater activity in the cause m ordei that even lecogmzed 
Churches, like the Piesbytenan Church of Scotland and the 
Lutheian Church of Geimany, may not outiun the Church of 
England in promoting it " Shall the eldest daughter of the 
Eefoimation," exclaims one, " suffer hei younger sisters to out- 
stnp her m the cause of missionary benevolence ? Shall not the 
Chuich of England, the Queen of Churches, awake fiorn hei 
lethargy, stand up in hei comely proportions, clothe heiself with 
the doctrines of her Articles as with the gaiments of salvation, 
and send foith her sons, breathing the spirit of her Lituigy, to 
cariy the banneis of the Cross to the ends of the eaith? " 
"The Much of this has a strangely unfamihai sound m our ears 
Establish- ggpg^gjfy ^ e cons t a nt reference to "the Establishment " Is 
this word, much as we still value the connexion of Church and 
State, ever used at a missionary meeting now? or even at a 
Church Defence meeting ? This is not the place to discuss the 
causes of the change of feeling , but the fact is certainly signifi- 
cant Still more cunous is a sentence in a circular issued at 
Norwich by Edward Bickersteth, then a solicitor in that city -~ 
" As this is peculiarly a Church Society, and as the objects of the 
Society ham received the sanction of Parliament, it is hoped that 
all the fnends of the Establishment will patronize and support 
it " It is true that the leference here is to the passing of the 
East India Company Charter Act, which was one " object " of 
the Society Still, the sentence startles the modern readei 
Evtmgeh- 6 While the advocates of the Society weie thus emphasizing m 
empha- aot everv possible way its Church chaiacter, it does not seem to have 
aked occurred to them to emphasize its Evangelical distmctiveness We 
seaich m vain m their utterances for the strong assertions of the 
truth of Evangelical doctrines and the rights of Evangelical men 
which form quite the staple of C M S speeches in the middle of 
the century At first sight one proposes to account for this by the 



THE FIRST ASSOCIATIONS IND DCPUJATIONS 137 

fact that the Tractanan movement had not then given an impetus PART III 
to High Church teaching and methods But the opposition to n? 12 "^ 
Evangelicalism was as has been already shown m these pages ap 
actually stionger and rnoie bittei in those days than affcei wauls 
Bishop Tomlme of Lincoln was at least as vehement m his 
denunciations of what he was pleased to call Calvinism as " Henry 
of Exetei " in latei days, and " Calvinism" really meant Evan- 
gelicalism, foi the Wesleyans, who weie stiong anti-Calvimsts, 
weie equally condemned The leal fact is that the theological 
" colour " of an oigamzation emanating fiom the " senous clergy " 
went without saying It was its Church chaiacter that needed 
explanation and vindication 

6 But whatevei might be the opposition to the Society, or to Success 
the missionary cause generally, the pleaching deputations diew ?i f ns puta " 
ci owds to then sei vices At Norwich, people clung to the windows 
outside to catch a few woids of Piatt's seimon, and Daniel 
Wilson wiote at the same time, " The whole city seemed to have 

come togethei You might have walked on the people's heads 
I stand amazed at what God hath wrought " At Sheffield Parish 
Chinch, the congiegation assembled to heai Legh Richmond 
numbeied 3500, and hundieds failed to get m , and at Biadford, 
when he pieached thiee times on the Sunday, the congiegations 
weie estimated at 2000, 3000, and 4000 respectively " I nevei 
saw anything like it," he wiote, "such a day, such a church, 
such a vicar, such life, such attention, such libeiahty " The 
vicar thus lefeiied to was Mi Crosse, whose bequest founded the 
Ciosse Hebrew Scholaiship at Cambndge Curious incidents aie 
lecorded foi instance, at Welshpool, an officei at the theatre 
on Saturday night called out to the company that they must 
all come to chinch next day and hoai the gentleman from 
England Collections weie often very laige, and the poor gave 
freely 

7 It is evident that most of tho work \\as dono by seimons Meetings 
The day of large public meetings was not yet As we have seen, J d v e uy 
they came slowly, even m London There is a cui lous incident 
mentioned in an article signed "H," wntten foity yeais latei, 
which appears m the Chnstian Obscnw of June, 1857 Mi 
Eichardson of Yoik has been before mentioned as one of tho 

fiist countiy membeis of the Society, and a heaity fuend , but the 
meeting heie mentioned could not have been befoio 1817, as 
Bickeisteth was one of the deputation 

" It is now almost forgotten with what distrust even the beat men 
viewed these Public Assemblies for religious purposes We can remember 
near half a century smce, tho visit of a ' deputation ' from one of these 
Institutions, to York, wheie Mi Richardson the fit Prebendary of such 
a Cathedral, lofty and majestic in his person and manner then presided 
over the considerable body of earnestly religious men in that city, His 
consent was obtained, though with some diraculty, to the holding of such 
a meeting And the wntor oE this paper remembers, when the present 



138 ROUSING THE COUNTRY 

PAST III Bishop of Calcutta, Mr Bickersteth, and himself presented themselves to 
1812-24 the Meeting, the solemn manner in which the then aged and venerable 
Chap 11 Minister rose from his chair, and, leaning on his gold-headed staff, 

announced to the assembly his doubts about such Meetings , but added, 

that, as certain well-known advocates of lehgions objects had presented 
themselves in the hope of being allowed to hold such <in assembly, he 
had consented to it, and he now called on them to proceed, and if they 
had any new facts or arguments in stoie, to produce them , on which the 
ti enabling youths (compaiatively) aiose, and, as well as they were able, 
told then story, showed the destitute condition of nine-tenths of the 
human i ace, and pointed to the means by which it was hoped to meet 
their necessities, and pom the light of the Gospel into these daik legions 
And aftei they had finished, what was their joy to heai Mr Richardson 
close the Meeting by announcing that he was convinced, and that hence- 
forth he should lejoice to welcome such deputations as the Society weie 



ma j eg & mic k} e) " was illustrated Penny Associations were being 
started m many places not visited by deputations , collectois, men 
and women, undertaking to collect a penny a week fiom at least 
twelve peisons, i e a shilling a week, 01 2 12$ a yeai Mr Hole 
has unearthed the case of a Warwickshne lady who hoped to find 
a subsciibei or two at Coventry, "though religion was not much 
alive in that town " She left a paper with a townsman, asking 
him to give a penny a week He read the paper, was stnred 
up by it, and staited collecting himself among his "senous 
acquaintances," and in a shoit time he had formed what he called 
four "societies" of twelve peisons each giving a penny a week, 
and three " societies " of twelve each giving a shilling a month 
Seveial ladies in different towns obtained hundieds of small 
subscribers And not ladies only A Welsh clergyman, on 
leceivmg a paper fiom headquarters, mounted his horse, rode 
foity miles, applied to rich and pooi, and came back with 
23 Is Qd An Essex vicar's wife sent up collections from "the 
Tradesmen's Club at the Bun inn, 30s ," " the Tiadesmen's Club 
at the Swan, 20s ," and " the Laboureis' Club at the Swan, 20s " 
9 But the movement did not aim only at the collection of 
funds, nor weie its results pecumaiy only The numerous ongmal 
letteis examined by Mr Hole mention again and again the spirit 
of prayer awakened " Prayer for the conversion of the Heathen 
was everywhere remembeied among religious people, in individual 
devotions, in social meetings, in family worship, in secluded 
villages, in humble cottages, and among children " Even this 
was not the only spiritual result, scarcely perhaps the chief 
spiritual spiritual result, of the movement Pieachers like Basil Woodd 
the move an( ^ ^^ ^ lc - nmon ^ an ^ Daniel Wilson preached no mere charity 
men? ve " sermons In setting forth the darkness and the needs of the 
Heathen woild, they also set forth the one remedy, the message 
of a full and finished salvation fiom the guilt and the powei of 
sin by the atoning death of Chnst and the legeneratmg and 



THE FIRST AssociArioNS AND DEPUTATIONS 139 

sanctifying giace of the Holy Ghost , and m doing this, they weie PAKT III 
preaching the Gospel which is the powei of God unto salvation 1812-24 
to thousands who needed it for themselves, and to not a few who p ll 
laiely if evei heaid it Mi Kemp, M P , whose volunteei torn 
with a clencal deputation has been mentioned above, wiote his 
nnpiessions of the campaign, and said that not only would the 
Society itself benefit, but it would also " become the mstiument 
of pieachmg the Gospel m many pulpits whence the joyful sound 
was not often heaid " In this sense the utteiances of the depu- 
tations weie stiongly and powei fully Evangelical , they weie 
spiritually Evangelical, though not polemically Evangelical 
Moreovei, the Gospel they pieached was a piactical Gospel, 
because, instead of meiely comfoitmg "professors" (as pious 
people were called) with glowing accounts of their privileges and 
safety as the flock of Chust, they summoned the said " piofessors " 
to rise up and bestn themselves foi the salvation of otheis Then 
teaching, theiefoie, loused both the careless and unbelieving fiom 
the sleep of sin, and also the drowsy Chustun fiom the sleep of 
self-satisf action In both lespeets, the journeys of the CMS 
deputations proved a leal blessing to the country and to the 
Church 

10 It is interesting to observe that the spmtual influence of the Us^of 
missionary sei vices was distinctly fostered by the use of hymns, ymns 
then as befoie stated a suspected novelty in the Ohm oh, so 
seriously suspected, indeed, that Charles Simeon, at this very 
time, advised a friend, whose bishop ^as angiy with him foi 
intioducing them, to " put them a&ido " as " quite umiecessaiy " ^ 
" The hymns," wiote Basil Woodd from Yoikshire, " have gieatly 
mcieased the missionaiy feeling " But he pi ef erred metncal 
versions of the Psalms, and this is not surprising when one leads 
the doggerel of some of the hymns of the penod The leason, 
however, for his prefeience was rnoie piobably that Psalms were 
ecclesiastically less open to objection , and it is noticeable that 
the first " hymn-paper " issued by the Society itself at that very 
time contained foui Psalms, viz the G7th, " To bloss Thy chosen 
lace" (Tate and Brady) , the 72nd, "Jesus shall reign wheie'er 
the sun 11 (Watts) , the 96th, " Sing to the Loid, yo distant lands " 
(from some local collections) , and the 117th, " From all that 
dwell below the skies " (Watts) Yet there weie a few good 
onginal hymns too, ounent at the time, such as " O'ei the gloomy 
hills of daikness," " Arm of the Lord, awake, awake," and "All 
hail the power of Jesus' name " It is a significant thing that, 
although seveial of these Psalms and hymns weie wntten eaily in 
the dull eighteenth century, they failed to come into geneial use 
until the present century The missionary awakening caused a 
demand foi such compositions, and long-neglected prayers and 
piaises m veise weie unearthed, giadually became farmhai, and 

* Moule's Charles Simeon, p 182 



140 ROUSING THE COUNTRY 

PAUT HI now aie sung all over the woild Here a very cm ions fact may 
( 1812-24 be mentioned The eaily tiaditions of the Chuich Missionary 
Chapjl g ocle ty ag a caiefully stnct Chinch institution were perpetuated 
to oui own day m the mattei of hymns foi its official Anniveisary 
Seimon The papei punted foi the occasion was always headed 
"Psalms to be Sung," and the same thiee were sung year after 
year without change, viz , " With songs of grateful praise " (a 
version of Ps xcvi ), sung to " Dai well's " , " Jesus shall reign," 
sung to "Tiuio", and "Eiom all that dwell," to the Old 
Hundredth these last two being the veiy too that Easil Woodd 
asked for in lieu of "hymns " It will scarcely be believed that 
the fiist " hymns " at the famous St Bude's Service were sung m 
1882, on the occasion of Bishop Pakenham Walsh's seirnon 

Oui account of the use of the Association and Deputation 
system, must not close without a brief notice of three or foui of 
the Associations The great one at Bnstol has been mentioned 
Norwich The next in importance was at Norwich, the formation of which 
- ^ ag ue ^ o Edward Bickeisteth, then a solicitor in that city 

If Bnstol had the honour of leading the way m the new 
missionary movement, Norwich was distinguished for being the 
first to secure the pationage of a bishop The then Bishop of 
Norwich, Dr Bathuist, was a very libeial-mmded man, and m 
his first episcopal charge went so fai as to avow himself convinced 
that the " zeal and piety " of the Evangelicals, " when undei dm 
regulation, were pioductive of very great good" He was 
aheady a fuend of the Bible Society , and he at once acceded to 
Bickersteth's lequest that he would be Pation, not of the Chinch 
Missionary Society itself, but of the pioposed Noiwich Association 
But veiy few of the leading clergy and people m Norfolk followed 
his example " This city," wrote Bickersteth, " is in a veiy 
different state to Bristol All are ahve to woildly things, while 
lehgion meets with either opposition or a most cold and heaitless 
reception " " Many seem to start with honor at the idea of 
Missions as including everything enthusiastical and fanatical " 
But he had already declared to his fellow-citizens that " an Asso- 
ciation there should be, if he stood alone on the Castle Hill and 
pioclanned it " , and now he expresses his full belief that if they 
"continued praying and believing and working," it might be 
1 ' lespectable " And the " praying and believing and working " did 
bring down a blessing Although " the rich and noble, the clergy 
m general, and the Dissenters and party men " all stood aloof, the 
success of the inaugural services and meetings (Sept , 1813) was 
astonishing It was on this occasion that the crowds mentioned 
before thronged to heat Piatt and Daniel Wilson , and the week 
pioduced 900 A Ladies' Association was started, the first in 
England , and it is a striking parallel to this that the first of the 
modern Ladies' Unions was also started m Norfolk, m 1883 At 

* Overborn, Sngksh Ohwrcli in the Nineteenth Qentw y t p 113 



THE FIRST ASSOCIATIONS AND I)EPU PAWNS 141 

the first Anniversary, in 1814, the Bishop actually piesided at PART in 
St Andrew's Hall, and delivered the Joist episcopal speech evei 1812-24 
given for the Church Missionary Society It was short, but veiy Qha P ll 
much to the point " Do some respectable men start at the veiy 
name of ' Missionary ' ? What does ' Apostle ' mean ? " " Aie 
we to bewaie of enthusiasm ? I, gentlemen, am no fuend to a 
zeal that is without disci etion But those who aftect to be so 
much alarmed about it may pievent the effects they appiehend by 
joining oui lanks and niodeiatmg the zeal fiom which they feai 
such bad consequences " " But they toll us that theie aie akeady 
two venerable societies m the Established Church Be it so I 
wish theie weie two hundied ' " And the good bishop concluded 
by encouraging the Society to peiseveie "till the glad tidings be 
preached in every coinei of the woild, ' as fai as winds can waft 
and waters roll ' " Heber had not yet written " From Greenland's 
icy mountains " whence, then, came these last words ? 

Among the earliest Associations one expects to find Cambndge, First *. 
considering Simeon's intimate connexion with the fiist establish- S 
ment of the Society, Martyn's caieei and death, and the interest 
excited by Buchanan's prize essays And there weie influential 
Evangelicals in the Umveisity besides Simeon, such as Isaac Milner, 
Dean of Carlisle and President of Queens', who had been a Senioi 
Wrangler , William Faiifih, Tutoi of Magdalen and Jacksoman 
Professoi of Chemistiy, also a Senioi Wiaugler, and immensely 
respected foi his ability and goodness , James Scholefield, Fellow 
of Trinity, and afterwaids Eegms Professoi of Greek , Joseph 
Jowett, Fellow and Tutor of Trinity Hall and Regius Piofessor of 
Civil Law , his nephew, William Jowett, Fellow of St John's, 
and afterwards a missionaiy , and William Dealtry, Fellow of 
Tunity, who succeeded John Venn at Clapham Nevertheless, 
there must have been some peculiar difficulties , foi no regular 
Association was formed until 1818, and even then Simeon, to use 
his own woids, " tiembled at tho proposal, and lecommended the 
most cautious pioceedrngs " Meanwhile, as before stated, one of 
the eaihest churches in England to havti a collection foi the 
Society was Tunity, Cambridge, as fai back as 1804 , and eaily m 
1813 we find both town and gown being canvassed, the foirnei by 
ladies and the latter by undeigiaduoites The well-known names 
of Chailes Budges and Fiancis Cunningham, both of Queens' 
College, occui among those of the undergiaduates who weie 
active , and among the junior contubutors were Henry Venn the 
Second (afterwaids CMS Secretary), H Y Elliott and E B 
Elliott, two biotheis Gaius- Wilson, John Babmgton, and otheis 
who in aftei years did good service m the cause of Chiist Through 
the efforts of F Cunningham, Daniel Witaoti was induced to 
visit Cambndge in the May teim of 1814, and pieach in Simeon's 
chinch Dunng the thiee weeks before he came, the zealous 
juniors set to work, and collected no lesb than 270 m the vanous 
colleges, one-half the contributors being of Queens 1 College, then 



142 ROUSING THE COUNTRY* 

PAST III the favounte lesoit of Evangelical students Sixty yeais after- 
1812-24 waids, Canon John Babington thus lecorded his lecollections 
Otapu ofrfl 

" A raie sermon it was , I was never more deeply interested in my 
hfe The text was, ' He shall see of the ti avail of ms soul and be satis- 
fied ' The question was, What must that be which shall satisfy the 
yearnings of the blessed Redeemer's soul g I have seen a printed sermon 
of his upon that text, but the influence at the time of his fervour, and 
the depth that he seemed to open befoie us, was far beyond any thing that 
the punted sermon can suggest " 

When the legulai Association was foirned, at a public meeting m 
1818, two Fellows became Secietanes, Mandell of Queens' and 
Scholefield of Timity , and among the Vice-Presidents we mid no 
less a person than Loid Palmeiston, then one of the membeis 
for the Unrveisity But the connexion of Cambridge with the 
Church Missionaiy Society has in later yeais been of a veiy 
diffeient character, as we shall see heieafter The primary 
purpose of an Association and a most useful purpose is to 
raise funds Carnbudge has raised missionanes 
Man- The most unpiomismg of the laige towns weie Manchestei 

cheater an ^ L im p ol Manchester began with a Sunday-school Asso- 
ciation in St James's paush, and no more was done for two 
yeais ""We aie opposed," wiote a friend there, "by all the 
weight of propei ty and powei, both ecclesiastical and seculai 
The soil of Manchester is very unfavoiuable to the cultivation 
and growth of any leligious institution -whatsoever even those 
already planted aie in a weak and languishing state, choked with 
Liverpool thorns, the cares, the nches, the pleasures of life " Liverpool 
seems to have been still worse The only Evangelical cleigyman. 
theie, Mi Blacow, had a propnetaiy chapel, and no status among 
his brethien "What with ultia-Calvimsts on one side, Methodists 
on the othei, and the whole posse of the cleigy and then powei- 
ful lay patterns on a thud, I am perpetually assailed " He adds 
that he foais that all he can laise will be 200 01 300 a yeai horn 
his o\\n congicgation ' How many Liverpool chinches laise tli.it 
sum now 9 Mi Blacow thought that this ^ould bo a pi oof that 
" the bush was not hunt " He enlaiges ou " the zeal and eneigy 
of the Dissenteis and the apathy of the Establishment " " The 
whole mass of the people is veiging fast into dissent, and we shall 
soon have an episcopal Establishment with a dissenting popula- 
tion " But there was something much woise than Dissent 
Liveipool had been deeply involved m the slave-tiado , and Blacow 
obseives that " an age must elapse before the gaiment spotted by 
the flesh with the polluted stains of African goie which clings to 
so many leading men is wom away " " While a shred of that 
remains," he adds, " whoevei appeals among us in the holy garb 

* In an aifcicle on "The Eaily Bays oE the CMS at Cambudge," in the 
GUI' fntdhgenco of September, 1887, Mr Hole gives full and inteiestmp 
particulars , and these are supplemented m his book 



THE FIRST ASSOCIATIONS AND DEPUTATIONS 143 

of the Bedeemer's ughteousness, will be treated as a movei of PARC III 
sedition, a man not fit to live upon the eaith " Beading all this, 1 8]2 - 24 
one begins to appieciate the mighty woik clone for leligion, and p 
for the Chuich of England, in aftei yeais, by Hugh Stowell at 
Manchester and Hugh McNeile at Liveipool 

One of the most mteiestmg of the home enterprises undei taken 
at that time was the establishment of the Hibernian Auxiliary Ireland 
The same difficulties, fiom the opposition of the bishops on the 
one side and the aval claims of the London Missionary Society on 
the othei, which we hcive noticed in England, weie encounteied 
also in Ii eland , but at length Piatt, D Wilson, and W Jowett, 
went over, in June, 18 W, leaving London, it is woith noting, at 
7 a m on Monday, and i caching Dublin early on Fnday morn- 
ing , and being received with the gieatest kindness by many 
leading people, they successfully started the Auxiliaiy It is 
curious to obseive that one of their most enthusiastic friends was 
Mr Thomas Painell, gieat-uncle of the Irish political leadei 

Many names mteiestmg in veiy different ways fioin this one u & 
occui in the lecords of the early Associations and Deputations 
We find Begmald Hebei (aftei waids Bishop of Calcutta) seeking, 
but in vain, to influence the clergy of Shrewsbuiy in the Society's 
favour We see E T Vaughan, father of Dean C J Vaughan, 
wainily welcoming Piatt to Leicestei , Sir John Kennaway, 
giandfathei of the piesent Piesident, taking the lead ui the Devon 
Association , Thomas Fowell Buxton, aftei waids Baronet, and 
giandfathei of the piesent Sn T F Buxton , Mr Hardy, Becoidei 
of Leeds, father of Gathoine Haidy, M P , fiist Viscount Cian- 
bropk, John Sargent, fnond and biographer of Henry Maityn, 
and father-in-law of Bishop Samuel Wilbei force , Petei Fiench 
of Beading, grandfathei of Bishop French of Lahore, T Can, 
of Wellington, Somerset, afterwards Bishop of Bombay, in his 
old age a leading inembei of the CMS Committee , G J Hoaie 
(of the Fleet Stieet, not the Lombard Stieot, branch of the 
family), aftei waids Archdeacon of Suriey and Vicai of Godstono , 
Phihp Gell, the fust collectoi of Sunday-school contnbutiotTi foi 
the Society, falliei oi Bi&hop (Jell of Madias, Isaac Spoonei, 
of Ehndon, fathei-m-law of William Wilbeifoico, and grandiifcher 
of the wife of Aichbibhop Tait, Mi John Higgms, fathei 
of C L Higgms, one of Dean Buigon's "Twelve Good Men," 
and President of the Bedfordshue CM Association, and John 
West, an Essex cuiato who waa aftei wauls the hrbt CMS 
missionaiy in Noith-Weat Anionca, and baptised the fiist Ghns- 
tian Indian boy (aftei wards the first Bed Indian clergyman) 
by the name of his old lectoi, Henry Budd Many other not 
less mfceiestmg names have come befoie us m this chaptei 
Sometimes a pessimistic Evangelical speakei enlaiges mournfully 
on the woids, " Your fathei s, where tire they ? " May we not 
well reply, " Instead of thy fatheis shall be thy childieu, whom 
thou tnayest make princes m all the eaith " ? 



CHAPTER XII 

6 MS AND OTHER Socmm 

The S P C K and SPG at this Period-The Archdeacon of Bath's 
Attack on C M S -Awakening in S P G the Royal Letter-Pratt's 
"Propaganda" Heber proposes union of S P G and C M S The 
Bible Society, Jews' Society, Prayer Book and Homily Society, 
Religious Tract Society, Nonconformist Missionary Societies- 
Foundation of the American Church Missions 

" look not em \j nvm on fas own things, lut every man dso on the things of 
oto"-Phil n 4 

PAUT III IgoBjpAj'HE leferences in C M S publications in early days, and 
1812-24 Kj5| especially in the Missionary Eegiste),io the labours 
Cha P 12 KM Sr| and progiess of other Societies, are so fiequent and so 

IllgdZall fr^' ^ ^ seems d- 68118 ^ 6 ^ tf 113 s ^g e to g ive a shoit 

*- notice of these Societies, and of the lelations of the 

Chuich Missionary Society to them, moie especially as some of 
Societies fa m owe( j muc ] 1 1 |ji ie S y m p a thy and eneigy of C M S leaders 
The spiut that actuated men like Josiah Piatt and his comiades 
is strikingly shown in his woids, quoted m the preceding chapter, 
when a Noiwich rectoi insisted on giving the collection after 
Pratt's sermon, not to the new Society, but to the S P K " We 
seek not ourselves, but Chiist Jesus the Lord His kingdom, His 
gloiy, His spirit, is what we seek to advance in all things " 

The reasons that compelled the founders of the Society to esta- 
blish it at all, notwithstanding the previous existence of the S P K 
and S P G on one side and of the non-denominational London 
Missionai y Society on the othei , have aheady been stated ' When 
once then own oigamzation was launched, however, while they 
fiequently urged its difference m basis and in punciple fioni the 
L M S as a leason why Churchmen should join it, a careful search 
fails to find any instance of their urging any difference of basis 
and principle between it and the S P K and S P G as a reason 
why any paiticulai class of Churchmen should support it rathei 
than them They constantly pleaded that Chui ch people generally 
should suppoit it as well as the otheis , but on what giound ? On 
the ground that the Heathen must be evangelized, and that the 
two old Societies were only doing it on a very small scale In 

* SeoOhapteiVI,pp 64,65_ 



CMS AND OTHER SOCIETIES 145 

1817, the S P C K Lutheian missionanes m South India weie PART III 
reduced to two , and out of a free income of 24,000, it spent 
upon them and their mission about 1000, the Society's mam 
work being that of publications and grants to schools at home At 
the same period the S P G had about forty clergymen and foity 
schoolmasters m the North American Colonies, and scarcely any 
others , "' and of these, only thiee were in part labouring among 
the Indians But its great and sudden expansion was now 
approaching, and was described year by year by Piatt in the 
Begistw with unfeigned joy and unreserved sympathy 

The spirit in which both these elder sisters were regarded might c rdl j 
be illustiated by many expressions m the Eepoits, Seimons, andSs e pG cn 
speeches of the time For instance, m the Beport of 1814, the | n c K 
Committee speak of " the invaluable laboms of the two Societies," 
while they add that as Missions to the Heathen are only one of 
the objects aimed at in either case, an institution was still needed 
which should aim solely at that object " Most gladly will the 
Committee witness such an augmentation of tho funds of those 
two Societies as will enable them to enlarge their caie of the 
Heathen Theie is more than room for all exeitions This 
Society comes foiward, not to censme tho partial effoits of past 
times, but to aid and augment these efforts " And in tho same 
year, Dean Eydei, m the Annual Sermon, says of the two older 
institutions, " God be thanked foi their past exeitions \ God be 
with them m the future 1 We would hail them as eldei brethien, 
as foierunneis, as examples We are not contending in a lace 
where * all run, but one receiveth tho pnze ' Theie are many 
crowns, and only too few candidates " 

In 1814, the S P C K published in one laige volume an Abstiact 
of its Eeports and Conespondence on the Lutheran Missions m 
South India from 1709 to date Pratt instantly hailed this woik 
with satisfaction, and strongly recommended it m the llegwt&r, 
and, at the end of his icview of it, added a noteworthy separate 
paragraph, in which he " respectfully submitted to the veneiable 
Society for Propagating the Gospel the expediency of imitating 
the example" of the Bister Society, "The public," he urged, 
" have very little opportunity of becoming acquainted with its 
proceedings, the Annual Sermon and Beport not being published 
for sale, but limited m their circulation to the members " (then 
about 300 in numbei), " nor," he adds, "is justice done to those 
patient and successful exertions by which it long repioached tho 
supmeness of others " Meanwhile ho legularly published in tho 
Register large extracts fiom the SPG, Beport, although the 
work was almost wholly then among the settlers, and scarcely a 
reference to the Heathen is to be found In 1817 is repunted m 

* To be strictly accmate, the Society jiaid JB50 a year towards the stipend 
of a chaplain for the Africa Company on the Gold Coast, and 40 a year for 
three schoolmasters and one schoolmistress for the convicts m New South 
Wales and Norfolk Island 

VOL I L 



146 CMS AND OTHER SOCIETIES 

PAST TIT its piiges neaily the whole of the Annual Sermon preached at 
1812-24 BOW Chinch by the Bishop of London (Di Howley), " not only," 
Cha P 12 wiites the editor (Pratt), "on account of its intrinsic excellence, 
but because we wish our readers to partake with us in the pleasure 
which we deuve from witnessing the pledges thus given, in the 
highest quarters, of hearty co-operation in the diffusion of Chris- 
tianity throughout the woild The anxiety which the highei 
Pastors of the Church are beginning to feel for the recovery and 
edification of her distant membeis awakens m our minds a lively 
hope that the couise which has been at last entered on will be 
consistently puisued " The Annual Meeting is also noticed, as 
usual, though in those days theie was little to notice, for it was 
held m the vestry immediately after the Sermon, meiely to adopt 
the Eeport and pass a vote of thanks to the Bishop 
Avoiding Moieover, the Committee weie careful not to intrude into what 
f e f ds G might be S P G fields of laboui In 1819, Bishop Rydei of 
Gloucestei brought befoie them the need for the Chuich of 
England undertaking missionaiy enterprise in South Africa, wheie 
at that time only the London Missionary Society, the Wesleyans, 
and the Moiavians were engaged The Committee, however, 
seem to have had some information that the SPG was con- 
templating woik theie, and therefore directed inquiries to be made 
on this point in the first instance On ascertaining that the 
SPG, having been applied to by the Governor of Cape Colony, 
was about to send " a cleiical missionaiy to instruct the Natives," 
it was lesolved to take no fmthei steps 

s P c K In 1813, the S P C K , stuied up evidently by the rapid piogiess 
moving ^^ important position attained alieady by the Bible Society, 
began to organize district committees all ovei the country, which 
very quickly doubled and tiebled its income u One of the fiist 
of these was foimed by Basil Woodd, immediately aftei that 
memoiable tour m Yoikshire f 01 C M S which was descubed in 
the pieceding chaptei, m connexion with his own congregation 
at Bentmck Chapel , and it raised 122 foi the S P C K the fiiat 
year The SPG subsequently staited similar Distiict Com- 
mittees , but this was preceded by a senes of events which marked 
the emergence of the Society fiom its long torpoi into the activity 
that has characterized its proceedings from that day to this 
These events must be briefly noticed 

On November 30th, 1817, in which year St Andrew's Day and 
Advent Sunday coincided, a Church Missionary Association was 
inaugurated at Bath by a seimon preached at the Octagon Chapel 

* With a view to assisting this movement, Pratt inserted in the Register 
the " form of recommendation for membership," as follows ''We the Under- 
written do recommend A B to be a Subscribing Membei of the Society for 
Promotuxg Christian Knowledge, and do verily beheve that he is well affected 
to His Majesty King George and his Government, and to the "United Ohuroh 
of England and Ireland as by Law established , of a sober and religious life 
and conversation, and of an humble, peaceable, and charitable disposition " 



CMS AND OTHFR SOCIETIES 147 

(afterwards Di Magee's) by Bishop Eyder of Gloucestei , and the PABT in 
next day the same Bishop piesided over a meeting convened to 1812-24 
foim the Association As soon as he had deliveied his opening GIm P * 2 
speech, and just as Mi Pratt was about to make his statement on 
behalf of the Society, the Aichdeacon of Bath, Mi Thomas, rose The Arch- 
unexpectedly and piotested, m the name of the Bibhop of Bath sUSi 00 
and Wells, against the invasion of the Diocese by an unauthonzed ^Pffif 
society, which amounted, he said, to a. factious mteifeience with 
SPG, and also against Bishop Eydei foi miaudiug into a 
diocese not his own In point of tact, Bishop Rydei was no 
mtrudei, for he was also Dean of Wells a. not uncommon case m 
those days, and thoiefoie had a status mthe diocese Moreovei, 
the Bishop of Bath and Wells had been communicated with by 
him, had consented to his piesidmg, and had not commissioned 
the 11 ate Aichdeacon to make the piotest Also it turned out that 
the Aichdeacon was not even a sub&ciibmg member of SPG, 
which Piatt was 1 But the incident, though a small thing in 
itself, led to gieat consequences The Chinch Missionaiy Society striking 
profited by it, both m money sent in at once in token of con- reBulta 
ndence (400, against the loss of foiu guinea subscnptiong) , * 
and from the wai of pamphlets which ensued, which gave the 
Society a publicity it had nob befoie attained to The Aich- 
deacon's attack appealed in the Times, and a " Defence " wntten 
by Daniel Wilson not only went lapidly thiough eighteen editions, 
but was punted in many newspapers The SPG piofiUid still 
more The Aichdeacon 1 s eulogy of its gioat woik was so fai 
beyond the tiuth at the tune, that some of the bishops woke up s P o 
and lesolved to put moio life into it, and make it woithy of such 5J, akmg 
piaise, and m paiticulai, not to leave Chmch Missions m Noith 
India (the South being caied foi by the S P K ) to the young 
CMS The CMS leadeis made no seciet of then thankful 
satisfaction at this move Piatt thus announced it in the Register 
of Apiil, 1818 

u Our readers will rejoice to loam that the Society [SPG] is enlarging 
its operations, and IB about to avail itself of that influence which it may 
extensively exert over the membois of tlio Established Chinch, to call 
theit resouices into action in support of Missions to Indm Soveial 
Special Meetings have been summoned, within the last fow wooks, to 
deliberate on these subjects, and were attended by the Aiehbishops of 
Canterbury and Yoik, the Bishops of London, Salisbury, Norwich, 
Gloucester, Ely, Peterborough, Exeter, Oxford, and Llamlaft Wo 
shall take an eaily opportunity of reporting the proceedings " 

And the next Annual Eepoit said, " Yom Committee most 
heaitily bid tho Society foi tho Piopagation of the Gospel God- 
speed, and etitioat every meinboi of this Society [CMS] to aid 
that venerable body to the utmost by his contributions and by his 
piayeis They augui incalculable good fiom these exertions, not 

* Jnst as in tUo case of Canon Twwic Tnylor'a attauk in 1888, 
brought CMS gifts amounting m the atfgretfate to 1000 
L 2 



143 CMS AND OTHER SOCIETIFS 

PABT III only to the Heathen and Mohammedan subjects of the Empire, 
1812-24 but to those who attempt to become blessings to them" At the 
Chap x same time, the Committee reminded then friends that even if the 
SPG undertook the duty of evangelizing the whole of the 
Heathen within the Empire, theie would still remain five or six 
hundred millions of souls outside the Empne, and theiefore 
(at that time) outside its iange, a hint that CMS had still a 
reason d'ttie "Oh I" exclaims the Eeport, "it needs nothing 
but an undei standing of the immensity of human wietchedness 
and peidition to extinguish all jealousy and nvahy among Chris- 
tians that nvaliy alone excepted, which shall laboui most 
assiduously to save souls fiom death and to hide the multitude 
of sins!" 

The new measures adopted by S P G weie two Fust, a sum 
of 5000 was voted to the Bishop of Calcutta, who, though an old 
SPG suppoitei, had now been in India nearly four yeaas without 
leceivmg any help from the Society Secondly, the Punce Begent 
Royal (afterwards Geoige IV ) was applied to foi a " King's Lettei " to 
* be sent to all panshes in England and Wales diiecting that a 
collection be made for the Society Similar Letters had been 
granted to the Society six times in the pieceding century, and the 
fact that one had not been applied foi since 1779, almost foity 
years previously, was a sign of the meit condition fiom which the 
Society was now awaking In announcing these decisions m the 
Ecgibtm, Piatt said, 

" Let us thankfully acknowledge herein the good hand of Him Who 
govern eth all tilings after the counsel of His own will We tiust that 
we shall have to record the collection of a munificent sum on tins 
occasion, and that it will be our frequent duty to repoit the gieatm- 
ciea.se and successful labours of Church Missionaries among the Heathen " 

That this was not merely the utterance of official couitesy is 
shown by the following extract from a private letter written at the 
time by Pratt to Thomason at Calcutta 

" Wonderful things have taken place The Archdeacon of Bath 
has unwittingly served that great cause which lies, we trust, neaiest om 
hearts He gave -the Society for Piopagatmg the Gospel credit foi 
doing so much, that some of our ruleis in tlie Church have felt it 
needful to do more than it had ever entered into then? minds to con- 
template And now, by virtue of a King's Letter all the clergy will 
be enjoined to plead its cause Had any one told me, when I and 
Mr Bickersteth were travelling to Bath, to attend the famous meeting 
of December 1st, that in less than six months such a measure should be 
determined on by Authority, no sagacity of ours could have devised by 
what means such an event could be accomplished , but we would adore 
the wisdom and goodness of our God, and pray for the man who has 
been the undesignjng instrument of so much good " 

And to Come, also m India, he writes,- 

" Is not this wonderful P Could you have conceived any means, when 
among us, by which the Clergy, willing and unwilling, should be con- 
strained in all their pulpits to plead the causo of Missions p -ancl of 



CMS AND OTHER SOCIETIES 149 

Missions in India ? True, numbers will make this a leason for not aiding PART III 
w , "but they will be made to aid that cause which is dearer, we trust, to 1812-21- 
all our hearts than any consideration respecting ourselves " Chap 12 

But Pratt was not content with woids He did a very notable 
thing Hardly had the Royal Letter been issued, early m 1819, 
than a remarkable book appeared, by an anonymous writer, Pratt's 
entitled "Propaganda being an Abstract of the Designs and m n u n fl y book 
Proceedings of the Incorporated Society for the Propagation of lJ} e iP 
the Gospel in Foieign Parts, with Extracts fiorn the Annual 
Sermons, by a Member of the Society", the extracts being 
from the sermons of such men as Aichbishop Seckei, Bishops 
Bevendge, Burnet, Butlei, Horsley, Lowth, Newton, Tonilme, 
Warburton, &o That book was compiled by Josiah Pratt With 
infinite laboui he had gone through the old SPG- Beports and 
exti acted the best passages, feeling that if the clergy who received 
the Letter could only have such sermons and reports to guide 
them, their appeals to their congiegations would be more intelli- 
gent and more effectual With all possible speed he brought it 
out, and published it anonymously, conscious that if his name, or 
that of the Church Missionary Society, appeared, it would quite 
fail to do the work he hoped it would do Its success was imme- 
diate and decided, and it had great influence m promoting tho 
collection The Preface to this book is worth quoting in full 

" From the Yeai 1702, to the prosent Yoar, a Seimon has been annually 
preached before the Society, at the Parish Church of St Mary-le-Bow 
which Sermon has, in every instance except that pi cached in 1703, boon 
printed foi the use of the members , and has been accompanied, with 
the exception of a few of the earlier yeais, with an Abstract of tho 
Society's Proceedings 

" These Records of the Society having nover been published for sale, 
but printed merely for the use of tho Members, the Editor considered 
that he should lendor an acceptablo service to his Biethren of the 
Clergy, by collecting from these Records, such statements and icasonmgs 
as might enable them to plead with eflect the cause of the Socioty, m 
obedience to the Royal Mandate issued on the Tenth Day of Febiuary 
of the present Yeai 

" These official documents, together with an Account of the Socioty to 
the Year 1728, published by its Secietary, tho Rov David Humpliioys, 
D D , have supplied the materials for the following pages 

" The Clergy will see, from the vaiious Extracts heiein given, that the 
East was contemplated, many years since, by some of tho Right- 
Reverend Members of tho Socioty, as a most important object of its 
attention and care Bishop Thurlow, in 1780, spoke strongly on this 
subject , and was followed by many others In 1817, it was renewed, 
with fresh vigour and zeal, by Bishop Howley , and by Bishop Ryder, m 
the present year The Editor ventures to predict, that the moie closely 
the condition of that part of the Empire is examined, the moie earnest 
will every faithful Membei of the Ohuich becomo, to aid tho Propaga- 
tion of the Gospel in those parts, by his contributions, his counsels, and 
his prayei s The sources of information on this subject are now easy of 
access, and are multiplying every day 

"Zondwi, J% 1,1819 n 



150 CMS AND OTHER SOCIETIES 

PART III The piogiess of the movement is repoited m theEcgriste? month 

1813-24 by month The S P G 'e own Giiculai is given m full , which, it 

Chap_12 must be observed in passing, contains no lefeience to any othei 

Society, not even the S P C K , and no allusion to any existing 

work in India The Annual SPG Sermon of that yeai also is 

punted m the Rcyistei almo&t m full, occupying sixteen columns 

of close type, in the Decembei nunibei is given the total of 

loyal collections up to that tune fiom the vanous dioceses, 

amounting to 42,222 15s Gd , and the following announcement 

is also made " We lepice to find that a beginning has been 

made in the establishment of Local Associations m suppoit of the 

Society , as we may hope, by this means, to see the gieat body 

of the Established Ghuich biought into a system of habitual 

contubution m suppoit of Missions to the Heathen " 

A little later, we find the following in the Annual Report 

[This Society] " is a kindred Society to those veneiable institutions of 
the Church of Englandthe Societies for Promoting Christian Know- 
ledge and for the Piopagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, which 
have laboured in the glorious work of preaching Christ among the 
Heathen and m the Butish Colonies during more than half a century 
It utterly disclaims all interfeience, all rivalry with them It occupies 
no missionary station which they are able to occupy It exeicises 
towaid them a temper respectful and conciliating It regards them as 
eider sisteis, and lejoices to behold them putting forth then: strength, 
increasing the numbei of their fiiends, extending the limits of their 
Missions"* 

red S ro ? G ^ ma ^ ^ e as k G( ^ wne * nei tneie was an Y recipiocity of feeling 
cate P ? r " on the pait of the older Society towards the youngei one 
Theie does not seem to be any evidence of it , but it must be 
lemembeied that SPG had then no organ of its own, and that 
its Annual Eeports weie the briefest business statements At 
the same time, a veiy kindly feeling could haidly be expected 
Only two bishops had as yet openly joined the Church Missionary 
Society , it was still widely legaided as an institution that had no 
light to exist , and it would scaicely be surpiismg if the kind and 
sympathetic utterances of itsleadeis were looked on as an attempt 
at patronizing and as savouring of impertinence It is not 
agreeable to human nature to be patted on the back by those 
whom you are wont to despise But if the younger Society did 
not get much direct expression of gratitude fiom its eldei sistei, 
the cause it was servmg leceived a gieat impetus , and this not 
only in the way indicated in Piatt's letteis, but m another way 
which Di Overton shrewdly points out Missions to the Heathen 
bore, in the imagination of the rnapnty of Churchmen, the taint 
of "Methodism " But the SPG was above suspicion in this 
respect, "it was impossible for the keenest scent to detect in it 
any traces of that hated thing", so when such a Society itself 

* M S Report, 1823, p 51 



CMS AND OTHER SOCIETIES 151 

engaged m efforts of the kind, " it stamped them, as it weie, with PART III 
the mark of respectability " -< 1812-24 

But the idea occurred to at least one great and admuable man Cha P 12 
that the two sisteis might be united This was Begmald Heber, Heber'a 
of whom we shall see rnoie in another chapter He wiote toP^| to 
John Thornton, his intimate college friend, then Treasurer of the SPG and 
C M S , and to Bishop Byder, on the subject Prom the lattei c M s 
lettei it appeals that though sympathizing with both SPG and 
C M S , he had definitely joined the latter and not the foimer 
" Of the two Societies," he says, " I have been induced to join 
that which is pecuhaily sanctioned by youi Lordship's name, as 
apparently most active, and as employing with more wisdom than 
the elder coiporation those powerful means of obtaining popular 
suppoit which ignoiance only can depieciate or condemn It is 
but justice to say that I have seen nothing which leads me to 
repent of this choice But why, my Loid, should theie be two 
societies for the same precise object ? " He actually formulated 
a scheme of union, or lather, as must candidly be said, of 
absorption of C M S into SPG The S P G was to admit all 
CMS members to its membeiship, and enrol on its staff all 
CMS missionaries , the C M S Secietanes weie to become 
Joint Secretanes of S P G , and CMS was to tiansfei to S P G 
all its pioperty and funds | "What the replies of Bishop Byder 
and Mi Thornton weie is not recoided In the meanwhile, the 
S P C K , which was mcioasmg its income and its homo woik 
by leaps and bounds, was not piospeimg m its SouLh Indian 
Missions One Lutheran inimstei was sent out in 1813 but soon 
died, anothei in 1818, and two moie m 1819 , Piatt's ReqistGi 
i sporting tho valedictory charges onallthieo occasions In the 
following decade, these Missions, which had gieatly languished, 
came under the joint diiection of the S P C K and SPG, and 
subsequently the S P G took entire ohmge of them, Riuce which 
undei a succession of able men like Caldwoll, they have been 
developed and extended m all dnections 

It must not be supposed, because tho Chinch Missionary 
Society displayed so much biotheily feeling towaids tho older 
Societies, that theEvangehcalleadeisweio backward in defending 
Evangelical truth when they thought it necessary In 1816, fox s P c K 
example, a great conflict aiose in the S P C K over a tiact by " e " trover " 
Dr Mant on Baptismal Begeneration Basil Woodd and Daniel 
Wilson, whose congi egations were among the most hbeial 
supporters that the S P C K had m London, contended that its 
extreme statements wei e inconsistent with the Society's regulna 
line of moderate teaching on the subject, and although they 

* English Qhwcli in tliQ Nineteenth Century, chap YIU, 
| Dr G Smith, m his fascinating rocent biography of Heber, prints this 
proposal with the evident sympathy becoming a Presbyterian The Pres 
bytenans all over the world have unreservedly worked theic Missions, not by 
societies, but by " the Ohurch m her corporate capacity " 



152 CMS AND OTHER SOCIEHES 

PAET III were beaten at the ciucial division, the Archbishop of Canterbury 
1812-24 intervened, and, though approving the tract himself, obtained 
Cha P ^ gome modifications in its language 

Of all the Societies with which our own Society was bi ought 

more or less into contact at the period now under review, by far 

The Bible the most successful and prosperous was the British and Foreign 

society Blble goolety It had been foun( ied on March 7th, 1804, after 

some months of patient preparation All denominations pined 
in it , Wilbeiforce, Grant, and othezs whose names are already 
familiar to us in this History, became its leading members , loyal 
dukes patiomzed it , bishops who would do nothing for Evangelical 
movements within the Church gave it then: names and influence , 
and its establishment was hailed with widespread enthusiasm 
At Oxfoid, in 1813, it was joined by the Chancellor of the 
Umveisity, eight Heads of Houses, five Professors, and both 
Pioctors, besides the Lord-Lieutenant and other chief men of the 
county and city , and at Cambridge the patronage was not less 
distinguished Three Secietaries were originally appointed one 
for the Nonconformists, Mr Hughes, who was the leal founder , 
one for the Foieign Protestants, Dr Stemkopf } and one to 
represent the Church of England for which post Josiali Pratt 
was chosen, but he only held office a few weeks, and was 
succeeded by the Eev John Owen Pratt was the inventor of the 
constitution of the committee Its members were all to be laymen, 
of whom six were to be foieign Protestants, and the lemamder 
(thirty) equally Chuichmen and Dissenteis, but all clergymen 
and ministers who became subscribing membeis weie to have 
seats and votes, " a provision," says the Bible Society's historian, 
Mr Owen, " which, while it concealed their names, lecogmzed 
their privileges and retained their co-operation " This proviso is 
mteiestmg as having doubtless suggested, a few years latei, the 
similar plan upon which the governing body of the Church 
Missionary Society has been formed for more than eighty yeais 
But the two Societies have had a higher and a closei association 
than that involved in this external resemblance They have 
woiked together in unbroken fellowship m the one cause of giving 
the Word of God to the Heathen nations While the C M S , and 
the other vanous missionary societies, have supplied the trans- 
lators of the Scriptures, the Bible Society has done the essential 
woik of printing and distributing the versions The Bible is still, 
and no doubt ever will be, the object of attack and criticism on 
the part of men whose learning is not sanctified by the wisdom 
that cometh fiom above, but meanwhile, in its hundreds of 
foreign versions, it is proving its inspiration by enlightening the 
eyes and conveitmg the souls of multitudes of the most ignoiant 
and degraded of the human race 

The proceedings of the Bible Society occupy considerable space 
m the Eegist&r In its tenth year the Society's Income had 
reached 70,000, exclusive of sales of Bibles , and the Eeport 



CMS AND OTHER SOCIETIES 153 

printed is an astonishing recoid of woik all over the woild In PAST III 
1817, so great was its progress in Euiope that Pope Pius "VII 1812-24 
issued a Bull against it , to which the Bishop of Gloyne, at the Qha P 12 
Anniversary that yeai, thus incisively referred Pope's Bull 

against it 

" This respectable personage, his Holiness the Pope, says that many 
heresies will appear, but that the most banef id of heresies is the reading 
and dissemination of the Bible So, then, to propagate that book in 
which Christianity is founded is to propagate heresy The misfortune 
of this Bull is that it conies into the world a thousand years too late 
It might have done some harm in the Ninth Century, but will have very 
little effect m the Nineteenth To quote St Paul, ' I thank my God 
that, after the way they call heiesy, so worship I the God of my fathers ' " 

The Bible Society's anniversaries, indeed, were generally very its Anm- 
brilliant affairs In 1816, the speakers were Lord Teignraouth veraaries 
(President, in the chair), the Duke of Kent, the Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, the Bishops of Gloucester, Norwich, Salisbury, and 
Clogher, Charles Giant, M P , and Lord Gambier Speeches m 
its behalf at Liverpool, Margate, Dover, &c , by the PnrneMinistei 
himself, Lord Liverpool, are leported in the Register Indeed 
this very biilhancy was a cause of complaint on the part of some 
Bishop Bandolph of London was "disgusted at the pomp and 
parade" of the Society, contrasting it with the " simplicity and 
modesty" of the SPCK : But of couise much more senous 
grounds of opposition prevailed, and the Bible Society was again 
and again vehemently attacked by the ablest High Chuich 
contioveisiahsts of the day, such as Bishop Herbert Maish, 
Archdeacon Daubeney, and Dr C Wordswoith, because it circu- 
lated the Bible without the Prayer-book, and encouraged the 
notion that men might draw their own religion fiom it without 
the guidance of the " authoritatively-commissioned priests" of 
the "one only apostolical Ghurch established in this country "f 
It will at once be undei stood how the CHS loaders weie con- 
cerned in the defence of the Bible Society, as well as in alliance 
with it in the tianslation and distubulion of the Scriptures 

Anothei oiganusation with which the Society's chief men wore 
m close touch was the London Society for Piomotmg Chustiwuliy London 
among the Jews It was founded in 1808, on non-den onu national i^ty 
lines like tho London Missionary Society, and like the Bible 
Society, it had royal support, the Duke of Kent being Pati on 
In a few yeais, however, it ran hopelessly into debt, and then 
it appeared that subscriptions were lefused on account of its 
unsectarian eharactei Ultimately the Dissenters, in a generous 
spint, withdiew, and subsequently founded a separate society 
for themselves , and fiom that time the London Society prospeied 
Its debt, then 14,000, was paid off m the loom at the next 
Anmveisaiy Its meetings, in fact, were for many years perhaps 

* Overtoil, JSnyhsli Church tn the Nineteenth Century, chap vm 
f Archdeacon Daabeney, quoted by Ovorton, ut supra 



1 54 CMS AND OTHER SOCIETIES 

HIT III the moat popular of all, the meetings being always densely 
812-24 ciowded, and the gieatest interest being taken m the Hebrew 
p school-children who sang on these occasions Chailes Simeon 
was specially devoted to the Jews' Society, and so was Legh 
Richmond, the author of Th& Dairyman's Daughter and other 
biogiaphical sketches of Chiistians m humble life which had an 
enormous circulation, who was not only Eectoi of Turvey, but 
also Chaplain to the Duke of Kent On one occasion, however, 
when he was to preach at a Sheffield church foi the Church 
Missionary Society, he took as his text Eom m 29, " Is He the 
God of the Jews only?" Another anecdote tells the othei way 
Simeon and Bickersteth weie together on the platfoirn at a Jews' 
meeting The foimer, in his speech, said the Society was "the 
most blessed of all " The latter wiote to him on a slip of paper, 
"Six millions of Jews, and six hundred millions of Gentiles 
which is the most important?" Simeon lephed, "But if the 
conveision of the six is to be life fiom the dead to the six hundred 
what then?"* The friendship of CM S was manifested by 
the House in Salisbury Square being lent to the Jews' Society for 
its Committee meetings 

Yet anothei body closely connected with the Chui oh Missionary 
looked Society was the Piayei Book and Homily Society, which was a 
lomify kind of Evangelical S P C K so far as its paiticular function was 
ociety concerned Prayer-books weie then often published without the 
Articles, and this Society was designed to secuie that they appealed 
in all the copies it supplied It pioved a useful ally to the 
Missions in publishing translations of the Pi ay ei -book in the 
various vernaculais The S P C K at that time was not likely to 
print veisions coming from the missionaiies of an " unauthouzed " 
body like the Church Missionary Society 

Then there was the Eeligious Tract Society, founded m the 
same yeai as C M S , 1799 Its mat promoters were membeis of 
"the Three Denominations," Presbyterians, Independents, and 
Baptists, but Churchmen quickly joined it, and Legh Eichmond 
became one of the Secretaries, believing, to use his biographei's 
words, "that he might promote the mteiests of his own Church 
by pieventmg the ciiculation of tracts hostile to her opinions, as 
well as advance the common cause of tiue religion " The gieat 
work, at home and abioad, done by this Society is well known 
One feature of its early years is worth noting Its anniveisanes, 
which the Missionary Register regularly repoits, were held at 
six o'ckclc in the motmiiy of the day on which the Bible Society 
also met, at the City of London Tavern Breakfast was the 
first item m the progiamme, and the Register mentions that m 
1823 no less than 1054 persons paid for then: bieakfast, and 
hundreds more weie unable to get in 
Noncoa- With the London and Baptist Societies, and with the Moravian 

fonaiBt 
Societies 

* Memoir of E BicLcrateth, vol 11 p 61 



CMS AND OTHER SOCIETIES 155 

and Wesleyan Missions the last-named of winch wore at this PAHT III 
time being moie logulaily 01 gammed, the CMS leaders also nu 12 ~ 
maintained a "fuendly mteicouise," in accordance with the ap 
Society's 31st Law They watched with sympathetic interest the 
London Society's work in South Africa and the South Seas, and 
its beginnings m China (Monison's Chinese New Testament was 
published m 1814) , the Methodist leyivals among the West Indian 
Negio slaves, the extiaoidmaiy industiy and success of the 
Baptists, Caiey, Mai simian, and Waul, in tianslating the Scrip- 
tin es into vanous Indian and othei Asiatic languages , and tho 
heioic enteipuses of tho Moravians Also the commencement of 
oigamzed Missions by the Foreign Piotestant Ghuiches, and 
by the Chiibtians of the United States especially the strange 
expeneucoH of the nist Ameiican missionaries who attempted to 
land m India All those weie legulaily leported in the Register 
And in 1818 a plan was set on foot of the Secietanes of the 
difieient Societies meeting quaiteily (afterwaids monthly) for 
confeienco on topics of common interest At fiist they weie 
held m tho CMS IIouso , afterwaids in the different offices m 
tmn 

One luippy icsult of Piatt's eneigy in setting otheis to woik 
must be specially mentioned In 1816, he adchessed letters m 
the name of the Committee to some of the bishops and other 
leading members of tho Ameiican Piotestant Episcopal Chuich, 
not asking foi tho aid of that Chuich for the Society, but offeimg 
tho aid of the Society, if needed, to enable the American Chuich 
to give independent co-operation in the woik of evangelizing the 
Heathen Very coidial lotteis weie leceived in reply, paiticulaily 
fiorn Bishop Gnswold, of what was then called the "Eastern 
Diocese," and Bishop White of Pennsylvania Bishop Gnswold 
at first doubted whethei the Ameiican Chuich was strong enough 
to engage m Foreign Missions, and suggested that a clergyman m 
his diocese who offered for mission aiy service should be adopted 
by the Chuich Missionary Society But Piatt, m loply, urged 
thefoimation of an Ameiican Chuich Society, which should send 
him out itself, on tho ground of the gieat reflex benefits that 
would acciue to the Chuich itbolf fiom engaging directly in 
mis&ionaiy work , and tho Committee offered a giant of 200 to 
help then Amoncan fellow-Churchmen to make a stait The 
usidt was the etfabhshmcMof the Domestic aiid Foiwgn Missionary American 
Society oj the American Chuich In 1821, its organization was society P 
completed, as a Society comprising and representing tho whole 
Church , and the constitution is printed at length in the G,M S 
Eeport of 1822 Tho American Chuich owes a deep debt of 
gratitude to the S P,G foi its labours among its people before the 
Declaiation of Independence which established the Bepubhc of 
the United States , but it owes the initiation of ita great Missionary 
organization to the Chuich Missionary Society 



CHAPTBE XHI 

SIWRA L$om TEE WHITE MAN'M Gun AND THE BLAG& 



Early Efforts-The Susoo Mission-Edward Bickerateth's Visit Work 
among the Liberated Slaves W A B Johnson and H During 
The Revival at Regent The Fever and its Victims-West Africa 
riot a Debtor but a Creditor 

" 80 then death woMli n us, Iwt life MI you "2 Cor iv 12 

PART HI DjnHN our Fifth and Ninth Chapters we saw how it came 
1812-24 ||p ||1 to pass that the new Society found its sympathies 
Gha P 13 ph Ell drawn out in an especial degree for Africa, and fixed 
rasla its eyes upon the West Coast Not, in the first 
instance, upon Sierra Leone The little mountainous 
peninsula was then only peopled by two or thiee thousand settlers, 
liberated Negroes fiom England and from the other side of the 
Atlantic , and foi them and the Europeans m chaige of them the 
Sierra Leone Company provided chaplains, Melville Home and 
Nathaniel Gilbert (both of whom we have met before) being the 
first The Society had larger ideas Not for the few settlers, 
but for the great tribes and nations beyond, Susoos, Jalofs, 
Temnes, Mandingoes, Fulahs, were its earliest plans formed 
Not a peninsula- five-and-twenty miles in length, but a laige 
section of the great dark continent, was the object of their prayers 
and efforts 

Previous Some attempt had already been made by other societies to 
wlfSca pla^ the Gospel in Africa The solitary SPG missionary at 
Cape Coast Castle in 1752, and his native successoi, have been 
mentioned in our Third Chaptei The Moravians had sent men 
to the same Guinea Coast in 1768, but all had died Among 
the Hottentots of South Africa th& same devoted Chinch had been 
more successful , while the "Wesleyans, and the London Missionary 
Society, had also begun good work among the southern tribes, the 
latter having on its staff that remarkable missionary Vanderkemp 
To the neighbourhood of Sierra Leone, the two small societies 
in Scotland, the Glasgow and the Edinburgh, had combined to 
send six men, to the Susoos , but three had died, one (Peter 
Greig) had been murdered by the Fulahs the first missionary 
martyr m Africa, and two had returned home , and no further 
effort was made to continue the Mission 



SHIRK A LEONE THE WHITF MAN^ GRAVR, &<: 157 

This last-named effort had dnected the thoughts of the new PART III 
English Society to the Susoo tnbes, north of Siena Leone , in 1812-24 
addition to which, seveial Susoo hoys had been brought to Gbap 13 
England by Zachary Macaulay, and weie being educated at SUBOO boys 
Clapham in a small school called the African Academy The j lap " 
Committee engaged one of the refrained Scotch missionaries, Mr 
Brunton, to prepare vocabulanes, tracts, &c , in the Susoo Ian- 
gauge , and, to establish a Mission among the Susoo people, the 
eaihest German missionaries were appointed 

We have seen that although it was easy to appoint men to West 
Afuca, it was not so easy to get them theie , and we have had 
some glimpses of the difficulties and trials of the eaily voyages 
Still haidei did it piove to get them fiom Sierra Leone, whithei Early 
the successive vessels took them, to then allotted field of laboui dl cutes 
among the Susoos, about one hundred miles to the noith, on the 
Eio Pongas Physical difficulties, such as lauty of communica- 
tion, weie not the gieatest The whole coast was dangeious, 
owing to tho virulent hostility of the slave-dealers The Slave- 
tiade, it must be remembered, was not abolished till 1807 , the 
Act did not come into force in Afuca till Januaiy 1st, 1808 , and 
even then, the enfoicmg of it was not an easy task Moreover, 
as has been related m a pievious chapter, human infirmity 
was manifested by the missionaries themselves , dissension 
finding entrance among them, and one having to be dismissed for 
grave misconduct Some little good woik, howevei, was done in 
Sieetown, the capital of Sierra Leone, where many Susoos weio 
to be found , and at length, in 1807, aftei more than thiee yeais' 
delay, Leopold Butschei succeeded m reaching the Eio Pongas 
and arranging for a missionary settlement there The others 
quickly followed , more men came out , and m the next foin or 
five years three stations weie occupied, Bashia and Canoffee on 
the Pongas, and Gambiei (so named after the President of the 
Society, and not to be confounded with the Biver Gambia) , m 
addition to which, Nylander began a Mission among the Bullom 
tube, on the mainland opposite Sierra Leone 

Nevertheless, the Susoo Mission was a very humble enterprise, |gjjf on 
and far from satisfactory accotdmg to om modem staudaid It 
was little inoie than two or tlnee schools, m which German 
missionaries, while still tiyuig to pick up Susoo, weie teaching 
English also a language they understood very imperfectly to a 
few African boys who weie clothed and fed at the expense of the 
Mission Year by year the Committee had nothing else to tell 
m their Annual Bepoits , yet then failh, though often sorely tried, 
never failed The jomnals of the missionaries were regularly 
published, and are even now interesting to read, for the graphic 
accounts they give of the degradation of the people, And the 
Committee felt assuied that slow but sure work among the 
children would m due time bear fruit " Let us fervently pray," 
says the Annual Report of 1810, " that these children may become 



158 SIERRA LEONF 

PART III faithful disciples of oiu Gieat Master , and that some of them may 
1812-24 b e iaised up as installments to pioclaim the glad tidings of 
ga } va |j lon thioughout their native tubes It is in this way that 
we may expect God will be pleased to woik when His tune is 
come foi diffusing His Gospel widely thiough the nations, because 
it is m this way that He has usually effected His pui poses 
hitheito " 

But the Committee wanted moie than this The caie of the 
childien many of them the offspring of the slave-dealeis them- 
selves had given the missionaries an entiance to the people, 
and Piatt wiote again and again urging them to take advantage of 
it Thus, in 1813 (combining two letteis heie) 

" The public are now beginning to take a warm interest m the Society's 
concerns We have aroused their feelings and awakened their con- 
sciences Many eyes ai e turned on our missionaries Schools ai e our 
foundation , but the foundation is laid m order to the rearing of the 
superstiucture The time is come I The natives know you now to 
be honest men Go as often, and as far into the Snsoo country as you 
can Pi each Christ to theml Let us have exact accounts of yom 
Susoo pi cachings name your subjects, the number of youi hearers, the 
reception or rejection of the Woid Let it be known and felt all ovei 
the Susoo country that you have a message to delivei them from God 
Success belongs not to us, but attempts and exertions do " 

The difficulties of obeying these counsels, howevei, weieieal 
ones For one tiling, the missionaries weie suspected of being 
spies, and of informing the Bntish ships of the seciet smuggling of 
slaves that was still going on, and the slave-dealeis becama worse 
lathei than better disposed tow aids the Mission, and twice they 
burned down the Mission houses Foi anothei thing, the traffic 
burst into fiesh life when the Peace ensued in 1814 , the Ticaty 
of Pans restoring to Fiance its old possessions m West Africa, 
Goree and Senegal, and allowing her five yeais' grace befoie 
putting an end to hei slave-traffic which practically meant the 
lesumption of it for that period Wilberforce and his friends at 
once woke up m England The Society held a public meeting on 
the subject, which was addressed by him and Henry Thornton 
and James Stephen , othei meetings weie hold in London and 
the Provinces , hundreds of petitions were presented to Paihament, 
with 755,000 signatures, and addiesses to the Giown wero 
adopted by both Houses In the meanwhile, however, mischief 
had been done The French slave-tradeis had not lost a moment 
m resuming the tiamc, and of couise, England and France 
being now at peace, British ships had no power to interpose 
The deliverance, strangely enough, came through Napoleon, 
When he left Elba and again thieatened Europe, and " the 
threatening clouds again darkened the heavens" (to use the 
Committee's woids quoted before), one of his first acts was to 
abolish the slave-tiade entirely, hoping thereby to conciliate the 
Allied Powers, and when Waterloo once more restored the 



THE WHITE MAN'S GRAVE AND THE BIACK MAN'S LIFE 159 

Bouibons to the thiono of Fiance, they could not foi veiy shame PART III 
refuse to confirm the one good act of the vanquished usmpei 
With gieat joy the Chinch Missionary Society saw all Euiope 
muted on tli-c question always excepting Spam and Poitugal, 
which nations, unmindful of the heavy deht they owed to England 
foi delivering them fiom the Eiench conqueioi, still peisisted in 
sanctioning the hateful tiaffic 

Then again, the missionaries weie piesscd by seculai concerns, 
involved in maintaining the childien To remedy this, when 
Butschei i eturned to Africa aftei his shoit visit to England in 
1812, Gemian aitizana weio sent with him, with a view to then 
leheving the missionaiies of those duties , but they did not piove 
very satisfactoiy Sickness and death, too, frequently invaded 
the Mission paity, and, woist of all, dissensions again aiose among 
them Meanwhile, the population of the Colony of Sieua Leone Need ot 
was lapully gi owing Thousands of slaves taken from the slave- L e 
ships weio landed at Eieetown by the Bntish cimsers, the 
Govoinmcnt peicoived that Christian caie and mstiuction weie 
nioio and nioie needed foi them , and projects began to be formed 
foi concentiatmg the Mission in Siena Leone itself, and sotting 
the missionaries to ministei to the still miseiable though icscuecl 
Negi oes 

To auange all this, to sot things in oidci genoially, and to 
acquaint tho Committee fully with all the ciicuinstances of the 
Mission, a man who could fully reprobent the Society was now 
wanted, and the eyes of, the Committee fell on the Noiwich 
solicitor, Edwaid Bickeisteth Piatt, indeed, had aheady Bicker- 
sounded him with a view to his taking holy oidois, moving to w 
London, and becoming Assistant Secretary, and while he was still 
consideimg that call, this furthei and most impoitant summons 
came He hesitated no longer, but at once placed himself at 
the Society's disposal, although a heavy pecuniary sacrifice would 
be involved m giving up his piofossion "With a view to his 
visiting Afuca with adequate influence and full power of sacied 
mimslralion, the Bishop of Norwich oidamed him deacon at once 
(Decembei 10th, 1815), and also gave him letteis dimiaaory to 
tho Bishop of Gloucester, that he might receive priest's oideis a 
few days later On January 24th he sailed for Sieira Leone 

The Inductions of tho Committee given to Bickersteth are, 
like all Pi alt' B wntmgs, full of wisdom and judgment Two tasks 
WOLG committed to him, (1) to examine into the actual state of 
the Mission, (2) to make 01 suggest plans for its more efficient 
working The importance of the hist part of his commission may 
bo gathered fiom Ihe fact so unlike anything in our modem 
experience that m twelve years, out of twenty-six men and 
womon who had gone to Afuca, only two had visited England 
sinco, and of those only one, Butschei, had had information 
to givo the Committee They had therefore been dependent on 
couoflpondencG and casual report Bickersteth was accordingly 



T6o SIERRA LEONE 

PART III instructed to converse with eveiy member of the Mission sepa- 
1812-24 lately, and with all other persons, English or Afiican, who could 
Cha P ls tell him anything at all But to some he was to give exceptional 
confidence 

"If, under circumstances so likely to call for your Christian candour, 
you find any men whose devout intercourse with their Heavenly Master 
and His Holy Word have raised them, through the grace of the Divine 
Spirit, above the influence of the temptations around them, and have 
maintained the Life of God in a state of vigour m their own souls, you 
will take such men to your heart , you will be in an instant at home with 
them , you will place unlimited confidence in their assertions , you will 
feel that they are far more competent than others to give you a sound 
opinion on the objects of your inquiry , you will unfold to them at large 
the views and wishes of the Society , you will kneel down with them at 
the footstool of Him who waits to be gracious, and who delights in and 
will crown these believing and patient efforts of His servants " 

Hia mflu- Bicker steth's visit was greatly blessed of God It coneoted 
ence t ere man y evi j s ^ ^ im jj ia ted many new plans , it gave a fresh impetus 
to the whole work , it pioved the real startmg-pomt of the perma- 
nent Sierra Leone Mission In personal matters, the best 
testimony is that borne by the senior missionary Eenner, who had 
himself not been without fault "Our respected visitor," he 
mote, "was partial to none of us, but acted in a straight course, 
dealing out meat in due season, admonishing, leproving, or 
comforting, as every one's situation or circumstances might 
require " Sir Ohailes McCarthy, the Governoi, reported to Eail 
Bathurst, the Secretary foi the Colonies, very highly of Bickei- 
steth's influence On leaving, he addiessed a pastoral lettei to 
the brethien In this admirable document he points out faithfully 
the evil of any one missionary acting independently of the rest, 
which had been a fruitful cause of disunion He lays stiess on 
om Lord's rule m Matt xvm , " If thy brother shall trespass 
against thee, go and tell him his fault between thee and him 
alone " He exhorts to " a tender consideration of one anothei's 
feelings, infirmities, situation, rights, and circumstances " He 
significantly warns them that " the missionary has not only to 
guard against the plague of his own heart, but lest he be hindered 
in his work, and led into error, by the wife, of his bosom " " The 
very affection," he adds, "which is due m so dear a connexion 
may mislead us " 

Bickersteth had received authority to dismiss or suspend any 
agent if necessary , but he was not obliged to have recourse to so 
painful a step The missionary band was not to be reduced m 
number in this way It had, in God's mysterious providence, 
been terribly reduced by death Out of the twenty-six men and 
women who had gone out before Bickersteth, sixteen, as before 
mentioned, had died, besides children There were now six 
Lutheran clergymen in the Mission, Eenner, Nylander, Butscher, 
Wenzel, "Wilhelm, and Klein , and one schoolmaster, 



Tffs WHITE MAN'S GRAPM AND THE 'LACK MAW'S LIFE 161 

On missionary policy and methods, nothing can be moie ]ust PART III 
and discriminating than both Bickeisteth' s injunctions to the 
biethren and his Report to the Committee He had, on the 
whole, been pleased with the schools on the Pongas At Bashia, 
on Easter Day (April 14th, 1816), he admitted six senior boys to 
the Lord's Supper, the first African communicants in the Mission 
He realized the exceeding difficulty of work among the adults, 
most of whom weie debased and demoialized by the slave-trade , 
yet he could not refrain fiom plainly saying that they had not 
had a fair chance of healing the Gospel The missionaries had 
undoubtedly been slack in this lespect , they had lacked boldness, 
and love foi dying souls , they pleaded ignoiance of the Susoo 
language, but had not sought for interpreters Bickersteth there- HIS 
fore obtained a Native who could interpret a little, and went example 
himself to pi each in the villages, in order to show the biethien 
how to do it and encourage them by his example , and m his 
pastoral lettei he lays the greatest stiess upon pleaching the 
Gospel, in season and out of season, as the first duty of a 
missionary " This is your first, your gieat work Everything 
else must be suboidmate to this Go in the diy season regularly 
to the Susoo and Bullom towns Take with you, if you find it 
expedient, some of the children Sing a Susoo or Bullom hymn 
Pleach the Gospel, and pi ay with them , and God will bless you " 

Bickersteth's hope that the Susoo Mission might be maintained 
and developed was not fulfilled Not long aftei his letum to 
England, the hostility of the chiefs compelled its abandonment 
But the many piayeis that had gone up foi it weie not left 
unanswered Not a few of the boys and gnls m the schools gave 
evidence of Divme grace in their hearts , and one of the six 
boys whom Bickersteth had admitted to the Lord's Suppei was 
honouied m a lemarkable way to be an encouragement to piaying 
friends at home His baptismal name was Simeon "Wilhelm, and 
he was the son of a Susoo chief of some note He begged 
Bickeisteth to take him with him to England, m older, as he 
said, that he might learn rnoie fully what would fit him to teach 
his countrymen , and Bickersteth, though with much hesitation, 
did so The boy, then seventeen years old, lived at fiist at 
Pakefield Rectory with Francis Cunningham , but the east coast 
proving too cold for an African constitution, he was taken m at 
No 14, Salisbury Squaie, by Bickeisteth, who, it will bo lemem- 
beied, then lived theie , and he attended an impoitant school m 
Shoe Lane, wheiethe then young National Society was developing 
its improved system of education Simeon impiesaed eveiy one 
by the thoioughness of his Clnistianchaiacter and the consistency 
of his life , but his health suddenly failed, even in an English 
summer, and he died m the Chinch Missionary House, the fiist AN po 
garnered fruit visible to English eyes of the long-tiied and much- &? c M in 
prayed-foi West Africa Mission He was buried in St Bride's HoUBe 
Church, and Pratt preached a funeial sermon on the text, " Is not 

VOL i M 



1 62 SIERRA LEONE' 

PAST III this a biand plucked out of the fire 1 ?" Bickeisteth mote a 

1812-24 memon of him, with every paiticulai of his last days and hourb, 

ohftp 13 which occupies moie than fifty columns of the Mmionai y Begi&ter, 

m thiee successive numbers, his poi trait being given too 

Nothing of this kind is ever published at the present day We 

do not keep diaues of the utterances of a sick-bed , but this old 

nanative cannot be lead without emotion, and one realizes 

something of the thankfulness and joy with which fuends all over 

the country lead it then 

A very diffeient caieei shows how God blessed the Susoo 
Mission in quite unlooked-foi fashion In 1812, Butscher had 
bi ought to England a boy who had been baptized by the name of 
Bichaid Wilkinson This boy, on the eve of returning to Africa, 
aftei le&idmg a few months with Thomas Scott, was affectionately 
addressed by the Committee and commended in prayei to God 
He did not, however, turn out well, and Bickersteth found him a 
hindrance The abandonment of the Mission led to his being lost 
sight of, and foi more than forty years nothing moie was done 
The Rio for the Rio Pongas In 1854, a new Mission was started theio by 
an Association in the West Indies , and when the fiist missionary, 
Mr Leacock, anived, he was welcomed by a native chief, who, to 
his astonishment, pioceedcd to repeat the Te Dcum This was 
Eichaid Wilkinson Foi some yeais he had i elapsed into 
heathenism, but m 1835, being ill, ho tinned again to the Loid, 
and fioni that time, foi noaily twenty yeais, he piayod that a 
nnssionaiy might once moio come and loach his people He 
pioved a steadfast friend to the new Mission, aud died, giatoful 
and happy, m 1861 The Eio Pongas Misuon is still earned on 
by the Baibadoes Association, and is now affiliated to the SPG 
"Cast thy bread upon the wateis for thou bhalt find it affcui 
many days " 

But to losumo Though Bickeistoth did not contemplate 
plans for abandoning the Pongas, ho came back to England full of the 
Leone, possibilities of Sioria Leone The iccaptuied slaves, in thousands, 
from many tubes and nations, and of many languages, wcie being 
clothed and provided foi by the Goveinmont But Chnstian 
teaching and influence were sorely needed , and what an opening 
was thus piesentcd for raising up, if the convex ting giace of the 
Holy Ghost wcjie vouchsafed, Native Chnstidns who should 
themselves m of lei years cairy the Gospel to the mtouoi, it might 
be to the veiy countries from which they had been stolon 1 This 
was the giand woik to which the Church Missioriaiy Society now 
girded itself 

While Bickeisteth was laying his plans for the due occupation 
of Sieiia Leone before the Society, Su Charles McCaithy, the 
Governoi, was sending coiiespondmg plans home to the Secietary 
for the Colonies The Committee and Earl Bathurst accoidmgly 

* July, August, ajid September, 1818 



TffE WHITE MAN'S GRAVE A vz> THE BLACK MAN**; LIFE 163 

airanged measures togethei The peninsula was divided into PART 111 
parishes, and the Society undeitook to piovide minisleis and ( 101 ^ 
schoolmasteis, Goveinment giving consideiablo pecuniary aid A 
cential boaiding-school, called the Chiistian Institution, was 
estabhshed on Leicester Mountain, above Ficotown, and here 
weie leceived some two hundred boys and girls suppoited by the 
special School Fund lefoned to in a pievious chaptci Govern- 
ment built a chiuch at Fieetown, and made provision for two 
chaplains Furthei details it i& needless to give moie fully 

Parts of these plans were settled bofoio Bickcistolh went 
out , and tho fiist four schoolmasteis sailed a few weeks aftei 
him, amved at Siena Leone while he was thoio, and weie 
located by him Two of those, both Germans, Johnson and 
During, leceived Lutheian oiders at the hands of thice of 
then brethien, and afteiwaids became two of the veiy best 
rnissionancs who ever laboured in West Afnca At tho same 
time, an excellent cleigyrnau, Mi Gamon, went out as Govern- 
ment chaplain , and soon aftei wards tho Society supplied a second 
chaplain in tho person of one of its students, Mi Golhoi In the 
next five years, to 1822 inclusive, seventeen moie men woie sent 
out by tho Society Death continued to claim a sad tubuto the 
sowing was still m tcais , but a joyful leaping, at last, was now 
at hand 

The most conspicuous instrument used by God to effect tho 
change was William Augustine Bernaid Johnson Ho was aj 
native of Hanover When eight yoais old, he was ropioved by gjj ln 
his master, one Monday moining, foi only romombcnng one text 
out of tho Sunday moining soimon, which was, " Gall upon Me in 
the day of tioublo I will deliver Ihee, and thou shall glorify Me " 
Tho rebuke he leceived for remembering nothing else so affected 
him that this text was deeply nnpimted on his mmd foi tho lost 
of his life, and very tiuly did it prove tho key of his career 
Coming to England after his maiiiago, ho worked at a sugar- 
refiner's, in Whitechapol, but business wab slack, and wageb low, 
and at length they weie on tho veigo of starvation Suddenly the 
text lecuned to his mmd, and ho cued to Gotl, not ouly for bioad, 
but foi the paidon of his bins In a quite unexpected way, help 
carne to them, but, what was still butter , both husband and wifo 
set themselves to servo the Lord with full purpose of heart from 
that day In tho following year, 1813, ho chanced lo bo present 
at one of the Church Missionary Society's valedictory meetings , 
and his whole soul was mod with the thought of teaching the 
Heathen also to " call upon the Lord " Two years later, his 
fellow-countryman, During, who was alieady accepted by the 
Society, introduced him to Pratt, and m 1816, as alieady men- 
tioned, they sailed togethei, with two others, and the wives of all 
foui, for Africa 

Johnson was located by Bickersteth at Begent's Town (or as it Johnson at 
was ultimately called, Eegent), one of the settlements of liberated ReffBnt 
M 2 



164 S&RRA LEONE 

PAST III staves, wheie some fourteen hundred of them had been placed 
1812-24 The descnption of them will answer equally well foi any of the 
Chap 13 O fo ei "panshes," as they weie called, Gloucester, Kissey, 
"*" Leopold, Wilbeifoice, Bathuist, Waterloo, Charlotte, dc Twenty- 
two diffeient tubes and nations were represented among them, 
and the only medium of mutual communication was a little 
broken English Their condition was deploiable The punty of 
the mainage state was unknown among them They were 
crowded one may say heided in miserable huts They were 
full of disease, and the latest arnvals weie like skeletons When 
clothing was given them, they sold it , and not till they saw a 
modestly diessed negio seivant-girl in Johnson's house did they 
peiceive the advantage of it They shirked the labour of cultivat- 
ing the giound, many of them prefeinng to live by thieving " If 
evei I have seen wretchedness," wrote Johnson, on arriving at 
Begent, " it has been to-day These pooi depraved people are 
indeed the offscounng of Africa But who knows whether the 
Lord will not make His converting power known among them ? 
With Him nothing is impossible " So " in the day of trouble/' 
once more, Johnson "called upon the Lord " And the promise 
was abundantly fulfilled Deliverance from despair was granted 
at once , and if ever a missionary was permitted to prove that 
God had said to him in powei, " Thou shalt glorify Me," it was 
William Johnson 

The On July 14th, 1816, his second Sunday, Johnson peisuaded a 

Revival ^ O f ^ p 60 pi e fo come m fo b ls own ^ u t ear iy m th e moimng, 

and sang and prayed with them The Spirit of God at once gave 
a blessing their hearts were touched, and all day long successive 
little companies ciowded into the hut Next day he began school, 
with ninety boys and a few girls, and foity-three adults m the 
evening In the following month , a stone church put up by Govern- 
ment was ready, and very quickly the degiaded people, under the 
mighty Divine influence that was working in them, though they 
knew it not, were attending in crowds He invited them to visit 
him privately At first they only came for what they could 
get, but soon one and another and another appeared, deeply 
convicted of sm, and crying to God for meioy , and at earliest 
dawn, befoie the daily prayers in chuich at 6 am, Johnson 
could see men and women kneeling under the bushes in seciet 
prayei Saturday evening was again and again obseived to 
be a time of special blessing , but Johnson did not then know 
that the Church Missionary Committee in London always met 
on that evening for prayer In October, only three months after 
his arrival, twenty-one converts were baptized, carefully selected 
from among a crowd of applicants , and month by month othei 
baptisms followed Nothing in missionary history is more touch- 
ing than some of the utterances recorded of the now tamed and 
humble people " I cannot thank the Lord Jesus enough for this 
good book," said one, " for I have seen myself m it " " How is 



THE WHITE MAN'S GRAVE AND THE BLACK MAN'S LIFE 165 

it with your heart ' " one was asked "Massa," was the leply, PAET III 
" my heait no live heie now , my heart live theie," pointing up- 1812-24 
ward A mutual benefit society was formed " Dat be very good ^P ^ 
ting, bioders," said one , " suppose one be sick, all be sick , one 
be well, all be well" A missionary association was formed 
seventeen of the converts spoke, and one hundied and seven put 
down then names as subscriber Some of the speeches aie 
repoited in the Eegist&r Here is a fragment of one 

"Missionary come here, and preach to us, and we pay nothing 
England make us free, and bring us to this country My brothers, God 
has done great things for us But I have denied Him like Potei I am 
guilty before Him , but oh, may He have mercy upon me 1 I am not 
able to do anything I pray Got! make us help God's word to cover the 
earth as the waters cover the sea I believe that word will come true 
If any got a penny, let him give it, and pray God to bless our Society " 

This led to a geneial Ghuich Missionary Association being 
formed for the Colony m 1819 , and the contributions in its first 
year amounted to 68 4s lid 

Let us take one day out of Johnson's diary, September 6th, 
1817, fourteen months after his ainval 

"The vestry, the gallery stairs, the tower, the windows, were all 
full Some of the seats in the passages were ovei -weighted and bioke 
down When I entered the church and saw the multitudes, I could 
hardly refrain myself After evening service, one of the boys wished 
to know if it were really true Jesus pi ay eel foi them They had 
been in the field to pray, and did not know how I spoke to them, 
and they went back with joy It was a moonlight night, and the 
mountains re-echoed with the singing of hymns, the girls, in one part, 
praying and singing by turns The boys had got upon a high rock 
with a light , one gave out a hymn, and when finished, another engaged 
in prayer Many of the people, hearing, got up and joined them " 

Eevivals among emotional people like the Negroes aio not 
uncommon in America Methodist camp-meetings are regular 
agencies for pioducmg them But there tho people aie famihai 
from infancy with the outhne of the way of salvation Here we 
see absolutely ignorant and utteily degraded Heathen, with no 
religious ideas beyond the superstitions of " giee-grees " or fetishes, 
suddenly understanding what sin is, "Who Christ is, how sin can be 
put away, how Christ can be trusted and served , and not merely 
understanding these truths and giving play to the emotions 
kindled by them, but exhibiting before the eyes of all around them its practi- 
transformed lives honesty and pmity and love in the place of cai cffects 
pilfering and unoleanness and incessant quarrels What could 
effect such a change ? No missionary could do it , no army of 
missionaries , but the Holy Ghost alone But the Holy Ghost 
works by means , and the means He used at Begent as so often 
elsewhere was a man wholly devoted to his woik, really caung 
for the souls of his flock, setting forth in all then simplicity and 
fulness the great facts of sin and salvation, and trusting only to 



1 66 SIERRA LEONE 

PART III the Spirit Himself to make the woid effectual And the lesult was 

1812-24 seen m g 0( Hy liyes Mr Gamon, the chaplain, visited Regent, 

Chap^lS an fl mo t of the people, " We could scarcely have expected such 

evidences fiom those who have so long been fai distant fiorn God 

by wicked woiks and gioss ignoiance Their geneial characteiistie 

is lowly obedience When Mi Johnson has been out, they often 

laboui moie than common to do a good day's work " And a 

schooknagtei employed at Eegent duimg a visit Johnson paid 

to England was astonished at their " mtegiity, industry, and 

docility " 

Gospel The Gospel was not brought to these people by Civilization , but 
Cmha- en tne Gospel brought Civihzation in its tram Heie is the repoit 
tlon of Eegent two yeais aftei - 

"The Town itself is laid out with regularity, nineteen streets are 
formed, and are made plain and level, with good roads round the Town , 
a large stone Church rises in the midst of the habit itions , a Govern- 
ment House, a Parsonage House, a Hospital, School Houses, Store 
Houses, a Bridge of seveial arches, some Native dwellings, and othei 
buildings, all of stone, are either finished or on the point of being so 
But the state of cultivation further manifests the industry of the people , 
all are farmers, gardens, fenced ui, aie attached to every dwelling, all 
the land m the immediate neighbourhood is under cultivation, and 
pieces of land even to the distance of three nulos , there are many nco- 
fields, and, among other vegetables raised for food, aie cassadas, 
plantains, coco, yams, coffee, and Indian corn, of fruits, they ha\o 
bananas, oranges, limes, pineapples, ground-nuts, guavas, and papaws , 
of animals, theie are horses, cows, bullocks, sheep, goats, pigs, ducks, 
and fowls, a daily maiket is held for the sale of articles, and on 
Saturdays this maiket is large and general It has been already said 
that all aie fanners , but many of them, beside the cultivation of the 
ground, have leai ned and exercise various ti ados fifty of them ai o masons 
and bricklayers, forty, carpenteis, thirty, sawyers, thirty, shingle- 
makers, twenty, tailors, four, blacksmiths, and two, butcheis In 
these various ways, upwaid of six hundred of the Negroes maintain 
themselves , and have been enabled, m this short space of time, by the 
fiuits of their own productive mdustiy, to relieve from all expense, on 
their personal account, that Government to which they pay the most 
grateful allegiance " 

And an official Eeport on Eoads and Public Buildings, issued m 
1819, thus concluded its remarks on Regent 

" Let it be considered that not more than three or four years have 
passed since the greater part of Mr Johnson's population were taken 
out of the holds of slave-ships , and who can compare their present 
condition with that from which they Were rescued, without seeing 
manifest cause to exclaim, ' The hand of Heaven is m this ! ' Who can 
contrast the simple and sincere Christian worship which precedes and 
follows their daily labours, with the grovelling and malignant supersti- 
tions of their original state, their gree-grees, their red-water, then witch- 
craft, and then devils' houses, without feeling and acknowledging a 
miracle of good, which the immediate interposition of the Almighty could 
alone have wrought ? And what greater blessing could man or nation 
desire or enjoy, than to have been made the instruments of conferring 
auch sublime benefits on the most abject of the human race P 



THL WHITE MAN*S GRAVE AND THE BLACK Mitfs LIFE 167 

" If any other circumstance could be leqmrod to prove the immediate PAST III 
interposition of the Almighty, we have only to look at the plain men 1812-24 
and simple means employed in bringing about themuaculous conversion Chap 13 
that we have recorded Does it not lecall to mmcl tho first diftusion of - 1 
the Gospel by the Apostles themselves P These thoughts will occiu to 
strangeis, at remote distance, when they heai theso things , and must 
they not occm much moie foicibly to us who havo these tilings 
constantly before our eyes ? " 

In 1819, Mis Johnson, who had been doing excellent work 
among the women and girls, was oidoied homo, sick, and hei 
husband had to accompany hei to England On Eastei Day, 
about ten days befoie they sailed, ho baptized 253 adult conveits, Johnson's 
and adimmsteied the Holy Communion to 258 Tho parting converts 
with his people bi ought out all the love they had learned to feel 
foi him With many teais they ciowded the shoie to bid him 
faiewell, saying, " Massa, suppose no watoi live heio, we go with 
you all tho way, till no feet moio I " Tho tirno of his absence was 
a time of testing, of winnowing and sifting, for tho Native Ghuioh , 
and one of the convex to aftci wauls descubcd it thus "Massa, 
bcfoio you gofiom this place >ou pieach, and you say, ' Suppose 
somebody beat nee, when ho done beat, he take the fan and fan 
it, and then all chaff fly away, and tho nee get clean So God do 
Him people He fan the chaff away ' Now, Massa, wo been in 
that fashion evei since you been gone to England Gtod fan us 
that time foi true " Noveithcless, when Johnson icturncd to 
Africa in the following Januaiy, he found the people, as he said, 
' ' hungei mg after the woi d of God m 01 o than ovoi ' ' His ] oui uala , 
and those of othei missionauos in the Golony, fill many pages of 
the Missionary Rcgistei , and of Appendices to tho Annual Eepoits , 
and the details of his daily m initiations among the people, the 
evidences of giace m then he<uts and lives, and the illustiations 
also of the devil's powei to cause inconsistency and backsliding 
in some, aie most touching 

But it was not at Eegent only that the Spint of God was 
woiking Mi Turing's labouis at Gloucester met with blessing 
little less lemaikable , and indeed almost all the panshos showed 
impiovement which astonished those who visited them, and 
elicited waim testimonies fiom the Govemmont officials and othei 
independent witnesses Thus Sir Gcoige Collier, the Commodore official 
of the West Afncan Squadron, wiote, STOWS 

" More improvement under all oncumstances of climate and infancy 
of colony IB scarcely to bo supposed I visited all tho black towns ami 
villages, attended the public schools and other establishments , and 1 
have novel witnessed in any pop illation more contentment and happiness 
I have attended places of public woiship m every qnaitoi of tho 
globe, and I do most conscientiously declaie that nover did I witness 
the services of religion more piously pei formed or mote devoutly attended 
to than m Sioira Leone " 

The Chief Justice of the Colony in 1822, the Hou E Fitzgerald, 
testified that while, ten years before, with a population of 4000, 



1 68 SfERR* LEONE 

PART III theie weie forty cases in the calendai foi tiial, now, with the 
1812-24 population inci eased to 6000, theie weie only six cases , and not 
Chap 13 one of these was fiom any village supenntended by the mission- 
aues The Governoi, too, Su Charles McCaithy, a man who by 
his high chaiactei, wisdom, and untiring energy, conferred in- 
estimable benefits on the Colony, attended the Committee while 
on a visit to England, and boie stiong testimony to the leality of 
the missionary woik 

The joy of the Committee, and of fiiends all ovei the country, 
was the kind of joy of which we commonly say that it knows 
no bounds , but this phrase would be incoirectly applied here 
Then joy did know bounds The journals were read with keenest 
mteiest and thankfulness , and when Johnson visited England, 
his simple and unaffected recital of God's work at Eegent made a 
deep impression everywhere Yet the Committee, and the leading 
friends, knew well that the gieat Enemy of souls would not let 
Caution alone such a woik as that The expressions about it in the 
Com M S ^ e P or ^ s aie cautious and moderate , the missionaries are com- 
mittee mended foi so carefully testing the candidates for baptism as 
indeed they did, and enjoined to redouble their vigilance, if that 
weie possible, and their watchfulness also as regards then own 
personal Chnstian life Satan " desiied to have " them as well 
as their conveits , and the infiimity of human nature is illustrated 
by the withdrawal of foui schoolmasters, and the dismissal of 
two, during that very time of blessing, 1818-22 Moreovei, theie 
were reminders year by yeai of the penis to life and health at 
Deaths Siena Leone The deaths up to 1815 inclusive have alieady 
Leone"* been mentioned In 1816, one of the new schoolmasteis died a 
few weeks after landing In 1817 was Butscher's home-call, 
and that of another schoolmastei In 1818, Wenael died, and 
one of the wives , in 1819 two schoolmasters and another wife, 
one of the former, J B Gates, a man of exceptional powei and 
excellence, " our light hand," as Mr Duimg called him , ! in 
1820 one of the wives , in 1821, the semoi of them all, and No 1 
of the entue CMS roll, Melchioi Renner, aftei seventeen years' 
unbioken service in Afuca Moreover, in 1818-19, both chaplains, 
Hi Garnon and Mr Collier, died, and Mrs Collier \ 

Ml accounts of the sickness and death of all these biethren 
and sisters were published in the Begister, and called forth wide- 
spiead sympathy and fervent piayer It is hard to say which aie 
the most moving, the trustful and sometimes joyful utteiances of 
the dying soldiers of the Cross, or the courageous faith that 

* Cates's mother went to one of the Annual Meetings at Freemasons' 
Hall To prevent overcrowding, only subscribers were admitted " Are yon 
a subscriber P" "No," said the poor woman, and sadly tnrned away 
Suddenly she leappeared "Tea," she exclaimed, "I am a subscriber, I 
have given an only son " In/a of JbsiaH Pi att, p 882 

| A special chapter follows this one, giving fuller personal details of some 
of these brethren and sisters 



THE WHITE MAN'S GRAVE AND THE BLACK MAN'S LIFS 169 

breathes in the letteis of the survivors But even after all this, PABT III 
the woist was yet to come In 1823, the yellow fever bioke out, n? ia ~ 
and wi ought havoc in the Colony Many officeis and civilians p 
fell a victim to it The Cluef Justice, the Colonial Secretary, a 
member of the Governors Council, three doctors, two chaplains, 
and many otheis, all died within a few weeks The Chief Justice 
was deeply mouined by the whole Colony, having been univei sally 
esteemed as the friend of eveiy Chustian and philanthropic work 
Two thousand Negioes attended his funeral Nylander wiote 
that Sir C McCarthy, the Goveinoi, was absent on the Gold 
Coast, but was daily expected " He will be astonished to see 
the Colony almost empty of Public Officeis no Lawyei no Judge 
no Secietaiy only one Water, and thiee Meinbeis of Council 
no Chaplain one Schoolmastei only thiee Medical Men and 
a few Missionanes ' " 

But the missionaries weie not exempt In 1823, seven new 
schoohnasteis and five wives landed at Siena Leone Of these 
twelve persons, six died m that yeai, and four more within 
eighteen months Then came the home-call of William Johnson 
himself He had left his wife in England , and in this year, 
being cuppled by ophthalmia, he leceived leave to go home and 
see her, as she was not expected to live long Three days aftei 
he sailed, the fatal fevei, which no doubt was alieady on him, 
appeared , and after foui moie days, the evangelist of Begent Deaths of 
yielded up his spirit to the Loid, and his body was committed to ^ naon 
the deep, at the age of thirty-four, and aftei seven yeais of a 
missionaiy life to which there are few paiallels in the whole 
history of the Chuich Then During took the fever, and, while 
almost at the point of death, was put on boaid a ship, with his 
wife, to be taken if possible to England The vessel sailed on 
August Slflii, and was nevei again heaid of She was supposed 
to have foundered, with all on boaicl, in a temble gale m the 
English Channel m the fust week of November Thus penshecl 
also the evangelist of Gloucester Town, wheie a woik of God had 
been manifested only second to that at Regent The two Hano- 
veiians who together had studied at. the National Society's 
Central School, who together had sailed foi Afi ica, who together 
had received the instructions of Edward Bickei sloth on the spot, 
who together or lathei, simultaneously had enteied upon the 
arduous task of reclaiming the most degraded of mankind, who 
together had rejoiced ovei the abundant tokens of the Holy 
Spnit's eonveitmg and sanctifying woik, now almost together 
entered into the presence of their Lord ] 

* See next ohaptei 

f The old Mwwvr of W A B Johnson has boon long out of print; but 
Dr A T Piorson has lately given the gist of it m a very attractive form m 
Ins Souefl. Tears w Sierra Leona (New York, 1897) Dr Pierson thinks 
Johnson's narrative" "the most lomaikable story of sevon years' missionary 
labour "he " evei read " 



1 70 SIERRA LEONR 

PART III The Committee weie foi tho moment ciushed by all this ovei- 

812 ~^t whelming sonow They gazed m one another's faces acioss the 

cimpjs tabl6j they knelt togethei at the footstool of Divine Meiey , and 

Attitude of the tiadition is that one leading lay membei, on the day that the 

mi e ttce m " 116WS caime ^ seveia l deaths, lose and said in a tone of deep 

feeling and fiina lesolve, "We must not abandon West Africa " 

And when, at the following Anniveisaiy, they had to piesent then 

Bepoit, the language is smgulaily calm and comageous 

" The Committee scarcely know whether to speak in the language of 
grief or of ]oy, of sorrow or of tnumph so mingled have been, of lato,tho 
Divine Dispensations In no one year has tho Society ever sufteiod a 
greater loss in its Friends and Labouieis, while in no one yeai lias there 
been a more evident blessing on tlieir labours Tho alleviations of its 
heavy trials have been remarkable They have given occasion for a 
special manifestation of Divine Grace Those who have died have died 
in the Lord, thanking God foi calling them to His woik, and glonfying 
His Holy Name in the midst of then sufferings Their surviving relatives 
around them have expressed entire resignation to the Divine Will, m 
the veiy midst of their trials, and this just before they themselves were 
called to their everlasting rewai cl The survivors seem to have had then 
faith elevated above the trying circumstances m which they had been 
placed, and to have become more entirely united, and devoted to then 
work The Society will see m this state of things a peculiar manifesta- 
tion of the character of the work, whose labourers have often had to say, 
( As dying, and behold wo live as sorrowful, yet always lejoicmg ' Their 
Heavenly Mastei illustrates the powei and the abundance of His own 
grace, m the very weakness of His seivants , and He carries on His own 
work, while He removes to their eternal toward those msti union ts whom 
He has most highly honoured " 

Seveial of the schoolmasteis weie Geimans, not fiom Beilin as 

of old, but fiom the new Basle Seminary , and the news of then 

Zeal of deaths made a deep impiession upon the students " Every one 

Basiemen | om , ]3 le jjh leil( " ^iote Blumhaidt, the Directoi, "is piepaimg 

himself to come foiwaid and offei himself as a sacnfice to tho 

Loid Should many moie such tidings of an immoital world 

amve, we could not longer detain om deal brethren-soldiers 

fiom going to the spot wheie the Heroes of the Chuich have 

fallen " 

The tidings of Johnson's death at sea did not reach Sicira 

Leone till they had come to England by the ship he died m and 

been communicated by another ship to Africa , and appeals fiom 

the brethren to send him back quickly, and many letteis fiom his 

converts to himself about the sickness and the sorrow oppi essmg 

the Colony, kept airiving at Salisbury Square long after ho had 

Regent been called away But when at last Eegent heaid of it, a fresh 

paaSr^ lte an ^ remarkable proof of the genuineness of religion in the people 

death y/as afforded The schoolmaster in charge, when reading out the 

news, begged them to be calm and quiet , and though the whole 

congiegation were instantly in tears, none of the noisy outcries 

weie heard which had been so natuial to them m the past 



THE WHITE MAN'S GRAVE AND THE ft LACK Mitts LIFE 171 

Piesently they lose and sang a hymn which Johnson had taught PABT III 

them, and of which he was veiy fond 1812-24 

' J Chap, 13 

In every tionble sharp and sfciong, 

My soul to Jeans flies , 
My anchor hold is firm in Him, 

Whon swelling billows riso 

Bis comfoifca bcai my spnits up, 

I tiust afnithfnl God, 
Tho sure foundation of my hope 

la m my Saviour s blood 

Loud Ilallohrjahs I will sing 

To my RodeoTnoi's Name , 
In ioy and smrow, life and death, 

His IOT o is still the sarao 

At the usual Piayei Meeting on the following Saturday evening, 
seveial of the conveits spoke lovingly of then dopai ted friend and 
pastoi , and one of them said, "Wo thought too much of Mi 
Johnson, though he was a good man God will not suffer us to 
put confidence m any but the Loid Jesus Chust My dear 
brethren, I think God took him away, because we looked moie 
to Mi Johnson than we did to Jesus " 

In the next thiee yeais seveial more deaths occuued, among More 
them that of Nylander, the oldest nnssionaiy aftei Beimei was dcaths 
taken away, being No 3 on the Society's loll Ho had labomod 
nineteen yeais m Africa without once coming to Eutope Ho 
was the founder of the Bulloni Mission, and m his latei yeais 
was looked up to as the veteian of the Colony When he died 
m 1825, only one man was left who had gone out befoie 1820 
This was Wilhelm, one of the foiuth party (1811), and No 10 on 
the roll In 1826, out of a total of seventy-nine peisons, mis- 
sionaries, schoolmasteis, and wives, who had gone out in the 
twenty-two years, only fouiteen lemamed , the laigo majority of 
the remainder being dead 

This chaptei may appiopnately be concluded by quoting fiom 
a striking letter addi eased to the Committee m the midst of then 
tuals by a fnend of the Society whose name is not given 

" We ought not to be discouraged by our losses m Afncn, , since, even 
on the pimciple of justice, wo should bo voiy hbeial to that countiy 
For what has influenced the public mind so much as the interesting 
accounts communicated lospectmg that country P I fiimly bohove that 
three-fourths of the zeal foi Missions now evident among us was first 
excited by the state of Afnca Go and toll of lams, and fevois, of 
graves, of deaths, of missionaiioa dead, of missionaries dying, of mis- 
sionaries fainting under the burden and heat of the clay, toll of the good 
already done, and that othois are panting to outer into this very field 
these things will produce even more beneficial eftocts than they have 
evei yet produced they will produce sufficient funds for the support, 
not only of the African Mission, but of the whole Such a labourer as 
this is surely worthy of its hire on advocate so touching, so eloquent, 



172 SfERRA LEONE THE WHITE MAN'S GRAVE, &c. 

PAST III so successful, should be well repaid In fine, notwithstanding the 
1812-24 Society's expenditure upon Africa, Africa is an advantage to the Society 
Chap 13 a creditor, and not a debtor " 

wo r rtd'? ie Yes > an< ^ so Africa always has been To India, to China, to 
creditor all other Mission-fields, Africa is a Creditor, not a Debtor The 
deep interest and living sympathy again and again aioused in 
behalf of Africa, by the enterpiises of various Missions, whethei. 
on the Nigei, 01 the Congo, 01 the Zambesi, whethei on Lake 
Nyassa or the Victona Nyanza, whethei at Siena Leone 01 
Kuruman 01 Zanzibar or Mombasa, have again and again been 
manifested in peisonal conseciation and in the dedication of 
substance to the Lord, by which every other part of the world 
has been the gainei 



CHAPTBE XIV 
THE 




Miss Childe's Book-Some Martyrs for Christ in West Africa Rev 
W Garnon Cates-A Negro's Wail Mr and Mrs Palmer- 
C Knight and H Brooks Nylander's Daughters Kissy Church- 
yard 

"I aw now ready to lo n/n ul I hmfiniblwl wj comae "2 Tim iv G, 7 

jHENwe road Si Paul's louclung woids, "I am HOWPAET III 
loddy to bo ofteied, and the time of my depaiktfe is at 1812-24 
hand , I have fought a good fight, I have finished my Cha P I4 
com BO, I have kept the faith," and leniembei that 
thoy weie wriUcn m his old age Iioni the Mameitme 
Prison at Borne, wo think natuially of his long careei and his 
" labours more abundant," and oui idod of a " finished comse " is 
of a long life of usefulness at length laid down But a " finished 
coiuse" noeduotbe a longono Both the sons of Zebedee finished A finished 
their course, although one was tho first apostle to fall, and the courw 
othei outlived all the rest The Lord Himself, at the age of thirty- 
throe, could say, " I have finished the woik which Thou gavest 
Me to do and now come I to Thee " Yes, "the work which 
Thou, gavest mo to do ", not necessanly the work which we in 
our shoitsightednoss may have purposed or aspued to do " Im- 
mortal till hs w&tlc is ttoic" so the Christian has been well 
described, yes, but the woik appointed by the Divine Master may 
bo a very small one, and when thai woik is finished, the "couiso" 
is finished too 

The woids thus chosen for tho title of this chapter aio the title Miw ( 
of a book wiitten moio than thirty yeais ago by the daughter of took c 
tho venoiated former Funcipal of the Chmch Missionary College, 
tho Eov C P Childe, but now out of punt " No moio beautiful 
and touching book lias evoi been publibhed In simple language 
it sketches tho caieois of some of tho earhei CMS missionaries, 
most of them in Africa, whose "finished course" was a very 
brief one The present chaptei consists chiefly of a few gleanings 
fiom that volume, supplemented fiom the ongmal records The 
scope of our History docs not permit of many biographical details 



* The hivuM Coime, Bncif Mices of Vqpwttd G/iurc7i 
Sooloy & Co , 1865 



174 THE. FINISHED COURS& 

PAHT III of the rmssionaiies being introduced , but we may at this point 
1812-24 n ghtly turn aside foi a moment from the goneial naiiative, to 
Gha P 14 behold the tnnmphs of Divine Grace in some of the biethien and 
sisteis whose " coin so " was quickly " finished " 

One of the most mteiestmg of these faithful labomeis was not 
a C M S missionary at all, m the stnct sense of the word His 
name does not appeal on the loll But to all intents and purposes 
he was a C M S missionary neveitheless In the early days of 
Siena Leone, the Committee now and again picked out then: best 
men and gave them to the Goveimnent to send out as chaplains , 
and while the icgular missionaiies weio eithei Gorman Lutheian 
mmisteis 01 English schoolmasters and artizans, Englishmen 
qualified for oidmation weie allotted to the not less important 
Gamonthe and more prominent and influential office of chaplain One of 
chapiam these was the Rev William Gainon 

William Garnon was an orphan biought up by an uncle, Captain 
James Garnon , who had seen much active service, and filled his 
nephew's mind with the glories of a soldiei's life William m due 
couise obtained a commission m the 14th Foot, and served in 
Spam under Sir John Moore, and m the ill-fated Walcheien 
Expedition The Walchei en fever shatteied his health, and dining 
the long penod of delicacy that followed he came under the 
influence of a godly aunt at Brighton, and ultimately, thiough a 
faithful seimon he heard theie, was converted to Chust Being 
mtioduced to William Wilberfoice, he was encouiaged by that 
gieat man to study foi the ministry , and af Lor oidmation and a 
short seivice in England as GUI ate, he was appointed to the 
Chaplaincy at Sierra Leone lie sailed thithei, accompanied by a 
young wife, m September, 1816, at the very time that Edwaid 
Bickerbteth was leturnmg to England 

The difference between a chaplain and a missionary m Webt 
Afuca was little rnoie than one of status and salary, Government 
connexion and pay being a good deal higher than that of a 
missionary society The chaplains thiew themselves heaiUly into 
missionary woik, and the missionaiies porfoimed the chaplains' 
duties when death or absence left vacancies Mi Gainon pioved 
a tiuo raissionaiy, travelling among the villages, encouraging the 
biethien, addressing their congiogations, mstiuctmg then classes 
It was the penod of the revivals undoi Johnson and During, 
descubed in the preceding chapter, and Garnon' s help and counsel 
were of the greatest value 

Sunday, July 19th, 1818, was a day of aiduoua seivico at 
Fieetown, and Garnon was tiled out In the middle of the night 
he was called up by a messenger from one of the Geiman 
missionaiies, Mr Wenzel, who was dying , and m a few minutes 
a second messenger followed, mging him to come quickly His 
wife, dieading the exposure for him in his fatigued condition, 
begged him to wait till the morning, but his icply was, " If the 
doctor is sent for, he is not afraid to go instantly , neithei must 



THE fi WISHED COURSE 175 

1 " He rode on hoiseback foui miles thiough heavy lain , and PART III 
two days aftei be was struck down by fevei Ab the same time, 1812-24 
in the same house, the assistant-chaplain, Mi Collier (who had P 14 
been a G M S student), and Mis Collier, weie also lying ill , and 
Mis Gornon heiself was daily expecting the advent of hei fiist- 
boin On the 28th Mis Colliei died , and the missionaries who More 
came togcthei for her funeial that evening, knelt iound hei cofiin, deatha 
and piayed the Lord, if it weie His will, to laise up both the 
chaplains Mis Garnon, who had been tenderly nursing hoi 
husband with the little stiength she had, was now obliged to 
retne, but Johnson, During, and Cates, watched though the 
night Eapidly, howevei, then beloved fuend and counsolloi 
sank, saying with almost his last bieath the Apostolic Benediction 
over hvnisdj "The giace of our Loid Jesus Chiist, and tho love 
of God, and the fellowship of the Holy Ghost, be with ma", 
adding, a moment aftei wauls, " Yes, they are with me " In the 
eaily morning of July 29th, ]iist two days after his twenty-sovonth 
birthday, William Gainon entered into lest, and thus on two 
successive evenings the bereaved band of missionaiiea assembled 
round an open grave Next day, Gainon'a little son was bom 
On tho thud day, the sick German, Wenzel, died, and was bunod 
" And now, deai Sirs' " wrote Gatos, repoitmg these deaths, 
" be not discouraged ! Letmoie laboureis put then livos in then 
hands, and come to help those that are left Ethiopia, shall soon 
stietch out hei hands unto God 1 " Then, when Gates InmsoH 
died m the following ycai, and tho othci chaplain, Mi Colhci, 
and Mis Josty (a most devoted woman, whoso husband only 
survived her six months), Dm ing wrote 

"When it pleases Qod to visit His people with afflictions, those wlio 
iire His aie host seen, and distinguished fiom those who bum His name 
but ,110 none of His While those whose only hope is in this life aio 
terrified by seeing numbois of then fellow-mortals limnod into eternity, 
tho tiue Chnstian is enabled to stand hko u child by his Fitthei's side, 
and see with soienity what He is clomp I would huinhly say to my 
supenoiB, Be not dismayed at tho tlaik dibpensations of om God I Foui 
not foi the Saviour shall yot suo of tho ti avail of His soul among tho 
tubes of Africa I am not cast down' I know that tho Lord can work 
by a single individual as much as by a thousand, only I would aave 
yoiu earnest players for us tho suivivois " 

Another mole, "Wo aio not dwcouiagod, but encouraged , 
and if wo aio so who stand m joopaidy ovoiy hom, why should 
not you bo ? Send us aiaolhoi Gatob an Elisha instead of our 
Elijah 1" And Nylundor, alluding to a icpoifc that had leachod 
Sioua Leone that the Society was giavoly thinking of abandoning 
the Mission, urges the blessing that God had alioady vouchsafed 
to the labours of those who had been taken away, and evon to 
the silent influence of those who had been but a few weeks in the 
country, mentioning actual cases of conversion brought about by 
God using the words and lives ol some with tho briefest caieers 



1^6 THE FINISHED COURSE 

PART III " Look forwatd for youi rewaid 1 " he writes to the Committee , 
1812-24 "though the bodies of our biethieu aie removed from among us, 
ChapJ.4 y^ ^ Q gee( j ^gh ^ e y sowe( i keeps growing " One simple 
A Negro's letter m bioken English must be quoted, mitten to Mr Johnson 
waii while m England by one of his converts It gives the most vivid 
pictuie of all 

" That time Mi Gates sick, and Mi Moigan sick , and poor Mi Gates 
die Then Mi Collier get sick, and Mr Morgan get sick again , and 
one friend said, * God soon leave this place ' , and I said, ' I trust m the 
Loid Jesus He knows His people, and He nevei left them, neither 
f 01 sake them' and then, next Sunday, Mr Colhei die then Mr 
Morgan sick Mrs Morgan sick Mi Bull sick Ohl that time all 
Missionaiies sick ' Wo went to Fieetown Monday, and bury Mi Collier 
we come homo again, and keep service in Chinch Oh, that time 
trouble too much in iny heart Nobody to teach me, and I was so sorry 
for my pool country-people Mr Gates die Mr Collier die Mr 
Morgan sick oh, what must I do for my countrymen 1 But I trust m 
the Lord Jesus He know what to do , and 1 went to piay ; and I say, 
1 Lord, take not all the Teachers away from us ' ' " 

The sad The yeai 1823 was another specially sad time, as mentioned 
year 1833 b e f ore In January of that year a vessel from England arrived at 
Siena Leone, bunging back Mr and Mis Duung, and bringing also 
no less than thirteen new labourers, and a new colonial chaplain 
and his wife The same ship, sailing again for England, took m 
it W A B Johnson Now observe what tho hand of death did 
m that yeai On Apul 20th one of the new men was taken , on 
April 25th a second , on May 3rd Johnson died at sea , on May 
6th a colonial chaplain leturnmg home also died at sea , on May 
7th the new chaplain was called away , on June 6th his wife , 
on June 22nd the wife of the hrst man taken , on June 25th 
another wife, on June 28th another of the new band, on 
November 26th yet another In that Novembei, too, Mr and Mrs 
During were lost at sea It was at the same time that the Colony 
was so bereft of its officials, as before recorded 1 Let us now just 
glance at two members of this martyr-band as they may well be 
called, the new chaplain and his wife, the Eev Henry and Mis 
Palmer 

Mr and Mr Palmer, like Mr Garnon, had been m the army He had 
fought at Waterloo, and had served in many distant chmes, and 
a man thus mured to hardship seemed to the CMS Committee 
exactly fitted for the dangerous post of Sierra Leone, and was 
accordingly recommended by them to the Government Moreover 
he was of a singularly bright and joyous spmt, that could be 
trusted not to give way to depression His young wife was the 
daughter of a country clergyman, the Eev John Noble, Vicar of 
Fnsby, Leicestershire, and nad been the sunshine of the village, 
It was not tall Mi Palmer was about to sail for Africa that she 
was married In her twentieth year she was cheerfully laid on 

* See p 169 f See p 169 



THE FINISHED COURSE 177 

the altai of sacnfice by her parents , and it is related that, ]ust PABT III 




thoughts up horn the dieaded African shoie to the " city out of 
sight," the " city which hath foundations, whose rnakei andbuildei 
is God " But the beautiful piayei ui the Mamage Seivice le- 
mmded them that it is those who " obey His will " that aie 
" always m safety under His piotection " 

In the Memoir of Robert Noble, the great educational missionary 
m the Telugu country, it is recorded that, when he was a boy, his 
eldei sistei, who was going out to the Mission-field, passed though 
the town of Oakharn, wheie he was at school, veiy eaily in 
the morning, called to bid him farewell, saw him in bed, and gave 
him a Bible as a paitmg gift, saying, " Eobert, read your Bible " 
That sister was Anne Palmer 

On then aiiival at Siena Leone theyweieteinpoianly quaiteied 
with W A B Johnson at Eegent When, thiee months later, 
he was about to stait on that voyage which he did not live to 
complete, Mrs Palmei had the pnvilege of being present at the 
memoiable faiewell communion seivice, and mote home with 
overflowing ]oy of the foiu bundled and twenty Negio Cmistians 
among whom she had knelt at the Loid's Table On May 3id 
Mr Palmei 's predccessoi in the chaplaincy, the Eev S Mood, 
sailed foi England which he, too, never reached, The next day, 
Sunday, Mi Palmei preached at Ib.eetown on the opening woids 
of the Loid's high-pnestly piayei, " Father, the horn is come" 
In the middle of the seimon he felt the fevei seize upon him , and 
on leaching home he said with deep emotion that if ho never had 
anothei opportunity of declanng the Gospel, he believed he had 
faithfully declaied it that day , and then with solemn emphasis he 
lepeatod his toxt, "Fathei, the houi is come!" Within tluee 
days he was gone The veteian Nylander wrote, " Had he fallen 
at Wateiloo when he fought theie, would not his death have beon 
counted honourable ? Is not his death here in the Loid's battle 
more honourable? " The young widow wiote, <c He who cannot 
eir, whose love to His people can never fail, has seen fit to take 
my beloved husband to Himself Can I reply against God ? I 
cannot, I will not The hour was come, and His name was 
glonned " 

She, too, now took the deadly disease From hei sick-bed she 
wrote to a schoolmaster's wife in Sierra Leone, "May you and 
your husband hold each other &s loans, together with every other 
precious gift which our God may bestow upon you " Three 
weeks after her own husband's death, the babe was boin whom 
her fellow-missionanes had looked for to cheei her in her soirow , 
but it was born only to die , and six days after, " the hour" came 
foi the young mother too On June 6th she fell asleep 

The missionary who reported these losses was a young school- 
yoL i N 



178 THE FINISHED COURSE 

PART III mastei conspicuous for piety and devotion, one of the party who 
1812-24 > h a( i on iy come ou t; m the previous January, Phihp Vaughan 
Chap 14 it was his wife to whom Mis Palmei wiote the message akne- 
Mr and quoted That wife was the next to be stiuck down Thenanativeof 

Vaughan ^61 ^ as ^ ^ a y s 1S one ^ * ne mos ^ Couching ^ * ne man y touching 
nanatives of that fatal year Her sick-chamber was indeed the 
house of God and the gate of heaven Hei utterances of faith and 
hope are most beautiful Not for a moment did she lepine " I 
have never repented," she said, "one single step I took towaids 
coming here I sought my God's duection, and I nimly believe I 
had it, both by the teaching of His Spmt and the leadings of His 
Piovidence " To hei, too, a child was boin, but boin only to die , 
and, shoitly aftei, she " finished hei couise," literally " with ]oy " 
Out of six labouieis m Fieetown alone, three months before, 
only Vaughan himself now lemamed , and he, too, joined them, 
m the piesence of the Loid in the following Novembei The 
widow of another of the martyi-band came and took chaige of the 
girls' school, but she also was taken within a few months 
There was no G M S missionary m ITieetown left to smooth her 
dying pillow , the veteian Nylander was lying dangeiously ill at 
the neighbouring village of Kissey , and a young Wesleyan mis- 
sionary, Mi Harfce, was alone pnvileged to receive her parting 
messages He too died soon after , and Nylander himself m the 
following yeai 

But before Nylander 's death, two othei valuable men had 
amved, and had died The Committee, deeply feeling the im- 
portance of sending good men to the two stations which had been 
so gieatly blessed under Johnson and Dining, Eegent and 
Gloucester, appointed to the Sierra Leone Mission, for the fiist time, 
two of their English candidates who had been ordained, Charles 
Knight Knight and Henry Biooks Knight was a bi other of one of the 
Brooks ^ our men wno na ^ fonned the first band of missionaries to Ceylon f 
Biooks, like Henry Williams of New Zealand, had been a 
lieutenant m the Navy The words of Edwaid Bickersteth's 
charge to them at the Valedictory Meeting, show incidentally 
which of the brethren who had died m Africa weie held in 

rcial estimation for their faithfulness and zeal "You aie 
ut," said Bickersteth, " to tread m the steps of Garnon, and 
Johnson, and During, and Vaughan " , though he added, " and 
many others of the excellent of the earth, who are gone from the 
scene of youi future labours to their heavenly rest Follow them 
as they followed Christ " 

They sailed on November 3rd, 1824, but contiary winds diove 
their vessel into Cowes, and theie they were detained ]ust two 
months Brooks, recalling his naval experiences, wrote, "How 
different aie my circumstances, views, hopes, from what they 
were when I was last in this port ! Then, we were waiting foi a 

* Bee p 216 



TffE FINISHED COURSE 179 

fair wind m order to carry out the declaration of War against the PABT III 
Americans Now, we are waiting for a favourable gale to enable 1812-24 
us to go and preach the Gospel of Peace to the Africans Then, I ^ p 
was in fear and apprehension Now, I am tranquil, blow high or 
blow low, because I am assured that my God watcheth over 
me " At length they got away, and i cached Siena Leone on 
February 3rd 

Knight took charge of Gloucestei, and Biooks of Eegent Both 
stations had greatly suffeied during the yeai and a half that had 
elapsed since then beieavement The Negio Christians, easily 
led this way or that way, had sadly backslidden But within a 
few weeks, the two new pastors had the joy of seeing most of 
them come back , and all looked bright and hopeful But veiy 
quickly was their course finished On the sixth Sunday of his 
ministry, Knight was struck by the fever, and had to commit the 
services to the schoolmastei, though by a gieat effort he succeeded 
m administering the Communion That the Lord was calling him 
away he did not doubt foi a moment , but he faced death without 
a shadow of feai He did, however, think of the eftect of it m 
England " It will be such a discouiagement to the Society," he 
said , " and it will prevent others coming out '' Brooks hastened 
ovei from Begent, in time to bid his comiade faiewell, and, on 
the evening of his death, their seventh Sunday in Africa, to com- 
mit his body to the grave Then he went back to hie own post, 
and on the thirteenth Sunday, a sunstioke laid him low On the 
Monday, however, he got up to bury another fellow-labouiei, his 
schoolmaster's wife On the Tuesday he was again struck down, 
never spoke again, and fell asleep eaily on the Wednesday moin- 
ing, May 4th A young Negro lad in the Chustian Institution 
wrote home to the Society, " Deal Sir, do send us moio mission- 
aries like Mr Biooks, men who count all things but loss foi Jesus 
Christ's sake " 

It was within the following three weeks that the veteran 
Nylander was taken, after nineteen years' unbroken service Of 
him we will not now speak , but let us briefly notice the two 
young daughters he left oehind Nyiknder's 

In Edward Bickersteth's jouinal of his visit to Africa in 1816, daUrhterS| 
occurs the following entry, undei date May 5th 

"I pleached from Matt xxviu 19, ' Baptizing them in the name of 
the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost/ after which I had 
the pleasure of baptizing Mi Nylander's two children, Catherine * and 
Anne Elizabeth, The negro school-childieu seemed much interested, 
and I was glad of the opportunity of talking to them about the 
ordinance " 

This was on the Bullom Shoie, opposite Sierra Leone, wheie 
Nyknder was tfcen stationed , and it was the first baptism in that 
country, in which now for many years the Sierra Leone Church 

* Sic m journal , but afterwards she appears as Hannah 
N 2 



i8o THE FINISHED COURSE 

PAST III has maintained its own Mission, and admitted hundreds of 

nS^u mem kers m ^ tne v^ble Body of Christ 

p The two httle guls, entnely orphaned by then fathei's death 
at the ages of thirteen and eleven, weie sent to England for 
education , and after six years at the famous Clergy Daughters' 
School neai Kirkby Lonsdale, they were engaged by the Society to 
he teacheis in the land of then bnth When the Committee took 
leave of them, in 1831, Bickeisteth affectionately addressed the 
young sisteis whom he had baptized fifteen years before, and 
whose names stand Nos 10 and 11 on the C M S roll of women 
missionaiies Young as they weie, they proved excellent school 
misti esses, and a few yeais later, both were married Anne- 
Elizabeth to the Eev J F Schon, the eminent linguistic student 
and missionary, and her sistei Hannah to the Eev Edwaid 
Jones, the coloured cleigyman of the American Church who was 
so long Piincrpal of Fourah Bay College 

But they also soon finished then couise Each died in turn at 
the age of twenty-five Each left a little daughter Hannah's 
child soon followed hei to the bettei land Anne Elizabeth's 
child still, by God's meicy, survives, and is honoured by 
missionaries and tiavelleis mnumeiable who have enjoyed the 

And simple hospitality of her mission bungalow, as Mis Higgens of 

grand- Colombo 

aug ter When James Fredeiick Schon was mourning the loss of his 
beloved young wife Anne Elizabeth, one of the African Christians 
said to him, " Massa, the time when tiouble catch me, me go to 
you you speak to us of Jesus and the Eesunection, and that 
make oui hearts glad Massa, can this now no comfoit you $ 
Your wife no lost, youi child no lost They that believe in Jesus 
never die " 

Kiaaey Kissey Churchyard, in which lie the mortal remains of many of 
yard ch " * nese brethien and sistei s, is a familial name to older membeis 
of the Church Missionary Society Often were the tombstones 
in it refened to at missionary meetings in former yeais And no 
wonder , foi touching indeed aie these memorials of the dead- 
or rathei, of those " not dead but gone before " Many of them 
belong to a later period than this chapter has to do with , yet let 
them be just noticed here Side by side he those heroes and 
heroines of the cross " There" says the book that has inspired 
this chapter, " lies the veteian missionary, worn out by years of 
toil, andtffowfi, the young brothel, struck down in the prime of 
his youth, and the height of his usefulness Th&ie sleeps the 
young wife, who rejoiced that she was counted worthy to die foi 
the name of the Loid , and there the httle cmldien, early blighted 
by that deadly climate, like the babes of Bethlehem, ' uncon- 
scious martyrs m the cause of their Eedeemer ' " What the 
touching Service for the "Churching of Women" calls "the 
great pain and peril of child-birth" is conspicuously illustiated 
by the inscriptions on the giaves at Kissey Heie lie's Augusta 



THE. FINISHED COURSE 181 

Kissling (n&e Tanner), the young wife of the excellent Basle PABT III 
missionary to the Gold Coast who, after nve yeais theie, pined 1812-24 
the G M S , married, and went to Sieria Leone, and who in after ^Pj 14 
years lendeied valuable service in New Zealand Many hopes 
clusteied lound Augusta Tanner Her Loid had given her 
natuial talents, which a good education had developed When 
she was fifteen, God hi ought her to Himself At the age of 
nineteen He called her to West Afnca lor rnoie than a yeai 
she enjoyed good health, and began zealously to woik among 
the women and girls Then her babe was bom, and died , and, 
an hour after, the mother yielded up her beautiful spirit to the 
Loid Neai her giave is that of Mis Giaf and hei infant She 
landed with hei husband one December , on Maich 14th she was 
laid to lest m Kissey Chuichyaid Haid by, again, is the grave of 
Mis Schlenkei and hei infant She lived m Siena Leone just 
six months And the graves of two wives of David Schrnid, both 
Geimans , the fiist of whom landed m Januaiy and died in July, 
and the second landed m January and died in Maich 

But Kissey Churchy aid is not the only spot thus sacred The 
cemcteiy of Fieetown contains many like early graves , and not a 
few aie found in other outlying villages It was not, howevei, in 
all cases the wife that was taken so soon One grave at Kissey, 
for instance, beais this inscription, " Oui dear and blessed 
Comad's lesting-place " "Comad" was another Basle man 
01 darned m England, the Rev John Conrad Clemens To his 
wife, also, a little babe was given, and immediately taken away 
again , but she recovered, nuised her dying husband, and then 
nobly laboured on m Africa, as a widow, foi nineteen yeais 
Sabina Peter von Ella, of Strasburg, deserves, as Mrs Clemens, 
an honoured place among the heiomes of Sierra Leone 

Some have leproached the Missionaiy Societies for sending out 
young women to die, and have suggested that their childien 
" have no light to exist " Let such critics lead Di Gust's Dr cust 
address on Missionary Heioes m Afnca, m which he speaks SaSa of 
so sympathetically of " many a gentle woman's giave, for womeu JJJ|f s m 
have never been found wanting to share the honour and the sum-field 
danger of the Cross," and uses these noble woids "Some are 
selected to live and woik, to others is conceded the peculiar 
grace to die nobly, and set a glonous example Deaths aie 
required as well as Lives to complete the picture of the Now Life 
Some may follow the steps of oui Loid m a life of beneficence 
and mercy , to others is gi anted the sweeter lot of filling up that 
which is behind of His sufferings And in the last struggle, how 
by grace they have been sustained, doing nothing common or 
mean in the last memoiable scene of then eaxthly passion but 
sealing then faith by their mannei of meeting death " 



CHAPTEE XV 
INDIA Tm OPENED DQOE } m 

CMS Work begun before the Opening The Calcutta Corresponding 
Committee Come and Abdul Masih The First Missionaries 
The Bishopric of Calcutta Bishop Middleton Bishop's College- 
Bishop Heber Burdwan and its Schools Miss Cooke's Girls' 
School Benares, Agra, Meerut The Sepoy Convert Madras and 
Tmnevelly Hough and Rhemus 

11 Open y& the gaies, that the righteous which fa&p&th the truth way 
mfa in " Isa XXYI 2 

PART in ||MiWjN|i|OW, through the Divine blessing upon the stienuous 

1812-24 P Mj |j exertions of Buchanan and Wilberforce and Pratt and 

Gha P 16 K SB 91 their alhes, the door of India was opened for the 

jQgJIJI Gospel, we have already seen in our Ninth Chapter 

We must now see how the Christians of England 

availed themselves of the great opportunity 

Work in But the Chuich Missionary Society had begun woik in India 

before the k^ 019 ^ a * 7 ear 1813 ^ Corresponding Committee, compnsmg 

door three of the famous "five chaplains," David Brown, Buchanan, 

opened and Henry Martyn, and also George Udny, had been formed at 

Calcutta m 1807, and money had been gianted to them, first for 

translations of the Scriptures, and then for the employment of 

Native Christians as " readers " The Society's vote of money for 

readers was noticed in the House of Commons by a hostile 

member, but Giant succeeded in quieting him 

Subsequently, Martyn and Buchanan having left India, and 
David Brown dying in 1812, the othei two of the " five chaplains," 
Daniel Come and Thomas Thornason, were the leading spirits , 
and it was under Gome's auspices that the first and most 
Come celebrated of these readers was set to woik This was Abdul 
andA.bdui jj^ originally Sheikh Salih, a zealous Delh Mohammedan, 
and a man of some rank, having been mastei of the jewels at the 
Court of Oudh He had been led to seek Christ though hearing 
Henry Martyn explaining the Ten Commandments to a crowd of 
natives at Cawnpore He engaged himself as a copyist under 
Sabat, Martyn's assistant in translating the New Testament into 
Hindustani, and as he copied the translated chapters, the enhance 
of God's Woid gave light, and the result was that he asked foi 



INDIA THE OPENED DOOR , THE ENTE&IXG IN 183 

baptism After Maityn left India, on Whit Sunday, 1811, he was PAST III 
baptized by David Brown in the Old Church, Calcutta, by the 1812-24 
name of Abdul Masih (Servant of Christ) Come, on being Cha P 15 
appointed chaplain at Agia, took him there with him, engaging 
him as a reader in the name of the Chuich Missionary Society 
He was thus the first CMS agent in India , and it is a coinci- 
dence woith noting that Gome's diary of the boat journey with 
him up the Ganges was one of the communications read at the 
first Committee meeting held m the new office m Salisbury Square, 
on December 13th, 1813 A nch blessing was vouchsafed to the 
Indian evangelist's work, and duung Corne's sixteen months at 
Agia over fifty adults, Hindus and Mohammedans, were baptized 
So commenced the caieei of the man who was afterwaids ordained 
by Bishop Hebei Let it never be forgotten that the first Native 
clergyman of the Church of England in India was a conveit from 
Mohammedanism Thomason had a poi trait of him painted, and 
sent it home to Simeon m 1814 Simeon sent it to the Church 
Missionary House, and th ere it hangs to this day A letter of Abdul 
Masih's to the Committee, a translation of which is printed m the 
Eeport of 1818, is singularly touching ' ' friends of my soul/' he 
says, " I who am the least of the servants of the Church of Hmdoo- 
stan, give praise to the Loid Jesus, the Messiah, having found 
favour of you all " He gives an account of his woik, and particu- 
larly of two ex-Moslems who had apostatized, expressing gladness 
that the "wolves in sheep's clothing" had thrown off their dis- 
guise He sends " salaams " from forty-two men and women and 
their children , and concludes, " May this Letter of Abdul Masih, 
written January 1, 1816, from his residence Akbarabad [i e Agra, 
the city of Akbar], arrive m London at the Chuich Missionary 
House, m the presence of the Eeverend Josiah Pratt ! " 

Abdul Masih's journals came home regularly, and proved quite Abdul's 
the pi&ce de rtsistancc, sometimes for months together, in the new jourii s 
Mmionwy Register , and they excited the deepest interest among 
the Society's friends throughout the country It is interesting to 
notice that he was, m a humble sense, the first CMS medical 
missionary It was reported that m two months he had treated 
one hundred cases, had spent a large part of his stipend in 
the purchase of medicines, and was known far and wide as the 
Christian hahtn His journals greatly encom aged the Committee 
As yet there was no fruit to speak of m West Africa, whither all 
the missionaries (save the two "lay settleis" for New Zealand) 
had hitheito been sent , and heie, befoie a single man had been 
sent to India, and at the veiy time that Wilbeiforce was fighting 
m Parliament foi liberty to send them, the Lord was already 
gathering out His elect, using two mstiuments which have every- 
where and at all times, down to the piesent day in Uganda, been 
more blessed than any other, the Native Evangelist and the 
Written Word The Committee saw m it a confirmation of {f that 
first principle of all missionary exertions, an witm confidence in 



184 INDIA THE OPENED DOOR, THE ENTERING IN 

PAST in God, in the ptudent use of all opportwnbes as they may present 
1812-24 thmsekes"* 
Ohap 15 

But before the news began to arnve that so cheeied the 
Committee indeed within a month of that first journal of Gome's 
being lead, the great Valedictory Dismissal had been held, 
noticed in a previous chapter ,t to take leave of the fust fom 
missionaries for India, Ehemus, Schnane, Gieen wood, and Noiton 
Buchanan Buchanan's mitten addiess on the occasion is a mastoipicco of 
fiS?S* e ^ ise counsel, dictated by his own expenence m India, and based 
for India U pon our Lord's chaige to the Twelve m St Matthew f It is 
notable for its plain statement that a missionaiy's life m India is 
not (ordinarily) one of penl or piivation, and foi the waimng that 
one of the chief temptations would bo to indolence and case in the 
enjoyment of " new modes of comfort " , notable also foi its 
earnest exhortation not to send home colomed and (unintention- 
ally) misleading reports Let one shoit passage be quoted 

"Beware, especially, of giving too favourable an account of ynm 
ability to preach in the native languages, and of the effects of yom 
preaching on the heaiers Foi instance, after you lu\o mado some 
progress in a particular language, and have committed to memory n fow 
theological phrases, you will, peinaps, tiy to conveise with the mtivos 
on religious subjects But, in your account of such a conversation m this 
stage of your study, do not call it yy\eaclmiq Chi it to the pwiplt Foi it 
may be that the people scarcely understood a single ilooti mo of youi 
address, and that, when they asked you a question, you could not 
understand or answer them Tow each C/tnst implies the pi caching of 
Him fully, and to the nndei standing of tho people , and that pooplo aio 
placed under a heavy responsibility who lejoct tho message hi y<mi 
written accounts, therefoie, be just to yourselves, bo just to tho pooplo, 
and be just to Christ's doctrine " 

Among other staking features of the addiess aie his illustrations 
of the use to be made of the descriptions of idolatiy in Iwuuh 
and othei prophets, m lieu of meie abuse of tho idols, and his 
reference to the unique Chaldaic verse embedded m tho Hebrew 
of Jeremiah's piophecy, chap x 11, "Thus shall ye say unto 
them, The gods that have not wade the heavens and the cculh, urcit 
they shall yensh from the earth, and fiwn wide) time hccweni " 
" Just as if," says Buchanan, " while you are receiving mstuictious 
in your own tongue, one sentence should be given you m tho 
Tamul or Cmghalese language which you should deliver to tho 
Hindoos " This great charge which a fnend in India (not 
named) urged the Committee to adopt as a standing chaige foi 
all Indian missionaries was Buchanan's last work lie died 
February 9th, 1815, and Piatt wiote, m well-chosen woidn, 
"In his character weie united remaikable simplicity, groat com* 

* Eeport, 1815, p 567 f See p 113* 

J It is printed an the Appendix to the Report of 1814 
He names Tamil and Singhalese because two of the mon were gonig to 
Madras, and two to Ceylonthough the two latter did actually go to India, 



INDIA THE OPENED DOOR , THE ENTERING IN 185 

piehension and grasp of mind, with the waimth and glow of PAST ill 
genius , and these qualities weie all sanctified by Divine giace, 1812-24 
and directed to the promotion of Chnst's Kingdom among men, 1J lg 
with a boldness and foititude, under difficult cncumstances, the 
success of which will endear his memory to geneiations yet 
unborn " 

The East India Company, loyally accepting the decision of 
Parliament, gave Bhemus and Schnarie, befoie the Act actually 
came into foice, passages to India and licenses to leside theie, 
the Society guaianteemg then charactei and good behavioui (At 
a subsequent penod the Committee had to piomise to recall any 
missionaiy with whom the Goveinment might be dissatisfied , and 
to lequire each man to give a bond foi 450, to secme his retiun 
if summoned ) At Madias they weie received by another of the 
godly chaplains to whom India owes so much, Marmaduke 
Thompson, who was just then forming there a Conespondmg 
Committee for South India, The veneiable Di John, who had 
for many yeais been at the head of the Danish Mission at 
Tranquebar, being just dead, and the S P C K having no one to 
send in his place, the two CMS men weie dnected by the 
Coriespondmg Committee to go and take chaige for a time , and 
although soon afteiwaids they weie recalled to Madras for woik 
in the city, othei CMS missionaues weie sent to Tranquebai, 
and this airangement continued foi some years In passing it 
may be noticed that the first Native teachei engaged under theso 
two owed his conveision to his recovery from sickness through 
the use of medicines dispensed by them another foieshadowmg 
of the Medical Missions of the future Noiton and Greenwood, More men, 
and a new Lutheian cleigyman of great ability and learning, 
Chnstopher Gottbold Schioter, followed m 1815, Benjamin 
Bailey and Thomas Dawson m 1816 , and the biotheis Schmid, 
Baienbruck (the last of the Beilm men), Adlington, Hemy Baker, 
and Joseph Fenn, in 1817 

This was not a veiy eager response by Chnstian England to the But very 
new openings winch God's Px evidence had given to its zeal and ew 
energy Noi had othei Societies a woithiei lemforceincnt The 
S P C K sent one Lutheran out m 1813, and no more till 1818 
The London Missionary Society began to extend m the South, 
followed a year 01 two latei by the Wesleyans , and the Baptists 
advanced from Serampoi e into the North- West , but the piogiess, 
even m staff and machinery, was very slow Thoie was also the 
little beginning of the American Congregationahsts at Bombay, 
already referred to That waa all 

In the meanwhile, the Home Goveinment had fulfilled one 
purpose of the Act of 1813, by appointing a Bishop of Calcutta 3Jl fir8t f 
Their choice fell upon Di T F Middleton, Aichdeacon of Hun- 
tingdon, Vicai of St Pancras, and author of a valuable tieatise, 
not on the Greek Article puie and simple, after the fashion of the 
dry-as-dust divines known as the " Gieek-play bishops," but on 



1 86 INDIA THE OPENED DOOR, THE ENTERING IN 

PAST III the Doctnne of the Greek Article applied to the Cnticism and 
Gh 12 ~l5 ^ /l ^ ra ^ on f MM New Testament, which leally was designed to 
ap refute Socmian interpretations of certain impoitant passages 
of Scripture bearing on the Deity of the Son and the Holy 
Ghost Middleton was a stiong High Churchman, and, as Dr 
Overton puts it, "figuratively speaking he hailed from Clapton, 
not from Clapham " It is worth noting, howevei, as indicating 
the views concerning Continental Protestantism then pievaihng 
among good men of his type, that in delivering an admirable 
charge to Mr Jacobi, the Lutheian missionary sent to India in 
1813 by the S P K , he said, " We legard you as invested with 
the functions of an apostle " , while Jacobi in his reply, which is 
punted, without correction or comment, in the volume of Bishop 
Middleton's Sermons and Charges, obseived that he was " very 
happy to understand that the Ghuich of England consideis the 
Lutheran Chinch as a faithful sister " 

The opinion is a common one that the Evangelicals would 
necessarily be disappointed at the choice of Middleton for a 
bishopnc the establishment of which was so largely due to their 
energy , but no evidence of this is produced, and it would seem 
more probable that, accustomed as they were to work as a despised 
mmonty, and stiangers as they weie to ecclesiastical honours, the 
appointment would appeal to them quite natural, and would be 
taken as a matter of course Pratt, at all events, knew that an 
able and vigorous man was being sent, as he resided m St Pancras, 
and had suppoited Middleton in large schemes of Church extension 
which some of the paushioneis had bitteily opposed t The 
gieater pait of Middleton's chaige to Jacobi is punted in the 
Missionary Register of January, 1814 , and the very next number 
opens with this announcement 

BISHOP FOR INDIA 

Archdeacon Middleton, whose Address to Mr Jacobi we 
noticed m our last Number, has been appointed the new 
Bishop for India the most important charge with 
which any English Clergyman ever left hia native shores ! 

Care not So India got its fiist Bishop , but foi fear of offending the 
india end Natives very few indeed of whom can have known or cared any- 
thing about it he was conseciated privately m Lambeth Palace 
Chapel (May 8th, 1814), and the Dean of Winchester's sermon 
on the occasion was not allowed to be printed The Missionary 
Register, however, printed the Bishop of Chester's valedictory 
address at the S P C K House, and Middleton's reply How 
Bishop Law viewed the matter may be judged from these words 
" The establishment of Episcopacy will most effectually check 

* See p 39 

f Mr* Hole suggests that the great Parliamentary grant of one million 
sterling for building churches in 1818 was indirectly a result of Middleton's 
wort at St Panoras 



INDIA THE OPENED DOOR, THE ENTERING IN 187 

every erroneous doctrine, stop the wild progiess of enthusiasm, PAST III. 
and spread the knowledge of uncorrupted Christianity " 1812-24 

In due course Bishop Middleton landed m India Sir John p 15 
Kaye quaintly says ' 

"There was no commotion, no excitement Offended Hinduism did But India 
not rise up in arms, nor indignant Mohammedanism raise a war cry of cared not 
death to the infidel Bnghsh gentlemen asked each other at the dinner- 
table if they had seen the Bishop, but the heart of Hinduism beat 
calmly, as was its wont The Bishop preached in the Christian temple 
on the Christian's bw a dm , and that night the Europeans in Calcutta slept 
soundly in their beds There was not a massacre , there was not a rebellion 
The merchant took his place at the desk , the pubhc servant entered his 
office , and the native undeihngs salaamed meekly and reverentially as 
ever Everything went on as usual, ui spite of the Bishop, and his lawn 
sleeves, and his sermon on Christmas Bay It really seemed probable, 
after all, that British dominion m the East would survive the blow " 

It was the same when he took his journeys Brahman priests 
whose lands did not yield them enough revenue welcomed the 
Lord Padre Sahib, thinking that he would look on them as 
brothers and squeeze grants for them out of the Government 
purse , others asked him for a little money towards the repair of 
their temples , and the Bishop, instead of finding them either 
terror-stricken at his approach on the one hand, or leady to be 
converted on the other, found that a few rupees judiciously 
distributed weie his best passpoit 

Middleton became a good and hard-working bishop in some Bishop 
ways, though his life was much embittered by disputes with the J 
Government about his junsdiction ovei the military chaplains, by 
frequent stiuggles on points of etiquette and precedence, and by 
the pretensions of the principal Presbyterian chaplain, Di Bryce, 
a combative man, to be quite as good as any bishop But the 
Church Missionary Society had to suffer great disappointment on 
account of two of his decisions He declined either to license 
the missionaries 01 to ordain Natives He has often been blamed 
for these refusals , but both were due to an honest belief that his 
commission fiom the State gave him no authority to do eithei 
The result, however, was (1) that Abdul Masih, for whose ordina- 
tion the Society had fondly hoped, had to wait until Middleton 
had been succeeded by Heber , and (2) that the missionaiies, not 
being licensed, weie piecluded from ministering even occasionally 
to English congregations This question perplexed and troubled the 
Bishop not a little He was not happy about the presence in his 
diocese of clergymen without his license " I must either license 
them," he said, " or silence them " He conscientiously declined 
to do the first, and he found himself unable to do the second 

Nevertheless, the Committee determined that nothing on their 
part should prevent such co-operation with the Bishop as they 
were permitted to lender When he formed his great plan foi 

* Cftnaiioroty in India, p 290 



1 88 INDIA THE OPENED DOOR , MB ENTERING IN 

FABT III the establishment of Bishop's College, proposing to apply to it 

1812-24 that giant of 5000 which first extended the opeiations of the 

Chappie s p Q to India> < and when the S P K thereupon voted a hke 

CMS sum, the Committee lesolved not to be behind the oldei Societies, 

| of and proceeded to vote 5000 too out of the Society's General 

Eund one-sixth of its Income for the yeai foi the same purpose , 

and Pratt wrote in the Register, "We heartily re] oice in the 

co-opeiation of these thiee Societies in this gieat object, and trust 

that this co-operation will tend to cheush a kind and friendly spint 

among then Membeis, both in then proceedings at home and in 

then: exeitions among the Heathen "f The following Minute was 

passed at the Committee meeting of July 12th, 1819 

" Resolved That this Society cannot behold without a high degree of 
gratitude the geneial interest at this time manifesting itself, through 
every part of the Kingdom, m favour of the Venerable Society f 01 the 
Piopagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts , and contemplates with 
peculiar pleasure the zeal and readiness with which it has adopted the 
important Plan suggested by the Lord Bishop of Calcutta for establishing 
a Mission College near Calcutta, and the promptitude with which the 
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge has agreed to support the 
said Plan , and that this Society, desirous of co-operating in the same 
great and common Cause, do now make a like Grant of 5000 for the 
same purpose, and that its Oonesponding Committee at Calcutta be 
empowered to express to his Lordship its respectful acknowledgments 
of the enlarged views which he has so eminently displayed in his plans 
for promoting the Conversion of the Native Population of India , and to 
request that Tie will be pleased to accept the sum hereby voted, to be 
paid by the Society's Corresponding Committee, in such manner and at 
such times as his Lordship may wisli " 

Not content with this conspicuous token of then 1 eagei desire to 
support the Bishop, the Committee m the following year voted 
1000 towards the maintenance of the College, and repeated the 
vote in the two succeeding years , but Middletonhad just sciuples 
about drawing this money, as the College statutes piovided that 
students would be at the disposal of S P G The grants weie, 
howevei, duly paid, but the Committee had some little difficulty 
m justifying them to some of their suppoiters, and in 1826 they 
issued an elaborate memoiandum on the subject Eventually 
better ariangements were made foi receiving CMS students , 
but little use was ever made of this pnvilege 

Bishop's i n ch^ course a fine building was elected on the bank, of the 
ee Hooghly, three or foui miles below Calcutta , and the Bishop 
threw his whole heart into the development of the scheme A 
bellow of Tnmty, Cambudge, Dr Mill, went out as Principal, and 
high hopes were entertained of the usefulness of the new Univei- 
sity of the East, as Middleton loved to call it But for leasons 
which have never been clearly understood, or at all events never 

* See p 148 

f The Bible Society, subsequently, also voted 5000, of course specifically 
for Bible translations 



INDIA THE OPENED DOOR, THE ENTERING TN 189 

oleaily explained, the College did not prove a success For one PAST III 
thing, it was ceitamly piemature It was for the high classical 1812-24 
and theological education of the Native Chustians , but there were p 
not then, nor weie there for long yeais after, a sufficient nurnbei 
of suitable conveits belonging to the Church of England "Ulti- 
mately, after a stiuggle lasting half a century, the buildings were 
sold to Government The institution, on a rnoie modest scale, is 
now earned on in the heait of the city by the Oxfoid Mission 

As time went on, Bishop Middleton learned to value the 
missionaiies, and began to desne a closer connexion with them 
But in the midst of hopeful negotiations with the Society, which 
gave Pratt great satisfaction, the Bishop died, on July llth, JJjJ*}}^ 
1822, aftei a few days' illness, brought on, no doubt, by the fatigue 
involved in his immense journeys The Diocese of Calcutta com- 
prised all India, and Ceylon, and Amttalm! but no Indian 
bishop ever attempted to reach that ultima Thule, of his jurisdic- 
tion Even within India pioper, the tiavelling, in pie-iailway 
days, was wearying and weanng m the extreme , and Middleton' a 
thiee successois all fell victims to its exhaustion Indeed the 
Diocese of Calcutta enjoys the unique honour of having had seven 
bishops in succession, not one of whom came home to die The 
eighth was spared to retire aftei twenty yeais' woik , but all his 
predecessois fell at then post Theie is no other foieign diocese 
m the woild with a similar lecoid 

Middleton' s immediate successor was Bcginald Heber, Recto: j^ 1 * 
of Hodnet, Shiopshire, a bulliant scholai and Quaiteily Beviewei, 
a tiue poet, a devoted paush clergyman , a fascinating peisonality 
altogether, loved and admired by all who knew km " "No man," 
wrote young Lord Ashley (afterwaids the great Bail of Shaftes- 
buiy) in 1826, " ever equalled Bishop Hebei His talents weie of 
the most exquisite character If he weie not a Soeiates, able to 
knock down by force of leasonmg the most stubborn opposeis, he 
was like Orpheus, who led even stones and tiees by the enchant- 
ment of his music " \ His appointment was hailed with ]oy by 
the Evangelicals Not that he was one of thon own body Indeed 
he has been sometimes claimed as a High Churchman He was 
leally in the best sense a model ate man, and singularly free from 
party piejudice of any kind In a letter to a young clergyman 
advising him to "avoid singularities, " he specifies "the High 
Churchman who snuffles m a pompous tone through his nose, and 
the Evangelical minister who picaches extempoie " He wrote 
occasionally for the Clm&faan Obseivcr, but he objected to piayer- 
meetings Perceiving the gleat influence of hymns among the 
Dissenters, he compiled a hymn-book for Church use, appropriate **ia 
to the Church seasons , but as neithei the Aichbishop of Canter- ymas ' 
bury nor the Bishop of London would authorize its use, he 

* See Dr 0- Smith.' s delightful biography (Murray, 1895) 
t Life of Lord Skuftesbwy, vol i p 102 



190 INDIA f THE OPENED DOOR , THE ENTER:NG IN 

PABT III refrained fiom publishing it " His own hymns, especially " Holy, 
1812-24 no iy } no iy } L 01 fl Qod Almighty " and " The Son of God goes foith 
ap to wai," have of themselves immoitahzed his name, and still 
more, the greatest of inissionaiy hymns, "lYom Greenland's icy 
mountains " t But Hebei besides being an exemplary parish 
clergyman, was a thorough believer in Missions He was a warm 
suppoiter, not only of the S P G and S P C K , but also of the 
CMS and the Bible Society { Foi the Bible Society, indeed, his 
fiist missionaiy sermon was preached at Shrewsbury m 1813 A 
sermon for the CMS, at Whittmgton in 1820, on the words, 
"Thy Kingdom come," is a singularly eainest and impiessive 
appeal " When you are about to he down this night," he said 
to the congiegation, " and begin, in the words which the Loid has 
taught you, to commend youi bodies and souls to His protection, 
will you not blush, will you not iaemble to think, while you say 
to God, ' Thy Kingdom come 1 ' tihat you have this day lefused 
your contributions towards the extension of that Kingdom? I 
know you will not refuse them 1 " 

Heber and Hebei was oonseciated on June 1st, 1823 , and on the 9th he 
c M s attended a meeting of the C M S Committee, and assuied them, 
that he " entiiely appioved the principles on which the Society's 
Missions m the Bast weie conducted, and was going out with the 
most cordial disposition to render them every assistance in his 
power " His policy was quite diffeient from Middleton's He 
avoided friction with the civil authorities , he made fnends with 
the Baptist and Congregationahst missionaries , he put the evan- 
gelization of the Heathen m the forefront of the Church's duty in 
India He took a different view of his powers and responsibilities 
fiom that taken by his piedecessor, and on arriving m India, he 

* Some of these particulars are from Overtoil's English Church in the 
Nineteenth Century 

t On Whit Sunday, 1819, Dr Shipley, Dean of St Asaph and Yicar of 
Wiexhara, pieaohed a sermon in Wrexham Church m aid of the 8 P Q- That 
day was also fixed upon for the commencement of the Sunday Evening 
Lectures intended to be established m that church an important event m 
the parish at a time when Evening Services were still few and far between. 
Reginald Heber, then Rector of Hodnet, the Dean's son-in-law, undertook to 
deliver the first lectnre In the course of the Saturday previous, the Dean 
and his son-in law being together at the Vicarage, the former requested 
Heber to write "something for them to sing m the morning," and he 
retired for that purpose from the table, where the Dean and a few friends 
were sitting, to a distant part of the room In a short time the Dean 
mquiredj "What have you written?" Heber, having then composed the 
three first verses, read them over " There, there, that will do very well," 
said the Dean "No, no, the sense is not complete," replied Heber 
Accordingly he added the fourth versej and the Dean being inexorable to 
Ins repeated request of " Let me add another, oh, let me add another," thus 
completed the hymn, which has since become so celebrated It was sung 
the next morning in Wrexham Church, for the first time A facsimile of 
Heber's onginal MS appealed in the M Gleaner of April, 1882 

t Heber's project of uniting the QMS. with the SPG has been 
already mentioned, p 151 



INDIA THE OPENED DOOR , THE ENTERING IN 191 

at once arianged to give episcopal licenses to the missionanes ' PAET III, 
He also expressed his leadmess to leceive Natives of India as 
candidates foi oidmation a shoit Act of Paiharnent being passed 
on purpose to confiim his authoiity to do so , and, as befoie 
intimated, he admitted Abdul Masih who had aheady leceived 
Lutheian oideis upon Middleton's lefusal to oidam him to the 
mmistiy of the Chinch of England, by confeirmg Anglican 
oideis upon him on Novembei 30th, 1825 \ He fuithei greatly 
pleased the Evangelical leadeis by appointing Daniel Come 
Aichdeacon of Calcutta Come indeed had been a pM&ona giata 
with Bishop Middleton, who had spoken of him in the warmest 
teims 

Let us now take a bnef survey of the Society's Missions in Survey 
India as they had been developed during Middleton's Episcopate, Missions 
and as they appealed when Hebei landed at Calcutta 

In the ten yeais, 1814 to 1823, the Society had sent to India 
twenty-six men fouiteen to the Noith, eleven to the South, and 
one to Bombay Thnteen weie English cleigynien, and ele\en 
weie Geimans in Lutheian oidois, the lemaimng two weie a 
schoolmastei and a puntei There was also an able and devoted 
Emasian, William Bowley, who had leceived Lutheian oideis in 
India Three had died, and one had retuined invalided Eleven 
stations had been occupied by Euiopean missionanes, and at 
seveial othei places there weie native catechists and schools 
supported by the Society, but supei vised by Company's chaplains 
The woik was entuely administered by the Coriespondmg Com- The corre- 
mittees at Calcutta, Madias, and Bombay, the Society voting cJJJ? lng 
them large giants of money year by year, and leaving to them its mittees 
distribution, and (in most cases) the location of missionaries 
even the tiansfei of a man from Madias to Calcutta, 01 moe wsd 
No other system was possible at a time when a lettei took five 
months to go or come, foi instance, the death of Bishop Middleton, 
on July llth, was not known in England till Decembei And 
the Corresponding Committees consisted of Company's chaplains 
and officials who weie devoted to the Society's spiutual principles 
and fitted by long expenence m India to devise and carry out 

* Dr Overfcon (English Church in the Nineteenth Contwy t p 276) says 
that Eeber (< very properly insisted that the missionaries gent ont by the 
CMS should be as ranch, under his jurisdiction as those sent out by other 
Church Societies, and lie succeeded in carrying his point, though tho rule was 
not formally recognized by the Society " This is the one single instance in 
which 1 find Dr Overton maocmato (1) As regaids episcopal licenses, the 
Society had begged for them from Bishop Middleton, and rejoiced when 
Eeber gave them (2) There were no English missionaries of other Church 
Societies when Hebei went out, except the piofossois m Bishop's College, 
belonging to the SPG- Thioe young SPG men aiuved during Heber's 
short episcopate In the South, all the S P K men were Germans in 
Lutheran oideis 

| This, as before stated, was the first Anglican ordination of a Native of 
India But Eeber had already 01 darned, in India, a Native of Oeylon, 
u student at Bishop's College, named Christian David 



192 INDIA THE OPENED DOOR , PHE ENTERING IN 

PABT III good plans At Calcutta, Thomason was Hon Secietary , at 
1812-24 Madias, Marmaduke Thompson , at Bombay, Thomas Cair (after- 
Chapels wai g ^gt B^op of Bombay) The Tieasuiei at Madias was 
J M Stiachan, m aftei yeais peihaps the most influential layman 
in the counsels of Salisbury Squaie George Udny, who had been 
one of the onginal piomoteis of missionaiy woik in Bengal twenty 
years befoie, was still a member of the Calcutta Committee 
But the Committee at home then contained scaicely any one, save 
Charles Giant, who knew India personally The position is 
almost entnely leveised at the present day On the one hand, 
there aie veiy few chaplains m India of the type of Come and 
Thornason On the othei hand, Anglo-Indian officials aie an 
impoitant element in the Home Committee, and so are letued 
missionaiies , and both classes add to their past local expenence 
the largei experience gamed in the Committee itself of Missions 
all round the woild Add again to this a mail communication m 
less than a foitmght, and the electric telegraph, and we can lealize 
the immense change that time has wi ought Whether the con- 
sequent tendency to centiahzation may not go too far is a fuithei 
question, not to be discussed heie 

Ecciesias- Difficulties, howevei, arose between some of the missionaries 
cuities ffi " paiticulaily some of the Lutheians and the Corresponding Com- 
mittees , the foimer objecting to being conti oiled by the lattei 
The Home Committee had to interpose, and m 1818 they laid 
down impoitant lules on the subject The missionaries weie 
bidden to recognize the Ml authonty of the Conesponding Com- 
mittees m " external affaus," which weie defined as compusing 
" the fixing of stations, the locations and tiansfeience of mission- 
aneg, leception 01 dismissal of catechists and othei assistants, 
the regulation of salanes, the undeitakmg and the geneial 
planning of buildings, &c " In " internal affaus," which weie 
denned as " the spiritual power and authority for the due exeicise 
of which a missionaiy was lesponsible to the ecclesiastical lulers 
of the Church he belonged to," the missionaries weie to be 
directed by "the Bishop or othei legular Ecclesiastical Powei " 
The Society "assumed no contiol over the conscience of a 
missionaiy in the discharge of his spiritual functions," but "it 
would ever exeicise the right of letaming 01 dismissing him, 
according as it might approve 01 disappiove his views, tempei, 
or conduct " Counsel's opinion, however, which was obtained 
at this time, affirmed that the Bishop had absolute power over 
locations that is, of English clergymen He had no authority 
over laymen , nor over Lutheian ministers so wheie was the 
"Ecclesiastical Power" that was to contiol the very persons 
with whom the difficulties aioso? The Committee, howevei, 
gave positive instructions that Anglican forms of worship were 
to be used m all the Society's Missions, and at the same time 

* See p, 54 



INDIA THE OPENED DOOR , THE ENTERING IN 193 

passed a lesolution to receive no Lutheran candidate who was PART III 
unwilling to promise this p? 1 ^"" 2 * 

In legaid to funds, the Corresponding Committees undertook Gha P 16 
laige lesponsibihties They did much moie than admmistei Liberal 
giants fiom England They boldly set foiththe punciple that J^ 1 ^- 
for the evangelization of India the English m India weie pn- India 
manly lesponsible, and they treated the Society's giants as 
virtually grants-in-aid to Missions locally suppoited and woiked 
Foi rmssionaiies they might have to look to England , but foi 
money they looked pumanly to India ceitamly for the money 
foi buildings, the maintenance of schools, and the payment of 
Native agents This system was originated at Calcutta, in 1817, 
by a seimon pleached by Corrie at the Old Chuich, in which, 
having just returned from England, he told the Anglo-Indians 
how, m his own fathei's pansh at home, the pooi weie denying 
themselves to send the Gospel to the Heathen "When," said 
he, " shall we begin to see British Christians in India do the 
same?" No less than 300 was collected aftoi that seimon 
Thomason wiote " This was in eveiy le&pect an interesting 
occasion Nevei before had a Discouise been dehveied, pro- 
fessedly with a Mis&ionaiy object, fioin a pulpit of the Established 
Chuich in India It is my full intention to keep up the pi notice, 
if it please God to spare my life " And the success of the plan 
was lemaikable Foi instance, m 1823, while the Calcutta Com- 
mittee diew bills on the Society at home foi 7387, they raised 
in Bengal ]ust 4000 , and while the Madras Committee diew 
on the Society for 3390, they raised on the spot just 2000 In 
fact, the number of godly officeis and civilians in India lud 
laigely increased, under the influence of the many devoted men 
for whom Simeon, through Chailes Grant, had obtained chaplains' 
appointments , and then scale of giving was much highei than 
pievailed, 01 evei has pievailed, m England When we aie 
told, as we so often aie told, that Anglo-Indians do not believe m 
Missions, the answei is that they aie the most liberal supporteis 
of the very Missions their eyes have seen, most of which were 
actually started at then instance and at their expense That is 
to say, the truly Christian men among them , and who else aie 
competent judges ? 

Glancing now at the CMS Missions as they appealed m 1823, 
we find that the Goriespondmg Committees had from the fiist 
set before them three metJiods of missionary woik foi adoption, 
viz , the (1) Press, (2) Schools, and (3) what they called Missionary 
Establishments, i e stations with oicUined missionaries Tho 
employment of Native Chnstian "leaders" like Abdul Masih 
was appaiently included undei the fiist head, as they were to 
"read" to then countrymen the Scnptuies, tiacts, &o, which Work at 
the Pi ess produced, but of course, as " missionaiy establish- 
ments " multiplied, these " readers " developed into " oatechists " 
under the oidamed missionary All three methods were being 

VOL i o 



194 INDIA ' TtJ R OPENED DOOR , THE ENTERING IN 

III woiked at Calcutta The Mission (after a temporary location at 
1812-24 Gaiden Beach, south of the city) had secuied a valuable piece of 
15 giound in the heait of that pait of the native quartei known as 
Mnzapore,* 1 usmg for its pui chase a gift of Es 30,000 from Major 
Phipps At that time the Society had a plan for establishing 
in all its Missions what were called " Christian Institutions," 
by which was meant a seminary foi the preparation of Native 
teachers, with mission-house, church, pnnting-office, &c , all in 
one compound The pui chase at Mnzapore was with this object , 
and it has been an impoitant centre of woik, moie or less on 
those lines, fiom that day to this A church, Tiinity Chuich, 
was built, and opened m 1826 A punting establishment was 
started under a man named Blown, who had been sent out for 
the purpose, after serving foi some years in the pnnting-office 

X JM ' V V X tJ 

employed by the Society in London 1 He was leally in his own 
piovmce an excellent missionary, and died at his post in 1824 
Piesses and founts of type, English, Arabic, and Persian, weie 
sent'out by the Society , the Nagii or Sanscut charactei types 
being obtained m India Portions of Scupture, piayei-books, 
catechisms, pumeis, hymn-books, tracts, simple expositions, 
were produced in laige numbers, and it is inteiestmg to see 
in one of the lists " 500 Hints on Piayei foi the Outpouring of 
the Holy Spirit " 

Firat Schools of various giades weie giadually staited both in 

schools* Calcutta and in several othei of the chief cities of Noith India , 
and every effoit was made to mtioduce what was then known 
as the New 01 National System of Education This was the 
pupil-teachei system staited m England by Di Bell,} and 
woiked by the National Society, which was founded m 1811 
Bell himself had invented it at Madias, $ and the Chuich 
Missionary Society took it back to India To us now it seems 
cmious that no attempt was m the fiist instance made to give 
Chustian teaching in those small schools But the idea was 
to awaken a desue for knowledge, howevei simple, as a road 

* Not to bo confounded with the town of tliat immc noai Benaies, which 
IB a si ahem of the L !M S 

f The film f}hon\vas W M Watts The business was m aftoi ^ ens taken 
ovei by Me&siH Gilbcit and Jtwngton, who me slill the Society's cluo! 
punters 

I Aurt, alnioat simultaneous, by Thonms Lnnnaslci, uho instituted tho 
"Butish" 01 uudouommational form of education, 111 contiadistinotiou to the 
" National " education of Bell ond the Ohiuch Ihe contiovorsj between the 
advocates of these systems was as bitter then as it has been in leoent yoais 

He was an army chaplain there, and supenntended the education of the 
boys at the Mihtaiy Orphan Asylum One day he chanced to BOG somo 
Native children -writing with then fingeis on the sond Ho told a toachei au 
the school to teach tho alphabet in the some way , but the teachei neglected 
to do so, and then Bell set an eldor boy to teach the youngei so This was 
the origin of the whole pupil teachei system, the discovery of which was 
welcomed in England with quite extraordinary enthusiasm See Over-ton, 
English Church m the Nineteenth Cettfrur^ chap vu 



INDIA ' THE OPENED DOOR , THE ENTERING IN 195 

by which the Gospel should afterwards travel Of the first PART III 
school opened, at Kidderpore, a subuib of Calcutta, the Com- lfl2-24 ! 
mittee say m the Bepoit of 1817, "It is undei the care of Chap 1B 
the missionaries, but is not likely to alarm prejtidice, as the 
schoolmaster ^s not a Chmtian" It would be easy to cnti- 
cize such a system now Apparently it was criticized -then , 
foi the Committee, m the Bepoit of 1819, enteied into a careful 
defence of it "Wheie we cannot effect what we would," 
they say, "it is the pait of piudence to attempt what we 
can " 

And ceitamly this system did piove the thin end of the wedge 
Foi example, at and around Burdwan, an impoitant town Burdwan, 
seventy miles noith-east of Calcutta, seveial village schools weie 
staited by a Chnstian officer stationed thcie, Captain Stewait, 
in communication with the Coriespondmg Committee and with 
funds piovided by them At fiist the Scnptures weio not even 
lead in them, and Thomason wrote that he thought Captain 
Stewart had acted " very wisely " Then it Wtis ananged to open 
a cential school in the town, at which English should be taught, 
and to which should be diafted the most pioimsmg of the village 
scholais Heie we see the embryo "Anglo-Vernacular School " 
And as the scholais could not come m daily, Stewart piovidcd 
lodging and food foi them foi the inside of each week m which 
plan we see the embiyo Mission JBoai ding- School Aftei tins 
had been going on foi a year, Thornason wiote "Burdwan is 
now ripe for a Missionaiy He will have a largo School of JBoys 
piepaied foi him, aheady well taught, capable of leceivmg any 
m&ti notion that he may judge it expedient to impait He will 
have escaped the diudgeiy of elemental y instruction, and will 
sit down at once to the full and niatuie laboms of a Missionary " , 
and Stewart, having thus gained the conhdence of tho paients, 
gave notice that the Chiibtun Scuptiaos would bo mtioduced 
into the cential school when tho raiasionaiy arrived In due 
couise he did amve, and aftei anotliei yooj, the English IOBI- 
dents at Buxdwan, invited to the annual Examination, beheld 
with astonishment the Gospels being lead, taught, and questioned 
upon, in a school of Heathen boys, with then Heathen paients 
looking on " Tho Biahnuns stood by, and heard then boys 
speak of Jesus as the Son of God and the Savioui of tho World, 
and of His command to go and pi each the Gospel to all people, 
without utteimg a word " Yet the boys themselves, only a law 
months befoie, had objected to read any book which contained 
the name of Jesus The following year, 1822, the report was, 
" The Gospels are now read in all the schools Who could have 
expected, a yeai ago, to sec a thousand Hindu childien leading 
the Gospel?" The wedge had been duven home; and it is 
simple matter of historical fact that more convoits from Hinduism 
have been gatheicd into tho Chnstian Church through the Results pf 
influence, diiect 01 indnect, of schools, than by any othei one 

o 2 



196 INDIA * THE OPMMED DOOR , THE ENTERING Itf 

III instrumentality Even at the piesent day, when the evan- 
1812-24 gehstic pieacher or lecturei goes out fiom England foi a winter's 
ChopJL5 eam p ai g n amon g English-speaking Natives, the knowledge of 
Ghiistianity that he builds upon in addiessmg those who are still 
Heathen has been gamed by them in Mission Schools When 
one and anothei yields to the claims of Chnst piessed by these 
evangelists, he yields to a Lord and Savioui whose claims he 
well knew befoie claims which, humanly speaking, he would 
not have recognized now but foi that pnoi knowledge 

One of the missionaiies who was located at Burdwan boie a 

name which has become highly honouied in his distinguished 

The sons This was the Eev John Peiowne, who went out and 

Perownes j^Q^g^ ^ Bmdwan seven yeais He was the father of Bishop 

J J S Peiowne, of Woicestei , of Di E H Perowne, Mastei of 

Corpus , and of Archdeacon T I Peiowne, of Norwich 

No othei station m Bengal pioper, outside the capital, was 
occupied except Buidwan But higher up the gieat plain of the 
Ganges, in that pait of India afteiwaids (in 1833) designated 
the North-West Provinces, woik had been begun at seveial cities, 
generally thiough the influence of Anglo-Indians already there 
Gome's residence at Agia as chaplain had fixed the location 
theie of Abdul Masih , and during the penod now under review, 
the faithful old evangelist continued his labouis amid the respect 
of all who knew him He was supported by the counsel and 
sympathy of a godly officer, Lieutenant Tomkyns Gome's 
appointment to Benaies, on his return from his fuilough, had 
issued m a determination on the paifc of the Society to assault 
that great fortiess of Hindu idolatiy His own heart was 
deeply moved by the scenes aiound him He was no modem 
globe-trotter, viewing the degrading superstitions of Benares with 
languid curiosity Like St Paul at Athens, his spirit was stirred 
within him, and he saw m those ciowds of deluded devotees 
immoital beings who might be living for the glory of God 
He wrote also of a neighbouimg distiict, quite a small one, 
wheie a friend of his was magistrate, that in it two widows, on 
an average, were burnt every month, that sis lepeis weie 
buried alive within the yeai , and that one hundred peisons had, 
m the yeai, drowned themselves m wells, in levenge for some 
Benares offence An unexpected opening foi good woik in Benaies 
came thiough a wealthy Hindu, named Jay Naiain, establishing 
and endowing a laige Boys' School, and handing it ovei to the 
Church Missionary Society This great School has evei since 
been an important educational agency, and has given a know- 
ledge of the Christian faith to many who have only embraced the 
faith in after years. 

Chunar, on the Ganges, not far from Benares, was occupied 
w BOW- ' * 

ley 

* " From Hinduism " Not reckoning the large accessions from the non- 
Aryan peoples 



INDIA THE OPENED DOOR t THE ENTERING IN 197 

also at Gome's instance It was a Government station for invalid PAST III 
soldieis, and the policy at that time was to begin by piovidmg 1812-24 
schools foi the childien of Englishmen, who, like the lest of the Gbap 15 
Eurasian population, weie much neglected That this class was 
worth caring foi was illustiated by the fact that the missionaiy 
who was stationed at Ghunai, and whose name will ever be 
inseparably connected with it, William Bowley, was himself an 
Eurasian He was at fiist employed as a catechist Then, when 
Bishop Middleton declined to oidain Natives of the countiy, he 
received Lutheran oiders, fiom tluee of the Lutheran ministers 
aheady in the field, at the same time as Abdul Masih In 1825, 
again along with Abdul Masih, he was 01 darned as an Anglican 
cleigyman by Bishop Hebei He laboured at Chnnar with 
exemplary devotion for neaily thiity yeais Gieenwood, who has 
been mentioned moie than once befoie as one of the first two 
English clergymen engaged as missionanes m India, was also at 
Chunar, doing the English part of the work 

At Meeiut, the fuithest to the noith-west of all the stations, an Meerut 
inteiestmg woik was earned on undei the supeimtendenee of 
anothei of the zealous chaplains, the Rev Henry Fisher Two 
particulaily inteiestmg conveits heie come into view The first 
was a Biahman named Permanund, who had been conveited to 
Chust under the teaching of the Baptist missionaiy mentioned m 
a foimer chapter as having been twice sent down from the North- 
West under guaid by ordei of the Government He had not, 
however, been baptized, because he wished his infant son to be 
admitted into the visible Chinch with him, and this, of course, 
the Baptist missionaiy would not do He came undei the notice 
of Mrs Sherwood, the wife of an omcei at Meeiut, and the well- 
known authoiess of excellent books for young people, and in 
1815 she obtained for him an appointment as schoolmaster under 
the C M S Corresponding Committee He was thus the Society's 
fiist agent in that city, and at Christmas, 1816, he was baptized 
by Mr Fishei by the name of Anund Masih (Joy of Ghnst) He 
labouied for twenty yeais, and then was oidained It is a thing 
to lemember that the fiist Native clergyman of the Chuich of 
England in Noith India (Abdul Masih) had been a Mohammedan, 
and that the second (Anund Masih) had been a Biahman the two 
classes from which those who knew not the powei of Divine 
grace had often declared that no converts could be won 

The other inteiestmg conveit at Meeiut was a non-commissioned 
officer in the 25th Sepoy regiment, a Biahinan of veiy high caste, 
who, having long been convinced of the folly of idolatry, and 
having seen something of Chnstian worship when serving in 
Mauntius, came spontaneously to a room over the city gate 
at Meerut, where Anund Masih had gathered a few converts, 
and at once joined the little community, and was baptized by the 

* See p, 99, 



198 INDIA THE OPENED DOOR > THE ENTERING IN 

PAST III name of Matthew Prabhu-dm The officer commanding the 

1813-24 legiment lepoited to the G-oveinment " so singular and unpiece- 

Chap^lS fluted an ocoimence " as the convex sion of a Sepoy to Christianity, 

sepoy stating that "the gieatest consternation" pievailed among the 

cashiered Native ^P S ) an( ^ ^at senous mischief might lesult The 

Governoi -General oidered a special Commission of Inquiry, and 

it tinned out that the only " consternation " had been among the 

English officers, and that Piabhu-dm, though he could no longei 

eat with the Biahmans in the regiment, was still lespected by 

them as a good soldiei Nevertheless, he was dismissed, 

"rejected," wiote Fisher, "by his eaithly commandei, because 

he was a Chustian " The Goveinment allowed him his pension, 

and afteiwaids offeied him admission to another legiment , but 

this he declined, saying he had done nothing to deserve dismissal 

fiorn his own He continued a faithful Christian, and was often 

alluded to in warm teims in Mi Fisher's leports 

The Society had also for some time schools and agents at 

Allahabad, Lucknow, and Delhi The fiist Church of England 

woik, theiefoie, at the last-named city, now famous as a gieat 

SPG centre, was done by the C M S Anund Masih frequently 

visited Delhi, and a sect of Hindu ascetics called Saadhs came 

undei his influence, but no great lesults followed It is also 

On the notewoi thy that the fiist attempt to cairythe Gospel to Thibet 

Thibet was made by the Society dunng this penod At Titalya, then 

a military station in the Himalayas, the commanding officei, 

Captain Lattei, was a zealous Christian, and at his instance the 

Geiman missionary Sclnotei, who accompanied Greenwood and 

Noiton to India in 1815, was appointed to that place, with a view 

to his studying the Thibetan language, becoming acquainted with 

the people, and prepanng Scnptuies and tiacts for them His 

letteis, and those of Captain Lattei, duung four or five years, aie 

very mteiesting , but he died in 1820, the first CMS missionary 

lemoved by death in any Mission except West Africa , and Latter 

also dying soon afterwaids, the enterprise was never lesumed 

But Schioter left important MSS of his Thibetan studies, and 

these weie handed over to Caiey and the Seiampoie Mission as a 

help to the translational work going on theie, while his valuable 

collection of books on Thibet was given to Bishop's College 

Schrofcei himself was a lemarkable man a gieat linguist and a 

true and humble missionary So also were the next two men 

who died in India, Schnane and La Roche, both likewise 

Lutherans 

One moie important forward step taken at this time in North 



* The full details, Tnth the official correspondence and minutes of the 
Commission of Inquiry, are published in Wilkinson's fetches of Qhnntiamty 
m North Iwfaa (London, 1844) Sir John Kaye, who is generally on the 
Christian aide upon questions of the kind, disputes the fact of the man being 
dismissed because he was a Christian (Qhnstianrty in India, p 342) , but 
the official documents seem decisive on the point 



INDIA THE OPENED DOOR, THE ENTERING IN 

India calls foi notice In 1820, Miss M A Cooke was sent out PAST III 
by the Butish and Foieign School Society, at the request of a 1812-24 
local educational body at Calcutta, with a view to her starting a p 5 
school foi Hindu girls Female education had already been First pis 1 
successfully begun at Serampore by Mrs Maishman, of theg 8 
Baptist Mission , and Miss Cooke was to make a further attempt Cooke 
m the same dnection After a few months, the local body found 
itself without funds to go on, and transferred Miss Cooke to the 
CMS While she was still studying Bengali, and wondeiing in 
what way she might presently begin to work, an incident occuried 
which gave her an unexpected opening On January 25th, 1822 
a date woith noting Miss Cooke visited one of the Boys' 
Schools, in older to obseive the pronunciation of the language 
" An European Female," as the Eepoit quaintly styles her, m the 
heart of the native town, was a novelty which drew a ciowd lound 
the school dooi In the crowd was a little girl, whom the Native 
teachei diove away, telling Miss Cooke that the child had for 
thiee months been distuibmg them by begging to be allowed to 
learn to read with the boys Miss Cooke immediately said that 
sha would come the very next day, and begin to teach her as well 
as she could Next day, accoidmgly, she went again, accom- 
panied by an Englishwoman who had been long in India and 
spoke Bengali well They found fifteen girls assembled, and 
their motheis standing outside, eagerly peering through the 
lattice The women were admitted, and a most interesting con- 
versation took place The lady fuend, who is not named, thus 
narrates it 

" They inquired whether Miss Cooke was married I answered No 
Had she been, or was she going to be P 

"'No she is man led, or devoted, to your ohildien she heard in 
England that the women of this countiy were kept in total ignorance , 
that they were not taught even to read and write, and that the men 
alone were allowed to learn, and that theie was no female to teach you 
She therefore felt much sorrow foi youi state, and detei mined to leave 
her country, her parents, her fnends, and eveiy other advantage, and 
come here for the solo purpose of educating your female children ' 

" They with one voice cried out, smiting their bosoms with then right 
Lands, ' Oh, what a peail of a woman is this ' ' 

" I added, ' She has given up evory earthly expectation to come here 
she seeks not the nches of this world, but that she may promote your 
best interests ' 

" ' Our children are yoms ' we give them to you ! ' replied two or three 
of tlio mothers at once " 

Two days afterwards this lady went again 

"One asked, 'What will be the use of learning to our female 
children p ' 

" I said, 'It will enable them to be more useful to then- families , and 
it will tend to gam them respect, and increase the harmony of families n 

u ' True, 1 said one, " our husbands now look upon us us little better 
than brutes,' 



200 INDIA THE OPENED DOOR , THE ENTERING IN 

III " Another said, ' And what benefit mil you denve P ' 
1812-24 " ' The only return we wish is to promote your happiness ' 
Chap 15 < Then I suppose tins is a holy work, and pleasing to your God ' " 

It is a far cry fiom this simple beginning to the accomplished 
Christian Indian ladies who aie graduates of the Umveisities , yet 
the one has led on, step by step, to the othei Miss Gooke, at 
least, had faith to believe in great lesults In a few weeks, 
petitions began to corne to her asking for a girls' school in this 
and that street, and when she sent to England her first repoit, she 
could tell of fifteen schools at work, and neaily four bundled gills 
in attendance Eurasian gnls had been obtained from the Female 
Orphan Asylum as teacheis Miss Cooke suggested that Gills' 
Schools throughout England should be invited to contribute 
specially to this work, and, recollecting the Eoyal Letter in 
favour of the S P G four years before, she added, " Would that 
the Krng would command a Seimon to be preached for the Cause 
throughout his Dominions 1 " Meanwhile the Calcutta Committee, 
true to their principle of appealing primarily to the English in 
India, opened a special fund, whrch speedrly reached 3000 
rupees, the Marquis of Hastmgs (the Governor -General) and the 
Marchroness grvrng 200 each 

A year or two after thrs, Miss Cooke was married to one of the 
new mrssronanes, the Eev Isaac "Wilson , but she continued her 
labours zealously, both during her mamed life and long after she 
became a> wrdow in 1828 

Bombay Leavrng North India, we come to the Bombay Presidency In 
1818, a Corresponding Committee was formed by the Eev Thomas 
Carr, another of the zealous chaplarns (afterwards first Bishop of 
Bombay) , and in 1820, a Cheshire curate, the Eev E Kenney, 
was sent out by the Society, the first mrssronary of the Church of 
England in Western India He began earnestly, but he only 
stayed six years, and the work for long after that was on a very 
small scale 

Madras The story of the Missions m the South is very different It 
was in the Madias Presidency that the Danish and German Mrs- 
srons, suppoited by the S P C K , had been canied on all through 
the eighteenth century The most important centres were Tranque- 
bar, which always remarned m direct connexion with Denmark, 
and Tanjore, Tnchmopoly, and Madras, which were definitely 
S P C K Missions As before mentroned, the work had greatly 
languished after the death of Schwartz, and was at rts lowest ebb 
durrng the first twenty years of this century I C Kohlhoff was 
at Tan] ore, and Pohle at Tnchmopoly, and there were a few 
Natives also m Lutheran oiders, who were called "country 
priests " Three more were so ordarned in 1818, four years after 
there was a Bishop in India, a notable circumstance in S P C K 
history The earliest CMS mrssionanes were sent to assist 
these Missions Schnarre, and afterwards Baienbruck, were in 
charge at Tianquebar, after the death of the Danish veteran Dr, 



INDIA THE OPENED DOOR, THE ENTERING IN 201 

John, and Bhemus and L Schmid at Madias But the latter PART III 
brethren, and otheis who followed them, among whom J /S la ""?t 
Bidsdale should be specially named, piesently began independent ap 
work m and aiound the capital A chuich was built m Black 
Town (the most populous native quaitei of Madias) m 1819, and 
the thiee methods aheady specified m the account of North 
India weie all adopted also at Madras Tamil books and tiacts 
weie prepaied and punted m large numbeis at the mission press, 
and some Telugu woiks also, many veinaculai schools weie 
opened, and a Seminary for tiaimng Native evangelists was 
begun 

But the principal mteiest of the Southern Missions is deiived 
fiom Travancoie and Tinnevelly Concerning Travancoie, it 
need only be said here that Noiton, one of the first two English 
01 darned missionaries, was sent theie shoitly aftei his arrival in 
India m 1815, and took up his lesidence in the following yeai at 
Allepie, wheie he laboiued twenty-five years, and died at his post, 
and that the famous triumviiate, Benjamin Bailey, Henry Baker, 
and Joseph !Penn, went to Cottayani in 1818-19 These three 
were specially commissioned to work for the revival of the Syiian 
Chuich, and this branch of the Society's enterpuse will come 
before us in another chapter 

Of Tinnevelly, the famous southernmost piovmce m the Madras 
Piesidency, moie must be said Its missionary history dates 
back to 1771, m which yeai Schwaitz's journal mentions that one s P c K 
of his Native Christians from Tnchinopoly was leading the Gospel 
to the Heathen there In 1778, Schwartz himself visited Palam- 
cotta, the English capital of the piovmce, thiee miles from 
Tinnevelly town, and found a few Chustians there He baptized 
a Brahman widow who had been living with an English officei, 
and been taught by him the rudiments of Christianity She 
received the name or Clonnda, and was afterwaids chiefly instru- 
mental m building a little chuich In 1780, Pohle visited 
Palamcotta, and organized the congregation , and in 1786, when 
Schwartz paid them a second visit, they numbeied 160 persons 
In 1790 he oidamed, according to the Lutheian use, one of his 
best catechists, Satyanadhan, and put him m chaige, speaking of 
his zeal, love, and self-denial, in the highest terms This 
oidmation was the one over which the S P C K so lepiced, as 
befoie mentioned n As a fuither evidence of its sense of the 
importance of this opening, the S P C K sent Josmeke', a new 
German missionary, to Tinnevelly, and he labouied there till his 
death in 1800 The haivest from the seed sown by him and 
Satyanadhan was gieat Thousands were baptized by Gencke", 
one of the Tan] ore missionaries, m the first five yeais of this 
century , no less than 5095 in three months m 1802 But fiom 
1806 to 1816 no missionary visited Tinnevelly, there were, in 

* See p 23 



202 INDIA THE OPENED DOOR , THE ENURING IN 

PAST III fact, as we have seen, none to go , and the woik fell all to pieces 

1812-24 Peihaps the baptizing had been too lapid , certainly the caste 

ChapjL5 Clis |j 0m g tolerated were themselves enough to eat the life out of 

the Ghnstian community, and in 1816 there were only 3000 

piofessmg Chiistians left 

Hough's In that year anothei of the good chaplains, the Eev James 
efforts H OU gi lj was appointed to Palamcotta , and to him is due the le- 
orgamzation, levival, and extension of the Missions m Tmnevelly 
He at once made diligent inqunies about the Chiistians, and found 
the thiee thousand souls scatteied among sixty villages, without 
schools, and without Tamil Testaments even for the few who could 
lead But they weie living in peace, and on the whole he was 
pleased The two chief villages weie Nazareth and Mothellur, 
wheie he found " country pnests " mimstenng to the people 
He at once sent a leport home to the S P C K , but without 
waiting for its aid he at his own expense started schools and 
obtained Testaments, Piayei-books, and tiacts fiom Madias, and 
himself began to learn Tamil The S P C K supplied a little 
money, but could send no men, being unable to reinforce even its 
largei Missions in Tanjoie and Tnohmopoly At length Hough 
applied to the M S Corresponding Committee at Madras , and 
in 1820 Bhemus and B Schmid weie sent to Palamcotta They 
were warmly welcomed by Hough, who was on the point of 
letirmg in broken health He wiote to the Society 

" I can now look forward to my approaching departure hence with 
less regret Yet, as the scene of my labouis, the object of my anxieties, 
the subject of my piayers, and the source of my delight, for four years 
past, I cannot entertain the thought of quitting it for ever without 
painful emotion I am most thankful for having been peimitted to 
make a small beginning here in the noble work of turning the Heathen 
fiom darkness to light, and from the power of Satan unto God " 

For several years these two good men bore the whole buiden 
of the Tmnevelly Mission Schmid supervised the schools, 
Bhenius, with his attractive peisonahty and perfect knowledge 
of Tamil, shepherded the S P K congregations and directed the 
S P C K catechists, and also, by his preaching all over the district, 
started extensive new work undei his own Society The transfei 
of the S P C K Missions to the S P G , the arrival of the fiist 
SPG missionaries, the friendly division of the territory, and the 
fuither development of C M 8 woik, belong to a later period 
Heie it may suffice to say that, under Bhemus's holy influence 
and untiring energy, theie seemed foi a time as if an old pre- 
diction of Jflsnickd's might be fulfilled " There is every reason 
to hope that at a futuie period Christianity will pievail in the 
Tmnevelly distiict," 



CHAPTER XVI 

"INSULAR MISSIONS" NEW ZEALAND, OMYLON, WEST 
Imwa, MALTA 

Samuel Marsden and the Maoris The New Zealand Mission- 
Christmas Day, 1814 The Lay Settlers Trials and Disappoint- 
mentsHenry and William Williams The Openings in Ceylon 
and the First Missionaries Antigua, Barbadoes, Honduras Malta 
as a Centre of Influence 

"Let them decbioBisptme^'ntlietslmtU"!^ xln 12 




jjHE term " Insulai Missions" is not a recognized one PMC IIT 
in M S phraseology , but it is to be found m ;L 812 "?i 
occasional use in the early Eepoits, and in that of iap . 
1820 a veiy interesting passage is quoted and adopted 
fioni the local Eeport of one of the Associations (not 
named), which puts the thought of the Isles of the Sea m a very 
striking way After surveying the Continents of Asia and Africa, 
the "Insulai Missions," it is suggested, might seem little worthy j s i an ^ 
of notice "But what is it that has placed us, the inhabitants of Missions 
the British Islands, but a few ages since scarcely included in the British 
known woild, and described only by the whiteness of our cliffs, Iale8 
the tin on our coast, and our strange supeistitions-^i>to has 
placed us m a position torn which we parcel out the globe ? 
And who shall say that the Cmghalese, or the New Zealanders, 
or the West Indian brethren of those Africans m whom so wondei- 
ful a change has aheady taken place, may not, when oiu still 
enlarging Missions shall have made them fully acquainted with 
Him though Whom all have access by one Spirit unto the same 
Father, rise to oui elevation, or even reach a standard of spiritual 
dignity and powei which Christendom has not known since the 
Apostolic Age ? " Might not those Islands, continues this Report, 
"one day inquire m to) Missionary Meetings how the British 
Church may be revived ? " 

Several gieat islands in the vauous oceans piesented them- 
selves from time to time to the thoughts of the CMS leadeis, 
Ceylon came into view in the very fiist year The West Indies, 
and Madagascar, and Sumatra, and the Malay Archipelago, were 
biought under then notice by governors, chaplains, and other 
Englishmen resident 01 interested m them Malta great his- 
torically and stiategically, if not in size asked for help by the 



204 (( INSULAR MISSIONS" 

PABT III mouth of a Eoman Catholic priest The innumeiable islands of 

1812-24 foe Southern Seas might have been suggested by the great enter- 

Qhap 16 puse of the London Missionary Society in some of them , but 

peihaps the very fact that they were paitly thus provided foi 

excluded them fiorn consideiation, as they aie nevei alluded to as 

a possible field But a Mission to New Zealand was the second 

undertaken by the Society, and not one of its Missions has a more 

thiilling history 

NEW ZEALAND 

The shipping of the first caigo of convicts to Botany Bay has 
been refened to in a pievious chaptei as one of the seveial events 
that maiked in so striking a way the year 1786 The second of 
the Government chaplains sent out to the settlement thus formed 
Samuel was Samuel Marsden, whose heroic enterprise, prolonged through 
Marsden more fl^n fo^y y eaiSj nas justly earned for him the title of the 
Soutii Apostle of New Zealand The son of a Yorkshire tradesman, 
Wales gen fj to Cambridge by the Elland Society (an association for 
assisting godly men to study foi holy orders), he was appointed in 
1798, through the recommendation of Wilberforce, chaplain to the 
penal establishment "Foi many years," to use the woids of 
Dean Jacobs, the histonan of the Church of New Zealand, " he 
earned on smglehanded a most determined struggle against the 
vilest imaginable iniquities, the grossest abuses of authority, and 
the most shameless licentiousness shielded by official influence 
As a sure consequence, he provoked the virulent opposition of 
powerful and unscrupulous adversaries men interested in main- 
taining the abuses he exposed who stiove for yeais, though 
happily without success, to blacken his chaiactei and chive him 
from the Colony" With this conflict, however, we have 
nothing to do But while Marsden was faithfully doing his duty 
to God and man in New South Wales, and whrle he did not 
neglect, as we shall see hereafter, the downtrodden and degraded 
aborigines of Australia, his sympathies were especially drawn out 
towards the Maori race of New Zealand 

New Zealand was so named by the Dutch navigator, Tasman, 
who discovered the islands in 1642 He did not, however, venture 
to land, rn the face of the warlrke demonstrator made agarnst 
hrm by the Natrves , and it was left to Captain Cook, more than a 
century later (1769), to begin fnendly intercom ae with them 
But the adventurous traffic that sprang up in the South Seas rn 
consequence of Cook's discoveries was marked by the treachery 
and fraud and violence by which the pioneers of so-called 
"Christian commerce and crvrhzatron" among barbarous races 
have so often disgraced the Christian name The authentic 
accounts of the merciless cruelties perpetrated by English traders 
on the Maoris, who in good faith put themselves in therr power, 

* Colonial Church Eistonea New Zealand By the Very Rev Henry 
Jacobs, D I) , Dean of Ohnstohurcla, New 2iealq,nd S P K , 1888, 



ZEALAND, CSYLO&, Wzsr INDIES, MALTA $& 

give the reader the same kind of sickening shudder that one feelslSrTtl 
on seeing dumb animals wantonly ill-tieated Of course retaha- 1813-24 
tion ensued whenever a chance foi it occuired Nevertheless, the Ohap 16 
Maon savages, fieice as they weie, and addicted to cannibalism, 
proved to be one of the finest abonginal laces with whom English- 
men evei came m contact 

The histMaous that Maisden sawweie two men who had been Marsden 
bi ought by Captain King, Governoi of the penal settlement on j 
Noifolk Island, to Port Jackson (the gieat inlet now known as 
Sydney Haibour), with a view to then giving hints on the cultiva- 
tion of New Zealand flax (pliomnium tenax) Subsequently others 
came ovei to New South Wales, and Maisden stiove to do them 
good and bung them undei the sound of the Gospel He con- 
stantly received them at his own house at Paiamatta (fifteen miles 
inland from Sydney), and put up huts in his gaiden for then 
accommodation, as many as thnty being sometimes theie at once 
Theie were awkwaid incidents now and then On one occasion 
a lad died who was the nephew of a chief, and his uncle was 
about to kill a slave, to attend his spnit in the invisible woild 
With gieat difficulty he was peisuaded to defei it till Marsden, 
who was absent, came home Then he had to give way to 
Marsden's piotestations One of the chiefs entei tamed in 1806 
was a man of gieat intelligence named Te Pahi (Tippahee), who 
was so struck by what he saw of the aits of life that he begged 
foi some one to be sent over to teach his countrymen In 1808, Marsden'a 
Maisden visited England, and at once came to the C 
Missionaiy Society to plead foi the Maori 

The Society was then still m its infancy It had sent out 
exactly five missionaries, and these to a Mission-field compaia- 
tively neai, and familial to the leaders through the Sierra Leone 
Company, and indeed to some of them, Zacnary Macaulay and 
Melville Home foi instance, from personal knowledge Now they 
were asked to send men to the Antipodes, to a land whence it 
would take twelve months to get an answer to a letter, to a lace 
of wailike baibanans among whom no Emopeans had yet settled 
It must have been a staitlnig buggostion, even to men of faith like 
Piatt and John Venn Moieovoi they had had a SGIIOUB warning 
regaiding the South Seas by the disasters and disappointments 
that had attended the London Mis&ionaiy Society's gieat eniei- 
pnse Novoithelebs, aftei the second Committee meeting foi the 
consideiation of the pioposal, it was decided to accept it Aftei 
all, no elaboiate scheme was before them , no gieat company of 
settleis, going forth m then own ship, as m the case of Tahiti, 
was askod foi Marsdon did not oven suggest a " Mission," in 
our sense of the woid He only asked foi three mechanics His 
theory was the theorj of many now who know nothing of the 
histoiy of Missions Theie it no excuse for them now , but there 
was much excuse foi Marsden and the Society then The 
theory seemed reasonable on the surface, and they had no 



206 " INSULAR MISSIONS l * 

PAST III experience to correct it It was this, expiessed in Maraden's own 

*** woids - 
Chap 16 

" Nothing in my opinion can pave the way for the mtioduction of tho 

Gospel but civilization, and that can only be accomplished among 
the Heathen by the arts The arts and religion should go togethei 
The attention of the Heathen can be gained, and then? vagrant habits 
corrected, only by the arts Till then attention is gamed, and moial 
and industrious habits aie induced, little or no progress can be made m 
teaching them the Gospel To preach the Gospel without the aid 
of the arts will never succeed among the Heathen for any time " 

Marsden and the Society weie to leain the fallacy of this 
by hard experience, and it was the New Zealand Mission that 
The "lay was ^ teach them Howevei, two men weie found who seemed 
settlers * suitable, William Hall, a joiner, lecormnendod by Mr Fawcett 
of Caihsle, and John King, a shoemaker, recommended by 
Daniel Wilson, then at Oxford (as Vice-Principal of St Edmund 
Hall) It did not occur to the Committee to give them any 
theological instruction They were plain Christian men, and if 
they were by-and-by to give any teaching at all, it would be of 
the simplest charactei But they did have some preparation 
Hall was sent to Hull to learn something of ship-building and 
navigation, and King to a rope-walk to learn spinning, &c The 
third man wanted should have been a smith , but a smith did not 
appeal Basil Woodd, however, bi ought a> young schoolmaster, 
who also undei stood faimmg, Thomas Kendall Humble as such 
a band was, it was found desirable to seciue the "favour" of 
Loid Gastlereagh, then Sccietary foi the Colonies, and of Colonel 
Macquane, who was going out to New South Wales as Governor 
A passage was obtained, with some difficulty, foi Hall and King 
by the tiansport-ship Ann (by which Mi Maisden also sailed), oil 
condition of their lending a hand on the voyage when reqmied 
They were to have 20 a yeai foi peisonal expenses, and to be 
provided with seeds, live stock, and tools, and then to maintain 
themselves They aie never called " missionanos " m the old 
Reports, but at fiist "lay settleis," and some years latei 
" teacheis " Kendall, who did not sail till latei, is called " school- 
master" until his oidmation 

Their m- Inexpenenced as the Committee weie in such a Mission as this 
atructions Qr m ^ ee ^ m an y Mission the Instiuctions to Hall and King 
are singulaily good and wise The Society's object, they said, 
was " to introduce amongst the Natives the knowledge of uhn&t , 
and m order to this, the Arts of Civilized Life " The men aio 
msti noted as to both their religious and their civil hie As 
regaids religious conduct, they aie enjoined (1) to guard earnestly 
the saciedness of the sabbath-day, (2) nevei to omit family 
woiship, and to "perform it as publicly as possible, by reading 
Scnptme or singing "loud enough to be heard by a passing 
Native " "To show them that you woiship youi God every 
day, as Daniel did, cannot but make some impiession on them," 



NLW ZEALAND^ CEYLON, WEST INDIES, MALT< 207 

(3) They were to conveise with the Natives about sin and PART III 
salvation " when employed m planting potatoes, sowing coin, Q^ 2 ~% 
01 in any othei occupation " (4) They weie to gather the f_ 
childien together foi mstiuction as soon as possible "While 
catechizing them, you may speak through them to the giown 
people " Then as legaids civil conduct, they aie bidden (1) to 
"spend no time in idleness," but "occupy every moment set 
apart for labour m agriculture, building houses or boats, 
spinning twine, or some othei useful occupation " "If you 
indulge in idleness, you will be ruined " (2) To make them- 
selves independent m lespect of pi o visions, by cultivating giam 
and rearing pigs and poultiy (3) To give no piesents to the 
Natives, and to leceive none (4) To show the Natives the 
advantage of mdustiy by sending then handiwoik (mats, &c ) to 
Poit Jackson foi sale (5) On no account to be diawn into wars 
" Tell them you are forbidden by the Chiefs who have sent you 
out " 

The Ann sailed in August, 1809, and leached Port Jackson m Their 
Pebiuaiy On the "voyage one of those unexpected incidents vcyaffe 
occuned which in missionary history have so often displayed 
the paiticulai pi evidence of G-od A poor, haggaid Maon wus 
found on boaid, who, after the strangest adveutuies, and aftei 
the most baibarous treatment by English captains, had been 
bi ought to England and tinned asnoio to staivo , and this Maon, 
whose name was Euataia, pioved to be a nephew of the chief 
Te Pahi, and himself a chief likewise His joy at learning the 
en and of Hall and King ma,y be imagined, and he eageily 
piomised them all assistance and piotectiou in his powei But 
on arriving at Poit Jackson, Maisden and his party had to meet 
a gnevous disappointment News had just come that the 
Bntish ship Bwjtl had been burnt by the\ Mtions, and the ciew 
killed, and eaten Tins, it was aftoi wauls pioved, was but in 
leialiation foi miudeis bykaders, and in its tmn the massacie 
was icvenged by a paity of whalers, who attacked and buint Te 
Pain's village, although he himself had done all in his powei to 
save the crew of the Boyd, and did in fact save some of them 
But these sad events put an end to any hope of a speedy settle- 
ment in New Zealand 

Aftei some months of woaiy waiting, a whaling-ship was found Long 
willing to take the young chief Euataia and land him in New e ays * 
Zealand, and he was sent m hei to asceitam the piospects of 
safely settling there But nothing was heard of him for more 
than a year, and Marsden could only wait anxiously, while the 
Society at home began almost to despan of the enterpnse At 
last Euataia appealed at Poit Jackson The captain of the 
whaler had lefused to land him in New Zealand, but earned bun 
off to Norfolk Island and put him ashoie destitute , and at length 

* Whiten m the eaiher Bepoite "Duatorift " 



208 " INSULAR MISSIONS" 

PART III he had persuaded another ship retaining to Port Jackson to 

1812-24 take him back thithei Anothei attempt was made after a while, 

ChapJ.6 an( j ^ ^ mQ ftuatara did land , and the lesult of his intercourse 

with the other chiefs was that though they leceived his descnp- 

tions of civilized life with mocking scepticism, they agreed to 

welcome the settlers 

Opposi- But now Maisden encounteied fresh obstacles The Colony of 
colonists ^ ew South Wales thought the exteimmation of Maori savages 
moie desii able than then: conveision, and the traders who were 
profiting by fraud and violence all ovet the Southein Ocean 
ob]ected to any attempt by missionaiies, whether in New 
Zealand 01 at Tdhiti, to pi each honesty and morality and peace 
Every possible slandei was set on foot against Maisden , no one 
supported him, no ship would take him and his mechanics 
acioss, noi indeed would the Governor give him temporary 
leave fiom his duties as chaplain to enable him to go At last 
he purchased a small brig of 110 tons, the Active, and sent 
Kendall and Hall over to make fuither inquiues , and on their 
return with a favouiable leport, and bringing Euataia and othei 
Marsden chiefs with them, the Governoi gave him peimission to go, and 
Zealand ^ ce ^ 6 ^o\Q paity with him, i e the three men from England, 
with then: wives and children, and half a dozen mechanics fiom 
Poit Jackson, and the Maon chiefs The stiange condition of 
South Sea society at the time may be gatheied from the com- 
position of the crew of the Active one Englishman, one Irish- 
man, one Prussian, one Swede, one Noiwegian, one American, one 
white Colonist, one Maori, two Tahitians, and one Sandwich 
Islandei 1 

These few details have been given in older to convey, if 
possible, some slight idea of the dimculties attending even the 
piepaiations foi a Mission to New Zealand in those days It 
was now Novembei, 1814 Five years and thiee months had 
elapsed since the Ann left England Another year and thiee 
months weie yet to pass befoie the Society at home heaid of 
the settlement having really been begun This was not sowing 
the seed and waiting patiently foi the harvest It was waiting 
foi even an oppoitumty to sow the seed Tiuly patience had hei 
pei feet woik in those days ! 

The voyage fiom Sydney to Noith Cape, the northern ex- 
tiemity of New Zealand, about 1000 miles due east, is now done 
m four 01 five days by steamer The Active left Port Jackson on 
November 28th, and sighted North Cape on Decembei 15th, a 
good voyage foi a little sailing vessel The Bay of Islands, 
whither she was bound, being tho entiance to the district where 
Euataia and othei friendly chiefs weie dominant, is a little to 
the south of Noith Cape, on the fuither (east) side How Marsden 
heaid that a deadly feud had spiung up between Buatara/s tnbe 
and anothei , how he at once landed, despite Buataia's warnings, 
and, with only one Sydney man and an mterpieter, went, un- 



NEW ZEAL AND) CKYLON, WEST INDIES, MALTA 209 

aimed, stiaight to the hostile paity , bow he slept that night in PABT III 
then midst undei the open canopy of heaven, how m the 1812-24 
morning he peisuaded them to make peace , how he went on p lg 
joyfully with his whole paity to Buataia's tubo , how the horse, 
the hull, and the cows he had brought with him, excited the 
Natives, whose largest animal was the pig , how eveiy thing be- 
tokened a piospeious stait foi the settlement, has often been 
told, and can be lead again and again with deepest mteiest Lot 
us come to Chustmas Day It fell that year on Sunday Christmas 
Kuataia had gatheicd his fellow-chiefs and people togethei Da y l8l 4 
" A veiy solemn silence prevailed I lose and began the service 
by singing the Old Hundicdth Psalm, and I felt rny very soul 
melt within me when I viewed my congregation, and consideied 
the state they weie in Aftei leading the service, I preached 
fiom St Luke 11 10, ' Behold, I bung you good tidings of gioat 
]oy, which shall bo to all people ' " Such is Maisdon'R simple 
account of one of the gioat histonc scenes in the histoiy of 
Missions, indeed one oi tho leally gioat bcunes in the history of 
tho "Bnfcisli Coloin.il Empnc, foi the veiy cxiBtence of tho now 
fiouushing Colony of Now Zealand is duo to tho coinage and 
faith of Siiniuol Maisdcn in Hinging hunsolf among tho Maona 
The Mission he initiated on Gbii&Unas Day, 1814, tamed the lace , 
and then, in pouied the colonists 

Maisdou spent two months in tho countiy, and then i claimed 
to his own duties in Now South Wales Jhorn Paiaraatta ho 
sent a full lepoit of his proceedings home to England It 
airived early m 181G, while Edwaid Bickeisteth was on his 
voyage out to Afnca, and just before William Johnson sailed 
thither li excited the liveliest mteicst Theie were yet to 
pass many yeais before praise could aRcend to God at the news 
of Maoi i convei sions , but piayeiful sympathy was called fotth, 
and Africa had aheady taught tho Society that theio must be a 
sowing in tours bofoio theio could bo a reaping in joy One npo 
eai, howevoi, v>as voiy quickly leaped, though not m New Zealand 
itself A young Maon, named Mam (Mowhoo), who had been A Maori 
undor Maisden's mstiuction at Paramatta, woiked his way to London, 
England as a common sailor, and on leaching London was taken 
by the captain to the Church Missionaiy House The Society 
received him, and sent him to Basil Woodd at Paddmgton, and 
theio he showed evident signs of Divmo grace in his heait Ho 
set to woik to leain how to toach, hoping lo go back to Ins 
own countiy as a teachoi , but, as in tho caso of Simoon Wilholm 

* Sovonty oiglit yeais after, on Soptomlior 28th, 1892, tho CMS Deputa- 
tion to the Oolomoa landed (it tho beautiful ut,y of Auckland, a little south of 
the Bay of laUndR, and piotoedod to tho Cathedral, whoie -WGIO gathered 
tho Bishop and cloigy and a Imge congro^tion of white colonists MaiBden's 
text on GtuiBtnwfl fiay, 18H, was tlui to\t of tho first addioss, and tho 
Ohuroh of Now Zealand was invited now to join m sending on the " good 
of great ]oy" to " all people " 



210 (( INSULAR MISSIONS " 

PART in the Susoo lad, 11 disease struck him, and he died in the faith of 
1812-24 (jkiBt on December 28th, 1816, ]ust two years after Marsden's 
Qhap 16 Christmas sermon at the Bay of Islands A deep impiession 
was made by the Ghiistian deaths of the young Negro and the 
young Maori in London, within a few months of each other, and 
before any decided encouragement had come to the praying 
members of the Society fiom either Africa or New Zealand 
The names of Mowhee and Simeon Wilhelm were coupled in 
many utteiances of thankfulness in seimons and speeches all 
over England, and both their portraits appear in the same 
volume of the Missionary Register, 1818 

Mean-while Marsden was carrying on a Maon Seminary at 
Paiamatta, where Natives might be rnoie effectively trained in 
" the arts of life " undei his own eye than in New Zealand itself , 
suitable men being sent over fiorn time to time This Seminary 
lasted for some years, with varying foi tunes At the Bay of 
The Islands, the little band of settlers weie patiently tiymg to win 
then way among the Maons It pioved weaiymg and discoui ag- 
ing work Euatara had died befoie Marsden left, and the loss of 
his help and piotection was keenly felt Savagery of all kinds 
abounded , lobbenes weie incessant , and lepeatedly the settleis 
and their families weie wained at night that they would be 
muidered before morning Hall and King made no pi ogress m 
the language, though Kendall did , and it was haid to get even 
the fuendly Natives to leain anything, whethei reading 01 wilting 
or handiciafts And with all this, there was constant peiil fiom 
a settlement of escaped convicts on the opposite side of the Bay- 
men of the most reckless chaiacter, whose wicked tieatment of 
the Maoris continually endangeied the lives of all white people 
In 1819, howevei, when, after the lapse of fom yeais and a half, 
Maisden paid a second visit to New Zealand, taking with him a 
clergyman sent out by the Society to be tho spuitual he.id of the 
Mission Mr Butler, and again when he paid his tlmd visit, in 
1820, things looked brighter m several ways The "aits of life " 
really seemed to be piogressing Theie were fields of whoat ; 
there were horses and cattle , fiuit-tiees sent from Sydney were 
flout ishing , blacksmith's shops, saw-pits, rope- walks, weio at 
woik, and a boarding-school was successful in taming and 
teaching even the wild^and volatile Maon childien Kendall was 
especially efficient h*e was the schoolmaster, the farmer, the 
doctor, and the linguist He had alieady prepared some small 
papers in the Maon language The settlers weie gaining lespect 
and influence, insomuch that, although, within a yeai or two, 
about one hundred Natives had been muideiod by Euiopean 
traders and escaped convicts, no retaliation had been attempted 
upon the Mission settlement The Committee were much en- 
couraged they saw the good influence of even the small beginnings 

* Seep 16], 



NEW ZEALAND, CEYLON, WE^F INDIES, MALTA 211 



of industnal, educational, medical, and linguistic work , and they PART III 
hoped gieat things fiom the efforts of the new G-overnoi of New 
South Wales, Sii Thomas Brisbane, in putting down the outiages 
perpetiated by Europeans concerning which they had m an 
earner Beport used this strong language 

"Your Committee feel it stiongly that Providential Guidance lias 
thrown the Society, in its two attempts among the more uncivilized 
Heathen, into conflict with the most rapacious of their countrymen 
But whether it lespects Western Afnca or New Zealand, they will not 
cease to protest against these enormities, and to wipe their hands of 
these crimes 1101 will they desist fi om employing all piacticable methods 
of ledress, till such lediess is actually obtauied " 

But a much daikei period now ensued A great chief named g on p "* 
Hongi, who was supposed by the nussionanes and by Maisden 
to be then best Maon friend and one likely to be soon influenced 
by the Gospel, came to England with Kendall He was leceived 
with much respect and kindness by the Society's leaders , and 
one good thing lesulted from the visit ho <md Kendall weio bent 
to Cambridge foi two mouths to enable that gieat scholai, Pro- 
fessor Sa,muel Lee, " the Society's Orientalist, "I tonxthegtaumw 
of the Maori language , and the Grammar and Vocabulary pioduced 
by Lee became the ioundation of all subsequent Maon translations 
Kendall was admitted to holy oideis duimg their stay, and high 
hopes weie entertained of the futuie of the Mission But it 
turned out that Hongi's chief object m coming to England was to 
obtain guns and gunpowder , that he had obtained a large quantity, 
and that on his way back he purchased more at Sydney by selling 
the valuable presents given him, including some from George IV , 
who had granted him an interview , and his return to Now 
Zealand was the signal, not for peace and advance in civilization, 
but for war and massacre and cannibalism The nanatives of his 
proceedings are truly dreadful , and the settlers wore filled with 
noil 01 when they saw the heads of men and women tossed about 
in wild fuiy, and tit-bits from human corpses brought to their own 
dwellings and offered to them to eat Worst of all, to the 
shame and dismay of the little band, Kendall himself was Kendall's 
proved to be the ally of Hongi, and seemingly the instigator, not treachei> y 
indeed of his cannibalism, but of his ambitious designs The 
Society had laid down strict rules against the use of guns and 
gunpowder in bai termg for food, and honest men like Hall and 
King weie ready to starve as indeed they nearly did rather than 
di&obey this rule, Kendall opposed them, and claimed liberty to 
trade m arms and ammunition, and one 01 two of the Sydney men 
bided with him This led to the discovery of his alliance with 
Hongi In the Beport of 1822, the Committee say, referring to 
the change in the chief's temper and attitude," Into the cuoum- 

* Written " Slmng hoe " m fcho earhei Reports, 
I* See p 120 



212 "INSULAR MISSIONS" 



PABT III stances which led to this they will not now enter, they have 
1812-24 obtained a clue to them, which will lead, they fear, to some 
Ch !L. 16 painful conclusions " In the following yeai the Committee 



" Had the whole number of labourers in this Mission maintained 
among these Heathens the Christian spmt and character, the Committee 
would have made comparatively light of its external difficulties , but it 
is with gnef that they add that its mam trials have ausen from within 
It has been found leqmsite, in the faithful chschaige of the duty which 
Christian Communities owe to the honom of that Name by which they 
aie called, to separate fiom the Society two Members of the Mission, 
foi conduct disgraceful to then profession The Committee tiust that 
it will never become necessary again to exercise this painful duty but 
should the necessity at any time lecui, the path of duty is obvious, as no 
blessing fiom God can be expected, but in proportion as the simplicity 
and purity of the Christian character are maintained " 



dismissed ^ ne ^ ^6 ^ wo ^ ismisse ^ was > ^ couise, Kendall , the other 
was Mr Butler's son In the following year, a thud man, 
a mechanic, was dismissed, and Mi Butler himself, who 
had come to England, withdrew But seveial otheis thirteen 
had gone out from England up to 1823, and some from New South 
Waleswere woiking and playing earnestly In the Bepoit of 
1824 the Committee say 

" In the midst of the evils which have arisen to this Mission fiom the 
sins of some who have been engaged in it, and the infirmities of otheis, 
God has not left Himself without witness in this land, but has maintained 
among His people, nndei all the tnals endured from the Natives, and the 
still greater tnals fiom some of their own body, faithful and devoted 
Labourers, who, though they have felt, to use their own expiession, as 
' living Martyrs,' have continued to lift up holy hands in the midst of 
these savage tubes, to labour unweanedly for their good, and to cause the 
light of a meek and holy conversation to shine around them " 

When we remeinbei that all these soie trials weie buidenmg the 
minds and hearts of the Committee in the veiy yeai of the terrible 
mortality at Siena Leone, descubed in the Thirteenth Ohaptei, 
we cannot but praise God that His grace enabled them to hold 
on with uuf alteimg faith , and that the blessing vouchsafed to 
Johnson's work at Begent was fresh in their memories as a token, 
after all, of the favour of the Lord Maisden, too, upon whom 
fell the heaviest burden, in grappling on the spot with the diffi- 
culties of the Mission, both external and mteinal, never deapaned 
foi a moment He had his previous experience with the L M S 
Tahiti Mission to fall back upon, and that Mission now, after 
years of trial, was being blessed beyond anticipation 

" I had many a battle to fight [he wrote] for years, with somo of iho 
first settlers sent out to the Society Islands, who tinned out unprincipled 
men The Directors of the London Missionary Society despoiled of 
success, after they had expended many thousands of pounds , and they 
frequently wiote to me on the subject, expressing their foars that they 
must abandon the Mission I never had myself, however, but one 



NEW ZEALAND, CEYLON, WEST INDIES, MALTA 213 

opinion relative to that Mission and that was that it -would succeed PART III 
and God has now blessed the word of His grace to thousands of the poor 181^-24 
Heathen m those Islands " Chap 16 

He added, significantly," The way is still open, if Labomers can 
only be piocuied fit foi the woik , and God will find these and 
send them forth when He sees meet You have some excellent 
ones of the earth m New Zealand, whom the Lord will assuiedly 
bless, but we must not sow and expect to leap in the same 
day" 

In that very yeai, 1822, was sent foith the man whom we may The new 
regaid as the first of the second generation of New Zealand mis- Henry 
sionanes, and who was destined in God's providence to be one of 
the chief instruments m the evangelization of the Maori iaco 
Hemy Williams had been an oihcei m the Navy, and had seived 
in the wais with both Ranee and the United States He ottered 
to the Society m 1820, and leceived his education for the ministry 
under a clencal lelative, the Bev E G Maish He was the 
second candidate to receive holy oideis fiom the Bishop 
of London undoi the new Colonul Service Act , and he sailed, 
with his Wife and thieo childien, on August) 7th, 1822 Tho 
Instiuctions given him aie veiy significant The ComnnUee woie 
now realizing that if Civilization pioccded Gluibtumly, it was very 
likely to piove an obstacle to Chnstiamty, and that the Gospel 
did not need the " arts of life" as its precuisois, however useful 
they might be to win attention to the Divine message, and, 
as in this case, to make a Mission paitly self-suppoiting " It 
is the gieat and ultimate pmpose of this Mission," they said to 
Henry Williams, "to bung the noble but benighted lace of New 
Zealandeis into the enjoyment of the light and freedom of 
the Gospel To this gmnd end, all the Society's measures aw 
subordinate " 

" The Committee aie the more earnest with yon on this point, because, 
in the constant attention which this Mission will icqmre, for yoais to 
come, to seculai business, the temptation of tho Labomors has been, 
and will be, not to give a duo proportion m then plans to Behgious 
Education and Insti notion 

"Go forth, then, in tho tiue spuit of a devoted Missumaiy, having no 
secular object in view, hut desuous of bimgmg glory to God by advancing 
the Kingdom of His Bon 

"Theiesult of your laboius, be well assuied, will indue time show 
itself What a man sowoth, that shall he also ioap Indefatigable 
labouis, unweaiied patience, peisevormg prayei, simple faith, and un- 
failing love, will in the end piocluco then visible fruit to the piaiso mid 
glory of God, while self-will, evil tompeis, indolence, solf-mdulgenco, 
pmsuit of gam, a worldly spnit, stnfo and contention, neglect of devotion, 
and all those othoi evils to which we aio by mituie prone, would render you 
unprofitable to New Zealand, and a burden to the Socioty , and would 
nil you with self-iepioach and soriow, if they did not end, as they have 
done m some awful instances, in a state of apostasy from 6od," 

* Seop 216 



214 "INSULAR MISSIONS" 

III In the Address delivered at the same time by B G Maish, 

181&-24 there is a sinking passage about self-defence The New Zealand 

Chap^lG missicmnes weie no t on iy forbidden to use muskets foi bartei, 

NO fire- Mr Marsh enjoins them not to use arms at all, even to save the 

arms ! l lyes 



"As you are about to enter the territories of a savage and powerful 
people, to commit yourselves to then hospitality, and to live under then 
laws, it would be vain to think of piotectmg yoursolves by force against 
their violence It is impossible to shut your eyes to the fact that, so far 
ds human means are concerned, you must be consideied as in their 
power and at their mercy All offensive instruments, therefore, it is 
wise for a Missionary to renounce As his ohject is peaceful, so should 
Ins hand he unarmed He should carry the olive-branch, and not the 
sword , and should exhibit the example of a person who comes into the 
enemy's camp in the sa<red character of a Herald of Peace He will 
therefore neither wear a sword, noi bestow one He will persist in 
abstaining from earthly weapons while he is prosecuting a spiritual 
warfaie He will say under all provocations, * I will go in the stiength 
of the Lord God , I will make mention of His righteousness only ' " 

The reply of Henry Williams is also interesting, and ]ust such 

as might be expected from, a naval officer enteiing missionary 

service He assures the Committee that he shall " considei it a 

most sacred duty to regaid" then oideis at all times " as ngidly 

as ever he did those of his Semoi Officer while he was in His 

Majesty's Service", and, referring to his wife, he says, "With 

Mrs H regard to Mis Williams, I beg to say that she does not accom- 

Williams p a ny me merely as my wife, but as a fellow-helpei in the work " 

Even at the end of the century, Henry Wilhams's example would 

not be out of date ' 

Eemy Williams pioved to be a man after Marsden's own heait 
From the time of his amval in New Zealand, the whole Mission 
improved , and Mrs Williams, as he had said, was a true fellow- 
worker Trials, however, were not over A new station was 
established, among new people, and the thieving and thieats 
fiom which the earlier settlers had suffered, had now to be again 
encountered Moieover, " foui young childien in a very small 
dwelling, which effectually excluded neither wind nor rain, was in 
itself sufficiently inconvenient , and to this was added the want 
of a fire even in cold weathei, for the walls of rushes were too 
combustible to allow of one in the house", while the cooking 
Mrs Williams had to do in an open shed, whatevei the weathei 
That is, when theie was anything to cook , but the Natives stole 
then* fowls and destroyed their vegetables, and lefused to supply 

* There is 310 real inconsistency between these counsels and tho duty of a 
missionoiy to join, in case of urgent need, in a defensive nght under the 
orders of the State, aa recently in Uganda What IB heie deprecated IB his 
defending the Mission against violence offered to it in virtue of its missionary 
character An English open air preacher attacked by roughs would refrain 
from injuring them in self-defence, but he would join in defending those very 
roughs against a toreign invader 



NEW ZEALAND^ CRYLO^ WEST INDIES, MAL?A 2 i 

food except in exchange for guns and powder, which Williams P.AHT III 
resolutely declined to bartei " Often," wiote he of his wife, " is 
she fared in her work, but never of it " 

Another of God's chosen instruments for the evangelization of 
New Zealand was now on his way out, in the person of Heniy 
Williams' s brother William Williams had been brought up to 
the medical profession, and had been assistant to a surgeon at 
Southwell, but on Henry's going forth as a missionary, he 
determined to follow him He went to Magdalen Hall (now 
Heitfoid College), Oxfoid, and took his degioe m 1824 , and m 
July, 1825, he sailed with his young wife foi New Zealand In 
the Insinuations, the Committee, peihaps encouraged by tho 
woids that Henry Williams had uttoied about his wife throe 
yeais befoie, specially addies&ed Mrs William Williams They Mrs w 
exhorted hoi to lemembei that "no countiy can be happy 01 WllhamtJ 
Chustian but m piopoition as its Females becorno so," and to 
seek every oppoituuily of influencing the Maori women "You 
should lank," they said, "with those honoiuable Women of old 
who labomed with even Apostles m the Go&pel " In all 
missionaiy histoiy, has any woman pioved heibolf moio woithy 
of this " lank " than Jano Williams ? 

When William Williams and his wife leached Sydnoy, they 
weie met by Hemy m a little vessel, the Ilaiald, which ho, 
piofiting by his naval expeiience, had himself built at the Bay of 
Islands, with the assistance of W Hall, who, as will bo remem- 
beicd, had learned something of ship-building at Hull befoie 
leaving England seventeen years befoie, The ActivQ had been 
sold some time pieviously , a vessel which had taken Marsden to 
New Zealand for his fourth visit in 1823 had been wieckod , aud 
Hemy Williams had determined to supply the want himself 

Meanwhile, not a few signs had appeared of the grace of God 
working in Maon heaits Theio weie inquirers aftei tho way of 
salvation , theie wcio hopeful deaths , and on SopLcrabei 14th, 
1825, the fiist baptism took place, that of a chief named Bangi, First 
on his deathbed Then e could be no doubt of the genuineness of convert 
his faith he leceived the name of " Chiibtian " , and ho was the 
mat of a gieat company of believers do&tmed to be gatheicd out 
of one of the most savage and feiocious laces ovoi met with, 
But the great ingathonng was not yet 

CEYLON 

Tho very fust Beport issued by tho Society, in 1801, givos 
evidence that, in wistfully suivoying tho wido holds of Heathendom, 
the Committee did not pass ovei the Ihland of Ceylon It hud Ceylon 
long boon in tho possession of Holland, having been taken by that 
enteipiising little fttato fiom tho Poituguoso m 16CG , but it had 



* Sho lived to lecoivo tlio CMW Deputation to ihe Colonies 111 
and died, honotued aud leveled by all, m 1890, aged 95^ Her husband was 
the fliet Bishop of Waiupu, and her BOIL the thud. 



"INSULAR MISSIONS" 

III lately (1796) been conquered by England The Dutch, as men- 
1812-24 tioned in a foimei chapter/" had forced Protestant Chiistiamty 
Chappie U p 0n ike people, by subjecting Buddhists, Hindus, and Eomauists 
alike to heavy civil disabilities, but they had honestly en- 
deavoured to provide religious ministrations foi them, building 
chinches and supporting cleigy and schoolmasters The British, 
of course, lestoied religious liberty , and though the fiist govemoi 
did seek to continue the official patronage of lehgion, this policy 
was soon abandoned The people quickly peiceived that then 
newiuleis caied little what rehgion pievailed, and whereas in 
1801 theie were 342,000 Singhalese and 136,000 Tamils who 
piofessed Protestant Christianity, in ten yeais moie than half of 
these had gone back to Buddhism or the Tamil devil-woiship 
"Government lehgion" had been thiown off, and the Dutch 
churches were going to rum The Society, however, was thinking 
of Ceylon before these apostasies occurred, and legarded it as a 
specially hopeful field Moreover, there was no East India 
Company theie to exclude or expel missionanes The Butish 
authorities, indeed, were fairly favourable But Africa presently 
filled all the field of vision, and Ceylon disappeared for a time 
from view 

In 1810-11, two cncumstances biought Ceylon once moie 
prominently before the Society One was the publication of 
Buchanan's Christian Researches in the East, which within two 
years ran through twelve editions, and which gave much mfoima- 
tion about Ceylon The other was the piesence in England of 
sir A the Chief Justice of the Island, Sii Alexander Johnston, an 
Johnston afom^ble Christian man, who had on his own account employed 
two Singhalese men to translate Bishop Porteus's woik on the 
Evidences of Chiistiamty, and who earnestly pressed the claims 
of the comparatively new British possession upon the sympathy of 
Christian England On his letuin to Ceylon, he caused the fusts 
number of the Missionary Register (January, 1813) to be tianslatcd 
into Singhalese, Tamil, and Portuguese, for circulation in the 
Island, and he wrote to Pratt proposing a Church Missionary 
Association there, and the sending of suitable native youths to 
England for training This latter plan was forestalled by the 
Society resolving to send out missionanes , and it will be lemem- 
bered that the first two English candidates for whom oidination 
had been procured, Greenwood and Norton, weie at fiist designated 
to Ceylon, and only diverted to India after they had actually 
sailed 
Not till 1817 were theie men actually available But in that 

SonarS" ^^ ^ ^ st * our " wel6 sent ^ ortn Samuel Lambuck, Robeit 
toceyion Mayor, t Benjamin Ward, and Joseph Knight Lambnck was a 

* See p 56 

f Mayor raaraed Charlotte Bickersteth, sister of the Jt 8 Secretary, 
and was the father of the three distinguished brothers Mayor, of St John's, 
Cambridge, one of whom became Latin Professor 



NEW 2EAL4ND) CEYLON) WEST INDIES, MALTA 

man in middle life, who had been a tutoi at Eton, and was probably PART III 
the most matuie person yet engaged by the Society They weie n? 12 "1o 
all oidamcd by Bishop Ryder of Gloucester This was the first iap _ 
occasion of sending out fom cleigymen at once to one Mission, 
and many yeais elapsed before the Committee weie able to take a 
sirmlai step They weie heartily welcomed, not only by Sn A 
Johnston, but also by the Governor, Sn Robert Biownngg It is 
veiy interesting to observe in the eailyEepoits how frequently the 
Colonial Governors aie mentioned as heartily co-opeiatmg with 
Missionary Societies Sir E Browmigg, when he left Ceylon in 
1820, refeired in a public speech to his action in this respect 
" The chief ends I have had in view," he said, " were the happiness 
of the people confided to my caie, and tho honour of iuy own 
country, to which I was responsible foi the sacred trust " On 
these accounts, therefore, and not merely because of Ins personal 
faith m Chribtumty, he felt it his " bounden duty to foster and 
entourage" Missrons 

It was by Sri E Biownngg's advice that tho old hill capital, 
Kandy, was occupied by Lambuck The Kandyans wcie a Kandy 
singularly vigorous 3 ace, and had maintained their independence 
all through the Portuguese and Dutch peiiods, and it was with 
difficulty, and after tho destination of one detachment of troops 
sent against them, that tho Bntish succeeded in subduing them, 
m 1815 Two years latei , a formidable rebellion broke out, but it 
was quelled ]ust before the missionaries ainved, and the Govoinoi 
wished one of them to go there at once The possession of tho 
famous relic called "Buddha's Tooth" by tho chid; Buddhist 
Temple at Kandy added to the importance of the place, aa 
pilgrims from all parts resorted to it Two othei stations woro 
opened at the same time ' Baddegama in the southern Singhalese 
country, and Nelloro, in the Jaflna Peninsula, at the north end of 
the Island, a densely-populated Tamil distinct Four years later, 
Lambnck removed to the village of Gotta, m the plain, six miles 
from Colombo, which has been an unpoitant centto ovor bince 

Bishop Hebei visited Ceylon in J825, and was exceedingly Heber in 
pleased with all he saw " The Church missionaries m this 
island," lie wiote, " aie ically patter us of what missionaries ought 
to bo Healoufl, disci eet, oideily, ivnd most active " | It is a 
ounoiis illusto alion of the times that his advice was as!kud l)y 
the brethren as to tho piopnoty 01 otherwise of then meeting 
tho missionaries of othoi denomi nations m periodical gatherings 
for Bible-study, confer unco, and prayer , and that so good and 
largo-hoar ted a man as Hoboi, while "not thinking it necessity to 
adviso their cessation, now that they wero established," did feel 
it necessary to requobt tho chaplains and buoh other of the 
clergy as wore not miysionaries to abstain from attending them, 



* Jfttisin/Ktji/ IftMH/t'i, 1821, p 71 
| Dr G, Smith's Uis/toj) Mar, p 280 



2 1 8 " INSULAR MISSIONS " 

PABT III and did also feel it necessary to suggest lestuctions as to the 

1812-24 p^ laymen might take m them 

Chap 16 r J b 

- "With no feeling of disrespect or suspicion towaids the excellent 
laymen who have joined you, I would recommend, if my counsel has 
any weight (and I offer it as my counsel only), that, though there is no 
unpiopnety in their taking then turns in reading the Scnptures, and 
mingling in the discussions which anse on the subjects connected with 
your conference, they would ahstain fiom leading m prayoi, except when 
the meeting is held in one of their own houses, and when, as nustei of 
the family, they may consistently oftei up what will then be then family 
de\otion ' 



ha?dfiei a d ^ lle Society had expected Ceylon to bo an easily fruitful field , 
but the opposite pioved to be the case One of the missionanes 
wiote m 1868, reviewing the past histoiy - 

" A moie arduous task, a more trying field of labour it would be difh- 
cult to imagine It is a mattei well understood by planters, that while 
the primeval foiest land, if cleaied and planted, will soon yield them 
a rich return, the ohenas of the lower ranges, previously exhausted by 
native cultivation, though f ai more easy of access, and requiring far less 
outlay at the beginning, will too often mock then hopes, and can only bo 
made to yield a xeturn at last, by a long and expensive mode of 
cultivation This fact has its counterpart in spnitual husbandry 
Pure Buddhists and Hindus are tenfold more accessible than tho 
thousands of relapsed and false professors of Christianity The 
traditions preserved in native families of the fact that their foiefathers 
were once Cluistians and afterwards leLumed to Buddhism, is uatuinUy 
regaided by them as a- proof of the supenontyof the latter lehgion, 
whilst the sight of chinches, built by the Dutch but now gone to ruin, 
adds strength to the belief that Christianity is an upstart religion, which 
has no vitality, and winch, if unsupported by the ruling poweis, cannot 
stand before their own veneiated system " 

And in few Missions did the progiess piove slowei, foi many 
years, than in Ceylon But a bnghter day afterwaids dawned , 
and though the work has never produced staithng lesults, no 
Mission has had year by year to tell of moie manifest tokens of 
Divine grace m individual hearts and lives 

WEST INDIES, 

When the " Society for Missions m Afuca and the East " was 

founded, theie was evidently no thought of extending its opoia- 

We8t tions to the West The sympathy of tho leaders, howovei, with 

Ntgroes *ka Negio lace, and especially with the Negio Slaves, could not 

fail to reach to the British possessions m the West India Islands, 

m which so many thousands of Negioes weie still the slaves of 

English planteis But the call thithei came in an unlooked-for 

way As befoie explained, it was not the piactice of the Com- 

mittee to take a map of the world, and put their ungers upon 

particular legions to which they would like to send missionanes 

* Jnbilee Sketches of the M S Ceylon Mission 



ZEALAND, CEYLON, WESI INDIES, MALTA 219 

There was always an invitation 01 othei external icason for PART III 
going in this 01 that dnection This was what has been always p. 812 ~?l 
legarded as Providential Leading It was so with the West p 
Indies Mr William Dawes, who had been Governor of Siena 
Leone, and aftei wards a member of the Committee, wont, in 1813, 
to live in the Island of Antigua, and offered to act as an 
honoiaiy lay "catechist" to such Negroes as he could leach 
His pioposal was coidially accepted, t \nd although his name does 
not appeal on the Society's loll, he leally did effective missionary 
work for some years much as the India chaplains did Ho 
instituted both day-schools and Sunday-schools, and the Society 
gi anted him money for teachers An omcei in the Eoyal 
Artillery, too, Lieutenant E Luggei, who was quaiteied at 
Baibadoes, started schools, assisted by the Society, m that 
Island, and the scheme was afterwards extended to St Vincent 
and Dominica In 1820, moie than two thousand Negro childieu 
wcie undei mstiuction The Committee also sent a clergyman 
who had offcied to the Society to Hayti, as a chaplain Moanwlulo, 
the SPG held the Codungton Estate m Barbadoes in tiuat, and 
employed a chaplain to instinct the sUvos employed upon it 
The wo] k of othci Missions will appeal by-and-by 

Bntish Honduras, although on the mainland of Cential Honduras 
Amoucii, may be legaidod as a pj.it of the West Indies, and 
thercfoie must be mentioned heie At the invitation of thu 
English chaplain theie, Mi Aimstiong, the Society, in 18J8, 
sent a second chaplain, a schoolmastei, and a punka, foi tho 
purpose of establishing a Mission among tho Mosquito Indiana, 
who appealed to bo paiticulaily accessible to Christian instruc- 
tion But the second chaplain i etui nod invalided, and the 
woik was never prosecuted with effect, although foi tluco or four 
years Honduras held its place in tho Society's Bepoits 

Tho Committee lejoiced when two Bishops weie sent to the 
West Indies in 1824, to pieside ovei tho new dioceses of 
Jamaica and Baibadoes, and at a later penod impoiUnt woik 
was undei taken m the foimei juusdiotion 

MALTA, 

How Malta came to be occupied, and with what puiposos, will 
appeal m the next obaptci Iloie it need only bo absolved that 
the Committee legaidcd the little Island as a convenient base Malta us 
for extending opei aliens in all dnoctions " Iftom this com- 
mauding station, Chnstians have easy access, m thnii efforts to 
laiso and propagate tho "Faith, to mipoitaut portions of the 
Thiee Continents of the Old Woild, by a lino of coasl oqimlin 
exlionl to half tho Gircumfeiouco of tho Glol)a " The access to 
Afnca fiom tho Mediteu.inean was especially piommonl in their 
thoughts They looked at Egypt, pitying Urn oppressed Coptic 
Chinch, and tuisting that "wlnlolho ryiamid and the Temple 
had u\citud cntlm&iasm and animated icseatch, Chnslun 



22*0 " INSULAR MISSIONS" NEW ZEALAND, CEYLON, &>c 

PAST III would not be found deficient in giving aid to that Church whose 
1812-24 country afforded protection to our Infant Savioui, and whose 
Chap 16 shrines were conseciated by the labouis of a Cyril and an 
Athanasms " And they looked at the Baibaiy States, and 
joyfully anticipated the day when " the northein shoies of Afuca, 
and all the othei coasts of these magnificent inland seas " should 
" feel the leviving influence of that Sacied Light which once shone 
upon them with distinguished splendour " And they did not 
confine themselves to rhetouc Scores of pages in the volumes of 
the Missionary Begistei at this time aie filled with impoitant 
information legaiding North Africa and the Levant geneially 
Piorn the Malta Pi ess went foith thousands of Christian tiacts and 
portions of Scnptuie to eveiy accessible North African port And 
from Malta started the Mission to Abyssinia, which ultimately led 
the Society to Eastern Equatorial Afiica 



CHAPTEB XVII 

Tm EASTERN CnmHEs Emm TO SEWS THM 



The Committee's Eyes upon the East An Appeal from Malta- 
William Jowett-C M S Policy with the Eastern Churches The 
Bible for the Eastern Churches Promising Beginnings Turkish 
Atrocities The Syrian Church of Travancore Buchanan and 
Colonel Monro C M S Designs Fenn, Bailey, Baker 

" JTe fki liatli m cm, let Inn 7/ecw wlmt tlio Spwit mill unto the Cliwclies " 
-Rev 11 7,11,17,29, m 6,13,22 




[HE eneigy with which the young Society was now being PART III 
conducted led to many plans being pioposed to the ;[? 12 ~?t 
Committee foi development m diffeient directions , and ap 
the extiaoidmaiy bieadth both of knowledge and of 
sympathy which Josiah Piatti displayed m the Mission- 
ary Register io which Uieie is leally no parallel at all in the piesent 
day natmally induced a belief that the Society could be used for 
almost any good purpose at home or abroad Among the sugges- c M s not 
tions made to the Committee repeatedly by various fuends was that catSSc* 
" cleigymen of learning, intelligence, and piety" should be stationed countries 
at various Continental cities, paiticulaily in Italy The idea was 
not to tiy and add to the number of Pioteatant communions 
abioad , not necossanly to encouiago open secession from theEonian 
Church But it was thought that theie must be many godly 
individuals m that Chinch who would welcome mpie Scnptuial 
and tiuly Pnmitive teaching, and that giadually a leformmg 
movement might be set on foot within the Italian and Spanish 
and Galhcan Churches themselves " Frequent and strong repre- 
sentations," the Committee say in the Report of 1818, weie 
made to them as to the good which might thus be done It did 
not appeal to thorn, however, that this was the proper woik of the 
Church Missionary Society That work, they said, was "to com- 
municate the knowledge of Christianity to such as did not possess 
it " Still, there was a way m which they were willing to help 
Though their funds, they felt, were not applicable to such projects, 
their "knowledge and influence" might be rightly used m 
"reviving and diffusing Chnstianity in any of the Churches 
abroad," not only m the Eoman Church, but IB, the too lational- 
istio Protestant Chinches, such as those of Germany, Switzerland, 
Holland, &c They weie disposed, accoidingly, to " lender advice 



222 THL EASTERN CHURCHES EFFORTS ro REVivr THEM 

PABT III and assistance to suitable clergymen, "willing to piooeed to places 
1813-34 w here they were likely to be useful " Appaiently, they had no 
Chapjtf opportunity of fulfilling this pionuse, because no suitable cleigy- 

men canie forward 

m for But it was different with the Chuichos of tho East Tho 
Eastern Society did entei upon an important enterpuso with a view to 
churches? ^ p^]^ levival Where lay the difleienoe? It lay in tins, 
that the levival of the Eastem Chuiches would uudoul -Wily havo 
an effect on the Mohammedan and Heathen Woild " It has not 
appealed," says the same Eepoit, " confoinmblo to tho duect 
design of the Society to expend any pait of its funds on Chustun 
Countnes, otherwise than with tnf ultimate view of winniny, 
though them, the Heathen to the tcccpt'ion of the Goycl " Long 
befoie this, indeed, then eyes had rested with pecului inteiost 
on the sacied legions of the East It was humiliating tli.it m 
the lands in which the Incarnate Son of God lived and died, 
m which Apostles laboured, from which the Gospel had itibt 
sounded out, a fanatical and yet sterile leligion like Islam, the 
enemy of all enlightenment, tho bai to all piogiess, rfhould bo 
Dominant Yet the Eastem Chmches, so far fiom being offeclivo 
instruments for winning the Mohammedans to Chust, woio, and 
still are regretfully as it must be said, a ical obstacle to their 
evangelization " We have lived," they say, "Among Chnstiann 
foi twelve bundled yeais, and we want no such loligion as thai " 
And it must indeed be aoirowfully acknowledged that tho igmn unco 
and supeistition pievaihng among the Ouontal Chi istians go fui to 
justify such a lemark 

As fai back as 1802, a Bnstol fiiond had wnttoii to tho young 
Society, " Would it not be an object well woitliy tho atUmtion oi 
youi Missionary Society, to attempt tho Levival of Rpmttiul and 
Evangelical Eehgion m the Gieok Chinch ? " In the next Animal 
Eepoit, this proposal IB just mentioned, but moioly as ono of 
several suggestions of possible missionaiy ontoipnsoB, and without 
any expiession of the Committee's wiah to adopt it A fow ytiaiH 
later, Claudius Buchanan, whoso Clmbtmn liewuclicb in thfJM t 
descnbmg his tiavelsm India and Ceylon, had excited so ninth 
interest, was contemplating a journey to tho Ixnant, no doubt 
with a similai object His book had lovoalod to Chiisliau 
England the existence of the ancient Synan Church m TniVtiiuojo. 
Another book, had he taken this proposed jouinoy, would doubtlt^h 
have told with equal sympathy of the oppiowsed ChuichtiH of 
Greece, Asiatic Turkey, and Egypt Ho did not go, hcMovoi 
Peihaps the then uigent question of tho opening of Indw Kopt 
him m England The actual piopo&al which ultnn,itol> Iwl to tho 
Society's enterprises m the Mediterranean, ciimo, stiango to say, 
from a Eoman Catholic 

Two English fuends of the Society had been visiting Malta, uiul 
had made the acquaintance thero of Di Cloaido Naudi Fioni 
them, no doubt, he heaid of the new Missionaiy Society of tho 



THE EASTERN CHURLHES EFFORTS TO REVIVE THEM 223 

Church of England , and in June, 1811, he addiessed a letter to PART III 
Pratt 51 In this cunous document, he calls attention to "the 3812-24 
multitudes of Christians of different denominations m the Levant ^ ll _ ap _ * 
[i e the vanous Onental Churches] " living mingled in confusion Appeal 
with the Tuilush inhabitants " Pnoi to the "War, he says, the 2tie 
Boman Congregation De PiopagandA Fido frequently sent Romanm 
missionaiies to these " ignoiant Chustians " , but that Institution 
being " now no moie its propeity soldits levenues usurped and 
diveitod," they weie " deprived of the true light of the Gospel " 
Thoie weie still, it was true, some " Fatheis of St Frauds" m 
Egypt, but, it was " much to be lamented," they weie " veiy ill- 
informed " "It now, theiefoie," he goes on, "devolves upon 
you to entei on this laboui of piopagatmg the Chnstian Faith 
among Infidels, and of conmmmg it among the Ignoiant " And 
he appeals foi missionaiies of the English Ghiuch who would 
" accommodate themselves to Epstein customs in lespect of 
manneiSjdiess, &c ," and leain Aiabic and Modem Gieek 

It is smcly a cunoua spectacle Evidently tho good doctor 
Wds a truly pious man To hmi Epstein Chiistondom was 
hoietical, and should be enlightened by Western Chiistondom 
Bomo was no doubt the chief lopioseuUtivo of Western Glmsten- 
dom , but if she failed, the English Chinch, as an nulcpondont 
Bianch, was quite qualified to touch the EtisL It IB icimukable 
also that he quotes a Gieek deacon who had obseived to him that 
" the institution of the Bible Society of England must have taken 
place by heavenly mspnation " 1 

The Committee lesponded waimly In the Eepoit lead at llie Attitude 
Anniversaiy of 1812, they invited " zealous youug clorgymon " to Jj^j* s 
come forward and be " the honoured installments of conliimmg mittee 
and piopagatmg the doctune of tho Cross m countries deal to 
them as scholais fiom classical associations, aucl moie deai to 
them as Chnstians from sacied " It is a staking coincidence 
that on the very day on which thoylwd icccived Dr Naudi's 
letter, they had also befoie thorn one fiom Molvillo Homo, calling 
attention to Buchanan's account of the Syuun Chinch of Malabai, 
arid uigmg them to send a Mission foi its enlightenment, and m 
the same Annual Bepoit of 3812, they dwelt upon this call also 
In addition to which, the Abyssinian Chinch, and Egypt, and 
Aiabia, and Peisia weio all icfoi rod to , and the Committee 
expressed their longing for anothoi Pentecost when " Parthiana 
and Modes and EUmitos, and the dwellois in Mesopotamia, and 
in Juddoa in Egypt and Aiabians " would " speak m their own 
tongues the wonderful woiks of God " In the following yeai, they 
enlarged fmthei , and the paragraph is mteiestmg an showing what 
was thought at that time of the prospects of the Papacy 

" The Committee feol dooply iinpiesBoil with the eonvittiuu that Malta 
has not been placed in our hands nieroly for tho oxtonsion and security 

* Printed in tho Appendix to the Report of 1812 



224 THE EASTERN CHURCHES EFFORTS TO REVIVE THLM 

PAST III of our political greatness The course of Divine Providence seems 
1812-24 plainly to indicate that the United Church of England and Ii eland is 
Chap 17 called to the discharge of an important duty there The Bomish Chinch 

is manifestly in a state of gradual but lapid dissolution Its scattered 

members ought to be collected What Chmch is to collect them ? The 
prevailing form of woislnp m the East almost universally, and in the 
rest of the world generally, is episcopal Was ever such an opportunity 
presented for extending Christianity in that primitive foim of its 
discipline which is established m the United Erapne?" 

Encouiaged by the Society's lesponse, Di Naudi came to 
England, and laid befoie the Committee pioposals foi sending 
them two 01 thiee Maltese 01 Gieeks 01 Italians for English 
education and oidmation On being shown the Thnty-Nme 
Ai tides and the Oath of Supiemacy, which candidates for English 
oiders must accept, he expiessed his belief that they would be no 
obstacle The Committee appioved of this plan, but nothing 
seems to have come of it They appointed Naudi, howevei, the 
Society's correspondent at Malta, and they pioposed to a young 
Cambridge man, the brother of Piatt's wife, to go out to the 
Mediterranean as " Liteiary Bepiesentative," to inqune into the 
state of religion m the Levant, and to suggest methods for 
translating and circulating the Scripkues, and othei ways of 
William influencing the Oriental Chuiches This was Wilham Jowett, 
jowett B0n O f jojjjj j owe jjf; O f Southwaik, a gentleman who had been one 
of the original membeis of the first Committee, but who had died 
a few months aftei his appointment William Jowott 'was 
Twelfth Wianglei m 1810, and a Fellow of Si John's , and ho 
had a curacy at Nottingham In aftei ycais he was to become a 
Secretary of the Society He now accepted the piopo&ed com- 
mission, but could not go foi two years 

We go forward, theiefoie, to 1815 We entei No 14 Salisbuiy 
Square We find the Committee sitting, with the Piesidcmt, Loid 
Gambiei, in the chair The Cambridge Wrangler is piescni the 
fiist Umveisity graduate to go foith in the service of the Society 
It is a quiet " dismissal," not a public meeting as when bands of 
men for Africa and India had been taken leave of But Josiah 
Piatt rises, and reads, as Jowett's instructions, one of the inoRfi 
important of all the Society's eazly manifestoes 

His in- The Committee quite undei stood that they weio not undci- 
atnictiona, ^j^g a M lsaiou O f ^ 6 ordinary kind Jowett's "high oflico AH a 
Minister of the Gospel and a Messenger of Divine Morcy " might 
have to be, "in its dnect exeicise, suspended foi a time " His 
task was (1) to collect mfoimation about the state of icligion on 
the shoies of the Mediterranean, and (2) to inqune as to tho best 
methods of " propagating Christian Knowledge " Thei e was voiy 
little known in England on these points "The Classic, the 
Painter, the Statuary, the Antiquarian, the Naturalist, the 

* John Jowetfc's brother Benjamin was grandfather of Benjamin Jowett, 
Mastei of Balhol 



Tim EASTERN CHURCHES EFFORTS TO REVIVE THEM 225 

Merchant, the Patriot, the Soldier, all," say the Committee, " have PAUT III 
their reporters, but no one details to us the number and the 18] 2-24 
characters of Christiana , no one has opened to us channels of p *" 
communication with such men , no one names the men who aie 
there, perhaps, in letnernent sighing over the moral condition of 
then: country, and calling, as Europe once called to Asia, Gome 
over and help us " From Malta as a centre, Jowett is to survey 
the religious horizon First, he is to look at the Eoman Church 
" Notice her condition any favouiable indications the means of Moslems/ 
communicating to her our pnvileges You cannot act, under youi and J ewa 
circumstances, as a public impugner of her eriors, noi as a 
reformer of her piactice , I but you may watch, with a friendly 
eye, to asceitam the best means of lestormg hei to pumitive 
health and vigour " Then he is to study the vanous Oriental 
Churches, Greek, Jacobite or Syrian, Coptic, Abyssinian, Armenian, 
Nestonan Then the Mohammedans " Garry youi eye ail lound 
the Sea, by its north-eastem, its eastern, its south-eastern, its 
southein, and its south-western borders, and you behold the 
triumphs of the False Piophet Tmkey presents itself as almost 
begiidmg, duoctly 01 by its vassal states, this inland ocean " \ 
Then the Jews "multitudes are scatteied among the Moham- 
medans, and no ono has hitherto investigated the state of this 
people " Nor aie the Druses and other strange communities 
omitted from the enumeiation Then as to methods of work 
Jowett is to visit and correspond with mleis and consuls and 
ecclesiastics and travellers of all kinds , to foira, if possible, local 
associations for distribution of Scriptures (m fact, small Bible 
Societies) , to prepare foi the establishment of a prmtmg-piess at 
Malta, to study the languages of the Levant, and to seek for 
valuable MSS of the Scnptuies in them Then it is hoped that Hopes for 
" some of the distinguished Prelates of om Chuich " would open churchis 
a correspondence with the Patriarchs of Constantinople, Antioch, 
and Alexandria, " so that through then influence our systems 
of education might be communicated, and Biblo Societies 
established " 

It was, indeed, to the Eastern Chinches that the Society chiefly 
looked for the future evangelization of the non-Chi istian popula- 
tions m the neighbouring Asiatic and Afnciui ooimtnos "As 
these Churches," they said, " shall reflect the clear light of the 

* A cuiious illustiatum of tbo iffnornnoo here lamented IB f urmsliud by tho 
meeition m tho Nimonawi Jter/tsfaf (Juno, 1818} of a quite elementary 
account of tho population and condition of Jerusalem, sent fiom Jlfadnw, boinpf 
demed fiom an Armenian bishop visiting India 

f Under the Eiuopcan TiDahea which had confirmed the annexation of 
Malta by Groat Britain, the Maltoao weioto be left " undisttubod in their 
faith" The Government thoiefoie would not allow any evangelistic work 
amonct them 

J At that time, of course, Greece and the^Gieek Islands, Roumama 
and Bulgaria and Servia and Boaniti, and ,tho whole of North Africa, owed 
allegiance to Turkey 

VOL I Q 



226 THE EASTERN CHURCHES EFFORT 10 REVIVE THEM 

PART III Gospel on the Mohammedans and Heathens aionnd, they will 
1812-24 doubtless become efficient mstimnents of rescuing them fiom 
delusion and death " And " it is by bringing back these Chinches 
to the knowledge and love of the sacied Scnptures, that the 
blessing from on high may be expected to descend on them " '' 
Again, 

" The revival of the Greek Church, in its primitive purity and vigour, 
should be an object of the affectionate exertions and earnest pi ay era of 
all who wish the extension of Christianity in these regions Enlightened 
and animated by the free and ample circulation among them of the 
Holy Scriptuies, the Greeks numeious, widely scatteied, with a 
cultivated language, and maintaining a ready intercourse among them- 
selves and with others will act most powei fully and beneficially on the 
large masses of people among whom they live " f 

Accordingly, these Churches weie to be dealt with in a 
modei ate and conciliatory spnit In the Instructions given to a 
later band of missionanes, there is a staking passage iflustutmg 
this t 

"Skuty for it is peculiarly applicable to the circumstances of an 
enlightened and devout Christian labouring in the midst of a benighted 
and corrupted Oriental Chuich study that spnit of moderation, delicacy, 
and caution, which was exhibited by the Apostles toward their country- 
men the Jews, and toward their converts from among the Gentiles 
Although they acted, and spoke, and wrote under the immediate inspua- 
tion of the Holy Ghost, and foreknew ceitamly the approaching 
dissolution of the Jewish Polity, yet, in ntual observances, such as 
Circumcision, Washings, the Change of the Sabbath, Fasts, Attendance 
at the Temple and in the Synagogues, and generally in all the discipline 
of the old covenant, which was waxing old and leady to vanish away, 
they were tempeiate, conformable, conciliatory, and large-heaited 
They were, especially, backward to dispute, excepting when ceiemonial 
observances were abused to disparage the doctrine of fiee justification 
by faith in Christ, or substituted for the inward sanctification of the 
heart by the operation of the Holy Spirit Imitate thorn, by continually 
insisting, m the simplest and most practical manner, on the two oaidmal 
doctrines of the Gospel, Justification and Sanctification , and waive as 
much as possible, those contentions which are unprofitable and vain " 

And again, on another occasion, Jowett was cautioned about 
proselytism 

"The etoinal salvation of the souls of men is the giand object of oiu 
hopes and cares But a difficulty arises heie, so far as oui coin BO 
lies among those who are ah early outwardly members of Chnstiaii 
Churches Whenever the member of a Church which holds tho mam 
truths of the Gospel, though with a gieat mixture of eiroi, discerns that 
error, he is perhaps disposed to bieak awayfiom its Communion It 
requires much wisdom, candour, and fidelity, to guide tho conscience 
aright in such cases " 

And the Committee go on to distinguish between the Roman 
Chuich and the Churches of the East 

u The Roman Catholic Church is entangled in a snare from which it 
* Report, 1820 f Kepoifc, 1819 J Report, 1829, p 142 



THL EASTERN CHURCHES EFFORIS TO REVUE THEM 227 

cannot be freed, while it holds tho Infallibility and Universal Headship PART III 
of the Bishop of Kome The Gieek, Aimenian, Synan, Coptic, and 1812-24 
Abyssinian Churches, though in many points fai gono fiom the simplicity Chap 17 

and purity of the truth, are not so entangled , and also possess within 

themselves the principle and the means of lef tarnation " * 

At fiist, the eriteipnse gave high piomise of success Jowett Bnght 
went foith, and, aftei him, the fiist two Oxfoid rnon em oiled by pros P ecta 
the Society, James Connoi, Sckolai of Lincoln, and John Haitley 
of St Edmund Hall They tiavelled to Egypt, Syna, Tuikey, 
the Greek Islands, at a time when such ]omneys were almost as 
difficult and fatiguing as in the time of Si Paul , foi example, on 
one occasion the voyage fioin Malta to Constantinople occupied 
sixty-nine days 1 Sometimes they were in quarantine foi weeks, 
as the plaguo continually raged in the Levant A pimtmg-piess Malta 
was established at Malta, which at one time (laihoi latei, 1827) prese 
was undci the chaige of John Kitto, the deaf but learned mason 
who afterwaids did so much to populanse tho best icsnlts of 
Biblical study and Oiicntal icsoaich | This pio&fi sent foi ill 
Scuptuies and tiacts by tho thousand m Maltese, Italian, Modem 
Gieek, and Aiabic Some of thorn wcio wnUen by Di Nandi, 
and it is mteiesting to find an enlightened Eoman Catholic foi 
he does not seem to have left his Chinch wilting tiacts on the 
impoitance of tho Scuptuies being lead by the people at Lugo 
Some ol them consisted of extiacts ftom the Gieck Iftilheis, 
tianslated into Modem Gieek Maltese, however, was especially 
studied, as an mtioduction to Aiabic , and a latgo pait of the 
Bible was ptoduced in it It was observed thai in the Gicek 
chinches, the Old Testament was lead m the Sepkugmt voision, 
and the New in the ongmal Gieek , m the Coptic chinches, m 
Coptic, in the Syrian churches, in Synac, m the Abyssinian 
chinches, m Ethiopia, and geiiei ally, i cad from old MSS, but 
thai none of these ecclesiastical languages were " imderslondcd of 
the people," 1101 did even the pnests often possess pinited copies 
The Society, tbeiefoie, in conjunction with tho Bible Society, 
published editions of the Scnptuies in these languages foi the use 
of the pnests and olheis who could icad thoni Tho object was 
" the enlightenment and elevation of the pnestR of the lospcctivo 
Communions by Scuptme Tmih and Chanty," in oidoi that, 
" by then means, translations might bo mado into tho Vcinaculaia 
foi the use of the people, and foi the convulsion, of the Heathen 
aiound them " In two cases tho Society was itself mstiiumontal 
m getting important veinaculai veisions mto cu dilation Fust, a 
Gieek Aichimandrite at Constantinople, named Hilunon (afttii- 
wards an Aiclibishop in Bulgana), undeitook a veifiion of clioNew 
Testament in Modem Gieek, which was duly published Secondly, 
a tianslatton of the Ethiopia Bible of the Abyssinian Chuich had 
been made a fow yoais before by an aged monk named Abu Buini, 

* Jfwsiiwtti ?/ Roifistcr, 1829, p 407 

1 "Whose son is Prebendtuy Kitto, ItocLor oC St Martin m-tlia-Fiulds 

2 



228 THE EASTERN CHURCHES EFFORTS TO REVIVE THEM 

PABT III under the direction of the French Consul at Cano, M Asselm de 

1812-24 Cherville The MS , consisting of no less than 9539 pages m 

Chap^l7 j-bg Amhaiic language and charactei (the Abyssinian veinaculai), 

all written out by Abu Eumi, was hghted on by Jowett, and, aftei 

some negotiation, purchased for the Bible Society, and portions of 

it were piinted, many thousands of copies of which weie aftei wards 

circulated by M S missionaries in Abyssinia * 

The mtercouise which the "Literary Eepiesentatives " had 
with the Eastern bishops and priests was very hopeful The 
Welcome Bishop of Smyrna, the Bishop of Scio (" a tiuly learned man "), 
Eastern the Professors at the great Greek College at Scio, and leading 
Bishops p ri ests and doctors at Athens, Milo, Zante, &c , gave Jowett a 
warm welcome on his very fiist ]ourney When he visited 
Egypt, the Coptic Patriarch granted him letteis to the pmicipal 
priests and convents Mr Connor was received with equal 
wairnth by the Greek Patnarchs of Constantinople and Jerusalem, 
the Gieek Archbishops and many Bishops in Crete, Ehodes, and 
Cypius , and the Syrian and Airneman Patnarchs and Bishops 
in Syria and Palestine The two brethren, indeed, saw quite 
enough to make them, as Jowett significantly says, lift up their 
hearts to God with the cry, " That it may please Thee to 
illuminate all Bishops, Priests, and Deacons, with true knowledge 
and understanding of Thy woid ' "but many of the most influen- 
tial ecclesiastics entered heartily into the plan of foinnng local 
Societies Bible Societies, and circulating Vernacular Versions , and seveial 
such societies weie actually formed, at Malta, Smyrna, Athens, 
and Corfu and other Ionian Islands Appaiently the only obstacle 
was fear of the Turks taking alarm, and withdiawmg some of 
the small amount of leligious liberty then allowed to the oppiessed 
Chnstians Even wheie no regular organization was formed, the 
Patriarchs and Bishops frequently fostered plans for the circula- 
tion of the Versions The Eev Eobeit Pmkerton, Agent on the Con- 
tinent foi the Bntish and Foieign Bible Society, a very able man, 
came south at this time, and took an active part m the woik Mi 
Henry Drummond, afterwards so well known by his connexion 
with Edward Irving, also fostered these local plans and associa- 
tions, employing foi the purpose an agent named Chustopher 
Buickhardt (not to be confounded with the famous tiavellei of 
that name) " His idea of a Bible Society," writes Jowett, " is 
very simple It is two 01 thiee people sitting down togetliei, 
signing a set of lules, and then saying, ' We aie the Bible Society 

of ,' and immediately acting as such The only objection to 

this system is its want of appeal ance m the eyes of its neighbouis 
which, however, is in some degree its security " This is the tine 
way of forming almost any society ! 
The spuit of inquiry thus awakened in the East led one 

* The levision of this Version for the Bible Society was one of tho tusks 
of tho Basfc African missionary Krapf, in Ins old age, and ifc was finished only 
in 1879, and printed at the St Cnschoua Mission Piess, neai Basle 



THE EASTERN CHURCHES EFFORTS ro REVIVE THEM 229 

ecclesiastic, the Aichbishop of Jerusalem m one of the thiee PART III 
blanches of the Syrian Jacobite Church, to visit Em ope, in order jJ 812 ~^l 
to obtain help towards printing the Scupturos in the paitictilai p " 
foim in which his people could read them, le m the Arabic An Eastern 
language punted in Syriac characteis He applied to Borne and %' in 
Pans m vain, and then came on to London He was waimly England 
leceived by the QMS Committee, and a special fund was 
opened, not by the Society itself, but by its friends independently, 
in aid of his scheme, of which Professoi Macbude of Oxfoid and 
Piofessoi Lee of Cambudge weie Secietanes The Aichbishop 
was taken leave of at a laige public meeting at Ficemason's Hall, 
piesided ovei by Loid Teignniouth 

In 1820, Jowett came to England foi a few months, and biought 
out a valuable woik, Climtian Ifasca? <,//&> %n the MeditciianeiDi, 
on the plan of Buchanan's pievious book on the Fmthoi East , 
and so great was the inteicst aioused by his accounts of the Lands 
so deal to Chn&tian heaits, that he was, at the age of thirty-foui, 
appointed to pi each the Annual CMS Scimon (Has theio ever jowett's 
again been a pieachei of it bo young '?) His text was admiuble sermon, 
" He that hath an eai, let him heai what the Spmt saith unto the 
Chinches " The ancient Crunches of Ephowus and Pcigamoa and 
Thyatira and Saidis and Laodicea weio, in thoir icspcctive 
distinguishing featuies, abundantly icpresonted in tho Ouental 
Chnatendom of the Nineteenth Centuiy , and thoio weio not 
wanting, here and theio, Chuiches in some degree woithy to 
represent even Smyrna and Philadelphia In this excellent seimon, 
Jowett did not view the Eastern Ghri&tiang merely as objects of 
mteiest and sympathy He saw that they ought to be tho 
evangelists of tho Moslem woild But for this they weie not yet 
qualified "They believe in Chusfciamty, but the giounds of 
then belief aie not such as would peisuade unbelieving nations 
Christianity is upheld chiefly by Custom and by Authority , and 
not un frequently, by belief in idle legends and lying woudeis " 
Theiefoie they must be famihtiribcd with the Scupturos, and 
taught the Histoncal Evidences of tho Faith And tho ontoipribo 
of enlightening the Onental Chinches was to bo regarded only as 
a preparatory work Jowett 1 s aident hopes looked foiward to 
" tho conveision of the Mohammedan Provinces which onoompasw 
two-thuds of the Meditorianean, tho lecoveiy of the Jews to thoir 
true Messiah, and eventually the evangelising of all tho daik and 
unknown regions of Intenor Afuca " 

These fai-ieachmg hopes were not damped by the sad and 
untowaid events that immediately ensued in tho East Oit 
Monday, April 30th, 1821, Jowett pieached his seiinon On tho 
very Sunday following, May Gth, a ternblo outbreak of Moham- Outbreak 
medan fanaticism occurred at Constantinople The venoiablo 
Patnarch of the Gioek Church, Vrtio had BO heartily thrown 
himself into tho woik of Bible translation and clistiibution, was 
attacked by a Tiukish mob wliilo performing divma woibhip, and 



230 THE EASTERN CHURCHES EFFORTS TO RLVWR TULM 

PART III dragged to a ciuel and ignominious death Otkei bishops and 
1812-24 pnests weie killed , and the outiage was followed by otheis not 
Chapel? i esg baibaious in many parts of the Tmkish Brnpne In par- 
Massacre ticular, the fughtful massacie at Scio bonified all Europe a 
of Scio leheaisal, one may say, of the Bulganan and Armenian akocities 
of latei yeais The city of Scio was sacked , the gieat College, 
the headquarteis of Gieek learning, the chinches, the hospitals, 
the houses, weie all destioyed, and the valuable libiaaics buint , 
and thousands of the people weie meicilessly slaughteied These 
outiages led to the Gieek Wai of Independence , and thus began 
the giadual dismembeiment of Tuikey Christian Englishmen at 
that time little thought that the Ottoman Empne would last 
through the centiuy , they would have been shocked at the idea 
of British blood and tioasuie being expended in the hopeless 
attempt to prop it up , by them, and by then fatheis for several 
centimes, the Tuik had been evei looked upon as the lelentless 
foe of Chustendom , the Poles who had hulled him back fioni the 
gates of Vienna, and the Gieeks who now lose against him, weie 
Turkey the heroes of those days The advance of Eussia, if anticipated 
Russia at all, was anticipated with pleasme and hope Seveial Eussian 
Bible Societies had been established, and weie doing splendid 
work In the Mmwnaiy Eegistei of Decembei, 1817, there are 
speeches lepoited of the Aichbishops of Moscow and Tobolsk, 
delivered at meetings of the societies of those cities The Czai 
Alexander himself was the aident piornotei of Bible and missionaiy 
enterprise, and the peisonal fnend of the Gtnneys and Frys and 
other leadeis of philanthiopy in England Eussia was looked to 
as the ally of all that was good , Tuikey, as almost the em- 
bodiment of evil In a poweiful Intioduction to the Missionary 
Begistct of 1823, Josiah Piatt enlaiged on the subject "The 
stronghold of the Mohammedan Antichrist," he mote, " is shaken 
to its foundations " Eecent events were " all additional symptoms 
of the approach of that Eum which has long been piepaimg foi 
this mam support of the delusions of the False Piophet delusions 
by which the god of this woild has foi twelve centmies blinded 
the eyes and besotted the heaits of countless millions of 
mankind " 

But, foi the time, the growing woik of Bible and tiact en dila- 
tion was gieatly impeded In a previous chaptei, the Papal 
The Pope Bull of 1817 against the Bible Society was noticed In 1824, a 
new ^P e lssue ^- a Cncular warning Catholics against its tiansla- 
tions although the Bible Society, with great wisdom, circulated 
m Eomau Catholic couutnes the veinacular veisions made by 
Boman divines themselves In like manner, the Sultan, as 
Oommandei of the Faithful, immediately after the issue of that 
Cuculai, put forth a Firman foibiddmgthe import of any Chnstiau 
Scriptuies into the Tuikish dominions, and oidermg copies to be 

* See p 153 



THE EASTERN CHURCHES EtFORrs ro REVIVE THEM 231 

buint Thus, wiote Pratt, " the Eastern Antichnst oo-opeiates PART III 
with the Western 1 " and the co-operation was peihaps closer 1812-24 
than the public realized, for tho opinion of some of the Entish 
Consuls, and of leading Bomamsts in the Bast themselves, was 
that Boniish influence was at tho bottom of even the Sultan's 
action, seeing that Papal niissionanes weie in no way mteifeicd 
with No one at that time would have thought Pi ait nuirow- 
minded foi stigmatizing the Papacy as the Western Antichrist 
Bishops and divines beyond all suspicion of Evangelicalism 
habi dually did so then 

Jowett continued at Malta till 1830, and Hartley made mteiest- 
mg toms in Asia Mmoi, and in the Ionian Islands , butfiom 1825 
onwaids the Society's eftoits weie chiefly concentiated on Egypt 
and Abyssinia, and the niissionanes weie all Geimans 01 Swiss 
fiom the Basle Seminary Othei missionaiies from tho samo 
institution, howevei, woiked at Smyrna and Syia But all this 
belongs to a latei penod in our Hi&toiy The nott losult of tho 
enteipuse foi tho icvival of tho Eabtcin, Chinches way, un- 
doubtedly, thai Oiiontdl Chnstondom, though accoiding manifest 
lespcct to tho good men living in its midst, and willing to uso tho 
publications of tho Malta PJ.CSM, was by no means inclined to be 
quickened into fiesh hfo l)y tho Ghiistcndom of the West 

THE MALABAII BYIIIAN CHURCH 

Theie is another Onental Church foi tho levival of which, at Srmn 
this pei lod, the Society made earnest ciToits Fiom tho caihest 
centimes, Christianity had taken loot in South- West India , and 
when Vasco da Gama, the Poituguose mivigatoi, leached India 
by sea lound the Cape in 1498, he found flemishing a Nestonan 
Chmch, which, though not fiee from eirois and supoistitions, 
knew nothing of the Papacy, tho cultus of the Vngin Mtiry, or 
Tiausubstantiabion An auny of Poituguose pilot-its followed, and 
in many places tho Indian Christians submitted to tho yoke of 
Borne In 1541 came Xavioi , and at Goa ho found visible signs 
of Poituguebc Chnstiamty m tho shape of "a magnificent 
cathedial, a resident bishop, a chuptoi of canons, a i\anclBcau 
convent," &o Tho ancient Chmch, howovei, did not submit to 
Borne till 1599, when Mene/cs, Archbishop of Goa, by an 
unsciupulous uso of both foico and fraud, sociued ita subjection 
at the Synod of Udutrnpiua All tho mamed puosfcH wore do- 
posed, tho doctuneof tiiansubntan tuition and tho woi ship of tho 
Virgin wore enfotcod, and tho Inquisition was established But 
when tho Dutch dispossessed the Poi tuguosti o coitampoits on 
the Malabar coast in 1(563, they nmdo way foi a Syrian Metro- 
politan to como fiom Anfcioch, who was welcomed by the rajvjonty 
of the Chmkttis as then libeiator from Boman tyinnny , tind the 
result was that the Church, instead of lesuming its old Nestonaii 
connexion, became Jacobite, and haa ovei smco looked to Antioch 



232 THE EASTERN CHURCHES EFFORTS TO REVIVE THEM 

PAST III as its ecclesiastical centre - Hence the common name of Syrian 

1812-24 Church, though the designation used locally is " Chnstians of St 

Oliap^tf Thomas " The majority of its members aie in the protected 

states of Travancore and Cochin , and the Eomamsts bemg also 

numerous, those states hare the largest proportion of Chnstians 

in the population to be found in India 

Bucha- It was Claudius Buchanan who fiiat drew public attention to 
"ithes" *ks ancien * Chuich In his Chnstian Besewches he gives a 
graphic account of his visit to Travancoie in 1806, and writes 
enthusiastically of the Synan Chnstians and their compaiative 
freedom from error He bi ought to England the famous Peschito 
MS , now m the University Library at Cambridge, the only com- 
plete ancient MS of the Synac Bible m Europe, except one at 
Milan In the Eeport of 1812, in which was piopounded a com- 
prehensive programme of missionary woik m the East, evidently 
mspned by Buchanan's book, the CMS Committee say of " the 
Synan Christians of Malay ala" that "they have maintained a 
regular Episcopal Succession from the earliest ages, and in all 
impoitant points accord with the faith of the Primitive Church " , 
and it is suggested that " a few learned, prudent, and zealous 
clergymen would be received, as theie is ground to hope, with 
open arms by this venerable Chmch Then, labours," it is 
added, "would tend, under the Divine blessing, to revive and 
confiim the influence of the faith in that oppiessed Community, 
and might lead ultimately to a union between our Chinches " 

But the first practical step towards helping the Synan Church 

was taken by the Bntish Eesident at the Hindu Couit of Tiavan- 

core A previous Resident, Colonel Macaulay, had welcomed and 

Colonel aided Buchanan , and now his successor, Colonel Monro, in 1813, 

Monro foimed a plan foi establishing a college for the education of the 

Synan cleigy and laity, inducing the Hindu Earn (Princess) to 

endow it with money and lands, and applying to Mr Mannaduke 

Thompson, the Madias chaplain, for a clergyman of the Church of 

England to be Pnncipal In 1816, Thompson being now Secietary 

of the CMS Corresponding Committee at Madras, sent in 

response two of the first missionaries who arrived from England, 

N dBaii ^omas Norton and Benjamin Bailey This step met the hearty 

*" a ey approval of the 'Home Committee, who thereupon commissioned 

then- Orientalist, Samuel Lee, at Cambridge (not yet Professor), 

to write a sketch of the history of the Malabar Chuich , which he 

did with his usual leairnng and thoioughness, and it was printed 

as an appendix to the Eeport of 1817 Another missionary, 

Dawson, who was sent in the following year, had soon to letuni 

Baker and home invalided, but in 1818 arrived Henry Baker and Joseph 

enn Fenn Norton was stafconed at Allepie, the energetic Eesident 

obtaining from the Eani a giant of land for the Mission Bailey, 

* The best account of the Syrian Chnrch, its histoiy and cloctnno aud 
lifcaigies,&c, isgivenm LmgenngsafL^litm a Daj k LaraZ, by T Wlufcoliouae, 
London, 1873 Mi Whifcehouse was a chaplain at Cochin 



THE EASTERN CHURCHES EFFORTS TO RLVIVE THEM 233 

Baker, and Fenn, the celebiated Ttavancoie Timinvuate, settled at PABT III 
Cottayanr, where Colonel Munro's Synan College had been estab- 
hshed Eenn had been a young London bamstei, who gave up 
brilliant prospects to be a missionary Having good connexions, 
and exhibiting unusual powers, he was already making 1500 
a yeai But he heaid the Divine call, and responded at once , 
and he was oidamed m the first instance toFiancis Cunningham's 
curacy at Pakefield To him was moie especially committed the 
woik of seeking to influence the Syrian Chuich 

The missionaries weie expiessly instructed by the CMS Com- CMS 
rmttee " not to pull down the ancient Chuich and build another, cern?ngan 
but to lemove the rubbish and repan the decaying places " " The 
Syrians should be bi ought back to then own ancient and pnmitivo 
worship and discipline, lathei than be induced to adopt the liturgy 
and discipline of the English Chuich , and should any consideia- 
tions induce them to wish such a measuie, it would bo highly 
expedient to dissuade them from adopting it, both for the 
pi enervation of then individuality and oniaienoss, and gi cater 
consequent weight and usefulness as a Chuich , and to pi event 
those jealousies and hoiut-lnumngs which would in all probability 
hereafter aiise " 

At the first ainval of Noiton, sonio apprehension was manifested 
by the Metian (Metropolitan) and othei Sytians that the Eughsh 
clergy were coming, as the Roman cloigy had come, to subjugate 
them to the domination of a foieign Church "But I amained 
them," wrote Noiton, "that it was out sole dosue to bo uistiu- 
mental, by the Divine assistance, in strengthening the Metuur's 
hands for removing those evils which they had derived from the 
Church of Borne, and which he himself lamented, and to bung 
them back to their primitive state, according to the puuty of the 
Gospel, that they might again become a holy and vigorous Chinch, 
active and useful m the cause of God " The Metian thereupon 
welcomed him as their " deliverer and protector " This Mctian, 
however, soon died, but ho was succeeded by two excellent men, 
who were Metrans jointly, and who both pioved most fiiendly, 
and anxious to follow the counsels of tho missionaries On 
December 3rd, 1818, an assembly was summoned by one of thorn, 
Mar Dionysms, which was attended by forty calamus (puests) 
and seven hundred of the laity, and at which Joseph Ftmn 
addressed them He dwelt on the duties of both clergy andhuty, 
pointing out the evils of enforced celibacy for tho former, and the 
importance of conducting public worship in a language " undor- 
standod of tho people", and suggested the appointment of BIX 

* An interesting account of .Joseph FGUH, by Di J Milloi, appeared in 
the M Intelligencer of Mny, 1878 He was foi fifty yours Munstex of Black- 
heath Park Chapel, and a vcnoratod momboi of tho M 8 Committoe He 
was the fathei of seveuil clerical Bonn among them, Fonn, of Ceylon, 
and aftorwarls Sooiotiuy of M S , David Fain, of Madras, J F Fenn, 
of Ohelionham , T F Fonn, IToucl MaaLoi of Tieub (Jollogo 






234 FME EASTERN CHURCHES EFFORTS ro REVIVE THEM 

PAST III of the most able catanais to consult with the Metian and the 
1812-24 missionanes as to the pmifymg and simplifying of the ntes and 
0h !L. ceiemomes O f the Chuich, which were extremely elaboiate and 
comphcated and in many lespects supeistitious, adding the 
caution that it was desirable to " altei as little as possible " 
Early Of course, it was not expected that lefoirns could be effected at 

success of once t an ^ meanwhile the thiee brethren set to woik in the vanous 
departments allotted to them Fenn took chaige of the College, 
at which it was aiianged that every candidate for the Synan 
ministry should be tiamed , Bailey, having been two yeais longer 
m Tiavancoie than the otheis, and being theiefoie moie advanced 
m the language, began the translation of the Bible into Malayalam , 
and Bakei started and supervised schools in Cottayam and the 
surrounding villages They quickly won the personal esteem of 
the people , and a remaikable letter | was written by the Metian 
to the President of the Society, Loid Gambler, in 1821, m which, 
comparing the Pope to Phaiaoh, he called Colonel Macaulay, 
(the first Eesident), Moses, and Colonel Momo, Joshua , speaking 
also affectionately of " Mar Buchanan, the illustrious priest," of 
"Priest Beniarnin, Priest Joseph, and Priest Henry" (Bailey, 
Fenn, and Baker), and of " Samuel the Pnest," i e Piofessor 
Lee, who had written them a lettei in the ancient Synac language 
Bishop Middleton, of Calcutta, who visited Travancoie ]ust when 
the work was beginning, appioved of the missionanes' plans , and 
the Principal of Bishop's College, Dr Mill, two years latei, wiote 
with surprise and pleasure of the judicious way in which, m his 
judgment, they weie filling a veiy difficult position 

For some yeais the reports weie veiy hopeful , and yot no 
results definite reform had been accomplished The actual practice of 
the Synan Church proved to be far more supeistitious than was 
peiceived at first The clergy were ignoiant and often immoial, 
and the people given to drunkenness and license of all lands 
Many of the lehgious customs weie simply bonowed from the 
surrounding Heathenism In respect both of lehgious observance 
and of morality, the Christians had " mingled with the Heathen 
and learned their wolks " But the missionanes noted this gicat 
and fundamental diffeience between them, that while the Heathori 
gloried as they glory to-day in their shame, and justified the 
vilest practices by the example of their gods, the Christians 
entnely acknowledged their own sm and degradation, and even the 
superstitious character of their worship, and professed to wish foi 
impiovement Both the Eesidents and the missionaries urged the 
marriage of the priests, the prohibition of which was no original 
rule of the ancient Church of Antioch, but had been bouowed 

* An abstiact of this Address JB given in the Appendix to the Report ol 
1820, m vrhioh also theie is an official report by Colonel Monro to the 
Madras Government on the history and condition of Christianity in Tiavan- 
core 

\ Printed in full m tlie Mmwnw y Regwtoi of 1822, p 431 



Tuz EASTERN CHURCHES EFFORTS ro REVIVE THEM 235 

fioin Eome Celibacy, indeed, was held m high honoui , but m PART III 
actual fact theie was veiy little leal celibacy Though the i? 12 " 2 ! 
pucsts had no lawful wivos, they had mistiesses, and children, p 17 
quite openly , so that mamage would have been au important 
refoim But although the good Metians did advocate it, very 
little .came of the pioposal Meanwhile, Ferni and Bailey went 
on training the young pnests and translating the Scnptmes, and 
attending the Syrian services regulaily, although these were often 
extremely distasteful to them 

In 1825 the good Metran, Mai Dionysius, died His successors 
pioved to bo men of a totally difteient spirit, and opposed all 
ref 01 ms For ton y eai s rnoi c , nevertheless , the Society pei severed , 
but, as will appeal heieaftei, the enterprise was at last acknow- 
ledged to bo a failure To the Jews at Pisidian Antioch, in 
the caihest days, St Paul had said, "It was necessary that the 
woid of God should fiist have been spoken unto you but seeing 
ye put it fioni you, and judge yom selves unwoitlvy of eveilastmg 
life, lo, we turn to the Gentiles " So, m effect, said the mission- 
aries to the Indian child i en of Lhe Syrian Antioch They now 
tinned to the Heathen But thi& ua viewed from 1825, is still in 
the future 



CHAPTER XVIII 

THE OUTLOOK AFTER TWENTY-FIVE TEARS 

Josiah Pratt retires Sombre Tone of his Last Report Cunningham 
on the Great Enemy Discouragement and Repulse in the Mission 
Field Deaths New Friends The Anniversaries Men and Means 
Ordinations New N -W America Mission The S V M U 
Motto anticipated The One Hope, an Outpouring of the Spirit 

" Much dmowaged leco/me 0} tlie way "Numb xxi 4 

" Bui Dttud eiiCQwaged fame!} n the Lot cl Ins Qocl "- 1 Sain xxx 6 



PART III 
1812-24 
Chap 18 




QUAETEE of a century had now passed since the 
little band of obscme cleigymen and laymen esta- 
blished the new Society in the Castle and Falcon Inn 
We have traced the history of the Society's eaily 
straggles, of its tnals of faith and patience, of its 
almost sudden leap, at the age of thuteen, fiom infancy to 
vigorous youth, of its lapid extension thionghout the country, of 
its relations with othei Societies, of its fiist Missions in West 
Africa, m Noith and South India, in New Zealand, in Ceylon , of 
its effoits in behalf of the Eastern Chinches Let us now pause 
for a moment at the year 1824, and survey the Society's position, 
its Missions, and the woild generally 

As before stated, it is a curious fact that m 1824 the Society 
was not aware of its being twenty-five years old ! The tradition 
had grown up that it was founded in 1800, probably because 
Pratt and the few othei survivois of the little band of foundeis !t 
had been wont to date the commencement of the Society, not 
torn its actual formation m 1799, but from its resolve to go 
foiwaid in the following year, when the Archbishop's leply was 
received It was Hemy Venn who afteiwards put the matter 
right, and celebiated the Jubilee m the true fiftieth year But let 
us take advantage of the mistake, and instead of taimg our stand 
definitely m Apnl, 1824, adopt for our survey the bioader platform 
of the years 1824 and 1825 geneially, up to which peiiod the 
preceding chapters have brought the history of the Missions 

On April 23id, 1824, just after the leal twenty-fifth birthday, 
resigns Josiah Pratt resigned his Secretaryship It is only a close study 
of the period that can enable one to realize the importance of this 

* Of the original thirty two (members of Committee and Y P B), twelve 
weie still alive in 1824 



OUTLOOK AFTER TWENTY-FIVE YEARS 237 

event Piatt has never been fully appreciated He is not a PART III 
histonc character But a sense of his gieatness giows upon the 
mind as the Society's inner history is followed, and as the 
Missionary Register is studied page by page In particular, the 
combination in him of faithfulness to the spnitual principles which HIS char- 
were and are the life and soul of the Society, with the truest 
and most generous bieadth of sympathy towards other men and 
other organizations, was almost unique One cannot lesist the 
conviction that in this breadth of sympathy he did not always 
carry all his colleagues on the Committee with him , but of the 
value of it to the Society during those critical eaily yeais theie 
can be no manner of doubt To quote two very diverse authonties 
Dr Overton calls him " quite one of the best in eveiy way of the 
Evangelical cleigy " " Like many of the Evangelicals," he says, 
" Pratt showed gieat business talents, which weie most valuable 
in the management of then various piojects He was a man of 
singularly unobtrusive character, and was lathei foiced by cucum- 
stances than led by his own choice into pi eminence His foite 
was piactical wisdom " And Mi Jowett, who was one of his 
successors in the Secretanat " He was a man all eneigy giave, 
him, undaunted eneigy, with a mind compiehensive, sagacious, 
sound, and piactical, a nnnd always busy, going foith m its 
exclusions throughout the length and bieadth of the land, and 
thiough the compass of the whole eaith With these original 

qualities of the understanding was combined a power of labout 
truly astonishing Others might delibeiatc, he could de- 

liberate and act too In the qualities of his heart he was 

truly large, fervent, and affectionate " "I never knew a man 
like him," Bishop Gobat once said, " able to ask of missionary 
candidates such plain questions without offending" How tiue 
was Cecil's forecast when Pratt fiist came to him as cm ate in 
1795, and the young cleigyman was timid and downcast " Nevoi 
mind, Pratt make youiself useful, and the time will come when 
yon will be wanted " 

The ground of Piatt's letnement was the increasing burden of 
the Mibswnau/ R&)ii>tet, which occupied a, very largo poition of his 
time , and any leader of its volumes at that peuocl will wonder 
that the editoi could mid an horn foi anything olsc It may justly 
be again observed that no missionary peiiodical of the piesent day 
can compaie with what the Reqibtp) was then, m compieherwivo- 
ness and completeness, and editonal industry That theie was no 
hidden leason for resignation behind, in the shape of any dif- 
ference with the Committee, is clem from the fact that they at 
once appointed him Chaumanof the Committee of Correspondence, 
an oihce of fai moie dominating influence then than it could 
possibly be now, when the mirabeis are five or six tunes greater ' 

* There is now uo permanent Chairman of this Committee In the absence 
of the Piesidont, some Vico-Piosideut or other momhei is voted to the chair 
ad 



238 THE OUTLOOK AFTER TWENTY-FIVE 

PART III Theie is no leason to doubt that Pratt wiote the bulk of the 

1812-24 Eeport of 1824, though he retired ]ust befoie its piesentation Its 

Cha P 18 concluding paragiaphs aie smgulaily weighty Let a shoit 

Hia last passage be given 

Report 

" No man can say that he has acted up to the extent of his obligations 
Let him but feel, m its full energy, the constiainmg power of the love of 
Christ to Ins own soul, and the first waking thought and the last 
conscious desne of every clay will be how he may best live unto Hun 
who died for him Let him but know m the full comprehension of their 
value, the things which aie freely given to him of God, and lay to heart 
the dreadful state and imminent danger of the perishing world, with his 
own responsibility for the talents committed to his chaige, and the few 
fleeting moments in which, to all eternity, he will be able to do any- 
thing toward the Salvation of immortal souls let him fed all this as he 
ought, and every faculty of body and soul, every houi of his waking 
life, and every atom of power and influence which he can command, 
will be devoted to rescue souls from death and to hide a multitude of 



sins" 



But upon the whole, this last Eepoit of Pratt's has a distinctly 
sombre tone Its openmg words are, " The Committee have to 
display a chequered scene," and reference is immediately made to 
the " very seveie trials " which it had " pleased God, m His wise 
and righteous Pi evidence, to bring on some parts of the Missions " , 
and the whole outlook at this time was very different fiom the 
animated expectations that had marked the pen-od of development, 
1818 to 1816 Missionary leadeis were now learning, yeai by 
yeai, the haid lesson that the Jencho-walls of Heathenism do not 
fall at the fiist summons , that the great Enemy's malice is most 
especially manifested against that division of the Lord's airny that 
attacks him in his strongholds, that the " stiong man aimed " 
can only be dispossessed of his usurped dominion by the dnect 

v J. * tt 

powei of the " Strongei than he " Many encouraging facts dwelt 
upon by. Pratt in the Register * a few months befoie this time, as 
for example that the contnbutions to the various Societies now 
amounted to 1000 per day, f that the Scnptmes had been 
translated into one bundled and foity-four languages, that tens of 
thousands of souls had already been gatheied from among the 
Heathen, numbers of whom had died m the faith and were now 
safe for evei, only tended to make the antagonism, both of " flesh 
and blood" and of " principalities and poweis," more vehement 
and bitter than ever Naturally, theiefore, we find the leahty of 
the Devil and his works much dwelt upon at this time Foi 
jahnCun- instance, J W Cunningham's powerful Sermon at the Anmvei- 

nmgfaam'a 

61111011 * January, 1824 The January number of the Register was at this time 
always devoted to a survey of the world and of Missions 

f In the Regwter of December, 1826, is given a List of Contnbutions to 
" Missionary, Bible, Tract, and Education Societies," including institutions 
like the National Society, the Sunday School Union, the Naval and Military 
Bible Society, &c The total is estimated at about 380,000 , but more than 
half of this -would be for home work 



THE OUTLOOK AFTLR TWENTI FIVE YEARS 239 

sary of 1823 is devoted to this subject The text combines, in a PART HI 
way which is not at all common, the 31st and 32nd veises of St 38] 2-24 
John xn , " Now shall the prince of this woild be cast out , and I, G}ia P 18 
if I be lifted up from the eaith, will diaw all men unto me " , and 
the subject is, m the pieacher's woids, "TheEmpiie of Satan 
upon Earth, and the Destruction of that Empire by the Son of 
God " Aftei a masterly sketch of the lesults of the Devil's 
dominion, both outwaidly in Heathendom, and mwaidly even in 
the heaits of professing Chnstians, and a striking pictuie of the 
gradual piesent victory and complete future triumph of Chnst, 
Cunningham pioceeds to ask pointedly, "Why should any man 
be astonished to find almost innumeiable obstacles and enemies to 
the piosecution of the missionaiy cause?" "The Missionaiy 
Enterprise," he goes on, "may be considered as an assault, at 
once open and dnect, at the very heait of its citadel IB it not 
then to be expected that an Enemy so heice, poweiful, and 
implacable, will lesist such an attack ? Is the evil spinti an 
1 accusei of the brethien ' ? then have we a light to expect 
' railing accusation ' against his opposeis Is lie the ' fathei of 
lies ' ? then we may expect to be pmsued by the giosseht ialso- 
hoods and calumnies Was he ' a inuidoiei fiom tho beginning ' ? 
then have we reason to anticipate pei sedition, and every species 
of violence by which unroeasuied and miwoaned malignity can 
prosecute its object " At his concluding paiagiaphs we will look 
presently 

Meanwhile, let us glance at the Mission-iield In West Africa, Reverses 
the woik had almost collapsed, owing to the leinble succession of in theficld 
deaths , there weie already signs of tho tares springing up amid the 
wheat, even in the distinct (Regent) that had been the scone of tho 
lamented Johnson's much-blessed Iaboui8, and the slave-trade, 
particulaily undei the Fionch Hag, wab reviving, with all its 
horiois, along tho whole coast In Hew Zealand, affcei ton years' 
woik, no apintual fiuiti luid boon gathmed, and the Mission had 
been sadly damaged by the bad conduct of some of the agents 
On the snoies of the Modi ton a,ne,in, and in Ttavancoie, Uie 
ancient Chiu dies of the E.isL wei a bliowmg IO&H disposition than 
they had fehown at fiiat to accept the lefonmng suggestions from 
the West, and the Giook icvolt had been mot by increased 
manifestations of bigotiy and fanaticism on tho purl of Moham- 
medan Tuikey In Etwsia, too, the uanowei Hchool in tho Kubso- 
Greek Ohiuch was legaimng the upper hand, and tioubluig tho 
Scottish MJSHIOIIH on the Caspian , and this, with the gi owing 
enmity of the Taitiu population, lod to scveial stations beiug aban- 
doned , whilo the death of the O^ai Alexander in 1825 put an end 
to the laigo hopes that hung upon his peiaonal piety and sympathy 
with missionaiy effoit In India, piogiess was vciy slow, except 
in Tmnevelly , the most shocking accounts of widow-buinmg and 

* Likewise F, Gluldo'p Scimon m 1870 



240 THE OUTLOOK AFTER TwRNTY~i>n r E YEAR?* 

III child-mui der weie coming home, and lending the heaits of the 
1812-24 leadeis of the Register , the nist Bishop had died, and the second 
_ ^d onl y just landed, fioin the SPCK Tamil Missions no 
leportswere being leceived at all, and the greatest Mission in 
Bengal, that of the Baptists at Serampore, was in the midst of the 
tmtowaid dispute which presently sepaiated it for many years 
fiom the parent society In South Afiica, the great work of 
Moftat and others, and in the South Seas, the great work of John 
Williams and otheis, under the London Missionary Society, 
weie meeting with senous (though tempoiaiy) checks China 
was still virtually closed, but Morrison, whose Chinese Bible 
had long been complete, was at this very time m England, 
forming plans foi Chinese work at Singapore in view of a possible 
futuie entiance into the empne itself Japan, of comse, was still 
hermetically sealed , and its name never occurs at all m these 
eaily Beports and Begistars 

Perhaps the most painful manifestation of the Enemy's malice 
was in the West Indies The Anti- Slavery Socrety had ]ust been 
formed (1823) , Wilberfoice had committed the cause to Fowell 
Buxton, and Buxton had opened his Paihamentary campaign , and 
the slave-propnetois m the West Indies, having taken alarm at 
the rising feeling in England against slavery in any form, weie 
seriously opposing missionary work among the negroes Some 
Wesleyan missionaries, overawed by then attitude, had publicly 
disclaimed all sympathy with the Abolitionists, and theieupon had 
been disavowed and censuied by then Society at home In 
Demerara, a missionary of the L M S was unjustly condemned to 
execution for his sympathy with the negroes, and died m prison 
But his case, and the West Indian Slavery question generally, will 
come before us hereafter 

Criticism Natuially, controversies like these bi ought Missions into unusual 
at home pubhc notice , and a torrent of ignorant and prejudiced criticism 
poured foith from newspapeis and reviews, which added to the 
geneial sense of sore conflict and trial of faith Notwithstanding 
the favourable attitude of the Prime Mimstei, Loid Liverpool, 
towards Missions, most leading statesmen as usual had no 
faith in them , and it is curious to find the Duke of Wellington, 
then in the plenitude of his unique authonty, declining to be 
Patron of the Wellington C M Association, on the ground that 
"if the Society's object was to convert the Hindus, its effoits 
would be fruitless if they were not mischievous " Ecclesiastical 
opposition against the CMS, too, had revived Good Bishop 
Eydei was translated from Gloucester to the Diocese (as it then 
was) of Lichfield and Coventry, and the new Bishop of Gloucestei 
(Bethell) foibad all seimons and collections for the Society, 
seveial Archdeacons attacked the Society in their chaiges , and at 
places like Worcestei, Beading, and Guildfozd, attempts to form 
CM Associations failed Nor did the opponents balance this 
* See Mmioiun y Register, 1824, pp 238, 278 



THL Qu FLOOR AFTER TWBNTY-PWE YEARS 241 

opposition by any zeal in behalf of Missions undei auspices more PARI III 
congenial to them The SPG- was again m financial difficulties 1812-24, 
The gieat King's Letter Collection in 1819 had been put in trust 0ha P 18 
for Bishop's College , and the ordinary funds had lathei suffeied 
by it In 1823, the SPG income from voluntaiy oontnbutions 
was only 2100, which with 4700 fiom the dividends on leserve 
and trust funds, and 9200 frona the Government for Canadian 
cleigy, was quite insufficient even for its then limited woik , while 
it was at this very tune auanging to take over the South Indian 
Missions which the S P K had not the machinery for managing 
Again Pratt came to the front with a stiong appeal for SPG m 
the Register, > othei CMS men helped foi example, a " district 
society " was formed at Clapham itself by Dealtry, Basil Woodd 
and Cunningham speaking on the occasion And from about 
this time the Society began to expand and develop as it has done 
evei since In the very next yeai, 1826, it held its fiist leally 
public meeting, m Fieemasons' Hall, on which occasion Dealtry 
was one of the speakers 

So there weie many things to account foi sornbie lepoits And 
the Church Missionary Society could not but foel the depai toe Deaths ot 
of old and levered friends Thomas Scott-' 'Father Scott," as frienda 
he was affectionately called, died m 1821, and Charles Giant m 
1823, t both, howevei, leaving sons who did noble work foi the 
missionary cause Wilberfoice's last speech in Parliament, on 
West Indian slaveiy, was delivered in 182d , and though he lived 
yet some years, it was mostly in retirement On tho other hand, New 
new fnends weie coming forwaid Chailes Grant the younger, frienda 
aftei wards Lord Glenelg, who had already gained a position m 
Parliament, was a warm supporter So was Fowell Buxton, 
Wilberfoice's successoi in the Anti-Slaveiy campaign The 
names of Hugh Stowell and Hugh McNeile begin to appear 
among the speakers at meetings Hemy Venn the younger, the 
futuie Secretary, joined the Committee m 1822 Buxton 1 a hist 
speech at the Anniversaiy, m 1822, is veiy stiikmg in its way 
of presenting our responsibility 

" I will put the case to myself ( You tuo a piofessor of OluiBtuinity 
you avow your belief of its tiuth, and aclimio its doctimos- you 
enumerate the blessings which He gives who gives all things, and you 
count among them His inestimable lovo in the leclemption of tho wxnld 
you know that Christian charity is the msopaiable fruit of true f tilth 
and you know that tins chanty seeks above all things the salvation of tho 
souls of men "What do you do P You subset ihe your two or threo 
guineas a yeai ! The conveision of eight hunclied millions of souls- 
there is the object to be accomplished ! and there is the sacrifice which 
you are prepaied to make foi it 1 ' 

* November, 1825 

f Chailoa Grant htoially died w harness, Affcoi' two daya and nights of 
nlmoat nnmteriTiptod work, ho lotaiod to lost feeling rothor illiw woll ho 
might Tlio doctor was bout for, mid applied remedies , bui Grant turned over 
mbed, and "fellasloop " 

VOL I K 



242 THE OUTLOOK AFTER Tw&tirwwz YEARS 

PABT III "Were I to say, in the oidmaiy business of life, ' Such and such an 
1812-34. object is my grand concern to that I cluect all my powers on that my 
Chap 18 veiy soul is centred and I give for this great object my two-and- 

forty shillings a year ' such piofessions would be counted but an idle 

mockery, when compaied with such feebleness and inadequacy of 
exertion " 

As regards pationage, too, theie was some little piogiess, not- 
withstanding the enticisrns and the opposition No othei English 
Bishop had joined, besides the two already on the list, Bathuist 
of Noiwich, and Eydei, now of Lichfield and Coventiy , but 
Aichbishop Tiench of Tuarn lepiesented the Chuich of Ii eland, 
and the Bishop of Calcutta (Hebei) the Episcopate abroad There 
were two Deans, Peaison of Salisbury, and Loid Liffoid of 
Armagh. , and there weie foui Heads of Houses, of Duel and 
Magdalen Hall at Oxford, and of Queens' and Corpus at Cam- 
bridge The laymen weie better lepresented by ten peers and ten 
HP's Of the latter, Sir Eobeit Hairy Inghs, the well-known 
and highly-respected member for Oxford Univeisity for so many 
years, is the most noticeable "We shall meet him hereafter It 
should be added that many othei peers were Pations of Pro- 
vmcial Associations, though not of the Paient Society No less 
than twenty-six of these appeal in the Eeport of 1824 Among the 
names it is interesting to see " the Eail of Derby " and " the Earl 
of Bosebery " Heie also we may notice the names added to the 
list of Honorary Governors foi Life, foi their " yeiy essential sei- 
vices to the Society," in addition to those mentioned in oui Tenth 
Ohaptei There weie, of the home cleigy, J W Cunningham, 
Fountain Blwin (Secretary of the gieat Bnstol Association), John 
Langley (Shropshire Association), William Maish, Geraid Noel, 
Legh Eichmond, E W Sibthorp (the eloquent pieachei who 
afterwards joined the Church of Eome, then came back, and then 
seceded again), Chailes Simeon, J H Singer (Secietary of the 
Hibernian Auxihaiy, afterwards Bishop of Meath), Professor 
Scholefi eld of Cambridge, Haldane Stewart, and one or two otheis , 
Henry Davies (Bombay Chaplain) , and three laymen, viz , Colonel 
Munro, of Tiavancoie , J M Stiachan, of Madias , and J H 
Hanngton, of Calcutta 

The Anniversaries continued to be occasions of great mteiest to 
an ever- widening circle of members and friends The pieachei s 
subsequent to 1817, up to which date they have already been 
noticed, weie, in 1818, Professor Fansh, of Cambridge , in 1819, 
the Eon GeiaidT Noel, in 1820, B W Mathias, of Dublin , in 

1821, William Jowett, whose sennon has before been noticed , in 

1822, Marrnaduke Thompson, the Madras chaplain , in 1823, John 
W Cunningham, of Harrow, as already mentioned, in 1824, 
Fountain Elwm, of whose sermon more presently 

Progress at The Society's Income was steadily rising In 18234 it was 
home 34,500 , and in the following year it rose to 40,000, and never 

* See p 111 



THE OUTLOOK AF i CR TWLNTY-FII c YMRS 243 

again fell below that figure The advance shown is ically not so PART III 
gieat as it actually was, owing to some slight changes in tho mode 181&-24 
of presenting the accounts In a futme chaptei, the financial ^_ 18 
details will be moie fully explained The soiuces of Income 
piesented a striking illustiation of the powei of littles Laige 
benefactions and legacies were few and fai between , but penny 
collections weie oigamzed all over the countiy Ladies' Associa- 
tions weie a gieat powei in those days They weie not 
parochial, but foi a town or distuct , and hundieds of ladies went 
round and lound collecting the pennies week by week and month 
by month The poor gave eageily, aitizans' Missionaiy Unions 
weie formed, Sunday-schools and Juvenile Associations weie 
multiplying At Hanow, Cunningham had been unable, fiorn 
local circumstances, to stait a legulai Association so eaily as ho 
wished, but at length a meeting was held tho loom was 
thronged, and five bundled labour eis, seivants, &c ,put down then 
names as penny subscriber A Juvenile Association at Hull, and 
a Sunday-school at Leeds, laised each of them ovei 100 a, ycai 
A new publication, the Q uai toly Papi , had been staited in 1816, 
foi fiee distribution to those humble but icgulai contnbuto] s , and 
ovei half a million copies weie cuculatcd in 1822 It w.w beginning 
to be the custom at some Piovmcial Anmveisanos to hold meet- 
ings in the evening foi the Labouring Glasses " Of comae 
regular Annual Meetings eveiywheie weio held in tho daytime An 
evening meeting at Manchester in 1823 is specially mentioned, 
which was attended by 1200 peisous of tho woikmg clafas Yet, 
with all this activity, the gieat bulk of the cleigy still held aloof, 
and many even of decided Evangelical views merely stippoited 
the Society because it was Evangelical, but showed no leal sscal in 
the missionaiy cause Again and again do the Annual Bopoits 
and Sermons appeal to the clergy , and this in tone and language) 
that leave no doubt in the leadei'smmd that they weio legarded 
as exceptionally backward in fulfilling then gieat obligation to 
obey the Loid's Last Command 

At the end of 1824, the Society had sent out fiom Europe 
ninety-eight men, and &ix single women Of the ninety-eight 
thirty-two were English cloigymen, Unity-two were English 
laymen (including a few who weio ordained afteiwaids) ; Unity 
weie in Lutheian oidois (sixteen fioin tho Beilin Seminary, nine 
from the Basle Semmaiy, two fiom tho Univoisity of Jena, and 
thiee otheis), and foin weie Geiman laymen Of tho- whole 
ninety-eight, hfty-foui weio still on the loll at tho end of 1824 
Of the six smglo women, five had manied and one died The 
number of wives was foity-seven 

It was only in the Bepoit of 1823 that tho Society first 
published a Statistical Table It contains tho numbers of Euro- 

* The roll of mou to that elate is exactly ono htmclrod , but this includes 
Bowley, the Eurasian, m North India, and Paokoy, a lay settler in Now 
/ealaua who hud gone from Sydney 

B 2 



244 THE OUTLOOK AFMR TWENTY-FIVE YEARS 

PART III pean and Native missionaries and agents, and of schools and 
1812-24 scholais At the end of 1824, theie weie but two " Native mission- 
s mQ& ^ bdul Maglll an(i B ow i ey tne Emasian Theie were 319 

"Native teacheis and assistants," but two-thuds of these were in 
India, wheie piobably the non-Christian school-teacheis were 
included Theie weie 296 schools, and 14,090 scholais Not till 
1832 was an estimate given pf the number of communicants , and 
not till 1869, of the total number of Chiistian adheients 

The numeious deaths and disappointments in the Missions, 
especially in West Africa, led the Committee to think much of the 
importance of native agency In the Eepoit of 1823, they 
expiess very earnestly then hope and piayer that efficient native 
evangelists and teachers might be laised up " m such numbeis, 
thiough the blessing of the Holy Spnit, as to supeisede the 
necessity of any other supply of Teacheis from Christendom than 
those guides and counsellor who, availing themselves of the 
experience of all the older Churches of Christ in the West, might 
be the means of establishing and extending the rising Churches of 
the Heathen Woild " But this was yet in the future 

Meanwhile the arrangements for teaming men at home weie 
datea at this time occupying much of the Committee's attention Since 
Scott had been obliged to give up the chaige of candidates 
Benjamin Bailey was the last undei him, they had been dis- 
tributed among vanous cleigymeu m diffeient parts of the country, 
foi theological reading with a view to holy ordeis That is, foi 
part of their time The weeks occupied during the consideration 
of their candidature, and again between the completion of then 
theological studies and then sailing for the Mission-field, they 
spent under Bickeisteth's care, in Salisbury Square as long as he 
resided in the House, and, when the House became too small, at a 
house taken foi him in Bamsbury Park Mr Dandeson Coates, 
afterwards Lay Secretary, lived at the Office after Bickersteth left 
it, and gave a good deal of time to assisting m the details of 
business With Bickersteth also resided the men from Basle 
during their sojourn in England But as his chief woik was m 
the country, travelling from place to place, preaching and speaking 
at local Anniversaries, the time that he could give to the candi- 
dates and students was not large In view of all these ciicum- 
stances, the Committee began to feel that a regulai Tiaimng 
Institution for the Society was becoming an urgent need Some 
of then* friends opposed the idea, and urged that accepted candi- 
dates should be sent to the Universities, but it was ultimately 
agreed that while men educated independently at the Umveisities, 
and then coming forwaid for missionary work, should be earnestly 
sought foi, it was desirable, m the case of men of humbler station, 
requiring to be trained at the Society's expense, that they should 
be under the more immediate supervision of the Society's repre- 
sentatives Hence the scheme, one of Pratt 1 s special hobbies, for 
establishing an Institution at Islington Of this Institution we 



THE QVTLQOK AFT&R TWENTY-FIVE YEARS 245 

shall see raoie in an early chaptei The House in Uppei Street PART III 
was opened for the leception of students on Januaiy 31st, 1825 , 1812-24 
but the college buildings weie not erected foi two 01 thiee yeais 0}lft P 18 
latei Its histoiy, therefore, falls into our next peuod 

Meanwhile the Basle Seminary was turning out admn able men, Basle men 
under the guidance of its highly-iespected Principal, Theophilus 
Blumhaidt The Committee justly placed gieat confidence in his 
faithfulness and wisdom , and when he visited England m 1822, 
he was waimly welcomed, and spoke at the Anmveisary Meeting 
Although at this time, and until 1826, his men leceived only 
Lutheian orders, he fully agreed to their adopting the Piayei Book 
in its entiiety, and assiued the Committee that they weie able, 
" fiom a full conviction of their heaits," to accept the oidmances 
of the Church of England In the next quarter of a centuiy we 
shall find that a large proportion of the Society's best and ablest 
missionaries came fiom the Basle Semmaiy , but most of these, as 
we shall see, leceived fuithei tiaming in England, and English 
oideis 

One of the eaily difficulties of the Society m sending forth 
missionanes the obtaining English oidination foi them was Ordina- 
now entuely removed Aftoi Bishops Rydei and Bathmst joined tiona 
the Society, they oidained men at the Committee's lequest, 
accepting as a title the Committee's agieemcnt to employ them 
Archbishop Harcouit, of Yoik, did the same on two 01 theo 
occasions But an anangement like this could only bo pioviaiomil 
Howevei, the difficulty was solved m 1819 by an Act of Paiha- 
ment called the Colonial Seivice Act, which gave the Aichbishops 
of Canteibuiy and York and the Bishop of London powei to 
ordain men foi " His Majesty's Colonies and Foreign Possessions," 
under certain lestnctions Fiom that time the Bibhop of London 
regularly 01 darned the Society's missionaries Indeed he had 
claimed to have the nght before, objecting to Bishop Rydei doing 
so,- 1 ' and the Act settled the question The fust miasionaiy thus 
ordained was Isaac Wilson (who mamed Miss Gooko of Calcutta), 
at Chustmas, 1820, and the second Henry Williams (a.ftoi wards 
Aichdeacon m New Zealand), at Tnmty, 1822 

One new Mission had been lately sdai tod, which has not yet Jfjji 011 in 
been mentioned The Society foi Missions m "Africa and the West" 
East " had gone into the Eai West So fai back us 1810, a Amftrica ' 
gentleman in Uppoi Canada, Mi John Johnston, had called the 
Society's attention to the Ecd Indians of the Ojibbo\vay lube on 
Lake Supenoi, and stated that if a man could be sent to them, the 
Bishop of Quebec (then the only Bishop in Canada) would no 
doubt oidain him Inquiry was accordingly made, 1ml Bishop 
Mountain declined to ordain any such peiBon, and the matter 
diopped In 1819, anothei proposal was made to the Society, by 
a membei of the North-West Fur Company (not yet amalgamated 

* Committee Minutes, September, 1818 



246 THE OUTLOOK AFTER TWENTY-FIVE YEARS 

PART III with the Hudson's Bay Company), to establish a Mission among 
^ e ^ n ^ ails b&yond the Eocky Mountains, in what is now British 
Columbia The Committee undeitook " to procuie fiuther infor- 
mation " , but what the result was does not appeal, as the matter 
is not again lefened to Nearly forty yeais were yet to elapse 
befoie a North Pacific Mission was staited 

A third pioposal led to more definite lesults In 1820, the 
Rev John "West, Curate of White Roding, Esses, an active 
member of the Society, was appointed by the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany chaplain to their settlement on Bed Eiver, south of 
Lake Winnipeg He laid befoie the Committee a pioposal foi 
establishing schools foi the Indian children in that distuct , and 
they voted 100 to assist him in this scheme In the following 
year, he wiote pioposmg a regular Mission , and two members of 
the Boaid of the Hudson's Bay Company, Mr Nicholas Garry 
and Mi Benjamin Hamson, attended the Committee to support 
the application The lesult was the appointment of Mi West 
himself to superintend the Mission, of a schoolmastei to work 
under him, and, subsequently, of one of the Society's students, 
David T Jones, to be an additional missionaiy , and the voting of 
800 a yeai to covei expenses These decisions being come to in 
1822 make that -year the date of the Noith-West America 
Mission !* In the autumn of that year, Captain (afterwaids Sir 
John) Biankhn, leturned from one of his gieat Aictic expeditions, 
and came to the Society to uige it to extend its woik to othei 
Indian tnbes scatteied over those vast legions, paiticulaily 
piessmg the claims of the Eskimo But many yeais weie to pass 
befoie these extensions could be uudei taken 

It is very inteiesting to observe how, as the woik went on yeai 
by year, the C M S leaders weie acquiring not only experience in 

Higher the piactical conduct of Missions, but highei and truer conceptions 
^ * e wor k rtaelf j and of the obligations of Chustians regarding 
it In a former chapter it was obseived that the misenes of the 
Heathen appealed to them at first the chief motive of Missions, 
and that the unique position and urgency of the Lord's Last 
Command did not seem to have dawned upon them In the 
Beport of 1819, howevei, we find foi the fiist time the two gieat 
Missionary Commands of Chust put in juxtaposition, and the duty 
of " every Chnstian in every age " insisted on plainly 

"From the moment when our Lord, looking on the desolate multitudes 
of Judaea, gave that injunction to His disciples, 'Pi ay ye the Loid of 
the Harvest that He would send forth labourers into His Harvest/ 
from that moment, Prayer foi this object has nevei ceased to be the 
Duty of every Clnistian From the moment when He left that last 
command, ' Go ye into all the world and preach the Gospel to every 
creature,' from that moment, every possible eftort has been the Duty 
of every Christian in every age " 

* Bo it was called foi thioe quaiters of a centuiy It is now called Noilh- 
West Canada Mission, this name being prefeired by Canadian fueiicls 



TffB OUTLOOK AI<PER TwENry-pivL YEARS 247 



In Piatt's annual Suivey of the Woild, m the Eec^tBJ of PART III 
January, 1820, there is a lemaikable anticipation of a gieat thought p? 12 ~*?t 
which has only been quite lecently formulated, viz that it is the a P_ 
duty of Chnstians to take definite measmes foi the Evangelisation s v M u 
of the Whole World within a limited time As now f cumulated, JSSJJteT 
the " watch woid," as it is called, says "in this Cremation " It 
is not put quite m that form in 1820 , but elaborate calculations 
aie given legaiding the numbei of millions of Heathen in the 
woild, and the possibility of sending 30,000 mwsionaues from 
Euiope and the United States in twenty-one yeais It is shown, 
in the quietest and most cogent mannei, that this could bo done, 
and that the cost would be met by an annual contubution fiom 
each communicant in Piotestant Chiistendom of four dollais, say 
sixteen shillings The use of dollais m the calculation leveals the 
source of the scheme It was diawn up by Goidon Hall and 
Samuel Newell, two members of the iirst band of miSHionaues 
sent to the Heathendom of the Eastein Heinispheio by the 
Ghnstians of the United States of that baud, sent by the 
Amencan Boaid of Foieign Missions, whose utitowaid lecepiion 
by the Bntish authoiities at Galcutia, in 1812, Jus been noticed 
m a pievious chaptei They weio now at Bombay, and thence 
they sent this lemaikable scheme to Boston Ptatt lucewd it in 
due coiuse, and mseitod laige extiacts, with full commendation, 
in the Rcgistv Fiom the United States it is, in oui own day, 
that the pioposition m still more definite foim has come 

It does not appear that this Bombay scheme laid any hold of 
the mind of the Ghnstiau public Tho time was ceitaiuJy not i ipe 
font But theie was anothei subject bi ought forward at this 
penod, which engaged widei attention, and which also antici- 
pated much that has occupied the minds of devout and devoted 
Christians m these lattei yeais This was tUa tieed of CL fresh An o^ 
outpow %nq 0} tlic, Holy tym it the spirit* 

It is a remaikable ciicumstance that wliat seems to have first needed 
biought this subject into especial pionnuonce m Josiah Pratt's 
mind was of all things t the Coronaiion of Geoige IV , in 1821, 
The very solemn Goionation Service had not boon heaul m 
England foi sixty yeais, owing to Gooigo 11T f s long iciign, and 
when it was at last used again, its imfaiiuhai plnahos oieatod a 
deep impiession In the licqi^Ui of Januaiy, 182^, Piatt quotas 
and comments on the Service, pointing out especially that it 
"lecogmzes and enfoices the necessity of the constant and 
abundant influences of the Holy Spint, m oulei to success in the 
labours of Government and m the conduct of the ClniBtian Life " 
Foi instance, " The King is conseciated to his Oflice by the 
significative act of anointing with Oil denoting those Giacious 
Influences and that Heavenly Unction of the Holy Spirit, without 
which he cannot fulfil his awful obligations To this end, Piayor 
is put up foi the stiengthonmg Gi ace of the Ho]y Ghost " Then, 
aftei noticing tho difficulties and disappointments besotting mis- 



248 THE OUTLOOK AFTER TWENTY-FIVE YEARS 

PART III sionary "woik all over the woild, Piatt urges upon Chustians the 
1J12-24 fl^y O f p ia yer for the outpouring of the Spirit In the following 
Ohap ._ year, 1823, his annual Survey is headed, " The Conversion of 
And the World dependent on the more abundant influence of the Holy 
prayed for gp m j. rp^ gu bject, it is stated, was attaining prominence "in 
the Pulpit, in Piayer, in Addiesses and Eesolutions at Public 
Meetings, in Instructions dehveied to Missionaries, in Eeports of 
Societies, and m the Communications of the Laboureis them- 
selves ", and it is added that special couises of seimons on " the 
Deity, Offices, and Giacious Opeiations of the Holy Ghost" weie 
being delivered in many chinches In that yeai came John 
Cunningham's Sermon, refened to eaikei in this chaptei By 
what means did he affiim that the influences of Satan must be 
met and oveicome? "It is only by an agency like his own, 
spmtual and invisible," uiges the preachei, "that we can hope 
effectually to contend with him " , and therefoie, Prayer foi the 
Holy Spirit is the great weapon He refeis to " the multiplication 
of piayers for the outpouring of the Spirit" as "a sign of the 
times," and dwells on " the consolatory fact that thus the weakest, 
the most unlearned, the poor palsied or bedridden soldier of the 
Cioss can cany the war into the very camp of the Enemy " 

Then in the following year, 1824, Fountain Elwm, the eneigetic 
Secretary of the great Bristol Association, being the appointed 
Preachei, went straight to the heart of the sub]ect "It shall 
come to pass in the last days, saith God, I will pour out of My 
Spirit upon all flesh" these woids, m which St Petei, on the 
Day of Pentecost, quoted the old piophecy of Joel, were his 
animating text And it is a delightful sermon every way, full 
of Scriptuie, full of the Spuit of whom it speaks, full of tiue 
missionary earnestness and enthusiasm Why is the professing 
Christian woild, it asks, exhibiting so little of the life and power 
of religion 9 Because the woids are tiue of so many, "Having 
not the Spirit" Why is Oriental Chustendom witheied and 
decayed ? Because they have still to hear " what the Spirit saith 
unto the Churches " How long will Israel be yet an outcast from 
the Lord ? ' ' Until the Spirit be poured upon them fiom on high " 
Why is Heathendom in moral daikness ? Because another spint, 
the "god" and "prince of this woild," itiles theie undistuibed 
What then is to be done ? Send forth men who can tiuly respond 
to the solemn question at then ordination, " Do you tiust that you 
are mwaidly moved by the Holy Ghost ?" who will take no 
weapon but " the sword of the Spirit "-whose motto will be, 
"Not by might, nor by powei, but by My Spuit" who will 
" keep the unity of the Spirit ", and we all, on om part, must 
look for the outpouring, like Elijah by his servant's eyes pay for 
it, as Elijah did while the servant was looking and labour to 
promote it, because even the Omnipotent Spint works by means 



FBOM PBATT'S KETIREMENT TO 

VENN'S ACCESSION 1834-1841. 



NOTE ON PAET IV 



THIS Part only contains six chapters, but they are long and important 
ones The first two are devoted to home aftairs Chap XIX is the 
first of a series of chapters winch, one 01 more in each Part of the 
History, intioduce to us the Personnel of the Society, the Secretaires and 
Committee-men, the Preachers and Speakeis at the Anniversaries, the 
Candidates and Missionaries, and those friends and fellow-workers who 
died in the period In like manner, Chap XX is the first of a series 
of chapters which in each Part show us the Society's Environment 
during the Period, particularly dwelling on the state and progress of 
the Church of England, with especial reference to the relations of the 
Evangelical school 01 party to othei schools and parties In this 
chapter we see something of the condition of England when Queen 
Victoria ascended the throne, the great improvements withm the Chinch, 
certain internal differences among Evangelicals, and the nse of the 
Tractarian 01 Oxford Movement 

The othei foui chapters take us again to the Mission-held India 
absorbs two of them Chap XXI is an important chaptei, paiallel to 
the "Envnonment " chapters at home It notices the changes and 
developments in India m the period of the 'thirties, particularly the 
reforms of Lord W Bentmck , also the episcopate of Daniel Wilson, 
and his struggle with Caste , also the advent of Alexander Dun 7 and the 
commencement of Educational Missions under his auspices Then 
Chap XXII turns our attention to the CMS Missions, and takes a 
suivey of them all lound India, with a glance at other Missions, and at 
Ceylon Chap XXIII carries us back to Siena Leone, and then across 
the Atlantic to the West Indies, telling the painful stoiy of Slavery 
theie and the story also of Buxton's successful attack upon it All tho 
other Missions aie grouped together in Chap XXIV , New Zealand, the 
Mediterranean, and Rupert's Land, and the short-lived attempts at 
work in Abyssinia, and in Zululand, and among the Austialian Blacks 





REV J W CUNNINGHAM 



REV W JOWETT 




REV E BICKERSTETH 




BISHOP 




SIR T POWELL BUXTON 



JT W Cnnninffham, Vicar of Harrow, the most fiequent speaker at M S Anniversaries 

W Jowett, First Oambrid^'e Miaaionnrj , Secretary of C M S , 1833 18iO 

Edward Bickersteth, O M b Beci-ettiry, 1810-1830 

TTpm v "Rvflfir "RiRVion or Oloni Hslvflr and of Lichlield Fhet Bishoii to loin CMS 



CHAPTER XIX 

Tm Pmoum o? m PKIOD 

Dandeson Coates Edward Bickersteth The Committee Lord 
Chichester President The two Bishops Sumner The Preachers 
and Speakers B Noel and Dale suggest "Own Missionaries" 
The Missionaries The C M College Deaths Simeon and Wil- 
berforce 



"TFc Imc -maw/ mcmbeis 111 one fouli/, and dl jiicflifcm Iwenrt flio same 
office" Rom XH 4 




[HE title of this Jouith Pait of our Histoiy embodies PAM IV 
110 mere arbitiaiy division of time The penod of 1-824-41, 
Piatt 1 s Secietaryslup was a distinctive peuod , and so 
was the penod of Henry Venn's Seoietaryship 
Piatt's letuement maikedaieal epoch, and so, still 
more conspicuously, did Venn's accession It is impossible to A period pf 
study the history of the seventeen yeais that elapsed between tho 
one epoch and the other without feeling that they foiraed in some 
lespects an interregnum There was piogieas, asswedly The 
Society's income moie than doubled in the penod Associations 
multiplied all over the country Two bundled missionanes weie 
sent out, against one hundied in the piecodmg twenty yeais In 
some of the misfoion-flelds theie was distinct advance, as we shall 
see Neveitheless, tho process was due rather to the natuial 
giowth of what had been planted before, than to definite forward 
steps-e\cept in one instance, the West Indies Mission on the 
pait of the Society Consolidation lalhei than extension is tho 
note of the penod Much was done m tho way of legulalioim, 
financial and peisonal Tho i ules veg,u ding Candidates, Htudeuts, 
Furloughs, Mainage, Childien, Sick and Bellied Missionanea, 
Associations at home, Conespondmg Committees abioad, Episcopal 
Licenses, &c , Ac , weie Riadually foimulated The Society, 
having passed its infancy and its vigorous youth, was settling into 
the matunty of middle life 

Throughout the peiiod, a commanding lay personality to a laige 
extent dominated the committee-ioom Mi Dandason Coatos 
had been a membci of the Committee fiom 1817, and from 1820 Coatfl8 ' 
he had lived in the Chuich Missionary House, lendmmg valuable 
assistance in the practical details of tho woilc On tbo icauango- 



THE PERSONNEL OF THE PERIOD 

PAET IV inent consequent on Pratt's letuement in 1824, he was appointed 
n? 24 " ^ sslstaut Secietaiy , ancl m 1830 he leceived the title, then fiist 
_ u 136 ^ of L ay Secretary This office he held till his death m 1846 
He was a very able man, possessing, said Henry Venn long after- 
waids, " fiist-iate poweis of business " " The official corre- 
spondence/' continues Yenn, " was nevei more ably conducted 
Sir James Stephen used to say that he knew no one m the public 
service who woiked moie efficiently and zealously m an adminis- 
trative department " It is to him, evidently, that the formulating 
of the various legulations foi the piactical woiking of so compli- 
cated a machine as a gieat missionary society was mainly due 
He represented also, with gieat vigour sometimes with too gieat 
vigour, the policy of a vigilant guaidianship of the Society's 
independence of official Church control This was natuially the 
lay view of many questions that came before the Committee , and 
iihe more conciliatory, though not less staunchly evangelical, 
element was supplied by his clerical colleagues, who, howevei, 
were often overborne by the force of his stiong personality Both 
Bickersteth and Jowett, who weie successively his associates 
as Secretaries, felt the stiain Of the latter, Venn says " Of his 
Christian wisdom and missionary sympathies it is not possible 
to speak too highly , but the full vigoui of his lay colleague 
somewhat overshadowed his admimstiation " Canon Bateman, 
the biographer and son-in-law of Daniel Wilson, writes 1 
" The clerical secretary at this epoch (1832) was the pious 
and amiable William Jowett, but the lay secretaiy and the 
ruling mind was Mr Dandeson Coates Most men of that day 
will lemembei his tall, thin figuie, his green shade, his quiet 
manner, untiring industry, and firm but somewhat nanow mind 
Whilst Mr Jowett was writing kind and gentle letters, Mi Coates 
was stamping upon the committee the impress of his own decided 
views , and the lay element, paiamount for the time at home, 
soon became predominant abroad " Bateman was peihaps not 
quite an impartial judge, for reasons which will appeal hereaftei , 
but the traditions of the Church Missionary House confirm the 
general nnpiession given by his words 

Of the clerical secretaries of the period, the fiist to be mentioned 
Edward is Edwaid Bickersteth We have already seen something of his 
eaiher life, of his work at Norwich, of his visit to West Africa, of 
his residence (first at Salisbury Squaie and then at Bainsbuiy 
Paik) with the candidates, of his provincial journeys m behalf of 
the cause Dunng Pratt's tenuie of office, he was Assistant 
Secretary , on Pratt's retiiement he succeeded to his chau But 
his principal work lemamed the same he might still be called 
" chief deputation " and " candidate secretary " Little, if any, of 
the official admimstiation was committed to him , he kept up that 

* Address at the Opening of the New House, 1862 , punted in the C M 
Intelligencer, April, 1862, and in the Appendix to the Life o/ K Venn 
| life of "Bishop Wilson, vol n p 10 



IHE PERSONNEL OF THE PERIOD 253 

f atheily, or biotheily, correspondence with the missionauos which PART IY f 
is so impoitant a pait of a Secietaiy's woik though so little 
noticed, and for which the peisonal touch he had had with them 
as candidates specially fitted him, but such of the legular 
business as was not absorbed by Coates's all-embracing energy 
was done by a second clerical secretaiy, the Eev T Woodiofte 
Of this colleague, though he held office seven years, the old 
recoids tell nothing that gives the student of them any definite 
impression , and Venn, m the reminiscences aheady quoted from, 
does not mention his name But Bickeisteth, though not 
occupied with official business, was a powei m the Society The 
growth of the income, the multiplication of associations, the 
increasing numbei of offers of seivice, weie mainly due to his 
eneigy and devotion , and, next to Piatt, he was unquestionably 
the best and gieatest of Venn's predecessois He lepiesented 
the highest spintual side of the Society's punciples and methods His 
and operations His evangelical fervour was mosistible , and 
wheievei he went, fiorn county to county and horn town to town, 
ho steed his heaieis to then heaits' depths, and set them 
piaymg and woikmg with ledoubled earnestness His beautiful 
loving influence healed many divisions, and bound both woikers 
at home and niissionanes abioad in holy fellowship If ever 
a G M S secietary was filled with the Spuit, that secietaiy was 
Edwaid Biokersteth 

In the Memoii of Bickersteth by his son-in-law, Piofessoi T E 
Buks, and in an appendix theieto by Henry Venn, illustrations 
aie given of the application by Bickeisteth of his spmtual prin- 
ciples to controveited questions in the Society He suppoited 
Coates in some at least of his assertions of the Society's indepen- 
dence, though not quite fiom the same standpoint , not fiom the 
dread of episcopal 01 clencal officialism, which was natuial in a 
layman, but from a jealous care of the spmtual chaiacter of the 
work An impoitant instance of this will come befoio us heie- 
after But upon some questions, the laymen who weio stiong 
advocates of independence wore not with him, and in his 
judgment they took too soculai a view Venn says, " He was HIS 
sometimes ovei borne in aigument, but subsequent events dlfficulties 
have shown that his spiritual wisdom was a suioi gmdo than tho 
more acute and foiciblo icasoning of hib opponents " One ques- 
tion, regaidmg the training of students at tho Missionaiy College, 
led to painful divisions between old and mutually valued friends, 
Bickeisteth was outvoted on this occasion , - and although h& 
loyally accepted the decision, it is evident that the strain of such 
conflicts told upon him, and piepared the way foi his retiiement. 
Like other clerical secietanes m eaihei days, he had a pastoral 
charge in addition to his societaryship, being minister of Wheler 
Chapel (now St Mary's, Spitd Squaie) , and finding the double 

* 3/emou o/ B Utdonfoi/t, vol i pp 422, 438 



254 ? HE PERSONNEL OF IHE PERIOD 

PAET IT labours beyond his stiengtb, especially while his work consisted 
1824-41 so laigely of jouineys to the piovmces, he pioposed to the 
Chap_l9 Committee ceitain changes m his duties, paiticulaily a smaller 
amount of deputation seivice " Aftei fouiteen years of incessant 
travelling, he might," he thought, "in justice to himself, and 
without injuiy to the Society, have some paitial lehef " He 
plainly intimated that if they felt unable to adopt his pioposals, 
"he was piepaied to considei then decision as the voice of God 
calling him to anothei spheie of labom " , )et in the face of this, 
the Committee declined his suggestions wheieupon he wiote his 
His retire- lettei of lesignation He delayed sending it, howevei , and on 
ment the veiy next day, Sunday, Maich 14th, 1830, Mr Abel Smith, 
MP foi Heits, who "chanced" to be a woishippei at Wheler 
Chapel, mentally lesolved to offei him the lectoiy of Watton 
This " coincidence" if such a woid may be used of so signal an 
instance of "paiticulai Providence" settled the question, and 
Bickers teth was able to name a happiei reason foi letirement 
" I have never ceased," wntes Henry Venn in the Address before 
quoted fiom, " to regiet the early dissolution of his connexion 
with the office " For twenty years moie, however, Bickeisteth 
continued the devoted friend and untiling advocate of the Society , 
and perhaps the moie piomment pait which he was now able to 
take in the geneial curient affaus of the Church was leally of 
gieatei value than his continuance m Sahsbmy Squaie could 
have been We shall often meet him again in these pages 
clerical Woodiofie and Coafces weie now the only Secietanes , and two 
tanes yeais latei, 1832, Woodioffe also letiied To him succeeded 
William Jowett, whose impaiied health prevented the continuance 
of his missionary labouis in the Levant His " overshadowed " 
position in the office has been already lefened to In 1839, a 
third Secretary, the Rev T Voies (afteiwaids a well-known 
cleigyman at Hastings), was appointed H Venn, then a leading 
mernbei of Committee, wiote of him " He has the abilities 
that we want, but whethei he can stand his giound against all 
en cum stances is the question " In the following year Jowett 
letiied, and, some months later, Voies also All this while the 
dominating spirit was Dandeson Coates , but in 1841 began the 
Secretaryship of Henry Venn, and veiy soon the whole Society 
felt that a hand was upon the helm which could be trusted to the 
utteimost That hand was destined to steer the good ship foi 
thiity yeais 

Organizing After Bickeisteth's refinement, no Secretary at headquarters 
tanS" was commissioned for deputation work , and many yeais elapsed 
before any office was created similar to that of the piesent Central 
Secretary But the growing demands of the ever-increasing 
number of Associations led to the appointment, even in Bicker- 
steth's time (1828), of a " Visiting Secietary," who held no rank in 

* In a lettei to D Wilson, Vioai of Islington, Life of H Venn p 103 



THE PERSONNEL OF THE PERIOD 255 

the Secretaiiat propei A second was added two 01 thiee years PABI IV 
later, and a " Lay Agent," a retired naval officer, who looked after 1824-41 
local funds, distnbution of papeis, &c In 1835, foi the nibt Chai> 19 
time, appears the title of " Association Secietanes " Theie were 
then foui, one of them being the layman, Mi Greenway, and 
another, newly appointed, being the Rev Charles Hodgson, who 
for many years woiked Yorkshire with extraordinary energy, and 
brought up the contributions of that great county to a point from 
which m these later years it has actually receded In the same 
year the arrangement was first made of dividing the country into 
districts four at first, and placing an Association Societal y m 
each 

Turning now to the governing body of the Society, we find it m Members 
those days very much smaller than at present The aveiage com- 
attendance at the General Committee m 1837 was eleven laymen mittee 
(out of twenty-four elected member b) and eight of tho bubscribing 
cleigymen The Committee of Correspondence, upon which, ab 
now, fell the labour of detailed administration of tho Missions, 
consisted nominally of the twenty-four lay members of the General 
Committee and of bix or eight clergymen , and tho aveiago atten- 
dance in that year, in which they mot forty-three times, was 
eleven But there were good and btiong men among those who 
by then regular attendance really governed the Society Homy 
Venn, m the Address before refeired to, mentions m particulai 
Sir James Stephen, son of the James Stephen whom we mot Leading 
with rn our earlier chapters, father of the great judge of recent aymen 
times and of Mr Leslie Stephen, and author of the Easays 
m Ecclesiastical Biography He was a high official m the 
Colonial O&ce, and subsequently became an Under-Sccietaiy 
of State and Professor of Modern History at Cambridge 
He was a valuable member of the Committee for nine years 
Mr W A Garratt, an able barrister, was for twenty-three 
years a regular attendant, and seems to have had exceptional 
influence m the Society's counsels The legal profession waa 
also represented by W Blan, John Poyndei, E V Sidobottom, 
W Grane, and W Dugniore, Q C Among other loading lay 
membeis, W M Ebrster should be mentioned, who, with his wife, 
was wrecked, and drowned, oft the Welsh coast in 1831 , Di 
John Mason Good, " a physician of high reputation m medical 
literature, and a scholar acquainted with seventeen languages", 
B J Bunion, a leading financial member, Su George Giey, 
afterwards the well-known Whig Homo Secretary , and Dr John 
Whiting (uncle of the Bev J B Whiting), who actod as honorary 
medical adviser Very early, too, the Indian civil and military 
services began to furnish valuable members, as thoy have dono 
ever srnce Colonel Phipps, General Latter, Major Maokworth, 
and J H Hanngton, were among the first, but the moat 
important and influential member from Indra was J, M* Strachan, 
who had been Treasurer of tho Madras Corresponding Committee, 



256 THE PERSONNEL OF THE PERIOD 

PAET IV and who, from 1830 onwaid, was foi nearly foity years in the 
1824-41 forefront of the Society's leaders Captain the Hon F Maude, 
OhapJ.9 R N ^ j 0ined tlie Q ommli;tee m i833 j an fl therefore belongs to the 

peiiod undei leview , but his great services foi moie than half a 
centuiy will be nioie suitably noticed heieaftei Among the 
clerical clerical members of the period, Venn particularly mentions Jamos 
members jjough, the former chaplain in Tmnevelly, with "his unim- 
passioned but warm-heaited sentiments " , M M Preston, with 
his "giave aspect, affectionate heart, thinking head, but slow 
speech " , G Smalley the elder, with his " solid, practical sense, 
and singleness of eye to the will and glory of the great Head of 
the Church " To these we may add Joseph Fenn, who, invalided 
from Travancoie, was one of the most regular and revered 
members from 1830 to 1875 , and Thomas and John Harding, the 
latter afterwaids Bishop of Bombay Among occasional but 
highly-valued attendants from the country were Chancellor Baikes, 
Professois Farish and Scholefield, J W Cunningham, and Hal- 
dane Stewart But foremost of all among the cleigy, during the 
Bamei first half of our penod, was Daniel Wilson, whose appointment to 
Wilson, ^ Bishopno of Calcutta in 1832 will come before us in an eaily 
chapter In 1824 he became Vicar of Islington, and the wonder- 
ful expansion of Church work in that great parish dates from that 
year In 1828 he established the Islington Chmch Missionary 
Association, which has evei since been one of the most active and 
fwutful of all the Associations, 51 and has long raised 3000 a year 
for the Society 

Presidents Among tne Vice-Presidents, Venn specially mentions as valued 
helpeis Lord Bexley (the Mi Vansittait who had been Chancellor 
of the Exchequer), who gave important counsel to the Society 
regaiding its finances, and for many years was a leader m seveial 
of the religious societies , Charles Grant, Lord Glenelg, son of 
Charles Grant the elder, and President of the Board of Control 
(India Office) , Sir Thomas Baring, Sir George Bose, Sn Eobeit 
Inglis, Mi (afterwards Sir) T Fowell Buxton, James Stephen the 
elder, and, of couise, Wilberforce Loid Ashley, afterwaids the 
great Earl of Shaftesbury, became a Vice-President m 1837 
The Treasurer, throughout the whole period, was John Thomton, 
nephew of the Henry Thornton who was the first holdei of the 
office 

Death of In 1833, the Society suffered the loss of its fii st President, Admiral 
Gambier ^ord Gambler, \ m his seventy-seventh year "His Christian 
character," wrote Pratt in the Registw, " was stiongly maiked by 
simplicity and spirituality His ardent zeal for the Kingdom of 
Christ led him ever to take a lively inteiest m the Society's pro- 
ceedings " The Committee, in the following year, nominated the 

* Of this Association, the Authoi was Hon Secretary from 1874 to 1880, 
and Lad tho pnvilego of arranppng its Jubilee, which, was cololratel on 
January 17th, 1878, a special extra fund being raised of 1000 

f See p 108 



THE PERSONAL OF THE PERIOD 25? 

Marquis of Cholmondeley as his successor , but that excellent PAUT IT 
Christian nobleman declined on the score of health Then they p? 2 *""*! 
appioached the Eail of Chichestei, Henry Thomas Pelham, a G p 19 
Captain in the Eoyal Horse Guaids, who had ]ust completed his TheEariof 
thirtieth year " Led," mote his friend Mi Alexandei Seattle in cwchester 
1886 (the yeai of his death), "in comparatively early life, undei 
the influence of one of the Society's friends, to accept foi himself 
the fulness and freeness of the Gospel of Christ, it was his desire, 
since that happy union with his piecious Savioui, to make that 
Gospel known at home and abroad " The fnend here referred to 
was Charles Hodgson, who had been a hunting comiade of his at 
Carnbiidge He and the young nobleman had togethei dedicated 
themselves to the seivice of Chust in the chuichyard of the 
Northumberland pansh of which Hodgson was curate ! 

The young Eail accepted the post of President on Chustmas 
Eve, 1834, and m the following May he presided foi the first HIS first 
time at the Annual Meeting After a modest reference to him- s P eech 
self, he spoke the following wise and stirring words 

"A gieat deal was heard at the present day of the clangoi to which 
the Church of England was exposed fioni its political and outwaul foes 
He thought, however, they need not bo afuw of such foes as those If 
the Church of England were indeed found zealously engaged in the 
work of her Lord, He would be on her side, and who could bo against 
her ? If she was zealously engaged in the missionary cause, then indeed 
the Lord of hosts would be with liei, and the God of Jacob would bo 
her refuge But was there not cause to feai with respect to 0111 
national and beloved Church, that on account of her neglected oppoi- 
tumties m spreading abroad that knowledge and light winch Gocf nacl 
vouchsafed her, a long account against her was iccorded m lieavon P 
When they considered their great national wealth, their many facilities 
of communication with other nations, the repeated and still-continued 
removal of obstacles and impediments to the missionary causo in 
diffeient parts of the British possessions, and when also they looked 
over the map of the world, and traced upon it the wide territory of 
British dominion, and still wider one of British influence, was there 

* Canon Tristram writes to tho Author OB follows " Tho story of Charles 
Hodgson's and Lord ChichoHfcei's oonvoitJion as told mo first by fcliu late 
G T Fox, was this They had boon great fnoiula ud Unmbndgo, and both 
weio beautiful horsemen and keen huntsmen Loitl Pol ham (at* ho them 
was) wont on a visit to his fnend Hodgson, who had looontly boon oidiunoil 
to the cuiacy of St John Loo, noai lloxham Ho \\IIH aboftdy mid in SGIIOUH 
impressions, and Hodgson was voiy anxious to do his duty UH u, oleigynwn 
One day they had boon out hunting together, and after putting up their 
hoisoBj sauntered into tho ohnrchyaid They happened to t upon an altar 
tombstonej and talked At length they mutually vowod to givo thonisolvos 
to Christ, as thoy had ne\er dono before, and knelt down by tlio stono to 
pray and seal their vows togethoi l<Voin that day foiwaid thoy woro now 
men Once when I was staying with Lord Ohichestor at fcJtanmor, I ventured 
to hint at tho story, and asked him if ho remembered hiB visit to St John 
Lee Ho said ho did indeed, and if ho wore there he could take mo straight 
to tho tombstone, near tho south-wont ond of tho church " Soo also Lord 
Chiohester's Reminiscences of Hodgson, 0/insfaan Otoonw, October, 1872, 
p 747 

VOL I S 



260 THE PERSONNEL OF THE PERIOD 

PART IT knowledge laiely seen among men who have not been theie, and 
1824-41 evincing his intimate acquaintance with the cunent history of the 
C1 "JP__ 19 Missions But what at the present day particulaily arrests our 
attention is his partial anticipation of the " Own Missionary " 
plan which, aftei sixty years, has latteily been adopted with so 
much promise of blessing He indulges in what then seemed the 
wild imagination of the Society being able to send to India One 
Hundred Missionanes in the next twelve months, and draws a 
striking pictui e of the effects, direct and mdnect, of such a foiward 
step, calculating that, as one of the lesults, there would probably, 
in twenty yeais, be 16,190 evangelists, European and Native, pieach- 
mg the Gospel in India Then he asks, " But can it be done ? " 

An " Own ' I answer It can be done at once, cind easily Among all the fi lends 
Mis 10 ?an ^ * Society, are there not fifty at least, who, without foiegomg a 
single comfort which they now en]oy, without sacrificing what is more to 
them than the weekly penny contributed by the labouier, 01 the annual 
pound by the domestic servant, coiilcl each contribute 300 to the 
maintenance of one additional Missionary in India P One generous 
person has already signified her intention, henceforth, to do so for New 
Zealand "Will not twenty-five more be found to follow that Christian 
example for India ? Thus twenty-five Missionaries might be sent Among 
the larger and more wealthy parishes and congregations, with which some 
of our Missionary Associations are connected, aie there not at least fifty, 
in which ten persons might add 10 to their annual subscriptions , one 
hundred persons 1 , and two hundred more lOa , without involving them- 
selves in any painful sacrifice, or m the least diminishing their contubu- 
tiona to any home object ? Bach such parish, or congregation, could 
maintain one additional Missionary If there are fifty who could do it, 
will not twenty-five he found geneious enough to make the example, and 
thus <idd twenty-five Missionaries to India ? Further among the young 
men who take a benevolent interest in our Missions, are there not fifty who, 
at their own cost, might give ten years to Missionary labours, as some 
m their circumstances do, to travel for their pleasure P If so, will not 
ten be found sufficiently devoted to do it ? Thus, sixty new Missionaries 
might be raised , and with these examples before them, surely the other 
Associations of this great Society would not find it difficult to provide 
for the remaining forty and thus a hundred additional Missionanes 
might be sent out within the year 

" I believe that, if a hundred devoted men did go, it would mfuse an 
unction into the ministry of thousands m this land, inspire our piayeis 
with fervency, unlock tne refused treasure, make Christians love each 
other, and, being equally the effect and the pledge of an enlarged bless- 
ing from God, would multiply conversions m our congregations, and, 
rebuking the wordlmess of multitudes, foim a new era in the Church, to be 
marked by a holier ardour, and a more self-denying energy in the whole 
course of Christian duty 

" Only let the expenment be made In this congregation are pi obably 
numbers who have influence with various Associations , some who are 
possessed of wealth , and some who are Ministers of Christ Will you, 
then, m the Name of our Lord Jesus Christ, to the utmost, by example 
and by argument, animate oui Associations, generally, to provide the 
Heathen with a hundred additional Missionanes within the next year P 
In the name of a world of sinners, I ask it of you I ask it in the name 
of Christ" 



THE PERSONNEL OF THE PERIOD 261 

Two years later, in 1837, Thomas Dale, who was then Vicar PAST TV, 
of St Bride's and theiefoie preached in his own church, took up i? 24 ^ 1 
the same idea, and worked it out more neaily as has been done in _ ap 
our own day If, he says, a true standaid of self-sacrifice were Dale also 
followed, then " r wn 

"Not a few among us would have each Ms own special 1 cpi esenta- JjJjJ 1 " 11 " 
tm ministering the Gospel to the Heathen, scattering among them, in 
his stead, the seed of life, and thus supplying his lack of personal 
service 

" But next, there is a principle of combination, which is so often in- 
juriously, that it might well be, for once, profitably applied Where the 
burden is too heavy for one, why should not two, or four, or six, if 
linked togethei in close bonds of kindred, or by the closer tie of 
Christian brotherhood, combine to maintain their own Missionary? 
Why should not the various members of families, whom God hath 
blessed, he led thus to offer a hvmg tiibute to His praise ? 

" But if, again, there are many instances of disciples who can bestow 
largely, but not to this extent, is not the principle which we have laid 
down especially applicable to congiegations ? Cannot the Pastor urge 
upon his flock to adopt, as the lowest, such a scale of congregational con- 
tnbutions as shall ensure for them one who shall represent them in the 
benighted empire of ignorance, and among the godless hordes of idolatry 
and supei stition ? Why should not the sword of the Spn it be unsheathed, 
why should not the bannei of Salvation be unfuiled, at then propei 
cost, and in their special name, by some intrepid wamoi of Christ , who 
has abjured home, with all its comforts kindred, with all its chanties- 
society, with all its indulgences and delights countiy, with all tho ties 
which it entwines so tenaciously around the heart, in orclei to be their 
delegate in the great work of preaching the Word of God P In the 
turbulent period of our own national history, when Liberty was struggling 
to the birth, but there was no strength to bung forth, and tho State, 
m sore travail, was compelled to maintain a piecanous existence at 
the point of sword and spear , every adequate portion of land 
sent forth its own wamor, armed and equipped to battle, for his 
country's honour, and his own dear domestic hearth , and fer these, 
even the vassals of arbitrary power would contend, as though they were 
freemen like ourselves, and struck fox liberty Cannot something like 
this be accomplished, in this noblest of causes, by the voluntary energies 
of the Church? Cannot the parish which sent one, 01 the city which 
furnished perhaps a hundred, warriors, provide a single Missionaiy ? 

" Oh 1 if one thousand congregations were thus stmed up throughout 
the land, in our own Church alone, to say nothing of othei denomina- 
tions of Christians , nay, if one-half this numbei, not one m twenty, 
throughout the empire, were kindled, as by a tongue of faro glanced from 
heaven, into this divine work of faith and labour of love, then would our 
calculation be complete , then would flow into the desolate wastes of 
Heathenism a full and gracious tide, not of seventy, but of seven hundred 
Missionaries, to testify among all nations the wondeiful works of God " 

Bickersteth's seimon, preached two yeais aftei his lefaiement Bicker- 
from the Secretariat, has of course a special interest It is the B e s 
only Annual Sermon ever preached by an ex-Seqretary His 
biogiapher, Professor Birks, says "His sense of the great im- 
portance of the occasion led him to bestow much pains on the 
sermon, and his elder children can i collect his reading it aloud 



262 THE PERSONNEL OF THE PERIOD 

PAB.T IV. to them m private, more than once, to discover any defects, and 
1824-41 be more familial with it in the public delivery His text was 
Chap 19 Ps Ixvn 1, 2, which he applied to the Bntish Nation, to the 
Church of England, and to the Church Missionary Society He 
enlarged on the high privileges of oui country, its providential 
opportunities, and grievous sins , the past revival of the Chuich, 
and its lemaimng weakness and corruption } the giowth of mis- 
sionary zeal, and its scanty means compared with the immense 
expenditure on meie luxuries and sinful pleasures, the fearful 
wants and daikness of the Heathen woild, and the blessings that 
would flow to it from an extensive revival of true religion in our 
Church and Nation . with the means by which these blessings 

* V *J 

might be secured prayer, personal devotedness, and their com- 
bined influence on the hearts and minds of others " Bickersteth 
himself wrote "God carried me through my duties with much 
mercy I preached an hour and thiee-quarters the longest 
sermon I ever preached m my Irf e but the interest seemed to be 
kept up m a ciowded congregation to the end " 

The Sermon, however, had long ere this exchanged places in 
importance with the Annual Meeting , and the enhanced interest 
of the latter became moie manifest when Exeter Hall was opened 
in 1831 of which more in the next chapter Indeed, in 1886, 
the Society had to hold an overflow meeting in the Lower Hall , 
and m 1839 an Evening Meeting was added for the first time 
StSe 61 " 8 ^e ksts ^ 5 P ea keis year by year aie interesting to look over 
Annual In the twenty-seven yeais, trom 1815, when Ifieemason's Hall 
Meetings mg rg ^ j^]^ moling sixteen meetings m that Hall and nine 
m Exetei Hall, the same names occur again and again Bishop 
Eyder fouiteen times, the two Bishops Sumnei (in twelve years) 
nine times each, the Marquis of Cholmondeley nine times, Lord 
Galthorpe eight times, J W Cunningham sixteen times, Wilbeifoice 
eight times, Daniel Wilson seven times, Gerard Noel eight times, 
Charles Simeon only four times (but much more often for the 
Jews' Society), Haldane Stewart five times, Baptist Noel foui 
times, C J Hoare four times, Bickersteth six times Charles 
Grant the younger (Lord Glenelg) spoke three times, Lord Bexley 
three times, lowell Buxton four times, Sir Eobert Inghs five 
times m this period, Sir Geoige Grey once, Lord Chichester 
(before his appointment as President) once, Professor Scholefield 
three times Hugh Stowell first appears in 1838, and he then 
spoke every year except one foi seven years Hugh McNeile 
spoke in 1827 and 1828, but not again in this period Francis 
Close made his first CMS speech m 1839 Henry Venn spoke 
once only, in 1883 Bishop Bathurst of Norwich spoke in 1818, 
Bishop Waid of Sodor and Man in 1828, Bishop Turner of Cal- 
cutta in 1829, Bishop Mcllvaine of Ohio m 1835, Bishop Come 
of Madras in 1835, Bishop Otter of Ghichester in 1837, Bishop 
Longley of Eipon m 1838, Bishop Denison of Salisbury in 1841 
Samuel Wilberforoe, afterwaids Bishop of Oxford, appeared for the 



THE PERSONNEL OF THE PERIOD 263 

first time in 1840 It has been a very raie thing for men not PART IT 
of the English Church to speak at the CMS Anniversary , but i? 24 " 4 * 
Blumhardt, the Director of the Basle Seminary, spoke m p 
1822, Alexander Duff in 1836, and Merle D'Aubignc in 1838 It 
is very likely that Duffs appearance diew the crowd which 
necessitated the oveiflow meeting before mentioned His speech 
is one of the finest evei dehveied in Exetei Hall "* It is interest- 
ing to obseive that Captain Allen Gaidmer also was a speaker in 
the same yeai, just when he was persuading the Society to engage 
m a Mission to the Zulus It will be asked, But where weie the 
CMS missionaries all this tune? It is rathei surpnsmg to find 
so few m the lists, considering that many had come home m the 
'twenties and 'thirties, but the only names are Jowett and 
Hartley of Malta, Raban of Sieria Leone, Fenn and Doran of 
Travancoie, Yate of New Zealand, Gobat of Abyssinia, and John 
Tuckei of Madras 

This brings us to the most important of all blanches of the 
personnel, the missionaries themselves Among the two hundred 
sent out m the period under review, fiom 1824 to 1840, there 
are ovei seventy whose names must be recoided, and the 
lengthened sei vices of some of them are lemarkable Of Daniel Lon ? 
the Piophet we read that " this Daniel continued ", and truly the 8ervicca * 
same thing may be said of many of the missionaries sent forth at 
this time Two " continued " sixty 01 rnoio yeais , five, ovei fifty 
years, twelve, foity or more years, nineteen, thirty or more 
years Noble service was lendered, as has been befoie stated, by the 
Basle Missionaiy Seminary, m supplying somo of the ablest and 
most devoted missionaries !EVom it, prior to 1841, went forth, Basle men. 
to West Afuca, Hansel (10 years), Schon (20), Schlenker (16), 
Graf (19), Bultmann (22) , to West Afnca and affceiwaids to New 
Zealand, Kisslmg, who became one of Bishop Selwyn's Arch- 
deacons (33), to tho Levant, Egypt, and Abyssinia, Gobat, 
aftei wards Bishop of Jeiusalem (17 years under QMS), Lieder 
(35), KrusL (35), Schhenz (16), Hildnei of Syia (45) , to Abyssinia 
and afterwaids India, Isenbeig (32), and Blumhardt (40) , to 
Abyssinia and East Africa, Kiapf the explorer (19) , to India, Deerr 
(24), Schaffler (30), Weitbrechi, (21), KiUckeberg (27), Loupolt (42), 
Lmcy (86), C C Monge" (38), J P Meug* (30) , to India, and 
afterwaids to Smyrna, Jetter (22) Most of these came from Basle 
to Islington, received furthei training m tho Church Missionary 
College, and weio ordained by the Bishop of London Another 
valuable band of Germans fiom Basle went to the north-west of 
Persia under the Basle Society, but on the conquest by Bussia of 
the district they worked in, and their consequent expulsion, they 
joined the CMS Among these were Schneider (37 yeais), 
Hoernle (42), Kreiss (16), who went to India , Pfander, the great 
missionary to Mohammedans, who laboured in India and Turkey 
(25) , and Wolters of Smyrna (39) 

* Seo p 310, 



564 THE PERSONNEL OP THE PERIOD 

PA*T IT Among the English missionaries sent forth fiom the Church 
p? 24 " Missionary College in the period were, to West Africa, Waiburton 
Ohapj.9 (2Q yeare ^ T ownsen a (40), Beale (19), Peyton (15), Isaac Smith 
Islington (18), Denton (16) , to India, Fartai, father of the Dean of Cantei- 
men bury (19), Sandys (41), W Smith (41), Peet (33), Pettitt (22), 
Harley (35), Thomas (34), Stephen Hobbs, afterwards in 
Mauiitms (38), Hawkswoith (23), James Long (32) , to Ceylon, 
Oakley, who in half a centuiy never once returned home (51) , 
to New Zealand, Hamlm, the fust student in the College (40), 
C Bakei(46),A N Bio wu, afteiwaids Archdeacon (55) .Matthews 
(52, and 12 as evuntus in the countiy), Ashwell (49), and 
Burrows (57) , to Noith-West America, Cockian, afterwaids 
Archdeacon, who never once came home (40), and Cowley, aftei- 
waids Archdeacon (47) 

Among the Enghsh missionaiies, seveial of whom weie men- 
tioned in earhei chapters, who went forth before the Islington 
College was opened, or aftei its opening, without its training, 
other icng some also had long periods of service in Afuca, J W Weeks, 
ervces afterwards Bishop of Sierra Leone (21, and 2 as Bishop), in 
India, Norton (25), B Bailey (34), H Baker (47), M Wilkinson 
(24), J S S Eobertson (39) , in Ceylon, J Knight (22), J Bailey 
(24), and W Adley, who afterwards lived in England to the age 
of ninety-seven (22) , to New Zealand, G Clarke (21), Heniy 
Williams, aftei wards Archdeacon (45), E Davis (40), T Chapman 
(46), J A Wilson (35), Morgan (33) 

Unhersity Up to 1841, the misBionaiies from the Univeisities weie few 
men indeed, only sixteen altogether Theie were six from Oxford, 
Connor and Hartley, of the Mediterianean Mission, William 
Williams, afterwaids Bishop of Waiapu (53 yeais), Hadfield, 
afterwards Bishop of Wellington (55, and still smvivmg emmtus), 
and H H Bobart, of New Zealand , and John Tucker, of Madras 
(14) Cambridge sent seven, W Jowett, 12th Wranglei, of 
Malta (15), E Taylor (38), of New Zealand, I Wybiow, G 
Valentine, 1st Class Classics and Sen Opt*, and J Chapman, 
27th Wrangler (13), of India, J F Haslam, 9th Wrangler, of 
Ceylon (11) , and P Owen, of the brief Zulu Mission And there 
were three from Trinity College, Dublin, via , Doian of Tiavancoie, 
J H Gray of Madras (10), and E Maunsell of New Zealand (30 
yeais under CMS, and 30 as Aichdeacon) Some of these did 
not have long careers , but Wybiow, Valentine, and Haslam died 
early at then posts, Jowett, Tucker, and Chapman became 
Secretaries of the Society, while Doian was an Association 
Secretary for thirteen years, tmd J H Giay foi twenty- two 
years Upon the whole, theiefore, the Society and its cause owed 
much to these sixteen University men In 1841, the year to 
which propeily oui enumeration ought to extend, come the dis- 
tinguished names of Fox and Noble , but they may be left to the 
next period 
At this point the new Church Missionaiy College or, as it was 



THE PERSONNEL OF THE PERIOD 265 

originally called, Institution may be conveniently intioduced PARTIY 
The consideiations that led to its being established have been p? 2 *"*^ 
aheady briefly noticed ' They aie stated at length, and, m view ap . 
of the doubts expiessed by many friends, with obvious caie, m church 
the Bepoit of 1823 No othei Society has ever followed this J^ 881on ' 
example Both the S P G on one side, and the Denominations College 
on the other, have looked to independent institutions foi the 
training of their missionanes In the case of S P G , St Augus- 
tine's College, Ganteibuiy, has, since its foundation m 1848, been 
a chief source of supply It was not because the Chuich Mis- 
sionary Society has had a peculiar difficulty m getting University 
men that its own College has been necessary On the contiaiy, 
a very laige majority of the Umveisity men who have gone oat as 
missionaries to the Heathen at all have gone out m connexion 
with C M S , and G M S has had a laigei proportion of giaduates 
on its loll than any other of the gieatei Societies | Nevertheless, 
the expenence of seventy yeais has fully vindicated the wisdom 
and foiesight of Josiah Piatt in piojectmg the Islington College 
No othei missionary institution m the woild has such a loll of 
distinguished names Those enumeiated above belong only to 
its first sixteen yeais Latei yoais added laigely to the list 

The selection of Islington as the locak for the College pioved a its locale, 
happy one Probably the choice was a natural consequence of Jsljnfiton 
Bickeisteth and his students being aliea,dy m Barnsbmy Park, 
but it is very likoly that the expectation of Daniel Wilson's eaily 
succession to the vicaiage also influenced tho Society The 
advowson had been bequeathed to him by his uncle, whose 
propeity it was , and the old vicai, Dr Strahan, " undei whom," 
says Wilson's biographer, "Islington slept/' was not likely to 
survive long In fact he died in the very yeai (1824) after the 
ground was pui chased, so that when the Institution was actually 
opened, it was welcomed by a vicai who was at that time the 
most influential cleigyman on the Committee Tho mauguiation 
took place on Januaiy 31st, 1825, on which occasion the passage mtlon 
of Scriptuie read was very happily chosen It was Isa hv , in 
which occius Gaiey's famous toxt, " Enlaigo the place of thy 
tent, and let them sketch forth the curtains of tiuno habitations 
spaie not, lengthen thy coidfy and stiengthen thy stakes " 
Excellent addiesses were given to tho assembled fnonds by the 
newly-appointed Pimcipal, tho Rev J Noiman Peaison, of 
Trinity College, Cambndge, and to tho students (twelve in 
number) by Bickersteth f But at first no new building was 
erected upon the giountl purchased, only the house alieady 
standing on it (still the Principal's house) was used In the 
following year, howevei, it was deteirnmed to build a real college, 

* See p 244 

f Of course, small bands of University men, as m tho Oxford and 
Cambndge Missions in India, do not come into such a comparison 
J Printed verbatim m the Report of 1825 



266 THE PERSONNEL OF THE PERIOD 

PAST IY to accommodate if necessary fifty students, with hall, library, 
1824r4l lecture-rooms, &c , and on July 31st, 1826, the first stones (there 
Chap^l9 were ^ y0j Qne a |. ^Q k ase Q f eac ] I O f ^ Q cen t ra i pillars) were 

laid by the President, Loid Gambler On the same day, the 
students (twenty-six , of whom six were already m orders) were 
its studies examined before the Committee in Latin, Greek, Divinity, Logic, 
and Mathematics The languages of the Mission-field weie then 
legarded as an important pait of the studies, and three months 
later, anothei Examination took place of the Oriental Classes 
conducted by Piofessoi S Lee, m Hebiew, Arabic, Sanscnt, and 



its first The fiist Pnncipal, the Eev J Norman Pearson, of Trinity 
principal c n e g e} Cambridge, was a good and able man, but in the in- 
experience of the Committee, and every one else concerned, m the 
conduct of such an institution, giave differences of opinion arose 
as to the methods of tiaimng An Investigation Committee, 
appointed at a tune of financial pressuie to examine into the 
Society's expenditure (as we shall see hereaftei), included the 
College within then purview, and recommended considerable 
alterations It was these diffeiences that caused so much distress 
to Bickersteth, as befoie mentioned, and undoubtedly led to his 
contemplating retirement Yet the changes ultimately decided on 
weie m the direction of his own views The Institution was to 
be less of a College and more of a Home, and the academical 
element was to be distinctly suboidinate to the spiritual element < 
In the course of the discussions Mr Pearson resigned the 
Prmcipalship, but aftei wards he withdrew his resignation, and 
continued Pnncipal till 1838 He then retired, on his appoint- 
ment to the Incumbency of Tunbndge Wells The Bishop of 
London (Blomfield) took the opportunity to express his high 
opinion of the College and its Principal " He lemaiked that he 
had been much struck with the comprehensiveness of the 
theological knowledge acquired by the students, and with the 
judiciousness of the mode in which it had been imparted , and 
added that the Society's students had been among his best 
candidates " The Eev C F Childe, Head Master of Walsall 
Grammar School, was appointed to succeed Pearson, and for 
twenty years proved a Pi mcipa> whose devotion and success have 
never been surpassed 

Deaths of It only remains to mention the deaths of this penod That of 
friends ^ e p iesi fl en ^ L 01 cl Gambler, has been aheady mentioned In 
1831, died Basil Woodd, whose great services from the very first 
have been frequently lef erred to , in 1833, James Stephen the 
elder, and Charles Elliott, the veteran member of Committee , t 
m 1834, Lord Teignmouth, President of the Bible Society, and 
that excellent lady, Hannah More, who had for so long exercised 

* See Boport of 1830 , and the Appendix, in which the new Regulations for 
the Institution ate printed m full 
j- See p 70 



THE, PERSONNEL OF THE PERIOD 267 

a powerful influence among nch and poor in the cause of 
true religion, and who bequeathed the Society 1000, m 1836, 1824r41 
Bishop Ryder, and in 1837, Bishop Bathuist, the first two Gh ^_ 1 
prelates to ]0in the Society, m 1838, Zachary Macaulay, and 
Biddulph of Bustol The deaths of Hebei, Gorne, and Carey 
will come before us m reviewing India, and those of Momson 
and Marsden in leyiewmg China and New Zealand Depaited 
missionaries also will be lef erred to undei the vauous Missions 
But two othei deaths must be moie paiticulaily mentioned in 
closing this chaptei, those of William Wilbeifoice and Charles 
Simeon 

Wilberforce and Simeon had been contemporaries m a veiy 
maiked sense They weie bom in the same year, 1759 They 
weie not together at Carnbndge, as Wilberforce went theie veiy 
young , but they enteied on their lespective life-woiks nearly Their 
togethei, Simeon preaching his first sermon only a few months f 
after Wilberfoice made his fiist speech m Paihament Wilber- 
force's conversion to God occuired a few yeais later than Simeon's , 
but the opposition and ndicule they encountered m then lespective 
circles weie simultaneous As we have seen, it was to theae two 
men that Charles Grant and his associates at Calcutta specially 
addiessed then fiist appeal foi a Bengal Mission At the very 
time that Simeon wiote his paper on Missions for the Eclectic 
Society, Wilberfoice was wilting his Practical View of Ghi istiamty 
The one led to the foundation of the Chmch Missionary Society 
The other had an influence quite unique on Christian life in 
England Togethei m spnit, though m widely different sur- 
roundings and by very different methods, they laboured foi the 
extension of true religion at home and for the spiead of the 
Gospel abxoad Togethei they spoke at the first great public 
Anniversary Meeting held by the Church Missionaiy Society, in 
1813 They both spent their fortunes for the good of Church and 
people Wilbeiforce was far more outwardly successful in his Their 
lifetime The extraordinary fascination of his social qualities [ 
made him personally popular even among those who sneered at 
his religion, while Simeon's personal influence, though veiy 
gieat within-his own circle, nevei made him a generally popular 
man But Simeon has been, indirectly, a greater power m the 
Church of England , especially thiough the Simeon Trust, which 
has secured Evangelical teaching m perpetuity foi some of the 
most impoitant parishes m England Wilberforco died three 
years befoie Simeon, but it is a question whether the impiossive 
scene at Westminster Abbey on August 5th, 1833, when all that Their 
was distinguished m Church and State gatbeied round the grave funer(d8 
of the most eminent Christian the British Paihament has ever 
known, was one whit more significant than the scene m King's 
Chapel at Cambridge on November 19th, 1836, when the body of 
the man who had so long stood nearly alone m his witness for 
Chust, despised and hated by town and gown alike, was followed 



268 THE PERSONNEL OF THE PERIOD 

PAST IV to its last lesting-place by the whole University and a multitude 

^ er moiirners 

Of Wilberforoe, Sn James Stephen, m one of the most bulhant 

Stephen of his brilhant Essays, says s 

onWilber- J J 

force Qf he gobies O f public benevolence which were matured or 

projected during the half-century which followed the peace of 1783, 
there was scarcely one of any magnitude m which Mr Wilberfoice was 
not largely engaged Whether churches and clergymen weie to be multi- 
plied, or the Scriptures circulated, or missions sent to the ends of the 
earth, or national education established, or the condition of the poor 
improved, or Ireland civilized, or good discipline established m gaols, or 
obscure genius and piety enabled to emerge, or in whatever othei form 
plnlanthiopy and patriotism laboured for the improvement of the 
country or of the woild, his sanction, his eloquence, his advice were 
still regaided as indispensable to success " 

What, asks the same writer, was the secret of his powei ' 

" It is to be found m that unbroken communion with the indwelling 
God, m which Mr Wilberf orce habitually lived He ' endured as seeing 
Hun who is invisible,' and as hearing Him who is inaudible When 
most immersed m political cares, or in social enjoyments, he invoked and 
obeyed the Yoice which directed his path while it tranquillized his 
mmd That Voice taught him to rejoice, as a child, in the 
presence of a Fathei whom he much loved and altogether trusted, and 
whose approbation was infinitely more than an equivalent f 01 whatevei 
restraint, self-denial, labour, or sacrifice, obedience to His will might 
render necessary " 

wtoauiay Of Simeon, Lord Macaulay wrote, "If you knew what his 

Itephen authority and influence weie, and how they extended fiom 

*>n Simeon Cambridge to the remotest corners of England, you would allow 

that his real sway ovei the Chuich was fai greater than that of 

any Primate " ] Sir James Stephen suggested that the Church 

of England should turn out of the catalogue of her saints such 

doubtful figuies as St George, St Dunstan, and St Crispin, to 

make loom foi " St Chailes of Cambridge " f And Dr Moule 

i- 



" As regards the Church of England, his dearly-beloved Church, he 
has proved himself one of her truest servants and most effectual 
defendeis Perhaps more than any other one man who ever arose 
withmhei pale, he has been the moans of showing, in woids and in life, 
that those Christian truths which at once most abase and most gladden 
the soul, as it turns (m no conventional sense of the words) fiom daik- 
ness to hght, fioui death to life, from self to Christ, are not the vagaries 
of a few fanatical minds, careless of order and of the past, but the 
message of the Church, the tradition of her noblest teacheis, the bieath 
and soul of hei offices and older He has shown in another direction, 
under conditions of peculiar and difhcult experiment, that the converted 

* Essays in Ecclesiastical Biography, Essay on Wilbeifoi ce, pp 48C, 499 
f Trevelyan's Life ofLoid Jtfocow&M/, vol i p 67 
t Essays in Ecclesiastical Bwjratplvy, p 678 
| Mode's Simeon, p 259 



THE PERSONNEL OF THE PERIOD 269 

life is, m its genuine development, a life of self-discipline, of considerate- PART IV 

ness for every one around, of courtesy and modesty, of homly servitude 3824-41 

to established duty, and of tliat daylight of truthfulness without which Chap 19 

no piety can possibly bo wholesome " 

Such were the two gieatest men among the early piomoteis of 
the Church Missionary Society They weie not its working 
leadeis, like John Venn and Pratt and Basil Woodd and Bickersteth 
and Zachary Macaulay , but the one was the author of the 
original idea of such an oigamzation, and the other was, of all its 
public champions, the most influential and the most eloquent 
We shall meet both Simeon and "Wilberforce again in this History 
in chapters that look back to incidents m their lives, but in 
tieating of the personnel of the period now before us, we take 
occasion to bid them both faiewell 



CHAPTER XX 

THE ISm&QWisiT 0^ TUB Pmion 

Public Affairs The Reform Bill and the Bishops Accession of 
Queen Victoria Church Reform Evangelical Improvements 
The C P A S Growth of S P G -Bishop Blomfield Opening of 
Exeter Hall Bible Society Controversies Prayer at Public Meet- 
ings Calvimstic Disputes Edward Irving Plymouth Brethren- 
Prophetical Studies Pratt warns against Disunion The Tractanan 
Movement Keble and Newman-Attitude of the- Evangelicals, 
and of C M S 



" flow J loseech you, brethren, &?j tlie mm of out Lord Jems CJw ut, 
there IQ no dwswns among you " 1 Coi i 1Q 
!{ Lest Satm s/iowZd get an adianiat/e o/ ws /or ire are noi ij/norcwrf of 7ws 
" 2 Cor 11 11 




PART IY |Wft^|^ T studying the history, not of the Society's Missions, 
1824-41 oft m but of the Society itself, we cannot fail to notice 
kow ^ was a ^ ec ^ 6 ^ by ^ s siuroundmgs, in the 
Country and in the World, m the State and in the 
Church And there was so much that was im- 
portant and interesting in the emiionment during the period 
we are now studying, that it seems right to devote a chapter to it 
For the leaders of the Church Missionary Society were not men 
wholly absorbed m the details of the Society's business, and 
unable to pay attention to public affairs or to the general interests 
of religion On the oontiaiy, they weie men of the world in the 
best sense, and took a prominent part m all movements foi the 
public good at home and abroad 

A eriod Our period, from 1824 to 1841, was emphatically a period of 
m vement, of large changes and developments Abroad, the 
leaotionary influences that naturally prevailed after the fall of 
Napoleon were losing then foice In 1830 the counter-forces of 
on the revolution burst forth, replacing m France the Bourbons by the 
Continent, Q^^ ffa^ aD <l thus preparing the way for the still fiercei 
revolution of 1848 , and putting on the throne of the newly-formed 
kingdom of Belgium one of the wisest of modern soveieigns On 
the other hand, Russia, under Nicholas, was commencing that 
foiward march which, despite subsequent reveises, still continues, 
and the Eastern Question came during our period into the front 
rank of international difficulties , while the too enthusiastic antici- 



THM ENVIRONMENT OF THE PERIOD 271 

pations of freedom and enlightenment in the young kingdom of PART IV 
Greece and the new republics of South America gradually faded 1824-41 
away The Church Missionary Society was not unaffected by Qlm P ^ 
these events Its Turkish Missions had to be given up on account 
of the tuimoil in the East , the revolutionary spnit, spreading to 
England, started controveisies which sadly interfered with the 
piogress of religious enterprises , while at the same time, godly 
men were stnred up by the alarming condition of things to woik 
haider than ever to pieach the Gospel while theie was time ( ' The 
commotions of the kingdoms around us," said the Committee in 
1831, "and the agitations of our own country, call on us to ' work 
while it is day "' "The pangs and thioes of the Old World," 
wiote Pratt in the Missionaiy Begistcr, "are fast coming on, 
Dark and ominous clouds are blowing up fiorn every quarter, 
the moial atmosphere is surcharged with mischief, and society 
itself seems ready to heave from its foundations " He commends 
the Epistle of St James for general leading, and goes on, " Not 
by our controversies, but by our meekness and patience not by 
many-Golouied faith, but by oui works, proceeding from that well- 
defined faith of Scriptuie, ' faith that woiketh by love ' will the 
cause of our Eedeemer be truly and largely piomoted m this 
nation and m the world " 

At home, the period takes us fioin the middle of George the And at 
Fourth's reign, over that of Wilharn, to the eaily days of Queen homfl 
Victoria and her young husband Prince Albeit , and we seem, even 
as we read these words, to step into a new atmosphere The great 
material developments of the century are commencing Steam 
navigation is already rapidly increasing, railway travelling has 
begun , even the electric telegiaph is projected , the penny post 
has ]ust been established (1840) , the financial refoims of Peel and 
his successors, which are to diffuse wealth to an extent utterly 
undreamed of, are about to be initiated But an epoch of national 
upheaval has preceded all this Parliamentary Reform has been Reform 
effected after a conflict far exceeding m bitterness anything that Bil1 
we in the second half of the centmy have witnessed, The agita- 
tion, when the House of Loids thiew out Earl Grey's first Bill, 
was tremendous Quiet families m the country were toirined at 
night by seeing the flames of burning hay-neks and even of farm- 
houses, and in the day by the news of riots m all duections, of 
Derby gaol broken open, of Nottingham Castle buint, of fearful 
excesses in the streets of Bristol In the nudst of it all came the 
Cholera, a disease hitherto unknown m Europe, and caused urn- 
veisal tenor by its ravages A Fast Day was pioclaimed by 
Government, and Pratt wrote in a pnvato letter, f "I gather 
hope from the seemmg piety with which tho Day of Humiliation 

* In 1837*8 tho first steamships crossed tho Atlantic, tho London and 
Birmingham Railway was opuned, and a tologmplua message was gont fiom 
Eusfcon to Oamden Town 

t Life of Pratt, p 288 



THE ENVIRONMENT OF ME 

PAST IV was observed , for though there was a degiee of impious scoffing 

1824r4l [ m ^0 House of Commons] such as I never remember on any 

Ch !L- 2 s im ilar occasion, there was, on the othei hand, moie apparent 

piety than I ever saw So it is, while the enemy comes in like a 

flood, the Spirit of God lifts up a standard against him " 

Bickersteth wrote a tract on the occasion, which was circulated 

by hundreds of thousands 

Paihamentary Befoim did not of itself effect Social Eefoim , 

but it woke up the nation to see the appalhng need of it Let 

Social Lord Shaftesbuiy's biographer summarize for us the condition of 

condition J.L.I ,,,, 

ofthe things 

people a ^ B p in t O f tuibulence and lawlessness manifested itself everywhere 

Education was at a deplorably low ebb The factory system 
was cruel in its oppression Mines and colhenes were worked in great 
measuie by women and children Bakers, sailois, and chimney-sweeps, 
were unpiotected by legislation Fuendly societies, many of them rotten 
to the core, were the only legalized means of self-help Pawnbrokers 
held the savings of the people Sanitai y science was practically unknown 
Ragged schools, reformatory and industrial schools, mechanics institutes, 
and workmen's clubs, had not begun to exist Taxation was oppressive 
and unjust Postal communication was an expensive luxury even to the 
well-to-do Limited liability, enabling working-men to contribute their 
small capital to the increase of the productive power of the country, was 
not so much as thought of The cheap literature of the day reflected 
the violent passions which raged on every side Crime was rampant , 
mendicancy everywhere on the increase " 

and the wntei goes on to diaw a pictuie of London and the 
large towns befoie Sn E Peel established the police force This 
graphic passage describes the position m 1833 In 1837, when 
Queen Yictona ascended the throne, it was worse rather than 
bettei, a fact to be remembered when we look back over her long 
and glorious reign , and at this point it will be interesting to read 
the words of Lord Chichester, at the QMS Anniversary next 
The young a ^ er ^ er accession, legarding the young Queen 
Queen g mce our \^ Anniversary, a star has risen above our political 

horizon a star of beauty and of promise , and, from thousands of British 
hearts, there are ascending daily prayers that the dawn of her reign may 
be the dawn of her country's glory that, herself reflecting the beams of 
the Sun of Righteousness, our Gracious Queen may gladden and refresh 
our drooping land May the blessing of God so rest upon her, that the 
loyalty which she inspires may piovoke us to a bettei cmvahy than that 
of arms 1 May her name be associated with those works of Christian 
Love, which, however disproportionate to our high responsibilities, prove 
that we are still a Christian People 1 And thus shall the record of her 
reign be a record of victories unstained with blood of victories, whose 
glory shall be ascribed to the Son of God whose trophies shall -consist, 
not of captive Kings or Nations made subject to the sceptre of England's 
Queen, but of ransomed slaves delivered from the bondage of Satan, and 
brought, through the eftorts of British Chanty, into the happy service 
of England's God" t 

* Hodder, E , J ife of Lord Shaft estwt/, vol i pp ldl-134 

f Sydney Smith, preaching at Sfc Paul s on. the Queen's Accession, said 



THE ENVIRONMENT OF THE PERIOD 273 

The Ministry of Eail Grey, which took office in 1831 after PAST IV 
twenty years of Tory goveinment, and which earned the Eefoim 1824-41 
Bill, did not prove antagonistic to the plans and policy of the p 2Q 
Evangelical leaders It was on the right side of the Slavery TheWhig 
question, its Lord Chancellor, Brougham, having been for years church 
one of the most powerful anti-slavery advocates , and it was this Reform 
Goveinment that introduced and passed the Abolition Bill, as we 
shall see by-and-by On India questions, too, it was sound, the 
younger Charles Giant (afterwards Lord Glenelg) being President 
of the Board of Contiol (as the India Office was then called) 
Certainly it was not specially favourable to the Chinch Earl 
Grey called on the Bishops to "set their houses m order," 
though he did not finish the quotation and tell them they should 
" die, and not live " Eadical reforms were introduced, to the 
dismay of the majority of Churchmen , and the opposition offered 
to these and to the Eeform Bill by the Bishops in Parliament 
brought upon them great odium They weie even hustled and 
insulted in Palace Yard , they weie burnt in effigy , on the 5th 
of November, figuies representing them weie substituted for Guy 
Fawkes , the Archbishop of Canterbury was mobbed in his own 
cathedral city , the Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry (Eyder) was 
nearly killed outside St Bride's, Meet Street , the Bishop of 
London dared not go out to preach , and the Bishop of Bristol's 
palace was attacked and burnt to the ground When, however, 
the Irish Church Temporalities Bill was brought m, which abolished 
two archiepiscopal and eight episcopal Sees, and many sinecure 
cathedral stalls, and redistributed their revenues, eleven English 
Bishops voted for it They were beginning to see that although 
Church Eeform might be painful, it was the only way of saving 
the Church at least the Church Establishment Josiah Pratt 
had seen this befoie He wrote of the " infatuation " of those 
who opposed all change "If the leal evils m the Church," 
he said, " were piomptly redressed, it would stand firm in its 
strength, but while nothing is done to remove its blemishes, 
the sappeis are at woik at the foundation " The obstructives, 
however, were outvoted , and it is impossible now to dispute the 
truth of Dr Stoughton's words, that " the leforms strengthened 
the Church's corner-stones, added buttresses to its walls, and gave 
it a new lease of continuance " ! 

" What limits to the glory and happiness of our land, if the Creator should m 
His mercy havo placed in the heart of this royal woman the rudiments of 
wisdom and mercy , and if, giving thorn time to expand, and to bless oui 
-children's children with hei goodness, He should grant to her a long 
sojourning upon earth, and leave hor to reign over us till she is well stricken 
m years What glory ' What happiness ! What ]oy I What bounty of God ' " 
(Quoted by Stoughton, Religion in England, 18001850, vdl 11 p 165 ) 

* An excellent summary of the Church legislation of the period is given 
by Oanon 0- 0- Perry in his Studentft ISnghsh Church History, chap xi 
(Murray, 1890) "In the course of twelve years," he says, " the status of 
the Ohuroh of England was revolutionized " 

VOL I / T 



274 T Hh BNVIRQNMWJT OF THE PERIOD 

PAST IV There can be no doubt that the Church, notwithstanding the 
1824-41 abuses that needed to be dealt with, was in its moral and spiritual 
ChapJJO usance f ai sponger than it had been at the beginning of the 
improved century Dr Overton gives many contemporary testimomes to 
gate of the fact - Of course its condition would not compare for one 
church moment with its condition in the piesent day Since then the 
standaid of efficiency has been enoimously laisea , and the practical 
good work done is a hundred-fold what it was at the date of Queen 
Victoria's accession But the improvement had begun, andBi 
Overton attributes it, in the mam, to the influence of the Evan- 
gelical party In the main, but he very fairly adduces the 
conscientious zeal of the small band of real High or " Orthodox " 
Churchmenthe men who weie infusing new hfe into the S P G 
and S P K such as Bishops Van Mildert and Blomneld, Arch- 
deacon Daubeney, Christopher Wordsworth the elder (Master of 
Trinity), H H Noms,and Joshua Watson the layman, though he 
confesses that they did not exeicise a wide influence, except 
indeed Blomfield, at a rather later period These two sections 
together were but a small minority of Churchmen "Both 
together were far outnumbered by the many who were neither one 
thing noi the other , some inclining to the high and dry, some to 
the low and slow , some whose creed consisted mainly in a sort of 
geneial amiability, and some who were mere woildlmgs "1 This 
torpid majority, indeed, were easily loused to echo the cry of " the 
Chuich in dangei " , but the Chuich Impiovement and Chuich 
Extension which are the best Chuich Defence weie effected by the 
two wings, and, in the main, by the Evangelicals It is incidental 
evidence of this, as Overton points out, that to be " senous " still 
meant to be a " Low Chuichman," not a " High Churchman " 
People geneiall) took for granted that spirituality and Evangeli- 
calism were, on the Church of England, nearly synonymous 
terms Not that all Evangelicals were spiritual that has never 
been the case , but that spiritual men, generally speaking, weie 
assumed to be Evangelicals 

Bueinthe In a previous chapter we saw how the earhei Evangelicals 
Evangjh- introduced week-day services and evening services, and hymns, 
cals and moie frequent communions Daniel Wilson, soon aftei going 
to Islington, succeeded in arianging, says his biographei, "three 
full services m the church on Sundays and gieat festival days, 
and one in the week, besides morning piayers on Wednesdays and 
Fridays and saints' days An early saciament at eight, m addition 
to the usual celebiation, had been also commenced " f In fact, 
considerably later than this, at Evangelical country towns like 
Lowesfcoft under Prancis Cunningham, attendance at early Com- 
munion was a special token of evangelical fervour In 1886 Simeon 
wrote of Trinity Church, Cambridge, " Yesterday I partook of the 



* English CTwM ch m the Nineteenth Qentwy, p 8 

t Jbid , p 16 j; Itfe of Bishop D Wilson, vol i p 264 



THE ENVIRONMENT OF THE PERIOD 275 

Lord's Supper m concert with a larger number than has been .PART IT 
convened togethei in any church m Cambndge since the place ^ 24 ~ 41 
existed upon eaith So gieatly," he quaintly adds, " has the ap 20 

Church of England been injured by myself and my associates " 
No wondei Dr Oveiton, after noticing Daniel Wilson's work at 
Islington, remarks that "the Low Gluuchrnen weie better 
Chuichmen than the No Chuichrnen " And it was the same m 
piactical paiochial woik Di Moulo mentions that his fathei, 
when at Gilhngham, was told by Bishop Bmgoss of Sahsbury, 
about the period we are now deahng with, that, "wherever he 
went in his diocese, it was geneially those who thought with him 
[H Moule] who were the active men m the parishes " It is they ,' ' 
he said, " who get schools built, and diligently teach the young, 
and bung them well prepaied foi Confirmation " Moieovei, it is 
specially germane to this Histoiy to obseive that it was then, m 
now and as ever, the parishes in which zeal and interest in the 
evangelization of the woild were manifested, that were m the front 
in all Chuich work at home 

This last point was also illustrated when the Chinch Pastorale PAS 
Aid Society was founded m 1836 It was actually for mod m the foundcd 
Committee-iooni of the Chuich Missionary Society, Pi att taking 
an active part in the ariangemonts Bickorsteth and othoi CMS 
leaders weie also in its counsels from the first , and its second 
Anmveisary seimon was pleached by Mi Pearson, the Principal 
of Islington College The JkfmwwKw y Rogibto regularly repoi bed 
its proceedings, as well as those of the London City Mission, and 
of the Additional Curates' Society, or, as the lattci was at first 
named, the Clergy Aid Society, which wore established about tho 
same time Indeed the A C S was started by somo of tho Bishops 
partly as a kind of protest against the Evangelical distinctness 
of the C P A S Mr Gladstone, also, who was at first a Yrce- 
President of the C P A S , withdrew and joined the rival society 

This last-mentioned incident is an illustration of tho increasing 
activity of the moie Oithodox School on the lines of organisation 
laid down by the Evangelical Societies Tho Iteqi&tw of 1839 
records the formation of Provincial Associations in aid of tho Growth ot 
S P G , the Bishop of Nova Scotia and Archdeacon Bobmson of s p G 
Madras visiting some of the counties for tho purpose One 
result of this movement, viz , pioposals for fonmng Joint Local 
Associations of S P G and CMS, will como before us hereafter 
The SPG funds were now rising rapidly yoar by yeai, and it was 
successfully giapplmg with a still more rapid rise in the expendi- 
ture, accompanied by the withdrawal of tho old Government 
grant for the Canadian clergy Eoyal letters wore gianted to it m 
1831 and 1836, the latter being specially with a view to aid in 
ministering to tho freed slaves m the West Indies, but the 
healthier sources of Income grew rndependently of these Letteis, 

* Horde's 8meon, p 257 
I 2 



276 THE, ENVIRONMENT OP run PERIOD 

PABT IV and by 1840 the voluntary contributions exceeded 40,000 In 

182441 that y eai itg Annual Sermon was preached for the fust tune at 

ChapjO g t Paul's, ^d the Lord Mayoi gave a dinner afteiwaids at the 

Mansion House , but theie weie no public meetings at this time, 

the one m 1826, mentioned in a foimer chapter, and anothei in 

1827, being quite exceptional 

The Among othei features that marked the Church of the period was 

Bishops the increasing activity and efficiency of the Bishops Conspicuous 
among those who weie raising the standaid of episcopal woik were 
the two Sumners at Winchester and Chester, Bishop Ryder at 
Lichfield, Bishop Ottei at Chichester, and Bishop Blomfield in 
London Bishop Blomfield was called by Sydney Smith " The 
Chuich of England here upon earth ", and again he says, " When 
the Church of England is mentioned, it only means Charles 
James London " * It is worth while, therefoie, to look a little 



Ii B n3f id a ^ ^ 1S iemar k a hle ma<n ^ ne Difference between Blomfield at 
Chester and Blomfield m London marks m curious ways the 
changes that weie coming over the Chuich Eoi example, about 
ten years before Queen Victoria came to the throne, a clergyman 
in the diocese of Chester opened his church to a deputation to 
pi each on behalf of some society (not named, but not CMS) 
Bishop Blomfield wrote to him as follows ] 

"J"wZy 20^,1827 

" A circular letter has been put into my hands, announcing a 
sermon to be preached in your church, on behalf of a society called the 
- Society, by the Kev - ' This open defiance of my directions, 
with respect to these itinerant preachers, calls for some expression of my 
displeasure I would put the question to youi common sense, whether 
there must not be some check iiipon the preaching of sermons for 
societies and who is to exercise that check but the bishop p I 
have prohibited Mr - from preaching again in my diocese " 

But when the Queen came to the throne, even the SPG, 
which was above all suspicion of irregularities, was sending its 
deputations over the countiy Again, heie is a passage fiom the 
Memoir of Bishop Blomfield, in which his son and biogiapher 
descnbes his views concerning ecclesiastical and religious topics, 
which affoids a very curious glimpse into the rnind of a vigoious 
young Bishop of the ma media school | 

" He insisted upon the gown being worn m the pulpit, alleging that 
the use of the surplice was a departure from the usual practice, only 
found in remote and small parishes , he would not support the Churon 
Missionary Society, disapproving of the principles of its management , 
he considered that charity was too much diverted to distant objects to 
the neglect of those nearer and more immediate , he considered that 
the revival of an operative Convocation would be inexpedient , he refused 
to sanction any collection of hymns for use in churches , he declared 
that it was binding upon the clergy to preach the sole merits of Christ, 
and the corruption of human nature, but discountenanced Calvinistic 

* Memair of Bmliop Bbmfield, vol i p 205 

f Ibid , vol i p 119 1 Jlnd , vol i p 110. 



THE ENVIRONMENT OF FHE PERIOD 277 

opinions , he disapproved of Wednesday evening lectures, and thought PAST IV, 
that where there were two full sei vices on Sundays, such week-day 1824r41. 
services were not required 5 he would rather that the sermon should bo Chap 20 
omitted on Communion Sundays, than the elements should be admims- - 
tered to more than one communicant at a time , he questioned the 
propriety of holding oiatonos m chinches, and the profit of conveiting 
a dinner-party into a prayer-meeting , and he maintained that the first 
duty of bishop and clergy is to act strictly and punctiliously according 
to law " 



But when Blomfield was in the diocese of London, shoitly aftei 
the Queen came to the throne, we find him using all his influence 
to get the clergy generally to adopt the suiplice in the pulpit , 
also to mtioduce the weekly offeitoiy, and to read the Prayoi for 
the Church Militant at Homing Service, even whon there was 
no Communion The Charge delivered in 1842, in which he made 
these recommendations,- 1 was warmly welcomed by many Evan- 
gelicals, among them by J W Cunningham of Hairow, who WAS 
then one of their foiemost leaders, and who was a fai more 
frequent speaker at C M S Anniveisanes than any other individual 
in the whole century But two newspapers attacked the Bishop 
from opposite points of view One was the Tvmes, which was 
then largely under the influence of the young Tiactanan paity, 
and the other was the Becoid, which, although at mat it approved 
the suggestions, afterwards tuined lound and advised the cleigy 
of Islington and other Evangelicals to refuse compliance It is 
curious to nnd Blomfield's biographer wilting m 1863 to the effect 
that the use of the surplice m the pulpit, which had been widely 
adopted at the Bishop's request, was " now genoially aban- 
doned"! + 

But this is carrying us beyond om period Let us return to 
the 'thirties 

The gieat Societies had now a place of meeting bottei fitted to Exeter 
accommodate the troops of fiiends that attended A largo Hall 
had been built on the site of old Exotei Change in the Strand, the 
money being laised by the issue of 50 shares, which weie taken 
up by the wealthy philanthropists interested m the provision of 
such a meeting-place, Some of the Societies took sluios, and tho 
CMS for many yeais held five, as an investment, tho mtoiesl 
forming a small item in the Income It was at hrst pioposed to 
name the building the Philadelphia!! Hall, with the correspond- 
ing motto, "Let brotherly love [<iXa8eA.4>t'a] continue", but 
before it was opened, the now famous name of Exeter Hall was 
decided on, "m reference to the site having belonged to the 
Exeter family " The opening took place on Maich 29th, 1831, 
with a large gathering foi prayer, when leprosentatives of many 
societies took paii In May of that year, the Hall was used foi 
the Anniversaries of most of the leading societies, and it has 

* Jf emeu of Bishop Blowfield, vol n pp 2^, 47, &o 
f Rid , vol u p 63 



27 8 THE ENVIRONMENT OF THE PERIOD 

PAST IV been so used ever since " Midway between the Abbey of West- 
1824-41 minster and the Church of the Knights Templars," wntes Sn 
Ohap^20 j ames Stephen in his pictuiesque style, " twin columns, emulat- 
ing those of Heicules, fling their long shadows across the stiait 
thiough which the far-resounding Strand pouis the full cuuent of 
human existence into the deep recesses of Exeter Hall Borne on 
that impetuous tide, the rnediterianean waters lift up then voice 
in a ceaseless swell of exulting or pathetic declamation The 
changeful strain uses with the civilization of Africa, or becomes 
plaintive over the wiongs of chimney-boys, or peals anathemas 
against the successois of St Petei, 01 m nch diapason calls on the 
Protestant Chinches to wake and evangelize the world I " 
Amend- It is a cuiious lUustiation of the imperfections of all things 
Exeter** human, that, in the first yeai of the occupation of what was 
Hail intended to be a temple of " brotheily love," several of the meet- 
me ngs ^ g ^^ mteuupted by the moving of amendments, a circum- 
stance then apparently unprecedented, and which has since then 
raiely if evei lectured Both the CMS and the Bible Society 
underwent this experience In the former case the amendment, 
which we shall hear of in another chapter, was at once appioved 
and almost unanimously adopted , but m the latter case it bi ought 
a bittei contioversy to a climax and led to a painful secession 

The Bible Society, indeed, though ifc had attained a position of 
influence far exceeding that of any othei Society, and though it 
Bible was domg a magnificent work, was not only continually assailed 
by vigorous High Church pens like those of Bishop Marsh and 
Archdeacon Daubeney, but also lepeatedly tioubled by internal 
dissensions , and these divided the CMS leaders, the Secretanes 
themselves being on opposite sides m the cntical contioveisy m 
1831 Before this, theio. had been a senous stiuggle over the 
on the question of printing the Apocrypha The Society did not include 
Apocrypha tte Apocryphal books m its English Bibles, but, being "the 
Bntish and Foreign" affiliated and subsidized the Continental 
Societies which did include them in the foreign editions This 
was objected to by the Scotch blanches, which, after much 
disputing, ultimately seceded, notwithstanding that the Parent 
Society at length gave way, and determined to make no grants 
towards the publication of any editions that included the 
Apocrypha But the controversy in 1831 was much more senous 
And on The Society having been ongmally formed as a meie business 
tests 0210 * 1 organisation foi producing and circulating the Scriptures, its 
membership was quite open, and it was m fact supported by 
many of the old English Presbytenans who had drifted into 
Umtanamsm, as well as by others whose doctrinal views weie very 
uncertain, if indeed they had any at all to speak of This gradually 
became a gieat offence to the more decided Evangelicals, both 
Churchmen and Dissenteis, and after many preliminary skirmishes, 
The great * ne battle was joined at the first Annual Meeting that was held in 
struggle Exetei Hall An amendment was moved to the Eepoit, affirming 



THE ENVIRONMENT OF THE PERIOD 279 

" that no person rejecting the doctrine of a Tnune Jehovah can PART IV, 
be consideied a member of a Christian Institution," and lequinng 1824-41 
the Laws to be altered accordingly Immense uproar ensued, p ^ 
and, says Dr Stoughton, "it was sad to witness the passionate 
expressions of feeling which were exhibited " " The chairman, 
Lord Bexley, could not make himself heaid, and Daniel Wilson 
stepped forward to speak m his name, as a strong opponent of 
the proposed test The venerable and eccentric pastor of Suney 
Chapel, Bowland Hill, declared that it was " preposterous to 
refuse to let Socimans distribute the only antidote to their own 
errors," and that he would be glad if even a Mohammedan were 
willing to do so " Nay, he would accept a Bible from the devil 
himself, only he would take it with a pan of tongs " The 
giaver defenders of the existing open constitution aigued that if 
the Society's Laws weie to embody lestuctive theological defini- 
tions, it would be needful to go fuithei, and mseit other words 
to exclude Romanists, &c , and they pleaded that, as a mattei of 
fact, all the membeis of the governing body, and the agents, were 
orthodox evangelical Chiistians The amendment was rejected 
by a great majority, and a poition of the mmoiity thereupon 
seceded, and formed the Tnmtauan Bible Society, which exists to 
this day 

In this contioveisy, Josiah Piatt, m common with the nmjoiity Attitude 
of C M S leaders, supported tho ongmal constitution Bickersteth Jfen M S 
was on the other side, and had to encounter a vehement piotest 
by Dandeson Coates m consequence , but he declined to desert 
the Bible Society, recognizing the blessedness of its woik, and that 
the objection was after all rather a theoretical than a practical one 
He, however, subscubed also to the Trinitanan Society as a token 
of sympathy with the conscientious samples of its promoters \ 
Many other good men adopted his line , and at the Anniversary 
in the following year, the brothers Noel, Gerard and Baptist, who 
had been in the opposition, made a generous amende, and avowed 
their unfaltering allegiance to the old Bible Society Pratt, with 
his never-failing impartiality, reported tho proceedings of the 
new Trinitarian organization year by year in the Register, and it 
can therefore be seen that the speakers at its meetings com- 
prised scarcely any C M S leaders Dissensions, moreover, arose 
in its councils from the first , but none the loss it did good work 
in spending upon the work of Bible circulation the money of 
those who would not support the old Society 

There was another controversy mixed up wrth this one, In P^y" t 
earlier days, none of the religious Societies opened their public 

* Religion in England, 1800 to 1850, vol n p 90 Tho ftccord of the 
period gives a verbcttm report of tho pioceednigs, which lasted BIX hours, and 
were of tho most painful character One can scarcely road the report without 
sympathizing with tho supporters of tho amendment , and tho Record, evidently 
did so 

j Memoir of JG? Bickerst eth, 70! 11 pp SO 85 



280 THE ENVIRONMENT OF THE PERIOD 

PART IY meetings with prayer This, which seems to us almost incredible, 
182441 was no doubt due to two circumstances Fnst, the old Conventicle 
Chap^ao ^ Q |. g f or | Da ^ anything of the nature of a religious service except 
in churches and licensed dissenting chapels , insomuch that even 
at Simeon's conversational parties for undergraduates, held in his 
own rooms at King's College, he had no prayer, for fear of 
transgressing the law * It is true that a new Act regarding 
Dissenters m 1812 had repealed the old ones , but its effect was 
uncertain Secondly, public meetings were held m the large 
rooms of hotels and taverns and there was a feeling of " incon- 
gruity of acts of religious worship with places usually occupied 
for very different purposes " t Gradually, however, the need and 
importance of public piayei was more and more felt, and 
apparently the Jews 1 Society led the way in introducing an 
opening piayer at Freemasons' Hall Immediately after the 
CMS Anniversary in 1828, the Committee passed a resolutron 
SPG that " as the S P G and the Jews' Society opened their meetrngs 
leads the m fa p raverj " tf was desirable for the Church Missionary Society 
to do the same for the future This History has shown several 
occasions on which CMS helped S P G , but this good example 
set by S P G may well be held to balance the account It is true 
that the SPG annual meetings were wont to be held m the 
vestry of Bow Church, which was sacred ground, but it can 
hardly be doubted, m the face of the CMS Committee's 
resolution, that the two special meetings held by the venerable 
Society in Freemason's Hall in the two years immediately 
preceding (1826 and 1827) weie also opened with prayer , and 
this would certainly protect the CMS from any accusation of 
ecclesiastical irregularity if it proceeded to do the same m the 
same hall \ 

But when Exeter Hall, a building free from tavern associations, 

was opened in 1831, there was no longer any room for scruple on 

the score of incongruity , and from that time the practice became 

Bible general But the Bible Society was still an exception Why 

society was this ? Not only because a Socmian would object to the 

refuses or ^ nar y Christian conclusion of a prayer, "through Jesus Christ 

our Lord," but because Dissenters objected to a form of prayer, 

while Churchmen dreaded what wild sentiments might be expressed 

in extempore prayer, and Quakers, then very influential (it was 

the period of Joseph John Gurney and Mrs Fry), objected to 

any arrangement beforehand as to who should lead m prayer 

Bickersteth and others, however, deeply felt that these difficulties 

* Moule's taeon, p 229 

f Pratt, in Mmwm y Uegtsten , 1828, p 221 

f The Liverpool M Association followed the example of the Parent 
Society, and appointed a clergyman to draw up a prayer for use, taken from 
the Liturgy A proposal was also made " to conclude with a psalm or 
hymn", "but," say the Minutes of the Liverpool Committee, "further 
consideration of this important innovation to our proceedings was 
postponed " 



THE ENVIRONMENT OF THM PERIOD 281 

weie the soit of difficulties that ought to be surmounted , and PAST IV 
many who, like Pratt, had opposed any imposition of docfcimal 1824-41 
tests, concuned in the importance of sanctifying Bible Society Gtla P 20 
meetings by the reading of Scuptuie and piayei But Mi 
Brandram, the able clerical secietary, suppoited the Dissenters in 
opposing any such innovation , and no change was effected till 
1849, when the reading of "a devotional portion of Scripture" 
was at last permitted Prayei was not mtioduced until 1857 

Questions like these, however, were but the piactical outcome Divisions 
of a general spint of disunion which, from about 1827 onwaids, 
spiead in Evangelical lanks * For instance, on the great subject 
of Catholic Emancipation, which was the chief topic of political 
home controversy bef 01 e the Eefoim agitation, leading Evangelical 
Churchmen were divided Wilbei force, Buxton, the Giants, 
young Lord Ashley, Dealtiy, Daniel Wilson, favoured the 
lecognition of Roman Catholic claims, but they weie a minority catholic 
Pratt and Bickeisteth earnestly and actively opposed the Bill 
The consequence was that the Record, then lately started, 
expressed, strange to say, no stiong opinion on the mate. A 
similar division of opinion prevailed throughout the Church 
Most of the High Chuich and Orthodox Bishops and divines weie 
against the Bill, but not all Keble led a strenuous opposition 
at Oxford, and Sir Eobert H Inghs, a strong Churchman, 
yet associated with the Clapham cncle and a wairn suppoitor 
of the Church Missionary Society, obtained the coveted seat foi 
the University, aftei a prolonged and stienuous struggle, turning 
out Peel, who, with the Duke of Wellington, had bi ought m the 
dreaded Bill in the teeth of all their previous declarations It 
passed, however (1829) , and thus one of the causes of disunion 
was put out of the way There were similai diffeiences, but 
less acute, over the Bill foi lepealmg the Test and Corporation 
Acts, which was practically for the relief of Dissenters, but 
this also passed, m the piecedmg year, 1828 

But internal and esoteno controversies within Evangelical 
ranks affected the Chuich Missionaiy Society more duectly The 
old Oalvmistic disputes had not died out There was a small and diBputea ' 
diminishing party of very extieme predestmarian views, whoso 
members constantly charged moderate Calvmists like Scott, 
Simeon, Pratt, and Bickersteth, with being "enemies to the free, 
sovereign, and everlasting giace of God"; yet these moderate 
leaders were the very men who aJl the while were defending the 
doctrines of giace against the vehement attacks of Bishops Mant 
and Marsh and Archdeacon Daubenoy, as well as against the 
Armimanism of the Wesleyans Bickersteth, in his journeys for 
the Church Missionary Society, found what was called " high 

* There was mdoocl some disunion boforo Ton yours earlier had occurred 
what was called tho Western Schism, whon aomo friends at Bristol, Bath, &o , 
went astray on tho subject, inter alia, of Infant Baptism, and seceded from 
the Ohurch 



282 THE ENVIRONMENT OF THE PERIOD 

PABT IV Calvinism " reaching almost to Antinomianasm a great obstacle 
182441 ]\/[ en wno would not say to then- own congiegations at home, 
Chap 20 Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ," because no one could believe 
except by the compulsory power of the Holy Spirit, and who 
openly lepudiated the woid " lesponsibihty " as applicable to the 
elect people of God, were, quite natuially, incapable of missionary 
zeal foi the evangelization of the Heathen , and Bickeisteth writes 
of his attempt to mtioduce the Society at Plymouth," where 
Lr Hawker's influence was dominant, as his " most foimidable 
affan " " Such," he wrote, " is the effect of his doctunes, that I 
fear nothing can be done m that laige town for extending Christ's 
Kingdom " 

Edward Then again, Edwaid Irving was at the zenith of his gieat 
reputation in 1825-33 No such pieachei had ever taken London 
by storm Crowds fiom the highest classes of society mobbed 
the modest Scotch chinches in Hatton Garden and Eegent Square 
Even at 7 a ni the lattei building was ciowded " By many 
degiees the gieatest oratoi of oui times," said Be Quincey " The 
freest, bravest, brotheihest human soul mine ever came in contact 
HIS great with," said Cailyle living's famous sermon befoie the London 
^ lsslonai y Society m 1825 staitled all missionaiy circles He 
denounced the Societies for then prudential care about money 
matters, and called upon Christians to go forth into all the world 
as the apostles went round the familiar villages of their own little 
Galilee, without scrip or purse, shoes 01 staves " He seemed," 
says Dr Stoughton, " going back to the days of Fiancis of Assisi, 
mterpieting Sciiptuie as the Italian saint would have done, and 
seeking to wiap a trial's mantle lound a Piotestant pieacher " | 
Although the Directors of the L M S were inclined to think then 
pieachei mad, a good many, both within and without the Church, 
regarded him as a new piophet arisen in the name of the Loid \ 
Then living sfaayed into strange heresies regaiding the natuie of 
Christ's humanity, and set forth novel views of prophecy, and 
subsequently developed " supernatural manifestations " m the 
shape of miraculous tongues and cuies Then he was excom- 
municated by the Chuich of Scotland, and founded the " Catholic 
Apostolic Chuich," now known aslrvingites , and, in Stoughton's 
words, "the 'religious public,' after making him an idol, pulled 
him fiom his pedestal and cast him down into the dust " With 
much of this our Histoiy is not concerned , but Irving' s influence 
undoubtedly fostered the disunion among Evangelical Christians 
which is one of the features of the environment of the period 

* But at Devouporfc -(Plymouth Dock it was then called), Mr Hitohins, 
Henry Maityn's cousin, had a M S Association 

| Reli.jion.in England, 1800 I860, vol i p 379 

J In 1889, a series of articles appeared in The 0/instian, which turned out 
to be in the main a reproduction of Irving' s seimon They had a similar 
effect on many mmds, for a time It is worth noting that the writer, like 
Irving, soon afterwaids wont quite off Evangelical and Scriptural lines 



THE ENVIRONMENT OF IHE PERIOD 283 

Nearly at the same time, arose what is known as Plymouth PART IY 
Brethiemsm, which in the 'thirties and 'forties lapidly became a 1824-41 
power, and diew away not a few of the most spmtually-rninded ^f_ 
membeis of the Church, paiticulaily in Ireland It began with Plymouth 
that longing aftei a peifect Ghuich which has always been so BrethTen 
attractive a conception among simple-minded Ghastians with 
little knowledge of Church History Its influence giew m 
consequence of its thorough devotion to the study, verse by verse, 
and line by line, of the Word of God , not merely the cutical 
study of Hebiew verbs and Greek pi epositions though this was 
not omitted by the moio scholarly of the Biethien, but tho study 
of the inmost meaning of the nairatives and precepts andpiophecics 
as a revelation from God to men And, m paitioulai, it developed 
well-rnaiked " Futimst " views of unfulfilled piophecy, which 
have since been widely adopted, and have led at different times to 
much controversy In latei yeais, the influence of tho Brethien 
has declined, owing to thoii endless divisions , but m the penod 
we are now studying, they had the advantage which belongs to 
every new movement, and indirectly they caused much doubting 
and questioning in Evangelical cucles The Church Missionary 
Society had cause in those days to lament their influence, for 
it lost thiough them thioo missionaues, viz , John Kitto, tho 
prmtei at Malta, who joined Mi Anthony Gloves (though he 
did not belong to thorn in aftoi yeaib), Bhomus, tho gieat 
Tmnevelly rnissionaiy, whose bieach with the Chinch was also 
due to Mi Groves' s influence, and Mis 'Wilson, ol Calcutta and 
Agarpara n 

The study of piophecy was not confined to the Biothien and Prophcti 
those who came undei then influence Sober and godly divmos !d Btu C8 
within the Church were taking up the subject , and several of 
those best-known among CMS leaders adopted what aie known 
as Pre-Millenanan views "Wo hero touch a question which has 
a very close connexion with Poioign Missions The popular 
idea, pnoi to this period, had been that tho gi adual and complete 
conversion of the world would be effected by then, agency The 
earlier Annual CMS Sermons generally take this for granted, 
and draw glowing pictmes of tho wonderful icsults to be looked 
foi ere long horn missionary oiloU Perhaps it was tho hard 
experience gained m Salisbury Squaio, of the slow piogiess of 
God's woik, and of tho way m which it IB rnancd by human 
infiimity, that led, together with a closer study of tho New 

* Saepp 317,320 Mi Groves waa a remarkable man, and fciuly dovotod Ho 
went to Baghdad as a voluntoci "fioo lunoo" missionary at Ins own charges 
in 1830, and was there joined by Mr Painoll (aftorwaidB Lord Congloton), 
andF W Nowman tbrothoi ofJ H Newman, and afterwards a Doist) and 
also by Pfander, afteiwudu ilio gioafc M 8 missionary to Mohammedans 
While they weie at Baghdad, a terrible outbreak of tho plague occurred, 
which earned off more than half tho population , and Mrs Groves -was ouo 
of tho victims Mr Groves afterwards wont to India 



284 THE ENVIRONMENT OF THE PERIOD 

PAST IV Testament, to Edwaid Biokersteth's avowed change of views 

182441 He, and many otheis like-minded, came to believe that our Loid 

Chap will return to an unconverted woild, though it might be, if He 

E sicker tamed long, to a Chi istiamzed world m the sense m which Europe 

changed 1S already Christian, that therefoie the "millennium" whatevei 

views the rnystenous "thousand years" of Eev xx might leally mean 

could not piecede His coming, but must follow it, and 

that aftei His return there would be further gieat events upon 

the eaith, though upon the nature of these it would not be light 

to dogmatize The effect of such views upon Missions was not to 

paialyze but to stimulate prayer and effort If the Lord might 

really come at any time, so much the more reason foi the utmost 

energy and self-denial to " piepaie and make leady His way " , 

and Bickeisteth, in a letter written (1836) to a cleigyman who 

had asked him for advice as to the best way of awakening 

missionary mteiest, urged him to study the Loid's gracious 

purpose to gather for Himself an elect Church out of the Gentiles 

before His Coming, which would be the " grand animating spring " 

of zeal and liberality * Fiancis Goode, m the Annual Sermon of 

1838, strikingly sets forth the same motive for missionary effort 

These views, howevei, did not wm universal assent, even among 

the innei circles of Evangelical students , and at a later period 

(1853), Samuel "Waldegrave, afterwaids Bishop of Carlisle, de- 

livered a couise of Bampton Lectures against "MiHenariamsm " 

Meanwhile, E B Elliott of Brighton, shortly after the close of our 

Elliott's peiiod (1844), pioduced his gieat work, Hora Apocalyptica, which 

" Hor " ^^ fa Q iehgious world by storm, and by its learned and powerful 

marshalling of the evidence for the Historical interpretation of the 

Books of Daniel and Eevelation, completely thrust out, foi the 

time, the Futuust views of the Plymouthists This book 

"a work," writes Sir James Stephen,! "of profound learning, 

smgulai ingenuity, and almost bewitching interest," although 

comprising four large volumes, ran m a few years through several 

editions 

But the study of prophecy was not always conducted soberly 
and leverently, or with due modesty and leserve, and even 
Bickersteth found "the piophetical spirit" almost as unfavorable 
to Missions as the ultra-Calvmistic spirit "Things are most 
dead and cold here" [the Midland Counties], he wrote m 1831, 
" the good men are all afloat on piophesying, and the immediate 
work of the Loid is disregarded for the uncertain future "J And 
Piatt mote m 1841, trie last year of his editoishipof the Begister, 
" Plain commands and plain promises aie, if not almost supeiseded, 
yet certainly weakened m their force and energy, by views, sound 
or unsound, on unfulfilled piophecy The cause of Missions is 
safe while it lests on plain and unquestionable commands binding 



vol n p 93 
f Essaya in Ecclesiastical Biography) p 583 
| Memoii , vol 11 p 43 



ENVIRONMENT OF THE PERIOD 285 

on all Christians, and on promises open to all who endeavour to PAST IY 
fulfil these commands , but questions of this nature, using within i^^i 
Christian Communities, will weaken, so far as they are listened to, ai L 
the springs and motives of action " 

This buef sketch will serve to show how many topics there 
weie upon which the Evangelicals of the period held divergent 
views, and how imminent was the danger of serious disunion, a 
dangei that was not wholly avoided The Ohuich Missionary 
Society seemed to be the one rallymg-pomt wheie all could unite 
as it has been on other occasions since then A C M S leader, 
therefore, was the natural counsellor at such a time , and Piatt warnings, 
again and again in the Poster wained his leadeis against 
the danger He began in 1827 with stiong and significant woids 
After referring to his reminders in previous years (as we have 
befoie seen) of the antagonism of the devil when his kingdom 
was being so vigoiously assailed, he goes on, "But it is the 
Internal Enemy which is chiefly to be dieaded Christians aie 
not at peace among themselves " He denounces the unchari- 
table spiut which "highly colours" and "grossly exaggerates" 
the weaknesses or the mistakes of Committees and secretaries , 
the spirit of suspicion that looks at leports and statements 
" rather with the view of detecting some concealed delinquency, 
or of finding ground of objection, than with the design of 
re] oicmg with the Society in any good which it may have been 
the means of effecting, and of sympathising with it in its 
trials" "Eveiy man," he continues, "will be tempted to set 
himself up for a critic and a judge if measuies are proposed 
which do not exactly accord, as he apprehends them, with his 
own notions, he may scatter, as some have done, crude and 
erroneous circulars and pamphlets about the country, while 
others, without asking explanations, will take it for granted that 
these things are true, and act on them as though they woio so " 
"While Chanty will not hide hei oyos fvora what is evil, she 
suffereth long and is kind beareth all things, believoth all things, 
hopeth all things, endureth all things and nover fiuloth 1 " Are 
Pratt 1 s warnings quite out of date? 

A time, however, was now appioachmg when minor differences 
had to be sunk m the presence of what, at the time, all 
Evangelicals, and a good many who would have refused the 
name, regaided as the common foe Within the period we have 
been reviewing began the Tiactanan movement 

The history of what is perhaps better termed the Oxford 
Movement is of course one of the most deeply interesting episodes 
of the century An influence which displaced what had promised 
to be a dominant influence at Oxfoid andpeihaps in the Church- 
that of Liberal Churchmen like Whately and Ainold (different as 
the two men were), which earned captive some of the most 
brilliant minds in the University ,which survived the tremendous 
shook of the secession to Borne of its foremost leadoi and of othois 



286 THE ENVIRONMENT OF THE PERIOD 

PABTIV scarcely less distinguished, which has developed, despite in- 

1824-41 numerable obstacles, into one of the most potent influences in the 

Qba P ^ Anglican Chuich to-day, is one worthy of the closest and most 

patient study In the piesent Eistoiy, of couise, such a study 

would be quite out of place But throughout om nariative, from 

this time forward, we shall be continually meeting the men, the 

measures, the tendencies, the effects of the Oxford Movement , 

and at this point it is necessary to mqune how the C M S leaders 

viewed it in its eaily stages 

"What is called the Oxford or Tiactarian movement," says 
Dean Chinch in the opening lines of his biilhant and, one may 
itsocca- say, pathetic work,'' "began, without doubt, in a vigorous effort 
81011 for the immediate defence of the Church against serious dangeis, 
arising fioni the violent and threatening tempei of the days of the 
Eeform Bill It was one of seveial and widely differing effoits 
Yiewed superficially it had its origin m the accident of an mgent 
necessity The Church was really at the moment impenlled amid 
the crude revolutionaiy pio]ects of the Befoim epoch, and 
something boldei and moie effective than the ordinaiy apologies 
for the Church was the call of the hour " This view is confirmed 
by the familiar fact that John Henry Newman always dated the 
movement from Keble's famous sermon on " National Apostasy " 
on July 14th, 1833, which, as the title indicates, was inspired by 
the political penis of the time But the attacks on the Chuich as 
an Establishment were only the occasion, not the cause, of the 
its causes movement The cause lay far deeper Eomanticism was nsmg up 
against utilitarianism , Sir Waltei Scott's works had awakened m 
thousands of minds a sympathetic interest m what was mediaeval 
and antiquarian , Coleridge and the Lake Poets weie exercising 
an influence on thoughtful minds which, so far as it affected 
religion, prepared them for the new teaching that was coming , 
and Keble's Chmtwn Year, m addition to its poetic merits, had 
revealed the possibility of a quiet and leverent devoutness which, 
without attending a Clapharn breakfast or an Exeter Hall meeting, 
or subsciibmg to the Bible Society, could realize that 

" There is a book, who runs may road, 

Which heavenly truth imports , 

And all the Ipro its scholais need 

Pore eyes and Christian hearts 

" The works of God above, below. 

Within us and aiound, 
Are pages m that book to show 
How God Himself IB found " 

From which conviction the prayei would naturally anse 

" Thou Who hast given mo eyos to soo 

And love this sight so fair, 
Give me a heart to find out Thoe, 
And read Thee everywhere " 

* The Oxfoi d Movement t Maoraillan, 1891 It waa published aftor his death, 



THS ENVIRONMENT OF ME PERIOD 287 

Then it must be admitted that Evangelicalism had by this PABT IY 
time become shall we say ? too comfortable to attract the aident 1824-41 
and romantic minds of bulliant Oxfoid men bm sting with new p 
and half -formed ideas about the giandeiu of an ancient historic Evan 
Ohuich, the beauty of submission to Authority, and the con- ^ c t a h l e Sm 
temptible character of anything that could be handed aa Oxford 
"populai leligiomsni " Dean Church is of couise scarcely an men 
impaitial judge of Evangelicalism though no man wasevei inoie 
irnpaitial in intent, but theie is truth and foice in his lemark ' 
that " the austere spuit of Newton and Scott had, between 1820 
and 1830, given way a good deal to the influence of mci easing 
populai ity", that "the piofossion of Evangelical leligion had 
been made rnoie than lespectable by tho adhesion of men of 
position and weight", thab, " pt cached in the pulpits of fashion- 
able chapels, this leligion pioved to be no moie exacting than 
its 'High and Diy' iival", that, "claiming to be exclusively 
spiritual, fervent, unwoildly, the sole announcer d the fiee 
grace of God amid self-nghteoiwness and sin, it had come, 
in fact, to be on very easy terms with the world " In othei 
woids, it was no longoi a kind of maityrdom to be counted an 
Evangelical , and the young Oiiel men had undoubtedly in them 
something of tho maityi-spint To be persecuted foi what they 
regarded as the One Catholic Apostolic Ghuich was an hotioui to 
be coveted Their ideal of life was i eally high They thought 
the " ordinary religious morality," as the same wntor expresses it, 
loose and unreal as indeed it might well seem to those who know 
not personally the bnght and holy life of a Bickcrsteth 01 a. 
"William Maish, and the movement really flpiang, not from a 
political or theological ciy, but fiom a deep moial conviction and 
purpose The old English Church with its Apostolical Succession 
was in dangei let them hvo foi tho Church, or die in its defence 1 

Probably it was the fact that tho movement scorned to be 
a Church Defence movement that pioventod tho Evangelical 
leadeis fiom noticing it at hist, besides which thoio wore at 
Oxford almost no Evangelicals to observe it Two town churches 
were m their hands, but while Natt, at St Giles's, was an 
excellent man, Bulteel, at St Ebbe's, was an antmomian, and 
ultimately left the Chuich In the Univcisity, St Edmund Hall 
was the " Low Church" preserve, but it was a good deal looked 
down upon Wadham, under Dr Symons, was consideied fairly 
safe by Evangelical parents, and foi this leason John Henry John 
Newman was sent theie His Ouel Fellowship was later He Newma 
had been bi ought up upon the wnlmgs of Borname, Newton, 
Milner, and Scott He and his biothoi F W, Newman were 
subscribes to the Oxfoid Chuich Missionary Association, and 
for one year, 1880, he was Secretary of it , | and he actually 

* The Oro/oi d Movement, p 121 

f Of Newman's attempt, mentioned by Yonn, to got men to como up 



288 THE ENVIRONMENT OF THE PERIOD 

PART IV contributed both money and articles to the Eecord But Keble m- 
1824-41 financed Hurrell Fioude, and Huirell Fioude influenced Newman 
p " He made me look/' says Newman himself, " with admiration 
towards the Chtuch of Eonie, and in the same degree to dislike 
the Eefoimation He fixed deep in me the idea of devotion to 
the blessed Virgin, and he led me gradually to believe m the Eeal 
Presence " These influences brought him where at fust he 
did not mean to go "I do not ask," he afteiwaids said m 
his pathetic " Lead, kindly light," 

"to see 
The distant sceno , ono stop enough foi me " 

a mistaken prayer as regards saving truth, though a good one 
foi providential guidance 

But veiy soon the Evangelical leadeis plainly saw "the 
distant scene " Indeed Pratt, who, as we have seen, was no 
suspicious and nanow-minded partizan, perceived the doubtful 
tendency of Keble's poetry, beautiful as it was, from the 
The hrst The Tiacts for the Times, which gave the Oxfoid move- 
Tracts meri ^ ^ s more fo mu 'i ai name, began to appear m 1833, but 
it was not till 1836 that there was anything m them to excite 
much alarm Then the Evangelicals saw whither the new school 
was drifting, and the Bemoans of Hurrell Froude, published 
a year or two later, revealed something of its innei history 
Gradually the full sacerdotal and sacramental system of Tiac- 
tanamsm stood levealed, and pioved to be, m its essence, what 
not Evangelicals only, but all moderate Anglican Chin oilmen, 
had always undeistood as "popeiy " to use the old woid which 
m those days was habitually used by all alike The tiuths which 
the great Eevival of the preceding century had restoied to the 
Chuich the supremacy of Holy Scnptuie, tho smnei's duect 
access to God by faith, salvation by giace alone, tuie i exoneration 
the work only of tho Holy Ghost were disciedited , and foi them 
was virtually substituted a religion which mado salvation to 
consist, piactically, in membership in a Chuich possessing tho 
apostolical succession, and served by a priestly casto that alone 
could administer effectual sacraments, 

In the present day we can look back over sixty yoais and 

influence acknowledge to the full the good which the Oxford Movement has 

of the effected in the Church of England To attribute to its influence 

ovemen ^ ^^ im p rovemen fc m public worship and paiochial woik which 

the Evangelicals had aheady more than begun, and have since done 

much to develop, is unjust and absurd , but that it lias carried 

that impiovement furthei is indisputable, and 0111 dibhko foi the 

extreme forms of modern Eitualism, as indicative of unscnptuial 

and outvote tha Executive I have found no trace in tho old records (See 
H Venn's Address at Opening of new M House, printed m M 
Apnl, 1862, and as Appendix B in his Monion, p 405 } 
* Apologia, p 87 



THE ENVIRONMENT o* rue PERIOD 289 

teaching, ought not to blind us to the fact Moieover, the PARC IV, 
faithful Anglican Chustian to whom the old doctrines of giace 1824-41, 
are dearei than life itself has learned fiorn it to value his Glm P 2C| 
great inheritance in an ancient histouc Chuich, and to rejoice 
in being linked, not only with the Fatheis of the blessed Befor- 
mation, but also with the Eatheis of Pumitive Chnsteudoni 
The continuity of Evangelical lehgion from that of the eaily 
Fatheis was shown, it is true, by the Evangelical histonan of the 
Church of Christ, Joseph Milnei, fiom whose gioat work Newman 
himself confessed that he denved his enthusiasm foi tho Fathcis, 
but still it cannot be said that the continuity of tho organic 
Visible Church was leah/ed to any extent till it was taught by 
the men of Oxfoid This continuity the Evangelical Chiuchman 
has learned to value, while not for a moment will ho " unchmch " 
those members of othei Piotestant communions that have not 
the same advantages as himself He finds now that he can 
join in much that is modem m Chuich hfo and oiganiisation, 
and that is unquestionably tho indnoct issue of tho Oxfoid 
movement, without in the smallest dogiee coinpioini&mg 01 
mariing his plain Gospel behois and teachings But this 
development of healthy and helpful Chinch hfo has come 
giadually , and considenng tho giave cnois with which it was 
at fiist too closely connected, we aio not buipiiRetl tbat out 
Evangelical fathers dieaded evoiy new advance and suspectod 
every successive step 

But tbe Chuich Missionaiy Society was vcuy slow to enter into 
even legitimate contioveisy It is sfcaitling to lead Bepoit after 
Eepoit, and Sermon aftei Seimon, at this ponod, and find no 
allusion to the new teachings that weie causing so much alaini 
Pratt denounced them in letteia to Bishop Damol Wilson, 
Bishop Wilson outm Calcutta delivered a powciful etui go against 
them , Bickersteth piotested against S P C K tiacts that scorned 
to have caught the infection, and winch woro in fact wuUon by 
Dodswoith, one of the Oxfoid paity, who affccrwuida seceded to 
Borne, the GhnUwn Obwrvei, m able aiticles, exposed tho 
fallacies undeilying Newman's aigumonts But the CMS, as 
a society, held its peace And it IR icmaikablo to hnd m tho 
Sermon of 1841, by Eiaucis Close, tho Jin>t public avowal of its 
being an " Evangelical Institution " And yot m this veiy Seimon 
there is the stiongest animation of tho Society's Chmch character, 
much more sp<ice being given to thin than to itB Evangelical 
charactei The explanation is veiy nimplt) The CMS leadeis 
regai ded tho Oxfoid party as "bchiHtnatics" (so Piatt calls 
them), and the Evangelicals as the tiuost and fullest representa- 
tives of the old Anglican and Befoiraed Church 



VOL i 



PART IV 



Chap 21 

Death of 

Bishop 

Heber 



CHAPTER XXI 

INDIA CHANGES, Emm, 



The Bishops Daniel Wilson Lord W Bentmck Social Reforms- 
Abolition of Suttee -Government Patronage of Idolatry Charles 
Grant the Younger and the Company Resignation of Sir P 
Maitland Work and Influence of R M Bird Steam Communi- 
cationNew Bishoprics Bishop Come Bishop Wilson and the 
Caste Question Education Alexander Duff, his Father and 
C Simeon Duffs Plan Ram Mohun Roy-Duffs College-The 
Early Converts Duff and Macaulay The "Friend of India" and 
" Calcutta Review" Duff at home His CMS Speech 



ye tlwwa/ii o/ the Lord $m\j vaXUy sli&ll bo cmaW, and 
tnmmtain and lull shall l>e made low and tho cioolod slidl b<j 
stt ew07it, and the i ougb pZaces $l<m " Isa xl 3, 4 




ISHOP HEBEBr-gentle Eegnmld Hebei-was found 
dead in his bath at Tnchmopoly on Apul 2nd, 1826 
It was a young CMS tnissionaay, J W Doian, 
who, with the chaplain, lifted the lifeless body out of 
the watei During his bnef Indian caicer of two 
years and a half, Heber had won all heaits by his unfailing 
courtesy, goodness, and earnestness, and his episcopate hadfoi 
the first time put Church of England Missions m his vast diocese 
on a light footing The soriow in India was unmistakable 
Public meetings m honour of his memoiy wcie hold m the tlueo 
Piesidency cities, and the testimonies of high officials to his woith 
aie very touching" Sir Charles Giey, the Chief Justice of 
Bengal, felicitously applied Heber's own picturesque linos in his 
Oxford pnze poem, Pakstmio the piogress which GluistLimly 
might have been expected to make m India untlci Heboi's 
sway 

No hammer fell, no poudcious axes HIN& 
Like Bomo tall palm the mystic fabric sprung 

The news leached England m Septembei, and caused universal 
guef The C M S Committee, at a special meeting, expressed m 
the stiongest terms their sen&e of the loss sustained by the Church, 
and their " giatitude to the Giver of all good for the aliong faith, 
ardent zeal, unaffected humility, universal love, and incessant 
labouis of this distinguished Pidate " At the same time they 

* Printed m the MIWOMP\I Eegist& of Docembui, 182G 





BISHOP HEBER 



DR ALEXANDER DUFF 





BISHOP DANIEL WILSON, 



BISHOP COTTON 




REV J J WEITBRECHT 




REV B BAILEY 



tilmr, fioooiid Bishop of Ctiluitba, 1H2.J 1^20 
AloMiudoi DuiT, 1) 1) , Poniulor off Mdueatioual MiwtfoHK in. Tnrtlii 
Daniol WilHiiu, BiHhoii of Calcutta, 1H^2 1858 
IT 1- L OoWon, JMfihop of Calcutta, 1HR8 1WWI 
I ] WLirhrocht, MiHHlnnaiy In Bengiil, 1H.JO IBW 



INDIA CHANGES^ REFORMS^ DEVELOPMENTS 291 

adopted a memonal to the Government, uigmg the establishment PART IT 
of more Bishopucs m India, seeing that no one man could sustain 
the lesponsibiities and labours of such a diocese The SPG 
and S P K did the same But seven yeais moie weie to elapse 
before any step was taken to supply this uigent need, and nine 
years before it was actually supplied 

And meanwhile, two moie episcopal lives weie sacnficed The 
next Bishop, Dr James, only lived in India eight months , and Turner* 1 " 
the fourth Bishop, Dr J M Tuinei, only eighteen months The 
latter was deeply mourned He had thiown himself with aidour 
into missionary labours, m cordial sympathy with both SPG 
and M S Come wiote that he was " oy fai the best suited foi 
the appointment of any who had occupied it," and again, when 
Turner lay on his dying bed, " To the Indian Chinch the loss will 
be greater than any yet suffered " The CMS Committee in 
then: minute on heaung the news, spoke of his " combination of 
liteiary attainments with great devotedness to the seivice of his 
Heavenly Master," of his " judicious counsels," of his " paternal 
and social mteicouise with the missionanes," and of his " bright 
example of fidelity, zeal, and unwearied labour " 

The death of the fouith Bishop cioated the utmost constei nation gout 
m England The Societies, CMS included, again memorialized dead pa 
the Government to establish more bishopncs , but the Befoim JJJJ d 
agitation absoibed attention, and nothing was done Meanwhile next ? 
the vacancy must be filled up, and who would go? In the 
present day the question would natuially be asked, Aie there no 
suitable men in India itself, aheady inured to the climate? But 
an affirmative answer to this question in 1831 would have been of 
little practical use There were excellent chaplains, well fitted 
to be bishops Thomason was dead, but there were Can of 
Bombay, Eobmson of Madras, and, above all, Come of Calcutta, 
who as Archdeacon, had three times found himself the acting 
head of the English Chuich in India, m the inteivals between 
the successive episcopates But to appoint one of these meant 
(1) a lettei to India, (2) the voyage of the one chosen to England 
foi consecration, (3) his voyage out again, and thus some 
eighteen months would be spent befoio India could have another 
bishop, 01 two years since Turner's death Someone must 
be sent out ready consecrated from England, but again, who 
would go ? 

Bishop Turner, befoie sailing for India in 1829, had attended 
the first annual meeting of the Islington Church Missionary 
Association, which Daniel Wilson had founded m the previous 
year * The Vicar, m the chair, promised the Bishop that " if at Dait 
any time Islington could give 01 do anything to benefit India, 
they were leady " The Bishop said " he would undoubtedly call 
for the redemption of the pledge at some future time " It was 

* See p 258 
u 2 



294 INDIA CHANGED REFORMS, DEVELOPMENTS 

PART IY raised that it was dangerous to meddle with ancient and beneficent 
1824-41 xehgions , and some of the Euiopeans defended the old barbarities 
Chapel wl |.g g^a^ persistence than the moie enlightened Natives them- 
Abohtion selves The first reform was the abolition of Suttee, or widow- 
of suttee burning Shocking accounts of individual lecent cases of this 
terrible custom, taken from official leports presented to Parha- 
ment, weie published in the Missionary Register - Chustian 
officers who came home described the hoi lois they had themselves 
witnessed t And as legaids the prevalence of Suttee, a parlia- 
mentary paper stated that, m Bengal alone, 5997 widows had 
been buint alive in the pieceding ten years { Yet m the very 
same blue-book, an Anglo-Indian official vindicated the rite as a 
species of voluntary death, " as when a high-spirited female, in 
defence of hei chastity, piefers loss of life to loss of honour," and 
depiecated the abolition of what (to use his own woids) they 
consideied " a light affliction working for them an exceeding 
weight of glory " ' fc And Lord Ashley (afterwaids Loid Shaftes- 
buiy) when in office at the India Board in 1828 was "put down 
at once as a madman " because he thought Suttee wrong || But 
Mr Buxton in Parliament, and Mr Poynder, a sohcitoi on the 
CMS Committee, in the Couit of East India Directors, weie 
agitating for the abolition of this "light affliction", and in 1829 
Loid William Bentinck, by a stroke of his pen, put an end to 
Suttee If Other enactments followed, forbidding the vanous 
crimes above enumerated 

East India j n I8%$ t twenty yeais had elapsed since the momoiablo levision 
Char" y B of the East India Company's Charter in 1813, and the time had 
renewed come ^ or a ^ ur ^ ner levisioii Now came Charles Grant's oppor- 
tunity He not only completely alteied the position of the 
Company as a commeicial body, thi owing the Indian tiade open 
to the woild, but he thiew the country open too, and it was no 
longer necessary foi every missionary 01 othei "interloper" to 
get the Company's license to settle theie Moreovei, ho seemed, 
at last, the authority to eieet two more bishoprics, and the money 
to suppoit them Without him, little would have been done 
Theie was no excitement in the religious woild, as m 1813 , and 
the CMS Reports scarcely notice the subject The Company 
had conciliated the Christian public by the abolition of Suttee, and 
also by a despatch to India on the veiy eve of the Ghaitei Bill 
coming before Parliament 

This memorable despatch, inspired by Charles Grant, dealt with 
the great and complicated subject of the connexion of the State with 

* See vol foi 1824, pp 238, 278 Some of those accounts showed thai 
inflow-burning was not always voluntary, cases being given of young widows 
forced, soieaimng, on to the funeial pile 
f Ibid , 1825, p 250 } 1M , 1828, p 75 

Zfed, 1828,p 76 1 LtfeofLnr&81utftealAirv,VQ\ i p 82 

1" Tho official Regulation is printed in tho Mwwnai / llcgistw for 1830, 
p 1S5 



INDIA CHANGES^ RFFORMS } DEVELOPMENTS 295 

idolatry The theoiy of the Government of India was absolute PART) IV 
religious neutiahty and toleiatiou , but the theoiy bioke down in 1824-41 
practice When the Butish arms conqueied and annexed an Gha P 21 
Indian state, laige or small, the British rule of comse succeeded state 
to the lesponsibilities and duties of the dispossessed goveininents pf^age 

IT ,1 r f, t i -i i j 1 T n oi idolatry 

Now these often included giants to temples and mosques, the 
collection of taxes and dues foi then maintenance, the admim&tia- 
tion of lands belonging to them, police piotection foi idoLitious 
iites, and honours (such as salute-hung) to idol-festivals The 
English goveinois and adnumstuitois m a newly-annexed distuct 
simply continued the piactice of then Native piedecessors, 
generally quite oblivious of the fact that this ically involved the 
pationage, by a professedly Ghnstian nation, of leligious systems 
and customs that weie not only false but cmcsl and degiading , 
and even when they came to think about it, they justified it on 
the giound that to withdiaw the aid and piotection so given would 
be an interfeicnce with the lehgions of the countiy, and theiofoie 
inconsistent with the neutrality piofossed It was Claudius 
Buchanan who fiist loused the Chustian conscience of England 
by his account of the hoiTois of Juggernaut, of which he was an 
eye-witness m 1806 The temple and its abominable ntes weie 
actually suppoited by what was called the pilgi im-ta\, a capitation ^ he 
tax imposed on tho hundreds of thousands of pilgiwis who pite 1 ^" 
lesorted to thorn, collected by government officials, handed to the 
Brahman pnests, and any balance (genoially a laigo one) appio- 
pnated foi the geneial tevenue of the Company In ol/hoi woids, 
as Kaye expiosses it, the Bntish Goveinniont in India " acted as 
churchwaiden to Juggernaut" The system of which this was 
typical gi actually became moie and moio offensive in the eyos of 
Christian men in England , and at tho public meetings of the 
missionaiy societies the pilgum-tax became a common object of 
denunciation The question, however, was not a simple one, 
Supposmg the tax abolished, would not that cncomagc moie 
pilgrims to resort to the temples ? And as regaida tomple estates, 
would not a withdiawal fioin then admmisli akm tempi the 
Native trustees who might be appointed to peculation and corrup- 
tion ? Charles Giant, however, sot himbelf solemnly, and as m 
the sight of God, to con&idor tho whole subject , and the result 
was his deep conviction that England must wash its hands of all 
association with idolatiy, whaievoi the consequences Having 
come to this decision, he persuaded the icluctant Directors to fall 
m with his view, and the famous despatch of 1833 was sent out, Grant's 
amid a choius of thanksgiving fiom all who cared for the dwpfttch 
evangelization of India 

But it was one thing to send such a despatch, and quite The 
/another thing to get it obeyed In the Madras Presidency it 
was openly ignored the new Bishop of Madias (of whom moie 
piesently) being publicly rebuked by the Governor m Gouncil 
foi piosentmg (m 1835) a respectful memorial from the cleigy 



296 INDIA CHANGES^ REFORMS^ DEVELOPMENTS 

IV and godly laity on the subject But Lord W Bentmck was 

not now at kead- * ^ e ^ u P reme Government at Calcutta, 
nor was Charles Giant (who had become Lord Glenelg) any 
longer at the Board of Contiol, and the East India Directors 
m Leadenhall Street resisted every effoit made by Mi Poynder 
and otheis to get the despatch of 1833 carried out In 1837, the 
year of Queen Victona's accession, the Company, inspired by a 
new President of the Boaid of Contiol, Sir John Hobhouse, sent 
out a discieditable despatch, vntually appiovmg of the delay in 
cai lying out its ciders of four yeais befoie , wheieupon a staitlmg 
event occurred Su Peregrine Maitland, Commandei-m-Chief of 

Maitiand the Madias Airny, lesigned his post rathei than give any furthei 

resigns ^g^ng t the troops to do honoui to the idols This giand act 
of self-saciifice won the battle The excitement in Chustian 
circles in England was intense, Paiharnent was roused, | and 
Sir J Hobhouse had to promise to send out perernptoiy oidois 
that the despatch of 1833 was to be obeyed without fuithei delay 
This was done in August, 1838, and left no excuse foi the local 
Indian authorities Nevertheless, fuither measures had to be 
taken , and though the instiuctions were partially carried out, it 
was not till 18ll that public honouis to idols weie finally 
abolished All through these years, the Chuich Missionary 
Society was strongly exeicised on the subject, and repeatedly 
memonahzed the Home Government , and gieat was the lejoicmg 

victory when at last the victoiy had been really won, and the disgiace to 

atiaat Christian England finally wiped out J 

* His exact act was this Two Christian pnvates had rofuaod to fiio their 
muskets to salute an idolatrous piocesaion , and Su P Mutlaml iclusod to 
sign the order for their punishment; " lie called his family lound him, 
explained, to them the poveity into which they would bo plungod by hin 
resignation They timtod in desiring that he should obey hw counuonco 
All the Aimy, including tho Duke ot Wellington, thought him urong, and 
the East India Company condemned him , but his manly and Htraightfoiward 
explanation of his conduct won the Duke over to his sido, and at loiigth tho 
Government gave him tho goveinoislup ot tho Capo of Good IIopo " (From 
Venn's Pnvate Journals, 1854) A different and voiy intoioaimg \oxsicm 
was given by the late Rev J H Gray m the C I/ Intdlujcnur ot Boptotuboi, 
1887 Mr Gray was at Madias at the time, and he states that one oi Uio ihst 
papois put before Su P Maitland for signatuie \vaa a document sanctioning 
the appointment and payment of dancing girls 01 a certain Hindu temple 
This he refused to sign, and appealed to the Company Tho Duactois 
declined to give way, and Maitland tlioieupon resigned 

\ Mr Ghay (see preceding note) imfchor states that ho himself Bilbao 
quently sent home to Maitland an account and sketch of an outrageous act 
of homage to an idol committed by a high English official , and Bishop 
Blomneld took thorn to the House of Lords, exhibited thorn thoro, and 
threatened to send the sketch bioadcast ovei tho countiy, and that this 
menace settled the question in Paihamont 

} The whole hi story can bo traced out m the M wwnai \i flt/t^/cr, ]S32 to 
1841 It is summamed m Kayo's O/mshtunij/ in Jntlia, pp ilH 410, and, 
more briefly, in an able paper by Mr (now Sir) W Maokwoith Young, now 
Lieut -Governor of the Punjab, load boforo the Cambndgo Church Missionary 
Union, and printed in the li Intelliyenc&i of Fobiutuy, 1885 



INDIA CHANGES, REFORMS, DEVELOPMENTS 297 

This period was one of material as well as moral lefoim and PART IV 
development It was one of important sei vices rendered by very o? 24 "^ 
eminent civil servants of the Company For example, Bobeit **_ 
Merttms Bud, who, while at the head of the Bevonue Department R M Bird 
in the Noith-West Piovmces, planned and earned out the survey Thompson 
and land settlement of that nninen&e territory, becoming thcieby 
recognized as the chief authority on a most complicated subject, 
and saving twenty millions of people horn miseiy and mm 
Dr Or Smith mentions James Thomason, John Lawienoo, and 
William Murr, as coming "under the spell of Meittms Bud", 
and Su B Temple says that Bud, " a bom lender of men," and 
Thomason, "fonned the great school of administrators in the 
North- West Piovmces" I "To have been selected by Robert 
Bud," says Mi Boswoith Smith, " as a helpci in the gieat woik 
in which he was engaged, was looked upon as a feather 111 the cap 
even of those who weie destined soon to eclipse the fame 
of then old pation " f Thomason wioto that he found Bird 
"so instructive and communicative on subjects which regard 
another woild," and they discu&sed together "how to cany 
out then Ohrifitian principles into then daily walk as public 
servants " ^ His and his sistei's work m the QMS Gorakhpur 
Mission will be mentioned hereafter On Ins retirement to Eng- 
land he became a regular and valuable member of the CMS 
Committee 

One branch of material progress must be noticed, because 
it has had untold influence upoir the practical woilung of India 
Missions This was the establishment of ntoam communication Steamers 
between England and India Moieovei it was under LordB-Sand 
W Bentmck's administration that tho initiative was taken, and an< * India 
the virtual loader in taking it was Bibhop Darnel Wilson 

It has boen mentioned that the news of Hcbor's death on 
April 2nd reached England nr September That one fact suf- 
ficiently illustrates the position at tho time On December 9th, 
1825, four months before Heber died, tho fust steamer fiotn 
England reached Calcutta , but she had come round the Cape, 
and taken five months to accomplish tiro voyage, no faster, m 
fact, than the old East Indiamon , md it was found that oven a 
full complement of passengeis in "tho cabin" would not pay for 
tho fuel expended || Natuially, nothing moia was done When 
Darnel Wilson arrived at Calcutta in 1R32, ho found the question 
revived, and under discussion It interested him a/t once , foi no man 
ever felt moie keenly the separation from home friends " Thice 
points of abstinence," ho said, " would promote calmness of mind 



* Tivdve Infaan SfotowMsn, p 7fi Bud's sooond itamo is \auoiialy spolt in 
diffierent books <( Morttma " is tlio cm rot t form 
( Men and Emits of My Bw in India^ p 40 
f Ltfeo/Lmil Lawcnw, vol i p 9ti 
b ftuhra oj Utlw Tlwnwnn> by Sir K Tomplo P 71 
I Mimomry Register, 1825, p 501), 18^0, p 263 



2g8 INDIA CHANGES ', REFORMS, DEVELOPMENTS 

PAST IT m India (1) never to look at a theimometer , (2) nevei to talk 
a ^ ou ^ ^ le aillva ^ 01 &on-an.ival of ships , (3) nevei to reckon 
up minutely the weeks and months of lesidence " Good rules, 
obseives his biogiapher, but nevei so badly kept as in his case , 
for he constantly made written notes of all three oucumstances I 
But his keen desue foi qmckei communication with the home- 
land led him to thiow himself into the new projects A pubhc 
meeting to piomote them was held, at which he was not piesent , 
and it was a failuie No money was subscubed, and without 
money nothing could be done The veiy next moinmg Loid W 
Bentmck and Mi (afteiwaids Sn) Chailes Tievelyan met him out 
iiclmg , and the lattei said to the Bishop, " My Loid, I wish you 
Bishop would step forwaid " Daniel Wilson that day wiote a letter to 
Sis the ^ e c ^ ie ^ m agistrate, offering donations fiom himself and family 
movement for BO gieat an object The lettei was published, and received 
with enthusiasm , another meeting was held, the Bishop himself 
piesidmg, and in a few weeks two thousand five hundied 
subscriber had raised 167,000 rupees, then equal to neaily 
20,000 The Bishop continued at the head of the movement 
He wrote to influential people in England thn teen long letters to 
Chailes Giant alone " To have a ceitam post," he said, 
" starting on a given day, aiiivmg at a given day, leturnmg at a 
given day and that day one-half eailiei than the aveiage amvals 
now would be as life fiom the dead ' Positively it would make 
India almost a subuib of London 1" And he dwelt on the 
influence of inventions in othei ages upon moial piogiess 
" What an invention the maunei's compass I What an invention 
the art of printing I By those two discovenes the woild became 
accessible to knowledge and irnpiovement The Rcfoimation 
sprang from then bosom " ; 

His eneigy was successful Chailes Giant intioduced the 
question m the House of Commons, fiom the Tieasmy Bench, 
on June 3rd, 1834, a Parliamentary Committee lepoited favour- 
ably, Government subsidies were offered, mail steam era weie set 
running between England and Alexandna, othci steameis (at 
first foui times a yeai 1) between Suez and Bombay , in 1841 the 
h | P & Company organized the lattei service systematically, 
service with steameis of the great size (as then thought 1 ) of 1600 tons and 
500 horse-power , and India was bought within two months of 
England The Suez Canal was not then dreamed of , noi the 
gigantic and luxunous vessels that now bring us lettei q m twelve 
days But gieat issues spring horn small beginnings , and it will 
mteiest all readers of this History to nnd that the man who really 
set the ball rolling was the gieat Evangelical Missionary Bishop 
of Calcutta 
It has been mentioned that the Charter Act of 1833 piovided for 

* This narrative IB condensed fiom a long account m tlio liije of .BuTiojp Z) 
, vol i chap 12 



INDIA CHANGES, RMORMS, DEVELOPMENTS 299 

the establishment of two new bishopucs, viz , foi Madias and P \BTIY 
Bombay This was really in puisuance of a plan laid before 1824-41 
Grant and the Government by Bishop "Wilson pnoi to his Gliai? 21 
depaitnie foi India , and great was his joy when he heaid of its 



being included in the Bill Let it be remembered that this was 5[J 8l J prIc8 



the Reform Ministry, by which the Iii&h Chinch was being and 
despoiled of seveial of its bishopucs, whose chief had told the bay 
English Bishops to set then houses m oidei, and whose doings 
inspired Keble's menioiable sermon at Oxford on National 
Apostasy, and we see the more cleaily what India, owed to 
Chailes Grant, the worthy son of his distinguished father 
Wilson at once wrote home asking that Aichdeacou Couie might 
be Bishop of Madras, that Archdeacon Bobmson of Madias 
might be Bishop of Bombay, and that Archdeacon Can of Bombay 
might succeed Come in the Archdeaconry of Calcutta Various 
delays, however, ensued, but at length, m 1835, Conic, having 
conie home, was consecrated first Bibhop oi Madias Can 
ultimately became fust Bishop of Bombay, but this was not 
till 1837 

Thus, at length, one of the " hve chaplains " who had kept the Bishop 
Gospel lamp binning m Bengal in the Dark Period prior to 1813 Corne 
became a bishop of the Chinch he had m faithfully seivod For 
nearly thirty years, Come, gentle and unobtrusive as ho was m 
character, and chaplain as he was in ecclobiastical status, had 
been indisputably the chief missionary of the Chinch of England 
in India Almost all the mission stations in North India had 
been started by him He had never sought great things for 
himself He just " served his own generation by the will of 
God, 3 ' with a quiet devotion and unfailing discretion that had 
made him loved and U listed by all And now, having passed his 
years in the North, ho entered a new sphere of labour m the 
South as Bishop of Madras But it was for a little while only 
For lather more than a JGAI he so acted as to wm, all heaits 
except those of the u ate governor and officials who icsentcd his 
gentle protest against thou disobedience to tho order forbidding 
honours to idols, and thon God took him, on February 5th, HIB 
1837, to tho intense grief of all Chmtiam, m India, and of tho 
Church Missionaiy Rociofcy at home IIci was succeeded by 
Bishop Spencer , and when Can was consecrated to the new 
see of Bombay, there were, at last, three Bwhopa for India 

During Gome's bnof episcopate, thoie was one matter which 
much burdened his mind This was the gruat Caste Question in The caate 
the Native Church It had not troubled him during his long 
career rn the North Caste difficulties have never been so acute 
there as m the South For one Hung, tho influence* of Moham- 
medanism has tended to minimize the influence of the minute 
distinctions and lestnotions which m tho South reign undistui bod 
The Brahmans, of course, are sti ict everywhere , but the numeious 
lower castes are far more jealously marked off in the South than 



300 INDIA CHANGED, REFORMS, DEVELOPMENTS 

PAET IT m the Noith In Bengal, for instance, a Sudra is a low-caste 
cnf^'lai man ' ku* m ^ a ^ Laa ne 1S a high-caste man, because theie are 
ap beneath him endless fuithei landi cations of the sy&teni Foi 
another thing, Native Chustian communities scaicely existed in 
the Noith in Gome's time , but in the South they weie numeious, 
and there was room within the Church for the development of 
the caste spirit In fact, as has been before mentioned, the 
Danish and Geiman missionaries who had gathered these com- 
Cagte in mumties peirnitted the ictention in the Chinch of many chenshed 
the Native caste customs A note to one of Bishop Wilson's Chaages 
church eriumera tes fifty distinct usages common among them which he 
legaided as inconsistent with the spint of Ghustunity The 
principal were these the diffeient castes enteied chinch by 
different dooxs, and sat on difteient sides, they xeceived the 
Lord's Supper sepaiately, sometimes using separate cups, the 
missionary himself had to receive last, foi feai of defiling the 
Sudra communicants, a Sudra catechist or mmistei would not 
reside in a Pariah village, nor would a Sudra congregation leceive 
a Pariah teacher , a Ghustian Sudia would give his daughtei to 
a Heathen of the same caste lather than to a fellow-Ghnstun of 
a lower caste, and seveial othei degrading distinctions aftected 
the lelations between the sexes Moreovei, the Ghiistians, in 
oider to letam their positions m the castes they lespectively 
belonged to, "mingled with the Heathen and learned then 
works " they observed heathen utes, employed heathen danceis 
and musicians at festivals, woie heathen ca&te-maiks, and so 
forth 

Attitude The thiee 01 foui old S P G K missionanes who still supci vised 
ariS iasion " ^ e ^ ami l congregations m Bishop Hebei's tune, including the 
' veneiable and veneiated Kohlhoft, had toleiated these usages), as 
their predecessors had done, though without liking them But 
the youngei men who now began to airive in the countiy, some 
sent by the S P K itself, some by the G M S , and some, a few 
ycais later, by the S P G- , were disposed to adopt a iumoi 
attitude against them , and of these Eheniub, the G M S 
missionary, was the virtual leadei Hebei was appealed to on 
the subject, and he was about to mqunc into it on tho spot when 
of Bishop he died at Tuchinopoly He had, howevei, foimed a piehmmary 
Heber, an t en tative opinion, chiefly based on the views of Ghustian 
David, the Ceylon Tamil whom, he had 01 darned at Calcutta. 
David uiged, as so many have done befoie and since, that caste 
was meiely a mattei of social distinction, and Hebei, mindful 
of the social distinctions in England itself, which have nothing 
to do with religion, was inclined to take a lenient view of caste 
customs But in India caste is far indeed fiom being a mere 
social system It is, in fact, the strongest lehgious influence m 
the country It is not that a respectable and cleanly nidii objects 
to eat with a man of duty habits On the contituy, the vilest 
beggar who is a Sudia by descent would coasidoi himself defiled 



INDIA CHANGES, RhiORMs, DEVELOPMENTS 301 

by contact "With an educated and lespectable Panah Tins was PAIIT IV 
the system that was eating the life out of the Native Chinch , and 1824-41 
it cannot be doubted that Hebei would have soon peiceived its p 
evil had he lived 

Bishop Wilson was face to face with the question as soon as he of Bishop 
auived in India He took a stiong line at once Basing lns Wllson 
decision on the giand New Testament pimciple that m Chnstianity 
" theie isneithei Gieek noi Jew, cncumcision noi uncncumcision, 
Barbauan, Scythian, bond noi fiee, but Chust ifa all, and m all," 
he dnected that, as legaids Chinch usages, " caste must be 
abandoned, decidedly, immediately, finally " But when hib lettei 
was lead to the pimcipal congregations, at Yepciy, Tiichmopoly, 
and Tan] 01 e, the Sudia Chi i stuns openly levoltccl At Tanjoie, 
wheie Kohlhoff had presided ovei the Chuich foi many yeais, not 
only did the bulk of the congiegation aL onco secede, but the 
inajonty of the native inimstieis 01 " countiy pnests," ca.techists, 
schoolmasteis, and othei mission employes, icfused compliance, 
despite the entreaties of then semoi, the venoiablo Nyaiupiagasen, 
then eiglity-thico years of ago, and all these weio thoioupon 
dismissed In 1835, Bishop Wilson visited the South, and dealt Bishop 
earnestly and lovingly with the disalfccted Chiibtians, pleading 
with them the example of tho Good SamauUn, who dul not stop 
to ask who the " ceitam man " waa, noi di earned of being denied 
by touching him "And what," exclaimed tho Bibhop, using 
from his seat in the ciowdcd chinch, "did oiu bles&ed Mabtei 
say to this? 6ro, and do thou hkeivtsG " " A lon^ paii&e," &ays 
his biographei, "of motionless and bieathlcsH silence followed, 
bioken only when he besought ovoiy one piesenfc to ofttji up this 
pray 01, 'Loid, grve mo a bioken hcait, to leceive the love of 
Ghnut and obey His commandb " Whilst tho wholo congtogation 
weie lepoatmg tins m Tamil, ho bowed upon tho cushion, doubt- 
less entreating holp horn God, and them dismissed them with his 
blessing " ! 

Nevertheless, all his eiloits pioved unsuccessful, and at 
Tiichmopoly he began a clelmilely-an angcd plan foi the adminis- 
tration of the Holy Communion, to sorve as an object-lesson 
He quietly directed who should come up to iccoivo lirbt a Budia 
catechist, then two Paiiali catochists, then an English gentleman, 
then a Sudia ugam , and to assist his design, the highest Enghah 
lady in lank at the station lequosted that a Pauah might kneel 
between hei and hei husband In this way, a foimal step was 
taken, and it served to band togothm those Native Christians 
who confonned But the majonly held aloof, and for many 
years gieat difficulties beset thebo old Missions, despite the earnest 
woik of the new English missionaries whom tho SPG having 
ere this entirely taken over the work fioin the SPG K was 
about this time beginning to send out In after years the 

* Jjt/aqfBwJwpD Wihon, vol i p 463 



302 INDIA CHANGES, REFORMS, DEVELOPMENTS 

IV difficulties rather increased, owing to the action of the new 
1824-41 Mission of the Leipsic Lutheran Society, which allowed caste 
p (and does so still), and drew away many members of the SPG 
congiegations The CMS and S P G Missions in Tmnevelly 
have from time to time had similai difficulties to meet, and 
indeed they have nevei been fully sui mounted A senous crisis 
in the CMS Kushnagar Mission, m Bengal, foity yeais later, 
will meet us m due couise Meanwhile the question has been 
noticed in this place in connexion with the thiee Bishops who 
fust dealt with it 

Education We must now turn to a laige and unpoitant subject which 
m indm m uch occupied the minds of thinking men in India during the 
peiiod undei leview the question of Education 

If the Butish inle was to be peipetuated m India, it was felt 
that the people must be educated Their degrading super sti- 
tions weie largely due to ignorance, and the enlightenment of 
then: inmds would open the way to higher moial influences 
Moreover, unless the government was always to remain a pure 
despotism, pieparation must be made foi the Natives m due time 
sharing m the work of administration and legislation It was not, 
however, till Loid William Bentinck took up the question, that 
anything definite was done by the Government In the mean- 
while, m 1818, Carey and his associates had projected a college 
at Seiampoie foi the highei education of Natives But that 
institution, though m time it came to do excellent woik, was not 
in Calcutta The only attempt made at the capital wheie such 
The Hindu an attempt was most needed was what was called the Hindu 
College College, opened in 1817 undei the joint auspices of a few English- 
men and Hindus In this institution English was taught, and 
English literature and science studied, m the teeth of the opinion 
then prevailing m Goveinment cucles, under the influence of the 
gieat Sanscrit scholar, H H Wilson, that the light kind of highei 
education for the Indian people was the study of classical Oriental 
languages, such as Sanscrit and Persian But the Hindu College 
was stnctly non-Chnstian, and virtually anti-Chnstian The 
English text-books lead weie Hume's Essays and the licentious 
plays of the age of Charles II , and even Tom Paine 1 s woiks 
weie lead with avidity out of school-horn s The consequence 
was such a flood of immorality that the very Heathen parents 
themselves were alarmed , and the whole cause of English study 
was discredited 

But now there arrived in Calcutta a man whom God had chosen 

to guide the new ambition to learn English into Christian channels, 

and to initiate one of the most important of agencies for the 

Alexander evangelization of India That man -was Alexander Duff 

Duff Duff was a young Highlander , and at first sight it seems hard 

to connect him with Charles Simeon of Cambridge Yet one of 

the grand things which, all unconsciously, Simeon was in tho 

Lord's hands the instrument of dorng, was the forging of the first 



INDIA CHANGEI* , ME*QRMS } DEVLLOPMENPS 303 

link m the chain of events that led to the gieat Educational PART IT 
Missions of India Going back to the yeai m which Simeon lead 1824-41 
that paper befoie the Eclectic Society which ougmated the Glm l 5 21 
Chuich Missionary Society, 1796, we iind that m the summei A retro- 
of that same yeai he took holiday and went to Scotland At gJJJ^ 
Moulin, the parish which now contains the familial Pitlochne, he the pansh 
visited Mi Stewaifc, an able Pie&byfcenan mmistei of " Modeiate " 
views, who "preached a puie and high moiality, and held in a 
ceitam sense the doctimes of Chustian oiLhodoxy", but who 
" saw no satisfying lesults of his laboiu among his people, and 
was himself lestlessly conscious that seciots of spiiitual joy and 
powei lay neai him undiscoveied " Indeed, one Sunday he 
told his people so, asking them to piary that he might have moie 
hght, and piomismg tlut if he got it, ho would impaifc it to thorn , 
which led many to go to chuich week aftei week fiom cunosity, 
wondcimg what new levelation would come Then came Simeon, 
and Mi Stewait invited him to speak a few wouls to the con- 
gregation " I expressed," wntes Simoon, " my feats lospectmg 
the foimahty which obtains among all the people, and uiged thorn 
to devote themselves tiuly to Jesus Ghiibt " But he adds, " I 
was banon and dull God, howevoi is tho same, and His woid is 
unchangeable " Yes, and God woiked That night Mr Stewait 
came to Snueon's bedioom, and opened his heail* to him, and 
from that day foith, with sati&iied mmd and lopicing hoait ho 
preached Jesus Chust and Him oiuciiiod, with the leault that, 
both at Moulin and afteiwaids in oi/hei piuishcs, nurabois of aoula 
weie converted to God Now m that congiogation was a lad of 
seventeen, James Duff Whefchei he was piosent when Simoon 
preached, and whether he was impi cased, wo know not, buL 
undei Mr Stewait's now faithful ministry he was led to yield 
himself to the Lord Ten yeais afteiwiuds, run eon Alexander 
was born, and this son always attubuted his own decision for 
Chnst to the influence c\nd example of Ins fathei So Di Gooige 
Smith begins his bulliant Life of J)n/f with these wouls, " The 
spmtual ancestry of Alexandoi Duff it is not difficult to tiaco to 
Chailcs Simeon " | 

In due comse Alexander Duff went to St Andrew's University, Duff and 
and having taken the highest honouis m classics, s.tt down to amftrs 
study theology at the feot of Di Chalmois, then at the height of 
his gieat reputation Channel & was one of the few Scotchmen who 
then cared foi Missions, and duung his live yoais at St Andiew's 
six of his most distinguished students dedicated themselves to 
the foreign held But the Establwhed Chinch of Scotland was 

* Moule's Stmew?, p 169 

f The Btory IE partly told m tho opening pagwj of Dr G Smith's life of 
Duff , but m the middle of tho first volumo (v itJC) uno coinos upon a fulloi 
and moie tonchmg account, Apropos of Dufis viBit to Gambridgo m 1886 
Fifty years later, a son of Mr Stowart'a was an elder of tlio Bcotoli Olnnoh 
at UaUuUa, and hold piayer inootiugB with Duff's conveiis ^/c, vol 11 
P 66) 



304 INDIA CHANGED REFORMS, DEVELOPMENT 

PABT IV not yet a missionary Chinch It was still largely of the opinion 

1824-41 O f tfj B Model ator of thirty years before, who m 1796 (the very yeai 

p of Simeon's visit to Moulin) had said that " to spiead the Gospel 

among heathen nations seems highly pieposterous, in so fai as it 

anticipates, nay it e\en leveises, the ordei of nature"! The 

Scotch Missions pieviou&ly mentioned in this History, in West 

Africa and in Russia, weie the woik of a small voluntary society 

But a few leading men in the Church, notably Dr Inghs, weie 

now waking up to see that Scottish Presbytenanism should have 

representatives in India not chaplains only them it had aheady 

but missionaries also , and at length, in 1829, Alexander Dun 

Duff to was 01 darned to be the mst foieign missionary officially sent foith 

Calcutta by the Q hmch of g cot l an a 

After suffering shipwieck twice on his voyage out, the young 
mmistei, twenty -four yeais of age, landed at Calcutta in May, 
1830 "When the Natives who could lead the newspapeis saw the 
account of his escape from two shipwrecks, they said, " Surely 
this man is a favourite of the gods, who must have some notable 
work for him to do in India " After visiting every missionary 
and mission station in and round Calcutta, he formed his own 
Duffs plan for an entnely new agency It was " to lay the foundation 
scheme Q | ft S y s |j em O f elation which might ultimately embrace all the 
branches ordinarily taught in the highei schools and colleges of 
Chiistian Europe, but in maepaiable combination with the Chus- 
tian faith and its dockmes, piecepts, and evidences, with a view 
to the practical regulation of life and conduct Beligion was to 
be, not rneiely the foundation upon which the supeistructuie of 
all useful knowledge was to be leared, but the, animating spit it 
which was to pervade and hallow all " The Bible was to be 
read and expounded daily, " while the teacher prayed, at the same 
time, that the truth, might be biought home, by the grace of the 
Spait, for the real conversion to God of at least some of the stu- 
dents " In view of the teachings of Scripture and Chinch history, 
Duff " did not expect that all, 01 the majority, of these Bengali 
youths would certainly be thus tuined , foi in nominal Christen- 
dom he felt that few have been, 01 aie, so changed, under the 
most favourable circumstances That ( many aie called but few 
chosen,' however, only quickened his zeal But he did expect 
that, if the Bible were thus faithfully taught 01 preached, some at 
least would be turned fiom their idols to serve the Irving God " t 
its in. Such is the system which almost all the principal missionary 
fluence societies in India have since adopted, which lias often been 
results assailed for its paucity of direct results, but the indirect results of 
which have been incalculable Even in direct results, it has not 
failed those who have worked it on Duffs principles as above 
stated Let it be granted that the true converts from among the 
higher and educated classes in India have been few in comparison 



- - n - 



T / / miff vnl i TJ 110 j I6w?,p 109, 



INDIA CHANGES^ REFORMS, DEVELOPMENT 

with the whole villages of poor cultivatois that have come 
'in the South But it is as true at home as in India that " not 
many wise men after the flesh, not many mighty, not many noble 
are called" , and as a matter of historical fact, scarcely one such 
convert has been made in India except thiough the agency, duect 
or indirect, of Missionary Education 

But although it is too late to cnticuze the system now, one is 
not surprised that it was opposed at fiist Di Bryce, the senior The plan 
Presbyterian chaplain, whose chief occupation seems to have been oppoacd 
fighting the Anglican bishop (at least in Middlcton's time) on 
points of piecedence and the like, and whose gieat chinch waq 
empty while the godly Scotch people went elsewhere, gave Duif 
no sympathy Noi did a single missionary in Calcutta appiove 
the young Scotchman's project "You will deluge the city," 
they said, "with rogues and villains " But the Hindu College 
was doing that already Theie was no means of stopping the 
demand for English now The stream of tendency was rising 
rapidly, and all that could be done was to direct it into good 
channels That was Buff's purpose He found no fault with the 
simple preaching and teaching aheady m vogue, though the 
lesults so far had been infinitesimal There were then loss than 
twenty conveits from Hinduism or Mohammedanism m Cal- 
cutta, half of them. Anglican and half Baptist But Duff said, 
"While you engage m directly sepaiatmg as many piecious 
atoms from the mass as stubborn lesibtanco to ordinary appliances 
can admit, we shall, with the blessing of God, devote oui time 
and stiength to the preparing of a mine, and tho setting up of a 
train which shall one day explode and teai up the whole fiom 
its lowest depths 'M And God gave him, too, some "piecious 
atoms," sooner than he 01 any one else thought possible 

But though Duff got no suppoit from the older nnssionaiies, he 
was greatly encouraged -by one remmkablo Hindu Bam Mohun Ram 
Eoy, the Erasmus of India, as Di Geoigo Smith calls him 
Forty yeais befoie, without ever coming across a raissionaiy 
(for there were none), Earn Mohun Eoy had lecoiled fiom the 
degrading supeistitions of Patna and Benaios, and had wutten 
an attack on " the idolatrous system of the Hindus " The study 
of English subsequently mtioduced him to the Bible, and then 
to the further study of Gieek and Hebiew In 1814 he founded 
the Biahmo Sabha the piogemtor of the Biahmo Samaj " to 
teach and to practise the woiship of one supiome, undivided, 

* It ought, however, to be stated that Dr Bryco had, m 1825, written homo 
to the General Assembly, asking that august body to send out one 01 two 
Scotch clergymen who could spook, hko thoso of tho Church of England, with 
the sanction of an "Ecclesiastical Establishment," BO tliat thwr Mission mitfhfc 
have the support of " Constituted Kcclosiastlcal Authority " Om Pioabytcrian 
brethren of tho Church of Scotland have always laid ovon more stress on 
their <c Established" position than tho old-fashioned High Churchmen of 
England 

j Dr G Smith's Duff, p 108 



306 INDIA CHANGES, REFORMS } DEVELOPMENTS 

PABT IT and eternal God " The orthodox Hindus theieupon founded the 
I824r4l Dharma Sabha, in defence of Brahmamsin with all its ntes and 
Chapjl ougtomSj Buch M g uttee Thus," says Di G Smith, "Hindu 
society in Calcutta became divided into opposing camps, while 
the Hindu College youths foimed a thud entienchment in support 
of pure atheism and hbeitmisni These weie the thiee poweis at 
work, unconnected by any agency save the slow and indirect 
influence of English literatuie in the hands of vicious teacheis, 
unopposed by Chnstiamty in any form, denounced at a distance, 
but not once fairly grappled with, by any Chustian man, fiom the 
Bishop to the Baptist missionaries " 

Earn Mohun Roy had already given important aid to Loid W 
Bentmck in the abolition of Suttee Now he wairnly welcomed 
Duff Duff, entered into his piojects, heaitily appioved of his dotermma- 
.j. lon f. Q kg.^ g cri pture-reading and prayer in the proposed school, 
and lent him the small hall of the Brahrno Sabha to begin his 
work in On July 13th, 1830, only six weeks after landing 
having learned some Bengali on his long voyage Duff opened 
ms new school Several high-class youths, most of them Brah- 
mans by caste, had been persuaded by Earn Mohun Eoy to 
attend Let us read Dr G- Smith's picturesque account of this 
great and memorable day * 

A memo- "Standing Tip with Ram Mohun Roy, while all the lads showed the 
Bame respect as their own rajah, the Christian missionary prayed the 
Lord s Prayer slowly m Bengali A sight, an hour, ever to bo remem- 
bered 1 Tnen came the moie cutical act Himself putting a copy of 
the Bengali G-ospels into then hands, the missionaiy requested some of 
the older pupils to read There was murmuring among the Btahmans 
among them, and this found voice m the Bengali protest of a leader 
' This is the Christian Shaster we are not Christians , how then can we 
read it ? It may make us Chiistians, and our fi lends will dnve us out of 
caste ' Now was the time for Ram Mohun Roy, who explained to his 

Smug countryman that they weie mistaken 'Christians like Dr, 
orace Hayman Wilson have studied the Hindu Shasters, and you know 
that he has not become a Hindu I myself have toad all tho Koran 
again and again, and has that made me a Mussulman P Nay, I have 
studied the whole Bible, and you know I am not a Christian Why then 
do you fear to read it ? Read and judge for yom selves Not compulsion, 
but enlightened persuasion, which you may lesist if you choose, con- 
stitutes you yourselves judges of the contents of the book * Most of 
the remonstrants seemed satisfied " 



months passed away The school had become famous 
three hundred boys were m regular attendance , and tho fiist 
annual examination astounded the English residents who attended 
it Then Duff arranged for a quiet course of evening lectures, in 
his own house on Natural and Revealed Religion, for students of 
both his own school and the Hindu College Twenty attended 
the fiist , but the second was never delivered The whole city 
was alarmed Students of the Hindu College had attended a 

* Life of Duff, vol -i p 121 



INDIA CHANGES, REFORM^ DEVELOPMENTS 307 

Christian lecture in a missionaiy's house ! Di H H Wilson and PART IY 
the other anti-Chnstian Englishmen at the head of the Hindu 
College foibad then pupils to attend religious discussions , and 
the Government weie accused of letting a " wild Padre " bieak its 
boasted neutrality Duff sought a private mteiview with Lord 
William Bentinck, who assured him of his deep sympathy, but 
advised caution But the young students of the Hindu College students 
themselves resented the outciy, and boldly claimed libeity to f/berty, 
attend Chustian lectures if they liked They staited a papei of and break 
then own, the Enquirer, which was edited by the leading spirit 
among them, Knshna Mohun Baneijea, a Kulm Biahman 
They ostentatiously met together and bioke caste by eating beef, 
and in then wild and unrestiamed assertion of freedom, they 
grossly insulted a holy Brahman by tossing the remains of then 
repast into his mnei court Theieupon K M Baneijea (who, 
howevei, was not present when this was done) was expelled from 
family and home " I was perfectly regardless of God," he aftei- 
waidswiote, "yet He foigot me not" He and his associates, 
sobered by the outcry, and convinced now that they wanted some 
positive tiuth to fill the "aching void" left by then apostasy 
fiorn Biahmanism, came and sat at Duffs feet to learn of 
Chustianity as humble seekeis aftei truth 

Anothei twelve months passed, and then, on August 28th, 
1832, the nist conveit, Mohesh Chunder Ghose, was baptized , The first 
not, howevei, by Duff himself, but by the Eev T Dealtiy, the convert8 
successoi of Thomason, in the Old Chinch of David Brown and 
Buchanan and Henry Marfcyn and Come I* "A year ago," 
exclaimed the young convert after the baptism, " I was an atheist 
and a materialist , and what am I now ? A baptized Christian I 
A yeai ago I was the most miserable of the miserable , now, the 
happiest of the happy 1 In spite of myself, I became a Chus- 
tian Suiely this must have boon what the Bible calls giace, fiee 
giace, sovereign giace, and if evei thoie was an election of grace 
surely I am one " The next was Kushna Mohun Baneijea K M 
himself Long drawn towards Socimanism, and unwilling to Baner ^ ea 
"acknowledge the glory of the Eteinal Timity " " God," he 
said, "by the influence of His Holy Spirit, was giaciously pleased 
to open my soul to discom its smfubess and guilt, and the suit- 
ableness of the great salvation which centred in the atoning 
death of a Divine Redeemer " He was baptized on Octobei 17tli 
in Duffs schoolroom, by Duff himself, but soon afterwaids ]omed 
the Church of England, and both he and Mohesh became teachers 

* Tho highest, most exclusive, most sacred section of tho Biahman oasto 
f "Foi some unexplained reason," says Dr 0- Smith But Mohosh 
Chnnder Grhoso had boon studying at Bishop's College, and tho teachers there 
had no doubt spniod no pains to make an Anglican of him Moioover a 
certain "Ma/joi JP " (Major Phippa?), who belonged to the Old Church, had 
taken him by the hand to lead him to Ohnst 8 P (7 Eepm i for 1832, quoted 
in the Mwwnwi y liegtster foi 1833, p 635 , also M fl Hep t t 1838, p 42 

X 2 



308 INDIA CHANGES, REFORMS, DEVELOPMENTS 

IV in C M S schools Mohesh died in 1837, and his funeral seimon 
1824-41 was preached at the Old Church by Banetjea, who had nist been 
p 21 oidained by Bishop Wilson Banei]ea was afterwaidB the leading 
Native clergyman of the Chinch of England in Bengal, and was 
attached to the SPG Then on December 14th, 1832, came a 
thud, Gopinath Nundi, well-known m aftei yeais for his courageous 
confession of Chust when captuied by the bloodthirsty Moham- 
medans m the great Mutiny Once moie, on April 21st, 1833, 
Anundo Chund Mozumdai was baptized m the Scotch church ^ 
Fom "precious atoms" indeed 1 and the piecursois of many 
moie in after years 

Moimn -^ am Mohun ^y was no * present at these baptisms He had 

Roy's come to England, and m England he died, in 1833 If in eailiei 

England y eais ne na ^ known Duff, he might have been the Luthei of 

India If in this countiy he had met Dr Chalmeis, to whom 

Duff gave him a letter of mtioduction, he might (humanly 

speaking) have been bi ought to Christ But he fell, as so many 

like him have done, into the hands of the Unitarians , and he 

died at Bristol, declaung that he was neithei Chustian, nor 

Mohammedan, nor Hindu 

Duffs work was by no means confined to his school He was 
only four years m India befoie his health utterly gave way, and he 
was sent home, and remained at home six yeais But during his 
shoit period at Calcutta he was a power In particulai he mspned 
Chailes Tievelyan, who in his turn inspired T B (afterwaids 
Lord) Macaulay, who together mspned Loid William Bentmck, 
English with the docinne that the English language must be fostoied m 
!n n dif e India Not, indeed, to the dispaiagement or discouiagement of 
the vernaculais No one knew better, 01 urged moie strongly, 
than Duff that no acquned language can evei replace the mothei 
tongue But the Benaissance foi India was beginning , and what 
Gieek had been to the European Eenaissance of the fifteenth 
century, $oma great language with a hteiatuie behind it must be 
to India Should it be Sanscrit, or Persian, 01 Arabic ? Yes, 
said the Orientalists No, said Duff, and Tiovclyan, and 
Maoaulay, let these be studied by linguistic and philological 
experts, foi their aichseological value , but mnglidi must be the 
medium foi lifting the young Indian mind on to the highoi plane 
of Western cultiue, Western science, and Christian truth Pioice 
and prolonged was the stiuggle between the Oiiento-mauiacs and 
the Anglo-maniacs, as the two paities weie colloquially termed , 
but at last Macaulay 's logic and eloquence, backed by the palpable 

* Gopinath Nimcli became a missionary of tho American PiGBbytormu 
Church Anundo joined the London Missionary Society Duff hunsulf 
explained that the reason why not one of the four lonmmed in the soivico 1 of 
tho Church of Scotland was that the Church had then no opening for thorn 
"If the gronnd of then reasons had not boon romovod," lie wrote, " L should 
not have expected any talented young tnan who leam od with zoal to bo 
employed in arousing his countrymen, to remain with usindeed I could not 
ask any" Life of Duf , yol i p 281 



INDIA CHANGES, REFORMS, DEVELOPMENTS 309 

evidence furnished by Duff' s college, won the day , and Lord W PART IV 
Bentinck closed his seven yeais' beneficent lule by issuing the i? 24 "! 1 , 
order-m-council which decided the supiemacy of the English p ' 
language in the Highei Education of India 

Both evil and good lesults have followed But the evil was 
sure to come, whatever the decision was , while the good belongs 
to the actual decision itself To name only one thing Every 
cold season now, Chnstian lectmeis and evangelists visit India, and 
find ready foi them eager audiences composed of the creani of 
India's young manhood, and uudei standing English To what 
do they owe that? They owe it to the foiesight and deteimma- 
tion of Bentmck, and Macaulay, and Tievelyan, and Dufi 

These developments and lefoims weie gieatly assisted by fclnce 
organs m the piess 3?u&t, Duff staitcd the Calcutta Chm> tian The press 
Obsei m Secondly, an old quarteily called the I' 1 / icncl of India, J."^" 
conducted by the Serampoie Baptist missionaues, was m 1835 
changed into a weekly papei by Mi JO Maishman, son of 
Caiey's colleague Under his editoi&hip, 1835 to 1852, it became 
the loading journal of India , and it continued &o under the oditoi- 
ship of Mi Meiedith Townsend (afterwaids co-oditoi with Mi 
B H Button of the Spectator), 1852 to 1859, and undei that of 
Di George Smith (who&e admnablo woiks aio frequently lofcuod 
to m this Histoiy), 1859 to 1875 foity yeais allogethei of umquo 
influence always cxeicised m a high Ghiibtian spint Thou 
thirdly, m 1844 Gaptam (afteiwtuds Sir John) Kaye, the hibtonan 
of the Mutiny, and of Chn&tiamty in India, in conjunction with 
Marshmau and Duff, and assisted by Henry Lawience and other 
bnlhant officeis and civilians, established the Calcutta liciww 
To the weekly Fncnd of India and the quaiteily Calcutta Review 
the cause of progiess and enlightenment m India owes much 

As to Duffs policy of Missionary Education, it has been the 
pattern foi the extensive woik earned on in many parts of India 
by the Church Missionary Society , and theiefoie it is that the 
foiegomg shoit account of its inception and initiation has found 
place in the pages of our Histoiy 

Duff found that m Scotland ho had a woik to do almost as Duff at 
diflicult, and at first as discouraging, as his woik m India to ome 
aiouse his Chuich to caie for the ovangtih/ation of India The 
story of his campaign, first in the General Assembly, | and then 
in the Piesbyteues, as told by Dr G Smith, is tlmllmg indeed, 
and among the immediate lesults woie the mspumg with mis- 
sionary zeal of McGheyne and Someiville, and the actual sending 

* It is interesting also that these throe suutoasivo oditoia, Maralmwn, 
TownBcmd, and Smith, woio likewise successive Calcmtta correspondents of 
the 2\met. 

| His wonderful speech m the Assembly is described by Dr G- Smith, who 
gives some passages The whole of it i& puntod in Pratt's Mmwnwy 
Regwtw , and occupies no loss than twenty foni columns in the JuuQ, July, 
August, and Soptemboi numbers of 1S35, 



3io INDIA CHANGES, REFORMS^ DEVELOPMENTS 

PART IV forth of John Anderson, Thomas Smith, and J Muiray Mitchell 
1824-41 Indeed, Scotland has given a far laigei pioporfcion of its ablest 
Chap 21 an ^ mog f. cujijuie^ men jj Foieign Missions than any othei countiy 
in the world But this does not belong to our History "What 
Duffs does belong to it is the magnificent speech which the young High- 
speech lander he was still only just thirty dehveied at the Chinch 
Missionary Society's Anmveisaiy in 1836, 51 to which allusion has 
befoie been made No extiacts can give any adequate idea of it, 
and yet a few passages must be given 

" It is a most affecting thought," he began, " that m beaiching 
for the most marvellous pi oofs of the fall of man, we aie not 
lequned to go to the outsknts of the terrestnal globe to the 
shoies of New Zealand, 01 to the coast of Labradoi , but to visit 
the vast legion of the Bast, which enwiaps in its bosom the ciadle 
of the human race, of Eehgion, of Science, of the Pa,tnaichal 
Faith, yea, of Chustiamty itself " This he powerfully illustrated 
from the actual facts of Indian ignorance, supeistition, and 
degradation What, then, was to be done ? " If it be asked what 
is the prime mstiument in legenerating a fallen world, most 
assuiodly the answei must be the evei -blessed Gospel, preached, 
pioclaimed, or taught by the living voice, and biought homo to 
the heait by the Spirit of God " "In this," he obseived, " all 
Christians aie agieed", but refeinng to the Eepoit just lead, 
which spoke of Schools and Institutions, he added, " Heie pious 
minds sometimes demui " Then follows a splendid defence of 
Education as a missionary agency How could Englishmen, he 
asked, be expected to go to India in sufficient numbers to roach 
130 millions (as was then estimated) of Heathen? " Not unless, 
by some catastrophe, we should be compelled to flee m thoubauds 
from the land of our nativity, as the Jews fled fiom the city of 
then fatheis, or as seamen nee from a sinking ship " No, wo 
The object must look to native evangelists , and to educate, lead to Chiibt, 

SonS uca " an< ^ ^ ram ^ or ^ 1S service those who might be so used wan the 
Missions giand purpose of Missionary Education " If any object to this, 
let them begin at home let them go foith with the dc&tioymg 
scythe, to prove the sincerity of their punciples, and mow down 
their Chustian Schools of eveiy grade let them toss their 
Cambndge and Oxfoid into the depths of the sea, and then, 
smiling at the wieck and havoc they have made, declaio that 
we act inconsistently in desiring to eiect Chnstian Schools on 
the Ganges, as well as on the banks of the Cam 01 of the Thames " 
Then Duff enlarged on the intellect of India, winch would bo 
satisfied somehow " We have not to do theie with vacuity of 
mind lathei, with plenitude of mind " Theiefoie, let us 
see to it that, mth the knowledge India would acqune, we gave 
her also the knowledge of Jesus Christ and Him crucified, 
othei wise we should be training up "versatile and learned 

* Miuumfli j/ fitywto, 1836, p 398 



INDIA CHANGES, REFORMS , DEVELOPMENT 311 

infidels " Finally he appealed to Ins audience Fust as to their PART IT 
duty and responsibility, and then 



" But why should I appeal to duty and responsibility alone P why not _ ~ 
to the exquisite enjoyment expeiienced by those who know and value fervent 
the privilege of being fellow-workers with the gieat God Himself in appeal 
advancing that cause for which the ^ orld was originally created, and for 
the development of which the world is still preserved in being? I 
appeal to all present who bask in the sunshine of the Redeemer's love, 
whethei the enjoyment felt in piomotmg the great cause for which He 
died m agonies on the Cross, that He might see of the travail of His soul 
and be satisfied, is not inefiable ? Oh ! it is an enjoyment which those who 
have once tasted it would not exchange for all the treasures of India 
It is a joy rich as heaven and lasting as eternity , and, in the midst of 
troublous times, when the shaking of the nations and the heaving of 
the earthquake which may ere long lend asunder the mightiest empues 
have commenced, what staywhat refuge what hiding-place can be 
found like the faith and hopo which are the stionghold of the righteous? 
Those whose faith has been firmly placed on the lock of Jehovah's 
promises can look across the surges of the tempestuous ocean to the 
bnght regions which lie beyond Think of the earth, as it now 
is, icnt with noise and liuidened with a ciuse , think of the same 
earth, in the ladiance of Prophetic Vision, converted into gladsome 
boweis, the abodes of pence and iightoousness Yiew the Empuo of 
Satan, at piosent fast bound by the non chains of malignant demons, 
who feed and not on the groans and partition of immortal spuits 
Behold, fiom the same dark empire, in the leahzation of prophetic 
imagery, the new-clad myriads rise, ohauntmg the choius of a Renovated 
Creation the jubilee of a once groaning but now Emancipated Universe ! 
Oh, that the blessed, era were greatly hastened! Oh, that the 
vision of that mitred minstrel who eiewhile sung so sweetly of ' Green- 
land's icy mountains ' and * India's coral strand ' were speedily realized 1 
that glorious vision wheiein, rapt into future toes, he beheld the 
stieam of Gospel blessings use, and gush, and roll onward till it 
embraced every land and circled every shoie 

Till hko a soft of glory, 
It spread from polo to polo 

" Even so, Loid Jesus ! come quickly even so Amen " 

Duff sat down amid a tempest of applause Bishop J B 
Sumner, of Chester (afterwards Aichbihhop of Canteibiny), "was 
the next speaker He rose, and paused long, waiting, as he 
explained, " till the gush of emotion excited had been, somewhat 
assuaged " William Gams, then one of the deans of Tumty 
College, Cambridge (who, a few months latei, succeeded Simeon Duff and 
at Trinity Church), was pi assent, and abked Duff to visit the sfawoa 
Univeisity , and tneie the young Scotch missionary met Charles 
Simeon, to whose blessed influence over his fathei's pastor his 
own career in India was indirectly due It was Simeon's last 
link with the India for which he had done so much Six months 
later, he enteied into rest 



CHAPTER XXIL 

ton , Pwmm OF TEE Mmiom 

The North India Stations The Awakening m Knshnagar Bishop 
Wilson's Hopes Why they failed Bishop Wilson declines 
Ladies Mrs Wilson Bombay Tmnevelly Rhemus his Work, 
his Disconnexion Progress under Pettitt The Tmnevelly 
Christians Nominal Christianity, Persecution , C M S and S P G 
Travancore Syrians and Heathen , Changed Policy of the Mis- 
sionMadras Seminary Telugu Mission Fox and Noble John 
Tucker Controversies with the Corresponding Committees 
Bishop's College Other Missions in India Ceylon 




"As lie sotocdj some fell bi/ the wmj side ami somfell on ston 

and some fell flnwnj/ fliowis an# otli&r Jell on flood goound, and did 
i/wld /wt that sprcwu up and increased " St Maik iv 4-8 

IV |E|RflS|$|N our fifteenth Chaptei, we took a bnef suivoy of 

182441 m jBt the Society's Missions in India when Bishop Heboi 
Okp2 j landed m 1823 Let ^ now yiew them agam as 

they appeared m 1841 * In the whole twenty-seven 
years, 1814 to 1840 inclusive, the Society had coin- 
One missioned exactly one hundred missionaries to woik m India 
CM^ ThQ word " sent out " would not be strictly accuiate, as a few of 
mission- j.^ were cn g a cr e <l in India Fifty-six were labouimg at the 

anesin . . n o D j HIT 

India close of 1840 , and among these were such men as Sandys, Long, 
Weitbiecht, W Smith, Leupolt, Pfandei, Pettitt, Thomas, Bailey, 
Bakei, and Peet 

In North India theie was distinct development, although thieo 
impoitant cities m which some preliminary woik had been done 
by catechists and schoolmasters had not, owing to the paucity of 
labourers, been legularly worked, and had diopped out of the list 
These were Delhi, Oawnpoie, and Lucknow The two former 
have since become great centres of S P G woik , and Lucknow, 
aftei the Mutiny, was peimanently occupied by the CMS At 
this time Oudh was still an independent kingdom , but it had 
been arranged for Abdul Masih to be stationed at the capital, and 
after his oidmation by Bishop Heber in Decembei, 1825, ho 
pioceeded accordingly to Lucknow But he fell ill soon af Lei his 

Death of arrival, and died on March 4th, 1827, after fourteen years' faithful 
service as really the first CMS missionary in India, "during 

* But tins chapter, at one or two points, looks, foi convenience, u little 
beyond that elate 



INDIA PROGRESS OF PHE MISSIONS 313 

the whole of which time," wrote the Calcutta Corresponding Com- PAM IT 
mittee, "he had umfoirnly adorned the doctune of God our i? 34 " 4 
Saviour, and greatly endeaied himself to many Christians of all p 
classes in society " Nine years elapsed before the second Native 
clergyman in North India was 01 darned Anund Masih, to whom 
refeience was made in Chapter XV 

Agra, the scene of most of Abdul Masih's labotus, waa now Basle men 
occupied by foui able Euiopeans, Geimans fiom the Basle a ra 
Semmaiy, who had been expelled from the north-west of Peisia 
when the Kussians conquered and annexed the province they 
woiked in These were Schneidei, Hoernle, Pfander, and Kiei&s 
They had made then: way to India without leturning to Euiopo , 
and theie they were gladly taken up by the Calcutta Couebpond- 
ing Committee They remained in Lutheian ordeis foi seveial 
yeais, but ultimately they (except Kieiss, who died) weie ordamed 
as cleigymen of the Chmch of England by Bishop Cotton In 
addition to the ordinary woik of pioachmg and teaching, the 
rmssionaues had now the caie of a laige numbei of famine 
oiphans, thrown upon the Society's hands aftei the tenible 
famine of 1837-8 For then accommodation, the Government ^ r ai ^^ 
gave the Society the tomb of Mniam Zamam (the traditional Secundra 
Ghnstian wife of Akbai, the gieat Mogul Empeioi), just opposite 
Akbai's own giancl mausoleum at Secundra, six miles from Agra 
The Secundia Orphanage was foi some years woiked by Hoemle, 
who also started a mission pi ess, at which the oiphan boys, as 
they grew up, were employed 

At Benares, W Smith and Leupolt weie now in the full tide of fSthand 
the noble woik which foi foifcy yeais they canjed on together, to 
the admiration of all India Smith was the itmeiant pieacher, 
in the city and in the surrounding country, Leupolt was the 
organizer of schools, orphanages (heie also famine orphans weie 
taken charge of in 1837-8), industrial institutions Under his 
superintendence, the little Christian village at Sigra, a subiub 
of Benares, became a happy centie of industry and good 
influence 

A new Mission had been begun in 1824 at Goiakhpur, north- 
west of Benares, near the frontioi of Ncpaul It was, like so 
many other Indian mission stations, skilled at the lequest, and at 
the expense, of a Government official This was Mi B M Bud, 
the Commissioner of the distiicfe, who, like othei civil ofliceis, 
did all m his powei for Missions while m India, and joined the 
CMS Committee when he retrained to England, 1 His sister, 
a weak and delicate lady, laboiued most devotedly by his sido 
at Gorakhpui, teaching the women and girls, and to aaislating books 
and tiacts into Urdu, until hei death fiom cholera m 1834 Lord 
"William Bentmck took much interest in this Mission, and allotted 
to it a large tract of waste land, to be cultivated by the Native 

* Soo p 297 



314 INDIA. PROGRESS OF THE MISSIONS 

PAET IV Christians, and upon it was built a village for them to dwell in, 
name( ^Basharatpur, " Town of the Gospel " The first rmssionaiy, 
the Bev M Wilkinson, baptized some notable converts, paiticularly 
Sheikh Ra]i-ud-dm, a Mohammedan of lank and influence, who, 
after some yeais of consistent Christian life, died at a great age, 
faithful to the last, though plied with every inducement to recant 
on his death-bed 

Coming to Lower Bengal, Timothy Sandys had begun the work 
" which, for as lengthened a period as Smith and Leupolt at 
Benares, and with equal faithfulness, he carried on in the capital 
of India Weitbrecht, another of the Basle men, but trained 
further at Islington and in English orders, was at Burdwan with 
his devoted wife, whose work in England in her old age is one of 
the happiest memories of the present geneiation But at the 
period of this survey, the eyes of the Society rested with the 
most eager interest and hope upon the Krishnagar or Nuddea 
(more piopeily Nadiya) distuct, fifty miles north of Calcutta In 
this district there had just been reaped the largest harvest of 
converts yet gathered by any Mission in Noith India 

In 1831, one of the German missionanes at Buidwan, W J 
Deerr, visited Nadiya, a sacred Hindu town, and the birthplace 
of Chaitanya, the Yaishnava reformer of the sixteenth century 
Thence he ciossed the nvei Hooghly and made his way to another 
important town, Knshnagar, where he staited a vernacular school 
*** This distuct is m the heait of Lowei Bengal, and densely popu- 
lated, there being at the last census rnoie than two millions of 
souls on an aiea of 3400 squaie miles, or 590 to the squaie mile 
Deerr came acioss some membeis of a curious community called 
Kaita Bhoja, " Woi shippers of the Cieator," one of the numerous 
sects, half Hindu and half Moslem, winch liave from time to time 
risen up to protest against the tyianny of the Biahmans In 
1833, thirty persons of this sect were baptized in the face of much 
Movement peisecution The movement went on without much being said or 
cK d8 fchougto a ^ ou ^ 4 u 11 ^ 1838, when suddenly the leading men in 
tianity ten villages, including with their families some five bundled souls, 
simultaneously embraced the Gospel of Christ, and, after some 
months' instruction, weie baptized The Society at home heaid 
of it early in 1839, but the Committee only put a brief and 
cautious paragraph m the Annual Keport of that year " A spint 
of inquiry," they said, " to a considerable extent, has lately been 
manifested m the Knshnagar branch of the Buidwan Mission, of 
a very hopeful kind Time is necessary to ascertain its leal 
charactei Expenence has taught the Committee to icjoice with 
tiemblmg, even under the most satisfactory indications of a woik 
of grace among a Heathen population" That was all not 
another woid But shortly afterwaids such accounts came from 
the Bishop of Calcutta himself as filled all hearts with joyful 
anticipation 
"One day," writes Darnel Wilson's biogiaphei, "at the close 



INDIA PROGRESS OF THE MISSIONS 315 

of the year 1838, a Native of courteous addiess and fine beaiing PART IV 
stood at the gate of the Bi&hop's palace, the bearei of a message ^ 2 ^ 41 
to him from the rmssionanes of Kiishnagai, similai to the one p 
spoken to St Paul in vision, when the man of Macedonia stood by Appeal to 
his bedside, saying, Come ovei and help us It conveyed tidings ^uSn 
of a gieat and general movement amongst the Natives towaids 
Christianity Advice and help weie ui gently requned " The 
Bishop immediately commissioned Archdeacon Dealtiy (who had 
been appointed to that ofcce when Come became Bishop of 
Madras), and Kiishna Mohun Banerjea, who was now a cleigyman, 
to go to Krishnagai and report They found that the whole 
population of fifty-five villages weie desirous to become Christians 
The movement had been fosteied by the unselfish kindness of 
Mi Been and his helpeis when an inundation destroyed the ciops, 
and to that extent tempoial motives were at woik, but the gwm 
of the sect themselves, who would be loseis and not gainers 
by becoming Chustians, were also among the beekmg ciowd 
Dealtry and Baneijea, together with Sandys and Weitbrecht, who 
had also hastened to the distuct, baptized at once five hundied 
poisons who had alieady been some time undei mstiucfcion , and 
they leiuuicd to Calcutta to beg the Couespondmg Committee 
to send more missionaries and native catechists as quickly as 
possible Eight months latei the Bishop went himself, accom- 
panied by his chaplain, J H Piatt (son of Josiah Piatt) , when 
five hunched moie candidates weie baptized, and two hundied of 
the foimei company confirmed And at a second vibit in Maich, 
1840, neaily similai numbers were received The adheients 
numbered more than thiee thousand 

The Bishop addressed two long and deeply-interesting letters to Bishop j 
Loid Chichestei, as President of the Society, detailing the whole Spo??' 8 
stoiy, and his own visit - It is not surpusmg that he viewed the 
movement as the pielude to a much wider one, thajt would sweep 
hundreds of thousands of souls into the Chustian Chinch Not 
that he foigot the dangeis of such a sudden accession of pool half- 
taught cultivatois " The human heart," he wrote, " is deceitful 
appearances aie tieacheious Popular movements of any kind 
diaw in numbers of ill-mfoimed followers The habits of heathen 
society soon steal behind the Christian mquirei, and entangle him 
in the old ambush The result of real conversions, even at home, 
and in om laigest paushes, and where crowded congiegotions in 
every quarlei promise abundant fiuit, is comparatively small 
what then are the allowances to be made foi our feoble flocks in 
Pagan India? " Still he did believe that the Holy Spirit was at 
woik , and who should set limits to the power of His giace ? 

It is well known that the early piomise of Krishnagar was not Krmhn*. 
fulfilled , and blame has often been cast upon the Bishop and the 
missionaries foi being deceived But one cannot lead the letters 

* Puntod m bho Appendix to tlio Uopoit of 1810 



316 INDIA PROGRESS OF THE MISSIONS 

PAET IY wntben at the time without noting the caie and caution exeicised, 
the steadfastness of the converts under persecution, and many 
othei signs of the reality of the movement If Knshnagar was 
afterwaids a disappointment as no doubt it was aie not othei 
leasons sufficient ? Ceitainly there are thiee which amply account 
for it Fust, there weie not Native teacheis enough, and of good 
quality enough, to go in at once and lead the converted on 
to a higher life Secondly, it is cleai that the Geiman mission- 
aries who took chaige, such as Deeir, Kiuckeberg, Lincke, 
Blurnhaidt, &c theie were ten in the distuct in 1848 had not 
learned the unpoitance of teaching the Native Ohuich its fiist 
lessons in self-suppoifc, seK-admimstiation, and self-extension 
Not that they aie to be blamed foi this more than othei s 
Scaicely any one at that time, at home or abroad, had really 
grasped that gieat principle , and in North India especially, the 
patnaichal system that suited the genius of the Geiman brethren, 
making eacn missionaiy the ma-bap (mothei and father) of Ins 
people, was, kind as it seemed, a leal obstacle to the healthy 
independent growth of the Church Then thirdly, when the 
Society at home, inspired by Henry Venn, adopted the principle 
just indicated as its definite policy, the missionaiies weie with- 
drawn (01 vacancies not supplied) too quickly , and the community 
that might in its infancy have been taught to walk alone, when 
suddenly let go, stumbled and fell How it was again levived in 
latei yeais, we shall see heieaffcer 

Bishop One lequest of Bishop Wilson foi Knshnagai leminds us of 
wamTno another depaitment of woik in Bengal He appealed foi money 
ladies fa provide instiuction for the women and guls But m what way ? 
By taking them into the households of married missionaiies, and 
clothing and feeding them Unrnamed lady missionaiies weie 
not then thought of If they had been, and if they could have 
been piovided, would not such an agency have been at least one 
pieservative against declension m the Krishnagar Mission 9 But 
the Bishop was not prepared to welcome them at all Aichdeacon 
J Hoaie wrote to him fiom England about a lady who wished 
to go out and work in India " No," lephed the Bishop, " the 
lady will not do I object on principle, and fiom the experience 
of Indian life, to single ladies coming out to so distant a place, 
with the almost certainty of their mairymg within a month of 
then ai rival I imagine the beloved Peisis, and Tiyphena and 

Tiyphosa, lemained in their own neighborhoods and families " * 
It will be observed that he conveniently omits Phebe of Cenchrea, 
But ladies who oeitainly did not stay at home I And ladies did go to India 
come even fl^ m JJ^Q uame of the Lord, and did not get married at 
once, but did woik at some few of the stations 01 both CMS 
and other societies These were sent out by a new organization 
founded in 1834, which afterwards adopted the title of the Society 

* Ltfe of Bishop D Wilson, vol n p 255 



INDIA PROGRESS OF THk MISSIONS 317 

for Promoting Female Education in the East a society whose PAUT TV 
agents have done noble woik, not only m India, but in other paits I824r4l 
of Asia, both West and East Gb ^J 2 

Theie was a Ladies' Female Education Society in Calcutta 
before this, founded m 1824, which, with the assistance of a grant 
of 500 from the C M S , had established a Cential School, with 
Mrs Wilson (whose ongmal gills' school when she waa Miss 
Cooke was noticed m our Fifteenth Chapter) at the head of it 
The coming of these ladies leleased Mrs Wilson from the 
Central School, and enabled hei to carry out the desire of hei 
heait by establishing a Female Orphanage This she did at Mrs wii 
Agarpaia, a few miles noith of Calcutta, m 1836 Bishop Wilson, Agarpara 
after a visit to her theie, wiote of her, "This holy woman, and 
'widow indeed/ with a spiritual, sweet, consistent carnage 
Henry Martyn or Come m female form meek, silent, patient, 
laborious, with extiaordmaiy tact for hei pecuhai work is 
carrying on the greatest undei taking yet witnessed in India " 
For six years she continued this blessed work, and then, to the 
Bishop's dismay and grief, she joined the Plymouth Brethxen, 
who had spread even then to India She had ceased to be 
connected with the Chuich Missionaiy Society at her husband's 
death in 1828 , .and the Bishop thought that hei isolated position 
had made her rnoie open to the persuasions of the new-comers 
She had indeed asked the Society to occupy Agaipaia as one 
of its stations, but the paucity of men had led the Committee 
to decline, which, the Bishop thought, "was the spaik that 
fiied the train " } When, however, she openly seceded fiorn 
the Chuich, he peisuaded her to tiansfei hei institution to the 
Society, and then Agarpara became a C M S station 

Crossing India now to the Bombay Presidency, we find some Bombay 
little development, though the woik was still on a veiy small 
scale The two pimcipal missionaiies during our pieseut period 
were G P Fauai and J Dixon, both Islington men The formei 
was the father of F W Fairai, afterwards successively Head 
Mastei of Mailboiough, Canon and Aichdeacon of Wostmmstei, 
and Dean of Canteibury A new station had been opened m 1832 
at Nasik, an important centie of Bi airman influence in the Deccan 
indeed the Bemues of Western India At Bombay a High Money 
School, established m memory of a godly and much-iespected Sch o1 
civilian, Robert Money, had been put undei the Society's chaige, 
and a scholai of Trinity College, Cambridge, G M Valentine, 
had come out as its Principal A remaikablo Parseo convert had 
been one fruit of his work m the School, who afteiwaids became 
well known as the Rev Soiab]i Kharsedji The Society viewed 
with gieat satisfaction the appointment of Aichdeacon tiarr, who 
had long been its correspondent, to be the first Bishop of Bombay 

* M isswnai j/ Jteqwter, 1838, p 328 
f In/eqf Bwliop JFiZson, vol n p 187 



3i 8 INDIA PROGRESS OF THE MISSIONS 

PAST IV Passing on to the South, we find that the ten or twelve years 

i? 24 ^ P nor to the establishment of the Bishopric of Madias had been a 

p time of great progiess in Tmnevelly Khenms proved himself a 

South most devoted and until mg missionary Year by yea,r the converts 

Progress m increased m numbei The people who put themselves under 

Tinneveiiy mstiuction, indeed, were far more numeious than could be 

EheSus satisfactory dealt with Many native catechists and teachers 

weie employed, but they needed more mstiuction themselves, 

and moie supei vision than the thiee 01 four missionaries in the 

province could give them It was really a good thing that the 

opposition of the Heathen was incessant, and that persecution 

evei and anon broke out Tbis constantly weeded the catechumens, 

those who were double-minded 01 half-heaited falling back, 

while the baptized Chustians, not having been admitted to the 

Ghuioh till they had been well tested, foi the most pait lemamed 

steadfast The pa,stoial caie of the Christians, scatteied as they 

weie over the countiy in more than two hundied towns and 

villages, was a heavy burden upon the missionaries , but m 1830 

an important step was taken towaids the development of an 

indigenous Native Church by the ordination of the first Tamil 

Rev John pastor, John Devasagayam He had been foi some yeais working 

^ya a " as an Inspecting Schoolmaster m the Tianquejpar distiict, of 

which the Society was foi a time m ohaige when the old Danish 

Mission had come to an end , and he had emphatically eained foi 

himself a good degiee It was Bishop Tumei, the fourth Bishop 

of Calcutta, who, while on a visit to Madias, had the pnvilege 

of ordaining the first Native cleigyman in South India 

Devasagayam, on his ordination, was sent to Tmnevelly, and 

theie, in 1836, he received puest's ordeis from Bishop Come, in 

Trinity Chinch, Palamcotta This church, opened in June, 1826, 

was the fiist of seveial substantial churches, with toweis 01 

spires, that were erected in the province, and became the 

outward and visible sign of the giowth of Christianity Many 

services of deep interest have been held in it m the past seventy 

yeais 

Ehemus founded seveial useful societies among the people, 

especially the Dli&wiw, Sangam, 01 Native Philanthiopic Society, 

foi the purchase of land and houses as a refuge foi conveits who 

Christian were persecuted Several Christian villages spiang up under the 

villages auspices of this organization, such as Kadachapuram (Grace 

Village), Suvis&shapuiam (Gospel Village), and Nallui (Good 

Town) Theie were also a Poor Fund, a Widows' Fund, and 

Tiact and Bible Societies In connexion with these last, Ehemus 

did excellent tianalational and liteiary work 

The old ^ or some 7 ears BhemuB also supervised the congregations 

s p c K belonging to the old S P C K Mission, comprising in 1825 about 

88 ona ' 4200 Christians Catechists for the old stations and districts weie 

supplied from Tanjore and Tnchmopoly, but the four 01 five 

Germans at those centres weie unable to spare from among them- 



INDIA PROGRESS OF mE MISSIONS 319 

selves a resident missionary for Tmnevelly " Bishop Hebei, PAST IT 
indeed, much desiied men m English ordeis foi Tan] ore and the i? 24 ^ 
other older Missions In writing to the S P G K , while acknow- p 
ledgmg the excellence of old Kohlhoff and others, he " trusted he 
was not ilhbeial in expressing a hope that the "Veneiahle Society 
would supply him with episcopally-oi darned cleigymen " Un- 
foitunately none were forthcoming , nor was the SPG, when it s p G 
took over the admmistiation from the S P C K in 1825, able to do 
moie Not till 1829 could one be spaied, Mi Eosen, and he only 
stayed a few months At last, in 1836, the SPG was able to 
send an English missionaiy to its districts in Tmnevelly, the 
Eev C Hubbaid, together with two Geimans in English orders 
In 1841 came the Eev E Galdwell, who became one of the 
gieatest of Indian missionaries, and facile pnncq)s among Tamil 
scholais Shortly aftei this, the distucts of the two societies weie 
carefully maiked out Hitheito the congiegations had been much 
intermingled , and though this had piomoted the unity of the 
Chinch, and facilitated the supervision of all alike in Ehenius's 
time, it was found awkward foi native cateclnsls and school- 
masteis in the same group of villages to be in diffeient connexions 
and looking to diffeient supenors The able compilei of the 
SPG Dtg&t thus sums up what was done " Notwithstanding 
the difficulties involved such as exchanges of schools, congrega- 
tions, and lay agents a division of distucts was effected in a 
spiut worthy of the common cause As a consequence of tbe 
long neglect of the eaiher Misbion, the QMS has obtained 
possession of the greater part of the Tmnevelly field, the SPG 
operations being confined to the south-east of the piovince " ] 

In leading the old CMS Eepoits at the time of the rapid views of 
development of the Native Chustian community undei Ehenms, committee 
one is stiuck with the extreme caution and candour of the Com- on Tinne 
mittee They knew well how leady fnends at home aie to over- 
estimate the results of Missions, and to imagine 01 expect 
perfection in native conveits , and year aftei year, while thank- 
fully repoiting the pi ogress effected through the goodness and 
giace of God, they caiefully set foith the unfavorable side, willing 
lathei to run the risk of putting weapons into the hands of unfau 
and unsciupulous opponents which pioved to be the case than 
to ignore 01 conceal facts Nay, they not only did this , they also, 
even when a specially favomable lepoit cam, wained their 

* " Nominally the Mission was under tho Tinijnio Missionanes, but the only 
real superintendence continued to be supplied by the agents of tho CMS, 
until 1829 " S P 0- Digest, p 533 The Calcutta Diocesan Committee of the 
S P K , at the time of the transfer to S P G- , ief erred to the Tmnevelly 
Ohnstians as having been "kindly taken up by the Church Missionary 
Society thus verifying, in a double sense, tho text that saith, ( One soweth, 
and another reapeth ' [The] Committee rejoice, for their object IB equally 
attained, that these Q-entilea were not suffered to remain in their idolatry, 
and that this timely assistance has boon afforded by a Sister Society " M,S 
Eeport, 1828, p Jjfa f Digest, p 584 



320 INDIA PROGRESS OF THE MISSIONS 

PABT IT readers against thinking too much of it In one Beport they call 
182441 on them < i to re -j oice m w h a t th e Lord had done, but with trembling, 
Ohap 22 an ^ ^ | 3Q jj^Qh m p ra y er f or t ne as y e t tender flocks, that He who 
breaks not the biuised reed may strengthen, mvigoiate, and con- 
firm the work of grace " Again, " The Committee would guard 
then statements from being misundei stood, as if they lepresented 
a state of advancement and punty beyond the truth of the case 
The desciiption of a change fiorn a state of Heathenism to that of 
a piofession of Chnstianity is always liable to such misrepiesenta- 
tions by superficial readeis " And again, aftei quoting some 
instances of exemplaiy Chustian conduct in the Chustians, they 
said, " Let us not be mistaken, as if these instances were pioduced 
as samples of the general state of Native Ghnstians Far othei- 
wise they are given only as special instances of divine grace, 
which prove that the work is of the Lord "for, it is ]ustly added, 
" Men do not gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles " 
Difficulties In 1835, a grave cusis occuned m Tmnevelly Three 01 foui 
y ears befoie this, Bhemus had pioposed that he and the other 
G-eimans with him should ordain, according to the Lutheran use, 
four or five of the chief native catecrusts, and so make them 
" country priests " like those of the S P C K Missions To this 
pioposal the Society replied that the S P K " country priests " 
had received Lutheian orders at a time when theie was no 
English bishop in India , but that as English orders were now 
piocurable, a Church society could seek no others foi iicw 
candidates, though it gladly still recognized Bhenms's own ordeis 
]ust as the SPG still recognized Kohlhoff s Much correspon- 
dence ensued , and at length Bhemus pioposed eithei (1) to give 
up his Tmnevelly post and engage only m translational woik, or 
(2) to join another society, or (3) to go to England and confer with 
the Committee The Committee chose the third alternative , but 
in the meanwhile Mi Anthony Groves, the well-known and very 
devoted Plymouth Biothei/ had visited Tmnevelly, and so 
influenced Bhemus that, instead of going to England, he issued 
two pamphlets attacking the Piayer Book and the whole con- 
stitution of the Church of England, and sent them all ovei South 
India The Committee received these pamphlets with " deepest 
regiet and distiess," and while expressing their " stiong sense of 
his piety, zeal, devotedness, and uuweaned labouis," yet felt 
" bound in consistency, as attached members of the Chuich of 
wcted England/' to dissolve connexion with him 

Bhonms thereupon, in what appealed an excellent spuit, handed 
over the charge ot the Mission to the Bev George Pettitt, who 
was sent to Tmnevelly by the Madias Committee, and left the 
district , but the difficulties of the position weie much enhanced 
when the othei three German brethren, Schaffter, Muller, and 
Lechler, elected to secede with him, leaving only John Devasa- 

* See p 283 



INDIA PROGRESS OF THE MISSIONS 321 

gayam clinging to the Church Natmally theie was much giief, PART IV 
and not a little discontent, among the Native Christians , but all 1821-41 
seemed to be quieting down, when a leading catechist, who was ^^J 32 
discoveied misappiopiuting funds, icsujned, and at once set to 
woik to incite the people to invite Mi Rheums and the otheis 
back Unhappily, encouraged by English fuends at Madias who 
lesented the Society's asseition of its Chinch pi maples, they 
theieuponietumed, and a gieat and diatiessing schism ensued Distress 
3?oi thiee yeais the Committee had to icpoit on Tmnevelly in m achlsm 
terms expressive of deep soirow , foi although three-fourths of 
the converts remained staunch, the distuct was now filled with 
" envying and strife, confusion and every evil work " Good 
Bishop Come went down to Tmnevelly, and endeavoured to make 
peace, but in vain , but his veneiable and gracious piesence made 
a deep nnpiession on the faithful membeis of the Chinch, and it 
was on this occasion that Devasagayam received priest's orders 
the first of many ordinations held at Polamcotta 

In June, 1838, however, Ehenius died, lamented, foi his zeal Death of 
and eainestness, by all paities The Society at once appi cached Rheniua 
his widow with a pioposal that she and her family should be 
tieated ]ust as they would have been if Ehenius had been on the 
roll at the tune of his death The good feeling thus established 
was signally manifested when the eldest son ofteicdhis services as 
a missionaiy, came to England to bo tiaincd at Islington, and 
ultimately letumed to Tmnevolly as a momboi of the CMS 
staff In the meanwhile, the singular patience and gentleness 
which Mr Pettitt, in his most toying position, had manifested 
dunug the thieo yeais, had boino speedy fiuit Most of the 
Christians who had seceded came back to the Chuich, with 
Schaifter at then head Lechlei. pined the London Missionary 
Society in another part of South India Muller pioposed to the 
L M S to leceive him and his people where they were, thus 
extending into Tmnevelly the Tamil Mission which that society 
was canymg on upon the other side of the mountains, in South 
Travancoie The L M S Directors, however, loyal, as ever, to 
the great principle of rmssionaiy comity, declined to encroach The 
upon Crunch of England ground , and ultimately Muller also, healed 1 
and the remaining seceders, lejomed the Church and the C M S 

All traces of the schism now quickly disuppeaicd (t Then," 
mote Pettitt afterwaids, quoting the Acts, "had tho Churches 
rest, and weie edified, and walking in the fear of the Loid, and in Further 
the comfort of the Holy Ghost, were multiplied " In 1841, Bishop proere89 
Spencei visited the Mission, and held the fitst confiimations m 
the distuct, laying hands on some fifteen hundred candidates 
Just befoie the crisis of 1835, the Chustian adherents, including 
catechumens, numbeied about 10,000 , now, after six years, they 
numbeied 20,000, after anothei six yeais, 80,000 This total, 
however, continually varied as persecution raged and waned , but 
the number of baptized Chustians rose steadily yeai by year, fiom 

VOL i y 



322 INDIA PROGRESS o& rxr MISSIONS 

PART IV about 3000 m 1835 to 6000 in 1841, and 12,000 in 1848 Among 
1824-41 these theie weie a good many Vellalais and Maiavais, highly 
iap respectable and lespected divisions of the Sudia caste, and theie- 
fore lankmg high m South India At the other end of the scale 
there were Pariah congregations But the bulk of the conveits 
were fiom the Shanai caste, thepalmyia-clnnbeis of thepiovince, 
though many, having become fauly well off, meiely owned the 
tiees and let them out to then pooier biethien The Shanars, 
and some other Tamil castes, aie counted as Hindus, but ically 
are devil-woishippeis , and the religion of Tmnevelly is a com- 
bination of that strange and degrading systemif system it can be 
called and the more elaboiato Brahmauism 

Pettitt on In his mteiestmg book on the Tmnevelly Mission, | Mi Pettitt 
the acces |jh e causes of the considerable accessions to Chn&tianity 



siona m 



in this province He explains that temporal motives had laige 
influence, but believes that these motives were used by the Holy 
Spiut to lead on to tiue conversion ol heait in many cases " The 
tempoial condition of our people," he writes, " has been decidedly 
improved, not by any pecuniary advantages received fiom tho 
Mission, for iJierc <we none, but fiom Christian knowledge, 
education, deliverance from spiritual slavery, protection, and the 
cultivation of mdustiious habits " " Is it to be wondeied at," he 
asks, "if many have derived, from seeing the advantage of con- 
necting themselves with a united and piotected body like this, an 
impulse which their faint peicephons of the truth of Christianity 
would not of itself pioduce '? " He fuithei explains that by " pio- 
tection " he means that the lowei castes, by joining a homogeneous 
body, found remedy and lediebs against the oppieasion of tho 
highei castes, particularly though having men of some education 
and influence, as the leading catechists were, both to advise them 
and to get justice done them Mr Pettitt also discusses the ques- 
tion, How far is a missionary justified m leceivnig peisons whom 
he knows 01 suspects of being impelled by earthly motives to come 
motives? to him? Certainly, he replies, he must never set befoie the 
Heathen " the promise of the life that now is " as a leason why he 
should come to Christ But, he asks, if a Heathen, meiely seeing 
that Christianity is a system of justice and peace, comes foiwaid 
as an mquiier, is he to repel or lefuse him ? Is he not nUhei to 
leceive him and instruct him and show him what Chn&tiamty 
really is ? " It may be," he goes on, " that in the Gospel net we 
enclose both good and bad , but the sorting piocess soon takes 
place Some we decline at once , some aie cast off foi open am, 

* The sandy plains of Turner elly aie coveiod with groves of palmyra trees 
This tiee constitutes an impoitant pait of tho wealth of tho district A 
Shanar climbs tlmty or foity trees, to a height of sixty 01 eighty foot, tonce 
daily, to collect the sap, which in one form is the staple food of the people, 
and in another gives consistency to their mortal for braiding The trunk, 
the loots, the fibres, tho leaves, of the troo aio also nsed m vanous ways 

f Ike Tvnnwdly &fit,mn of tlw M 8 Loiidou, 1851 



INDIA * PROGRESS OF T# Missions 323 

or irregular attendance, 01 relapses into heathenish acts , otheis PAST IT 
are driven away by peisecution, 01 withdraw fiom dislike of the i 824 ^ 
restiamts and lequirements of the Gospel Many, howevei, aie P 
retained, and after long and caieful instruction aie admitted by 
baptism into the Ghnstian Chiuch " andhefehcitouslyillustiates 
the difference between these " adheients " in the eaily stages of 
their adhesion and the &ui rounding Heathen by comparing the 
former to land just enclosed foi cultivation, ( ind the lattei to the 
waste land outside the fence His fuithei account m detail of the 
methods adopted foi the " shepheiding" and " feedmg " to vary 
the figure of these still " silly sheep " is exceedingly instructive, 
but must not detain us heie 

It will be boine in mind that these remaiks do not apply to the 
converts from the higher castes Then case was quite diffeient 
"What things weie gam" to them they had to " count loss for 
Ohnst " Of the reality of their convictions theie could raiely bo 
any doubt Even the Shanais and the lowei castes or out-castes Persecu 
frequently had to enduie giievous peisecution Crops weie often convert? 15 
destroyed, cattle maimed 01 stolen, houses and huts pulled down, 
and the people themselves maltreated False accusations, backed 
by the unblushing perjiuy which is so common in India, weio 
biought against them m the local couits , and the local judges, 
who were geneially Biahrnans, weie natuially piojudiccd against 
them, and not always fan in then decisions Tho Heathen of 
the lo\vei castes, indeed, often suffeied oppie&sion of this kind , 
but the Chustians, in addition, wcie poisecuted for then neglect 
of idol feasts and othei observances An association was foi mod 
called the Vibuilii Sangu/nt, 01 Sacied Ashes Society, in allusion 
to the heathen maiks on the foiehead 01 boast 01 aims, denoting 
allegiance to this 01 that god, that are made with the ashes of 
sandal-wood, and this society took the leading pait in the 
persecution One gieat cause of offence was a family, or small 
village community, tiansfoimmg its little devil-temple into a 
Christian pi ayei -house which was frequently done, and the 
transfoimed huts were often pulled down in the mght In one 
gross case Mi Pettitt appealed to tho magistrate at Palamootta 
The mernbeis of the Sawed Ashes Society who had destioyed the 
prayei -house pleaded that no such building had existed The 
magistrate despatched a polico-omcoi to BOO tho place and lopoit 
The Heathen paity instantly sent men to inn all night and reach 
the village fust, thirty miles oft ! "When the policeman amvod, 
he was shown a bit of ploughed land, with gmin gi owing A 
Chuskin bystandei, ho\vevoi, quietly said, "Please, MI, take np 
one 01 two of those blades of giam by the loots " The giound 
had been ploughed, wateied, and planted m the night, to remove 
all traces of tho mined building | 

* Thaio ia nothing unusual m this When I was at Pataoottn, a man 
In ought nio a lottoi fiom JMouguauapumni, Iwont.y inght miles off, which hu 
liad mil all night to dsbvoi early in tlio nuaniug E H 

Y 2 



3^4 INDIA , PROGRESS d/< THE MISSIONS 

PABI IY One case, m 1846 (to go forwaid a little), was canied to the 

p? 24 "!* highest couit in Madras As usual, the anti-rmssionaiy paity 

P among the Emopeans waimly espoused the cause of the 

Aneio. peisecutors , but a piolonged trial lesulted m the disgrace and 

attackthe dismissal of the local Brahman judges On this occasion the 

Mission CMS and SPG missionaries united in a public statement, to 

counteiact the evil influence of ceitam Madras newspapers This 

c M s an masteily document, while lefuting the calumnies that had been 

bine to* circulated, feailessly avowed that such calumnies weie only what 

defend it Was to be expected whenevei success was vouchsafed to 

missionary labours The very same ciitics who at one time 

would taunt the missionaiies with then lack of lesults would, 

when results weie achieved, complain of the inevitable consequent 

disturbance of the Heathen mmd " Oui success, however," 

said the missionaries, with admirable point, "is no fault we 

laboui with the view of succeeding, and if oui labours aie 

toleiated at all, any measuie of success which may follow must 

be tolerated also Hindus must either be prevented fiom 

embiacnig Christianity, 01 piotected in the piofession of it " 

The signatuies to this document show what excellent men thoie 
now weie in the Tmnevelly Mission Among the four SPG names 
are Caldwell and Pope * Among the fourteen CMS names aie 
Pettitt, Saigent, Thomas, J T Tucker, and the brothers Hobbs 
The gieat woik of Tucker, Thomas, and Saigent will come before 
us hereafter The leading missionaries of the two societies had 
at this time been unitedly engaged in making a new translation of 
the Piayei-book "We had met," mites Pettitt, "neaily evoiy 
month for tluee yeais oui mteicouise had been delightful and 
profitable , and we \\eie all sony that tho meetings weie now to 
cease Indeed the i egret was so sincere and deep that we 
resolved m futine to meet together twice a yeai foi mutual 
mtoicouise, and foi the consideiation of niatteis connected with 
oui common woik, and the Eev R Caldwell was appointed 
secietary to see this airangement earned into effect "] 

Another laboui er at this time was Miss C C Gibeine, who had 

been in Ceylon as an agent of the Female Education Society, but 

m 1844 joined the CMS, and began, on a small scale, the woik 

among girls and women which in later yeais has been earned on 

with such signal blesbing by the ladies of the Chinch of England 

Zenana Society Yet another laboui er was a highly -esteemed 

Mr blind Euiasian, W Cuuckghanks, who m 1844 opened what 

shanks became the Pakmcotta High School Under him this School 

pioduced important conveits, some of whom became catecmsts 

and clergymen, notably W T Satthianadhan, aftei wards the 

honomed pastoi of Zion Church, Madras 

Turning now westward, and crossing the Ghauts, we come to 

* Di G U Pope, now so well kno\\n at Oxfoitl, IB tha wolo siuvivoi 
| Pettitt'e ItMiiveUy Mmion, p 458 



INDIA PROGRESS OF THE MISSIONS 325 

Tiavaucoie The commencement of this Mission was i elated in PAET 
the chaptei on Effoits to Bevive the Eastern Chinches, as foi 1824-j 
its fiist twenty years it was entnely confined to an honest and 
patient endeavour to aiouse the ancient Synan Chmch to self- 
lefoimation So paiticnlai were the missionanes not to endangei 
the success of the mission they weie sent to fulhi hy any action church 
that could offend the most sensitive ecclesiastical piopnety, that, 
when Aichdeacon Bobmson of Madias paid them a visit in 1830, 
they asked his counsel about building a small chapel for occa- 
sional woiship according to Anglican use Foi four teen yeais they 
had worked on without that privilege, worshipping always in the 
Synan chinches, despite much in the ritual which they disliked 
Now, although they had not in any systematic way pieached to 
the Heathen, they had a few conveits fiom Heathenism, and they 
shrank from subjecting these to the teaching of the ignoiant and 
immoial Synan pnests The now hostile Metran, not satisfied 
with the better-educated puests produced by the Synan College 
which the missionaiies weie still carrying on, had ordained lads 
of twelve and fouiteen years of ago to the diaconate, liteially 
tempted theieto by the oidmation fee ' and ho encouiaged both 
pnests and deacons in every supeistitious usage, especially in 
masses foi the dead, these being a profitable souice of revenue 
Altogether there was less evidence than ovei of any desne aftei 
lefoim and the punfying of the Church 

In 1835, Bishop Wilson visited Tiavancoie, and, showing the Bishop 
utmost sympathy for so veneiable a Ghnstian community, bent v in 
all his eneigies to influence the Motran and other leadeis He core 
pleached by invitation m the pnncipal Syrian chinch at Cottayarn 
befoie an immense concoinse of people The seivice was veiy 
olaboiate foity priests and deacons appealed in goigeous 
vestments, and mass was peifonned, with n, loud shout of joy at 
the end from the whole congregation, and the " kiss of peace " 
given all lound from one to the othoi The Bishop pi cached on 
the Epistle to the Chuich of Philadelphia a geneiously-chosen 
subject, when undoubtedly Bphesus 01 Thyatua 01 Sardis would 
have bettei lepiesented the actual state of the Chinch of Malabar 
" I dwelt," he wiote, " on what the Spirit saith, fust as lespects 
Christ who addiessed the Church, secondly, as lespects the 
Chuich itself , thndly, as to the pioinise made to it On this last 
head I showed them that Christ had set befote them n,n open door 
by the piotection and friendship of the English Chmch and people 
In application I called on each one to keep ChusVs woid, and not 
deny His name, as to their own salvation" 4 " "We wish," he 
excknned at anothei gathenng, "that the Syrian Chuich should 
shmo as a bight stai in the light hand of tho Son of Man, holding 
forth the faithful word " 

But it was all in vain In the veiy next yeai, the Metian 

D Wilson, vol 11 p 63 



326 INDH PROGRESS OF THE MISSIONS 

PART IV convened a Synod, at which it was finally resolved to i eject all the 

I824r4i suggestions that had been made by the English Bishop, and to 

!!L. P ut an en ^ tnen an ^ there to ^ e influence of the English 

Final missionanes in the Syrian Ghmch They accoidmgly retned 

the U o r id f k m ^ e College, and with sonow abandoned an enterpnse that 

CMS had been faithfully and with much self-denial prosecuted foi 

plan twenty years * 

New plans Now, howevei, they were fiee, and they turned to the 
Heathen Heathen Bailey continued his translations into Malayalam of 
the Bible and Pi ay ei -book, and his punting-piesb, and built a 
laige church for Anglican services at Cottayam " Mr Bailey's 
fine, noble church, the gloiy of Travancore," wiote Bishop Wilson 
on his second visit , Bakei extended his evangelistic woik and 
vernacular village schools m the cential districts of Cottayarn and 
Pallam , two younger men of gieat energy and zeal, Joseph Peet 
and John Hawksworth, set to work among the Heathen in the 
Mavelicaia and Tiruwella districts to the south, and anothei new 
man, H Hailey, opened a Mission at Tnchur, in the kingdom of 
Cochin, to the north Of all these labours we shall hear moie 
hereafter But meanwhile, there were devout and pure-minded 
men among the Syrians who deploied the loss of so much holy 
influence in their Church, and these could not be entirely deserted 
A laige part of the old endowment of the Syrian College raised by 
Colonel Munio being awarded to the Mission by a Cotut of 
Aibitration, a new College on the lines of the English Church was 
established at Cottayam, and the money so awaided applied to 
the education of Syrian youths The Rev John Chapman, Eellow 
of St John's College, Cambridge, was sent out to take charge of 
this new College, and foi ten yeais did splendid seivice The 
Good result of its influence, and of the pattern of simpler worship and 
effects on p uier ^fe now se ^ fa ^ e iterated Mission, was a spontaneous 

the Syrian * , J . , /-n i i i i 

Church leforming movement within the Syrian Church, which in later 

years has proved a great blessing And altho