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Major His Highness Raj J Rajeshwar 5 ram ad 

Rajai Hind Maharajadhiraj Sri Sir 

Umaid Singhji Sahib Bahadur, 

G.C.I.E., K. C.S.I., K.CV.O., 

Maharaja of Jodhpur. 



(From the beginning to the migration 
of Rao Siha ioicards Maricar.) 



From th bcfinninff to the migration of Rao Stha towardi Marwar, 







orders of the Jodhpur Darbar. 

Price Rs. :2'i- 
Printed at the Marwar State Press 


This volume contains the history of the early 
RSshtrakutas (Rathotfas) and their well-known branch, 
the Gahatfavalas of Kanauj up to the third-quarter 
of the 13th century of Vikrama era, that is, up to the 
migration of Rao Slha towards Marwar. 

In the absence of any written account of the rulers 
of this dynasty, the history is based on its copper 
plates, inscriptions and coins hitherto discovered. 
Sanskrit, Arabic and English 1 works, which throw 
some light on the history of this dynasty, however 
meagre, have also been referred to. Though the 
material thus gathered is not much, yet what is known 
is sufficient to prove that some of the kings of this 
dynasty were most powerful rulers of their time. 
Further, some of them, besides being the patrons of 
art and literature, were themselves good scholars. 
The artistic and literary works of their time are held 
in high esteem even to this day. 

The extent of their power is sufficiently vouchsafed 
by the writings of the early Arab travellers and the 
levying of "Turushkadanda" a tax like "Jaeia" on 
the Mohammedans, by Govindachandra. 

Nor was their generosity less defined. Out of 
numerous copper grants recovered, no less than 42 

I Specially Sir R. G. Bhandarkar's article im the Bombay Gazetteer. 

trace their source of munificence to a single donor, 
Govindachandra. Another magnificent example of 
their generosity is brought to light by a couplet from 
the copper grant 1 of Dantivarman (Dantidurga) II, 
dated Shaka Samvat 675 (V.S. 810=A.D. 753). The 
couplet runs a- follows:--- 

i.e., His (Dantivarman's) mother by granting lands 
in charity in almost all the 400,000 villages of his 
kingdom proved his reverence for her. 

Many historians hesitate to believe the Gahadavalas 
of Kanauj to be a branch of Rashtrakutas. But in 
view of the reasons given to meet the various objec- 
tions regarding this theory, which has been discussed 
in the first few chapters of this volume, it is evident 
that in fact the Gahadavalas belonged to a branch of 
the Rashtrakutas and came to be so called because of 
their conquest of Gadhipur (Kanauj). 

The history of the Rashtrakutas was first published 
in Hindi in my book named "Bharata-ke-Prachma- 
Raja Vamsha," Vol. IIP, A synopsis of the first few 
chapters of this book, under the heading of "The 
Rashtrakutas and the Gahadavalas" as well as its last 
chapter named "The Gahadavalas of Kanauj" appear- 
ed in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great 
Britain and Ireland, January 1930 and January 1932 
respectively. The matter given in the appendix of this 
book was published in The "Indian 

1 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XI, page 111. 

2 Published in A. I). 1025. 


January 1930. Hence, this volume is an attempt 
to bring out the history of the Rashtrakutas (RSthodas) 
in a revised and enlarged form. 

It will not be out of place here to express the grati- 
tude to all those scholars whose efforts have been 
helpful in the preparation of this volume. 

As the special letters "m", and "n", were not 
available, simple "m", and "n" have been used in 
their places and "sh" has been used for both ?r and <?, 
In some places simple "r" is used instead of "r'\ 

Archaeological Department, BISHESSHWAR NATH KEU, 




1. The Rashtrakutas . ..1 

2. Emigration of the Rash trakutas from 

the north to the south . . . . 6 

3. The origin of the Rashtrakutas . . 10 

4. The Rashtrakutas & the Gahadavalas . . 15 

5. Other Objections . . . . 26 

6. The Religion of the Rashtrakutas . . 34 

7. Science arid Arts in the time of the 

Rashtrakutas . . 37 

8. The Glory of the Rashtrakutas . . 39 

9. Conclusion . . . . 45 

10. Miscellaneous inscriptions of the Rash- 

Lrakutas . . . . 47 

11. The Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta 

(Deccan) . . .. ..5! 

12. The Rashtrakutas of Lata (Gujrfit) . . 93 

13. The Rattas (Rashtrakutas) of Saunclatti. 100 

14. The Early Rashtrakutas of Rajasthana 

(Rajputana) . . . . i 10 

15. The Gahadavalas of Kanauj . . JI3 

16. Appendix . . . . 134 
(False statements about King Jayach- 

chandra and Rao Sih;D. 

17. Index .. .. . . ..145 

18. Errata . . . . .. . . 153 


In 269 B. C. ( i c , 212 years before the Vikrama Era) 
there flourished a very powerful and religious king 
in India named Aslioka. He got his edicts inscribed 
on pillars set up in various provinces of his kingdom. 
In those found at Mansera, SluVnbazgarhi (North-West 
Frontier Province) , Girnar (Saura^hatra) and Dhavali 
(Kalinga) the words "Rathika," "Ristika" (Rashtrika) 
or "Lathika" appear just after the mention of the 
Kambdjas and the Gandharas. 

Dr. D. R. Bhandarkar, reading both the words 
"Rashtika" (or Ristika) and "Petenika" thus occurring 
as one, takes it to have been used to denote the here- 
ditary governing families of Maharashtra 1 . But, as 
the edict of Shahbazgarhi contains "-WT ^ranr ^w ?%$* 
fqftff^r it appears that the words "Rathika" and 
"Pitinika" are used to denote two different tribes. 2 

Mr C V. Vaidya holds the word Rashtrika to denote 
the Rashtrakdtas Oi J the Maharfishtra' province, whom 
he considers to k>3 the Muharacca Kshatriyas 4 , different 
from the Rashtrakutas of the north. But in the ancient 
books "Dipavamsha" and "Mahavamsha'-' of the Pali 
language the word MaharaUa 5 , and not Rashtrika, 
stands for the inhabitants of Maharashtra province. 

1 Asoka by Bhandarkar, p.ij;e 33. L\ In the "Anguttarnikaya" the words 

s-oparately statod. 

3 ir'etoi'y of INIediaoval Hindu India, part II, page 3^3, 

4 History of Mediaeval Hindu Ind'a, part II, p.igos 152-153. 

5 From the cave inscriptions of Bhaja, BSJsa. Karli and NanaghJt o^ the Cnd 
century of the Christian Er^ it appears that this MaharaUa tribe was very geLerous. 


Dr. Hultzsch holds the words "Rathika" or "Ra- 
trika" (Rashtrika) as pertaining to Arattas of the 
Punjab. But if, in regard to the derivation of the 
word Aratta, 1 we were to apply the 'Bahuvrihi Samasa/ 
( *n w?^ ^riRf w zjfrw fr UK?-. ) then the difference of 
opinion would be squared up to some extent. In the 
inscriptions of the Rashtrakutas a second name of 
their tribe is also found as "Ratta". There should 
be no hesitation, therefore, in supposing that the 
Rashtrakutas were formerly the settlers of the Punjab, 
whence they migrated to the south and in the course of 
time carved out a kingdom in the Deccan. 

A copper grant 2 of Rashtrakuta king Abhimanyu 
has been found from the Undikavatika. As it bears no 
date, it is supposed to be of the beginning of the 7th cen- 
tury of V. S. It contains the wordsr-'^^feiw^priiorawqwf 


*'*5f(?) aHI (^) frre*ft iw* ^ *w *H?' i. e., king Mananka, 
the greatest of the Rashtrakuta race, was adorned 
with virtue and fame. 

1 Corpus Inscriptionurn Indicarum, Vol. 1, page 56. In the "Mahabharata" 
tlie "Aratta" province is thus described: 

Karna Parva, Adhyaya-4, 

i. e., the province irrigated by the watt-rp ot tho Putlej/f he Bios, the Ravi, the ChenSb, 
the Jhelum, and the Indus and lying outside the mountains is called Aratta. At the 
time of the Mahabharata th s province was under the sway of king Shalya. 

In the Dharma and Shrauta Sutras of Baudhayana, this province is stated as a 
non- Aryan province (vide first prashna,first chapter and 18 1213 respectively.) 

In 326 B C. (269 years before Vikrama Era) the Arattas had opposed Alexander 
near Baluchistan as appears from the works of the contemporary writers. 
?. Journal of the Bombay Asiatic Society, Vol.XVI, page 90, 
3. Some people read ^^jqj in place of tyS^sffif but it is incorrect. 


The stone inscription 1 of Raja Dantidurga, fixed 
in the Dashavatara temple of the Ellora caves, contains 
the line:- '*r %fri ^rg *: %<ft sraw^f?rM' i. e.,who is not 
aware of the world-famous Rashtrakuta race. 

In a copper grant 2 of this very king dated Shaka 
Samvat675 (V. S. 810 = A. D. 753) and also in that 3 of 
Nandaraja of Shaka S. 63 1 (V. S. 766 = A. D. 709) found at 
the village of Multai in the Central Provinces, the 
name of the dynasty is given as "Rashtrakuta". A 
similar name is found in inscriptions and grants of 
various other kings. But there are also some old writ- 
ings, in which this clan is named as "Ratta 4 " such as 
the inscription of Amoghavarsha I found at Sirur, in 
which he is spoken of as" ifwt^ 5 

In a copper grant 6 of Indra III dated Shaka S. 836 
(V. S. 971 -A. D. 914) found at Nausari Amoghavarsha 
is described as the promoter of prosperity of the 
"Ratta" race. 

In the copper grant of Deoli 7 it is stated that "Ratta" 
was the originator of this dynasty and "Rashtrakuta" 
was his son from whom the dynasty took its name 8 . 

In an inscription of Ghosundi in Mewar the dynasty 
is named as "Rashtravarya" and in a copper grant of 
Nadol 9 as "Rashtrauda." 

1 Cave temples inscriptions, page 92. arid Arch. Survey, Western India, Vol. V, 
page 87. 

2 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XT, page 111. 

3 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XVIJI,page 234. 

4 As "Mata", "Vaddiga''and ''Chapa'' are the corrupt forms of "Alanyakheta" 
Yadava Vishnu Vardhna and "Chapotkata" respectively, similarly "Ratta" might 
also be a corrupt form of "Rashtrakuta". 

5 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XTI, page 21S. 

6 Journal Bombay Branch Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. XVIII, page 257. 

7 Journal Bombay Branch Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. XVIII, pages 249-251. 
And Epigraphia Indica, Vol. V, page 192. 

8 The birth of Rashtrakuta in the family of Ratta is only a poetic conjecture, 

9 Copper grant of Chauhana Kirtipala of V. S. 1218, * 


In the word "Rashtrakuta" "Rashtra" means 
"kingdom" and "Kiita" denotes collection, "lofty" 
or "excellent". Thus, the word "Rashtrakuta" 
means" a great or excellent kingdom". The country 
ruled over by this dynasty might have been named 
"Maharashtra 1 ", which word is similarly formed by 
prefixing the syllable "Maha" to the word "Rashtra". 

In modern times, owing to the divergence of dialects, 
we come across many corrupt forms of the word 
"Rashtrakuta", such as, "Rathavara, Rathavada, 
Rathaura, Rathauda 2 ,Rathada 3 , Rathada 4 and Rathoda". 

Dr. Burnely finding the word "Ratta" used in the 
later writings of the Rashtrakutas s connects them with 
the Telugu-speaking 'Reddi* tribe. But the latter was a 
primitive tribe, while the Rashtrakutas migrated to 
the south from the north. (This fact will be dealt 
with hereafter in a separate chapter). Therefore this 
theory is untenable. 

In the court of Raja Narayana Shaha of Mayuragiri 
there flourished a poet named Rudra. By the order of 
the said king he compiled a poem named "Rashtraudha 
Vamsha Mahakavya" in Shaka Sp.mvat 1518 (V. S. 1653 
= A. D. 1596), the first chapter of which contains the 

1 Just as the country ruled over by the "Malava" race was named Malwa, and 
that ruled over by the Gurjaras, Gujrat, similarly the country ruled over by the 
Rashtrakutas in Southern Kathiawar was named Saurashtra (Sora\h) and the 
country between Narbada and Ma h! named Rat and "Lat mkrht be a corrupt form 
of it. \The country including the states of Aliraipiir, .Jhabua etc, is probably called 
Rath.) In the inscription of Skanda^upta on the Girnar hill, ther* 1 is a mention 
of the "Sorath" province. Thus, the names Rashtra (Rath), Saurashtra (Sorth) 
and Maharashtra as applied to tracts bear testimony to tho greatness of the 

2 This form is found in the inscription dated V. S. 120S, of Jasadhavala, found at 
Koyalvava (Godwar). 

3 This form is mentioned in the inscription of Rathora Salkhii, dated V. 8. 1213, 
found at 'Vrihaepati Tank', 8 miles north-west of Jodhpur. 

4 This form is found 'n the irscription of Rao SIha of V. S. 1330, found at Bithu 

5 In the inscription of Rathoda Hammira of V. S. 1573, found at Phalodi, the 
word Rashtrakuta is ysed, 


lines:- woi^^ir cmsfa^r uswi^g efo^g: i WH *\K& ^ $ 
( * ) tiTR[ eif^ sRftci: u '-A n i.e., (the Goddess Latna) thus 
addressed (Raja-Narayana) through the heavens, "He 
will be thy son and as he has maintained thy kingdom 
and family, his name will be "Rashtroclha", 


It has already been stated that Dr. Hultzsch holds 1 
the Rashtrikas, mentioned in the edicts of Ashoka, and 
the Arattas, residing in the Punjab at the time of 
the Mahabharata, to be of one and the same tribe. 
The Arattas existed in the Punjab up to the time of 
Alexander's invasion. Similarly, in the edicts of 
Ashoka of Mansera, Shahbazgarhi (N.W.F. Province), 
Girnar (Junagadh) and Dhavali (Kalinga), mention 
of the Rashtrika occurs just after the Kambojas and 
the Gandharas. All these facts go to show clearly that 
the Rashtrakutas at first resided in the north-western 2 
part of India and from there they afterwards migrated 
to the south. Dr. Fleet also holds the same opinion. 

1. Corpus Inscriptionum rndicarum. Vol. I, page ">(i. 

2. Though in some inscriptinis of th* Rashtrakutn*. they are stated to be 
'Chandra Vamshls', yet, in fact, they are 'Surva V.unshTs'. (This subject will be 
treated later in a separate chapter). Thn present uilers ol Marwar consider them- 
selves to be the descendants of Kn.sha, sm, of Ramachandra of the Solar race In 
the 'Viehnu Purarm', fil kinj>s are named from n sin akfi (a descendant of Surya), 
down to Shri Ramachandra, and r,() names are enumerated from Shri Kama to the 
last (Surya^amshi) king Snmitra. r J'hns, from Ikshvaku down to Snmitra there 
are 121 names of kinpp i n all (and l'j"> perhaps in the'ttha^avnta'). Beyond this, there 
is no trace of the Solar kin^s in the Puranas. (According to the Pimlnas the time 
of Sumitra comes to about 3000 (?) ycar before thin day.) 

In the 'Uttai Kanda' of t he 'Valmikiva Ramayana,' Kharat, brother of Shri 
Earr.acharidra, is stated to have conqf/ered the Gandharxas (the people of Kaitrlhar). 
It also inforn-s us that Hharata had two sons, Taksha and Pushkhla. Taksha founded 
the city of Takshashila after hi name, and Pushkala founded Pushkalavata. 
Takshashila i the inodiMii Taxila. This citv was situated in a circuit of 12 miles 
to the south-oast of Ilasanabdal and north \\est of Rawalpindi. Pushkalavata was in 
the north-west rear Peshawar. It isat present known asCharsada. Kusha, theson of 
Shri Ramachandra, leaving Ayodhya, had founded the Kusha vat! city, near modern 
Mirzapur, on the bank of the Ganges. It is probable that owing to some mishap the 



Mr. C. V. Vaidya holds the Rashtrakutas of the 
Deccan to be the Aryans of the south. But he presumes 
that they had settled there, having come from the north 
long before their establishing the kingdom in the 
Deccan for the second time. But, at the same time, he 
says that these Rashtrakutas were present in the 
Maharashtra 1 even at the time of the edicts of Ashoka. 
The above conclusion of Mr. Vaidya is merely based 
on the situation of the edicts of Ashoka, which 
mention this clan. It has no sound basis, as two of 
such edicts were found in the North-West, one in 
Saurashtra and the other in Kalinga. 

Dr. D. R. Bhan^arkar, connecting the Rashtrakutas 
with the western provinces, holds them to be the resi- 
dents of Maharashtra. 2 But in the fifth edict of Ashoka, 
found at Shahbazgarhi it is thus stated : 

"Therefore it would be incorrect to connect the words 
fofcrftw with itafo UTO.' The residents of the 
western provinces, mentioned here, might be some 
people different from the Rashtrakutas. 

The family title of these Rashtrakutas was " Lata- 
lurapuradhishvara." Mr. Rajvade and others hold this 
Latalurapura to be the modern Ratnapur in Bilaspur 
District (C.P.). If this supposition be correct, then 
the migration of the Rathoras from the north to the 
south is proved. 

descendants of Kusha might have gone up to their cousins, the descendants of Bharata, 
and in the course of time having acquired the name "Rahstrika or Arafta" on their 
return had gone some to the north and others to the south cia Girnar. But this is 
only imaginary. 

We learn from the 'Eambhamanjari Natika' of NayachandraSuri that 
Jayachchandra was borr in the Ikshvaku family (refer page 7.) 

1. History of Mediaeval Hindu India, Part II, page 323. 

2. Ashoka by D. R. Bhantfarkar, page 33, 

3. Corpu Inscriptionum Jndicarum, VoL I, page 55, * 


From the copper grant, da ted ShakaS. 972 (V.S. 1107= 
A.D. 1051), of the SolankI king Trilochanapala of Lata 
we learn that Chalukya, the prime ancestor of the 
Solankls had married the daughter of the Rashtrakuta 
king of Kanauj. 1 From this it is quite evident that the 
Rashtrakutas had also ruled over Kanauj 2 in the early 
period and about the sixth century of the Vikrama era 
they took possession of the kingdom of the Solankls 
of the Deccan. 

This fact is further proved by the copper grant of 
SolankI Rajaraja of the Deccan, issued in his 32nd regnal 
year (Shaka S. 975 = V. S. 1 1 10- A.D. 1053), found at 
Yevur, which informs that after king Udayana, 3 59 kings 
of his dynasty ruled over Ayodhya. The last of these 
was Vijayaditya who founded the SoUnki kingdom in 
the south. His 16 descendants ruled in the Deccan 

(Indian Antiquary, Vol. XII, page 201 ) 

2. Mr. J. W. Watson, Political Superintendent, Palanpur, writes that on 
Thursday Mangasira Sudi 5, Samvta 936 king Shrlpata Rathora of Kanauj, on 
accession to the Gaddi, had raadr a grant of 16 villages in the north of Gujrat to 
Chibadia Brabinanas, out of which village Eta is still in the possession of their 

Further, he wr'tes that the ancient Arab Geographers have stated the boundary 
of Kanauj as adjacent to Smdli. Airuasudi liaa mentioned Sindh to be under 
the government ot tlie king of Kanauj and the Mohiuedan h siorians of Gujrat have 
also stated the king of Kanau] to be the master of Gujrat. 

(Indian Antiquary, Vol. Ill, page 41.) 

In quoting the writing of Mr. Watson here, we mean only to say that the 
Rashtrakutas were even formerly the k ; ngs of Kanauj and their kingdom extended 
far and wide. As regards Shrlpata we can only *ay that he perhaps being a member 
of the Kanauj royal family was e.tlleU Kanaujeshvara. When king Dhruvaraja of 
Lata had defeated the Puitihaia king Bh5jaleva of Kanauj he might have arranged 
for the grant of some districts of Kanauj to Shripata'e father, who was a 
Rashtrakuta by caste. And afterwards Shrlpata on ascending the throne (on his 
father's death), might have made the aforesaid grant. The village Eta is aAeo 
described as having been granted by the Rathoras of Kanauj in the Bombay 
Gazetteer, Vol. V, page 329. 

3. In this grant Udayana is mentioned as 47th in descent from Brahma, 



after which their kingdom passed on to another dynasty. 
Here another dynasty means the Rashtrakuta dynasty, 
because it is stated in the copper grants of the Solankis 
of Shaka S. 946 of Miraj and that of Shaka S. 999 of 
Yevur that Jayasimha, having defeated Rashtrakuta 
Indraraja, again obtained the kingdom of theChalukya 
dynasty. 1 

Kirtivaraman, the great grandson of this Jayasimha, 
ascended the throne in V. S. 624. So his great grand- 
father Jayasimha may have lived about the second- 
half of the 6th century of the Vikrama era. Thus, it 
proves that the Rashtrakutas ruled here in the 6th 
century. Besides, it is also presumed that the marriage 
of the ancestor of the Solankis with the daughter 
of the king of Kanauj might have taken place, when 
the former ruled at Ayodhya. 

(Indian Antiquary, Vol. V1I1, rage 1?.) 



About 75 inscriptions and copper grants of the time 
of the Rashtrakuta kings of the Deccan and Gujarat 
have up to this time been found, in only 8 1 of which 
the RSshtrakutas are mentioned as belonging to the 
Yadava line. 

The earliest of these containing the lineage of the 
Rashtrakutas, is of Shaka S. 782 (V. S. 9I7 = A:D. 860), 
while all the other inscriptions and copper plates of the 
earlier dates are silent on the point as to whether they 
are Surya Vamshls or Chandra Vamshls. Out of the 

1 The 8 inscriptions and copper plates are as follows: 

The first of Shaka S. 7S2 (V. S. 917=A.D.86U) of king Amoghavarsha I, 

(Epigraphia Indica, Vol. VI, page 21).) 
The second of Shaka S. 836 (V. S. 1)71 A. D. 914) of Incharaja III, contains: 

(Journal Bombay Asiatic Society, Vol. XVIII, page 201.) 

The third of Shaka S. 852 ( V. S. 987= A. D 930) and the fourth of Shaka S. 855 
(V. 8.990 A. D. 933) of Govinduraja IV, mention the lineage of the king an under: 

(Epigraphia Tndica, Vol. VII, page HfJ and 
Indian Antiquary, Vol. XII. page 2ii).) 

The fifth of Shaka S. 862 (V. S. 997A.D. 940) and th" ixth of Sluika s. S80 
(V. S. 1015=:A.D. 058) of Krishnaraja III, state: 

(Epigraphia Indica. Vol. V, page 192 and Vol. IV, page 281.) 
The seventh of Shaka S. 894 (V. S. 1029=:A.D. 972) is of Karkaraja II, which too 
contains : 

(Indian Antiquary, Vol. XII, page 264.) 
The eighth of Shaka S. 930 (V. S. 1065zr A.D. 1008) is of Kakkala, which also bears: - 

J'^S^ffcftj TOt aijf SrfcRRft 5[?K?i^TOf" 
(Epigraphia Indica, Vol. Ill, page 300.) 


above 8, the copper grant of Shaka S. 836 goes a step 
further as follows: 

i.e., Rashtrakuta Dantidurga was born in the line 
of Yadava Satyaki. 1 

But some time ago about 1800 silver coins of 
Rashtrakuta king Krishnaraja I, were found at Dhamori 
(Amraoti). On the obverse of these, the head of the 
king is represented, while on the reverse there is a 
phrase as stated below: 

This Krishnaraja was ruling in V. S. 829 (A.D. 772) 
and it bears testimony to the fact that at that time the 
Rashtrakutas were considered to be of the Solar 
origin, and the followers of the 'Shaiva' religion. 

A copper grant of Rashtrakuta Govindaraja III, dated 
Shaka S. 730 (V. S. 865- A. D. 808) found at Radhanpur 

i.e., by the birth of this virtuous king, the Rashtrakuta 
dynasty became as invincible as the Yadava dynasty 
by the birth of Shrl Krishna. 

1 Halayudha in his 'Kavirahasya' has also mentioned the Raehtrakutas ae 
being the descendants of Yadava Satyaki. Further, in the copper grant of Krishna III, 
dated Shaka S. 862 therj is a similar description (*3$^ ^fa HT^ftVWI^X 

2 In the copper grant of Govindachandra tf V. S 1174, the Gahatfavala kings 
are also mentioned as 'Paramamaheshvara* or staunch Shaivites. 

3 The word '^'3^3 is generally preceded by the name of the father of 
the person mentioned after it. Here the *^ ? '^ alludes to the king's solar lineage, 
because in the documents hitherto discovered 'Mahaditya' appears neither as a title 
nor aa a name of Krishrjara ja's father. Thus, it doubtlessly refers to his prims 
ancestor, the Bun, 


From this it is quite evident that upto V.S. 865 
(A.D. 8C8) the Rashtrakuta dynasty was considered 
as quite distinct from the Yadava family 1 . But later 
on, in the copper grant of Amoghavarsha I, dated 
Shaka S. 872, the Rashtrakutas are mentioned as the 
Yadavas. This is due to mistaking for identity the 
similitude of the Yadavas with the Rashtrakutas in the 
foregoing grant; and the authors of the subsequent 7 
documents, without thinking over the matter, followed 

It may be objected why the .Rashtrakutas did not 
care to rectify the mistake if, in fact, they did not 
belong to the Lunar stock. But instances of adherence 
to a mistaken theory adopted by the ancestors are not 
rare. The Slsodiya family of the Maharanas of Mewar 
is considered, beyond any doubt, to be of the Solar 
origin, yet Rana Kumbha, one of the most talented 
rulers of this dynasty, following the opinions of his 
predecessors, describes in the 'Rasikapriya/ a rendering 
by him on the 'Gitagovinda' his prime ancestor Bapa 
Ravala, as the son of a Brahmana: 

In the 'Rashtraudha Vamsha Mahakavya' of V. S. 

1 In the inscription of V. S. 1442 of the Yadava king Bliima, found at 
PrabhasarCtan, it is thus stated: 

i.e , just as the two dynasties known as the Solar and the Lunar are famous, in the 
like manner, the third dynasty known as the Ra^hora is also famous. King Dbarma 
of this dynasty mairied Yamuna, the daughter of kiua; lihiina. 

('Sahitya', Vol. I, part J, pages 27V-28L ; and 

Bombay Gazetteer, Vol. I, part II, pages 208-209.) 


1653 (already mentioned), it is stated 1 that Goddess 
Latana brought the son, born of the Chandra (Moon), 
and handed him over to the Surya Vamshl king 
Narayana of Kanauj, who had been observing penance 
for the birth of a son. And, as the child took upon 
himself the burden of the kingdom and the protection 
of the dynasty of the said Surya Vamshl king, he was 
named Rashtrodha. This shows that the Rathoras, even 
at that time too, were considered to ba Surya Vamshls. 

Similarly, in the inscriptions of the Gahadavala 
kings of Kanauj they have been mentioned as Surya 
Vamshis : 

i.e., on the expiry of a line of kings, 'Surya Vamshl' 
Yashovigraha, as powerful as the Sun himself, came 
to the throne. 

These Gahadvala Rathoras were also Rashtrakutas, 
(this fact will be proved in the next chapter) therefore, 

1 g<r 

u^ \\\ 

R firg ZRI% i 


the fact of the Rashtrakutas being 'Surya Vamshis' is 
unquestionable. 1 

1 Though the earliest-known copper grant of the Rashtrakuta Abhimanyu 
contains no date, yet from its character it appears to be of about the beginning of 
the seventh century of the Vikrama era. The seal on it contains an image of a 
lion, the vehicle of Goddess Ambika. Similarly, in the coins of Krishnaraja I, he 
is described as Tarama Maheshvara' or a staunch Shaivite. But in the subsequent 
grants of the Rashtrakutas a 'Garuda' has been substituted for the Hon. This 
shows that in the later period they might have been influenced by Vaishnavism. 
(In view of the seals of these copper grants Bhagwan Lai Indraji has also formed 
a similar opinion Journal of Bombay Asiatic Society, Vol. XVI, page 9.) 

Therefore, like the Gobi] a rulers of Bhaonagar, these kings also were 
considered to be 'Chandra Vamshis' instead of 'Siirya Vamshle'. Formerly, 
when Gohilae ruled over Kher ( Alarwar ), they were considered 'Surya Vamshis. 
But after their migration to Kathiawar they came to be considered as 'Chandra 
Vamshis' due to their being influenced by Vaishnavism, as is evinced by the 
following stanza: 


If V$ 

In the fifth edict of Ashoka, inscribed on the Girnar hill, there is a mention of the 
Raebtrakfttas, & n d i fc shows that the latter had also some connection with that 





As stated in a previous chapter, the Rashtra- 
kutas originally migrated from the north to the south. 

From the aforesaid copper grant, dated Shaka S. 
972, of Solanki Trilochanapala, we learn that Chalukya, 
the prime ancestor of the Solankis, had married the 
daughter of the Rashtrakuta king of Kanauj. Similarly, 
from the 4 Rashtrauclha Vamsha Mahakavya' it is 
evident that the Rashtrakutas ruled at Kanauj at an 
earlier period. 

An inscription 1 of Rashtrakuta king Lakhanapala, 
who flourished 2 about' V. S. 1258 (A.D. 1201), found 
at Badaun, contains the following: 

i.e., the city of Badaun, which is protected by the 
famous Rashtrakuta kings, is an ornament to the 
kingdom of Kanauj. Having overpowered the enemies 
with his strength, Chandra became its first king. 

1 Epigraphia Tnclica, Vol. I, page 64. 

2 Mr. Sanyal considers this inscription to be of a date prior to V. S. 1259 (A.I). 
1202). This will he considered later on. 

3 In the copper plate, dated V. S. 1150, of Chandradeva found at Badaun the 
same Word 'Panchala' ia uaed for Kanauj: 

(Epigraphia Indica, Vol. XIV, plige 193.) 


A copper grant 1 , dated V. S. 1148 (A.D. 1091), of 
Gahadavala Chandradeva found at Chandravati 
(Benares District) contains: 


i.e., Chandradeva, the son of Yashovigraha, became 
a very powerful king in this dynasty. Having defeated 
his enemies by force of arms, he took the kingdom 
of Kanauj. 

The dynasty of Chandracleva is not mentioned in 
this copper plate. 

It is evident from both these documents that Chand- 
radeva at first conquered Badaun and afterwards 
took possession of Kanauj. The first of these docu- 
ments belongs to those who designated themselves as 
'Rashtrakutas/ and the second to those who later on 
assumed the title of 'Gahadavala.' But by taking into 
consideration the period of Chandradeva of the ins- 
cription and of the copper plate, it is found that 
Chandradeva, who had established his kingdom at 
Kanauj and Chandradeva, from whom the Badaun 
line took its origin, was one and the same person. 
His eldest son Madanapala became king of Kanauj, 
and the younger son Vigrahapala 2 got Badaun as 
'Jagir/ The members of the Badaun family continued 
to be called 'Rashtrakutas' but those of the Kanauj 
family, in the course of time, came to be known as 
Gahadavalas 3 after Gadhipura (Kanauj). This changed 

1 Epigraphia Imlica, Vol. IX, pa^e.s 302-305. 

2 Perhaps Chanda Bardal, the author of the'Raso,' lias also mentioned Lakhanapala, 
the descendant of this Vigrahapfila 01 Badftun, as a nephew of Jayachandra. 

3 The Word "Gahada" in the "pin^ala" language means "firmness" and 
"power." Therefore, when the kings of thi^ dynasty became powerful and strong, 
it is probable that, they mi^ht have assumed this title, or just as the Rashtrakutas 
of the village Kainka (in II. P.) have come to be called Rainkvals ; in the 
like manner the Rashtrakutas of this branch, being the residents or rulers 
of Gadhipura (Kanauj\ weifc styled as Gahadavalas. For in the corrupt "Prakrita" 


name of the dynasty appears in only the copper grants 
of V. S. 1161,1162 and 1166 of the prince regent 
Govindachandra 1 as well as in the inscription of his 
queen Kumaradevl. 2 

By taking these facts into consideration we conclude 
that at first the Rashtrakutas held sway over Kanauj, 
after whom the Guptas, the Baisas, the Maukharis and 
the Pratiharas^ ruled there one after another. But 
from the copper grant 4 of Shaka Sam vat 836 (V. S. 971), 
issued by the Rashtrakuta king Indraraja III, it 
appears that he in his invasion of the North, having 
conquered Upendra, had laid waste Meru (Kanauj). 
Probably, Pratihara Mahipala was then ruling there. 

After this invasion, the kingdom of the Pratiharas 
(Padiharas) became weak and their feudatories began 
to declare independence. 5 From this it appears that 
about V. S. 1111 (A.D. 1054) Chandra of the Rashfra- 

language the form of Gadhipura might have become "GahaoV instead of "Gahi-ur." 
It may also be noted that when Rao SIha severed all his connections with Kanauj 
and migrated to Marwar, he abandoned his surname Gahatfavala and acknowledged 
himself as simple Rashtrakuta. 

1 3% TT^T^Sr snp ftswft *&: 

2 Epi^raphia Tndica, Vol. IX, P. 324. 

3 In V. S. 024 (A.D. 867) the Rashtrakuta king Dhruvaraja II of "Lata" 
(Gujrat) had defeated Pratihara king Bhojadeva of Kanauj. It was Nagabhata II, 
the grandfather of this Bhojadeva, who probably established his capital at Kanauj 
by defeating RashtrnkO'ta Chikrayudha, the successor of Indrayudha. 

History of Rajputana, Vol. I, page 161, footnote 1. 


Journal Bombay Asiatic Society, Vol. XVIII, page 261. This fact is also borne 
out by the copper sjrnnt, dated Shaka Parnvat 852, of Govinda IV, in which it is 
stated that Indraraja III, with his horsemen, crossed the Jamuna and laid waste 
the city of Kanauj: 


5 Even before this, between V. S 842 and 850 (A.D. 785 and 793), the kingdom 
of Dhruvara" ja had extended up to Avodhva in the north. Later, between V. S. 932 
and 971 (A.D. 875 and P14\ in the time of Krishnaraja II, it spread up to the bank* 
of the Ganges and between V. S. 997 and 1023 (A.D. 940 and 966), in the time of 
KrisbnarS ja III, it had extended further north crossingthe Ganges. 


family, taking possession of Badaun, might have 
.Afterwards conquered Kanauj. After the death of 
this Chandra his eldest son might have succeeded him 
at Kanauj and Badaun might have been given in his 
life-time, as a 'Jagir' to his second son. 

Later, when Harishchandra, the son of Jayachchandra, 
lost his kingdom of Kanauj, his descendants settled at 
$fahui in the district of Farrukhabad. But, when the 
l^ohammedans took possession of these places also, 
glhaji, the grandson of Jayachchandra, (sonofBara- 
4aisena) left the country for pilgrimage and reached 
Marwar. Here his descendants rule even to this day 
and consider themselves to be the descendants of 
Bashtrakuta king Jayachchandra. 

There still exist ruins at Mahui which are locally 
known as 'Siha Rao-ka-Kheda.' 

. ftao Jodha, a descendant of Rao Siha, built the fort 
and founded the town of Jodhpur in V, S. 1516 (A.D. 
1459). From the contents of a copper grant, issued by 
him, it appears that in the time of Rao Dhuhada, grand- 
son of Rao Siha, a Sarasvata Brahmana named Lumba 
rishi brought down from Kanauj the idol of 'Chakre- 
shvarf , the family deity of the Rathoras, which was 
theh installed at the village of Nagana. 

In some old manuscript chronicles this idol is said to 
have been brought from Kalyanl. 1 But this Kalyani too 
must be Jhe Kalyana-Kataka (cantonment) of Kanauj. 

All these facts go to prove that the Rashtrakutas 
and the Gahadavalas are one and the same. 

Dr. Hoernle considers the Gahadavala family to be 
a branch of the Pala dynasty. He is of opinion that 
the descendants of Nayapala, the eldest son of Mahl- 
pala, ruled over the province of Gauda (Bengal) and 
JVIahlpala's younger son, Chandradeva, took the 

1 Some people think that it was Konkan of the Deccan. But in the face &t 
'tfoe >pr6df * adduced aboye, c the supposition does not seem to be 


kingdom of Kanauj. But this does not seem to ba 
correct. Because firstly, neither in the inscriptions 
of the Pala kings are they mentioned as Gahatfavalas; 
nor is there any mention of the Pala dynasty in the 
inscriptions of the Gahadavalas. Secondly, the ending 
Tala' occurs in the name of all the kings of the PMa 
dynasty from its founder Gopala I, to its last king ; 
whereas, only one, out of the 8 Gahadavala kings, has 
used the suffix Pala in his name. Thirdly, the mere 
fact of a word being found in the names of two persons, 
should not be regarded as evidence of the two persons 
being identical. The names of the kings of the two 
dynasties are given below : 

Pala dynasty. Gahadavala dynasty. 

Vigrahapala . . . . Yashovigraha. 
Mahipala . . . . Mahichandra. 

Nayapala . . . . Chandradeva. 

The word 'Vigraha' is common to the names 
Vigrahapala and Yashovigraha. Similarly, the word.-. 
'Mahi' is found in the names Mahlpala and Mahichandra*. 
We know that Mahipala of the Pala dynasty was a 
powerful king who had regained the lost kingdom ot 
his father and constructed many temples in Benares^ 
through his sons ^ ?) Sthirapala and Vasantapala, while. 
Mahichandra of Gahadavala dynasty was not feven an 
independent ruler. Hence, such coincidence by iteelf can , 
in no way be supposed to prove that Mahipala and, 
Mahichandra were one and the same person. 1 . ; 

Fourthly, the dates of the inscriptions of the kings 
of the Pala dynasty are indicated by their regnal 

1 Moreover, there is an interval of 65 years between the issue of the Copper 
grant of Pala king Mahipala dated V. 8. 1083 (A.D 1026) and that of Gahadavala 
Cbandradeva of V. 8. 1148 (A.U. 1091), which produces doubt as to whether these 
two kings were father and son. The last copper grant oj Chandradeva hitherto 
(Discovered is of V. S. 1156 \A.D, 1000;, 


years 1 instead of by the Vikrama Samvat ; whereas the 
grants of the Gahadavala kings bear Vikrama Samvat 
and not the regnal years. Fifthly, 2 kings Dharmapala 
and Rayapala of the Pala dynasty had married the 
daughters of the Rashtarkuta kings Parabala and 
Tunga respectively; and it has, ere this, been estab- 
lished by proofs that the Rashtrakutas and the 
Gaha<Javalas are collaterals. Therefore, Dr. Hoernle's 
supposition is not reasonable. 

Mr. Vincent Smith considers the northern Rashtra- 
kutas (Rathoras) to be the off-shoots of the Gahatfavalas 
and the Rashtrakutas of Deccan to be the descendants 
of the non-Aryans. 3 But in the light of the above facts 
this supposition also seems groundless. Moreover, 
their marrying the daughters of the Solankls and the 
Yadavas proves them to be pure Kshatriyas. 

Kashmiri Pandit Kalhana in his well-known 
history of Kashmir, named 'Rajatarangini', written in 
the twelfth century of the Vikrama era, mentions 
36 clans of the Kshatriyas 4 . In Vikrama S. 1422, Jaya- 
simha had commenced writing the 'Kumarapalacharita' 
in which he has enumerated the 36 clans mentioning 
only "Rafta" as one of them but there is no mention of 
the Gahadavalas. Similarly, in theTrithvIrajaRaso' the 
name Rathora alone occurs but not Gahadavala. Fur- 
ther, Jayachandra is also stated in it as being aRathora. 

The ftaja of Rampur (Farrukhabad district), the 
Rao of Khimsepur (Mainpuri district) and the chau- 
dharls of Surja and Sorda, allege themselves to 
be Rathoras, descended from Jajpala, the son of 

1 Among the inscriptions of the Pala kings, there is only one of Mahlpala 
that bears a Vikrama baravat (1083). 

2 This custom was not strictly observed (See p. 32.) 

3 Early History of India, (1924), pages 429-430. 



Taranga VII. 


Jayachchandra. Similarly, the Rajas of Bijaipur and 
Mantfa think themselves to be the descendants of 
Manika Chandra, the brother of Jayachchandra, and are 
called Chandravamshi Gahadavala Ratfioras. 1 From 
this, too, we conclude that the "Gahadavala" was the 
name of a branch of the Rashtraku^a dynasty. 

In the face of so many strong proofs it would be 
unreasonable to think that the Gahadavalas and the 
Rashtrakutas are of different origins. 

Mr. N. B. Sanyal thinks 2 that, as the title 'Gadhi- 
puradhipa' (master of Kanauj) is attached to the 
name of Gopala in the Budhist inscription 3 of V. S. 
1 176 (A.D. 1118), found at Set Maheth, the Gopala and 
his successor Madanpala mentioned in it are identical 
with the Gopala and the Madanapala of the inscription 
of Rashtrakuta king Lakhanapala of Badaun. Gopala 
had taken possession of Kanauj in the last quarter of 
the eleventh century A.D. i.e., some time between the 
overthrow of the Pratihara dynasty of Kanauj in V. S. 
1077 (A.D. 1020) and the establishment of Gahadavala 
kingdom of Kanauj by Chandradeva towards the close 
of the 1 1th century A.D. And this Chandra had seized 
the kingdom of Kanauj from the very Gopala. This is 
the reason why the title Gadhipuradhipa appears with 
the name of Gopala alone in the Sat Maheth inscription. 

Further, Mr. Sanyal proceeds to quoie the following 
couplet from the copper grant 1 of Shaka S. 9/2 (V. S. 
U07=A.D. 1050) of SQlankI Trilochanapala discovered 
at Surat. 

1 People of Shamsabad say that after the fall of Kanauj some of the descend- 
ants of Jayachchandra had gone to Nepal and they called themselves Rathoras. 
Some fifty yeare ago on auspicious c.ccafiione such as marriage, etc., they used to send 
for a brick from Shameabad. This indicates their love for their motherland, 

2 Journal Bengal Asiatic Society, (1925), Vol. XXI, page 103. 

3 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XXIV, page 176. 

4 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XII, page 201, 


This testifies the rule of the Rashtrakutas over 
Kanauj at an early period. 

Mr. Sanyal then cites the aforesaid Seth Maheth 
inscription as a proof of the above. 

Let us examine this theory critically. 

From the copper grant 1 of V. S. 1084 (A.D. 1027) of 
Pratihara Trilochanapala, and from the inscription 2 of 
V.S. 1093 (A.D. 1036) of Yashahpala, we understand 
that the rule of the Pratiharas' over Kanauj had 
probably continued even after this date. In the copper 
grant 3 of V.S. 1148 (A.D. 1091) of Gahadavala king 
Chandra it is thus stated: 

This shows that long before the writing of this 
capper grant, king Chandra had taken possession of 
Kanauj. For, there is in the above stanza a reference 
to -his several charitable grants of gold weighing as 
much as his person after a mention of his conquests of 
Kashl, Kushika and north Koshala. 

He must have taken some years in performing such 
great deeds. Therefore, the supposition that Chandra 
had conquered Kanauj in the last part of the 1 1th 
century'A.D. and that before this, i.e., in the last 
quarter of the same century Kanauj -was ruled over 
by Gopala of the Rashtrakuta dynasty of Badaun, does 
not appeal much to reaspn. 

Further, in ascertaining the date of Lakhanapala's 
inscription 4 , Mr. Sanyal says that Qutubuddin Aibak, 

1 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XVIII, pa^t' !J4. 

2 Journal Bengal Asiatic Society, Vol. V, pago V.'H, 

3 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. IX, page 304. 

4 Bpigraphia Indica, Vol. I, page 64. 


conquering Badaun in A.D. 1202 (V. S. 1259), granted 
that territory as 'Jaglr' to Shamsuddin 1 Altamash. 
This inscription of Lakhanapala nnist, therefore, be of 
a date just before V.S. 1259. According to this opinion 
if we take Lakhanapala's inscription to be of V.S. 
1258, i.e., a year before this date, there occurs a period 
of 82 years between this and the Budhist inscription, 
dated V.S. 1 176 (A.D. 1 118), of king Madanapala found 
at Set Maheth. And this period is quite reasonable 
for the four generations that intervened between 
Madanapala and Lakhanapala. Again, by supposing 
V. S. 1 171 (A.D. 1 1 14) as the date of the Mohammedan 
invasion (in which according to Mr. Sanyal, Madana- 
pala had fought in the capacity of a feudatory of the 
Gahadavala king Govindachandra of Kanauj), which is 
mentioned in the Budhist inscription 2 of Kumardevi, 
the queen of king Govindachandra, and by counting- 
back 60 years from this date for the reigns of the 
3 ancestors of Madarapala of Badaun, the time of his 
fourth ancestor i.e., king Chandradeva comes to about 
V. S. 1111 (A.D. 1054). Under the circumstances, if 
the date of the birth of king Chandra be supposed to be 
about V.S. 1090 (A.D. 1033) his having lived to an age 
of 67 years upto V. S. 1 157 (A.D. 1 100) is not an impos- 
sibility. His long life is also proved by the fact that 
in V/S. 1154 (A.D. 1007), in all probability due to 
old age, he had in hi* life-time, transferred ttte reins 
of the government to his son Madanapala of Kanauj. 
And only three years afterwards, in V. S. 1157 (A.D. 
1 100) when he died, even his son Madana had grown old. 
He, too, made over the government of his kingdom to 
his son Govindachandra in V. S. 116! (A.D. 1104) 
and died in V. S. 1 167 (A.D. 1 1 10). 

J~gYliot's History of India, Vol. II, page 23*> and 4 Tabqat-i-Nairi' 

translation), page 530. 
2 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. IX, page 324, 


The death of Chandra is held to have occurred in 
V. S. 1157 (A.D. 1100). From this we conclude that 
Vigrahapala (who being his younger son, was given 
the 'Jaglr' of Badaun) and his son Bhuvanpala of the 
Badaun inscription might have died during Chandra's 
life-time and that Gopala ruled over Badaun at the time 
of Chandra's death. It is also probable that his younger 
son Vigrahapala and the latter's son Bhuvanpala, 
having predeceased, Chandra in V. S. 11 54 (A.D. 1097), 
being disgusted with the worldly affairs, might have 
renounced the kingdom and raised his eldest son 
Madanapala to the throne of Kanauj. Chandra's 
existence might account for the intimate relations that 
existed between the two families of Kanauj and 
Badaun upto the time of Gopala. Due to this fact, or that 
of the late birth of the heir-apparent Govindachandra 
and the probability of Gopala's being taken in adop- 
tion, or for some other reason the title 'Gadhipuradhipa' 
might have been attached to the name of GopSla. But 
in the time of his (Gopala's) son due to the disappear- 
ance of such causes and also due to the establishment 
of the relation of a monarch and a feudatory between 
the two families, the title ceased to apply to Madana- 
pala. In course of time it might have been thought 
improper to use this title with the name of Gopala 
even. Had Gopala, in fact, conquered Kanauj, the 
title 'Gadhipuradhipa' must have also been mentioned 
with his name in the Badaun inscription. 

It does not appear reasonable that the writer of the 
Badaun inscription, who exults in making such a high 
sounding mention ( are^wrsw: 3*ft-f^^wm?r * ^ffo^X 
i. e., owing to the valour of Madanapala the Moham- 
medans did not ever dream of coming near the banks of 
the Ganges) of the battle fought by the ancestor of his 
patron in the capacity of a feudatory only, should have 


forgotten to take notice of such a remarkable deed as 
the conquest of Kanauj by Madan's father, Gopal. 

Taking all these facts into consideration if we 
suppose the two Chandras, viz., that of Badaun and the 
conqueror of Kanauj, as one and the same, most of the 
controversies disappear; and there appears no objec- 
tion to doing so. 

The Rashtrakuta family of Kanauj mentioned in 
the copper plate of V. S. 1107 (A.D. 1050) of Solanki 
Trilochanapala, refers only to the Rashtrakuta family 
contemporary with the prime ancestor of the Chalukya 
clan, who is said to have married in it and not the 
later one. The inscription of Set Maheth, therefore, 
cannot be of much importance to support that theory. 


In this chapter some more objections to the theory 
of the Rashtrakutas and the Gahadavalas being the mem- 
bers of one and the same dynasty will be considered: 

Historians of the East and the West, who hesitate to 
admit the Rashtrakutas of the Deccan and the 
Gahadavalas of Kanauj to be of one and the same 
dynasty, offer the following reasons for their doubts. 

(1) That in the inscriptions of the Rashtrakutas 
they are stated as of the Lunar dynasty, while the 
Gahadavalas assert that they belong to the Solar stock. 

(2) That the 'gotra' of the Rashtrakutas is 
'Gautama', while that of the Gahadavalas is 'Kashyapa/ 

(3) That in the copper grants of the Gahadavalas 
they are not stated as "Rashtrakutas" but only as 

(4) That the Rashtrakutas and the Gahadavalas 
used to intermarry. 

(5) That the other 'Kshatriyas' do not consider the 
Gahadavalas to be of a high and pure descent. 

(1) In a previous chapter named "The Origin of 
the Rashtrakutas" we have already discussed this 
subject. But leaving aside those facts, it may be 
stated that the classification of dynasties as the 
Solar, the Lunar, and the Fire dynasties was made 
only in the Tauranik' age; for the kings of the 
same dynasty are in some inscriptions stated as belon- 
ging to the Solar stock, while in others to the Lunar 
or Fire dynasty. Here we quote some instances for 


The family of the Maharanas of Udaipur (Mewar) 
is well-known in India to be of the Solar origin; but 
in the inscription dated V.S. 1331 (A.D. 1274) of Chitor- 
garh it is stated to be as follows: 


i.e., Bappa (the prime ancestor of the Maharanas), 
a Brahmana, coming from Anandapur, worshipped 
the sage Harlta. 

This fact is also proved by the inscription, of Samar- 
simha, dated V. S. 1342 (A.D. 1/85) and found in the 
monastery near Achaleshvara temple at Abu. 

The book named 'Eklinga Mahatmya', compiled in 
the time of Rana Kumbha, states: 

5W3: ^affofTOW II 

i.e., Guhadatta, a Brahmana coming from Ananda- 
pur, founded the 'Guhila' dynasty. 

In the beginning of the 'Rasikapriya', a commentary 
by Rana Kumbha himself, on^ the "Glta Govinda" of 
Jayadeva, it is stated: 

ic., Bappa, a Brahmana, of the 'Vaijavapa Gotra, 1 
got a slate by the favour of ''Shiva/' 

In the inscription of Guhilota Baluditya, found at 
Chats! in tha Jaipur otato, it is stated: 
a Hcf-T.fc ; -.3'-- 4-^f r T -^ ir ............ 

i.e., combining in himself tli3 powers of a warrior 
and of a priest 'like Parashurama:, Bhartribhatta be- 
came a king in this dynasty. (The poet here has very 
nicely expressed hinio^If by usinj the word "a$^r*"). 

From tha abov: raier^n 333 one ca:i easily presume that 
the founder of tha famous Guhilota dynasty of Mewar 


was a Nagara Brahmana of the 'Vaijavapa GStra.' 
But are the historians prepared to accept this theory ? 
Similar is the case of the Solanki (Chalukya) dy- 
nasty. In the inscription, of Solanki Vikramaditya VI, 
dated V. S. 1 133 (A.D. 1076), it is stated as follows: 


i.e., the Chalukya dynasty traces its origin to the 
Moon. This fact is also established by their other 
inscriptions, by the 'Dvyashraya Kavya' of Hema- 
chandra, and by 'Vastupalacharita' of Jinaharshagani. 

In the copper grant, dated V. S. 1200 (A.D. 1143), 
of Kulottungachudadeva II, the Chalukyas are said to 
be Chandravamshis, belonging to 'Manavya Gotra', and 
the descendants of the sage Harlti. 

Bilhana, the well-known Kashmiri poet, in his 
"Vikramankadeva Charita", has stated the descent of 
this (Chalukya) dynasty from the handful of water 
by Brahma. The same fact is proved by the inscrip- 
tion, dated V. S. 1208 (A.D. 1151), of the time of 
Solanki Kumarapala, by the Kanthunatha inscription 
of Khambhat, and by the copper grant, dated V.S. 1 107 
(A.D. 1050), of Trilochanapala. 

In the inscription of Bilharl (Jabalpur district), of 
the time of Yuvarajadeva II of theHaihaya (Kalachuri) 
dynasty the Chalukya dynasty is stated to have origin- 
ated from the handful of water of Drona 1 ; but in the 
Trithviraja Raso' the Solankis are stated to be 'Agni 

At present, the Solankis (and the Baghelas) 2 them- 
selves admit that their originator Chalukya had sprung 
from the sacrificial fire of Vashishtfia. 

1 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. I, page 2f>7. 
f & branch ff tb* 


Now, let us consider the origin of Chauhanas. 

In the inscription, dated V. S. 1225 (A.D. 1168), 
discovered by Col. James Tod in the Hans! Fort, and 
in that of V.S. 1377 (A.D. 1320) of Devada (Chauhana) 
Rao Lumbha, found at the Achaleshvara temple at 
Abu, the Chauhanas are said to belong to the Lunar 
dynasty, and to 'Vatsa Gotra; while in the inscrip- 
tions of the time of Visaladeva IV, in the 'Hammira 
Mahakavya' of Nayachandra Suri, and in the Trithvl- 
rajavijya Mahakavya' the Chauhanas are said to belong 
to the Solar dynasty. Contrary to both these opinions, 
the Trithviraja Raso/ and the Chauhanas of the pre- 
sent day hold that their originator had sprung from 
the sacrificial fire of the sage Vashishtha. 

The origin of the Paramara dynasty stands as 
below : 

In the 'Navasahasanka Charita,' written by Padma- 
gupta (Parimala), the originator of this dynasty is 
said to have sprung from the sacrificial fire of Vashish- 
tha; and in their inscriptions as well as in "Tilaka 
Manjari", written by Dhanapala, the same opinion is 
upheld. But Halayudha, in his "Pingala Sutra Vritti", 
has quoted a verse in which king Munja of the Para- 
mara dynasty is said to have been born of the priest- 
warrior stock i^^fMfa:), which is worth consideration. 

Further, the modern Paramara rulers of Malwa 
allege themselves to be the descendants of the famous 
king Vikramaditya. But from the documents of their 
ancestors this allegation finds no support. 

Similarly, views about the origin of the Pratihara 
(Patfihara) dynasty are also different. Some think 
this dynasty to have originated 1 from a Brahmana named 
Harishchandra and a Kshatriya lady named Bhadra; 

iptiow. dgted V. ft. rj<V of Pratiliftra 


while others say that the originator of this dynasty 
had sprung from the sacrificial fire of Vashishtha. 

Looking to these controversies, we should not be 
surprised to see the misrepresentation about the dy- 
nasty of the Rashtrakutas. Perhaps, all this confusion 
regarding the origin of the different dynasties has 
arisen from the belief in the legends of the Puranas. 
Hence, this belief should have no importance from the 
historical point of view. 1 

(2) Vigyaneshvara says that the 'Gotras' and the 
'Pravaras' of the Kshatriyas accord with those of their 
priests 2 . Therefore, it appears that the above theory 
was prevalent upto the i 2th century of the Vikrama 
era. It is probable that when the Rashtrakutas came 
to Kanauj, their old priests might have been left behind 
and new ones appointed, which brought about the 
change of their 'Gotra' from 'Gautama' to 'Kashyapa.' 
It is also possible that this 'Gautama Gotra' might have 
been assumed by them on their coming to Marwar, 
before which they belonged to the 'Kashyapa Gotra.' 

In the inscriptions of the ruling families, the men- 
tion of these 'Gotras' is very rare. Hence, it is also 
possible that, in tha course of time, having forgotten 
their original 'Gjtra,' thsy mijht hav3 adopted the 
'Kashyapa Gjtra' as is usual in such cas33. Under the 
circumstan23S, it doss not sasm proper to consider the 

1 In tl..i ii sc'rption of the Kalachuri Mjjiila of the s>iuth'rn India dated 
Shaka S. 1084, thj Ras.rakutas are s'ate-l, out of malice, as belonging to the 'Daitya 
yamsha'. iEpiyr.i 4 jh,:i Jn-iicu, Vo 1 ,. V, p^:;e 16), 


Common '^r T7 o^ veis r > - r 3. 

Th'* fact *e n'so proved by the fo'lr.winc; Ptnnza qaoted fr^m th 
'Saundaranada Mahakavya', crmposc-d in the e?c..nd century of the Vikrama era 

Saundaraaada Mahakavya, Sarga I, 


Rashtrakutas and the Gahadvalas, who have been held 
as collaterals for ages, to be of different lineages, merely 
on account of the difference of their 'Gotras.' 

(3) An inscription of Pratihara Bauka, found at 
Jodhpur, contains. 

te., who obtained the Umbrella after killing the 
Bhati king Devaraja of the 'Valla Mandala/ 

i.e., a son named Bauka \vas born to king Kakka 
from his wife of the Bhati clan. 

In these inscriptions the writer has omitted the 
name of the famous Yadava clan, and has only men- 
tioned its Bhati branch. Are we to infer from this that 
the Bhatls are of a different lineage from the Yadavas? 
If not, on what good grounds are we to suppose the 
Rashtrakutas and theCahadavalas as being of different 
origins ? Can we arrive at such a conclusion from the 
mere fact that in only the three copper grants of the 
prince regent, Govindachandra, of V. S. 1161, 1162 and 
1 166, as well as in the inscription of his queen Kumara- 
devi no mention is made of the Rashtrakuta^dynasty, 
but of its Gh?.dav?ln branch. 1 

1 In the irscrintion of the Ohnndela Kshatriyas they are mentioned as 

Chandra t re vrs, that is, the descendants of Chandra, tho son of Atri. 

In the 'Prithviraja T\nsV 1 heir origin is stated to be from the Moon and 
Hemavati, the widowed daughter of Tlonrwraja, the priest of the Gahadavala king 
Indrajit; but the Climdehis nMe^e that they are the collaterals of the Rashtrakutas. 
They had ruled over Bnndelklvind and its neighbouring place?. 

Similarly, the Hnndelas are alo held to be the collaterals of the Gabatfavalas? 
(Some Pnramarae, Chanhanas, etc., also have subsequently got mixed in these 
Bundelas?). At present the rulers of Orchha, Tehrv PannS, etc., are of the 
Bundela clan, 


Even at the present day the Rajputas belonging to 
the Devatfa or Sisodiya branches of the Chauhana 1 or 
Guhilota clans respectively, when asked, do not declare 
themselves as Chauhanas or Guhilotas but simply say 
that they are Devadas or Slsodiyas. Further, the era 
founded by the famous Haihaya clan is named after 
their branch as 'Kalachuri Samvat' and 'not Haihaya 

(4) An inscription of queen Kumaradevi of 
Maharajadhiraja Govindachandra has been found at 
Saranatha 2 from which we learn that she was the 
grand-daughter (daughter's daughter) of Mahana, the 
Rashtrakuta. In the 'Ramacharita', compiled by 
Sandhyakaranandl, this Mahana (Mathana) is said to 
belong to the Rashtrakuta dynasty. Such connections 
are even now allowed. Care is only taken that the 
bride should not be the grand-daughter (daughter's 
daughter) of the same sub-clan to which the bridgroom 

(5) First of all, the objection has no sound basis. 
Secondly, the inscription, dated 1166 (A.D. 1109), of 
the prince regent Govindachandra contains: 

: u 

i.e , on the expiry of the kings of the Solar and the 
Lunar dynasties, when the Vedic religion began to 
dwindle away, Bramha himself, with a view to main- 
tain all these, took an incarnation in the person of 
king Chandradeva in this family. 

1 The ruler of Kotah, belonging to the Chauhana dynasty, is known to the 
general public as of the Hada^clan, which is a branch of the Chauhana dynasty. 

2 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. IX, pa$es 319-328, 


This shows that, at that time also, the Gahadavala 
family was held in very high esteem. 

By taking all these facts into consideration we 
conclude that "Gahadavala" was a branch 1 of the 
Rashtrakuta dynasty. This subject has already been 
dealt with in the chapter "The Rashtrakutas and the 

1 Some people are of opinion that just as the Chundavata, Udihata and 
Jagamalota branches are found in both the Kathoras and the Sisodiyas, in the 
same manner, it is possible that a distinct branch named "Yadava" might have 
ensued from the Kathora dynasty, and afterwards people might have connected it 
with king Satyaki due to a particular member of Ihe branch having the same name. 
But just as the names of certain branches of the Kat-horas and Sisodiyas, being the 
same, the two dynasties are yet quite distinct ; even so the famous Yadavas of the 
Lunar dynasty and the supposed Yadava branch of Rat^horas nre distinct from each 
other. This subject has already been discussed under the chapter "The Origin of the 
Rash^rakutas." Moreover, even in the modern times there are many branches such 
as Nagada, Dahima, Sonagara, ShrimalT, Gau<Ja, etc,, which are common to the 
Brahamijas, Kshatriyas and Vaiehyas, 





In the earliest copper grant of the Rashtrakuta 
king Abhimanyu an image of a lion, the vehicle of 
'Ambika/ is impressed. In the seal of the copper grant 
of Dantivarman (Dantidurga II), of Shaka S. 675 
(V.S.810^A.D. 753), there is the impression of an image 
of 'Shiva/ In the coins of Krishnaraja I his title is 
mentioned as Tarama Maheshvara' and in his inscrip- 
tion of Shaka S. 690 (V. S. 825^A. D. 768) there is an 
impression of a 'Shiva Linga.' But of the copper 
grants of the later dates some bear the impression of an 
image of a "Garuda", while others that of 'Shiva/ 

The flag of the Rashtrakutas was called the "Pali- 
dhvaja" 1 and they were also known as "Oka Ketu". 
Their coat of arms contained the signs of the Ganges 
and the Jamuna, probably copied from the western 
Chalykyas of Badami. 

1 In the 22nd 'Parva' of t he 'Adi Parana,' written by Jinasena, it is said : 

i.e., flags aro of 10 kinds according to the signs, *;fe., 1. Garland, 2. Cloth, 3. Peacock, 
4. Lotus, 5. Swan, 6 Garutfa, 7. Lion, 8. Bull, 9. Elephant and 10. Quoit. And a 
'Paliketana' or Talidhvaja' is a Hag which contains in the 4 directions 108 flags of 
each of these 10 kind*, or 1080 / 4=4320 Hags in all the four directions. 


The family deity of the later Rashtrakutas is known 
by the names of "Latana" (Latana) , "Rashtrashyena," 1 
"Manasa" or "Vindhyavasinl." It is said that as this 
goddess, having incarnated as a falcon, had saved 
their kingdom, she became known by the name of 
'Rashtrashyena.' In commemoration of the above 
event a falcon is represented on the "State Flag" of 
the Marwar Darbar even upto the present day. 

From the above it appears that the kings of this 
dynasty from time to time used to observe the 
'Shaiva/ the 'Vaishnava/ and the 'Shakta' religions. 

The 'Uttara Purana' of the Jainas contains the 

i.e., king Amoghavarsha, having bowed before the 
Jaina priest Jinasena, congratulated himself. This 
shows that Amoghavarsha was the follower of the 
teachings of Jinasena. In the book named "Ratna- 
malika" ("Prashnottararatnamalika''), written by 
Amoghavarsha, it is said: 


1 In the llth chapter of the 'Ekaliuga Mahatniya' it is stated: 

cif ^sKerr ^n^iOT c^ ^r inkn 

This shows that the protectress of Mewar is also the very Goddess Rashtra- 
shyena.', Its temple is situated 011 the top of a hill at a distance of .3 miles from 
the temple of 'Skalinga Mahadeva' in Mewar. * 


i.e., having bowed to Varddhamana (Mahavlra) I 
write this Trashnottararatnamalika.' 

Amoghavarsha, who renounced the kingdom because 
of 'Jnana' (discrimination), has written this book 
named "Ratnamalika." 

In the "Ganitasarasangraha" of Mahavlracharya 
it is stated:- 


: I 

i.e., the subjects under the rule of Amoghavarsha 
are happy and the land yields plenty of grain. May 
the kingdom of this king (Nripatunga-Amoghavarsha), 
the follower of Jainism, ever increase far and wide. 

This also shows that Amoghavarsha was the follower 
of Jainism and presumably he embraced this religion 
in his old age. 

It is quite clear that the Tauranik' religion had 
flourished to a great extent during the reign of the 
Rashtrakuta kings, and many temples, dedicated to 
'Shiva' and 'Vishnu', were built. All the rock-cut temples, 
etc., byilt before the reign of the Rashtrakutas of the 
Deccan, were meant for the Budhists, Jainas and 
the Nirgranthas only. But it was in the time of these 
kings that the 'Kailasa Bhavana' of the Ellora caves, 
dedicated to 'Shiva/ was constructed for the first time. 

Most of the kings of the Kanauj branch of this 
family were the followers of Vaishnavism and their 
copper grants found upto this date show that this 
dynasty was more generous than all the other ruling 





Much improvement was effected in science and arts 
in the time of the Rashtrakuta kings. 

These kings were themselves men of learning and 
always patronised it. The logician Akalanka Bhatta, 
author of the "Rajavartika", the "Nyayavinishchaya," 
the "Ashtashatl" and the "Laghiyastraya"; Mahavira- 
charya, author of the "Ganitasarasangraha"; Jinasena, 
writer of the "Adi Purana" and the "Parshvabhyu- 
daya"; another Jinasena, author of the "Harivamsha 
Purana"; Gunabhadracharya, writer of the "Atmanu- 
shasana"; poet Halayudha, compiler of the "Kavira- 
hasya 1 "; Somadeva Silri, writer of the "Yashastilaka 
Champu" and the "Nitivakyamrita" on politics; Cana- 
rese poet Ponna, writer of the "Shanti Purana" (whom 
king Krishna III, had honoured with the title of 
"Ubhayabhasha Chakravarti" = master of two langu- 
ages; Pushpadanta, writer of the "Yashodhara Cha- 
rita", the "Nagakumara Charita" and the "Jaina 
Maha Purana"; Trivikrama Bhatta, author of the 
"Madalasa Champu"; Lakshmidhara, compiler of the 
"Vyavahara Kalpataru"; and* Shri Harsha, author of 
the "Naishadhiya Charita" and the "Khandana khanda 
khadya"and others, flourished in the time of these kings. 2 

1 Sir Bhandarknr inclines to identify the author of the "Kavirahasya" with 
the Halayudha, who wote tlie 'Abhidhana ratuamala,' but Weber places the latter 
about the end of the llth century. 

2 In the Jaina library of Karnnja there is a book named "Jvala malini kalpa," 
This book was completed in Shaka S. 861 during the reign of Krishna 111, 


The "Prashnottararatnamalika", written by king 
Amoghavarsh, which exists even to this day, testifies to 
the learning of the kings of this dynasty. Its 
composition is of a very high order. Though some per- 
sons think Shankaracharya, and others 'Shvetambara' 
Jainacharya, to be the author of the book, yet in the 
copies of the book, written by 'Digambara Jainas,' it is 
said to have been compiled by king Amoghavarsha and 
the same fact is proved by the verses quoted from the 
book in the preceding chapter. This book has also been 
translated into the Tibetan language, in which, too, the 
name of the author is written as Amoghavarsha. 

The same Amoghavarsha had also written another 
book named "Kavirajamarga", a prosody, in the Cana- 
rese language. 

We have already stated that art also had much 
improved in their times. The temple of 'Kailasa 
Bhavana' 1 of the Ellora caves is a living instance of 
the fact. This cave temple was constructed in the 
reign of king Krishnaraja I by cutting the rocks. Its 
excellence is beyond the power of description. 

"Jayadhavala", a commentary of the principles of tho 'Digambara' branch of 
Jainism, was Written in the time of Amoghnvarsha I. From the "Shriknnthu 
charita" of poet Mankha, it appears that Alunkara, the minister of king Jayasimha 
of Kashmir, had called a big assernbTy in which Pandit Snhala was sent out as a 
delegate by king Govindachandra of Kanauj. 

1 Of the A janta caves, which are famous for their art, Nos. 1 and 2 were also 
trailt in the beginning of tbe reign of tbe Uash^rakutas of Manyakhe^a, 





In the "Silsilatuttavarlkh" 1 , a history written by an 
Arab trader Sulaiman, in A. H. 237 (V. S. 908-A.D. 
851) and modified and completed by Abuzaldul Hasan 
of Siraf, in A. H. 303 (V. S. 973=A.D. 916), it is thus 
stated : 

"The inhabitants of India and China agree that 
there are four great or principal kings in the world. 
They place the king of the Arabs (Khalif of Baghdad) at 

the head of these The king of China reckons 

himself next after the king of the Arabs. After him 
comes the king of the Greeks, and lastly the Balhara, 
prince of the men who have their ears pierced (i.e., the 
Hindus) ". 

"The Balhara is the most eminent of the princes of 
India, and the Indians acknowledge his superiority. 
Every prince in India is master in his own state, but 
all pay homage to the supermacy of Balhara. The 
representatives sent by the Balhara to other princes 
are received with most profound respect in order to 
show him honour. He gives regular pay to his troops, 
as the practice is among the Arabs. He has many horses 
and elephants, and immense wealth. The coins which 
pass in his country are the Tatarlya dirhams, each of 
which weighs a dirham and a half of the coinage of the 
king. They are dated from the year in which the 

1 Elliot '6 History of India, Vol. I, j&gea 3-4. 


dynasty acquired the throne. They do not, like the 
Arabs, use the Hijra of the prophet, but date their eras 
from the beginning of their kings' reigns; and their 
kings live long, frequently reigning for fifty years. 
The inhabitants of the Balhara's country say that if 
their kings reign and live for a long time, it is solely 
in consequence of the favour shown to the Arabs. In 
fact, among all the kings there is no one to be found 
who is so partial to the Arabs as the Balhara; and 
his subjects follow his example/' 

"Balhara is the title borne by all the kings of this 
dynasty. It is similar to Chosroes (of the Persians), 
and is not a proper name. The kingdom of the Balhara 
commences on the seaside, at the country of kukam 
(Konkan)on the tongue of land which stretches to China. 
The Balhara has around him several kings with whom 
he is at war, but whom he greatly excels. Among them 
is the king of the Jurz 1 . 

In the book "Kitab-ul-Masalik-ul-Mumalik", written 
by Ibn Khurdadba, who died in A. H. 300 (V. S. 969= 
A. D. 912), it is thus stated: 2 

"The greatest king of India is Balhara, whose name 
imports "king of kings." He wears a ring in which 

1 The above statement seems to be a sketch of the reign of king Amoghavarsha I 
who was ruling in the Deccan when this book was written and who had also 
attacked Rashtrakuta king Dhruvaraja I of Gujrat. The kingdom of the Rashtra- 
kuta king Dhruvaraja 1 of the Deccan extended from Rameshvara in the south to 
Ayodhya in the north. In the Chronology of Nepal it is stated that in Shaka 8. 
811 (V. 8. 946 A.D. 889) Kyanadeva, the founder of the dynasty of Karnatik, having 
conie up from the Deccan, took the whole of Nepal and for (> generations his descend- 
ants ruled there. In Shaka Sannat 811 Krishnaraja II was the king of Karnatik ; 
and seventh in descent from him was Karkaraja II from whom Tailapa II of the 
Chalukya dynasty seized the kingdom of the Rash^rakutas. So, it is probable that 
the descendants of Dhruvaraja 1 of Manyakheta, having progressed beyond Ayo- 
dhya, might have captured a portion of Nepal and afterwards Krishnaraja II, having 
advanced farther, taken the whole of the country. As the boundaries of China and 
Nepal are adjacent, Sulaiman might have, for thip reason, recorded the extent of 
their kingdom to be upto the Chinese frontier. 

2 Elliots History of India, Vol. I, page 13. This description refers to the reign 
Of king Krishnaraja II, < 


is inscribed the following sentence : " What is begun 
with resolution ends with success." 

The book named "Murujul Zahab", written by Al- 
Masudi about A. H. 332 (V. S. 1001A.D. 944), contains 
the following: 1 

"The city of Mankir, which was the great centre of 
India, submitted to a king called the Balhara, and the 
name of this prince continues to his successors who 
reign in that capital until the present time (332 A.H.)." 

" The greatest of the kings of India in our time is 
the Balhara, sovereign of the city of Mankir. Many 
of the kings of India turn their faces towards him in 
their prayers, and they make supplications to his ambas- 
sadors, who come to visit them. The kingdom of the 
Balhara is bordered by many other countries of India. 
. .The capital of the Balhara is eighty Sindi Parasangs 
from the sea, (and the Parasang 2 is equal to eight 
miles). His troops and elephants are innumerable, but 
his troops are mostly infantry, because the seat of his 
government is among the mountains. . .Bayura 3 who 
is the king of Kanauj, is an enemy of the Balhara, the 

king of India The inhabitants of Mankir, which is 

the capital of the Balhara, speak the Kirlya 4 language, 
which has this name from Kira the place where it is 

Al Istakhr!, 5 who wrote the "Kitabul Akalim", in 
A. H. 340 (V. S. IGOo A.D. 931) as also Ibn H<iukal, e 
who came to India between A. H. 331 and 35b (A.D. 943 
and 968) and wrote the "Ashkal-ul-Bilad" in A. H. 366 
(A.D.= 976), say: 

1 Kill's History of India, Vol. I, pa^ts 10-24. '\ his refeis to Krisbnaraja III, 

2 A "iaraeang" is (.'qua! to three miles but Sir J/lliot has taken it to be equal 
to 8 mile-:. 

3 IniBticems to be a corrupt form of iVatihiira. 

1 1'erlitps the same is now called the Canan M- landing*'. 

o Elliot's History of India, Vol. I, F^ e -' 

(i Elliot's History of India, Vol. I ? page 34, . 


"From Kambaya 1 to Saimur 2 is the land of th6 
Balhara, and in it there are several Indian kings. The 
city in which the Balhara resides is Mankir, which has 
an extensive territory." 

From the above extracts, taken from the writings 
of the Arabian travellers, we conclude that at that 
time the power of the Rashtrakuta kings had reached 
its zenith. 

The Rahshtrakuta king Dantidurga defeated Solanki 
(Chalukya) 'Vallabha' Kirtivarman and assumed the 
title of 'Vallabharaja/ which was also attached to 
the names of all his successors. 3 It is therefore that 
the aforesaid Arabian writers have mentioned these 
kings as Balhara, a corrupt form of "Vallabharaja." 4 

From the inscription of the Someshvara temple, near 
Yevur (Deccan),it appears that there were 800 ele- 
phants in the army of Rashtrakuta king Indra, and 
that 500 feudatory chiefs followed as his retinue. 5 

1 Cambay. 

2 Presumably this .city was on the border of Sind to which we can trace tb# 
northern boundary of the kingdom of the Rashtrakutas. 

3 Sir Henry Elliot, Col. Tod and others suppose that the Arab writers had usad 
the word Balhara for the kings of Balabhi or for the Chalukya kings themselves, 
(Elliot's History of India, Vol. I, pages 354-355). But these suppositions arc 
groundless as the Balabhi kingdom had come to an end about V. S. 823 (A.D. 766) ; 
and the Chalukya kingdom had been split up into two branches on the death of the 
Chalukya king Mangalisha in V. S. 667 (A.D. 610). Pulakeslrn was the head of one 
of them and Rashtrakuta Dantidurga seized his kingdom from his descendant Kirti- 
varman between V.S. 805 ; nd 810 ^A.D 748 and 753). It remained under the 
Rashtrakut* dynasty upto V. S. 1030 (A D. 973) about which time it was regained 
by Chalukya Tailapa II from Rashtrakuta king Karkaraja II. Thus, about V. 8. 
805 to 1030 (A.D 748 to 973) the kingdom of the western branch of the Chalukyas 
remained in the possession of the Uashtrakutas. Formerly, the capital of this branch 
of theSolankis wasBadami. But later, Tailapa II shifted it to Kalyanl. The second 
branch was headed by Vishnuva;rdhana, whose descendants were called Eastern 
Cbalukyas. They ruled at Vengi and were the feudatories of the RasbtiakiHas. 

4 Juet as in the Persian histories the title Ran a of the kings of Mewar is used 
instead of their names; similarly, the Arab writers have used the hereditary title 
Balharfi, (Vallabharaja) of the Rashtrakuta kings of the Deccan instead of their names. 


Antiquary, Vol. VIII, p*er22, 


In the copper grant, 1 dated Shaka S. 852 (V. S. 987 
A.D. 930), of Govinda IV, it is stated that the Rashtra- 
kuta king Indraraja III crossed the Ganges with his 
cavalry and laid waste the city of Kanauj. 

A copper grant, 2 dated Shaka S. 915(V.S. I050=A.D. 
993), of the ruler of the Shilahara dynasty of Thana, 


i.e., when king Krishnaraja III mobilized his armies, 
the kings of the Chola, Bengal, Kanauj, Andhra and 
Pan^ya countries used to quiver. 

In the same grant the extent of the sovereignty of 
king Krishnaraja III is stated to be from Himalayas 
in the north to Ceylon in the south, and from eastern 
sea in the east to the western sea in the west. 

About V. S. 1030 (A.D. 973) the Chalukya king 
Tailapa II defeated the Rashtrakuta king Karkaraja 
and overthrew the Rashtrakuta kingdom of Manya- 
kheta. The copper grant referred to above was issued 
after this event. This shows that the power of the 
Rashtrakuta kings was once very great, so much so, that 
their feudatories indulged in referring to their glories 
even after their fall. 

The country under the sway of the Rashtrakutas 
was called "Ratta Pati" or "Ratta Rajya" and consist- 


Epigraphia Indica, Vol. VII, page 36, 
History of Mediaeval Hindu India, Vol. II, page 349! 

44 HmXmY O* THE 

ed of 7 lacs of villages and towns as is mentioned in 
the 'Skanda Purana' 1 : 

rr., the kingdom of the Rattas (Rashtrakutas) con- 
sisted of 7 lacs of villages. 

The military band called "Tivali" was a speciality 
of their processions. 

We learn from the copper grant, 2 dated V. S. 1161 
(A.D. 1104), of Govindachandra, found at Basahl, that 
it was Chandradeva of the Gahadavala branch of the 
Rashtrakuta family, who had restored order by sup- 
pressing the anarchy that had resulted on the deaths of 
kings Karna and Bhoja. It also refers that Govinda- 
chandra had granted in charity the village of Basahi 
(Basahl) together with the 'Turushkadanda/ 3 (cess 
levied upon the Mohmmedans), which shows that just 
as the Mohammedan kings levied 'Jaziya' upon the 
non-Mohammedans, in the like manner, Madnapala 
levied a tax upon the Muslims. This proves his power 
and glory. As regards Jayachchandra it is stated in the 
'Rambhamanjari Natika' that he defeated the Chandela 
king Madnavarmadeva of Kalinjar, possessed an ex- 
ceptionally large army and ruled over the territory 
between the Ganges and the Jamuna. 

1 "Skanda Parana,' Kauniarika Khantfa, Adhyaya 39, verse 135. 


IN ['0 foft feft^^gft 

^f^ W^f^^ *T Tn'^fcT^^^: I! 

Karna referred to here was Karna of the 'ifaihaya' (Kalachuri) clan, who was 
alive in V.S. 1099. But there ia tv controversy about king Bhoja referred to here. 
Some say tbat it waa the Paramara king Bhoja who died about V. S. 1110 and others 
think it to be the Pratihara Bhoja II, who lived about V. S. 980. 

3 In tht> copper grant, dated V. 8. 1186 (A.D. 1129), of Govindachandra, found 
in Oudh, there is also a mention of this 'TurushkatfanoV 

Lttcknow Museum Report of (1914-15), pages 4 ai>d 10. 


Taking all the foregoing facts into consideration we 
conclude that in the earlier period a branch of the 
Rashtrakutas came down to Kanauj, where they esta- 
blished a kingdom, which in the course of time became 
weak. After this the Guptas, the Baisas, the Maukharis 
and the Pratiharas in succession ruled over it. 
About Vikrama Samvat 1137 (A. D. 1080) another 
branch of Raashtrakutas, once again, conquered Kanauj 
and established their kingdom. 

This branch, being connected with the 'Gadhipura/ 
(Kanauj) afterwards came to be known by the name 
of "Gahadavala." In V.S. 1250 (A.D. 1194) Jayach- 
chandra, the Gahadavala king of Kanauj, was attacked 
by Shahabuddin Ghorl and lost his life. When Shaha- 
buddin went back after plundering the town, Harish- 
chandra, the son of Jayachchandra, succeeded his father. 
Though not powerful he was able to retain Kanauj and 
its neighbouring districts in his possession for some 
years. But when Qutubuddm Aibak and after him 
Shamsuddln Altamash took the country and put an end 
to the independent kingdom of the Rashtrakutas, of this 
branch, Rao Siha, the grandson of Jayachchandra, left 
Kanauj and remained for sometime in Mahui. 1 Later, 
when this district was also taken by the Mohammedans, 
Siha (after roaming about for & time) came to Marwar 
about V. S. 1268. 

The descendants of Rao Siha are at present ruling 
over the States of Marwar, Bikaner, Idar, Kishangarh, 
Ratlarft, Sitamau, Sailana and Jhabua. 

1 It is stated in the <A!n-i-akabari' that Siha lived 'at Khor (Shameabad) and 
was killed there. 


According to our opinion the genealogical table from 
Vijayachandra to Siha is as follows: 



1 1 [ 

Harisbchandra (BardfilsSna) (Prahasta). Jayapfila (Jajapaia), 

I I 

SStar&raa. Slha 1 . 

The third branch of the Rashtrakutas, which had 
gone down to the Deccan, turned out the Solankls and 
founded a kingdom there. Though we have not yet 
been able to trace the date of the commencement of this 
kingdom, yet it is clear that in the time of Chalukya 
Jayasimha, (in the later half of the sixth century of 
the Vikrama era) there existed in the Deccan a powerful 
kingdom of the Rashtrakutas. It was overthrown by 
the said Jayasimha when he set up the Solanki kingdom 
there. But about 250 years after this, ie., about V.S. 
805=A.D, 747), Dantivarman II defeated Solanki 
Kirtivarman II and re-established the Rashtrakuta 
kingdom in the Deccan. This kingdom lasted for 
about 225 years, upto V.S. 1030 (A.D. 973), when Solanki 
Tailapa II again overthrew it and defeated Karkaraja 
II, its last king. 

Two branches of the Deccan family of the Rashtra- 
kutas had ruled over "Lata" (Gujrat) from the begin- 
ning of the 8th century of the Vikrama era upto the 
first half of the 9th century. They were the feudatories 
of the Rashtrakuta kings of the Deccan. 

Proofs about the rule of the branches of the old 
Rashtrakutas in Saundatti (Dharwar Bombay), 
Hathundl (Marwar) and Dhanop (Shahpura) have 
also been found. 

Mention of some more inscriptions, etc., of the 
Rashtrakutas, found here and there, will be made in 
next chapter. 

I Possibly BancLaigena may be a younger brother of Harishcbandrm 




The earliest known record of the Rashtrakutas is 
the copper grant of king Abhimanyu. 1 From its 
characters it appears to be of about the beginning of 
the 7th century of the Vikrama era. In the seal of it 
the image of a lion, the vehicle of Goddess Durga, is 

It refers to a charitable grant made at Manpur for 
the worship of God 'Shiva' and contains the following 
genealogical table of the kings: 



The seat of Government of Abhimanyu was M&npur, 
which is considered by some scholars to be the modern 
Manpur (12 miles south-west of Mhow in Malwa). 

Two more grants of the Rashtrakutas hsve been 
found at the village of Multai (Betul district, C.P.) ; 
the first 2 of which is of Shaka S. 553 ( V.S. 688=A.D. 
631) and contains the following genealogy: 



1 Epigraphia Indica, VoK VIII, page:164 

2 Do. do, XI, 


According to our opinion the genealogical table from 
Vijayachandra to Siha is as follows: 


I 1 I 

Harishchandra (Bardalsena) (Prahaeta). Jayapala (JajapSla), 

I r 

SStararaa. 8iha", 

The third branch of the Rash^rakutas, which had 
gone down to the Deccan, turned out the Solankls and 
founded a kingdom there. Though we have not yet 
been able to trace the date of the commencement of this 
kingdom, yet it is clear that in the time of Chalukya 
Jayasimha, (in the later half of the sixth century of 
the Vikrama era) there existed in the Deccan a powerful 
kingdom of the Rashtrakutas. It was overthrown by 
the said Jayasimha when he set up the Solankl kingdom 
there. But about 250 years after this, ie., about V.S. 
805=A.D, 747), Dantivarman II defeated Solankl 
Kirtivarman II and re-established the Rashtrakuta 
kingdom in the Deccan. This kingdom lasted for 
about 225 years, upto V.S. 1030 (A.D. 973), when Solankl 
Tailapa II again overthrew it and defeated Karkaraja 
II, its last king. 

Two branches of the Deccan family of the Rashtra- 
kutas had ruled over "Lata" (Gujrat) from the begin- 
ning of 'the 8th century of the Vikrama era upto the 
first half of the 9th century. They were the feudatories 
of the Rashtrakuta kings of the Deccan. 

Proofs about the rule of the branches of the old 
Rashtrakutas in Saundatti (Dharwar Bombay), 
Hathundi (Marwar) and Dhanop (Shahpura) have 
also been found. 

Mention of some more inscriptions, etc., of the 
Rashtrakutas, found here and there, will be made in the 
next chapter. , 

1 Possibly Baradaisena may be a younger brother of Harishchandra,, 





The earliest known record of the Rashtrakutas is 
the copper grant of king Abhimanyu. 1 From its 
characters it appears to be of about the beginning of 
the 7th century of the Vikrama era. In the seal of it 
the image of a lion, the vehicle of Goddess Durga, is 

It refers to a charitable grant made at Manpur for 
the worship of God 'Shiva' and contains the following 
genealogical table of the kings: 



The seat of Government of Abhimanyu was Manpur, 
which is considered by some scholars to be the modern 
Manpur (12 miles south-west of Mhow in Malwa). 

Two more grants of the Rashtrakutas have been 
found at the village of Multai (Betul district, C.P.) ; 
the first 2 of which is of Shaka S. 553 (V.S. 688=A.D. 
631) and contains the following genealogy: 

Durgaraja, . 


1 Epigraphia Indica, VoK VIII, page;164. 

2 Do, do, XI, page:276. 


The other 1 is of Shaka Samvat63! (V.S. 766- A.D. 
709) of the time of Rashtrakuta king Nandaraja and 
contains the following genealogy: 




In this grant the title of Nandaraja is mentioned as 
" Yuddha Shura " and the charity mentioned in it 
was granted on the 15th day of the bright half of 
Kartika. If the Shaka Samvat mentioned in it be 
considered as the past one, then the date of the grant 
falls on the 24th October A.D. 709. 

In both the aforesaid copper grants the first three 
names of the genealogical tables are similar, but there 
is some slight difference in the fourth name. Taking 
into consideration the dates of the two inscriptions we 
think that Nandaraja of the second inscription might 
be a younger brother of Nannaraja of the first and 
succeeded him on his death. 

In the seals of these grants there are the images of 

An inscription of V. S. 917 3 (A.D. 860) has been 
found at village of Pathari in the Bhopal State, which 
contains the genealogical table of the Rashtrakuta 
kings of Central India as follows: 



Parabala {V. S. 917). 

1 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XVJII, page 244. 

2 It is probable that this Durgaraja is a second name of king Daritivaraan I 
of the Deccan, because, firstly, the period of Durgaraja of tin's inscription synchro- 
nises with that of Dantivarman I. Secondly, Dantivarman's second name was 
Dantidurga which almost resembles Durgaraja and thirdly, in the inscription of the 
Dashavatara temple the name of Dantivarman II is written as Dantidurgaraja. If 
this supposition be correct then the Govindaraja of this inscription would be a 
younger brother of Rashfrakuta Indraraja I of the Deccan, 

3 Epigrajphia Indica, l Vol, IX, -page 248. 


Rannadevl, the daughter of king Parabala, was 
married 1 to king Dharmapala of the Pala dynasty of 
'Gauda' (Bengal). Karkaraja, the father of Parabala 
defeated Nagabhata (Nagavaloka) who was probably 
the son of the Pratihara king Vatsaraja. An inscription 2 
of Nagabhata, dated V. S. 872 (A.D. 815), has been 
found at the village of Buchkala (Bllara district) in 
Marwar. But Professor Kielhorn identifies him with 
the Nagavaloka 3 of the Bhrigukachchha grant of 
V.S.813 (A.D. 756). 

An inscription 4 of the Rashtrakutas found at Bodha 
Gaya contains the following genealogy: 

Nanna (Guijavaloka), 


Tunga (Dharmavaloka). 

Bhagyadevi, the daughter of Tunga, was married 
to Rajyapala 5 of the Pala dynasty, who was fourth in 
descent from the aforesaid Dharmapala. The inscrip- 
tion bears the year 15, which might be the 15th regnal 
year of king Tunga who probably lived about V. S, 1025 
(A.D. 968). 

1 Bharata-ke-Prachfna Rajavamsha, Vol. I, page 185. 

2 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. IX, page 198. 

3 This Nagavaloka was probably Pratihara Nagabhata I, 

4 Bodha Gaya, (by Rajeiidralal Mittra), page 195. 

Bharata-ke-Prachlna Bajavamsba, Vol. J,.page 189. 



An inscription of the time of Lakhanapala 1 has been 
discovered from Badaun, which is probably of about 
V. S. 1258 (A.D. 1201). It contains the following 
genealogical table: 









Amritapala. Lakhanapala. 

This inscription indicates that Chandra was the 
first Rashtrakuta king who took the town of Badaun, 
which is stated to be the ornament of the kingdom of 

1 Epigraphia, Jndica, Vol. I, p. 64. 

FROM BEFORE V. S. 650 (A.D. 593) 


ABOUT V. S. 1039 (A.D. 982). 

In an inscription found at Yevur and also in a 
copper grant 1 of the Solankis found at Miraj, it is thus 
stated : 

: tff&wf 

i.e., he (Solankl Jayasimha) by defeating Rashtra- 
kuta Indra, the owner of 800 elephants and son of 
Krishna, re-established the kingdom of Vallabharaja 
(Solankis). (From the word Vallabharaja mentioned 
in this inscription it appears that this title originally 
belonged to the Solankis and after defeating them the 
Rash^rakutas assumed it. Therefore, the Arab writers 
have mentioned the Rashtrakuta kings as "Balh&ras" 
which is a corrupt form of the word "Vallabharaja"). 

In the time of Kirtivarman II, son of Vikramaditya, 
(who was llth in descent from this Jayasimha) the 
Solankl kingdom was again overthrown. 

From the aforesaid stanzas it appears that the 
Rashtrakutas ruled in the Deccan before it was con- 
quered by Solankl Jayasimha in the latter part of the 
sixth century of the Vikrama era. But between V. S. 

*~ 1 ludian Antiquary, Vol. VIII, pages IJMi ' 


805 and 810 (A.D. 747 and 753) the Rashtrakuta king 
Dantidurga II again seized a large part of the kingdom 
from Solanki Kirtivarman II. 

The history of the Rashtrakuta family, to which 
this Dantidurga II belonged, is traced through inscrip- 
tions, copper grants and Sanskrit books as follows: 


This king was a descendant of Indra, son of 
Krishna, mentioned above. He is the first king known 
through the inscriptions of the Rashtkutas of this line. 
In the inscription 1 of the Dashavatara temple, he is 
described as a protector of 'Varnashrama Dharma' 
(laws of castes and stages of life). He was a good- 
natured, merciful and independent ruler. He probably 
flourished before V.S. 650 (A.D. 593). 


He was the son and successor of Dantivarman. His 
and his father's names have been taken from the 
inscription of the Dashavatara temple in the Ellora 
caves, in which after Dantidurga II, the name of 
Maharaja Sharva 2 is mentioned. But in other inscrip- 
tions of this branch of the Rashtrakutas, the names of 
Dantivarman I and Indraraja I, are not found, for the 
pedigrees in them commence from Govinda I. 

In the aforesaid Dashavatara inscription, this Indra 
is described as a performer of many sacrifices (Yagyas) 
and a brave king. Prachchhakaraja appears to be his 
second name. 

1 Archaeological Survey report of Western India, Vol. V, page 87 ; and cave 
temples inscriptions, page 92. 

2 it is not clear who is meant by "Sharva" here. Some think "Sharva" to bd 
a brother of Dantidurga and others take it for AmSghavareha. From the aforesaid 
Dashavatara inscription it appears that this "Sharva" camped in this temple with 
bis army. Probably "Sharva" was a title or another name of Dantidurga, 



He was the son of Indraraja and ascended the 
throne after his death. We learn from the inscription 1 
of Pulakeshin II, dated Shaka S. 556 (V.S. 691^A.D. 
634) found at Ehole, that at the time when Mangallsha 
was killed, and his nephew Pulakeshin II succeeded 
him, Govindaraja with the aid of his allies, taking 
opportunity of the consequent weakness of the Sol- 
ankls, attempted to regain the lost kingdom of his 
ancestors. But as he could not succeed, he concluded 
peace. 2 

It appears, therefore, that Govindaraja was a con- 
temporary of Pulakeshin II and should have lived 
about V. S. 691 (A.D. 634). 

"ViraNarayana" was another name of Govindaraja. 

He was the son and successor of Govindaraja I. The 
Brahmanas had performed several sacrifices during 
his reign, as this generous king himself was a follower 
of the Vedic religion and a patron of learning. He 
had three sons: Indraraja, Krishnaraja and Nanna. 


He was the eldest son and successor of Karkaraja. 
His queen was a daughter of the Solank! (Chalukya) 
dynasty and her mother was born of the Lunar race. 
This shows that, at that time, the Rashtrakutas and 
the western Chalukyas were not, in any way, on 
unfriendly terms. 

1 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. VI, pagte 5-6. 


His army consisted of a considerable number of 
horses and elephants. 


He was the son and successor of Indraraja II. Bet- 
ween V.S. 804 and 810 (A.D. 748 and 753) he took posses- 
sion of Vatapl, the northern portion of the kingdom 
of Chalukya (Solanki) Kirtivarman II, and again 
established the Rashtrakuta kingdom in the Deccan, 
which remained under this dynasty for about 225 years. 

A copper grant 1 of Shaka S. 675 (V. S. 810 A.D. 753), 
found at Samangadh (Kolhapur State), contains the 
following lines: 

i.e., his (Dantivarman IFs) elephants had gone up 
to the Mahi, the Mahanadi and the Narmada. 3 

Defeating Vallabha (western Chalukya king Kirti- 
varman II) he assumed the titles of Rajadhiraja and 
Parameshvara; and with a small cavalry defeated the 
great Karnatik army, which had won a victory over 
the kings of the Kanchl, Kerala, Chola and Pandya as 
well as over king Harsha of Kanauj and Vajrata. 

The Karnatik army here referred to was the army 
of the Chalukyas. 4 

1 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XT, page 111. 

2 In the copper plate of Talegaon the reading is "fl^feW^:" 

3 This shows that he had conquered Mahlkaijtha, Malwa and Orissa. 

4 The Aihole inscription contains : 


ie.i the Chalukya king Pi\lakeshin II defeated king liarsha of the Vaisa dynaity, 


While conquering the Deccan he also defeated the 
king of Shri Shaila (in the Karnul district of Madras). 

Similarly, he won victories over the kings of Kalinga, 1 
Koshala, 2 Malava, Lata 3 and Tanka, as well as over the 
Sheshas (Nagas). At Ujjain he distributed a large 
quantity of gold in charity and dedicated jewelled 
helmets to the God 'Mahakaleshvara.' This indicates 
that he was a great king of the South. His mother 
granted lands in charity in almost all the (4,00,000) 
villages of his kingdom. 

A copper grant, 4 of Shaka S. 679 (V.S. 814=A.D. 757), 
found at Vakkaleri, indicates that though Dantidurga 
had seized the kingdom from Solanki (Chalukya) 
Kirtivarman II, before Shaka S. 675 (V.S. 810=A.D. 
753), yet the latter had retained possession of its 
southern part upto Shaka S. 679 (V.S. 814=A.D. 757). 

A copper grant 5 of Shaka S. 679(V.S. 814=A.D. 757), 
of Maharajadhiraja Karkaraja II of Gujrat, found in 
the neighbourhood of Surat, shows that this Dantivar- 
man (Dantidurga II), at the time of his victory over 
the Solankis, had also conquered Lata (Gujrat) and 
made it over to his relative Karkaraja 6 II. 

We come across two names of this king Dantivar- 
man and Dantidurga. The following appear to be 
his titles: Maharajadhiraja, Parameshvara, Parama 
Bhattaraka, Prithvivallabha, Vallabharaja, Maharaja 
Sharva, Khadgavaloka, Sahasatunga, Vairamegha. 

1 The country near the sea-coast between the Mahanadi and the Ciodavari. 

2 This refers to southern Koshala (or the modern Central Provinces) which 
Was to the south of the province of Ondh, as the province containing Ayodhya and 
Lucknow, etc., was then called northern Koshala. 

3 Country west of the Narmada near the modern Baroda State. 

4 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. V, page 202. 

6 Journal Bombay Asiatic Society, Vol. XVI, page 1(X>. 

6 The ruler of Gujrat at that time was Gnrjara Jayabbatta III, as appears 
from his copper grant of Chedi S. 486 (V.S. 793= A. D. 736). Soon after this Danti- 
probably eeized it from him and made it over to Karkaraja* 


The title 'Khadgavaloka' probably implies that his 
look had the terrible effect of a sword on his enemies. 

From the above facts, it is evident that Dantidurga 
was a very powerful king and his dominions extended 
from the northern borders of Gujrat andMalwa to 
Rameshvaram in the south. 1 

It appears that after taking the small principalities 
of the neighbourhood, Dantidurga conquered the Central 
Provinces. On his return he again went to Kanchi, 
for the king of that place had, once again, made a 
fruitless attempt to regain his lost freedom. 2 

In the aforesaid Dashavatara inscription, Danti- 
durga is stated to have defeated Sandhu Bhupadhipa, 
whose kingdom probably was in the south somewhere 
near Kanchi as the inscription mentions, "Kanchi" 
just after this event. 


He was the younger brother of Indraraja II and 
uncle of Dantidurga whom he succeeded. 

Three stone inscriptions and one copper grant of 
the reign of this king have been found: The first 
inscription, bearing no date, was found at Hattimattur. 3 
The second of Shaka S. 690 (V.S. 825=A.D. 768) at 
Talegaon; and the third of Shaka S. 692 (V.S. 827= 
A.D. 770) at Alas. 4 

The copper grant of his reign is dated Shaka S. 694 
(V.S. 829=A.D. 772.) 5 

1 In the copper grant of Rashtrakuta Govindaraja, found from Paifchan 
(Nizam's Dominions), it is stated that he had extended hie sway all over India from 
Rameshvaram in the scuth to thc*Himalayas in the north and from the Western 
Coast to the Eastern Coast. 

2 In the inscription, of Shaka S. 836 (V.S. 971 ), of Nausari, it is thus stated: - 

Epteraphia Indica, Vol. IX, pige 21. 

3 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. VI, page 161. 

4 Do. do. do. page 209. ( This inscription belongs to his Krishna,- 
raja's -son, prince regent Govindaraja.) 

5 Epigraphia Indica,"Vol. XIV, page 125, 



A copper grant, 1 of Shaka S. 730 (V.S. 864=A.D. 807), 
of the Rashtrakuta king Govindaraja III, found at 
Vanigaon (Nasik), alludes to Krishnaraja as follows: 


i.e., just as at the time of churning the sea the 
'Mandarachala' mountain had drawn out Lakshmi 
from it; in like manner, Vallabha (Krishnaraja I) drew 
out Lakshml, i.e., seized the kingdom from the Solankl 
(Chalukya dynasty). 

Another copper grant, 2 of Shaka S. 734 (V. S. 869-A.D. 
812), of the Rashtrakuta king Karkaraja of Gujrat, 
found at Baroda, refers to this king Krishna I in the 
following terms: 


i.e., Khrishnaraja I, the lion (most powerful) among 
kings, turned the great boar (Kirtivarman II), proudly 
advancing to fight, into a deer (i.e., put him to flight). 

This event probably took place about V. S. 814 
(A.D. 757). 

As the copper grants of the Solankis bear the mark 
of a boar, the poet has aptly compared king Kirtivarman 

to a boar. 

We also understand from this that in the time of 

Krishnaraja I, the Solankl king Kirtivarman II had 
made an attempt to regain his kingdom but, far from 
achieving any success, he even lost what had remained 
in his possession. 

The army of the king Krishna also included a large 

It was this king, who got the Shiva temple known 
as "Kailasa Bhavna" built in the famous Elora caves, 
in the Nizam's dominions. This temple is made by^ 

1 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XI, page 157. 

2 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XII, page 159, * 


cutting into the rock and is famed for its architecture. 
Here he also constructed a 'Devakula' known after him 
as "Kanneshvara" where many scholars used to live. 
Besides this he built 18 other Shiva temples which 
testifies that he was a staunch Shaiva. 

The following were the titles of this king: 
Akalavarsha, Shubhatunga, Prithvlvallabha and 

He also defeated the self-conceited king Rahappa. 1 
Vincent Smith and other scholars are of opinion that 
this Krishna I had usurped the kingdom by ousting 
his nephew Dantidurga II. 2 But this view is incorrect, 
as from the words 'af&R!i f^icr (i.e., on the demise of Danti- 
durga) occurring in the copper grants 3 found at Kavl 
and Navasari, it is evident that Krishna had ascended 
the throne on the death of his nephew Dantidurga. 

From the aforesaid grant 4 found at Baroda it 
appears that during the reign of this king a prince of 
this branch of the Rashtrakutas had made an attempt to 
usurp the kingdom. But Krishnaraja subdued him. 5 It 
is probable that this prince was a son of Dantidurga II 
and that Krishnaraja might have assumed power owing 
to his minority or weakness. 

Though it is clearly stated in the copper grant of 
Karkaraja (dated Shaka S. 894) found at Karda 6 that 

1 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. HE, page 105. Some scholars consider this Rahappa 
to be second name of Karkaraja LI of Gujrat. It is possible that the rule of Gujrat 
branch of the Rashtrakutas might have thus met its end. 

2 Oxford history of India, page 216. 

3 Indian Antiquary, Vol. V, page 146; and Journal Bombay Asiatic Society, 
Vol. XVIII, page 257. 

4 Journal Bengal Asiatic Society, Vol. VIII, pages 292-93. 


Some scholars identify this event with the dispossession of Karkaraja II of 
his kingdom of Gujrat. It is probable that Karkaraja might have raised some 
disturbance on the death of Dantidurga II 

6 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XII, page 264. 


Krishna uncle of Dantidurga II succeeded to the throne 
on the latter dying issueless, yet, as the inscription is 
dated about 200 years after this event, it is to be relied 
on with caution. 

Krishnaraja I might have acended the throne about 
V. S. 817 (A.D. 760). He had two sons, Govindaraja 
and Dhruvaraja. 

Some scholars hold this Krishnaraja I, to be the 
hero of Halayudha's 'Kavirahasya, p while others think 
that the poem treats of Krisnaraja III. The latter 
opinion seems correct. The following is an extract 
from the work: 

i.e., in southern India there is a great king named 
Krishnaraja ....... No other king is a match for this 

Rashtrakuta king ......... This 'Chandra vanish!' king 

performs various sacrifices and keeps his chariot 
foremost on battle-fields. 

The famous Jain logician Akalanka Bhatta, the 
author of 'Rajavartika', and other works flourished in 
his reign. 


About 1800 silver coins of Rashtrakuta king Krishna- 
raja were found at Dhamori (Amraoti, Berar district). 
These coins are similar to those of the Satraps. They 
are equal in size to the British Indian silver two annas 
piece, but in thickness they are about double of it. On 
the obverse there is the king's head while on the reverse 
there is an inscription as below: 

1 The followers of this opinion consider the date of Compilation of the 'Kavi- 
rahasya' ae V. S. 867 (A,D, 810). 



He was the son and successor of Krishnaraja I. 
From his aforesaid 1 copper grant of Shaka S. 692 (V.S. 
827=A.D. 770) it appears that he had conquered Vengi 2 
(the eastern coast district between the Godavarl and the 
Krishna). He is mentioned as prince in this plate; 
which shows that his father Krishnaraja I was alive 
till then. 

Two more copper grants of his time are found. The 
first of these is of Shaka S. 697 3 (V.S. 832^A.D. 775), in 
which the name of his younger brother Dhruvaraja 
appears with the titlesMaharajadhiraja, etc. The 
second is of Shaka S. 701 4 (V.S. 836-A.D. 779) from 
which it appears that Covindaraja was the king even 
at that time. In this plate the name of Dhruvaraja's 
son is mentioned as Karkaraja. From these two copper 
grants we infer that at that time Govinda was a king 
in name only. 

As Govindaraja's name does not occur in the copper 
grants of Vanldindorl, Barocla and Radhanpur, we 
understand that his younger brother Dhruvaraja had 
probably dispossessed him of the kingdom. From the 
copper grant of Wardha we learn that this Govindaraja 
II was addicted to women and had entrusted the 
government to his younger brother Nirupama. 5 Pro- 
bably this vice had caused his downfall. 

1 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. VI, page 209. 

2 Ho had gained th ; s victory during his father's lifo time. When his camp 
was pitched near the confluence of the river Krishna, Vena and aiusl, the king of 
Vengi approached him and acknowledged his supieinacy. 

3 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. X, page 86. 

4 Do. do. VIII, page 184. 


i.e., king Govinda II, eon of Krishnaraja I, being addicted to love of Women, 
entrusted the Work of his government to his younger brother^Nirupama whereby 
his power declined. ' 


From the copper grant, 1 found at Paithan, it appears 
that Govindaraja II had again made an attempt, with 
the assistance of the neighbouring kings of Malwa, 
Kanchi, Vengi, etc., to regain his lost power, but his 
younger brother Nirupama (Dhruvaraja) defeated him 
and brought the kingdom under his complete sway. 

The jain author Jinasena of the 'Digambara' sect, 
at the close of his work 'Harivamsha Purana,' has 
stated as follows: 

i.i?., in Shaka S. 705 (V.S. 840 A.D. 783), when this 
book (Purana) was written, king Indrayudha 2 reigned 
in the north; Krishna's son, Shrivallabha in the south; 
Vatsraja of 'Avantr in the east; and Varaha in the 

From this we conclude that upto Shaka S. 705 (V.S. 
840) Govindaraja IP was ruling, because we learn 
from the grants of Paithan 4 and Pattadakal 5 that his 
title was "Vallabha" while that of his younger 
brother, Dhruvaraja "Kalivallabha." 

The following were also the titles of Govinda II: 

Maharajadhiraja, Prabhfttavarsha, and Vikramava- 
loka. The date of his succession should be about V.S. 
832 (A.D. 775), because there exists an inscription of 
Shaka S. 694 (V.S. 829=A.D. 772) of his father 
Krishnaraja I. 

1 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. IV, page 107. t 

2 Some scholars consider this Lulrayudha to be Eabhtrakuta king of Kanauj. 
Defeating his successor Chakrayudli.Pralihara NagabhataII,son of Vatsaraja seized 
the kingdom of Kanauj. 

3 Some scholars hold that the Shrivallabha mentioned here was Govindaraja 
III, but it is not acceptable. 

4 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. Ill, page 105. 

5 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XI, page 125, (This inscription belongs to the reign 
of Dhruvaraja.} 



He was the son of Krishnaraja I and the younger 
brother of Govindaraja II. He dethroned his elder 
brother Govinda II and usurped the throne. 

He was a brave and wise ruler as his title Nirupama 
denotes. He defeated the Pallava king of Kanchi from 
whom he took some elephants as a fine. He impri- 
soned the king of Chera of the Ganga dynasty, attacked 
Pratihara Vatsaraja, 1 the ruler of the North and 
conqueror of Gauda, seized from him the two 
canopies that he had obtained from the king of Gauda, 
and drove him towards Bhinmal (Marwar). 

It is this Vatsaraja who is mentioned in stanza of 
the 'Harivamsha Purana', quoted above in the history 
of Govindaraja II. 

We learn from the copper grant of Begumra 2 that 
this Dhruvaraja had also seized a canopy from the 
king of northern Koshala. The copper grant 3 of Deoli 
(Wardha) also supports this view, in which Dhruva- 
raja is stated to have got three white canopies, two of 
which were those seized from Vatsaraja and the third 
must have been taken from the king of Koshala. 

In all probability the kingdom of Dhruvaraja 
extended over the country from Ayodhya in the north 
to Rameshvaram in the south. 

In the history of his elder brother Govindaraja we 
have taken notice of two copper grants of Shaka S. 697 
and 701. These plates, properly speaking, pertain to 
this king. 

Three inscriptions 4 * in Canarese have been found 

1 When Vatsaraja invaded Malwa, Dhruvaraja went with his feudatory, 
RashtrakutaKarkaraja, the ruler of Lata (Gujrat\to the help of the king of Malwa. 
In thig action Vatsaraja being deafeated escaped towards Bhininal. 

2 J. Bombay Asiatic Society, Vol. XVIII, page 261. 

3 Indian Antiquary, Vol. V, page 192. 

4 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XI, page 125 ; and Epigraphia Indica, Vol. VI, pages 
168 and 166, 


at Pattadakal, Naregal and Lakshmeshvar, which 
probably also belong to this king. 

The following were the titles of Dhruvaraja: Kali- 
vallabha, Nirupama, Dharavarsha, Shrlvallabha, Maha- 
rajadhiraja, Parameshvara, etc. 

In the Naregal grant he is also mentioned as 'Dora' 
(Dhora) which is a Trakrita' form of his name. 

Another broken inscription 1 in Canarese has been 
found at Shravana Belgola which is of the time of 
Mahasamantadhipati Kambayya (Stambha) Ranava- 
loka. This Ranavaloka is mentioned (in this inscrip- 
tion) as the son of Shrlvallabha. 

The date of the accession of Dhruvaraja should be 
about V.S. 842 (A.D. 785). 2 

When he usurped the kingdom of his elder brother 
Govindaraja II, the kings of Ganga, Vengi, 3 Kanchi, 
and Malwa sided with him (Govinda II) but Dhruvaraja 
defeated them all. He appointed in his life-time his 
son Govindaraja III as the ruler of the country from 
Kanthika (Konkan) to Khambhat (Cambay). 

In the copper plate 4 dated Shaka S. 715 (V.S. 850=: 
A.D. 793), found at Daulatabad, there is a mention of 
the charity given by prince Shankaragana, uncle of 
Dhruvaraja and son of Nanna (grandson of Karkaraja). 
This inscription also shows that Dhruvaraja was ruling 
at that time and that he had assumed the sovereignty to 
save the kingdom of the Rashtrakutas from the covetous 
neighbours who tried to take advantage of the weak- 
ness of Govindaraja II. 

1 Inscriptions at Shravana Belgola, Vol. 24, page 3. 

2 Vincent Smith holds A.D. 780 as the date of the accession of this king. 

3 The king of Vengi at the time probably was Vishnuvardhana IV of the 
Eastern Chalukya dynasty. 

4 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. IX, page 193, 



He was the son and successor of Dhruvaraja. 
Though he had other brothers, his father, finding him 
the ablest of all, intended in his life-time to invest 
him with the ruling powers but he disapproved of the 
proposal and carried on the administration as a prince 
regent during his father's life-time. 

His titles appear to be: "Prithvivallabha, Pabhuta- 
varsha, Shrivallabha, Vimaladitya, Jagattunga, Kirti- 
narayana, 1 Atishayadhavala, Tribhuvanadhavala, and 
Janavallabha, etc. Nine copper grants have been found 
of his time. The first 2 is of Shaka S. 716 (V.S. 851 A.D. 
794) found at Paithan. The second 3 is of Shaka S. 726 
(V. S. 86I=A. D. 804) found at Someshvara, which 
discloses that his queen's name was "Gamundabbe" 
and that he defeated king Dantiga of Kanchl (Kanji- 

This Dantiga might be the Dantivarman of the 
Pallava dynasty whose son Nandivarman married 
princess Shankha, the daughter of the Rashtraku^a 
king Amoghavarsha. 

The third and the fourth plates 4 are of Shaka 
S. 730 (V.S. 865^A.D. 808). From these we learn that 
Govindaraja had defeated the combined armies of 12 
kings assembled under the banner of his brother 
Stambha. 5 (This shows that on the death of Dhruvaraja, 

1 The inscription dated Shaka S. 788 (V. S. 923 A.D. 8S6) of hie son Am5gha- 
\arsna I, found at ISilgund, indicates that Govindaraja III was called Kirtinarayana 
as he fettered the people of Kerala, Malava, Gau^a, Gurjara and those living in the 
hillfort of Chitrakuta and suhdued the Lord of Kanchi. 

(Epigraphia Indica, Vol. V, page 102). 

2 Do. do. Vol. Ill, page 105. 

3 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XI, page 126. 

242 4 Indian Anti( l uar y> Vol. XI, page 157 ; and Epigraphia Indica, Vol. VI, page 

5 u J n ^ u pp uu g f ant of Shaka S ' 724 of Starabha, found at IN el manual the 
name Shauchakhambha (Shauchakambha) is stated instead of Stambha J 

From this copper grant it also appears that after this defeat Shauchakhambha may 
have remained obedient tro king Govindaraja. Another name of this Shaucha.- 


Stambha may have made an attempt, with the assist- 
ance of the neighbouring kings, to usurp the kingdom.) 
Govindaraja liberated kingGanga of Chera (Coimba- 
tur) who was taken prisoner by his father (Dhruvaraja). 
But when Ganga again prepared to rebel, he recaptured 
and re-imprisoned him. From these copper grants we 
also learn that this Govindaraja III, having attacked 
the king of Gujrat, had put him to flight and conquered 
Malwa. He, having subjected Marasharva on his in- 
vasion of Vindhyachala, kept his residence at Shrl 
Bhavana (Malkhed) till the end of the rains and at 
the advent of the winter advanced towards the Tunga- 
bhadra (river) and defeated the Pallava king of 
Kanchl. Later, in obedience to his call, the king of 
Vengi, (country between the Krishna and the Godavarl) 
probably Vijayaditya II of the Eastern Chalukya 
dynasty, attended his court and acknowledged his 

From the copper grant l of San j an we learn that 
Dharmayudha and Chakrayudha also acknowledged his 

The kings of Banga and Magadha also yielded to him. 

As his expedition upto the Tungabhadra is noted 
in the copper grant of Shaka S. 726, it appears 
that all these events had taken place before this date 
(i.e., V. S. 861=A.D. 604). 

The said third and fourth copper grants were 
found at Wanl and Radhanpur and indicate that they 
;were inscribed at Muyurakhandl, the modern Morkhand 
in the Nasik district. 

The fifth and sixth plates are of Shaka S. 732 

khambba was RanavalSka. At the recommendation of prince Bappaja he made a 
grant of a village for a Jain temple (Epigraphii Carna^ica, manne grant, No. 01, 
p. 51V 

1 Unpublished grant, 


/(:V.S-. 867=A.I>. 810), and the seventh 1 is of Shaka S. 733 
(V.S. 868-A.D. 811). 

The eighth 2 plate is of Shaka S. 734 (V.S. 869- A.D. 
. 8t2) ;,it contains a mention of the charitable grant 
made by king Karkaraja of Gujrat. 
: The ninth 3 plate of Shaka S. 735 (V.S. 870=A.D. 813) 
;shows that this Govindaraja III, having conquered 
(the central and southern part of Gujrat), had 
his younger brother Indraraja the ruler of that 
^territory. This Indraraja was the founder of the 
second branch of the Rashtrakuta kings of Gujrat. 
--; From., the aforesaid facts it appears that this 
.Govindaraja III was a powerful monarch. Kings of 
.the countries between the Vindhya and Malwa in the 
north to Kanchi in the south were under his sway, and 
his own kingdom extended from the Narmada to the 

One more copper grant 5 of Shaka S. 735 (V.S. 870- 
A.D. 813) has been found at Kadamba (Mysore) which 
contains a mention of a charitable grant made to the 
Jain priest Arkaklrti, the disciple of Vijayakirti. This 
Vijayakirti was a disciple of Kulacharya and this 
grant was made on the recommendation of king Chaki- 
raja of the Ganga dynasty. 

In the date of this plate Monday is mentioned as the 
corresponding day, whereas by calculation Friday falls 
on that 'date. Thus, there is some doubt about the 
genuineness of this plate. 

In the foregoing history of Govindaraja II, we have 
cited a stanza from the 'Harivamshapurana.' Its second 
line reads as follows:-*- 

1 Watson Museum Report, for 1925-26, page 13. 

2 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XII, pae 156. 

3 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. JII, page 54. 

4 The country between the Tapti and the Mahi rivers. 

5 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XII, pa^e 13 and Epigraphia Indica, Vol IV 

page 340. ' ' * 


Some scholars consider 

the phrase '^nig 1 ?^' here to be connected with ( w\im' while 
others think it to be going with the preceding name 

According to the first reading Govinda II is meant 
here as the king of the Deccan, while according to the 
second reading, if we take Indrayudha to be the son of 
Krishnaraja, then the word "Shrivallabha" remains 
alone. Thus, those who favour the latter opinion hold 
that Govinda III, and not Govinda II, was ruling in 
Shaka S. 705; but this is not acceptable. 

In an inscription 1 of Shaka S. 788 (V.S. 923-A.D. 
866), found at Nilgund, it is stated that this Govinda 
III had conquered Kerala, Malava,Gurjara and Chitra- 
kuta (Chittor). His date of accession ought to be just 
after V.S. 850 (A.D. 973). The Eastern Chalukya 
king of Vengi had to build a city wall around Manya* 
kheta for its protection, by way of subsidy. 

In an inscription 2 found at Monghyr, it is stated that 
Rannadev,! the daughter of the Rashtrakuta king 
Prabala 3 , was married to king Dharmapala of the Pala 
dynasty of Bengal. Dr. Kielhorn holds this Parbala 
to be king Govinda III, but Sir Bhandarkar identifies 
him with Krishna II. 4 


He was the son and successor of Govinda III. The 
real name of this king has not yet been known, 
Perhaps, it was "Sharva," but in the copper plates, etc., 
he is named as Amoghavarsha, e.g. : 

Epigraphia Indica, Vol. VI page 102. 
Indian Antiquary, Vol. XXI, page 254. 

SlfiO t-kOrrfka AU Af\ 


2 , 

3 Seepages 48-49. 

i Bharata-ke-Prachlna Rajavameha, Vol. I, page 185, 


i. e., he (Karkaraja) installed Amoghavarsha on the 
throne by putting down the Rashtrakutas, that had 
revolted and seized the territories. 

But in fact Amoghavarsha seems to be only the title 
of the king. The following titles of this king have 
also been found: Nripatunga, Maharaja Sharva, 
Maharaja Shantfa, Atishayadhavala, Vlra Narayana, 
Maharajadhiraja, Bhatara, Parama Battaraka, Pra- 
bhutavarsha, and Jagattunga. 

He possessed the following seven emblems of the 
state: Three white canopies, one conch, one Talidh- 
vaja,' one 'Okaketu' and one 'Trivali'. The three 
white canopies mentioned here are, perhaps, the same 
that were acquired by Govinda II. 

The following are the copper grants and the inscrip- 
tions of the time of this king: 

The first copper grant, 1 of Shaka S. 738 (V.S. 873= 
A.D. 817), of Rashtrakuta king Karkaraja of Gujrat 
was found at Baroda. This Karkaraja was the cousin 
of Amoghavarsha. The second copper plate, 2 of Shaka 
S. 749 (V.S. 884-A.D. 827), was found at Kavl (Broach 
district) ; it speaks of the charity distributed by 
the Rashtrakuta king Govindaraja of Gujrat. 

The third plate, 3 of Shaka S. 757 (V.S. 892-A.D. 835), 
of Mahas/imantadhipati, Rashtrakuta king Dhruvaraja 4 
I of Gujrat, found at Baroda, shows that the name of 
Amoghavarsha's uncle was Indraraja and that his son 
(Amoghavarsha's cousin) Karkaraja subduing the 
rebellious Rashtrakutas placed Amoghavarsha on the 

1 Journal Bombay Branch Asiatic Society, Vol. XX, page 135. 

2 Indian Antiquary, Vol. V, page 144. 

3 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XIV, page 199. 

4 Some scholars are of opinion that Dhruvaraja I, of Lata (Gujrat), had made a 
futile attempt on AmSghavarsha, who was therefore obliged to march against him, 
Probably Dhruvaraja waf killed in this action. 


The first inscription, 1 of Shaka S. 765 (V.S. 900-A.D. 
843), fixed in a cave at Kanheri fin the Thana district) , 
shows that Amoghavarsha was ruling in that year, 
and that his chief feudatory Pulla Shakti (the successor 
of Kapardipada) was the governor of the whole of the 
Konkan district. The Pulla Shakti belonged to the 
Shilahara dynasty of the northern Konkan. 

The second inscription, 2 of Shaka S. 775 (V.S. 910- 
A.D. 853), of Kapardi II, the successor of Pulla Shakti, 
the chief feudatory, is fixed in another cave at Kanheri. 
Scholars suppose the actual date of this inscription to 
be Shaka S. 773 (V.S. 908-A.D. 851). This also shows 
that Pulla Shakti was a Buddhist. 

The third inscription, 3 of Shaka S. 782 (V.S. 917=A.D. 
860), of Amoghavarsha himself, found at Konur, con- 
tains a mention of the charity granted by him to the 
Jain priest Devendra at his capital city Manyakheta, 
In this plate, the Rashtrakutas are stated to be the 
offshoots of Yadu, and a new title "Vira Narayana" 
of king Amoghavarsha is also found in it. 

As he had granted lands in 30 villages for a Jain 
temple built by Bankeya/ it appears that he patronised 

1 Indian Antiquary. Vol. XIII, page 136. 

2 Do. do. XIII, page 134. 

3 Epigraphia Imlica, Vol. VI, page 29. 

4 This Bankeya belonged to the Mukula ckn and was a governor of 30,000 
villages under Amoghavarsba. He by the, command of the latter invaded Vatatavi 
of Gangavao 1 ! Though the other feudatories refused to help him he advanced 
and took possession of the fort of Ketfal (north-w^st of Katfav). Proceeding further, 
he defeated the rulrr of Talnvan (Talkad on the left bank of the Kaveri) and 
crossing the Kaveri, he invaded the province of'^aptapada In the meantime, the 
son of Amoghavarsha raised the banner of rebellion and many feudatories joined 
him. But on the return of Bankeya the prince fled away and his allies were all 
killed. Pleased with this service Amoghavarsha granted the said lands for the Jain 
temple built by him. 

This copper plate speaks of a rebellion by the prince; but in the unpub- 
lished copper plate of Shaka S. 793 of Sanjan the Word '3^**??^$:' (^t^ H) 
shows that Amoghavarsha bad only one son (whom he .invested With the ruling 
powers during his life-time). 


The fourth inscription, 1 of Shaka S. 787 (V.S. 922-A.D. 
865), of the time of this king, has been found at 
Mantravadl, the fifth 2 of Shaka S. 788 (V.S. 923=A.D. 
866) at Shirur and the sixth 3 (of the same date) at 
Nilguntf; all these belong to the 52nd year of his 

From the aforesaid Shirur inscription it appears 
that Amoghavarsha's coat-of-arms bore an image of 
'Garuda/ 4 that his title was 'Lataluradhlshvara', and 
that the kings of Anga, Banga, Magadha, Malava, and 
Vengi acknowledged his superiority. Probably, there 
may be some exaggeration in this statement. 

The seventh inscription 5 of hisfeudatory Bankeya- 
rasa has been found at Nidgundl, which is of the 61st 
year of Amoghavarsha's reign. In the fourth unpub- 
lished copper grant of Shaka S. 793 (V.S. 928=A.D. 
871), found at Sanjan, it is stated that Amoghavarsha 
had made great efforts to overthrow the kingdom of 
the Draviclas; that the mobilisation of his armies 
struck terror in the hearts of the kings of Keral, 
Pandya, Chola, Kalinga, Magadha, Gujrat and Pallava; 
and that he had imprisoned for life the 'Gangavamshi' 
ruler and those dependants of his own court who had 
carried on intrigues with him. 

The king 6 of Vengi got constructed a wall around 
his gardfin. 

The fifth copper grant 7 , of Shaka S. 789 (V.S. 
924=A.D. 867), of the chief feudatory Dhruvaraja 

1 Epigraphia Indioa, Vol. VTfc page 10S. 

2 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. VII, page 20'> ; Indian Antiquary, Vol. XII, page 218. 

3 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. VI, paj;o 102. 

4 This shows that he was a follower of Vaishnavisin. 

5 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. VII, pajre 212. 

6 Later as this king of Vengi oppressed his subjects, Amoghavarsha imprisoned 
him and his. minister, and, to give publicity to their misdeeds erected their statues 
in the 'Shiva' temple at IJanchi. 

7 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XII, page 181. 


IT of Gujrat, contains a mention of a charitable grant 
made by him (Dhruvaraja). 

The eighth inscription 2 of Shaka S. 799 (V.S. 934- 
A.D. 877), fixed in a cave at Kanheri, shows that king 
Amoghavarsha, being pleased with his feudatory 
Kapardi II, of the Shilarl clan, made over to him the 
kingdom of the whole of Konkan. From this inscription 
it also appears that Buddhism had survived in India 
till then. 

From the aforesaid copper grant of Shaka S. 757 
(V.S. 892), of Dhruvaraja I of Gujrat, it appears that 
some disturbances had arisen at the time of Amogha- 
varsha's accession, when his cousin Karkaraja had 
helped him. But from the contents of the subsequent 
inscriptions we understand that Amoghavarsha had 
gradually gained great power. He shifted his capital 
from Nasik to Manyakheta (Malkhed), 3 and remained 
at constant war 4 with the western Chalukyas of Vengi. 

1 Perhaps a war took place between this Dhruvaraja II of Gujrat and Amogha- 
varsha I. 

2 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XIII, page 135. 

3 This Malkhed exists even today about 90 miles to the south-east of Sholapur 
in the Nizam's dominions. 

4 The copper grant of Vijayaditya contains the following : 


i.e., in 12 years Vijayaditya II fought 108 battles with the kings of the Rashtra- 
ku^a and the Ganga dynasties, and later built an equal number of 'Shiva' temples. 
This shows that internal discord may have afforded an opportunity to Vijayaditya 
to attack and probably to take some portion of the territory of the Kashtrakutas, 
which Arndghavarsha eventually recaptured, as appears from the following stanza in 
the copper grant of Navasari : 


i.e.j just as Varaha (one of the incarnations of God) had delivered the earth that 
had been submerged in the aea, in the like manner, Amoghavarsha delivered onoe 
again the kingdom of the Rashtrakutas that had lapsed under the surging sea of the 


A copper grant 1 of the western Ganga dynasty, 
found at Sundl, shows that Amoghavarsha had a 
daughter named Abbalabba who was married to 
'Gunadattaranga Bhutuga/ the great grandfather of 
Teramanatfi Bhutuga.' This Teramanatfi' was a 
feudatory of the Rashtrakuta king Krishna III. But 
this plate is held by scholars to be a forged one. 

According to the aforesaid inscription of Shaka 
S. 788, the date of the accession of this king comes 
about Shaka S. 736 (V.S. 87NA.D. 815). 

The latter part of the Mahapurana' written by 
Gunabhadra suri (and known as Uttara purana) con- 
tains the following: 

i.e., blissful for the world is the existence of 
Jinasenacharya, by bowing to whom Amoghavarsha 
considered himself to be purified. 

This shows that Amoghavarsha was a follower of 
the 'Digambara' branch of Jainism and was a pupil 
of Jinasena. 2 

This fact is also borne out by the Tarshvabhyudaya 
Kavya' 3 written by Jinasena. The same Jinasena 
compiled the Adipurana (the first half of the Maha- 
purana)'. In the preface to Ganitasarasangraha', a 
book on mathematics written by Mahaviracharya, 
Amoghavarsha is stated to be the follower of Jainism. 

The "Jayadhavala," a book containing the principles 

1 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. Ill, page 176, 

2 This Jinasena was also the author of the 'ParshvSbhyudaya K5vya' and 
belonged to the 'Senasangha', while Jinasena the author of the 'Harivamsha Pura^a' 
(written in Shaka S. 705) belonged to the ' Punnata Sangha.' 



of the 'Digambar' sect of Jainism, was also written in 
Shaka S. 759 (V.S. 894-A.D. 837) during the reign of 

The Jain priests of the 'Digambar' sect hold that the 
book named 'Trashnottararatnamalika" was written 
by Amoghavarsha himself, when he, being disgusted 
with the world, had renounced the affairs of the state 
in old age, but the Brahmanas allege that the book was 
written by Shankaracharya, 1 while the 'Svetambara' 
Jains say that its author was Vimalacharya. 

In the 'Digambara' Jain manuscripts of the above 
book we find the following couplet: 

i.e , king Amoghavarsha, who has renounced the 
state, being enlightened by real knowledge, has written 
this book (Ratnamalika). 

From this we learn that in old age the king having 
made over the reins of the government to his son 2 
passed the remainder of his life in religious medi- 

This book Ratnamalika was translated into the 
Tibetan language in which also Amoghavarsha is stated 
to be its author. 

Just about this time many books had been written 
on Jainism that had then begun to gain a footing. 

An inscription, 3 of Vankeyarasa bearing no date, has 
been found which shows that he was a feudatory of 
Amoghavarsha and ruler of the districts of Banavasi, 

1 From the manuscript copy of the Trashnoctraratnamalika' preserved in the 
Government Oriental Manuscripts Library, Madras, we learn that Shankaracharya 
Was the author of the book in question. (Refer catalogue, edited by Kuppu Swami, 
Vol. II, part I, C, pages 2640-2640. 

2 Besides Krishnarftja, Amoghavarsha had another eon named Duddaya (Smith's 
Early History of India, page 446, Footnote No. 1.) 

8 Epigmphia Indita, Vol. VII 1 , ptg$ 212, 


Belgali, Kundarge, Kandur, Purlgede (Lakshmesh-. 
vara), etc. 

From the Kyasanur inscription, bearing no date, it 
appears that Sankaraganda, a feudatory of Amogha- 
varsha, was the governor of Banavasi. 1 

King Prithvlpati I, son of Shivamara of the Ganga 
dynasty, was also a contemporary of king Amogha- 
varsha. 2 

There is a book on prosody named "Kavirajamarga" 
in the Canarese language which too is said to have 
been written by king Amoghavarsha. 


He was the son of Amoghavarsha and acquired the 
powers of government during his father's life-time. 
~ ./Four inscriptions and two copper grants of his time 
have been found. 

Out of these copper grants the first 3 found at 
Baghumra (Baroda district), of Shaka S. 810 (V.S. 945= 
A.D. 8b8), contains a mention of the charitable grant 
made by the chief feudatory Akalavarsha Krishnaraja 
of Gujrat. But this inscription is held unreliable by 

The first inscription 4 of Shaka S. 822 (V.S. 957-A.D. 
900) is found at Nandawadige (Bljapur). In fact, it is 
of Shaka S. 824 (V.S. 959-A.D. 903). 5 The second 
inscription, 6 which is also of Shaka S. 822, was found 
at Ardeshahalll. 

The third inscription, 7 of Shaka S. 824 (V.S. 959- 
jA.D. 903), has been found atMulgund (Dharwar district. 

1 South Indian inscription, Vol. II, No. 76, page 382. 

2 C. Mabel Duff's Chronology of India, page 73. 

3 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XIII, pages 65-69. 

4 Epigraphia Carnatica, Vol. IX, page 98 and Indian Antiquary, Vol. XII 
page 221. 

6 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XII, page 221. 

6 Epigraphia Carnatica, Vol. IX, No. 42, page 98. 

7 Journal Bombay branch Royal Asiatio Society, Vol. X, page 190; . 


The second copper grant, 1 of Shaka S. 832 (V.S. 967= 
A.D. 9iO), found at Kapdavanja (Khaira district), 
contains a geneological table of this dynasty from king 
Krishna I to Krishna II, and a mention of the village 
granted by the latter in charity. The name of his 
chief feudatory, Prachanda of the Brahmabaka clan, 2 is 
also found in it. He ruled over 750 villages, Khetaka, 
Harshapur, and Kasahrada being the chief among 

. ,, 

The fourth inscription, 3 of Shaka S. 831 (V.S. 966= 

A.D. 909), has been found at Aihole (Bijapur), the 
actual date of which ought to be Shaka S. 833 (V.S. 968= 
A.D. 912). 

The following were the titles of king Krishna* 
raja II:-Akalavarsha, Shubhatunga, Maharajadhiraja, 
Parameshvara, Parabhattaraka, Shrl Prithvivallabha, 
and Vallabh'araja. 

In some places the word 'Vallabha' is found affixed 
to his name such as 'Krishnavallabha.' A corrupt form 
of his name in Canarese is found as "Kannara." 

He married a princess named Mahadevi, the 
daughter of Haihaya king Kokkala of Chedl and 
younger sister of Shankkuka. This Kokkala I was 
the king of Tripuri (Tenavar). 4 

The wars with the Eastern Chalukyas had continued 
down to the reign of this Krishnaraja II. 5 * 

1 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. I, page 53. 

2 Krishnaraja had granted a 'Jagir' in Gujrat to Prachantfa's father in recogni- 
tion of his services. 

3 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XII, page 222. 

4 Bharata-ke-Prachina Rajavamsha, part I, page 40. 

5 In the copper plate of king Bhlma II, of the Ohalukya dynasty of Vengi, it is 
th UB stated: 

i.e., king Vijayaditya III who killed king Mangi fsonof Vishnuvardhana V, of 
the Ganga dynasty), and burnt the capital of king Krishnaraja II, ruled for 44 years* 
Probably the Rashtrakut-as had after this taken possession of that country which 
was later recaptured by king Bhlma I, a nephew of Vijayadijya. 

(Indian Antiquary, Vol. XIII, page 213. ) 


There is an inscription 1 of Shaka S. 797 (V.S. 932= 
A.D. 875), of Prithvirama, the chief feudatory of 
Krishnaraja II, who had made a charitable grant of 
land for a Jain temple at Saundatti. From this ins- 
cription it appears that Krishna II ascended the 
throne in Shaka S. 797 (V.S. 932- A.D. 875). But in 
the foregoing narrative of his father (Amoghavarsha I) 
we have noted that an inscription of Shaka S, 799 
(V.S. 934- A.D. 877) of that king has been found. This 
shows that in Shaka S. 797 (V.S. 932), or even earlier, 
king Amoghavarsha I had made over the kingdom to 
his son Krishnaraja II. Hence, some feudatories might 
have commenced to mention his name in their inscrip- 
tions even during the lifetime of king Amoghavarsha. 
We have already mentioned in Amoghavarsha's history 
that in his old age he, having renounced the affairs of 
the state, had written the book "Prashnottraratna- 
malika." This, too, supports the above opinion. 

Krishna II conquered the Andhra, Banga, Kalinga, 
and Magadha kingdoms, fought with the kings of 
Gurjara and Gauda, and after overthrowing the Rash- 
trakuta kingdom annexed the province of Lata. His 
kingdom extended from the Cape Commorin to the 
bank of the Ganges. 

In the latter part of the 'Mahapurana' written by 
Gunabhadra, a disciple of Jinasena, it is thus stated: 

i. *.,the 'Uttarapurana' was concluded in Shaka S. 820 
(V.S. 955-A.D. 898), in the reign of king Akalavarsha. 
Hence, this 'purana' may have been finished in the reign 
of Krishna II. His coronation probably took place 
about Shaka S. 797 (V.S. 932-A.D. 875). But V. A, Smith 
holds the date of this event to be A.D. 880 (V.S. 937). 

I Journal Bombay Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. X, page 194, 


He perhaps died about Shaka S. 833 (V.S. 986- A.D. 91 1). 

The name of the son of Krishna II was Jagattunga 
II who was married to Lakshml, the daughter of Rana- 
vigraha (Shankaragana), the son of king Kokkala of 
the Kalachuri (Haihaya) dynasty of Chedi. 

Just as Arjuna, the well-known hero of the Maha- 
bharata, married the daughter of his maternal uncle 
Vasudeva, Pradyumna the daughter of Rukma, and 
Aniruddha the granddaughter of Rukma, in like 
manner, in this family of the southern Rashtrakuta 
kings Krishnaraja, etc., married the daughters of their 
maternal uncles. This custom is still prevalent in the 

From the copper grant found at Wardha it appears 
that this Jagattunga had died in his father's lifetime. 1 
Therefore, after Krishnaraja II, Jagattunga's son 
Indra ascended the throne. 

The fact of the marriage of Jagattunga II to 
Lakshml, the daughter of Shankaragana, 2 is borne out by 
the copper grant of Karda. But the same plate speaks 
of Jagattunga as having married Govindamba, another 
daughter of Shankaragana and the mother of Amogha- 
varsha 3 III (Vaddiga), who might have been a younger 
brother of Indra. (This copper plate also shows that 
Jagattunga, having conquered many countries, had 
extended his father's dominions far and wicte, but the 
history relating to the later period is much confused 
in this plate.) 


i.e., the handsotae prince Jagattunga being devoted to sexual pleasure pre- 
deceased his father. This fact is also borne out by the Sangli and Navsari copper 
plates : 

2 Ranavigraha might be a title of Shankaragana. 

3 In the copper grant found at Kar<Ja it is thus stated : 



He was the son of Jagattunga II, and, owing to the 

latter's predeceasing his father, succeeded to the throne 

on the death of his grandfather Krishnaraja. His 

mother's name was Lakshmi, and he had married 

Vijamba, the daughter of Ammanadeva (Anangadeva), 

son of Arjuna and grandson of Kokkala of the Kala- 

churi (Haihaya) dynasty. The following are the titles of 

Indra III: Nityavarsha, Maharajadhiraja, Paramesh- 

vara, Parama Bhattaraka, and Shrl Prithvivallabha. 

Two copper grants 1 of his time have been found at 
Bagumra, both of which are of Shaka S. 836 (V.S. 972- 
A.D. 915). these show that Indra III had moved 
down from Manyakheta to the village of Kurundaka 
for his coronation. And on its completion, on the 7th 
day of the bright half of Phalguna, Shaka S. 836 
(24th February 91 5), 2 he made a charitable grant of 
gold equal in weight to that of his person and also of a 
village in the province of Lata. (This Kurundaka was 
situated on the confluence of the rivers Krishna and 

Besides these, he granted 20 lac Drammas and 
restored the 400 villages that had been resumed. 

In the aforesaid copper plates the Rashtrakutas are 
mentioned as the descendants of Satyaki and it is also 
stated that- Indra III had laid waste Meru. Meru here 
might stand for Mahodaya (Kanauj), because in the 
copper grant of Shaka S. 852, of his son Govinda IV, it 
is stated that he, having led his cavalry across the 
Yamuna, had laid waste Kanauj. And on that account 
Jt_came to be called 'Kushasthala' a jungle. 

1 Epigraphia fndica, Vol. IX, pagp 20; anl Journal Bo"mba7^Asia^ti7society7 
Vol. XVTII, pages 257 and 2P>1 

2 V. A. Smith gives A. I). 912 as the date of accession of Indra III. We cannot 
say that how far it is correct as in this plate is thus stated : 

(3) rSHcflt" Which Ihows that this event took place in A.D. 915, 


An inscription 1 of Shaka S. 838 (V.S. 973-A.D. 916), 
which was found at Hattimattura (in the Dharwar 
district) contains a mention of Lendeyaras, the chief 
feudatory of this king. 

When Indra III had laid waste Meru (Mahodaya or. 
Kanauj ) it was ruled over by the Pratihara Mahlpala. 
Though the former had dispossessed the latter of his 
kingdom yet he regained its possession. But in this 
confusion Mahlpala of Panchala lost his western posses- 
sions (Saurashtra, etc). 

Trivikrama Bhat^a, the author of the 'Damyantl 
Katha' and the 'Madalasa champu,' flourished in his 
time. The writer of the copper grant of Shaka S. 836 
(V.S. 972), of Kurundaka, was the same Trivikrama 
Bhatta, the son of Nemaditya and father of Bhaskra 
Bhaita. This Bhaskara Bhatta was contemporary of 
the great Paramara king Bhoja of Malwa. The famous 
astronomer Bhaskaracharya, author of the ^Siddhanta 
Shiromani/ was fifth in descent from this Bhaskara 

Indra III, had two sons: Amoghavarsha and 


He was the eldest son of Indraraja III and had 
probably ascended the throne after him. 

A copper grant 2 of Shaka S. 919 (V.S. 1054-A.D. 997), 
of Mahamantfaleshvara Aparajita Devaraja of the 
Shilara dynasty, shows that this Amoghavarsha II 
died soon after his accession (i.e., if he reigned at all it 
might be for a year or so only.) The date of his 
accession might be about V.S: 973 (A.D. 916). The 
Deoll grant 3 of Shaka S. 862 (A.D. 940) supports the 
fact that Amoghavarsha II succeeded Indraraja III. 

1 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XII, page 224. 

2 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. Ill, page 271, 

3 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. V, page 192. .. . . 



He was the son of Indraraja III and younger brother 
of Amoghavarsha II. The Trakrita' form of his name 
is found to be 'Gojjiga.' The following were his titles: 
Prabhutavarsha, Suvarnavarsha, Nripatunga, Vlra 
Narayana, Nityakandarpa, Rattakandarpa, Shashanka, 
Nripatitrinetra, Maharajadhiraja, Parameshvara, 
Parama Bhattaraka, Sahasanka, Prithvlvallabha, 
Vallabhanarendradeva, Vikrantanarayna, Gojjigava- 
llabha, etc. 

The wars with the Eastern Chalukyas of V&igi 
again broke out in his time, as is evident from the 
inscriptions 1 of Amma I, and Bhlma III. Two inscrip- 
tions and two copper grants of the time of this Govinda 
IV have been found. The first 2 of his inscriptions is of 
Shaka S. 840 (V.S. 975-A.D. 918) found, at Dantfapur 
(Dharwar district), and the second 3 is of Shaka S. 851 
(V.S. 987-A.D. 930). 

In his first copper grant 4 of Shaka S. 852 (V.S. 987- 
A.D. 930) he is mentioned as the successor of Maharaja- 
dhiraja Indraraja III, and a 'Yaduvamshf (of the lunar 
origin). The second plate, 5 dated Shaka S. 855 (V.S. 
990=A.D. 933), from Sangll, contains a mention of the 
lineage, etc., like the first. 

From the copper grant of Deoll (Wardha) it appears 
that this king (GSvinda IV) died at an early age 

1 In the copper grants of the Chalukyas it is thus stated about Bhima III : 

i.e , Bhlma repulsed the armies of Govinda and killed Chola king Lolavikk! and 
Yuddhamalla possessor of mighty elephants, without the help of others. This shows 
that Govinda IV m<*y have made an unsuccessful attack upon Bhima. 

At the time of the succession of Amma I, GSvinda TV had also attacked him but 
achieved no success. 

2 Indian Antiquary, Vol XII, page 223. 

3 Do. do. Vol. XII, page 211, (No. 48). 

4 Epigraphia Indioa, Vol. VI I, page 86. 

5 Indian Antiquary, Vol, XII, page 249, 


owing to the excess of sexual pleasures. 1 The date of 
his accession might be V.S. 974 (A.D. 917). 


He was the grandson of Krishnaraja II and son of 
Jagattunga II (from his wife Govindamba). He 
succeeded Govinda IV, who died a premature death 
owing to excess of sexual pleasures. 

It is stated in the copper grant 2 of Shaka S. 862 (V.S. 
997-A.D. 940), of the Rashtrakuta king Krishna III, 
found at Deoll (Wardha) : 

i.e., Govindaraja IV succeeded Amoghavarsha II, but 
as he died shortly afterwards on account of excessive 
sexual habits his feudatories requested Amoghavarsha 
III, the son of Jagattunga, to take the responsibilities 
of the government of the Rattas and made him their 

1 In the copper grant dated Shaka S. 855 (A.D. 933) of Sangl! it is thus stated : 

ft ftf^ar 


i.e., Govindaraja did not wrong his elder brother, nor was he guilty of incest, 
nor of cruelty, but he had earned the title of 'Sahasanka' for his courage and self- 

We presume from this statement that he might have been blamed of such crimes 
in his lifetime, to refute which he was obliged to make such mention in his copper 

2 Journal Bombay Branch Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. XVIII, page 251 tnd 
Eoigraphia Indica, Vol. V, page 192, i 


The following were the titles of Amoghavarsha III 
(Baddiga) :Shrl Prithvivallabha, Maharajadhiraja, 
Parameshvara, Paramabhattaraka, etc. 

He was a wise and powerful ruler, and a devotee of 
Shiva. He married Kundakadevi, the daughter of 
Yuvaraja I (king of Tripuri or Tenvar), 1 of the Kala- 
churi (Haihaya) dynasty. 

From the inscription 2 of Hebbala we understand 
that the daughter of Baddiga (Amoghavarsha III) was 
married to king Satyavakya Kongunivarma Perama- 
nadi Bhutuga II, of the western Ganga dynasty to 
whom a large territory was given in dowry. 

Baddiga may have ascended the throne about V.S. 
992 (A.D. 935). He had 4 sons: Krishnaraja, Jagat- 
tunga, Khottiga, and Nirupama. His daughter's name 
was Revakanimmadi, and she was the elder sister of 
Krishnaraja III. 


He was the eldest son and successor of Baddiga 
(Amoghavarsha III). Kannara also appears to be 
the Trakrita' form of his name. His titles have been 
known to be as follows : 

Akalavarsha, Maharajadhiraja, Parameshvara, 
Paramarfiaheshvara, Paramabhattaraka, Prithvivalla- 
bha, Shrl Prithvivallabha, Samastabhuvanashraya, 
Kandharapuravaradhishvara, etc. 

From the inscription of Atkur we learn that he 
killed king Rajaditysi ( Muvadichola ) of the Chola 
dynasty in a battle near the place named Takkola 
about V.S. 1006-7 (A.D. 949-50 V but in fact he was 
treacherously killed by the Satyavakya Kongunivarma 
Peramanadi Bhutuga of the western Ganga dynasty, 

1 Bharata-ke-Prachina Rajavamsha, Vol. I, page 42. 

2 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. IV, page 351. 

3 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. IJ, page 171. jFhe time of the death of Rajaditya is 
supposed to be V. 8. 1006 (^%D. 949). 


for which act Krishnaraja gave him the districts of 
Banavasi, etc. 

In the inscription 1 of Tirukkalukkunram, Krishna 
III is stated to have acquired the territories of Kanchi 
and Tanjor. 

From the inscription of Deoli 2 it appears that Krishna 
III killed king Dantiga of Kanchi and Vappuga, defeat- 
ed king Antiga of the Pallava dynasty, protected the 
Kalachuris of the Central India against the invasion 
of the Gurjaras 3 and defeated many other hostile kings. 
The feudatory chiefs from the Himalayas to Ceylon 
and from the Eastern sea to the western sea acknow- 
ledged his supremacy. He granted a village in charity 
to commemorate the illustrious services of his younger 
brother Jagattunga. Krishna III had acquired consi- 
derable power even during his father's lifetime. 

In the inscription 4 (of Lakshmeshvara), dated Shaka 
S. 890 (A.D. 968-9), it is stated that by his order Marasi- 
mha II defeated the Gurjara king, while Krishna III 
himself was like an incarnation of death for the kings 
of the Chola dynasty. 

From the inscriptions of Kyasnoor and Dharwar 
we understand that his chief feudatory Kalivitta, of the 
Chaillaketana dynasty, was the governor of Banavasl 
in V.S. 1002-1003 (A.D.945-46). 5 In one of the inscriptions 6 
of the Rattas of Saundatti it is stated that Krishna III 
having appointed Prithvlrama as a chief feudatory 
had dignified the Ratta family of Saundatti. The 

1 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. Ill, page 284. 

2 Indian Antiquary, Vol. V, page 192. 

3 These Gurjaras might be the followers of the Chalukya king Mularaja of 
Anhilwatfa and they attempted to take possession of Kalinjar and Chitrakuta. 

4 India Antiquary, Vol. VII, page 104. 

5 Bombay Gazetteer, Vol. I, Part II, Page 420. 

6 Bombay Gazetteer, Vol. I, part II, page 552, 


Yadava king Vandiga (Vaddiga) of Seuna (district) was 
also a feudatory of Krishna III. 

About 16 inscriptions and 2 copper grants of 
Krishna's reign have been found, seven of which bear 
Shaka Samvats while the remaining 8 bear the king's 
regnal years. The description of these is as follows : 

The first copper grant 1 of Shaka S. 862 (V.S. 997= 
A.D. 940), found at Deoll, speaks of a charitable grant 
made by Krishna III in memory of his deceased 
brother Jagattunga. 

An inscription 2 of Shaka S. 867 (V.S. 1002- A.D. 845) 
found at Salotjagl (Bijapur) contains a mention of a 
school opened by his minister Narayana, where students 
used to come from various parts of the country. 

In the second inscription 3 of Shaka S. 871 (V.S. 1006- 
A.D. 949), found at Sholapur, this king is stated to 
be a Chakravarti (Emperor). The third inscription 4 
of Shaka S. 872 (V.S. I007-A.D. 950), found at 
Atkur (Mysore), shows that king Krishna III awarded 
the district of Banavasl, etc., to king Bhutuga II 
of the western Ganga dynasty for his killing Chola 
king Rajaditya. The fourth inscription 5 of Shaka 
S. 873 (V.S. 1008=A.D. 951) is found at Soratur 
(Dharwar) ; the fifth of Shaka S. 875 (V.S. I014=A.D. 
957 ), 6 at Sholapur; and the sixth 7 of Shaka S. 976 
(V.S. 101 1=A.D. 954), at Chinchli. 

The second copper grant 8 of this king, bearing Shaka 
S. 880 (V.S. 1015=A.D. 958), found at Karhad, indicates 
that Krishna III, while invading the South, laid waste 

1 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. V, page 192. 

2 Do. do. IV,, page 60. 

3 Do. do. VII, page 194. 

4 Do. do. II, page 171. 

5 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XII, page 257. 

6 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. VII, page 196. 

7 Kielhonrs list of the Southern inscriptions of India, No, 97. 
6 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. IV, page 281, 


the province of Chola, 1 conquered the territory of 
Pantfya, subjugated the king of Ceylon, exacted tributes 
from the'Manadlika' rulers and erected a monumental 
tower at Rameshvaram to commemorate these victories. 
He also granted a village for the construction 
pf the temples of Kalapriya, Gantfamartanda and 

His seventh inscription, 2 dated Shaka S. 884 (V.S. 
1019-A.D. 962), was found at Devi Hosur. 

Eight inscriptions in Tamil language bearing n o 
date are of his 16th 3 , 17th 4 , 19th 5 , 21st 6 , 22nd 7 , 24th 8 and 
26th 9 regnal years. There are two inscriptions of the 
17th 10 year. The ninth inscription of Lakshmeshvara 
bears neither the date nor the regnal year. In these 
also he is described as the conqueror 11 of Kanchi and 
Tanjal (Tanjor). 

The Vlra Chola, mentioned in the inscription of the 
26th regnal year, might be Gangavana Prithvipati II. 

Krishna III also used to assist his father in the 
conduct of the Government. He dethroned Rachamalla I, 
of the western Ganga dynasty, and installed his own 
brother-in-law Bhutuga II,, 12 in his place. He defeated 
Kalachuri (Haihaya) Sahasrarjuna, king of Chedi, and a 
relative of his mother and wife. The king of Gujrat 
was also afraid of his bravery. 

' 1 This fact is also supported by an inscription of Krishijaraja III, found at 
the village named Jura. (Epigraphia Indica, vol. XIX, page 287). This event 
probably took place in V. S. 1004 (A. D. 947).) 

2 Kielhorn's list of the inscriptions of Southern India, No. 89, 

3 South Indian inscriptions, Vol. Ill, No. 7, page 12. 

4 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. VII, page 135. 

5 Do. do. Ill, page 285. 

6 Do. do. VII, page 142. 

7 Do. do. VII, page 143. * 

8 Do. do. VII, page 144. 

9 Do. do. IV, page 8$. 

10 Do. do. Ill, page 284, 

11 At that time the Pal lavas ruled at Kanchi and the Cholaa at Tanjor. 

12 From an inscription in the Tamil language of a later date it appeats that 
RftchamailA was also killed by Bhutuga, 


As an inscription of his 26th regnal year has been 
found, it is certain that he ruled at least for 26 


The drama named 'Yashastilaka Champu/ written 
by Somadeva, was completed 1 in Shaka S. 881 (V.S. 
1016=A.D. 959), in the reign of Krishna III, and in 
it Krishna III has been described as the conqueror of 
Chera, Chola, Pandya, and Simhala. (A book named 
'Nitivakyamrita' 2 on politics was also written by the 
same Somadeva). 

We have come across "Parama Maheshvara" as one 
of the titles of the king which shows that he was a 
devotee of Shiva. He may have ascended the throne 
about V.S. 996 (A.D. 939). 

He was a great king and his kingdom extended even 
beyond the Ganges. 

The famous poet Ponna of the Canarese language, 
who followed Jainism and wrote the 'Shanti Purana,' 
also flourished in his reign. Pleased with his 
talents Krishna III decorated him with the title of 
"Ubhayabhasha Chakravarti." The poet laureate 
Pushpadanta also came to Manyakheta during his 
time and compiled the Jain 'Mahapurana' in the 
'Apabhramsha' language, under the patronage of his 
minister Bharata. TL book contains a mention of the 
plunder of Manyakheta, which took place in V.S. 1029. 
This shows that the book in question was completed 
in the time of Khottiga, the successor of Krishna III. 

This Pushpadanta had also written the books named 
"Yashodharacharita" and "Nagakumaracharita" which 
contain a mention of^Nanna, the son of Bharata. 
These books too may have been written in the time 
of the successors of Krishna III. 

1 When Somadeva compiled this work, he was living in the capital of Prince 
Baddiga, the eldest son of the Chalukya Arikeeari, a feudatory of king Krishna III, 

2 Jain Sahitya Samehodhaka, part II, issue 3, page 36. 


In the Jain Library of Karanja there is a book 
named "Jvala malinl Kalpa" at the end of which it 
is stated 1 : 


ic., this work was finished in Shaka S. 861, in the 
reign of king Krishnaraja. 

This shows that Krishnaraja was ruling in Shaka S. 
861 (V.S. 996=A.D. 939). 


He was the son of Amoghavarsha III. He succeeded 
his elder brother Krishnaraja III. 

It is stated in the copper grant 2 of Shaka S. 984, 
found at Karda (Khandesh): 

i.e., on the death of his elder brother Krishnaraja- 
deva, Khottigadeva, 3 son of Amoghavarsha and Kan- 
dakadevi (the daughter of Yuvarajadeva), ascended 
the throne. 

Though Khottiga had an elder brother named Jagat- 
tunga, yet, as he predeceased Krishnaraja, Khottiga 
succeeded him. 

The following were the titles of Khottiga : Nitya- 
varsha; Rattakandarpa, MaharSjadhiraja, Paramesh- 
vara, Paramabhattaraka, Shrl Prithvlvallabha, etc. 

An inscription 4 in the Canarese language of Shaka 
S. 893 (V.S. I028=A.D.971), contains a title of this king, 

1 Jain Sahitya Samshodhaka, part II, issue 3, pages 145-156. 

2 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XII, page 264. 

3 This seems to be only a 'Prakrita' form of the king% real name, mention of 
which has not yot been found anywhere. / 

4 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XII, pifge 255, 


'Nityavarsha' and a mention of his feudatory Perama- 
na^i Marasimha II, of the western Ganga dynasty. 
This Marasimha had under his sway 96,000 villages? of 
Gangavadi, 300 of Belavala and 300 of Purigera. 

An inscription 1 of the time of Paramara king 
Udayaditya, found at Udaipur (Gwalior), contains the 
following lines: 

: SRTT<T: 

i.e., Shri Harsha (Siyaka II of the Paramara dynasty 
of Malwa) had seized the kingdom from Khottigadeva. 

At the end of the Prakrita dictionary named Taiya- 
lachchhi Namamala/ written by Dhanapala, it is 

i. e., in Vikrama S. 1029, the king of Malwa plundered 
the city of Manyakheta. 

These show that after defeating Khottiga, Siyaka 
II may have looted his capital town Manyakheta. Just 
about the date of this event Dhanapala had compiled 
the aforesaid dictionary (Paiyalachchi Namamala) for 
his sister Sundara. In this warfare Kankadeva, king 
of Vagada and cousin of king Siyaka of Malwa, was 
killed and king Khottiga also fell on the field. 

This fact is also borne out by the Jain 'Mahapurana' 
written by Pushpadanta. 

After this event thp great power of Rashtrakutas 
of the Deccan began to decline. 

King Khottiga may have succeeded to the throne 
about V.S. 1023 (A.D. 966) and died leaving no male 

1 Journal Bengal Asiatic Society, Vol. I3fc page 549. 



He was the son of Nirupama, the youngest son of 
Amoghavarsha III. He succeeded his own uncle 
Khottigadeva. The other forms of his name were 
Kakka, Karkara, Kakkara and Kakkala. His titles 
were Amoghavarsha, Nripatunga, Viranarayana, 
Nutana Partha, Ahitamartanda, Rajatrinetra, MahS- 
rajadhiraja, Parameshvara, Paramamaheshvara, 
Paramabhattaraka, Prithvivallabha, Vallabhanarendra, 
etc. From the title Tarama Maheshvara' it appears 
that this king was also a Shaiva. 

In a copper grant 1 of Shaka S. 894 (V.S. 1029=A.D. 
972), of the reign of Karkara ja, found at Kartfa, 
the Rashtrakutas are mentioned as Yadavas. 

The capital of his kingdom was Malkhed and he 
conquered the territories of the Gurjaras, Cholas, 
Hunas and Pandyas. 

In an inscription 2 of his time of Shaka S. 896 (V.S. 
1030-A.D. 973), found at Gundur (Dharwar) there 
is a mention of his feudatory Peramanadi Marasimha 
II of the western Ganga dynasty who had annihilated 
Nolambakula of the Pallava dynasty. 

Karkaraja II may have ascended the throne in or 
about V. S. 1029 (A.D. 972). 

The weakness of the Rashtrakuta power resulting 
from the invasion by Paramara king Slyaka II, of 
Malwa at the time of Khottiga, afforded an opportunity 
to the Chalukyas (Solankis) to regain their lost power. 
In- order to do so, Solankl king Tailapa II attacked 
Kairkaraja jtfterV.S. 1030 (A.D. 973) and re-established 3 

1 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XII, page 203, 

2 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XII, pae 271. 

3 In the copper grant of KM re pa tan it is stated : 

r: n 

t.e., the powerful king Karkaraja II, was a nephew of Kho^tifea and alter 
him, Tailapa took possession of his kingdom, 


the Chalukya (Solanki) kingdom of Kalyani. Thus 
ended the Rashtrakuta kingdom of the Deccan. 1 

In the inscription 2 of Vijjala of the Kalachuri 
dynasty, Tailapa is stated to have killed Rash^rakuta 
king Karkkara (Karkaraja II) and Ranakambha 
(Ranastambha) who was, perhaps, a relative of king 

The said Solanki king Tailapa II had married 
Jakabba, 3 the daughter of Rashtrakuta Bhammaha. 

The fact about the destruction of the Rashtrakuta 
kingdom of the Deccan by Tailapa II in the time of 
Karkaraja is further corroborated by the copper plates 
of Shaka S. 919 4 and 930 5 , of kings Aparajita and 
Rattaraja of the Shilara dynasty respectively. This 
Aparajita was a feudatory of the Rashtrakutas and 
became independent on their downfall. In the "Vikra- 
mankadevacharita" (Sarga I, stanza 69) it is stated: 


i.e., the state passed on to the Solanki king Tailapa 
II, the destroyer of the Rashtrakuta kingdom. 

An inscription 6 of Shaka S. 904 (V.S. 1039=A.D. 982), 
found at Shravana Belgola, contains a mention of 
Indraraja IV, who was a grandson of Rashtrakuta 
king Krishnaraja III. The mother of this Indra IV 
was the daughter of Gangeyadeva of the Ganga dynasty 
and Indraraja married the daughter of Rajachudamani. 
The titles of this Indraraja were as follows: 

Rattakandarpadeva, Rajamartanda, Chaladanka 
karana, Chaladaggale, Kirtinarayana, etc. He is spoken 
of as a brave and tried warrior and a controller of pas- 
sions. Having broken the 'Chakravyuha' single-handed, 
he defeated 18 enemies. Girige, the wife of Kallara, tried 
all means to captivate his heart, but he resolutely 
rejected her overtures. She at last challenged him 
to battle in which too she was defeated. 

1 Indian Antiquary, Vol. VIII, page 15. 

2 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. V, page 15. 

3 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XVI, page 21. 

4 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. Ill, page 272. 

5 Do. do* Vol. Ill, p. 297. 

6 Inscriptions at SWavanabelgola, No fc 57, (page 53) A. 17. 



After the death of Karkaraja, Peramana<ii Mara- 
simha of the western Ganga dynasty in his efforts 
to maintain the Rashtrakuta kingdom, tried his best 
to obtain the throne for Indra IV. (It has been noted 
above that Peramanadi Bhutuga, the father of this 
Marasimha, was a brother-in-law of the Rashtrakuta- 
king Krishna III.) This effort was probably made 
about V.S. 1030 (A.D. 973) but nothing has been known 
as to its result. This Indra IV courted death by 
observing total abstinence from food and drink, 1 which 
is a principle of the Jain theology, and died on the 8th 
day of the dark half of Chaitra, Shaka S. 904=V. S. 
1039 (20th March 982 A.D.). 



1 Dantivarman I. 

2 Indraraja I. 

Govindaraja I. 

Karkaraja 1, 


6. Indraraja II. 
6. Dantidurga or 
Dantivarman II. 

I " " "I 

7. Kriehnaraja I. Nanna. 

8. Govindaraja II. - 

,!) Dbruvaraja. 

10. Govindaraja III. 
^Jagattunga I), 

11. Amoghavarsha I. 

12. Krishnaraja IT. 

^ori^inator of the 
2nd branch of 

Stambba or 
Ran aval oka). 

Jagattunga Tl. 
13. Jndraraja IT I. 

:_U_ ..:.- - 

14. Amoghavarsba II. 



" I 
IB. Amoghavarsha HI ^Baddiga). 

loghavarsha II. 15, Govindaraja TV. 

1 '""I" " " " I I 

17. Kyishnaraja III. Jagattunga III. IS. Khottiga. Nirupama. 

Indraraja. TV. 

A daughter named 
19. Karkaraja II. 

I Epigraphia Indica, Vol. IV, page 182. 







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FROM BEFORE V. S. 814 (A.D. 757) 


AFTER V.S. 945 (A.D. 888). 

First Branch. 

It has already been stated that king Dantidurga 
(Dantivarman II) had seized the kingdom of Chalukya 
(Solanki) king Kirtivarman II. At the same time 
the province of Lata (Southern and Central Gujrat) had 
also passed into the possession of the Rashtrakutas. 

A copper grant 1 of Shaka S. 679 (V. S. 814= A.D. 757), 
of Maharajadhiraja Karkaraja II of Gujrat, has been 
found at Surat, which shows that at the time of his 
victory over the Solankls, king Dantidurga (Danti- 
varman II ) had made this Karkaraja, who was a 
relative of the former, the king of the province of Lata 

From the similarity in the names of the Rash^ra- 
kuta kings of the Deccan and of Gujrat, it appears that 
the Rash^rakuta family of Lata was a branch of the 
Rashtrakuta family of the Deccan. In the said copper 
grant their genealogy is given thus: 

1. Karkaraja I the first name of this branch 
known uptill now. 

2. Dhruvaraja- son of Karkaraja I. 

3. Govindaraja son of Dhruvaraja, married the 
daughter of Nagavarman. 

4. Karkaraja II son of Govindaraja. 

X, Journal Bombay Asiatic Society, Vol. X VI, page 106, 


The aforesaid copper grant of Shaka S. 679 (V.S. 
814r=A.D. 757) is of the time of Karkaraja II. He was 
a contemporary of the Rashtrakuta king Dantidurga 
(Dantivarman II) who had invested him with the 
ruling powers of Lata. The following are the titles of 
king Karkaraja II : 

Parama Maheshvara, Parama Bhat^araka, Parmesh- 
vara, Maharajadhiraja. 

This king was a very powerful monarch and a 
devotee of the God Shiva. Some scholars identify him 
with Rahappa who was defeated by the Rashtrakuta 
king Krishnaraja I of the Deccan. It is probable, 
therefore, that this dynasty came to an end in conse- 
quence of this battle. As no inscription, etc., of this 
family, beyond the one noted above, has been found, 
there is therefore, no further trace of the history of 
this branch of the Rashtrakuta rulers. 

----- Second Branck. 

'In the history of the Rashtrakutas of the Deccan it 
has been stated that king Govindaraja III had made a 
grant of the province of Lata to his younger brother 
Indraraja. From the inscriptions of the descendants 
of this Indraraja we arrive at the following history oi 
this branch: 


^ He waS the son of king Dhruvaraja and younger 
brother of Govindaraja III of the Rashtrakuta dynasty 
of.- .the Deccan, who had made him the ruler of Lata 
(Southern and Central Gujrat). 

In the copper grant'.of Shaka S. 730 (V.S. 865=A.D. 
808)^ of king Govinda III, there is a mention of the 
coftquefct of Gujrat,~which shows that sometime about 
this date, Indraraja got possession of Lata. This Indra 
had two sons: Karkaraja and Govindaraja. 

1 Kpigraphia Indica, Vol. VI, page 242, 



He was the son and successor of Indraraja. Two 
copper grants of his time are found. The first 1 is of 
Shaka S. 734 (V.S. 869=A.D. 812), which shows that 
Govindaraja III of the Rashtrakuta dynasty of the 
Deccan made his younger brother Indraraja, father of 
Karkaraja, the king of Lata. The titles of king Karka- 
raja, viz., Maha Samantadhipati, Lateshvara and 
Suvarnavarsha, are also mentioned in this plate. This 
king had protected the king of Malava from the 
invasion of the king of Gujrat, who had conquered the 
Gauda and the Banga provinces. The executor of the 
grant mentioned in this plate is named therein as 
prince Dantivarman. 

The other copper plate 2 is of Shaka S. 738 ( V.S. 873= 
A.D. 817). 

In the copper grant 3 of Shaka S. 757 (V.S.892=A.D. 
835), of the chief feudatory Dhruvaraja I of Gujrat, it 
is stated that having put down the rebellous Rashtra- 
kutas, king Karkaraja had installed king Amoghavarsha 
I, of Manyakheta on the throne of his father (about 
V.S. 872=A.D. 815). 

From this it appears that at the time of the death 
of Govindaraja III, his son, Amoghavarsha I, was a 
minor, which afforded an opportunity to the % feudatory 
Rashtrakutas and the Solankis to attempt at dis- 
possessing him of the kingdom but Karkaraja frustrated 
their attempts. 

Karkaraja had a son named phruvaraja. 


He was the son of Indraraja and younger brother 
of Karkaraja. We have found two copper grants of 

1 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XII, page 156. 

2 Journal Bombay Asiatic Society, Vol. XX, page 13& 
3 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XIV, page 199. 


his'time. The first 1 is of Shaka S. 735 (V.S. 870=A.D. 
813) and the second 2 of Shaka S. 749 (V.S. 884=A.D. 
827). The first plate speaks of the king's chief feuda- 
tory, Buddhavarsha of the Shalukika clan, and contains 
GovindarajVs titles, viz , Mahasamantadhipati and 
Prabhutavarsha. From the other plate, we gather that 
when Govindaraja was at Broach he granted a village 
for the upkeep of a temple of the Sun god named 

As there exist copper grants of Shaka S. 734 and 
738 of Karkaraja, and those of Shaka S. 735 and 749 of 
his younger brother Govindaraja, we understand that 
the two brothers weilded authority simultaneously for 
some time. 


He was the son of Karkaraja and succeeded to the 
throne after his uncle Govindaraja. The copper grant 5 
of Shaka S. 757 (V.S. 892=A.D. 835), mentioned above 
in the history of Karkaraja, belongs to this king, and 
contains his titles ;w's, Mahasamantadhipati, Dhara- 
varsha and Nirupama. 

He had headed a rising against Amoghavarsha I, 
which obliged the latter to march against him. Dhru- 
varaja was probably killed in this action, as is evident 
from the copper grant of Shaka S. 789 (V.S. 924- A.D. 
867) found at Begumra. 


He was the son and'successor of Dhruvaraja. His 
titles are found to be Shubhatunga and Subhatatunga. 
During his reign, too, relations with the Rash^rakutas 

1 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. Ill, page 54. 

2 Indian Antiquary, A T ol. V, page 145. 

S Indian Antiquary, %>1. XIV, page 199. 


of the Deccan do not appear to have been friendly. 1 
He had three sons: Dhruvaraja, Dantivarman, and 


He was the son and successor of Akalavarsha. In a 
copper grant 2 of Shaka S. 789 (V.S. 924--A.D. 867) of 
this king, the executor of the order of charity concerned 
is named Govindaraja. This Govindaraja was the son 
of Shubhatunga (Akalavarsha) and younger brother of 
Dhruvaraja II. He (Dhruvaraja) had defeated the 
combined invading armies of Gurjararaja, 3 Vallabha, 
and Mihira. This Mihira probably was Pratihara 
Bhojadeva of Kanauj, whose title was "Mihira." 
Mention of a battle with Vallabha shows that this king 
may have tried to throw off the yoke of suzerainty of 
the Rashtrakuta king of Manyakheta. 4 

This king had granted in charity the district of 
Trenna to a Brahmana named Dhoddhi who maintained 
with its revenue, a free boarding house where thousands 
of Brahmanas daily received their food, alike in 
years of scarcity and plenty. His (Dhruvaraja's) younger 
brother Govinda also fought on his side. 


He was the son of Akfilavarsha and younger brother 
of Dhruvaraja II, whom he succeeded. A copper 
grant 5 of Shaka S. 789 (V.S. 924--A.D. 867) of his time 
has been found. It contains his titles, viz., Mahasa- 
mantadhipati, Aparimitavarsha, etc. The charity it 
speaks of was granted for a Budjihist monastery. 

1 In the copper grant of Shaka S. 789 of Begumra, it is stated that though his 
faithless followers forcsouk him, Akalavarsha regained his paternal kingdom from 
the army of Vallablm (Amoghavarsha I). Indian Antiquary, Vol. XII, page 181). 

2 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XII, page 181. 

3 Cliaora Kshemar'aja might be the king of Gnjrat at this time. 

4 The aforesaid copper grant of Shaka tf. 78\) further goes to show that when 
enemies invaded his country all his relatives and even his younger brother deserted 

5 P^pigraphia Indica, Vol. VI, page 287. 


From the copper grant of Dhruvaraja, II it appears 
that the two brothers were not on good terms, but in 
the plate of Dantivarman I, the latter is described as a 
devotee of his elder brother Dhruvaraja, Probably, 
therefore, it might be some other brother referred to 
in the above plate of Dhruvaraja. 


He was the son and successor of Dantivarman. A 
copper grant 1 of Shaka S. 810 (V.S. 945=A.D. 888) of 
his time has been found which appears to be incorrect 
His titles are found to be Mahasamantadhipati, Akala- 
varsha, etc. 

This Krishnaraja defeated his enemies at Ujjain 
in the presence of Vallabharaja. 

The history of this family is not traceable any 
further. By thinking over the contents of the copper 
grant of Shaka S. 832 (V.S. 967 A.D. 910), of Rashtra- 
kuta Krishna II of Manyakheta, we conclude that 
sometime between Shaka S. 810 (V.S. 945=A.D. 888) and 
Shaka S. 832 (V.S. 967 A.D. 910) he (Krishnaraja II), 
having annexed the kingdom of Lata, put an end to the 
Rash^rakuta dynasty of Gujrat. 

(First Branch*) 

1. Karkarfija I. 

2. Dhruvaraja. 

3. GovindarSja. 

4. KarkarS ja II. 

(Second Branch ) 
Dhruvaraja of Manyakheta. 

1. Indraraja. 


Dhruvaraja I. 



3. Govindaraja J, 

araja II 

7. Dantivarman. 

Gdvindaraja II. 

1 Indian Antiquary/ Vol. XIII, page 66. 













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FROM ABOUT V. S 932 (A,D. 875) 

ABOUT V.S. I287(A.D. 1230). 

It has already been stated that Chalukya (Solanki) 
Tailapa II had seized the kingdom of Manyakheta 
(Deccan) from the Rashtrakuta king Karkaraja II. 
It can be inferred from the inscriptions of these two 
kings that this event, perhaps, took place just after 
V.S. 1030 (A.D. 973). But from other inscriptions we 
learn that long after the downfall of the Rashtrakuta 
kingdom petty principalities of its younger off-shoots 
outlived and that they became feudatories of the 
Chalukyas (Solankis). 

We are able to trace two such branches of the 
Rashtrakutas that existed in the modern Dharwar 
district of the Bombay Presidency and flourished one 
after the other at Saundatti (Kuntal in the Belgaum 
district). Often they are mentioned as Rattas in their 

(The First Branch) 


This is the first name traceable of this branch. 

He was the son and successor of Merada. An ins- 
cription 1 of ShakaS. 797 (V.S. 932=A.D. 875) of this 
chief has been found, in which he is mentioned as 
belonging to the Ratta race. 

1 Journal Bombay, Asiatic Society, Vol. X, page 194, 


He was a feudatory of the Rashtrakuta king Krish- 
naraja and ruler of Saundatti. From the date of this 
inscription we infer that he was a contemporary of 
Rashtrakuta king Krishnaraja II, but we have found 
another inscription of Prithvirama's grandson Shanti- 
varman of the Shaka S. 902 (V.S. 1037=A.D. 980). As 
there is an interval of 105 years between the dates of 
these two inscriptions, which seems somewhat extra- 
ordinary, it is probable, therefore, that Prithvirama's 
inscription was prepared afterwards and that this is the 
cause of the inaccuracy in the date. Again, he might 
be a contemporary not of the Rashtrakuta king Kri- 
shnaraja II. but of Krishnaraja III. This Prithvirama 
followed Jainism and was created a chief feudatory 
(Mahasamtadhipati) about V.S. 997 (A.D. 940). 


He was the son and successor of Prithvirama. He 
defeated Ajavarman in battle. His wife's name was 


He was the son of Pittuga and succeeded to the 
throne after him. An inscription 1 of Shaka S. 902 
(V.S. I()37=A.D. 980) of this king has been found, in 
which he has been described as a feudatory of the 
western Chalukya (Solankl) king Tailapa II. His 
wife's name was Chandikabbe. After this we are 
unable to trace the history of this branch. 

(The Second Branch.) 

1. NANNA. 

This is the first name traced of the second branch of 
the Rafta rulers of Saundatti. 

1 Journal Bombay Asiatic Society, Vol. X, page 204. } 



He was the son and successor of Nanna. An inscrip- 
tion 1 of Shaka S. 902 (V.S. 1037=A.D. 980) of this king 
has been found. He was a feudatory of the SolankI 
king Tailapa II and governor of Kun^i in DhSrwar 
of which district he had fixed the boundaries. It is 
probable that this chief may have put an end to the 
first branch of Saundatti, having wrested authority 
from Shantivarman. He had two sons: Dayima and 

He was the son and successor of Kartavlrya I. 


He was the son of Kartavlrya and younger brother 
of Dayima whom he succeeded. He had two sons, firega 
and Anka. 


He was the son and successor of Kanna I. An ins- 
cription 2 of his time, of Shaka S. 962 (V.S. 1097=A.D. 
1040), has been found in which he is described as the 
chief feudatory of the Chalukya (SolankI) king Jaya- 
simha II ( Jagadekamalla), the ruler of Lattalura, and 
was decorated with the five high titles. He was- an 
expert musician. He was also called Rafta NarSyafla, 
As there was a golden image of Garutfa on his flag he 
was further called "Singana Gambia". An ensign 
conveyed on an elephant, with a band called "Tivili" 
(like the one played in* the processions of the Rashtra- 
kutas of the Deccan) used to decorate his procession. 

The name of his son was Sena (Kalasena). 

1 Kielhorn'e lilt of South Indian Instriptions, page 26, No. 141. 

2 Indian Antiquary^ Vol. XIX, page 164. 


6. ANKA. 

He was the son of Kanna I and succeeded his elder 
brother firega. An inscription 1 of his time, of Shaka S. 
970 (V.S. HOS^A.D. 1048), has been found in which he 
is mentioned as a chief feudatory of the western 
Chalukya (Solanki) Trailokyamalla (Someshvara I). 
Perhaps, another broken inscription of his time has also 
been found which, too, is of the same year. 


He was the son of Erega and a successor of his 
uncle Anka. He married Mailaladevi from whom he 
had two sons: Kanna and Kartavirya. 


He was the son and successor of Sena (Kalasena I). 

One copper grant and one inscription of his time have 

been found. The copper grant 2 is of Shaka S. 1004(V.S. 

1139=A.D. 1082) in which this Kanna II of the Rafta 

race is mentioned as a chief feudatory of the Solanki 

(western Chalukya) king Vikramaditya VI. It also 

appears from this plate that Kanna had purchased 

many villages from Mahamandaleshvara Munja, king of 

Bhogavatl (grandson of Bhima and son of Sindaraja), 

who belonged to the Sinda dynasty which is stated as 

the gem of the Naga race. 

The inscription 3 mentioned above is of Shaka S. 1009 
(V.S. 1144=A.D. 1087). In it he is mentioned as Maha- 
mandaleshvara (the chief feudatory). 


He was the son of Sena I and younger brother of 
Kanna II. He was also called Katta. His wife's name 
was Bhagaladevl or Bhaglambika. Three inscriptions 

1 Journal Bombay Asiatic Society, Vol. X, page 172. 

2 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. Ill, page^OS. 

3 Journal Bombay Asiatic Society, Vol. X, page 287, 


of his time have been found. The first 1 , found from 
Saundatti, shows that he was a chief feudatory of the 
western Chalukya (Solanki) king Someshvara II and 
ruler of Lattalura. The second 2 inscription is of Shaka 
S. 1009 (V.S. 1144=A.D. 1087) ; in it he is mentioned 
as the chief feudatory of Vikramaditya VI, the succes- 
sor of Someshvara. 

The third inscription 3 is of Shaka S. 1045 (V.S. 1 180 
A.D. 1123). But his son Sena II had assumed power 
before this date. 

By looking into the inscriptions of Kanna II and 
Kartavlrya II, we understand that the two brothers 
had ruled together. 


He was the son and successor of Kartavlrya II. An 
inscription 4 of his time, of Shaka S. 1018 (V.S. 1153= 
A.D. 1096), has been found. He was a contemporary of 
Chalukya (Solanki) Vikramaditya VI, and his son 
Jayakarna. Jayakarna's period has been ascertained to 
be from V.S. 1159 (A.D. 1102) to V.S. 1178 (A.D. 1121). 
So Sena II may have lived sometime between these 
dates. The name of his wife was Lakshmldevl. 

As we have found an inscription of his father, of the 
year Shaka S. 1045 (V.S. 1180=A.D. 1123), it appears 
that the father and the son both had wielded the 
authority together. 

^ He was the son and successor of Sena (Kalasena II). 
His wife's name was Padmaladevi. 

A broken inscription 5 of his time has been found at 
Konnur in which his titles are mentioned as Mahaman- 

1 Journal Bombay Asiatic Society, Vol X, page 213 

2 T ^ D O- do. do ' do. 173. 
6 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XIV, page 15 

4 Journal Bombay Asiatic Society, Vol'. X, page 194. 
6 Archaeological Survey of India, Vol. Ill, page 103. 


daleshvara and Chakravartl, which shows that in the 
beginning he remained a feudatory of the western 
Chalukya (Solanki) kings Jagadekamalla II and 
Tailapa III. But sometime after V.S. 1222 (A.D. 1165), 
due to the decline of the power of the Solanki and the 
Kalachurl (Haihaya) dynasties, he became independent 
and may have assumed the title of Chakravartl. 

From an inscription of Shaka S. 1109 (past) (V.S. 
(244^A.D. i 1 87) it appears that at that time one Bhayi- 
deva ruled over Kuncli, who was an administrator 
of criminal justice under Solanki Someshvara IV. 
From this we infer that the Rattas might not have 
attained full success in gaining independence upto 
that time. 

The name of Kartavlrya is also mentioned in the 
inscriptions, 1 found at Khanpur (Kolhapur State), of 
Shaka S. 1066 (V.S. I200=A.D. II 43) and Shaka S. 1084 
(past)(V.S. 1219^A.D. 1 162) and also in the inscription 2 
of the Belgaum district of Shaka S. 1086 (V.S. 1221 = 
A.D. 1164). 


He was the son and .successor of Kartavlrya III. 
His other names Lakshmana and Lakshmidhara are 
also found. His wife's name was Chandrikadevi (or 

An inscription 3 of Shaka S. 1130 (V.S. 1265=A.D. 
1209) has been found at Hannikeri, which appears to 
be of his time. As inscriptions have been found 
of his sons Kartavlrya IV and Mallikarjuna from 
Shaka S. 1121 to 1141 and 1127 to 1131 respectively, 
it appears ordinarily impossible that he lived in Shaka 
S. 1130. But, if we suppose that the period of the 

1 Carn.-desa inscriptions, Vol. II, pages 547-548, 

2 Indian Antiquary, Vol. IV, page 11(3. 

3 Bombay Gazetteer, Vol. I, part II, page 55 ti. 


reigns of the father and sons had run concurrently, as 
we have done in cases of Kanna II and Kartavlrya II, 
then the enigma disappears. But, so long as convincing 
proofs of the above fact are not forthcoming, nothing 
can be said with certainty. 

He had two sons: --Kartavlrya and Mallikarjuna. 


He was the eldest son of Lakshmldeva I. Six ins- 
criptions and one copper grant of his time have been 
found. The first inscription 1 of Shaka S. 1121 (past) 
(V.S. I257=A.D. 1200) is found at Sankeshvara 
(Belgaum district). The second inscription 2 is of 
Shaka S. 1124 (V.S. 1258^A.D. 1201). The third 3 and 
fourth 4 inscriptions are of Shaka S. 1 126 (past) (V.S. 
I26I=A.D. 1204). The fifth 5 is of Shaka S. 1127 (V.S. 
1261^A.D. 1204). In this inscription Kartavlrya IV 
has been mentioned as the ruler of Latanur and 
his capital is named Venugrama. His younger bro- 
ther Yuvaraja Mallikarjuna is also mentioned in it. 
The copper grant 6 of his time is of Shaka S. 1131 
(V.S. 1265=A.D. 1208), which also contains a men- 
tion of his younger brother and heir apparent, 

The sixth inscription 7 is of Shaka S. 1 141 (V.S. 1275^ 
A.D. 1218). This king bore the title of Mahamanda- 
leshvara. He had two queens, Echaladevi and Madevi. 

He was the son and successor of Kartavlrya IV. An 

1 Carn.-desa inscriptions, Vol. II, page 561. 

2 Graham's Kolhapur, page 415, No. 9. 

3 Carn.-desa inscriptions, Vol. II, page 571. 

4 Carn.-desa inscriptions, Vol. II, page 57(3. 

5 Journal Bombay Asiatic Society, Vol. X, page 220. 

6 Indian Antiquary Vol. XIX, p. 245. 

7 Journal Bombay Asiatic Society, Vol. X, page 24U. 


inscription 1 of his time of Shaka S. 1151 (V.S. 1285= 
A.D. 1228) has been found in which his title is men- 
tioned as Mahamandaleshvara. His mother's name 
was Madevl. 

As no record of this family bearing a date later 
than Shaka S. 1151 has yet been found, it appears that 
this branch of the Rattas, probably, ceased to exist at 
this stage and their kingdom was seized by the Yadava 
king Singhana of Deogiri. This event may have occur- 
red about V.S. 1287 (A.D. 1230). But the districts 
north, south and east of Kundi had already passed out 
of the possession of Lakshmideva II even before this 

In the copper plate 2 of Shaka S. 1 160 (V.S. 1295=A.D. 
1238) of Haralahalli, Vichana, a feudatory of Yadava 
king Singhana of Deogiri, is stated to have defeated 
the Rattas. 

A copper plate 3 has been found from Sitabaldl of 
Shaka S. 1008(1009) (V.S. 1144=A.D. 1087) of Ranaka 
Dhadibhandaka (Dhadideva), the chief feudatory of 
the western Chalukya (Solanki) Vikramaditya VI 
(Tribhuvanamalla), in which this Dhadibhandaka is 
stated to be of the Maha Rashtrakuta race and to have 
come from Latalur. 

In the inscription 4 of Shaka S. 1052 (V.S. N86=A.D. 
1129) found. at Khanpur (Kolhapur State) there is a 
mention of Ratta Ankideva, a chief feudatory of 
Solanki Someshvara III. But there is no trace as 
to how he was connected with the above-mentioned 
branches of the Rattas, 

1 Journal Bombay Asiatic Society, Vol. X, page 260. 

2 Journal Bombay Asiatic Society, Vol. X, page 260; and Chronology of 
India, page 182. 

3 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. Ill, page 305. 

4 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. Ill, page 306. 


In the inscription 1 found at Bahuriband (Jabbalpur), 
there is a mention of the Rashtrakuta Golhanadeva, 
who was a chief feudatory of king Gayakarna of the 
Kalachuri (Haihaya) dynasty. This inscription is of 
the 12th century, but it gives no clue as to the branch 
of the Rashtrakutas to which this Golhanadeva be- 

(First Branch.) 

1. Meratfa. 

2. Prithvirama. 

3. Pittnga. 

4. Shantivarman. 

(Second Branch.) 

1. Nanna. 


2. Kartavlrya 1. 


3. Dayima. 4. Kannal. 


- i I 

5. Erega. 6. Anka. 

7. Sena I. 


8. Kanna II. 9. Kartaviryn II. 

10. 8cna II. 

11. Kartavlrya III. 

12. Lakshmidcva I. 
______ I 

I * ~| 

13. Kartavlrya IV. Mallikarjuna. 

14. Lakshmidgva II. 

1 Archaeological' Survey of India, Vol. IX, page 40. 






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FROM ABOUT V.S. 950 (A.D. 893) 


ABOUT V.S. 1053 (A.D. 996.) 

Traces of the existence of Rashtrakuta kingdoms 
at Hastikundl (Marwar) and Dhanop (Shahpura) in 
Rajputana are found even before the advent, to that 
province, of the descendants of the Gahadavala king 
Jayachchandra of Kanauj. 

An inscription 1 of V.S. 1053 (A.D. 997) has been 
found at Bijapur (Godwar district in the Marwar 
State), in which the genealogy of the Rathoras of 
Hathundi is given as follows : 


The aforesaid genealogical table opens with this 


He was the son of Harivarman and lived in V.S. 
973=A.D. 916). 2 


He was the son of Vidagdharaja and seems to have 
lived in V.S. 996 (A.D. 939) \ 

1 Journal Bengal Asiatic Society, Vol. LXII, page 311. 

2 Do. do. do. page 314. 

3 Do. * do, do, page 314. 




He was the son of Mammata and helped the ruler 
of Mewar when Paramara^ king Munja of Malwa 
attacked him 1 and destroyed Ahada. 

He defended the Chauhana chief Mahendra of Nadol 
from the attack of Chauhana king Durlabharaja of 
Sambhar and protected king Dharanlvaraha from 
falling a prey to Solankl Mularaja king of Anhilwada 
(Gujrat). Dharanlvaraha, the ruler of Marwar, 
probably, belonged to the Pratihara dynasty. The 
aforesaid inscription of V.S. 1053 (A.D. 997) belongs 
to this king (Dhavala). 2 

In his old age king Dhavala made over the reins 
of the government to his son Balaprasada about 
V.S. 1053. His capital was Hastikundl (Hathundl). 

As no inscription, etc., of a later date of this family 
has been traced, its further history is yet unknown. 


1. llarivarman. 


2. Vidagdharaja. 


3. Mammata. 


4. Dhavala. 

5. Balaprasada. 








Harivarman . . 


Vidagdharaja . . 

Sou of No. 1. 

V.S. 973. 



Do. 2. 

V.S. 996, 


Balaprasada . . 

Do. 3. 

Do. 4. 

V.S. 1053. 

Paramara Munja, Chauhana 
Durlabharaja, Chauhana Ma- 
hendra, Solankl Mularaja and 
Pratihara Dharanlvaraha. 

1 Probably Mahalakshmi, the sister of this king Dhavala, or of his father was 
married to Bhartribhatta II, the ruler of Mewar, from whom Allata was born. 

2 King Dhavala repaired the Jain temple built by his grandfather Vidagdharaja 
and reinstalled therein the idol of Kishabhauatha, 



Sometime back two inscriptions of the Rathoras were 
found at Dhanop (Shahpura) which are now untrace- 
able. One of these was dated the 5th day of the bright 
half of Tausha', V.S. 1063, which showed that there 
was a king named Bhallila of the Rathora dynasty 
and his son was Dantivarman. This Dantivarman 
had two sons: Buddharaja and Govindaraja. 

In the inscription of Shaka S. 788 (V.S. 923=-A.D. 
866) of king Amoghavarsha I, found at Nilgund in the 
Bombay Presidency, it is stated that his father, king 
Govindaraja III, had conquered the rulers of Kerala, 
Malava, Gauda, Gurjara, Chitrakuta (Chittor) and 
Kanchl. This shows that the Rathoras of Hastikundl 
and Dhanop might be the offshoots of the Rashtrakutas 
of the Deccan. 



Dantivarman . 

Buddharaja. Govindaraja. 



FROM ABOUT V.S. 1125 (AD 1068) 

ABOUT V.S. 1280 (A.D. 1223). 

Col. James Tod has stated in his 'Annals of Rajas- 
thana' that in V.S. 526 (A.D. 470) Rathora Nayapala 
acquired the kingdom of Kanauj after killing king 
Ajayapala. 1 This assertion does not seem to be correct, 
for, though the Rash^rakutas had had their sway over 
Kanauj ere this, yet about this particular period king 
Skandagupta or his son Kumaragupta of the Imperial 
Gupta dynasty ruled over Kanauj 2 . After this, the 
Maukharls occupied it, 3 and their power was set aside, 
for some time, by the Baisas, who took possession of 
Kanauj 4 . But after the death of Harsha the Mau- 
kharis again made it their capital. About V.S. 798 
(A.D. 741) king Lalitaditya (Muktaplda) of Kashmir 
invaded Kanauj, which then too was the capital 
of Yashovarman, the Maukharl ruler 5 . Fi^rther it 
appears from the copper grant 6 of V.S. Iu84 (A.D. 1027) 
of Pratihara king Trilochanapala and from the ins- 
cription 7 of V.S. 1093 (A.D. 1036) of Yashahpala that 

the Pratiharas ruled over Kanauj about that time. 

___ ___ . ^ 

1 Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, (Ed. by \V. Crooke) page 930. 

2 Bharata-ke-Prachlna Rajavamsha, part II, pages 285-297. 

3 Do. do. do. page 373. 

4 Do. do. do. page 338. 

5 Do. do. do. page 376. 

6 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XVIII, page 34. 

7 Asiatic Researches, Vol. IX, page 432, 


Later, Rashtrakuta 1 Chandradeva (whose descend- 
ants were afterwards known as Gahatfavalas owing 
to their sway over Gadhipur, i.e., Kanauj), having 
conquered Badaun about V.S. 1111 (A.D. 1054), took 
possession of Kanauj. Thus, the kingdom of Kanauj 
once more came into the possession of the Rash^ra- 

About 70 copper grants and inscriptions of these 
Gahatfavalas have been found in which they are 
mentioned as 'Suryavamshls'. But the mention of the 
Gahatfavala dynasty is only found in three grants of 
V.S. 1161, 1162 and 1166 issued by Govindachandra 
while he was a prince regent as well as in the ins- 
cription of his queen Kumaradevi. Further, there is no 
mention of the word Rashtrakuta or Ratta in them, but 
they belonged to a branch of the Rashtrakutas as has 
been separately discussed elsewhere. 3 The Gahatfavalas 
had their sway over Kashl (Benares), Oudh, and, 
perhaps, over Indrasthana (Delhi) too 4 . 


He is known to be a descendant of the Solar dynasty. 
This is the first name traceable of this family. 


Also known as Mahiyala, Mahiala or Mahitala, was 
the son of Yashovigraha. 

1 Journal Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, January 1930, 
pages 115-119. 

2 The kingdom of Rashtrakuta Dhruvaraja of the Deccan had extended in the 
north upto Ayodhya between V.8. 842-850 ; later, in the time of KrishflarSja II, 
between V.S. 932 and 971, its frontier had reached near the bank of the Ganges. 
Further, between V.S. 997 and 1023, in Krishna Ill's time, it had extended even 
beyond the Ganges. Probably, at this time, a member of this dynasty or some 
survivor of the early Rashtrakuta rulers of Kanauj, might have received a 'Jaglr' 
here, in whose family king Chandra, the conqueror of Kanauj, was born. 

3 Journal Royal Asiatic Society, January 1930, pages 111-121. 

4 V.A. Smith's Early History of India, page 384, 



He was the son of Mahichandra. Three copper 
grants, of this king, of V.S. 1148 (A.D. 109'), V.S. 
1150' (A.D. 1093) and V.S. 1156 (A.D. 1100) have 
been found at Chandravatl 2 . 

From the copper grants of his descendants it appears 
that he made Kanauj his capital and put down the 
anarchy resulting from the deaths of Raja Bhoja 3 of 
the Parmara dynasty of Malwa and Karna 4 of the 
Haihaya (Kalachuri) dynasty of Chedi. 

From his first grant, it is evident that he gained 
strength about V.S. 1111 (A.D. 1054) and afterwards 
seized the kingdom of Kanauj 5 from the Pratiharas. 

This king made several charitable gifts of gold 
weighing equal to his person. The districts of Kashl, 
Kushika (Kanauj), northern Koshala (Oudh) and 
Indrasthana (Delhi) were under his sway. He also 
built a 'Vaishnava' temple of Adikeshava at Kashl. 

A copper grant, 6 of V.S. 11 54 (A.D. 1097), of his son 
Madanapala has been found, which contains a mention 

1 In the copper grant of V.S. 1150 there is a mention of Pratihara DSvapala ef 
Kanauj : 

An inscription of Devapala dated V.S. 1005 (A.D. 948) has been found. 

(Epigraphia Tndica, Vol. I, page 177). 
2 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. IX, page 302, and Vol. XIV, pages 192-209. 

3 * 


3 (r) 

i.e., being oppressed by the anarchy prevailing after the deaths of Rajas Bhoja 
and Karna, the earth sought refuge with Chandradeva. 

King Bhoja mentioned here is supposed by some historians to be the Pratlhftra 

4 Bharat-ke-PrachTna RSjavamsha, Vol. I, page 50. 

6 Some historians assign V.S. 1135 (A.D. 1078) to Chandradeva f s conquest of 

6 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XVIII, page 11. 


of the charity, given by Chandradeva. This shows that, 
though Chandra was alive upto that date, he had made 
over the reins of the Government to his son Madana- 
pala. The following are the titles attached to 
Chandra's name : Paramabhattaraka, Maharajadhi- 
raja, Parameshvara and Parama Maheshvara. Chand- 
raditya appears as a second name of this king. 

He had two sons: Madanapala and Vigrahapala, 
from this Vigrahapala, probably, the Badaun family 
took its origin, 


He was the eldest son and successor of Chandradeva, 
Five copper grants of the time of Madanapala have 
been found, the first being the aforesaid one of V.S. 
1I54 1 (A.D. 1097). 

The second, 2 of V.S. 1161 (A.D. 1104), is of his son 
(Maharajaputra) Govindachandra, in which there is 
a mention of the charitable grant of the village 
"Basahl" together with the cess called "Turushka- 
dan<Ja." This shows that just as "Jazia" was levied 
upon the Hindus this 'Turushkadanda' was levied 
by Madanapala upon the Mohammedans. Further, this 
is the first grant in which the word 'Gahadavala' is 

The tWrd, 3 of V.S. 1162 (A.D. 1105), is also of the 
Maharajaputra Govindachandra and mentions the 
name of the senior queen of Madanapala and mother 
of Govindachandra as Ralhadevi. 4 (This too contains 
the mention of the word Gahadavala.) 

The fourth 5 is of V.S. 1163 (in fact of 1164) (A.D. 
1107). This is of king Madanapala himself, in which 
his queen's name appears as Prithvlshrika. 

1 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XVIII, page 11. 

2 PD 9 . do. XIV, page 103. 

3 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. II, page 359. 

4 She was also called Ralhanadevi. 

5 Journal Royal Asiatic Society, (1896), page 787. 


The fifth, 1 of V.S. 1 166 (A.D. 1 109), is also of Maha- 
rajaputra Govindachandradeva. (In which also it is 
stated that he belonged to the Gahadavala clan.) 

Madanadeva was the second name of the king. 
His titles were: Parama Bhattfiraka, Parameshvara, 
Parama Maheshvara and Maharajadhiraja, He had 
gained victories in many a battle. From the aforesaid 
copper grants it appears that Madanapala, too, in 
his old age made over the government to his son 


On the obverse there is an image of a horseman 
along with some illegible letters. On the reverse there 
is an image of a bull with the legend "Madhava Shri 
Samanta" along the border. The diameter of these 
coins is a bit smaller than !- an inch and they are made 
of base silver. 


On the obverse of these, too, there is a rude image of 
a horseman and the legend "Madanapaladeva." On the 
reverse, like the silver coins, there is an image of a 
bull and the legend "Madhava Shri Samanta". They 
are a bit bigger than an inch in diameter. 


He was the eldest son and successor of Madanapala. 
42 copper plates and 2 inscriptions of his reign have 
been discovered, of which the first, second and third 
copper grants of V.S. 116! (A.D. 1104), 1162 (A.D. 1105), 
and 1166 (A.D. I109) 4 respectively, have already been 
mentioned in his father's history. As till then he 

1 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XVITI, page 15. 

2 Catalogue of the coins in the Indian Museum, Calcutta, Vol. I, page 260. 

3 Catalogue of the coins in the Indian Museum, Calcutta, Vol. I, page 260, 
plate 26, No. 17, 

4 It shows that Govindachandra defeated the "Gau<Ja" and that the "Hammfrs" 
(Mohammedans) were also awe-struck by his bravery. 


was regarded a prince his reign might have com- 
menced from V.S. 1167 (A.D. 1110). 

The fourth, fifth and sixth copper plates 1 are of V.S. 

1171 (A.D. ! 1 1 4). Of the fourth, only the first plate has 
been found, i.e , it is incomplete. The seventh 2 is of V.S. 

1172 (A.D. 1116). The eighth 3 of V.S. 1174 (A.D. 1117) 
was issued from Devasthana and contains a mention of 
his army of elephants. The ninth 4 is also of V.S. 1174 
(in fact of 1175) (A.D. 1119) and the tenth 5 of V.S. 
11 75 (A.D. 1119). The eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth 6 
of V.S. 1176 (A.D. 1119) were issued from the village 
Khayara on the Ganges, Mumdaliya and Benares 
respectively. The eleventh contains the name of his 
senior queen Nayanakelidevi. The fourteenth 7 and 
fifteenth 8 are of 1177 (A.D. 1120) and the sixteenth 9 of 
V.S. 1178 A.D. 1122). 

The seventeenth 10 plate of V.S. 1180 (A.D. 1123) 
contains along with the king's other titles, the 
decorations 'Ashvapati', 'Gajapati', 'Narapati', 'Raja- 
tray adhipati', Vividhavidyavicharavachaspati', etc. 
The eighteenth 11 of V.S. 1181 (A.D. 1124) contains his 
mother's name "Ralhanadevi." The ninteenth 12 of V.S. 
1 182 (A.D. 1 125) was issued from the place "Madapratl- 
hara" on the Ganges. The twentieth 13 of V.S. 1182 

1 List of Northern (Indian) inscriptions, No 692; Epigraphia Indica, Vol. IV, 
page 102 and Vol. VIII, page 153. The second was issued iroin Benares. 

2 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. IV, page 104. 

3 Do. do. do. 105. 

4 Indian Antiquary, Vol XVI 1 1, page 19. 

5 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. IV, page 100. 

6 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. IV, page 10S, Vol. XVIII, page 220 and Vol. IV, 
page 109. 

7 Journal Bengal Asiatic Society, Vol. XXXI, page 123. 

8 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. XVIII, page 225. 

9 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. IV, page 110. 

10 Journal Bengal Asiatic Society, Vol. LVI, page 108. (Dr. Bhandarkar gives 
the date as V.S. 1187.) 

11 Journal Bengal Asiatic Society, Vol. LVI, page 114. 

12 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. IV, page 100. 

13 Journal Bengal Asiatic Society, Vol. XXVII, page 242. 


(A.D. 1127) (originally of V.S. 1 183) was issued from 
the village "Ishapratisthana" on the Ganges. The 
twenty-first and twenty-second plates 1 are of V.S. 1183 
(A.D. 1123) and V.S. 1184 (A.D. 1127) respectively. 

The twenty-third plate 2 is of V.S. 1 185 (A.D. 1 129). 

The twenty-fourth and twenty-fifth plates 3 are of 
V.S. 1186 (A.D. 1130). 

The twenty-sixth plate 4 is of V.S. 1187 (A.D. 1130). 

The twenty-seventh plate 5 is of V.S. 1 188 (A.D. 1131). 

The twenty-eighth plate 6 is of V.S. 1 189 (A.D. 1 133). 

The twenty-ninth and thirtieth plates 7 are of V.S. 
1 190 (A.D. 1133). 

The thirty-first plate 8 is of V.S. 1 191 (A.D. 1 134), of 
Maharajaputra Vatsrajadeva of the "Singara" family, 
who was a feudatory of king Govindachandra and was 
also called "Lohatfadeva". 

The thirty-second" and the thirty-third 10 plates are of 
V.S. 1 196(A.D. 1 139) and V.S. 1 1 97 (A.D. 1141) respectively. 
The thirty-fourth 11 of V.S. 1198 (A.D. 1141) speaks 
of a charitable grant made on the occasion of the first 
anniversary of his senior queen Ralhadevi's demise. 

The thirty-fifth 12 plate of V.S. 1199 (A.D. 1143) 
contains a mention of the king's (Govindachandra's) 
son Maharajaputra Rajyapaladeva. 13 The thirty-sixth, 14 
thirty-seveth 15 and thirty-eighth 16 plates are of V.S. 1200 

1 Journal Bihar and Orissa reasearch Society, Vol. II, page 445 and Epigraphia 
Indica, Vol. IV, page 111. 

2 Journal Bengal Asiatic Society, Vol. LVI, page 119. 

3 Lucknow Museum Report of 1014-15, pages 4-10, Epigraphia Indica, Vol. 
XIII, page 297 and Vol. XI, page 22. 

4 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. VIII, page 153. 

5 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XIX, page 249. 

6 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. V, page 114, 

7 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. VIII, page 155 anti Vol. IV, page 112. 

8 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. IV, page 131. 

9 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. II, page 361. 

10 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. IV, page 114. 

11 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. IV, page 113. 

12 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XVIII, page 21 . 

13 He was born of Nayanakelidevl and might have predeceased his father, 

14 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. IV, page 115. 

15 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. V, page 115. 
iQ Epigraphia Indica, Vol VII, page 99, 


(A.D. 1144), V.S. 1201 (A.D 1146) and V.S. 1202 (A.D. 
1 1 46) respectively. The thirty-ninth 1 and fortieth 2 plates 
are of V.S. 1203 (A.D. 1146) and V.S. 1207 (A.D. 1150). 
A stone pillar inscription 3 of V.S. 1207 (A.D. 1151) 
of this king has been found at Hathiyadah in which 
the name of his queen is mentioned as Gosalladevi. 

The forty-first 4 copper grant of Govindachandra, 
of V.S. 1208 (A.D. 1 1 5 1 ), contains a mention of the 
charitable grant made by his senior queen Gosaladevi, 
who is described as enjoying all the honours of the 
state. The forty-second plate 5 is of V.S. 1211 (A.D. 

An inscription 6 of Govindachandra's queen Kumara- 
devi, 7 daughter of king Devarakshita of the Chikkora 
dynasty of Plthika, was found at Sarnath, which shows 
that this queen had built a temple and had dedicated it 
to Dharmachakra Jina. 

Looking to the vast number of the copper grants of 
Govindachandra, we understand that he was a powerful 
and generous ruler and most probably for some time 
he was the greatest king in Northern India and had 
retained his sway over Benares 8 . 

1 Kpigrapbia Iiidica, Vol. VIII, page 157. 

2 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. VI11, page 159. 

3 Archaeological Survey of India report Vol. I, page 96. 

4 Kielhorn's list of inscriptions of N. I., page 19, No. 131. 

5 Epigraphia'lndica, Vol. IV, page 116. 

6 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. IX, pages 319-328. 

7 This Knmaradevi was a follower of Buddhism. In a manuscript copy of 
the book entitled 'Ashfcisarika' preserved in the Nepal State library, it is thus 
stated : 

This shows that Govindachandra's another queen VasantadevI, too, was a follow- 
er of the Mahayana branch of Buddhism. Some people hold Vasantadevi to be 
another name of Kumaradevi. In the 'Ramacharita' written by Sandhyakaranandl, 
king Mahana (Mathana), father of Kumaradevi 's mother is stated to be of the 
Raehtrakuta dynasty. 

8 Of the 21 copper grants found near Benares H belong to this king Goviuda- 


He had sent out Suhala, as his delegate, to the great 
convocation called by Alankara, the minister of king 
Jayasimha, of Kashmir. This fact is stated in the 
'Shrlkanthacharitakavya' of poet Mankha: 

i.e., he offered his respects to the great scholar 
Suhala, the delegate of the king Govindachandra of 

This Govindaciiandra had also fought with the 
Mohammedan (Turk) invaders of India 1 and had 
conquered the provinces of Gauda and Chedi. From the 
decoration "Vividhavidyavicharavachaspati" attached 
to his name we understand that, besides being a patron 
of learning, he himself was a good scholar. 

Under his orders his minister Lakshmidhara, com- 
piled a book on law entitled "Vyavaharakalpataru." 

Names of his three sons are found as below: 
Vijayachandra, Rajyapala and Asphotachandra. 

Mr. V. A. Smith holds the period of Govindachandra's 
reign to be from A.D. 1 104 to 1155 (V.S. 1161 to 1212). 2 
But it is quite clear that his father was alive upto V.S. 
1166 (A.D. 1109), hence upto that date he was only a 
prince regent. 

Many gold and copper coins of Govindachandra have 
been found. Though the metal of the gold coins is 
rather debased, they are found in abundance. Eight 
hundred of these were found at the village Nanpara 
(Behraich, Oudh) in V.S. 1944 (A.D. 1887) when the 
Bengal North-Western Railway was under construction. 

1 Perhaps, these were the Turks that were then making advances from the 
Lahore side. 

2 Early history of India, (Fourth edition), page 400, 



On the obverse there are three lines of the legend. 
The first line reads '4ta$V, the second 'frws' and the third 
"ta". There is also a trident in the third line, which is 
probably a mark of the mint. On the reverse there is 
a rude image of the Goddess Lakshmi in the sitting 
posture. These are a bit larger in size than the 
current British Indian silver four anna piece. 


On the obverse there are two lines of writing. The 
first contains "tftesjit" and the second "f^FS". On the 
reverse there is a very rude image of the Goddess 
Lakshmi in the sitting posture. These coins are rare 
and are about the size of the British Indian silver four 
anna piece. 


He was the son and successor of Govindachandra 
and was also known as Malladeva. 3 Two copper 
grants and two inscriptions of this king have been 
found. The first copper plate 4 is of V.S. 1224 (A.D. 
1168) in which the king's title is mentioned as Maha- 
rajadhiraja, and that of his son Jayachchandradeva, as 
Yuvaraja (prince regent). There is also a mention 
of Vijayachandra's victory 5 over the Mohammedans. 
The second 6 copper grant of V.S. 1225 (A.D. 1169) also 
contains a mention of the king as well as of his heir- 
apparent in the same manner as the first. 

1 Catalogue of the coins in the Indian Museum, Calcutta, Vol. I, pages 260-261, 
plate 26, No. 18. 

2 Catalogue of the coins in thi^ Indian Museum, Calcutta, Vol. I, page 261. 

3 " Rambhamanjarl Natika," page 6. 

4 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. IV, page 118. 


This shows that he might have fought with Khnsro of Ghaznl, who at that 

time, had settled at Lahore. 
Indian Antiquary, Vol. XV, page 7. 


The first inscription 1 is of V.S. 1225 (A.D. 1169). It 
does not contain the name of his son. The second 
inscription, 2 which is dated V.S. 1225 (A.D. 1169), be- 
longs to the commander-in-chief, Pratapadhavala, and 
contains the mention of a forged copper grant of 

The king was a follower of Vaishnavism and 
built many temples 3 of Vishnu. His queen's name 
was Chandralekha. He invested his son, Jayachch- 
andra, with the powers of administration during his 
lifetime. His army consisted of a large number of 
elephants and horses. In the inscription of Jayach- 
chandra this king is mentioned as a victor of the 
world. But in the inscription 4 of V.S. 1220 of 
Chauhana Vigraharaja IV there is a mention of his 
(Vigraharaja's) victory from which it follows that if 
Vijayachandra had conquered any country he might 
have done so before this date. 

In the Trithvlraja Raso' Vijayachandra is named 
as Vijayapala. 


He was the son and successor of Vijayachandra. On 
the day of his birth his grandfather, Govindachandra, 
had gained a victory over Dasharna country, to com- 
memorate which, the then born grand heir to the 
throne was named Jaitrachandra 5 (Jayantachandra 
or Jayachchandra). 

1 Archaelogical Survey of India, (report), Vol. XI, page 125. 

2 Journal American Oriental Society, Vol. VI, page 548. 

3 The ruins of these temples are still existent in Jaunpur. % 

4 Bharata-ke-Prachina Kajavamsha, Vol. I, page 244. 



, i* 


From the aforesaid copper grant of V.S. 1224, of 
king Vijayachandra, it is evident that Jayachchandra 
had been invested with ruling powers during his 
father's life-time. 

In the preface to the drama named 'Rambhamanjari 
NatikaY by Nayachandra Suri, it is thus stated: 


Le , whose (Jayachchandra's) mighty arm is like 
a pillar to tether the elephant of fortune of king 

This shows that Jayachchandra probably had 
extended his sway over Kalinjar and defeated its 
king Madanavarmadeva 2 of the Chandela dynasty. 
Similarly, having defeated the Bhors, he also 
annexed Khor. 

Fourteen copper grants and two inscriptions of his 
reign have been found. 

The first 3 copper plate is of V.S. 1226 (A.D. 1 170) gran- 
ted from the village Vadaviha. It contains an account 
of the Rajyabhisheka (Coronation) of the king, which 
was performed on Sunday, the sixth day of the bright 
half of Ashadha, V.S. 1226 (21st June, 1 170 A.D.) . 

The second 4 plate is of V.S. 1228 (A.D. 1172) issued 
from the Triveni confluence (Allahabad). The third 5 is 
of V.S. 1230 (A.D. 1 173) issued from Varanasi (Benares). 

The fourth 6 is of V.S. 1231 (A.D. 1 174) issued from 
Kash! (Benares). From the thirty-second line of this 
plate it appears that this copper grant was engraved 
later in V.S. 1235 (A.'D. 1179). The fifth 7 plate is of 

1 Page 4. 

2 His last grant is of V.S. 1219 (A.D. 11^3) and that of his successor Paramar- 
dideva of V. 8 1223 lA.D. 11*7). This shows that the victory mentioned above was 
gained by Jayachchandra while he was a prince regent. 

3 Epigr'aphia Indica, Vol. IV, page 121. 

4 Epigraphia Indica, Vol. 1 V, page 122. 

5 Do. do. do. 124. 

6 Do. do. do. 125. 

7 Do. do. do. 127. 


V.S. 1232 (A.D. 1175) and contains the name of the 
king's son, Harishchandra, at whose Matakarma' cere- 
mony the charity mentioned was granted from Benares. 
Prom the thirty-first and thirty-second lines of this 
plate, too, we infer that the plate was actually prepared 
like the preceding one in V.S. 1235 (A.D. 1 179). 

The sixth copper plate 1 is of V.S. 1232 (A.D. 1175). 
The charity mentioned therein was granted on the 
occasion of the naming ceremony of Harishchandra. 
The seventh 2 , the eighth 3 and the ninth* plates are of 
V.S. 1233 (A.D. 1177) and the tenth 5 is of V.S. 1234 
(A.D. 1177). The eleventh, 6 the twelth 7 and the 
thirteenth 8 are all of V.S. 1236 (A.D. 1180). These 
three were issued at the village of Randavai situated 
on the Ganges. The fourteenth 9 plate is of V.S. 1243 
(A.D. 1187). The first inscription 10 of V.S. 1245 (A.D. 
1189) of this king has been found at Meohad -(near 
Allahabad) and the second inscription 11 at Buddha Gaya, 
which is a Buddhist inscription and contains a mention 
of this king. The fourth digit of the number indicating 
the year of this inscription being spoiled, it reads 124 

This king was a very powerful monarch and had 
so immense an army that people called him by the 
nickname 'Dalapangula' 12 . 

1 Indian Antiqnavv, Vol. XVII I, pae 130. 

'2 Kpit?raphia Indiea, Vol. IV, page r !). 

3 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XVlIl,paue I3f>. 

1 Do. 'do do. 137. 

5 Do. do do. 138. 

> Do. do do. MO. 

7 Do. do do. 141. 

8 Do. do do. 14L'. 
<l Do. do XV, 10. 

10 Annual ieport ,f the AK-hneoloyical Suney of India, 'A D, 1921-22), pages 

11 Proceedings of the Bengal Asiatic Society, (1880), page 77. 


?>., who has earned the title of "Pangu" (lanu 1 ) being unable to mobilize his 
immense armies without the support of two sticks Canga. and Yamuna. It is also 
evident from the above reference that the title of Jayachchandra's father was 
Malladeva and the name of his toother was Chandralekhii, 


Poet Shri Harsha, the author of the famous poem 
'Naishadhlya Charita/ also flourished in his court. 
The name of this poet's mother was Mamalladevl and 
that of his father Hira, as appears from the concluding 
stanzas of each of the chapters of the aforesaid poem 
running as follows: 

i.e., Hira begot Harsha in Mamalladevl. 

In the conclusion of this 'Naishadhiya Charita' it 
is thus stated : 

' W=f35?WfW ^ SW^ 3: STOfS^Wi: I ' 

i.e., in the court of the king of Kanauj Shri Harsha 
had the privilege of being seated on an "Asana" and 
of being honoured with the offer of a betel (aisfor) on 
attending and leaving the court. 

Though there is no mention of Jayachchandra in 
'Naishadhiya Charita/ yet from the Trabandha Kosha' 
compiled by Rajashekhara Suri, in V.S. 1405, we learn 
that this poet flourished in the court of this king. 

This Shri Harsha had also written the book named 
"Khandanakhandakhadya." It is thus stated in the 
end of the 'Dvirupakosha": 

It shows that this book (Dvirupakosha) was also 
written by the same poej;. 

Jayachchandra was the last powerful Hindu 
monarch of Kanauj. According to Trithvlraja 
Raso' he had performed the great sacrifice called 
"Rajasuya Yagya" and the 'Svayamvara' ceremony 
of his daughter Samyogita, which brought about the 
downfall of the Hindu Empire in India. In this 


'Svayamvara' as Prithvlraja, the Chauhana king of 
Delhi, forcibly abducted and married the princess, 
enmity broke out between the two most powerful kings 
of India ( Jayachchandra and Prithvlraja). This internal 
discord afforded a golden opportunity to Shahabuddin 
to invade India. But the story of the "Raso" is a 
mere fiction, as firstly there is no mention of 'Rajasuya' 
or the 'Svayamvara' of Samyogita in the grants or 
inscriptions of Jayachchandra, secondly no trace of the 
abduction of Samyogita is found in the poems connected 
with Chauhana Prithvlraja, and thirdly Trithviraja 
Raso' records the death of Maharavala Samara Simha 
of Mewar while helping Prithvlraja against Shahabud- 
din, but, in fact, he died 110 years after this event. 
We have fully discussed the subject in the appendix. 

Shahabuddin Ghori defeated Jayachchandra in the 
battle of Chandaval 1 (Etawah district) in A.H. 590 (V.S. 
1250 A.D. 1194) and, in the plunder of Benares, got 
so much wealth that 1400 camels were employed for its 
transport to Ghazni 2 . 

From this period the Mohammedans acquired sove- 
reignty in Northern India and, being dismayed by this 
defeat, Jayachchandra drowned himself in the Ganges. 
But anyhow for some time Kanauj remained under 
the possession of Harishchandra, the son of Jayach- 

The Mohammedan historians have mentioned Jaya- 
chchandra as the king of Benares 3 , which probably was 
the seat of his Government at that time. 

1 ' Tabqat-i-Nasiri, page 140. 

2 'Kamiluttavarikh' (Elliot's translation^ Vol. II, page 251. 

3 In the Persian Chronicle, 'Tajul-Ma-asir', written by Hasan Nizanii, this 
event is thus described : 

Alter taking possession of Delhi next year Qutubuddin Aibak invaded 
Kanauj. On the way Sultan Shahabuddin also joined him. The invading 
army consisted of 50,000 horse. The Sultan posted Qutubuddin in the vanguard. 
Jayachchandra met this army at Chandaval near Etawah. At the time of the 
battle king Jayachchandra, seated on an elephant, guided his forces, but was 
eventually killed. The Sultan's army then plundered the treasure of the fort of 
Asnl and, having proceeded further, similarly took Benares. He also got 300 
elephants in this plunder. 

Maulana Minhajuddin in his 'Tabqat-i-Nasiri' says that the two generals 
Qutubuddin and Izzuddin accompanied the Sultan (Shahabuddin) and defeated 
king Jayachchandra of Benares near Chandaval ip A,H. 590 (V,S. 1250). 


Jayachchandra had built several forts, out of which 
one was built at Kanauj on the bank of the Ganges, 
another at Asai, on the Jumna (in Etawah district), and 
a third at Kurra (Kada). 1 At Etawah, on a mound, 
near the bank of the Jumna, there exist, to this day, 
some remains which are supposed by the local people 
to be the remains of Jayachchandra's fort. 

It is stated in the Trabandha Kosha' that king 
Jayachchandra had conquered 700 'Yojana' (5600 miles) 
of land. His son's name was Meghachandra. Jaya- 
chchandra's minister, Padmakara, on his return from 
Anahilpur, brought with him a beautiful widow named 
Suhavadevl. Being smitten with her love Jayachchandra 
kept her as his concubine and from her a son was born. 
When this illegitimate son came of age, his mother 
requested the king to declare him his heir-apparent. 
But the king's minister, Vidyadhara, announced prince 
Meghachandra to be the rightful heir. This offended 
Suhavadevi. She sent her secret agent to the Sultan's 
court at Taxila (Panjabj and planned the invasion 
of Kanauj. 2 Though the minister Vidyadhara, having 
learnt of the conspiracy through his spies, had given 
timely information to the king, yet he did not give any 
credit to it. The minister, being thus aggrieved, 
plunged himself into the Ganges. Shortly afterwards 
the Sultan appeared with his army on the scene. The 
king marched out to encounter him and a desparate 
battle was fought between the two. But it is still a 
mystery whether the king was killed on the battlefield 
or plunged himself into the Ganges. 

1 This place is, in the Allahabad dish id, on the bunk of the (Ganges. It is 
alleged that the remains o! .Javachchandra'n f<"t <>n one bank of the mer and those 
of his brother MiinikachandiaV )oH on the ophite bunk are still existent. The 
peculiar burial ground of th' place also tolls the tale of a battle being fought there, 
in which the victorious Javachchandra had destio^'d a very large number of his 
Muslim foes, 

2 Merutunga, too, in his 'Trabandhachmtamaiji" discredits Suhavadevi for 
calling the Mohammedans. Thi* book was written in V.8. 1362 (A,D, 1305), 

Or KANAtTJ; 12* 


Harishchandra, son of Jayachchandra, was born on 
the 8th day of the dark half of Bhadrapada, V.S. 1232 
(the I Oth August 1175) and after the death of Jnyaeh- 
chandra succeeded to the throne of Kanauj in V.S, 
1250 (A.D. H93) at the age of 18. 

It is generally believed that on the death of Jayach- 
chandra the Mohammedans took possession of Kanauj. 
But in the Mohammedan chronicles of the time such as 
'Tajul-Ma-asir' and 'Tabqat-i-nasirf , etc., it is stated 
that after the battle of Chandaval the Mohammedan 
army went towards Prayag and Benares. They speak 
of Jayachchandra as the Raja of Benare&. This clearly 
shows that, though Kanauj had been devastated by the 
Mohammedans and its power had declined, still for 
some years the descendants of Jayachchandra had a 
hold over the country around it. It was Shamsuddm 
Altamash who, for the first time, completely destroyed 
the Gahdavala kingdom after taking possession of 

Though in 'Tabqat-i-nasiri' Kanauj has been included 
in the list of the cities conquered by Qutubuddln and 
Shamsuddm 1 both, yet it is a point worth consideration 
that when it was already conquered by Qutubuddin, 
what led Shamsuddm 2 to re-conquer it. 

Of the aforesaid two copper plates, 3 of V.S. 1232, of 
king Jayachchandra, the first mentions that he granted 
the village of Vadesar to his family priest on the 
occasion of the 'Jatakarma' ceremony of his son, 
prince Harishchandra. And the second refers to the 

1 Tabqat-i --nasirl, p. 179. 

2 In the time of this Altamagh a Kshatriya hero named Bartu destroyed 4 
number of Mohammedans in Ondb. [Tabqat-i-itasirl (English translation; page* 

8 The first of these two Wai found at the village of Kamauli in Benares 
district (Epigraphia Indica, Vol. IV, .page 127) ; and the second .at the villa-go of 
SUwr,aJso in the*ame district, (Indian Antiquary, Vol. XVfTt, page 130). 


grant of two villages given to a Brahmana named 
Hrishikesha on the occasion of Harishchandra's name 
giving ceremony, performed on the 13th day of the 
bright half of Bhadrapada, V.S. 1232 (the 3)st August, 
1175). At this time the prince was only 21 days old. 

One copper grant and one inscription of the time 
of Harishchandra have been found. 

The copper grant 1 was issued on the 15th day 
of the bright half of Pausha, V.S. 1253 (A.D. 1196) in 
which his titles (which are similar to those of his fore- 
fathers are mentioned as follows: Paramabhattaraka, 
Maharajadhiraja, Parameshvara, Prama Maheshvara, 
Ashvapati, Gajapati, Narapati, Rajatrayadhipati, 
Vividhavidyavicharavachaspati, etc. This shows that 
though a large part of the kingdom had passed away 
from his possession yet he maintained his independence 
to some extent. 

The inscription of this king, too, is of V.S. 1253, 
which was found at Belkheda. Though the king's 
name is not mentioned in this inscription, yet from 
the words "sBT^fssifqww^" mentioned in it Mr. R. D. 
Banerji and other scholars hold it to be of the time of 

As stated above, on the death of Jayachchandra, in 
the battle with Sultan Shahabuddin, his son Harish- 
chandra became the ruler of the country around 
Kanauj, while his relatives went towards Khor 2 

1 P^pigraphia Jndica, Vol. X, page 95. 

In this copper plate the Sanivat is stated both in figures and words. The first 
digit of the figure appears to have been made by erasing some other figure. Mr. 
K, I). Banerji reads it as 1257 (Journal Bengal Asiatic Society, Vol. VII, page 762, 
Ho. 11). Jf this version be taken as Correct then this grant should have been written 
three years after giving the village of Parnahi. 

2 From the history of Rampur we learn that when Shamsuddin had invaded 
Khor, Jajapala acknowledged his supremacy and remained there, but his brother 
Prahasta* (Baradaisena) fled to Mahni (in the Farrukhabad district), while some of 
their relatives escaped to Nepal. _After a time the descendants of Jajapala leaving 
Khor settled in Uset ^in the Badaun district). Probably Lakhanapalat, too, at that 
time lived there in the capacity of a feudatory. Afterward? being chased by the 
Mohammedans there, they went towards Bileadff. Later Ram Rai (Ramsahaya), 
a descendant of Jajapala, found the state of Rampur in the Etah district. The Rao 


(Shamsabad) 1 (in the Farrukhabad district). But 
when the few districts that remained under the 
control of Harishchandra were also attacked by 
Sultan Shamsuddln Altamash the sons of Harish- 
chandra (Bardaisena) 2 took their abode first in Khor 
then in Mahui. 

But, sometime after, the Mohammedans began their 
inroads in this district also, and Siha, 3 the younger 
son of Bardaisena, was obliged, therefore, to migrate 
to Marwar. * 

It is already stated above that Harishchandra's sons 
had gone away towards Mahui. Here, after sometime, 
his younger son, Siha, had built a fort 4 ; but later, 
when this region began to be overrun by the Moham- 
medans, Siha with his elder brother 5 Setarama was 
obliged to migrate westward with the intention of the 
pilgrimage to Dvaraka and reached Marwar. 

of Khimsepur in the* Farrukhabad district also claims his descent irom .Injapala. 
Similary, the Chaudharis of Surjai and Sarodha (Mainpuri district) are kr.own as 
the descendants of Jajapala. 

It is said that Manikachandra was a hrother of Jayachchandra. The rulers of 
Mantfa and Bijapur, states in the Mirzapur district, as well as some other petty 
landholders of Gha/ipur district, claim their descent from Gatfana, the son of 

*ln the 'Pratapagadha Nama', published in A.D. 1849, this prince is mentioned 
as Harasu. Peihaps Hnrasu and Prahasta are corrupted forms of ITarishchandra. 
tKpigraphia Tndica, Vol. I, page 64. 
tfAt borne places the time of this event is given as V.S. 1280. 

1 In V.8. 1270 Shamsuddln converted the nanie of Khor as Shamsabad after 
his own name. 

2 Possibly Baradaisena may be a younger brother of Harishchandra. 

3 In the history of Rampur Siha is stated as the grand son of Prahasta, but in 
the History of Marwar his grandfather's name is stated as Baradaisena. It is, there- 
fore, probable that both these are the surnames of Harishchandra. It is also possible 
that just as 'Dalapangula' was a title of Jayachchandra Baradaisena (Varadayl- 
sainya) might be that of Harishchandra. 

4 Its ruins aie still existent on the bank of the Ganges and are locally known 
as 'Siha Rao-ka-Khetfa. 7 

5 It is stated in "Aiu-i-Akbari" that Siha was the nephew of Jay achandra, 
who lived at Shamsabad and was also killed in the battle fought with Shahabuddm 
at Kanauj. (Vol. II, page 507). 

In the 'Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthana' at one place Siha is stated as the 
son of Jayachandra (Vol. I, page 105) while at other as the nephew rVol. II, page 
950). But at the third place he and Setarama both are stated to be tne grandsons 
of Jayachandra (Vol. II, page 940). 

In the inscription of Siha, dated V.S. 1330, he is stated as the son of Setarama. 

But if we take Setarama to be the elder brother and adoptive father of Siha, 
firstly the times assigned to Javachcliandra and Siha adjust themselves well, 
secondly the controversies arising by the mention of Setarama at one place as the 
brother and at other as the father of 81 ha would alpo be squared up. 







3 ' 






^ T ""* ri 

I^> O t"- O 5*5 -^ * 














Genealogical tree of the Gahadavala family 
of Kanauj. 





Madanapala. Vigrahapala (head of the 

| Badaun family). 

( Jfivindachandra. 

f I" " - i 

Vijayacliandta. Rajyapala. Asphotachandra. 

!_ __ _ 
I I 

Jayachchandia. Manikachandra. 
J - 

r" ' ~ "~" ~" " i i 

Marishchandra. .lajapala. Mt'gliaclmndia. 

(I'raliasta or liiiradaisena 1 ). 


i i 

Setarauia. Mha. 




Jayachchandra, king of Kanauj, has often been 
accused of having 4 caused the downfall of the last 
Hindu kingdom in Northern India. His grandson 
R3o Siha also has been accused of having usurped 
Pali by treacherously murdering the Pallival Brahmanas 
of that place. No reasons are, however, offered for 
these suppositions, but the only argument resorted to 
by these critics, is that these stories are handed down 
from generation to generation or that they are so 
mentioned in the "Prithvlraja Raso" and in Tod's 
''Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthana." 

In fact, none has yet taken the trouble of investi- 
gating the truth or otherwise of the problem. For the 
consideration of scholars, I lay down my views on the 
subject here. The brief story of the "Prithvlraja Raso" 
maybe told as follows. 

Once Kamadhaja Rai, with the assistance of king 
Vijaypala Rahthoda of Kanauj invaded Delhi. At 
this, Tunvara Anangapala, king of Delhi, requested 
king Someshvara Chauhana of Ajmer for help. 
Someshvara thereupon marched with all his forces 
and joined Anangapala. A battle was fought in which 
the latter won a victory, and the hostile forces re- 
treated. As a mark of gratitude for this timely 
succour, Anangapala married his younger daughter 

e! firm mv futidc- in Hie Indian Aut'qunry, Vol. LFX, pages 6-9. 



Kamalavati to Someshvara and simultaneously his 
another daughter 1 to Vijayapala of Kanauj. 

In V.S. 1115 Kamalavati gave birth to Prithvlraja. 
Once Nahacla Rao, king of Mandor, had paid a visit 
to king Anangapala of Delhi, and beholding the hand- 
some features of prince Prithvlraja there, he declared 
his intention to marry his daughter to him. But later, 
he abandoned the idea. On this Prithvlraja invaded 
Mandor in about V.S. 1129, and having defeated 
Nahacla Rao, took his daughter in marriage. Later, 
in V.S. 1138, Anangapala, disregarding the right of 
his elder daughter's son Jayaehchandra, made over 
the kingdom of Delhi to Prithvlraja. Subsequently, 
Prithvlraja having abducted the daughter of the 
Yadava king Bhana of Deogiri, who was engaged to 
Vlrachandra, nephew of Jayaehchandra, the armies of 
Prithvlraja and Jayaclichandra had to meet on the 
battle-Held. Sometime after this, Anangapala also 
invaded Delhi to recapture it from Prithvlraja, on the 
complaints of his former subjects being now oppressed 
by Prithviraja's coercive policy, but he did not succeed. 

In V.S. 1144, when Jayaclichandra proposed to 
perform a 'Rajasuya-yajna' and the 'Svayamvara' of 
his daughter Samyogita, IViihx iraji., considering it 
inadvisable to confront him, thought out another plan 
to render both the above ceremonies abortive. He at 
first repaired to Khokhandapura where he killed 
Jayachchandra's brother, Baluka Rai, and afterwards 
eloped with Samyogita. Jayaclichandra was, therefore, 
obliged to wage war against Prithvlraja. The latter 
managed somehow to escape, bun as many as 64 of his 
generals were killed and his power was almost annihi- 
lated. According to the ' Raso,' Prithvlraja was 36 
years of age when this event took place. So the date of 
the event must be Vikrama Samvat 1151. 

1 Jayaclichandra was bum tu this *a 


The bravery of the young general Dhirasena Pundira 
in the struggle with Jayachchandra attracted Prithvl- 
raja's attention, and the king favoured him most. At 
this, his veteran generals Chamunda Rai and others 
became jealous and carried on intrigues with Shaha- 
buddin. But Prithvlraja, being too much engrossed 
with Samyoglta, did not pay any heed to these affairs. 
His government, therefore, gradually showed signs of 
disintegration. This gave an opportunity to Shahabud-' 
din to invade Delhi. Prithvlraja was obliged to come 
out with his army to meet him. On this occasion, 
Ravala Samaras! of Mewar, his brother-in-law, had also 
joined Prithvlraja in the battle. But due to disorgani- 
sation of the army, Shahabuddm eventually won a 
victory, and Prithvlraja was captured and taken to 
Ghaznl. Shortly after this, it is related, Shahabuddm 
met his death at the hands of Prithvlraja at Ghaznl, 
who immediately after killed himself. 1 Shortly after, 
Rainasi, son of Prithvlraja, attacked the Muhammedans 
of Lahore, to avenge his father's death, and drove 
them out. Thereupon Qutbuddln marched against 
Rainasi and killing him in the battle that followed, 
advanced further upon Kanauj. Hearing of this, 
Jayachchandra also arranged his army to encounter 
him. But in the battle that ensued, Jayachchandra 
was killed and the Muhammedans were victorious. 

The above story cannot stand any historical test. 
TheKamadhajaRai mentioned in it is a fictitious name, 
inasmuch as we know of no individual of that name 
in hisiory. Similarly, the name of Jayachchrindra's 
father was not Vijayapala, but Vijayachandra, who 
lived not in the beginning of the twelfth century of the 
Vikrama era, but in the first half of the thirteenth 

1 According t<> the 'Riiho' Ppthyiraja had died at an age of 43 ; so the date of 
this event; comes to V.S, 



century, as is evident from his copper plate grants 1 
and inscriptions of V.S. 1224 and 1225. Again, although 
the period of Anangapala has not yet been precisely 
ascertained, yet this ranch is certain that Someshvara's 
third ancestor Vigraharaja (or \ Isaladeva IV) had 
acquired possession of Delhi, which is borne out by 
the inscription 2 of V. S. 1220 (A.D. 1163) on the pillar 
of Firoz Ghah at Delhi. Under these circumstances, 
we do not understand how Someshvara could have 
gone to Delhi to help Anangapala. Moreover, in the 
"Prithviriijavijaya Mahakavya," which was written in 
Prithviraja's Lime, the name of Prithviraja's mother 
is mentioned not as Kamalavati, but as Karpuradevi, 3 
who is stated to bo the daughter not of Tunvara 
Anangapala, but of a king of the Haihaya dynasty (of 
Tripuri). in the "Hammlra Mahakavya" also the 
name of Prithviraja's mother is mentioned as Karpura- 
devi. The author of Ihe "RasO" has mentioned the date 
of the birth of his hero Prithvlraja 1 as V. S. 1115, but 
in fact Prithvlraja should have been born in V.S. 1217 
(A. D. 1 160) or somewhat later, as at the death of his 
father in about V.S. \2j6 (A.D. 1179) he was a minor 
and his mother took J urge of the administration. 

Let us now consi ler the tale of Prithvlraja having 
married a daughter of Nahada Rao, king* of Manclor; 
This, too, is .v)i absurdity, because from an incrip- 
tion of V. S. 894 oi king Bauka, who was tenth in 
descent from this Nahada Rao, we conclude that 
the latter must have lived about V. S. 714, i.e., 
nearly 5CC yeaio before Prithvlraja. Sometime 
between V S. 1189 and V. S. 1200 the Pratihara 

1 IvielhorrTs Supplement (> Northern hist (,Kpiniphia Imlica, Vol. VI 11, 
Appendix I), pa^e 13. 

2 i pigrapliia Jndioa, Vol. \l\, pat;o 21S. 

3 Journal Koyal Asiatic Sorioty, (1913) page 275 f. 

4 The names of Prithvlraja^ ance&tors mentioned in the 'Raso' appear also to 
a large extent incorrect. 


dynasty of Mandor had ceased to exist, having been 
overthrown by Chauhana Rayapala, whose son Sahaja- 
pala ruled at Mandor about V.S. 1200, as appears 
from his inscription found at Mandor. 1 Besides 
this, the name of the prime ancestor of the Padihara 
dynasty of Kanauj was also Nagabhata (or Nahada). 
From the copper grant 2 dated V.S. 813 of the Chauhana 
king Bhartrivaddha II, found at Hansot, it appears 
that this Nahada lived in the beginning of the ninth 
century of the Vikram era. Further, the first Padihara 
conqueror of Kanauj, too, was Nagabhata (Nahada II), 
who was fifth in descent from the aforesaid Nahada. 
He had died in V.S. 890, as appears from the "Prabha- 
vakacharitra." No fourth Nahada besides these has 
been heard of in the history of India. 

We have already mentioned above V.S. 1217 as the 
approximate birth year of Prithviraja. In such a case, 
it would certainly be impossible to assume that Anan- 
gapala made over the kingdom of Delhi to Prithviraja 
in V.S. 1138. 

Further, the story of Prithviraja having abducted 
the daughter of the Yadava king Bhana of Deogiri and 
of the consequent battle between Prithviraja and 
Jayachchandra, also seems to be spurious. The founder 
of the city of Deogiri, was not Bhana, but Bhillama, 
who had founded the city about V.S. 1244 (A.D. 1187). 
Neither does this event find place in the history of 
Bhillama nor does the name Bhana occur in the pedigree 
of the dynasty. Similarly, Virachandra, the name of a 
nephew of king Jayachchandra, occurs only in the 
'Raso' and nowhere else. 

We have mentioned above that an ancestor, third 
from Prithvlraja's father, had acquired possession of 
Delhi. Thus, the talk of Tunvara Anangapala's effort 
to regain his kingdom from Prithviraja on complaint 
from his subjects about the latter's high-handedness 
is an untenable proposition. 

1 Archa-ol- Surv. Ind., An. Rep.. 1909-10, pages 102*103, 
g Epigraphia Indica, Vol, XII, page 197, 



There now remains the affairs of the'Rfijasuya' and 
'Svayamvara' ceremonies performed by king Jayach- 
chandra. Had Jayachchandra performed such a grand 
ceremony as the ' Rajasuya/ some mention of it would 
have been found in the inscriptions of that monarch, or 
in the 'Rambhamanjarl Natika' by Nayachandra Suri, 
of which Jayachchandra himself is the hero. Fourteen 
copper plates and two stone inscriptions 1 of Jayach- 
chandra have been found, the last of which is dated 
V. S. 1245 2 (A. D. 1189). Although there are, thus, as 
many as sixteen epigraphic records belonging to him, 
not one of them contains any reference to his having 
celebrated a 'Rajasuya' 

The story of Prithvlraja's elopement with Samyogita 
seems to be a creation of the fertile brain of the author 
of the 'Raso'. Neither the "Prithvirajavijaya Maha- 
kavya" written in Prithviraja's time, nor the "Hammira 
Mahakavya" complied in the last half of the fourteenth 
century of the Vikrama era, 3 makes any mention of 
any such event. To rely on the story under these 
circumstances, is to tread on uncertain ground. The 
dates 4 of the events given in the "Raso" are alike in- 

The story of Maharavala Samarasingji of Mewar 
being a brother-in-law of PrithvirSja, and being killed 

1 'Bharata Ue-Praclrina Rajavamsha', part III, pp. 10S-110. 

2 Annual report of the Arch Suney of India (1921-22*). Pages 120-121. 

3 Further there is no trace of Soma\arnshi Mnkundadeva of Kanaka in the 
history of that period, whose daughter is mentioned as the mother of Samyogita 
in the 'Raso.' 

A Mr. Mohan Lill Vishnu Lfxl Pandya hail, however, assumed the dates of the 
'Raso' to ho hased on the 'Ananda Vikrama Samvat,' ^hich lie takes for granted 
on the basis of the words <f^n^[Efj ^T^' According to this, the Vikrama Samvat i8 
arrived hy addim; 1 M to the Samvat stated in the RiUo'. Thus, hy adding 01 to the 
Samvat 1158, the date of Frithviraja's death arrived at according to the 'Raso,' we 
come to 1249. This date alone can he pioved to he correct by this method. But 
the other dates and the periods assigned to Nahada Rao, etc., still remain quite 


in the battle with Shahabuddln, while helping his 
brother-in-law Prithvlraja, is also an idle tale. This 
battle had, in fact, been fought in V. S. 1249, whereas 
Maharavala Samarasin^h rh'ed in V. S. 1359. Under 
these circumstances, the above stntement of the 'Raso* 
cannot be admitted as either true or possible. 

After this, there is the mention of Prithvlraja's son 
Rainasi, but in fact the name of Prithviraja's son was 
Govindaraia. 1 He being a child, his uncle Hariraja 
Had usurped his dominion of Aimer, whereupon 
Qutbuddin, having defeated HarirMa, had protected 

In the end, there is the mention of an invasion by 
Qutbuddin against Java eh oh an dm, but, according to the 
Persian histories of India, this invasion is said to have 
been made not after RhahpbnddTn's death, but in his 
lifetime, and that he himself had taken part in it. He 
was killed at the hands of the Onkkhars in V. S. 1762 
(A.D. 1206X Besides, in the Persian chronicles there 
is no mention of Jayachchandra's collusion with 

When all these circumstances are taken into consi- 
deration, the historical value of the "PrithvTrnja Raso" 
becomes vitiated. Resides, even if we accept for a 
moment the whole story of the 'Raso 7 as correct, yet 
nowhere in that work is there anv mention either of 
Jayachchandrahnvin? invited Fvhahahuddin to attack 
PrithvTraja or of Mshavino- any other sort of connec- 
tion whatsoever, with tho Muhnmmedan ruler. On the 
other hand, at various places i"n fhe 'Paso' we read of 
Prithviraia's acrcfrossive attacks, his plonpment with the 
princess, his neglect of stnte affairs through his 
devotion to Samyoeita, his nroud and overbearing 
behaviour towards his brave and wise p-erernl Cham- 
unda Rai, whom he had sent to prison without any fault 

1 4 Bharata-ke PracMna Kajavarnsha', part 1, pa f ,;o -'"J. 



on his part, and his high-handedness which gave rise 
to the complaints of the subjects of a state left as a 
legacy to him by his maternal grandfather. Along 
jvith this, we also learn from the 'Raso' that his unwise 
steps obliged his own generals to conspire with his 
enemy Sultan Shahabuddln. In the light of these 
circumstances, readers will be able to judge for them- 
selves how far it is just to dub king Jayachchandra 
with the title of Vibhishana and thus malign him 
as a traitor. 

Let us now examine the attack made on Rao Slh, 
grandson of Maharaja Jayachchandra. Colonel James 
Tod 1 writes : 

"Here in the land of Kher amidst the sandhills of 
Luni (the salt-river of the desert) from which the 
Gohils were expelled, Sihaji planted the standard of 
the Rathors. 

"At this period a community of Brahmans held the 
city and extensive land about Pali, from which they 
were termed Pallivals, and being greatly harassed 
by the incursions of the mountaineers, the Mers and 
Minas, they called in the aid of Sihaji's band, which 
readily undertook and executed the task of res- 
cuing the Brahmans from their depreciations. Aware 
that they would be renewed, they offered *Sihaji lands 
to settle amongst them, which he readily accepted." 

"Afterwards he found an opportunity to obtain land 
by putting to death the heads of this community and 
adding the districts to his conquests." 

From the above history it is evident that before 
rendering aid to these Pallivala Brahmanas, Rao Sihfi 
had acquired possession of Mehva and Khetfa. It 
does not seem reasonable that an adventurer, hanker- 
ing after land, should have renounced possession of 

1 Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthana, Vol. I. p p. 942-943. 


these two large districts, merely to content himself 
with a few acres of land granted to him by his proteges, 
the Palllvalas. Further, he had not at that time enough 
men with him to look after his posessions of Kheda 
and Mehva as well as for keeping under subjection 
the Meras and Minas of the hilly tracts, who often 
overran Pall. Besides, from the narratives of the old 
chronicles of Marwar we learn that the Palllvalas 
of Pali were a class of rich traders. It is nowhere 
recorded that they were masters of the town of Pall; 
nor do we find any mention that Rao Siha had mur- 
dered them. In the temple of Sonanatha at Pali, 
there is a stone inscription 1 of V.S. 1209 of Solanki 
Kumarapala, which shows that at that time the latter 
held sway over Pali. It also appears from this ins- 
cription that one Bahadacleva, probably, a Chauhana 
feudatory of Kumarapala ruled over Pall at this time 
on behalf of Kumarapala. There had also been one 
Alhanaclsva, a Chaahlna feudatory and favoju'ita of 
king Kumarapala. An inscription 2 , dated V.S. 1209, 
of Kiradu shows that this Alhariadava hid acquired 
possession of t'.ie districts of Kiradu, Ridadhada 
and Shiva by the favour of king Kumarapala. 3 

On the death of Kumarapala, about V.S. 1230, his 
nephew Ajayapala succeeded to the throne. From this 
time the power of the Solankls began to decline. 
Presumably, the Minas and Meras might have taken 
advantage of this weakness and plundered Pall, which 
was then one of the richast cities in the vicinity. In 
the inscription dated V. S. 1319 at Sundha of Chauhana 
Chachigadeva it is stated that Udayasimha, father of 
Chachigadeva, and great grandson of the aforesaid 
Alhanadeva, was master of the districts of Nadol, 

1 Annual report of the Archaeological D^ptt., Jolhpur State, Vol. VI, (1931-32)p. 7. 

2 ,, Vol. IV, (1929-30)p. 7. 

3 Ep. Ind., Vol. XI, p. 70. 



Jalor, Mandor, Bahadmer, Ratanapur, Sanchor, 
Surachand, Radadhada, Kheda Ramsln, and Bhinmal. 
Udayasimha is also described in this inscription as 
invincible to the kings of Gujrat. 1 We have found four 
inscriptions of this king ranging from V. S. 1262 to 
V.S. 1306 at Bhinmal. We conclude, therefore, that at 
some time in this period, this Chauhan feudatory 
might have thrown off the yoke of the Solanki kings of 
Gujrat. At the same time, when we consider the 
geographical position of the above-mentioned districts, 
we are led to believe that the city of Pali, too, must 
have passed into the possession of the Chauhanas from 
the Solankls. So that at the time of Rao Siha's arrival 
in Marwar, such an important city as Pali must have 
either been in possession of the Solankls or the Chau- 
hanas. What circumstances, then, could have obliged 
Rao Siha to butcher his helpless and trading supplicants 
of the Bralimanas, a caste so sacred to a Rajput for 
the possession of Pali ? 

Besides this, when finding themselves too weak 
to ward off the marauding incursions of the hill tribes, 
these Brahma nas had themselves applied to Rao Siha 
for help, and having gained experience of his prowess, 
and having appointed him to be their protector, how 
could they have ever dared to incur his wTath by an 
act of effrontery ? 

Thus automatically Siha became master of the city, 
and so his interest lay in fostering its trade by con- 
ferring favours upon its merchants, the Palllvala 
Brahmanas, and not in laying- waste the country by 
killing these traders, as is supposed by the learned 
scholar, Colonel Tod. 

1 Ep.Ind., Vol. IX, p. 78, v. 46. 


Abbalabba, 72. 

Abhimanyu, 2, 14, 31, 47. 

Abu/aidulba&in, 39. 

Adikesbava, 1 15. 

Ajayapala, 1 13. 

Ajayupala, 112. 

Akalanka Blut.ta, 37, 59. 

Akalavanrha, 7<>. 

Aka(a\arsba, 90-99. 

Alankara, 38, 121. 

Alexander, 2, 0. 

Albanadtha, 112. 

Allata, HI. 

Almasudi, 41. 

Am ma 1, SO. 

Ammanadeva f Anamradeva\ 7S, 92. 

Anioghavarsha I, 3, 10, 12, H5, 3ij. S.,, 40, 

52, 04, 0774, 7<>, 11, U'J, l)r>-)7, ^, 


Ainogliavaraba II, 7H-M, 91, )2. 
Amo^havarsha, (IJaddi^n) III, 77, si, s2, 
S7, 89, 91,92. 

Amritapala, 50. 
Ananda Sainvat, 1'59 
Anaii^apala, i:M, i:J5, i;'7, i:N. 
Aniniddha, 77. 
A nka, 102, 10:J, 10S, 109. 
Aukidoxa, 107. 
Vntiga, S3. 92. 

Aparajita ( I )" v:\raja), 7 l >, !>0. 
Aratta, 2, (i, 7. 
Arikosari, sr. 
Arjnna, 77, 
Arjuua, 7S. 

Arjuiiavarman, 10 1, 109. 
Arkakirti, ti(. 
Asboka, 1. 
Asbvagbosba, 30. 
Asphotachandra, 121, 133. 
Atri, 31. 


Bacldiga, 81. 82,91, 92. 

I'lahadadeva, 142. 

P.aifia (Vai<a), - r >4, ii'j. 

Halabbi kin^ilom, 4'J. 

Baladitya, 27. 

r>alapra>a(la, 111. 

Ualliara. 39-12,5], 

Haluka Kai, 135. 

Hankeva (ra^a), 69, 70. 

Hapa (Ravala), 12, 27. 

Bappaya, 05. 

Baradalaena (Varadayi sainya) 46, 130, 

Bartu, 129. 
Hauka, 29, 31, 137. 
r.luuha, 29. 

l^ha^aladevl (F5hagalambika), 103. 
Bba:.',vadevi, 49. 
Bballlla, 112 
Hbamiiiaba, 90. 
Bbana, 135, 13S. 
Bbaiata, <5. 
Bbarata, SO. 
Bliarti'ibbaUa 1. 27. . 
BbaHi'ibbatt^ II, 111. 
liliaitri\addba 11, 13S. 

Bbati, 13. 
Bba\ibhya, 47. 
lbayido\a, 105. 
Bhillaiua, 13s. 
lib Una, 12. 
Bbiina, 103. 
Bbium I, 75. 
Bbinia II, 75. 
lib! ma III, SO. 
Bblmnpala, 50. 



Bhoja, 44, 79, 115, 132, 
Bhoja i, 8, 17, 97, 99. 
Bhoja II, 44, 115. 
Bh6r, 124. 

Bhfltuga II, 84, 85,91, 
Bhuvanapala, 24, 50. 
Bilharm, 28. 
Buddharaja, 112. 
Buddhavarsha, 96, 
Bundela, 31, 

Cbachigadeva, 142. 

Chakiraja, 06. 

Chakrayudha, 17,61,65. 

Chakreshvari, 18. 

Chalukya 8, 15, 25, 28, 53, 54, 1 00. 

Chalukya, 28. 

Chalukya kingdom, 42. 

Chamunda Rai, 13H, 140. 

Chandela, 31. 

Chantfikabbe, 101. 

Chandra, 15- IS. 23, 25, oO. 

Chandradeva, 15, Ifi, IS, 19, 21. 22.24, 

25,32, 44, 114-116, 132. 133. 
Chandraditya, 116. 
Chandralekha, 123, 12o. 
Chandrikadevl (Chandalade\ I), 10."> 
Chanhana, 29, 32. 
Chuntfavat, 33. 

Lahima, 33. 

Dalapangula, 125, 131. 

Dantiga, 83, 92. ( 

Dantiga (Dantivarman). 64. 

Dantivannan 91. 

Dantivnrman, 95. 

Dantivarman, 97-99. 

Dantivarman, 112. 

Dantivannan (Dantidur^a I, 3, H, 52, 

91, 92. 
Dantivarman (Dantmurija) II, 11/34, 

42, 46, 48, 52, 54-56, 58, 59, 91-94, 9 f J, 
Dayima(Davari), 102, 10s, lo<i. 
D^vacja, 29, 32. 
Devapala, 50. 
Devapala, 115. 
Devaraja, 31. 
j, 47. 

Devarakehita, 120. 

Devendra, 69. 

Dhadibhan^aka (Dha<?idva) 107. 

Dhanapala, 29, 88. 

Dharnnlvarahfl 111. 

Dharma, 12. 

Dharmapala, 20, 49, 67. 

Dharmayudha, 65. 

Dhavala, 111. 

Dhlrasena Puudira, 136. 

Ph5(^(jhi, 97 

DhruvJiraja, 17, 40, 59-65, 91, 92, 94, 98 


Dhruvaraja, 93, 98, 99. 
Dhruvaraja T, 40, (58, 71, 9- r >, 9o, 9S, 99. 
Dhruvaraja II, 8, 17, 70, 71, 97-99. 
Dhuhatfa, 18. 
Dora (Dhora), 63. 
Drona, 28. 
Duddaya, 73. 
Duigaraja, 47, 48. 
Durlabhanija, 111. 


Echaludevi, 10H. 

Ere^a (Eroyanimarasa), 102, 103. 10S, 

Flroz Mia K 137. 


(ia<jana, 131. 

Gaharjavala, 13, 16-21, 26, 31, 33, 45 

114, 116, 117, 129. 
(iakkhar, 140. 
(iaiuun<Jabbe, t>\. 
(iandhara. 1, 6. 
Gan^avana PvitUvlpati II, 85. 
Gangeyadova, 90. 
Gaurja, 33. 
( Jayakarna, 108. 
(firige, 90. 
Gohila, H, 141. 
Gojji^a, HO. 
Golhanadevi, 108. 
(Tnpala, 19. 

fioi)ala, 21, 22, 24, 25, 50. 
Gfiealladevi, 120. 

Govindacliandra, 11, 23, 24, 81, 32, 38, 
44, 114, 116, 117, 119-123, 132, 133. 



Govindacliandra's rnpp'-r coirs, 


Govindacbandra's ftold coins, 121. 
Govindanjbfi, 77, 81. 
(iovindaraja, 47, 48. 
(iovindaraju, 93, 9s, 9','. 
Govindaraja, 112. 
Govindaraja, 1 10. 
Govindarfija, (I), <',S, 04 -9,i, :H, 99. 
Govinduraja, (II), 97, 9S. 
Govindaraja. J, ,53. 91, ( <? 
Go\ indaraja II, 56, frt-btt. <><> fi^, 01 , 
Govinduraj-i III, 11, 56, 57. 41, t 
91. 92, 94. y5, OQ, 11^. 

Govmdaraja, !V, 10, 17, t 7 ', 7^ s 
Ciuhadatta, 27. 
(riihiiota, 'J7, ,52. 
<Tiinnbhadrat harya fun oT, 7 


Ha <|a, 32. 

Haihayn (Kalnchurj) 3". 

Halayudha, 29, ,S7. 

Halayudha, 37, 59. 

Ham mi ra, 4. 

Haraeu, 131 

Harishcliandra, IS, 45 46 r>5 ;P7 

Hanehchandra, 29 
Harita. 27. 
Ilariti, 28. 

Harivarman, 110, 111. 
Marsha, 54, 113. 
Hasan Nizami, 127. 
Hemachandra, 28. 
Ilemaraja, 31. 
Heinavati, 31. 
I lira, 126. 


Ihn Haukal, 41. 

Ibn Khurdadba, 40. 

Iksbvaku, 6. 

Indrajit, 31 . 

Indraraja, 9, 42, 52. 

Indraraja, 06, (58, 91, 94, 9\ 9S, 99. 

ludraraja I, 48, b ( 2, 53, 91. 92. 

Indraraja II, 53, 54, 91, 9iJ. 

liidraraja III, 3, 10, 17, 13, 51, 77-80, 
91, 92. 

Indraraja IV, 90-92. 
Indravudha, 17, 61, K7, 92. 
letakhari, 41. 
Izzuddin 127. 

Jagadekamlla II, 1 05, 10*. 

Jasattunga I, 64, 91. 
Jagattunga II, 77. 78, 81, 91. 
Jagattunqa III, 8'2-t,4, %7, 91. 
Jaitrachandra (Jayantachaodra) 123. 
Jnjapaia (JayapalsO, 20. 46, 130, 135. 
Jakabba, 90. 
.fasadhavala, 4. 
Jayabhatta III, - c >". 
.layachchandra, 7, 16, 20,21, 4i-46, 110, 

122-136, 13S-U1. 
Jayadeva, 27. 
Javaditya, 96. 
Ja\ akarna, 104, 109. 
Jayasnnha, 38, 121. 
Jayasimba I, 9, 16, 51. 
Jayasiinha II, (Jagadekamalla) 102, 109. 
Jazia, 44, 116. 
Jcjjata, 48. 
Jinaharshagani, 2S 
Jinasena, 35, 37, 72, 76, 
Jmasena, 37, 61. 
Jodha, IS. 
Jodhpur, 18. 

Kailasa Bhavann, GO, 38, 57. 
Kakka. 31. 

Kalapriya Clanda Martanrla, 85. 
Kalinga, 55. 

Kallai a, 90. 
Kalyani, 18. 

IvaiAadnaja Ra\, 134, 136. 
Kama)avati, 133, 137. 
Kambayya (Stambha>. 63, 64, 91. 
KaiubOja, 1.6. 
Kankadeva. h>. 

Knnna (Kannaka^'ra) 1, 10, 103, 108, 109. 
Kanua (Kannakaira) IT, 103, 104, 105, 
108, 109. 



Kann.ira, 75. 
Kannara. Si 1 . 
KannGshvara, 5>. 
Kapardi (Pada) I, (V. 
Kapardi II, <i9, 71, 92. 
Karkaraja, IS, 49. 
Karkaraja, (iU. 

Karkaraja (Kakkaraja), - r >7, (ij, (>(>, <>S 
92, 94-96, 98, 99. 

Karkaraja (Kakka) I, 53, (>;>, 01, 02. 
Karkaraja (Kakkala) II, 10, 10, 42, 13, 

4<>, 58, 71, SS-92, 10 J. 
Karkaraja I, 93, OS, 90. 
'Karkaraja 11, 55, 5S, 9 >, 01, 9% 99. 
Karna, 44, 115, 132. 
Karpuradevi, 137. 
Kartavirya I, 102, 1<)S, 100. 
Kartavlrya II, 103, lot, luti, IOS, 100. 

Kartavirya (KaUama) III, 10-1, H)">, 

IOS, 10 1 J. 

Kartavirya IV, 105, Hx;, 10>, Jin. 
Katta, 103. 

Kavirajauiar^a, 3S, ;i. 
Khotti^a (<lc\a), sj, -<> i ^o, :ii, 02. 
Khusro, 122. 
Khtipala, 3. 
Kirtiraja, 40. 
Kirtivarman 1,0. 
Kirti\armaii II, 12, ITi, r>I, 52. '1,55, 

57, 02, 03. 

Kokkaia I, 75, 77, 7.s, 02. 
Koshala, 55. 
Krishna, 51,52. 
Kriehnaraja, 71, 9s, ( ). 
Krishnaraja, I, 11, 14, 31, 3s. 53, 5<;-H2, 

75, o'l, 02,04, 90. 
Krishnaraja II 17, 40, G7, 73 -7S, 80, 

01, 92, OS, 00, 101, 100, 114. 
Krishnaraja III, 10, 17, 37, 41, 13,50, 

72, 81 -h7, 00 02, 101, 114. 
Krishnaraja I's Silver Coin?, 59. 
Krishneshvara, 85. 
Kshemaraja, 97. 
Kulottnnpacliu^Iadova II, 2s. 
KnmaradcvT, 23, 31, 32, 114, 120. 
KJumanijjnpla, 1 13. 
Kuruarapaia. 2s, l 12. 
Kumbha (Kanfi), 12, 2/\ 
Kundakade\i, S2, 87. 
Knha, f>. 
Kyanadeva, 40. 


l.aklianapala, 15, !(>, 21, 22, 50, 130. 
Lukslnnana ( Lakslnnidhara), 105. 
Lakplnni, 77, 7S. 

I.akslunTdo\:i 1, 10"), W>, 108, 100. 
r,akslimide\a II, 10(> 100. 
Lakslimidovi, 101. 
LakslnnTdhara, 37, 121. 
1/alitaditya (MuktapUla), 113. 
Lata, 4, 55, (ili, 03, 01. 
Latalurapura, 7. 

r,atalurapnradhi?h\ara, 7, 70. 

J.fitana, 13. 35. 

LOndcyarai'a, 70. 

L'>hadadeva, 1 19. 

Lnla\ikki, MX 

Lumbhu (Kiln), 29. 


Madanapala, \(\. 2^, 21, II, 115-117, 

132, i:i-'. 

Madanaiiala, 2), 23, 21, 50. 
Madanapala's ( 1 oppcr Coin 5 , 1 1 7. 
Madnna])Ula's Gold Coins, 1 17. 
Madanavarmado\a, 11, 121, l'>2. 
MadOv), 100, 107. 
Mahades I, 75. 
Mahalakshmi, 111. 
.Mahana (Mathana), 32, 120. 
Maharana, 27. 
Maharashtra, 1, 4, 7. 
Maharashtrakuta, 107. 

Maharatta 1. 

Mahaviracharya, 30, 37, 72. 

Mahendra, 111. 

MahTrhandra, 19, 114, 115, 132, 133. 

Mahlpala, 17, 79,92. 

Mahlpala, 18-20. 

Mahiyala (Mahitala), 111. 

Mailaladevi, 103. 

Mai lade va, 122, 125, 

Mallikarjuna, 105, 100, 108, 109. 

Mamalladcvi, 1'JH. 

Manunata, HO, 111. 

Mananka, 2, 47. 

Man as a, 35. 

Mangallsha, 42, 5.^, 

Mangi, 75. 



Manikachandra, 21, 46, 128, 131, 133. 

Mankha, 38, 121. 

Marasharva, 65, 92. 

Marasimha II, 83, 8S, 80, 01, 02. 

Maiikhari, 113. 

Meghachandra, 128, 133. 

Meratfa, 100, 108, 109. 

Mom (Mahodaya-Kanauja\ 17, 78, 70. 

Merutunga, 128. 

Mihira, 97,99. 

Minhajuddln (Maulana), 127. 

Mukundadeva, 130. 

Mularaja, 83, 111. 

Munja, 29, 111. 

Munja, 103, 109. 


Nagabhata I, 40, 138. 
Nagabhata II, 17, 40, 61, 138. 
Nagada, 33. 
Nagavaloka, 49. 
Nagavarman, 93, 00. 
Nahatfa Rao, 135, 137-139. 
Nandaraja, 3, 48. 
Nandivarman, 64. 
Nanna, 63, 91. 
Nanna, 86. 

Nanna. 101, 102, 108, 109. 
Nanna ^Gunavtloka), 40. 
Nannaraja, 47. 
Narayana, 5, 13. 
Narayana, 84. 
Narayanashaha, 4. 
Nayachandra Suri, 29, 124, ISO. 
Nayanakelidevi, 118, 119. 
Nayapala, 18, 19. 
Nayapala, 113. 
Nemaditya, 79. 
Nljikabbe, 101. 
Nirupama, 60-62. 
Nirupama, 82, 89, 91. 
Nolambakula, 89. 


Okaketn, 34. 


Padmagupta (Parimala), 29 
Padmakara, 128. 
Padmaladeyl, 104. 

Pala, 19. 

Palidhvaja, 34. 

Palllvala Brahinana, 134, 141-143. 

Parabala, 20, 48, 49, 67. 

Parabala, 67. 

Paramara, 29. 

Paramardideva, 124. 

Peramana^I Blmtuga II, 72, 91, 92. 

Peramanatfi Marasiraha II, 88, 89, 91, 


Pittuga, 101, 108, 109. 
Ponna, 37, 86. 
Prachantfa, 75. 
Pradyumna, 77. 
Prahasta, 46, 130, 131, 133. 
Prashn.ottara Ratnamalika, 35, 38, 73, 


Pratapadhavala, 123. 
Pratiliara (Pa^ihara) 20, 41, 115. 
Pvithvipati I, 74, 92. 
Frithviraja, 127, 132, 135-140. 
Pvithvirama, 76 t 83, 92, 100, 101, 10S, 


Prithvishrlka, 116. 
Pulakeshin II, 42, 53, 54. 
Pullashakti, 69, 02. 
Pushkala, 6. 
Pushpadanta, 37, 86, 88. 

Qutbuddm Aibak, 22, 45, 127, 129, 1S6, 

Rachainalla I, 85, 02. 

Rahappa, 58, 92,4)4. 

Rainasi, 136, 140. 

Rainkavala, 16. 

Rajachu^amani, 90. 

Rajaditya (Muvatfichola), 82, 84, 2. 

Rajaraja, 8. 

Rajashekhara Suri, 126. 

Rajatararigi^i, 20. 

Rajyapala, 20, 49. 

Rajyapaladeva, 110, 121, 133. 

Raiha (Ralhaija) devi, 116, 118, 1HI. 

Ramachandra, 6. 

Rama Rai (Kamasahaya), 130. 

Kambhajnanjari N&tika, 7. 



Rana, 42. 

Ranakambha (Ranastambha), 90. 

Ranavigraba, (Shankaragana), 77. 

Rannadevi, 40, 67. 

Rf\ehtrakuta 2-4, 6 10. 12-18, 20, 21, 

-'5 26, 30-33, 45-47, 51-53, 78, 90, 91, 

93,94, 96,98, 100, 113, 114. 
Raehtrakuta ^RaU^ Kingdom 42-44, 

46,51, 100,110 
Rashtrashyena, 35. 
Rashtrauda (Rashtrautfha), 3, 5, 13. 
Rashtrautfhavamsha Mahakavya, 4. 
Rashtravarya 3. 
Raehtrika ( Rietika) 1, 2, 6, 7. 
Rata, 4. 
Ratha, 4. 

Rathauda (Rathanra^, 4. 

Rathavada (R&thavar.O, 4 

Rath6tfa(Rathdra), 4, 7, 12, H, 20, 


Ratnamalika, 35, 36. 38, 73. 

Katta, 2-4, 20, 100, 107. 114. 

Rattanarayana, 102. 

Rattaraja, 10, 90. 
Rattarajya, 43. 
Rayapala, 138. 

Revakanimma(Ji, 82, 91. 
Rudra, 4. 
Rukma, 77. 


Sahajapala, 138. 

Sahaerarjuna, 85, 02. 

8alkha, 4. 

Samarasimha (Singh), 27, 127, 136, 

139, 140. 

Samyogita, 126, 127, 135, 136, 139, 140. 
Sandhyakaranandl, 32, 120. 
Satyaki, 11, 33, 78. 
Satyavakva Kongunivarma Pcrama- 

natfi Bbutuga II, 82, 84, 85. 
Saurashtra (Soratha), 4. 
Sena (Kalaeena) 1, 102, 103, 108, 109. 
feena (Kalasena) II, 104, 108, 109. 
Setarama, 46, 131, 133. 
ehahabuddin Ghori, 45, 127, 130-132, 

J36, 140, 141, 

Shalya, 2. 

ShamBiiddiii Altamash, 23, 45, 129-131. 

Shankaracharya, 73. 

Slmiikaragana. 63. 

Shankarngaiiii, 77. 

Rbaukaragaiida, 71, 92. 

Rhankha, 64. 

Shankuka, 75, 92. 

Shantivarnian, 101, 102, 108, 109. 

Sharva, 52, 67. 

Shiva mara, 74. 

Shri Harsha, 37, 126. 

bbri Harsha (Siyaka II), SS, 89, 92. 

Shrimall, 33. 

Shripata, 8. 

Sbrivaliabha, 61, 63, 67. 

Shurapala, 50. 

Wha (Kan), 4, 18, 45. 46, 131,133, 131, 


Sinda (Naga), 10.'). 
Sindaraja, 10IS. 
Smgana Garu^a, 102. 
$inghana ; 107. 
Sisodiya, 12, 32, 33. 
Skandagupta, 113. 
Solftuki (Chalukya), 28, 51, 57. 
omadeva (Suri), 37, 86. 
Somanatha, 142. 
Someshvara, 134, 135, 137. 
Someshvara I, 103, 109. 
Someshvara II, 104, 109. 
Someshvara III, 107. 
S5meshvara IV, 105. 
Sonagara, 33. 

Stambha (Shauchakambha), 64, 65, 91. 
Sthirapala, 19. 
Snhala, 38, 121. 
Suhavadevi, 128. 
Sulaiman, 39, 40. 
Snrnitra, 6. 
Sundara, 88. 
Svamikaraja, 47, 48. 

Tailapa, II, 40 42, 43, 46, 89, 00, 92, 

100-102, 109. 
Tailapa III, 105, 109. 
Taksha, 6. 
TakBhaehila, 6. 


Tatarlya Dirhain, 39. 
fivili, 44, 68, 102. 

Trailokyamalla, (Someshvara I), 103. 
'Iribbuvanapala, 60. 
Trilochanapala, 8, 15, 21, 25, 28. 
Trilochanapala, 22, 113. 
Trivikrama Bhatta, 37, 79. 
Tunga (Dharmavaloka), 20, 49. 
TuruBhka^anda, 44, 110 


tJdavata, 33. 
Udayaditya, 88. 
Hdayana, 8. 
[Tdayasimha, 142, 1J3. 
Upendra, 17. 

Vajiata, 51. 
Vallabha, 42, 54. 
Vallabha, r>7. 
Vallabharaja, 42, 51 
Vandiga (Vaddijja) 

Vappny;a, 83, 92. 
Varaha, 01. 
VasantadcvT, 120. 
Vasantapala, 19. 
Vashishtha. 2S-30. 
Vasudeva, 77. 
Vatsaraja, 49, HI, H2. i)2. 
Vntearajiuleva, 119. 
Veni, HO. 05. 
Vibhisluuia, 111. 
Vichana, 107. 
Vidagdhariijn, 1 ID. 111. 
Vidyadhara, l*js. 
V'igrahapala, 10, 24, r>0, 1 1 

Vigrahapala, 19. 

Vigraharaja, (Vlsaladeva^ IV, 123. 

Vijamba, 78. 

Vijayachancha, 46, 121-12i, 132, 133, 136. 

Vijayaditya, 8. 

Vijayaditya II, 65, 71, 92. 

Vijayaditya III, 75. 

Vijayakirti, G<">. 

Vijayapala. 123, 134-136. 

Vijjala, 90. 

Vijnaneshvara, 30. 

Vikraraaditya, 29. 

Vikrainad'tya II, 51. 

Vikiamaditya (Tribbuvanauialla^. VI, 
2s\ 103, "104, 107, 109. 

Vimalacharya, 73. 
Vindhyavasinl, 35. 
Viracbandra, 135, 138. 
Viracbola, 85. 
ViranJlrayana, 53. 

VTsaladova (Vigraharaja 1 ), IV. 29, 137. 
Visbnn\aidbana I, 42. 
Visbnuvardhnna IV, H3. 
Visbnnvarclliaiia V, ;."> 
V\Nidliiivulvavii.'bai;j\ acha^pati, 118, 
121. 130, V52. 

Vynvnharakalputaru, 37, 121. 

Yfub\:i ( VaduNasuehi), 10-12, 31, 33, 
SO, >9. 

Yadu, 10, 69. 

Yamuna, 12. 

Yashahpala, L'2, 

Ya^bovarman, 113. * 

Yasbovigraba, 13, 16, 19, 114, 132, 133. 

Yuddhamalla, 80. 

Ynviirajadcva I, 82, 87, 92. 

Ynvarajadeva II, 2S. 








Vishnu vardhnu 
























Bad aim 

Chandra vat I 














7 & 10 













Sanndaran d Maha- 


kavya, Sai a 

Mahakavya, Sarga I 















Dhrnvaraja I 












M adnavarmade va 

M adanava nuadC v t 







Pulakeshin II 

Pulakeshin II 































The rulla Slmkti 

Pulla Shakti 















Vijayaditya 1JI who 

Vijayaditya 1 11 (son 

.~f XTi~K 11 

(son of Vishnu var- 
dhana V, of the 
i dvnastv^ 

V), who killed king 

154 ERRATA. 154 




theSatyavakya o 
















Peremana^i o 




rebel Ion s 








Dhruvaraja, II 

Dhruvaraja II, 



Dantivarman 1, 







34, 36 & 43 





(Pan jab) 







22 & 24