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Full text of "History Of The University Of Missouri School Of Mines And Metallurgy 1871 1946"

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Public Library 

Kansas City, Mo. 




TENSION ENVELOPE CORP. 



KANSAS CITY MO PUBLIC LI BRARY 




D DOOl DlflStsHT D 



- - I 



HISTORY 

OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI 

SCHOOL OF MINES 
AND METALLURGY 

1871-1946 



CLARENCE N. ROBERTS 

Instructor in History 



To those who have made the School 

of Mines and Metallurgy a distinguished 

institution this book is sincerely dedicated. 



FOREWORD 

The writing of the history of an educational institution is an ex- 
tremely interesting, enlightening, and broadening experience. This is 
especially true of the history of Missouri School of Mines and Metal- 
lurgy, which has a past so enriched by a glorious record of scholarship 
and achievements. 

Perhaps the best source for the history of the School of Mines is 
the annual school catalog. Fortunately, all but a few are available, 
and those not accessible are contained in the annual reports of the 
University of Missouri. The minutes of the faculty proceedings are 
available for the second school year until 1,903; from 1903 until 1920 
no record of the faculty proceedings apparently has been preserved, 
but, beginning in 1920 until the present time a very complete record 
of faculty meetings exists. Since 1907, the ROLLAMO, the official 
school annual, contains valuable information on athletic surveys, and 
other student activities. The MISSOURI MINER, the student news- 
paper, is indispensable for the period since 1915. The local news- 
paper, the ROLLA HERALD, is particularly of service for the early 
history of tire school. The ROLLA DAILY NEWS, formerly the NEW 
ERA, is important for the recent period. Reports of Visiting Com- 
mittees and of the Board of Curators give limited information. The 
Journals of the Proceedings of the Missouri General Assembly are valu- 
able for legislative debates especially for the founding period. A manu- 
script history of the University of Missouri, by William F. Switzler, 
gives a very accurate account of meetings of the Board of Curators 
prior to 1903. 

Two histories of Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy have 
been published. One of these is a brief history by Professor Samuel 
Horace Lloyd, Jr., which is contained as a chapter in the Centennial 
History of the University by Dr. Jonas Viles. The other history is a 
very detailed account published by the Phelps County Historical Society. 

I wish to take this opportunity to express my thanks and appre- 
ciation to the following members of the 75th Anniversary Committee, 
who have read the manuscript and have contributed constructive criti- 
cism: Dr. Walter T. Schrenk, Chairman; Dr. Paul G. Herold; Frank 
E. Dennie; I. Herrick Lovett; Herbert R. Hanley, Professor Emeritus; 
Joe B. Butler; Rex Z. Williams; Dr. Aaron J. Miles; William J. Jenson; 
and Samuel H. Lloyd, Jr. I am deeply indebted to the History Com- 
mittee composed of Professors O. A. Henning, F. E. Dennie, S. H. 
Lloyd, and M. H. Cagg. 

(5) 



Special thanks are due to Professor M. H, Cagg, who read the 
manuscript and made valuable recommendations; to Noel Hubbard, 
Registrar, who furnished data on enrollments and degrees granted, 
which are included in the tables in this book; to William J. Young, 
Director of Publications of the University of Missouri, the writer is 
indebted for the efficient manner in which he conducted the problems 
connected with the publishing of this book; to Earl J. Randolph, Li- 
brarian of the School of Mines, who cooperated in the collection of 
source material for the history of the school; and to my former teacher 
and devoted friend, Thomas A. -Brady, Vice-President of the Uni- 
versity of Missouri, I am particularly grateful for appropriate sugges- 
tions and effective criticisms. 

To many others I am also indebted for their contributions in mak- 
ing this historical survey possible. 

The writing of this historical review of Missouri School of Mines 
and Metallurgy, for the celebration of the 75th Anniversary serves to 
bring to the people of the State of Missouri the story of the struggle 
for existence and the noble achievements of the past of this their edu- 
cational institution. May these endeavors of the past inspire future 
generations to carry on the traditions so established by the University 
of Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy. 

CL N. ROBERTS 

Rolla, Missouri 
August 27, 1946 

(6) 



CONTENTS 

Page 

I. Founding the School 9 

II. The First Director, Charles P. Williams, 1871-1877 21 

III. Eleven Difficult Years, 1877-1888 35 

IV. Development of Modern School of Mines and Metallurgy, 
1888-1907 43 

V. Period of Continued Growth and Service, 1907-1920 59 

VI. Era of Curricular Expansion and Broadened Training, 1920- 
1941 77 

VII. Dean Curtis Laws Wilson and the Present Missouri School 

of Mines, 1941-1946 103 

Retrospect 120 

(7) 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Frontispiece, Aerial View of school campus Facing Page 8 

The First Faculty Between Pages 8 and 9 

The First Graduates Facing Page 9 

Rolla Building Facing Page 24 

Old Chemistry Building Between Pages 24 and 25 

Norwood Hall Between Pages 24 and 25 

Metallurgy and Ore Dressing Building Facing Page 25 

Experiment Station Building Facing Page 56 

Mining Engineering Building Between Pages 56 and 57 

Harris Hal! Between Pages 56 and 57 

New Chemistry Building Facing Page 57 

Jackling Gymnasium Facing Page 64 

Parker Hall Facing Page 65 

Charles Herman Fulton Facing Page 80 

Campus View Facing Page 81 

Dr. Allen P. Green Facing Page 88 

Dr. Daniel C. Jackling Preceeding Page 89 

President Frederick A. Middlebush Facing Page 104 

Dean Curtis Laws Wilson Between Pages 104 and 105 

The Present Board of Curators Facing Page 105 

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CHAPTER I 

FOUNDING THE SCHOOL 

The study of engineering has rooted itself and has demonstrated 
its significance and permanent value as a phase of higher education in 
the United States. With the growing complexities of modern scientific 
developments, engineering education has become one of the most essen- 
tial programs of study on the American collegiate level. In this in- 
dustrial and scientific age, engineering education must furnish the 
trained personnel and leaders demanded in such a technical world. As 
in the past, the engineer must ever be alert and informed on the nu- 
merous scientific developments, and especially on their application for 
the benefit of mankind. It offers hope to the coming generations that 
the principles and discoveries of science will be utilized for the ma- 
terial well-being and social progress of the human race. 

A review of the seventy-five years of progress of Missouri School 
of Mines and Metallurgy discloses the success attained by this institu- 
tion as an agency of public enlightenment and as a means of developing 
and increasing the mineral wealth of Earth. It is a record of eminent 
achievement in training men for the practical applications of engineer- 
ing threby elevating the standard of living of all classes. With con- 
stancy of purpose and with zeal throughout the past years, this school 
has made definite contributions to the nation and to the entire world, 
as well as to the State of Missouri. There can be no doubt that this 
contribution might be even greater in the future if there could be a 
more widespread appreciation of the expended efforts of men and 
women who have been associated with the School of Mines in the 
past. 

Many aspects had to be considered before the founding of Mis- 
souri School of Mines. Several years were devoted to the formulation 
of concrete plans for the establishment of such land grant schools. Many 
difficult problems and controversial issues had to be settled before the 
founding of a school of mines could be accomplished. 

It was Schoolcraft, in his early observations of the potential mineral 
wealth of Missouri, who noted the lack of skill and the need for per- 
sonnel trained in the scientific phases of mining. He found the mining 
technics far behind those of the Europeans in that day, where, as he 
observed, "the recent discoveries in mechanics, chemistry, and philos- 
ophy" were practiced. In an account of his travels published as early 
as 1819, he perceived the need for "a mineralogical school located 
in the mine country where students might be instructed in that useful 



10 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

science." He pointed out the need for that type of education expressly 
for those who do not wish, or cannot obtain, the advantages of a lib- 
eral education. He noted a lack of both capital and skill, particularly 
in the lead mines of Missouri, but with the latter deficiency removed 
by education it was believed that more capital would be invested in 
Missouri mines. 

The period from 1830 to 1860, in Missouri history, was notable 
for the advancements made in the development of a public school 
system and in the establishment of the state university at Columbia. 
However, public sentiment was not solidly crystalized in favor of higher 
education. The University of Missouri, established by the Geyer Act 
of 1839, suffered in its early history from both lack of interest on the 
part of the people of Missouri and lack of support from the state legis- 
lature. Although preliminary acts were passed by the General Assembly 
for the establishment of a public school system in 1835, 1837, and 1839, 
Missouri did not fully succeed in initiating a public school system until 
the act of 1853. During this thirty year period, the demands for a 
school of mines came largely in petitions or memorials to the state legis- 
lature, proceedings of certain organizations and societies, and from 
governors' messages. 

Perhaps the most definite action by the state of Missouri, previous 
to the passage of the Morrill Act, was the action taken by the Mis- 
souri General Assembly in 1849. This action was taken in the form of 
a joint resolution presenting a memorial to the United States Congress 
for a School of Mines, Metallurgy, Agriculture, and Chemistry. It 
sought lands from the public domain for such an institution, and said 
school was not merely to train specialists for the mineral industries 
of Missouri, but in addition scientists to aid in western explorations 
and in locating mineral deposits in the new territories of the West. 
Gongress failed to act on this proposition largely because so many such 
demands were being made from the various states and territories at 
that time. Also many groups in Congress opposed the granting of pub- 
lic lands by the Federal Government for such a revolutionary develop- 
ment in higher education. Certain other projects were considered 
more important in 1850, such as the building of transcontinental rail- 
roads. However, by 1860 the demands for a new type of education 
were becoming irresistible. 

The industrial revolution, with its array of manufacturing in- 
dustries, inventions, railroad expansion, and construction projects, was 
calling loudly for a new type of trained technician. The colleges of 
the day were inadequately equipped both materially and philosophically 
to train such leaders. There was a demand for a practical type of 
education not to exclude the liberal studies, but one in which a skill 



Founding the School 11 



would be united with the higher elements of study. It was also agreed 
that the new type of college would be open to the sons and daughters 
of the average citizen. It would then be possible for the poor man 
to send his sons and daughters to receive a new kind of college edu- 
cation. Here the emphasis would be in training for a skill in mechani- 
cal arts or in agriculture rather than in Latin, Greek, or other classical 
studies. 

Among the many forces operating to bring about the new type 
of higher education, two forces appear to be outstanding. First there 
was the urgent need for men trained in the physical sciences in order 
to fit into the new industrial America. The thirty year period, prior 
to 1860, had witnessed such material inventions and discoveries as the 
reaper, the telegraph, vulcanization of rubber, the sewing machine, and 
the successful operations of railroads. This new industrial age was 
calling for the machine technologist. Such a mechanical revolution 
would have its effects upon the mining and the mineral industries. A 
new leader would be a prime necessity. It was becoming apparent that 
the new industrial changes would have their effects upon the mining 
and the mineral industries. A new leader in mining, metallurgy, busi- 
ness, and agriculture would be a prime necessity,. It was becoming 
apparent that the new industrial changes would also revolutionize de- 
mand in the fields of chemistry, physics, and geology. 

The colleges of the day were not organized or equipped to train 
the new technical leaders of industry. Many colleges of that day had 
been founded by religious denominations, and the administrators were 
often ministers of the gospel. With their curricula loaded with classi- 
cal and theological subjects, there was no place for a technical pro- 
gram leading to a degree in engineering. The ambitious youth looking 
forward to a career in the physical sciences, mining, or metallurgy 
would scarcely devote three or four years to study in these institutions. 

Second among the background factors for producing a School of 
Mines was the movement for more democracy in our government, so- 
cial life, and education. This movement had been particularly stimu- 
lated by the administration of Andrew Jackson and the influence of 
the American frontier. This democratic tide had carried with it such 
reforms as universal manhood suffrage, abolition of property restric- 
tions on voting, extension of the public school system, and demands 
for equality of opportunity. This same movement with its insistence 
upon the rights and privileges of the common man naturally looked 
with disfavor upon the extant higher institutions of the period. 

When it became apparent that the states lacked the necessary means 
to found such schools of learning, its advocates went with their peti- 
tions and memorials to the Federal Government. During the 1850's 



12 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

such petitions met considerable opposition in Congress. The southern 
influence was still predominant in Washington and both Presidents 
Pierce and Buchanan were pro-Southern in their policies. The Southern 
congressmen being advocates of states rights and thus opposed to the 
centralization of authority at Washington, were likewise hostile to any 
scheme of federal subsidization of education. To them it looked like 
federal encroachment upon a field reserved to the states. Hence, the 
advocates of the new so-called agricultural and mechanical colleges 
had to face antagonism from southern congressmen and from unfriendly 
presidential administrations. 

An attempt was made during the Buchanan Administration to 
establish a new group of institutions by the avenue of land grants. 
Representative Justin H. Morrill, of Vermont, introduced such a meas- 
ure into the House of Representatives on December 17, 1857. This 
measure passed both houses of Congress, but was stopped by a presi- 
dential veto. The votes necessary for overriding the veto were not at- 
tained. President Buchanan stressed in particular the typical states' 
rights opposition to such a measure. He believed that Congress lacked 
the power to give away public lands, especially for the purpose of edu- 
cation. To him education belonged primarily to the states, and was 
in no way the responsibility of the Federal Government Succeeding 
events were soon, however, to put into operation a land-grant system 
of education which to Buchanan was unconstitutional. 

As a result of the national election of I860, the southern and 
states' rights influences in the national government were weakened with 
the victory of the new Republican party and the election of Abraham 
Lincoln to the presidency. By the next year the southern influence at 
Washington definitely ended, when eleven southern states withdrew 
from the Union and joined the Confederacy. With the states' rights 
opposition removed and with the new Republican party dedicated to 
such broad national measures as the building of transcontinental rail- 
roads, national regulation of banks, and free homesteads for the masses, 
the advocates of land grants for the new agricultural and mechanical 
colleges made real progress. With liberal land subsidies being granted 
to such projects as the Union Pacific Railroad, why not have similar 
grants to colleges for the masses? Possibly the Civil War had its effect 
in hastening the passage of such an act. The need for military officers 
was clearly revealed in the early months of the war, and such a land- 
grant system of colleges could furnish a supply of officers for the na- 
tion in a future war. If the national government granted the land, 
could it not expect some return in the form of a trained citizenry? The 
exact military influence in the legislative victory is difficult to estimate. 



Founding the School 13 



The bill which culminated in the famous Morrill Act was intro- 
duced into the Senate on May 5 3 1862. It was similar to the measure 
vetoed by President Buchanan, except that it provided for a donation 
of thirty thousand acres of land for each senator and representative in 
Congress from a particular state, instead of twenty thousand acres. 
On June 10th, the bill passed the Senate by a vote of thirty-two to 
seven; the House then acted favorably on June 17th by a vote of ninety 
to twenty-five. The bill became law by virtue of President Lincoln's 
signature on July 2, 1862. This law is described by Professor H. U. 
Faulkner, the historian, as being "the most important single piece of 
educational legislation in our history the Morrill Act of 1862." 

It is an interesting historical event that Congress could consider, 
debate, and pass such a far-reaching act of legislation, when the ener- 
gies of the Federal Government were so absorbed in a fight for its 
very existence. At this very time Washington was being threatened 
by the Confederate armies of Lee and Jackson. In fact, the next 
month, August 1862, Lee began an invasion of the surrounding area of 
Maryland, ending in the bloody battle of Antietam. For such a pro- 
gressive legislative act to be enacted in a time of civil strife shows the 
temperance and the extreme foresight of certain congressmen who 
could look ahead and visualize the future needs of American education. 

Representative Morrill, in an address before the House of Repre- 
sentatives on June 6, 1862, cited the specific need for the new type 
of education prescribed by the measure. He spoke of the proposal as 
"just in scope, demanded by the wisest economy, it will add new se- 
curity to the perpetuity of republican institutions." As for the pro- 
posed colleges, and the type of training elaborated, Morril! had this 
to say: "this bill proposes to establish at least one college in every 
state upon a sure and perpetual foundation, accessible to all, but espe- 
cially to the sons of toil, where all the needful science for the prac- 
tical avocations of life shall be taught, where neither the higher graces 
of classical studies, nor that military drill our country now so greatly 
appreciates will be entirely ignored." 

One of the most elaborate and well prepared statements on the 
objectives of the land-grant college was given by James S. Rollins, 
father of the University of Missouri, in the state legislature: "The 
specific object of the grant is for industrial education ... to unite, if 
you please, headwork and handwork; to guide muscle by brain; to 
get more from the soil; to multiply and at the same time save labor 
by machinery and inventions; to improve the breed of all domestic 
animals; to aid in mining operations and the reduction of ores; to as- 
sist the geologist, the mineralogist, and the chemist .... in short, to 



14 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

enable men to live better and with less labor by better understanding 
of the laws of nature. . ..** 

The Morrill Act granted thirty thousand acres of public land for 
each senator and representative in Congress from a particular state. 
As Missouri at the time had eleven members,, the grant to this state 
totaled 330,000 acres. This act specifically provided that the land 
could not be sold for less than $1.25 per acre, which meant a total 
endowment of $412,500 for the state of Missouri. The fund was to 
be invested as an endowment and was under no circumstances to be 
used for the construction or the repair of buildings. 

The Missouri General Assembly by joint resolution accepted the 
land grant of Congress on March 17, 1863, with all the conditions and 
limitations imposed in the act. This legislative session did not, how- 
ever, act on the proposed college, and it was seven years before the 
school was founded. The state was required to accept and claim the 
benefits under the Morrill Act within a period of five years by the 
establishment of at least one college. Congress, on July 23, 1866, 
came to the rescue of those states that had not as yet acted, by passing 
a measure extending the time by an additional five years for all states 
that had accepted the original grant within two years. It is an interest- 
ing commentary that Governor Thomas C. Fletcher was evidently una- 
ware of this extension of time by Congress, since in his message to the 
General Assembly in January, 1868, he stated that the alloted time 
would expire in sixty-nine days, and that the state must act or lose 
the 330,000-acre land grant. It was four years from the date of ex- 
tension until favorable legislative action was achieved. 

The struggle in Missouri over the disposition of the land grant 
was perhaps the most bitter of that in any of the states. The struggle 
centered largely around such matters as the location of proposed school, 
the question of its relation to the existing state university, and the 
type of institution that should be founded. Many bills were intro- 
duced into the General Assembly during the period from 1863 to 1870, 
embodying the various ideas as to the type of school to be established. 
Whereas, some particular measure was introduced in nearly every ses- 
sion after 1863, the discussion here will review only the action of the 
Twenty-Fifth General Assembly, which passed the legislation estab- 
lishing the school. 

The regular session of the Legislature convened on January 6 5 

1869, and adjourned on March 4 of the same year. On January 5, 

1870, came the adjourned session which passed the act "to locate and 
dispose of the congressional land grant of July 2, 1862." The con- 
troversy in the General Assembly by the time of the Twenty-Fifth Ses- 
sion in 1869 and 1870, was largely over the location of the proposed 



Founding the School IS 



institution. The division was now largely between those who wanted 
to locate the new land-grant school in connection with the university 
at Columbia and those who wanted it to be separate from the existing 
state university and located elsewhere. The leader of the forces to 
locate the new institution at Columbia was James S. Rollins, Repre- 
sentative from Boone County. Those opposing the university forces 
were divided as to the exact site for locating the new institution. This 
had a tendency to weaken the anti-university group. By the time of 
the 1870 adjourned session, a group of legislators insisted that the School 
of Mines and Metallurgy be located in the mining district of Southeast 
Missouri. Although willing to locate the School of Agriculture at Co- 
lumbia, they persisted that the School of Mines and Metallurgy be lo- 
cated elsewhere. Also another feature of importance to future history 
was that they were willing to place the School of Mines under uni- 
versity administration. 

The measure from which the School of Mines emerged was first 
introduced by Rollins on January 14, 1869. It was entitled as an act 
to enlarge the University of the State of Missouri, by establishing there- 
in the department of agriculture and mechanic arts, and to provide a 
means of maintaining said department. It further called for the sup- 
port of Lincoln Institute in Cole County. This was essentially the 
same measure which passed in 1870, except for the provisions establish- 
ing the School of Mines and Metallurgy. At first the proposal was sent 
to the committee on education and on February 18th was taken up 
on the floor of the Senate. Several amendents were offered to the 
Rollins bill. One of them, an amendment by Senator T. J. Morrison, 
providing for a School of Mines and Metallurgy, lost by only one vote. 
On February 27th, the bill passed the Senate by a vote of nineteen to 
ten. It was sent to the House and reported to the committee on edu- 
cation, where it remained until the adjourned session. 

The adjourned session opened on January 5, 1870, and the Rollins 
bill was reported from the committee on education. Substitutes for 
the bill were offered, such as the one providing for a separate and in- 
dependent agricultural and mechanical college to be located near 
Springfield. Greene County was to donate not less than $100,000 in 
cash and not under 640 acres of land. With the forces thus in an 
apparent deadlock, Representative William N. Nalle, of Fredericktown, 
came forward with his amendments. Section one of the measure was 
amended to include provisions for a School of Mines and Metallurgy. 
This was agreed upon. Then Nalle proposed that the said school be 
located in the mineral district of Southeast Missouri in a different 
location from the College of Agriculture, which was to be located at 
Columbia. The amendments further provided that the Board of Cura- 



16 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

tors of the University would select the site for the proposed school in 
that county in the mineral district which would donate the greatest 
amount of land and money. 

Amendments to strike out Southeast Missouri and open the lo- 
cation to all counties of the state were defeated. So the Rollins meas- 
ure with the Nalle Amendments passed the House on February 3, 1870, 
by a vote of seventy-nine to forty-one. On February 9th, the bill was 
taken up in the Senate and the amendments approved by an eighteen 
to six vote. Then on February 24, 1870, Governor McClurg signed 
the measure. Jonas Viles, in his centennial HISTORY OF THE UNI- 
VERSITY OF MISSOURI, considers this date as second in importance 
only to the Geyer Act of 1839, For the School of Mines it is the most 
important single date, as it represents the legal creation of the insti- 
tution. 

The act of February 24, 1870, establishing the School of Mines 
and Metallurgy, provided that the school be located in the mineral 
district of Southeast Missouri. It further provided that any county 
having mines within said district was to donate to the Board of Cura- 
tors an amount not less than $20,000 in cash and not less than twenty 
acres of land. The act further stipulated that the said school would 
be located in that county donating the greatest amount of land and 
money. 

A committee of the Board of Curators was duly selected to ex- 
amine the bids of the various counties competing for the school. This 
committee on location consisted of A. J. Gonant as spokesman, James 
S. Rollins, F. T. Russell, B. F. Northcutt, W. W. Orrick, and O. S. 
Reed. Whereas, at least four or five counties made efforts to obtain 
the school by one means or another, in only two counties were the 
bids of a sufficient character as to warrant examination. These two 
counties were Phelps and Iron. According to the University Catalog 
for the year ending June, 187 1 3 the former county was "awarded the 
prize." 

Colonels Russell and Northcutt were then appointed as a sub- 
committee to visit the two competing counties and appraise the respec- 
tive bids. This sub-committee devoted about two weeks to its task 
of looking over the offers of the two counties, and their proposed sites 
for the school. After inspection of the Iron County grant, the com- 
mittee visited the proposed site at Rolla. The bond offers of the two 
competing counties were not so exacting to appraise, but the problem 
of placing a cash value upon land was extremely difficult. Neverthe- 
less, the curators decided in favor of Phelps County, with an estimated 
bid of $130.545, as compared with the estimated bid of Iron County at 
$112,545. The bid of Phelps County included $75,000 in county bonds 



Founding the School 17 



and $38,545 in land. Also included among the land grant was the 
ISO-acre tract known as Fort Wyman Hill, lying south of Rolla, which 
was the original planned site for the school campus. 

Following the final decision of the committee on location to estab- 
lish the school at Rolla, the curators, on December 20, 1870, accepted 
the report. The General Assembly made the Phelps County land grant 
legal in turning over the lands to the curators. The board then took 
the first steps to put the institution into operation. 

At the December meeting, a building committee was appointed 
to supervise and receive plans for the first building of the school. In 
the following spring, the Board of Curators appointed a committee to 
seek and to recommend a professor of Mining and Metallurgy, who in 
turn should recommend two assistants. For some three or four months 
during the summer of 1871, President Daniel S. Reed, of the state uni- 
versity, and the special committee communicated with and consulted 
some of the most outstanding scientific men of the nation. The seem- 
ing delay in opening the school was due to the many complicated 
problems commensurate with the initiation of such a scientific insti- 
tution. 

In 1871, engineering education was in its infancy. Possibly the 
curators themselves could not visualize the many requirements that 
would be necessary to establish a School of Mines and Metallurgy. 
How would such a school be administered? What would be taught? 
What kind of scientific equipment would be necessary? How could the 
theoretical courses be taught so as to train practical engineers and 
scientists? These and many other problems made the establishment 
of a School of Mines and Metallurgy seem an insuperable undertaking. 

The university officials faced great difficulties in the selection of 
a director qualified in the realm of administration and in the technical 
skills demanded for such a position. But as events occurred it appears 
that good luck or providence was on the side of the officials when 
they found a man who was preeminently fitted for the difficult task 
of directing the new institution. This man was Charles Penrose 
Williams, who at the time was Professor of Chemistry at Delaware 
College and who was also State Geologist. Professor Williams was an 
all-around scientist since he had had experience in Mining Engineering, 
Metallurgical, Geology, and practical Chemistry. He was selected at a 
board meeting in August, 1871, and in September arrived in Rolla to 
assume his duties as first director of the Missouri School of Mines and 
Metallurgy. 

The tasks confronting Professor Williams on his arrival would seem 
insurmountable to the educator today. In the first place, the status 
of technical education on the college level had not as yet won the 



18 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

respect which the classical studies enjoyed. Secondly, he had to found 
an instiution where the practical application of the physical sciences 
would be attempted and in which there was no school tradition,, grading 
system, or other precedents upon which to build and continue an in- 
stitution. And third, there were no college buildings or laboratories. 
Professor Williams did not have the advantage of a faculty, tradition, 
or well-evaluated curricula awaiting his inauguration. In spite of the 
many difficulties Professor Williams entered into his work with great 
zeal and undying enthusiasm. 

In the summer of 1871, the Rolla Public School Board had com- 
pleted plans for the construction of a building for its schools. Director 
Williams, shortly after his arrival, began negotiations with the Rolla 
school officials, for a portion of this building as temporary quarters 
pending the construction of the proposed permanent School of Mines 
building. As a result of Williams' untiring efforts this request was 
granted. 

As the new Rolla Public School building was to be completed 
about November 1, 1871, the opening date for the School of Mines 
was fixed and advertised as being November 6th. Rooms were secured 
in the public school building, and on November 23rd the school was 
formally opened with a very impressive and elaborate ceremony. 

Many newspapers throughout the state carried advanced notices 
of the formal opening. These notices particularly emphasized the 
prominent officials who were to be present for the occasion. The cere- 
mony was even more significant for local history in that the Rolla Build- 
ing, which late became the property of the school, was dedicated by 
the city of Rolla on the same day as a public school building. 

A large crowd assembled for the momentous occasion, despite the 
very unfavorable weather and heavy snowfall. Among the outstand- 
ing personages attending the ceremony were President Daniel Read 
of the University, who delivered the dedicatory address; Colonel 
William F. Switzler, publisher of (Columbia) MISSOURI STATES- 
MAN; the Honorable John Montieth, State Superintendent of Schools; 
and the following members of the Board of Curators; A. J. Conant, 
O. S. Reid, Elijah Perry, S. G. Williams, and Edward Wyman, Also 
a number of state legislators and other prominent state officials par- 
ticipated. The significance of the event was recorded in the University 
of Missouri Catalog by the following statement: "The occasion was 
regarded as historic in its character, and as inaugurating an institu- 
tion which is to last as long as the state itself." 

The dedication program was held in the afternoon on the east 
half of the second floor of the Rolla Building. The major events were 
the dedicatory address by President Read; an inaugural address by the 



Founding the School 19 



first director, C, P. Williams; and congratulatory remarks from the 
public schools of Missouri by the State Superinendent, John Montieth. 

The speech of President Read was very fitting for the occasion, 
and it might be well to quote some of the highlights of the inspiring 
oration. Excerpts of his address are: "The newspapers of the state 
may perhaps notice the fact, that the School of Mines connected with 
the University of the State, was formally opened in the town of Holla 
on this, the 23rd day of November, in the year of our Lord 1871, with 
an attendance of students quite as large as tinder the circumstances 
could be expected. 

"Yet this occasion, insignificant as it may seem to some, makes a 
part of the history of this great State for all time to come. We are 
today, in opening this school performing an historic act. Not so with 
many of those occasions which attract present attention, and even 
a wide-spread notoriety. They pass away with the noise and bustle 
which they create, and leave behind them no permanent record no 
enduring monument. How different the work of this hour. THIS 
SCHOOL NOW COMMENCING WILL LAST AS LONG AS THE 
STATE ITSELF. Nay, would the state change should it become 
dissevered, from our great republic not change, or revolution, or dis- 
solution, or the shock of war would destroy this institution of science. 
Nothing short of the destruction of civilization itself can blot out or 
efface the beginnings which we here and now make. . ." 

In a charge delivered directly to Williams, the confidence of Read 
in his new director is clearly revealed: "I repeat, we demand suc- 
cess; and, sir, my faith is unwavering you will succeed. Your name 
will go down with this school as its first director. Under your director- 
ship the school will become one of the most noted of the land." 

The dedication service was continued in the evening in the Rolla 
Methodist Church. The program was somewhat similar to that of 
the afternoon with speeches stressing the historic importance of the 
events of the day. Switzler particularly emphasized the great asset the 
School of Mines would become to the state. So ended the great occa- 
sion of historic importance to the State of Missouri. 

At last Missouri had an institution after a struggle that had en- 
dured for about eight years. Whereas, the future seemed bright, and 
at the time of dedication, great hopes were expressed for the rapid de- 
velopment of Missouri School of Mines, there followed years of struggle, 
adversity, and general uncertainty, when it seemed that the actual 
existence of the institution was at stake. Such years of struggle have 
been present in the history of many colleges and in the case of the 
School of Mines were a result of many factors. One was the lack of 
adequate support from the state legislature to meet the expenditures 



20 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

demanded by such a school. Another contributing factor was the 
general feeling that the institution was primarily a Phelps County in- 
stitution, and this without doubt tended to lower the enrollments in 
early years. The university at Columbia faced the same difficulty 
during its early history in the general reaction over the state and even 
in the legislature that it was a Boone County institution. Another 
factor that led to difficulties for the school soon after its founding was 
the panic of 1873, and the depression which followed this crisis. Eco- 
nomic depressions even today have an adverse effect on college en- 
rollments. This was true in an age when going to college was by far 
the exception rather than the rule. Many questioned the need for 
technical education and the value of such training on the college level. 
These initial difficulties meant that several years elapsed before the 
school experienced a permanent growth and prosperity. 



CHAPTER II 

THE FIRST DIRECTOR, CHARLES P. WILLIAMS 
18711877 

The school opened under bright auspices. Williams began his 
work with enthusiasm and vigor. In addition to his administrative 
duties as director, he was also a professor of General and Analytical 
Chemistry, and of Metallurgy. Nelson W. Allen of the university was 
appointed Assistant Professor of Mathematics and also was the first 
secretary to the faculty. William Cooch was an assistant in Analytical 
Chemistry and Assaying. These three educators made up the first 
faculty and administrative staff of the School of Mines. The Uni- 
versity of Missouri Catalog for the first year lists two other chairs, that 
of Applied Mathematics and Engineering, and of Geology and Natural 
History. The catalog merely states that these were filled by other in- 
structors, presumably by Williams and Allen. 

The wide range of subjects taught by Williams was more or less 
characteristic of college professors* teaching loads in that day. An 
evaluation of the course offering indicates the wide variety of subjects 
which Williams must have given. Of course, it was probably true that 
not all courses listed in the first catalog were actually taught. Never- 
theless, he must have given in addition to his specialty in Chemistry, 
work in all the other fields offered except Mathematics. 

The enrollment for the first year as listed was twenty-eight. 
This included eight first-year or regular students, three specials, and 
seventeen enrolled in the preparatory department. Nineteen of the 
twenty-eight are listed as Rolla students and most of the others were 
from the local area. The first year students were: Otto B. Amsden, 
G. A. Duncan, John H. Gill, John Pack, Millard Godwin, George 
Richardson, Edward Taylor, and H. A. Williams. Of this group, 
Duncan, Gill, and, Pack, completed the work for degrees and became 
the school's first graduates. 

One of the first students and first graduates, G. A. Duncan, writing 
for the ROLLAMO in 1908-09, relates early experiences and some of 
the activities of this first class that are worthy of mention in this treatise. 
At first, he reports, Gill came in daily by rail from his father's farm 
on the Piney River, and Duncan rode ten miles on horseback to at- 
tend classes. Later, he describes how they formed a club and stayed 
together on what might be termed a cooperative basis, in what was 
perhaps the first eating club ever formed at the school. The living 

(21) 



22 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

quarters consisted of three rooms over the Morris Hardware Store. 
They had a negro boy for a cook and a special room for study where 
the rules for silence were strictly enforced. Duncan estimated their total 
expense at $3.00 per week. 

A detailed list of curricula for the school year by year would be 
an uninteresting mass of data; in order to give the present-day student 
and reader some conception of the beginning course of study, the cur- 
ricula offered the first year has been included. As will be noted the 
school at the beginning established a preparatory department. During 
this year the majority of students were enrolled in this particular de- 
partment. Practically all colleges of that day had such departments 
primarily because of the lack of high school facilities at this early date. 
The work given in the few secondary schools was not in any way or- 
ganized to prepare students for a school of technology. It was con- 
sidered an absolute necessity to prepare students before they could hope 
to meet the real competition of technical college work. 

The preparatory offering included these courses: 

Algebra to Quadratic Equations 

Arithmetic Metrical System 

Rhetoric and Composition 

Natural History Botany (Structural and Systematic) 

Elementary Chemistry Elementary Physics 

Physical and Industrial Geography Lectures 

The regular technical subjects leading to a degree included the 
following courses required for the three years of college work: 

FIRST YEAR 
Algebra finished 
Geometry 

Trigonometry begun 
Mensuration 

Surveying and Field Practice 
General Chemistry and Chemical Philosophy 
Physics 

Mineralogy Descriptive and Determinative 
Crystallography 
Outlines of Zoology 
Analytical Chemistry 

Blowpipe and Humid Qualitative Analysis 
Drawing Mechanical and Free Hand 

SECOND YEAR 

Trigonometry finished 
Analytical Geometry 



The First Director 23 



Calculus 

Surveying Field Practices, Projections, Shades, shadows 

Descriptive Geometry begun 

Machinery and Motors 

Chemistry General and Industrial 

Metallurgy 

Physics 

Analytical Chemistry Qualitative and Quantitative Humid Analysis 

Geology Physiographical, Dynamical, Historical Lithology, Phenomena 

of Veins and Mineral Deposits 
Drawing Free Hand and Mechanical 

THIRD YEAR 

Calculus 

Analytical Mechanics 

Applied Mechanics 

Field Practice and Engineering Topography 

Metallurgy and Assaying Wet and Dry Methods 

Analytical Chemistry Quantitative Analysis 

Machinery and Motors 

Mining Methods of Explorations and Exploitation, Extraction, Crush- 
ing and Concentration, Mining Regions 

Drawing Maps, Plans, and Sections of Mines 

Towards the close of the third year, a course of lectures will be de- 
livered by the President of the University on Mining law. Through- 
out the course, evening public lectures on Human Physiology and 
Domestic Hygiene, and on special scientific studies, will be de- 
livered. 

French and German are optional studies. 

In accordance with the requirements of the "Agricultural Land 
Grant Act", provisions are made for instruction in military tactics. 

All applicants for preparatory courses were required to be at least 
sixteen years of age, and to stand examination in the ordinary branches 
of an English education. Completion of the preparatory program 
admitted the student to the regular college course without examina- 
tion. Those who sought admission to the first year program had to 
be at least seventeen years of age and to stand an examination in all 
the subjects of the preparatory year. Special students were admitted 
to any department without an entrance examination, but they were 
not entitled to a degree. They were, however, issued certificates of 
proficiency upon the satisfactory completion of any course which they 
might elect. 

The school opened without a well-formulated program for a de- 
gree. It was perhaps natural that a well-balanced curricula and a 
well-integrated program for degree work could not be systematized 
during the first year. There were no candidates for degrees the first 
year, the most advanced group of students were those enrolled in the 



24 History of School of Mines and 



first-year courses. It was apparent that the future of the school in 
relation to curricula, degrees, and general policy was committed to 
subsequent developments. Nevertheless, the catalog report for the 
first year ending June, 1872, listed the degree of Mining Engineering 
(M.E.) which was to be conferred upon candidates who successfully 
completed the three years 5 work. The Missouri School of Mines did 
not publish a bulletin until the second school year, 1872-73; therefore, 
the first report was contained in the University of Missouri catalog. 
It is interesting to note that the catalog for the second year, the first 
published by the school, does not mention the degree or degrees to be 
conferred. The following statement was carried in regard to increas- 
ing specialization: "It is a school of Technology, with Civil and Min- 
ing Engineering and Metallurgy as specialties." The major innovation 
in the curricula for the second year of school, was the adoption of the 
graduation thesis for the second semester of the last year, 

The school showed evidences of remarkable growth by the second 
year after its founding. The enrollment increased to a total of seventy- 
five. This figure was made up of seventeen college or regular technical 
students, twenty-five specials, and thirty-three preparatory students. 
The special students showed the greatest percentage of increase over 
the first year. They consisted almost entirely of Rolla stu3ents, and 
nineteen of them were women. All those enrolled for preparatory and 
regular technical subjects were men. 

This second year also brought new additions to the faculty. James 
Albert was elected by the iBoard of Curators in June, 1872, as Pro- 
fessor of Applied Mathematics and Civil Engineering. He was listed 
in the catalog as Professor of Civil Engineering and Drawing, but by 
the following year he is listed as being Professor of Applied Mathe- 
matics and Graphics. Nelson W. Allen was Professor of Pure Mathe- 
matics, and William Cooch had been promoted from Assistant in Chem- 
istry to Professor of the English branches, William E. Glenn was 
lecturer on Anatomy, Physiology, and Hygiene. John Holt Gill, one 
of the students, had the honor of being designated as the first school 
librarian. 

The progress of the institution so notable during the second year, 
was even more phenomenal by the third year. The enrollment, which 
had tripled the second year over the first, again registered for the third 
year an increase of approximately fifty per cent. This registration 
figure of 107 was, however, to mark the peak enrollment for the Wil- 
liams Administration. The above figure analyzed shows a total of 
twenty-four enrolled as regular technical students. This marked a 
threefold increase over the opening year. The most startling increases 
were, however, in the special and preparatory categories. The specials 




ROLLA BUILDING, FIRST BUILDING ON CAMPUS 




ORE DRESSING AND METALLURGY BUILDING 



The First Director 25 



now numbered twenty-nine and the preparatory group fifty-four. Al- 
though local students from Phelps County still predominated in the 
list of enrollees, there is a wider geographical distribution. There were 
three, for example, from outside the state and six from St. Louis. 

The course of study leading to degrees had been more thoroughly 
formulated by the 1873-74 term. Along with the degree of Mine En- 
gineer, which had appeared in the first catalog, there were now in- 
cluded two additional degrees. They were the degrees of Civil En- 
gineer (C.E.) and Bachelor of Philosophy (Ph.B.). In addition, a 
program with some differences in the course offering had been elab- 
orated for those seeking the various degrees. As would be expected, 
the first year was the same for all curricula, but by the second year the 
student could begin to specialize. A close examination of the require- 
ments for the course in Philosophy will reveal that it differed only 
slightly from the work in Mine Engineering. To show that graduation 
requirements would be strictly enforced, the catalog carried the state- 
ment that the courses of study would be rigidly enforced on all seeking 
degrees. In order not to discourage those electing the more liberal and 
non-technical subjects, the school bulletin published the fact that spe- 
cial students would be admitted at any time and would be allowed 
complete freedom in the selection of their subjects. 

The 1873-74 catalog marked a distinct improvement over the first 
two bulletins, as brief treatises were included describing the work done 
in each department. This was an improved source of publicity, as 
prospective students, friends, and people over the state could obtain a 
more comprehensive knowledge of the work actually done at Missouri 
School of Mines. 

The curricula were divided into departments of instruction for the 
first time in the 1873-74 catalog. The departments listed included 
Pure and Applied Mathematics, Analytical Chemistry, Metallurgy, 
Physics, Geology and Mineralogy, Civil Engineering, Graphics, Mine 
Engineering, and the department of English or Preparatory. 

The School of Mines faculty for the third year was increased by 
the addition of two professors. George D. Emerson was appointed 
as Professor of Civil and Mine Engineering; and R. W. Douthat as 
Professor of the English branches and head of the Preparatory De- 
partment. These professors served throughout the remaining part of 
the Williams Administration and through a considerable part of Di- 
rector Waite's term. Director Williams still served as head of the 
Chemistry and Metallurgy Departments. Professor Abert was head 
of the Department of Applied Mathematics and Graphics. Nelson 
W. Allen continued as Professor of Mathematics and in addition served 
as Secretary to the Faculty. 



26 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

Perhaps the most outstanding event for the term of 1873-74, was 
the school's first commencement exercise. The three students who 
had enrolled at the opening of the institution in November 1871, had 
completed the three-year technical course and hence were candidates 
for degrees. The candidates began work on their respective graduation 
theses at the beginning of the spring term of 1874. Their projects had 
been completed by March 30, and on this date the faculty, after a 
careful examination of the graduation theses, recommended to the 
Board of Curators the three students as candidates for degrees. Gus- 
tavus A. Duncan and John Holt Gill were recommended for the de- 
gree of Civil Engineer, and John Wallace Pack was recommended for 
the degree of Mining Engineer. Gill led the class with an average of 
9.69 on a scale of 10, and it was recommended to the board that he 
be given special honors. The subjects of the presented theses were: 

Gill, "Drawings and Descriptions of Original Machines" 
Duncan, "Economics of Common Roads" 
Pack, "Spelter Production" 

The Board of Curators promptly approved the action of the fac- 
ulty, and in June, 1874, the degrees were conferred. The principal 
speaker for this first School of Mines commencement was the Honor- 
able Albert Todd of St. Louis. The charge to the graduates was de- 
livered by Director Williams. 

The degrees of Civil Engineer and Mine Engineer were conferred 
upon Francis J. Began and Almon W. Hare, respectively, in the spring 
commencement of the succeeding year. The first Certificates of Pro- 
ficiency granted by the school were presented at this commencement 
exercise. Those who had the honor of being the school's first licentiates 
were: Peter Blow and Christian R. Winters in Analytical Chemistry; 
Florence E. Whiting in Mathematics; and John MacGuire in Chem- 
istry and English. In the two succeeding commencements of the Wil- 
liams Administration, five received regular degrees in 1876 and three 
in 1877. This constituted a total of thirteen bachelor degrees granted 
by the school during the first school administration. 

A problem which received serious consideration by the faculty in 
the early years was student discipline. While perhaps some of the 
rules and regulations appear extremely harsh and childish to us today, 
it must be remembered that the moral citizenship training for the in- 
dividual was considered about as significant as subject matter in the 
1870's. The college was a place for citizenship training as well as a 
group of classrooms in which the formulas of chemistry were com- 
mitted to memory. 



The First Director 27 



There evidently was not a fixed policy of discipline, but rather a 
more or less flexible series of rules and regulations which were often 
modified in relation to individual cases and situations. The most com- 
mon disciplinary measure taken by the faculty for infraction of the 
rules was a system of demerits. The faculty occasionally fixed a defi- 
nite number of demerits for particular offenses, but such rules were 
often changed by faculty action in individual cases. The number of 
demerits charged against a student often varied according to the num- 
ber of times the offense was committed and the subsequent promises 
of the student to conform and to devote himself more diligently to his 
studies. 

The faculty, at one of the first meetings in the fall of 1872, estab- 
lished a system of demerits for those incurring absences and tardies 
without excuse. An unexcused absence was the equivalent of two de- 
merits, while two unexcused tardies carried one. The penalties for 
an excessive number of demerits were enumerated; a total of twenty- 
five resulted in a note to the parents and fifty demerits entailed sus- 
pension from school. In almost all of the early faculty meetings the 
records of student absences and tardies were discussed and the demerit 
penalties registered. 

In the spring of 1873, two students having acquired more than 
fifty demerits were each suspended for one month. Another offender 
with slightly more than fifty demerits was expelled but was readmitted 
by the faculty because of his youth and at the request of his father. 
Two other students with sixty and sixty-four demerits were expelled 
for one month and were given thirty-six hours in which to start for 
home. The faculty displayed great horror at an expelled student "loaf- 
ing" in town. 

Another problem coming before the faculty was the use of intoxi- 
cants by students. Disciplinary measures varied widely on this ques- 
tion. On September 22, 1873, the faculty voted that any student be- 
coming intoxicated at the St. James Fair would be publicly expelled 
from school on the following morning. The most common action in 
regard to intoxication was to make the guilty student sign a pledge 
never to enter a saloon or to become intoxciated for the remainder 
of the year. In the spring of 1875, a student guilty of patronizing a 
saloon was brought before the faculty which assigned the penalty as 
eight demerits, and in addition made him sign the faculty minute-book 
that he would never again, while in school, visit a saloon. The pledge 
further stated that a violation would imply automatic expulsion. 

The matter of orderliness in the building and about the campus 
was also covered by rules. One of the first disciplinary regulations to 
appear in the minutes prohibited loitering around the building or on 



28 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

the school grounds. Between classes no student was to wander about 
the halls or campus without permission. He was to be either in class 
or in the library preparing his lessons. In no case could a student leave 
school before the close of recitations except with an excuse from the 
parents. 

Director Williams was evidently a good disciplinarian. He was 
firm in his rules and actions but was very considerate of the students. 
Each case was studied thoroughly and then action was taken after a 
consideration of all the facts involved. After making a definite con- 
clusion in regard to a case, he demanded complete execution of his 
decision. Williams seems to have commanded the respect of the entire 
student body. 

The efficient and prompt manner in which he conducted the ex- 
plosive Blow-McGown affray attests to his ability as a disciplinarian. 
This affair, which attracted so much attention and could have easily 
created a serious division among the students or could have given the 
school unfavorable publicity, was handled in an impartial and ex- 
peditious fashion. The decision in this difficult case aroused almost 
no spirit of rivalry, and the affair seems to have been forgotten after 
a few weeks. However, the incident did create much excitement both 
in school and in town. Because of the excitement produced and the 
amount of publicity received, the Blow-McCown duel deserves a place 
in this history. 

On Friday, April 4, 1873, Sergeant Peter Blow was issuing arms 
to the members of one of the military companies located at the school. 
There was a rule to the effect that no one be allowed to enter the 
armory, or touch any of the weapons with gloveless hands. On this 
particular day, John W. McCown, a Private, walked into the armory 
and proceeded, without gloves, to procure his weapons. Blow then 
requested McCown to step out and put on the required gloves. A 
struggle ensued in which Blow attempted to oust McCown by force, 
but a group of students intervened and kept the fray from developing 
into one of violence. McCown evidently felt that his honor had been 
insulted, which nothing short of a duel could restore. As the duel 
had once been a means of preserving presonal honor, McCown wrote 
a challenge and had it delivered to Blow. The latter, on advice of 
his friends, refused to reply. 

The following Monday morning, as the two contestants met near 
the school building to talk over their differences, McCown shot Blow 
twice. The victim's wounds were pronounced serious but not neces- 
sarily fatal. After receiving medical treatment, (Blow was taken to his 
home in St. Louis for recovery. 



The First Director 29 



On April 9, Williams called the faculty into a special meeting to 
take action in regard to the case. The faculty promptly voted to expel 
McGown from school. W. C. Minger who had delivered the challenging 
note, was also expelled, but his sentence was modified to expulsion 
for only the remainder of the term. Blow returned to school on April 
23, and was brought before a special meeting of the teaching staff. 
He was freed of all implications in the duel, but because he had vio- 
lated a rule of the school by laying hands on a fellow student he was 
given eight demerits. Director Williams, in a letter addressed to Peter 
Blow's uncle, the Honorable Henry T. Blow, explained in a very diplo- 
matic style how the demerits against his nephew were not a result of 
the encounter with his antagonist but because his action constituted 
an offense against the school; he had tried, by force, to oust McGown 
from the armory. 

In January, 1873, instruction in Military Science and Tactics was 
instituted at Missouri School of Mines. This was considered as one 
of the obligations of the school under condition of the congressional 
land grant. Major J. W. McMurray of the University of Missouri, 
came to Rolla to inaugurate the program. He remained for two weeks 
giving instruction in military drill and making temporary appointments 
for the first organized company. This company became known as 
Company G of the University Battalion. The first cadet officers in- 
cluded John H. Gill as First Lieutenant, G. A. Duncan and Peter E. 
Blow as Sergeants, and R. E. Winters as Corporal. Cadet officers 
were elected by the faculty following the organization of the first com- 
pany. 

Among the many applications and petitions to the faculty those 
requesting excuses from military drill were most numerous. At almost 
every faculty meeting these petitions were considered. At first the 
school authorities adopted a very strict policy in regard to exemptions 
from military drill, but toward the close of the Williams Administra- 
tion became more liberal. As in disciplinary infractions, each case was 
decided on its own merits. By the fall of 1874, an application from 
his father resulted in an excuse from drill for a Charles Winters. Spe- 
cial students were often excused, and of course those with physical 
disabilities were exempted. No exemptions were permitted without 
sufficient evidence to warrant such action. At the beginning of the 
fall semester of 1874, several petitions for exemption from drill were 
rejected by the faculty because the parties had been seen loitering about 
the school building during the hour of military exercise. 

Certain rules governing the program of military training were 
promulgated by the faculty from time to time. Following the Blow- 
McCown affair a regulation stated that no student except commissioned 



30 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

officers, or sergeants and corporals detailed for the purpose, be allowed 
to enter the armory for guns. There were to be no excuses for not 
wearing uniforms in drill except in case of repairs, which could extend 
no longer than two days. The drill periods, in the fall of 1875, were 
held for one hour on four days of each week. The next year, the period 
was reduced to three-quarters of an hour on three days per week. 

Military training was abandoned at Missouri School of Mines 
in 1877, at the close of the Williams Administration. This action was 
the result of the economic depression which caused a decline in school 
revenues and enrollment. The question of the resumption of military 
training came before the faculty at a meeting on September 17, 1880. 
At this meeting a majority voted in the negative on the basis that the 
resumption of military training with such a small enrollment would 
be "a ridiculous farce." 

An athletic survey of the period from 1871 to 1877, must of neces- 
sity be brief. This was before the era of intercollegiate athletics, and 
such activity as existed was entirely of an intramural character. The 
faculty frowned upon play or any kind of sports during the regular 
school hours. In September, 1874, a number of students petitioned 
the faculty for permission to play games during the periods for which 
they had no recitations. The faculty turned down the petition with the 
command that those desiring fun and play be required to go to the 
library and prepare their next assignments. 

Of course, after school hours students participated in games. 
The integration of athletics with the regular college program had not 
as yet developed. Among the sports participated in by the students, 
baseball was perhaps the most important. Lee R. Grabill, who entered 
the School of Mines in 1875, in a later account in the MISSOURI 
MINER gives a brief account of the early baseball teams as follows: 
"Of course, we had a baseball team or two. Our equipment consisted 
of balls and a few bats. Gloves, masks, and pads not yet had been 
heard of. We used the hard professional balls, and I still have some 
crooked fingers as a result." 

A number of student societies were organized almost from the time 
of founding of the school. They were not as a rule societies for social 
entertainment but rather they were to develop the literary and ora- 
torical style of the student. They sought specifically to train the stu- 
dent in the art of debate and public speaking. In January, 1874, a 
literary, debating, and dramatic society was formed. Its objects were 
to improve the public and private exercises of its members. The faculty 
gave the society permission to use a room at the school for its public 
performances. The so called exhibitions, or public literary entertain- 
ments,, were a popular event in the early history of the school. The 



The First Director 31 



subjects for the declamations were usually broad, general topics on 
which the orator could expound to considerable lengths. They would 
be terrifying subjects for the debate coach of the present At an ex- 
hibition given in December, 1875, declamations were given on the 
general subjects: Pleasures of Science; Scholars and their Duties; 
Death of Napoleon; and the Duties of American Citizens. Occasion- 
ally the entertainments were given to raise funds for some specific 
cause. Sometimes the literary entertainment would be coordinated with 
a musical program. At one such entertainment on June 28, 1876, the 
program consisted of essays, declamations, music, a debate, and the 
reading of an original poem. Aside from a few athletic teams and the 
literary and dramatic societies, there were few other extra-curricular 
activities during the early period of the school history. 

It will be recalled that the original proposed site for the School 
of Mines campus had been the Fort Wyman tract lying to the south 
of Rolla. It had been anticipated that the school building would soon 
be constructed on the Fort Wyman Site. But by 1872, many obstacles 
had appeared to thwart the curator's plan for the new building, and 
the Rolla school building was leased for a second year. At a meeting 
of the Board of Curators the next year, June 1873, the question of the 
location of the school campus was thoroughly debated. On April 1, 
1874, the board met at Rolla, and here a special committee was ap- 
pointed to consider the relocation of the site for the institution. This 
committee was further instructed to investigate the terms upon which 
a possible purchase of the Rolla public school building could be effected. 
In January, 1875, the Rolla Building was finally purchased for the 
amount of $25,000 and the campus site was permanently changed 
from Fort Wyman Hill to its present location. The Board of Curators, 
in June, 1875, voted special thanks to the citizens of Rolla for their 
donation of the lot for the use of the school. 

Williams heroically endeavored to make the School of Mines and 
Metallurgy one of the great institutions of the nation. It was largely 
as a result of his inspiring guidance and leadership that the institu- 
tion made such remarkable growth during the first four years. The 
success of Williams brought very favorable publicity for the school 
from various sources. Reverend G. K. Dunlop, who visited the school 
sometime in the spring of 1873, had the following report: "For what is 
called a practical education, or what is generally known in colleges as 
a science course, I know of no school which offers equal advantages." 
Even more emphatic in its praise of the institution is a quotation from 
a Springfield, Missouri newspaper cited in the ROLLA HERALD on 
May 8, 1873: "Young men instead of emigrating eastward and be- 
coming matriculated at some one of the moss-grown colleges of New 



32 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

England housed in a rickety dormitory, would find it more advantage- 
ous to spend the required four years at the School of Mines, an in- 
stitution of learning so generously founded by the state of Missouri " 

The standards to which the school had been elevated were further 
made public in the favorable report of a visitation committee of the 
Missouri General Assembly. This Committee on Mines and Mining 
inspected the school in January, 1875. Among the auspicious remarks 
throughout the entire report, the following was referred to for many 
years in the school catalog: 

"We do not intend to eulogize this institution with high-sounding phrases, 
nor do we mean to underrate the difficulty that each undertaking meets 
with, during its incipient state, but with pride we acknowledge the 
unanimous opinion of your Committee that this school is highly worthy 
of the people of the great State of Missouri, and in full coincedence of 
the intent which led to its creation. We may look forward with well- 
founded hopes that by the practical workings of this school our dormant 
mineral wealth will meet the attention of the entire civilized world." 

As a result of this report and because of the insufficiency of reve- 
nues for operating expenses, the General Assembly in the spring of 
1875, made an appropriation of $10,000 for the biennium 1875-76. 
This was the first direct appropriation for the School of Mines and 
Metallurgy from the legislature. 

The same session of the assembly also passed an act placing the 
State Geological Survey under the direction of the School of Mines. 
By the terms of the measure the curators were directed to elect a Pro- 
fessor of Geology for the school who would be ex-officio State Geologist 
Because of the deepening of the economic depression, funds were not 
available for the new professorship; therefore, Williams was made the 
State Geologist and charged with operating the survey. The survey was 
not a success because of the lack of legislative support and it was later 
moved to Jefferson City. It was to be removed to Rolla at a later 
date. 

After 1875, serious difficulties began to confront the institution. 
The phenomenal growth and success that had so marked the first three 
or four years could not continue. One indication of impending ad- 
versity was reflected in a declining enrollment. The enrollment figure 
of 101 for the 1874-75 term had diminished to seventy-one in 1875-76, 
and to only sixty-four during 1876-77. The basic problem was the 
panic of 1873, followed by a depression which, by 1875, was sorely 
sensed in Missouri. This depression had a tragic result on the struggling 
young school. For the School of Mines, the situation was even more 
distressing because of an inadequate endowment for revenue. The ap- 
propriations from the General Assembly were too meager for operating 



The First Director 33 



expenses. The University Curators were embarrassed by the insufficient 
legislative allotments. Had it not been for the $35,000 bond issue ap- 
proved by the assembly in 1872, the school might have been forced 
to close its doors. 

To Williams, who had striven so energetically to establish his ex- 
cellent educational philosophies and to make the school one of the 
most conspicuous of the nation, the trend of affairs must have been dis- 
tracting indeed. But to those who can look ahead, the very fact that 
he was capable of keeping the organization in operation was proof of 
his proficiency. It must also be remembered that It takes years of 
growth and tradition to develop outstanding institutions. Williams was 
attempting an almost impossible task, especially when outside elements 
intervened which were entirely beyond his control. Possibly it is an ad- 
mirable trait for leaders to fix their objectives for high attainments, 
although they may never be achieved. It perhaps inspires one to achieve- 
ments beyond the realm of the mediocre or the average. 

Williams' contributions to the school's history reach far beyond the 
mere actuality that he was its first director. The founding of the school 
and the high standards initiated seemed to him perhaps obvious routine. 
He longed to see a school of national recognition. Nevertheless, Wil- 
liams should have noted some of his paramount contributions. He 
established the fundamental principles for a broad scientific training 
so needed for specialization in engineering. The school by that date 
had a permanent building, a campus, and a distinguished faculty. Thir- 
teen students had received regular degrees in the technical courses and 
seven certificates of proficiency had been granted. A total of 446 stu- 
dents had enrolled under his leadership. The high ideals which the first 
director founded were to "pave the way" for all his successors. Thus, 
in later history when Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy pros- 
pered, its friends could look In retrospect to the scholarship, purposes, 
and unwavering faith of its first director, Charles Penrose Williams. 

The Board of Curators in June, 1877, in acknowledgment of his 
services, adopted a resolution declaring its profound regret that C. P. 
Williams 9 resignation was tendered and expressed high appreciation 
of his learning, zeal, ability and efficiency. 

ENROLLMENT WILLIAMS ADMINISTRATION 
1871-1877 

Preparatory Special Technical Total 

1871-72 17 3 8 28 

1872-73 33 25 17 75 

1873-74 54 29 24 107 

1874-75 18 65 18 101 

1875-76 19 31 21 71 

1876-77 13 31 20 64 



34 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

DEGREES WILLIAMS ADMINISTRATION 
1871-1877 

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE DEGREES GRANTED BY INSTITUTION 

Mining Civil Total 

1873-74 1 2 3 

1874-75 1 1 2 

1875-76 325 

1876-77 2 1 3 

Totals 7 6 13 



CHAPTER III 

ELEVEN DIFFICULT YEARS 
18771888 

The resignation of Director Williams was a tremendous blow to 
the young institution already suffering from many adversities. The 
handicaps under which the school labored were not to be easily eradi- 
cated and there followed a period of stringency, uncertainty, and even 
factional strife, when the very existence of Missouri School of Mines 
seemed to hang in the balance. Many programs were initiated and 
plans discussed to overcome the obstacles and to inject new life into 
the institution. The high standards of scholarship and training, for 
which Williams had worked so diligently were not forgotten, even if 
they were not always maintained. 

Although the progress of the school in this period was very dis- 
heartening to the friends and especially to local supporters in Rolla, its 
doors remained open and a foundation was laid upon which the modern 
School of Mines and Metallurgy was built. Perhaps the basic diffi- 
culties of the period were inevitable in the face of inadequate finances 
and the many tasks coincident with the operation of a school of tech- 
nology in Missouri in this era. 

When the second director, Charles Edmund Waite, assumed his 
duties in the fall of 1877, the future was anything but encouraging. The 
enrollment for the term 1877-78, hit the low figure of forty- three which 
was the smallest enrollment in the history of the school, with the excep- 
tion of the opening year. This number included thirty-two from Phelps 
County, another evidence of the difficulty of attracting students from 
over the state at this crucial time. Eighteen of the enrollees were 
women from the local area. The succeeding terms, 1878-79, did reg- 
ister a gain to a total of seventy-one, but fifty of this number were from 
the surrounding community. Three were matriculated from outside 
Missouri with one each from Kentucky, Kansas, and Arkansas. 

The study of the enrollment statistics of the Waite Administration 
reveals increases in enrollment for the years from 1880 to 1883, when 
110 were recorded. An examination of the courses pursued by the 
students in 1883 discloses that a majority still were enrolled in the Pre- 
paratory or Special courses. It was an encouraging fact that five states 
outside of Missouri were represented with thirteen students; three stu- 
dents came from outside the United States, namely, from Mexico. Un- 
fortnuately the increase was to be only temporary, for after the top 

(35) 



36 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

figure of 110 for the 1882-1883 term, the totals fluctuated to only fifty 
In 1887-1888, the closing year of the Walte Administration. 

The fact that only twenty of the fifty students enrolled in the 1887- 
88 term pursued the regular technical subjects was even more dis- 
couraging. In spite of the fact that a minority of the students elected 
the technical courses, this institution did serve a worthy purpose. A 
considerable number of those selecting the special or preparatory courses 
accepted positions of responsibility in the public schools and in the 
various professions in Missouri. No doubt they were able to live a 
more useful life as a result of their training at Missouri School of Mines, 
even though they did not receive a degree. 

Beginning with the Waite term in 1877., numerous changes or ex- 
periments in the curricula were attempted. These curricular changes, 
which were in the direction of the liberal arts subjects, continued to 
about 1883. While there may have been a feeling that regular techni- 
cal training should be broadened by the addition of humanistic studies, 
the more immediate cause for this trend was to attract students and 
thus combat the declining enrollment. 

The catalog for 1877-78, in addition to the regular technical and 
preparatory departments had optional courses in bookkeeping listed 
for the first time. The courses in bookkeeping were divided into two 
classes: the first devoted all their time to the subject and were thus 
able to complete merchants' accounts, banking, railroading, and steam- 
boating, in three months, or merchants' accounts could be completed 
in one month. The second class pursued bookkeeping in connection 
with any other study which they might elect, and the course extended 
throughout an entire year, 

The optional course in addition to bookkeeping included a diversity 
of subjects which ranged from Ancient and Modern Foreign Lanugages 
to studies in Ornamental Drawing paintings, water colors, and oil 
paintings. Also instruction in Architectural and Mechanical Draw- 
ing were included. These offerings were open to all students but re- 
quired of none. This optional program was eliminated from the offer- 
ing in 1883, largely as a result of opposition from certain members of 
the faculty and of the administration. 

The expansionist trend in curricula had resulted in the offering 
of two courses for teachers beginning in the 1878-79 school year. Upon 
completion of these courses either a first-or a second-class certificate was 
granted. The offerings leading to a first-class certificate were so ex- 
tensive and included so many subjects that two or even three years 
might be devoted to its completion. This course of study contained 
such subjects, as spelling, arithmetic, grammar, geography, physics, 
anatomy, botany, bookkeeping, history, astronomy, algebra, drawing, 



Eleven Difficult Years 37 



and rhetoric, for the first term. The second term requirements were 
similar to the first except that logic,, chemistry, and civil government 
were added. The mastery of these subjects should have made one 
thoroughly qualified both in the elementary field and on the high-school 
level. Obviously the only distinction in the program between the first 
and the second certificates was that the latter requirements called for 
a smaller number of courses. Such subjects as bookkeeping, astronomy, 
literature, physics, and chemistry were not required for the second-class 
certificate. All of the special curricula for teachers were discontinued 
in 1883. 

In 1881-82 a four year girls' course in arts was given, but was 
offered only for the one year. This course provided an extremely 
wide variation of subject matter. The fourth-year requirements called 
for analytical geometry, descriptive geometry, Latin or Greek, German, 
French, Spanish, Medieval History, drawing in water colors and oil, 
calculus, chemistry, psychology, political economy, and a graduation 
thesis. An intellectual giant of today would stand in awe at such a 
program of study. 

It was evident by the summer of 1883, that a difference of opinion 
had developed in regard to the fields of instruction which should be 
offered at Missouri School of Mines. Beginning in 1883, the so-called 
technical faculty began to take matters into its own hands and cut off 
the "frills." At the faculty meeting on April 14, 1883, both the girl's 
courses in arts and the work for the degree of Bachelor of Philosophy 
were stricken from the catalog. The two professors primarily responsible 
for the elimination of most of the liberal courses were G. Z. Whitney 
of the Mathematics Department and G. D. Emerson of the Civil and 
Mining Departments. No doubt they had the support of Director 
Waite, who by this time had become alarmed at the non-technical ex- 
pansions. Further evidence that the technical group had taken con- 
trol of affairs was revealed when, on October 13, 1883, the faculty 
voted to inform all those enrolled in optional classes that the regular 
work required for degrees must take precedence over all other. 

In 1885, an act was passed by the state legislature requiring the 
Board of Curators to adopt a liberal academic course of study at the 
School of Mines leading to the degree of Master of Arts. This was 
later changed to the degree of Bachelor of Science (B.S.). The faculty 
at its first meeting in September, 1885, arranged the academic course 
of study. The course as outlined in the 1885-86 catalog included the 
following subjects: 



38 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

FIRST YEAR 

First Term Second Term 

Arithmetic Algebra 

Grammar and Word Analysis Composition and Rhetoric 

United States History Physical Geography 

Drawing Physiology 

Drawing 

SECOND YEAR 

First Term Second Term 

Latin Latin 

Algebra Algebra 

Geometry Geometry 

Physics Civil Government 

Drawing Drawing 

THIRD YEAR 

First Term Second Term 

Latin Latin 

Trigonometry Land Surveying or Botany 

English Literature Chemistry 

Bookkeeping Political Economy 

This course was designed for the student who did not wish to enter 
the regular technical department, but who desired a more liberal edu- 
cation than was offered in the preparatory work. It especially appealed 
to young men desiring a business career, or to teachers preparing for 
advancements in their profession. Although the legislative provisions 
establishing the course made it possible for the school to grant a de- 
gree under this program, none was ever granted. Diplomas of gradua- 
tion were, however, awarded. 

The preparatory department, after a reorganization in 1883, was 
made into a two-year course of study. Furthermore, it became almost 
entirely a program to prepare one for entrance into the regular degree 
courses. In the first year about the only requirements that could be 
designated as liberal were United States history, composition and rhet- 
oric, and physical geography. The second year was all specialized, with 
science and mathematics predominating. A mastery of the second-year 
subjects should have enabled a student to pursue successfully the regu- 
lar technical course. 

The technical department by the close of the Waite Administra- 
tion carried work leading to two degrees, Civil Engineer (C.E.) and 
Mining Engineer (M.E.). A comparison of the requirements in Civil 
Engineering for 1886-87, with those during the Williams Administra- 
tion show very few changes or new courses. Surveying had been moved 
into the second year, and the course in Mineralogy was no longer re- 



Eleven Difficult Years 39 



quired in the Civil curriculum. New Civil requirements which appeared 
by 1886-87, were astronomy, steam engine, railroad location,, and civil 
engineering design. The work in Mine Engineering shows very little 
change. 

A problem, which seemed to have plagued the faculty in the early 
years of the Waite R6gime, was the numerous student requests and peti- 
tions for excuses or releases from their studies. It was a very common 
practice for parents to request a release for their sons and daughters 
from some unpopular or difficult subject. The faculty, for example, in 
the fall of 1878, released a young lady from her courses in spelling, 
English grammar, and anatomy on account of weak eyes. At the same 
time another young lady was denied the right to discontinue her studies 
in spelling, rhetoric, and anatomy because the request was not signed 
by her parents. Although these petitions for release came before the 
faculty throughout an entire term, they were more numerous just prior 
to final examinations. Final examinations evidently were as unpopular 
in 1879 as they are today. 

The faculty minute-book shows that parents frequently consented 
to their children's demands and signed petitions asking for excuses 
from final examinations. Before the term finals of January, 1879, the 
parent-student requests became so numerous that the faculty decided 
to take action on the problem. The faculty expressed a deep concern 
that parents would yield to such demands from their children. It was 
voted that students not specifically excused prior to an examination 
and who failed to appear for the examination would receive the grade 
of zero. In the case of those excused prior to the examination, no 
grade was to be recorded. In May, 1879, all petitions for excuse from 
final examinations were denied. 

The system of discipline followed was a continuation of the poli- 
cies laid down by Williams. While Waite was perhaps not as forceful 
or as strict in his disciplinary actions as Williams, he was above all 
concerned with the character-building of the student. Beginning in 
1880, Waite and his faculty began to study the whole question of dis- 
cipline and to suggest means of improving the past methods. As a 
means of publicly reproving those who violated the rules, at the close 
of each term a black list was reported. This included the names of 
students who had received demerits, unexcused absences, and tafdies. 
This system of unfavorable publicity for the wayward and disobedient 
may have caused some to lead a more studious and competent academic 
life. The majority listed carried only a few demerits, many of which 
were unavoidable as in the case of tardiness. A few received an ex- 
cessive number, as one student in the spring of 1878, had a total of 
243 demerits with 110 absences and 21 tardies. 



40 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

The lives of the students were still thoroughly investigated by the 
faculty. Some of the meetings involving disciplinary cases were long- 
drawn out proceedings. At a meeting on January 26, 1881, the faculty 
voted on methods for avoiding "such protracted meetings in the fu- 
ture." Waite was meticulously impartial with the students and if he saw 
that the object of a certain disciplinary action had been accomplished, 
he was ready to modify the form of punishment or even remove de- 
merits. This was true if the student were willing to repent of his con- 
duct and respect the rules of the school. In May, 1880, three students 
were given ten demerits each for laughing and creating a disturbance 
in the classroom. The faculty later removed the demerits, with the 
satisfaction that the object of the discipline had been accomplished. 

A survey of the expenses entailed by the student for the 1886-87 
term, is surprisingly meager when contrasted with the higher living- 
costs of later years. The Missouri School of Mines Catalog for that 
year published an estimated statement of the probable expense for a 
typical student for one year. The expense account was itemized as 
follows : 

Tuition $20.00 

Laboratory expenses 20.00 

Board, fuel, washing, lights 96.00 to $150 

Books, stationery, etc 8.00 to 20 

The minimum estimate equalled $144.00 per year; the maximum 
amounted to only $210.00 annually. Many students earned a portion 
of their expenses by working at various jobs in the town. The parents 
were urged by the school administration, to give their sons and daugh- 
ters very little spending money, as only a small sum was needed in that 
day. The school authorities might have reasoned that a student hav- 
ing an excessive amount of money would be more likely to neglect his 
studies and become a disciplinary problem. 

One of the direct contributions of the Waite Administration was 
the construction of the Chemistry Laboratory, the second edifice built 
on the campus. As chemistry was the specialty of Waite, he was pre- 
eminently qualified for the task of supervising its construction. The 
need for a chemistry laboratory had been apparent since the beginning 
of the school. The disadvantages of the Rolla Building as a chemistry 
laboratory were poor lighting, inadequate room, and the lack of a sys- 
tem of ventilation to carry off the gases. In 1885, the Missouri General 
Assembly, in addition to the regular $15,000 biennial appropriation for 
support and maintenance, added $10,000 for the construction of a 
new Chemistry Laboratory at the school. Additional land lying to the 
south of the Rolla Building was purchased by the board in 1884. This 
extended the south end of the campus to Eleventh Street. 



Eleven Difficult Years 41 



The construction of the new laboratory began in 1885, under the 
supervision of Director Waite. The building as then constructed was 
only a one-story structure and comprised the central portion. The 
wings and the second story of this building were constructed at a later 
date. The addition of the Chemistry Laboratory made the institution 
appear more like a school of technology, as it could boast of two halls 
of learning rather than only one. The 1886-87 bulletin described the 
new edifice as satisfactory in every respect. The facilities for securing 
heat, light, and ventilation were perfected and provision was made 
for carrying off foul and dangerous gases. The Board of Curators at 
a meeting in January, 1887, adopted a resolution extending words of 
appreciation to Waite for the able manner in which he planned and di- 
rected the erection of the laboratory. With its new equipment, the 
curators described it as the model edifice of its kind in the West, if 
not in the United States. 

After eleven years of service as Director of Missouri School of 
Mines, Waite resigned July 1, 1888. He later received an appointment 
as Professor of Chemistry at the University of Tennessee, a position he 
held for over thirty years. 

The period of the Waite Administration was perhaps the most diffi- 
cult that the School of Mines has experienced in its history. It was 
not an elementary task to direct the administration of the school under 
such trying conditions. While his efforts to make the institution an 
outstanding school of science were as resolute and unshaken as those 
of Williams, he seems to have lacked certain qualities of administrative 
leadership so needed by the School of Mines in this period. Whatever 
may have been his deficiences in the realm of administration, his cour- 
age, hard work, and undying devotion to duty won the respect of all, 
including President S. S. Laws and other university authorities. 

Waite was possibly more proficient as a teacher and research chemist 
than in such phases of administration as publicity or the other pro- 
cedures necessary in building up the enrollment. One may conclude 
that his teaching duties were too heavy to give him ample time for 
such diverse undertakings as building up favorable sentiment in the 
state legislature, contacts with engineering societies, speaking engage- 
ments, or other activities so necessary for the progress of the institution. 
But the very fact that he loyally steered the school through eleven diffi- 
cult years has definitely registered his contributions to the history of 
Missouri School of Mines. 

Charles Edmund Waite left the foundation upon which succeed- 
ing leaders were able to construct the modem School of Mines. In 
recognition of his faithful service the Board of Curators adopted a 



42 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

resolution endorsing "his unremitting attention to duty, high efficiency, 
and charming courtesy." 

ENROLLMENT 
1877 - 1888 

1877-78 43 

1878-79 71 

1879-80 71 

1880-81 96 

1881-82 82 

1882-83 110 

1883-84 71 

1884-85 72 

1885-86 46 

1886-87 59 

1887-88 50 

DEGREES 1877-1888 

Mining Civil 

Engineering Engineering Philosophy Total 

1877-78 2 2 .. 4 

1878-79 1 1 .. 2 

1879-80 2 .. 2 

1880-81 1 1 .. 2 

1881-82 1 4 .. 5 

1182-83 1 .. 1 

1883-84 2 3 .. 5 

1884-85 2 1 .. 3 

1885-86 2 1 .. 3 

1886-87 2 2 .. 4 

1887-88 .. 

Totals 15 16 .. 31 



CHAPTER IV 

DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN 
SCHOOL OF MINES AND METALLURGY 

1888-1907 

The period 1888 to 1907 marks the development of the school 
into a monumental institution, and into what some have described as 
the most outstanding School of Mines and Metallurgy in the entire na- 
tion. Especially after 1897, the school witnessed an era of expansion, 
prosperity, and growth, which Williams and the founders envisioned. 
Although the real development in this period came during the era from 
1897 to 1907, many evidences of the modern School of Mines made 
their appearance before 1897. 

Four directors served the school before the close of this period. 
The first of the group, William Holding Echols, administered the 
school's affairs from 1888 to 1891; the second director from 1891 to 
1893 was Elmo Golightly Harris; Walter Buck Richards held the office 
from 1893 to 1897; and under the direction of George Edgar Ladd, 
who served from 1897 to 1907, the Missouri School of Mines and 
Metallurgy attained national and even world fame. 

The director serving from 1888 to 1891, W. H. Echols, held the 
degree of Bachelor of Science and the degree of Civil Engineer from 
the University of Virginia. Echols first joined the School of Mines 
faculty in 1887 as Professor of Engineering and Graphics during the 
Waite Regime. When the latter resigned in the summer of 1888, Echols 
was recommended for the position and became director. In addition 
to his duties as director, he was Professor of Civil and Mining En- 
gineering. 

Elmo Golightly Harris, a native of South Carolina, received his 
academic training at the University of Virginia where he received the 
degree of Civil Engineer (C.E.), During the nine years prior to his 
appointment to the faculty of the School of Mines, Harris had won 
recognition as a civil engineer. At the time of his appointment he 
held a responsible position with a railroad company in the South. 

The director immediately succeeding Harris, was W. B. Richards 
who was born at Riverton, Virginia. He received his Master of Arts 
degree from the University of Virginia in 1885. Richards resigned a 
teaching position at McCabe's University at Petersburg, Virginia, to 
accept the Chair of Mathematics at the School of Mines in 1888, upon 
recommendation of Director Echols. W. iB. Richards served in this 

(43) 



44 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

position until the resignation of E. G. Harris, when he then assumed 
duties as director. The school advanced under his leadership. 

During the Echols Administration the faculty consisted of the 
following: W. H. Seamon occupied the Chair of Analytical Chemistry 
and Metallurgy, left vacant by Waite; W. B. Richards was Professor 
and Head of the Mathematics Department; E. A. Drake and P. J, 
WilHns directed the work of the academic department; and George 
Reginald Dean was listed as Instructor of Mathematics and Physics. 
Aside from a few years' absence in the 1890 5 s, Dean served as Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics until his retirement in 1937. 

The opening year of the Echols Regime brought a transformation 
in the listing of curricula. The curricula were divided into two major 
divisions, the academic and the technical. The technical work was 
sub-divided into four schools as follows: the School of Engineering, the 
School of Analytical Chemistry and Metallurgy, the School of Min- 
eralogy and Geology, and the School of Mathematics. The word 
"school" designated what we would now enumerate as departments, 
and was used throughout the Echols Administration. 

The major curricular innovation under Echols was the introduc- 
tion of new degree courses in 1889 and 1890. In addition to the tradi- 
tional work in the fields of Mining and Civil Engineering, it was pos- 
sible to obtain a Bachelor of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering, 
Chemistry, Mathematics, Physics, and General Science. The first year 
requirements in mechanical engineering were practically the same as 
those in mining and civil engineering. The second year had many of 
the same requirements, except that mechanicals had to take work in 
statics and the kinematics of machinery. The third year carried such 
specialized mechanical subjects as mechanics of machines, theory of 
prime movers, and dynamics. 

The subjects leading to the degree in General Science were of a 
broad and liberal character. The first year, similar to the typical fresh- 
man program in a liberal arts college, included such subjects as: higher 
algebra, geometry, history, French or German, and composition and 
rhetoric. The second year showed a greater stress on the technical 
side requiring trigonometry, analytic geometry, geology, physics, and 
physical geography. The student had the option of French or German. 
The last year was both scientific and liberal with chemistry, botany, 
zoology, astronomy, political economy, English literature, and a thesis, 
all required. 

Certificates of Proficiency were conferred on those who passed 
examinations on any of the following special courses: geology and 
mineralogy, general chemistry, fire asaying, botany and zoology, ele- 
mentary physics, geology, the academic, and the special course. 



Development of Modern School 45 

In 1891, three additional special courses were added in assaying, 

surveying, and electricity. The requisite for admission to any one of 
these subjects was a knowledge of the preparatory studies in that field. 

The regular degree offerings as outlined above endured to the end 
of the Harris Administration in 1893, with the exception that the gen- 
eral science course was eliminated in 1891. The other degree pro- 
grams remained intact until 1893-94, when the mechanical engineering 
program and the degree courses in mathematics and physics were dis- 
continued. The elimination of the course in mechanical engineering 
was at the request of Director Richards in 1893. Richards gave as his 
reason for such action the fact that the necessary equipment had not 
been provided for such work. 

Meanwhile, in 1892-93, under Harris 5 direction, curiicular changes 
of far-reaching significance were instituted. First there was the aboli- 
tion of the Preparatory Department which had been in existence since 
the beginning of the school. This was a policy advocated by Presi- 
dent R. H. Jesse, of the University, for all university divisions as a 
means of elevating standards. By the decade of the 1890 9 s, the sec- 
ondary school had become a more universal institution. The second 
step of even greater significance for future developments was the ex- 
tension of the regular technical courses into a four-year program. It 
has remained such to the present day. The third development of im- 
portance along with the introduction of the four-year technical course 
was the establishment of the English requirement. This marked the 
beginning of the freshman English requirement for all curricula. An- 
other achievement of the Harris Administration was the appointment, 
in the fall of 1891 of the first permanent Professor of Physics. Dr. 
Austin L. McRae, who later became prominent in school activities and 
director of the institution was elected to this chair. E. G. Harris ten- 
dered his resignation as director in 1893, but continued to serve the 
school in the capacity of Professor of Civil Engineering until his re- 
tirement as Professor Emeritus in 1931. 

A notable curricular advance during the Richards regime, 1893-97, 
was the creation of a new chair of Mining and Metallurgy. This, in 
the words of Richards in his report to the board, "will enable us to 
strengthen our courses in subjects belonging to that department." To 
this date Metallurgy had been affiliated with the Chemistry Depart- 
ment. For the 1894-95 school year, the curricula were divided into 
the following departments: Engineering, Chemistry, Mining and Metal- 
lurgy, Mathematics, Physics, and Modern Languages. 

The period from 1888 to 1897 was momentous for the increasing 
emphasis on the technical phases of the school curricula. It was pri- 
marily an intensive rather than an extensive development. The work 



46 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

in the humanistic studies came to be considered not as an end in it- 
self, but more as an integrated phase of the regular engineering work, 
This trend was evidenced by the establishment of the English require- 
ments for all degrees, and by the German course for chemistry majors. 
In summary, this two-fold curricula advance from 1888 to 1897, com- 
prised an attempt to improve and expand the regular technical sub- 
jects so as to produce more thoroughly trained engineers; and to sup- 
plement these scientific fields with such cultural subjects as were con- 
sidered necessary to prepare leaders, citizens, and educated gentlemen. 

Enrollment statistics reveal slight increases over the period from 
1888 to 1897. These gains were small however, when compared to 
the astounding increases of the Ladd Administration. The period 
opened with 65 students enrolled, followed by small annual increments 
until, in 1893-94, a maximum number of 121 was registered under 
Richards. This was the largest enrollment in the institution's history 
to that time. 

Possibly of greater import than the mere increase in total enroll- 
ment was the growing number of technical students. This number 
increased from 33 in 1888-89, to 48 in 1893-94, and advanced to 69 in 
1896-97. By the latter date, 69 of the 104 students were enrolled in 
the regular degree curricula. The elimination of the preparatory work, 
in addition to the increasing emphasis in the technical fields, was re- 
flected in a declining number of women students. The number of 
female students diminished from 26 in 1888-89, and 35 in 1893-94, 
to a minimum of four for the 1896-97 term. 

The widening geographical distribution of the students made it 
difficult for critics to specify that Missouri School of Mines was a 
Phelps County school. A close examination of the 104 students matric- 
ulated in 1896-97 determines that of the seventy-one Missouri students 
only twenty were from Rolla. Twenty-three students were enrolled 
from thirteen different states, and one each from Indian Territory and 
the territory of New Mexico. Eight students registered from outside 
the United States, including 6 from Mexico and two from Germany. 

The low ratio of degrees to total enrollment, which had been 
characteristic since the first School of Mines commencement, continued 
into the Ladd term. For the whole era from 1874 to 1888, inclusive, 
only 45 had received Bachelor of Science degrees. No Bachelor of 
Science degrees were granted in 1888 or 1889, and only one, George 
Reginald Dean, received a degree in 1890. The number then increased 
from five in 1894, to eight in 1897. Daniel Cowan Jackling, who has 
often been mentioned as the greatest of Missouri School of Mines 
alumni, graduated in 1892. 



Development of Modern School 47 

The school was subjected to severe criticism for an exceedingly 
small number of graduates prior to 1897. In fact, for the twenty years 
following the first graduation exercise in 1874, an annual average of 
only three per year received degrees. A visitation committee, appointed 
by the governor of the state, made an inspection of the school in 1890- 
91. A possible answer to the critics of the school for its small number 
of graduates may be ascertained from the following report of this com- 
mittee. 

"To the criticism sometimes made on the school for not having a greater 
number of graduates each year, your committee deem it but just to say that, 
in our opinion, this is largely due to three facts; first, that the facilities have 
not been provided for a complete education in all the branches of scientific 
knowledge expected to be taught here, without more time, labor, and expense 
than the average student of limited means can afford; second, that work 
and proficiency alone are the touchstones to the success rewarded by diplomas 
from this school; third, that the demand for students who have not more 
than half finished the prescribed course required by this school before gradu- 
ation, but who have become equipped for the work of surveyors and civil en- 
gineers to the extent that they command much greater wages than they could 
have done on entering the school, tempts many to make engagements that 
lead them away from the school before finishing the course, most of these 
students being of limited means." 

Discipline continued to engage the serious attention of the faculty. 
The demerit system was enforced as late as 1889 for those disobeying 
the rules. One could now incur one hundred demerits before being 
expelled from school, while fifty brought a notification to the parent 
or guardian. As evidence that the faculty allotted larger numbers of 
demerits, in January, 1889, an unexcused absence from laboratory or 
field work, carried ten demerits; absence from lecture warranted five 
demerits; and two demerits were inflicted for each tardy. As examples 
of the punishment for general disobedience, a student in 1891 was 
given fifteen demerits for loitering on the steps of a building, and an- 
other received twenty-five for leaving town without permission as this 
constituted a more serious offense. 

The faculty regulations on discipline applied to young ladies as 
well as to men. Regulations were approved in October, 1891, ex- 
pressly prohibiting young ladies from loitering about the campus or 
halls of the buildings. To show that the faculty was serious in this 
matter, a short time later, three young ladies were each given ten de- 
merits for loitering in the halls and on the campus. In September, 
1891, five specific practices were enforced forbidding students: 

1. To enter a billiard or drinking saloon upon any pretext whatever, or to 
use intoxicating drinks of any kind. 

2. To engage in noisy and disorderly conduct about the buildings. 



48 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

3. To smoke in the buildings or on the campus. 

4. To leave town without the permission of the director. 

5. To mar the buildings or furniture in any way. 

Beginning with, the Ladd Administration in 1897 , disciplinary mat- 
ters began to possess a less conspicuous place In faculty affairs. The 
declining emphasis on matters of discipline was possibly indicative of 
the elapse of the old order and of the evolution of the more modern 
School of Mines. The following reasons may be offered as suggestive 
of the declining faculty interest and control over the everyday life and 
conduct of the students: the business of the school authorities was to 
teach subject matter and to train engineers., and the private social life 
of the student was outside their realm of responsibility; the obvious 
tendency of the faculty to concern itself more with academic questions 
such as grades, graduation requirements, curricula, and student activ- 
ities; and the change in the character of the students. The abolition 
of the Preparatory Department and the greater emphasis on regular 
technical work brought an older and perhaps more mature student; 
hence, there was less need for concern over discipline. 

Throughout the entire period from 1888 to 1907, athletics made 
great strides forward. As early as 1891, an Athletic Association was 
organized among the students for the promotion of an interest in the 
various sports. Also, by this time, a field was enclosed and graded for 
athletic activities. 

The Athletic Association held field day exercises for the benefit of 
those attending the 1892 commencement. The association entertained 
the commencement guests in the afternoon following the formal exer- 
cises in the morning. A large number of entries were made and many 
contests witnessed. One contestant threw the baseball 300 feet, and 
others made good records for broad-jump and running-jump. The 
events were concluded with a tennis contest. 

The greatest single advance in the field of athletic activity was 
the beginning of intercollegiate athletic competition. These inter- 
collegiate contests were held before the school had a well-organized 
athletic department or a full-time athletic director. In fact, it was 
not until after 1907, that Missouri School of Mines had a full-time 
director or instructor in physical education; nevertheless, intercollegiate 
rivalry began as early as 1893. The control of these early teams was 
almost entirely in the hands of students who directed the Athletic As- 
sociation. By 1907, this was officially known as the Missouri School of 
Mines Athletic Association. It was made up of a physical director, a 
board of control, and a captain and manager for each football, base- 
ball, and track team. The only faculty representative was on the board 
of control. The faculty member who was one of the early promoters 



Development of Modern School 49 

of intercollegiate athletics at the school was Professor A. L. McRae. He 
devoted an unusual amount of time and energy to all sports and did 
much toward placing athletics on a permanent foundation. 

While the association served a worthy purpose in creating an in- 
terest in athletics and in initiating participation in intercollegiate con- 
tests, its organization enabled certain student groups to dominate an 
activity to the exclusion of others. The fact that so many individuals 
had a voice in operating the teams, often resulted in embarrassment 
and disputes in the actual course of competition. 

Intercollegiate rivalry began with the game of football. The first 
such game in the history of the school was played with Drury College, 
at Springfield, Missouri, in the fall of 1893. The expenses of the fifteen 
men making the trip were paid by the home team. From the reports 
of this first Miner contest given in the ROLLA HERALD, the day 
must have been very disagreeable and the field very muddy. Drury 
was victorious in this game, but from the HERALD reports the Miners 
had the experience of only two weeks of practice. It is interesting to 
note that Harry K. Landis, Professor of Mining and Metallurgy, played 
right-end in this game. There seems to have been no objection to 
coaches or members of the faculty playing in these early contests. The 
game with Drury was the only intercollegiate contest played that year. 

In 1894, the Drury rivalry was the only scheduled competition, 
and this affray was won by the Miners by an 8 to 6 score. There were 
no games scheduled for the following year, but in 1896 ? competition 
with Drury College was renewed. On November 5, 1898, the Miners 
played their first game in St. Louis, with Washington University. The 
St. Louis newspapers described the event as one that would decide 
the state championship. An interest in the game was evidenced by 
reports that some 2,000 ladies and gentlemen attended. The Miners 
lost in their first appearance in St. Louis. 

According to an article by McRae published in the MISSOURI 
MINER, the first full schedule of football games was played in the 
fall of 1900. The schedule included games with Marion Sims College, 
Missouri University, Kirksville Osteopaths, Drury, Washington Uni- 
versity and St. Louis University. The team lost only to Kirksville 
and Missouri University that year. The most outstanding of the early 
football teams was evidently that of 1904. It won the intercollegiate 
championship of the state and closed its season with a glorious triumph 
of 54 to over Arkansas University. 

Baseball and track were likewise early competitive intercollegiate 
sports. Professor L. E. Garrett took an active interest in track and 
directed some of the early teams. It is reported that in the spring 



50 History of School cf Mines and Metallurgy 

of 1905, he turned out the best track team that the school had produced 
to that time. This team competed against the University of Kansas. 

The most obvious handicaps of the early development of intercol- 
legiate athletics were the problems of financing. In the early years, 
there was manifest opposition to the spending of school money for 
such purposes. It was reported that as late as 1897, the Executive 
Committee of the Board of Curators in donating $100 for athletics, 
specifically prohibited the use of any of the sum for football. There- 
fore, money was raised by various other methods. An article in the 
ROLLA HERALD on October 27, 1898, called on the people of 
the town to help the M. S. M. Football team by attending a concert. 
In some instances the more simple procedure of just "passing the hat," 
among the student body and faculty, was utilized to provide funds for 
the purchase of uniforms and to pay travelling expenses of teams. After 
1900, the coach was recompensed from these gifts and funds raised 
from benefit affairs. In 1906, Emory Wishon, student manager of the 
football team, made $200 by staging a street fair and various types of 
shows. 

Meanwhile, it became more and more difficult to finance the pro- 
gram, meet the expense of athletic trips, pay the coach, and arrange 
suitable schedules. Finally, in July, 1907, the Board of Curators created 
the office of Director of Athletics for Missouri School of Mines, with 
the salary to be paid by the state. The real development of athletics 
under the new program came with the appointment of F. E. Dennie 
as Athletic Director in 1909, but this account belongs to the succeed- 
ing chapter, which will tell of the school's activities and advancements 
under Director Young. 

During the period from 1888 to 1897, two additions were made 
to the physical plant. The first of these, the student Mess Club and 
Dormitory, was constructed in 1889, as consequence of an appropria- 
tion of $5,000. This building, when completed, contained what was 
described as "commodious and comfortable rooms for thirty young 
men." The dining hall and the culinary department were said to ac- 
commodate twice that number. At the beginning of each year the stu- 
dents formed a "mess club," managed by a committee of their own 
group. No charge was made for room rent, and the cost of board 
varied from $12.00 per month for the 1893-94 term, to $13.00 for 
1894-95. Beginning in 1895, the dormitory was conducted as a room- 
ing house only, and the students ate their meals elsewhere. In 1900, 
the State Geological Survey was again established at Rolla and was 
housed in this building. Since 1905, the building has been used as the 
residence of the Director. 



Development of Modern School 51 

The Mining and Metallurgy building was constructed and fur- 
nished in 1895, at a cost of $25,000. The building was equipped for 
a practical course in ore concentration, roasting, and reduction. The 
geological and mineralogical equipment was placed in this building. 
The collection was augmented by the acquisition of the entire Missouri 
Mineral Exhibit, which was on display at Chicago World's Fair in 
1893. 

An appropriation of $3,500 from the legislature in 1895, terminated 
in vast improvements of the campus and grounds. The entire campus 
was graded, and a low stone wall, surmounted by an iron fence, was 
constructed along the southern and eastern sides. The remarkable 
improvement in the general appearance of the campus may be noted by 
an inspection of the 1896-97 school catalog, when compared with the 
catalog for 1895-96. 

For the ten-year period from 1897-1907, Missouri School of Mines 
was administered by one of the most dynamic and forceful directors 
in its history. This director, who so skillfully and courageously steered 
the school's progress in this important era, was George Edgar Ladd. 
Ladd was a New Englander by birth and a graduate of Harvard Uni- 
versity, having been granted the Ph.D. degree from that institution in 
1894. From the time of graduation until his appointment as Director 
at Rolla, Ladd's experience included work in geology for various states 
and for the Federal Government. At the time of his appointment 
as Director of the School of Mines, he was associated with the Geologi- 
cal Survey of the State of Georgia. 

Ladd began his duties with such vigor and energy that the school 
almost immediately took on new life. He was soon dominant over all 
phases of school activities. Ladd's ambition was to make the school 
one of the great, if not the greatest, institution of science in the nation. 
With such a "new deal" initiated under the vigorous leadership of this 
director, it is hardly surprising that an outstanding School of Mines 
and Metallurgy emerged. The success attained by Ladd soon found 
expression in newspaper editorials, speeches of state legislators, reports 
of visitation committees, and from many other sources. 

The following report of the Visitation Committee of 1905, is quoted 
because it is rather typical of the laudatory remarks which Ladd and 
the school were receiving from all over the state: 

"Under splendid management this institution has become one of the 
largest and has reached the highest standards of excellence of any school 
of its character in the United States. We take pleasure in quoting and 
endorsing the following from the report of the last Visiting Committee: 
"President Ladd has raised the school to its proper position, and today it 
has perhaps the largest attendance of Mining and Metallurgical students 
of any school in the United States. The best proof of the excellent standing 



52 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

of the school at the present time is that its graduates are sought in mining 
districts all over the world. It may prove interesting to know that the bridge 
over the Harlem River, said to be the largest draw-bridge span in the world, 
was designed by a graduate of this school,* further, the largest clorination 
plant for the treatment of gold ores, and the largest cyander plans in the 

world were designed by students of the Rolla School We do not feel 

that this report would be complete without saying that, in our judgment, 
we believe that the firm and broad foundation upon which this school now 
seems to rest, and the splendid reputation that it has attained abroad is due 
in no small degree to the wise, patient, industrious, and conscious work of 
its present director, Dr. G. E. Ladd " 

Ladd was not only gifted as an administrator,, a promoter, and a 
builder, but he likewise had a magnetic personality. He was able to 
win friends for the school from all over the state. Factional groups 
disbanded under his inspiring leadership and all worked toward the 
progress of the cause. Ladd's work received national recognition and the 
School of Mines became one of the most noted schools of its kind in 
the United States. 

One of the first tasks that Ladd considered as essential was the 
construction of needed buildings to keep pace with school expansion. 
He was perfectly aware of the need for publicity and the establishment 
of contacts with the state legislature. He laid before the assembly 
the necessity for increased appropriations not only for maintenance 
but for badly needed buildings. The success of his efforts may be 
noted by the remarkable results attained. 

The growing friendship and interest displayed by the Missouri 
Genera! Assembly was an astounding factor in itself. Since the first 
appropiation of $10 3 OOG for the 1875-76 biennium, the average leg- 
islative allotments for support and maintenance to 1899, had been only 
about $15,000 for each biennium. After 1899, the state assembly 
adopted the most generous policy toward the school in its history. 
Beginning with the $22,000 appropriation for 1899-1900, the legislative 
allotments for support and maintenance had increased to $40,000 for 
1903-04 biennium. 

Even more astounding was the generous support which the legis- 
lature gave to the Ladd campaign for more plant facilities. As a re- 
sult of the legislative appropriations, the school campus began to as- 
sume more nearly its present form. In 1901, the assembly appropri- 
ated a total of $74,000 for the erection of two new edifices and for 
the enlargement and remodeling of another. This fund made possible 
the construction of Mechanical Hall in 1902, Norwood Hall in 1903, 
and the second story and wings to the Chemistry Building. In addi- 
tion to the above fund, $13,000 was expended for new equipment in 
the power plant. 



Development of Modern School 53 

The first appropriation of $50,000 for the construction of the 
main building, later called Norwood Hall, was not sufficient for its 
completion; consequently, additional funds were granted, and the 
Board of Visitors estimated the total cost of this important structure 
as $92,312.46. Meanwhile, the Mining and Metallurgy Building had 
become totally inadequate and according to a visiting board was "un- 
safe. 33 The legislature, sensing the above need, appropriated the first 
sum in 1905, for the construction of an ore-dressing building. The 
first sum was not sufficient and requisite funds were provided by the 
next legislative session. This badly needed structure was opened for 
use by the spring of 1908, although it was not entirely completed until 
1911. 

These additional buildings including the construction of sidewalks, 
gave the campus an improved appearance. By the close of the Ladd 
Administration the physical plant had expanded to eight brick struc- 
tures and two temporary frame buildings. The two latter edifices 
were constructed to meet the needs of the growing enrollment: one 
was the workshop and dynamo laboratory and the other was the tem- 
porary gymnasium. These temporary buildings were constructed about 
1899. The campus then extended eastward to Pine Street, and had 
assumed more nearly its present form. 

The physical expansion of Missouri School of Mines from 1897 
to 1907, was accompanied by a phenomenal increase in enrollment. 
Even more remarkable than the growth in numbers was the growing 
national and international distribution of students. The opening year 
of the Ladd Regime registered a total enrollment of 117. There fol- 
lowed an annual increase, until by the year 1904, the total of 224 had 
been reached. Whereas, twelve states outside of Missouri were repre- 
sented in 1897, this number had grown to twenty-nine by 1904. The 
1897 figure shows eight students from two foreign countries, namely, 
Germany and Mexico. By the 1904-05 term, a total of twenty stu- 
dents were matriculated from eight foreign countries. The foreign 
nations represented were Austria, China, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, 
Trinidad, Russia, and Sweden. There were enrollees from thirty-five 
Missouri counties and thirty from the city of St. Louis. The conclusion 
that the Misouri School of Mines had become an institution of national 
and even international recognition is clearly revealed. 

The Ladd Administration was notable for a general elevation of 
standards both in regard to entrance requirements and to the regular 
technical work leading to a degree. At one of the first faculty meet- 
ings, Ladd appointed special committees to study the propriety of rais- 
ing the standards of admission. One of the committees corresponded 
with the high-school principals of the state, with the ultimate end of 



54 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

elevating the school's admission requirements. As early as 1893, under 
Richards, the practice of listing approved high schools whose graduates 
were admitted without examination, was initiated. This trend toward 
more thorough requirements for admission was continued under Ladd. 
By the close of Ladd's directorship, applicants were required to present 
a diploma of graduation from an accredited high school or successfully 
pass an examination in fourteen units of secondary courses. Thus all 
applicants had to possess a high school certificate or its equivalent. 

With the increasing emphasis upon the regular professional work, 
there was also an attempt to adopt a more rigid prorgam for special 
students. Beginning in the fall of 1901, they were required to state 
the reasons why they were not taking the regular course and they were 
further required to do good work in the subjects elected. Hence, the 
number enrolling as special students declined from twenty in 1897, to 
fifteen in 1907, when over the same period the total enrollment had in- 
creased from 117 to 210. 

In the fall of 1898, a four-year course leading to a Bachelor de- 
gree in General Science was introduced. This course provided for work 
in history, English, foreign language, and biology, in addition to mathe- 
matics and physical science. The entire senior year was elective. Its 
basic objective was to provide for a liberal education in general science. 
This curriculum was designed to take the place of the three-year acade- 
mic course beginning in the fall of 1900. The regular academic course 
was thus dropped in June, 1900, but the general science curriculum 
has existed to the present. 

From 1898 to the close of the Ladd Regime, four regular courses 
were offered leading to degrees. The first, Mining Engineering, trained 
the student in all mining operations from the time of prospecting to 
the delivery of the finished product. The second, Metallurgy and 
Chemistry, specialized in processes subsequent to the delivery of the 
ore above ground. The third, Civil Engineering, specialized in railways, 
highways, and municipal works. The fourth, was the General Science 
course. 

A course in Mining was added to the list of special courses in 1898. 
These special courses included chemistry and assaying, mining, survey- 
ing, and electricity. Most of these required two years for their com- 
pletion, except surveying, which could be finished in one year and a 
term. 

The general trend of curricular developments over the Ladd Re- 
gime, was toward a greater degree of specialization. This tendency was 
apparent by the introduction of new courses, designed to give the 
graduate a more thorough training to meet the new problems facing 
the engineer. An increasing emphasis was placed upon a knowledge 



Development of Modern School 55 

of electricity. The growing complex problems of engineering had re- 
sulted in the addition of courses to prepare the graduate in the solu- 
tion of them. 

Departmental organization by 1907, so closely resembled the pres- 
ent-day set-up, that its division is worthy of our attention. The follow- 
ing were listed as departments: Mathematics, Chemistry, Physics, Civil 
Engineering, Mining Engineering, Geology and Mineralogy, Metallurgy, 
Drawing and Designing, Shop Practice, English and Modern Languages. 
Aside from additional departments, the above division of subject matter 
is essentially the one in operation today. 

The growing enrollment of the period from 1897 to 1907, was 
happily reflected in an increasing number of graduates. From 1888 
to 1897 inclusive, only thirty-five Bachelor of Science degrees had been 
awarded. This was completely eclipsed during the Ladd period when 
a total of 157 Bachelor degrees were granted. During the last five 
commencements from 1903 to 1907, inclusive, 101 bachelor degrees 
were granted. At last one of the major criticisms of the school, its 
small number of graduates, had now been removed. 

The library as an essential aid to instruction kept pace with the 
general progress of the institution. From a reported 2,100 volumes 
in 1889, the number had increased to 3,000 in 1893, to 3,700 in 1896, 
and finally to approximately 6,000 by 1906. Although no data are 
available on circulation, it seems that the library was being administered 
and planned more effectively for the everyday use of the student. Quite 
remarkable was the magazine subscription list which in 1906, amounted 
to seventy-two periodicals. Five newspapers were included In the sub- 
scriptions. 

In the fall of 1905, the Library was moved from the old Rolla 
Building to the first floor of Norwood Hall. Here a room was equipped 
with steel stacks adjacent to the reading room. Beginning in 1906, 
the books were cataloged according to the Dewey Decimal System. 
Much of the progress in this new library was stimulated in 1905, by 
a state appropriation of $3,500. 

Literary Societies were still flourishing at the school during the 
1890's, although after 1900, oratory, debate, and declamation had lost 
much of their earlier appeal. Perhaps the growing emphasis on the 
technical subjects and the declining number of special and academic 
students accounts for the waning interest in declamation, speech, and 
the art of expression. The general tendency after 1900, was for such 
literary societies as the Philo and the Alpha to be replaced by the pro- 
fessional societies and social organizations. 

The Mining Club was an active organization as early as 1893. 
It met every two weeks to discuss questions related to mining and 



56 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

metallurgy. In 1895, the name of the organization was changed to the 
Missouri Mining Club and later to Missouri Mining Association. An 
Electric Club met fort-nightly to meditate on the wonders of electricity. 
By 1895, an Engineers Club had been formed with a constitution and 
a set of by-laws. The fundamental objective as stated in the preamble 
was to promote an interest in practical engineering. It is an interesting 
commentary that one of the greatest of Missouri School of Mines 
Alumni, Allen P. Green, was an officer in this organization. A Journal 
Club was likewise in existence before 1900, devoting itself to a critical 
study of articles on chemistry in the various professional periodicals. 

Shortly after 1900, an orchestra, glee club, and mandolin clubs 
were active organizations. An International Club in 1907, had a mem- 
Jbership of twelve with representatives from India, Russia, Mexico, 
Sweden, the Philippines, Chile, and Japan. The Y.M.C.A. sought to 
develop the spiritual and social side of student life. It held a regular 
weekly meeting with lectures on popular subjects and on religious topics. 
After the program the members participated in boxing, wrestling, games, 
and other activities. By 1906, it boasted an active and associate mem- 
bership of forty-five. 

(Beginning in 1902, there was organized the first of the so-called 
eating clubs, the Grubstakers. This was soon followed by the Lucky 
Strike and the R-Way Clubs. Some of these later emerged as fraterni- 
ties while others disbanded. 

The history of fraternities at Missouri School of Mines dates from 
1903. The first of these was the Gamma Chi of Sigma Nu, which 
was installed January 23, 1903. Beta Alpha of Kappa Alpha was insti- 
tuted April 27, 1903, and on December 19, 1903, Beta Chi of Kappa 
Sigma was initiated. Then on December 2, 1905, came the installa- 
tion of Pi Kappa Alpha. During the last year of the Ladd term the 
first honorary engineering fraternity was established. This was Tau 
Beta Pi, officially organized December 21, 1906. 

As a fitting climax to the eventful Ladd Administration there was 
published, in the spring of 1907, the first issue of the ROLLAMO. This 
initial school annual was dedicated to Director Ladd. The organiza- 
tion, the financing, and the publication of this first ROLLAMO was 
accomplished only as a result of efficient work and thorough planning. 
D. C. Jackling generously aided the project by a gift of $100. The 
initiation of the school annual made it possible to present a complete 
survey of school activities, athletics, and the general conditions of the 
school for a particular year. This made it possible for the graduate 
to return to his school days with pleasant memories. It likewise added 
materially to the school spirit. 

The institution's financial status was materially enhanced by 1907, 
as a result of three legislative acts. By an act of Congress approved 




o 
2 




MINING BUILDING 




HARRIS HALL 




NEW CHEMISTRY BUILDING 



Development of Modern School 57 

in 1890, commonly known as the "Morrill Bill >s 5 the Federal Govern- 
ment donated to each state operating a college under the original Mor- 
rill Act., $25,000 a year. After a deduction of one-sixteenth of the 

fund for Lincoln Institute, one-fourth of the remainder was granted 
to the School of Mines. In 1891> the national government returned 

to the states all sums that had been collected by a direct tax during 
the Civil War. This was established as a permanent endowment for 
the State University, and the School of Mines received one-fifth of the 
income from this amount. The third act was a measure passed in 
1901, by the state, known as the collateral inheritance tax law. This 
law levied a tax of five per cent of all collateral inheritances for the 
benefit of the university. By virture of the state statutes, one-fifth of 
the sum was appropriated to the School of Mines. 

In 1907, Ladd resigned as director of the institution, which under 
his leadership, had won national and international renown. It had 
been his privilege to direct the school through the most prosperous era 
in its history to that date. He witnessed the emergence of the modern 
School of Mines and Metallurgy. He must have left the institution 
with a feeling of pride and satisfaction that the goals fixed at the be- 
ginning of his administration had been accomplished. Thus concluded 
the most conspicuous and effective directorship in the first thirty-six 
years of Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy history. 

DEGREES GRANTED 1888-1907 

B.S. in Gen. 

Mining Civil Chemistry Science Total 

1888-89 .. .. .. 

1889-90 1 .. .. 

1890-91 1 .. 1 2 4 

1891-92 1 1 2 .. 4 

1892-93 2 1 .. .. 3 

1893-94 1 2 .. 2 5 

1894-95 2 3 2 .. 7 

1895-96 2 .. .. .. 2 

1896-97 4 3 1 .. 8 

1897-98 1 3 1 .. 5 

1898-99 5 4 3 1 13 

1899-1900 7 .. .. 2 9 

1900-01 9 3 1 3 16 

1901-02 10 1 1 1 13 

1902-03 11 4 .. .. 15 

1903-04 16 .. 2 .. 18 

1904-05 21 2 1 .. 24 

1905-06 18 4 1 .. 23 

1906-07 12 3 5 1 21 

Totals 123 35 21 12 191 



58 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

ENROLLMENT 
1888 - 1907 

1888-89 65 

1889-90 69 

1890-91 80 

1891-92 83 

1892-93 116 

1893-94 121 

1894-95 % 

1895-96 72 

1896-97 104 

1897-98 117 

1898-99 125 

1899-1900 168 

1900-01 177 

1901-02 192 

1902-03 209 

1903-04 194 

1904-05 224 

1905-06 215 

1906-07 210 



CHAPTER V 

PERIOD OF CONTINUED GROWTH AND SERVICE 

1907 - 1920 

The progress of Missouri School of Mines, which had been so 
apparent during the Ladd regime, was continued under the leaHership 
of the four directors who served from 1907 to 1920. The first director 
of the period, Lewis Emmanuel Young, held degrees from Pennsyl- 
vania State College and from Iowa State College. He had received 
experience both in the fields of pedagogy and as a practicing engineer. 
Before coming to the School of Mines, he had held teaching positions 
at Iowa State College and at Colorado School of Mines. Young as- 
sumed duties as Director of Missouri School of Mines in the fall of 
1907, and served until the summer of 1913, when his resignation was 
accepted. Under his direction the school witnessed continual growth 
and high standards of scholarship were maintained. 

The second director, Leon Ellis Garrett, was a graduate of Mis- 
souri School of Mines, of the class of 1901. After serving as Assistant 
in Mathematics from 1901 to 1903, he had worked his way upward to 
the rank of Associate Professor of Mathematics before his appointment 
as director. When Young resigned in June, 1913, Garrett was elected 
acting director of the institution, a position he held to December, 1914, 
when Durward Copeland assumed duties of the office. 

Copeland was a graduate of the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology with the Bachelor of Science degree in Mining and Metallurgy. 
He came to the school as Professor of Metallurgy and Ore Dressing, 
a position he held since 1907. He served for only four months as Di- 
rector and resigned in April, 1915. Austin Lee McRae was then ap- 
pointed Director and held the office until July, 1920, a five-year term. 
He was first affiliated with the School of Mines from 1891 to 1894, 
as Professor of Physics. After eight years at the University of Texas 
and as Consulting Engineer for the City of St. Louis, he retLirned to 
the school in 1899, as Head of the Physics department. McRae held 
the Doctor of Science degree from Harvard University. 

Three important additions were made to the physical plant during 
the 1907-1920 period. Two of these structures were completed under 
the Young Administration and the other during McRae's term. The 
first of these, the Ore Dressing building, had been in use since Janu- 
ray, 1908, but not until 1911, was the structure completed. The second 
building constucted was Parker Hall, the future administrative center 
of the school. The edifice was named in honor of Luman Frank Parker, 

(59) 



60 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

a life-long friend and supporter of the school. The cornerstone of this 
central structure was laid on October 24, 1911, commemorating the 
fortieth anniversary of the founding of the school. This two-story, fire- 
proof gray press brick building was completed in 1912. It was to con- 
tain the offices of administration, the headquarters of the Y.M.C.A., 
and an auditorium with a seating capacity for 65 0, all on the main 
floor. The second story was equipped for the library, which was sup- 
posed to render space for 50,000 volumes. 

The last addition to the physical plant was the erection of Jackling 
Gymnasium in 1915. This building was made possible with an appro- 
priation of $75,000 by the Forty-Seventh General Assembly. It was 
situated at the north end of the campus, adjacent to Jackling Athletic 
Field. 

The Fortieth Anniversary of Missouri School of Mines was ob- 
served in an appropriate ceremony on October 24, 1911. As was noted 
above, this anniversary was celebrated in connection with the laying of 
the cornerstone of Parker Hall. Addresses were delivered by state 
officials, alumni, representatives of engineering societies, and other im- 
portant personages. The Parker Memorial address was delivered by 
the Honorable David R. Francis,, former Governor of Missouri. The 
cornerstone was laid by Arch A. Johnson, Grand Master of A. F, and 
A. M. of Missouri. Congratulatory remarks were given by Gustavus A. 
Duncan, one of the school's first graduates. A history of the School 
of Mines was read by Thomas L. Rubey, a member of Congress and 
formerly a teacher at the school. Walter Williams, Dean of the School 
of Journalism of the University of Missouri brought congratulations 
from the departments at Columbia. John Priest Greene, President of 
William Jewell College, expressed greetings from Missouri colleges. 
Short addresses were given by W. P. Evans, Superintendent of Public 
Schools of Misouri; John L. Harrington, Consulting Engineer of Kansas 
City; Erasmus Hayworth, President of State Mining Schools; William 
Rowland Cox, on behalf of Mining Fraternities; and William Coleman 
Bitting discussed the value of technical education. 

After the exercises, a football game was played between Central 
College and the School of Mines. The important occasion closed in 
the evening, with a reception at Mechanical Hall in honor of the guests. 
This marked the Fortieth Anniversary celebration for the Missouri 
School of Mines. 

The history of this institution during the period is conspicuous 
for the continued expansion of curricula to meet the growing com- 
plexities of the industrial age. In 1908, the Mining course carried 
three options, which the student could pursue during the senior year. 
Instead of the regular work in mining, a student who had satisfactorily 



Period of Continued Growth and Service 61 



completed the first three years 5 work might elect one of the three op- 
tions In Mining Geology, Mining Machinery, or Ore Dressing. By 
1915, the senior Mining curricula were arranged so as to make it^ pos- 
sible to specialize in the following: metal mining; coal mining; mining 
geology; mining, metallurgy, and ore dressing; mining machinery; and 
mining. The regular degree courses, in addition to the work in mining, 
included the Bachelor of Science in Metallurgy, Civil Engineering, and 
General Science. This offering constituted the basic curricula of the 
school from 1908 to 1916. 

Beginning in the fall of 1916, work leading to the Bachelor of 
Science degree in Mechanical, Electrical, and Chemical Engineering, 
was given at the School of Mines. These courses had been added 
by virtue of a legislative act sustained by a Supreme Court decision. 
They reflected the increasing specialization in the field of engineering 
in response to the revolutionary industrial changes of the 20th Century. 
The enrollment in the Mechanical and Electrical curricula remained 
small until after 1920, varying from three to six students in each de- 
partment. Chemical Engineering attracted more students from the 
beginning, increasing from eleven in 1916, to twenty-six for 1920. 

The professional degrees of Engineer of Mines, Metallurgical Engi- 
neer, and Civil Engineer were conferred throughout the period. A 
degree of Chemical Engineer was conferred in 1917, but no professional 
degrees were awarded in Mechanical or Electrical Engineering until 
after 1920. These were conferred on graduates in the various curricula 
who submitted satsifactory theses based upon a professional experience 
of at least three years. Five years of experience were required for those 
in lines of work other than that in which he received his college train- 
ing. The degrees of Engineer of Mines and Metallurgical Engineer, 
were also conferred on those holding Bachelor degrees in the respective 
fields who successfully completed one year of post-graduate work in 
residence. 

Masters of Science degreees were awarded only in the General 
Science curricula before 1920. From 1900 to 1920, eight such degrees 
were conferred by the institution. After 1919, the Master of Science 
degree was conferred upon graduates in all curricula who completed 
one year of post-graduate work in residence, who also demonstrated 
ability in research, and who presented an acceptable thesis. Four such 
degrees were granted in 1920, with two each in Metallurgy and Chem- 
ical Engineering. 

The special short courses in chemistry and assaying, mining, survey- 
ing, and electricity, were continued to 1920. They attracted those 
students who were unable to take the full four-year program. In the 
fall of 1920, this program was eliminated from the curricula. 



62 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

The faculty of the school adopted a more modern grading system 
in 1915. In lieu of the grades E, G, P, D, and F, the marks of E, S, 
M, I, and F, were substituted. The latter system is still in use today. 
The students with marks of E and S were given additional credit above 
the number of hours as listed for a course. Those with a grade of 
M received the exact credit as listed for a course; whereas, those re- 
ceiving an I were given only 80 per cent of the normal credit. 

Enrollment statistics from the beginning of the Young Administra- 
tion to the First World War show a more or less steady trend. In 
fact, the 254 students enrolled at the opening of the period was the 
largest registration figure until 1914. Beginning in 1914, a small an- 
nual increase occurred until it was temporarily deflected by the First 
World War. Following the war the enrollment immediately began to 
increase. The fall of 1919, brought the largest student-body in the 
history of the school, when 393 were matriculated. The war stimulated 
an interest in engineering and, hence, reacted in an increase in college 
enrollments. Also the Federal Government instituted a program of 
vocational education which further swelled the number of students 
in technical institutions. 

Mining Engineering led the list in number of enrollees from 1916 
to 1920, with a total of 468. The second choice of specialization was 
Metallurgy with 120 students. Third on the list came Givils with 92 
patrons for the period. The other fields came in the following order: 
General Science, Mechanical Engineering, and Electrical Engineering. 

More encouraging than the enrollment data was the increas- 
ing number of students remaining to earn degrees. Although the fig- 
ures for the 1908-1920 era did not equalize those for the 1920's they 
were inspiring when compared to the totals before 1900. The number 
earning Bachelor degrees averaged thirty-one for the 1908-1920 years 
inclusive, and the total granted reached 403. This progressive trend may 
appear more significant when compared to the annual average of fif- 
teen for the Ladd era, and of only about four for the first twenty-seven 
years of the school. 

The increasing ratio of degrees awarded to total enrollment may 
be attributed to several factors. One factor perhaps was the premium 
given by industry to those holding degrees. Industrial executives were 
beginning to demand a more thoroughly trained engineer than had been 
the practice before 1900. Students found that it paid dividends to 
remain in school and earn degrees. Then there was the factor of 
prestige in being a college graduate which, was possibly of some im- 
portance. A third point, as stated by Professor S. H. Lloyd in his 
brief history of the School of Mines, was that "a larger part of the 
incoming students were from families of more means.*' 



Period, of Continued Growth and Service 63 

The 1907-20 period was notable in that several professors, who 
later brought distinction to the school, began their services for the 
institution. F. E. Dennie came to the school in the fall of 1909, as 
Instructor in Physical Education. He is today Associate Professor of 
Mathematics. J. W. Barley began his career with the school, in the 
fall of 1912, as Assistant Professor of English and Modern Languages. 
He served as head of the English department until his retirement in 
1943. Others at present affiliated with the institution, who began their 
employment before 1920, include: Charles Y. Clayton, Professor of 
Metallurgical Engineering; Floyd H. Frame, Professor of Electrical En- 
gineering; Leon E. Woodman, Professor of Physics; and Garrett A. 
Muilenburg, Professor of Geology and Mineralogy. Those teachers 
who began their services in this same era but who are since deceased 
are: Charles L. Dake, E. L. Johnson, H. T. Mann, and V. B. Hinsch, 
Space does not permit the inclusion of names of other teachers who 
left the institution for service in other fields and colleges. 

A tradition that has been paramount in the fostering of school 
loyalty and a devoted school spirit is the development of the Saint 
Patrick celebration. It is perhaps to this observance that alumni re- 
view with especially pleasant memories their Alma Mater, just as the 
eager undergraduate awaits with keen anticipation the traditional cus- 
tom. March 17th has been celebrated by the engineers at the Uni- 
versity of Missouri since 1903, and the School of Mines has observed 
the celebration since 1908. 

Before the year 1908, Saint Patrick's Day had been observed at the 
school only by the "wearing of the green" by some of the more loyal 
sons of Old Erin. Beginning in 1908, Missouri School of Mines insti- 
tuted the first formal Saint Patrick's celebration, a tradition which has 
been sacredly observed to this day. 

In the spring of 1908, there appeared upon the school bulletin 
board an invitation from the engineers at Missouri University to the 
students at Rolla to send a representative to Columbia to participate in 
their St. Pat's celebration. When the students, after a very enthusi- 
astic meeting, raised more than the necessary funds to send the repre- 
sentative to Columbia, the question arose as to why their own insti- 
tution should not have a similar observance. At least the proposal 
met with wild approval, and George Menefee was unanimously elected 
to act as the first Saint Patrick. A committee was appointed to pre- 
pare the initial celebration that was destined to become traditional. 

The committee promptly and efficiently prepared the preliminary 
details. Their work was reported to have been secret, as the famous 
date, March 17, was a regular school day, and the reaction of the 
faculty to such a holiday could not be foretold. The night before the 



64 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

famous event was devoted to such tasks as decorating Norwood Hall, 
informing all students of the holiday, and giving other necessary in- 
structions for the following morning. 

On the morning of March 17th, at 8 a.m., every student reported 
to the Frisco Station according to instructions, where they were sup- 
plied with green sashes and shillalahs. Then came the parade led by 
the school band, followed by Saint Patrick and his Pages, with the 
classes in order of their rank behind the Patron Saint. The procession, 
after traversing the town boulevard, marched to Norwood Hall, where 
the senior class and Director Young were dubbed as the "Knights of 
Saint Patrick." The historic day's activities ended with a band con- 
cert. The tradition had been definitely established at Missouri School 
of Mines. 

The following year the program was turned over to the juniors, 
a practice that continued until 1930, when the St. Pat's Board was 
organized. In 1910, the freshmen began the custom of going to the 
woods for shillalahs. Three was no afternoon program that year. 

The year 1913, witnessed the most elaborate celebration of Saint 
Patrick, In the early years. The campus ground west of Parker Hall 
was decorated with tents and had all the characteristics of a real carni- 
val. This well -organized student festival was endowed with the typical 
sideshows, a fortune teller, the bearded lady, and a show for men only. 
Two other events which made the occasion more realistic were a mov- 
ing picture show free to all, and the grand finale of the evening, a 
Masked Ball. The Masked Ball marked the beginning of a new phase 
of the St Pat's Festival. This ball was held in Mechanical Hall with 
over one hundred masqueraders in a grand march led and reviewed 
by Saint Patrick. This ball has been held annually in Jackling Gym- 
nasium since 1916. 

The 1915 celebration initiated another special practice, the crown- 
ing of the first queen, and from this date the affair has taken on a 
social aspect. Miss Helen Baysinger of Rolla, had the honor of being 
the first queen of Saint Patrick at Misouri School of Mines. In 1918, 
Mrs. Frederick D. Gardner, wife of the Governor of Missouri, was se- 
lected as queen. 

The Saint Patrick celebration has continued to be observed by 
all students down through the years. It is the outstanding event of 
the spring semester. It has since been expanded into a three-day holi- 
day and constitutes a real spirit of cooperation and achievement for the 
students. This has become an essential phase of engineering education 
of all Miners. 

A history of student activities would be incomplete without mention 
of the famous minstrels. They evidently reached the height of their 




JACKLING GYMNASIUM 




o 
o 

B 
O 
C/D 



u 

w 

> 

H 

H 

5 

Q 



W 



Period of Continued Growth and Service 65 

popularity about 1910. The ROLLAMO for 1910, gives an excellent 

account of the two minstrel performances of that year. The Miners* 
annual minstrel was given at Mechanical Hall on February 5, and the 
boys were greeted by two full houses. The young ladies of Rolla gave 
a minstrel in April of the same year, for the benefit of the ROLLAMO. 
The success of the minstrel and the appreciation for the time and 
efforts of the young ladies was expressed in the ROLLAMO of 1910, 
as follows: 

"The show was as advertised the social event of the season and too 
much cannot be said in praise of the spirit in which the young ladies volun- 
teered to donate their time in preparing this performance which was of a 
character seldom equalled by professionals. The ROLLAMO Board is very 
deeply indebted to them for the financial assistance rendered, which made it 
possible to place this book in your hands at such a reasonable cost " 

Such programs and activities seem to have been a very common 
form of local service to the School of Mines in its early history. Nu- 
merous societies and organizations were formed by the students; for 
example, eating clubs continued to flourish on the campus. Some of 
these endured for only a few years, while others of a more permanent 
character organized themselves as chapters of national fraternities. 
The Muckers Club in 1917, was chartered as the Alpha Zeta Chapter 
of Lambda Chi Alpha Fraternity. Some of the active clubs included, 
The Pipe and Bowl, Satyrs, Trowell Masonic, Cosair, Bonanza, Pros- 
pectors, Quo Vadis, Beanery, Training Table, Miners, and the Inde- 
pendent Club. A Latin American Club composed of students from 
those countries existed in 1915. 

In 1916, the professional engineering fraternity, Theta Tau, estab- 
lished its Iota Chapter. The MISSOURI MINER stated that the 
organization of this fraternity "would bring the institution into closer 
touch with other mining schools, and with the engineering profession 
in general." In the fall of 1919, a group of Catholic students organized 
the Mercier Club, named after Cardinal Mercier the great spiritual 
hero of the First World War. The Young Mens* Christian Associa- 
tion continued as one of the greatest service societies at the school. 
In 1916, it held a membership of 148, and counted among its many 
activities such worthwhile services as meeting new students, helping 
them to secure living quarters, and aiding them to become orientated 
into college life. 

In October, 1915, an Alumni Association was organized. Such 
associations had been formed as early as the 1890's, but had never 
become permanent. This new association formulated as its major 
objective the bringing of the alumni into closer relations with each 
other and with their Alma Mater. The years 1915 and 1916, witnessed 



66 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

Alumni Associations being formed in St. Louis, Joplin, and Kansas 
City, 

A student council was organized during the 1910-11 school year. 
It sought to give student opinion weight in the shaping of school poli- 
cies. The first council consisted of fifteen members and during the 
first year of its existence performed such duties as recommending to 
the faculty measures for student discipline and giving advice to school 
organizations. In the spring of 1917, the council was completely re- 
vised and a new constitution was written. This revision injected new 
life into the much needed organization. The new council immediately 
established a better relationship between students and the faculty, and 
the organization soon won the respect of the faculty and the solid 
support of all Miners. Its first major project, that of obtaining subscrip- 
tions for a flagpole, was so successful that the 1917 council won the 
gratitude of all. The flagpole, which was erected in the fall of 1917, 
stood for many years as a reminder of the patriotism of this effective 
student council. 

The 29th day of January, 1915, marked an obvious step forward 
in the progress of Missouri School of Mines. On this particular date, 
the first permanent student publication, THE MISSOURI MINER, 
was founded. While various attempts had been made at earlier times 
to found a student newspaper, such as the one called MISSOURI 
MINER published by A. W. Gleason at certain intervals during the 
school year 1912-13, the permanent development of this significant 
MINER weekly dates from January, 1915. The real promoter of this 
journalistic adventure was a student, Fred Grotts. Mr. Grotts definitely 
decided in the fall of 1914, that the school needed a weekly publica- 
tion. With this affirmative decision, he went out to seek the literary 
talent so essential to the success of such a bold plan. Grotts was able 
to enlist the support of J. L. Head, who became the editor, and G. E. 
Johnson, the business manager. With these two faithful co-workers, 
and with Grotts acting as general manager, THE MISSOURI MINER 
became an established periodical. 

The first MISSOURI MINER, which appeared on Jaunary 29, 
1915, was a small four-page issue with a limited circulation, but it had 
the active support of the student body and the cooperation of the fac- 
ulty. The rather timid, humble manner in which the editorial staff was 
feeling its way may be noted from the following editorial quotation in 
the first copy: 

fC This is our maiden journalistic effort. We ask you to deal with it 
leniently. It is a tender bud and the frost of too severe criticism may blight 



Period of Continued Growth and Service 67 

The initial number carried a heading expressing a welcome to 
Durward Copeland, who had just assumed his duties as director. This 
first issue also contained a brief article by Dr. J. W. Barley, expressing 
the many difficulties coincident with such an undertaking, but with 
words of inspiration explaining the revolutionary importance of such 
a publication to Missouri School of Mines. 

The small four-page paper had given way to an eight-page student 
publication by the time of the third issue. The editorial timidity of 
the staff, as shown in the first copy, had changed to one of confidence 
and optimism. The editorial for the third number, published on Feb- 
ruary 12, stated: 

"The MISSOURI MINER is now a success. The warm reception with 
which the first two issues were received have inspired the managers with 
confidence, and they fell they have been repaid in their efforts to give the 
School of Mines a regular weekly newspaper." 

The contributions of the MISSOURI MINER to the general 
progress of the school have been conspicuous and numerous. Suffice 
to say that this student publication has worked to unite the faculty, 
students, alumni, and friends, into one great body for the glory, honor, 
and building of a greater school. 

Athletics by 1909, had become a well-recognized student activity. 
By this date a new competitor had worked its way into the rank of 
intercollegiate sports this new arrival was basketball. Back in the 
fall of 1906, an effort had been made by a group of basketball en- 
thusiasts to win a place for their game among the major college sports. 
This attempt apparently failed, but a schedule of intramural games 
was held the following spring. By 1908, this activity had won its proper 
status among the major competitive fields of activity. The Miners 9 
team was playing, by 1909, a full schedule of intercollegiate basketball. 

The entire administration of athletics was modernized and cen- 
tralized in the spring of 1909. This action was accomplished in the 
adoption of a new constitution by the Athletic Association. Under 
the new rules the Board of Control was to consist of the Athletic Di- 
rector, the president and treasurer of the Athletic Association. This 
board was granted full power to act in all general matters pertaining 
to athletics. The director, who was a regular faculty instructor in Physi- 
cal Education, was given full authority over the selection and manage- 
ment of all teams. The coach at last won complete authority over 
the conduct of the teams. 

Under the old constitution the power had been invested in a board 
of control consisting of all the officers of the Athletic Association and 
the captains and managers of all the teams. Under this system of di- 



68 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

vided responsibilty, the coach, captain, and managers often competed 
among themselves for control over a team. Even the people of the 
town expected a voice in the control of teams because they frequently 
were called upon for donations. As a result there was often bickering 
and friction and occasionally the team took matters into its own hands 
rather than obey so many conflicting orders* 

These new changes brought a new era of progress in athletics. In 
the fall of 1909, F, E. Dennie became Coach and Director of Physical 
Education. Coach Dennie that first year, brought an increased interest 
in athletics, which was reflected by larger gate receipts enabling the as- 
sociation to pay all of its obligations. Dennie's football team that fall 
competed with such formidable opponents as St. Louis University and 
the University of Missouri. The latter team was coached that year by 
the famous Bill Roper. In a nine-game schedule the Miners piled up 
144 points to 69 for opponents and won five of their nine contests. 

The famous football team of 1914, established a record* that will 
forever stand as a goal and an inspiration for all Miner teams. The 
1913 team had established an enviable record, which was characterized 
by the ROLLAMO as "the best record a Missouri School of Mines 
team ever made." It had lost only one game and had built up a total 
of 265 points to only 60 for the opposition. Thus, the groundwork 
for the greatest of all teams, that of 1914, had been thoroughly laid. 

The record of the 1914 team is so astounding that it is given here: 

Miners 

19 Washington University 

40 Arkansas University 

87 Kansas School of Mines 

68 Drury College 

104 Pittsburg, Kansas Normal 

150 KMsville Osteopaths 

9 University of Missouri 

63 St. Louis University 

This all-time record of 540 points to for opponents won respect 
and attention from newspapers and sports writers from all over the 
nation. This Miner team was by all standards the champion club of 
the state and under modern rating systems would have ranked among 
the best in the nation. The national recognition won by this famous 
team may be noted by the schedule for 1915, which included such 
recognized opponents as the University of Illinois and Texas A. and M. 

In the fall of 1919, a course in Physical Education was first listed 
as a part of the freshman requirement for all curricula. The subject 
was listed for both terms of the freshman year. Two hours per week 
were devoted to this training. As a result of the required training, 



Period of Continued Growth and Service 69 

athletics has continued to play a major role in student life., both cur- 
ricular and extra-curricular. 

Through the generosity of a gift from its famous alumnus, Daniel 
C. Jackling, the school graded and prepared an athletic field. The 
1910 ROLLAMO states that about 7,000 cubic yards of rock and clay 
were removed and the entire field was then resurfaced at the new leveL 
At the north end of the field a concrete bleacher 300 feet long was 
erected. At a mass meeting in the fall of 1909, the students unani- 
mously agreed to name the new gridiron, Jackling Field, in honor of 
the famous graduate who made possible this marked improvement to 
the school. The construction of Jackling Gymnasium in 1915, meant 
that athletics at last had won a place of supreme importance among 
school activities. 

The school library, an essential part of the study, research, and 
academic work of any institution, witnessed a remarkable increase in 
accessions from about 7,000 volumes in 1908, to around 22,000 in 1920. 
Library circulation for the years from 1914 to 1920, recorded an in- 
crease from 4,500 per year to about 9,000 volumes. 

The first professionally trained Librarian, Jesse Cunningham, was 
appointed in 1912. He served the school until his resignation in Feb- 
ruary, 1916, to become Librarian for the City of St. Joseph, Missouri. 

From 1905 to 1913, the library occupied quarters on the first floor 
of Norwood Hall. By 1912, the growing number of volumes had ren- 
dered the space inadequate, so in 1913, the library was moved into its 
present location on the second floor of Parker Hall. 

One of the first student loan funds was established about 1909. 
Among the many benevolences and gifts granted the institution by her 
distinguished graduate, D. C. Jackling, the loan fund bearing his name 
was a most generous contribution. The purpose of the fund was to 
assist worthy students who were unable to finance their education by 
other methods. Loans of more than $100 were not to be issued to any 
one student during a calendar year. This fund is first mentioned in 
the 1910-11 catalog. 

The State Mining Experiment Station was established at the 
School of Mines on June 1, 1909. This experiment station sought to 
conduct research in the many problems relating to the mineral in- 
dustries of the state. Its establishment represented an attempt to har- 
ness the research facilities of the institution so as to give more com- 
plete service to the people of Missouri. Thus, the mineral wealth of 
Missouri would be materially increased. The officers of the station in 
the year 1919, included: President A. Ross Hill of the University of 
Missouri; A. L. McRae, Director of the School of Mines; G. L. Cox, 
Professor of Mineralogy and Geology; G. R. Forbes, Professor of Min- 



70 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

ing W. G. Turner, Professor of Chemistry; H, T. Mann, Professor 
of Metallurgy and Ore Dressing; and M. H. Thornberry, Research 
Assistant. 

The State Geological Survey, located on the campus of Missouri 
School of Mines, continued to render useful service to the state in the 
fields of geology and mineral resources of Missouri. It conducted 
extensive investigations into the geology and topography of the various 
counties and areas. 

In May, 1908, H. A. Buehler became State Geologist and head of 
the Survey. Buehler held this position until his death in 1944. During 
his long period of service Buehler built the Survey to one of the most 
efficient bureaus of its kind in the United States. In recognition of 
his services to Missouri and to the science of geology, Buehler was 
granted the honorary Doctor of Science by the School of Mines in 
1925. 

The outbreak of the First World War in April, 1917, found a pa- 
triotic spirit prevading the faculty and the student body. The students 
were ever ready to serve their country and to prepare themselves for 
work best adapted to their qualifications. The Board of Curators at 
a meeting in Columbia, on April 5, 1917, instituted training in Mili- 
tary Science and Tactics at Missouri School of Mines. This course, 
which was established in the fall of 1917, was required of all physically 
able male students during the freshman and sophomore years. 

The burning zeal of the students to serve their nation was revealed 
when they adopted a program of voluntary drill immediately following 
the war declaration. On April 6, 1917, a notice was published in the 
MINER of a meeting to be held that day to make the necessary ar- 
rangements for starting drill the following week. This voluntary 
system of training got under way on April 10, when fifty-five reported 
for their first exercises. Professor G. A. Muilenburg was Commander 
of the Miner Contingent. It was estimated that twenty-five men in 
the school had from a few weeks to several years of military training 
and that competent officers would not be lacking. The drill periods 
were held on Tuesday and Thursday afternoons from 4 to 5 o'clock. 
The status of the School of Mines in such a total war was a sub- 
ject of discussion. Students at the school were evidently uncertain of 
their own future and of the course that would be most beneficial to 
the nation at war. To clarify the situation, a directive was published 
by Director McRae in July, 1917, which sought to aid the student in 
his possible choice of service to the nation in the years ahead. While 
the pamphlet pointed out the first obligation for young men was that 
of enlistment in the Army or Navy, it expounded the growing need for 
the college engineering graduate not only in the war effort but also in 



Period of Continued Growth and Service 71 

the critical postwar period. Those not needed in the armed forces were 
urged to remain in school. This tended to give direction and purpose to 
the uncertain student. To dispel any rumor that the School of Mines 
might not open in the fall of 19 17, the directive specifically stated that 
the institution would open on September 10. As a further means to 
discount uncertainty the MINER carried headlines on August 24, stat- 
ing that the school would open on schedule. 

There was considerable delay in the installation of the military 
program in the fall of 1917, and when by September 28, the War 
Department had not detailed a commandant for the School of Mines, 
the authorities decided to initiate the program. Professor Muilenburg, 
who had conducted voluntary drill the previous semester, was placed 
in charge. It was decided to fix the drill periods on Monday, Wednes- 
day, and Thursday from 4 to 5 o'clock. All physically able freshmen 
and sophomores were required to take the training, and others might 
elect it. 

Early in October, the military program was initiated with the 
holding of the first drill exercise. The faculty committee in charge 
consisted of: Professors Muilenburg, Armsby, McConnel, McRae, and 
Wallis. Cadet officers were soon appointed and general orders were 
delivered. For the remainder of the year 1917-18, Muilenburg was 
the commandant with rank of Colonel and Armsby held the rank of 
Major. 

It was reported that some of the freshmen and sophomores were 
absent from the first exercise, due to the fact that they did not know 
it was compulsory. One of the early orders, dated November 14, 1917, 
established rules governing the matter of absences. Five unexcused 
absences were allowed each student for a semester. All absences over 
five had to be made up. A student with more than eight unexcused 
absences did not receive credit for the work of the semester. On No- 
vember 22, an order provided that any man reporting for drill and not 
in proper uniform would be counted as absent. For the second semester 
of the year the allotted unexcused absences were reduced to only three. 
The final drill of that year was held on May 20, 1918. 

At the beginning of 1918, the school offered its facilities to the 
United States Government for the training of men in the war effort. 
In April, a government representative inspected the school equipment, 
and concluded that it was sufficient to give the special training. This 
representative was very much impressed with the work of the school, 
and recommended that 160 men be detailed to the school for training. 
The special training program opened on June 15, 1918, with 160 
men enrolled, including four officers. Forty enroll ees studied mining, 
while the other 120 registered for work in Mechanical Engineering. 



72 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

The courses actually pursued included wood shop, forge, machine shop, 
gas engines, pipe fitting, and electric motors, for training as general 
mechanics. The trainees worked several hours each day in the lab- 
oratory, and in addition were subjected to two hours in drill. Their 
busy day began with first call at 5:45 a. m., and ended with taps at 
9:45 p. m. 

This first detachment completed its training in August, and a 
second group was on hand to take its place. The second contingent 
was in training until October 15. It received practical instruction in 
mining, road building, machine shop, forge and blacksmithing, gas 
engines, and electricity. It was anticipated that a third company of 
trainees would be sent to the school under the program, but the end 
of the war in November, 1918, made a continuation of the training 
unnecessary. 

The most highly publicized of the School of Mines contributions 
to the war effort was the Student Army Training Corps, popularly 
known as the S. A. T. G. This program was officially inaugurated 
on October 1, 1918, in an appropriate and patriotic ceremony. This 
service, with the participation of the Student Vocational Trainees and 
the Home Guard, was conducted in front of Parker Hall. A large 
crowd attended this patriotic observance. Thus, the institution was 
inducted as a war-training center. It was two weeks following the 
formal initiation before the induction papers were signed, and on about 
October 16, the students occupied their barracks in Mechanical Hall. 
Those enrolled became a blended combination of the student and 
soldier. 

The armistice ending the war came in about five weeks after the 
S. A. T. G. had been launched, and hence, the program never had 
the opportunity to demonstrate its usefulness as a system of training. 
With the signing of the armistice, and the coming of peace, the in- 
centive and patriotic zeal behind the program weakened. There de- 
veloped in the corps a feeling of unrest and dissatisfaction under the 
strict war-time army discipline. Therefore, on December 14, 1918, 
>the S. A. T. C. was mustered out and the experiment became history. 
One of the corps members wrote an article for the ROLLAMO, ex- 
pressing in a vivid manner, the conclusion of this war program: 

"Retreat on that memorable day will never be forgotten by those who 
participated. As Old Glory was drawn down it brought with it a feeling, 
not of joy, which is hard to describe. Perhaps we realized that many men 
had done more than we, and that our opportunity to serve on the battle field 
had ended " 

The war-service record of Missouri School of Mines was remark- 
able and enviable. Of the approximately 300 students enrolled at the 



Period of Continued Growth and Service 73 

beginning of the conflict about eight-five per cent heeded the call of 
their nation. It was reported that by the close of hostilities only forty- 
two students of the original 300 remained at the school. Also of this 
number sixteen were in the Engineers Reserve. The institution furnished 
eighty-five commissioned officers to the armed services. Two of its 
sons in France received the Distinguished Service Cross awarded at 
the hand of General John J. Pershing. 

The above admirable record of the student body does not exhaust 
the contributions of the school. Her alumni and faculty made records 
that brought honor to their Alma Mater and to the state of Missouri. 
This service consisted of both military training and research in stra- 
tegic war industries. The great alumnus, D. G. Jackling, was called 
to the service of his country by the United States Government He 
left his key position to superintend the construction of explosive plants 
involving the expenditure of $90,000,000. As reported in the MIS- 
SOURI MINER, Jackling left a position paying approximately $100,000 
annually to donate his services for the duration of the war for the 
sum of $1.00. 

The 1919 ROLLAMO was published as the Victory Edition. It 
was dedicated to the students, alumni, and faculty of Missouri School 
of Mines who contributed to the victory by serving in the armed forces. 
This dedicatory edition contained a list of all faculty, alumni, and 
students who served under the colors. Special recognition was given 
the nine men who paid the supreme sacrifice. 

As an outgrowth of the First World War, the Reserve Officers* 
Training Corps was established at Missouri School of Mines in Janu- 
ary, 1919. The primary purpose of the R. O, T. C. was to train re- 
serve officers at civil institutions by systematic and standardized in- 
struction. An article in the MISSOURI MINER referred to the train- 
ing as a part of Uncle Sam's fire insurance. The governing body of 
a school or college that applied for its establishment had to agree to 
certain basic rules required by the War Department. First, three Hours* 
drill per week was required of all physically fit freshmen and sopho- 
mores, two years' drill being a prerequisite for a degree. Second, five 
hours a week elective credit could be counted by juniors and seniors 
toward a degree. In return the War Department appointed an officer 
to act as professor of Military Science and Tactics, and in addition fur- 
nished the arms and equipment for the unit. 

In contrast to the S. A. T. C. the trainees in the R. O. T. C. were 
not under military discipline, except during the hours of drill. Hence, 
the work interferred but little with the regular work of the student, 
both curricular and extra-curricular. 



74 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

Eligibility to participation in the training was limited to students 
of institutions in which the R. O. T. C. was established. All were re- 
quired to be citizens, who were not less than fourteen years of age, and 
who were physically fit to perform military service. By May, 1920, the 
total enrolled included 104 in the first course or basic, and three in 
the advanced course. 

A Vocational Training Program for war veterans was established 
at the school in May, 1919, and by the summer term of that same year 
fifty ex-servicemen were already taking advantage of this training. 
The training was under the supervision of a Federal Board of Voca- 
tional Education. As the real development of this work came in the 
period following 1920., a more detailed discussion will appear in the 
next chapter. 

The period from 1907 to 1920 ended with the resignation of Austin 
L. McRae as Director on July 1, 1920. His service as director had 
covered a five-year period filled with momentous events in the history 
of the school. His affiliation with the school as a professor dated back 
to 1891, and during this long period of employment he witnessed the 
growth of the school from a small institution of three buildings and 
an enrollment of less than one hundred to the modern progressive 
technological School of Mines of 1920, with nine edifices and an en- 
rollment of more than three hundred. He successfully administered 
the school affairs through the difficult years of the First World War 
and handed to his successor an institution prepared for a future serv- 
ice even greater than that rendered in the past. 



ENROLLMENT 1907 - 1920 

1907-1908 229 

1908-1909 254 

1909-1910 231 

1910-1911..... 193 

1911-1912 187 

1912-1913..... 181 

1913-1914 251 

1914-1915 262 

1915-1916 265 

1916-1917 288 

1917-1918 232 

1918-1919 235 

1919-1920 393 



Period of Continued Growth and Service 



75 



Year 

1907-1908 
1908-1909 
1909-1910 
1910-1911 
1911-1912 
1912-1913 
1913-1914 
1914-1915 
1915-1916 
1916-1917 
1917-1918 
1918-1919 
1919-1920 



BACHELORS DEGREES 1907 - 1920 

Met. Civil Meek. Elect. Chem. General 
Mining Engr. Engr. Engr. Engr. Engr. Science Total 



20 
18 
30 
26 
23 
10 
12 

9 
17 
21 
11 

8 
27 



Totals.... 232 



1 
3 
3 
3 
4 
2 
1 
4 
6 
9 
2 
7 

45 



4 
4 
3 

*2 
1 
1 
3 
9 
6 
2 

to 

45 



3 
9 

12 



5 

11 
6 
5 

11 
7 
8 
2 
5 
1 
1 
1 
1 



29 
34 
42 
34 
39 
22 
23 
15 
35 
36 
24 
15 
55 



64 403 



Year 



ENROLLMENT BY CURRICULA 
1916-1920 

M in- Cera- 

ing Met. Civil Mech. Elect. Chem. mic Gen. Sci. Unc. Total 



1915-1916 


95 


27 


33 


* . 


. * 


. . 


1916-1917 


105 


27 


15 


3 


3 


11 


1917-1918 


72 


19 


13 


6 


4 


16 


1918-1919 


71 


16 


11 


4 


3 


19 


1919-1920 


125 


31 


20 


5 


6 


26 



68 
84 
65 
93 
134 



11 
5 
3 
1 
9 



31 
35 
34 
17 
37 



265 
288 
232 
235 
393 



MASTER OF SCIENCE DEGREES 
1907 - 1920 

1907-1908 ..0 

1908-1909 1 

1909-1910 1 

1910-1911 

1911-1912 1 

1912-1913 

1913-1914 1 

1914-1915 

1915-1916 1 

1916-1917 1 

1917-1918 

1918-1919 

1919-1920 ....4 



Total. 



.10 



76 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 



PROFESSIONAL DEGREES GRANTED 

1907-1920 

1907-1908 5 

1908-1909 5 

1909-1910 13 

19104911 3 

1911-1912 7 

1912 1913 1 

1913-1914 6 

1914-1915 9 

1915-1916 12 

1916-1917 9 

19174918 6 

19184919 6 

19194920 9 

Total 91 



CHAPTER VI 

ERA OF GURRIGULAR EXPANSION AND BROADENED 

TRAINING 
1920 - 1941 

In July, 1920, a director was appointed who wielded his influence 
over the school and shaped its policies for the succeeding decades. In 
fact, the results of his work are evident in the program and the activi- 
ties of the School of Mines today. This director, who served for seven- 
teen years, the longest term of any administrative head, was Gharles 
Herman Fulton. 

At the time of his appointment, Fulton was professor of Metal- 
lurgy at Case School of Applied Science at Cleveland, Ohio. Dr. Ful- 
ton was born in Germany of American parents in 1874, but came to 
America at an early age. He received his preparatory training at Pratt 
Institute, Brooklyn, New York. His collegiate training was at Colum- 
bia University School of Mines, from which he earned the degree En- 
gineer of Mines in 1897. In 1911, he was awarded the honorary Doc- 
tor of Science degree from the University of South Dakota, in recog- 
nition of his meritorious work in the field of Mining and Metallurgy. 

His pedagogical experience included: an instnictorship of Assay- 
ing at the Columbia University School of Mines, 1898-99; instruction 
in Metallurgy at the University of Wyoming, 1899-1900; professor of 
Metallurgy at the South Dakota School of Mines, 1900-05; president 
of the South Dakota School of Mines, 1905-11; and professor of Metal- 
lurgy at the Case School of Applied Science, 1911-20. 

Dr. Fulton held national recognition as a metallurgist and was the 
author of several well-known books in that field. He was also a mem- 
ber of several professional engineering societies, and during his direc- 
torship was very active in all such associations. His membership in- 
cluded the American Institute of Mining Engineers, Mining and Metal- 
lurgical Society of America, and the Theta Delta Chi Fraternity. In 
addition, he was a member of two honorary societies, Sigma Xi and 
Tau Beta Pi. 

The Fulton period, 1920-1937, witnessed another epoch in the 
progress and increasing service rendered by the institution. It was 
noted for the largest number of graduates to that date in the school's 
history, many of whom brought honor to their Alma Mater and to the 
State of Missouri. The service of the school to its students and, hence, 
to the state, was particularly enhanced by the general broadening of 
the curricula. This curricular expansion was designed to keep the 

(77) 



78 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

school abreast of the basic flood of industrial developments that had 
become so marked by the 1920's. These new changes were the re- 
sult of revolutionary discoveries in the fields of refrigeration, air con- 
ditioning, gasoline motors, automobile 3 communications, radio, power 
lines, sanitary engineering, and the many other fields of specialization. 
It was an extremely difficult task to keep the curricula synchronized 
with the demands of industry and at the same time provide for co- 
ordination with the humanistic studies. 

Under Fulton's direction, the faculty immediately undertook the 
problem of curricular revision. It sought to develop a more thoroughly 
trained graduate by increasing specialization in the fundamentals of 
an engineering education. But in the same faculty sessions, greater 
emphasis was placed upon the cultural subjects. The cultural subjects 
for the engineer were becoming a necessity, since he had to live in a 
complex social, political, and economic world. Fulton clearly envisaged 
the necessity for such subjects as English, history, economics, sociology, 
and psychology. The new type of leader was to be one with a solid 
foundation in basic engineering subjects and also a graduate prepared 
to assume responsibility in any type of position. 

One of the early curricular innovations of the Fulton Regime was 
the establishment of the Department of Economics. This training was 
added in the fall of 1920, but as a professor for the new chair was not 
found, the work was not instituted until January, 1921, when Professor 
Scott Boyce took charge. As Boyce did not accept the position until 
after the schedule had been listed, his classes had to be arranged after 
school hours for the first semester. The first offering in the Economics 
department, in addition to the two semester courses in principles of 
economics, comprised such subjects as: economic history of the United 
States, economic geography, labor problems, and business organization. 
To the above subjects the department added, in the fall of 1921, courses 
in the principles of sociology and social psychology. This was the first 
offering of sociology in the history of the school. The following year, 
a course in statistics was offered, but the work in economic history and 
economic geography were no longer given. 

It is interesting to note that by 1925, the department of Economics 
had expanded to include the following courses: American government, 
business law, finance, history, social evolution, general psychology, and 
genetic psychology. This year marked the real inauguration of the 
social studies into the school curriculum; however, aside from the two 
beginning courses in economics, the work in the social studies has re- 
mained elective. M. D. Orten taught the economics after 1924, while 
the courses in history, psychology, and sociology were given by other 
members of the department. 



Curricular Expansion and Broadened Training 79 

The work in history, psychology, and sociology remained in the 
Economics department for only one year, and in the fall of 1926, was 
transferred to the newly created department of Biology. The Economics 
dpeartment remained as a division offering work only in that field down 
to 1941. 

A department of Hygiene and Student Health was organized the 
first year of Fulton's term. A course in hygiene was made a require- 
ment for all curricula. The interest of Dr. Fulton in the field of biology 
was further revealed when it is noted that this department also taught 
work in zoology, botany, bacteriology, and microscopy of technical 
products. In November, 1924, the faculty voted to offer no credit for 
the hygiene course after the succeeding semester. In 1926, the depart- 
ment of Biology was organized, and all instructional work was trans- 
ferred to that department. Hygiene and Student Health continued, 
however, to be listed as a department through 1941. 

The department of Biology was organized in 1926. To this de- 
partment was added the work in history, sociology, and psychology. In 
1939, the department was henceforth designated as that of history, 
psychology, and biology. G. J. Millar was made the head of this de- 
partment. 

Perhaps the most significant cumcular expansion of the period was 
the addition of the department of Ceramic Engineering. On December 
1, 1925, representatives of the Missouri Refractories Association and the 
Missouri Clay Association held a meeting in Rolla, and urged that 
Missouri School of Mines establish a chair of Ceramic Engineering. It 
was pointed out at the meeting that Missouri ranked high among the 
states in ceramic products, and the unfortunate fact was reported that 
the clay industries were having to go outside the state for their per- 
sonnel. Even more unfortunate was the report that Missouri boys 
were having to go outside the state for such training. 

In response to the meeting and the general demand on the part 
of the clay industries, the Board of Curators in January, 1926, estab- 
lished the department of Ceramic Engineering at the School of Mines. 
A former alumnus, A. P. Green, was one of the active promoters of this 
curriculum. The work got under way in the fall of 1926, with fifteen 
students enrolled. The department soon began to attract students, and 
by 1930, it claimed a total of thirty-nine. Unfortunately the depres- 
sion had an adverse effect, and its majors declined to twelve by 1935. 
Dr. Edward Holmes was the first head of the department. 

The Missouri Clay Testing and Research Laboratories were in- 
stalled on the campus in 1928. They were under the general direction 
of the Ceramic Engineering Department. The laboratories gave free 



80 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

technical advice to citizens or industries of the state, although for some 
research projects a small fee was charged. 

In 1921, Petroleum Engineering was added to the list of options 
in Mine Engineering. Professor Carroll R. Forbes was the head of 
this department from 1909 to 1941. The four short courses In mining, 
assaying., surveying, and electricity, which had been a part of the cur- 
ricula since 1892, were no longer offered after 1920. By 1921, the 
freshman course had practically assumed its present form. The year's 
work included the regular freshman requirement in English, plane and 
spherical trigonometry, analytical geometry, surveying, chemistry, ele- 
mentary drawing, military science, and physical training. 

In 1930, Curriculum IV, or General Science, was completely over- 
hauled. There had been criticism of this curriculum, especially from 
these who were of the opinion that the course did not measure up to 
the high standards selected for the School of Mines. These critics 
favored the inclusion of more technical subjects to make the work con- 
form more nearly to the regular engineering course. The MISSOURI 
MINER of March 8, 1926, carried an answer to those who would 
minimize the general science program. The writer elaborated on the 
remarkable success of those who had majored and received degrees 
in this course. It listed some thirty-seven of the total of seventy-two 
graduates, who had achieved extraordinary fame in the Industrial 
world. 

Nevertheless, In 1930, the work in this department was revised. In 
May of that year, Dr. Fulton appointed a special committee to design 
a program of courses in this field "as would be commensurate with a 
school of technology." On November 3, 1930, Dr. Woodman presented 
the report of the committee to the faculty. Among 'other thing the 
number of credit hours for a degree in the curriculum was raised to 150 
hours plus military and physical education. This placed it on the same 
basis as that of the regular engineering courses. The field was, hence- 
forth, to be known as the Science curriculum, and the degree of Bache- 
lor of Science was to have the major subject of specialization so desig- 
nated. Thus such a degree would read as a Bachelor of Science, Chem- 
istry Major, etc. Hence, students were required to elect majors and 
minors in specific fields. These changes went into effect in September 
1931. 

Civil Enginering underwent considerable expansion In order to 
serve the industrial requirements of the period. With the advent of the 
automobile as a product of mass production, the construction and main- 
tenance of highways became one of the major industries of the country. 
More and more responsibilities were placed upon the engineer in the 
location, construction, and maintenance of highways. This increasing 




CHARLES HERMAN FULTON, DIRECTOR, 1920-1937 




CAMPUS VIEW 



Curricular Expansion and Broadened Training 81 

demand for civil engineers trained in highway construction was re- 
flected in a series of courses offered. Highway-materials testing was 
added in 1931. Courses in highway engineering became more im- 
portant., and, in 1930 3 a subject called "highway-transport economics" 
was listed In the catalog. 

Hydraulic Engineering Involving the use and control of \vater 
power became particularly Important after 1933. The importance of 
water-power engineering was stressed in the construction of such gi- 
gantic projects as Boulder Dam, Tennessee Valley Authority, Bagnall 
Dam, and countless others. By 1936, courses had been included In 
water-power engineering, advanced hydraulics, and river and harbor 
engineering. 

In 1931, the work in Civil Engineering was broadened to meet 
another demand when the sanitation engineering option was added to 
this curriculum. The growth of large cities had created many compli- 
cated problems in relation to a pure water supply and the disposal of 
sewage. The sanitation engineer was called upon to solve the many 
technical problems coincident to city administration. In this field, 
the sanitary engineer came into direct contact with the sciences of 
chemistry, bacteriology, and even medicine. Those students, specializ- 
ing in sanitary engineering in addition to such courses as water supply, 
sewerage, drainage, also took advanced courses in biology and chemistry. 

Professor Elmo G. Harris, who had served the Institution for forty 
years, retired In 1931, from the active work In the Civil department to 
the rank of Professor Emeritus. Professor Joe Beaty Butler, who had 
been affiliated with the school since 1920, became head of the depart- 
ment. He has served in this capacity to the present time. 

Beginning In 1929, Civil Engineering forged ahead of other cur- 
ricula in number of students with a total of 138 enrolled. It main- 
tained this lead up to 1938, when it fell behind Mining and Mechanical 
Engineering. During the first nine years of the period, 1920-29, those 
pursuing the mining curricula led the list of enrollees by a substantial 
majority. 

The Vocational Training Program, which had been instituted in 
1919, for the training of disabled veterans of the First World War, 
continued to the close of the 1925-26 school term. In May, 1920, 
Major Charles E. Cooke was sent to Rolla to help organize the de- 
partment of Vocational Training for special benefit of ex-servicemen, 
who were not qualified to take the regular collegiate work. This special 
instruction included work in topographic engineering, highway en- 
gineering, and oil field engineering, the United States Geodetic Survey, 
the Missouri State Highway Department, the Missouri Geological Sur- 
vey, and the Federal Vocational Board, all cooperated In placing the 
graduates in positions. 



82 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

From the enrollment of fifty in the beginning, the number of vo- 
cates had increased to seventy-two by the 1920-21 school year, and to 
218 by the 1921-22 term. The respect shown by the National Govern- 
ment for this training at the School of Mines was revealed when it 
notified the Federal Board that it would employ all vocational gradu- 
ates of the institution. Some of the graduates continued their studies 
and received regular college degrees. A later president of the Alumni 
Association, Fred Schneeberger, began his career at the school in this 
program. 

Electrical Engineering had remained as a part of the Physics de- 
partment from the time of the beginning of degree work in the field 
to 1924. In the fall of that year, it was made a distinct department 
under the chairmanship of Professor Floyd H. Frame. Professor Frame 
has served as head of this department to the present date. The chief 
problem of this department was to keep its curriculum in step with the 
startling electrical revolution that continued after 1920. This revolu- 
tion was especially noticeable in the field of communications and elec- 
tronics, and courses establishing this training were listed in the cata- 
log. The continued development of the radio during the 1920's 
resulted in courses in radio communications as early as 1924. There 
was likewise a tendency to offer more highly specialized and advanced 
courses in Electrical Engineering thereby preparing the student for a 
more thorough service in the electrical age. 

The department made a rather slow beginning after the degree 
work was instituted in 1916, and by 1920, only eight students were en- 
rolled as Electrical Engineers. But after 1924, the department registered 
remarkable gains in number of specialists. From a total of thirty-eight, 
in 1924, the enrollment in the work had increased to seventy-four by 
1927, and after a decline during the depression years in the early 1930's, 
it claimed over one hundred students by 1938. 

The growth in the field of Mechanical Engineering was startling 
after 1920, and the Fulton Administration brought new courses with an 
increasing specialization in the department The developments in 
refrigeration and air conditioning resulted in courses in this phase of 
specialization as early as 1924. Also, a course in heating and ventila- 
tion had been approved in the early 1920's. In 1931, a course in weld- 
ing was added, and, by 1938, aeronautical engineering was given recog- 
nition, when aerodynamics and airplane structures were taught. From 
1921 to 1942, Professor R. O. Jackson was head of this department. 
Since that time, Dr. Aaron J. Miles has been chairman. 

This department was particularly slow in attracting students after 
the adoption of degree-granting in 1916. As late as 1923, there were 
only eleven students specializing in the division, but this was increased 



Curricular Expansion and Broadened Training 83 

to thirty-nine by 1928. The real development came in 1930, when 
seventy students were enrolled in the department and then after a brief 
decline during the early 1930's, it had a total of 123 students by 1938 
second only to Mining. 

It is interesting to note that the department of Chemical Engineer- 
ing was listed in the catalog as the department of Chemistry up to 
1936, when for two years, it was called the department of Chemical 
Engineering and Chemistry. Since 1938, it has been designated as 
Chemical Engineering. In response to demands from industry, the 
petroleum-refining option was added in 1924. This program called 
for such courses as petroleum chemistry, oil production methods, and 
petroleum engineering hydraulics. The new field of synthetics and 
plastics has increased the importance of this department. Dr. Walter 
T. Schrenk has been chairman of the department since the fall of 1929. 

The enrollment of this department has shown a steady upward 
trend since 1920. From the seventeen majoring in this curriculum in 
1922, there was an annual increase to ninety-one by 1931. The de- 
pression temporarily deflected the upward trend, but by 1938, those 
specializing in Chemical Engineering had surpassed one hundred. 

Metallurgy perhaps showed the least change in curriculum of any of 
the degree-granting departments over the period. Enrollment statistics 
show a wide fluctuation in this department. From a figure of twenty- 
seven in 1920, the number varied from a low of eighteen students in 
1926, to a high of sixty by 1930. The depression had a drastic effect 
on this department also, when the total was reduced to only twenty- 
eight in 1933. But after 1936, recovery was rapid and by 1938, the 
data show a total of 120 students. This department was given a new 
title in the 1937-38 catalog as that of Metallurgical Engineering and 
Ore Dressing. Professor C. Y. Clayton was the head of this department 
until 1942, when Professor H. R. Hanley became chairman. 

The service departments provided a more extensive course-offering 
thus aiding in a broadened training for the graduate. Professor G. R. 
Dean continued as chairman of the Mathematics department until 
1930, when V. B. Hinsch became acting head. In 1935, Hinsch was 
elected as chairman, and Dean became Professor Emeritus. Hinsch 
continued as head of the department to 1941, when R. M. Rankin 
assumed the duties as chairman. Drawing was under the chairman- 
ship of Dr. C. V. Mann throughout the entire period. The depart- 
ments of English and Foreign Languages were merged in 1912, and 
continued as such to 1930. In the latter year they were again separated 
with Modern Foreign Languages under the supervision of Professor 
O. A. Henning, and English under the leadership of Dr. J. W. Barley. 
The work in Physics has continued under the leadership of Professor 



84 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

L. E. Woodman since It was separated from the Electrical Engineering 
department In 1924. L. E. Garrett was in charge of the Mechanics 
department until his death in 1938, when R. Z. Williams assumed the 
position. Geology and Mineralogy were under the chairmanship of 
Dr. Charles L. Dake until his death In 1934, at which time G. A. Mui- 
lenberg became head of the department. 

During the first year of the Fulton Administration regulations were 
enacted governing absences, credit hours, and grades. The faculty on 
November 5, 1920, passed a series of regulations, many of which, with 
slight modifications, have remained In force to the present time. The 
holiday absence rule was adopted providing that any student, who in- 
curred unexcused absences for the two days preceding or the two days 
succeeding a regular school holiday, was to have added to his require- 
ments for graduation not less than one or more than six hours for 
each offense. A second provision stipulated that a student would have 
one credit hour added to his graduation requirements for each total of 
seventeen absences a term. In 1926, this had been reduced to one 
negative hour for each sixteen unexcused absences per semester. Two 
laboratory hours were considered as the equivalent of one classroom 
hour. 

In this same meeting the faculty voted to establish a grading system 
based upon a letter with an exact numerical value. The numerical 
equivalent of the letters was as follows: 

E 95-100 

S85-95 

M 75-85 

165-75 

F 65 or below 

With a slight revision beginning in 1926, this numerical system has 
remained to the present time. Another school policy adopted at this 
time was the reduction of the class period from 55 to 50 minutes. 

The faculty, on December 5, 1922, established a system of grade 
points which gave a student the benefit of S or E marks. Under the 
old grading system an S or an E were no better than an M. Under 
the new system grade of E, carried three grade points per credit hour; 
a grade of S, two grade points; a grade of M, one grade point; a grade 
of I, no grade point; and for a grade of F, one negative grade point. 
The number of grade points required for graduation In the regular en- 
gineering subjects was raised from ninety-eight in January, 1925, to 120 
by June, 1927. 

At the beginning of the Fulton term, the credit required for gradu- 
ation ranged from 185 to 197 hours, depending upon the curriculum 



Curricular Expansion and Broadened Training 85 

pursued. In 1922, the credit hours required were fixed at 172 hours 
for all curricula exclusive of military science and physical education. 

In order to make the system at the School of Mines more nearly con- 
form to that used by most large institutions, the faculty., early in 1924, 
reduced the credit hours given for laboratory to a ratio of one to three; 

that meant one credit hour for three hours of laboratory instead of 
one for two hours as previously. This reduced the graduation require- 
ment to 150 hours plus military science and physical education. This is 
essentially the present graduation requirement. 

The period of the 1920 5 s witnessed the real evolution of graduate 
work at Missouri School of Mines. Supervision of the work was placed 
In charge of a faculty committee on graduate students. In September, 
1924., the requirements for the Masters degree were fixed at 36 credit 
hours above the -Bachelor of Science. The grade-point average was 
first established at 1.5 ; but in 1928, this was raised to 1.75. Other 
requirements included the oral examination and the approval of the 
students program in advance by the graduate committee. The stand- 
ard for graduate students was further elevated in 1939, when the 2.00 
grade-point requirement for the Masters degree first appeared In the 
catalog. 

The graduate students of the school organized In the fall of 1923, 
with the objective of raising the standards of graduate work in general 
and of establishing a closer relationship with the graduate school of the 
university at Columbia. A program for the Doctor of Philosophy de- 
gree was first Introduced into the catalog for the 1925-26 school term. 
The candidate for the degree had to register with the graduate school 
of the University of Missouri and the examinations were administered 
by a committee appointed by the chairman of the graduate committee 
at Rolla and the dean of the Graduate School at Columbia. The de- 
gree was conferred by the University of Missouri. 

The Missouri School of Mines, under the Fulton Regime, initiated 
the policy of granting honorary degrees. The recipients were scholars 
who in the opinion of the faculty had made outstanding contributions 
to the field of engineering. Some of those receiving the honor were 
distinguished alumni of the school. The list of doctorates conferred 
from 1923 to 1940 includes. 

Walter R. Ingalls 1923 Allen P. Green. 1935 

Henry A. Buehler 1925 Mervin J. Kelly 1936 

Eugene McAuliffe 1927 Enoch R. Needles 1937 

John Adrian Garcia 1928 George A. Easley 1938 

Urlyn G. Tainton 1930 Howard I. Young 1939 

Daniel G. Jackling 1933 Frederick W. Green 1940 



86 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

Among these distinguished recipients of honorary Doctorates, the 
following were sons of Missouri School of Mines: John Adrian Garcia, 
Allen P. Green, Mervin J. Kelly, Enoch R. Needles, George A. Easley, 
and Daniel C. Jackling. These notable leaders had not only won dis- 
tinction for themselves, but had also brought honor to their Alma 
Mater. 

John A. Garcia was a graduate of the class of 1900 with the degree 
of Bachelor of Science in Mine Engineering, and the professional de- 
gree of Engineer of Mines in 1903, Following graduation, Garcia ob- 
tained extensive experience in the coal fields of Oklahoma and Illinois. 
He later entered consulting work in Chicago, where he formed a part- 
nership in an organization specializing in the construction, develop- 
ment, operation, and examination of bituminous coal mines. The 
M, S. M. ALUMNUS In 1928, pointed out that it was his organiza- 
tion which built the two mine tipples that had held the world's hoist- 
ing record for ten years. Garcia devoted a large part of the year of 
1927, to extensive consulting work for the Soviet Government. J. A. 
Garcia died on August 11, 1939. 

A former Missouri student who has brought fame to the School 
of Alines and to the state is Allen Percy Green. In 1910, he purchased 
the old Mexico Fire Brick Company, at Mexico, Missouri. He had 
been attracted by the quality of the clays in that region of the state. 
He at once began to build up the plant, and, in 1925, began construc- 
tion of the new and modern tunnel kiln plant. The plant has been 
recognized as one of the five largest refractories companies in the world. 
On account of the efforts and practices established by Dr. Green, the 
highest type of fire clay brick in the world is being produced at Mexico, 
Missouri. Dr. Greene was one of the active promoters of the depart- 
ment of Ceramics at the School of Mines, and among his other con- 
tributions to the school are the A. P. Green Awards. A scholarship is 
offered each year to an outstanding junior, based upon scholarship 
and leadership; and a medal is awarded the outstanding member of 
each graduating class. 

In 1936, Mervin J. Kelly was awarded the honorary doctorate by 
virtue of his outstanding achievements in the field of electrical com- 
munications. His early research work was toward the development of 
vacuum apparatus used in communications systems. Later he won fame 
for his direction of a group of physicists, engineers, and technicians, en- 
gaged in research on thermionic devices, photoelectric cells, vacuum 
thermocouples for wire and wireless communications, and for related 
appliances, such as talking motion pictures and public address systems. 
At the time he was awarded the doctorate, he was Vacuum Tube and 
Transmission Instruments Development Director of the Bell Telephone 



Curricular Expansion and Broadened Training 87 

Company. Kelly graduated from Missouri School of Mines in 1914, 
with a B. S. in General Science. 

Enoch R. Needles, the recipient of an honorary doctorate in 1937, 
graduated in the same class with Mervin J. Kelly, in 1914. He is rated 
as one of the most outstanding graduates of the department of Civil 
Engineering of the School of Mines. He has won national recognition 
as a member of the firm of Ash-Howard-Needles and Tammen, which 
firm acted as consultants in the construction of some of the greatest 
bridges in the United States, including the Triborough Bridge project 
in New York. 

One of the most outstanding Mining Engineering graduates of the 
school was George R. Easley. He held the degree of B. S. in Mine 
Engineering, 1909, and the professional degree of Engineer of Mines, 
1912. He was particularly recognized as a promoter, and held direc- 
torships in a large number of famous mining corporations, Easley had 
been active from 1914 to 1919, in the development and operation of 
tin and tungsten properties in Bolivia. From 1929 to the time he was 
honored by his Alma Mater with the doctors degree, he held the re- 
sponsible position of Vice-President and Director of the International 
Mining Corporation in New York City. 

The honorary degree was conferred on Jackling in a very impressive 
ceremony on May 2, 1933. In a brief address before the degree was 
conferred, Jackling said, "I would rather receive this honor from the 
School of Mines than from any other institution on the face of the 
earth." President Walter Williams of the University, conferred the 
degree. In an inspirational address emphasizing the noble accomplish- 
ments of the school's alumni, Williams closed his remarks with this 
tribute to Jackling, "The school has reason to be proud of its sons. The 
most distinguished of all these men is here this morning to receive 
honor from the school he helped to make famous." 

In the fall of 1923, the school took a phenomenal step forward 
in the creation of the permanent office of Registrar. A committee was 
selected, the previous spring, to devise ways and means of improving 
the system of registration. Among the recommendations was one that 
the school employ a full time Registrar who could devote his entire 
time to the business of the office. H. H. Armsby was elected in 1923, 
as the school's first full-time Registrar. As he had already been serv- 
ing as Student Advisor, he assumed the duties of both positions. Armsby 
served in this capacity until 1941, when he accepted a position in the 
government service. Noel Hubbard, who came to Rolla in the fall 
of 1920, with the United States Experiment Station of the Bureau of 
Mines, was appointed Assistant Registrar in 1923. He held this posi- 
tion throughout the remainder of the period. Under the leadership of 



88 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

Armsby and Hubbard, the office of Registrar and Student Advisor be- 
came one of the most efficient oxi the campus. A more systematic 
method of keeping records was established. Efforts were also made 
to set up a more effective system of registration. 

In 1926, this office assumed the duties of a co-ordinated employ- 
ment service for the graduates. To collect more data on each student 
as a possible aid for placement, a system of personnel reports was in- 
stituted. Previous to the creation of the co-ordinated employment 
program, placement had been largely in the hand of the various de- 
partments. This had not been satisfactory particularly with the growing 
enrollment and the increasing numbers of graduates. Now this im- 
portant service had been centralized in one office with a more complete 
personnel record of each student for the prospective employer. 

For the first four years after the institution of the co-ordinated 
employment service, practically all of the available graduates had found 
positions by the time of commencement. Then came the depression 
when it was more difficult to secure employment in all fields. The most 
difficult placement years were 1931 and 1932, but by 1933, the out- 
look was considerably brighter. Placement statistics for the 1934 class 
at the time of graduation showed a total of forty-three per cent of the 
graduates with positions, and, by September of that year, an average 
of seventy-two per cent had found employment. Following this year 
recovery was rapid and by June 15, 1936, a total of ninety-six per cent 
of the eighty graduates of that year had found positions. 

One of the outstanding developments of the Fulton period was 
the remarkable increase in enrollment and in the number of degrees 
granted. In fact, by the close of the Fulton Administration, approxi- 
mately sixty-seven per cent of all bachelor degrees granted since the 
founding of the institution had been conferred during this directorship. 
A total of 1,285 bachelor degrees were conferred during the seventeen 
years of the Fulton Regime. The enrollment figures, after reaching 
a low of 359 in 1922, began to register an annual increase which con- 
tinued until 1931. In the fall of 1927, the total had surpassed the 500 
mark and by the 1931-32 term reached an all-time high of 680. Then 
the effects of the depression were noticed, and,, by 1933-34, the enroll- 
ment had dropped to 385. By 1936, the totals again increased which 
during the 1937-38 term surpassed all previous records. 

A progressive step in the history of the school was made in 1920, 
when the Mississippi Valley Experiment Station of the United States 
Bureau of Mines was located on the School of Mines campus. The 
first officials arrived in the fall of 1920, and, by 1921, the research 
work of the station was well under way. The legislature in 1921, ap- 
propriated $100,000 for the construction of a building to house' this 




ALLEN PERCY GREEN, FAMOUS ALUMNUS, HONORARY DOCTORATE IN 1935 




DANIEL COWAN JACKLING, DISTINGUISHED ALUMNUS CLASS OF 1892 



Curricular Expansion and Broadened Training 89 

Federal Experiment Station as well as the State Experiment Station. 
This new Bureau of Mines Building completed in the fall of 1923, 
marked an improvement in campus appearance. In addition to the 
State and Federal Experiment Stations the departments of Mining and 
Ceramic Engineering came to occupy the top floor of the structure. 

In the fall of 1923, a terrace was built between Parker Hall and 
the new Bureau of Mines building. Walks and steps were constructed 
from the level of the campus down to the terrace. The terrace added 
to the appearance of both buildings, and has been used as a convenient 
place for parking cars. 

The Power Plant was remodeled in 1922, under the supervision 
of Professor R. O. Jackson of the Mechanical department. An article 
in the MISSOURI MINER stated that with the improvements the 
plant was one of the best examples of "steam power plant engineering 
in the state." The Warehouse, a concrete-and brick, fireproof structure, 
was erected in 1926. It was used as a center for supplies and for stor- 
age purposes, and was located directly behind Mechanical Hall 

During the summer of 1925, a number of campus-improvement 
projects were carried out under the direction of Professor G. V. Mann. 
A tunnel 150 feet long was constructed connecting the Metallurgy Build- 
ing with the main tunnel running from the Power Plant. Many new 
sidewalks were built, and some of the campus structures were remodeled. 
Some new floors were laid in the Director's residence. 

The Student Health Service program was materially enhanced in 
the summer of 1926, when the Shaw property at the corner of Tenth 
and State Streets, was converted into an infirmary. This property 
was purchased by the school previously and, beginning with the fall 
semester of 1926, was used as the school hospital. Dr. S. L. Baysinger, 
who had already rendered years of service to the school as a member 
of the (Board of Curators, was made the Student Health Advisor. The 
Board of Curators in April, 1926, authorized this increased health serv- 
ice. Works Progress Administration funds were later expended to re- 
model the hospital, and a third floor was added to increase its service 
to the students. 

Many campus improvements were made possible from 1933 to 
1936, by virture of Federal funds through such projects as the Civil 
Works Administration and the Public Works Administration. These 
improvements consisted of repairs and painting of buildings, resurfacing 
and constructing tennis courts, building a 220 yard track, and the level- 
ing of the football field north of the bleachers. 

The fiftieth anniversary of Missouri School of Mines was celebrated 
during the first week in November, 1921. The three day program in- 
cluded a reception, a play, an automobile trip to Meramec Spring, 



90 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

play on the golf links, a football game, an alumni banquet, organization 
of the Alumni Association, and a formal program. The celebration 
was brought to a close by a gala ball held in the gymnasium, 

The formal exercises of this semi-centenary celebration were held 
in Parker Hall. T. A. Richard, Editor of the Mining and Scientific 
Press, delivered an address on "Education of the Mining Engineer." 
Greetings from the university were extended by Dean E. J. McCaust- 
land, of the Engineering School at Columbia. Dr. Fulton read mes- 
sages from distinguished alumni, former directors, and noted friends^ 
who sent their best wishes, regretting their inability to attend the fes- 
tivities. 

One of the tangible results of the celebration was the organization 
of the Missouri School of Mines Alumni Association. The first officers 
of this organization included A. D. Terrill, President; Emory Wishon, 
Vice-President ; and G. R. Dean, Secretary-Treasurer. The real pro- 
moter of this organization was Professor Dean, and the phenomenal 
success it attained was due to his untiring efforts. From an initial 
membership of seventy-five the organization boasted a total of 401 in 
September, 1925. 

The initial volume of the M. S. M. ALUMNUS was published 
in September, 1926. This publication furnished news of particular 
interest to all alumni, including such features as school athletics, faculty 
changes, alumni weddings, association news, and employment lists. The 
ALUMNUS was published as a quarterly. The Alumni Association 
and its quarterly, the ALUMNUS, contributed immensely to the build- 
ing up of a school spirit, to increasing the enrollment, and in keeping 
the institution in closer contact with the engineering profession. 

Because of the crowded conditions in the teachers colleges of Mis- 
souri at their summer sessions, the University of Missouri established 
a session for teachers on the School of Mines campus. The first such 
session was held during the summer of 1924, and they were continuously 
held down through 1941. The 1941 session was the last as the School 
of Mines began operation on an accelerated basis after the attack on 
Pearl Harbor. 

Library accessions recorded an astonishing upward trend. The 
approximate 23,000 volumes reported in 1921, had grown to 36,000 by 
1930, to 43,000 in 1935, and to over 50,000 by 1940. Library circula- 
tion increased from approximately 9,000 in 1920, to 12,000 by 1930, 
and for 1940, to the all time high figure of 21,000. 

The Reserve Officers Training Corps, a vital element of our na- 
tional defense program, has been maintained at the School of Mines 
to the present. The corps at the school was an engineer unit The 
nation continued to look to the colleges to supply the leadership es- 



Curricular Expansion and Broadened Training 91 

sential In time of peace and imperative in time of war. Regardless 
of the national dependence upon reserve officers from the college 
R. O. T. G. units, the military training was of a personal value to the 
graduate in his later professional career. Here the student was taught 
discipline, habits of courtesy, devotion to duty, and the foundations of 
leadership essential for success. 

The work at Missouri School of Mines consisted of the basic and 
advanced phases. Every physically fit beginning student was required 
to receive two years of training in military science and tactics prior to 
graduation. Those entering the institution with advanced standing 
were required to enroll in military for the balance of the time in which 
they were rated as freshmen or sophomores. A student given advanced 
standing as a junior and all specials were excused from military re- 
quirements. Two hours' credit per semester, or a total of eight hours 
for the two years was given for completion of the basic course. 

Upon completion of the basic course, and if selected by the school 
director, and by the professor of Military Science and Tactics, as quali- 
fied for further training, the student was eligible for the advanced 
course. In advanced training, three hours' credit per semester were 
given, making a total of twelve for the two years. Those who satis- 
factorily completed the four years of training, including one advanced 
camp, were commissioned as Second Lieutenants in the Engineers Offi- 
cers Reserve Corps. 

Enrollment in the R. O. T. G. increased along with that of total 
school enrollment. From 214 trainees in 1925, the number had grown 
to 390 by the 1931-32 term. Then from the depression low of 187 
for 1933-34, there was an annual increase until the peak of 534 was 
reached in the fall of 1940. 

The School of Mines administration for the last four years of this 
period (1937-41) was under the supervision of William R. Chedsey. 
The Fulton era came to a close on September 1, 1937, ending the 
longest period of service for any director in the history of the school. 
The unprecedented growth and expansion of the school during the 
Fulton leadership assures a prominent position for this directorship in 
the school's history for the future. 

William Ruel Chedsey, who directed the institution's destiny from 
1937 to 1941, was a native of the State of Colorado. He was graduated 
from the Colorado School of Mines with the degree of Engineer of 
Mines in 1908. He was associate professor at the University of Idaho 
from 1908 to 1910, during which time he pursued graduate work in 
Electrical and Mechanical Engineering. After two years of service as 
a practicing mining engineer, Chedsey returned to teaching and served 
for three years as associate professor of Mining Engineering at the 



92 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy^ 



Colorado School of Mines. From 1916 to the time of his appointment 
as director of the Missouri School of Mines, Chedsey was professor of 
Mining at Pennsylvania State College. He received the honorary de- 
gree of Doctor of Science from Colorado School of Mines in 1939. 

The two crowning events of the Chedsey Administration were the 
construction of two new buildings on the school campus. The first of 
these new edifices was designated as the Hydraulics Laboratory build- 
ing. The cornerstone of this structure was laid on November 16, 1938, 
and the edifice was christened Harris Hall. The honor to this veteran 
professor of Civil Engineering, Elmo G. Harris, was an even greater 
tribute because of the fact that it was bestowed during his lifetime. At 
the ceremony, Dr. H. E. Riggs, President of American Society of Civil 
Engineers, spoke of Harris as "one of the country's most outstanding 
engineers and teachers." 

It had been anticipated that this structure would be completed by 
September, 1939, but it was September, 1940, before the building was 
finished and ready for service. Harris Hall as completed, was a three- 
story building including a basement unit 40 by 120 feet, of reinforced 
concrete frame construction, faced with native dolomite. It housed 
the departments of Civil Engineering and Mechanics. In addition, 
the drafting rooms and offices for the Central Division of the Topo- 
graphic Mapping Branch of the United States Geological Survey were 
located in this building. 

The second structure, which was completed the closing year of 
the Chedsey term, was the Chemical Engineering Building. The MIS- 
SOURI MINER reported as early as November, 1938, that the school 
administration was going to petition the next General Assembly for 
funds to construct a new chemical engineering building. In the spring 
of 1939, the school appropriation measure with the $250,000 earmarked 
for the chemistry building, passed the state legislature. Governor 
Lloyd C, Stark, however, released only half of the appropriation and 
only the north portion of the proposed structure was erected. 

The Executive Committee of the Board of Curators let the con- 
tracts for the construction of the new building on May 10, 1940, and 
the ground was broken on May 13th. Work on this project progressed 
rapidly, and by December the structure was virtually completed. The 
dedication of this significant campus addition was held on April 11, 
194L Addresses were delivered by Governor Forrest C. Donnell, of 
Missouri; Dr. Harry A. Curtis, Dean of the School of Engineering at 
the University of Missouri,* and Dr. Frank C. Whitmore, Dean of the 
School of Chemistry and Physics at Pennsylvania State College. Presi- 
dent Frederick A. Middlebush, of the University of Missouri, accepted 
the keys of the building. James A. Potter, of Jefferson City, a member 



Curricular Expansion and Broadened Training 93 

of the (Board of Curators, accepted the building on behalf of the cu- 
rators. 

Two progressive measures adopted during the Chedsey Adminis- 
tration were the raising of entrance requirements for the school and 
the adoption of a retirement plan for the faculty of the University of 

Missouri and the School of Mines. The faculty in 1938, raised require- 
ments for high school graduates from two to three units in mathematics. 
In addition a unit of science was added as a requirement. The in- 
creased mathematics requirement however, was modified for superior 
high school graduates. 

The retirement plan for professors was announced by President 
Middlebush in the fall of 1940. Under the plan, professors, associate 
professors, and assistant professors, who had been employed for three 
years were eligible for participation. In effect the plan called for five 
per cent withholding in salary in which the state matched the five per 
cent to build up an annuity for retirement at the age of seventy. 

The four-year period of the Chedsey Administration from 1937 
to 1941, brought a total of 511 Bachelor degrees granted and 19 Mas- 
ters of Science. The enrollment figure reached the highest levels In 
the history of the school to that date. The administration opened with 
708 the first term, and the closing year witnessed the high figure of 
931. Thirty-two professional and four honorary degrees were awarded 
during this administration. 

We must now turn to a brief survey of the development of student 
activities for the 1920-41 period. This survey as the reader will note 
covers both the Fulton and the Chedsey Administrations. A detailed 
account of the many activities Is Impossible, and those Included must 
be taken up briefly all out of proportion to their significance in the 
history of the school. 

The General Lectures program, initiated at the school in 1925, 
constituted an invaluable aid in the educational training of all students. 
The faculty committee In charge of general lectures was most fortunate 
in the talent and personages of national fame who participated. As 
an example of the high quality of the programs, the following dis- 
tinguished leaders appear on the programs for 1935-36; Dr. Harlan 
Tarbell, famous magician; Ted Shawn and his dancers; Dr. Barnurn 
Brown, Curator of the American Mueseum of Natural History; Richard 
Halliburton, noted author and lecturer; Major Radcliffe Rugmore, lec- 
turer on big game in Africa; and Peter Freuchen, authority on Eskimos 
of the North. 

Athletics at Missouri School of Mines showed a tendency to develop 
more as an intramural type of training for all students rather than a 
concentrated effort to produce nationally famous football or basket- 



94_ History cf School of Mines and Metallurgy 

ball teams. The rigid graduation requirements and the high scholastic 
standards maintained in the institution made it almost impossible for 
students to devote much of their time to participation in athletics. In 
spite of these obvious handicaps, Miner teams made enviable records 
and always displayed a spirit of cooperation and good sportsmanship. 
From the standpoint of statistics of games won and points accumu- 
lated, the 1925 and 1930 football teams stand out. The 1925 record was 
reviewed in the MISSOURI MINER as "the most successful season of 
gridiron warfare for a decade in M. S. M. history." This Miner team 
bowed to only two opponents, one of them being Washington University 
by only one touchdown, and the other to one of the great Gwinn Henry 
teams at the University of Missouri. Miner victims included such schools 
as St. Louis University, McKendree, Kirksville Teachers, Drury, and 
Springfield Teachers. The 1930 football team chalked up a record 
of five victories and only one loss and a tie, but it amassed a point 
score that was by all odds the best since the miraculous team of 1914. 
This impressive Miner Eleven Built up a total of 209 points to only 
70 for the opposition. Its only defeat was to Tulsa University, and 
the team was generally characterized by sports writers as the best in the 
state. 

Basketball and track continued as intercollegiate sports. Inter- 
collegiate swimming teams were occasionally organized, and the one 
in 1937, held competitive meets with Westminster College and Jeffer- 
son City Junior College. The period also witnessed a more thorough 
and effective organization of intramural athletics. Intramural track, 
swimming, basketball, and handball teams were all engaged in com- 
petition. In 1936, intramural wrestling was introduced and this event 
became one of the most popular contests of the spring season. 

In January, 1934, application was made for membership in the 
Missouri Intercollegiate Athletic Association. This membership be- 
came effective with the beginning of the 1934-35 term. In February, 
1921, the M Club was formed in which all athletes who had won let- 
ters in football, basketball, and track, were eligible for membership. 
The purpose of the club was to bring athletes closer together and to 
increase the incentive to win a letter. It attempted to create more 
student support and enthusiasm in all branches of athletic activity. 

An organization giving active support to the athletic program 
was the Booster Club. This society had many worthy objectives, and 
one of them was to loan money to needy athletes. The financial pro- 
gram of the organization seemed very successful, from the beginning 
when about $2,000 was pledged for the first year from students, clubs, 
fraternities, alumni, and townspeople. The Booster Club was formed 
in September, 1922, and during the first year loaned about $1100 to 



Curricular Expansion and Broadened Training 95 

athletes. Other Booster objectives included taking pictures at football 
games for publicity purposes; encouraging the alumni to exert all pos- 
sible efforts to put the school on the map; planning tours for the Glee 
Club and Orchestra; and the erection of a sign near the Frisco Station 
to remind travelers that Rolla was the home of Missouri School of 
Mines. 

The student society that appears to have contributed materially 
to the extra-curricular life of the school was the M. S. M. Players. 
The organization was formed in 1920, and for the first year was known 
officially as the Star and Garter. In the fall of 1921, the Star and 
Garter gave way to the new organization known as the M. S. M. Play- 
ers. Its basic purpose was the promotion of dramatic performances and 
use of the funds for school activities. Special emphasis was given busi- 
ness efficiency, and during the first year and a half the Players pro- 
duced five plays and contributed over $1,000 to various student or- 
ganizations. The junior class, Booster Club, ROLLAMO Board, and 
the Athletic Association were their chief beneficiaries. 

The Players in April, 1934, applied for membership in the Alpha 
Psi Omega national honor dramatic fraternity. By May of the same 
year, the School of Mines group had been accepted as the Delta Pi 
Cast. Membership in the local chapter was limited to students and 
faculty of the school who had taken part in two plays and to persons 
who, because of their extraordinary interest in dramatics, were granted 
honorary membership. 

With approximately twenty members present to form the organiza- 
tion, the Miner Band came into existence on September 17, 1926. On 
October 1, the band gave its initial performance in Parker Hall which 
was described as a marvelous success. Credit for the success of this 
organization was largely due to the efforts of its director, John W. 
Scott. During the 1928-29 school year, it was organized as the military 
band, and it became a part of the R. O. T. C. The government fur- 
nished the instruments and music. The band performed a distinctive 
service in promoting school spirit, as an aid to the R. O. T. C. pro- 
gram, and as a means of school publicity at football games, concerts, 
and other public occasions. 

The Glee Clubs were not permanent organizations over the entire 
period. The first club was formed in the fall of 1921, with about 
twenty-five members. A Mandolin Club was organized as an auxiliary. 
This club gave a concert for the benefit of Saint Patrick's celebration, 
the following spring. It seems to have become inactive about 1923. 
Another club, directed by James CulHson professor of Geology, was 
very active by the time of the 1931-32 school term. These song "ar- 
tists" gave a concert at William Woods College, Fulton, Missouri, on 



96 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

February 8th; and at Springfield, Missouri, Teachers College, the fol- 
lowing April, as well as successful home appearances. Unfortunately, 
this fine organization was not permanent, and, with the severity of the 
depression and the declining enrollment, the club disbanded. Other 
attempts were made before a more permanent Glee Club was formed 
in the 1940's. 

The faculty and administration remained alert and informed on 
the changes and the developments in the engineering profession through 
the encouragement of student chapters in the national professional en- 
gineering societies. The Missouri Mining and Metallurgical Associa- 
tion was the oldest of the professional engineering societies on the cam- 
pus dating back to 1893, In 1921, it became affiliated with the Ameri- 
can Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers. 

The School of Mines Chapter of the American Society of Civil 
Engineering was organized in November, 1923. At first, it was limited 
to junior and senior civil engineering students, but has since been ex- 
tended to freshmen and sophomores who intend to earn a degree in 
the field. The society promotes programs with well -recognized speakers, 
thus showing the relationship between theory and practice through ex- 
perience of others. 

The School of Mines Chapter of the American Institute of Chem- 
ical Engineers was known as the Ira Remsen Society from 1924 to 1939. 
After 1939, it was known as the American Institute of Chemical En- 
gineers. It was composed of the students in Chemical Engineering, and 
the faculty and research staffs on the campus interested in the field. 

The junior and senior students of the Ceramic Engineering de- 
partment installed the Orten Society on September 18, 1928. The 
organization was named for Major Edward Orten, Jr., one of the early 
leaders of the industry in the United States. Membership in the so- 
ciety was limited to those specializing in ceramics. In the fall of 1939, 
the name of the society was changed to the Missouri School of Mines 
and Metallurgy Branch of the American Ceramic Society. 

The student branch of the American Institute of Electrical Engi- 
neers %vas approved in March, 1925. The general purpose of the or- 
ganization is to stimulate an interest and to advance and disseminate 
knowledge in the field of electrical engineering. Membership in the 
society was limited to seniors, juniors, sophomores and members of 
the teaching staff in the Electrical Engineering department. 

The local chapter of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers 
was organized early in 1930. Its objective was to further the study 
of Mechanical Engineering and to promote good fellowship among 
members. 



Curricular Expansion and Broadened Training 97 

In October, 1937 3 the student chapter of the American Society of 
Metals was established on the campus. Membership was confined to 
junior and senior students in Metallurgy and those graduates directly 
connected with the metal industry. 

The Missouri School of Mines Post of the Society of American 
Military Engineers was installed in the fall of 1937. The objects of 
the society were to encourage a feeling of mutual cooperation and 
friendship among the students in the R. O. T. C., to discuss papers 
of interest to those in the field, and to promote the general interest 
of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps. One of the most significant 
activities was to sponsor the annual military ball. 

The Institution's chapter of the Missouri Academy of Science 
grew out of an informal freshman scientific discussion club that was 
formed in the fall of 1931. This discussion club affiliated with the 
Missouri Academy of Science in April, 1938, and has remained a mem- 
ber of the college section to date. This society provided a real oppor- 
tunity for freshmen to discuss problems of scientific interest. 

The engineering scholarship fraternities, Tau Beta Pi, and Phi 
Kappa Phi, were installed at the opening of the period. In the fall 
of 1925, the University of Missouri chapter of Sigma Xi extended the 
privilege of membership to candidates nominated from Missouri School 
of Mines. The local membership of Sigma Xi then organized on this 
basis. 

The professional engineering fraternity, Theta Tau, continued as 
an active organization. The professional Chemical fraternity. Alpha 
Chi Sigma, installed its Beta Delta Chapter at Missouri School of Mines 
on May 2, 1936. The objects of this fraternity were threefold: to bind 
its members in a tie of true and lasting friendship, to strive for the 
advance of chemistry both as a science and as a profession, and to aid 
its members in the attainment of their ambitions as chemists. 

The year, 1933, brought the organization of the outstanding serv- 
ice fraternity. Blue Key. This is primarily a service organization and 
it is to be commended for its many projects for the evolution of a 
greater School of Mines. Its many service activities, such as conduct- 
ing visitors about the campus, broadcasting football games, compiling 
student directories, and other worthy activities, gave it the title of the 
College Rotary Club. A student was eligible for initiation at the end 
of the sophomore year providing he had an average scholastic record 
and was active in campus activities. 

The Beta Omicron Chapter of Alpha Phi Omega, a national serv- 
ice fraternity, was organized at the school in the spring of 1939. The 
chapter accepted any student with average scholastic attainments, who 
at any time had received training with iBoy Scout organizations. It 



98 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

was essentially an organization for promoting genera! advancement 
and progress of the school. 

The five social fraternities which were in existence in 1920, had 
increased to nine by the close of the period in 1941. The first of the 
social fraternity additions after 1920,, was the formation of Triangle. 
The school chapter of Triangle was installed on December 10, 1927, 
as the successor to the Grubs takers Club. It will be recalled that the 
Grubstakers was the oldest of the eating clubs with its organization 
dating back to 1902. On April 29, 1933, the Prospectors, which had 
been a local fraternity and eating clut> for twenty years, was installed 
as the Alpha Iota Chapter of Sigma Pi Fraternity. The installation 
service was held in the Parish House of the Episcopal Church, with 
many visiting officers and members of the fraternity present. 

The last two of the social fraternities founded were Alpha Lambda 
Tau and Theta Kappa Phi. The Phi Chapter of Alpha Lambda Tau 
was initiated on the campus on March 16, 1935, but the fraternity 
did not become active until the fall semester of that year. This or- 
ganization was the successor of the Bonanza Club, which had been in 
existence at the school since 1914. The Mu Chapter of Theta Kappa 
Phi was installed on the campus on November 29, 1935, when the 
Mercier Club was granted a chapter in the national Catholic fraternity. 
The installation ceremonies extended over a period of four days. Direc- 
tor Fulton welcomed the new fraternity to the school and highly com- 
mended the past record of the Order of Cardinal Mercier. 

The Interfraternity Council was first given recognition in the 
1931-32 catalog. It consisted of one representative from each of the 
social fraternities. Its principal aim was to preserve harmony and pro- 
mote a spirit of mutual friendship and cooperation among all members 
of fraternities, so as to promote the best interests of Missouri School of 
Mines. 

The non-fraternity students of the school organized under the 
name of Independents. Formed about 1935, the major objective was 
to enable non-fraternity men to participate more fully in student ac- 
tivities. Any student not a member of a fraternity was eligible for 
membership. 

In the fall of 1940, the coeds on the campus organized the Pi 
Delta Chi Sorority. A Coed Association was in existence before the 
formation of this society. 

Toward the close of the period three eating or cooperative board- 
ing clubs were formed. By organizing on a cooperative basis the clubs 



Curricular Expansion and Broadened Training 99 

were able to maintain a higher standard of living for their members 
at relatively low costs. The first of these, the Engineers Club, was 
founded in 1934. The second known as the Shamrock Club was or- 
ganized in 1938, and the third, the Tech Club, was founded the last 
year of the Chedsey Administration,, 1940-41. 

In 1937, the present Student Council of Missouri School of Mines 
was founded. This council became an efficient governing body, and 
has existed to the present. The Council consisted of one representative 
from each social fraternity, and an equal number from the non-fra- 
ternity students. While the primary purpose of the Council was to 
provide official contact between the faculty and student body, it also 
administered school activities through the appointment of committees 
on dances, general lectures and St. Pat's. 

Engineers' Day became an established event at the school on April 
1, 1938. The initiation of this significant school activity was held in 
conjunction with the annual meeting of the Missouri Academy of 
Science. The MISSOURI MINER carried the headline report on 
April 27, 1938, that 170Q visitors were on the school campus for the 
day's celebration. Impressive exhibits were presented by the depart- 
ments to enlighten the guests on the nature of work done at the school. 
Thus was initiated a special event that was destined to become tradi- 
tional. 

Parents* Day emerged as a celebration in the fall of 1939, as an 
adaptation of a former activity known as Dads' Day. Dads 9 Day was 
so well attended in 1938, and so many expressions of appreciation were 
received by both the fathers and the mothers, that it was decided to 
broaden the event to include the two parents. The first Parents' Day 
celebration was held on October 21, 1939, with 500 guests attending. 
The following year witnessed an even greater Parents' Day. This 
marked another school activity which was established for the greater 
interest in Missouri School of Mines. 

The eventful period from 1920 to 1941, came to a close with the 
resignation of Director Chedsey, which was effective August 31, 1941. 
This period including the Fulton and Chedsey Administrations, was a 
most remarkable era of growth, expansion, broadened training, and 
wider service in the history of Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy. 



100 



History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 



ENROLLMENT BY CURRICULA 
1920 - 1941 



Min- 



Year 


ing 


Met. 


Civil 


Mech. Elect. 


Chem. 


mic. 


Gen. 


Sci. 


Unc. 


Total 


1920-21 


146 


27 


24 


8 


8 


18 


.. 


124 


7 


58 


420 


1921-22 


218 


40 


51 


12 


15 


22 


. * 


. . 


3 


66 


427 


1922-23 


176 


42 


58 


10 


16 


17 


4 




6 


34 


359 


1923-24 


147 


32 


74 


11 


35 


19 




. . 


6 


39 


363 


1924-25 


131 


20 


79 


17 


38 


30 


, . 


26 


22 


36 


399 


1925-26 


127 


20 


84 


24 


46 


35 


. . 


18 


22 


32 


408 


1926-27 


122 


18 


93 


30 


66 


38 


15 


9 


22 


33 


446 


1927-28 


117 


21 


112 


35 


74 


45 


29 


16 


16 


40 


505 


1928-29 


102 


27 


138 


39 


64 


57 


31 


43 


19 


16 


536 


1929-30 


96 


3J 


126 


47 


62 


63 


39 


47 


20 


22 


553 


1930-31 


116 


60 


132 


70 


79 


68 


35 


26 


13 


37 


636 


1931-32 


83 


64 


161 


83 


79 


91 


29 


33 


19 


38 


680 


1932-33 


63 


55 


129 


76 


47 


69 


22 


15 


20 


33 


529 


1933-34 


43 


28 


88 


57 


47 


55 


16 


13 


13 


25 


385 


1934-35 


64 


30 


94 


55 


48 


67 


12 


15 


6 


24 


415 


1935-36 


65 


33 


100 


61 


48 


75 


15 


15 


5 


30 


447 


1936-37 


80 


45 


104 


77 


66 


75 


10 


44 


6 


25 


532 


1937-38 


126 


92 


101 


109 


85 


98 


14 


42 


8 


33 


708 


1938-39 


176 


120 


85 


123 


104 


101 


26 


29 


10 


39 


813 


1939-40 


203 


104 


105 


158 


105 


111 


35 


27 


10 


39 


897 


1940-41 


192 


109 


101 


178 


105 


141 


35 


35 


7 


28 


931 



Year 



ENROLLMENT BY CLASSES 
1927-1941 



Sopho- 
Freshmen mores 



Unclassi- 
Junlors Seniors Graduate fied Totals 



1927-28 


188 


106 


86 


71 


14 


30 


505 


1928-29 


214 


121 


91 


76 


18 


16 


536 


1929-30 


222 


122 


106 


74 


15 


14 


553 


1930-31 


206 


163 


128 


97 


19 


23 


636 


1931-32 


201 


143 


158 


123 


17 


38 


680 


1932-33 


103 


133 


110 


136 


16 


31 


529 


1933-34 


69 


83 


95 


102 


14 


22 


385 


1934-35 


98 


78 


98 


95 


27 


19 


415 


1935-36 


145 


89 


87 


90 


13 


23 


447 


1936-37 


172 


128 


103 


95 


16 


18 


532 


1937-38 


248 


167 


150 


98 


18 


27 


708 


1938-39 


254 


200 


179 


127 


22 


31 


809 


1939-40 


244 


234 


201 


167 


18 


32 


895 


1940-41 


268 


215 


230 


177 


19 


22 


931 



Curricula? Expansion and Broadened Training 101 



BACHELOR'S DEGREES 


GRANTED 










1920- 


1941 












Mining 


Met. 


Civil 


Mech. 


Elect. 


Chem. 


Ceramic 


Gen. 




Year 


Eng. 


Eng. 


Eng. 


Eng. 


Eng. 


Eng. 


Eng. 


Science 


Total 


1921 


41 


9 


2 


. . 


3 


9 


. 


3 


67 


1922 


45 


10 


6 


2 


2 


2 





1 


68 


1923 


56 


15 


7 


1 


1 


6 




2 


88 


1924 


18 


12 


11 


1 


2 





m t 


. 


44 


1925 


21 


7 


17 


4 


5 


8 


t ^ 


2 


64 


1926 


24 


3 


10 


1 


6 


7 


. . 


3 


54 


1927 


27 


4 


15 


3 


3 


7 


* 


3 


62 


1928 


24 


4 


16 


4 


9 


2 


2 


4 


65 


1929 


17 


8 


12 


6 


11 


5 


2 


2 


63 


1930 


16 


2 


19 


2 


10 


2 


9 


3 


63 


1931 


19 


5 


28 


8 


9 


8 


7 


2 


86 


1932 


16 


10 


27 


12 


13 


17 


6 


2 


103 


1933 


16 


20 


32 


14 


7 


10 


8 


6 


113 


1934 


12 


9 


24 


13 


8 


17 


4 


3 


90 


1935 


9 


7 


20 


14 


16 


12 


3 


2 


83 


1936 


16 


7 


21 


9 


8 


10 


6 


3 


80 


1937 


18 


5 


30 


12 


9 


12 


3 


1 


90 


1938 


22 


11 


23 


10 


16 


12 


* * 


. 


94 


1939 


21 


13 


18 


15 


17 


27 


2 


2 


115 


1940 


49 


27 


17 


18 


19 


16 


6 


1 


153 


1941 


33 


19 


23 


27 


17 


17 


10 


f 


147 


Totals. 


..520 


207 


378 


176 


191 


206 


68 


46 1 


,792 


MASTERS OF 


SCIENCE DEGREES 


GRANTED, 1921-1941 




Mining 


Met. 


Civil 


Mech. 


Elect. 


Chem. 


Ceramic 


Gen. 




Year 


Eng. 


Eng. 


Eng. 


Eng. 


Eng. 


Eng. 


Eng. 


Science 


Total 


1921 


3 




m 


^ m 


* 


2 




3 


8 


1922 


3 


2 


B , 


* 


. . 


2 


. . 


2 


9 


1923 


1 


2 


2 


^ 


. 


. . 


. . 


2 


7 


1924 




3 


2 


* . 


* 


2 




* . 


7 


1925 


4 













* 


. , 


. 


4 


1926 


2 


2 


2 


* 


* 




4 




6 


1927 


3 


1 





. 




2 






6 


1928 


3 


.. 





, . 





5 






8 


1929 


6 


1 




f 


* 


2 


. . 


. . 


9 


1930 




3 





f t 


* * 


3 




2 


B 


1931 




1 


. . 





, . 


1 




6 


8 


1932 




2 


2 


. , 


. . 


3 




2 


9 


1933 




* 


* 


. 




3 




4 


7 


1934 




f t 





. . 


. . 


2 






2 


1935 


* 


* * 


. . 




. . 


1 






1 


1936 




1 


. 


* 


. , 


1 






2 


1937 






* > 


. . 


. . 


1 






1 


1938 




, 4 


* 


* * 


. . 


2 




4 


6 


1939 




.. 


2 


. . 




. . 




1 


3 


1940 




1 


1 


* * 


. . 


2 




2 


6 


1941 





.. 





.. 





2 




2 


4 



Totals... 25 19 11 .. .. 36 .. 30 121 



102 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 



PROFESSIONAL DEGREES GRANTED, 1921-1941 




Mining 


Met. 


Ciw'Z Meek. 


Elect. 


Chem. Ceramic 


Gen. 


Year 


Eng. 


Eng. 


Eng. Eng. 


Eng. 


Eng. Eng. 


Science Total 


1921 


7 


2 


1 


.. 





10 


1922 


3 


2 


4 


. 


. 


9 


1923 


5 


1 


1 


* * 


e . . 


7 


1924 


4 


2 


1 2 


1 


1 


11 


1925 


6 


2 


1 


. 


1 


10 


1926 


3 


* 





* * 


* 


3 


1927 


12 


i 








4 


17 


1928 


4 


m ^ 


1 





. . 


5 


1929 


1 


2 


* * 


. . 


2 


5 


1930 


7 


2 


3 


* * 





12 


1931 


2 


2 


2 


1 


2 


9 


1932 


1 


1 


8 


, . 


. . 


10 


1933 


1 





3 





a * 


4 


1934 


4 





4 


* 


1 


9 


1935 


7 


1 


5 


1 





14 


1936 


3 





* * . . 





1 


4 


1937 


1 


* * 


4 


. . 


1 


6 


1938 


6 





5 


, . 


a . . 


11 


1939 


5 


. 


3 


2 


* . 


10 


1940 


2 





1 1 


* 


* . . 


4 


1941 


3 


1 


.. 


.. 


3 


7 


Totals. 


..87 


19 


46 4 


5 


15 1 


177 



CHAPTER VII 

DEAN CURTIS LAWS WILSON 

and 

THE PRESENT MISSOURI SCHOOL OF MINES 
19411946 

The present Dean, Curtis Laws Wilson, who has so efficiently and 
successfully administered the School of Mines' affairs for the past five 
years, assumed his duties on August 1, 1941. Dr. Wilson for twenty 
years previously, was affiliated with Montana School of Mines, at Butte, 
Montana, and for thirteen years served as Professor of Metallurgy and 
headed the department at that institution. 

Dean Wilson was born and reared in Baltimore, Maryland, and 
was graduated from the Baltimore City College in 1916. He then 
moved to Montana where he was graduated from the Montana School 
of Mines in 1920. After service for a year with the Anaconda Copper 
Company at Butte in various capacities, Dr. Wilson joined the faculty 
of the Montana School of Mines as instructor in Metallurgy, and was 
later advanced to the position of head of that department. 

In 1928, after twenty-seven months of study in Europe, Wilson 
was awarded the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Magna Cum Laude, 
from the University of Goettingen, in Germany. 

Dr. Wilson was active in civic and community affairs at Butte, 
and in problems of a statewide character. He was particularly promi- 
nent in the fight against tuberculosis, and served as First Vice-President 
of the Montana State Tuberculosis Association. 

In addition to his service to the state in the realm of civic affairs, 
he was likewise prominent in the professional engineering societies. His 
membership included the American Institute of Mining and Metallurgi- 
cal Engineers, the American Chemical Society, and the Montana So- 
ciety of Engineers. He served for one year as chairman of the Mon- 
tana section of the American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical 
Engineers. 

Dean Wilson was also well-known as the author of numerous arti- 
cles in the field of Metallurgy. At the time of his appointment, in 
1941, he had in the hands of his publishers, a book dealing with the 
metallurgy of copper. 

The MISSOURI MINER for September 17, 1941, was dedicated 
to the new dean. As an expression of best wishes from the students, 
the MINER had this to say: "We hope that your stay here will be 

(103) 



104 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

a long, pleasant, and prosperous one, and we pledge ourselves to do 
everything in our power to make it so." 

The ROLLAMO for 1942, at the close of Dr. Wilson's first year 
in office, carried the following appropriate tribute in recognition of his 
ability and leadership: 

"Dean Wilson has ably proven himself as being the 'man for the job* 
during his first year in office. Through his energetic and magnetic per- 
sonality he has won the confidence and support of both the faculty and 
student body, and with such an excellently qualified man as our Dean we 
may rest assured that M. S. M. will keep on the road to progress in engineer- 
ing education." 

President Middlebush, in the M. S. M. ALUMNUS, expressed 
emphatically the faith and confidence of the university administration 
in the future of the school under the leadership of Dean Wilson. The 
following quotation is from the President's article: 

"Dean Wilson, a well-known Metallurgist, who was appointed after a 
careful and thorough canvass of the field, is rapidly becoming acquainted 
with Missouri and the School of Mines, particularly. We believe that gen- 
uine and sound progress will be made under his administration " 

A new spirit of cooperation and mutual friendliness was exhibited 
soon after the inauguration of Dean Wilson. This new spirit of prog- 
ress was nowhere more clearly demonstrated than in the reciprocal 
efforts of the School of Mines and the divisions of the University at 
Columbia to work in harmony for the progress and glory of the entire 
University. -Because of this cordial relationship, it has been possible 
to render greater service to the state and its citizens. 

In his first address to the student body on September 12, 1941, 
Dean Wilson gave a brief insight into the education philosophy that 
has been predominant during his administration. The keynote of this 
philosophy was that above all the educational institution exists for the 
benefit of the students. All of his administrative policies have been 
formulated for the greater interest of all students. The campus, physi- 
cal plant, and other material characteristics, have been considered sec- 
ondary to the faculty in the make-up of the real institution. The prin- 
ciples of democracy upon which the school has operated under this 
administration are therein elaborated. As to the characteristics of the 
successful student, the Dean emphasized the following traits: honesty, 
avoidance of mediocrity, loyalty, ability to get along with people, physi- 
cal development, social development, and spiritual development. 

Soon after his appointment, Dean Wilson won the unanimous 
support of the student body and the hearty cooperation of the faculty. 
The Dean entered upon his duties with such efficiency and zeal that 




FREDERICK A. MIDDLEBUSH., PRESIDENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI 




CURTIS LAWS WILSON 
PRESENT DEAN OF MISSOURI SCHOOL OF MINES 







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__ Dean Curtis Laws Wilson 105 

the institution gave every promise of entering another period of pros- 
perity and service greater than any previous era in the history of the 
school. Unfortunately, Dean Wilson had been in office for only four 
months when the Pearl Harbor disaster threw the nation into the Sec- 
ond World War. This war, which endured for almost four years, made 
it extremely difficult, temporarily, for Dean Wilson to carry out his 
excellent ideals for a greater School of Mines. The fact that the in- 
stitution maintained its traditional high standards of instruction, heroic- 
ally served the war effort, and formulated preparations for a greater 
future, is a remarkable tribute to the present administration. 

A problem similar to that of April, 1917, faced the students at 
Missouri School of Mines following the disastrous attack on Pearl Har- 
bor on December 7, 1941. At first the tendency was to enlist immedi- 
ately under the colors as a wave of patriotism swept the students. Dean 
Wilson, however, urged the students to remain in school and complete 
their training as quickly and efficiently as possible rather than to enlist 
before the nation had asked for their services. While the Dean did not 
discourage the enthusiasm of any student stimulated by conscience to 
take up arms for his nation, he effectively pointed out that in this war 
involving technical processes there would be a critical demand for en- 
gineers and scientists. The students were told that their service to the 
war effort and hence to their nation, would be materially enhanced 
by a completion of their training. Most students perceived the logic 
in this reasoning and remained in school to join some reserve training 
program or to complete work for a degree and then give to their coun- 
try the technical knowledge so urgently needed in a total war. 

One of the early policies adopted by the administration and faculty, 
devoting greater service to the nation at war, was the acceptance of 
the accelerated program for speeding up the training process. After 
a poll of the students was taken and 442 to 120 voted that they would 
be willing to attend the summer session, the faculty immediately con- 
sidered the problem. In February, 1942, the teaching staff adopted 
an accelerated program for the duration of the conflict. This made 
it possible for beginning students to complete the regular four-year 
college course in three years by attending three full years of two semes- 
ters each plus three summer sessions. In addition to the regular fall 
and winter semester and the spring semester of eighteen weeks each, a 
twelve weeks summer session, at which two-thirds of the requirements 
of a regular semester could be completed, was included. While the 
program was accelerated, the faculty guarded zealously the high acade- 
mic standards which had always been maintained as the policy of the 
school. 

As in the case of the First World War, the facilities of Missouri 
School of Mines were again dedicated to the nation as a service for 



106 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy ^ 

winning the war. An Engineering Defense Program was adopted at the 
school as early as February, 1941. Three programs were offered in 
this training, including engineering drawing, materials testing, and 
machine design. The purpose was to provide technically trained per- 
sonnel for the military and defense industries. A total of 209 students 
were enrolled in this training program for the year 1941, and, by 1942, 
the first contingent was already serving in war industries. 

In the summer of 1942, the program became known as the En- 
gineering, Science, and Management War Training Program. The pro* 
gram was conducted in cooperation with the United State Office of 
Education, the purpose of which was to provide technically trained 
personnel for the military services and war industries. These courses 
were of college grade, but no credit toward a degree was granted. Be- 
ginning in June, 1942, six programs were offered. These programs in- 
cluded: drafting, both basic and advanced; materials inspection and 
testing; machine and tool design; radio technician training; topographic 
mapping and photogrammetry; and economic mineralogy. Certificates 
were issued upon the satisfactory completion of any one term. The 
director of the Defense Training Program was Professor E. W. Carlton, 
of the Civil Engineering department. 

This war-training program, which was conducted from February, 
1941, through the summer of 1943, gave instruction to a total of 830 
students. The contributions of these trained technicians to the winning 
of the war cannot be overestimated. 

The Civil Pilot Training Program was another effective and pop- 
ular war-effort activity at Missouri School of Mines. This program, 
which was instituted in October, 1939, turned out a total of 352 pilots 
for the armed forces by the time the program was terminated in April, 
1943. It was reported that many of those who had completed the 
training served in the armed forces as combat pilots and transport 
pilots, and others served as aviation instructors. Dr. A. J. Miles was 
the co-ordinator of this training program. 

Another group of Missouri School of Mines trainees, who prepared 
for special service in communications, were known as the Signal Corps 
Trainees. This training was initiated on September 21, 1942, with 
an enlisted roll of fifty-six trainees. The course was known as the Pre- 
Radar course and consisted of training in mathematics, circuit theory, 
electronics, and radio communications. The work was under the super- 
vision of the Electrical Engineering department, supplemented by the 
Mathematics department The enrolees received certificates upon com- 
pletion of the training. The first group completed their training in 
December, 1943, when a second contingent arrived. On April 3, 
1943, the second Signal Corps Contingent of 103 members received 



Dean Curtis Laws Wilson 107 

their certificates at a convocation in Parker Hall that was in reality 
a commencement. Dean Wilson was the principal speaker at this con* 
vocation. 

Many students at Missouri School of Mines enrolled in the various 
reserve training programs in the fall of 1942. The first group called 
to active duty were those enlisted in the Army Air Corps, when twenty- 
five men received their orders to report in February, 1943. But the 
major war contribution of the Miner Reservists came in June, 1943, 
when a total of 226 students were called to active duty under the vari- 
ous enlisted reserves. The majority of these were in the army enlisted 
reserve, although a goodly number were in the Navy and Marine Corps. 

The rapid expansion of the United States Army in a day which 
called for mechanized equipment required that a majority of the re- 
cruits be specialists in the many technical phases of warfare. This 
made it mandatory to call upon training facilities of the American 
colleges in order to supply the specialized personnel needed for such 
a war. Early in 1943, the War Manpower Commission made public 
an initial list of universities and colleges eligible for the training needs 
in this specialized field. The School of Mines was selected to train 
specialists for the army in both the basic and advanced units under 
the engineering division. 

The Army Specialized Training Program was inaugurated at the 
school on August 9, 1943. The campus garage was remodeled into 
a mess hall. The warehouse and the top floor of Mechnical Hall were 
converted into barracks. Three terms consisting of twelve weeks each 
for four hundred trainees were established. Since the school was se- 
lected for both basic and advanced training under the engineering 
division, the work included general basic, surveying, internal combustion 
engines, and communications. Courses in chemistry, engineering draw- 
ing, English, geography, history, mathematics., and physics made up the 
basic phase. The military program was conducted by commissioned 
and noncommissioned officers of the army. 

The basic phase of the program, consisting of three twelve-week 
terms, was roughly equivalent to one year of college work. Presumably, 
upon completion of the basic phase, those students whose further train- 
ing and skill the army considered imperative, would enter advanced 
work. Others would be detailed back into the army with a special 
rating, or would enter officers' candidate school. The faculty, on Oc- 
tober 5, 1943, voted to accept Army Specialized Training Program 
(A.S.T.P.) courses for regular college credit. The acceptance of this 
credit from other institutions was likewise approved. 

THe A.S.T.P. was terminated at the School of Mines on April 
29, 1944. This marked the conclusion of three terms of the basic 



108 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

phase. An advanced program also In operation by this time was dis- 
continued by the army. The trainees were detailed to posts of duty 
in the armed forces to apply the principles acquired at the school and 
thus contributed in no small measure to the ultimate triumph. 

Another program of great importance to the war effort on the 
campus was the research carried on by the United States Bureau of 
Mines Ore Dressing Station in cooperation with the State Mining 
Experiment Station. This work was directed largely toward the re- 
covery of strategic war materials from low-grade deposits. The research 
was especially directed on methods for the benefication of domestic 
manganese ores. 

The Topographic and Mapping Section of the Geological Survey 
and the Water Resources Branch also carried on extensive research on 
behalf of the war effort. 

In cooperation with the accelerated program producing critically 
needed graduates for the war effort, the faculty on November 10, 1942, 
reduced graduation requirements from 150 to 144 credit hours plus 
the required work in military and special lectures. This was to be 
operative for the duration of the war, or until February 1, 1945. On 
the latter date, the requirements were to revert to the old system of 
150 hours. 

Shortly after the action by the faculty reducing graduation re- 
quirements, the Selective Service Director issued occupational bulletin 
number 11, which provided for the deferment of engineering students 
who could complete their training before July 1, 1945. Under the 
arrangement, just mentioned those students who entered the school 
in September, 1942, would graduate in August, 1945, and therefore 
could not be recommended for deferment. The faculty accordingly, 
on March 17, 1943, extended the 144 hours graduation requirement 
for the duration. This action placed the freshman class of that year 
under the occupational bulletin. 

It might be stated that after the end of the "shooting war" in 
August, 1945, the faculty voted to return to the old graduation re- 
quirement of 150 hours plus the requirement in military. 

At a special educational conference at Jefferson City, Missouri, 
on December 18, 1942, certain recommendations were made advocating 
lower entrance requirements for colleges. On May 4, 1943, the School 
of Mines faculty adopted the recommendations of the conference which 
provided among other things, that students specifically recommended 
by their high-school principals, who had completed the equivalent of 
three and one-half years of their work and who ranked in the upper 
third of their class, be admitted to the school. 



Dean Curtis Laws Wilson 109 

The high scholastic requirements for which Missouri School of 
Mines has been noted in the past, were further elevated on May 16, 
1944, when the faculty raised the grade-point average required for the 
degree. One might note that this action was taken before the end of 
the war, when the enrollment was still limited. The new provision 
raised the grade-point requirements for graduation from 0.75 to 1.00. 
This change was effective with the fall semester of 1944. However, 
under the new system a grade of F did not inflict negative grade points. 
Grades other than F carried the same number of points as formerly. 
This did constitute a distinct raising of academic standards. 

Another faculty action taken before the close of the war, provided 
for a more drastic policy in regard to unexcused absences from class. 
A regulation, effective March 7, 1945, limited a student who had re- 
ceived a negative hour by reason of unexcused absence other than for 
holiday cuts or late registration, to five unexcused absences for the 
remainder of that semester. Those on probation incurring penalties 
under the rule were regarded as violating their probation and were 
subject to immediate dismissal. The rule showed that in the new post- 
war era, the faculty was in no disposition to tolerate negligence or in- 
efficiency on the part of the students. 

One of the first auricular changes of the Wilson Administration 
was to reduce the freshman course entitled "Special Lectures" from 
two to one hour per week. Also, under the new change, no credit hour 
was to be given for the lecture. In view of the anticipated record 
enrollment in the fall of 1946 and because of other administrative 
difficulties, the faculty in August of that year voted to abolish the fresh- 
man requirement in Special Lectures. 

Other progressive auricular and administrative changes under the 
Wilson administration were the consolidations of departments. At a 
meeting of the Board of Curators, on April 22, 1942, the department 
of History, Psychology, and Biology was abolished. The courses in bio- 
logy, bacteriology, and sanitation were added in the department of 
Civil Engineering. Courses in personnel management, history, and 
psychology were included in the department of Economics. Then, be- 
ginning on September 1, 1942, the department was designated as the 
department of Economics and History. 

In September, 1941, Dean Wilson appointed a Committee on Rules 
and By-Laws to make a study of the rules, and a committee to revise 
the catalog. On October 20, 1941, the special committee on the 
catalog met and recommended a thorough revision of the school 
bulletin by making it more coherent and streamlined. The changes 
recommended and approved made the catalog material more con- 
cise and understandable. The improvements are visible by an exarnina- 



110 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

tion of the 1943-44 catalog when compared with that for 1940-41* 
A more effective method of listing faculty members was adopted. The 
names of secretaries, clerks, and departmental assistants were eliminated. 
A re-writing of descriptions of buildings was recommended to bring 
the information up-to-date. In addition, the catalog material on 
the Experiment Station and the Missouri Geological Survey was re- 
vised. 

Catalog improvements have continued throughout the Wilson 
term. Effective June 1, 1944, was a new numbering system for courses. 
The old system, which had been adopted at the beginning of the Fulton 
Administration, was replaced by one conforming more nearly to that 
in use by the other divisions of the University. The new system brought 
a more clarified distinction between freshman, sophomore, upperclass, 
and graduate courses. iBegnining in 1945, departmental write-ups for 
the degree-granting work was transferred from the section on depart- 
ments of instruction to the division on curricula. 

The Committee on By-Laws in 1942, made a thorough study of 
the rules and regulations and presented its recommendations. Certain 
faculty committees were abolished and their work transferred to others. 
The Committee on Graduate Students was thenceforth known as the 
Committee on Graduate Study and Advanced Degrees. The Com- 
mittee on Student Activities, and the Committee on Educational Prob- 
lems were abolished. The activities of the former largely went to the 
Dean, while those of the latter were transferred to the Committee on 
Policy. The registrar was made secretary ex-officio of the faculty. These 
changes and others which were instituted all made for a more thorough, 
efficient, and centralized administration of the affairs of the school. 

Missouri School of Mines was most fortunate in that its enroll- 
ment maintained a high total up to the closing year of the war. In 
fact, the 958 students for 1942-43, represented a record high for the 
history of the school. The low for the war years came during the 
1944-45 term, when the student body dropped to 308, the smallest 
since the First World War. This low number was only temporary, as 
the close of the war brought a rapid increase, which by the 1945-46 
term had already equalled 905. With the returning veterans and others 
seeking an engineering education, coupled with the growing demand 
for engineering training in the post-war era, enrollment was expected 
to surpass 2,000 for the fall of 1946. This would constitute the largest 
student body in the 75 year history of the school. 

The opening year of the Wilson Administration, 1941-42, found 
the largest senior class in the institution's history, with 219 members. 
This was reflected in a large graduating class in May, 1942, when 188 
seniors received degrees, the greatest number for any commencement 



Dean Curtis Laws Wilson ill 

to that date. This exercise was held in the Uptown Theatre, which had 
a seating capacity greater than could be provided in any building on 
the campus. The commencement speaker, Dr. Clinton H. Crane, 
President of the St. Joseph Lead Company, was awarded the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Engineering. As in the case of enrollment, the 
number of succeeding graduating seniors remained large down to 1945. 
The fact that 584 Bachelor of Science degrees were granted during 
the war years was a national contribution of which the school may 
well be proud. With those graduates offering their engineering knowl- 
edge to the armed forces and applying their critically needed skills 
to war Industry, the school had achieved a meritorious record by the 
close of the conflict. 

While Dean Wilson expressly emphasized the fact that buildings 
do not make an institution, he was perfectly aware of the need for 
the expansion of plant facilities to cope with the growing postwar en- 
rollment. A planning committee was appointed before the close of the 
war to draw up plans for needed buildings when the funds for such 
construction would be available. A Board of Visitors, in its report to 
outgoing Governor Forrest C. Donnell, in January, 1945, recommended 
an expenditure of $4,150,000 for fifteen new buildings at the School of 
Mines. Some of the structures proposed were: dormitories, a mining 
building, ceramics building, a mineral industries building, an audi- 
torium, mechanical engineering building, electrical engineering build- 
ing, R.O.T.C. Armory, a new infirmary, and a student union. In 
addition it called for the completion of the chemistry building, and 
needed repairs on other buildings. While the possibility '"of the school 
receiving all these structures at one time was recognized as being re- 
mote, the report does show the recommendations for the plant expan- 
sion of the future School of Mines. 

The outbreak of the war in 1941, and the resulting demands for 
war materials, made a vast building program impossible. Nevertheless, 
when the struggle broke out, the General Assembly had already made 
an appropriation for the erection of a new heating and power plant 
at the School of Mines. The need for this new plant had been recog- 
nized for some time, and the Board of Curators had recommended an 
appropriation for it as early as April, 1940. The State Legislature 
appropriated $225,000 in June, 1941, and it was anticipated that the 
structure would soon be erected. Meanwhile, with the nation at war, 
the matter of the construction of such a unit became a conjecture. 

President F. M, McDavid, of the Board of Curators, announced 
in January, 1942, that a priority rating had been secured for the boilers 
and equipment for the plant. Then difficulty arose when none of the 
companies bidding could promise delivery of the boilers and turbines 



112 History ef Schod of Mines and Metallurgy 

within a year and some even placed two years as the probable delivery 
date. When it became apparent, in the summer of 1942, that the 
materials essential for the new plant could not be obtained, arrange- 
ments were made to recondition the equipment in the old plant for 
the succeeding winter. By the fall of 1942, it was evident that the ma- 
terials for constructing the unit would likely not be available until the 
close of the war and that the school would be forced to operate with 
the old facilities. 

Finally, with the tragic war drawing to a close, the Missouri Gen- 
eral Assembly in the summer of 1945, appropriated $225,000 for the 
completion of the plant. In anticipation of this appropriation, Presi- 
dent Middlebush, Vice-president Leslie Cowan, and Dean Wilson, 
formulated the plans for the plant to the extent that work was initiated 
in the fall of 1945. It was obvious by the spring of 1946, that the first 
allotment would not be sufficient to complete the construction, and 
provide for the essential equipment. Again the legislature showed its 
generous policy toward the school, and on July 25, 1946, Governor 
Phil M. Donnelly signed the measure which carried funds for the com- 
pletion of this badly needed campus structure. It was planned to have 
this new power and heating plant in operation for the winter season 
of 1946-47. 

The appropriation measure passed by the General Assembly and 
signed by the governor in July, 1946, also carried a fund of $262,500 
for the erection of a dormitory. This allotment was to be matched by 
an equal amount raised by issuing and selling revenue bonds on the 
proposed structure, making a total of $525,000. This contemplated 
structure was supposed to provide beds for three hundred men and aid 
materially in alleviating the housing shortage. After the appropriation 
was voted, construction costs continued to mount, and it became neces- 
sary to plan for a two hundred man dormitory instead of the three 
hundred man unit as previously anticipated. It was planned to erect 
this new dormitory on the lot behind the school hospital and construc- 
tion was to begin at an early date. The School of Mines seemed to be 
on the threshold of the greatest plant expansion in its history. 

The institution under the efficient leadership of Dean Wilson, in 
the spring of 1944, began to make thorough preparations for the train- 
ing of the returning veterans of World War II. In April of that year 
the Dean appointed a Veterans Curricula Committee to plan a pro- 
gram of studies for the returning soldier. This committee, under the 
chairmanship of Professor E. W. Carlton, outlined a number of short 
courses designed specifically for those veterans who for time or other 
factors could not complete the full four-years course required for a 
degree. This committee designed a special program, and at a special 



Dean Curtis Laws Wilson 113 

faculty meeting on August 7, 1944, gave a detailed report of the plans 
completed to that date. At this special meeting four representatives 
from the Veterans Bureau addressed the faculty on the legislation passed 
by Congress concerning veteran training, and on the general task ahead 
for the colleges in meeting the needs of the returning serviceman. 

The college program for veterans was based upon two measures 
passed by the United States Congress. The first of these laws, the Vo- 
cational Rehabilitation Training Act, was passed on March 24, 1943. 
This measure, more commonly known as Public Law Number 16, pro- 
vided for instruction not to exceed four years on the trade school or 
college level for disabled veterans. The second law, the Serviceman's 
Readjustment Act. more popularly known as the G. I, Bill of Rights 
or Public Law Number 346 5 was passed on June 22, 1944. This law 
provided training for any veteran, whether disabled or not, for twelve 
months in addition to time actually sevred providing said veteran was 
under twenty-five years of age at the time of induction. A refresher 
course of one year was provided for those over twenty-five years of age. 

The two measures were modified by Public Law Number 268, 
enacted on December 28, 1945. This law removed all age restrictions 
on veteran trainees and allowed increases in the monthly allowances 
for single veterans from $50 a month to $65, and a boost from $65 
to $90 for married veterans. These acts form the legislative basis for 
the veteran program. 

In the fall of 1944, the faculty approved a program for admitting 
veterans who had completed only the first two years of high school. It 
was, hence, agreed to offer refresher work of a sub-collegiate character, 
or of a preparatory nature, for those who had not completed their full 
high school requirements. The school gave, in residence, work necessary 
to bring a veteran's record up to where he was permitted to enter the 
regular college program. A Veterans* Advisory Committee was selected 
in the spring of 1945, under the chairmanship of Professor S. H. Lloyd. 
This committee functioned effectively in advising and guiding the 
veteran in his many school problems. 

The Veteran Training Program opened at the school in the fall 
of 1944, with eleven ex-servicemen. It was a year, however, before 
there was an appreciate increase, and, by the fall of 1945, a total of 
ninety had matriculated. The coming of V-J Day and the wholesale 
discharges from the service in the following months brought the real 
inauguration of veteran training. In the spring semester of 1946, a 
a total of 584 were training at the school under the two public laws. 
But this was only a beginning, since during the following summer ses- 
sion of 1946, the number of veteran trainees was well over seven hun- 
dred, and they comprised approximately eighty-five per cent of the 



114 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

total number of students. With, an antipicated enrollment of two 
thousand or more in the fall semester of 1946, an estimated sixteen 
hundred or more were expected to be veterans. 

The enormous increase in veteran trainees from only ninety in the 
fall semester of 1945, to 584 for the spring term of 1946, resulted in 
the establishment of a Guidance Center on the campus. The Center 
was opened on Jaunary 28, 1946, with offices on the first floor of Parker 
Hall The Center served as a co-ordinating agency aiding the veteran 
in securing from the St. Louis regional office his subsistence allotments 
and other benefit payments. The Center at the school also served to 
take some of the advisement load from the over-burdened St. Louis 
regional office. The other basic objective of the Guidance Center was 
to bring the advisement or counseling directly to the campus for the 
benefit of the trainee. The Center also offered free guidance service 
to any veteran in this region who requested this service, thereby, obvi- 
ating the necessity of the veteran going to St. Louis. The Veteran's 
Service Committee of the school continued to serve in close cooperation 
with the officer of the Guidance Center in the work of advisement 
and the administering of various types of interest and aptitude tests. 
The school administration adopted the policy of giving the veteran 
the same treatment, recognition, and subject matter as that accorded 
the regular students. A surprising, but somewhat happy result for the 
school administration and the faculty, was the fact that practically all 
of the trainees entered the regular four-year degree program. So few 
entered the short courses that the faculty in August, 1946, abolished 
practically all of the two-year training subjects. 

As in the years following the First World War, Missouri School of 
Mines again dedicated its facilities to the service of those who so hero- 
ically gave their all to preserve the American system of democracy and 
to achieve total victory. The institution was prepared and its facilities 
were expanded to train these servicemen for a more useful and pro- 
ductive life. With a sympathetic Dean and a cooperative faculty, the 
school was thoroughly equipped to render the greatest service in its 
entire history in the training of veterans in the immediate years ahead. 
Because of their common interests, problems, and influence, an 
organization designated as the Campus Veterans* Association, came 
into existence during the fall semester of 1944. The purpose of the 
organization was to give the returned veteran the opportunity of com- 
radeship, and to promote a spirit of mutual assistance both in their con- 
tacts with one another and in their relations to school and community. 
There were only eleven veterans enrolled in school when the associa- 
tion was formed but after January, 1946, when their number exceeded 
five hundred, it became one of the most active and powerful organiza- 
tions on the campus. 



Dean Curtis Laws Wilson 115 

When in January, 1946, the number of veteran trainees surpassed 
five hundred, the problem of housing in Rolla became acute. The 
Campus Veterans' Association immediately acted to devise means of 
alleviating the housing shortage. The association's activities included 
sending a committee to confer with President Middlebush on housing 
units to be furnished by the University, sending a representative to con- 
fer with officials of the Federal Public Housing Administration at Chi- 
cago, and in such local activities as speeches before the Chamber of 
Commerce on the gravity of the situation, and influencing the Rolla 
City Council to relax zoning restrictions for the duration of the emer- 
gency. This veterans' association bids fair to become the most in- 
fluential student organization on the campus. 

On November 1, 1941, the practice was initiated of holding Par- 
ents' Day in conjunction with Engineers' Day. This experiment proved 
a remarkable success, with over five hundred guests observing the engi- 
neering exhibits and attending the parents' activities. Regular classes 
were held during the morning in order that parents might see their 
boys at work, and be given an opportunity of meeting the faculty mem- 
bers. The exhibits were judged by many as the best in the history of 
this celebration. This first experiment was so successful that Parents' 
Day and Engineers' Day have remained combined since 1941. 

The war period from 1941 until 1945, temporarily reduced some 
of the extra-curricular student activities. The activity that was perhaps 
most difficult for students to relinquish was the traditional Saint Pat- 
rick's celebration. Nevertheless, for financial and other reasons this 
renowned student affair was abandoned for the duration of the war, 
following the 1942 festivities. With the coining of V-J Day in August, 
1945, and the subsequent increasing enrollment, the annual visit of Saint 
Patrick to the School of Mines was renewed. The first postwar tradi- 
tional celebration was held in March, 1946. 

The student publication, MISSOURI MINER, experienced fi- 
nancial difficulties by the spring of 1943, and for some time there was 
a possibility that it might be forced to discontinue. The situation was 
relieved, when in June, 1943, the publication became a part of the 
ROLLA NEW ERA for the duration. This local Rolla paper published 
a special section, every Tuesday, devoted to School of Mines affairs 
and activities. Since the close of the war the MINER is again pub- 
lished by the MINER Board. 

The ROLLAMO likewise suffered because of inadequate finances, 
resulting from a limited enrollment. One year the service fraternity, 
Blue Key, published the school annual. These war-time handicaps 
have since been removed, and the 1946 ROLLAMO compares favor- 
ably with that of any previous school annual. 



116 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

The social, honorary, and service fraternities have continued to 
serve their student members and bring honor to the school. On De- 
cember 10, 1944, the Alpha Phi Chapter of Gamma Delta, International 
Association of Lutheran Students, was installed on the campus. The 
association claimed a total of sixteen members by the spring of 1946. 

The Wesley Foundation Student Council, a Methodist student 
organization, was founded on the campus in September, 1945. Mem- 
bership is not limited to Methodist students, but is open to all students. 
It seeks to promote good fellowship and create higher standards of 
ideals among the students. The foundation listed a membership of 
twenty-two students in the spring of 1946, and has served a worthy 
purpose. 

The present Missouri School of Mines Glee Club was organized 
in the fall of 1942. Since 1943, under the direction of D. H. Erk- 
iletian, the club has performed at assemblies, commencements, and 
other school functions, and has won the praise of the faculty, and the 
acclaim of all friends of the school. 

The highlight of athletic developments since 1941, has been the 
enlargement of the intramural sports program. The war years with 
the forced curtailment of intercollegiate competition, brought an in- 
creased emphasis upon intramural activity. This consists of competi- 
tion in practically all phases of sports among the social fraternities 
and other student organizations. An intramural league exists with 
these school organizations as members, and during the 1945-46 school 
year these members competed in football, basketball, track, volleyball, 
handball, rifle marksmanship, wrestling, swimming, and boxing. In 
the summer of 1946, fencing became an intramural sport, and the 
M.S.M. Fencing Club was chartered in August of this year. This 
intramural activity is one of the most significant extra-curricular pro- 
grams at the School of Mines, and Coaches Gale Bullman and D wight 
Hafeli are to be commended for their untiring efforts in initiating the 
program. 

Intercollegiate football was suspended in 1944, for one year, and in 
the fall of 1945, Missouri Intercollegiate Athletic Association competi- 
tion was renewed. The school prospects for the future appear excellent 
with the increasing enrollment, and winning football, basketball, and 
track teams are a distinct possibility in the years ahead. 

One of the most recent and perhaps most significant progressive 
curricular policies adopted by the Wilson Administration has been the 
integration of the humanistic studies within a single division. The 
new division is designated the Department of Humanities and Social 
Studies. This constructive change represents an attempt to achieve a 
greater degree of co-ordination between the fields of English, modern 



Dean Curtis Laws Wilson 117 

languages, and the social studies and the fields of professional en- 
gineering. It is anticipated that a more complete training in these 
liberal subjects, so essential to the professional engineer of the 20th 
Century, can be attained. 

This revision conforms to recommendations by the Committee on 
Engineering Schools of the American Society for Engineering Educa- 
tion. It is likewise recommended by various educators as elaborated 
through articles in the JOURNAL of ENGINEERING EDUCATION. 

This curricular reorganization plan was officially adopted by the 
Board of Curators on August 30, 1946. To supervise and head this 
significant department, the Board selected Professor Samuel H. Lloyd, 
Jr._, who previously served as chairman of the Department of Economics 
and History. 

In order to give the reader some conception of the leaders di- 
recting the work of the various departments of instruction, the present 
departmental chairmen have been included: 

Ceramic Engineering Dr. Paul G. Herold 

Chemical Engineering Dr. Walter T. Schrenk 

Civil Engineering Joe B. Butler 

Electrical Engineering .Floyd H. Frame 

Engineering Drawing Clifford H. Black 

Geology and Mineralogy. Dr. Oliver R. Grawe 

Humanities and Social Studies Samuel H. Lloyd, Jr. 

Mathematics Rolf e M. Rankin 

Mechanical Engineering Dr. Aaron J. Miles 

Mechanics .Rex Z. Williams 

Metallurgical Engineering and 

Ore Dressing Dr. Albert W. Schlechten 

Military Science and Tactics Major Edward G. Richardson 

Mining Engineering Dr. J. Donald Forrester 

Physics Dr. Leon Woodman 

The genuine success attained by Missouri School of Mines during 
the past five years may be attributed to the courage, administrative 
ability, and inspirational zeal of its present Dean, Curtis Laws Wilson. 
Dean Wilson has not only taken an active part in civic, religious, and 
community affairs of Rolla, but has also won statewide acclaim as a 
public speaker. His administration has won the full support of the 
university administration at Columbia. Dean Wilson without doubt, 
will rank as one of the greatest administrative heads in the history of 
the school. 

A history of the Missouri School of Mines would be incomplete 
without recognition of the interest, efforts, and loyalty displayed by 
President Frederick A. Middlebush, of the University of Missouri, of 
which the School of Mines is a division. President Middlebush has at- 



118 



History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 



tained a distinguished record in the administration of the affairs of 
the University of Missouri^ since his inauguration as President in 1935. 
Under the leadership of President Middlebush and the direct su- 
pervision of Dean Wilson, the School of Mines is rendering, and will 
continue to render, a service that will eclipse the noble achievements 
of the past. 

BACHELOR DEGREES GRANTED 1942-1946 
Year Mining Met. Civil Meek. Elect. Chem. Ceramic Science Total 



1942 
1943 
1944 
1945 
1946 



62 
40 
13 

4 
11 



Totals.. 130 



26 

23 

27 

5 

5 

86 



21 

26 

11 

2 

7 

67 



37 

43 

31 

5 

2 



118 



27 

20 

30 

7 

5 

89 



35 
25 
28 
11 
8 



107 



6 

12 



1 

4 

23 



217 

191 

141 

35 

45 

629 



ENROLLMENT BY CURRICULA 1941-1946 
Min- Cera- 

Year ing Met. Civil Mech. Elect. Chem. mic. Gen. Sci. 

1941-42 149 110 82 164 98 125 29 94 7 
1942-43 124 112 95 187 112 146 23 124 7 
1943-44 57 64 58 107 68 100 11 28 



Unc. Total 
7 28 886 
7 28 958 
6 A.S.T.P.527 
30 556 



1944-45 26 
1945-46 121 



23 31 
64 111 



44 37 
143 126 



52 
102 



8 
21 



54 
151 



2 

16 



1083 

31 *308 
41 2905 



^Including one duplicate 
2 IncludIng four duplicates 



ENROLLMENT BY CLASSES 1941-1946 
Sopho- 



Year Freshmen mores Juniors 



1941-42 
1942-43 
1943-44 

1944-45 
1945-46 



221 
323 
120 

143 
496 



225 

175 

60 

33 
126 



185 
213 
101 

51 
116 



Unclassi- 


Seniors 


Graduates 


fied 


Totals 


219 


11 


25 


886 


211 


13 


25 


958 


213 


7 


27 






A.S.T.P. 


556 


1084 


48 


2 


31 


308 


89 


26 


52 


905 



TOTAL BACHELOR OF SCIENCE DEGREES GRANTED BY MISSOURI 

SCHOOL OF MINES AND METALLURGY 

1874-1946 

1874-1888 44 

1888-1907 192 

1907-1920 403 

1920-1941 1,792 

1941-1946 629 



Total 3,060 



Dean Curtis Laws Wilson 



119 



PERCENTAGE OF STUDENTS WHO LIVED IN MISSOURI 




1924-1945 








Total 


Live in 




Year Enrollment 


Missouri 


Per Cent 


1924-25 


399 


212 


53 


1925-26 


408 


286 


58 


1926-27 


446 


272 


61 


1927-28 


505 


288 


57 


1928-29 


536 


307 


57 


1929-30 


552 


341 


62 


1930-31 


635 


408 


64 


1931-32 


679 


464 


68 


1932-33 


529 


384 


72.5 


1933-34 


384 


291 


76 


1934-35 


415 


328 


79 


1935-36 


446 


346 


77 


1936-37 


531 


414 


78 


1937-38 


707 


537 


76 


1938-39 


809 


582 


72 


1939-40 


895 


640 


72 


1940-41 


931 


663 


71 


1941-42 


886 


642 


72 


1942-43 


958 


725 


76 


1943-44 Civilian 


528 


419 


79 


A.S.T.P. 


556 


40 


7 


Total 


1084 


459 


42 


1944-45 


307 


248 


81 



MASTERS OF SCIENCE DEGREES GRANTED 
1942 - 1946 

Met. 

Year Mining Eng, Civil Mech. Elect. Chem. Ceramic Science Total 

22 1 



1942 
1943 
1944 
1945 
1946 



Totals. . .4 



5 

1 

2 
5 

13 



PROFESSIONAL DEGREES GRANTED 
1942 - 1946 

Met. 
Year Mining Eng. Civil Mech. Elect. Chem. Ceramic Science Total 

.... 1 2 3 

1 1 1 .. 3 

3 1 1 1 .... 6 



1942 
1943 
1944 
1945 
1946 



Totals... 7 



2 
2 

16 



120 History of School of Mines and Metallurgy 

RETROSPECT 

The seventy-five year historical record of Missouri School of Mines 
is a story of glorious achievements that have brought honor and fame 
to the State of Missouri. The distinguished alumni are serving in 
responsible positions all over the world. Many of these sons have won 
international fame for themselves, for their Alma Mater, and for the 
state. 

The many contributions of the institution during the three-quarters 
century of its existence are so universal and stupendous that they defy 
description, much less enumeration. An attempt to evaluate the serv- 
ices rendered in terms of pecuniary expenditures made by the people 
of the state would be equally absurd and a ridiculous farce. Should 
an attempt be made to evaluate the many contributions on a pecuniary 
basis one would discover that the alumni have contributed to the total 
wealth of the nation a sum far beyond all that has been expended 
for the school's support and maintenance. The institution has per- 
formed a real function in the training of the sons and daughters of 
Missouri in leading a more useful, beneficial, and fruitful life. Such a 
service cannot be measured in a physical sense. 

The seventy-five years of progress is the story of the evolution of 
the modern School of Mines with its present campus, modern plant 
facilities, and an eminent faculty, from the small one-building institu- 
tion with a. faculty of three members and a limited enrollment of twenty- 
eight It is a record of increasing service, of a broadening curricula, 
and of development of modem standards of scholarship and research. 

For about a quarter of a century growth was limited and the 
school experienced many hardships, but after these early difficulties, 
the institution began a remarkable period of development that made it 
one of the greatest Schools of Mines and Metallurgy in the entire 
country. The institution today stands as a symbol of the unselfish de- 
votion, vision, and intellectual foresight, of those who have so courage- 
ously served it in the past. 

The history of Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy has formed 
a significant phase in the development of the state. Its problems, 
crises, growth, and expansion have played an integral part in the his- 
torical progress of this great commonwealth. As this institution pre- 
pares for a greater and nobler future, it is enriched by a past record 
of achievement, success, and attainment that will be outstanding as a 
source of inspiration and as a guiding tradition for ages to come. 




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