ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY
3 1833 01081 1583
Third Indiana Cavalry
W. N. Pickerill
AETNA PRINTING CO.
\ To the brave men of the Third Indiana Cavalry who served in
i the Civil War, vp-hether now living or sleeping where loving hands
^%~^ have laid them, or in unknown and unmarked graves, in Southern
V lands, this volume is affectionately inscribed.
One hundred and thirty volumes, published by authority of
Congress, and entitled "The War of the Rebellion, Official Records
of the Union and Confederate Armies," are supposed to contain
a history of every military organization serving on either side of
the mighty conflict, known as the Civil War, from 1861 to 1865.
To read the story of a regiment, as the government has preserved
it, in all these numerous volumes, which as a rule are only found
in public libraries, or in the collections of a few fortunate indi-
viduals, would be the work of a good part of the lifetime of many
of those who survive, but had somewhat to do with the great
struggle. To serve these worthy men, their families, and those
who have gone out from among us, but have left posterity, to
whom their memories and deeds of valor are very precious, this
history of the Third Indiana Cavalry has been prepared.
Much of what is herein offered to those who read this book was
written — at the time when the deeds herein recorded were enacted
— by those in authority, and while those deeds were fresh in the
minds of the participants. This volume is more a compilation of
what others, better qualified, have written than a narration in the
writer's own language of the interesting story of one of the most
splendid regiments that served in the Civil War. The records are
referred to by volume and page, so that it will always be possible
for the doubting to verify the correctness of what is herein writ-
ten, should they have access to the records. Many things still
vivid in our memories, the recital of which would tell an interest-
ing story of the valor and devotion to duty of our comrades, never
found a place in any record or report, as seems to have been neces-
sarily true of any regiment in the cavalry service, while others.
for whose omission there seems hardly to be any excuse, have been
preserved in the reports of famous leaders of our enemies, whom
we met on many a well contested field.
The daily life of the common soldier, as it was lived in our
war, in camp, on the march, on picket, in the hospital, in captivity
in Southern prisons, and on the battlefield, can never be under-
stood or fully appreciated except by those who lived that life, and
its portrayal, that others may realize it as we realized it, must
ever remain unwritten history.
Indianapolis, May, 1906.
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
The period for which seventy-five thousand troops had been
enlisted was nearing its close and little had been accomplished in
the way of ending the rebellion, while with each passing day the
rebellion itself grew to more formidable proportions, and its pro-
moters became more defiant and confident of their ability to cope
with any force the government at Washington might send against
them. This was the situation long before the term of enlistment
of the first seventy-five thousand volunteers had expired.
On the first day of July, 1861, came the battle of Bull Run at
Manassas, Virginia, in which the best troops at the disposal of the
government met a superior body of troops imder General Beaure-
gard, in which the government forces were completely routed and
fled in confusion to the defenses of Washington, pursued by the
victorious confederates with the evident purpose of taking pos-
session of and holding the Capital of the country. They paused
on the west bank of the Potomac, almost within cannon shot of
where Congress was sitting, and made their camp there for months.
The seriousness of the situation now took possession of the
people both IsTorth and South. In the ]^orth the feeling of con-
sternation among those who believed the government should be
upheld gave place to a grim determination that the government
must be sustained at all hazards, and in no section of the entire
country was this feeling more intense than in the State of Indiana.
From the very first Governor Morton was apparently impressed
with the impending tragedy, and while he promptly equipped and
8 HiSTOEY OF THE ThIRD InDIANA CaVALRY.
hurried to the field the forty-six hundred and eighty men called
for by President Lincoln's first proclamation, he foresaw that he
would soon be called on for additional troops by the general govern-
ment, and within five days after he had issued his first call he
tendered the Secretary of War six additional regiments without
limitation as to the time they were to serve, assuring that official
that they would be ready for the service within five days after
acceptance. He received no response to this offer, but at once set
about putting six additional regiments in camp under discipline
and held them subject to the demand of the government. There
were in Camp Morton twenty-nine companies in excess of the
number of men required to fill the first call for troops, and sixty-
eight companies had been raised in different parts of the State and
tendered to the Governor for active service; and the Governor on
his own responsibility determined to organize five regiments of
"twelve-months" men for the defense of the State, or for the
general service, as the future might require, the regiments to be
composed of the first fifty companies already raised. All volun-
teers who had enlisted for three months and were unwilling to
enlist for one year were directed to be discharged.
Although among many of those desiring to enlist there was a
strong inclination to enter the cavalry service, yet by reason of the
position taken by General Winfield Scott, the head of the army,
organizations for this branch of the service had not been encour-
aged by the authorities; but, on the 10th of June, 1861, in pur-
suance to instructions from the War Department, orders were
issued for the organization of a cavalry regiment in the counties
of Indiana bordering on the Ohio river, and camps of rendezvous
were established at Evansville and Madison. The organization
of eight companies was completed at Evansville and mustered
in on the 20th of August, 1861, with Conrad Baker as colonel and
Scott Carter, of Vevay, Switzerland county, as lieutenant-colonel.
The eight companies at Evansville under Colonel Baker, on the
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 9
21st of August, 1861, were ordered to St. Louis, Missouri. The
five companies organized at Madison under Lieutenant-Colonel
Carter, and the one company organized at Indianapolis, which
was ordered to proceed to Madison and join the companies already
there, were mustered into the service on the 22d day of August,
1861, and were ordered to the Army of the Potomac under Lieu-
tenant-Colonel Carter, and on the 22d of October, 1861, by general
orders of the Adjutant-General of the United States, these six
companies united with four companies which had been accepted in
September and October, 1861, and ordered to Kentucky, were
designated as the Third Cavalry (Forty-fifth Regiment). In
December, 1862, two new companies were organized and added
to the regiment.
The six companies that had been ordered to the Army of the
Potomac were designated as Companies A, B, C, T>, E and F, and
the four companies that had been ordered to Kentucky were des-
ignated as Companies G, H, I and K. The officers of the six com-
panies were mustered to date from the 22d of August, 1861, and
the officers of the respective companies as originally organized
were as follows : Company A, Captain Jacob S. Buchanan, First
Lieutenant William Patton, Second Lieutenant Robert P. Porter ;
Company B, Captain James D. Irwin, First Lieutenant Benjamin
Q. A. Gresham, Second Lieutenant Marshall Lahue ; Company C,
Captain Theophilus M. Danglade, First Lieutenant Charles
Lemon, Second Lieutenant Paul Clark; Company D, Captain
Daniel P. Keister, First Lieutenant Mathew B. Mason, Second
Lieutenant Henry F. Wright; Company E, Captain William S.
McClure, First Lieutenant George H. Thompson, Second Lieu-
tenant Abner L. Shannon ; Company F, Captain Patrick Garland,
First Lieutenant Oliver M. Powers, Second Lieutenant Thomas
M. Moffitt; Company G, Captain Felix W. Graham, First Lieu-
tenant George F. Llerriott, Second Lieutenant John S. Kephart;
Company H, Captain Alfred Gaddis, First Lieutenant Joseph M.
10 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
Douglas, Second Lieutenant Uriah Young; Company I, Captain
Will C. Moreau, First Lieutenant Tighlman Fisli, Second Lieu-
tenant Oliver Childs; Company K, Captain Eobert Klein, First
Lieutenant Christoph Eoll, Second Lieutenant George Klein.
Lieutenant-Colonel Scott Carter was named as colonel of the new
regiment upon its organization, and First Lieutenant George H.
Thompson, of Company E, was detailed as adjutant.
On the 21st of October, 1861, Elias W. H. Beck was mustered
in as surgeon, Luther Brosie as assistant surgeon of the regiment,
George H. Chapman as major. On the 8th of November, 1861,
Captain Jacob S. Buchanan, of Company A, was promoted and
mustered in as lieutenant-colonel. On the 15th of December,
1861, First Lieutenant William Patton, of Company A, was pro-
moted and mustered in as captain of the company to fill the va-
cancy created by the promotion of Captain Buchanan to lieu-
tenant-colonel, and First Lieutenant Charles Lemon was promoted
and mustered captain of Company C to fill the vacancy created
by the resignation of Captain Danglade, of that company.
The officers of this newly named regiment, like the men, as to
former vocations in life, were a motley aggregation, and the entire
organization perhaps knew less about war than any other matter.
The colonel and lieutenant-colonel had been attorneys-at-law in
their respective homes, and it was said the former had seen service
in the Mexican war. Major Chapman had been a midshipman in
the navy, editor of two or three newspapers, attorney-at-law and
a clerk in one of the departments at Washington. Other company
officers had been farmers, teachers, tailors, steamboatmen, livery
stable keepers, merchants, and one captain had been a minister in
the Methodist church fresh from his pulpit, while his orderly
sergeant was a storming Universalist preacher who never hesi-
tated to combat the theology of any one, regardless of rank, whose
theology conflicted with his peculiar views.
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 11
The six companies ordered from Madison to the Army of the
Potomac were loaded on steamboats chartered by the government
and started up the Ohio river. On board the Stephen Decatur
this theologically belligerent orderly sergeant preached to the
prospective soldiers on board a sermon full of comfort to those
who were doubtful of their future state. At this time men and
officers alike were kindergarten pupils in the art of war. Their
equipments were halters for the horses, uniforms, spurs and
blankets for the men, except the officers who had drawn upon their
home resources, gorgeously uniformed themselves and were mag-
nificently mounted with trappings that inspired the envy of their
men. Solomon in all his glory was hardly arrayed like unto one
of these. The steamboats transporting these six companies strug-
gled with low water and sandbars in the Ohio river until Wheel-
ing, Virginia, was reached, when water transportation was aban-
doned entirely and the command took to the mountains, heading
On this march the men first developed soldierly qualities, which
they learned to cultivate and improve upon during the entire
period of service. As they traveled across the country the farm
houses along the way were besieged by the men for wheat sacks
or anything else out of which they could improvise some sort of a
saddle, by stuffing the same with straw, while clotheslines pro-
cured in the same manner were cut into lengths and used for
stirrups. Thus mounted and guiding their horses with only the
halters, which the government had furnished, and directed by
their gaily caparisoned officers, the aggregation afforded a spec-
tacle for gods and men. But aside from these disfiguring accoutre-
ments, the battalion was a splendid body of fine looking young
men, each of whom in his own right owned a good Indiana horse,
and they were on the way to the Capital of their country to be
equipped as cavalry soldiers in her service, and the loyal people
of Virginia and Pennsylvania gave us a royal welcome, fed us on
12 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
the fat of the land, and bade us good-bye with their blessing. After
three days, never to be forgotten, we reached Pittsburg, were
loaded into cars, such as they hauled soldiers in, and after a day
and night on the railroad we were dropped down, in the night, at
the Baltimore depot in the city of Washington.
On their arrival at Washington City in the early days of Sep-
tember, 1861, the six companies of the Third Indiana Cavalry,
that had been ordered from Madison, Indiana, to the Army of
the Potomac, were assigned to a camp on the northeastern out-
skirt of the city, where they were further partially equipped, being
furnished with saddles and bridles for the horses, haversacks,
canteens, sabers and dragoon pistols. This latter implement of
war was better laiown by those unfamiliar with martial parlance
as the "horse pistol," perhaps because the cavalry soldiers of the
old regular army were called dragoons and they carried two of
these pistols in holsters fastened on the front part of their saddles.
It was about a foot long and was loaded at the muzzle by means
of an iron ramrod attached to the under side of the barrel and
when fired kicked about as hard as it would shoot, and the man
behind it was in more danger than the man in front. It was so
hard on trigger that when the marksman took aim at the enemy
by the time his pistol was discharged he was liable to be shooting
at the men in his own regiment. In practicing marksmanship it
was never wise to choose for a mark anything smaller than a good
sized barn, and if right-handed when you aimed at one end you
would hit the other or miss the mark entirely. This was the
weapon with which Southern chivalry fought duels in the days
when dueling was fashionable, and after our experience we could
understand how duelists were sometimes hurt or killed because
they stood with their backs to each other and at the count of "One,
two, three," they wheeled and fired, and in the grand sweep some-
body might accidentally be hit, but it was just as likely to be the
seconds or bystanders as the combatants. Certainly our fore-
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 13
fathers who attended duels were brave men and took their lives in
their hands unless stationed in trees or hid in the bushes on some
As soon as equipped this battalion began a persistent course of
drilling on horseback, with such weapons as the government fur-
nished. We practiced jumping our horses over low fences and
narrow ravines and gutters with which the clay hillsides around
Washington in those days abounded. And in these exercises there
was many a miscalculation by the embryo cavalryman. Often he
found his horse able to jump but half as high or as far as he had
supposed he could, and the last half of the jump would take the
form of a somersault, in which the horse would come out on top
and the rider underneath or left stranded on the top rail of a
fence or in the bottom of a ditch. It was fun for the beholder, but
hard on the jumper. In these incipient days of our military prepa-
ration we saw a bold orderly sergeant yell in stentorian voice, "Men,
follow me when I jump that ditch right there," and with the com-
mand he plunged his spurs into the protuberant flanks of his big
Indiana plow horse and the next minute the horse, which fell
short in his reach, was standing on his head in the ditch and the
orderly sergeant was sprawling on his back with canteen, haver-
sack, saber and pistol all flying in different directions, much to
the amusement of the braves who were bringing up the rear. This
was one of the amusing things in our early cavalry drill, but in
due season we were sent to the division of General Hooker, at
Bladensburg, where duels were fought by our revolutionary sires
(with horse pistols, no doubt).
The battalion continued its drill exercises after it went into
camp at Bladensburg, and when General Hooker with his division
was ordered to Budds Ferry, Maryland, twenty-five miles south
of Washington on the lower Potomac, it continued a part of his
command and was the only cavalry with him. About December,
1861, Companies B and F were sent still further south into St.
14 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
Marys county, Maryland, and Company E into Charles county,
near Port Tobacco. The population of this section of the country
was thoroughly in sympathy with the South and slavery in its
purity had existed there for more than a hundred years ; slave
property was the principal thing of value there when the war broke
out. The region was on a direct line between Washington and
Eichmond, and the lower Potomac was constantly being crossed
by people going from one point to the other. The confederate
authorities at Richmond were kept as well informed regarding
all military movements within the federal lines as were the federal
The three companies sent into these counties were under the
command of Major Chapman, who established his headquarters
at Leonardtowm, the county seat of St. Marys county, and dis-
tributed his men in small squads at various points along the
Potomac from Chaptico to the mouth of the Pautuxent river, and
it was their duty to patrol the river and picket the mouths of the
numerous creeks flowing into the river from the Maryland side.
Contraband traffic of all kinds with Virginia was carried on to
and from the mouths of these creeks by means of small sail and
row boats managed by a desperate class of negroes and white men
for the compensation which blockade runners were willing to pay
for their services. This part of the river was patrolled by a flotilla
of gunboats under the commond of Commodore McRae, of the
navy, but it seemed to be an easy matter for the blockade runners,
in these small row and sail boats, in the stillness of the night, as
was usually the case, to dodge past the gunboats and put into the
mouth of some creek, and thus escape capture at their hands. The
men of the Third Indiana Cavalry on picket at these points accom-
plished what the gunboats failed to accomplish, and many of the
blockade runners fell into their hands, after escaping the gun-
boats, and were hurried away to General Hooker's headquarters
to be dealt with as his judgTaent directed. This was the winter's
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 15
work of these three companies, and many of the men, besides being
active cavalrymen on land, became skilled in the handling of small
boats to such an extent that General Hooker called them his
There were at this time some loyal people in the State of Mary-
land and in the person of Hon. Montgomery Blair the State of
Maryland was represented in the cabinet of President Lincoln,
but we know that the secession thugs of Baltimore welcomed the
first federal troops passing through there in April, 1861, "with
bloody hands to a hospitable grave," and lower Maryland, which
would mean all of the state south of Washington City, was a
seething hotbed of disloyalty to the Union. The state did not pass
the ordinance of secession, not perhaps because her lawmakers
did not wish to, but for the reason that Union troops were located
at nearly all points within her borders. The Fugitive Slave Law
was still in force and she was protected in her slave property, and
her disloyal population was arrogant in its defiance and contempt
of the federal authorities. Parties going south into the confed-
erate lines, or coming north from rebel territory, reaching this
lower Maryland country, found a protector and helper in every
resident, and the slave population, which seemed to realize that
their days of bondage were nearing the end, was the only draw-
back to this being a land of perfect safety for those who were
hostile and doing all they could against their government.
Wherever the Union troops marched and fought on Southern
soil and where the institution of slavery existed, they found in the
slaves themselves trustworthy friends upon whom they could rely
for much valuable information as to existing conditions, and this
was particularly so in lower Maryland during the first winter of
the war of the rebellion. Leonardtown, the county seat of St.
Marys county, was the central point of active rebel operations
within the federal lines, and these operations were much confused
and finally almost completely broken up by the assistance of the
16 History of the Thied Indiana Cavalry.
slave population in the shape of the information they were con-
stantly furnishing to the federal authorities; and when the com-
panies of the Third Indiana Cavalry that had wintered in their
community were, in March, 1862, recalled to the camp of the
regiment at Budds Ferry, where it was a part of General Hooker's
division which lay along the Potomac at that point, it was con-
fronted by a division of confederates on the Virginia side of the
river, which had artillery planted on the bluffs to command the
river at that point, and from which it frequently shelled passing
United States vessels, and at times varied this work by throwing
shells at random into General Hooker's camp, to which he re-
sponded with his batteries.
When the Army of the Potomac under General McClellan left
the defenses of Washington, to begin the Chickahominy campaign
of 1862 at Norfolk, Virginia, all the troops of Hooker's division
at Budds Ferry, save the Third Indiana Cavalry, joined in the
movement, and this left the cavalry in charge of the camps until
March 24, 1862, when the battalion was ordered to Washing-
ton; and on May 24, 1862, they were ordered to Thoroughfare
Gap, where General Geary was posted with a division of troops
watching the operations of Gen. Stonewall Jackson in the Shenan-
doah Valley. General Geary at once availed himself of the ser-
vices of the Third Indiana, which was the only cavalry at his dis-
posal, and from that time on the battalion was actively engaged in
scouting in advance of General Geary's division, going to Front
Royal and near Winchester, where Jackson had maintained his
headquarters after driving General Milroy out of the valley. Early
in June, 1862, General Shields' division of Fremont's army had
met Jackson's troops at Port Republic, been worsted and retreated
to Luray, at which point the battalion joined General Shields and
formed his rear guard as he fell back to Front Royal, and was with
him as he continued his march to Catletts Station, on the Orange
History of the Thied Indiana Cavaley. 17
& Alexandria railroad, where lie was relieved of command in the
field and sent to the Pacific coast.
From this point the battalion crossed the country to Falmouth,
Virginia, opposite Fredricksburg, on the Kappahannock river,
where it joined the division of Gen. Rufus King, which was a part
of General Burnside's command, and was here some weeks scout-
ing over the territory lying between Fredricksburg and Rich-
mond. This territory was apparently common to the cavalry of
both the North and the South, as it was no uncommon occurrence
for them to encounter each other during scouting expeditions, and
several brisk engagements took place at different points.
In Volume XII, Part 2, page 102, Col. J. Kilpatrick, later
famous in the cavalry annals of the war, gives an official account
of one of these encounters with the enemy on the 2 2d of July,
1862, near Carmel Church, south of the Massaponax river, in
Caroline county, his command being made up of 390 men from
the Second ISTew York (Harris' Light) Cavalry, Third Indiana
Cavalry and Fourteenth Brooklyn. Colonel Kilpatrick says: "I
reconnoitered the enemy's camp. We occupied a good position on
a hill gently sloping towards the river, a fine position for a cavalry
fight, and I at once determined to attack him. I directed Major
Davies to deploy the carbineers of the Harris Light Cavalry as
skirmishers on the right and left of the road and Major Chapman
(Third Indiana) to proceed up the road in column of platoons
to charge. Major Davies advanced rapidly with his skirmishers,
gaining ground to the right for the purpose of flanking the enemy,
drawing his skirmishers back and beyond his column in the road.
Major Chapman, seeing that this column was about to return,
charged most gallantly, routed and pursued the enemy to within
sight of Hanover Junction, nearly five miles, destroyed the camp
and tents and burned the stores and seven carloads of grain. Sud-
denly and unexpectedly a large force of cavalry (afterwards found
to be Stewart's) came down on our right. I ordered up the re-
18 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
serves, and the enemy, althougli greatly outniunbering our tired
and worn-out soldiers, was promptly met by Majors Davies and
Chapman and forced back in great confusion far behind the fire
of Captain Walter's carbineers. Major Chapman and his whole
command promptly obeyed every order, and charged most gal-
lanty. Braver and more eager men never met the enemy."
At page 122 of the same volume. Brig. -Gen. John Gibbons fur-
nishes Gen. Rufus King with his official account of his trip down
the Telegraph road in the direction of Richmond on the 5th of
August, 1862, for the purpose of destroying the Virginia Central
railroad. He says : "I proceeded out the Telegraph road with the
Second and Seventh Wisconsin, the ISTineteenth Indiana, the Third
Indiana Cavalry and Monroe's (Rhode Island) Battery. At
Thornburg, fifteen miles out, the cavalry in advance was fired
upon by a six-pounder gun and driven back by a cavalry force,
whose advance was stopped by a few shots from our skirmishers
and four or five shots from Monroe's guns. The day was so in-
tensely hot that I was unable to proceed further. The next day
the march was resumed, and after marching seven miles learned
that General Stewart, with a larger force than my own, was
moving up the Bowling Green road. All prospect of surprising
the enemy at the railroad was given up ; and, owing to the intense
heat, I decided to return to camp, first sending a part of the
cavalry to our right to get in on the rear of a party reported to be
there by a cavalry picket I had sent on that road in the morning.
I also sent a company of cavalry across to examine the Bowling
Green road. Just before reaching our camp of the night before
the enemy's guns were heard in our rear, and I pushed forward
and reported to General Hatch."
In this movement a considerable force of Stewart's cavalry was
encountered drawn up in line of battle, and the Third Indiana
Cavalry and Monroe's Battery were sent forward to engage them,
"but," says Captain Monroe (page 126), "the enemy fell back
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 19
most hurriedly, followed by our cavalry and the battery, and we
kept up the chase for two hours and a half, until nightfall, when
we went into camp on the Massaponax river." In this engagement
Marmaduke Green, of Company D, Third Indiana, was killed,
he being the first man killed in action in our regiment.
While performing this duty Captain Carland and Lieutenant
Powers, of Company F, and Captain Keister, of Company D,
resigned and returned home. Lieutenant Henry F. Wright was
made captain of Company D and Lieut. T. W. Moffitt was made
captain of Company F.
In July, 1862, while scouting with twenty-five of his men, twelve
miles south of Fredricksburg, at the farm of Dr. Flippo, Captain
Moffitt was attacked by a superior force of rebel cavalry, also
scouting in that section of the country, and with part of his com-
mand Captain Moffitt was captured and taken to Richmond. In
the fight Sergt. William M. Gwinn was seriously wounded, and,
after being paroled by his captors, was left at the home of Dr.
Flippo, where he was kindly nursed for several weeks until able to
be removed. Being on parole, after he was sent within our lines, he
was discharged and sent home, a cripple for life.
In these summer days of 1862 this old Virginia country is
recalled with much interest by the writer. Between Fredricks-
burg and Richmond, connected by rail, were some of the finest
farms and farm homes in the state, and the institution of slavery,
which had flourished here from the days when Virginia was a
colony and to the time of our advent had been undisturbed; but
apparently the moment the section was invaded by federal troops
the institution of slavery began to interest itself in the subject of
its own freedom, and in a short time many of the old-time planta-
tions were denuded of their slaves, who embraced every oppor-
tunity to escape to the federal lines and camps north of the Rap-
pahannock. Often at midnight old and trusted slaves on these
plantations would hitch up the family carriage, loading in all the
20 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
children and connection it was possible to carry, and would strike
out towards the unknown in the night time, followed by others on
foot carrying their earthly belongings in sacks and pillow slips on
their heads, and by daylight would be well on their way to the
fabled land of the free. Frequently they would be followed by
their old masters or some member of the family, but they were
seldom overtaken until safe within our lines and the power of
slavery was broken; but some of these interviews between old
masters and old slaves, one begging the other to return to the old
home, were pathetic indeed. Scarcely any of these slaves had ever
known anything but slavery, and perhaps in many instances their
treatment had not been harsh, but instinctively they seemed to
know from observation that their lives were different from the
lives of the masters, that one was property and the other was not,
that one ruled and the other obeyed, and they seemed to have a
vague idea that the antipode of slavery was to make the slave the
equal of his master, and it was seldom the pursuing master was
able to induce his escaped chattel to return to the plantation. He
was at times fortunate enough to recover the family carriage and
horses in some federal camp, and perhaps permitted by the officers
in command to drive it back to the old plantation. Bowling Green,
the county seat of Caroline county, midway between Fredricks-
burg and Eichmond, was in the midst of a thriving section of
country and was an active part of the Southern Confederacy.
Fredricksburg, located on the south bank of the Kappahannock,
in a beautiful valley of that river, was a compactly brick-built,
little old city of historic interest. A few miles below the city on
the peninsula formed by the Potomac and Kappahannock, George
Washington was born on a plantation; in Fredricksburg he had
his first office as a land surveyor ; and upon a little hillock overlook-
ing the city was buried Martha Washington, the mother of the
Father of His Country, her resting place being marked by a
granite block ten feet high by eight feet square, which we passed
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 21
daily. The road winding up the hill by this monument passed
over Maryes Heights, where, in December following, General
Lee's Army of Northern Virginia was posted, and fought the
Army of the Potomac, under General Burnsides, with such dis-
astrous results to the Union cause.
While the battalion had its camp and performed service in this
historic section of the country the scene of conflict in Virginia
was shifted. After many fierce conflicts from ISTorfolk up through
the swamps of the Chickahominy in an effort to reach Richmond,
General McClellan with his magnificent army was compelled to
fall back upon his base of supplies at Harrisons Landing, on the
James river. This seems to have been foreseen by the authorities
at Washington, and in June, 1862, the formation of a new army
in front of the defenses of Washington, in Virginia, was begim
under the command of General John Pope, who had rendered
conspicuous service in the West, and particularly at Island No. 10,
on the Mississippi river, and at Corinth. All troops in front of
Washington and in the Shenandoah Valley were placed at the dis-
posal of General Pope, and in taking command of this new army
its commander in a bombastic proclamation announced that he had
established his "headquarters in the saddle," which was evidently
an unwise thing to announce, even if it was the proper thing to do.
The country was flooded with ambitious young army oflScers,
graduates of West Point, all of whom were impressed with their
capacity for command, and when General Pope, suddenly pro-
moted from a subordinate position to this new and exalted com-
mand, went about his work with what might be termed a grand
flourish that savored of a feeling of self-sufficiency on his part,
his brother officers were disposed to fold their hands, "look and
But soon after he took command there was something doing.
General Rufus King's division, to which the eastern battalion was
attached, and which lay in camp around Falmouth, was ordered to
22 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
join Pope, and at once moved up the Rappahannock, leaving the
cavalry to guard government stores at Falmouth ; and in a very
few days thereafter was in the thick of the bloody battle of
Slaughter Mountain, where, after two days' fighting, the Union
troops were compelled to fall back with General Siegel's division
bringing up the rear, and General Lee's army heading northward,
constantly crowding him. There was daily fighting between the
advancing confederates and retreating federals, and the roar of
cannon heard in our camps and on the picket post we occupied told
us the conflict was moving northward. We were right in our con-
jectures. Pope's army was on the retreat, and made its first grand
stand on the plains of Manassas, where were fought the series of
bloody engagements known in history as the Second Battle of Bull
Run. Pope with his own army and supported by a part of the
Army of the Potomac, sent too late to help him much, was de-
feated, and that general's meteoric career came to an end in less
than six weeks. His army and the Army of the Potomac were
within and behind the defenses of Washington, including the
battalion of the Third Indiana Cavalry, which had been the last
body of troops to evacuate Fredricksburg, when General Burn-
sides, the last commander there, had been ordered to destroy all
government stores at that point and fall back on Washington.
That city when we reached it was one vast hospital over which
seemed to hang the gloom of defeat. Between the first of March
and September, 1862, two great armies had gone out from that
city under j)etted commanders to meet the enemy in the field, and,
after many fierce encounters and the loss of thousands of brave
men, these armies with their trailing banners and with broken
ranks, were back on the ground where they were equipped, and from
whence they had started six months before; while the victorious
enemy on the west bank of the Potomac seemed to flaunt defiance
at the Capital of his country ere he swooped down and made it his
prey. And it looked little better in the West. Shiloh and Corinth,
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 23
Pea Kidge, Fort Donelson and Fort Henry had been fought, but
while the armies that had operated in Virginia were within the
defenses of Washington, our Western armies that had penetrated
Mississippi were back on Kentucky soil to confront Bragg, who
was threatening to cross the Ohio river and invade the North.
This was the situation on the first day of September, 1862, and
it looked to those who loved and had fought for their country that
"the melancholy days had come."
But it was an hour that demanded prompt decision on the part
of the authorities. The vanguard of the confederate army crossed
the Potomac a few miles above Washington and the invasion of
the ISTorth had begun. Lee's cavalry, under their daring leader,
Stewart, approached the northern defenses of the Capital. Stone-
wall Jackson swept up through the Shenandoah Valley with Har-
pers Ferry and Maryland Heights as his objective, where General
Miles, with thirteen thousand men, was entrenched.
The reorganization of the Army of the Potomac was effected
without delay, with General JMcCellan in command, and moved
northward through Maryland, with a cavalry corps under Gen.
Alfred Pleasanton in advance. With the advance of this cavalry
was the battalion of the Third Indiana, now for the first time
brigaded with the Eighth Illinois, Eighth ISTew York, Sixth and
Eighth Pennsylvania regiments of cavalry, and destined to be
associated with the first two named regiments during the re-
mainder of its career in the army. Lee's army had crossed the
Potomac and was in Maryland. The advance cavalry of Mc-
Clellan's army was engaged in daily skirmishes with the cavalry
of the enemy on Maryland soil. They fought a sharp engagement
at Poolesville, where several men of the Eighth Illinois and Third
Indiana were killed. Stonewall Jackson occupied Fredrick for
a day and then moved on Harpers Ferry. The Eighth Illinois
and Jackson's rear guard had a bloody encounter in the streets
of Fredrick on the 12 th of September, as well as at Sugar Loaf
24 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
Mountain. We camped in that beautiful little city of the moun-
tains on the night of the 12th, and on the morning of the 13th,
at sunrise, the Third Indiana in advance, moved out on the ISTa-
tional road crossing Catoctin Mountain. A mile from our camp
of the night before the enemy was in these mountains waiting for
us. They greeted us with a battery posted in a mountain pass.
The Third Indiana counted off by fours and the dismounted
men crawled up the mountainside through bushes and over stone
fences, and soon made it too hot for that battery to operate. In
this fight Oliver H. Trestor, of Company D, was killed as he
leaped a stone wall right into a bunch of confederates in hiding
behind it. The confederate battery with its supporting cavalry
limbered to the rear and broke in a wild flight down the National
road across the Middletown Valley pursued by the Third Indiana
and Eighth Illinois into the village of Middletown, where we re-
ceived the fire of a battery from Turners Pass, which turned out
to be the headquarters of General Lee, and where he had halted
to fight the battle of South Mountain.
Of these affairs Brig.-Gen. Alfred Pleasanton, commanding
Cavalry Division, reporting operations from September 4 to 19,
at page 208, Part 2, Vol. XIX, says :
! "On the 7th instant two squadrons of the Eighth Illinois and two
of the Third Indiana, under Major Chapman, of the Third In-
diana, made a dash on Poolesville and captured two cavalry
videttes, all of the enemy in the town at the time. The next day,
the 8th instant, Colonel Farnsworth moved his command — the
Eighth Illinois, Third Indiana, section of horse artillery of Com-
pany M, Second Artillery, under First Lieutenant Chapin — to
occupy Poolesville, and picket the roads to Conrads Ferry, Ed-
wards Ferry, Barnesville and the Monocacy. As his force neared
Poolesville, the enemy was observed retreating on the road leading
to Barnesville, and some squadrons of the Third Indiana pushed
after them. They had not proceeded far before the enemy opened
Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Klein.
History of the Thied Indiana Cavalry. 25
a fire from some guns strongly posted on the right of the town.
The section of artillery under Lieutenant Chapin soon silenced
these guns, which made off in the direction of Barnesville.
"The squadrons of the Third Indiana, under Major Chapman,
were now ordered to charge the battery, which was handsomely
done, the enemy's cavalry and artillery being driven over three
miles. The Eighth Illinois coming up, under Major Medill, the
chase was continued until after dark.
"In this affair the Third Indiana lost one man killed and eleven
wounded, the Eighth Illinois one wounded. The rebel loss amount-
ed to eight killed, sixteen wounded and six prisoners — all cavalry.
On the morning of the 13th instant, with the remainder of my
command, I started at daylight on the Hagerstown turnpike and
had proceeded some three or four miles when the enemy opened
upon the advance with artillery from the ridge to the left, where
the road passes over the Catoctin range of the Blue Ridge. Their
batteries were supported by dismounted cavalry. A couple of sec-
tions of Robertson's and Haines' batteries immediately opened on
our side, and some squadrons of the Eighth Illinois and Third
Indiana were dismounted and sent up the mountain to the right
as skirmishers. After a severe cannonading and several warm vol-
leys with carbines, the enemy hastily retreated, having previously
barricaded the road in several places. A rapid pursuit was made
and a number of prisoners taken, when the enemy made a second
stand on the west side of Middletown. Gibson's battery then came
up and soon, in beautiful style, induced another backward move-
As the cavalry dashed into Middletown two companies of the
Eighth Illinois and two companies of the Third Indiana, E and F,
were detached and directed to pursue a rebel wagon train, which
the citizens of the town told us had gone southward down the
valley. This detachment after a hot pursuit came in sight of the
wagon train as it was slowly winding its way up a mountain road.
26 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry,
but in its rear was a battery of brass guns and enough rebel cavalry
to have swallowed the pursuing force.
The detachment was satisfied with observation and decided that
it did not want that wagon train anyhow, and started to return to
the command which it had left at Middletown by a short cut down
a winding stony ravine, hemmed in on either side by a very crooked
worm fence, so that this particular route answered for the channel
of a stream and a country road at the same time. Quebeck school-
house stood at the head of this ravine, and just as Company F of
the Third Indiana, the rear company of the detachment, had
entered the ravine Cobb's Legion of rebel cavalry, commanded by
Col. P. M. B. Young, dashed down the mountainside past the
schoolhouse, charging us with sabers and pistols, and for a few
minutes a desperate little cavalry battle ensued.
The column halted and fired an oblique volley into the charging
rebels and then the clash came and Yankees and rebels, horsed and
unhorsed, mingled, indiscriminately shooting at each other and
using their sabers in the same reckless manner, until the men at
the head of the column tore down the fence on the side of the
ravine next to the attacking force and went at them in such
splendid style that it was soon too hot for the rebels and they gave
way, dashing back over the hill from whence they came, leaving us
in possession of the field and their dead and wounded.
In this little cavalry battle Corp. James H. Williamson, of
Company F, Third Indiana, was killed by having his head crushed
with a saber in the hands of a rebel ; Sergt. Joseph Lewis, Com-
pany E, same regiment, was shot through the heart and lay across
a rebel sergeant also shot through the heart. John Grubbs,
William Hinds, Corporal Sheiverbein and John Cliilds, of the
former comj)any, were badly hacked about their heads with
rebel sabers, and Samuel Cross, of the latter company, was shot
through the lungs, but recovered. Four men of Company F, Third
Indiana, were captured but returned next day paroled. The loss
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 27
to the companies of the Eighth Illinois was about the same as those
of the Third Indiana, but we have no accurate information on
A remarkable thing connected with this vigorous cavalry fight
is that General Pleasanton, commanding all the cavalry of the
Army of the Potomac in this Maryland campaign, in his report
made in camp near Sharpsburg and dated September 19, 1862,
and which was intended to cover the operations of the cavalry
from September 4 to September 19, inclusive, does not mention
this engagement at all. He does mention many things which
many of us remember as of far less importance, but regarding this
engagement he is silent. His report is found beginning at page
208 of Series I, Vol. XIX, Part 1, Keports (War of the Rebellion
Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies). And
what is equally singular, at page 824 of the same volume we find
a substantially accurate report of our operations on September 13,
1862, signed by Wade Hampton, brigadier-general, and Major
Pitzhue, assistant adjutant-general, both distinguished rebel
officers. General Hampton says :
"At daylight on the morning of September 13 the enemy made
his appearance and attempted to force his way across the moun-
tain. His advance guard being driven back, he planted a battery
on the pike and opened fire on Lieutenant-Colonel Martin. Capt.
J. F. Hart with a section of rifled guns had been sent to Lieu-
tenant-Colonel Martin, and he returned the fire with good effect,
forcing the enemy to change his position more than once. In the
meantime skirmishers on both sides had become actively engaged
and the fight was kept up until 2 p. m., when the enemy, gaining
a position which commanded Hart's guns as well as the road, I
ordered the guns withdrawn and placed in position near Middle-
town. The brigade then took position in the rear of them, wait-
ing the approach of the enemy, who appeared in force crossing the
mountain. A brisk artillery fire took place on both sides, and the
28 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
sharpshooters of the two forces also became engaged. Having held
the enemy in check sufficiently long to accomplish the object de-
sired by General Stewart, I was directed by him to withdraw my
command in the direction of Biirkittsville, sending my guns and
Lieutenant-Colonel Martin's command on to Boonsborough.
"The First N'orth Carolina Regiment, under command of Col.
Baker, was the rear guard of the brigade during the fight at Mid-
dletovm, and both officers and men conducted themselves to my
perfect satisfaction. They were exposed to a severe fire, artillery
and musketry, which they bore without flinching, nor was there
the slightest confusion in the ranks. They lost eight wounded and
three missing. Captain Siler, a gallant officer, was among the
wounded, having his leg broken. He was brought off, but, as his
wound became painful, he was left at Boonsborough.
"Before leaving this part of my report, I beg to commend the
conduct of Lieutenant-Colonel Martin and his command while he
held the gap of the mountain. The men of Lieutenant- Colonel
Martin fought with their accustomed gallantry, and they were ably
supported by a portion of the North Carolina Regiment, who had
been detailed as sharpshooters. Lieutenant-Colonel Martin on
this occasion, as on all others, conducted himself as a gallant and
"After withdrawing the brigade from Middletown, I proceeded
towards Burkittsville, where I expected to form a junction with
Colonel Munford. On the road to this place I discovered, on a
road parallel to the one on which we were, a regiment of Yankee
cavalry. Taking the Cobb Legion with me, I directed Lieut.-Col.
Young to charge this regiment. The order was carried out in
gallant style, the legion crossing sabers with the Yankees and
chasing them some distance. Five prisoners were taken, while a
published account of the Yankees now before me admits the loss of
thirty killed and wounded. The prisoners taken belonged to the
Third Indiana and Eighth Illinois.
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 29
"Lieutenant-Colonel Young, who led the charge, received a
painful wound in the leg, and Capt. G. J. Wright, whose company-
was in the advance, was wounded in the arm. Our loss was four
killed and nine wounded. Among the former I regret to have to
mention Lieutenant Marshall and Sergeant Barksdale. I take
pleasure in calling attention to the behavior of this command.
Colonel Young led with great gallantry, and, after his fall, Major
Delony, After driving this cavalry, I moved on to Burkittsville,
where we remained during the night of September 13,"
Thus is preserved from oblivion an account of a fight of which
the men engaged were ever proud, and about the only inaccuracy
on the part of General Hampton is that the cavalry which he drove
remained on the field while his command left it in short order.
During the night following this day's work of the cavalry, the
Army of the Potomac came up, and on the next day, the 14th of
September, 1862, was fought, on the eastern slope of South Moun-
tain at and below Turners Pass, the battle known in history as the
battle of South Mountain. It was an infantry and artillery en-
gagement in which the cavalry merely supported batteries, the
Third Indiana being assigned to Battery M, Second U. S. Artil-
lery, and met with no casualties.
In this battle one thousand federals and fourteen hundred rebels
were killed and twice as many wounded. It was the first general
engagement in which the Third Indiana Cavalry had participated
and showed us what afterwards proved to be our experience that
the hard work and real fighting of the cavalry usually preceded
and followed the great battles of the war, and that in the fiercest
shock of battle the services of cavalry were not usually available.
From the mountainsides the rebel guns rained their iron hail
upon the advancing Union lines, and were responded to by the
federal guns posted upon every elevation in the valley below, and
in our presence a line of infantry more than a mile long moved
slowly up the mountainside over the cleared lands to the timber's
30 HiSTOEY OF THE ThIRD InDIANA CaVALRY.
edge, and when near it a blaze and roar burst forth from that
timber's edge very much like a mountain crater.
The advancing Union line, along its entire length, answered with
a volley and yell equally as terrific and never wavered in its for-
ward movement. The battle of South Mountain was on in all its
ferocity. The thunder of all the artillery of both armies echoed
and re-echoed down this lovely Middletown Valley, interspersed
with rolling volleys of musketry and the fierce yells of desperate
men engaged in a death struggle.
This lasted until 10 o'clock at night, when the Union troops had
gained the crest of the mountain and Lee's army fell back, his first
battle on Maryland soil having failed. The cavalry moved up and
stood picket on the mountain summit the remainder of the night
and at dawn moved down its western slope and was soon engaged
in a fight with the rebel cavalry rear guard at Boonsborough in the
next valley beyond. From this point the Third Indiana had the ad-
vance to the eastern bank of Antietam creek overlooking Sharps-
burg, where the rebel army had halted. With all the army the
battalion lay upon the eastern slopes of Antietam creek until the
morning of September 17, when, at daylight, was begun the battle
which lasted until nightfall and in which more men were killed
and wounded on both sides in one day than in any other battle of
the entire war.
The Third Indiana crossed Antietam creek with Pleasanton's
Cavalry at 10 o'clock in the forenoon and was in line of battle
supporting artillery, but was not otherwise engaged and suffered
On the night of September 19 Lee's army fell back across the
Potomac at Shephardstown, and the cavalry followed up and was
the first to discover and run upon his entrenchments on the south
side of the river. The Army of the Potomac lay upon this battle-
field recuperating until the first day of November, 1862, but
during that time the cavalry was not idle by any means. It crossed
History of the Thied Indiana Cavalry. 31
the Potomac a number of times, feeling for the position of the
enemy, and always found him in greater or less force and had
numerous skirmishes. One of these encounters at Halltown lasted
a good part of one day, the rebel cavalry making a desperate effort
to capture a federal battery which was successfully resisted by the
Eighth Illinois, Eighth ISTew York and Third Indiana throwing
themselves between the advancing enemy and the battery, and thus
enabling it to retire safely across the Potomac.
While the Army of the Potomac lay on the battlefield of An-
tietam, the cavalry of the rebel army crossed the Potomac at Han-
cock and made a plundering raid into Pennsylvania, going as far
as Chambersburg and passing around the outposts of the federal
army, pursued by all the cavalry under General Pleasanton, and
in which pursuit the Third Indiana participated, but its only brush
with the enemy, after a sixty-mile ride, was at the mouth of the
Monocacy, where the raiders were overtaken while attempting to
get a herd of cattle, stolen in Pennsylvania, across the Potomac.
No one was hurt, but some very fine steers intended for rebel con-
sumption were recaptured.
The rebel force, with whom this engagement was had, was
togged out in complete new federal uniforms, which they had cap-
tured from the United States quartermaster at Chambersburg, and
were mistaken for federal cavalry by General Pleasanton until
they rode up within a quarter of a mile of where he had stopped
to get breakfast, after riding thirty hours, and opened with artil-
lery upon his headquarters.
The most momentous event of the war occurred while the Army
of the Potomac lay on the battlefield of Antietam. Of course this
was the issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation on the 2 2d of
September, 1862, by the President of the United States. In a few
days thereafter the President himself came to Sharpsburg and
with General McClellan reviewed the army, riding by us on horse-
back while each organization of troops stood at present arms. The
32 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
battalion of the Third Indiana Cavalry stood in line but a few
yards from the famous Dunkard church, where the slaughter on
the iTth of September had been the most frightful of all that awful
battle, and the great, sad-faced, martyr President as he appeared
before us there is not likely to be forgotten while life and memory
remains to any one of our number.
Through this Maryland campaign Lieutenant-Colonel Buchanan
had been in command of the eastern battalion of the Third Indiana
Cavalry. On the 24th of October, 1862, he resigned, and Major
George H. Chapman succeeded to the vacant command.
The great and bloody battle of Antietam, fought in and around
Sharpsburg, Maryland, on the 17th of September, 1862, has right-
fully gone into history as one of the mighty conflicts of the war
and was the end of Lee's Maryland campaign of 1862. It dem-
onstrated also to the authorities at Washington that the time had
come for a change in commanders of the Army of the Potomac.
General McClellan, who had commanded that army for a year,
was what might have been termed the pet soldier of the Kepublic.
Under his command the army had fought many but usually unde-
cisive battles. Antietam was a drawn battle and settled nothing.
All of Lee's rebel army was engaged, and it was fought piecemeal
by the Army of the Potomac, opening on the right at daylight with
an onslaught by Hooker's right wing, and running down the line
two miles to the left, when at 2 o'clock in the afternoon Burnsides
became engaged with Stonewall Jackson and fought until after
dark. In the rear of Burnsides' position, all day long, lay Gen.
Fitz-John Porter's division, the best and finest body of troops in
the whole army, that never fired a gun.
It is not for historians to fight battles, but they do have the
right to draw conclusions from facts. The humble private in the
ranks looking on Burnsides' conflict with Jackson for six long
hours with nothing gained, wondered why Fitz-John Porter's
splendid body of splendidly equipped men, and only a mile away.
HiSTOKY OF THE ThIKD InDIANA CaVALEY. 33
was not sent to the assistance of Burnsides. It was spoken of in
the ranks the next day by men of humble station as the two armies
still lay confronting each other.
To the men engaged in that battle it looked that, had Burnsides
been assisted by Porter's division, the rebel right would have been
doubled around on to its left with serious results. As it was,
Burnsides was able to hold his own. With double and more than
double the force engaged on our left, would not Jackson have been
swept off his feet ?
From that day General McClellan, who always provoked cheers
from his soldiers when he appeared before them, lost caste with
the army, and the authorities at Washington could plainly see that
the time was close at hand when it would be safe to do what they
had long felt should be done, viz., change the head of the Army of
During the year of his command General McClellan had built
up around himself a great and formidable personal following, and
this following had made itself felt throughout the ISTorth, espe-
cially in the Eastern and 'New England States. He had built up
this following by the diplomacy which flatterers always employ.
He sounded the praises of his regiments to their faces on the
slightest provocation, and the plan took so effectually that many
of the objects of his flattery were ever ready to defend and con-
done any apparent blunder as really the exploit of a great com-
mander. This cajoled element in the army had to be reckoned with.
They were ready to raise the cry that with McClellan's removal
from command the country was lost.
The leading papers of the country were ably represented by
field correspondents, who were generally found clustered around
the headquarters of the Army of the Potomac, and the reception
they always received from the head of the army made them ever
ready to sound his praises and conceal his blunders, and when
the change came were prompt to sound a doleful cry of disasters
34 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
sure to follow. The rank and file of the army was represented as
ready to rise in mutiny as their response to the action of the
government at Washington. The fact was that no such feeling
existed, and this fact was detected by President Lincoln, and he
took the step all knew was right.
After the first spasm of the flattered alarmists had died out all
went on as well as it had in this great army, while McClellan went
home to use his arts of flattery in scheming for the presidential
nomination of the party that opposed the war, and the leading
declaration of his platform after receiving that nomination was
that the "war was a failure."
The impartial verdict of history is that McClellan, and not the
war, was a failure. And this was the verdict of the voters at the
ballot box in November, 1864, when they declared for a con-
tinuance in power of the great and patient man who subsequently
died a martyr for his country.
On the 26th of October, 1862, the cavalry of the Army of the
Potomac left Maryland soil and recrossed the Potomac river at
Berlin, Maryland, and began its southward movem.ent in the direc-
tion of Kichmond. Skirmishing with the rebel cavalry began
almost at once. The Third Indiana was now a part of the Second
^ General Pleasanton in his report of operations at this time
(Vol. XIX, Part 2, page 125) says: "On November 1 the com-
mand moved forward and occupied Philomont, several hundred
of Stewart's cavalry leaving about the time we entered. Colonel
Gregg, with the Eighth Pennsylvania and Third Indiana Cavalry,
pursued this cavalry and drove it very handsomely from some
woods it had attempted to hold, but, the enemy bringing up his
artillery, no further advance was made, except to silence the rebel
guns by the fire of Pennington's battery. The rebels left five
dead on the field. Our loss was one killed, and one oflficer and
thirteen men wounded.
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 35
"On November 2 my advance came up with the enemy at Union.
They had some infantry supporting their guns and very soon some
sharp fighting began, which resulted in the blowing up of one of
their caissons, by which a number of their men were killed, and
their retreat for several miles on the road to TJpperville."
The report of Col. David McM. Gregg, Eighth Pennsylvania,
of the affair at Philomont is also found at page 129 of the same
The Third Indiana and Eighth Illinois were on the ground
where the caisson blew up, to which General Pleasanton refers,
almost before the smoke had cleared away, in their pursuit of the
rebels flying towards Upperville, but all we found were splinters,
broken wheels, artillerymen's caps and clothing, but no carcasses.
This Virginia country east of the Blue Ridge mountains was
traversed by splendid turnpike roads, walled on either side by
stone fences, and winding over hills and through valleys, and was
a lovely land to look upon. Stewart's cavalry was the rear guard
of the rebel army and was contesting every step of the advance of
the federal cavalry imder Pleasanton. On !N"ovember 5 we en-
countered them at Barbes Cross Roads, where we lost five killed and
eight wounded. On the 6th we ran on to them again at Waterloo,
and on the 7th at Amosville and Little Washington, and in that
action captured two guns, also three officers and ten men. On the
8th we skirmished at ISTewbys Cross Roads, on the 9th at Corbins
Cross Roads, and on the 10th the rebels, both infantry and cavalry,
from Culpepper attacked Pleasanton's command in force, and
prisoners taken reported that it was a movement by General Long-
street to ascertain where the Army of the Potomac was. It was a
red hot fight, in which both infantry and cavalry participated on
both sides, and the rebels fell back at nightfall without gaining the
information they sought. General Pleasanton says in his report,
"that this action closed the campaign of the cavalry in Loudon
and Fauqier counties, as orders were then received directing no
36 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
further advance towards Culpepper, and informing the army that
Major-General Burnsides had relieved Major-General McClellan
of the command of it."
In closing his report on page 128 of Vol. XIX, General Pleas-
anton says : "It is but justice to the troops I have had the honor
to command that I should mention the results of their laborious
exertions and chivalrous gallantry under many adverse circum-
stances. From the time the army left Washington to the end of
the campaign at Washington the cavalry of my command had
taken from the enemy six pieces of artillery, four stands of colors
and 1,000 prisoners of war without losing a gun or a color."
In the return march of the Army of the Potomac in the direc-
tion of Richmond, the capture of which the entire North for four
years seemed to consider would end the war, the cavalry followed
along the base of the mountains which concealed Lee's army, fight-
ing his cavalry at every gap in the mountains, while the main
army, under Burnsides, traversed the plains of Manassas, Bull
Run and Culpepper, where but little more than two months before
it had met defeat in bloody battles at the hands of the enemy it
was now pursuing.
The country, where rested the remains of so many brave men of
both armies, and which had been marched and countermarched
over so often by both armies, in the dreary, late autumn days of
1862, had much the appearance of a barren waste, and vast sec-
tions of it had ceased to be the habitation of man or beast. Here
and there stood a lone chimney surrounded by the charred embers
of some destroyed home and an occasional straggling apple tree
was all that was left to mark the civilization which in earlier and
happier years marked the proud old Virginia as the mother of
Presidents. Appomattox came later to vindicate the Army of the
Potomac and give it the proud distinction of fighting its bloodiest
battles and ending the war, but in the ides of November, 1862,
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 37
as we marched or countermarched across those bleak plains toward
Fredricksbiirg, the days seemed ^'melancholy days" indeed.
The future, full of uncertainty, was before it, and the recent past
with its bloody horrors was not far behind, and if the reader can
put himself in the place of such men he can come to understand
that it was valor and patriotism and dearly bought discipline
which still made the Army of the Potomac a terrible and splendid
fighting machine when it went into winter quarters on the banks
of the Eappahannock in the winter of 1862 and 1863. The
cavalry was the first to appear at Falmouth on the north bank of
the river and locate the enemy in his winter quarters and en-
trenched on Maryes Heights surrounding the old-time city of
Fredricksburg, which had once been the home of Washington and
where reposed the remains of his mother.
The eastern battalion of the Third Indiana Cavalry went into
camp at Belle Plains, a landing on the Potomac, a short distance
below the mouth of Acquia creek, in the edge of a pine thicket,
where the men built cabins of small pine logs, chinked them with
mud, erected stick chimneys, used their dog tents for roofing, and
in a very few days were quite comfortably situated. This situa-
tion was of brief duration, for at midnight on the first of Decem-
ber, 1862, the battalion was ordered to move southward fifteen
miles for picket duty on the Rappahannock, in King Georges
county. During this service the camp of the battalion was on
the three-thousand-acre farm of Col. William Tailo, one of the
finest plantations in all Virginia.
The master of this splendid estate lived in a fine country seat,
located on the brow of a hill overlooking a broad expanse of fertile
river-bottom lands, and on the slope of the hill towards the river
were our quarters, where he housed his three hundred slaves. The
battalion picketed the river for several miles in front of this plan-
tation as far southward as Port Conway, the south bank of the
river being picketed by the infantry of Stonewall Jackson, with
38 HiSTOEY OF THE ThIRD InDIANA CaVALEY.
whom we became on excellent terms. Colonel Tailo's corn cribs
and wheat stacks furnished a splendid supply of forage for the
horses and men, and the latter utilized an old-fashioned water mill
and its slave miller, with which the farm was equipped, to convert
a quantity of the Colonel's wheat into unbolted flour that made
very passable biscuits.
The Colonel's son was an officer in one of Jackson's regiments
across the river immediately in front of us, and the old gentleman
himself made no pretense of loyalty to the Union. We enjoyed his
hospitality for about two weeks until called to the battlefield of
Fredricksburg on the night of December 12, 1862, where we sat
in line for two days, and during which time we witnessed the
bombardment of the old city and the slaughter of ten thousand
brave Union men by the enemy posted on Maryes Heights, that the
demand of the politicians at Washington and elsewhere for a battle
might be answered. The Army of the Potomac never fought
better than it did at Fredricksburg in December, 1862, but the
fates were against it in the position held by the enemy, and this
battle was the unfortunate ending of the country's second year of
war for its existence.
The year had not been propitious for the cause of the Union,
unless our vastly increased armies of better drilled soldiers, in-
spired by a dogged determination to ultimately conquer, could be
accepted as a favorable omen. Our great armies in the East and
West had advanced into the heart of the enemy's country, fought
terrible battles on his soil, and, by being outmaneuvered, com-
pelled to fall back to their ovm frontier, and base of supplies ; and
the end of the year found the armies either East or West little
advanced from where they had started a year before.
Both the Eastern and Western battalions of the Third Indiana
Cavalry had had a similar experience. Each had been constantly
engaged in the advance skirmishes of the respective armies to
which they belonged, and in retreat had formed a part of the rear
History of the Thied Indiana Cavalry. 39
guard that held the enemy in check. Both had suffered in the loss
of brave men, and their chief compensation was in their experience
of sixteen months' service and the efficiency which necessarily
came with such experience, and the end of this term of service
found both on the outpost picket and firing line, ready to go when
called or ordered.
N'either one of the four companies, G, H, I and K, organized
and mustered into the service, and designated as a part of the
Third Indiana Cavalry, after the first six companies had been
mustered and ordered to the Army of the Potomac, were ever
permitted to join the battalion that had departed for the East.
Indiana troops, as organized, prior to the creation of the Depart-
ment of Kentucky had been sent in about equal proportions to Gen.
Fremont in Missouri and General McClellan in Virginia, vs^ere,
after the formation of the Department of Kentucky, sent to this
new department as fast as mustered. And thus it was that the
four companies above mentioned and designated as a part of the
Third Indiana Cavalry, when ready for the field were ordered to
Louisville, Kentucky, and the men of the regiment who served in
the Army of the Potomac never knew anything about the others
until after the close of the war, and they began to meet in regi-
mental reunions. And the only men who ever joined either one of
the ten companies now in the field went as recruits to fill up the
depleted ranks of the various companies.
Pursuant to this policy, according to the record (War of Rebel-
lion Record, VoL VII, page 467), on December 6, 1861, Company
G, under Capt. Felix Graham, became a part of Brig. -Gen. George
H. Thomas's division, Army of the Ohio, doing duty at his head-
quarters. Company H, commanded by Capt. Alfred Gaddis, was
assigned to Gen. A. D. McCook's division for duty at his head-
quarters. Company I, under Capt. Will C. Moreau, ordered to
report to General Buell, Louisville, reported to General McCook
at Elizabethtown, Kentucky, but was ordered back to Louisville
after a few days. General Nelson, commanding the Fourth Divi-
Major Chari-es Lemon-Killed at Getteysburg.
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 41
sion of the Army of the Ohio, at Padueah, Kentucky, on the 22d
of February, 1862, reports that he had two companies of Indiana
cavalry with him under Capt. Robert Klein (Vol. VII, page 654).
These two companies were Companies I and K of the Third Indi-
ana Cavalry, Captain Klein being captain of the latter company.
These different companies, thus assigned, served with the com-
mands to which they were assigned, and were with those dif-
ferent commands in their several movements in Kentucky, on Salt
river. Green river and the Ohio, until our armies, numbering over
one hundred thousand men, concentrated at iN'ashville, Tennessee,
about the first of March, 1862. Under their several assignments
these companies performed orderly duty, acted as scouts, pickets,
and had numerous skirmishes at different times with small bodies
of the enemy's cavalry that was always active on the front of our
advancing armies. After the battle of Mills Springs, in which
the rebel generals Payton and Zollicoffer were killed. Captain
Gaddis, with one hundred picked men of Companies G and H,
was sent into the rebel lines to escort and deliver the remains of
these distinguished rebels to their friends. Generals Johnson and
Negley, of the Union forces, with their respective staffs, accom-
panied this expedition, as well as reporters from Frank Leslie's
Magazine and the Cincinnati Commercial. They were within the
rebel lines a day and night.
On the march to ISTashville, Tennessee, on the 25th of January,
1862, Capt. Will C. Moreau, First Lieut. Tighlman Fish and Sec-
ond Lieut. Oliver Childs, who were the commissioned officers of
Company I, resigned, and on the 16th of February, 1862, Charles
Hedrick, orderly sergeant of the company, was mustered as second
lieutenant, promoted to first lieutenant, and on the 27th of Febru-
ary, 1862, Argus D. Vanarsdol was made captain and Thomas B.
Wilkinson second lieutenant of that company. Captain Vanarsdol
resigned on the 1st of May, 1863, and Lieutenants Hedrick and
Wilkinson remained officers of the company until the close of its
42 HiSTOKY OF THE ThIRD InDIANA CaVALEY.
term of service, the former being captain of the company at the
date of its discharge.
After reaching Nashville Company I, of the Third Indiana
Cavalry, was detailed as provost guards for the city, and was con-
tinued in the performance of this duty until Bragg's invasion of
Tennessee and Kentucky in the summer of 1862, when it was
withdrawn with our other forces and accompanied the armies
northward to Louisville. The other three companies continued to
perform duty at the respective headquarters to which they had
been assigned, scouting and picketing the various roads leading
out of I^ashville. In one of these scouts on the Murfreesborough
pike Captain Klein with his company, K, encountered a force of
General Morgan's rebel cavalry, in which Captain Klein lost two
horses and one man killed.
On the 15th of March, 1862, the army at JSTashville began the
march that finally brought it to Pittsburg Landing and the battle-
field of Shiloh, on the 6th of April, 1862. Companies G, H and
K were still with the headquarters commands, which they had
accompanied from the Ohio river, and performing the same kind
of duty they had performed from the first. They were with their
respective commands at the great battle of Shiloh, but that was an
infantry and artillery battle, and cavalry only performed escort,
orderly and picket duty. At Shiloh, on the 9th of April, 1862,
Capt. Felix W. Graham, of Company G, resigned and returned
home to become colonel of the Fifth Indiana Cavalry, and on the
17th of May, 1862, George F. Herriott, the first lieutenant of that
company, became captain. On the same date Sergt. Daniel Cal-
lahan was made second lieutenant, Lieut. William J. Lucas, of
the same company, having been promoted from second to first
lieutenant on the 30th of April, 1862.
Capt. Alfred Gaddis, of Company H, with McCook's head-
quarters, in a letter dated April 10, 1862, "On the Battlefield,
near Pittsburg Landing," wrote: "The battle was raging when
HiSTOEY OF THE Thikd Indiana Cavaley. 43
we got here. We could hear the cannonading for miles, and on the
army marched, leaving baggage and every incumbrance behind.
When we reached the river the musketry firing had ceased and all
was quiet, except the gunboats, three in number, that threw shells
all night to keep the "secesh" off, for they had repulsed Grant's
army of sixty-five thousand, which had got under cover of the
gunboats for protection, the enemy having possession of their
battlefield and camp, with all the tents and equipage.
"On Monday morning Buell's forces began the terrible slaugh-
ter, and on Wednesday it still continued, only the rebels are being
driven back. My command was not in the fight. Cavalry could
not be used to advantage in the woods. We were sent with the
Nineteenth Regulars to guard the batteries belonging to McCook's
division and were detained here for further orders. Next morn-
ing a number of prisoners were turned over to my charge as they
were taken; so many that I had to get other forces to help guard
"All our baggage trains are back with the whole division trains.
None of the men have tents. We are quartered in a wheatfield and
have our "secesh" guests on pasture. Many of them have relatives
and friends that bring them food. It is quite cold and has rained
four nights in succession. I rode over the battlefield with General
McCook and his staff. It was a horrible sight. Our wounded had
been taken off. The dead were being cared for, that is our o^vn
men. The dead seemed innumerable."
On this field Captain Gaddis was taken down with typhoid fever
and sent to his home in the Xorth, and was absent, sick and on de-
tached service until April 7, 1863, when he rejoined his company,
in camp near Murfreesborough, Tenn.
Company I, of the Third Indiana Cavalry, was with General
Nelson on the battlefield of Shiloh, acting in the same capacity it
had been acting at his headquarters, and accompanied him on the
march and at the siege of Corinth, and was with him until the
44 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
first of June, 1862, when it was detached and assigned to the
cavalry corps commanded by General Thatcher,
The record (Series 1, Vol. XVI, Part 2, page 8) discloses that
at this time the Second Indiana, Third Kentucky, Third Ohio
and three companies of the Third Indiana Cavalry, Capt. Robert
Klein, formed an independent cavalry brigade of the troops in
the district of the Ohio commanded by General Buell. These were
Companies G, H and K, and we find the same companies at page
591 of the same volume noted as unattached with the Second
Division of the First Army Corps, the latter commanded by Gen.
A. D. McCook and the cavalry by Gen. Joshua W. Sill. At that
time these companies were under the command of Robert Klein,
who was promoted to major on the 20th of October, 1862.
After the Shiloh and Corinth campaign these three companies
with Buell's army fell back to Louisville before Bragg's invading
army, and at the latter city were joined by Company I, which
had been doing provost duty in I^ashville from early in March,
1862, and this was the first time the four companies of the Third
Indiana Cavalry in the West had ever been together and under one
When Buell began his forward movement against Bragg in
October, 1862, these four companies under the command of Major
Klein formed part of Buell's advance cavalry and were with him
at the battle of Perryville on the 8th of October, 1862. It con-
tinued with the advance of Buell's army to Nashville, and, accord-
ing to a report of Colonel Buckland, of the Fifth Kentucky Cav-
alry, dated December 7, 1862, Captain Vanarsdol with two com-
panies of the Third Indiana was with him guarding General Sill's
wagon train, which was attacked by General Wheeler's rebel cav-
alry and a force of infantry, and was only saved by brisk fighting
on the part of the Union forces guarding the train. This affair
occurred on the road from Lebanon to Franklin, Tennessee, on
the 6th of December, 1862. (Vol. XX, Part 1, page 35.)
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 45
In this report Colonel Buckland says : "The Third Indiana
Cavalry of two companies, under Captain Vanarsdol, was ordered
to the front, and here I would say that no men could have behaved
better than those two companies, nor could any one have maneuv-
ered them to better advantage than the captain in command."
The record (VoL XX, page 176, December 26, 1862) shows
that Companies G, H, I and K, Third Indiana Cavalry, formed
part of Col. Philemon P. Baldwin's Second Brigade, Gen. Eichard
W. Johnson's Second Division, Army of the Cumberland, and
with this command participated in the great Battle of Stone River
on the 31st of December, 1862, and the 1st of January, 1863.
According to official reports (Vol. XX, page 209) its casualties
were four killed, six wounded, fifteen captured or missing, one
ambulance and thirty cavalry horses.
General Johnson in his report (Vol. XX, page 295) says:
"Major Klein and his battalion of the Third Indiana Cavalry
deserve special mention. Under their gallant leader, the battalion
was always in the front and rendered efficient service."
In the engagement of December 27, at E'olensville, Sergt, Rich-
ard Newell and Private Stephen Moore, of Company H, and Pri-
vate Mack Dunn, of Company G, were three of the men killed,
and Sergt. John S. Irvin and John A. Mason were among the
In his report dated January 9, 1863, Brig-Gen. David S.
Stanley, U. S. Army, Chief of Cavalry (page 617, Series 1, Vol.
XX, War of the Rebellion Official Records) gives his account of
the skirmishes near La Vergne, December 27 ; Wilkinsons Cross
Roads, December 29; Overalls Creek, December 31, and Lytles
Creek, January 5. He says : "The reserve cavalry consisted of the
new regiments, viz., Anderson Troop, or Fifteenth Pennsylvania,
First Middle Tennessee, Second East Tennessee Cavalry and four
companies of the Third Indiana. I commanded in person and
46 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
preceded General McCook's corps on the Nolensville pike. On the
morning of the 27 th our cavalry first encountered the enemy on
the Nolensville pike one mile in advance of Bole Jack Pass.
Their cavalry was in large force and accompanied by a battery of
artillery. Fighting continued from 10 o'clock until evening,
during which time we had driven the enemy two miles beyond
"The Third Indiana and Anderson Troop behaved very gal-
lantly, charging the enemy twice and bringing them to hand to
hand encounters. The conduct of Majors Rosengarten and Ward,
the former now deceased, was most heroic.
"On the 28th we made a reconnoissance to College Grove and
found that Hardee's rebel corps had marched to Murfreesborough.
On the 29th, Colonel Zahm's brigade having joined us, we were
directed to march upon Murfreesborough by the Franklin road,
the reserve cavalry moving on the Bole Jack road, the columns
communicating at the crossing of Stewarts Creek. We encoun-
tered the enemy's cavalry and found them in strong force at
Wilkinsons Cross Roads. Our cavalry drove them rapidly across
Overalls Creek and within one-half mile of the enemy's line of
battle. The Anderson Cavalry behaved most gallantly this day,
pushing a full charge upon the enemy for six miles. Unfortu-
nately their advance proved too reckless. Having dispersed their
cavalry, the troop fell upon two regiments of rebel infantry in
ambush, and, after a gallant struggle, were compelled to retire
with the loss of Major Rosengarten and six men killed, and the
brave Major Ward and five men desperately wounded."
Maj. Robert Klein, at page 646 of the same volume, officially
reports his operations with the four companies, G, H, I and K,
Third Indiana Cavalry, from December 26, 1862, to January 3,
1863, in a report dated near Murfreesborough, Tenn., January 7,
1863, including skirmishes at Triune, December 27, and near
Overalls Creek, December 31. He says:
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 47
"The four companies under mj command left camp on the
26th, as ordered, and, bringing up the rear of the Second Division,
encamped beyond Nolensville. On the following morning, 27th,
having orders, reported to General Stanley, the chief of cavalry,
who, remarking he 'had understood the Third knew how to take
these rebels,' ordered me to move forward and take the advance
of the column of cavalry then moving towards Triune.
"I succeeded in gaining the advance at about the point where
the enemy's outposts were expected to be. I then threw out por-
tions of Company H, Lieutenant Young commanding, on either
side of the pike, and putting out an advance guard, moved smartly
down the pike. Our advance soon encountered the enemy in con-
siderable force drawn up in line of battle. The column now moved
on to them at a gallop, receiving the whole of their fire into
one company (Company G, Captain Herriott), the skirmishers on
the flanks not being able to come up for some time on account of
the soft nature of the ground and the fences intervening. Com-
pany G held its ground until Company I, Captain Vanarsdol,
on the right, and Company K, Lieutenant Lieske, on the left,
advanced gallantly to the rescue, and, despite superior force, drove
them across the narrow valley to a position beyond, where their
artillery covered them. Here we advanced with the remainder of
our cavalry force and drove them from this hill, from which they
fell back to Triune.
"We were ordered by General Stanley, with one company of the
Fifteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, to attack the enemy on the right
side of the pike. They were posted behind a stone wall, heads
only visible, one or more regiments strong. We advanced across
the open fields and were pouring in a steady fire at easy range
when two pieces of artillery, about 500 yards to our left, and two
in front opened on us, obliging us to retire to the cover of the
woods from where we advanced. This movement was done
promptly but in good order. On the following morning my bat-
48 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
talion was in advance of the reconnoissance under General Wil-
lich ; we did no fighting, but captured some sixteen of the enemy's
stragglers. On the l^olensville pike we had three killed and three
wounded. We lost also a few horses, wounded and disabled, and
one killed by cannon shot. On the 29th and 30th nothing of note
"On the morning of the 31st ultimo my battalion was posted
with our cavalry force beyond Wilsons Cross Roads pike, on the
rear and right of the Second Division. When our forces first gave
way before overwhelming numbers of the enemy, the efficiency of
my battalion was destroyed in being divided by one of our own
cavalry regiments running through our ranks and scattering the
men. This movement, had it been in the opposite direction, would
have been a most gallant charge and, doubtless, from its determina-
tion, an efficient one. We kept falling back, forming and charging
at intervals, until forced across the Murfreesborough pike, where
one of my companies was first to form and drive the enemy from
"We captured during the retreat eleven of the enemy. One of
Company G, Corporal Justice, recaptured our ambulance, con-
taining our surgeon, by shooting down one of its captors and
frightening the other away. I regret to say that Corporal Justice
was afterwards captured. We were formed near the center of our
cavalry when the enemy in the afternoon again attempted to take
our train. We participated in the fight and charge that followed.
We lost one man on that morning, Private Daniel Gibbons, of
Gen. Willich's escort, and two others wounded. On the following
days of the fight my battalion was on provost duty. Our loss sums
up : Killed four, wounded six, missing ten, captured five. Of the
missing doubtless nearly all were captured. Our total loss is
twenty-five men, thirty horses and one ambulance.
"Respectfully, your obedient servant, R. Klein,
"Major Commanding Battalion."
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 49
Daniel Gibbons was of Company G, Third Indiana Cavalry.
In an expedition covering four days, beginning with the 3d of
February, 1863, the Fifth Division of the Fourteenth Army
Corps, from Murfreesborough, Maj.-Gen. J. J. Reynolds com-
manding, reports the Third Indiana Cavalry under Capt. G. F.
Herriott as constituting a part of his command. The expedition
encountered rebel cavalry at various points, captured a number of
prisoners, a number of animals and destroyed a large amount of
rebel subsistence stores. (Vol. XXIII, Part 1, page 42.) Lieut-
Col. Fielder A. Jones, commanding First Brigade, First Division,
Twentieth Army Corps (same volume, page 137), reports a rec-
onnoissance made by his command, March 6 and 7, 1863, on the
old Shelbyville road to Middletown. Colonel Jones says: "We
found the enemy posted in strong position four miles from Mid-
dletown, which position was handsomely carried by our troops.
We drove the enemy through Middletown and out of his camp one
and one-half miles beyond the town. He made four different
stands, but was quickly dislodged by our men. I never saw finer
nor more intrepid skirmishing than was done by the Thirty-second
and Thirty-ninth Indiana, Forty-ninth Ohio and about seventy
men of the Third Indiana Cavalry. Great credit is due both to
officers and men of those commands."
This Volume XXIII of the official records, from which we have
been quoting, indicates that the Western battalion of the Third
Indiana Cavalry was a busy body of men from the time they left
Louisville with the army in September, 1862. We have given
their movements up to and through the Murfreesborough cam-
paign, and up to the 6th of March, 1863. According to a report
of Brig.-Gen. Jeff. C. Davis (page 145) we find a part of the bat-
talion at Eagleville, Tenn., who were ordered by him to the head-
quarters of the general commanding the corps. This was on the
11th of March. On the 9th of April, 1863, they were part of a
command of 1,600 men under Major-General Stanley which left
50 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
Murfreesborough to scout the country to Triune, and thence to
Franklin and to give General Granger such assistance as he might
need in his operations against VanDoran, in command of 4,000
rebels (Vol. XXIII, page 230). Lieutenant-Colonel Klein, from
Camp Drake, Tenn., under date of April 16, 1863 (page 238),
makes the following report of his part in that affair:
"Sir — I have the honor to report the following as the part taken
by the detachment of the Third Indiana Cavalry, 170 strong,
under my command, during the late scout to Franklin, Tenn.
iN'othing worthy of note occurred until on the 10th instant, when,
halted four miles from Franklin I was placed under command of
Lieutenant-Colonel Eobie, commanding Second Brigade, with
which brigade we acted during the entire engagement and re-
mainder of the scout. Early in the afternoon we were ordered to
proceed to Harpeth river at Hughes Mill, where our brigade
crossed at lower ford, opposite the bluff. We moved across the
open field and woods to the Lewisburg pike, driving the enemy's
sentinels towards Franklin, in which direction we observed them
in considerable mounted force. The brigade was formed across
the pike, facing towards Franklin, my battalion being in the center,
where we were to await their approach.
"The Fourth Regulars becoming engaged in our rear, towards
Lewisburg, we were ordered to face about and move down the
Lewisburg end of the pike, which we did in fine order, and had
laid down the last fence between us and the reserves of the force
engaging the Fourth Regulars, and would soon have captured
them and the horses of their dismounted men, the guard being
inconsiderable, but orders were given to fall back, as they were
advancing from Franklin in our rear. We fell back with the
promptness characteristic of cavalry movements, and formed in
the field and woods near the bluff at the crossing, our line being at
an acute angle with the pike and bluff, our left nearest the pike
and our right nearest the bluff, with my battalion again in the
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 51
center of the Second Brigade. The enemy made two attacks on
this position, and were both times repulsed ; but coming
through the woods in force and attacking our left vigorously,
doubled it on the center, obliging us to fall back. We again
formed parallel to the bluff, which position we held until the
enemy retired. We were in advance of the reconnoitering force
which went out in the evening, but nothing worthy of note occurred.
Our loss in the whole scout was very small, being two mortally
and two slightly wounded ; also twelve horses killed, disabled and
abandoned. I take pleasure in testifying to the general good con-
duct of my officers and men, their actions meeting my full appro-
bation. I am, Captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
"R. Klein, Lieutenant-Colonel,
"Commanding Third Indiana Cavalry.
"Capt. W. H. Sinclair, Assistant Adjutant-General."
On May 22, 1863, Colonel Klein makes the following report
(Vol. XXIII, page 344) :
"Sir — I have the honor to report the following as the part taken
by the Third Indiana Cavalry under my command, in the descent
on Middletown this instant: My battalion, being in the rear of
the Fourth Michigan Cavalry, brought up the rear of the First
Brigade, and in the charge on the rebel camps followed the Fourth
Michigan close up, deploying on the left of the same and charging
through the woods in the direction of Fosterville. We met very
little resistance, exchanging only a few shots. We captured twelve
prisoners, three Sharp's carbines, eight horses and one mule. ^^To
casualties to my battalion.
"Your obedient servant,
"R. Klein, Lieutenant-Colonel Commanding."
The volume from w^hich we have been quoting (page 356) shows
the battalion of the Third Indiana, under Colonel Klein, went
with the brigade of Colonel Minty from their camp near Murfrees-
borough on the 3d of June, 1863, out on the Wartrace road, where
52 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
it crosses Stone river, and engaged the enemy in force at that point.
And on June 10 the battalion was engaged in a scout and skirmish
with the enemy's pickets on the Middletown road (page 373). On
June 15 the same command went on a raid to Lebanon, Tenn.
(page 394). On the 3d of July, 1863, Colonel Watkins' com-
mand, consisting of the Fifth and Sixth Kentucky and Third
Indiana Cavalry, reported to General Sheridan for duty (page
General Sheridan, reporting his operations from June 24 to
July 5, 1863 (page 516), after leaving Murfreesborough, says:
"Just before reaching Cowan, July 3, I was joined by Colonel
Watkins with 1,200 cavalry. I learned during the night that the
enemy had taken up a position at or near University, near the top
of the mountain about seven miles from this place, and had cov-
ered his front with General Wharton's cavalry. To ascertain the
truth of this I directed Colonel Watkins with the Fifth and Sixth
Kentucky and Third Indiana Cavalry of his command, on the
morning of the 4th of July, to feel the enemy and drive him until
he was satisfied he was there in force. This reconnoissance was
very handsomely executed by Colonel Watkins, who drove the
enemy about three miles, inflicting severe loss. Our own casual-
ties were fourteen. On the morning of the 5th of July I directed
Colonel Watkins to feel the enemy again, to ascertain if his posi-
tion was a permanent one, at the same time sending the Third
Indiana Cavalry to Mount Top, on my right and down the road in
the direction of Stephenson. Colonel Watkins found the enemy
had fled. Lieutenant-Colonel Klein, Third Indiana Cavalry, found
that a small portion of the enemy had crossed on that road. He
captured forty-one head of beef cattle from the enemy's rear guard
and brought them into camp."
In Volume XXIII, Part 2, page 556, Col. R. G. IMinty, com-
manding the First Brigade, Second Cavalry Division, on July 10,
1863, made a report of the engagement at Shelby^alle, Tenn., on
HiSTOEY OF THE ThIKD InDIANA CaVALRY. 53
the 27th of June, 1863, of which affair Lieutenant-Colonel Klein
gives an account in the foregoing report. In Volume LII, Part 1,
page 425, in a supplemental report dated Camp near Salem,
Tenn., July 29, 1863, he says:
"Sir — Referring to my report of July 8, I hand you the follow-
ing list of officers and men deserving of special mention for gallant
conduct at Shelbyville on the 27th of June ultimo. First Lieu-
tenant Thompson, Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry, led the grand
charge on the rebel battery. He rode into the very teeth of the
guns in most gallant and fearless manner and captured the entire
battery. (Observation: He personally captured one piece, and
with Lieutenant Vale, of the same regiment, captured another
piece near the railroad station after a personal encounter with the
officer commanding the battery.) Lieutenant McCafferty, Fourth
U. S. Cavalry, was conspicuous for his gallant conduct in the
charge on the battery, and is honorably mentioned by Captain
Davis. Captain Burns, acting assistant adjutant-general of the
brigade, who is always at his post of duty, had his horse shot under
him while among the foremost in the charge on the battery. Lieut.
Callahan, Third Indiana, exhibited great gallantry in the charge
of the battalion of his regiment made near Skull Camp Bridge.
Lieutenant Young, Third Indiana Cavalry, was conspicuous in
the same charge; he received two slight saber wounds. Sergt.
Thomas Sheaffer, Third Indiana Cavalry, in same charge, after
being wounded in the face with a saber continued to hew his way
through the rebel ranks.
"All the regimental commanders, viz., Lieutenant-Colonel Gal-
braith. First Middle Tennessee; Captain Mclntyre, Fourth
United States; Major Mix, Fourth Michigan; Colonel Klein,
Third Indiana, and Lieutenant-Colonel Sipes, Seventh Pennsyl-
vania, are deserving of special mention for their promptness and
manner in which they handled their respective commands.
"I am respectfully, your obedient servant,
"R. H. G. MiNTY, Colonel Commanding."
54 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
At page 559, Vol. XXIII, Colonel Klein makes this report:
"Headquarters Third Battalion, Third Indiana Cavalry,
"Six Miles from Winchester, Tenn., July 7, 1863.
"Sir — I have the honor to submit the following report of the
operations of my command since leaving Murfreesborough on the
24th of June : l^othing of interest occurred until the 27 th, when
our forces advanced on Shelbyville, when the first determined
opposition was found, four miles from that place. When the
artillery opened upon us. Colonel Minty ordered my command to
proceed to the left, with orders if we met the enemy to charge
them, saying he would send us a guide to show us where to go. The
guide never came. We proceeded through thick woods, dense
undergrowth and tangled vines to the left until we reached the
enemy's abatis and rifle pits, where no horseman could go forward,
and the firing having ceased, we knew not our exact position. I
sent for orders, and on receiving them turned to the right to a
point where I could cross the abatis and pits. Here the roads, cut
through the woods, led to the left, following which, we reached the
Fairfield and Bellbuckle pike, two and one-half miles from the
city. We moved down this smartly to a point, when a citizen told
us it turned to the Murfreesborough pike. We then left it and
passing fields, orchards and woods, reached the outskirts of the
town, nearly half a mile from the Murfreesborough road.
"We started on a run for the city, and passing through the last
alley on the east of the pike, reached the railroad several hundred
yards from the depot, part of my men crossing the railroad beyond
the engine house, and the remainder passing under the trestle
work. We found the enemy in line on the road leading *from the
depot station to Steel & Holt's mill.
"My men coming up rather scattered, the enemy commenced
firing and advancing, until my men got somewhat formed, when,
firing a volley, we drew saber and charged into their ranks. They
fled in disorder nearly a half mile towards the mill where the
History of the Thied Indiana Cavalry. 55
commons narrow into a lane ; here they had to fight or be run down.
They fought from here to the mill desperately, using saber and
clubbing muskets and pistols. The fight was hand to hand for
300 yards, when both parties plunged into the river. Even here
we used the trusty saber with effect. We killed three men,
wounded some fifteen with saber, and captured one lieutenant-
colonel, one captain, one of Wheeler's staff, adjutant Fifty-
first Alabama, and adjutant Eighth Confederate, both badly
wounded with saber, and some six company officers and seventy
enlisted men. Our loss was one man drowned and three wounded ;
some others of my men were unhorsed by blows from clubbed
muskets, but not seriously injured. My officers and men behaved
in the most gallant manner, doing their whole duty. They picked
up several men beyond the river in the pursuit towards Tullahoma.
While being detached from the brigade, nothing worthy of note oc-
curred, but capturing a drove of beef cattle from rear guard of
enemy on mountain, on road from Cowans Station to Bellefonte on
the 4th of July.
"All of which is respectfully submitted.
"R. Klein, Lieutenant-Colonel Third Indiana Cavalry.
"Assistant Adjutant-General First Brigade, Second Cavalry
Although Companies L and M were detained in Indiana
through the summer of 1863, they were not idle. During the
Morgan raid the following dispatch (Vol. XXIII, page 733) in-
dicates they had some part in that affair:
"New Albany, Ind., July 12, 1863.
"General — My scouts just returned. Forty-seven rebels at-
tacked last night near Providence by Third Indiana Cavalry;
wounded three, took nineteen prisoners. Still in pursuit.
"Thomas W. Fry, Surgeon U. S. Army."
56 HisTOEY OF THE Thikd Indiana Cavaley.
The next account we have of the Third Indiana Cavalry is found
in the report of Col. Robert G. Minty from the headquarters of
the First Brigade, Second Division of Cavalry, dated McMinnville,
Tenn., August 11, 1863 (Vol. XXIII, Part 1, page 846), which
"Sir — On the 8th instant, having received information that
General Dibrell with 800 or 900 men was camped two miles south
of Sparta, I marched at 3 p. m. with 774 men, hoping to surprise
him. I took two days' rations and one day's forage; no wagons
or ambulances. At 11 :30 p. m. I arrived at Spencer and re-
mained long enough for the men to make coffee and feed horses.
I crossed Caney Fork at the mouth of Cane creek ; and, at day-
break, struck the rebel pickets about four miles south of Sparta
and followed them at a gallop, but arrived at the town without
seeing anything of their camp. In town I learned that they had
changed camp the evening before, and were then between three
and four miles north of Sparta, on the east bank of the Calfkiller.
I pushed forward rapidly, but the pickets, whoses horses were
fresh, had given notice of our approach, and the rebels were ready
to receive us. The Fourth Michigan Cavalry formed the advance
guard, and pushing at a gallop dislodged and drove the enemy
before the column got up. General Dibrell fell back across the
creek and took up a strong position on a hill covering a narrow
rickety bridge, which was the only means of crossing the creek at
"Finding a bad, rough ford about a quarter of a mile lower down,
I directed Captain Mclntyre to cross with the Fourth Regulars
and sharply attack the enemy's right flank. I then moved to the
front with the Fourth Michigan and a battalion of the Third
Indiana, but t\\e rebels, although outmmibering us and holding a
strong position, difficult of access, would not wait for the attack,
but scattered in every direction. The Fourth Regulars, Seventh
Pennsylvania and Third Indiana scoured the country for about
Major William Patton.
History of the Thied Indiana Cavalry. 57
three miles, but their horses were too tired to overtake the freshly
mounted rebels. Our loss, I regret to say, was heavy, but it was
confined exclusively to the Fourth Michigan, the only regiment
engaged, and which had only 115 men out. We killed one lieu-
tenant and thirteen men, and took one lieutenant and nine men
prisoners. I remained at Sparta until 1 p. m. and then returned
to camp, where I arrived at 12 :30 on the 10th instant. Inclosed
I hand you return of casualties.
"I am, respectfully, your obedient servant,
"Robert II. G. Minty, Colonel Commanding.
"Capt. R. p. Kennedy,
"Assistant Adjutant-General Second Cavalry Division."
On the 17th of August, 1863, Colonel Minty with his brigade,
to which the battalion of the Third Indiana Cavalry was attached,
left McMinnville, Tenn., for Pikeville, by way of Sparta, arriving
at the latter point at 2 p. m., where, with 1,400 men, he met and
fought General DibrelFs brigade of rebel cavalry, numbering
1,600 men, until after dark, driving them steadily. In the morn-
ing the rebels had disappeared. From here Colonel Minty moved
on to Pikeville with the main command, and Colonel Klein with
the Third Indiana Cavalry was sent to Rock Island. Of this
aifair Colonel Minty makes the following report (Vol. XXX,
page 920) :
"Smiths Cross Roads, Tennessee Valley, August 26, 1863.
"Sir — At 2 a. m. on the 17th, in accordance with orders from
Major-General Rosecrans, through Brigadier-General VanCleve, I
marched for Pikeville by way of Sparta. I sent my artillery and
wagons direct with the infantry train. At 2 p. m. my advance
struck General DibrelFs pickets two miles from Sparta. I sent
the Seventh Pennsylvania and Fourth Michigan up the east side
of Calfkiller creek to Sperrys Mill, where they found Dibrell's
brigade and quickly drove it across the creek. With the Third
Indiana and Fourth Regulars I moved up the west side of the
68 History of the Thied Indiana Cavaley.
creek, with the intention of cutting off their retreat, but the nature
of the ground was so much in the enemy's favor that they had no
difficulty in escaping. I followed them to within a short distance
of Yankeetown, and then moved back to Sparta for the purpose of
going into camp for the night.
"About four miles above Sparta the road runs close to the creek,
with a high bluff (thickly wooded) on the opposite side. Here
about 200 men lay in ambush, and as the head of the column was
passing they poured in a volley, wounding Lieutenant Vale, the
brigade inspector, and two of my orderlies. Part of the Fourth
Michigan and one squadron of the Fourth Regulars were quickly
dismounted and engaged the enemy across the creek. In an at-
tempt to cross the creek a little higher up, the Fourth Regulars
lost eight men drowned and a few wounded. The Seventh Pennsyl-
vania and Third Indiana crossed lower down and, with slight loss,
succeeded in dislodging the rebels. It being now after 8 o'clock
and quite dark, I bivouacked for the night. In the morning I
could find no trace of the enemy except a couple of them dead,
which the citizens were ordered to inter.
"The enemy's force was estimated by citizens at 1,500. I
placed it at 1,200. Every foot of ground which we fought over
was familiar to them. It was wooded, hilly, broken, and inter-
sected by half a dozen branches of creeks, with plenty of good
positions, all of which they were able to take advantage of. My
force numbered about 1,400, and the country was to us terra
incognita, notwithstanding which we drove them at a gallop. I
had one man drowTied and fifteen wounded, including three com-
missioned officers. I took twenty-three prisoners, including one
lieutenant, and representing four regiments.
"I am, respectfully, your obedient servant,
"Robert H. G. Minty, Colonel Commanding."
According to the official record of the Army of the Cumberland
(Vol. XXX, page 179), Colonel Miuty's first brigade was part of
HiSTOEY OF THE ThIKD InDIANA CaVALRY. 59
the Second Cavalry Division, commanded by Brig.-Gen. George
Crook. This v^as its assignment during the Chickamauga cam-
paign, and during this great battle the cavalry was employed in
protecting the supply train of the army, which General Wheeler
with 10,000 rebel cavalry was endeavoring to destroy.
The federal cavalry succeeded partially in saving the trains,
when Wheeler with his entire force started on his great raid in the
rear of our armies entering the Sequatchie Valley. He burned
500 wagons, going thence to McMinnville and Murfreesborough,
pursued by the federal cavalry, which pursued and fought him at
all points, until Wheeler was compelled to abandon his raid and
fall back on Bragg's main army at Missionary Eidge and Lookout
On the 17th of September, 1863 (Vol. XXX, page 715), an
order was issued from the headquarters of the Department of the
Cumberland as follows :
"The general commanding directs that Company I, Third In-
diana Cavalry be detached, until further orders, for scouting on
our flanks under your instruction. As soon as it can be spared
from that duty you will order it to report to these headquarters.
"Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
"W. Michael, Major and Assistant Adjutant-General."
Company I of the Third Indiana Cavalry has a history that is
its own and peculiarly unique. The company was raised at
Knightstown, Ind., by Will C. Moreau, a practicing attorney of
that place, who became its captain, with Tighlman Fish as first
lieutenant and Oliver Childs as second lieutenant. It was raised
with the intention of becoming the bodyguard of Gen. A. Mac-
Dowell McCook, commanding a division of Buell's army in Ten-
nessee and Kentucky. The company was sworn in at Indianapolis
and ordered to report to General Buell at Louisville, and in obedi-
ence to this order proceeded to Louisville. But instead of report-
ing to General Buell, at once proceeded to Elizabethtown, Ky.,
60 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
where General McCook was stationed, and reported to him. Gen.
MeCook at once sent the company on a scout to Buckley's farm
on Green river, where a large amount of rebel stores were kept in
the barns of that farm. These the company burned, and after a
day or two returned to General McCook's headquarters at Eliza-
bethtown. There the commander of the company found an order
commanding him to report at once to General Buell at Louisville,
which order was complied with. The company was held there in
camp until the army went to Nashville, Tenn., where it was de-
tailed on provost duty in the city, and was not relieved from this
duty until Bragg invaded Tennessee and Kentucky, when it fell
back with the army to Louisville.
In September, 1862, the company first came under the com-
mand of Major Klein, who had been in command of Companies
G, H and K. All of the commissioned officers of the company had
resigned at Louisville on the 25th of January, 1862, and in Febru-
ary, 1862, T. B. Wilkinson was made first lieutenant of the com-
pany and Charles Hedrick second lieutenant, and A. D. Vanarsdol
became captain of the company on the 27th of February, 1862.
''When the army of Buell moved out from Louisville in Septem-
ber, 1862, in pursuit of Bragg, who had begun his retreat south-
ward. Company I under Captain Vanarsdol went with Major Klein
to Nashville, where the company was again detailed for provost
duty in that city, and held there until December 25, 1862. Major
Klein complained of his command being broken up, and Company
I was relieved from provost duty in Nashville and joined him at
Triune, and was a part of his battalion in all the service he per-
formed until the latter part of August, 1863, at which time Capt.
Vanarsdol had resigned tlie command of the company and Capt.
W. C. Moreau had returned to the company recommissioned as its
At this time, by an order from General Thomas' headquarters,
the company was detailed as independent scouts or couriers and
History of the Thied Indiana Cavalry. 61
detached from Major Klein's command, and began scouting the
country in the vicinity of Chattanooga, accompanied by a young
man in citizens' clothes, who seemed to act as their guide, and who
was known to the men as Wilson. The company at this time only
numbered thirty men for duty. About the middle of September,
1863, this company in its rambles with Wilson stopped at Cotton
Ford, near Washington on the Tennessee river, for about a week,
from which point Wilson was daily making excursions in various
directions either alone or accompanied by two or three men of
Company I. At this point Captain Moreau received an order to
return with his command to Chattanooga. He crossed the Ten-
nessee river at Cotton Ford and, after journeying half a day,
learned for the first time that the battle of Chickamauga had been
fought, and that the rebel army was between him and Chattanooga.
And here the shrewdness and tact of the man Wilson made itself
particularly manifest. He was a citizen of Tennessee and had
been raised in that part of the country, and was acting under the
directions of General Thomas. He was a very bright young man.
He informed the men that he was entirely familiar with the
country and would conduct them safely to the Union lines if they
would follow his directions. To this there was unanimous assent,
and the command continued its journey right on up the river in
the direction of Chattanooga. About sundown they came on to
two cavalry pickets of the rebel General Wheeler's command,
whom they easily made prisoners, as they had no suspicion there
were any Union troops on the Tennessee river below them. The
Company I men rode by twos and the two prisoners were placed
between the men comprising the second and third files from the
rear, while Captain Moreau and Wilson rode at the head of the
command. All knew when they had captured rebel outpost pickets
in the rear of the rebel army that they were within the rebel lines
and on very dangerous gTOund. But they proceeded, and coming
in sight of a rebel battery with some infantry stationed at a small
62 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
railroad bridge directly along the road they were traveling, the
command was halted. Wilson rode to a house on the hillside over-
looking the rebel camp, and requested a small boy standing in the
yard to go down and notify the rebel officers in charge of the troops
they had to pass, not to disturb a body of cavalry that was coming
up, as they were going to the front to charge and drive in the
"Yankee pickets." The ruse worked like a charm, and they passed
the rebel artillery and infantry undisturbed, and came on to the
main body of the rebel army, where the men were cooking supper
and roll call was going on, and everything incident to the camp life
of a great army full of fight.
Under ordinary circumstances there was danger of the prisoners
riding between their guards crying out at any time and giving the
alarm, and thus subjecting the entire command to capture; but
Jonathan Keller, who with Joseph Higgins had charge of the
forward prisoner, says he carried his pistol in his hand, and had
warned the man that the moment he gave the alarm he would kill
him. The presumption is that the same warning had been given
to the prisoner in the rear by his guards, John H. Kennedy and
Lewis Micha. At any rate they made no outcry, and as the com-
mand passed on rebel soldiers frequently inquired, "Where are
you going, boys ?" and the answer was invariably, "To the front
to charge and drive in the Yankee pickets," and the response would
come back, "That's right; give them h — 1."
The command went on until General Wheeler's headquarters
were reached, when Wilson, who was conducting the expedition,
seemed to be uncertain among so many roads leading in every
direction which one he should take to reach the front of the rebel
lines. Standing in front of General Wheeler's tent was his big
colored hostler, whom Wilson ordered to mount a horse one of the
men was leading and direct them up the road on which the rebels
were hauling their ammunition, as he seemed to realize that that
road would lead to a point on the front of the rebel lines that it
History of the Thied Indiana Cavalry. 63
was desirable, under the circumstances, for his men to reach. The
colored hostler mounted the horse as directed, and taking his place
beside Wilson, proceeded to escort it as directed until the rebel
front was reached. Its supposed mission was made known to the
officers in command at that point, and their permission granted
for it to go forward, and when outside the main rebel line, where a
number of rebel sharpshooters were stationed at various points,
Captain Moreau gave the order, "Third Cavalry, charge," and
away they went in the immediate direction of the Union lines, fol-
lowed by a shower of bullets from the rebel sharpshooters, who
seemed to have discovered what they were. They were also greeted
by a similar shower from their own men as they were approaching
the Union lines, until Sergt. Edgar Henry dashed up to a squad
of federal soldiers and informed them that they were firing at
their own men, when the firing ceased, and Captain Moreau came
up and was known to some of the infantry officers on picket.
The only mishap that had occurred to the command in its ride
through the entire rebel army happened between Wheeler's head-
quarters and the front of the rebel line, when the prisoner in the
rear, guarded by John H. Kennedy and Lewis Micha, requested
permission of his guards to get down and fix his saddle blanket,
which was granted. For this operation the two guards and the
two men in their rear, James Harney and Eobert Poor, were
halted, and when the saddle blanket was adjusted the four men
found themselves some distance in the rear and separated from the
main command in the dark, and uncertain as to the direction in
which they had gone. Their prisoner told them he knew the road,
and piloted them direct to General Bragg's headquarters, where
they were promptly taken in as prisoners.
Captain Moreau passed into the Union lines with the other
twenty-six men, one prisoner and General Wheeler's colored
hostler, who, although scared almost to death, remained with
Lieutenant Iledrick, who became captain of Company I, until the
64 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
close of his service in October, 1864. Captain Moreaii reported to
General Thomas, was relieved of his command and was no more
with the company, its twenty-six men being placed under the com-
mand of Lieutenant Hedrick. Jonathan Keller says his prisoner
also made the request that he be allowed to stop and fix his saddle
blanket, which request was declined with the announcement that
there would be plenty of blankets left if the prisoner lost his.
"WTiile on this detail and after its perilous ride through Bragg's
army on the battlefield of Chickamauga, Company I with its
twenty-six men under Lieutenant Hedrick was dispatched by Gen.
Thomas to establish a courier line between Chattanooga and
Bridgeport. When they reached Bridgeport General Wheeler with
all his cavalry force had crossed the Tennessee at Cotton Ford
below Chickamauga, moved up into the Sequatchie Valley, at-
tacked and captured 500 wagons of the supply train of the Union
army, recrossed the Tennessee at Bridgeport and was creating
havoc among the supply trains and the troops guarding them
around Bridgeport. Between that point and Chattanooga Lieut.
Hedrick and all of his men but twelve were captured by the rebels
but escaped, and after this joined the remainder of the Western
battalion of the Third Indiana under Lieutenant- Colonel Klein,
and went with it to East Tennessee, where Burnsides was engaged
with Longstreet at Knoxville.
The record shows that Lewis Micha and James Harney, two of
the men captured on the night Company I rode through Bragg's
army, died at Andersonville, the former on the 15th of February,
1864, and the latter July 18, 1864, and James Higgins died at
Danville, Va., February 15, 1864.
The official record (Vol. XXX, Part 3, page 836, dated Sep-
tember 24, 1863) shows Lieutenant-Colonel Klein at Pikeville,
Tenn., with his detachment of the Third Indiana Cavalry, and on
the 31st of October, 1863 (Vol. XXXI, page 809), ihe detach-
ment is still shoT^Ti to be with the brigade commanded by Colonel
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 65
Minty. The next mention we have is that the detachment is with
Brig.-Gen. James G, Spears' forces at Loundon, Tenn., on the 3d
of December, 1863, where it had gone from Kingston. On this
march General Spears' command encountered 2,000 of Wheeler's
cavalry under Colonel Hart, and there was some fighting but not
serious, as the enemy fell back, leaving six pieces of artillery in
General Spears' hands.
After the battle of Fredricksburg in December, 1862, and a
second attempt by the Army of the Potomac to move on the enemy
later in the winter, and which simply resulted in its sticking in the
mud, the conclusion was irresistible that an army encamped on
either side of the Rappahannock river during the months of De-
cember, January, February, March and April was so thoroughly
encased in mud that any important movement was practically im-
possible, and both armies settled down to the simple task of watch-
ing each other.
Cavalry could get about after a fashion, and the Eastern bat-
talion of the Third Indiana Cavalry took its turn with the Eighth
Illinois and Eighth New York in picketing the right flank of the
army in the vicinity of Dumfries and Quantico creek until about
the middle of April. At this time the brigade to which it be-
longed, under command of Colonel Davis, of the Eighth New
York, moved up the Rappahannock to the vicinity of Warrentown,
where it confronted the confederate cavalry watching the ap-
proaches to the left flank of Lee's army. Every move of either
resulted in some kind of an encounter with the other.
■ Colonel Davis' brigade crossed the Rappahannock on April 15
at Beverly Ford for the purpose of making a reconnoissance, and
on the return the rear guard, consisting of Companies E and F
of the Third Indiana, was charged by a much superior force of
the enemy, and twenty men, including Lieutenant Shannon, of
Company E, were captured with their horses.
In the record we find no report by any federal officer of this
affair save the mention of the loss in men, horses and arms. But
at page 88, Vol. XXV, Part 1, we find a rather accurate account
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 67
(as far as it goes) by K. L. T. Beale, colonel commanding Ninth
Virginia (confederate) Cavalry.
"April 21, 1863.
"I submit report of the part taken by this command in the
skirmishing on the Eappahannock on the 14th and 15th instant,
together with casualties and captures. On the 14th one company,
under command of Capt. Stith Boiling, held the ford at Kelleys
Mills, and repulsed, with some loss to the enemy, an attempt to
cross with a force of two or more regiments. Another company
(under the immediate command of Capt. John W. Hungerford),
under Lieut.-Col. M. Lewis, held the ford at Beverly Mills. The
balance were engaged in watching the enemy at Rappahannock
Bridge and re-establishing the pickets driven out in the morning.
"On the 15th the enemy, having crossed in large force at the
ford above, flanked that portion of the command under Lieut.-Col.
Lewis and came down upon them by surprise. The coolness and
admirable maneuvering of Lieutenant-Colonel Lewis and Lieut.
G. W. Beale in command of the sharpshooters (dismounted), alone
saved the little band. By boldly charging the advance, the dis-
mounted men were successfully extricated from a position of great
danger. The whole command in the evening supported Col. J. R.
Chambliss, Jr., in a charge upon the retreating foe, captured
one first lieutenant of the Third Indiana Cavalry, also ten pri-
vates, ten horses, ten carbines and seven pistols. Our casualties
were one private Company A killed, one private Company K
missing (supposed to be captured), two horses killed, one wounded
and twelve horses captured. The conduct of the officers and men
merits the highest commendation.
"R. L. T. Beale, Colonel Commanding.
"Brig.-Gen. W. H. F. Lee."
Notwithstanding the statement of Colonel Beale in regard to
this affair, nineteen men of Companies E and F, Third Indiana
Cavalry, were captured and taken to Richmond. When they were
68 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
conducted to General Fitzhiigh Lee's headquarters that officer re-
marked to Lieut. A. L. Shannon, one of the unfortunates : "Lieu-
tenant, it is on to Richmond now sure enough." But a part of the
history of the affair is that by the middle of the following summer
the men were all exchanged and back with their companies doing
duty as usual.
The following is the list of men who made that trip to Rich-
mond, viz. : Company E, Lieut. A. L. Shannon, Serg"t. John P.
Mathews, James McClain, David Cochran, William H. Stapp,
John R. B. Glasscock, George W. Lewis, John I^aughton, George
W. Pearson, Mathew Glauber, James Graham; Company F, W.
B. Downey, Daniel Ely, Daniel Ecklor, Fred Erie, Stephen Good-
pasture, Monroe Payton, Jonas Sugden and John O. Martin.
As a member of Company F the writer has a very distinct recol-
lection of this affair. The squadron was the rear guard of Colonel
Davis' brigade, and had rendezvoused at an old blacksmith shop,
which had been a rebel picket post, waiting for the outpost vidette
to come in. It had been raining hard since early morning and a
ravine that passed this old blacksmith shop was flowing full with
a raging torrent of water. The command formed on the side of
this ravine next to the Rappahannock, and about one-half mile
from the ford of that stream where the brigade had crossed.
The Ninth Virginia, several times as strong as we were, came
down over a hill from the west with drawn sabers, yelling like
Commanche Indians, calling us ugly names and demanding our
surrender. At the command of Major McClure, commanding the
squadron, we gave them a volley from our carbines, but they
plunged through the stream, which we had supposed, with our
volley, would check them. Then began a race of rebels and
Yankees mingled in indescribable confusion, all heading for that
ford on the Rappahannock half a mile away. It was in that race
most of the captures were made.
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 69
In the old blacksmith shop Jonas Sugden, of Company F, had
captured and confiscated a rebel haversack containing a very fijie
hunk of boiled corn beef, and was gloating over his good luck, but
in less than five minutes later he was a prisoner on his way to
Richmond. History does not record who ate the corn beef.
Lieutenant Shannon, of Company E, and W. B. Downey, of
Company F, outpost videttes, had been cut off and, hiding their
horses in a thicket, were engaged in constructing a raft to cross
the Rappahannock, which was unfordable at the point where they
had struck it, and while thus engaged the rebels found them and
their horses and they became a part of the Richmond delegation.
The other captures were made by the rebels seizing bridle reins
and hauling in the riders of horses thus held up. Those of us
who were able to outrun the rebels leaped over the bank of the
river wherever we struck it, with the rebels all mixed up with us,
and there the rebels began sheathing their sabers and drawing
their pistols to shoot us in the water. But here good luck came to
our rescue. A number of our command who had already crossed
the river took in the situation, turned loose a volley from their
carbines upon our pursuers as they were forming and getting ready
to shoot us as we struggled in the river. They fled in confusion,
leaving us unhurt. Isaac Higgins, of Company F, was captured
by having his bridle rein seized by a rebel cavalryman near the
river bank some distance below the ford. While being led away
captive, his pistol, cocked, was held by him under his coat cape,
and in an unguarded moment he shot his captor, whirled his horse
and leaped into the river and escaped.
A few days later the entire cavalry force of the Army of the
Potomac, except a brigade supposed to be the least efficient of the
force, left in camp near Falmouth under General Pleasanton,
again crossed the Rappahannock under command of General
Stoneman, who had been placed at the head of what was desig-
nated as the Cavalry Corps after General Hooker took command
TO History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
and reorganized the Army of the Potomac in March, 1863. This
cavalry movement of General Stoneman's is known in history as
the Stoneman raid and was designed to move towards Richmond
and destroy the Orange & Alexandria railroad, over which supplies
were shipped to Lee's army lying south of the Rappahannock at
General Stoneman divided his force after crossing the Rappa-
hannock, leading the main body of his force in person as far as
the defenses of Richmond, where he destroyed considerable stores
and crippled the operations of the railroad for a few days ; while
Colonel Davis' brigade, to which the Eastern battalion of the
Third Indiana belonged, with one other brigade, was left at the
bridge where the Orange & Alexandria road crossed the Rapidan
river, under command of Gen. W. W. Averill. This force skir-
mished one whole day with a body of rebel cavalry at that point,
both sides using their artillery and making dashes at each other.
Both tried to burn the railroad bridge, each always succeeded in
driving the other off, so that all attempts in that direction were
ineffective. After the day's skirmishing was over both forces went
on picket, facing each other. Captain Gresham, of Company B,
Third Indiana, was seriously wounded while posting his men on
picket too near the enemy.
On the following day this force moved down the Rapidan, and
as the day progressed the booming of distant guns became more fre-
quent, and before we reached Elys Ford, near the mouth of the
Rapidan, about nightfall, the almost continuous roar of artillery
and volleys of musketry indicated to us that we were approaching
the scene of a great battle.
It was twilight when we reached Elys Ford, and hundreds of
the men riding horses, weary with their day's march, plunged into
the stream to water them, when a volley of musketry from the
opposite side of the Rapidan, which overshot our men, caused a
great scampering out of the stream and over the hill to a place of
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 71
safety. This was our introduction to the battle of Chancellors-
ville, which had been on since the 1st of May. Our command had
been rambling around through fields and woods, shut off from com-
munication with the world, many days, and knew nothing of what
was going on, at least so far as the rank and file was concerned.
An opening between the right flank of Hooker's army and Elys
Ford of the Kapidan had been left unguarded, and a brigade of
rebel infantry had moved down into it, and that was the force that
fired into our men when they hurriedly entered the stream to water
their horses. It was not regarded as good generalship that this
should be permitted to happen, and General Averill was relieved
of his command and placed under arrest.
Early in the day following this incident the battle of Chan-
cellorsville was renewed in all its fury, the roar of artillery and
the crash of volleys of musketry being almost constant, and our
body of cavalry stood in line all forenoon, ready to move at an
instant's notice. We did not receive such an order until about
noon, when we crossed the Rapidan at the ford where we had been
fired into the night before, went up the slope and joined the main
army, through the lines of the First Army Corps, under General
Reynolds, where the men had been fighting all day.
We formed in the rear of this force with artillery and remained
there two days and until 2 o'clock of the second night, when an
order was given to move, we knew not where. But we had not
gone far until we knew our horses were treading on brush, laid upon
a pontoon bridge to deaden sound, and that this bridge crossed the
Rappahannock. At daylight we halted and were overlooking Fal-
mouth and Fredricksburg. From that point we moved up the
river and soon met army wagons, batteries of artillery, long lines
of infantry, and without knowing what had happened, we felt very
certain the army of the Potomac was on a dift'erent side of the
river from where it had been fighting the enemy.
72 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
We moved on northward into the pine forests bordering the Rap-
pahannock, apparently away from all communication with the
main army, and had little knowledge of the particulars of what
had happened for more than a week, when the command returned
to Falmouth and found the entire Army of the Potomac on the
north side of the river, where it had been all winter. From Wash-
ington papers received that day we learned that the Union army
had been defeated in a great battle, which in history was to be
called Chancellorsville. The whole country knew all about it a
week before, but thousands of men on the ground, by the process
here described, were kept in almost total ignorance of what had
The cavalry force under General Stoneman perhaps accom-
plished all that was expected of it, but the remarkable thing in the
history of that great battle is that General Pleasanton, who had
been our commander in the Maryland campaign of the previous
year, but for some cause was left in the rear in charge of the con-
valescent camp at the opening of Hooker's campaign of 1863,
appeared on the battlefield of Chancellorsville with all his effec-
tive force, especially the Eighth and Seventeenth Pennsylvania
Cavalry regiments, and by his service in that great battle achieved
renown that placed him among the foremost cavalry leaders of the
war. The charge of Major Randall with a part of the Eighth
Pennsylvania, which was a part of Pleasanton's command, is re-
corded in history as one of the most splendid achievements of the
great battle of Chancellorsville.
With the close of that conflict Stoneman disappeared from the
Army of the Potomac and Pleasanton became commander of the
Cavalry Corps by right of conquest. The army lay in camp rest-
ing up until the early days of June, and then, with Pleasanton's
cavalry in the lead, moved northward along the Rappahannock to
the Orange & Alexandria railroad. On the 9 th of June Colonel
Davis' brigade of Buford's division crossed the Rappahannock at
George Middleton, Co. E.— at 16.
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 73
Kellejs Ford, where it encountered the enemy's cavalry, which
it fought all day and drove back on to its infantry lines, and dis-
closed the fact that Lee's army was also moving northward behind
the mountains of Virginia, heading for Maryland and Pennsyl-
vania. In this engagement Colonel Davis, of the Eighth N'ew
York Cavalry, who commanded the brigade, was killed early in
the day, and the command of the brigade devolved upon Major
McClure, commanding the Third Indiana Cavalry, who by the
death of Colonel Davis became the senior officer of the brigade.
Colonel Davis was an officer of the regular army, a strict disci-
plinarian, and in the Maryland campaign, particularly at Harpers
Ferry, where he declined to have the Eighth New York Cavalry
included in General Miles' surrender of 13,000 men to Stonewall
Jackson and cut his way out, was regarded as one of the best sub-
ordinate cavalry commanders of the army.
For that day's work he was made a major in the regular army,
and had he lived no doubt he would have attained the highest rank
in the cavalry arm of the service. As his successor on the battle-
field of Kelleys Ford, Major McClure proved himself well fitted
for the place, and at nightfall drew off his brigade to the north
side of the Rappahannock, having most successfully accomplished
the business of the expedition, which was a reconnoissance in force
for the purpose of developing the movements and purposes of the
A part of the work of the 9th of June at Kelleys Ford was the
capture of 400 of the enemy's cavalry and the disclosure of the
fact that Lee's army was moving in full force behind the
mountains, heading its course for Pennsylvania with a determina-
tion to carry the war into his enemy's country. His cavalry, under
Generals Stewart and Fitzhugh Lee, were in advance and actively
engaged in keeping their chief advised as to the movements of the
Army of the Potomac.
74 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
Hooker, with the entire army, was now moving northward on
a line parallel with the line upon which Lee was moving, and at
every gap in the mountains until the Potomac river was reached
the cavalry forces of the two armies were engaged in almost daily
conflicts. In all the encounters the Eastern battalion of the Third
Indiana Cavalry was having its full share.
Colonel Chapman had returned from a furlough and resumed
command, and General Merritt succeeded Colonel Davis in com-
mand of the brigade, which was known as the First Brigade of the
First Division of the Cavalry Corps, commanded by Gen. John
B. Buford, and comprised the Eighth Illinois, the Eighth New
York, Third Indiana Cavalry and four companies of the Twelfth
After the fight at Kelleys Ford on successive days, in the for-
ward movement, the brigade engaged the enemy's cavalry at Mid-
dletown, Upperville and Aldie. Near the latter place Lieut.
William W. Long, of Company C, was captured while going to
deliver a message and running into the enemy's cavalry upon his
return, so shifting were the movements of this active march. The
brigade camped on the bank of the Potomac on the night of the
26th of June, and on the following day crossed into Maryland as
the vanguard of the army.
Of the engagement of the 9th of June, 1863, Maj. W. S. Mc-
Clure, of the Third Indiana, commanding First Brigade, First
Division, made the following report (Vol. XXVII, page 1047,
Part 1) :
"Headquarters Third Indiana Cavalry,
"Camp Xear Catletts Station, Va., June 12, 1863.
"Lieutenant — I have the honor to submit the following report
of the operations of this command, and also of the First Brigade
of the First Cavalry Division, of which I assumed command after
the fall of Col. B. F. Davis:
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 75
"At 4 :30 a. m. the brigade marched from the camp of the night,
distance from the river one-half mile, under command of Col. B.
F. Davis, of the Eighth New York Cavalry, in advance, supported
by the Eighth Illinois Cavalry, and my command, composed of one
battalion of the Third Indiana Cavalry, one squadron of the Third
(West) Virginia Cavalry, and one battalion of the Ninth New
York Cavalry. Before reaching the ford two squadrons of the
Sixth New York Cavalry were detached and sent forward to sur-
prise and capture any of the enemy's pickets at the ford ; these,
dashing over, secured the ford after a sharp engagement. Closely
following came the brigade. Advancing, we soon gained a large
body of timber, where the Eighth New York Cavalry, squadrons
of which were deployed as skirmishers, met a large force of the
enemy, and, wavering, finally fell back before them.
"It was at this critical juncture, and while trying to rally his
men, that the lamented Col. B. F. Davis fell mortally wounded.
Captain Clark, commanding the Eighth Illinois Cavalry, imme-
diately charged the enemy, while my command was formed on
the right of the road to protect and support the charging column.
Here Captain Clark was wounded, and the command devolved
upon Captain Forsythe, who also was shortly after wounded.
Under the most unfavorable circumstances, and while considerable
confusion prevailed, I received orders to assume command of the
brigade. By order of General Buford, I moved my command to
the left, he occupying the right, and checked a large body of the
enemy advancing in column of squadrons. With some difficulty I
succeeded about 6 :30 a. m. in forming my command in close col-
umn of squadrons on the left of the road and in the timber. Im-
mediately the Eighth Illinois Cavalry was detached by order of
General Pleasanton, and I saw no more of them during the day.
Colonel Devin coming up, ordered me to retain command. By
7 a. m. the enemy was reported advancing in two heavy lines of
skirmishers, supported by about two regiments. I immediately
Y6 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
ordered Major Lemon, now in command of the Third Indiana
Cavalry, to deploy to the left one squadron, and Captain Hanley,
of the iNinth ISTew York, to move his squadron to the extreme left
to watch the movements of the enemy. The other squadron, under
Major Patton, Third Indiana Cavalry, was dismounted and sent
out as skirmishers.
"At 8 :30, the enemy continuing to advance slowly, Colonel
Devin ordered one section of Eobertson's battery up. Finding
no suitable position, they gave us little aid. The enemy continuing
to advance and inclining to my left and rear, I ordered Major
Pope, of the Eighth ISTew York, to deploy one squadron of his
regiment so as to connect Captain Hanley on the left with Majors
Patton and Lemon. To this line I gave two more squadrons for
support. For a time the advance of the enemy was checked, but by
9 :30 he began to advance rapidly, driving my skirmishers up to
the guns, which, without orders, the officer in command sent to the
rear. While the guns were retiring and the enemy advancing,
Maj. W. B. Martin, !Ninth New York, charged with the remaining
squadron of his battalion, forcing the enemy to fall back and
taking some prisoners. He himself was wounded and retired from
the field, leaving Captain Ayres in command. Immediately I
caused our lines to be advanced. The enemy fell back rapidly,
and by noon we were in complete possession of the whole timber,
and the lines were advancing in the open field beyond, supported
by the whole command moving in column of fours. The rear of
the enemy was charged by Lieut. L. C. Wilson, in command of
Company F of the Third Indiana Cavalry, who captured a few
"Finding that the enemy was massing a large force in advance
and a little to the right, I halted the columns until a section of
artillery joined us. Again advancing until the road by which
Gen. Gregg joined us was reached, the guns were placed in posi-
tion and the command formed in line and column of squadrons
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 77
to support the gims and skirmishers. In this position we remained
until about 3 p. m. under the fire of three of the enemy's guns,
when, General Gregg having come up, we were ordered to the rear to
protect the recrossing of General Buford. Before General Buford
had recrossed, I was ordered to his side. Lieutenant-Colonel Clen-
dennin, of the Eighth Illinois Cavalry, being present, I immedi-
ately turned over the command to him, to whom the regimental
reports were made. In consequence I can furnish no list of cas-
ualties in the command, nor can I mention instances of bravery
and ability which came under my immediate notice, without, per-
haps, injustice to others equally deserving. Yet I would not omit
to mention Captain Foote and Lieutenant Cutler, of the Eighth
N"ew York, who fell mortally wounded just before we gained pos-
session of the timber. At the same time my adjutant. Gam. S.
Taylor, Third Indiana Cavalry, and Lieutenant Herrick, of the
Ninth 'New York, were slightly wounded.
"Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
"W. S. McClure,
"Major Commanding Third Indiana Cavalry and Detachment of
Ninth New York and Third (West) Virginia Cavalry.
"Lieut. J. H. Mahnkin, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General."
One officer and twenty-two enlisted men of the Third Indiana
Cavalry were wounded in this engagement.
These June days of 1863 were strenuous ones for the cavalry
of the Army of the Potomac. It had been disclosed by the battle
on the south side of the Rappahannock that Lee's army was moving
towards Pennsylvania, behind that river and the mountains. The
enemy seemed to be anxious to know what the Army of the Poto-
mac was doing to counteract this movement. They came through
the mountains in force at Snickersville Pass and took position at
Middleburg and Upperville. General Buford, commanding the
First Division of the Cavalry Corps, makes his report of the opera-
tions at that time at page 920, Vol. XXVII, Part 1. He says:
Y8 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
"I was ordered to Middleburg on the night of the 21st and
reached there shortly after daylight, and started to turn the
enemy's flank. I took Colonel Gamble's and Colonel Devin's
brigades and pushed for Upperville. My advance was disputed
pretty warmly by the enemy, but he made no stand save with his
skirmishers. These were severely punished.
"When a mile from Upperville, I saw a large force in front of
General Gregg, who appeared to be outnumbered. I resolved to go
to his aid. The column struck a brisk trot, but ran afoul of so
many obstructions in the shape of ditches and stone fences that it
did not make fast progress and got out of shape. While in this
position, I discovered a train of wagons and a few troops to my
right marching at a trot, apparently making for Ashbys Gap. I
turned the head of my column towards them and very soon became
engaged with a superior force. The enemy brought four twelve-
pounder guns into position and made some excellent practice on
the heads of my regiments as they came up. The gunners were
driven from the guns, which would have fallen into our hands but
for two impassable stone fences. The enemy then came up in
magnificent style from the direction of Snickersville and for a
time threatened me with overwhelming numbers. He was com-
pelled, however, to retire before the terrific carbine fire which the
brave Eighth Illinois and Third Indiana poured into him. As he
withdrew my rear troops came up, formed and pressed him back
to the mountains. He was driven over the mountains into the
The casualties of the Third Indiana in this battle were four
men wounded and one missing, and eighteen horses killed.
On the 22d of June, 1863, the day following this engagement,
Col. William Gamble, of the Eighth Illinois Cavalry, commanding
the brigade, made the following report (Vol. XXVII, Part 1,
page 932) :
HiSTOKY OF THE ThIRD InDIANA CaVALRY. 79
"Captain — I have the honor to report the part taken, hj this
brigade in the cavalry fight of yesterday. The brigade, composed
of the Eighth 'New York, Eighth Illinois, three squadrons Third
Indiana and two squadrons Twelfth Illinois Cavalry, with one sec-
tion of the First U. S. Artillery under Lieut. Michalowski, in all
about 1,600 strong, left Aldie at 5 a. m., marched to Middleburg;
from thence west across a ford at Goose creek, the rebel skirmishers
occupying the opposite bank under cover of a stone wall at the
ford. One squadron of the Third Indiana Cavalry was dis-
mounted, and, with advance guard deployed, drove the rebels from
the opposite bank, when the column crossed and advanced south
on the TJpperville road. Encountered the enemy one mile from
the ford, on the right of the road ; deployed in column in line of
battle, and a few well directed shells into the enemy dispersed
him rapidly in retreat through the woods southward. One mile
farther I found the enemy behind stone walls, near a house ; a few
more shells drove them again towards Upperville. Two miles
farther, the enemy's skirmishers, supported by artillery, were
found strongly posted. I deployed the column in line, advanced
and drove the enemy from two strong positions behind stone walls,
his guns continually throwing shells at us. We continued the
march and found the enemy strongly posted west of Upperville,
at the base of the mountain. The Eighth Illinois, Third Indiana
and Twelfth Illinois Cavalry, about 900 strong, leading the col-
umn, came on rapidly at a gallop, formed in line, charged upon the
enemy's five guns amid a shower of shells, shrapnel and case
shot, drove the rebel gunners from their pieces, when the
enemy's cavalry, seven regiments strong, emerged from the
M'oods, and a hand to hand conflict ensued, the enemy out-
numbering us three to one. We retired a short distance
behind a stone wall and maintained our position, repuls-
ing the repeated charges of the enemy by well directed car-
bine and pistol firing. The enemy then, on account of his superior
80 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
numbers, attempted to turn both flanks, when a squadron of the
Eighth Illinois and one of the Third Indiana Cavalry were de-
ployed to cover the flanks, and, after a sharp conflict repulsed the
enemy; after which the section of artillery arrived, supported by
the Eighth New York Cavalry, and shelled the enemy from his
position. The enemy then retreated towards Ashby's Gap, pur-
sued for two miles by the First and Second Cavalry Brigades,
which at sunset returned and encamped on the battlefield, buried
the dead and took care of the wounded. Eighteen dead bodies of
the enemy were buried and over thirty of their wounded were
found, in addition to what they carried away. Horses killed. Third
Indiana eighteen. Eighth Illinois seventeen.
"Colonel Commanding Eirst Cavalry Brigade."
From this battlefield the First Cavalry Division moved to Ed-
wards Ferry and crossed the Potomac on June 27. General Bu-
ford, commanding the division, in his report (Vol. XXVII, Part
1, page 926) says:
"After passing the Potomac on the upper pontoon bridge the
division marched over almost impassable roads, crossing the
Monocacy near its mouth, by a wretched ford, and bivouacked on
the east side of the mountain, three miles from Jefferson; being
halted there by the whole train of General Stahl's division block-
ading the road through the mountains. June 28, the division moved
through Jefferson and went into camp for the purpose of shoeing
"June 29, the Reserve Brigade (General Merritt's) was detached
and moved to Mechanicstown. The First and Second Brigades
moved through Boonesborough, Cavetown and Monterey Springs,
and encamped near Fairfield, within a short distance of a consid-
erable force of the enemy's infantry.
"The inhabitants knew of my arrival and the position of the
enemy's camp, yet not one of them gave me a particle of informa-
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry, 81
tion, nor even mentioned the fact of the enemy's presence. The
whole community seemed stampeded and afraid to speak or to act,
often offering as excuses for not showing some little enterprise:
'The rebels will destroy our houses if we tell anything,' Had any-
one given me timely information and acted as guide that night,
I could have surprised and destroyed this force, which proved next
day to be two Mississippi regiments of infantry and two guns.
"June 30 the two brigades moved out very early to go to Gettys-
burg, via Fairfield. At the latter place my advance ran upon the
force referred to. I determined to feel it and drive it, if possible,
but, after a little skirmishing, found that artillery would have to
be necessarily used. Resolved not to disturb them, for fear can-
nonading from that quarter might disarrange the plans of the
general commanding. Fairfield was four or five miles west of the
route assigned me, and I did not wish to bring on an engagement
so far from the road I was expected to be following. I imme-
diately turned my column towards Emmetsburg without serious
molestation, and was soon on my proper road and moving on to
Gettysburg, where I had reason to suppose I should find some of
General Stahl's (Kilpatrick's) cavalry. We entered Gettysburg
in the afternoon, just in time to meet the enemy entering the town,
and in good season to drive him back before his getting a foothold.
He withdrew towards Cashtown, leaving his pickets about four
and one-half miles from Gettysburg,
"The night of the 30th was a busy night for the division. No
reliable information of value could be obtained from the inliabit-
ants, and but for the untiring exertions of many different scouting
parties, information of the enemy's movements and whereabouts
could not have been gained in time to prevent him from getting
into the town before our army could get up,
"By daylight on July 1, I had gained positive information of
the enemy's position and movements, and my arrangements were
made for entertaining him until General Reynolds could reach the
82 HiSTOEY OF THE ThIRD InDIANA CaVALRY.
scene. Between 8 and 9 a. m. reports came in from the First
Brigade (Colonel Gamble's) that the enemy was coming from
towards Cashtown in force. Colonel Gamble made an admirable
line of battle, and moved off proudly to meet him. The two lines
soon became hotly engaged, we having the advantage of posi-
tion, he of numbers. The First Brigade held its position for more
than two hours, and had literally to be dragged back a few hundred
yards to a position more secure and better sheltered. Tidball's
battery, commanded by Lieutenant Calef, Second U. S. Artillery,
fought on this occasion as is seldom witnessed. At one time the
enemy had a concentric fire on this battery from twelve guns, all
at short range. Calef held his own gloriously, worked his guns
deliberately, with great judgment and skill, and with wonderful
effect upon the enemy. The First Brigade maintained this un-
equal contest until the leading division of General Reynolds' corps
came up to its assistance, and then most reluctantly did it give up
the front. A portion of the Third Indiana found horse holders,
borrowed muskets, and fought with the Wisconsin regiment that
came to relieve them. While this left of my line was engaged,
Devin's brigade, on the right, had its hands full. The enemy ad-
vanced upon Devin by four roads and on each was checked and
held until the leading division of the Eleventh Corps came to his
relief. After the fall of General Reynolds, whose advance troops
partially drove back the enemy and made heavy captures of pris-
oners, the enemy brought up fresh troops and engaged General
Doubleday's command, which fought bravely, but was greatly out-
numbered and forced to fall back. Seeing our troops retiring, and
their need of assistance, I immediately rushed Gamble's brigade to
Doubleday's left and dismounted it in time to render great assist-
ance to our infantry and to check and break the enemy's line. My
troops at this place had partial shelter behind a low stone fence,
and were in short carbine range. Their fire was perfectly terrific,
causing the enemy to break and rally on their second line, which
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 83
made no further advance towards my position. Shortly after this
I placed my command on our extreme left, to watch and fight the
enemy, should he make another attack, and went to Cemetery Hill
for observation. While there General Hancock arrived and in a
few moments he made superb disposition to resist any attack that
might be made.
'^My division bivouacked that night on the left of our position
with pickets extending almost to Fairfield. The zeal, bravery and
good behavior of the officers and men on the night of June 30 and
during July 1 was commendable in the extreme. A heavy task
was before us ; we were equal to it ; and shall ever remember with
pride that at Gettysburg we did our country much service.
"July 2 the division became engaged with the enemy's sharp-
shooters on our left and held its own until relieved by General
Sickle's corps, after which it moved to Tawneytown and bivou-
acked for the night. The next day, July 3, it moved to West-
minster to guard the trains of the army at that point.
"July 4 the division marched towards Fredrick, en route to
Williamsport. July 5 reached Fredrick, drew supplies and re-
mained all night.
"July 6, the whole division (the Reserve Brigade having
joined the night before) marched at 4 a. m. towards Williams-
port, to destroy the enemy's trains, which were reported to be
crossing the Potomac into Virginia. At about 5 p. m., when near
St. James College, the enemy's pickets were discovered, driven in,
and preparations made to capture the town. The enemy was
driven handsomely to within half a mile of his trains at the town,
when he came out strong enough to prevent our further progress.
General Merritt's brigade with Graham's battery was on the right.
Colonel Gamble's (First) brigade on the left and Colonel Devin's
(Second) brigade on the left as rear reserve. The enemy made
an attack upon Gamble, who had posted his men under shelter
and who held their fire until the rebel line came within short
84 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
carbine range, when he opened upon it, doing terrible execution
and driving it back to its stronghold. This was repeated with
similar success. In Merritt's front the enemy made no direct
attack, but were so obstinate that General Merritt could not dis-
lodge them without too much sacrifice. The enemy, however,
attempted to turn our right with a brigade of infantry. This
attempt was most admirably foiled by General Merritt. While
our hottest contest was in progress General Kilpatrick's guns were
heard in the direction of Hagerstown, and as they drew nearer I
directed him to connect with my right for mutual support. The
connection was made, but was of no consequence to either of us.
Just before dark Kilpatrick's troops gave way, passing to my rear
by the right, and were closely followed by the enemy. It now
being dark, being outnumbered, and the First and Keserve
Brigades being out of ammunition, Devin was ordered to relieve
Gamble and a portion of Merritt's troops. This being done, I
ordered the command to fall back, Devin to hold his ground until
the entire road to Antietam was clear. Devin handsomely car-
ried out his instructions, and the division bivouacked on the road
"The expedition had for its object the destruction of the
enemy's trains, supposed to be at Williamsport. This, I regret
to say, was not accomplished. The enemy was too strong for
me, but he was severely punished for his obstinacy. His casual-
ties were more than quadruple mine.
"Colonel Chapman, with his regiment, dashed off to the road
leading from Falling Waters to Williamsport, destroyed a small
train of grain and returned with about forty mules and their
harness. At Williamsport Captain Graham fought his battery
with marked ability and to the admiration of all witnesses. The
officers and men behaved with their usual courage, displaying
great unwillingness to fall back and requiring repeated orders
before doing so.
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 85
"July 7 the division moved to Boonesborough, the Reserve
Brigade camping well in advance on the Hagerstown road, after
having a successful cavalry brush with the enemy's advance. July
8 the enemy attacked at 5 a. m. and the fighting lasted until 5
p. m. He was driven back about four miles, when the division
bivouacked for the night. July 9, attacked the enemy at 4 p. m.
and drove him handsomely about two miles. July 10 attacked
the enemy at 8 a. m. and drove him through Funkstown to his
entrenchments beyond Antietam, when he came out with a heavy
force of infantry and artillery and gave battle. The division held
the crest on our side of the town like veterans until its ammuni-
tion was exhausted. Howe's division of the Sixth Corps was in
easy supporting distance, but had no orders to aid me. At 3 p. m.
I could no longer reply with carbines, for want of cartridges, and
consequently ordered the division to fall back. There was
splendid fighting on the part of the division on the 7th, 8th, 9th
and 10th. There was no faltering or hesitation. Each man went
to work determined to carry anything in reason.
"July 11 the First and Second Brigades moved in the after-
noon in the vicinity of Bakersville. The reserve brigade was de-
tached. July 12 and 13 remained at Bakersville and pushed
pickets to within 800 yards of the enemy's entrenchments at
Downsville. July 11 at 7 a. m. the division was ordered to
advance and at 7 :30 a. m. it was discovered the enemy had evacu-
ated during the night. The few remaining scouts were run into the
rear guard of Lee's army, which was soon seen in front of Kil-
patrick, who had advanced from the north. Kilpatrick was en-
gaged. I sent word to him that I would put my whole force in
on the enemy's rear and flank and get possession of the road and
bridge in their rear. The division succeeded in getting the road,
and attacked the enemy in flank and rear, doing him great
damage, scattering him in confusion through woods and ravines.
Our spoils on this occasion were one ten-pounder Parrott gun.
86 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
one caisson, over 500 prisoners and about 300 muskets. General
Merritt came up in time to take the advance before the enemy
had entirely crossed and made many captures. The enemy's
bridge was protected by over a dozen guns in position and sharp-
shooters on the Virginia side. As our troops neared the bridge
the enemy cut the Maryland side loose and the bridge swung to
the Virginia side.
"July 15 the division moved to Berlin. July 16 moved camp
to Petersville. July 17 remained at Petersville. July 18 crossed
during afternoon and encamped near Purcellville. July 19
marched through Philimont and encamped on Goose creek near
Rectors Cross Roads. July 20 marched to Rectortown. Detached
General Merritt with his brigade to hold Manassas Gap, Gamble
to hold Chester Gap, and Devin with all the train moved to Salem.
July 21 Merritt in Manassas Gap; Gamble near Chester Gap,
finding it already in possession of a superior force of the enemy.
General Merritt and Colonel Gamble each had a fight and made
captures. July 22 wagon train sent to Warrentown in charge of
Sixth New York Cavalry. Devin moved to Barbes Cross Roads.
July 23 whole division concentrated at Barbes Cross Roads, re-
maining until the 26th. On the 26th the division took possession
of Warrentown and Fayetteville, picketing the Rappahannock
river from Sulphur Springs to Kelleys Ford.
"During the whole campaign, from June 27 to July 31, there
has been no shirking or hesitation, no tiring on the part of a single
man so far as I have seen. To General Merritt, Colonels Gamble
and Devin, brigade commanders, I give my heartfelt thanks for
their zeal and hearty support. Neither of them ever doubted the
feasibility of an order, but on its reception obeyed its dictates to
the letter. The First Brigade captured 854 head of beef cattle
and 602 sheep at Chesters Gap, which were turned over to the
subsistence department at Markham, July 24.
"I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
"Brigadier-General of Volunteers, Commanding."
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 87
No excuse could be required for inserting in this history the
foregoing full account of the operations of the cavalry of the
Army of the Potomac, to which the battalion of the Third Indiana
belonged, written at the time by the brave, wise and well-beloved
commander of the division to which it was attached. It is a faith-
ful diary of what was done by our branch of the service during
thirty-four days of most arduous service, at which time the
greatest battle of the war — Gettysburg — was fought, for it was
the turning point in the war.
But even more intimately was our battalion kno\\Ti by our gal-
lant brigade commander. Col. William Gamble, of the grand old
Eighth Illinois Cavalry, and we will not pass from Gettysburg
until we have given his account of that mighty conflict as he saw
and acted his part in it. From Vol. XXVII, page 934, we quote
Colonel Gamble :
"About 8 o'clock on the morning of the 1st instant, while in
camp at the seminary building, the officer commanding the
squadron on picket gave me notice that the enemy, consisting
of infantry and artillery in column, was approaching his pickets
from the direction of Cashtown, with deployed skirmishers in
strong force about three miles distant. This information was
immediately communicated to the general commanding the
division, who ordered my command to be in immediate readiness
to fight the enemy. My brigade — consisting of the Eighth I^ew
York, Eighth Illinois, three squadrons of the Third Indiana and
two squadrons of the Twelfth Illinois Cavalry, about 1,600 strong,
and Tidball's battery. Second U. S. Artillery — was placed in
line of battle about one mile in front of the seminary, the right
resting on the railroad track and the left near the Middletown or
Fairfax (Fairfield) road, the Cashtown road being a little to the
right of the center at right angle with the line. Three squadrons,
part dismounted, were ordered to the front and deployed as
skirmishers to support the squadron on picket, now being driven
88 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
back by the enemy's artillery and skirmishers. Our battery of
six three-inch rifle guns was placed in position, one section on each
side of the Cashtown road, covering the approaches of the enemy,
and the other section on the right of the left regiment to cover that
flank. The enemy cautiously approached in column on the road
with three extended lines on each flank. His and our line of skir-
mishers became engaged and our artillery opened on the enemy's
advancing column, doing good execution. The enemy moved
forward; two batteries opened on us and a sharp engagement of
artillery took place. In a short time we were compelled by over-
powering numbers to fall back about 200 yards to the next ridge
and there make a stand. In the meantime our skirmishers, fight-
ing under cover of trees and fences, were sharply engaged, did
good execution and retarded the progress of the enemy as much as
could possibly be expected, when it is known they were opposed
by three divisions of Hill's corps. After checking and retarding
the enemy's advance several hours, and falling back only about
200 yards from the first line of battle, our infantry advance of
the First Corps arrived and relieved the cavalry brigade in its
unequal contest with the enemy. In the afternoon the enemy
being strongly reinforced extended his flanks and advanced on our
left in three strong lines to turn that flank. The general com-
manding the division ordered my brigade forward at a trot, to
deploy in line on the ridge of the woods, with the seminary on our
right. Half of the Eighth New York, Third Indiana and Twelfth
Illinois were dismounted and placed behind a portion of a stone
wall and under cover of trees. The enemy being close upon us,
we opened a sharp and rapid carbine fire, which killed and
wounded so many of the first line of the enemy that it fell back
on the second line. Our men kept up the fire until the enemy in
overwhelming numbers approached so near that in order to save
my men and horses from capture they were ordered to mount and
fall back rapidly to the next ridge on the left of the town, where
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 89
our artillery was posted. The stand which we made against the
enemy prevented our left flank from being turned and saved a
division of our infantry.
"My brigade fought well under disadvantageous circumstances
against a largely superior force. Every officer and soldier did his
duty. The list of casualties is large, but could not be less, con-
sidering the position we occupied. Major Lemon, Third Indiana,
was mortally wounded, since dead; Lieutenant Conroe, Twelfth
Illinois Cavalry, killed ; Captain Fisher and Lieutenant Voss,
same regiment, wounded; Captain Follett, Eighth New York,
severely wounded; Captain Martin, Third Indiana, wounded;
Captain Morris, Eighth Illinois Cavalry, serving on my staff,
was wounded, and one of my orderlies was killed. Tidball's
battery under Lieutenant Calef, attached to my brigade, was
worked faithfully, did good execution and fully sustained its
former high reputation. This brigade had the honor to commence
the fight in the morning and close it in the evening.
"Near Williamsport, Md., July 6. This brigade was ordered
to engage, the enemy on the left of the Boonesborough road, near
Williamsport, the reserve brigade being on the right of the road.
The Third Indiana Cavalry was ordered to capture and destroy a
train of seven wagons of the enemy on our left on the Downsville
road, which was successfully accomplished, making prisoners of
the drivers and those in charge of the train. The brigade was
then placed in line of battle, three-fourths of it dismounted to
drive the enemy's skirmishers; Tidball's battery of four guns
placed in position, supported by the balance of the mounted men,
opened on the enemy, many times our superior in numbers, and
did excellent execution; the dismounted men in the meantime
keeping up a sharp carbine fire, drove the rebel pickets on their
reserve. The dismounted men were under the immediate com-
mand of the gallant and lamented Major Medill, Eighth Illinois
Cavalry, who fell mortally wounded. We held our position until
90 HiSTOKY OF THE ThIKD InDIANA CaVALRY.
dark and were then relieved by Colonel Devin's brigade and
ordered to fall back to Jones Cross Roads in the direction of
Boonesborough, which we reached about midnight ; the delay being
caused by Kilpatrick's division having been driven back in confu-
sion from the direction of Hagerstown, completely blockading the
road in our rear and making it impassable for several hours.
"Near Boonesborough, Md., July 8. The enemy was reported
advancing on the Hagerstown road. General Buford ordered my
brigade to take position on the crest of the ridge on the right of
the road to Hagerstown, about one and one-half miles from
Boonesborough, my dismounted men thrown out to the front
and in a strip of woods on the right of the road ; the battery being
in position on the center of the line, supported by the mounted
men. The rebels moved forward to drive in our skirmishers, sup-
ported by their battery, but after a sharp contest were unable to
drive me from my position on the right. The enemy, however,
gradually worked round on the left, driving the skirmishers of
Kilpatrick's division; placed a section of artillery so as to bring
a crossfire on my brigade, when I was ordered to fall back on
Boonesborough. Afterwards Kilpatrick's division was relieved
on the left and placed on the right; but being unable to dislodge
the enemy from the woods I formerly occupied, my brigade was
ordered forward, the battery placed in position under a heavy fire.
Three-fourths of the brigade were dismounted and ordered to
drive the enemy out of the woods in front, which was accom-
plished rapidly under a heavy fire of shell and musketry. Gen.
Buford in person leading the advance line of skirmishers, drove
the enemy three miles and across Beaver creek, on the Williams-
port or FunkstowTi road. General Kilpatrick with two squadrons
of his command galloped dovsoi the road within a short distance of
the enemy, halted, looked at each other and retired, when the dis-
mounted men of my brigade came up and drove the enemy across
History of the Thied Indiana Cavalry. 91
"Near Funkstown, Md., July 10. The brigade having driven
the rebels along the Hagerstown road from Beaver creek to within
three miles of Funkstown on the 9 th instant, we advanced again
on the 10th instant with dismounted skirmishers and artillery,
supported by the balance of the mounted men. The division ad-
vanced in line of battle; reserve brigade on the right, First
Brigade in the center and on both sides of the road, and the
Second Brigade on the left. Drove the enemy rapidly under a
heavy fire of artillery and musketry into Funkstown on a large
reserve of the enemy. We occupied the heights above Funkstown
with Tidball's battery, under Lieutenant Calef, which did good
execution, and our skirmish line was advanced to the suburbs of
the town. The enemy tried hard with a much superior force to
dislodge us from our position, but so long as our ammunition
lasted he was unable to do so. Our infantry finally arrived to
within a half mile of our rear, and although we were hard pressed
by the enemy and nearly all our ammunition expended, the in-
fantry pitched their shelter tents and commenced cooking and
eating in spite of repeated requests to the commanding officer of
the infantry to occupy our excellent position and relieve us. When
our ammunition was expended we were ordered by General Bu-
ford to fall back. The rebels then occupied our position and our
infantry afterwards had to retake it with the unnecessary loss of
several killed and wounded.
"Near Falling Waters, Md., July 14. On the morning of the
14th instant the brigade was ordered to march on the enemy in
the direction of Downsville from our camp near Bakersville. We
proceeded in that direction, found the enemy's earthworks at
Downsville abandoned, and were informed that the enemy had re-
treated towards Falling Waters and Williamsport, so as to cross
the Potomac during the night. The brigade marched rapidly
towards Falling Waters, and when near there observed a division
of the enemy intrenched on a hill covering the approach to the
92 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
ford. The brigade, in connection with the other brigades of the
First Cavalry Division, was ordered to move round to flank and
attack the enemy in the rear, to cut them off from the ford and
capture them, which we could easily have accomplished. During
this movement I saw two small squadrons of General Kilpatrick's
division gallop up the hill to the right of the rebel infantry, in
line of battle behind their earthworks. Any competent cavalry
ofiicer of experience could foretell the result. These two squadrons
were instantly scattered and destroyed by the fire of the rebel
brigade ; not a single dead enemy could be found when the ground
was examined a few hours afterward. This having alarmed the
enemy, he fell back toward the ford before we could get round in
his rear. We, however, with our dismounted men attacked him
in flank on rough ground and had a sharp carbine engagement,
taking about 511 prisoners, sixty-one of whom together with 300
stands of arms were turned over to an officer of Kilpatrick's
division by mistake ; also a three-inch Parrott gun, captured from
the enemy by the Eighth New York Cavalry, which was after-
wards sent by General Kilpatrick to the camp of this brigade,
where it properly belonged.
"July 21 and 22. In obedience to orders this brigade marched
from near Rectorstown, Va., to Chester Gap (about twenty
miles), arriving in that vicinity at 3:30 p. m,, July 21. About a
mile from the Gap our advance line of skirmishers encountered
the enemy's pickets. I dismounted six squadrons and drove the
enemy's pickets to the crest of the Gap on their reserve, which
was found to consist of Pickett's division of infantry, one regi-
ment of Jones' cavalry and a battery of six guns, occupying the
Gap on the crest of the mountain. Upon obtaining this informa-
tion and not having a sufficient force to drive the enemy from the
Gap, and having no support nearer than twenty miles, we fell
back one and one-half miles from the Gap. We here took position
so as to cover the two roads leading from the Gap, one towards
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry, 93
Barbes Cross Koads and the other to Little Washington and
Sperryville; placed the guns in battery and a strong line of
pickets in front and flank. We captured to-daj twenty-three pris-
oners, eighty-four horses, twelve mules, 654 beef cattle, 602 sheep,
all purchased and on the way to be delivered to the rebel army at
the Gap, in charge of a commissary agent and his son, who were
"July 22 at 8 a. m. my pickets reported the enemy advancing
from the Gap in column with skirmishers on the road towards
Sperryville. When the enemy's column came within easy range
we opened fire on it with artillery and the carbines of the dis-
mounted men so effectually that the column, with its wagon train,
halted and fell back out of our range ; his advance guard and
skirmishers being still engaged with ours, continued firing, we
holding our position and preventing the head of Longstreet's corps
from moving forward from the Gap from 8 a. m, till 6 p. m. The
enemy then brought five regiments of infantry around out of sight
in the woods and, approaching my left flank, drove in our skir-
mishers, and only by overwhelming numbers compelled me to fall
back slowly towards Barbes Cross Koads, keeping my videttes and
pickets watching the enemy.
"Colonel Commanding First Brigade, First Cavalry Division.
"Capt. T. C. Bacon,
"Assistant Adjutant-General First Cavalry Division."
As will be seen by the list in another part of this volume, the
Third Indiana Cavalry suffered severely in this great battle, both
in killed and wounded; among the former being Maj. Charles
Lemon, who had been with the regiment from the organization,
first as lieutenant, then captain of Company D and later as major
by promotion in line. He was every inch a soldier, both wise in
counsel and brave in action, and, while he was a strict disciplin-
arian, the men well knew he never asked of them other than
94 HiSTOEY OF THE ThIKD InDIANA CaVALRY.
what he deemed just and what he conceded could justly be exacted
of him by his superiors. He had never been absent from duty and
when the casualty of battle removed him his loss was felt in the
In the reorganization of the Army of the Potomac on the 81st
of July, 1863, under General Meade, the First Brigade of Bu-
ford's remained the same with the exception that two squadrons
of the Twelfth Illinois Cavalry were attached to the Third Indi-
ana Cavalry, under Colonel Chapman.
There was quietude on the picket line, established on the 26th
of July from Sulphur Springs to Kelleys Ford on the Eappahan-
nock, until the 4th of August, when 2,000 rebel cavalry with six
guns attacked the line of the First and Eeserve Brigades. Of this
General Buford says (Vol. XXIX, page 22) : "He drove my
pickets back about 1,500 yards, when the division came up and
drove him nearly two miles. My picket line tonight is 800 yards
from where it was yesterday. The enemy's reconnoissance was
an utter failure. My casualties are trifling, say five to ten. The
First and Reserve Brigades behaved like heroes."
The army moved south of the Rappahannock and encamped
around Culpepper and Stevensburg, the cavalry camping near the
latter point a short distance from Germania Ford on the Rapidan
river. The rebel army was south of the Rapidan, and their cavalry
picketed the fords from their side, as we did from our side. There
was little disturbance, save occasional artillery firing when some
body of troops exposed itself within range of the enemy's guns.
During this time, on the 10th of October, Colonel Chapman was
placed in command of the First Brigade, Major McClure of the
Third Indiana Cavalry and Capt. Henry L. Reans was given
command of the four companies of the Twelfth Illinois Cavalry,
heretofore attached to the Third Indiana.
The records from which we have so often quoted, and which
have been our main reliance in the writing of this history, unfor-
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry, 95
timatelj do not always tell all that should be told. We are unable
to find any account of a reconnoissance made by Buford's division
and a portion of Kilpatrick's command on the 21st and 22d of
September, 1863, while those troops lay in camp around Stevens-
burg. This expedition crossed the Eapidan on the 21st and also
crossed Robertson's river, camping for the night on the outskirts
of Madison Court House. Early next morning Kilpatrick moved
on through Madison Court House and Buford moved down the
north side of Beautiful river, with company F, Third Indiana,
in advance, with skirmishers in front. Major Patton commanded
the regiment, the Major himself with his bugler being with the
skirmishers. Some three or four miles out from Madison Court
House the skirmishers ran on to rebel cavalry, and when the first
shots were fired Major Patton came back to Company F and told
Captain Moffitt of that company to get ready as the enemy was
coming. To the right of the road the land sloped down to the
river, and the left was a level open woodland. Two hundred
yards in front was an opening or farm, the road making a sharp
turn around a thick clump of underbrush in the corner of a field.
The enemy in coming at us had to pass this corner and clump of
underbrush before coming into view of Company F, which was
formed at right angles with the road, the left well forward. In
this position a squadron of the First North Carolina Cavalry with
a yell came full drive on a charge around the corner above re-
ferred to. As they came out from behind the clump of under-
brush Company F gave them a full volley with their carbines
which quieted the rebel yell, most of the charging column wheeled
and broke back on the road from whence they came. The officer
in command of the charging rebel column with about a dozen
men continued the charge and surrendered when he reached our
artillery, while the few men with him dashed down the slope of
the hill with Company F after them, and right there killed,
wounded and captured ten men.
96 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
After falling back, the enemy dismounted behind the clump of
underbrush that had been our source of concealment and began
firing at our men who were still mounted. There Hez Daily,
Louis Klussmann and Pollard J. Brown were wounded and James
Mount's horse shot dead under him. The company lost twelve
horses in this part of the fight. Company B of the Third Indiana
here came to the support of Company F and the battalion, which
was then dismounted, soon had the rebels routed from their hiding
place and on the run. It was said the first volley of Company F
killed twelve men and wounded a number more; a number of
horses were left dead in the road. The Third Cavalry was
ordered to hold the line it had won, and while so holding it Ben-
jamin Loder of Company F was killed and two or three others
wounded. There was skirmishing at this point for two or three
hours, when the Third Cavalry was ordered to mount and charge,
which they did, following the rebels about a mile and a half.
Then the command crossed the ford at Beautiful river and was
soon on its way to camp at Stevensburg.
On the 10th of October, 1863, General Buford was ordered to
force the enemy's line at Germania Ford (Vol. XXIX, page 348,
Part 1), drive the enemy before him and move around to
Mortons Ford and communicate with General Newton, com-
manding the First Army Corps, who was instructed to force a
passage there. The ford was passed the same day and Mortons
Ford reached that night, where we camped ; the enemy being there
also in their entrenchments. The First Corps, which General
Buford expected to co-operate with him the next day, fell back
in the night. In this camp General Buford received orders that
he should have received earlier — not to cross the Rapidan at all,
but to return and recross the Rappahannock at the station or
It seems that after this forward movement had been ordered,
information had been received that Lee's army was moving by
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 97
the right flank of the Army of the Potomac by way of Madison
Court House, heading for Washington. This movement caused
a change in the plans of the general commanding the army, but
not until General Buford was in a ''hot box." He says (Vol.
XXIX, page 348) : "I immediately started to recross the
Rapidan at Mortons Ford, driving the enemy from his inner
works. He retired towards Raccoon ; fincling he was not followed
and receiving reinforcements, soon returned to retard my crossing.
The ford was bad and had to be repaired, which caused some
delay. During this crossing the enemy was very active on my left
flank, skirmishing and crossing the river above at Raccoon Ford.
This latter movement was discovered in time to foil his plans,
Colonel Chapman with all his brigade, that had crossed, being sent
to check him while Devin crossed his command. Colonel Devin
was sorely pressed as his force on the enemy's side was decreased,
but by frequent dashing and telling charges, and by the fire from
the two batteries on the north side, kept the enemy from closing
on his rear. Colonel Devin's command on this occasion was beau-
tifully handled, fought too bravely and consequently suffered
quite severely. Captain Conger, Third (West) Virginia, by his
courage and hard fighting won the admiration of all who saw him.
While Colonel Devin was doing so well. Colonel Chapman with
his brigade had made preparation to meet the force that had
crossed at Raccoon, and a very warm reception he gave them. He
found a superior force of cavalry formed and ready to charge.
He speedily made his dispositions and as soon as completed down
came this overwhelming force of cavalry upon him, not to stay,
however, but to be hurled back dismayed, in confusion and ter-
"Shortly after the rout of this cavalry its support (infantry
force) advanced and Colonel Chapman withdrew from his posi-
tion directly towards Stevensburg. When near Stevensburg the
Second Brigade connected, each line still followed closely by the
98 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
enemy. Seeing a number of wagons passing along the road from
Culpepper through Stevensburg, towards Kelleys, I determined to
make a stand until they were all safe. Here the division fought
the enemy's cavalry until its support came up with long-range
muskets. The division then withdrew, making an obstinate re-
sistance at Stevensburg until everything was safely across that
nasty stream, Mountain Run, after which it leisurely retired to
Brandy Station without a great deal of molestation from the
enemy, although closely followed by him. To my surprise, at
Brandy Station I found the rear guard of the Fifth Corps passing
through to cross the Eappahannock. I knew nothing up to this
time of how extensive this retrograde movement of our army was,
and here learned that General Pleasanton, with the Third Divis-
ion, was still in the rear of the Fifth Corps. Arrangements were
immediately made to make a stand until the Third Division should
arrive. The enemy seeing the Third Division across the open
country, and being out of my sight, turned their column in that
direction. The Third Division soon made connection with my
right. As soon as this was accomplished the Sixth ]!^ew York
charged, followed closely by the Ninth ]^ew York, and regained
the advantage that the enemy supposed he had. Here occurred
a severe hand-to-hand fight, Devin's troops using the saber. The
enemy pressed my left closely in retiring, and made several feints
in my front, but by 8 p. m. the division was across the Rappa-
The next day after this fighting and experience Buford's
division, the advance of the Fifth Corps, and General Sedgewick's
corps, all under the command of General Sedgewick, recrossed the
Rappahannock and drove the pursuing enemy to within one and
one-half miles of Culpepper. The men killed the day before were
buried and the wounded cared for. The same night Sedgewick
recrossed the Rappahannock, Buford's division of cavalry bring-
ing up the rear and crossing the river about daylight on the 13th
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 99
of October, 1863. The division was in the rear of our army
trains which were at Catletts Station and Weaverville, and Bu-
ford's orders were to guard the rear and flank of the train on the
march from the Eappanhannock to Centerville by way of Brents-
ville. The wagon trains began moving at once but the division
lay in camp on the north bank of the Eappahannock imtil the
morning of the 14th. Longstreets's rebel corps had crossed the
Eappahannock on the night of the 13th above where Buford's
division lay and made a bee line across lots for the army train
passing at Catletts Station and Weaverville, and had the train
almost within its grasp as it reached Brentsville. There Warren's
corps of our army, marching on the south side of the Orange &
Alexandria railroad track, seemed to rise up out of the earth
between Longstreet's advancing troops and the army train parked
at Brentsville, and a furious battle, lasting from 11 a. m. until
after dark, ensued, in which a rebel brigade was captured just
after dark. The train was saved and moved on with Buford's
division in its rear, crossing Broad Eun and Cedar Eun with the
rebel cavalry still in pursuit. Buford's division was again struck
between Cedar Eun and Bull Eun by the enemy, who seemed to
suppose they would strike the wagon train there. The division
again gave him battle and drove him back, and the last wagon
safely crossed Bull Eun and was parked with the main army at
Thus ended the pursuit of the rebel army and its march on
Washington and the scare was over. Lee fell back across the Eap-
pahannock and the Eapidan and took position at Mine Eun.
Meade moved to that point prepared for battle, but it was not
fought. Meade then fell back to Culpepper and Stevensburg on
the north side of the Eapidan and went into winter quarters. In
all that strenuous campaign the Third Indiana did its full part
and was glad of the rest that came with winter.
After ten companies of the Third Indiana Cavalry had been
in the field something over a year, two new companies were or-
ganized for the regiment in Indiana. The first of these was desig-
nated Company L ; its officers, Oliver M. Powers, captain,
George J. Langsdale, first lieutenant, and Simeon J. Mitchell,
second lieutenant, were mustered into the service on the 23d of
October, 1862. The second company was designated Company M ;
its officers, Charles U. Patton, captain, James W. Raymond,
first lieutenant, and James W. Stephens, second lieutenant, were
mustered into the service on the 11th of December, 1862. Both
of these companies were detained within the State until Septem-
ber, 1863, subject to the orders of the military authorities who
had charge of affairs in Indiana.
At the last named date these two companies accompanied a
body of troops under General O. B. Wilcox that were sent to East
Tennessee by way of Cincinnati and Cumberland Gap. These
companies performed duty with General Wilcox's command as
an independent cavalry organization until they reached Mary-
ville. East Tennessee, in February, 1864, when they joined the
other four companies under Lieutenant-Colonel Klein. From
that time on these six companies served together as one organiza-
tion until the muster out of Companies G, H, I and K in October,
1864, after the fall of Atlanta and prior to the march to the sea.
On the 31st of January, 1864, the battalion of the Third
Indiana Cavalry was in the Second Brigade, commanded by Col.
William W. Lowe, Second Division Cavalry, Department of the
Cumberland. (Vol. XXXII, Part 2, page 290.) When in East
Tennessee they were under the orders of Ma j. -Gen. J. M. Scho-
field, commanding the Army of the Ohio.
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 101
On the 26th of April, 1864, General Sherman ordered General
Schofield to rendezvous his command, the Army of the Ohio, at
Charleston, Tenn., to become the left wing of the army in the
Atlanta campaign. At this time (Vol. XXXVIII, page 508)
General Schofield says : "The cavalry corps, save two regiments,
the Tenth Michigan and Third Indiana Cavalry, had been sent to
Kentucky in the early spring to be remounted." General Schofield
further says, "that preparatory to carrying out General Sherman's
order, by the withdrawal of the main body of the troops from East
Tennessee it was necessary to drive the enemy beyond the Wau-
taga river and effectually destroy the railroad bridges so as to
make East Tennessee secure from invasion by the enemy in force.
This was thoroughly accomplished by General Cox's division,
aided by the Tenth Michigan and Third Indiana Cavalry."
We have an official account, in a measure, of the work per-
formed in the latter part of the winter of 1863-4 by the Third
Indiana Cavalry in East Tennessee, which we offer as the best
evidence of what the Western battalion was doing at that time.
The official record (Vol. XXXII, page 36, Part 1) reports the
Third Indiana Cavalry at Maryville, East Tennessee, most of the
month of January, 1864, and on the 14th of January, 1864, Col.
Klein makes the following report:
"Headquarters Third Indiana Cavalry,
"Maryville, Tenn., January 14, 1864.
"Sir — I have the honor to report the following in regard to a
late expedition from my command up the Little Tennessee river,
in which I broke up a nest of guerrillas composed of absentees,
deserters and paroled soldiers from the rebel army, and rebel
citizens, who had been stealing stock and goods from loyal citizens
of Blount and Monroe counties, and taking the same to North
Carolina to sell. Their force was variously estimated from fifty
to two hundred strong, camped on both sides of the Tennessee
102 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
river, at a place known as Chilhowee, twenty-four miles from this
"I left camp with 100 men on the 11th instant at 3 p. m. and
stopped at night at the Harrison Ford, eight miles from their
camp, until next morning. At early dawn I attempted to throw
half my forces across the river, which was difficult swimming for
a horse all the way across, the current being swift and much
ice running. Here I lost First Sergt. Bernard Kraft, Company
K, and his horse by drowning, and came near losing more. I was
only able to get twenty-eight men across on the best horses. We
then moved up the river on either side, in concert, as fast as the
blockaded roads would admit, scattering their pickets and charg-
ing into their camps, routing them completely; capturing one
captain, one first lieutenant and twenty-one men, their arms,
horses, equipments, etc., without further loss to us. The prisoners
have been put in charge of the provost marshal of this county to
forward to General Carter. The horses, arms and equipments
were taken up on my quartermaster's return.
"Having no intermediate headquarters to report to, I make this
report direct to your headquarters.
"Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
"Headquarters Department of the Ohio."
From Headquarters, Third Division, Twenty-third Army
Corps, Knoxville, Tenn., February 21, 1864, Brig. -Gen. Milo S.
Hascall, U. S. Army, made the following report (Vol. XXXII,
Part 1, page 409) :
"Major — While I was visiting my command on the other side
of the river yesterday the enemy attacked my picket posts on the
Sevierville road, and showed themselves rather prominently on
all the roads. I thought best to ascertain what was in our front.
HiSTOEY OF THE ThIED InDIANA CaVALKY. 103
and accordingly took the Fourth Tennessee Infantry, under Major
Patterson, about 150 or 175 men, and the left wing of the Third
Indiana Cavalry, under Lieut.-Col. Robert Klein, about 200 men
in ranks, and started out on the Sevierville road, the infantry in
advance. About a mile out we encountered the enemy's outpost,
which was promptly driven away by the infantry. As soon as we
had the rebels fairly started in retreat I directed Colonel Klein
to go forward with his men and press the enemy vigorously till
he ascertained how much force they had. He at once obeyed the
order and fell upon them with great vigor, pushing them back
about two or three miles farther. Finally with two companies he
charged upon the Fourth and Eighth Tennessee (rebel) Cavalry
and succeeded in cutting off some 200 of them, but could only
bring off ten of them, one of whom was the adjutant of the
Eighth Tennessee. Having now ascertained from citizens and
the prisoner taken that it was two brigades of Martin's (rebel)
cavalry that we were contending with, and not deeming it prudent
to push any farther with my small force, as compared with theirs,
I directed them to withdraw. Colonel Klein lost six men
wounded, one of whom will die. The whole affair was very well
executed by Colonel Klein and proves him to be a remarkably
efficient officer. His men also behaved themselves in the most
creditable manner. There were no casualties in the infantry
force. I forward the report of Colonel Klein.
"All of which is respectfully submitted.
"MiLO S. Hascall,
"Brigadier-General of Volunteers, Commanding Division.
"Maj. G. M. Bascom,
"Assistant Adjutant-General Twenty- third Army Corps."
Camp near Knoxville, Tenn., February 21, 1804 (Vol. XXXII,
Part 1, page 410) :
104 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
"Sir — I have the honor to report the following as the part
taken by my command in the affair of yesterday on the Sevier-
"After the enemy's outposts were driven beyond our vidette
station, by General Hascall's order I passed to the front with
four companies, leaving one company to guard against a move-
ment around our rear. I soon met the enemy in considerable
force and skirmished (both mounted and dismounted) with them,
driving them slowly until by a charge we drove the Fourth and
Eighth Tennessee Cavalry to where the remainder of their force
was dismounted and in line. Here I had every man 'in' hotly
engaged, when, finding the odds too great against us, I thought
it prudent to withdraw, which was done in good order. As fruits
of the engagement I brought off one adjutant (Eighth Tennessee),
nine men and ten horses, and some arms, etc.
"My loss was six men wounded (one mortally), twelve horses
left on the field and six stands of arms. The enemy's loss was
greater, so far as could be observed. Five are known to be killed.
We had at one time as many as 200 men cut off, but were too weak
to hold them.
"Respectfully, your obedient servant,
"Capt. Edmund R. Kerstetter,
In the record (Vol. XXXII, page 496), covering a report by
Capt. John W. Hammond, commanding the Sixty-fifth Indiana
Mounted Infantry, at Chucky Bend on Chucky river, dated
March 13, 1864, we find the capture of a rebel scouting party by
the Third Indiana Cavalry that had been pursuing Captain Ham-
mond's command, near Bulls Gap. In a report of General Scho-
field's, dated April 15, 1864 (page 670), he says: "The Third
Indiana Cavalry, reconnoitering beyond Greenville on the 14th,
History of the Thied Indiana Cavalry. 105
surprised a body of rebel cavalry, killing ten, capturing fifteen,
including their leader, Reynolds."
Special Orders No. 93, dated Department of the Cumberland,
April 2, 1864, providing for the cavalry organization of that
army, assigned the Third Indiana Cavalry to the First Brigade
of the Third Division, commanded by Col. William W. Lowe, of
the Fifth Iowa Cavalry. After this assignment Gen. J. D. Cox
reports that he has the Third Indiana at Lick Creek, on the Wau-
taga river, guarding his wagon trains, and that the battalion had
also been assigned the duty of destroying the bridge over the Wau-
taga river at that point.
The ofiicial record indicates that the mounted service in East
Tennessee in the latter part of the winter of 1863 and the early
part of 1864 was to a large extent inefiicient, the horses having
been starved and worn out by the campaigns of the early autumn
and winter, and these broken down troops had been sent to Ken-
tucky to be remounted. The few cavalry organizations fit for
service had more than their share of work to perform. This was
particularly true of the Tenth Michigan and Third Indiana Cav-
alry regiments, that were well mounted and always on the move.
So true was this of these troops that General Cox, in an order
issued at Strawberry Plains on the 22d of March, 1864, to Gen.
Stoneman, directed that if any of Colonel Klein's men were dis-
mounted to mount them by dismounting men of Colonel Garrard's
command, and the same order applied to the Tenth Michigan.
(VoL XXXII, page 110.)
There was no change in this character of the service for the
Western battalion of the Third Indiana Cavalry until the organi-
zation of the cavalry forces by General Sherman for the Atlanta
campaigTi, on the 2d of May, 1864, when we had the battalion
commanded by Major Gaddis attached to the First Brigade (com-
manded by Lieutenant-Colonel Klein) of the Third Division,
commanded by General Kilpatrick. From that time on we have
106 History of the Thikd Indiana Cavalry.
tlieir history in the reports of division, and, too seldom, brigade
and regimental commanders. N^ot in detail, but in a general way,
they tell us that they were a part of that mighty and irresistible
army under General Sherman that bore down all before it in its
march on Atlanta, and in its terrible conflicts around that stormy
center until the army cut loose and went on its march to the sea.
In that wonderful march it will ever be a source of pride that a
part of our regiment had some honorable part.
On the 2d of May, 1864, General Schofield moved from
Charleston, Tenn., to Dalton, Ga., with a force of 11,183 infantry,
678 artillery and 1,697 cavalry, making a total of 13,565 men,
and at the latter point was reinforced by 4,105 infantry, 115 ar-
tillery and 1,493 cavalry, bringing the Army of the Ohio up to
19,268 men of all arms. Major-General Stoneman commanded
the cavalry corps and General Kilpatrick commanded the Third
Division of that corps.
On the 2d of May, 1864 (VoL XXXVIII, page 855), from
Ringold, Ga., General Kilpatrick reports that under orders from
headquarters of the Army of the Cumberland, he made a recon-
noissance with all his effective force in the direction of Tunnell
Hill. "I moved through Hookers Gap at 4:30 a. m., met the
enemy one mile from Stone Church, drove him from one position
to another, and finally from his first camp at Tunnell Hill.
"Here he was found in large force, occupying a strong position.
The report of yesterday that the enemy had left Tunnell Hill
was a mistake, although I think he has cavalry only, possibly, too,
some artillery was used. My loss today is two killed, one mor-
tally and two severely wounded."
Continuing (Vol. XXXVIII, page 857), General Kilpatrick
says: "My command left its encampment at Ringold, Ga., at
3 a. m. May 7, 1864, crossed Taylors Ridge through Xickajack
Trace, forced back the rebel cavalry covering the masking move-
ments of the Twentieth Corps, Major-General Hooker command-
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 107
ing, of the Army of the Cumberland, and encamped near Trickum
Postoffice, May 7, 1864. May 8, 1864, moved to Villanow and
opened communication with the Army of the Tennessee, Major-
General McPherson commanding. Received orders and reported
with my command to Major-General McPherson on the south side
of Stony Face Ridge, at the entrance of Snake Creek Gap. Made
reconnoissance and scouted the country during the 9th, 10th,
11th and 12th of May, 1864. Led the advance of the Army of the
Tennessee in the attack on Resaca, drove the enemy's cavalry
and infantry skirmish line back behind their works, masking the
movements of our infantry until the force of the enemy was too
great to contend with longer, when I was relieved by the infantry
and the command took post, on the evening of May 13, on the
right of our army, then in line of battle before Resaca. I re-
luctantly on the evening of the 13th resigned command of the
division, and proceeded to my home in the East to recover from
wounds received during the day. The command devolved on Col.
Murray, and afterwards on Colonel Lowe."
Colonel Murray's report as the successor of General Kilpatrick
in command of the division is found at page 862 of the same vol-
ume, in which he says : "I proceeded to carry out the instructions
of Major-General Sherman, namely, to take possession of the cross
roads, thereby covering the formation of our infantry lines, which
being accomplished, in further pursuance of these orders put my
command in reserve, reporting to the general commanding. By
his instruction Lays Ferry was taken possession of, picketing it
at night. On the 14th moved, making demonstrations at Gideons,
Calhoun and Lays Ferry. At Calhoun, owing to the formation
of the banks and the direction of the stream, the guns of the
enemy completely covered the crossing. On the 15 th moved to
Calhoun Ferry; 16th, moved with the command across a pontoon
at Lays Ferry; I7th, kept communication between General
Thomas' column, moving on the Adairville road, and that of Gen.
108 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
McPherson, on the road to McGuire's. Colonel Baldwin, with
his regiment, moving in advance of General Logan, encountered
the enemy and successfully drove him all day. On the 18th
moved to Adairsville; 19th, to Kingston, by a road parallel to that
occupied by the moving columns of the Armies of the Cumberland
and Tennessee, reporting to General Elliott, Chief of Cavalry,
Department of the Cumberland; on the 20th moved to a point
near headquarters, Department of the Cumberland, on Cassville
road, opening up communication with Major-General Hooker;
21st, turned over command to Colonel Lowe."
General Elliott, Chief of Cavalry, says (Vol. XXXVIII, Part
2, page 747) : "The Third Division under Col. W. W. Lowe,
General Kilpatrick being absent wounded, was left at Kingston
to guard the line of the Etowah river, with orders to obstruct all
fords, hold Gillems Bridge, but to remove the planks from flooring
to prevent its use by the enemy, and destroy all other bridges
which might possibly be used by them. The division was subse-
quently assigned as follows: Third Brigade at Calhoun, head-
quarters, with remainder of division at Cartersville, Ga., with
orders to patrol the line of railroad and scout from Cartersville
to Spring Place, Ga."
Col. W. W. Lowe reports briefly from Adairsville, June 4,
1864; from Kingston, Ga., June 10, June 11, June 16, June 23;
from Cartersville, Ga., July 7, 9, 12, 14 and 18, all briefly re-
counting scouts, skirmishes and captures of small bodies of the
enemy and of property by various small bodies of his command.
On the 2d of July General Kilpatrick returned to his command
at Cartersville, Ga., relieving Colonel Lowe.
Resuming his report (Vol. XXXVIII, page 858), General
Kilpatrick says: "I left Cartersville August 3, 1864, and en-
camped at Sandtown, on the Chattahoochee. On the 15 th crossed
the Chattahoochee, took up position on the south side, fortified
and remained in camp until 5 p. m. on the 15th, when Colonel
HiSTOEY OF THE ThIRD InDIANA CaVALKY. 109
Garrard crossed Camp creek, tore up portions of the railroad
below Sideling and destroyed the depot at Fairburn containing
government stores. On mj return, scouting the country between
Fairburn and the enemy's position at Sandtown. I left my camp
on the evening of the 16th of August with the Third Cavalry
Division and two brigades of the Second, and two batteries of
artillery, with 4,500 men, to attack and destroy the enemy's com-
munications. Pickets from the Sixth Texas were met and driven
across Camp creek, and the regiment routed from its camp a mile
beyond at 10 o'clock in the evening. At 12 :30 a. m. General
Ross' brigade, 1,100 strong, was driven from my front in the
direction of East Point and held from the road by the Second
Brigade, Third Division (Lieutenant-Colonel Jones), while the
entire command passed. The West Point railroad was reached
and a portion of the track destroyed at daylight. Here General
Ross attacked my rear. He was repulsed and I moved on the Fay-
etteville road, where I again found him in my front. He slowly
retired in the direction of Jonesborough, and crossed Flint River
at 2 p. m., destroying the bridge.
"Under cover of my artillery. Colonels Minty and Long, com-
manding detachments from their brigades, crossed the river and
drove the enemy from his rifle pits. The bridge was repaired and
the entire command crossed and occupied Jonesborough at 5 p. m.,
driving the enemy's cavalry in confusion from the town. I now
learned that the telegraph and railroad had been destroyed at Bear
Creek Station at 11 a. m. by a portion of my command under
Lieutenant-Colonel Klein and that General Armstrong had passed
through Jonesborough in that direction at 1 p. m. For six hours
my command was engaged destroying the road. At 11 o'clock
Colonel Murray's division was attacked one mile below the town
and driven back. I now suspended operations upon the road and
attacked the enemy and drove him one mile and a half.
110 History of the Thied Indiana Cavalry.
"Fearing an attack in the direction of Atlanta, I moved before
daylight in the direction of Covington, five miles, and halted and
allowed the enemy to come up ; left one brigade to engage his at-
tention and moved rapidly in the direction of McDonough, six
miles, thence across the country to the Fayetteville road, and
reached the railroad one mile above Love joys Station at 11 a. m.
on the 20th instant.
"On attempting to move on the station I encountered a brigade
of infantry and was repulsed, I and my command were only
saved by the prompt and daring bravery of Colonels Minty and
Long and Captain Estes, my assistant adjutant-general. The
enemy were finally checked and driven back with heavy loss. We
captured one battle flag. At this moment a staif ofiicer from Col.
Murray informed me that a large force of cavalry, with artillery,
had attacked his rear. In twenty minutes I found that I was
completely enveloped by cavalry and infantry with artillery.
"I decided at once to ride over the enemy's cavalry and retire
over the McDonough road. A large number of my people were dis-
mounted, fighting on foot, it taking some time to mount them and
form my command for the charge. During the delay the enemy
constructed long lines of barricades on every side. Those in front
of his cavalry were very formidable. Pioneers were sent in ad-
vance of the charging column to remove the obstructions. Colonel
Minty, with his command in three columns, charged, broke and
rode over the enemy's left. Colonel Murray with his regiments
broke their center, and in a moment General Jackson's division,
4,000 strong, was running in great confusion. It was the most
perfect rout any cavalry had sustained during the war. We cap-
tured four guns (three were destroyed and one brought off) ; three
battle flags were taken; his ambulances, wagons and ordnance
train captured and destroyed as far as possible; many prisoners
were taken and his killed and wounded is known to be large. My
command was quickly re-formed ; thrown into position, fought
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. Ill
successfully the enemy's infantry for one hour and forty minutes,
and only retired when we found that we had left only sufficient
ammunition to make sure our retreat.
"We swam Cotton Indian creek and crossed South river on the
morning of the 21st and reached our lines near Decatur by way of
Lithonia, without molestation, at 2 p. m. August 22. We ef-
fectively destroyed four miles of the Macon road, from Jones-
borough to Bear Creek Station, a distance of ten miles. One train
of cars was completely and a second partially destroyed. We
brought into camp one gun, three battle flags, a large number of
fresh horses and mules and about fifty prisoners. My entire loss
in killed, wounded and missing will not exceed three hundred men.
Two hundred of this number were killed and wounded. Only the
dangerously wounded were left with the enemy.
"August 25 I moved with my command to Stevens Cross Roads,
one mile and a half beyond Union Church ; went into camp, cov-
ering the entire country in front of the right flank of the Army of
the Tennessee, which had made its first day's march with the grand
army in its movement upon the enemy's communications. At
6 a. m. August 26 the command moved in advance of and upon
the right flank of the Army of the Tennessee, masking its move-
ments; drove the enemy's cavalry, under Brigadier-General Ross,
to and beyond the railroad, and went into camp, August 27, on
the right of the army at Fairburn.
"In the movement upon the Macon railroad at Jonesborough
my command had the advance and, with the assistance of two regi-
ments of infantry, the Second and Seventh Iowa Regiments,
Majors Hamill and Mahon commanding, steadily forced the
enemy back to within three miles of Renfro Place, the cavalry
moving on the right flank up to this point. Here the Ninety-
second Illinois Mounted Infantry under the direction of Captain
Estes, my assistant adjutant-general, pushed in ahead of the in-
fantry, rushed the enemy back to and across Flint river, saved the
112 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
bridge, crossed and took possession of the rifle pits bejond; a
brigade of infantry having been thrown across and pushed up the
hill in the direction of the station to the left of Jonesborough.
"I rapidly crossed three regiments of cavalry, moved in and
drove the enemy from the high hills on the right, while Captain
Estes with the N'inety-second Illinois made a daring but unsuc-
cessful attempt to reach the railroad. This attack, made as night
was closing in, and although with considerable loss, yet resulted
most favorable to the success of the operations during the night and
the following morning, the brigade of infantry having been pushed
in well towards the station, far to the left of Jonesborough. This
determined attack of cavalry dismounted a mile to the right, with
considerable infantry skirmishing between, forced the enemy to
believe that a heavy force of infantry had crossed, and there waited
instead of making an attack, which might have proved disastrous.
My cavalry was relieved by infantry during the night, recrossed
Flint river the following morning and moved to Anthonys Bridge
one mile below. The bridge having been burned, was quickly
rebuilt and a portion of the command passed over and was pushed
well in upon the enemy's flank near the direction of the railroad.
"During the day a daring and successful attempt was made by
Captain Qualman (Third Indiana Cavalry) with a portion of the
Third Indiana Cavalry to reach the railroad and telegraph. A
section of the road was torn up and a mile of telegraph wire was
brought away, with the loss of one man killed. At 3 :30 p. m. of
the same day (August 31) the enemy made a determined attack
upon the infantry on my left. It seemed to be the intention of
the enemy to break or turn our right flank. At first he entirely
ignored my command. This I determined he should not do. Five
regiments of cavalry, dismounted, were in position behind barri-
cades directly in the flanks of the charging column. My artillery
was in most favorable position. I directed the artillery to com-
mence firing on the advancing column of the enemy, and the cav-
HiSTOEY OF THE ThIED InDIANA CaVALEY. 113
airy upon the opposite side of the river to meet and attack him.
This attack was determined and gallantly made. The enemy was
forced to turn and meet it. He moved down in heavy columns,
twice charged and was twice repulsed, but finally forced by my
people to retire from their rail barricades and across the river. A
portion of the enemy succeeded in crossing, were met by the
ISTinety-second Illinois, dismounted, and repulsed.
"We held the bridge until relieved by the infantry under Gen.
Blair in the afternoon of the following day, when we moved to
Glass Bridge, below Lovejoys Station. We repaired the bridge,
which had been burned by the enemy, crossed and maintained our
position upon the opposite side for two days, constantly annoying
the enemy's flank and rear, repulsing with loss every attack he
made. We formed a junction with the right of the infantry of the
Army of the Tennessee near Lovejoys Station September 3. Re-
mained in this position until 11 o'clock September 5 and then
moved back, first to Anthonys Bridge, then to Red Oak and finally
to Sandtown, having covered the rear and flank of the Army of
the Tennessee in its retrograde movement from Lovejoys Station
to its present position.
"Before closing my report, I desire to assure the chief of
cavalry that the officers and men of my command have endeavored
zealously and faithfully to discharge every duty assigned them,
and I only hope that he and those of my seniors in rank are as
well satisfied with my conduct as I am with the efforts of my
"Brigadier-General U. S. Volunteers, Commanding."
On the 23d of August, 1864, at Sandtown, Ga., Lieut.-Col.
Klein, who had been in command of the First Brigade, Third
Cavalry Division, for three days from the 18th of August, makes
this report (Vol. XXXVIII, page 868) :
114 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
"At 11 p. m. of the 18th instant, with my command of thirteen
oflEicers and 292 men, I left the main column at Steven's farm,
seven miles from the railroad at Fairburn. Agreeably to instruc-
tions I tore up a portion of the track and telegraph wire, and at
2 a. m. on the 19th moved on Fayetteville road, reaching that
place at 7 a. m., meeting a small force and capturing some pris-
oners, forty mules and twenty wagons, the latter of which were
burned. Moved on Griffin road to near Mount Zion Church,
turned to the left, crossed Flint river eight miles from Fayette-
ville and eight miles from Fayette Station on Macon railroad, at
which point I intended striking, but by a mistake of our guide
struck railroad four miles above Fayette at Bear Creek Station
at 11 a. m. Commenced tearing up track and telegraph wire, de-
stroying over one solid mile at intervals of three miles along the
road towards Love joys Station, and three miles of wire, taking it
down, reeling and hiding it. The railroad ties were piled up and
iron laid on them and burned.
"At Bear Creek captured a train of nine cars loaded with
whisky, meal, wheat, lard and railroad trucks. This train was
run off railroad in a deep cut and burned. When three miles
towards Lovejoys heard another train coming and succeeded in
cutting it off between Lovejoys and the destroyed track, but I
found the guard of infantry too strong, and was disposing of my
force for a united attempt to take it when a cavalry force came in
on my flank, compelling me to defend myself in that quarter. In
a charge some prisoners were captured, from whom I learned that
Ferguson's and Armstrong's brigades of cavalry were upon me
and Reynolds' infantry brigade also advancing. Under the cir-
cumstances I deemed it prudent to get out of there. I had one
open road, across the bridge I had come over in the morning, or I
could have gone towards Griffin, which would have been certain
capture, for I had given up the prospect of meeting with the re-
mainder of the expedition. Not being able to hear of them
HiSTOKY OF THE ThIRD InDIANA CaVALRY. 115
from prisoners captured on the train or through Chapman's or
Ferguson's men, I decided to fall back on the road I had come
and put mj decision in immediate execution, leaving railroad at
4 :30 p. m. When I reached the bridge across Flint river I found
it torn up bj the enemy, but a friendly rail fence supplied the
place of planks, and my column was soon over and the bridge in
flames. When within two miles of Fayetteville the enemy came
in on my rear, via the ford from Lovejoys Station to Fayetteville,
and kept up a brisk fire with my rear guard, warming up as we
neared the town, when they opened on us in front, being posted in
front and in the town. We scattered them by a saber charge and
were not much harassed by them afterward. I passed through
Fairburn at 7 :30 p. m., one hour and a half after an infantry
force, intending to intercept us, had moved farther down in antici-
pation of meeting us. I remained the balance of the night near
Steven's farm, reaching Sandtown at 11 a. m., 20th instant. I
brought in with me seventeen prisoners and forty mules. My cas-
ualties were two men wounded and three captured.
"I am. Captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
After Colonel Klein returned from this expedition we get an
account of the battalion of the Third Indiana Cavalry next in the
report of Maj. J. Morris Young, Fifth Iowa Cavalry, command-
ing the First Brigade, Third Cavalry Division, from August 26
to September 8, 1864, found at page 869, Vol. XXXVIII, in
which that ofiicer says:
"At Xew Hope Church, August 29, 10 a. m., Lieutenant-Colonel
Klein reported himself sick, and the command of the brigade de-
volved on me."
This report was written at East Point, Ga., September 8, 1864.
Major Young says "that at 1 p. m. August 31 Captain Qualman,
Company K, and Captain Young, Company H, Third Indiana
116 History of the Thikd Indiana Cavalry.
Cavalry, were sent (from the crossing of Flint river due west of
Jonesborough) with 100 picked men to cut the railroad a few
miles below here. The balance of the brigade commenced bar-
ricading and prepared to hold the opposite side of Flint river. At
2 :30 p. m. a demonstration was ordered by Lieutenant-Colonel
Jones, Eighth Indiana Cavalry, commanding the Second Brigade,
in favor of Captains Quahnan and Young. A few moments past
3 p. m. our barricades were not as yet completed, Lieut.-Col.
Jones, with the Third and Eighth Indiana in the advance barri-
cade and myself with the Fifth Iowa and Tenth Ohio in the rear
one, when the rebels attacked and soon developed a force that was
speedily enveloping the command. The rear barricade was held
till all were in from the front, when the ammunition was out
and our whole force retired across the river, remounted and
formed. In this last engagement the brigade lost one killed, six
wounded and seven missing. At 6 p. m. Captains Qualman and
Young returned with their command, having fully accomplished
their object, and, although constantly skirmishing with the enemy,
without a casualty. Barricaded and bivouacked for the night near
former camp. The gallant and successful undertaking of
Captains Qualman and Young, Third Indiana Cavalry, is worthy
of more than passing notice.
"J. Morris Young,
"Major Commanding First Brigade, Third Cavalry Division."
The report of Maj. Alfred Gaddis (Vol. XXXVIII, page
872), dated September 8, 1864, from Headquarters Left Wing
Third Indiana Cavalry, covers specially the operation of the bat-
talion from August 26. That oflficer says:
"August 26, 1864, left camp at Sandtown at 12 p. m. with my
command of nine commissioned officers and 204 men. Marched
to Camp Creek and bivouacked for the night. August 27 took
the advance of the division, met the enemy's pickets one and a
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 117
half miles south of Camp Creek, charged and drove them one
mile east of Stevens Cross Roads and formed line of battle. Were
relieved by Colonel Murray's brigade. Went into camp at
Stevens Cross Roads for the night. August 28 advanced to ]SJ"ew
Hope Church. One hundred men under Captain Qualman, Com-
pany K, and Lieutenant White, Company H, were detached at
Stevens Cross Roads and sent by way of Fairburn. Encountered
about forty confederate cavalry near Fairburn. Drove them
through the town, sabering one and capturing some mules and
small arms. Had one man wounded. Returned to the command
at New Hope Church. Laid in line of battle until next morning
at 9 a. m. August 29 moved out on Jonesborough road, barricaded
and returned to ISTew Hope Church and camped for the night.
August 30 advanced on the Jonesborough road, encountered
enemy's pickets, skirmished with them all day, driving them
across Flint river. August 31 moved down Flint river, crossed
the bridge within one mile of Jonesborough and barricaded, being
in right center of the division. Were attacked by infantry and
compelled to fall back and recross the river, with one man mor-
tally wounded, since died; three severely wounded, four missing.
One hundred picked men under Captain Qualman, Company K,
and Captain Young, Company H, were sent to cut the railroad,
which was accomplished four miles south of Jonesborough. Re-
turned and went into camp. September 1 moved out and barri-
caded on Fayetteville road. September 2 moved to Fayetteville
and Griffin road. September 3 crossed Flint river and barricaded
on extreme right of our army. September 4 remained in barri-
cades. September 5 moved to Fitzgeralds. September 6 formed
rear guard of Fifteenth, Sixteenth and Seventeenth Army Corps.
Went into camp at Flint river. September 7 picketed on left
flank of the Army of the Tennessee. September 8 returned to
118 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
near Mount Gillead Church and went into camp. Casualties, one
mortally wounded, since died, six severely wounded, four missing.
"Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
It is a part of the history of the capture of the train at Bear
Creek Station, referred to in Lieutenant-Colonel Klein's report,
that it was first sighted by Samuel ^N". Hamilton and James Jef-
fries, two young boys of Company L, who, without taking into
consideration the serious danger and nature of their undertaking,
dashed up and leveled their carbines upon the engineer and con-
ductor, demanding their surrender, which they promptly did.
These two youngsters had the entire train on their hands, without
knowing what to do with it, until their command came up some
minutes' later and took charge of and sidetracked and burned it,
as recited by Lieutenant-Colonel Klein. Young Hamilton, who is
now a staid and leading physician at Connersville, Ind., was a
good deal of a dare devil all through his service in the army. He
was with Company M at the surrender of John Morgan, near
Salineville, Ohio, on his famous raid, and later in East Tennessee,
while an orderly at the headquarters of the Twenty-third Corps,
carried a dispatch a long distance through the enemy's country
to General Manson, countermanding an order for General Manson
to move on Bristol, Tenn. For his daring conduct he received the
personal thanks of General Manson. Dr. Hamilton served three
years and was not twenty years old when discharged.
After he was relieved from command in the Shenandoah Valley
and joined the army in the West, Gen. J. H. Wilson, who had so
long had the Eastern battalion of the Third Indiana Cavalry
under him as a part of his command, finding a number of men of
the Western battalion with the Western army, whose term of
service had not expired, made an effort to have the two wings of
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 119
the regiment consolidated, and in pursuance of that purpose wrote
to the Secretary of War as follows:
"Hon. E. M. Stanton, Secretary of War:
"Sir — I have the honor to recommend and request that steps
may be taken to secure the reorganization of the Third Regiment
of Indiana Cavalry. There are two companies of veterans orig-
inally belonging to that regiment now serving with the Third
Cavalry Division under General Sheridan, and six companies
with General Kilpatrick in Georgia. Of the latter I am un-
officially informed enough men have re-enlisted to make two good
companies. I would respectfully request that the two companies
in the Shenandoah Valley and those with Kilpatrick be ordered to
Indiana, and authority be given to Maj. Samuel Mclrvin, Major
Patton and Captain Lee to reorganize the regiment and bring it
into the field. Major Mclrvin has served three years with great
distinction (having entered the service from Indiana) in the Sec-
ond JSTew York, and was mustered out as major of that regiment.
Major Patton served three years with the Third Indiana Cavalry,
is a brave and zealous officer and soldier. Captain Lee now com-
mands the veteran squadron of the regiment and is a young officer
of great promise. This request is made with a view of retaining
in the army one of the best regiments of cavalry that has taken
part in the war, and with the belief that its fame will render its
reorganization an easy matter for the Governor of Indiana and
the War Department. If conscripts or volunteers from Indiana
are to be given to cavalry regiments in the field, a sufficient num-
ber might be assig-ned to the Third Indiana to allow it to retain
its regimental organization complete, without the necessity of
sending them home.
"I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
"J. H. Wilson,
"Brevet Major-General Commanding."
(Vol. XXXIX, Part 3, page 758.)
120 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
This urgent and complimentary recommendation of General
Wilson, as we know, was never acted upon, but the men of the
Western battalion whose term of service had not expired when
the main body was discharged were retained in the service. Byron
Dawson, who had been commissioned second lieutenant of Com-
pany L on the 1st of September, 1864, was assigned to duty on
the staff of Col. Smith D. Atkins, of the Ninety-second Illinois
Mounted Infantry, who commanded the brigade to which the
Third Indiana belonged.
There are records to the effect that the remnant of the Third
Indiana in the West were consolidated with the Eighth Indiana
Cavalry, but that record is repudiated by Captain Patton, of Com-
pany M. The captain says: "Just before the march to the sea
Company L was disbanded and used with the wagon trains, either
to drive teams or as train guards. They were never back with our
command during the war. I was ordered with Company M, and
the recruits left from other companies, to report to the Ninety-
second Illinois for duty, and did so, and was with that regiment
from Marietta to Savannah, Ga., but we were not consolidated
with any regiment. I received my orders from Lieutenant-Colonel
Van Buskirk, commanding the Ninety-second Illinois Mounted
Infantry, as a captain of the Third Indiana Cavalry, and reported
to him as such. After the fall of Atlanta our division was en-
gaged in fighting Hood while making his flank movement. The
division was in many fights and skirmishes while on that cam-
"At one time our company was ordered to take a bridge a short
distance ahead of us, our company being in advance. We charged
and took it, crossed over and found the enemy in force in earth-
works. We were soon reinforced by the division. In that fight
Frank Caux, William Moore and two or three others of my com-
pany were severely wounded. After that fight our division re-
turned to Marietta for a short rest and to prepare for the march
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 121
to the sea. All the recruits of other companies, except Company
L, were left with Company M and made quite a battalion. I took
charge of headquarters of the Third Indiana and Comrade Adams
was acting adjutant. We marched quietly along for several days
and then came in front of Macon, where General Kilpatrick's
division engaged the enemy and drove them into the city. From
there we went into the interior of Georgia to tear up the Augusta
& Savannah railway, and were engaged in the hottest kind of a
fight on this raid with Wheeler's and Hampton's cavalry, which
had consolidated. They fought us on our flanks and rear, and
made it impossible for us to stop day or night. Kilpatrick halted,
built barricades, and when the enemy came up made an onslaught
they could not stand, and they fell back. We mounted and moved
forward, but the enemy was soon on us again, and then Kilpatrick,
in three columns, gave them the prettiest cavalry fight the world
has ever seen. After that we moved along without further trouble
from the enemy for several days. Then we resumed our march
to Savannah, and were fighting and skirmishing with Wheeler
every day until we reached the Ogechee river. From there we
went down to the coast, and were the first to signal the transports
which opened up communication with the government."
While Lieutenant-Colonel Van Buskirk makes no special men-
tion of the services of the Third Indiana Cavalry on this march
to the sea, yet we find on page 395, Vol. XLIV, of the official
records that the detachment under command of Captain Patton
is credited with the capture of nine horses, three mules, five stands
of small arms, the destruction of eleven cotton gins and one saw
mill, and with the loss of twelve horses and three mules aban-
doned. The report is as follows :
"Headquarters iSTinety-second Illinois Mounted Infantry,
"iSTear Savannah, Ga., December 20, 1864.
"Captain — I have the honor to make the following report of the
part which my regiment took during the campaign from Atlanta,
122 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry,
Ga., through the center of the State, to a point near Savan-
nah, Ga. :
"We left Atlanta, Ga,, on the 15th of November, 1864, but
have nothing of record more than the usual duties of picketing
and scouting until the 20th instant, when near Macon, Ga., we
encountered the enemy, my regiment acting as advance guard of
the division. We drove them before us, charging them from be-
hind several strong barricades, killing and wounding several and
taking a few prisoners. When near Walnut creek Company H,
Captain John F. Nelson commanding, was detached and ordered
to proceed to the railroad between Macon and Griswoldville, for
the purpose of tearing up the track and cutting the telegraph, all
of which was successfully accomplished.
"After driving the enemy across Walnut creek my regiment
was dismounted. One squadron. Captain Hawk commanding, on
the right and one squadron. Captain Becker commanding, on the
left, were ordered to cross the creek to support the Tenth Ohio
Cavalry in a saber charge. The enemy were driven into their for-
tifications. The object for which the charge was made having
been accomplished, we were ordered to withdraw and recross the
creek, where we remained, holding the enemy in check until after
dark. Our casualties were two men wounded. After dark the
whole command withdrew, my men acting as rear guard. We
were stationed on picket duty during the night.
"On the morning of the 21st instant, my regiment being still
on picket, the enemy attacked the outposts at daylight. Skirmish-
ing continued until about 6 a. m., when they charged the outposts
in front and on the flanks with not less than a brigade, driving
them back on the reserve. Still on they came in their furious
charge until within easy range of our guns, when we opened on
them a fire that sent them flying backward in great confusion,
leaving their killed and wounded upon the field. The punish-
ment inflicted being so severe, they did not trouble us again. A
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 123
prisoner, since captured, reports their loss to have been sixty-five
men killed and wounded. Our loss was two captured. From the
21st to the 26th instant nothing worthy of record occurred, save
the incidents usual on a march. On the 27th instant my regiment
was detailed as rear guard. We fought the enemy all day, losing
but one man wounded. In our action with Wheeler on the 28th
instant my regiment formed the right center of the brigade, sup-
porting a battery. The enemy charged but were beautifully re-
pulsed. We lost one man wounded.
"Our usual routine of marching and picketing was uninter-
rupted until December 2, when my regiment was placed on picket
on the railroad at Thomas Station to protect the infantry while
tearing up the track. W^e skirmished with the enemy, driving
them back sufficiently to take position. Skirmishing continued
until about 8 p. m. About 11 p. m. they got a battery in position
and shelled us. Our casualties were two men killed and one man
wounded. At daybreak on the 4th instant the enemy advanced
their skirmishers. Skirmishing continued until about 8 a. m.,
when the division came up, and my regiment was ordered forward
in line, dismounted. We soon found the enemy strongly posted
behind barricades in greatly superior numbers. We at once
charged them, driving them from their successive lines of barri-
cades, routing them in wildest confusion ; they throwing away their
arms and whatever else would impede their flight, many seeking
safety behind trees and under houses, leaving their killed and
wounded in our hands. My regiment captured some forty pris-
oners, among whom was a major and a lieutenant. We lost in
this action three men killed and six wounded.
"Until the 8th instant nothing of moment occurred. On the
8th we had a skirmish with the enemy without casualty. We re-
mained in line of battle nearly all night. On the morning of the
9th we crossed Ebenezer creek, leaving one battalion under com-
mand of Captain Becker at the bridge to guard the prisoners.
124 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
while they destroyed the bridge and blockaded the road. While
thus employed they were fired upon by the enemy's sharpshooters,
wounding one man. From the 10th to the 20th instant nothing
worthy of report occurred.
"I have destroyed during the campaign twenty-nine gin houses
and gins, containing about 1,460 bales of cotton, and one flouring
mill and one saw mill. We captured 106 horses and ninety-four
mules. The casualties of my regiment were five killed, twelve
wounded and twelve missing, making a total of twenty-nine men.
"The conduct of both my officers and men on all occasions is
worthy of the highest praise.
"Mathew Van Buskirk, Lieutenant-Colonel,
"Commanding Il^inety-Second Illinois Mounted Infantry.
"Capt. H. J. Smith,
"Acting Assistant Adjutant-General,
"Second Brigade, Third Cavalry Division."
Captain Patton continues as follows : "After the fall of
Savannah I received an order from General Kilpatrick, com-
manding the cavalry division with which we had been serving, to
take my command and report to Colonel Jones of the Eighth
Indiana Cavalry for duty. This order I obeyed, and did duty
with that regiment through the Carolinas until after our time was
out. We crossed the Savannah river at Sisters Ferry, marched
several days, occasionally skirmishing with the enemy, until we
reached Black river, where we had a hot fight and drove the enemy
towards Augusta, on to their reinforcements, and we were com-
pelled to build a barricade of rails and timber in an open field.
Here the rebels charged us time and again, and we maintained
that post two days and two nights, and the attacking force moved
off. We then marched towards Fayetteville, S. C, on Cape Fear
river, and the rebels were marching on a parallel road half a mile
west of us making for the same point. This march was in the
History of the Thikd Indiana Cavalry. 125
night, and the rebels would come over on to our road and kill our
men in the dark, as they knew the country better than we did.
"We reached Fayetteville in the morning, crossed Cape Fear
River and went into camp. On an order from General Kil-
patrick I reported at his headquarters the next morning at day-
break, and was ordered to make a reconnoissance from his head-
quarters through the pine openings. We had not gone far until
we found the enemy and drove them before us, but soon came in
contact with the whole rebel army. General Kilpatrick came up
with the division and this was the opening of the great three days'
fight at Bentonville.
"After this battle we were encamped quite a while at Milton,
N. C, and while there Company M received orders from the War
Department on the 15th of April, 1865, to be mustered out of
The ofiicers of Company L were commissioned on the 23d of
October, 1862, and the officers of Company M were commissioned
on the 11th of December, 1862. Both companies were detained
in Indiana until September, 1863, performing various kinds of
duty, and Company M took part in the Morgan raid, and fought
and captured a body of twenty-two of the raiders at ]^ew Provi-
dence, Ind., for which they were publicly thanked by General
Wilcox, commanding the department. The two companies went
with General Wilcox to East Tennessee by way of Cumberland
Gap, and at Marysville for the first time, in February, 1864, be-
came a part of the Western battalion of the Third Indiana Cav-
alry, under Lieutenant-Colonel Klein.
According to the report of Lieut-Col. Fielder A. Jones, written
on the 27th of March, 1865, from the headquarters of the Eighth
Indiana Cavalry (Vol. XL VII, Part 1, page 870), his command
left Savannah, Ga., on the morning of January 28, 1865, the
command consisting of the Eighth Indiana Cavalry and a detach-
ment of Third Indiana Cavalry, which latter body was under the
126 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
command of Capt. Charles U. Patton, Company M, Third
Indiana. First met the enemy on the 10th of February, 1865,
at Johnsons Station, driving him from several barricades on to
his main force, and fought him until recalled by order of Colonel
Jordan, commanding brigade. On the 11th of February the
enemy charged the Eighth Indiana, in position at Johnsons Sta-
tion, and were repulsed with the loss of the adjutant and three
men of the Twelfth Alabama Cavalry killed and several others
wounded. In his report Lieutenant-Colonel Jones says :
''On the morning of March 16, 1865, near Averasborough,
N. C, I was ordered into position to cover the right flank of an
infantry brigade, and to move with it against the enemy. We had
hardly left our camp before we struck the enemy in line and in
strong force. Finding myself near his flank, I charged him vig-
orously and routed an entire brigade of South Carolina infantry.
Had our infantry been pushed it is my firm belief that we would
have captured the enemy's works, artillery and many prisoners
without firing a shot. As it was, the cavalry alone took several
prisoners and drove the rebels in wildest confusion into their
works. Had there been solid ground I should have taken their
works with cavalry, but the rains of the previous night had made
the country one vast mire, which checked the impetus of our charge
and gave the enemy time to reform behind their works. Finding
further operations on horseback impossible, I dismounted my com-
mand and led horses to the rear. The enemy, seriously alarmed for
the safety of his left flank, commenced rapidly re-enforcing that
flank, and I soon found I was fighting several times my number
and ordered my lines to reconnect with the infantry. The enemy
seeing my movement and judging it to be a retreat, charged me
in great force. We immediately came to 'about face,' gave two
or three volleys from our Spencers and made a center charge,
causing the foe to quickly seek shelter in his works.
History of the Thikd Indiana Cavalky. 127
"Although fighting many times our number, and infantry, too,
and our lines very attenuated, yet it seemed that every ofiicer and
man of my command felt that our position was vital to the safety
of the infantry on our left, and was determined to hold it at every
hazard. The enemy charged us repeatedly in great force ; we
always met his charges with a volley and a counter-charge, and
whatever were the odds against us we always drove them back
into their works. I can safely say that no better fighting has been
done in this war than was done that day by this command, and I
am satisfied that we attracted the attention of the enemy and so
seriously threatened his left that he did not observe the movements
of the force which was turning his right until it was too late to
oppose it. My loss was heavy, but examination of the field shows
that the enemy suffered far heavier than we did. My command
operated with the brigade on the right flank of Johnston's army
at Bentonville, and on tlie evening of the 20th of March Captain
Crowell passed around the right flanlc of the enemy and got, in
fact, in rear of his artillery, but his force was so small he could
not take advantage of his discovery.
"My thanks are due to Major Herring for efficient aid rendered
both in action and on the march. Captains Crowell, Leavell and
Mitchell, commanding battalions of the Eighth Indiana, have
proved themselves competent for that command. They are fine
soldiers and in connection with Major Herring and Captain Pat-
ton, commanding Third Indiana, are commended for promotion.
"We lost one officer and twelve men killed, seven officers and
fifty-five men wounded, and twenty enlisted men missing; we lost
twenty-five horses killed and twenty-six wounded in action on
March 16. Very respectfully,
"F. A. Jones,
The winter of 1863-4 was a period of thrilling interest in the
history of the American Union, In the East and in the West great
armies had contended for the mastery on many bloody battlefields,
but in the minds of thoughtful persons there was little in the out-
come of these conflicts which foretold final results. Grim deter-
mination characterized the people on both sides of the struggle and
their armies in the field. The South entertained no thought of
surrender and the ISTorth no thought of giving up the contest until
every seceding state was restored to the Union and rebellion
crushed out. Our armies in the East and in the West had been
led by different commanders with varying results. We generally
claimed victories whether we had won them or not. When the
peninsular campaign began in the spring of 1862 on James river
and the Chickahominy it developed into our bloody defeat at
Second Bull Run, and ended for the year at Antietam in northern
Maryland, near the southern border of Pennsylvania. The cam-
paign of 1863 began at Fredricksburg, Va., under Burnsides,
was continued at Chancellorsville under Hooker, and practically
closed at Gettysburg, Pa., under Meade, two hundred and fifty
miles north of where it had begun and on Northern soil. When
the enemy retired in good order from this last great battle and
was ready to renew the conflict on its own soil in Virginia — re-
gardless of what might be claimed by those immediately concerned
— to those looking on from afar the outcome certainly appeared
Less than six months after Shiloh had been fought in the far
South, Bragg with a great confederate army was thundering at
the gates of Louisville on the Ohio river, and Cincinnati was
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 129
threatened by Kirby Smith. Stone River, Chickamaiiga and
Missionary Ridge, and the siege of Knoxville, settled merely the
fact that the soldiers of both sides could be depended upon to do
all the fighting that was necessary, and the leadership of the enemy
seems to have flashed the fact upon the executive mind at Wash-
ington that the time had come for us to imitate the enemy some-
what in the matter of leadership.
With this point reached, General Grant's selection as leader of
all our armies was but the natural thing to do. He, of all our
commanders, had been uniformly successful in his campaigns, and
he had Fort Donelson, Shiloh, Vicksburg and Missionary Ridg^
to his credit. The country approved the choice, confidence was
revived, and at once the work of organizing for the great campaign
of 1864 was entered upon. The armies of the Cumberland and
Tennessee were consolidated under General Sherman. The Army
of the Potomac was taken in charge by the commander-in-chief
with General Meade, who had fought the battle of Gettysburg, as
his first subordinate. From December until May the time was
occupied in strengthening and equipping the armies that were to
be thrown against the enemy. Old and depleted regiments were
recruited up to their maximum number of men, and vast thousands
of men who had been absent from their commands on various
kinds of detailed duty were relieved from such duty and ordered
to rejoin the organizations to which they belonged. Regiments
that had been occupying fortifications for almost three years with-
out ever seeing an enemy were ordered to the field, and their places
supplied by new organizations recruited for a hundred days in
the various states of the JSTorth. When the 1st of May rolled round
and the roads had become passable our armies in the East and in
the West were ready and equipped for war as they had never been
ready and equipped before. And on the 1st of May, 1864, began
the two campaigns which the commander-in-chief had planned,
viz., the campaign of the Wilderness, which began with the
130 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
crossing of the Eapidan, and that of Atlanta, which began at
Kenesaw Mountains, and in which Sherman fought the battles of
Eough and Ready, Rock Face Ridge, 'New Hope Church, Dallas,
Peachtree Creek, Atlanta and Jonesborough.
In this Wilderness campaign the Eastern battalion of the
Third Indiana Cavalry bore a part. The battalion remained in
the vicinity of Culpepper Court House during the winter of 1863,
engaged in performing picket and outpost duty and taking part
in several reconnoissances. On the 27th of February, 1864, it
was detailed to go with General Kilpatrick's raid on Richmond,
and did not rejoin the army until the 15th of March.
While the Eastern battalion lay in camp at Culpepper during
the winter of 1864 it did more than picket duty. On the 26th of
January, 1864, a squad of eighteen men were sent out towards
the Rapidan on a scout, and were attacked by a squadron of rebel
cavalry and sixteen of the eighteen captured. (Vol. XXXVIII,
page 432.) On the 30th of January, 1864, Colonel Chapman,
then commanding the brigade, with one hundred men of the Third
Indiana under Major Patton, and one hundred of the Eighth
N'ew York under Captain Moore, crossed the Rapidan at Clarks
Ford and pushed rapidly towards Madison Court House. At
Mount Zion Church his command came upon the enemy in con-
siderable force, but they retreated before Colonel Chapman could
attack towards Madison Court House, to which point he pro-
ceeded, but found no enemy except a few scattering men. He sent
a detachment of his command to Humes Ford, where five of the
enemy's pickets and five horses were captured, and one man and
one horse killed. From Madison Court House he went to Mount
Carmel Church and returned to camp, crossing Robertsons river
by way of Bethel Church and Whites Shop after a march of fifty
miles. (Vol. XXXIII, page 170.)
While the army lay in camp around Culpepper, Va., in Feb-
ruary, 1864, Gen. Judson Kilpatrick, commanding the Third
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 131
Division of the Cavalry Corps, submitted to General Pleasanton,
commander of the corps, the project for a raid on Richmond, the
capital of the Confederacy, the force to consist of 4,000 cavalry
and six guns, with five days' rations. He mapped out his line of
march in detail (Vol. XXXIII, page 172). Replying to a re-
quest from the headquarters of the Army of the Potomac for his
views of the scheme, General Pleasanton gave it as his opinion that
the plan was not feasible at that time, and gave his reasons there-
for (Vol. XXXIII, page 171). Notwithstanding General Pleas-
anton's disapproval, the commanding general of the army directed
General Pleasanton to re-enforce General Kilpatrick's command
so that he would have available 4,000 officers and men, and a bat-
tery of light artillery. This order, dated February 27, 1864, read:
"With this force you will move with the utmost expedition pos-
sible on the shortest route past the enemy's right flank to Rich-
mond, and by this rapid march endeavor to effect an entrance into
the city and liberate our prisoners now held there and in that
immediate vicinity." The order closed with this language :
"I am directed by the major-general commanding to say that
no detailed instructions are given you since the plan of operations
has been proposed by yourself, with the sanction of the President
and the Secretary of War, and has been so far adopted by him that
he considers success possible with secrecy, good management and
the utmost expedition.
"Z. A, Humphreys,
(Page 173.) "Major-General, Chief of Staff."
Among the forces outside of his own command. General Kil-
patrick requested that the Third Indiana Cavalry accompany him,
and under Major Patton it was ordered to do so. On this raid
the battalion performed most arduous and dangerous service. We
give General Kilpatrick's report of that remarkable expedition.
At page 183, Vol. XXXIII, General Kilpatrick says:
132 HiSTOEY OF THE ThIRD InDIANA CaVALRY.
"In accordance with the above instructions I left my camp at
Stevensbiirg at Y o'clock Sunday evening, February 28, vs^ith 2,375
men and Captain Eansom's battery, U. S. Horse Artillery (six
pieces), and detachments from the First and Second Cavalry
Divisions, under Majors Hall and Taylor, in all 3,582 strong.
"My advance, consisting of 460 men under Colonel Dahlgren,
reached Elys Ford at 11 p. m., crossed, surprised and captured the
enemy's pickets, consisting of two officers and fourteen men.
Colonel Dahlgren was then ordered to move rapidly forward by
way of Spotsylvania Court House to Fredrick Hall, on the Vir-
ginia Central railroad, and thence to a point above Goochland on
the James river, cross the river, move down the opposite bank, and
if possible be in position to seize the main bridge that led to the
city of Richmond at 10 o'clock Tuesday, March 1. A small force
under Captain Boice, Fifth 'New York Cavalry, was sent to de-
stroy the .Fredricksburg railroad below Guineys Station, the tele-
graph having been destroyed on both roads by scouts during the
night. I pressed rapidly forward with the main column, passed
Spotsylvania Court House at daylight, reached and destroyed
Beaver Dam Station at 1 p. m., and after destroying the road to a
considerable extent moved rapidly forward in the direction of
Richmond, and went into camp early in the evening nine miles
from Ground Squirrel Bridge, over the South Anna.
"I moved at 1 a. m. Tuesday, intending to cross the South
Anna at Ground Squirrel Bridge, move down the Ridge road and
attack Richmond west of the Brook pike. My guide (I think
through ignorance) instead of directing the column to the bridge
mentioned led it in the direction of Ashland, where we came upon
the infantry pickets of the enemy. From prisoners I learned that
a force of 2,000 infantry and six pieces of artillery was stationed
near the railroad bridge above Ashland. I directed Major Hall
with 450 men of the First Division to drive in the enemy's pickets
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 133
and make a determined attack in order to cover the movements of
the main column.
"I struck across the country to the South Anna and crossed at a
point three miles above Ashland at daylight Tuesday morning.
The attack of Major Hall totally deceived the enemy as to the
movements of the main column, which passed on, crossed the rail-
road seven miles below Ashland, tore up a considerable portion of
the track, destroyed a culvert, passed on and reached the Brook
pike at a point five miles from Richmond at 10 a. m. The enemy's
artillery engaged with Major Hall could be distinctly heard in
my rear. Rightly supposing the enemy would send all his avail-
able force in the immediate vicinity in the direction of the firing,
in order to protect the bridge at that point, and learning from
citizens and negroes who came from Richmond that morning that
no attack was expected upon the city, and that only a small force
occupied the works in front of the Brook pike, I moved forward,
crossed the brook, surprised and captured the picket and a small
force of infantry in the rifle pits beyond. The enemy now sent
forward troops to oppose my further progress, but they were easily
driven back until a point was reached about one mile from the
city. Here a considerable force of infantry with artillery effectu-
ally checked my advance. It was now 1 p. m. I ordered up my
entire force, and after thoroughly examining the enemy's position
determined to attack, believing if they were citizen soldiers I
could enter the city. Brigadier-General Davies had the advance.
The Fifth New York Cavalry was dismounted and sent forward
as skirmishers, and 500 men under Major Patton in a body dis-
mounted followed closely in the rear of the skirmishers to attack
and carry, if possible, a small earthwork on the left of and a
barricade that the enemy were then placing in the road. The
enemy was finally forced back until a position was gained for the
use of my artillery, which was brought up and opened on the
enemy, now occupying a position just outside the city.
134 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
"I brought up re-enforcements, strengthened and extended my
line of skirmishers to the right as far as the plank road, and was
about to order an advance of the whole line, when I discovered that
the enemy was rapidly receiving re-enforcements, not only of in-
fantry but artillery. Feeling confident that Dahlgren had failed
to cross the river, and that an attempt to enter the city at that
point would but end in bloody failure, I reluctantly withdrew my
command at dark, crossed the Meadow Bridge over the Chicka-
hominy, and, after destroying bridges on the Virginia Central
railroad, went into camp near Mechanicsville. Colonel Dahlgren,
having failed to cross the James river, moved rapidly down the
canal, destroying locks and viaducts, and engaged the enemy at
4 o'clock on the plank road a few miles from Kichmond, and at
dark, when I withdrew my command, had driven the enemy near
to the city.
"In the various attacks upon the city, which commenced at
12 m. and continued until dark, we lost upward of sixty men in
killed and wounded and we took upwards of 200 prisoners. By
scouts and spies I ascertained that the entire available force of the
enemy in and about the city had been concentrated during the day
upon the Brook pike and plank road where the various attacks had
been made, and that no force was on the road from Mechanics-
ville to the city. It was now 10 p. m. I at once determined to
make another attempt to enter the city. Lieutenant-Colonel Pres-
ton of the First Vermont and Major Taylor of the First Maine
were ordered to lead two separate detachments of 500 men in on
the road from Mechanicsville, while with the artillery and the re-
maining portion of my command I would hold the bridge over the
Chickahominy and cover their retreat with the prisoners if suc-
"These two determined daring officers had but just commenced
to move when Colonel Sawyer, commanding the Second Brigade,
reported that his pickets had been driven in on the road from the
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 135
direction of Hanover Court House. A few moments later he sent
me word that the enemy was advancing in force and rapidly
driving his people. I sent him orders to throw out a strong line
of skirmishers, and if possible charge the enemy and drive him
back, as I intended to make this last effort to release our prisoners.
Heavy musketry and carbine firing could now be heard, and a
moment later the enemy opened with a battery of artillery. I was
forced to recall my troops to resist this attack, which now became
serious. The enemy charged and drove back the Seventh Michi-
gan, and considerable confusion ensued. The night was intensely
dark, cold and stormy. The command moved out on the road
toward Old Church and was placed in position, and after con-
siderable hard fighting, with a loss of two officers and upwards of
fifty men and 100 horses, repulsed the enemy and forced him back
on the road towards Hanover Court House.
"!Not knowing the strength of the enemy, I abandoned all fur-
ther ideas of releasing our prisoners, and at 1 a. m. moved to the
intersection of the roads from Mechanicsville to Old Church and
from Hanover Court House to Bottom Bridge. Here we went into
camp. At daylight the enemy attacked my pickets, but were easily
repulsed. At 8 a. m. the command moved to Old Church, twelve
miles from Hanover Court House, and here took up a good posi-
tion and remained until 1 p. m. Wednesday, hoping that Dahlgren
might come in. The enemy charged my rear guard at this point,
but were gallantly charged in return by the First Maine and
driven back a considerable distance with the loss of many pris-
oners. This is the last I saw of the enemy."
In this report General Kilpatrick speaks of Major Patton fol-
lowing the skirmishers with 500 dismounted men and driving the
enemy back to a position just outside the city. His report does
not disclose who these men were, but the report of General Davies,
who had charge of this movement (page 192), makes it known
that it was Major Patton with the Third Indiana Cavalry and
136 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
other troops that had been furnished him, who was there leading
this last desperate effort to enter the city of Richmond and liberate
our prisoners. The loss by this raid was nine officers, 331 men
and 583 horses, with arms and equipments. From this point the
command went into General Butler's lines at ISTew Kent Court
House on Wednesday evening. The men and their horses were
embarked on transports at Yorktown, shipped to Alexandria,
whence they marched to their camps at Stevensburg and Culpep-
per, reaching there on the 14th of March.
With the detachment of 450 men under Major Hall, referred to
in General Kilpatrick's report, was a detail of ten men from the
Third Indiana Cavalry under Lieut. George Rogers of Company
D of that regiment. This detail was divided, five of the men being
with the advance and five with the rear of Major Hall's forces.
One of these men, John W. Palmer of Company D, is still living,
and has a vivid remembrance of that night's work under Major
Hall, which of course was not under the immediate eye of General
Kilpatrick. He says:
"I was with that part of the Third Indiana which formed the
advance guard of Major Hall's command, and it was midnight
when we started, the object of the expedition being to burn the
bridge across the South Anna river. We soon encountered the
rebel pickets and killed one of them in the first encounter ; we
moved forward, driving them before us until we ran into an am-
buscade across the road, made of brush and rails, and behind it
were dismounted rebel cavalry. They fired on us and killed one
of the Third Indiana. We pushed on to them and drove them
from their ambush and continued to follow them until we came
in sight of a rebel camp in the valley between us and the bridge,
where there was a large force of cavalry, infantry and artillery,
with their artillery posted to command the road upon which we
HiSTOEY OF THE ThIRD InDIANA CaVALRY. 137
"They at once opened on us with this artillery and the column
about-faced as rapidly as possible, although this movement was
delayed somewhat by the turning around of our ambulances in
the narrow road. The advance became the rear guard of this
retrograde movement, and 200 rebel cavalry were soon pushing
on to our rear, which was now a retreat on the road we had come,
in order to gain a ford on the South Anna, where we could cross
and rejoin General Kilpatrick's command,
"Lieutenant Kogers with two men of the Third Indiana were
at the crossing of a road running parallel with the road upon which
Major Hall with the main force was moving and another road that
crossed both of these parallel roads. A force of rebel cavalry
charged down this cross road, capturing Lieutenant Rogers and
the two men with him, and were coming after me farther along on
this parallel road. My only chance of escape was to leave the
road and cut across a strip of open ground and woods in an en-
deavor to reach Major Hall's command. I made this ride in full
view of the rebels who were after me. They all seemed to turn
their fire on me, but luckily I was not hit and reached the main
column unhurt after my desperate ride. Major Hall rejoined
General Kilpatrick's command about daylight."
The raid was not a success, and perhaps never should have been
undertaken, but it showed the desperate bravery of the men who
took part in it, and no doubt changed the military career of the
man who conceived it. General Kilpatrick was sent to the West-
ern army and given the command of a division of cavalry, and his
dashing career there is noted in other chapters of this history.
On the 30th of April, 1864, General Sheridan was placed in
command of the Cavalry Corps of the Army of the Potomac and
its Third Division under the command of Brig.-Gen. James H.
Wilson. The Second Brigade of this division was commanded
by Col. George H. Chapman, of the Third Indiana Cavalry, and
the regiment was commanded by Maj. William Patton. The
138 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
other regiments of the brigade were the Eighth Illinois Cavalry
under Lieut. William W. Long, Eighth I^ew York under
Lieut.-Col. William H. Benjamin and First Vermont under
In Volume XXXVI of the Official Record, beginning at page
896, we have the official report of this Wilderness campaign, fur-
nished by Col. George H. Chapman, written at the headquarters
of the Second Brigade, Third Division of Cavalry, on the 12th of
July, 1864. This officer says:
"Captain — I have the honor to submit the following report of
the operations of this brigade from May 3 to July 1, 1864:
"At midnight on the night of May 3, in compliance with orders,
the brigade broke camp at Stevensburg, crossed to the plank road
and moved to Germania Ford on the Rapidan river. Arriving
there I made disposition of my command to force a crossing should
the enemy offer opposition, and at early dawn my brigade moved
rapidly across the river, meeting with no resistance, and massed
on the plank road, two or three miles from the river. After a
short halt, proceeded up the plank to Old Wilderness Tavern and
from thence to Parkers Store by a country road, where we bivou-
acked and threw out strong pickets on all approaches. During
the march nothing was seen of the enemy save a small mounted
force, which retreated rapidly before our advance.
"Marched early on the morning of the 5th with division, this
brigade in advance, to Craigs Church, on the Catharpin road, which
point was reached about 11 a. m. I sent a battalion of the First
Vermont Cavalry forward on the Catharpin road with instruc-
tions to picket and patrol the road well toward Mine Run, but
when they proceeded less than a mile their advance was attacked
by the enemy and driven rapidly back on the main body. I im-
mediately re-enforced this battalion ; and, the country being
densely timbered on both sides of the road and the enemy dis-
mounted, I soon dismounted the greater part of my brigade and
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 139
drove the enemy steadily back a distance of two miles, lie con-
testing very hard every inch of the ground.
"Eeaching a ravine, I was ordered not to proceed farther, being
then several miles in advance of the First Brigade, but to hold
the road at the point I had reached with a strong picket force and
get the rest of my command together and mounted, in a field a
half mile to the rear of the advanced position. These instructions
were carried out, the Third Indiana Cavalry being held in line of
battle, dismounted, along the ravine. I remained myself with
this regiment. Subsequently — an hour, I should judge — it was
reported to me from the line of skirmishers thrown forward in the
pines that the enemy had strongly re-enforced his line and was
making preparations to advance. This report was soon verified,
the enemy coming on in strong force, before which the Third
Indiana Cavalry was compelled to fall back. I again was obliged
to put in my entire force, which was still much inferior to the
enemy, and continued to fall back. The confusion occasioned by
getting a large number of led horses hastily back on the road was
communicated to the men and caused the men to break badly, of
which the enemy was not slow to take advantage.
"We were driven back behind a line of battle formed by a part
of the First Brigade, and subsequently retired to Todds Tavern.
I moved my command to a point on the Brock road one and one-
half miles north of Todds Tavern and sent out pickets on various
roads. At 3 a. m. took the road to Piney Branch Church, where
the division took position. Subsequently marched with division
to Chancellorsville and bivouacked.
"On the morning of the 7th, having supplied the command with
rations, in pursuance of orders I moved to Alrich's, on Fred-
ricksburg plank road, and relieved General Merritt's brigade, of
First Cavalry Division, doing picket duty at that point. Later in
the day my brigade was relieved by General Davies' brigade, of
Second Cavalry Division. Reconnoitered to Alsop's, on Spotsyl-
140 HiSTOEY OF THE ThIRD InDIANA CaVALRY.
vania Court House road, without developing anything, and re-
turned to Alrich's and encamped for the night. Moved with the
division on the morning of the 8th of May to Spotsylvania Court
House, the First Brigade being in advance.
"At the Court House formed line of battle in support of the First
Brigade, which was warmly engaged with the enemy. Retired,
bringing up rear of division (the enemy not following) to Alsop's.
Marched the morning of the 9th at 5 o'clock with division in light
order, and joining the other divisions of the Cavalry Corps at the
plank road proceeded by the road to Hamiltons Crossing, as far as
Fredricksburg and Richmond Telegraph road; thence via Stan-
ard's Mill, Thornburg and Chilesburg, to the crossing of the North
Anna river, near Beaver Dam Station, where the brigade bivou-
acked on the north bank of the river.
"Nothing of importance occurred during the day's march, save
the exchange of a few shots between the flankers and small parties
of the enemy and the capture of a rebel captain.
"Early on the morning of the 10th the enemy began shelling
our camps, but at 8 a. m. the brigade crossed the river without
molestation or damage. March today was without event. Crossed
the South Anna river at Ground Squirrel Bridge and encamped
near the river. Again, on the morning of the 11th, the enemy
shelled our camps, and in getting into column of route one bat-
talion of the Eighth New York Cavalry, Maj. C. Moore com-
manding, became engaged with the enemy and lost several men,
but successfully checked a charge made on the rear of the Second
"Being relieved by a regiment of the Second Division the bat-
talion soon after rejoined the brigade. Having crossed the Fred-
ricksburg & Richmond railroad, I received orders to go forward
and assist General Custer in driving back the enemy from our
front. I found General Custer near the Brook pike not actively
engaged at the time I joined him. Dismounting the Third In-
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 141
diana and Eighth New York I formed them in line of battle on
the left of the dismounted men of Custer's brigade, holding the
First Vermont in reserve, mounted. Dispositions being complete
the order to move forward was given, and the line advancing into
the thick pine wood soon became warmly engaged. As our men'
advanced the enemy opened with very accurate artillery fire.
Having surveyed the ground. General Custer proposed if I would
place a regiment (the First Vermont) at his disposal he would
charge the battery, to which I acceded. The charge was made
by the First Vermont and a regiment of General Custer's brigade,
myself accompanying the First Vermont. In this charge two
pieces of artillery and a number of prisoners were captured by
General Custer and the enemy were driven back a considerable
distance in much confusion. ISTot being ordered to follow the
enemy up, the command halted and at dark massed near the Brook
turnpike. The loss of my brigade in this engagement, which was
considerable, has already been reported.
"At 10 p. m. again resumed the march, my brigade in advance,
under orders to move to Fair Oaks Station. Crossing to the
Meadow Bridge road we succeeded in finding a man — a resident
— willing to guide the column to the Mechanicsville pike. Taking
a farm road running along through the outer fortifications of
Richmond, we reached the Mechanicsville pike shortly before day-
break at a point about three and one-half miles from the city. A
mile before reaching the pike a small mounted picket had discov-
ered our approach and retreated rapidly towards the city.
"At the pike the brigade was massed in a field bordering on the
road to await information in regard to roads, when we were sud-
denly opened upon by artillery and musketry, causing temporary
confusion. I caused the command to be rapidly dismounted, to
fight on foot, and the horses to be placed under cover. Continued
to hold the position until daylight, when it was discovered that
the enemy had a strong line of earthworks a short distance in our
142 HiSTOEY OF THE Third Indiana Cavalry.
front, and I withdrew my brigade to a better position along the
line of the Virginia Central railroad, with the First Brigade on
the right. About 11 o'clock a force of the enemy's infantry came
out of their works and attacked my brigade, but were driven back
"At 2 p. m. my brigade crossed the Chickahominy at Meadow
Bridge, and, after a halt of a couple of hours, marched to Mechan-
icsville. Here a brief halt was ordered, after which we again re-
sumed the march, receiving orders to proceed to Gain's House.
Being misled by a guide, it was near midnight when my com-
mand reached the last named place and bivouacked.
"On the 13th marched to Bottom Bridge, and on the 14th to
Malvern Hill, nothing of importance occurring on either day; on
the 15th to near Haxalls Landing on the James river and went
into camp ; received supplies. Remained in camp at Haxalls until
9 p. m. on the evening of the 17th of May, when the brigade
marched with division. Were on the road all night, and at 8 a. m.
crossed the Chickahominy at Jones Bridge. After a short halt
marched to Mount Olive Church and bivouacked.
"On the 19th moved to near Baltimore Store and went into
camp. Made details for picket duty. Marched on the 20th with
division via Tunstalls Station to near Tyler's, on the Cold Har-
bor road, and encamped. Remained at this point until the morn-
ing of the 2 2d, when the command moved to the White House.
Nothing of importance occurred during these days.
"The following day (the 23d) the brigade crossed the Pamunkey
river on the railroad bridge, bringing up the rear of the corps.
My entire command was over by 1 p. m. In pursuance of orders,
I detailed a squadron of the Third Indiana Cavalry, Captain
Moffitt commanding, to destroy the bridge by throwing off the
covering, which work was effectually accomplished. Marched by
way of King William Court House to Aylett's and halted for the
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 143
"On the 24th the command marched to Reedj Swamp on the
Richmond and Bowling Green road. The next day marched via
Chesterfield to Colemans Mill on Polecat creek and encamped.
Receiving orders on the morning of the 26th, and, after receiving
a supply of forage, the command marched, crossing the N"orth
Anna and demonstrating on the right of our army to cover its
movements. At 11 p. m. recrossed the Korth Anna river at But-
lers Bridge and halted for the remainder of the night. While the
demonstration was being made on Little river, which was mainly
performed by the First Brigade of the division, I directed
Lieutenant-Colonel Benjamin to take his regiment, the Eighth
'New York Cavalry, and destroy as much of the track of the Vir-
ginia Central as he could before the command should retire across
the ISTorth Anna. He accomplished considerable, doing the work
very well. This was at Hewletts Station.
"On the 27th of May the brigade moved with the division to
Chesterfield, marching slowly, making halts at different points,
relieving the infantry at various crossings on the North Anna and
covering the rear of the army in its movements. The command
(marching with the division) continued to cover the rear of the
army on the 28th and 29th instant (May), bivouacking on the first
night at Mangohick Church and the second night about two and
one-half miles from Hanovertown. No event of importance oc-
curred to mark these days. In pursuance of orders, on the after-
noon of the 30th I moved my command to Crumps Swamp, on the
north side of the Pamunkey river, and sent the Third Indiana
Cavalry forward a couple of miles on the road to Hanover Court
House. They came upon a force of the enemy's cavalry and skir-
mished with them until dark. Encamped on Crumps Swamp,
with heavy picket detail on the Hanover Court House road.
"On the 31st sent forward patrols on the road to Hanover Court
House, which were met by the enemy in force. The First Brigade
coming up relieved my command, with the exception of a part of
144 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
the Third Indiana, which remained on the left of the line until
the enemy were driven back to Hanover Court House. From pris-
oners taken I learned that we were engaged with Young's brigade
of rebel cavalry. Bivouacked near Winston's House on the Han-
over Court House and Richmond road, with a strong picket force
in the direction of Richmond,
"At daylight on the morning of the 1st of June I moved my com-
mand, with the exception of the Eighth New York Cavalry, which
was left to picket and hold the Richmond and Hanover Court
House road, to the south bank of Mechumps creek opposite Han-
over Court House, and went into position to cover the movement of
the First Brigade. Subsequently, having received orders to cross
the creek, I moved forward the command and with one regiment,
the First Vermont, re-enforced the Second New York Cavalry,
which was skirmishing with a force of the enemy's cavalry (Mary-
land Battalion) on the Virginia Central railroad. The enemy
was steadily driven back, moving off on the road running parallel
with the South Anna river. In the meantime the Third Indiana
Cavalry and French's battery were ordered forward, moving in
column on the road, and the Second New York Cavalry were re-
lieved, the First Vermont remaining in advance and skirmishing
with the enemy until he left our front at the Fredricksburg rail-
road. When the enemy had been driven beyond Wickham's House
I sent a squadron under Captain Cushman, of the First Vermont,
to destroy the railroad bridge on the Central road over the South
Anna river. Upon reaching the Fredricksburg railroad the same
detail was sent to destroy the bridge on that road over the same
stream. Both of these bridges were effectually destroyed by fire,
including the trestle work as well as superstructure, as also the
water tanks ; the road was further damaged by the destruction of
small bridges and cattle guards at different points.
"While still upon the Fredricksburg railroad and before the
detail sent to destroy the bridge had returned, I received an order
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 145
from the general commanding the division, by one of his staff
officers, to retire with my command hastily to Hanover Court
House. I should have mentioned that upon reaching the Fred-
ricksburg railroad, at the point where the Telegraph road crosses
the railroad, which is about a mile from the South Anna bridge,
I had sent a battalion of the First Vermont, under Major Wells,
down the Telegraph road towards Ashland ; this battalion had be-
come engaged with a force of the enemy which had attacked the
rear of the First Brigade at that point. Upon receiving the order
above mentioned to retire to Hanover Court House, and being en-
joined to use much haste, I ordered this battalion to retire. Soon
after, the commanding general of the division having arrived upon
the ground, a courier sent by myself to Colonel Mcintosh, com-
manding the First Brigade, having returned with information
that he was hard pressed and needed relief, I was ordered to send
the Third Indiana Cavalry with the battery to Hanover Court
House, and with the First Vermont to push down the Telegraph
road as far as Ashland to the assistance of the First Brigade. Near
Ashland we came upon the enemy; the road being lined on either
side by a dense forest, the command was dismounted and formed
in line of battle, the center on the road. Efforts to form a con-
nection on our right with the First Brigade proved fruitless. The
line was advanced cautiously and with some difficulty, but had pro-
ceeded only a short distance when the enemy attacked us in large
force in front and flank. The line soon gave back, retreating with
considerable loss and closely pressed. Colonel Mcintosh had suc-
ceeded in retiring his force from Ashland, and, coming up soon
after, the regiment received the full attention of the enemy. A
regiment of his brigade was drawn up on the Telegraph road and
checked the advance of the enemy. The First Vermont was re-
mounted and retired, by way of Hanover Court House, to near
Winston's House and bivouacked with the remainder of the
146 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
brigade. The service of the First Vermont Cavalry this day was
arduous and severe and its loss heavy. The command is worthy
of the highest praise.
"Remained in camp on the 2d of June until an hour after dark,
when the brigade marched in the rear of the First Brigade, taking
the road to Hanoverton. Marched all night, halting at Linney's,
south of Totopotomoy creek, at daylight. At 10 a. m. on the 3d
the brigade recrossed the Totopotomoy (advance of division), with
the Eighth l^ew York in advance, and took the road to Salem
Church, near which we came upon the enemy (cavalry dismounted
in the woods and occupying some breastworks vacated by our
troops). Feeling the enemy with the Eighth New York and find-
ing them too strong in numbers and position for that command, I
directed the Third Indiana and First Vermont to be dismounted
to fight on foot, and formed line of battle with the Eighth New
York on the right and the First Vermont on the left. While these
dispositions were being made, and previous to the arrival of the
First Vermont on the line, the enemy made a spirited attack, but
were repulsed with loss, leaving a number of their killed upon the
ground. As soon as my line was formed I ordered an advance,
and, moving forward under a heavy fire, my men drove the rebels
from their position and they fell back to another line of breast-
works. While re-forming my line and awaiting the arrival of a
regiment from the First Brigade, the enemy retired from my
front. The force here engaged was that formerly commanded by
the rebel General Gordon, and must have lost heavily. The vic-
tory was not bought without cost. Lieutenant-Colonel Preston of
the First Vermont, a zealous and faithful commander, and Capt.
Cushman of the same regiment, a most valuable and gallant officer,
both fell mortally wounded and expired on the field of battle;
Lieutenant-Colonel Benjamin, commanding the Eighth New York,
was severely though not dangerously wounded.
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 147
"Late in the afternoon, in pursuance of orders from General
Wilson, I sent a regiment, the Third Indiana Cavalry, Major
Patton commanding, in conjunction with the Second New York,
across the Totopotomoj to demonstrate upon the left of the enemy's
main line. The command dashed across in good style, driving the
enemy's skirmishers hastily back to their lines and capturing
several. Position was held on the south side of the creek until
sundown, when, owing to the movements of the enemy, it was
deemed prudent to retire across the creek and join the main body
of the division, which was effected without loss. The crossing and
recrossing were covered by a section of Ransom's battery. Shortly
after dark I moved my command to the Hanoverton road and
encamped. Held the approaches to Hanoverton from the south
"June 4 and 5 passed without movement or event of impor-
tance. On the 5th the Twenty-second ISTew York joined the
brigade. On the 6th moved to Bottom Bridge and relieved the
Second Cavalry Division doing picket duty from left of infantry
to Jones Bridge on the Chickahominy, the left of the infantry
resting at railroad bridge. The brigade continued the perform-
ance of this duty until the 12th of June without anything oc-
curring on the line except a little firing between the pickets. I
caused all the crossings to be made defensible by constructing
breastworks under cover of the night, and having succeeded in
doing this the enemy ceased to fire upon my pickets.
"On the 9th the First jSTew Hampshire Cavalry joined the
brigade. At dark on June 12th, in pursuance of orders directing
a general movement of the army, I moved my command to Long
Bridge, on the Chickahominy. Finding the bridge destroyed and
the stream not fordable, I dismounted the Twenty-second New
York and Third Indiana. The first named command was mainly
crossed on a log a short distance above the bridge, and, making
their way with much difficulty and considerable delay through the
148 HiSTOEY OF THE ThIRD InDIANA CaVALRY.
swamp, succeeded in crossing the second branch of the stream as
they had crossed the first, on logs, joining the brigade on the south
bank of the river or swamp. In the meantime a pontoon boat
having been launched into the first branch of the stream, the Third
Indiana were hastily crossed over under fire from a small force of
the enemy who occupied a rifle-pit on the south bank of the second
branch of the stream. These were soon driven back and the Third
Indiana crossed the second branch on limbs and logs of trees and
formed in line of battle, with skirmishers well to the front. Owing
to the dijfficulties to be overcome, considerable time was consumed
in laying the pontoon bridges and it was midnight when my com-
mand was entirely over. The command then moved forward to
White Oak Swamp, the advance skirmishing with a small body of
the enemy's cavalry, who fell back across the swamp. At this
point we found the enemy prepared to make resistance to our
further advance, with a battery in position, from which they
opened fire. Lieutenant Fitzhue's battery, then serving with this
brigade, was ordered into position, and a lively artillery duel
ensued in which one section of our battery suffered considerable in
men and horses (Vol. XL, page 643).
"Holding this position on White Oak Swamp until the arrival
of a part of General Crawford's division of the Fifth Corps, by
which I was relieved, I was directed to move my command on the
main road to Richmond. As near as I can now recollect this was
about noon of the 13th (June). Proceeding about a mile my
advance came upon the enemy strongly posted in a belt of timber
in front of Riddell's Shop. After some skirmishing, finding
enemy disposed to contest the position with obstinacy, I directed
Third Indiana and Eighth 'New York to prepare to fight on foot,
and forming them in line of battle advanced into the woods at a
double quick. A brigade of rebel cavalry, dismounted and armed
mainly with rifled muskets, held the position, but they soon gave
way before the impetuosity of my men, leaving many of their dead
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 149
and wounded on the field. By this advance I was enabled to cover
the road to Malvern Hill (Quaker road), and was directed by the
general commanding not to advance farther.
"Patrols sent out on the roads to my front developed the fact that
the enemy had fallen back from my front some distance. Being
ordered to hold this position until otherwise ordered, I formed the
line of battle with the First Vermont, Third Indiana and Eighth
New York, the left of the line resting on the Quaker road, the
right extending well across the road from Bottoms Bridge. The
First New Hampshire, Twenty-second New York and Fitzhue's bat-
tery were formed as a supporting line in the fields in rear. Three
hours passed without any appearance of the enemy, and during this
time a slight breastwork was thrown up on some parts of the line.
At about 6 p. m. the enemy were discovered advancing in strong
line of battle and heavy column down the Bottoms Bridge road, the
entire force, so far as it was developed, being infantry. Soon the
entire line became engaged. My ammunition being nearly ex-
hausted and the enemy showing vastly superior numbers, I deemed
it prudent to retire to the position held by my second line, which
was done in good order. Having reported that I needed re-
enforcements in order to hold the enemy in check, two or three regi-
ments of infantry came up and were disposed without any direc-
tion from me. Until after dark nothing of importance transpired
save a good deal of desultory skirmishing along the lines. At near
dark the enemy advanced from the cover of the timber in strong
line of infantry, and a regiment of our infantry which had been
posted on the right of my line gave way rapidly with scarcely a
show of resistance, throwing the right of my line in considerable
confusion. The left, however, retired in good order, and Fitzhue's
battery was moved off at a walk. Some difficulty, occasioned by
getting the horses through a line of battle formed in our rear by
General Crawford's division, created a show of confusion and a
scare upon the part of the cavalry which in reality did not pre-
150 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
^^ail. The command passed to the rear of the infantry and was
massed in a field nearby until about 10 p. m., when the brigade
moved in the rear of infantry in the direction of Charles City
Court House. At 2 p. m. bivouacked near Nancy's Shop.
"The brigade moved soon after daylight on the morning of the
14th and proceeded to Harrison Landing, where supplies were re-
ceived and issued to the command. While here the enemy attacked
the pickets on the road to Saint Mary's Church, but were driven
off by the Eighth 'New York. Moved to Phillips and held the
approaches. A reconnoitering party sent out three miles toward
Malvern Hill returned without meeting the enemy. On the 15th,
with the First Vermont and Eighth and Twenty-second ISTew York
and a section of Fitzhue's battery, I made a reconnoissance to
Malvern Hill, where we had a sharp skirmish and developed the
enemy near that position in very considerable force. In the
vicinity of Phillips there was no manifestation of the presence of
the enemy during the day.
"At dark on the 16th, in compliance with instructions, moved
my command via Charles City Court House to James river, near
pontoon bridge, and encamped until the morning of the following
day, when we crossed the James river on the pontoon bridge and,
proceeding to a mile beyond Prince George Court House on the
road to Petersburg, encamped for the night.
"On the 18th moved to near Mount Zion Church on the Black-
water, where the brigade remained in camp until the morning of
the 22d without incident of importance. On the morning of the
22d of June at early dawn the brigade left camp upon the Black-
water, bringing up the rear of the column, and marching across
the Suffolk railroad and the Jerusalem plank road, reached the
Weldon railroad at Reams Station. At this point I detached a
squadron of the Eighth ISTew York Cavalry to effect such damage
to the road as would be possible during the passage of my brigade,
and about the same time the enemy began to manifest his presence
HiSTOEY OF THE ThIRD InDIANA CaVALRY. 151
upon my right flank and opened with artillery upon the column,
but without effect. From this point the enemy (W. H. F.
Lee's division of cavalry) followed the rear of the column closely,
keeping up a continual skirmish until a couple of hours after
nightfall. Until near sundown the rear of my column was covered
by the First Vermont Cavalry, Major Wells commanding, when,
being exhausted by the work, I relieved them with the Twenty-
second New York Cavalry. About 11 p. m. I bivouacked my
command near Fords Station on the South Side railroad.
''On the morning of the 23d I moved my command from bivou-
ack about an hour before daylight, and proceeding by the Cox road
moved along the railroad, detaching regiments at different points
to destroy the track, until we reached Blacks and Whites, where
we made an hour's halt.
"At this point a considerable quantity of cotton was destroyed.
Again resuming the march, proceeded towards Nottoway Court
House. By following the road taken by General Kautz's division
we were carried several miles out of the more direct route, and
upon reaching a point near Nottoway Court House, where the
road crosses the railroad, the head of the column came upon the
enemy. Soon ascertaining that it was the same force that had fol-
lowed the rear the day previous, I made disposition to meet the
enemy, who advanced to the attack, checked his advance and drove
him back a considerable distance. The enemy bringing up strong
re-enforcements, my line again retired to its original position
along the railroad, from which repeated attempts of the enemy
failed to dislodge them. In answer to my request for re-enforce-
ments, the Fifth New York Cavalry was sent to me at a late hour
in the afternoon, but another advance of the line not being deter-
mined upon only a small fraction of that command became en-
gaged and towards morning I relieved them from the line.
"This engagement lasted from 1 ]). m. until dark and at times
was quite severe. My loss in killed, wounded and missing was
152 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
, while that of the enemy was fully equal, and I am in-
clined to think exceeded my own. Here fell Captain Mcl^air of
the Eighth New York Cavalry, a noble officer, whose cool in-
trepidity and noble daring had endeared him to all who knew
him. Among the missing is Captain Sayres of the same regiment,
distinguished alike for his gallantry and dash.
"My command remained in line of battle until near daylight,
when in accordance with instructions, I quietly withdrew, taking
the Hungarytown road to the Danville railroad near Meherin
Station, and thence to Keysville, where I bivouacked for the
"Early on the morning of the 25th instant again took up the
line of march, my brigade bringing up the rear of column, and
proceeding slowly up the Danville road, making several details
for the work of destruction of the railroad, until near sundown;
when near the crossing of the Little Roanoke river the enemy
again came up with my rear and some light skirmishing ensued.
I made disposition to meet the attack, but the enemy showed little
disposition to fight and contented himself with opening fire at long
range from a section of rified pieces, by which one piece of
Maynadier's battery, serving with my brigade, was disabled, but
"My forces remained in position until 2 a. m. on the morning
of the 26th, when, in compliance with orders, I withdrew and pro-
ceeded up the railroad to Roanoke Station, where the direction of
march was changed, and following the First Brigade, we passed
through Christianville and encamped at Buckhorn Creek. On the
27th crossed the Meherin river at Saffolds Bridge, my brigade
leading the advance of the column. After several hours halt on
the north bank of the stream we turned from the main road at
Columbia Grove, and securing guides along the way proceeded by
cross roads across the country through a well settled district to
the Boydton plank road, bivouacked for the night on Great Creek.
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 153
Marching early the next morning, following the First Brigade,
proceeded via Smoky Ordinary to Poplar Mountain, or the Double
Bridges, over the Nottoway river, which we reached about noon.
Here the command halted to water, and one of the regiments of
my brigade (the Third Indiana Cavalry) was ordered to proceed
out on the road leading to Stony Creek Depot as far as Sappony
Cross Eoads, near that station ; at which point the enemy was met.
The column following shortly after, I was ordered to send another
regiment to assist the First Brigade in an attack upon the enemy's
position, it being then after dark. Subsequently I placed the
Eighth New York and Twenty-second New York Cavalry in re-
serve line of battle.
"Just previous to daylight on the morning of the 29th I was
ordered by Colonel Mcintosh, commanding division, to place my
command in position along the face of a piece of timber in the rear
of the first position held by our forces, and to hold the position as
long as possible, or until I received word that the road was clear,
so that I could retire with my command. I formed line of battle
dismounted, with the First Vermont on the left. Eighth New
York, Third Indiana and Twenty-second New York on the right,
and hastily threw up a small work of rails. At full daylight the
enemy advanced upon my front in strong line of battle, dis-
mounted, and simultaneously made a strong attack upon the left
flank and upon my led horses with mounted and dismounted men.
My line gave back hurriedly, and many of the men were unable
to reach their horses on the road upon which the column had moved
off. Being myself dismounted and cut off from the road, I gath-
ered together some 300 of my command and proceeding by a cir-
cuitous route I succeeded in reaching the main body about noon
near Reams Station. In the retrograde movement from this last
point my command was assigned the advance, and moving back
across the Double Bridges over the Nottoway took the road to
Jarretts Station. About two miles from the last named point the
154 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
command halted a couple of hours in the road, and soon after day-
light on the morning of the 30th crossed the railroad at Jarretts
Station without any opposition of consequence. Proceeding by
plantation roads to Peters Bridge, on the ISTottoway, and fording
the river (the bridge being destroyed) about noon, halted the com-
mand until 6 p. m. Again resuming the march at the hour named,
my brigade in advance, proceeded through Waverly to Blunts
Bridge on the Blackwater, arriving there about midnight. Found
the bridge destroyed and the river not fordable; constructed a
bridge and commenced crossing my command, but before quite a
squadron had passed over the bridge gave way, precipitating sev-
eral horses and men into the stream, but without injury or loss.
Again repaired the bridge and commenced crossing the command.
At daylight my brigade was all over. Moved to near Cabin Point
and encamped for the night. On the 2d instant moved to present
camp on James river, near Light House Point.
"During the entire campaign the loss in commissioned officers
has been six killed, thirteen wounded and seventeen missing, and
in enlisted men twenty-four killed, 217 wounded and 428 missing.
I have constantly received from the officers and men of the com-
mand the most cordial co-operation, and at all times they have dis-
charged the arduous duties required of them cheerfully and with
vigor. When all have done so well it may not be exactly just to
discriminate, but I can not close my report without making men-
tion of Lieutenant-Colonel Benjamin, Major Pope and Major
Moore of the Eighth N"ew York, Major Wells and Major Bennett
of the First Vermont and Major Patton of the Third Indiana,
and Lieutenant-Colonel Hutchins of the First New Hampshire,
who have at all times been active and efficient in the discharge
of their duties. The members of my staff — Capt. J. J. McVean,
acting assistant inspector-general; Lieut. G. S. Taylor, acting
assistant adjutant-general; Lieut. G. M. Gilchrist, acting aide-de-
camp, and Lieut. T. C. Farr, provost marshal — have performed
History op the Third Indiana Cavalry. 155
constant and active duties night and day, rendering me most effi-
cient service, and are entitled to special mention.
"Officers and men have borne the hardships and fatigues of the
march with patience and willingness. In battle thej have been
brave and gallant, never faltering or giving way except before
greatly superior numbers.
"I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
"George H. Chapman,
"Colonel Third Indiana Cavalry, Commanding Brigade.
"Capt. Louis Siebert,
"Assistant Adjutant-General, Third Cavalry Division."
This was the last service performed by the Eastern battalion of
the Third Indiana Cavalry — under the organization as it had en-
tered the field in September, 1861 — prior to its muster out of
service. In its last active work, from June 22 to July 2, it was
commanded by Capt. T. W. Moffitt of Company F, who, on July
2, 1864, from the headquarters of the regiment made the following
report (Vol. XL, Part 1, page 647) :
."Adjutant — I have the honor to report the action of the com-
mand on the late raid as follows :
"I started out on the 22d ultimo near the rear of the command.
Nothing occurred to attract my attention until the evening of the
23d, when my regiment was in advance, when we came on the
enemy in force stationed on the railroad near Dinwiddle Court
House. Fought them until dark, when we withdrew and marched
to Meherin Station on the Danville railroad. From here we
marched down the railroad, destroying it as we went, until the
night of the 26th, when we were in the rear. The enemy coming
on us, we made a stand, supported by the Eighth New York, held
them until daylight, when we withdrew and brought up the rear
to Roanoke Station. From here we marched unmolested to Flat
Rock, when we took the advance and came in contact with the
enemy at Stony Creek. Fought them all night, and in the morn-
156 HiSTOKY OF THE Third Indiana Cavalky.
ing withdrew from their front and marched to Reams Station, the
regiment being somewhat scattered as the brigade was cut off.
Nothing more of importance occurred on our part during the raid,
which ended on the 2d of July.
"I have the honor to be, your most obedient servant,
"T. W. MOFFITT,
"Captain Conmianding Third Indiana Cavalry.
"Lieut. G. S. Taylor,
"Acting Assistant Adjutant-General Second Brigade, Third Cav-
At page 482, Vol. XL, Part 3, appears the following record :
"Headquarters Third Division, Cavalry Corps,
"July 26, 1864, 11:30 p. m.
"Major-General Humphrey, Chief of Staff:
"The Third Indiana, now on picket, will be relieved at daylight
in the morning, and sent away as soon as possible thereafter.
"James H. Wilson, Brigadier-General."
Pursuant to this dispatch, the men of the Third Indiana Cav-
alry whose term of service had expired were sent home by way of
Washington, for muster out of service. One hundred and eighty-
nine men who had been recruited for the Eastern battalion were
retained and organized into two companies known as Companies
A and B reorganized. The old brigade with its old commanders
(Colonel Chapman having been made Brigadier-General of U. S.
Volunteers) on the 31st of August, 1864, was transferred to the
Middle Military Division, commanded by Gen. Philip H. Sheri-
dan, and the detachment of the Third Indiana was under the com-
mand of Lieut. Benjamin F. Gilbert (Vol. XLIII, Part 1,
The history of the Eastern wing of the Third Indiana Cavalry,
after the expiration of the term of service of the main body of the
men who had served with it, and until the close of the war, is so
well told in the diary of William W. Watlington, a former member
of Company E, and who became a member of Company B in the
reorganization, that we adopt it almost as it was written forty
years ago. This comrade says:
"In the latter part of July, 1864, the Third Indiana underwent
a radical change. Heretofore it had been the only regiment in
the field mounted on private horses, but while in camp near Light
House Point the horses of the regiment were appraised and bought
by the government.
"On the 29th of July, 1864, the men who had first enlisted were
sent home for muster out of service, and all that remained, 189
men, including recruits and men who had veteraned, were organ-
ized into two companies, those enlisting in 1862 into Company B
and those enlisting in 1863 into Company A. This detachment
was still attached to the Third Division of Cavalry, commanded
by Gen. J. H. Wilson, which on August 8, 1864, embarked on
board the transport John H. Warren for Geisburg Landing, near
Washington City, where it landed on the 9th of August, and un-
loading went into camp at Camp Stoneman. It remained until
the night of August 12, when General Wilson's command moved
out on its way to join General Sheridan in the Shenandoah Val-
ley, where he had begun an active campaign against General
Early, who had been having things his own way. The division
camped near Chain Bridge for the night, and on the morning of
August 13 Company B of the Third Indiana was ordered to report
158 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
to the headquarters of the Second Brigade of Wilson's division as
escort to Colonel Chapman, in command of the brigade. Late in
the evening the command moved to Drainsville, where it arrived
at 2 a. m. of the 14th and waited for the wagon train to come up.
At 3 a. m. of the 15th the command moved on by way of Goose
Creek, Leesburg and Snickersville, arriving at the latter place at
9 p. m., where it went into camp. On the morning of the 16th
the command crossed the Blue Ridge Mountains at Snickers Gap,
moved on by way of Berryville to White Post and camped at
9 p. m.
"Here the course of the command was changed northwest to
Winchester, where it arrived about noon of the 17th. Soon after
our arrival the rebels began driving in our pickets. The Third
Division at once threw out its lines and a brisk skirmish followed,
until dark, when the division began falling back in the direction
of Charlestown on the Harpers Ferry railroad. Company A of
the Third Indiana was sent with a message to General Averill
thirty miles north of Winchester at Martinsburg, where it arrived
on the morning of the 18th at 3 a. m., and by daylight Averill's
command was on the move to Shepardstown on the Potomac.
About noon of the 18th Company A, Third Indiana, and the Sec-
ond West Virginia proceeded to Williamsport on the Potomac,
fifteen miles north of Shepardstown. On August 12th marched
to Harpers Ferry, reported to general headquarters and were
ordered to Shepardstown, and remained over night.
"At 3 p. m. on the 20th we joined our division on the Win-
chester railroad six miles beyond Charlestown, where the rebels
attacked our lines on the following morning. We skirmished for
about an hour and fell back on the Nineteenth Corps, on the
Charlestown and Winchester pike, the Third Division camping
for the night about a mile northeast of Charlestown. At daylight
on the morning of the 21st the rebels were on us again and we con-
tinued falling back to our infantry lines about Harpers Ferry.
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 159
About 1 p. m. Company A was sent out on a scout to feel the
enemy, and attacked a rebel patrol when about two miles outside
of our lines. We followed them a short distance and returned to
camp. We remained in camp on the 23d and 24th of August in
"Early on the morning of the 25th of August General Wilson's
Third Division moved out of camp at Harpers Ferry, struck the
Martinsburg pike two miles from Shepardstown, where it was
joined by the First Division, and moving four miles farther out
the pike, met the enemy and fought him two hours, retiring to
camp with 500 prisoners. The rebel loss was severe, but a number
of the Union forces were also killed and wounded. George Lee
and several other men of Company A, Third Indiana, were
wounded in this engagement. Following our return to camp we
fortified our front in anticipation of an attack by the enemy, but
this proved unfounded, and scouts coming into camp during the
night reported that the rebels were threatening a raid into Mary-
land. On this information, at 3 a. m. of the 26th of August, Gen.
Wilson's Third Division crossed the Potomac at Harpers Ferry
and proceeded to Boonesborough, by way of Sandy Hook, and went
into camp at South Mountain Gap near Boonesborough at 3 p. m.
on the afternoon of the 26th.
"On the morning of the 27th of August, 1864, Company A,
which had been doing regimental duty alone since Company B
had been detailed to the Second Brigade headquarters, was ordered
to report at Gen. James H. Wilson's headquarters for escort duty.
Under these circumstances both companies were performing escort
duty, one at the headquarters of the Third Division and the other
at the headquarters of the Second Brigade of the division. At
division headquarters I and eleven others were detailed as mounted
orderlies for service there. From camp at South Mountain Gap
the division moved to Sharpsburg and camped north of that town
on the Willi amsport pike. On the 28th we recrossed the Potomac
160 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
below Shepardstown and reached Charlestown about 4 p. m.,
where we went into camp near the spot where John Brown had
been hnng. On the 29th of August I was detailed to accompany
Lieutenant Yard, of General Wilson's staff, to Sandy Hook with
a part of the Second N"ew York Cavalry, which was to be mustered
out there. We returned on the 30th and overtook the division at
Berryville, where it was in camp. Berryville is about ten miles
east of Winchester, where General Early was supposed to have his
headquarters, and about fifteen miles southwest of Charlestown,
where General Sheridan had his headquarters.
"For about three weeks Berryville was the camping ground for
the cavalry forces on the left of General Sheridan's lines. His
infantry lines extended north from Berryville to beyond the Win-
chester & Harpers Ferry railroad, while Early's occupied the west
bank of Opequan creek, which was five miles west of Berryville.
The First and Third Divisions of cavalry were kept actively em-
ployed harassing Early's flanks and driving his cavalry back from
the Potomac. After camping a few nights around Berryville, we
realized that we were within the haunts of Mosby's guerrilla
bands. Suspicious characters were noticed prowling through our
camps, and one of them was believed to be Mosby himself. They
never interfered with our front, but confined their operations to our
rear, attacking our supply trains when not sufficiently guarded.
They were concealed in the homes of various residents of the
country, and in more than one instance our men were murdered
in their own quarters by these cut-throats and assassins. This was
the occasion of General Sheridan's order to sweep the valley with
fire. On the morning of September 2 our division moved out of
camp to look after some of Mosby's men who had been interfering
with our rear along the pike between Berryville and Charlestown.
We followed them to Hammonds Ferry, but they had fled to their
mountain retreat, and we returned to our camps to find them
occupied by Early's cavalry. A few shots from our advance sent
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 161
the rebels back to their own quarters, and we took possession. We
moved to Millwood on September 3 and remained over night, and
when we returned to our camp at Berry\'ille on the evening of the
4th we again found the rebel cavalry in possession. After a short
skirmish we again drove them out and took possession and remained
until the morning of the Yth, when we again moved in the direc-
tion of Winchester.
"At the crossing of Opequan creek the Second Brigade met the
rebel cavalry pickets, and drove them back to their infantry within
two and a half miles of Winchester, where a slight skirmish oc-
curred and General Wilson ascertained the position and strength
of the enemy. After this we drew off, closely followed by the
enemy's cavalry, until we reached the crossing of Opequan creek,
when our battery stationed there opened on them and ended their
pursuit. On the morning of the 13th of September General
Wilson made a reconnoissance with the First Brigade to the
crossing of Opequan creek, where he encountered the enemy's
cavalry. He made a charge and captured fifty prisoners, after
which the Third New Jersey was brought up and charged the
Eighth South Carolina Cavalry, capturing 150 more prisoners
with their colonel and sixteen line officers. We then returned to
camp at Berryville. Early on Monday morning, September 19,
the Third Division moved from camp at Berryville on the pike in
the direction of Winchester. At daylight at Opequan creek we
were on the enemy's pickets, and our advance at once made an
attack and drove them back on their reserve. The division was
soon across the creek and in position for a general advance, which
was pushed without delay, driving the enemy back on their main
position on the elevated ground along the south and east banks of
Abrahams creek, where they had a considerable force of infantry
in line protected by earthworks. Our rapid advance seemed to
take them by surprise; we captured their earthworks at the first
dash and held them against repeated attempts of the enemy to
162 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
regain them, until General Wright with the Sixth Corps came up
and relieved the Third Division of Cavalry.
"At this point Corp. Reuben Clemens of Company A, Third
Indiana, was killed. General Mcintosh, commanding the First
Brigade, was wounded, losing a leg; and General Chapman, com-
manding the Second Brigade, was struck with a rifle ball on the
plate fastening of his sword belt, making a considerable indenture
and defacing the eagle on the brass plate, but causing no serious
injury to the General.
''The Sixth Corps, which had relieved us, pushed on and drove
the rebels we had been fighting back on to Early's main line two
miles from Winchester and about two miles from where the pike
crossed the creek. The course of Abrahams creek from near Win-
chester bears directly due east, parallel with the pike which runs
north of it about three-fourths of a mile, except at the point where
the Third Division made its stand ; here its course was nearly
north for a short distance, and then it resumes its original course,
flowing into the Opequan a half mile or so below the crossing of
the Berry\alle pike, where we first ran on the rebel pickets.
! "When we were relieved from the front we moved along the
south side of this creek, which had a high bluff bank. From this
point we watched the Sixth Corps form and move forward amid
a roar of artillery and musketry. Early made a desperate effort
to hold his position, and even tried to break the center of the Sixth
Corps line, but Sheridan was there and our division was ordered
to push the rebel cavalry on Early's right. We moved forward
parallel with Abrahams creek and with the lines of the Sixth Corps,
and were fast swinging around on to the valley pike which was
Early's line of retreat, while Torbert, with Merritt's and Averill's
cavalry, was pushing back his left to the west of Winchester and
threatening his rear from that direction ; thus pushed on the center
by the infantry and both flanks by the cavalry, Early fell back
without much regard to military organization. Our division was
History of the Thied Indiana Cavalry. 163
ordered to attack and harass the left flank of the rebel column as
it hurried out of Winchester on the Strasburg pike. A mile out
of town the rebels had wheeled two or three gims into position and
were shelling our cavalry as we came up, whereupon one of our
batteries was ordered up and took position within 400 yards of the
rebel guns and were soon hurling shot and shell into them, Com-
pany A, Third Indiana, being ordered to form up in our battery's
rear for support. The position was very uncomfortable but the
rebel guns overshot us, as their attention was diverted by the First
and Second Brigades of Cavalry that were harassing the flank of
their broken column as it rushed up the valley pike. Late in the
evening the Second Ohio and the Third New Jersey Cavalry closed
in on their rear and repeatedly charged them to beyond Kerntown,
near which place the Third Division went into camp for the night,
some four miles south of Winchester.
"At daylight on the morning of September 20th our Third
Division moved out on the Strasburg pike as far as Xewtown,
where we left the pike and started towards Front Royal. We
camped for the night half a mile from the north fork of the Shen-
andoah river, near its junction with the South Fork. At daylight
on the morning of the 20th we crossed the J^orth Fork and arrived
at the South Fork three miles from Front Royal, where we found
the rebels in position on the opposite side of that river. The First
Brigade charged the ford several times before effecting a crossing,
after which the division crossed over and drove the rebels about
four miles beyond Front Royal, when they disappeared from our
front. We camped at Front Royal for the night and on the 2 2d
moved up the Luray Valley ten or twelve miles to ]\Iilford, a
village on the east bank of the South Fork of the Shenandoah,
at the mouth of a small creek. There was a high ridge on the
north bank of this creek, which was abrupt where it extended along
the river; the roadway was graded around the point of this ridge
to a bridge fifty rods or more up the creek. Here we found the
164 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
rebels that bad left our front the day before ready to receive us.
We skirmished some with them and fell back four miles, camping
on the east bank of the river for the night, on the road leading to
Strasburg. On the morning of the 23d we forded the river and
continued our march, passing around the Massanutten Mountains,
and halted about noon on the south bank of the N^orth Fork of the
Shenandoah river, some seven miles from Strasburg.
"Soon after halting General Wilson ordered a detail of three
orderlies from the escort to carry a message up the valley of the
North Fork to General Sheridan. Kobert Grey, Ward and
myself were chosen to carry this message. We soon set out at a
forced march gait, our route being by way of Middletown to Stras-
burg, On arriving at Strasburg our infantry there informed us
that Sheridan was twelve miles farther up the valley near Wood-
stock. With a smooth pike, we pushed on at a lively gait, the
twenty miles we had traveled since leaving General Wilson's com-
mand telling on the wind of our horses, especially Grey's and
mine. Four miles from Woodstock Grey and I abandoned the
chase, while Ward continued ahead with the message. After rest-
ing our horses Grey and I returned to Strasburg and camped for
the night with a squad of infantry and four cavalryman who be-
longed to our division.
"We had been given no instructions about returning to our
command and consequently on the morning of the 24th of Sep-
tember we started out to find our division where we had left it,
accompanied by the four comrades of our division. All went well
until we arrived at the place where we had left our command and
found it gone. After a consultation we started out on a forced
march, supposing we could overtake the command some fifteen or
twenty miles up the valley, where we had camped on the night of
the 22d. We pushed forward at a rapid gait to our old camp and
found it vacant. We made inquiry at a nearby farm house of a
'Virginia widow' as to when our cavalry had passed up the valley,
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 165
and she replied the evening before. This meant that we were
twenty miles or more in the rear. We now came to a sense of our
situation. Twenty miles in the rear of our command in the Luray
Valley, the home of Mosby's guerrillas, was a serious matter.
After consultation we decided to push ahead after the division if
we had to fight. But our advance was more deliberate than it had
been. We re-primed our revolvers and carried our carbines un-
slung across our saddles; we had proceeded but a few hundred
yards when, at a sharp turn in the road, we discovered two men in
rebel uniform crossing the road a few rods in our advance. They
had discovered us about the same time and were making for some
bushes a short distance from the road. As they appeared to be
unarmed we called them to halt, which they obeyed. We inter-
viewed them and they claimed to be deserters from Early's com-
mand on their way to their homes somewhere down the valley.
We wished them success and continued our journey. A half mile
or so farther on we came to a camp which our command had likely
vacated that morning. Several ^plugs' of horses were feeding
around, and had no doubt been abandoned ; one of them seemed to
me a better horse than the one I was riding, so I decided to ex-
change, and did so. After which we were on the move again up
the Front Royal and Luray pike, but soon my new horse gave out
from a weakness in his back and loins and I had to abandon him.
Stowing my saddle and other effects among some bushes, I took to
the woods and soon heard shots, from which I inferred my five
comrades, who had left me, had encountered a squad of rebels.
After an all day and night march on foot I came up to the com-
mand at Mill river, where I was remounted just as they were pre-
paring to move out.
"The five comrades who left me when my horse gave out were
captured by the rebels and taken to Eichmond, where they were
held until the close of the war. The command proceeded to I^ew
Market and joined Sheridan, who was still following close on
166 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
Early's rear. On the 25tli we left jSTew Market and marched to
Harrisburg, and on the 26th went to Staunton, which is at the head
of the Shenandoah Valley, forty-five miles from Gordonsville, in
direct communication with Richmond. On the 27th the division
saddled up and moved eleven or twelve miles to within a mile of
Waynesborough, where we went into camp. The next morning the
rebels came down the mountain and drove in our pickets. A severe
skirmish ensued, in which several of the orderlies had their horses
shot from under them while carrying dispatches. We fell back
through Staunton to Spring Hill where, after a halt, we fell back
again, crossing North river to Bridgewater, about three miles
below Mt. Crawford, and lay in camp two days.
"Here on the 30th of September General Wilson w^as relieved
and ordered to Sherman's army in the West, and Gen. George A.
Custer of the First Brigade was assigned to the command of the
Third Division. On Sunday morning, October 2, we moved camp
three miles to Dayton, but had hardly become settled until the
rebels attacked our pickets and drove them in, but after a slight
skirmish we drove them back through Bridgewater across North
river, capturing some prisoners. During the few days we re-
mained in this camp the rebels carried on a bushwhacking war-
fare around us after night, and one night an officer of General
Sheridan's engineer corps was shot by a bushwhacker near Sheri-
dan's headquarters. He was captured and executed the next
morning. Others were found secreted about the dwellings in and
near the various camps and General Sheridan, in order to terrorize
the inhabitants, issued an order to burn every dwelling within five
miles of Dayton. This looked like wanton destruction, but was
the only safeguard to our lives.
"On the morning of the 7th of October Sheridan resumed his
march down the valley, taking or destroying everything that would
be of any special benefit to the rebels. Our division, the Third,
moved by the left flank along what was called the mountain road.
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 167
our rear being hard pressed all day by Rosser's cavalry. About 3
p. m. they made a sudden dash on our wagon train, capturing two
forges and several wagons loaded with refugee families leaving the
country. The rebels showed no mercy to these poor wretches.
About dark we crossed the north fork of the Shenandoah and
camped for the night. The next day we moved on, passing through
Columbia Furnace, and camped three miles beyond at Narrow
Passage creek. The next day we marched back opposite Stras-
burg on the mountain road without interruption, but on October
10th Rosser appeared in force on our rear at Fishers Hill. Gen.
Sheridan ordered the First and Third divisions of cavalry to wheel
about and attack him. General Custer managed to get two regi-
ments of his division in Rosser's rear, where they charged ; the
rebel front being pressed by the First Division they were soon
stampeded, our cavalry following them to beyond Woodstock, cap-
turing six guns, all of Rosser's wagon train and a number of pris-
oners. The six guns captured were the same our division had
abandoned on the 29th of June on the Wilson raid, when we were
cut off from making our lines at Reams Station on the Weldon
railroad. On the evening of October 11th we fell back across
Cedar creek and camped two miles west of Middletown. Here we
remained in camp with no other interruption than an occasional
cavalry dash, which was easily repulsed, until October 19. On
that date Early made an attack on the Eighth Corps, commanded
by General Crook, on our left at 4 o'clock in the morning, and so
completely surprised the men of the Eighth Corps that the first
they knew of the enemy's movements was when they were in their
camps, and many of our men were bayonetted before they could
get out of their tents. So fiercely was the attack followed up that
our center and right was soon driven back on the reserves. The
rebels pushed on almost without opposition until they reached the
front of Gettey's division of the Sixth Corps, which bravely re-
ceived the exultant rebels and checked their advance. The rebels
168 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
pressed forward and Gettey's division was compelled to fall back,
although it maintained a steady front. Our front lines were
fleeing to the rear by thousands ; General Custer ordered several
cavalry regiments to deploy and form a line just north of Middle-
town to stop this stream of stragglers, but the stragglers were so
panic stricken that neither horses nor sabers could check them,
and we were withdrawn. About noon General Torbert was or-
dered to form the First and Third divisions of cavalry on the left
of the pike about a mile north of Middletown with Gettey's divi-
sion of the Sixth Corps on the right, and here the cavalry was dis-
mounted and took the front as infantry, bringing the advancing
rebels to a stand for several hours while the broken ranks of the
Eighth and ITineteenth Corps were reforming behind the right
and rear of Gettey's division.
"While we held this position General Sheridan came up from
Winchester and at once began to strengthen his lines. The strag-
glers returned to their places and the Sixth Corps was ordered up.
When the rebels made their next assault on our right and center
they were repulsed with so much damage to the enemy that Early
drew off and began entrenching himself. By 4 p. m. Sheridan had
so far reorganized his routed forces that an advance was made
along our entire line. The cavalry charged the flanks of the
enemy while the infantry pressed their front; for a time the
struggle was fierce, but the rebels were soon forced to abandon
their breastworks and began to lose ground, closely followed by
our troops. General Custer charged with his entire division and
the infantry charged at the same time, forcing the rebels to the
creek, followed by their complete rout. General Custer at the
head of our division charged at the crossing of the creek, and there
was such a jam of wagons and artillery caissons that it was diflfi-
cult for the cavalry to effect a crossing. But we continued along
the flank of the retreating rebels, passing disorganized bodies of
rebel infantry, wagons and whole batteries which were left with
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 169
detachments of provost guards. We charged through the ranks of
the retreating rebels, capturing battle flags, and single horsemen
were bringing in bands of rebel stragglers. A rebel battery of
several guns trying to escape on a byroad was ridden down by one
man of the escort, brought in and sent to the rear. It seemed like
Custer was bent on capturing the whole of Early's army, and only
darkness put a stop to our pursuit.
"Such was the Battle of Cedar Creek, on the 19th of October,
1864. The number killed on each side was about the same for the
day. We lost twenty pieces of artillery in the morning and about
1,000 prisoners, but we captured 2,000 in the afternoon, recap-
tured our lost guns and fifty pieces besides, forty-seven of which
were taken by Custer's cavalry, together with a number of wagons
and a large number of prisoners. That night we fell back to our
old camp and the next day the Third Division moved along the
mountain to beyond Fishers Hill, where Custer halted and sent
companies in different directions to look for rebels, but they re-
turned without finding any.
"We moved back to near Kernstown, where we went into camp,
General Custer making his headquarters at the house of a Mr.
Glass. Soon the rebel cavalry appeared in our front; but we did
not move out until the next morning, when we found the rebel
cavalry in possession of both roads leading up the valley west of
the main pike from Winchester to Strasburg. The mountain road
was five miles west of the main valley pike, and leading along the
foot of Little North Mountain ; while the middle road was between
the mountain road and the valley pike. The Second Brigade,
under General Chapman, moved up the middle road, while Gen.
Custer with the First Brigade, under Colonel Bryan, with his
escort marched along the mountain road. Sharp skirmishing en-
sued as the First Brigade advanced, but by a charge of our men the
rebels were forced back in disorder, and Custer followed them
up so closely that they did not make a stand, being driven five
170 IIlSTOEY OF THE ThIRD InDIANA CaVALEY.
miles to the crossing of Cedar creek. We fell back to Mount Zion
Church and General Custer sent Lieut. Gilbert of the escort with
four orderlies to communicate with General Chapman of the First
Brigade. We struck the middle road just as the Second Brigade
was falling back on the reserve. A few minutes later the rebel
advance charged down on us, but were met by the guard and
driven back only to return with a much larger force, which com-
pelled our rear guard, the First New Hampshire, to skedaddle at
a lively pace. I and J. Y. Storm were separated from Lieutenant
Gilbert and the other two orderlies, but by spurring up our horses
we soon overtook our command on the mountain road. General
Chapman left the rebels in possession of the middle road but next
morning started out in the same order to finish the undertaking of
the day before, meeting with about the same success. The Second
Brigade was for a time cut off from the First, but General Custer
having cleared the mountain road turned to the assistance of
Chapman with his Second Brigade; the rebels were soon driven
beyond Cedar creek and the division returned to its camp. General
Wright with his Sixth Corps and two other divisions of infantry
were withdrawn from the valley, and Sheridan with the rest of his
command fell back to Winchester for the winter. The right of his
line resting on Little Mountain was occupied by the Third Divi-
sion of Cavalry under General Custer, with headquarters at
Kobert Glass' residence, four and a half miles southwest of Win-
chester on the Little North Mountain road.
"Sheridan's forces remained in this position until the 27th of
February, 1865, when under orders from General Grant he moved
up the valley. General Devin with the First Division took the
advance and Custer with the Third the rear ; crossing Cedar creek,
we passed through Strasburg and reached Woodstock, where we
camped the first night of the march. On the 28th the Third
Division had the advance, and not far from Edenburg our advance
guard was fired on by Rosser's rebel cavalry. The rebels fell back,
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 171
leaving five of their number prisoners. We reached Mt. Jackson
about noon, and while our wagon train was crossing Mill creek, a
stream just beyond the town, it was attacked by rebel cavalry.
They were again dispersed and five of them captured. On this
day in fording the Shenandoah at Mains Bottom three of our men
and two horses were drowned. We continued on to Lacys Spring,
where the division halted and went into camp. A squad of rebels
charged our pickets but retreated with more spirit than they came,
several of them being captured, some of whom were in our uni-
form. On March 1 we moved at 5 a. m., the Third Division
in the rear. We passed through Harrisburg, crossed North river
at Mt. Crawford. At Mt. Sindner the First Division encountered
Rosser's cavalry, which was routed after a sharp skirmish, fol-
lowed by a running fight for four miles to the bridge across Middle
river. They attempted to burn the bridge but failed. Here we
camped for the night in the rain. On the 2d of March the Third
Division took the lead, passed through Staunton; from there the
head of the column taking the pike leading to Waynesborough on
the Gordonville railroad. That town the rebels had evacuated,
leaving nothing but a few barrels of applejack, which our experts
located in a few minutes after we had halted. At Fisherville our
advance encountered the rebel pickets. General Custer sent word
back to General Merritt, chief of cavalry, and in the meantime
drove the rebel pickets back on their main force at Waynesborough.
Here Early had entrenched.
"Waynesborough was located at the foot of the Blue Ridge, di-
rectly in front of Rockfish Gap, through which the railroad passed,
Custer took in the situation at once and prepared to attack. Two
regiments of dismounted men were stationed on our left to attack
the enemy's right flank, two regiments mounted were sent to our
right to charge the enemy's left, while the rest of the division with
Battery M, Second U. S. Artillery, formed the center. Battery
M turned loose her guns and at the same time the Third Division
172 HiSTOEY OF THE ThIRD InDIANA CaVALRY.
went pellmell, every man for himself, shooting and yelling, Custer
leading. Both flanks of the enemy were turned and our men were
in the rebel rear before they knew how it was done. They made
a desperate resistance, but Custer's charge on the center broke their
lines, which caused a panic. Custer charged through their broken
ranks and charged their wagon train in the rear, where we found
the greatest confusion. The teams had been abandoned; not a
driver in sight; mules and wagons, horses and ambulances aban-
doned to their fate. The result of the fight was 1,500 prisoners,
twelve pieces of artillery with caissons and horses, 150 wagons
with teams, loaded with supplies, fifty ambulances with teams, sev-
enteen battle flags, together with General Crook's battle flag which
had been captured at Cedar Creek on the 19th of October, 1864.
The Third Division moved through the gap and went into camp
for the night on the east side of the Blue Ridge.
"On March 3 we moved along the Gordonsville railroad to Char-
lottesville, destroying the track as we went. We burned Mechams
Station and a building filled with rebel stores there, and the rail-
road bridge nearby across the Ravenna river. We also destroyed
the depot and a lot of supplies at Woodville, and went on to Char-
lottesville. We remained there until the 6th of March, when we
moved south along the railroad towards Lynchburg. Twelve of
us forming the escort and a squad of fifteen or twenty scouts
formed the advance ; we saw no rebels all day until we struck the
bridge at Rockfish river, which was guarded by rebels. They saw
us first and fled as we charged them. We burned the bridge and
stationhouse there, and returned to division headquarters back a
mile from the bridge.
"At daylight on the morning of the 7th of March we forded
Rockfish river two miles above the bridge, marched to Lovington
and destroyed the railroad and rebel stores there. The Third
Division proceeded from Lovington to New Glasgow depot, three
miles north of Amherst Court House, went into camp, details
HisTOEY OF THE Thied Indiana Cavaley. 173
being sent out in every direction for horsefeed and other sup-
plies. On the 8th of March we left the railroad, taking a north-
east course, striking the James river at IsTew Market some thirty
miles below Lynchburg. We went into camp two miles below New
Market on the James river, and at 6 o'clock next morning our
division was on its way to Richmond down the river, as we had no
means of crossing. We marched down the river road to War-
minster, where we took the canal towpath, crossed Rockfish river
at the canal aqueduct at Mozartsville, thence along the canal to
Scottsville and went into camp. The next day we marched out the
Richmond road by way of Vinnsville and Fluvanna Institute,
striking the James again at the mouth of Ravenna river, which we
crossed to Columbia on the canal aqueduct, going into camp a
mile from town. On Sunday morning March 12 we left Colum-
bia and moved out on the Richmond road six miles, changing our
course nearly due north on a road leading to Fredricks Hall Sta-
tion on the Virginia Central railroad, twenty-five miles east of
Gordonsville. On arriving at Thompsons Cross Roads about 8
p. m. we learned that General Early and a body of cavalry had
passed through a few minutes ahead of us. A squad was sent in
pursuit, but he had disappeared towards Richmond. We crossed the
South Anna river at Anderson about a mile from the cross roads
and a detail was sent out to capture horses ; they returned with
seven or eight. We arrived at Fredricks Hall about dark and went
into camp. On the 14th we left Fredricks Hall and again struck
the South Anna at the crossing of Kilpatrick and Sheridan roads,
where we again came in sight of General Early, and one of Gen.
Custer's staff came near running him down and taking him pris-
oner. On the morning of the 15th of March we moved to Ash-
land, where we found the enemy in force, and a sharp skirmish
took place, in which several were killed on both sides. Among the
killed were two or three officers, and among the prisoners was the
adjutant of the Fifteenth Virginia. We fell back along the rail-
174 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
road to the South Anna and crossed again to the north side near
the railroad bridge, continuing to Noels Station on the Virginia
Central. Leaving here we proceeded to Jerico Ford, crossed the
North Anna to the north side and went to Chesterfield Station on
the Fredricksburg road, going into camp there. On March 16 we
left Chesterfield Station and went to White House Landing, where
we communicated with General Grant and received supplies.
"On the evening of the 19th of March we went out reconnoiter-
ing and foraging, among them several boys from Company A at
division headquarters and some from Company B, Second Brigade
headquarters. They were surprised when near Baltimore Cross
Roads by a squad of rebels and eight or ten of them captured, one
from Company A and two from Company B. We left White
House Landing on the 25th of March and crossed the Chicka-
hominy on pontoons where Jones Bridge had been, marching
through Charles City Court House to Harrisons Landing on the
James river. As we lay there on the morning of the 26th a dis-
patch boat with President Lincoln and General Grant on board
steamed up to the landing. From here we went up the river fif-
teen miles to Deep Bottom, where our pontoons spanned James
river to Jones Landing, and we crossed over, going into camp
below the landing. On March 27th we crossed the Appomattox
river seven miles above City Point. We moved around in front
of Petersburg and went into camp near Fort Magruder. We lay
in camp here a day, during which time muster rolls were made out
at Company A's headquarters; eight men of Company B, whose
time had expired, were mustered out and permitted to go home.
"On March 29 Grant's army was in motion, only a sufficient
force being left behind to man the lines around City Point and
Petersburg. The cavalry moved out at 10 a. m. along the Jerusa-
lem road, crossed the Weldon railroad at Reams Station, went
towards Dinwiddie Court House, crossed Rowanty creek at Monks
Neck Bridge, stopped for our wagon train, stood saddled all night
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 175
in a pouring rain which continued through most of next day. We
went into camp on the night of the 30th, unsaddled and supposed
we would get some sleep, but at 10 o'clock at night picket firing
on our left caused us to be routed out, and we remained saddled
up the remainder of the night. About noon of the 31st the Third
Division was ordered to the front, and moved to about two miles
south of Dinwiddle Court House and went into camp. Devin
with his First Division of Cavalry had attacked the rebels in the
morning and fought them all forenoon, but made little headway.
At 8 p. m. Custer with the Third Division went to his assistance,
when the rebels gave way and fell back to near Five Forks, closely
followed by both divisions. There the rebels, backed by a heavy
force of infantry, made a stand, and Sheridan in turn was forced
to give way, but all his available force was dismounted and de-
ployed on the skirmish line, as he fell back, and a courier was sent
back for reinforcements. The rebels followed closely with both
cavalry and infantry, but we fell back in good order until Custer
found a good position, where he halted and entrenched, with de-
fenses made of whatever we could lay our hands on. The rebels
came on but we brought them to a stand, and held them until their
infantry turned our right flank and compelled the Third Division
to fall back. General Custer was conspicuous along the line and
his private orderly was killed. Darkness put a stop to this fight
and both sides rested where they were fighting when darkness
came on. On the morning of April 1 the First and Third Divis-
ions of Cavalry were reinforced by McKenzie's cavalry and then
Ayres' division of the Fifth Corps, and the fighting became fiercer
than ever. The rebels showed signs of weakening and Sheridan
pressed them harder than ever, Custer taking every occasion to
charge their rear with the Third Division. Custer led two of these
charges in person. With drawn saber he dashed to the front,
shouting, 'Now, boys, for your thirty days' furlough,' and in they
wont. On leaving Winchester Custer had issued a special order
176 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
promising a thirty-day furlough to each man who captured a rebel
battle flag. With the aid of Griffith's division Sheridan was en-
abled to drive the enemy within their entrenchments at Five
Forks. The Fifth Corps was not in position until near dark, yet
Sheridan ordered a forward movement along the entire line; the
fighting began and for a time the contest was fierce and bloody;
in the darkness the blaze of incessant musketry and the flash of
artillery lighted up the surroundings of the battle with an awful
glare. When the final assault was made our men scaled the
earthworks of the enemy and a hand-to-hand struggle raged for a
brief time only, for the rebels broke and gave way, leaving in our
hands a portion of their artillery, a quantity of ammunition and
about six thousand prisoners. Our cavalry pursued the routed
rebels until 9 o'clock, and returned to Five Forks and camped for
"The morning of the 2d of April we moved to Fords Inn on the
South Side railroad and destroyed several miles of track. Here
we encountered the rebel cavalry, which we drove back to Appo-
mattox. The Third Division took the advance on the morning of
the 3d, and at Namozine Creek ran on to an artillery caisson which
had been filled with ammunition and left in the road with a fuse
attached. It exploded, killing two officers of the Eighth New
York Cavalry. At the crossing of ISTamozine creek our passage
was disputed by the rebels in considerable force, behind breast-
works. Custer at once ordered up his batteries and after a few
shells had been thrown into them they retreated, followed by Cus-
ter for six miles. We captured 350 prisoners in this fight, includ-
ing eight officers. We continued the pursuit all the afternoon,
taking a number of prisoners and halting a short distance from
Mannsborough for the night. During the day the Third Division
had captured about 600 prisoners. On the 4th the Third Division
crossed Deep creek and went into camp two miles from Devils
Bridge, but early in the night we were ordered out and found we
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 177
were going to endeavor to make a flank movement and get in
Lee's front. We countermarched south four miles and reached
Jettersville Station, on the Danville railroad, at daylight on the
morning of the 5th of April. The Fifth and Second Corps were
already there. We moved to the extreme left of the Fifth Corps.
Lee's headquarters were at Amelia Court House in our front.
"At an early hour on the morning of the 6th of April the Sec-
ond Brigade of the Third Division was sent out on a reconnois-
sance in the direction of Amelia Court House, and Lieutenant
Christenden of Custer's staff and ten men of the escort went along.
We arrived at Amelia Court House at 10 p. m. and found the
place evacuated. Lee had moved north by way of Paynes Cross
Roads and Deatonville. Corporal Lon Ward was detailed to carry
a message back to division headquarters and I was detailed to
accompany him. Arriving at Jettersville we learned that the
cavalry had left there, moving in the direction of Farmville. Late
in the evening we came up with the Third Division headquarters
at Harper's farm, which had been the battlefield of Sailors Creek.
Our advance, which moved to the right during the forepart of the
day, struck the rebel column shortly after noon a few miles south
of Deatonville, moving southwest on the road to Rices Station.
Here a portion of the command was ordered to attack and harass
the enemy's flank, while the First and Second Divisions moved
rapidly south, endeavoring to reach the head of the retreating
column and cut it off. About 4 p. m. Devin with the First Divis-
ion succeeded in intercepting them at Harper's farm, just south
of Sailors creek. By a sudden attack the road was gained and a
stubborn fight followed. Custer was soon up with the Third Di-
vision and a general attack was made on their front and flank, and
the enemy was compelled to make a stand. This attack compelled
the rebel column to head further west on the road leading south
to the High Bridge and Farmville. Ewell's corps was cut off from
Lee's army and intercepted in his front by our cavalry, which held
178 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
him at bay until Wright's Sixth Corps came up and attacked him
on his left and rear. As soon as our artillery could be gotten up
and into position on the elevated ground east of the creek our lines
pushed forward on all sides. Here ensued one of the most des-
perate struggles of the war. The rebels, famished by hunger and
cut off and fatigued on the eve of reaching their provision train,
fought with desperation and our men, determined to end matters,
were no less desperate. With the Sixth Corps moving forward
on their rear. Crook and Devin pressing them back in front and
Custer charging their left flank, made the rebel situation des-
perate. They made a mighty effort to hold our forces off while
their artillery were trying to escape on their right through the
fields and across the country. But with our batteries belching
shot and shell, the rebel ranks soon became confused, and our cav-
alry taking advantage of these conditions to charge them brought
off regiments and brigades as prisoners, and captured wagon trains
and batteries until one corps of Lee's army was practically elimi-
nated. Night put an end to the pursuit, and the Third Division
headquarters camped on the battlefield. The Third Division in
the battle captured 4,000 prisoners, including four generals, be-
sides fourteen pieces of artillery, thirty stands of colors and
several hundred wagons.
"On the morning of the 7th of April the cavalry moved out,
Devin's First Division in advance, followed by Custer's Third and
the Fifth Corps of infantry. We crossed the South Side rail-
road seven miles west of the Junction and proceeded to Prince
Edwards Court House. From there the Sixth Corps and the
cavalry went west to Farmville to intercept Lee and prevent him
from receiving supplies at that point. When the Third Division
moved. Captain Lee, the division provost marshal of Custer's
staff, with a guard from the escort in charge of the four generals
captured the evening before, remained in camp until our prisoners
could be turned over to the corps provost marshal, when we fol-
HiSTOEY OF THE ThIRD InDIANA CaVALRY. 179
lowed up and overtook the division at Prince Edwards Court
House. From there we moved west and camped for the night on
"On the morning of the 8th of April the Third Division took
the advance and struck the Lynchburg railroad at Prospect Sta-
tion, ten miles west of Farmville, crossed over and followed the
north side of the railroad to beyond Evergreen Station and then
crossed back to the south side some five miles from Appomattox
Station. At 4 p. m. Custer, with the Third Division, was ordered
to make a forced march to Appomattox Station to cut off Lee's
supply train at that point. Custer led off at the head of the
division. We reached the station about dark and Custer charged
the depot with the escort. The small body of rebel cavalry there
fled in confusion at the first discharge of our revolvers. Four
trains loaded with provisions for Lee's army were there, and
Captain Lee, division provost marshal, took charge of them,
while Custer followed the retreating rebel cavalry. He drove
them three-quarters of a mile in the direction of Appomattox,
where a strong force of Lee's advance was met, which drove us
"In the meantime the division had come up and hastily formed
in a strip of timber a quarter of a mile back of the station. Lee's
advance came dashing down the road, but were soon brought to a
stand by a volley from the division already in line. But they soon
rallied and came again in such force that we could hardly check
them, but, the division now all being up, the engagement became
general and more aggressive on our part. For a time the fighting
was furious. The rebels brought up their artillery, and the
whistling shells, the rattle of carbines and the screech of locomo-
tives seemed like pandemonium. At this point Custer made a
final charge with his entire force, and the rebel lines were broken
and driven back some distance, when nightfall came on and our
division bivouacked on the line. The First Division came up
180 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
during the night and were in position for the battle of the next
day, as we knew Lee would be on us the next morning. During this
fight we captured thirty pieces of artillery, 1,000 prisoners and
"At 8 o'clock on the morning of April 9 the First Division of
Cavalry confronted Lee's skirmishers, and his whole force of in-
fantry was advancing, but the Fifth Corps had arrived during the
night and it soon came to the rescue of the cavalry. The rebels
soon came to a stand, Custer had been ordered to the right of the
Fifth Corps, where the enemy appeared to be concentrating.
Their batteries had been placed in position and shells were falling
among us at a lively rate. As soon as the Third Division of Cav-
alry had taken position on the right of the Fifth Corps that corps
charged the enemy's front and drove them back, and at the same
time Custer charged their left, completing the rout, until we
reached the crest of Glover Hill, from which elevation we could see
the Appomattox Court House, with the rebel camps about and
Lee's headquarters a short distance beyond. In a moment more
we would have been dashing down on the rebel commander, but a
signal was hoisted and Custer came to a halt. One of Lee's staff
approached with a white flag, requesting a suspension of hostilities
until a surrender could be effected by the proper officers. Custer
at once dispatched one of his staff to General Sheridan and Sheri-
dan reported to Grant. Some of us thought it was a scheme to gain
time, but news of the white flag spread throughout the army, and
the hills and valleys around Appomattox rang with cheers from
the Yanks and many of the rebels joined in the chorus. Grant
soon came up and proceeded to the house of a Mr. McLain, where
Lee had his headquarters, and Sheridan's command went into
camp where they had stopped fighting. On the next day Custer
took charge of the cavalry corps and we marched to Prospect Sta-
tion, where we met our wagon train with supplies.
History of the Third Indiana Cavai^ry. 181
"On the 11th we left Prospect Station and marched to Biirks-
ville Junction, where we arrived on the 12th of April. Here we
found a good portion of the infantry and as we rode by their camp
they cheered the heroes of Appomattox. We camped three miles
south of the Junction and on the 13 th moved to Nottoway, the next
station south of Burksville Junction, where we remained until the
17th, then moved to near Petersburg, and on the 24th of April
started with the cavalry corps to join Sherman's army in North
"On the 28th of April, when we reached South Boston, five
miles south of Dan river, Sheridan received word that Johnson
had surrendered to Sherman, and the next morning we started
back to Petersburg, striking the Lynchburg railroad at White and
Blacks Station and following the line of the road to Petersburg,
where we arrived on the 3d of May and went into camp. On the
5th of May Sherman's army reached Petersburg and kept passing
until we moved out on the morning of May 10 for Washington
on the Richmond pike. There we took part in the grand review;
after which Sheridan and Custer left us for Texas, and Captain
Gilbert, of Company B, was in charge of the detachment of the
Third Indiana. We were first ordered to North Carolina to join
the Eighth Indiana Cavalry and then we were ordered to report to
Louisville, Ky., for which we started on June 11, reaching there
on the 13th. Two weeks later we were ordered to Indianapolis,
where we received our discharge papers on the 7th day of August,
The wide separation of the two wings of the Third Indiana
Cavalry, in their respective fields of operations, made them ap-
parently independent of each other, but officers were commis-
sioned and promoted as though the two battalions were operating
Col. Scott Carter, with the Eastern wing, resigned on the 11th
of March, 1863, and on the following day Lieut.-Col. George H.
Chapman was made colonel. On the 15th of March, 1863, Maj.
Robert Klein, with the Western battalion, was made lieutenant-
colonel of the regiment. On the 25th of October, 1862, Capt.
William S. McClure, of Company E, was made major. On the
12th of March, 1863, Capt. Charles Lemon, of Company C, was
made major; and on the 29th of May, 1863, Capt. William Pat-
ton, of Company A, was made major. Major McClure having re-
signed to become colonel of the Ninth Cavalry.
During this time there were also numerous changes in the com-
pany officers of both battalions of the regiment. Charles W. Lee,
who went out with Company A as a sergeant, first became second,
then first lieutenant, and then captain of that company, on the
5th of August, 1863, Lieutenant Porter, of that company, having
left the service on the 20th of December, 1863. Benjamin Q.
Gresham, of Company B, who had been a lieutenant of that com-
pany, became its captain on the resignation of Capt. James D.
Irvin on May 22, 1862 ; was then promoted to major and later
resigned to become lieutenant-colonel of the Tenth Indiana Cav-
alry. Marshall Lahue as first lieutenant of Company B com-
manded that company until it was mustered out of service. Lieut.
Ephraim Martin, of Company C, was made captain of that com-
History of the Thied Indiana Cavalry. 183
panj on the 9th of May, 1863, Major Lemon having been pro-
moted and Lieut. Paul Clark having resigned on the 20th of June,
1862. William W. Long was made first lieutenant of that com-
pany August 5, 1863. Isaac R. Gilbert became a second lieutenant
of Company C on June 8, 1863, and George Rogers was made
second lieutenant of the company January 1, 1864. Daniel B.
Keister went to the field as captain of Company B, but resigned
July 1, 1862. Lieut. Mathew B. Mason became his successor and
resigned October 3, 1862. Henry F. Wright followed as captain
and resigned March 3, 1863, and Lieut. John D. R. Spencer be-
came captain August 5, 1863, going from second and then first
lieutenant, and remained with the company as its captain until
the close of its service. James A. Kelsey was first and James
Calhoun was second lieutenant of this company at the date of its
muster out of service.
George H. Thompson became captain of Company E on the
promotion of Major McClure, January 5, 1863, and subsequently
was promoted to major. The ofiicers of Company E at the date
of its muster out of service were George M. Gilchrist, captain;
Abner L. Shannon, first, and John P. Mathews, second lieutenant.
Thomas W. Moffitt, who was made captain of Company F,
December 30, 1862, was discharged with the company as its cap-
tain, and Louis C. Wilson and William Cotton were the first and
second lieutenants, respectively. Felix W. Graham, of Company
G, resigned April 9, 1862, to become colonel of the Fifth Indiana
Cavalry. George F. Herriott, who became his successor. May 17,
1862, resigned to become major of the Fifth Cavalry; and
William J. Lucas, who was second, then first lieutenant, became
captain of the company and continued with it until the date of
its muster out of service. At that date Daniel Callahan was first
lieutenant and the company had no second lieutenant.
Alfred Gaddis, who took Company H to the field as its captain,
became major of the Western battalion, June 30, 1864, and Uriah
184: HlSTOKY OF THE ThIKD InDIANA CaVALKY.
Young became his successor and was mustered out with the com-
pany at the close of its term of service. First Lieut. Joseph M.
Douglas resigned May 2, 1862. Robert P. Shanklin, who was
made second lieutenant May 26, 1862, became first lieutenant
July 10, 1864, and Daniel White was made second lieutenant of
the company on the same date; and these two officers were also
with the company at the date of its muster out of service, xls we
have seen, all the original officers of Company I resigned in a
body, January 25, 1862, and at the date of that company's muster
out of the service Charles Hedrick, who had been second and then
first lieutenant, was captain of the company, and Thomas B.
Wilkinson first lieutenant, the company having no second lieu-
When Capt. Robert Klein, of Company K, was promoted to
major, Charles Qualman, who had first been a sergeant in the
company, then second, then first lieutenant, was made captain on
the 1st of November, 1862, and was mustered out with the com-
pany at the date of its discharge. Christoph Roll, who was a first
lieutenant of the company, resigned February 1, 1862, and George
Klein resigned the same rank March 31, 1862, and Gustave
Liskey was the first lieutenant of the company at the date of its
muster out and William H. H. Green was the second lieutenant.
Oliver M. Powers, who became captain of Company L October
23, 1862, was transferred to the captaincy of Company E, Eighth
Indiana Cavalry in 1865 and mustered out with that regiment.
George J. Langsdale, who became first lieutenant of the company
at its organization, resigned August 1, 1864, and Simeon J.
Mitchell became first lieutenant, and he, too, was transferred to
the Eighth Cavalry. Byron Dawson, who had been orderly ser-
geant of the company, became second lieutenant September 1,
1864, and in 1865 was transferred and made captain of Company
G, Eighth Indiana Cavalry.
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 185
Charles U. Patton, commissioned captain of Company M on De-
cember 11, 1862, continued with his company during its entire
term of service and was mustered out with it April 15, 1865, in
North Carolina, as was James W. Haymond, who was first lieu-
tenant from first to last, with this company. The only changes in
officers of this company were in that of second lieutenant. James
W. Stephens, of the company, left the service January 1, 1863.
Lieut. Thomas G. Shaeffer died at Resaca, Ga., August 25, 1864,
and Samuel Borton, commissioned second lieutenant on ISTovember
3, 1864, was mustered out with the company April 15, 1865.
First Lieut. George H. Thompson, of Company E, acted as
adjutant of the Eastern battalion until December 27, 1862, when
Gamaliel S. Taylor, a sergeant of that company, was commis-
sioned adjutant and served in that capacity until the muster out
of the battalion in August, 1864. John Greiner served as com-
missary until May, 1863, when he resigned, and Philo G. Leslie
became his successor and continued with the regiment until the
close of its service.
Elias W. H. Beck was commissioned surgeon, October 21, 1861,
and was mustered out with the regiment. His first assistant was
Luther Brosie, who resigned November 29, 1862, and James H.
Knight was commissioned to fill the vacancy December 23, 1862.
He and Dr. Beck served with the Eastern battalion until its
muster out. Thomas J. Fritz was made assistant surgeon of the
Western battalion February 4, 1863, served with it until the 15th
of April, 1865, and was transferred to and mustered out with the
Eighth Indiana Cavalry in North Carolina.
List of men who died of disease or casualty, while in the service,
other than those who died of wounds received or were killed in
action, or those who died in Southern prisons :
Adams, George W., Co. — , Murfreesborough, Tenn. Accident.
Burns, Barney, Co. A, Fredricksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 1862. Acci-
186 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
Buclier, Chas., Co. C, Rappahannock River, Va., 1862. Drowned.
Buchanan, Pleasant, Co. D, Fredrick City, Md. Disease.
Barker, Elijah, Co. D, Alexandria, Va., July 8, 1862.
Branham, Oscar W., Co. E, Fredricksburg, Va., Aug. 24, 1862.
Bond, Benjamin, Co. F, Budds Ferry, Md., Nov. 30, 1861. Dis-
Brown, Moses H. G., Co. I, Louisville, Ky., January, 1862. Dis-
Boner, John, Co. K, Athens, Ala., Aug. 2, 1862.
Becker, John, Co. K, Huntsville, Ala., Nov. 15, 1862.
Barth, Jacob, Co. M, Fayetteville, Tenn., Dec. 19, 1863.
Chapman, Hezekiah, Co. M, Cedar Grove. Disease.
Currie, Marion, Co. — , Alexandria, Va., May 26, 1864. Disease.
Clark, William, Co. — , Nashville, Tenn., April 22, 1865.
Dennis, Whitesil, Co. I, Stevenson, Ala., Sept. 20, 1863.
Dunn, Vincent, Co. K, Nashville, Tenn., Sept. 7, 1862.
Daniel, John R., Co. M, Brown County, Ind., April 11, 1865.
Eurich, Benedict, Co. M, Indianapolis, March 15, 1863. Disease.
Earhart, James, Co. C, Gallatin, Tenn.
Fouch, Obion, Co. G, Murfreesborough, Tenn., March 17, 1863.
Fee, James, Go. H, Murfreesborough, Tenn., 1863. Disease.
Gue, Edward, Co. I, Louisville, Ky., January, 1862. Disease.
Hulley, William, Co. — , Acqia Creek, Va., May 8, 1863. Disease.
Heiner, Jacob, Co. G, Camp Shiloh, Tenn., May 25, 1862. Dis-
Hobbs, Jesse, Co. I, Louisville, Ky., January, 1862. Disease.
Heidman, Dedrich, Co. K, Nashville, Tenn., April 18, 1862. Dis-
HoUingsworth, Isaac N., Co. L, Stevenson, Ala., Oct. 31, 1863.
Hammond, Henry C, Co. M, Fayetteville, Tenn., Dec. 14, 1863.
Hama, William A., Co. — , Sept. 30, 1862.
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 187
Koenig, Daniel, Co. K, Huntsville, Ala., Aug. 24, 1862. Disease.
Knecht, Clemens, Co, K, Nashville, Tenn., April 26, 1862. Dis-
Lopp, Charles H., Co. H, Evansville, Ind., May 15, 1862.
Lee, Kobert D. F., Co. I, Louisville, Ky., June, 1862. Disease.
Lipsey, John, Co. M, Indianapolis, Jan. 29, 1863. Disease.
Lee, Elisha, Co. M, N'ashville, Tenn., 'Nov. 4, 1863. Disease.
Miller, John I., Co. A, Dec. 11, 1863. Disease.
McKinsey, Eesin R., Co. H, Kingston, Ga., Sept. 7, 1864. Dis-
McGuffin, William A., Co. I, February, 1862. Accident.
Meyer, William, Co. K, New Albany, Ind., June 2, 1864. Disease.
Mayhew, Samuel W., Co. M, Indianapolis, March 20, 1863. Dis-
Mimms, Wallenstein, Co. I, Atlanta, Ga., Sept. 30, 1864.
Nutter, Theodore S., Co. M, Mt. Olive, N. C, April, 1865. Dis-
Overholtzen, John, Co. H, Corinth, Tenn., June 23, 1862. Dis-
Pickett, Alfred, Co. C, Jan. 15, 1864.
Plenn, Abram, Co. C.
Pettit, William D., Co. D, Brandy Station, Va., Jan. 11, 1864.
Porter, Gillett, Co. D, Washington, D. C, June 24, 1864. Disease.
Puckett, Samuel F., Co. F, Washington, D. C, July 9, 1863.
Parkhurst, Washington, Co. I, Sandtown, Ga., Sept. 9, 1864.
Pavy, Henry C.
Roberts, Robert W., Co. A, Budds Ferry, Md., March 1, 1862.
Ritchel, Curtis C, Co. E, Hope Landing, Va., March 31, 1863.
188 History of the Thied Indiana Cavaley.
Eussej, Ithamer W., Co. G, Chattanooga, Tenn., Aug. 22, 1864.
Eogers, George E[.,Co. G, Thornto^vIl, Ind., June 5, 1862. Disease.
Boss, Samuel H. P., Co. H, Louisville, Ky., Jan. 28, 1862. Dis-
Eickard, James, Co. I, Maxwell, Ky., October, 1862. Disease.
Eeed, Theodore, Co. L, Feb. 12, 1863.
Smock, David, Co. E, Fredricksburg, Va., Aug. 8, 1862. Disease.
Sebern, Cornelius, Co. G, St. Louis, Mo., June 28, 1862. Disease.
Snow, John, Co. G, Edinburg, Ind., March 20, 1862. Disease,
Stamper, John, Co. — , Murfreesborough, Tenn., April 21, 1863.
Surran, John S., Co. M, Indianapolis, July 21, 1863. Disease.
Shaeffer, Thomas G., Co. M, Eesaca, Ga., Aug. 25, 1864.
Trowbridge, Enoch, Co. C, Washington, Oct. 12, 1862.
Townsend, Isaac, Co. E, Eockville, Md., Sept. 17, 1862. Disease.
Thompson, John W., Co. F, Washington, D. C, July 14, 1862.
Toops, William H., Co. M, Cumberland Gap, Tenn., Feb. 15,
Tufts, Louis, Co. — , July 15, 1864.
Vansickle, James, Co. M., Knoxville, Tenn., Dec. 19, 1864.
Wright, James M., Co. A, Baltimore, Md., Sept. 9, 1861. Disease.
William, Winchell, Co. F, Budds Ferry, Md., Nov. 30, 1861.
West, Eobert C, Co. G, Indianapolis, Ind., Jan. 7, 1862.
Wilkinson, George M., Co. M, Louisville, Ky., Oct. 18, 1863.
Wenner, Joseph, Co. M, Eichmond, Ind.
Whithead, William H., Co. M, Fayetteville, Dec. 27, 1863.
Wiseman, Henry W., Co. — , Aug. 12, 1862.
The following is a list of the men who were killed or died of
woimds received in action, with dates and locations :
Adams, George D., Co. K, Murfreesborough, Tenn., July 15, 1863.
Adams, James N., Co. A, Culpepper, Va., Sept. 13, 1863.
Atkinson, Joseph M., Co. A, Yellow Tavern, June 8, 1864.
History of the Thied Indiana Cavalry. 189
Banks, Simeon, Co. C, Eaccoon Ford, Va., Sept. 13, 1863.
Bledsoe, Benjamin S., Co. C, White Oak Swamps, Va., June 27,
Clever, George S., Co. L, Severeville, Tenn., Feb. 20, 1864.
Clements, Eeuben, Co. A, Winchester, Va., Sept. 19, 1864.
Donnovan, Peter, Co. G, Nashville, Tenn., April 10, 1862.
Dunn, McKee, Co. G, miensville, Tenn., Dec. 27, 1862.
Evans, John H., Co. B, Eappahannock Station, September, 1863.
Fallis, David, Co. A, Poolesville, Md., Sept. 8, 1862.
Ferguson, William H., Co. A, Brandy Station, Va., Aug. 1, 1863.
Gorman, Jas. D., Co. F, White Oak Swamps, Va., June 27, 1864.
Green, Marmaduke, Co. D, Massaponax, Va., Aug. 6, 1862.
Gibbons, Daniel, Co. G, Stone Eiver, Ga., Dec. 31, 1862.
Heath, Samuel A., Co. C, White Oak Swamps, June 27, 1864.
Heath, Martin, Co. C, Stephensburg, Va., October, 1863.
Holbert, James A., Co. K, Camp Creek, Ga., Sept. 24, 1864.
Kirlin, Thomas, Co. G, Shelbyville, Tenn., June 27, 1863.
Kraft, Bernard, Co. K, Little Kennesaw Eiver, Tenn., Jan. 12,
Kennedy, Walter O., Co. F, Gettysburg, Pa., June 30, 1863.
Keoghler, Harvey M., Co. F, White Oak Swamps, Va., June 27,
Lamb, Samuel, Co. C, Gettysburg, Pa., July 1, 1863.
Loder, Benjamin, Co. F, Madison C. H., Va., Sept. 22, 1863.
Lewis, Joseph, Co. E, Middletown, Md., Sept. 13, 1862.
Lemon, Charles, Major, Gettysburg, Pa., July 1, 1863.
Moore, Stephen, Co. H, Nolensville, Tenn., Dec. 27, 1862.
Mitchell, DeWitt C, Co. L, Atlanta, Ga., iVug. 31, 1864.
Moyer, Nicholaus, Co. K, Knoxville, Tenn., Feb. 26, 1864.
Pebler, David, Co. C, Brandy Station, Va., Sept. 11, 1863.
Park, William, Co. E, Gettysburg, Pa., July 1, 1863.
Quinn, James, Co. A, South Mountain, Md., Sept. 13, 1862.
Eoyce, John W., Co. G, Severeville, Tenn., Feb. 20, 1864.
190 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
Story, William, Co. E, Gettysburg, Pa., July 1, 1863.
Smith, Jesse, Co. D, Gettysburg, Pa., July 1, 1863.
Seever, Smyrna W., Co. E, Middleto^vn, Va., Sept. 14, 1863.
Trester, Oliver H., Co. D, Fredrick City, Md., Sept. 13, 1862.
Williamson, James H., Co. F, Middletown, Md., Sept. 13, 1862.
Wright, Augustus, Co. D, Gettysburg, Pa., July 1, 1863.
Weaver, John E., Co. A, Gettysburg, Pa., July 1, 1863.
Zenger, Ernest, Co. K, Bowling Green, Ky., Nov. 20, 1862.
Lost on Steamer Sultana, April 27, 1865:
Kaney, William, Co. C.
Norman, James, Co. F.
List of men who died in Southern prisons :
Brindley, Elijah, Co. A, Richmond, Va.
Cunningham, Samuel, Co. F, Andersonville, 1864.
Fuget, Walter, Co. C, Andersonville, 1864.
Greenwood, William W., Co. C, Andersonville, Oct. 23, 1864.
Humphreys, Isaac, Co. C, Andersonville, June 28, 1864.
HoUingbuc, Cornelius, Co. A, Andersonville, Oct. 23, 1864.
Harney, James, Co. I, Andersonville, Feb. 1, 1864.
Kelso, Edward, Co. C, Andersonville, June 13, 1864.
Kennedy, John H., Co. I, Andersonville, February, 1864.
Lee, John, Co. A, Andersonville, 1864.
Lewis, Isaac, Co. C, Andersonville, July 7, 1864.
Micha, Lewis, Co. I, Andersonville, June 23, 1864.
Moore, William, Co. F, Andersonville, 1864.
McCarty, Abram, Co. C, Andersonville, Oct. 27, 1864.
Martin, George W., Co. C, Andersonville, May 31, 1864.
Prentiss, Nelmore, Co. E, Andersonville, 1864.
Eogers, Monroe T., Co. M, Richmond, Va., Nov. 13, 1864.
Vanarsdol, Richard, Co. A, Richmond, Va.
Many of the officers and men of the Third Indiana Cavalry were
captured by the enemy during their term of service, and many of
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 191
them incurred disabilities from which they never recovered, by
reason of their treatment in Southern prisons, but all returned to
the service or their homes exchanged or paroled, save the foregoing
frightful list, most of whom it will be seen died in Andersonville.
One of Qur surviving prisoners of war narrates his experience in
the pages with which we close this volume and we give it because
we believe his comrades will peruse it with interest:
"Argentine, Kan., May 2, 1900.
"My Dear Comrade — I was not in either of the scrapes men-
tioned by you, the one at Kelleys Ford or in the rear of Fredricks-
burg. I was captured on the 5th of May, 1864, at Mine Run,
Virginia. You remember we left Culpepper Court House at 12
o'clock at night, crossed the Rapidan at daylight and advanced
very slowly and cautiously. About 8 o'clock in the morning we
formed in a field in close column and were ordered to get break-
fast. My coffee had just come to a boil when the rebel advance ran
into us. We received orders to mount and our regiment moved
out in advance. We were dismounted, and drove the rebels back
on their reserve. If you remember, it was very hot and many of
the boys left the skirmish line to hunt for water. Captain Moffitt
rode out to where I and Orderly Sergeant Tracy were and gave
us an order to hold our post at all hazards. It was not over five
minutes until the rebels advanced, fifty to our one, and Captain
Moffitt ordered us to get out of there, every fellow for himself. I
had to fall back across a field and the rebels were within twenty
feet of me when I started to run. Rebel bullets fanned both sides
of my face and struck on both sides of my feet for three hundred
yards. I got safely into the next woods, nearly out of breath,
climbed the fence and took a few shots.
"The rebel cavalry was charging doMTi the road and I lit out
again and got nearly to the next timber, where I found John C.
Flora 'given out.' He said: 'I'll be goldarned if I'm going any
farther if I'm captured.' I said: 'I am going to try and get
192 History of the Third Indiana Cavaxey.
through if I possibly can.' I got to the edge of the woods, found
some water and took a drink ; it was as warm as dishwater. Capt.
MoflStt came to within about twenty-five yards of me and asked
if any more of our boys were with me and I told him about John
C. Flora. Captain Moffitt put spurs to his horse and got out of
there, and when I got to where I could see there were about two
squadrons of our cavalry formed across the road and I thought
they would check the rebels until I got through.
"It looked to me as though they shot straight up in the air, and
then broke like panic-stricken sheep. So all my hopes vanished
and I was doomed to be a prisoner of war. In five minutes there
must have been a division of rebel cavalry between me and our
forces. I was trying to sneak down to the right, where there were
some small pine bushes, to hide until dark and then crawl through
the lines at night. But here about fifteen or twenty rebels came
with one prisoner by the name of Bradley from a Connecticut
regiment. The rebel in the rear was walking and leading his
horse, which had been wounded. All the rest passed by me and
did not see me, but this rear fellow, who had no arms, saw me.
I drew up my carbine to shoot him, but the poor fellow pleaded
for me not to do it, and it did seem hard, but I thought of Ander-
sonville and drew on him again and again. The last time his cries
drew the attention of his comrades, and I walked out and said:
'Boys, you have the advantage of me in numbers.' Well, they
robbed me of my watch and hat and gave me one of their soft,
limp cotton hats with about as much shape as a dishrag. They took
us (Bradley and me) to the provost marshal and from there we
began our march to the interior of rebeldom.
"We went to Orange Court House the first day and camped for
the night. Tlie next morning the ball opened early, and ambu-
lances and woimded men began coming back single file, some of
the wounded screaming with pain; and I thought to myself that
is a different tune from what you sang last night when you bragged
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 193
about going down to clean out the Yanks. The second day we
reached Gordonsville, where we remained four or five days and
then went to Danville, where they put us in a tobacco warehouse
and kept us about two days. Then they moved us out on a com-
mon in a suburb of the town and guarded us there like cattle four
or five days more. Then they loaded us into cattle cars and started
us to Andersonville, where we arrived about the 16th of June, and
soon learned that the notoriety of the place had not been overesti-
"I shall not try at this time to describe the sights I saw and the
treatment our boys received. You, no doubt, have read about it
in books by comrades who were better qualified than I am to tell
about it. I can forgive everything else but rebel treatment of our
prisoners of war. I was in the stockade about six weeks. Our quar-
termaster sergeant and the rebel quartermaster were Masons. Our
rations were cooked one day and raw the next; and then raw all
the time. I took chronic diarrhoea like many of the men, some of
whom were so far gone they could not get to the sinks. On the
evening of the last day I was in the stockade I began to think I
would soon be like them, if better luck did not come to me.
"Bradley, David Atherton and I bunked together and the three
of us had one blanket. When I was scarcely able to crawl into the
bunk Bradley came around and said : 'Sterrett, I have some good
news for you.' 'Well, what is it?' Then he said the rebel quar-
termaster ordered our quartermaster to hunt up all the Masons in
his detachment and report at the gate at 9 o'clock the next morn-
ing. I replied: 'I guess we will be there on time.' We were all
sent to Captain Wirtz' headquarters and signed an agreement that
if we behaved ourselves and did not try to run away we would be
sent off with the first exchange of prisoners of war,
"Then we went to work in the cook house. Jim Duncan was
captain of the cook house and bakery ; we had rollcall every night
and morning. One day Duncan came in with a big raw-boned,
194 HiSTOET OF THE ThLRD InDIANA Ca VALET.
burly fellow with side arms, who made the remark that 'cotton
was king and was bound to come out victorious, and when the
Southern States gained their independence he was going into the
slave trade and ship negroes from Africa.' I told him a year
would tell the tale and that I did not think he would ever have the
opportunity of going into the slave business. I had them hot
enough to bite a nail in two.
"A prisoner named Frank Turner and I were bunk mates at the
cook house, and Frank had managed in some way to smuggle some
money into the stockade. There was also an Irishman by the
name of Patrick O'Conner of the Eleventh U. S. Regulars, whom
the rebels had taken outside as a detective to prevent the prisoners
from trading with the negroes or anyone else outside the stockade.
Turner bought a sack of flour and O'Conner got on to it, and had
Dimcan confiscate it. On the 5th of September five of us ran off
from Andersonville, and on the fourth day about 4 p. m. we were
recaptured by old soldiers who had been wounded at the front.
They were jolly good fellows and sent a man ahead to Lumpkin,
the county seat of Stewart county, Georgia, and ordered our sup-
pers at an old planter's. We had butter, milk, combread, honey
and meat, and we thought it was the best supper we had ever seen.
Just as I had finished my supper I said to the old man: 'Land-
lord, what are we going to do about this supper? We are the
poorest guests that you could possibly have. We've got the supper
and appreciate it very much.' 'Well,' said the old man, 'boys, I
have a son in a Northern prison and if you should get back and
have the chance and treat him as I have treated you I will be re-
paid.' So we thanked the old man and set out for Lumpkin.
"Arriving there the guards turned us over to the sheriff or
jailer. He was a saloon keeper and held the office of jailer, which
exempted him from military service. It was Sunday evening and
there were several in to see us, and they found out I was a Mason
and I felt pretty well. They began to treat us, and when we
HiSTOET OF THE ThIKD InDIANA CaVALEY. 195
started to jail were feeling pretty rich, for prisoners of war. Some
of our friends tried to get the jailer to leave the jail unlocked and
let us get away. The jailer was afraid of losing his job and being
compelled to go into the army, but we had the best fare and kindest
treatment of any place in the South. One old farmer came to see us
and brought with him a bucketful of nice hot biscuits. He came
with the jailer and had him let us out for fresh air, so we could do
justice to the biscuits. And they were the only biscuits we ever
got to see in the Confederacy. The old man told us he was in full
sympathy with the South but that he respected our views, for
people in different sections of the country would have different
views. The old man finally left us and we were put back in jail.
"Lumpkin is a beautiful place, large lots and nice shade trees.
Our next place was Columbus, Ga., and when they brought us out
of jail an old German shoemaker, doing quite an extensive busi-
ness, came and told the man in charge of us to turn us over to him
and he would be responsible for us. He took us to his shoe shop
and gave each of us a pair of shoes and socks, as we were all bare-
footed, and we greatly appreciated his kindness. We were then
started to Columbus and had an awful trip walking in the loose
sand. We stopped the first night on the bank of the Chattahoochie
river and were guarded by citizens in charge of a corporal of the
home militia. That night when they thought we were asleep they
cursed us for all the d- — d Yankees. The next morning the sun
arose in all its beauty and we trudged on towards Columbus. We
traveled two or three miles before breakfast and then continued
on our journey. At noon we stopped for a rest and the guards set
their guns down in a fence corner and climbed over the fence to
get corn for their horses. They were completely in our hands
and I pleaded with the boys to take their guns and we would march
them awhile. The boys thought it would only be the worse for
us, so I gave it up.
196 HisTOEY OF THE Thied Indiana Cavaley.
"That night about dusk we reached Columbus, and I was so
tired I could hardly drag one foot after the other. The corporal
took us with him to hunt up the provost marshal and, after calling
on several of his relatives, found him. We were sent to jail for
safe keeping, but did not receive the same kind treatment we did
at Lumpkin. We were here about two weeks and were then sent
to Macon, Ga. There we were put in the old stockade fair ground,
southeast of Macon, for about six weeks. We had not been there
long until my old friend Pat O'Conner, of the Eleventh Regulars,
came walking in. I said : 'Conner, I thought you liked the rebels
too well to leave them.' 'Oh,' he said, 'I did not like them as well
as you might suppose.' 'Well,' I said, 'you have come to a good
place to get paid for some of your meanness.' He passed
right on and would not talk to me.
"In a short time after this the rebels wanted to build some bar-
racks and they had no carpenters. So they came inside to see if
there were any Yankee carpenters. There were six of us, viz.,
Frank Twist, Henry C. Knowles, Freeman Sands, John Lovell,
H. C. Hartwell and myself. They took out the two first one day,
but they would not work without terms. They told the post car-
penter they had four other comrades in the stockade, that we had
stuck together through thick and thin and they would not go out
and work unless they took the other four and let us stay outside
and not go back in the stockade of nights while we were there.
Their wishes were granted and we all got out.
"In a few days after this the rebels issued an order that any
Yankee taking the oath of allegiance to the Confederacy would be
protected by the law of the State and not subject to military duty,
and all foreigners who should take the oath should have the same
privilege of citizenship ; and, further, if they would take the
chances of running the blockade, they would send them to their
own country. So one morning all but two left to run the blockade ;
my friend O'Conner and a big burly Englishman remained.
HiSTOEY OF THE Third Indiana Cavaley. 197
Our quarters were inside the foundation of a commissary build-
ing the rebels had started to build. The sills were mortised to-
gether and about two feet high. Our quarters were in the south
end and O'Conner and the Englishman were in the north end. We
had no correspondence with them. I took the intermittent fever
and was awful sick for several days. Finally I got better and I
got out of the hospital and in two or three days after I had a hard
shake of the ague.
"My esteemed friend Pat O'Conner was up in Macon with some
of his Irish friends and got drunk enough to want to fight. I had
an awful shake of the ague that forenoon and our only quarters
were a shed open to the south. The sun shone in on me, and Frank
Twist, who had come in at noon, told me to take a blanket and go
over and lie in the quarters of O'Conner and the Englishman, as
he thought they had all gone to run the blockade that morning.
I followed his advice, took my blanket and went over and laid
down in the first bunk I came to and laid there until late in the
evening, when the boys came from work. About this time my
friend O'Conner came in and, walking up, says: 'What the hell
are you doing in my bunk ?' I told him about my shake and he
said: 'A bunk that is worth having is worth asking for.' Just
then that sack of flour came into my mind and I jumped to my
feet and said: 'Pat Conner, you were not here to ask, but don't
think for a minute there is anybody here afraid of you.' He began
to pull his coat, for I had raised his ire, and he made for me. I
grabbed up a two-by-four piece of scantling about three feet long
and gave him one ; he landed about ten feet away on the west side
of the foundation and, raising his feet over his head, trembled like
a dying calf. I gave him another with the flat side of the scantling
on the seat, and you could have heard it three hundred yards away.
I was making the third blow across his forehead when three of the
comrades jumped on me and stopped it. That blow would have
mashed his head to a jelly.
198 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
"He finally got up and went to Captain Hurtell, of Alabama,
and reported me. Captain Hurtell and the post surgeon were
Masons. Frank Twist and Knowles went to them and told them
all about O'Conner and how he had played traitor with his own
comrades ; Captain Hurtell told O'Conner he had better attend to
his own business and keep sober and he would not have any trouble
with the boys, 'as they are without exception the best boys in the
stockade.' O'Conner was sent to the hospital and I was there oif
and on and saw him. After the surrender I never saw him again.
The next morning Captain Hurtell came over to me and talked
to me more like a brother than a rebel officer.
"Our carpenter work at Macon did not last long. Kilpatrick
came through there on a raid and burned the mill we got our
lumber from and part of us were sent with the post carpenter to
Columbus, Ga., to build a platform between two railroads, so the
freight could be moved from one railroad to the other on trucks.
We had a good time down there. I saw the gunboat the rebels
had built and could not launch. We completed our job at Colum-
bus and went back to Macon. We learned through our headquar-
ter's friends that Mr. Gruber wanted five hundred cords of wood
cut, and that he would furnish us rations and give so much a cord
for cutting. A Dr. Johnson also came in and wanted to know if
there were any blacksmiths there and we told him there were two
of us. He wanted a buggy repaired and asked us to come over to
his house the next morning and go to work. We went and had a
good time. We repaired his buggy, did lots of work and got all
the confederate money we wanted to buy sweet potatoes with.
"We next got orders to return to Macon ; that there was to be a
general exchange of prisoners. We got the papers every day and
we did not see a word about the exchange of prisoners in them.
Before we left Columbus a widow lady told me if I was not satis-
fied that we were to be exchanged, to come to her house and she
would keep me and the rebels would not find me. We went to
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 199
Macon and reported. They were getting ready to send us to An-
dersonville, so we started to run oif and traveled part of one night,
but it was very wet and we were wholly unprepared for such a trip,
as we had no rations. Frank Twist and H. G. Knowles had been
planning to escape and had made the necessary arrangements and
left the same night. I went back and went to the woman who had
volunteered her services. Hartwell A. Lovett also had a place to
stay, so we all had places to stop. I finally wrote a pass and forged
the general's and adjutant-general's names to it, and we went to
work cutting wood. The militia never bothered us but once, and I
showed them our pass and the militia said we were all right. The
pass was a copy of the kind of passes the rebels had given us be-
fore. We went out in the country to cut wood and there we found
out that there really was an exchange of prisoners agreed upon and
that the department commandants at Macon had been changed.
Sands and I counseled together as to the best thing to do and con-
cluded to go to General Pillow in Macon and report to him that
we had been working as paroled prisoners of war, and he treated
us with great respect and offered to do anything for us if we would
stay in Macon, saying if we went home we would have to stay in
the army and if we remained in Macon we would not have to go
in the army. But he gave us three days' rations and transporta-
tion to Andersonville, and we went there by train and reported to
Captain Wirtz, handing him General Pillow's instructions not to
place us in the stockade, but send us off with the first prisoners
exchanged. So in about a week we were sent to Thomasville, Ga,
When we got there General Grant, it seems, had informed them
that there would be no further exchanging, as he expected to have
all the rebels as prisoners in a short time. So, downcast, we started
back to Andersonville, going by way of Albany, where we camped
by the largest spring I ever saw.
"The day after we left Albany we reached Andersonville and
at noon were standing in front of Captain Wirtz' headquarters to
200 History of the Third Indiana Cavalry.
be counted off in detachments of one hundred each and the one
hundred men were, divided into messes of twenty each. I was in
the first one hundred and in the second mess, and was appointed
to take charge of and distribute the rations to the twenty men that
I belonged to. Here we got word that Lee had surrendered. They
marched us down to the depot and halted us until about eight hun-
dred men were counted off. I sat down on the platform at the
depot. Captain Wirtz came up in front of us and the last words
I ever heard him speak were: 'Attention, you d — d Yankee s — s
of b— s.'
"I struck a beeline up the railroad and at 2 o'clock in the after-
noon was at Flint River, ten miles away. If ever a poor fellow
traveled, I did. I left Andersonville at noon on Thursday and
on Friday night at 2 p. m. I had walked back to Macon and re-
ported at the home of my intended mother-in-law, for you see
while I was cutting wood near Macon, as I have told you, I was also
courting the girl of the lady who boarded me, and we were engaged
to be married. On that walk from Andersonville to Macon I met
four or five of the Seventeenth Indiana Mounted Infantry. They
yelled, 'How are you, Jolmny,' and I said to them, 'You guessed
my name when I am in God's country.' They told me they be-
longed to the Seventeenth Indiana and I told them that was where
I belonged when at home, and told them I was from Andersonville.
They pulled off their hats, gave three cheers and said : 'You're all
right now and the whole Confederacy has surrendered.'
"On Thursday after I returned to Macon, General Wilson took
the city and on the Saturday following I reported to the general
quartermaster. On the 7th day of May, 1865, I was married and
in about ten days afterward we were sent to Washington, then to
Annapolis, and then to Camp Chase, Ohio, where I was mustered
out of service on the 28th day of June, 1865.
"I visited my home in Indiana for a few days and went back
to Georgia after my wife and returned home and went to work.
History of the Third Indiana Cavalry. 201
I lived in Columbia, Ind., until 1878 and then went to Lincoln
county, Kansas, always working at my trade as blacksmith, but had
to give it up on account of my health. I then went to Andrew
county, Missouri, where I stayed two years, then coming to this
part of the country, where I have been since, except for a time I
was an inmate of the State Soldier's Home, at Dodge City.
"That is a pretty place and nice home, but out of the way, so I
took a discharge from there and made application to the National
Home at Fort Leavenworth, where I am still a member. I take a
furlough and have it renewed when it runs out, so I can return
there in case of emergency.
"My wife died on the 12th of November, 1893. Her name was
Josephine Braddock. I was born at Everton, Fayette county,
Indiana, on the 29th of December, 1839, and am now going on
sixty-one years of age. Well, comrade, I have made you a state-
ment of my life from the 5th of May, 1864, through my prison
life down to the present time. Since I came here I have worked at
everything there is to do. I have worked in a smelter, on a rail-
road section, on the streets, at stone work, carpenter work, and in
a stone quarry, and am pretty well worked down. I think I shall
go to the Home and take a rest. If my small boys were old
enough to make their way I would spend my time at the Home and
visit through the summer season.
"I have gone through many adversities and have lived, now,
fifteen years longer than I expected to live. I don't think it pos-
sible to go on that much longer. I might just as well say I am
waiting my appointed time, when it may be said of me: ^He
fought the good fight, he has kept the faith, and henceforth there
is laid up for him a crown that shall never fade.'
"J. H. Sterbett."