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f r II;ir(liman, James, 1700?-1S:j5. 

42935 ""'riic liistory of the lown ami coimly of (lie town of Cal- 
.33 ^yi\y, fi'oni the o;u-l'K-.t pci-iod to the present time, einhellisheil 

witli several eii^i'a viii^^'s. To wliieh is mlileil, a ('oi^imis ai>iH'n- 
dix, (•oiilainiii;^- (he jJi-iiKipal cliiirtPrs anil other original 
docnnients. By James Ilardiinan ... Dublin, Printed by \V. 
Folds and sons^lS-20. 

xvl, :rJO, Ivl, [1] I). I'loiit., illiis., C III., 2 miiiis, 2 iilaiis. 2S'". 


1. {.'nhvay, Iio.— Hist. 

r^, . -1-2 .:-3 

T.IIirary nf Coi^'ioss ' r)A09n.(MSn2 







The measures now in progress, under your sanction, to' 
improve the town of Galway and promote the conveni- 
ence of its inhabitants, afford me much additional pleasure 
in dedicating to you a Work, undertaken with a hope of 
benefiting that ancient and respectable town, with whose 
prosperity your interest is so intimately connected. Inde- 
pendently of this consideration, there were others which 
would have equally induced me to come to the same deter-* 
mination. I felt that I should have to address the descendant 
of a family to which Galway had been indebted for 
emancipation from the long-borne thraldom of former 
corporation influence, — an individual wdio, with conscious 
pride, could look back on a line of ancestry, many of 
them eminently conspicuous in the history of their 
'country. Whose venerable forefather, Denis Daly, Esq. 
(the counsellor and stedfast friend of the ill-fated James II.) 
suaacsted those measures which w^ould have led to the 
general pacification of this part of the kingdom, and, 
perhaps, have prevented the sanguinary battle of Aughrim, 
unless frustrated by the prevalence of that party which led 
Ireland into danger, and then abandoned her to her fate. 
Whose paternal grandfather, James Daly, Esq. first over- 


turned corporation tyranny in Galway, and declined the 
dignity of the Peerage to remain the vigilant parliamentary 
guardian of the people's rights, the champion of toleration, 
and the firm and early advocate of the Catholics of Ireland. 
Whose distinouished father, the Rio-ht Honorable Dexis 
Daly, (a name with which the mind involuntarily associates 
the idea of all that is worthy and dignified in human 
nature,) to use the words of his bosom friend and immor- 
tal fellow-patriot, Henjiy Gkattan, " was one of the best 
and brightest characters that Ireland ever produced." — The 
language of adulation, I well know% but too generally 
pervades addresses of this kind, but that of the present is 
the language of truth ; for I feel myself as much above 
resorting- to any other, as I have been removed from the 
necessity of doing so. From you, how^ever, I may anti- 
cipate the declaration of the celebrated O'Nial, on some 
similar occasion : " I ambition not," said that illustrious 
Irishman, " so much to derive honor from my ancestors, as 
to reflect back upon them the lustre that they have shed 
upon me." — Sincerely wishing that you may long enjoy 
those exalted feelings, which are inseparable from the 
observance of so noble a sentiment, and still continue the 
friend and supporter of the town of Galway and its 

I have the honor to remain, 

Your obedient, luunble servant, 

j)uba„, ut^xov. 18.0. JJ3IES HARDIMAN. 


J_ IIAT Ireland Is not so well known to Great Britain as the interest 
of both countries requires, is fully evinced by the numerous errors 
into which some of the best-infoi^med English writers fall when treatin"-of 
this island ; but that it is not, even yet, sufficiently acquainted with itself, 
is a truth, which, though equally incontestible, appears not to be so Gene- 
rally felt or considered. These defects, which must be evidently prejudicial 
to the empire at large, have been ascribed to many causes : the only one, 
however, deemed necessary to be mentioned here, is, that scarcity of 
useful topographical information, winch may be pronounced as f^reat an 
obstacle to the improvement of this country, as it is an unquestionable 
reflection upon its literature. While every city and town, nay almost 
every village and liamlet, in Great Britain, can boast of its history, or 
illustrative description, the efforts of the pen or the pencil, in a similar 
way, in Ireland, may be enumerated in a summary note ;' and to this 
deficiency it is that the imperfect knowledge of this part of the empire, 
above alluded to, may be principally attributed. — To elucidate this by a 
single example : the whole of the western province, in which the subject 
of the following attempt at topographical delineation is situate, its natural 
advantages, former transactions, numerous and respectable families, &c. 

"Doctor Smith's Histories of NVatei-ford, 1716; Cork, 1750; and Kerry, 17JG — Limerick, by 
rcrriir, 1767, I7S7 — The County of Down, by Harris, 1744- — County of Dublin, by Itutty, 1772 — 
Carrlckfcrgus, by Mr. M'Skimin, ISll— Armagh, by Mr. Stewart, 18'20. City of Dubhn, "by Harris, 
1766; by Fcrrar, 1796 ; aral by Messrs. Whitelaw and Walsh, 1810 — Mr. Monck Mason's History of 
St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, 1819, (being part only of a greater work, entitled Ilibcrnia Antiqua 
et Hodierna, undertaken by that learned gentleman) — A brief Descrlpti^on of Irislitowu and 
Kilkenny, l)y doctor Ledwich, (first published in Vallancey's Collectanea, and afterwards in the doctor's 
Antiquities of Ireland) — and an old Account of Westmeath, by Sir Henry Piers, (also published in the 
Collectanea), comprise all the city or county history of this country worth noticing that has ever 
appeared. After this enumeration, it is almost unnecessary to add, that many a single shire in England 
has been more copiously described and better illustrated than the whole of Ireland! To the 
several statistical or county agricultural surveys no allusion is here made, tlicsc publications being 
very different in their nature from those in the contemplation of the author. 


have liitlierto remained almost unnoticed and unknown ; insomucli 
that it is a fact, no less singular than certain, that the public in o-eneral 
is better acquainted with every ])articu]ar relating to the most obscure 
district in the East Indies, or the most insignificant island in the southern 
Archipelago, than with the affliirs of this extensive and populous province. 
An inclination, in some measure, to remedy this defect, has induced the 
compilation of the following History of Gahvay, the ancient, and formerly 
celebrated, capital of the West of Ireland, which is now, with every 
degree of deference and respect, submitted to the impartial judn-ment 
of an enlightened public. 

Amidst the avocations of professional and official duty, the author has 
spared neither labor nor expense to render the work which he had. 
undertaken as perfect as possible. A desire to become acquainted with 
the past state and transactions of a place, which presents so many 
monuments of former opulence and respectability, originally led to the 
idea, and the intention was afterwards promoted by an incident that could 
not have been previously anticipated. His JMajesty's Commissioners lor 
the regulation of the Public Records of Ireland were pleased to appoint 
the author one of their Sub-commissioners: this circumstance, which 
threw open many valuable sources of national information, at once 
determined and enabled him to investigate with greater accuracy the 
history and antiquities of this ancient and respectable town, and the 
leisure hours that could be spared from other more immediate and 
necessary pursuits have been devoted to the purpose. Alter gleanino- consi- 
derably IVom the invaluable archives of Trinity College, the Record 
Tower, (now comprising the former contents of Rirmin"ham Tower the 
parHamentary papers, and those of some of the offices of State,) the 
Rolls, Auditor-general's, Cliief-remembrancer's, andother offices in Dublin 
including, through the kindness of Sir William Betham, that of the Herald 
at Arms, he personally visited and carefully explored the principal record 
repositories in England ; and the rich and inexhaustible stores of the 
Bodlein.n Library at Oxford, the British J\Jiiseum, and theTower of London 
have largely contributed to complete his undertaking. The town records of 
Galway, (including the venerable volume which contains the early acts 
of the corporation, and which the present possessor values at several ■ 
hundred pounds,) with the most authentic annals in the Irish lano'ua"-e 
and many private manuscripts of an interesting nature, have likewise 
been procured ; and every ])rinted work has been perused which was 

rilEFACE. vii 

known or supposed to throw any light on the present or former state of 
the town and provhice. From the documents thus collected the following 
work has been compiled ; and, whatever may be the opinion formed of its 
arrangement or execution, it will be found to contain the only embodied 
portion of local and historical information ever given to tlie public con- 
cerning any part of the West of Ireland. 

However curious or interesting works of this nature may appear to 
resident individuals, they can seldom be expected to excite general 
attention. Instances might, notwithstanding, be adduced, in which 
the histories of particular places have been deservedly held in liigh 
estimation ; and, although the author has no expectation that the 
following work will ever be numbered among such instances, yet he 
cannot help thinking that many matters interspersed throughout its 
pages may be found worthy of consideration, even beyond the narrow 
limits of the place that gave them birth. While the descendants of those, 
whose actions are here recorded, will dwell over the memorials of former 
days, with that lively desire of kno^wing their ancestors, which, according 
to the historian, must depend on the influence of some common principle 
in our nature ; every Irishman, concerned for the honor and prosperity of 
his native land, may perhaps feel a more general interest in the annals 
of an Irish city of an:;ient celebrity, in which so many affairs of public 
importance had formerly been transacted. If taken in a commercial point 
of view, it will be found that the former inhabitants of Galway, (availing 
themselves of those natural advantages Avhich their situation afforded, and 
with which this neglected island, in every direction, so ami)ly abounds,) 
gradually rose from a state of comparative insignificance to a high degree 
of national consideration, and that the town, however extraordinary it may 
now appear, arrived to a pitch of mercantile greatness superior, with the 
single exception of London, to any other port in the British dominions." 
E\en to an English reader, the progress of so flourishing a colony of his 
own nation, or, as described by itself, "an ancient colonic of English, 
planted in this nook ol tfie country^" ' among a people then considered 
as "English enemies," may not be altogether unacceptable. To the 

I" " We m;!}' be bold to say, that for the situation thereof, voisenagc, ami commerce it hath with 
Spain, the Strayts, West Indies, and other places, noe town or port in the tln-ee nations (London ex- 
cepted) was more considerable." — Original letter Jioin Hcnrij Croiinvcll and the Irish privij cuuncil con- 
cerning Gnlzvnij, dated 7th April, 1657.— Vide p. 138. 

■^ Vide p. 135 — note. 

viii PREFACE. 

politician and philosopher it may be useful to detail the various 
circumstances which led to the decline of a town formerly so celebrated. 
At the present crisis, also, when so many of his majesty's subjects are 
ondcavorino;, by constitutional means, to become emancipated from 
those penal inflictions under which they have so long and so patiently 
labored, the following pages will demonstrate, by many examples, that 
the principles of Catholics are not incompatible with the strictest obser- 
vance of loyalty to monarchs of a different persuasion. They will also shew 
that no diversity of religious opinion, or even severity of treatment under 
the most rigid enforcement of the penal laws, could ever weaken the al- 
legiance of the Catholics of Ireland as subjects, or influence their demqanor 
as peaceable citizens, Several most honorable proofs will likewise be 
found of their unalterable attachment to the Protestant monarchs of 
Great Britain, and their representative rulers in this country. — For these, 
and other reasons, the author has ventured to hope that his labors 
may not be altogether useless, and even that they may be attended with 
results superior to those of satisfying mere antiquarian research, or 
gratifying the impulse of fruitless curiosity. 

From the golden rule, Ne quid falsi diccre audecd, ne quid veri non audeat, 
laid down by Cicero as indispensible for every writer who interferes in 
any of the provinces of history, the author has not intentionally departed; 
it has been his constant guide ; and the anxiety to adhere to it rigidly 
has, perhaps, extended even to a fault, by the too frequent introduction 
of the very words of the author or authority, and in many places by en- 
cumbering the pages with entire documents ; but for this the best apology 
that can be offered is, the information which these documents will be 
found to contain. The author's highest expectation was, that of being 
classed amongst tliose writers approved of by Montaigne, who have 
jiothing of their own to insert, and who only take the care and pains to 
collect every thing thnt comes to their notice, and to make a faithfid 
register of all things, without choice or distinction, leaving the discovery 
of the truth entirely to the judgment of their readers. " He therefore 
considered that a narrative, whose real value thus depended on its truth, 
could dispense with the labored ornaments of style : and hence no fact, 

'' J'aynie les Ilistoriens, ou fort simples, ou exccllens. Les simples, qui n'ont point dequoy y niesler 
quclque chose lUi leur, et qui u'y appovtcnt que le soin, et la diligence de r'amasser tout ce qui vient a 
leur notice, et d'enregistrer a la bonne foy toutes choscs, sans chois et sans triage, nous laissent le 
jugement entier, pour la cognoissance de la verite. — Essais de Montaigne) liv. II. chap. X. 


however apparently trifling, luis been sacrificed to brilliancy of sentiment 
or elegance of diction. The incipient efforts of an individual, but liltle 
versed in tlie art of elaborate composition, must betray defects; Ijut the 
labor of investigating ancient records, decyphering the rude and 
mutilated remnants of former times, and the abstracting, arranging and 
connecting of events, collected with much toil, through the dark periods 
of antifjuity, will, it is ho})ed, induce the reflecting' reader to over- 
look such inaccuracies, and even entitle this work to a portion of that 
indulo-ence, which the most finished productions of human industry are 
often ibund to require. 

To few only of the living does the author lie under any obligation ; 
but to those few he is largely indebted. The zeal and persevering 
industry with which his highly respected and valuable friend, Edmund 
Costello, esq. assisted in obtaining information, particularly concerning 
the modern state of Galway, can never be forgotten. John Lynch 
Alexander, esq. with the kind disposition wliich always marks his 
character, obliirinolv communicated^several curious documents concerning 
the ecclesiastical history of the town. From his lamented friend, tlie 
late William Nash, esq. of the Rolls Office, Dublin wliose goodness of 
heart was only equalled by the extent of his knowledge, the author 
received much valuable information. The friendship of William Shaw 
Mason, esq. (to Avhom Ireland is much indebteil for the measures 
taken to preserve its ancient legal records, and for (he first pervasive 
effort to develope the actual state of the country,) has also aided his 
researches. To Charles Blake, esq. of Merlin Park, near (ialway, he is 
obliged for the use of the old corporation-I^ook, before alluded to, which 
contains many curious entries concerning the town tor a period of nearly 
one hundred and seventy years. To the Provost, ';'ice Provost, and Seifior 
Fellows of Trinity College, he returns his sincere thanks for the am- 
descending attention which he has experienced from t'lat learneil body; 
and to the Reverend Doctors Xash and Wilson he is pa:'ticidarly indebted. 
l"o those friends, also, who kindly wished to provide against (he heavy 
expenses attending this work, by promoting a subscri[)tion, he is like- 
wise thankful ; and, although he declined their offers, he feels grateful 
for the motives which dictated them. Finally, the autli|fc' b.egs leave 
here to repeat, what he once before expressed at a most respectable 
meeting in Galway, " that he had voluntarily undertaken the task, without 
any other view than a hope that it might tend to the honor, and perhaps: 



to the benefit, of their native town ; and that, if his work slioiild not 
possess sufficient merit to support itself, it would, and ought to full into 
oblivion ; but if otherwise, he entertained no doubt of its favorable 
reception by a discerning public." 

Ipo0t.0cnpt conccrnins tljc €no;ral3ing.s(. 

With respect to the Engravings, no pains have been spared that they 
sliould be properly executed, and that the drawings should be correct. 
The distant prospect of Galway, and the views of the church, Lynch's 
castle, the county court-house, bridge, and prison, were taken by an 
ingenious artist, brought from Dublin solely for the purpose. The 
armorial bearings, contained in plate II. have been extracted partly from 
the old map oi'tlie town. This latter document, whicii the author, after 
mucli trouble, has been enabled to lay before the reader, affords incontes- 
tible proof of the former respectable state of Galway, and is deservedly 
admired as one of the principal topographical curiosities relating to 
Ireland. " A drawing of Lynch's castle, situate in the centre of the 
town, is given, as it presents a beautiful specimen of ancient architecture, 
and had formerly been the residence of some of the chief magistrates. 
The modern plan of the town and suburbs has been made from actual 
survc}', and will, it is hoped, be found generally correct. The mis- 
cellaneous plate also contains an assemblage possessing some local 
interest; and, although the different objects are reduced to a small 
scale, yet care has been taken that they should all be exactly delineated. 
The principal engravings have been executed by some of the best 
engravers wiiich Dublin could afford. 

' 'I'lic author had, for a long time, despaired of obtaining this curious document. The only copy, 
whicli, ui'.til hitely, was known to be extant in Ireland, was preserved at Castleniagarrett, in 
the county of Mayo, and the proprietor, very properly, esteeming it as an unique of consi- 
derable value, appeared disinclined to hazard its safety by transmitting it to Dublin. An ingenious 
surveyor of that county declared that he could not furnish a copy of it for less than 100/. In the 
mean time a duplicate was discovered in the valuable library of Trinity College. Here the author met 
with no diHicuIty ; his artist was allowed to tal<e a fac-siiiiile, which, omitting some of the extra 
ornaments, has been reduced, and engraved on as large a scale as possible for this work : and thus 
he has been enabled, though at some expense, to indulge his own wish, and gratify the public curiosity, 
by introducing (and perhaps rescuing from oblivion) this interesting relic of former times. 




'J'lie origin and signltication of tlie name of Galvvay — Opinions of Camden, Ware, Lynch, 
O'Flaherty, De Burgo and Vallancey— The name derived from commerce — Security of 
the Iiarbour— Supposed origin of the bay — Derivation of its name — Inhabitants of the town 
before Henry H. — Subsequent colonics, viz. Athy, Blake, Bodkin, Browne, Darcy, Deane, 
Ffont, Ffrench, Joyce, Kirwan, Lynch, Martin, Morris and Skerrett — Affiliated families 

— Former manners and character — Former state and topography — Speed — Heylyn Sir 

Oliver St. John — Ancient map and ichnography — References— Concluding observations 

fhom the earliest accounts to the invasion of iien'uy ii. 
Early history and antiquities of Ireland disputed — Intemperate feelings of writers on the subject 
— Come but little within the scope of this work— The ancient town of Galway made a chief 
point of division in the various partitions of Ireland — In that by Heber and Heremon — By 
Eognn More and Con-cead-Cathach, in the second century — War between these princes for 
an equal dividend of the revenues of Dublin and Galway— The latter then a place of note — 
Destruction of Irish records— Accounts of Ireland by Tacitus and Ptolemy — Those of the 
latter doubted — Opinions of Camden, Ware, Baxter, and others, that Galway was the 
Nagnata of Ptolemy --Its origin uncertain — Destruction of tlie town by the Danes — Rebuilt 
by the Conaclans — Ravaged by the Monionians — and revived in 1170 



Arrival of Strongbow, accompanied by William Fitz-Andelni De Burgo, ancestor of the family 
of Cl.mricarde —Landing of Henry II, — Submission and subsc(iuent revolt of the Irish 
])rinccs — Unsuccessful attempt of Roderick O'Conor, the nionarcli, on Dublin — Treat)' 
between him and Henry II. — First hostile incursion of the invaders into Connaught, and 
their defeat — Grant of the province to De Burgo — Deposition and death of Roderick — 
Connor, his successor, defeats De Courcy — Catlial, who succeeds, joins with Meiler Fitz- 
Henry, the justiciary, and subdues De Burgo — Treaty between him and King John — Cathal 
dies, and Henry HI. orders the lord justice to seize on all Connaught, and deliver it to 
Richard De Burgo — Fedhlim, who succeeded Cathal, visits Henry in England, and obtains 
iin order to be restored to his territory— The castle of Galway fortified by O'Flaherty — Taken 
by De Burgo, who strengthens the castle, and protects and encourages the town — Walls, 
groat gate, and tower erected — Increase of trade and commerce — Church of St. Nichohis 


xii C O N T E N T S. 

built — Dispute between tlie families of Blake and Atliy— Death of William earl of Ulster 
and seizure of Gahvay by Mac William Eiglitcr— Charters of murage and of the staple 
granted by Edward III.— Removal of the staple- Merchants of Limerick jealous of the 

increasing trade and prosperity of GaKvay— Revolt and submission of the town Two 

charters granted by Richard II. — Charter of Henry IV. — Mercantile regulations— Esta- 
blishment of a mint — Charter of Edward IV.- and conflagration in the town. 43 



^^■ardcllship of Cralway instituted by the archbishop of Tuam, and confirmed by pope Innocent 
VIII. — Charter of Richard III. — Remarkable instance of inflexible justice — Eortilicatluns 
built — Great fire in the town — Battle of Knoc-Tuadh — Hospital built, and several improve- 
ments made — Disputes between Cialway and Limerick — Prisage of wines claimed Orders 

of Henry VIII. to the inhabitants — The lord deputy, Grey, honorably received in the town, 
and several Irish chiefs come in, and submit — Sir William De Burgh created earl of Clan- 
ricardc, and deprived of all ])ower in Galway — Charter of Henry VIII. — Mercan tile by- 
laws — Charters of Edward \'I. — The earl of Sussex, chief governor, arrives in Galway, 
and is splendidly received — Sir Henry Sidney, his successor, arrives in town — Insurrection 
of the iMac-an-Ear!as— Their defeat— Charter of Elizabeth— The lord justice, Sir William 
Pelham, arrives in town, and confirms the charter— Sir John Perrot, lord deputy, comes to 
Galway — Prisage of wines in the town, established by the earl of Orniond — One of the 
vcspels of the Spanish armada wrecked in the bay— The lord deputy. Sir William Fitz- 
williams, arrives in town, and puts several of the Spaniards to death — Sir William Uussel, 
lord deputy, arrives, and investigates the state of tlie town and province — The town 

besieged by Hugh Ruadh O'Donncl — Licentiousness of the inhabitants of the country 

The chief governor, lord INIountjoy, visits the town — St. Augustine's fort built — Charter of 
James I. -The town erected into a separate jurisdiction — The lord deputy, viscount 
Falkland, arrives in Galway— His munificence — Fort of Ballymanagh built — Several forti- 
fications erected — Splendid entry into Galwaj', and reception of viscount Wentworth, lord 
deputy — His oppressive proceedings against a jury of the county — Concluding observations 67 



Opulence of Galway at the commencement of the Irish rebellion, 2'M October, 161-1 — Report 
of Sir Francis Willoughby, governor of St. Augustine's fort, near Galwaj', on tliat event 
— The care of the earl of Clanricarde to secure the peace of the country — Loyal resolutions 
of the town — Disputes with the fort — iMassacre at Shruel — Revolt of the town, and siege of 
the fort — The fort relieved, and the town submits to the carl of Clanricarde — \'iolent 
proceedings of the governor of the fort - He bombards he town — Lord Forbes arrives with 
a fl'jct in the bay — Besieges the town — His barbarous conduct — The fort besieged, taken 

and demolished — The town declares in favor of the Irish, and against the parliament 

Persists in loyalty to the king — Several fortifications built — Tumults iji the town, occasioned 
by the pope's nuncio on the question ef the cessation — Compelled at length to proclaim it — 
The nuncio departs from Galway — The town advances money to the state^ — (jrateful 
acknowledgments of Charles II. — Dreadful plague in the town — Marquis of Ormond takes 
shipping in tlalway, and leaves the kingdom — Xegociations willi the duke of Lorrain — His 



ambassador arrives in Galway — The town besieged by the parliamentary forces under Sir 
Cliarlcs Coote — Its strenuous defence and final surrender — The plague rages — Cruel 
proceedings against the inhabitants — Licentiousness of the soldiery — Unjust measures of 
the rulers in Dublin, contrary to the articles of surrender — The corporation new modelled — 
Tlie ancient inhabitants turned out of the towTi, and the houses destroyed — Plans of the 
' governnicut relative to Galwa}' — Lands and houses valued and sold — Total decay of tlie 

town at tlie time of the Restoration - - - - - - 108 

CHAP. VL _ ■ 


On the restoration of Charles H. many of the new settlers disappear, and the old natives and 
former inhabitants return — Letters of the king to the lords justices, to restore them to their 
freedoms and estates — Animosities and disputes between them and the new settlers — An 
instance of one of these contentions — Prej,udice of the lords justices against the old natives 
— Opposition given to their claims — Excluded from corporate privileges, and finally expelled 
the town - New rules established — The corporation lands, with the charter and market 
duties, granted to i\Irs. Elizabeth Hamilton — The earl of Essex, lord lieutenant, opposes 
the grant — His description of the decayed state of the town — Colonel Tlieodore Russell 
purchases the charter and market duties, and is elected mayor — The king grants a new 
charter, containing many ample privileges — Population of the town considerably diminished, 
and the houses falling to ruin — INIany of the old natives give security, and are permitted 
to return to the town — They arc soon after obliged to depart, owing to the clamours and 
discontent of some members of the corporation — Address to the king, on his escape from the 
Rye-house conspiracy — Accession of James H. to the throne — The Catholic inhabitants 
return to the town, and made free of the corporation — Catholic clergy established in the 
town — New charter granted— Troubles begin, and the fortifications of the town repaired — 
Resolutions to adhere to king James and his government — Protestant inhabitants removed 
cut of the town — Battle of Aughrim — Siege of the town — It surrenders on articles — 
Treatment of the Roman Catholics — Fortifications built, to secure the coiujuest of the town 
and the islands - - - - - - - HO 



After tlie surrender, the greater part of the old natives and Catholic inhabitants are obliged 
to quit the town — Measures taken to prevent their departure — Articles of Uahvay respected 
during the reign of William III. — Accession of (iueen Anne — Commission of array issues — 
Town militia raised, and the fortifications repaired— Act to prevent the further growth of 
poiicry— Roman Catholics prevented from purchasing houses or tenements in the town or 
suburbs — Those already residing give security pursuant to tlie act — On the rumour of an 
invasion by the pretender, they are turned out of the town — Afterwards admitted — Again 
turned out during the rebellion in Scotland — Disputes between the members of the 
corporation — Galway act passes — Commerce of the town — Clandestine trade — Penal 
visitation in 1731 — Town militia newly arrayed, and o.'iicers appointed — Arms delivered out, 
and state of the ordnance returned to government — Strict discipline observed in the town 
during the Scottish rebellion of 1 74-5— Particular account of the fortifications and their 
decayed state reported to government — They are suffered gradually to decay — Disputes 
between the governor, the corporation and the merchants, about shutting the gates — 


Description of the town at the time — Trade declines — The merchants petition parh'amcnt 
against the corporation — Resolutions of the house — New schedule of duties and customs 
agreed upon — Corporation disputes — Volunteers — Non importation resolutions — East India 
fleet arrives in the bay — Town yeomanry- -Union - Population of the tawn and liberties — 
Disputes and proceedings concerning non-resident freemen, the, independence and 
parliamentary representation of the town. 


PART 11. 

SENTATIVES OF THE TOWN - - - - - - lot 



1 Collegiate Church of St. Nicholas 
2 Chapel of St. Nicliolas 

3 Franciscan Friary . - - - 

4 Dominican do. - - - - - 

5 Augustinian do. . - - - - 

6 Carmelite do. . - - - - 

7 Capuchin Friars - - - - - 

8 Knights Templars .... 

9 Franciscan Nunnery, or Convent of St. Clare 

10 Dominican Nunnery - - - " 

11 Augustinian do. . . . - 

12 Presentation Convent . . - - 

25 1 

27 1 




I. Topography. 

1 Situation and Natural Advantages - , - 

2 Climate and Salubrity . - - - - 

3 Extent, Streets and Buildings — Improvements suggested - 

4 Population ...--- 

II. Constitution and Goveunment. 

1 Corporation ..---- 

2 Courts — Municipal Regulations necessary ... 

III. Commerce, Trade and Manufactures. 

1 Decline of Conmierce — Causes - - - " 

2 Exporti and Imports - - - " " 

3 Corn Trade, Linen IManulacture, Breweries, &c. 

4 Cliamber of Commerce - - - " " 





IV, Fisheries of the River and Bay. fage 

1 Salmon Fishery - - - - - - • - 291 

2 Fishings of the Buy - - - - - - - 292 

3 Herring Fishery - - - - - - - 296 

4 Sun-fisli, Cod and Turhot Fishery — Oyster Banks .... 297 

V. Public Buildings. 

1 Bridges - - - - - - - - ib. 

2 I!iirracl<s - - • - - - ' - - 298 

3 Exchange or Tholsel - - - - - - - ib. 

4 County Court-house ...---- 300 

5 Town Gaol - - - - - - - -ib. 

C County Gaol - - - - - - - - 302 

VI. Charitable Institutions. 

1 County Infirmary ..----- 304 

2 Fever Hospital - - - - - ■ - - 305 

3 Charter School - - - - - - - - ib. 

■i Charity School - - - - - - - - 306 

5 Female Orphan Asylum - - - - - - - ib. 

6 Charitable Funds and Donations ...--- 307 

7 INIendicants, Work-house or General Asylum - - • - - ib. 

VII, Public Markets. 

1 Corn Market ...----- SOS 

2 Meat Market - - - - - " - - ib. 

3 Fish Market - - - - - - - - ib. 

4 Butter Market - - - - - - - - 309 

5 Vegetable Market - - - - - - - ib. 

6 Fuel - •• - - - - - - - 310 

VIII. Education, Mansers, Sec. 

1 Erasmus Smith's Free-school - - - - - ' ib. 

2 Other Seminaries of Education - - - - - -312 

3 Amicable Society - - - - - ■ - ib. 

4' Mercantile Coffee room - - - - - - -313 

5 Character, Manners, Customs, &c. - - - - - - ib. 

G Public Amusements ....... 31o 

7 Country Seats - - - - - - -316 


I. ?vlcn of Learning and Genius, Natives of Galway and its Vicinity . - - 317 

11. A short Historical Account of the Islands of Arran .... 319 



'~ Pug' 

I. Deed instiniting tlie College of St. Nicholas, Gahvay, dated 2Sth Sept. A.D. 11-81 - i 

II. Hull or diploma of pope Innocent Vlll. establishing tlie wardensliip of Galvvay, dated 

the 6th of the Ides of February, A.D. 1484-, with a translation - - ii 

III. Charter of (lucen Elizabeth, dated 14th July, A.D. 1578, with a translation - vi 

IV. ChiirtL" of r.dw. VI. founding the College of Galway, dated 29th April, A.D. 1551 xxvi 
\'. Articles of Surrender to Croniwell's forces, dated 5th April, A. D. 1652, with a list 

oi" the tounsnien who signed, and also of those who refused to sign the certificate 

of assent to the qualifications made by the commissioners of Parliament to the articles xxix 

VI. An abstract of forfeited lands in tlie liberties of Galway, A. D. 1657 - - xxxir 
VII. A survey of the lands and a schedule and valuation of the houses in the town and 
county of tlie town of Galway, set out under the Gloucester act, with the names of 

the old and new proprietors of tlie houses, and their yearly value, A.D. 1657 - xxxvi 

VIII. Charter of Charles II. --..... xliii 

IX. Articles of surrender to general Ginckle, 2 1st July, A.D. 1691- - - liv 

X. Schedule of tolls and customs, 13th March, A.D. 1762 - - - Ivi 

List Of piatrsf. 

1 S. V\'. View of the Town of Galway, frontispiece. 

'I Armorial Bearings of the fourteen ancient Families of the Town - lojace page 7 

3 Map of the Town in 1610 - - - - - - 22 

■t 1651 - - - - - - - 30 

5 St. Au^'ustine's Fort, near Galway - - - - . - 97 

6 Siege of the Town in 1G91 - - - - . - 160 

7 LVnch's Castle, the residence of the mayor in 1651 .... 197 
cS Collegiate Church of St. Nicholas ..--.. 23f! 
■J Plan of the 'foun and Suburbs of Galway, 1820 .... 279 

10 County Court-house, New Bridge and Gaol - . . . . 300 

11 Miscellaueons Plate - - - - - - - 316 

Three 'v'iguettcs, viz. the old Seal of the Corporation — the Collegiate Seal, and a View of 

the A\'ood-([uay and N. K. Suburbs of the Town. 


f'..;-" ."l, >i.-;o, !■! lol. linr I, rt-.n.-l na i/n.iM...p. 10, ol.sorve lliat fi'iiii line J to 11! is (liiubtrul...ncito, 1st c-ol. line 1", for Kalljrancaiii read iluHra'u-ain... 
p. 17, I i;.'t JanJ 1, I.T sliL-ll-draki ., n-ail .l:ii<.'S...^.:.\ line |n, rfail f./r/i/ A.->(jry...[). f, liiicil, di-lo io/i/iA...p. 17, line 17, fur viiws, read rioi/nj,..;.. l-f, 
\u'v ;', .!.le truvj'ir,L..\>. 7.7, l.iti l.iic, dele !-j<jul...\K il'J, note, 1st eol. lines 4 and 9, for premises, read I'lisc-whi.-s.,.^, 9:1, line 7, fer one, read Rubtrl... 
p. S", •. -u, 2.1 .01. 1 nv 1, fnr e\,l, re.cj fx(,-«i/,.//i..,p. 1U2, note, 1st col. line -1, for for 1816, reiid lU10...1ast line, same col. lor Car. II. read Cor. /. 
...:,ii.' ■Ji'o;. line CI, lor loJl, reai l::i;i...i.. Vli, note, &1 col. line :C, for lUW, read n04...p. IW, note, 1st col. line 1, for VI 1. read I7//...p. U7, note, 
i;.:.e.-l. line S, !.^r ^nl,, re.'i.l £/i/fx?...p. !.':>J, '2d coli line 7, rc.ul 1771. ..line 8, for Cily, read DH/2/...samc page, supply uliiler lmperi:d rarliinent, 1.SUI 
.SV. Oi'uri^r' ItMy, c^q. 1*1'- John Jira')ciium Poiiso.i'-i/j (sr/....;i. iliij, I^t eo!. note, Inie M, read /wrrc.p. -7-1, line 6, fur conTcnt, read precvptory. 



I. W A Y. 




The origin and sigiiificatioJi of the name of Gal-way — Opinions of Camden — 
jVaj^e — Lyyich — O'Flahertij — De Burgo and Vallancey — Tlic name derived from 
commerce — Security of the harbour — Supposed origin of the hay — Derivation of 
its name — Inliabitants of the toxcn before Henry II. — Subsequent colonies, viz. 
A thy, Blake, Bodkin, Brornie, D'Arcy, Deane, Ffont, Ifrench, Joyes, Kirwan, 
Lynch, Martin, Morris and Skerrett— Affiliated families — Former manners and 
character — Former state and topography — Speed — Ileylyn — Sir Oliver St. John 
— Aricient map and Ichnography — References — Concluding observations. 

The general opinion concerning etymological inquiries seems to be, that 
they are rather curious than useful ; at the same time it stands confessed, 
that, in many instances, such disquisitions may become material and interesting, 
particularly should they lead to tlie establishment or corroboration of historical 
iacts, or tend to illustrate the ancient state of the places under investigation. 
AVith these objects in view, an attempt shall here be made to elucidate the origin 
and signification of the name of Galway, a point which, though often touched 
upon by many writers, has hitherto been left undecided. 


It is well known that amongst the ancient Irish, all foreigners were indis- 
criminately termed Galls, * hence, arose a supposition, that Galway took its 
name from a foreign colony alledged to have settled there at an early period. 
Tradition informs ns, that previously to the arrival of Henry II, Galway was 
hut an inconsiderable fishing village, under the protection of an Irish dune or 
fortress, and that it was then called BalUnshruane, or the tuxai of the little 
streams ; because, when the winter floods were high in the river, the water 
flowed through the present scite of the town, and formed it into small islands ; 
in one of which, (where the church of St. Nicholas was afterwards built,) this 
l)rimitivc hamlet was situate. We are further informed, from the same source, 
that when the English settlers afterwards came hither, they were called by the 
native Irish Clan-na-Gall, the Foreipi clan, sept, or colony, (an appellation, which 
however originating, their descendants still retain,) and that the place was from 
thenceforth named Ballinagall, or GalUbli, the Foreigners totcv, or Jortificatiun. 
These traditionary relations, though to many they might appear probable and 
satisfactory, are not borne out, but seem rather controverted by written authorit}'. 
In the life of Hugh Ruadh O'Donnell, hereditary prince of Tyrconnell, written 
by Cucoigcriche O'Clery, one of the four masters, after relating the sacrilegious 
burning of the convent of St. Bridget, near Galway, in 15<)Q, by that chieftain, 
the v/ritcr adds, " that the city took its name from the river, in whicli was 
drowned GailUmh, tlie daughter of Breasail." " This derivation receives support 
from the old map of Galway, (of which a full description will be found in anotlier 
part of this volume ;) it is there stated, that a woman, named Galva, was 
drowned, near a great rock, in the river, (which is delineated on the map,) 
and that from this circumstance the town originally took its name. 

Other antiquaries have, however, given significations widely difFercnt. 
Camden is of opinion that Galway was derived from the Gallaeci of Spain, a 
country with which the town carried on a very early and extensive commerce. 
Ware, a much better authority, so far as relates to Ireland, says, that the river 
Gallia^ or Galiva, mentioned in the annals of Roscommon, under the years 
1177 and liyO, seems to have given name to the town; but he leaves it to 
others to discover its meaning. " Geoffry Lynch Fitz-Dominick, a native of 
Galway, in his MS. "remarks drawn from antiquity," and written in I66I, 

' " Aril lastly the Gmth, pouring out of Gallia itself, Spencer ; — and Dcrniott Mac Miirrough, who brought 

from all iho sea coast of Jlclgia and Ce/licn, into all the in the English, was surnanied Ni-Gall, as being their 

southern coasts of Ireland, which they possessed and frieiul. — Ware. 

inhabited, whereupon it is, at this day, amongst the " Anno. 1599. ^\o lo]rj;e(»'6 leo CtVn reag 

Irish a common use to call any etranper inhabitant h]^z,^e r]\ roM loncj-li n* caf«ac T]r\, .]. 

Gahl, that IS, descended Ironi the CJauls." — Spencer. — ^ , r ' '^ ' ! . , „ L I J ' J- 

Thus Z)««ogrt//, the fortress of the Gauls; J)»M-G«//, feArlp'. _»]Timnib~e.>t' on «ba)n p)]l|- )lo 

black foreigners; Pi^^n//, near Dublin, so named from bnoCiio!lliTi ingertn b|ieaj-a)l. 

the Danes, or white foreigners, who were generally fiiir ' Flunicn Gah-iam, urbem noniini suo adoptasse 

oc rod b.aired; Giill-Ogia signifies an English yeoman, vidctur, bed nominis rationem venentur alii.— Jl'n/c. 


aj:;rec.s with Ware ; " and O'Flalicrty, in his Ogygia, says expressly that the 
town takes its name from the river. De Burgo asserts, that Gaillimh, the 
iKunc of' tlie town in Irish, is the same as locifs angloriitn, i. e. residence of 
the Eni^Usli, and says, it was very properly so called, because the town was built 
by a colony which came thitlicr from EngUuid about the year 1300; " but this 
writer appears mistaken as well in his assertion, as in the truth of the fact 
aLlduced in its siip{)ort. The learned VaUancey, who was fond of investigations 
of this nature, gave several ingenious derivations of the word; at one time he 
supposes it to be Gahnliaith, an Irish com})ound, which he translates Gahvaj/, 
and says, signifies a rocky barren country ; ' at another time he deduces it 
from Furt-na-Gall, Gallorum partus ; and again, from Gall-amJian, Amnis Gallurum ; 
but lie was finally of opinion, that the town received its name from a company 
of merchants that settled there ; Gael, derived, according to him, from Gaelis, 
or Gc/Hs, traffick or commerce, signifying a merdiant, and iblt, in Irish, signifying 
trilies or Jamilies, whence Gailihli, tribes of mcrcliants.^ Of all these conjectures, 
the latter, being the result of more mature deliberation, appears most entitled 
to attention, as having approached nearest to the truth, which a brief illustration 
will sufficiently demonstrate. 

From a very early period, and until after the invasion of Henry II. the 
territory in which the town stands was called Clanjirgail, the hind or habilatiuu 
(f the Gail or merchants. " This circumstance, though unobserved by Vailancey, 
\ery fbrceably corroborates his opinion, both names evidently agreeing in 
meaning and derivation, and each serving to illustrate, and very satisfactorily 
to ex])lain, the origin and signification of the other : when, therefore, we 
consider the weak foundation of traditional report, and the fabulous complexion 
of the story, attributing the name to the woman, Gaillimh, or Galva, mentioned 
by the writer of Donegal, and alluded to on the old map, ' it seems most 
reasonable to conclude, that the town and river of Galway both dcri^"ed their 

* H'k words are, " It borrows its name from the river ^ Essay on the primitive inhabitants of Great Britain 

that s'.iiics by it, for it was anciently called ' Diinciun- and Ireland. 

na-Gai/!v:-,' that is, Dune of Ga'llvcs mouth ; for the " The chief of Muintir Murchada, witli the consent 

river was called (Trt/V/cc; nntXIJiiiu; amongst the ancient of Cathal, king of Connau'ilit, made a present of the 

Gaids, Welch, and Irish, signifyin;; a fortified place or town of LisKaciinn, in C/otifcrg, to the abbot and 

town, the same as the tason word ^u/'o//gA -thus, convent of Knockmoy. — Ogiig. — Chmfcrg, or Clanfrgail, 

JJu'i.-J'p.w^^ cnWi^A Edin'ooruugh." — Lijnc'i's MS. h\y on the cast side of Luni,diorbsen, or Corrib; it 

' •'Jalvia a'lis Gc:ll:va, anjlice Gclmi!/, Hibernice consisted of 21 villages, in which Galway, Clare and 

(!ntiti!>!i, i.e. hwtix tinil t-jpi, apposite lic dictus, cjiiia a Koscam, are now situate, and was the lord^hij) or dominion 

C'oloni-, p\ anjiia in conaciam profectis, aedifioatus circa of the O'llallorans, until after the anivid of Henry II. 
aiii-i'ii Ci.ri-,ti I )00. — Hill. Dim. ji. 3-2-2. — In this curious ' Svich catastrophes as that related on this occasion, 

work tlicie is abundance of original and interesting were, if true, anciently very connuon, and were frequently 

information; but there are, at tlie same time, many assigned, by vague tradition, as giving names to celebrated 

anachro'iisais, ai:d other errors, wiiich should Lie carefully places, which were adopted by ignorant or indolent 

avoided. chroniclers without further ex;unination — thus, in the 

' To illustrate this, he in.tances the Syriack Galmiiha, annals of Dublin, \\e are told, that the City took the 

and the Cliahliick Galmodh, durus silc.\, figurative, pro name of Auliana, from the daughter of Alpiniis, who 

SlciUitr.le, Hvl'dudiuc. ' was drowned in the Lilil-y ; that it was cha.nged by. 


name from the territory in wliich they were situate, and that the district itself 
was originally denominated from the Gael, or merchants, by whom it was 
inhabited; to strengthen this conclusion, might be adduced the authorities of 
Tacitus and Ptolemy ; add to which, that in the annals of lloscommon, already 
mentioned, the name of the river Galiva is nearly similar in orthoi-raphy, 
and entirely so in pronunciation, to Gailibh, pronounced GaUive, and throu"hout 
the most ancient documents, wherein the name of the town appears, down to 
tlie year 1400, it is invariably written Gah'j/, in which, the transposition of the 
two final letters, is the only deviation from the Irish. In process of time the 
word Gal-iva, was altered into Gal-via, the literal translation of which, Gal-xvaii, 
first occurs about the year 1440, and from that time, it has remained uniform 
and unchanged, by any variation to the present day. 

Having thus far dwelt on the etymology and orthography of the name of 
Galway, it is now time to conclude a disquisition which has already become 
tedious, leaving the reader fully at liberty to form or retain his own opinion on 
the subject. What has been collected, however, appears strongly to support the 
position, that the town of Galway and the district in whicli it is situate, were 
from an early period, distinguished for trade and connnerce, a circumstance 
from which they derive their name ; and, when in addition to these, the excellent 
situation of the place, its local advantages, and many capabilities for fbreio-n 
commerce, and inland traffick and navigation, " its noble bay, the finest perhaps 
in the kingdom, and the natural security of its harbour, shall be taken into 
consideration, powerfully corroborative reasons will be found in favor of the 
same conclusion. 

A curious supposition has been entertained relative to the original formation 
of the bay of Galway, it is related, in one of the old Irish annals, that in the 
year of the world 1969, there were but three lakes of any consequence in the 
whole island, namely, LocJi-Foirdream^ said to have been at Slievmis, near 
Tralee, in the County of Kerry, Finlodi, the present Loughcarra, in the Comity 
of Mayo, and Loch-LiirgaHy which is described as a spacious lake between the 
County of Clare and West Connaught, to the south of Galway, and extending a 
considerable distance towards l\\e east. This lake is supposed to have been the 
present bay of Galway, which was once, say the aimnalists, separated from the 

Ptolemy into Eblana, and afterwards corrupted into might be easily rcmlercd of extremely important advan- 

Dublana, that she might be held in remembrance ! tage to this part of the kingdom ; it si)reads its waters 

' To open a communication between Killalla and over 50700 acres, and disembogues its surplus into' the 

Calway, by means of the Moj-, Luughniask, and bay, from which it is but three nViles distant.- Newenham. 

Loughcorrib, was one of the practicable projects of those Had these great national plans been executed at the time' 

who were employed to survey the navigable rivers of they were projected, Galway might now, notwithstandin" 

Ireland in the early part of the eighteenth century, and, the many political disabilit'ies under which it has since 

if carried into effect, would have proved a most iniport<int laboured, be one of the most considerable mercantile 

atidition to the internal navigation of this country. They towns ill this kingdom, instead of which, it remains with 

aUo intended to make the Colgan navigable, or extend its all its natural advantages, a melancholv monument of the 

navigation from Galway to the Shannon. Lough -Corrib sad effects of bigotry,"prcjudice and persecution. 


t)ceaii by strong banks, until the Atlantic bursting over them and uniting with 
tiie water within, formed the bay, leaving the three islands of Arran, the 
towering remnants of the chain or bari'ier, which were too high to be overflown 
by tlie billows. Tiie position of these islands, with relation to the main land, 
as it favours, seems also to have given rise to this idea. O'Flaherty says that in 
his time, a lough in a neighbouring inlet of the sea, was called Lough Lurgan, 
but liow far the entire circumstance is deserving of credit, is left, without any 
comment, to the judgment of the reader. 

It has been generally agreed that this bay was the Ausoba of Ptolemy. 
Camden and Baxter are however of opinion that Lough Corrib was the place. 
Ware tliinks it the river Galvia which takes its rise out of that lough, and 
wasiiing the town, falls into the bay. ' Richard of Cirencester makes it Clew 
Bay in the County of Mayo, but Beauford, with more accuracy, thinks it the 
bay of Galway, which, he says, was the Ablisidhe or Abliansidlie^^ of the Irish, 
and as such, it has been almost universally taken. The writer, last mentioned, 
states, tliat the word signifies Oestuarium, derived from the Irish, AuscobJia, a 
projection of water, and although this might very properly have been classed 
amongst the other visionary derivatives of the same author, yet it remained 
uncontroverted, until Vallancey advanced another conjecture, and apparently 
discovered the signification of this obscure word. In his essay on the ])rimitive 
inhabitants of Great Britain and Ireland, he says " commerce, with the 
Irish and Arabs, was esteemed honorable, and hence, in both countries, the 
adjective asob, noble, was prefixed to the word implying commerce, to signify a 
merchant. — Asob GaclibJi, tlie merchants of Galway, and hence Ptolemy names 
the bay of Galway sinifs asobit.s." Were this far fetched tliough ingenious suppo- 
sition correct, it would add considerable weight to the preceding conclusions, 
concerning the former name and commerce of Galway ; but being equally fanciful 
with the other, it must be abandoned, as one of the etymological reveries of the 
veteran antiquary, in his endeavours to give an oriental cast to the antiquities 
of Ireland ; nor shall the reader be longer detained on the elucidation of a subject 
more difficult than impoTtant, at the ])resent day, and whicli shall therefore be 
consigned to the conjectural inquiries of some abler etymologist. 

Of the inhabitants of Galway, ])reviously to the invasion of Henry II, there 
arerno accounts remaining, except by tradition, but some time after that event 
took place, the town appears to have been inhabited by a number of families. 

' O'FIalicrty, after combating the assertions of Ptolemy " Windy or stormy hay, or river, from " Ahhan" a 

•M to tlie tribes summed np by him, says, tliat tlie river river, and " Sid/ica//i, or Sig/ic," a blast of wind. — 

was never known by the name of yf/isoio, or y/«iOHn, bnt O'Brien. — Althongh there can be doubt, but that tlie 

by the name of GaUtimh, " from which," he adds, bay of Galway was the Ausoba of Ptolemy, there are- 

(;;!lway, a celebrated town, the capital of Connaught, many reasons against supposing it to have been the 

situate at the mouth of it, has taken its niuue," — Ahhrinsidhe of the Irish, and i>artieularly if the ancient 

<).i'i;g. meaning of this compound word be correctly understood; 


msTOUY or galway. 

^vho were principally occupied on the fishings of the lake and bay, and in 
making short voyages along the coast, their names are given as follow : " Aihy, 
Branegan, " BhindcU, Brioit, Burdov, Cak, Calf, '' Coppiiier or Coppiuger, Develin 
or D'din, '' Ffarty, FfrUiiii, Ic Fickhill, KcUerie, Kerxvick, Lang, Laxvles, ' Moi/Iin, 
Mnneghan, Fciirise, ' Sage, Kancaorach, Vallcij or JValUn, ' Verdov, TJ 'eider and 
White, " there were many others, whose names are now buried in oblivion, 
but who are recorded as having been burgesses of the town. To these early 
inhabitants and their successors, Lynch in his MS. remarks, before referred to, 
alludes in the following words, " it was not they who gave any name of 
credit or fame to the town of Galway, but the colony next after mentioned, 
for until the latter came hither, this town was but an ordinary place, with 
only thatched houses and some castles, but it was by the new colonies and 
septs, made famous to the, world, for their trading fiuthfully, discharging 
their credit, good education, charity and hospitality both at home and 
abroad." That this plain but honorable description, though given by a 
native of tlie town, was neither the result of partiality nor the effect of 
prejudice, the reader will find fully illustrated by various examples throughout 
the course of this work. 

The new colonies, here alluded to, consisted of several families, whose 
descendants, are known to this day, under the general appellation of the 
" tribes of Gakcay," an expression, first invented by Cromwell's forces, as a 
term of reproacli against the natives of the town, for their singular friendship 
and attachment to each other during the time of their unparallelled troubles 
and persecutions, but which, the latter afterwards adopted, as an honorable 

for, so far from the bay being more exposed tlian otliers 
to ^vind or storms, as this name would seem to imply, 
it is, perhaps, the best sheltered and most secure of any 
other on the extensive coast of the west of Ireland. 

" Several of th.cse names are still to be found here, 
\iz. Athy, Ffarty, Ffrihin, Killery, Kenvick, (if, as 
supposed, it be the same as Kirwan,) and White : but 
the remainder arc long since extinct. 

" Sir Henry Branegan was warden in 1497. 

'' 1375, August 16, the Lord Jnstice of Ireland, being 
lit Limcryk, constituted Clemens Laveragh ;uul John 
Bandekyn, clerks to infpiire ami dcttrminc concerning 
a certain transgression on Nicholas Calf, burgess of 
Galvy, by Thomas Martjn; and also to take assize of 
novel desscizen, which said Nicholas arraied against said 
Thomas and Margaret his wife, concerning tenements 
in Gi\\\y.—liot. Pal. 49 Kdw. III. 

■^ James Develin was portreve of Galway in H31 ; 
lie is the last of the name on record. This family was 
sncceeded by that of D'Arcy. 

' Thomas Laghles and Thomas le Botillor, were eonsta- 
l)les of Connaiight, in 1285. — Rut. Pi]i. ITt liarm. Tur. 

' This ancient family, which is long since extinct, was 
descended from Rise, one of the Welch princes, after 
>vhointhcy were called Rhesi, Risi, or Ap-cn-Hise. Their 

sepulchre, until lately, remaining in the church of the 
friars-minors of Galway, ])ointed out their former 
consequence. Particular mention is made of Thomas 
Ap-cn-Rise, and his wife, Eleanor, before the year 1280. 
Stephen Penrise was provost of tlie town in 1313, he was 
afterwards bailiil' and collector of the new customs, and 
died 1383. Thomas Penrise, who lived until about the 
end of the fourteenth century, was the last male heir of 
his family ; he was succeeded by Joan Penrise, who 
intermarried with Stephen Lynch Pitz-Thomas, of Bridge 
Gate. — Molt/ttevx Col. 

' This, as well as the last family, was from Wales. In 
the account of the County of Connaught, from 1279 
to 1281, by Henry dc Rupe (Roche,) then shcriti; it 
appears that the king's peace was granted to IIovcl, son 
of Crannow le Waleis. — llvl. Pip. f) B. T. 

There are strong reasons to conclude that a colony 
from Wales settled in this part of Ireland about tf.e 
end of the reign of Henry III, many original Welcli 
names frequently occur in old records about, and long 
after, that period, viz. Brecknockc, Llewellyn, Ho\>ei, 
and several others. — Vide the rolls in llervi. Tuwii; 

" Nicholas White was provost of the town in 1517. — 
Jiot. Placit Edw. III. B. T. 

., 1 1/ 

Dr.n^„ ,nul Elirjr,,,;,/ /!; ll,.r,/„n.,„., Jl.yl. rv ri' (^..Inm 


mark of distinction between themselves and those cruel oppressors. These 
families were thirteen' in number, viz. Athy, Blake, Bodkin, Browne, D'Arcj/, 
Fjd/il, Ffrcnch, Joijes, Kirwan, Lynch, Martin, Morris and Skerrett. They did not 
settle in the town at one time, or on the same occasion, as is generally supposed ; 
but came hitlier, at different periods, and under various circumstances, as may 
api)ear from the following concise account of each of the families composing 
this peculiar community, which has been compiled from the most authentic 


This family is of great antiquity in Galway ; tradition relates that one of 
the name erected the first stone house or castle within the town. They were 
from the earliest times highly respectable, William de Athy was appointed 
treasurer of Connaught, 8th December, 1388, with the fee of £\0 yearly — 
Rot. Pat. Cane. — the name was also of consequence in other parts of Ireland. 
John dc Athy was sheriff of Kerry, 7th Edw. II. — Rot. Mem. Scac. — on 3d March, 
17th of the same King, he was appointed marshall of Ireland — Eod. de aii. 18° — 
and the 20th year, he was sheriff of the counties of Carrickfergus and Antrim. — 
Rot. Pat. — Philip Lynch Athy, Esq. of Renville, is the present representative 
of this family. 

Arms. Cliecky, argent and gules, on a chevron of the last, three etoiles, or. 
Crest. A denii lion rampant. Motto. Ductus non coactus. 

This famil}' is of British extraction, and, though the name seems derived 
from the Saxon, Blac, a colour ; yet, Debrett, in his Baronetage says, " they 
are traditionally descended from Ap-lake, one of the knights of king Arthur's 
round table," and adds, " that in the reign of Henry II, one of this family 

' According to tliose who include the ancient name of Athy, Blake, Bodkin, Browne, Deanc, Darcy, Lynch, 

Dcane, there were fourteen families, it is accordingly Joyes, Kirwaii, Maiiin, Murris, Skerrett, Frcnc/i. 

insorlt J in the accomits above givtu, and is albo fomid 
in the following verso : 


accompanied Strongbow, and after many exploits built himsolf a castle, at 
Menlo, near Galvvay." — Richard Caddell " surnamcd Blake, (from, 
according to Lynch's MS. the Blakes of Gahvay are descended,) -was sheriiF of 
Connaught, Vkecoines Conncia', S^l and 3S Edw. I. " he was also sherilF in 1306, 
and in 7 Edw. II. the king's writ issued, for arrearages of his account. — Rot. 
Mem. — The arms of this family were first borne by him and descended to his 
posterity. Tlie family of Ardfry, descended from Sir Richard Rlake, who was 
speaker, or chairman, of the assembly of the confederate catholics of Ireland, 
at Kilkenny, in 161-7, was raised to the dignity of the peerage, in the year 
1800, in the person of Joseph Henry Blake, Esq. who was then created Lord 
Baron of Wallscourt, in the kingdom of Ireland. This widely extended name 
is, at present, divided into the opulent and respectable families, of Ardfry, 
Ballyglunin, Belmont, Castlegrove, Corbally, Forbough, Frenchfbrt, Hol!y])ark, 
Killeencastle, Mace, Menlo, Merlinpark, Moorfield, Orancastle, Rahara or 
Annbally, Renville, (formerly of Lehinch, in Mayo,) Tully, Waterdale and 
Windfield, in the County of Galway; and Ballinafad, Brookhill, Garracloone, 
Milltown and Towerhill, in the County of Mayo. 

Anm. Argent, a fret, gules. Crest. A cut passant, gardant, proper. 
Motto. Virtus .sola Nobilitat. 

The Bodkins of Galway, and the Earls of Desmond and Kildare, were 
descended from the same common ancestor, Maurice FitzGerald, Lord of 
Windsor, and one of the first invaders of Ireland, under Strongbow. His son, 
Thomas FitzMauricc, acquired ample possessions in Munstcr, where his descen- 
dants became Earls of Desmond. Ricliard, the son of Thomas, about the year 
1212, held considerable properties in Connaught, under Richard dc Burgo, and 
Thomas, his son, was the ancestor of the Bodkin fiunily. This family name 
originated, according to tradition, from a victory gained by their great 
progenitor, Thomas Fitz Ricliard (about the year 1300,) over a valiant Irish 

" Caddell seems to have been the original name, anil it Galway ; Init lias been retained by the family of Cadells- 

continncd indiscriminately in use with the other for many town in the County of Meath. 

centuries. On 20th January, 1 504, Nicholas Blake alias " Fing/as Breciatc — 'J'he followiiij; entry of his 

Caddell, of Ballymacro, died. Nicholas Caddell, alias appointment has heen lately fonnd : — JJcm. that on the 

Blake, of GaUvav, merchant, died in January, 1620, 2"lst October, ,31 Edw, 1. Richard Blake was appointe<l 

seized of Kiltm-Voge, (mortgaged to David Bodkin,) Sheriff of Connaught, by letters patent of this exchequer, 

Kiltullagh, and several bouses and lands in and about which the treasurer and barons delivered to Richard de 

Atiicnrv. Walter Blake alias Caildell, of Ballymacroe, Bermingliam, late sheriff of the said Count)', to lie 

died in January, IC'Jo; he vesteil his property in Thomas brought' to Connaught, and delivered to the said 

Lvnch, M. D. Nicholas French and oth-Ts" as trustees, Richard Blake; afterwards on the IJth day of Novem- 

lor the use of his son, John Blake alias Caddell. — Iiiq. her, came here, the said Richard, and was duly sworn, 

Jiulls Of. — This nam.c has since fallen into disvise in tvrc. — Rol. dc cod. anno. 



kni;;lit, whom he encountered in single combat, and having-, in the conflict, 
nuide use of a short spear or weapon, in Irish called, a Bauclckin, he was, from 
that circumstance, surnamed, Buaidh Baiidekin, of the vkiorij of the Bodkin, 
wliicli name was afterwards retained by his descendants. Whatever doubt may 
attend this traditionary relation, none can exist as to the origin and descent of 
the family, which are fully ascertained by the testimony of antiquaries, by 
ancient stone sculptures and monuments, still remaining, and from the <Tene- 
alogies of the Geraldines, whose arms tlie Bodkin family bore for many 
generations, and whose motto, Crom ahoo, they retain to this day. ' Henry 
IJodkin, the son of Thomas, was Clericus ville in the reign of Ricliard II. at 
whicli time, tliere was a street or lane in Galway, called Baudeki/n's lane. They 
were then possessed of large properties in and about the town, particularly at 
Newcastle, near the river "^ ; and at< Athenry, ^ Toberskehine, Ballynameata<Th, 

' In a curious MS. collection of genealogies, written 
principally in Irish, but, in some instances in Englisli, 
Iranscribctl in Irish character, ami now in the possession 
of the author, there are a few interesting details of some 
of the Galway names, which have been abstracted for 
tliis work. — Of the Bodkin family, it appears, that the 
name was originally Pmlicin ; but no clue is given, which 
might lead to its meaning or derivation. They are then 
stated to have descended, " from the true stock of 
Maiwicc FitzGerald, who was lineally descended from 
Otho, a noble prince of Italy.-^That Leo, the first who 
took tlie surname of Poiticin, (which lie did in consc- 
fjucnce of a niisunderstanding with his nephew, Maurice 
I'MtzGcraUl, who intermarried with Agnes, the daughter 
of Kichard Mor,' Prince of Wales, then Governor of 
the castle of Pembroke,) was son of Walter, who was 
great grandson of Otho, an Italian nobleman, from 
whom descended the the most honorable family of the 
FitzGcralds of Desmond and Kildare, and the Fitz 
Geralds of Ireland in general, as our ancient and authen- 
tic annals give account." — Augustiuus Poiticin, the son 
of Leo, intermarried with Anne, daughter and co-heiress 
of Sir Robert Laweliin, alias Dcwellin ; (which family is 
originally descended from Diwillin, who was proprietor 
of Kiltullach, Doughasc and medan, anno 1270,) 

whose >on, John Poiticin, or Bodikin, intermarried with 
Caitilin, daughter of Maurice Lynch, the son of John, 
from whom descended, Sir Henry Lynch, and nnmy other 
noblemen of that name. — Andrew Mor Boilkin, intermar- 
ried with Margaret, daughter of Sir William Burc of 
Anach-caoin, whose son, John JNIor Bodkin, intermarried 
»ith Caitilin, daughter of John Mor Darcy of Partry, by 
Amic, daiightcr of O'Flalierty, whose son, Austin Bodkin, 
intermarried with Celia, daughter of Sir GeoHVy Browne 
of Galw;iy, whose son, John Mor Bodkin, intermarried 
with Mar\', daughter of Gregory French, whose son, 
Leo Bodkin, intermarried with Caitilin, daughter of 
Thomas Lynche, Lord of Ballygarrain. whose son, 
Marcus Boilkin, intermarried with Caitilin, daughter of 
Robert Mor Blake of Ardfry, whose son, Andrew I5odkin, 
iuteruiiu'ricd with Elis, daughter and co-lieiress of John 

Dathi,(J/%,) lineally descended of the true stock of Daithi 
mac Fiochrach, from whom are also sprung O'Seachnasy 

of Gort, and many other nobles, not here mentioned. 

John Mor Bodkin, his son, had by Anna French, daugh- 
ter of Geoffi-y French, Andrew" Bodkin, who married 
Anastasia, daughter of John Mor Meariek, whose son, 
Leo Bodkin, intermarried with Caitilin, daughter of 
Richard Martin, whose son, Marcus Bodkin, intermarried 
with Celia, daughter of Peter French, whose son, Austin 
Bodkin, intermarried with Mary Blake, daughter of John, 
son of Walter Blake, whose son, James Boilkin, inter- 
married with Caitilin, daughter of Thomas rcnbhnch 
Darcy, whose son, Marcus, intermarried with Sheela, 
daughter of James Lynch, Mayor of Galway in H<)3, by 
whom he had issue, Leo, ^iarcus, John, Austin and 
Andrew Bodkin, with whom the account of the family 

The MS. from which the foregoing extract was taken, 
appears to have been written, at intervals, from some 
time previous to 1500, down to 1671, by the family of 
O'Lninin, Lynegar, or Linacre, who are frequently stvlcd 
throughout, hcj-editary Ard-Ollanihs, chief doctors,' or 
antiquaries of Ulster and of Ireland. In a certificate signed 
Patrick O'Lninin, alias Lynegar, and dated from his 
residence, at Ard O^Luiuhi, in Inismore, or the great 
Island, in Lough-Erne, 2d Oct. I(ij2, he states that he 
received, " these genealogies, from his ancestors, chief 
antiquaries of Ireland." The Irish descents, contained in 
this collection, have been found correct ; but the authen- 
ticity of the Anglo-Norman pedigrees, (amongst which 
are those abstracted for this work,) is questioned by the 
present Deputy Ulster King of Anns, whose opinion is 
entitled to every attention, from his extensive knowledge 
on these subjects. 

" A grant to " \Valter, son and lieir of Richard, Clerk 
of Galvy, otherwise called Richard Bawdekjn of Gaivy, 
of the custody of the Islands calleil Bushe-yland and 
Gote-yland of the town of Galvy." Dated at Drogheda, 
nth September, 1-121. — Rut. o' Hen. v. 

" Richard Bodkin, Burgess of Galway, was Provost of 
Athenry, in M54. 




Kilcornan and Parke. At present the principal families of the name, are those 
of Annagh, Carrowbeg, '^ Castletown, Kilcloony and Thomastown. 

Arms. Ermine, on a saltire, gnles, a leopard's face, or. Crest. A leopard's 
face, or. JJutto. Crom aboo. 

rinli]ip\is de Browne, is said to have come to Ireland in II70, and, in 117'2, 
was a])pointcd Governor of Wexford. In II78 he went to England, and soon 
after returned with 60 armed knights, and was a leader at the sieo-e of 
Limerick. ' He had three sons, William, wlio settled in the territory of 
Clanmorris, in the County of Kerry, and Walter, who settled in the County 
of Galway, where his posterity still remain ; the destination of the third son is 
not mentioned. Another account states, that " Sir DaAid Browne, was cotem- 
porary with Ilichard de Burgo, the Red Earl of Ulster, that he died in 1303, 
and had a son, named Stephen, who settled at Killpatricke, near Dublin, from 
whence, after a time, a branch of that house settled at Brownstown, near 
Loughrea, and thence branched forth to Athenry and Galway." '' The principal 
families of the name, at present in the province, are tliose of Ardskea, Gloves, 
Kilskeagh, Mounthazle, Moyne, Rockville and Tuam, in the County of Galway, 
and, Ballyhowly and Castlemagarrct, in the County of IMayo. 

ylrnis. Or. an eagle disi)Iayed, with two heails, sable. Crcsl. An eagle's 
head, erased. " Mollo. Eortiter et lideliter. 

" I'lic f;iiiiily oF Carrowbeg, (Icsccndccl from the prin- 
C![i;il oi'tlic uaiiiL", was deprivcil, in the time of Croiir.vcII, 
of tlie greatebt part of its cxteiisivc possessions, wliich 
were assiiined to Lord Limerick, Init afterwards reverted 
haek, by piirelinse, to the ancient inheritors. The 
SUerrett family relate that the estate of Carrovvlicg, fe>r- 
mcrly belonged to theni, bnt passed into that of Bodkin, 
thr.Mi.:h a iiiania'^e with an heiress of their name. 

' a" Vol. Peillii'rccs, Office of Anns. 

'■ I Viil. ditln. — The MS. collections of O'Luinin, 
before referred to, contain the following acconnt of this 
faiinly. — " Tlie genealogies of the Brownes of Ely, or . 
ISalUraiicain, in the Connty of \Vc.\ford, and partly of 
tlic Bro\\nes of Galway, Limerick and ^Vaterford." — 
Christopher and Kichard Browne, were the sons of Sir 
^latliew Browne, of Mnllrancain, by his first wite, Anne, 
tiic danghter of Sir John Redmond, who resided near 
Bag and Bnn in the County of Wexford. — By his seconil 
wife, Cardula, daughter of Sir John Hore of Shankill, 
near Dungarvan, he had issue, G sons. — 1, Christopher — 
•J, John, \\ho went for Connaught, and settled himself at 
the Neale, where he married Mor ny Waille, danghter 
and heiress of Doual 0'?>laille, Lord of Umhaille in tiie 
County of Mayo, whose issue still remain, and are called 
Bi-iiiuuh nahcillc. — 3, Waiter, who went' to the County 
of Liiutrick, and settled in Kilpeaean, near Limerick ; he 

married Catherine, danghter and co-heiress of Sir Jolni 
FitzGerald, kuight of the Glen. — 4, Edward Browne, 
who settled at Killeueaden near Waterford, and niameil 

Anne Power, daughter and heiress of John Power. 

5, Sir D;iviii Browne, who settled near Galway, and 
married Bevann ny Flahertie, ilanghtcr of Moroni;li 
O'Flahertic, of We?t Connaught, " from whom is de- 
scended Sir Dominick Browne, whose issue now inherit 
a considerable estate, in and about Galway and in the 
County of Mayo." — Then follows, " the true lineal 
descent, with an exact accoimt of the genealogy of Sir 
iSIathew Browne's ancestors, with all the intermarriages, 
since the first of the family came to Ireland, in 1 IG!), all 
which was rescued from oblivion, by the Rev. Father in 
God, by Divine Providence, John Brow ne, liishop of Ferns, 
and sent by him to Sir Patrick Linegar, to be inserted in 
liis books of antiquity, amongst the rest of the nobility of 
Ireland." iS"otv\ithstanding all this jjaradc, it is certain 
that the account given of John, the second son of Sir Wa- 
thew Browne, is incorrect. The many noble and distin- 
guished houses of the name in Jlayo, viz. Westport, the 
Neale, Brownestown, Brownehall, Breafy, and 'I'nrin- 
Castle, (whose progenitors settled there in the reign of 
Oneen Elizabeth) are of English descent, and no way 
connected in their origin, with the Brownes of Galway. 
' The Crest on the map, two eagle's heads, addorsed. 




This family stands higlily distinguislicd in the annals of the kingdom. Its 
descent is dcri\cd from David D'Arcy, (of an eminent family in France, 
uhicli deduces its origin from Charlemagne,) who took his surname from Castle 
J)'Arcie, his chief seat, wliich lay within thirty miles of Paris. His son, 
{'liristo])her, luuiiig, with a band of his vassals, joined tlie crusades, died in 
Palestine, leaving Thomas his heir, whose son, Sir Richard D'Arcy, accompanied 
M'ilJiam the Concjueror to England, where, after he was settled, that monarch 
onriclied him wiili ample possessions, which some of his posterity still enjoy. ' 
I'Vom him descended. Sir John D'Arcy, who was high in repute with Edward II. 
liv whom he was appointed justice of Ireland in 1323. He married the Lady 
.lane Pourke, daughter of Richard, Earl of Ulster, from which marriage are 
derived all the D'Arcies of this kingdom. ° The Galvvay family is immediately 

' 1 I'v!. Pcili^irccs, nfuc nf Arms. 

" //). — The I'ollowiiig extract is taken from a memoir, 
(Ir;v\vii tip by one of this family, as a note to tlie last 
tilition of Lodge's Peerage of Ireland, the orthography 
of tlie name is left unaltered. Sir John Darcy, liy his 
marriage, was ancestor to the Darcies of Flatten, Kiltolla, 
Cliiunane, Gortecn and others, in Ireland ; having issue 
In her, a son, William, and a daughter, Elizabeth, mar- 
ried to James Earl of Ormond; William, the son, was 
born at Maynooth in 1J.30, and having divers lands 
ll^^igned liiin, in recompence of his father's services, he 
settled at Platten in the county of Meath, and by Cathc- 
riiu-, daughter of Sir Robert Fitz-Gerald of Alloone, in 
the Couiily of Kildare, had John Darcy, Esq. who by 

II daughter of Pctyt, Palatine Baron of MuUingar, 

had N\iiliain his heir, whose wife was Anne, a daughter 
of the iamily of Barnwall of Crickstown ; by whom he 
bad John Darcy, Es(|. who married Margaret, daughter 
(if the Lord of Slaue. lie had two sons John and 

John, the elder son, took to wife Elirabeth, daughter 
of Edmond, Lord of Killeen, ancestor to the Earl of 
I'iiigal, and was father of Sir William Darcy of Platten, 
who in 1525 was appointed vice-treasurer of Ireland.— 
N'itliolas, the youngest son, was a captain of horse, and 
biing ^tatmned in the county of Mayo, married Jane, 
daughter and heir to O'Duraghy, of Partry in that county, 
who brought him the large estate of that family, and by 
her lie had 'I'hoiuas, the father of C'onyers, whose sou 
Nicholas had James (liivcag/i, the swarthy,) and l{icluu-d, 
whose only daughter being married to Robert Blake of 
Ardfrv in the county of Cialway, Estj. was mother of Sir 
Richard Ulake, who was speaker or chairman of the su- 
preme cuiuicil of the confederate Catholics at Kilkenny 
m I'MH. 

James (Rivcngli) Darcy was a person of sncli interest 
ami power in Connimght, that he was appointed vice- 
prcijent of that province in the reign of Elizabeth, and 
vjas ciiief nuiyistrate of the town of GaKvay, as his monu- 

mental inscription sets forth (J', jirn'sm Cmiacin; prcctor 
Gah'itr,) in the Franciscan friary of Galway. He died in 
1(305, leaving seven sons and one danghtei', viz. Nicholas 
(whose two sons, James and Dominick, died childless, the 
elder of whom a barrister at law, settled his large estate 
in the Counties of Galway, Mayo, Roscommon and Clare, 
on his first cousin James Darcy of Kiltolla, Esq. the son 
of his 3'oungest Uncle Patrick, (to be mentioned presently) 
Martin, (from whom the Darcies of Clunuane in the 
County of Clare derive,) James, (ancestor to the fami- 
lies of Ballybocock, Giu-teen, Houndswood and Tuam) 
Anthony, (irom whom the Darcies of Brest, in France, 
descend ; and who had also two daughters, Catherine 
who married Marcus French, Esq. ancestor to the 
Frenches of Rahasane, in the County of Galway; and 
Anastaee, to James L)aly, of Carrownekelly, in that 
County, Esq.) Mark, Andrew, (wllo^e daughter was 
married to llichard Martin, Esq. councellor at law, 
ancestor by her to the iMartius of Tulliry, in the Comity 
of Galway); Patrick, of whom presently. The daughter 
was Anastaee, married to Sir Dominick Browne, of 
Carrowbrowiie, in the C^oimty of Galway, knt. by wlioni 
she had Geofi'ry Browne, Esq. (ancestor to the family 
of Castlemagarrelt, in the Comity of Majo,) and four 
daughters, of whom Miu'v, the eldest, being married to 
Major John Browne, of the Neale, had George of the 
Neale, John of Westport, ancestor to the Earl of 
Altamont and Dominick of Breafy, all in the Coimty of 

Patrick Darcy of Kiltolla in the County of Galway, 
Esq. the seventh son of James (Riveaghj Darcy, was 
born in l.^PS, and was educated in the profession of the 
law, he was an active member of the parliament assem- 
bled at Dublin, in IGIO, and published, " an argument 
delivered by Patrick Darcy, Esq. by express order of the 
House of Commons, in the parliament of Ireland, !)tli 
of June, IG'H," he died at Dublin in 1G6S, and was 
interred at Kilconnell, in the County of Galway, leaving 
issue by Elizabeth, one of the four daughters of Sir PetcT 



desceiidecl from James Rivcagh D'Arcy, who settled here ahout the end of the 
reign of Elizabetli, and, in consequence of his superior abilities and address, 
rapidly acquired considerable power and influence. From him sprung in a 
direct line the house of KiltuUa, and the families of Newforest, in the County 
of Galway, (formerly of Clunuane in the County of Clare,) Gortecn and 
Iloundswood, in tlie County of JNIayo. 

Arms. Azure, scmee of cross crosslets, three cinqucfoils, argent. Crest. On 
a chajjcau, gules, doubled ermine, a bull passant, sable, corned, unguled, and 
furnished, or. Motto. Un Dieu, un Roy. 


The first of this name, tliat settled in Galway, is said to have been "William 
Allen, or Den, who came hither from Bristol in the reign of Henry \1, and wai> 
afterwards elected Provost. jNlembers of this family, were amongst the first 
Mayors and chief Magistrates of the Town. " 

Arms. Azure, three wings, two and one, argent. Crest. A dcmi lion 
rampant, azure. Motto. Arte a'cI martc. 

French, nn only son, James, born in 1 G"3, wlio married 
Frances Trnsliot, ilanf;hter to ;i pcntlenian of Brittany, 
and captain of a sliip of war under Lewis XIII. (liy his wile 
Anne Keating, maid of honor to the qneen of Charles I.) 
and dying in 1692, left issne, Anne, Frances, Brigid and 
Clare, and an only son, C'a]itain Hyacinth Darcy of 
Kiltolla, born in 1665, who married Catherine, daughter 
of John Darcy, of Gorteen, in the County of Mayo, 
lisq. and died in 1743, at Teranasker, in tile County of 
Galway, having had issue by her, who died in 1750, 
nine sons and three daughters, viz. Patriclc Darcy of 
Kiltolla, Esq. (whose wife was Anne, only daughter of 
Walter Blake of Oranniore, in the County of Galway, 
Esq. but had no issue,) John, (who married Jane, daugh- 
ter of Sir Robnc Lynch, of Corrondollo, in the said 
County, Bart, and died in 17-13, leaving Ilyacinth, wlio 
married Frances, daughter of Henry O'Brien, of Stone- 
Hall, Esq. and by her, who died "l' 1st October, 1753, 
had Patrick, Frances and Henrietta); John, who in 
I75'.', married Catherine, daughter of Isiilore Lynch, of 
Drimcon, in the County of Galway, Esq.' Patrick, a 
member of the Ro\al Academy of Sciences at Paris ; 
James, (who married first Jane, daugliter of Richard 
Jlartin of Dangan, in tlie County of Galway, Esq. by 
whom he had an only son Richard, who in December, 

1751, married at Bourdeanx, tlie daughter of — Kirwan, 
then a rich American widow, and by his second wife 
Wary, daughter of Mr. Mathew Sliee of Nantz, he had 
an only daughter Margaret) ; Martin, (living at Paris, in 

1752, married Wary, daughter of Thomas Darcy, of 
Brest, Esq. great, great .grandson of James {Rivcagli) 
Darcy ; Hyacinth, who died unmarried ; Stephen (w hose 
vife was Anne French, of the family of Rahasaiic, and 

liis issue were, Peter, Hyacintli, Patrick, Stephen, John, 
Catherine, Anne, and Anastace); Francis unmarried; 
Walter, (who married Anastace, one of the six daughters 
of John Darcy, of Gorteen, Esq.); Silvester died un- 
married: daughter Anastace, (married Denis Daly of 
Raford, in the County of Galway, Esq. whose son and 
heir, Denis of Ramore, Esq. in June, 1735, married tlie 
Lady Anne Burke, elder daughter of Michael, Earl of 
Clanricarde); Frances, (married to Robuc French of 
Duias, in the County of Galway, Esq.) and Catherine 

" The following anecdote, relating partly to a member 
of this family, is too remarkable to he passed over. — It 
was frequently related, to many persons still living, by a 
respectable old gentleman, of the name of French, who 
was born in Galuay, in 1701, and lived to a very 
advanced age. — After the surrender of Galway, to the 
forces of Cromwell, a distinguished colonel in the army, 
(who was a natixe of Virginia, and whose name was 
conspicuous in the history of the times,) was appointed 
governor. — At tliat time, there dwelt in the town, a 
merchant, whose name was Deane, this man dealt 
extensively in the tobacco trade, and the circumstante 
soon attracted the attention and inquiry of the governor, 
who, having become acquainted with Deane, and with 
tlie nature and extent of his tiaffick, at length proposed 
to become a partner with him in the business ; which, 
from his own connexions and influence in Virginia, he 
promised would turn out highly beneficial. The other 
readily emliraccd the oficr, and the partnership proceeded 
with mutual advantage, and was attended with consider- 
able profit. Reciprocal benefits begat confidence and 
friendship ; Deane was frequently invited to the governor's 



iffont, or De fmntt. 

This family settled in Galway in the beginning of the fifteenth century, they 
^lining from an ancient English family of Leicestershire, and, are said, to 
Iiavo been established at Athenry, in the County of Galway, as early as the 
reign of King John. ' The name is now nearly extinct. Geoftry Ffont, who 
died near Galway, in ISIL, aged 105 years, is supposed to have been the last 
survivor of the (jalway branch of this family. 

.■Inns. Argent, semee of cross crosslets, a lion rampant, sable. Crest. A denii 
lion rampant. Multo. [_ ~\ 


This family Is descended from Sir Maximilian Ffrench, the first of the name, 
whose descendants accompanied their kinsman, William the Conqueror, into 
England. ' Their original place of settlement in Ireland, together with many other 

linii'ic, where, in the warmth of their private com'ivial 
moincut<, tlie latter was aceustonied to exelaini, in an 
t'Miltiii:^ manner, at the same time, hoUling up his nj;ht 
\\ tnd, " I tell thee Steplien, this hand knows the streni,'th 
of Charles i^tnarl's neck." — Every reader aequainted with 
the hi^ory of England, is aware, that the names of the 
f\eentioners of tliat unfortunate monarch have never 
heen <iiscovered. All that is known with certainty is, that 
two of tlictn attended, disgnished in masks, one with a 
L-rcy and the other with a black beard, and that after the 
fiiniier severcil the head, the other held it up, streaming 
with blood, and cried aloud, " this is the head of a 
trtiitor." — Friendship or fear influenced Deane to keep 
secret the extraordinary revelation which he had heard, 
until after the restoration, but then he frequently men- 
tioned the circumstance ; immediately upon that event, 
tlie !;ovcrnor suddenly disappeared, and tlie place of his 
retreat remained unknown, until a Mr. French from 
T\r(ine, near Galwa\-, happening to be in London, 
acciilentally met him in the street, disguised as a pedlar, 
banking tobacco for sale. Struck at this sudden change, 
in tlie fortunes of a man, who so recently before was in 
the full exercise of unlimited power, extending even over 
life and death, but now reduced to the most abject state 
of misery ; JNIr. French could not help expressing regret 
for hi-, situation, particularly as the object of bis compassion, in general, exercised his power with humanity and 
moderation. The unfortunate governor, with tears in his 
eNc-^, desired him to step into an adjacent shop, and 
promiscil, in a few moments, to follow and explahi the 
entire; French accordingly complied, but after remaining 
•a considerable time the other neglecteil to attend, and, as 
llie story goes, was never afterwards heard of. — As to 
Dcane he was enabled by the profits of the partnershii). 

to purchase the considerable estate of Unlrobuck, near 
Tuam, which, until very lately, eontiimed in the posses- 
sion of his descendants. 

' 10. Vol. Pftli^recs Offu-c of Anns.—\\\ U) Henry IV. 
William de Ffont, bad a grant of the king's peace. — Hot. 
CI. li. T. — and 15 Henry VI. his son Thomas had a writ 
of exemption from assize, &c. — Hot. CI. ih. — AValter 
Ffonte Esq. of Galway, his son, married to Evel)n 
Kirwan, had issue, Thomas Fontc, who was married to 
Elinor French, whose son, Martin Fontc, Mayor of 
Galway, was married to Juliana Lynch of Skrcene, 
whose son, Stephen Fonte, was nianied to Juliana 
Kirwan ; I'rancis, their son, married, in 1 fi2G, Maria, 
daugliter of John Atby of Galway; their son Dominick 
Fonte, who had a grant of lands in the County of Galway 
from Charles II. married Anna Dillon of Loughglin in 
the Comity of Mayo ; Francis de Fonte of Boyle, their 
son, man-led Margaret, daughter of John Blake of 
Dromorenagh in the County of Mayo ; their son, 
Edward de Fonte, of Boyle, married, in 1G90, Mariii 
Gibbons, whose daughter and sole heiress, Bridget, mar- 
ried Peter Bath, Esq. of Knightstown, in the County of 
Meatli, and dieil in 1778. 

' The following extract relative to this name is taken 
from the MS. pedigrees of O'Luinin before referred 
to. — " The genealogy of the Ffrenches of England, 
lineally desccndcil from Sir Theopluhis Ffrench, a most 
valiant knight, who accompanied WiUiam the Conqueror, 
in his expedition for England, and was present with him 
at the great battle of Hastings, deriving his pedigree, froHi 
Sir Maximilian de Ffrench, who was son of Harloven 
junior, son of Harloven, son of Rollo the strong, alias 
Robert, first Didce of Normandy; as Sir Thomas Hawley, 
king of arms, in England, 28 Henry VHI. gi\es an 



Enn'lish and Anglo-Norman adventurers, was tlie County of V/exford; " from 
whence, in process of time, they gradually spread throughout the other parts of 
the kingdom. Two families of the name settled at different periods in Galway, 
the first, with Walter Ffrcnch, in the reign of Hen. VI. about the year ifc^>, 
and tlie otlicr, with ITein-y Begg Ffrcnch, in the reign of Elizahoth ; since 
which time, they ha\e ranked amongst the most considerable in the i'rovinco. 
The family of Castle Ffrcnch, near Ahascragh, in the County of Cialwa)', was 
raised to the dignity of the peerage, in the year 179S. The llight Honorable 
Ciuirlcs Baron Ffrcnch, of Castle Ffrench is the present Lord, 'i'lie other 
branches of this respectable name, are those of Ballinahalla, now of Beagh, 
Carrorea, Elmhill, Ffrenchgrove, jMonivea, Portcarn, Uahasane and Tyrone in 
tlie Comity of Galway, Ballykeneave and Culliane in the County of Mayo, and 
I'oxborouoh, Frenchpark, Fort,- Rocksavage and Snipchill, in the County of 
Boscommon. ' 

Arms. Ermine, a chevron, sable. Crest. A Dolphin, embowed, upon rocks, 
proper. ™ MoHo. One heart, one mind. 

JopCS or giopcC 

This old Galway family is of ancient and honourable English descent, and was 
allied to the Welch and British princes. Thomas Joyes, the first of the name 
that came to Ireland, sailed from "Wales in the reign of Edward I. and arrived 

account, in tlie ancient and piit'.icntic nnnals of that 
kinfiduMi." — Sir HmnplM-cv Ti-cncli, kniglit liaiinertt, 
iniirricd Arrabclla, ilanylitcr anil heiress of Sir Chailcs 
llarluy, of Orniueh, in Wales, knifjht; anil bv her had 
is>ne, five sens and two iluiii;hters, viz. Cliristniiher, 
■VValler, Patrick, Nicholas, Jolm, Mary, and Julian 
Ffrcnch. — " From Christopher and Walter, arc descended 
the families of Ffrench of Enii^and, and from Patrick 
and Nicholas, are derived the family of the Frenches in 
Ireland, who seated themselves, in the lands of Balle- 
ma-cuoec, near Wexford, as the Bishop of Ferns uives 
an account in his annals. — Patrick Ffrench had a son, 
iiameu ^\'alter, who settled near Galway, in Connanyht, 
where he niaixied the daughter and sole heiress, of John 
Athie, of a worthy fannly, of great mitiquity, and from 
him arc descended the tiiniily of the Fl'renclics of Con- 
iv.ui£;ht." — John, the fifth son of Sir Hnmphroy Ffrench, 
is stilted to have settled in Scotland, where he married 
,Tane, daugliter of the honorable James Lindse}', third 
brother of Thomas Farl of Crawford, from whom de- 
scended the fanrily of the Frent'ies of Scotland, and the 
;iccouvit conclurles, with the pedigree of Sir Hni iphrey 
Ffrench, ilcscended from MaNiniilian, the first ol' the 

* James Ffrench and Laurence Browne, bnrge?ses of 
IVfxford, were elected !iy tiutt town, to serve as repre- 

sentatives in the parliament summoned to meet at West- 
minster, in 157(;. — Cut. of (iniictit clidil. — It is rather a 
curious coincidence, thai the late Lord Ffrcnch, was 
elected Catholic delegate for the town of Wexford. 

' A branch of this fannly removed IVimi Cialway to the 
County of Kosconmion, at an early period, and Irom it 
descended the family of J'renclipark, in that County. 
Their cemetery, in the old abbey of Clonshanville, in 
the County ot' Roscoiumon, bears their arms with this 

" Pray for the soul of Patrick French Fitzstephcn, of 

Galw ay, Dtirgess ; who lived in this world eighty 

six years." 

Richard Ffrcnch FitzPetcr, died in March, Ifiss, pos- 
sessed of the ruinc^l cnstle and lands of Uougendricke, 
Gragalabane, Tonnlagiliie, the castle of IMenlagh, Ac. 
in tiie barony of Tyujuin, Tyrnckille and several other 
lands in lar Conna.ight ; of which he enfeotied Jasper 
Ffrench, Patrick ,Ffrench, Marcus Lynch and others of 
(iolway, to the use of his son Nicholas, junior. — Patrick 
Begg ffrench, died Cth February, 1630, seized of the 
Castle of JNIonyvea, with the lauds of Plenemoedra, 
Dcrr>adda, Knocketobber, Carraleagh and Gortemerrin, 
which descended to his son and heir, Robert Ffrcnch.— 

" On the map, an ermine spot. 



with his fleet at TJiomond in Munster, where he married Onorah O'Brien, 
ihiughter of tlic chief" of that district ; from tliencc, putting to sea, he directed 
liis course to the western part of Connaught, where he acquired considerable 
tracts of territory, which his posterity still inhabit. While on the voyage, his 
wife was delivered of a son, wliom he named Mac Mara, son of tlic sea, he 
extended his father's acquisitions, and from him descended the sept of the Joyces, 
a race of men remarkable for their extraordinary stature, who, for centuries past 
inhabited the mountainous district, in lar Connaught, called, fi-om them, Diithaidh 
SlicodJinigli, or Joyce counlnj, now forming the barony of Ross, in the County of 
Galway, and for which they were formerly tributary to the O'Flaherties. " AValter 
.Torse, .lorz or Joyce, brother of Thomas, Cardinal of Sabina, of this name and 
family, was Archbishop of Armagh, he resigned in 1311, and was succeeded bv 
In's brother Roland. The former was confessor to Edward II. and was author of 

" Mac ^tara J03CS was first man-icd to the daughter 
of O'i'lalici-ty, prince of lar Connaught, the most re- 
iiunkalilc of liis descendants, besides tlie above, was 
William Joyes, who was married to Agnes Morris, being 
<in his travels from Italy to Greece, he was taken prisoner 
In the Saracens, and brought to Africa, frojn whence, 
lifter a variety of adventures, and undergoing a captivity 
of seven ycvrs, he escaped to Spain; while here, his 
»>:a!tcd virtues were rewarded by lieaven, according to 
the pedigrees of this family, in an extraordinary manner; 
fur, w-. tliey relate, an eagle flying over his head, pointed 
lint to him a place, where he discovered vast treasures ; 
V, iih which, returning to Galway, he coutrihnted large 
nuns towards building the walls, church and other public 
<• liliccs of the town, he died, leaving three sons, James, 
lleury and Robert, and was interred in the Franciscan 

Heaven was again propitious to another of this family; 
^Margaret Joyes, great grand daughter of the above nan)ed 
William, who was surnamcd, Miirnarct na Drchidc, 
Mrni^riicl nf the ISfiili^rs, from the great number w Inch 
she built. The story of this singular woman is still current 
r,!!iongst her descendants, they relate that she was born 
■ if rednced but genteel parents and wa.s first married to 
Domingo de llona, a wealthy S|)anish merchant, who 
traded to Galway, where, he fell in love with, and mar- 
ried her; and soon after departing for Spain, died there, 
Ic.iviim hor mistress of an innnense property. Upon his 
<lrcea..o, having no iss\ie by him, she married Oliver Ogo 
i'lrcncli, v.lio Was Mayor of Galway in 1590'. So fm" the 
ii.irralive is probable and consistent, but what follows will 
try the credulity of the reader. It relates that this lady, 
during the absence of her second husband, on a voyage, 
elected most part of the bridges of the province of 
C.'unuaught, at her own expense ! and, that as she was 
one <lay -.itting before the workmen, an eagle, flying over 
her head, let fall into her bosom, a gold ring a(lorned 
with a brilliant stcme, the nature of which, no lapidary 
rould ever discover. It was preserved by her descendants, 
as a uKKt valuable reliijuc, in \tJCl, (the date of the MS. 
from which this account is taken,) as a mark supposed to 
iiave been sent from Heaven, ot its apiirobatioii of her 

good works and charity ! ! This fable, though still 
piously believed, by some of this family, was humorously 
ridiculed by Latocnayo, an incredulous trench traveller, 
who visited Galway about the end of the last century. 

Cornet Jojes connnanded the guard that conducted 
Charles I. to the scaffold, but it does not appear that he 
was of this descent. 

Several individuals of this name have long felt grateful 
to the memory of William III. from the following eir- 
cnmstance, on the accession of that monarch to the 
throne of England, one of the first acts of his reign was 
to send an ambassador to Algiers, to demand the imme- 
diate release of all the British suiijcets detained there in 
slavery, the dey and council, intimidated, reluctantly 
complied with this demand. Among those released, was 
a young man of the name of Joyes, a native of Galway, 
who, fcnirteen years before, was captured on his passaC'O 
to the West Indies, by an Algerine Corsair; on his arrival 
at Algiers, he was purchased by a wealthy Turk, who 
followed the profession of a goldsmith, anci who observ- 
ing his slave, Joyes, to be tractable and ingenious, 
instructed him in his trade, in which he speedily became 
an adept. The moor as soon as he heard of his release, 
otiered him, in case he should remain, his only dau'diter 
in marriage, and with her, half his property, but all these, 
with other tempting and advantageous proposals, Joyes 
resolutely declined ; on his return to Galw ay he married, 
and followed the business of a goldsmith with considerable 
success, and, having acquired a handsome indejiendance, 
lie was enabled to purchase the estate of Rahoou, (which 
lies about two miles west of the town,) from Colonel 
Whaley, one of Cromwell's old officers. Joyes having 
no son, bequeathed his property to his three daughtei-s, 
two of whom only were married, one, to Andrew Kou 
French, ancestor to the late Andrew French of liahoon, 
to whom, in addition to their own, the unmarried sister 
left her third ; the second daughter was married to the 
ancestor of the late Martin Lynch, a baid;er, who, in 
lier right, inherited the remainder of the estate. In 
gratitude for this act of King William, this liimily lou" 
after solenuiizcd his accession to the throne In h(mera-e>,, 
and hia victories in Ireland by exhiJjitLng oiaiigc liiie», oii 


several works." The families of Joyes-grove in the County of Galway, Oxford in 
JNIayo, and M'oodquay in the town of Galway, with that of Merview, near tlie 
town, are tlie present descendants of this old family. 

Arms. Argent, an eagle displayed, with two necks, gules, over all Fess 
Ermine. Crest. A demi wolf-rampant, argent, ducally gorged, or.* Motlo. JMors, 
iuit honorabilis vita. 


Tliis name and family are Irish, and the heralds have gone very far back indeed 
to deduce their origin. They tell us, that Maoldabhreac, son of Fiobhrann, son 
of Finghin, descended from Heremon, second son of Milesius, was father of 
Ciorrovan or Kirro\'an, from M'liom the Kirwans are descended. '' They appear 
to have settled in Galway, in the reign of Henry VI. about whicli time, the name 
first occurs in its modern form, mention being then made of William Kirwan and 
his children. Some tliink them much more ancient, supposing them to be the 
family of Kirwicke, already enumerated amongst the more early inhabitants of tlie 
town; ' and this supposition is very probable, as the orthograpliy of the name has 
tmdergone A'arious changes, viz. O'Quirivan, Kyrvan, Kerovan, Kirevane, &c. but 
it is now generally written Kirwan. To this name and family, Ireland is indebted 
for two individuals, of the first order of genius, men whose splendid talents have 
raised their native country to a most elevated point in the scale of literature and 
science ; by tliose the reader may easily anticipate, are meant the celebrated 
Dean Kirwan, and his distinguished relative and friend, the late Richard Kirwan, 
Esq. of Cregg ; the former, acknowledged to have been the first christian orator 
of his day, and the latter, one of the greatest philoso])liers of the age in which 
lie lived. Biograpliical accounts of these eminent men, will be found in 
another part of this volume. The families of Blindwell, Castlehackett, ' Cregg, ' 

the 1st nnd 12tli of July. Some of Joycs' silver work, castle was erected, from them it passed, at an earlv 

stamped with his mark, and the initial letters of his name, period, to a branch of the Burkes, who wei'e aftenvards 

are still remaining. A very curious pedigree of this expelled by Cromwell, and transplanted to Ower near 

family, is recorded in the Office of Arms, Vul. 10. Lough Corrib, Castlehackett was pareelled out to one of 

° Ware and Dc liuigo. his officers; who disjiosed of his interest to .Sir John 

•■ This is the crest on the map, that now used, is a Kirwan, (a gentleman, who amassed a large fortune in 

Demi Griffin, scgrcant. the West Indies, and was Mayor of Galway, in the reign 

' /. Vol. Pedigrees, OJJire of Arms. of James II.) from whom the present respectable family 

' The following record seems to support this opinion — is descendeii. The name of Mr. John Kirwan of 

In the year 14."2, Alex' Lynch, Henry Blake, Richard Castlehackett, will be long remembered in the annals of 

Styven, and Wi'.lter KervyJe, or any three or two of racing and horsemanship, he stands distinguislied for pre- 

thcm were appointed the king's justices, to enquire of serving the best breed of racing cattle in the empire. 

all treasons, felonies, &C. as well within the franchise Sir John Kinvan, was the first who (in 1G89,) intro- 

and liberty of Ilanry, (Athenry,) as within the franchise dnced glass windows, in the luodern form, in Galway; 

and liberty of the town of Galvy in Connaught. — Rot. in place of the small leaden lattices then used, and many 

pat. 10 Hen. VI. of which remain to the psesent day. 

' The estate of Castlehackett, belonged originally, as ' Piers Kirwan FUzclement, died 17th April, 1618, 

,''lie name imports, to tlic Ilackett family, by whom the seized of the lands of Crej;gan, Lavally, ]3allytrasuy. 


ri.-irilcnficlcl, Ghm, Ilillsbrook and AVoodfield, in the County of Galway ; and 
l)al;,'ii], in the County of ]\Iayo, are the principal of the name, 

Jnns. Argent, a clicvron, between three shelldrakes, sable, beaked and 
I<-;rged, gules. Crest. A shclldrake close, sable, beaked and legged, gules. 
Motto. J' aim nion Dieu, mon lloi et mon Pais. " 

'riiis is one of the most ancient, and, until the middle of the seventeenth 
century, \vas one of tlie most leading families in Galway. In the old volume of 
pedigrees, preserved in the Heralds office, it appears, that, " William le Petit, came 
to Ireland, in 11S5, with Sir Hugh de Lacy, who granted him, by his charter, 
Macheritliirnar, &c. (now the barony of Macherydernan, in the County of 
W'estmcatii,) except the Logh and Town of Dysart; that they were palatine 
barons of JNIolingare, and that WiUiam le Petit, had a son, Nicholas, " who was 
ancestor to the family of Lpich of Galway." "*■ William, (or according to other 
accounts,) John de Lynch, was the first settler of the name in Galway, he was 
married to the daughter and sole heiress of William de IVIareschall, and, it is 
stated, that the eldest branch of the family, was called Mareschall, until the 
male line became extinct. During the greatest part of the 15, 16 and lyth 
centuries, they possessed the principal authority witliin the town. Dominick 
Lynch Fitz John, conunonly called Dominick dubli, in 1 ISl. solicited and procured 
the charter of Richard IIL under which he caused his brother. Pierce, to be 
elected Hrst IMayor, and was himself the second. His son Stephen, at the same 
time, sued out and obtained the bull of Innocent VIII. which estabhshed 

I.cifrhcarrowroc, Sec. which he vested in Marcus Blake, witli that monarch, in whose estimation lie stood very Lynili Fitz Jonakin, and John Ffrench Fitz high, and t'l-oni whom he received considerable favours. 

Tctcr, of Galway, merchants, as trustees for his son, That the first of the name, who came to Ireland, was 

Clcnicnt Kirwan. — Iiu;. Andrew de Lynch, to wlioni Menry If. gave large posses- 

Thc latter, who was the great grand father of the late sions, in the vicinity of Castleknock near Dublin. That 

Kichard Kirwan, Esq. built, in 1G48, the castle of Cregg, liis youngest son, John Lynch, who was nmried to the 

in the C'oimty of Galway ; which was the last edifice of daughter of William de JNiarcbchall, was the first of the 

lluit di.>cri|nion, erected for the purposes of defence, in name who settled, about the year 12G1, in Galway, and 

tlii^ part of Ireland. that from him all the Galway Lynches are descended. 

" .Some ineml)crs of this family use the motto, " GocFs They also state, that the Lynches obtained their armorial 

providence is our inheritance." bearings from the I'ollowing circumstance, one of their 

' Kandal le Pctyt and Adam le Petyt, resided in name and family, being governor of Lintz, (long before 

Coiiir.'.n.'lu, in 1270, and Jordan de Exon was then tlie invasion of England by the Conqueror,) defended 

Micrili; — Hoi. Pip. Xo. 4. that city with unexampled fortitude, against a powerful 

• Tradition, and some documents in possession of enemy ; and though from the uncommon length of the 

ircndHTi of this family, ditfer materially from the above siege, all their provisions were consumed, and the "arri- 

acrount. These state that they were originally from the son reduced to tiie miserable extremity of subhistin<' on 

City of Lintz, the capital of upper Austria, from which, the common herbage of the fields, he was finally victo- 

thi-y »up;io>e the name to have been derived; and, that rious. His prince, amongst other rewards of his valour, 

iIhv claim descent from Charlemagne, the yoimgest son presented him with the trefoil on a field azure, for his 

(if the EM)[)en)r of that name. That Sir lingo de Lynch, arms, and the Lynx, the sharpest sighted of all animals, 

ii genera] under William the Conqueror, came to England for his crest, the former, in ollusion to the extreiiiily to 



here that singular ecclesiastical jurisdiction, the wardenship. Thomas Lynch 
Fitz Ambrose, was the last catholic mayor in 1G54, when the ancient inhabitants 
were dispossessed by Cromwell ; and during a period of 169 years, 84 members 
of this family, were mayors of Galway. The oldest line of tlie Lynches, from 
which the younger brandies sprung, was distinguished by the appellation of 
Craiwwrc, wliich means, the great tree or stock ; and the house of Newcastle, 
descended from Emon-a-2'itane, who lived in 131'-2, claimed this distinction. The 
present lineal descendants of this family, are, the Count Lynch late JMayor of 
13ourdeaux, (who so eminently distinguished himself in the cause of the royal 
family of France, against Buonaparte,) and liis relative, John Lynch Alexander, 
Esq. of Galway. The respectable families of Barna, Cartron, Clough, Drimcong, 
Lavally, Lydican, Moycullen, Rathglass and hJhannonbridge, in the County of 
Galway, Diu-as in the County of Clare, and Ballycurren, Castlccarra or Ball, 
Clogher and Partry in the County of Mayo, are now the principal of the name. 

Ai'vis. Azure, a chevrou, between three trefoils, slipped, or. Crest. A Lynx, 
passant, argent. Motto. Semper fidelis. 

This family is of early origin in Galway. Tiicir pedigree relates, that 01i\cr 
jNIartin was the first of the name, that settled in Ireland, that he was a follower 
of Strongbow, and that the name was derived from Martins, warlike. Some 
antiquaries, however, are of opinion, that they were of ancient L'ish descent. 
O'Brien and Vallancey, say, " they are derived from tlie belgian firbolg, or 
Martini, L\ JMairliuig/i, respectable remains of which still subsist, in the cities 
of Limerick and Galway." Richard Martin of Dangan or Baliinehinch Castle, 
Esq. is descended from the eldest branch of this family, and the houses of 
Curraghmore, Ross, Spiddle and Tullyra " are numbered amongst the most 
respectable in this Province. ' 

which he was driven for siibsistance chiring iho scige, and and dispose of the same on his eldest son, and his heirs, 

the latter, to his foresinht aiul viijilaiice, and, as a testi- males, &C. — sect. ol). Tliis solitary instance of then 

nionial of his fidelity, he also received the motto, irmyxv le^islatixe justice is particnlarly consi)icuons, because it 

Jklclis, which arms, crest and n]Otto, are borne hy the stands alone, and siuTOimded by the most nnjnst and 

Lynch family to this day. Their mansion-house occupied "ferocious" enactments, that ever disgraced the code of 

the extensive square on which the present lower citadel any civilized country. 

or shamble barrack stands. Four miles west of Galway, near Barna, are the 

' The memorable act, 8 Ann, chap. .7, for explaining remains of an old castle, which formerly belonged to 

and amending the act, to prevent the further !;rowth of the O'Hallorans, the Lynch family acquired tliis ancient 

popery, alter reciting that Oliver Martin of Tnlliry, inheritance, by ni;u'ria|^c, with tin hiiress of that old 

County Galway, Esq. was, dnrin;_' the rjbellion, a person Irish sept. 

who behaved himself with great moderation, and was '' Francis Martin, of Oidway, merchant, died fith Scp- 

reuiarkably kind to numbers of proteslanls in distress, tember, \G15, seized of the four quarters of Ballvglas>e, 

many of which he supported in his family, and by his the cartron of lioskbcgg, the quarter of Corrowreagh, 

charity an 1 goodness, saved their lives, (Jvc. enacteil that the cartron of Kilcoriiau, in the County of Mavo. — 

he might enjoy his estate, to him and his heirs, and settle Robert Martin, died 'M\.\\ April, lb'."-', seized of scM-riir 


Jrm<:. Azure, a calvary cross, on five degrees argent, between tlie sun in 
\j)IoMiI()r, on the dexter limb, and the moon in crescent, on tlie sinister, or. ''' 
Cn\^t. An etoile wavy, of six jjoints, or. MoUo. AuxiHum nieum a Domino. 

'lliis family first settled in Galway, in 1 18,5, tlie name was then written Mares, 
it wa-i af'lerwariN changed to Moreeli. " and finally assumed its present form. 
Nothing particular occurs on record relating to this family, except that several of 
it> nu'nihers served the oflices of JMayor and Sheriffs, and were otherwise active 
and distinguished in tiie affairs of the former corporation. Their descendants 
re-Ide at present, in the town, and at Spiddle, in the County of Galway. 

Arvi<. Or. a fess dauncettie, a lion rampant, in base, sable. Crest. A lion's 
be. id, erased, argent, guttee dc sang. JSIotto. Si Deus nobiscuni, quis contra nos. 

Tliis old and respectable family is of considerable antiquity in Galway, the 
name was originally Huscared ; and they deri\e their origin from a noble English 
Ihniilv, one of whom, Roger Huscared, is mentioned by Dugdale, as a judge, 
at a very early period, Robert Huscared or Scared, lield lands in Connauglit, 
under Riciiard de Burgo, in 121.'2. In the registry of the monastery of Athenry, 
Walter Huscared and Johanna his wife, are mentioned amongst the principal 
beiiet'actors of that foundation, and Richard Scared or Skeret, who is supposed 
to Iui\e been tiieir son, was Provost of Galway, in 137^- To him belonged, the 
estate of Ardfry, in Meaniidlie, and other lands about Clare-ijn-do-dl, now Clare 
(lalway to the friars minors ; of which convent, he bestowed a piece of ground, 
on which, part of their monastery was bm'lt. Some of these lands are held by his 
descendants to this day. The principal branches of tliis name, at present, are 
those of Ralhnduff, " Carnacrovv', Drunigrifiin and Nutgrove in the County of 
Galway ami Tinvarra and Funchien in the County of Clare. 

Ln'.i in Connauglit. — Jnsper Martin, dieil 12tli April, ■'' Vide tlie old corporation book, and map. 
loJ', suized of the lands of Kosse, Caslali, Litter, iSrc. ■' Jidiiiond Skerrttt, ancestor of the family of Ballindiiff, 

iii-.>l ihe carlron of Sjlernymore, in mortgage from and head of tlie name, rcbided, in Ui'U, at the Cabtle of 

Murr,i:li O'l'laherty, all which descended to Robert Atli-kin or Headford; he « as expellcil liy Cromwell, and 

M.irliii, hib SOI! and lieir. — //»/. Iiis castle and estate translVrred (o Hartley St. George. 

' 'I'lie-e s|ilciuliil armorial cjisigns, arc stated to have Mr. Ski'rrett and his I'amily were transjilanted to Dountis 

t«-cn ^T.m'.eil by King llichard I. to an ancestor of this near Foxfurd in the County of Mayo, where his <lesceii- 

f.iinilj, named, Oliver Martyn, who accompanied that dants remained until 10'88, when they returned to the 

laon.irili, as a commanding officer to the holy wars; County of Galway, and purchased from a Mr. Burke," 

and distinguished himself in Palestine, but, on his return, the castle and estate of BaUinduftj where the family lias 

be was made [iri^oner, in Germany, with his master, and ever since continued. This castle is still in perJijct 

ditd in C',>ii!incment. — I'ejigrccs, Vul. 10. preservation, and is delightfully situated, on the banks of 


Arms. Vert, a chevron, or, between two squin-els, counter sejant, in cliief, 
and one in base, proper. Crest. A squirrel, sejant, proper. ' Motlo. Prinuis 
ultimusque in acie. 

From the foregoing brief notices of the descent and origin of the principal 
flunilies of Galway, the reader may be enabled to form an adequate idea of their 
rank and antiquity ; but another, and perhaps more important feature in their 
character, yet remains to be developed. From the earliest period, they were 
celebrated for commerce, and for many centuries were classed amongst tlie most 
considerable merchants of Europe. Their wealth was consequently great, and the 
ample landed properties, which they gradually acquired by purchase, from the native 
Ii'ish, throughout the Province of Connaught, are now enjoyed by their numerous 
and opulent posterity. During the earlier periods of their career, they carefully 
avoided all connexion with their surrounding neighbours ; " in consequence of 
which, added to the circumstance of the town being so remotely situated from 
the more civilized parts of the kingdom, the inhabitants were necessarily obliged 
to intermarry amongst themselves, and in progress of time, their de"-rees of 
kindred so much increased that they became, as it were, one family, and ia 
many instances, it was a difficult matter to effect a marriage amon"-st them 
without an ecclesiastical dispensation, a circumstance, which in some cases, is still 
known to occur. As civilization, however, increased throughout the country, 
when the channels of communication were gradually opened, and intercourse 
became more general, and was less attended with danger, the natives of Galway 
extended their connexions, and their names now appear inrolled in some of the 
most respectable pedigrees of Ireland, amongst whom may be ranked, the noble 
houses of O'Neil, Ormond and Clanricarde, witli many others of considerable 
rank, property and influence in the kingdom. 

Besides the names already enumerated, there are many other families, who 
though not similarly distinguished, were equally ancient and respectable, as well 
from length of residence in the town, as through alliance with the other inhabi- 
tants, by whom they were gradually affiliated, and finally considered, without 
any distinction, as members of the same body. Of these families, the' principal 

Lough Corrib. The late Archbishop Skerrett of Tuam, * In their proper places, tliroughout tliis work, will bo 

was dcsceiKlcd from this ftiniily. found several curious rules and bye laws, of the old 

The estate of Poulnarouihy, about a mile west of corporation, prolubitini; all intercourse with the native 

Galway, in possession of the Skerrett family for centu- Irish. In 1518, thcvordereil that none of the inhabitants 

ries, was acquired by purchase, ti-oni one of the ancient should admit any of the Burkes, Jl'Williauis, Kcll\s, or 

Irish sept of the O'Hallorans, who were the original any other sept, into their houses. " That neither "o", ne 

proprietors of the entire district. Mac, shoulde strutte ne swagger, throu_!,'he the strcctes 

' The above is the crest on the map, the modern one of Gallway ;" and the following singuhu "inscription, «;is 

is a dcmi griffin, segreant. Tlie motto " manus ha;c formerly to be seen over the west gate ; 
jnimica tyrannis," is also used by members of this " From the ferocious O'Flaherties 

&uily. " Good Lord deliver us." 



%vcrc, Barrett, * Bcrmi/igJiam, Burke, Butler, Crean, Fallon, Lambert, Nolan, ' 
I'ort, Quin ami TuUij. The Coleman family*^ is also recorded, at an early period; 
ami j)articalai- jr.ention made of Edmond Coleman, I'rom whom one of the Blake 
family, is said to have acquired the ancient castle and estate of Menlo. The name 
of Craddock occurs early in the fifteenth century, the Moores, " Bcggs, Setvpcrs ' 
and Ticr'ncijs, were also old natives of Galway ; and many of the descendants- 
of tliose diilcrent families, still reside in the town and its vicinity. 

Having thus far treated of the names and origin of the former inhabitants of 
Galwav, their manners and character next claim attention ; and of these, the 
reader will be presented with the most satisfactory testimonies. Respectably 
desccntled, the citizens always preserved a due respect for their own dignity ; 
and from tlie earliest period, ranked with the first orders of the community. 
Lrarning and science, were received and cherished, within the town, during 
periods, wherein the rest of the kingdom, with very few exceptions, was 
immersed in the most profound ignorance ; and, in the reign of Elizabeth, we 
find the accomplished and celebrated Sir Henry Sidney, (who was then Lord 
Deputy of the kingdom, and who often visited Galway,) declaring, ' that for 
urbanity and elegance of manners, the inhabitants equalled those of the most 
refined community; and, that like the people of Marseilles, in France, they 
contracted no stain from their rude and unpolished neighbours. " — Sir William 
Pelliam, Lord Justice of Ireland, who arrived in Galway, in 1579, states, that, 
•" the townsmen and wemmen, present a more civil shew of life, than other 
townes in L-cland do ;" ' and, in Sir Oliver St. John's description of Connaught, 
in Kill', they are thus described, "the merchants are rich, and great adventurers 

' A< far back as our national recorils extend, the sept 
»( tlic Barretts was numerous mid opulent, in Connaught ; 
:'.n<l tliifflv in the baronies of Errus and Tyrawley, in the 
County of Mayo. They frequently occur in various 
ancient documents during the reign of Henry III. and 
!'ur centuries after that period, and were tlie most iiowcrful 
of the numerous clans in that district, viz. the Boiu-kes, 
Linott's, Clanpiulins, Cusacks, Carrownes, Clandonnells, 
and odier^. — In ItiOT, died Pierce Barrett of Ballesckery, 
tlie son of Pierce, whose ancestor, il/c. Padiii, was seized 
uf considerable possessions. — Richard Boy Barrett, died 
in ic.'-j, sci7,ed of Aghedowne and Akehill, in Errus. — 
Edinond B;u-rett, died in 1G23, seized of the castle of 
Duncroagliane and Dowlagh ; and Edward Doi'ough 
K:irrett, died in 1G28, seized of Rathrogin, &c. — /;;(/. — 
'I'he civil wars, which afterwards ensued, deprived tliis 
fcpt of all their extensive properties. 

' 'I'liis family was, formerly, of the first rank and 
(ipulcncc, and is still wealthy and respectable. Thomas 
-Nolan of the castle and town of Ballinrobe, Esq. who 
<lied isth June, 162R, was possessed of most extensive 
landed possessions ; to which his son Gregory succeeded, 
.ind out of which his widow Agnes Martin had dower. — 
Jnrj. — This property was confiscated, in the civil war of 
lull, but a considerable part still remaius in the families 

of Loiighboy, Ballinderry and Ballybanaglier. 

'^ Thomas Coleman, was public notary of the town, 
from l.^Gl to 1573. — Corjy. liuok; Lib. A. 

^ The Moores of Brycs, whose [iroperties were formerly 
so extensive in the County of Mayo, were of this family. 
On 24th Marcli, 1G25, John Moore, of Eryes, Esq. soij 
six cartrons of land, in the town and fields of Dowra, in 
that County, to Patrick Efrench Fitz Oliver, of Galway, 
merchant. — Iihj. 

' Edmond Semper, of Athenry, Gent, died 8tli May, 
1G2S; he was seized of the landi of Monyscribe, Coldragh, 
Lissinas, Bcalagarc, &c. which descended to his sou Johii 
Seniper, and his widow Margaret Barry. — Id. 

J L)nch in vita Kirovnni. 

* Formerly Missilia, an ancient and renowned City of 
Provence in France, inhabited by a colony of Plia:?nicians, 
who, flying from the Persian yoke, settled there, and lor 
many ages aftcnvai'ds retained their own manners, customs 
and laws, cultivated the arts and sciences, and were 
particularly ihstinguished for learning and philosophy, 
though surrounded by n:any barbarous nations. In tlieso 
latter particulars, no comparison could be more exactly 
just, than that between this celebrated people and the 
ibrnier inhabitants of Galway. 

' Lambeth MS. 


;it the sea ; their coinmonaltic is composed of the dcscencUints of tlie ancient 
English families of the towne, and rarelie admit any new English anionge them, 
and never any of the Irish ; they keep good liGS})italitic, and arc kind to 
strangers, and in theire manner of entertainment, and in fashinningc, and 
aj)p:irali:ngc themselves and thoire wives, do most preser\c the ancient maimer 
and state, as nuich as any towne that ever I sawe." "' These are the highly 
rcspec'ablc descri})tions, given by the first characters then in the kingdom, of 
the former inhabitants of Galway; as to tiieir actions, together with those of 
their descendants, their public spirit, wealth and indcpendance, and the perse- 
cutions and sufferings, under which they long aiterwards laboured, they will be 
ibund.lully detailed in the subsequent parts of this work; to which, for the 
present, tlie reader is referred, this being considered the most convenient pkce 
to describe the former state and topography of the town. 

In the year iGlO, Speed, the celebrated English antiquary, ^•isited Galway; 
and his description of the place, sufficiently indicates its then importance. " The 
principal city," says this accurate writer, " of this province, and that, which 
niav worthily be accounted the third in Ireland, is Galway, in Irish Gal/he, built 
in manner much like to a tower : it is dignified with a Bishop's See, ° and is 
much frequented with merchants ; by reason whereof, and the benefit of the 
road and haven, it is gainful to the inhabitants, through traflick and exchange of 
rich connnodities, both by sea and land." ° About the same time, Ileylin, the 
historian, describes Galway as the third city of the kingdom for extent and 
beauty ; and relates an anecdote, worthy of recital in his own Avords, •' Galloway, 
a noted Emporie, and lately of so great fame with foreign merchants, that an 
outlandish merchant, meeting with an Irishman, demanded in what part of 
Galloway Ireland stood; as if Galloway had been the name of the Island, and 
Ireland only the name of some town." But the most ])articular and interesting 
account, at this period, is that contained in the description of Connaught, by- 
Sir Oliver St. John, in idM, before alluded to: he states, "the Province of 
Connaught hath only two corporations, the antient monuments of the English 
conquerors, and inhabited only by English families and surnames ; the one is 
Gahvay, a walled towne and {)ort of the sea, latelie made a Countie, and 
governed by a I\Iaior and two Sheriffs. The towne is small, but all is faire 
and statelie buildings, the fronts of the houses (towards the streets) are all of 
hewed stone, uppe to the top, garnished with faire battlement, in an uniform 
course, as if the whole towne had been built uj^pon one motile. It is built 
n})pon a rock, invironed almost with the sea, and the river; compassed with a 

"■ 1,1. ° Speed's Theatre of the World, Ed'il. 1611. To lliis. 

" Hv tliis he meant tlie wardvusliip, uliose ])osscssioiis, clescription he has aJJal a ciirioiis map ot the town, 

ili|_'nity and extent of jurisdiclioaj tbiiiicrly eqiialleJ accunitf ly ilrawii by hiiiiselt', ol' wliich there is here giveu 

thobo of some cpibeopal sees. an exact engiu^in^'. 


slrong Avallo, ami good defences after the ancient manner, such as -with a 
rcasonal)le garrison, may defende itselfe against an enemie. '' 

Such are the accounts given of Galway, upwards of 200 years ago, by visitors 
and strangers, who were eye witnesses of the state of the town, and described 
it as it appeared to them at the time ; but tlie enthusiasm of tlie old inhabitants, 
wlien mentioning tlieir native place, their ancient pride and boast, and the 
source and centre of all their wealth, happiness and connexions, was almost 
boundless ; one of these, after giving a short description of the town, bursts 
forth into the following exclamation : — and, as Jerusalem seemed to the Prophet 
Jeremiah, the princess among provinces, the beauty of Israel ; so, thou, 
O Galwuy, dost to me appKir, of most perfect beauty: '' nor will the reader be 
surprised at tliis, when he hears the following description of the town, o-iven 
even at a subsequent period, by Henry Cromwell and the Privy Council of 
Ireland: "we may be bold to say, that for the situation thereof, voisinage and 
conunerce it hath, with Spaine, the Strayts, West Indies and other places ; noc 
tuKiic or port in lite three nations {London e.vcepted) uri.s more considerable, nor, in 
all probability would more encourage trade abroad, or manufactures at home, 
than this, if well improved." ' Tlie increase, improvement and continual 
additions oi! strength, to the town, by the erection of several strong bulwarks 
and fortifications, for nearly half the seventeentli century, and particularly, 
during the civil wars of IGU, will be found described in their proper places. 
The reader is here presented with a complete and curious delineation of the 
place, as it appeared in its most perfect condition, after these improvements 
were made, formed under the following peculiar and interesting circumstances, 
and which will, for ever, remain an indelible memorial of the former flourisliing 
?;tate of this once considerable town. 

In the year iGJl tlie IVIarquis of Clanricarde, then Lord Deputy of the 
kingdom, entered into a treaty with the Duke of Lorrain, to obtain twenty 
thousand pounds for the King's service in Ireland ; for this sum, he agreed to 
give the City of Limerick and town of Galway as security; and directed his 
Commissioners, Lord Viscount Taafle, Sir Nicholas Plunket and Geoffry Browne, 
]'ls(piire, "particularly to describe unto tlie Duke, the value of the security, 
the strength and situation of tlie places and the goodness and conveniency of 
the harbours, &:c." ' for tiiis ])urpose, a map of the town was made, whiclt, 
after the restoration, (wlien tlie antient inhabitants were restored, by the 
Crown, to their freedoms and estates,) was finished blazoned and described by 
ihe Rev. Henry Joyce, tlien warden ; and afterwards elegantly engraved, at the 
cx))ense of the Corporation, and dedicated to King Charles II. 

' I.nnihcfli ^rS. ' Covmcil Book, A. "n. paje 255, Ttli April, IGJ 

'Lviicli,(aiilliorofCambrcnsiscver5u?,)!'«n7a/u>o!'fl)ii. " Claiiriciira's jyicmoirs, LoiiJoii 1757, lul. 


Description of the old Map of Galnay. 

This curious document, of which there are but two copies now known, with 
certainty, to be extant, ' is composed of nine separate sheets, and is six feet six 
inches broad, and four feet six inches high ; it is surrounded by a border, four 
inches deep, tlic top margin is headed by the following inscription : 1. Pueludium 
• oPERis — Ileri, Hodie et in Sea/la. ^1. Totius laboris oblatio. — Domino conse- 
cratur monarchia : — it contains four circular equestrian engravings of Charles II. 
one, in each corner, and the two others, at equal distances. — Round the first is 
the inscription, Carolo II. Dei gratia, magna; Britania' Regnoritvi ct Fraitciw, 
Jiegi: — round the second, Carolo 11. Dei gratia, majoris Scotia\ regnorwn et 
I-libernormn omnium, regi : — round the third, Carolo II. Dei gratia, locuri/m sen 
regionnm iptarumdain, in miindo et meridie regi : and round the fourth, Carolits II. 
Dei gratia, AngUa', Scotiar, Francia: el Hibcrniw, Hew. 

On tlic first sheet, in the top margin, between the first and second cflin-ies of 
Charles II. are engraved the armorial bearings, 1. of England and the Saxons, 
Afiglia? et Saxo?uan ; 2. of Scotland, Scotia' minoris et albanorum ; 3. of Wales 
and the Britons, Walsice et Britanorum, and 4. of France, Francia; et Gallorum; 
and between them these words, Fuit, de tramactis secidis, tempore elapso, 
prepositio. — Est. de currente scculo, momento prescnti, demonstratio. — Euit. de 
J'uturis, et liora novissima, demonstralio. Conditio Religioque — Analogie seu 
similitiidines, quibus, locorum qualitates, hominiimque dcvotio et regia majestas digno- 
scuntur. — between the first and second arms there are also these words, sicut 
■cinamonwn et balsamum, aromatizans odorem dedit. — between the second and third. 
Quasi Ubaniis incisus vaporavit liabitationem suam — and between the third and 
fourth, Qiuisi mj/rr/ia electa dabit suavitatcm odoris. 

On the second sheet, in the tO}) margin, between the second and third effigies 
of Charles II. are engraved the armorial bearings, 1. of Munster, MomonicCy 
2. of Connaught, Conatia', 3. of Meath, JMidia', 4. of Leinster, Lagenia', and 
5. of Ulster, Ultmirv, and between them, the words, Fuit, Est, Erit. — Conditio 
■religioque. — between the first and second, these words, Quasi platarnis exaltata 
jud'taaquam — between the second and third, Quasi terebinthus extendens ramos 
SUOS-, between the third and fourth, Quasi palma exaltata in Cades ; and between 
the fourth and fifth, Quasi cedrus exaltata in Lihano, et qtian ct/pressus in monte 

On the third sheet, in the top margin, between the third and fourth efligies of 
Charles II. are engraved tour shields, without arms ; under the first, this 

' One, in perfect preservation, in the MS. Lib. Triii. the Commissioners to tlie Duke of Lorrain. — De Bnrgo 

Col. Dulilhi, and the other in the possession of Dominicli in his supplement, sa\s, that he saw another of these 

(jeothT Browne, of Castleniagaret, County Ma)o, Esq. maps, in the College of St. Isidore, in Rome, 
i.lcscenilant of the above namttl Gcoiiry Browne, one of 


inscri])tioii, No' seplenlr'ionaUs et mtstralis, Wals'ue, nova' Briltania\ Anglicc, Scolice 
cl York; under the second, Marilandia', Caroline, Virginice ct Jamaice; under 
the third, Bennude, Barhade, Mo7dsarret et Sancti Christofori ; and under the 
fourtli, Gh'inea' et Tankerin\ S;c. — Between tlie first and second, these words. 
Quasi i)hmlalio rosa' in Jericho ; between the second and third. Quasi Uliinn inter 
spinas ; and between the third and fourth, Quasi liliuju germinans germinabit, et 
Ictabuntur dcserta ct invia. 

In the right and left margins of tlie map, are contained the armorial bearino-s 
but without names, of twenty-four distinguished families, connected with and 
allied to tliose of (iahvay, with the following inscription at each side; Scuta 
sci/ucntia sunt insignia rjuorumdam ex mulfis Hibernice nobifuan, principum et 
clarissimorum rirorum, qui, aliquo consanguinitatis vel affinitatis seu qiiovis alio 
rwccssitudinis vinculo, astricti sunt Galviensibus, 

The bottom margin is divided into five compartments, in the first, are contained 
tlic armorial bearings of the families of Bareth, Breminglumi, Burke, Butlc}\ 
Crcna and Fenreice, with this inscription underneath: 

Aspice conspicuos, qiios Galvia jiista, recepit, 
nine illi nomcn civis et omen, liabent. " 
In tlie second, the armorial bearings- of the families of Dcane, Joyce, Marline 
and Skereth, with this inscription over, Antiqua qiwnundam Gahia' stirpium 
insignia, and the following underneath : 

IIxc sunt quorunulam praxlara insignia Gahw, 
Antiqua, obseqido facta serene tuu.-^ 
In ihc tliird, the armOrial bearings of the fiimilies of At//ei/, Blake, Bodkin, 
Jhownc, Deane, Dorsie, Fonte, Frinch, Joyce, Kirorvan, Linche, Marline, Morccli 
a:id Skerct/i, with the following verses underneath : 

Septem ornant monies Romam, sejjtem ostia Nilum, 

Tot rutilis stcllis splcndet in axe Polus. 
Galvia, Polo Niloque bis a'quas, Roma ConacJtta' ; 

Bis septem illustres, has colit ilia tribus. 
Bis urbis septem dcfendunt mania turres ; 

Intus, et ex duro est marmore queeque domus ; 
Bis septem portce sunt, castra et culmina circum : ; 

Fer tolidem pontum jjermeat unda vias. 
Principe his sejytcm fulgent altaria templo, 

Qua'vis j)atrona' est ara dicata suo 
Et septem, sacrata Deo, ca'nobia patrum, 
Fannmei ct sexus, tot pia tecta tenet. " 

Con-piciiniis hci-e th' illustrious arms behold, '*' Rome boasts scv'n hills, the Nile its scv'n-fol J streaii 

or tliosr wlioni Gahvay 'midst her tribes eiiroll'd. Around the pole sev'n radiant planets fleam ; 

The ancient arms of oTl^av's lords vou .-icw, S,"'","^' t-'o"'}"^" Ro»>^. twiee equals^these; 

With true obeisance, highest prince, to you. ^^^ '^°^'^* '"''^''^ ''•'^ " illustrious lamiheB ; 



In the fourth, lour several armorial bearings of the Lyncli family, headed 
■with the inscription, Diversas familia' Lyncha'ontm, a prima origine propci'mia', 
and followed by this distich : 

Il'tc Lynclia'orum hcne jjvima ah origine notas. 
Diver sas stirpes nobiiis cccc damns. "" 
And in the fifth, the armorial bearings of the families of Fallonc, Lahnrlh 
Xolan, Quinne, Tidljj and Porte, with the following inscription underwritten : 
Conscrij)ti cives Jii gaudent legibus urbis, 
Quosjacit etjratres coiinubialis amor. ' 

Having finished the margins, the body of the map next claims attention. 

The words, Carolus Rex, appear on the top of each of the three upper sheets 
under which follows the title of the map, in large capitals, Ui'bis Galvia\ totius 
Conation in regno Hibemia', clarissiyna' metropolis, et emporii celeberrimi, delineatio 
Idstorica. '^ On one side are depicted the arms of Ireland, \\z. those of the five 
provinces, Meath being in the centre, blazoned on the shield, supported by two 
figures, under one of which, is subscribed, Intelkctus, and under the other 
Veritas, and the following words underneath, Scotice majoris, tndgo Hihernia' 
regvorian, i/isignia. 

In the centre of the middle sheet, are the arms of England, with this 
inscription under, Aitgiistissimo Jaustissimoque suo principi, Carolo II I3ci 
gratia, AngUa', Scotia', Francicv et Hibernia; regi, serenissimo, S^x. ab adictissimo 
.sue majestatis cUente, R. D. H. I. istiu^s urbis cive et pastore, oblata ; cii'itatem et se 
suaque omnia, in, vel extra urbem, D. O. M. et SS*" S M" astcrno voto consecrat 

On one side are the following verses : 

Terra, /return, populi, qveque aspicis undiqiie late, 
Sunt tibi, sint generi, Carole, Jida tt/o. ^ 
And on the other, 

Flus ultra tibi, quam tabule, vel conti?iel orbis. 
Que spheram supermini suspice, nosce. ^ 
Next to these are the arms of Scotland, supported by two figures, under One 
of which is inscribed, Constantia, and under the otiier, Patientia; with the 
Ibllowiiig words, Albania' regni, vulgo minoris sire jiwioris Scotice, insi'micv. 

Twice sev'n high tow'rs defend her lofty walls. 
And polished marble decks her splendid halls ; 
'J'wice sev'n her massive gates, o'er which arise 
Twice sev'n strong castles tow'ring to the skies ; 
Twice sev'n her briilges, thro' whose arches flow 
The silv'ry tides majestically slow ; 
Her ample Church with twice sev'n altars flames. 
An heavenly patron every altar claims ; 
V/hile twice sev'n convents pious anthems raise, 
(Sev'n for eacli sex,) to sound Jehovah's praise. 

" From one proud stock, for ages known to fame, 
These ditl'erent branches of the Lynches came. 

" Our conimon rights, these, late enfranchised, prove. 
And claim a Idudred thro' connubial love. 

* An historical delineation of the town of Gahvay, the 
■most renowned metropolis, and celebrated emporiuin of 
all Connauglit, in the kingdom of Ireland. 

' Earth, seas and tribes, where'er thine eyes can move 
To thee, great monarch, constant fealty prove. 
And still may these, whate'er thy eyes can trace 
Prove endless fealty to thy future race. 

*■ Turn, prince, towards heav'n, there greater glory gain 
Than pictured chart, and all the world contain. 



L'tnlcr the arms of England are the modern arms of Gahva}', an antique gaily, 
villi tills inscription over it, Laudatio ejus manet in seculmn seculi ; and the 
IbHowiiig under: 

Galv'ia, qiiam coUmus vcstra est, jam respire pictam ; 
Nos quoque sacrumus nostraque nos tibi. " 
To the riglit of these, are placed the most ancient arms of the town, ^vith 
these words over them, Initiinn sapienticv timor Domini ; and underneath these 

Vrima tifis proaris dedimiis primordia ?ioslre 
Urbis et infantes nosque, serene tibi. '' 
And to the Icl't, are the more recent arms of the town, with these words over, 
Inlcilcctus bonus omnibus facientibus eiim ; and beneath them these verses, 
Flosque juventutis sub ie crescentis abunde. 
Est iuus, aique status, tempora, jura, bona. ^ 
There are two tables of reference to the map,' the first, by seventy-seven figures 
and several letters, to all matters within the town ; with this title, Elenchus, quo 
iiolfinda qua-darn annexa et intra urbem, hoc iconismo depicta, cito perspiciuntur ; and 
underneath this inscription, Galvia qua; a'dificatur, ut civitas cujus piarticipatio 
ejus in idipsum. 

' Our city's tli'inc, wliich pictured here you see, 
Ourselves and ours we consecrate to thee. 

' To thy forefatliers, niiglity prince and von 
\N'e'vc given our city, 'selves and chilclrcn too. 

' Onr flow'r of youth, cncreasing fast are thine. 
And trnc to thee their rights and wealth resign. 


IJniclcs the naliiTn! situation nf the place there are 

fourteen furlijications, bulwarks or ramparts, 

about the walls, and joined to them, 

I. The ontworks and north fosse, of the middle and 

southern rampart, of the east bulwark. 
■J. The north wing or rampart of the east bulwark. 

3. The middle rampart, about the old fortification of 

the great gate. 

4. The south wing or rampart about shoemaker's tower. 

5. The outworks about lyon's tower, and the old wall, 

w ith the fosse. 
J. .n. The raii^part of lyon's tower. 
I.. The old fortification before the great gate, called 

(Jljir na sparra. 
',. The fortification or bulwark, from the inner part of 

shoemaker's tower, called The Hampir. 
f. Tlic o!.l bulwark near the strand, called Can an balla. 
9. The pli\ce above Martin's mill, called Millen an 

10. ■) 

i 1. f Tl)rce towers upon the three gates of the bndge. 

'■-'• ) 

13. '1 he interior castle for defence of the bridge. 

11. The exterior bulwark defemiing the bridge. 

There arc also fourteen towers on the walls. 

15. 1. The lyon's tower, called Tur an J,eoin. 

1 6. 2. The middle tower. 

17. J. The great gate tower, in which is placed the 

IS. 4. Pcnrice's tower. 
1 y. 5. Shoemaker's tower. 
'20. 6. The new tower. 

21. 7. .Michael's tower. 

22. 8. Martin's tower. 

2.3. 9. Alexander's new tower. 

24. 10. Athy's tower. 

25. 11. The little gate tower. 

26. 12. [ ] 

27. 13. Agnes's tower, called Tor Lmisha. 

28. 14. The little gate river tower. 

The names of the city gates, which are fourteen 
ill luunber. 
The principal is the great gate, which contains 
six, of which 
, The first, is in the south wing of the east bulwark. 
The second and thinl, which are the sides of the old 
fortification, before the great gate; the fourth, is 
seen on entering, and the iron gate, which is the 
The sixth, is that which immediately looks into the 

Upon the bridge there are three, the first, which is 

the most distant, called in Sparra hier. 
The second, is the middle gate, with winding leaves. 
The third, which next approaches the city. 



The Second, a reference to all matters outside the walls, divided into east 
and west, one by fifty, the other by forty-nine figures, and entitled. Synopsis 
qua res circa cixitalcm in hac deUniatione descripta.', digito devmnsirantur, and the 
entire concludes with these words, 

llluc enini ascender tint tribus, tribiis domini, 
ll'sfimoniznn Israel, ad covfitenduvi nomen domini. 

Fronr the delineation just concluded, and the description already given, a 
tolerably accurate idea may now be formed of the former opuliMit state and 
magniiicence of Galway; adorned with superb and highly decorated buildino-s, 
and surrounded by every requisite tor security and defence, which either art 

31. The little gate also has three, of wliich thd first is an 
iron !;atc', which looks towards the north. 

33. The miiUlle gate, which is seen on entrance, and the 
third, through wliich is the passage to the city. 

06. Two gates towards the shore, of which, one is called 
the unhl key i^ntc. 

37. Tlic other, \.\ic new strand gale. 

There are seven ascents to the walls. 
.IS. The first, is near the little gate, which is not seen 

except from within. 
39. The second and third stairs, are on each side of the 

great gate. 
-10. The fourth, is the ascent from Plud-street, called 

Ste'irc iiaguinag/i. 
4\. The fifth, is the ascent from the area of the new 

strand gate. 
* 'I'hc sixth, is near the old quay gate. 
'}2° Likewise several gardens near Athy's Castle. 
4.3. The seventh, in Alexander' s-Iane, wliich is not seen 

except from within. 

•44. There arc seven vacant spaces to be noticed, the first, 

the garden hill, near lyon's tower. 

■15. Several gardens under the middle tower. 

4<;. Several gardens under penrice's tower. 

47. Several gardens about the pidgeon-house, 

•18. The area of the new strand gate. 

49. Blake's great giirden. 

The names of the fourteen principal streets, of which 
the first is the great gate street. 

The high middle street. 

The Market street, including Gaol street. 

The Kea street. 

Crosse street. 

Bridge gate street. 

Lumbard street. 
, North street. 
. Little gate street. 
. Skinner's or Glover's street, 

, A street between two lanes, called SiaUI edi'ir da lowlier. 
. New tower street. 
. Plndd street. 
. Earl street, or Staid Tober an larlagh. 

. The fourteen principal lanf, are, first, Blake's iaue. 

. Dark lane, called Buahcr l>,.bli. 

, Bodkin's lane. 

. The poor Clares lane. 

Upper shoemaker's lane. 

Lower shoemaker's lane. 

Fisher's lane. 

The lane between the two strand L'atcs, called Boahcr 

eddir da Stronda. 
Martin's mill lane. 
Kirwan's lane, 

St. John's lane, called hi Gvlta. 
The red Earl's lane, called Boalier an Iarla"h. 
Alexander's lane, commonly called ISoahcr Isandrr. 
Crooked lane, called Buaher Kcaiii. 

Besides the collegiate church of Saint Nicholas, there 
are fouitcen communities or residences of sacivJ 

The college of the Priests and Pastors. 

The community or residence of the Friars Minors. 

Fi-iars Preachers. 

Augustine Preachers. 

Society of Jesus. 

Brothers Carmelites. 


Sisters of the rich Clares. 

poor Clares. 

third order of Saint Francis. 

order of Saint Dominick. 

order of Saint Augustine. 


Various retreats of devout females. 

Fourteen remarkable edifices, castles or mansion 

lious(^s, of the nobility, gentry and citizens 

of Galway. 

The old castle of the most illustrious Lord, Richard 
De Burgo, the red Earl. 

Athy's castle, in the north part of the citj-. 

Lynch's castle, in the middle of the city. 

Blake's castle, on the south near the strand. 

The mansion house, of Sir Robert Lynch, baronet. 

of Sir Valentine Blake, baronet. 

of Sir Peter Frinch, knight. 

of Sir Richard Blake, knight. 

■ of Sir Dominick Blake, knight. 

■ of Sir Oliver Frinch, knight. 

• of Maitin Dorsi, citizen. 

of Sir Walter Blake, knight. 

of Antony Ro. Lynch, citizen. 

of Martin Browne, citizen. 



coiilil siipgost or wcallli cominantl, it was universally acknowledged to be the 
most perfect city in the kingdom : while its rich inhabitants stood conspicuously 
i!istini;iii.shed for their commercial pursuits, public zeal, and high independance 
of spirit, all which will be found exemplified, in the most satisfactory manner, 
tlirougliout the following pages. 

But tliese facts, however well authenticated, must appear extraordinary to 
those now acquainted with the town, and when contrasted with its present very 
different state and appearance, it would not be at all surprising if they should be 

ScTcn pliices ami stations of monuments, or altars, 
ioleiiinly liuilt by tlic clergy, in the streets, for the 
soluiiiiuty uuU [)rocession of corpus christi. 
<•. I!v the I'mticiscans. < 

I. liy t!io Capuchins. 
^. IK the Augustinians. 
Ii. Hy the Dominicans. 
i. Hy the Carmelites. 
I.. liv the Jesuits. 
I. By the Priests of the College of St. Nicholas. 

Seven public places, or principal markets, of 

the city. 

111. The market for fresh water fish, before Blake's lane, 

called T/ic iiltlc guic corners. 
n. The Shambles. 
c). The Cow nrarket or Plud street. 
]i. The Horse market, near the new strand gate, 
ij. The uiarket, or fish shambles, before and in the 

Fiiher's lane. 
r. The little market for various wares, through the street 

ol' this market, 
s. Tlic market, where all other wares arc promiscuously 


There arc seven other places and tilings to be 
t. The old town house, upon the goal and shambles. 
II. New edifice commenced for a town house. 
». The Exchange. 

X. The cemetery of the chiu-ch, w ith the great tree. 
y. .St. Nicliolas's hospital or poor house. 
z. The market and college cross. 
Jc. An old pidgeon house, in the south part of tlic city. 

On the West. 

An explanation of the description of GaKvay, 

Thi- lu-nis of the fourteen tribes of Galway. 

The arms of ten other branches, connected with the 

f uiiilies of Galway. 
The monastery of Saint Dominick. 
The cemetery of the monastery. 
Several gardens, 6.° Parks, ti. '• Orchards. 
The place where ships are repaired. 
St. >iary's hill, c;dled Cnuc'^n in TampciU 2Tirea, 
The koutli snbnib-i, !). >■ The road to rave hill. 
Si. Mary's rivulet, called Sru.'uui Mirta 

Ball's bridge, caWed Drehnd Miatl. 11."^ Ball's briilge 

Castle Jordan, called Jlfeil Costain 
The niidille suburbs, Ba//c j\Icnnagh. 
Giant's hill, called Cnuckuin na h'ge/iim. 
The whirl|iool river, with the whirlpool, called 

Island altagneach, now the island of Saint Clara. 
The house of the nuns of St. Clara. 
The other island altagneach, formerly called goat 

A causeway or passage between the two islands, with 

the fishing place. 
The river of Galway, formerly the river Ausoba, now 

called Pol/in Mor. 
The great cataracts, where salmon are taken up, 

called luclwra mor. 
The little cataracts, called Cora na Vmaraher, where 

Eels are taken. 
Stag island, alias Illu'm an fhia. 
" Thady's island, called Inis Trig. 
The rock, where the woman Galva is said to have 

been drowned, from which the city of Gahvay was 

A bathing place, where boys swim, called Srug/i mi/- 

lin Shcmis khigli. 
The big bridge, Ijeing the only passage fi-om the west 

to the city : here also salmon afe killed with a 

The fortification for defence of the shipping in the 

The rivulet encompassing the bulwark of the bridge. 
Place where salmon are fished for with nets. 
The river falls into the sea. 
The sea flows into the torrent of the river. 
The strand where ships lu'e unloaded, called the Kea. 
The new walk near the strand, called llie Exc/iangr. 
The pile W-hcre the new buildings were commenced. 
The Crow's Rock, called Carrig an Pfreaghan. 
The promontory of liuintcnuin. 
The bay of Galway. 
The road. 

The bay which leads to the port of Ardfry, 
Cromwell's ships, following the king's subjects to tlie 

port of Ardfry. 
The promontory of Ruinmore. 
Mutton Island. 
Hill, called Cnuc a T'doUain. 
Part of the crane's strand, called Trai na cgoer. 
Part of the road leading to Blal;e\i hill. 



pronounced as altogetlier incredible. The lofty walls, castles, edifices and 
towers, once its pride and ornament, are long since crumbled into dust, the 
much boasted spirit of enterprize and independence of its former inhabitants, lie 
dead or dormant in their descendants, and nothing now remains to mark their 
I'ormer grandeur, but the spacious ruins and remnants of a few splendid mansions, 
whicli serve but to keep alive the melancholy remembrance of what their foun- 
ders once had been. The causes of these revolutions and decay will be more 
properly explained in another place, the reader will therefore, for the present, 
liavc to return to an earlier era, in order to trace the gradual progress of the 
town, from its commencement, to the period and state in which it has been 
already displayed ; and to follow it from thence, through all its various vicissitudes 
and changes, to the present day. 

•)<:. The west suburbs, called Fahei-beg. 

17. Piirr of the road which leads to St. James's chapel 
at newcastle, and the strong castle, called in 

IS. The t'omidation of the west fortifications, where for- 
merly commenced. 

13. Part of the road which leads to tlie castle of Ralntne. 

On the Enst. 

1 . The title of the city of Galway. 

■J, I'he monastery of St. Auguslin, surrounded by the fort. 

.•j. Saint Augustiu's well, ou the south side of the hill. 

4. Saint Au^ustin's hill. 

•1 '•' The kina's fort, surroundins the monasters. 

5. Saint Bridgets's hill, on the right and left of the high 


fi. Saint Bridget's chapel. 

7. The house of lepers, under the title of St. Bridget, 

S. The house of the Capuchins. 

9. The arms of Great Britain. 

10. The arms of the kingdom of Ireland. 

11. The arms of the kingdom of Scotland. 
J'i. The most ancient arms of Galway. 

'J"hc old arms of ditto. 
Tlie modern arms of ditto. 

13. Genealogical tree of the king of England, from an 

Irish and Scottish root. 

14. Genealogical branch of the Galway families, from 

the same- 

15. The highway leading to the hills, called I.cnghlifnrda. 
1(). The pathway lea<ling to the high hill of the blighted 

bush, called Cnuck-ireililris. 

17. The king's high road, called Bohermorc, 

18. The lake called Lin-more 

IP. The cross in the njiddle of the highway, called 
Laght more ni hein. 

20. The little lane which leads to Lynch's rock, called 

Clogh~nn lAnce. 

21. The lints and portion of Cromwell's forces, at the 

siege of the town, when it was taken. 

22. The bogs of Suckin. 
22. 'Part o;' castle eare. 

25. Suckin river, (') part of the mill, and ('') pai't of Ba- 

, The plague house, with the garden annexed. 
, Horse Island, called Illain na Cgnpiall. 
. The stream and new fosse, called IJiegnua. 
. The little bridge river. 
, The draw bridge. 

, The old stream, by which the water formerly ran to 
the monastery or abbey bridge, called in Turre, 
or Leaim Tcige. 
. The abbey bridge. 

, Several mills, viz. St. Francis' mill. 34.' St. Michael's 
mill. 35." The bridge mill. 35." The little gate 
The Friar's stream, by which wood, &c. was formerly 

brought to the abbey, called Snicainna b'mraher. 
The abbey of Saint Francis, or of the Friars' minors. 
The abbe)' church yard. 
The gate of the inner inclosure of the abbey, and 

the dormitory. 
The refectoi")', called Halla na h'mrnlier. 
Several gardens laid out by the friars. 
The wood strand or quay, and a cross or water mark, 

in the river. 
The north suburbs, and 45, the east. 
The gallows, where criminals are executed. 
'' The new market, with the cross. 
The second \:\ke, on the way, before the gallows. 
The old pidgeon-honsc. 

Green plots, where the gentlemen of the city usually 
play and amuse themselves, commonly called The 
The scite, where it is said formerly stood the hospital 

of the knights templars. 
The garden angle, called Cluidna Garrilia. 
" Playing at bowls. 
The promontory of Morloint. 4G.' Ruinmor. 46.'' 

The Pool. 

The salt lake, called Lough-an Stale, 
Part of the stream by which the citizens formerly in- 
tended to bring round the north river, and join it 
to the south, by Loiig/i an Stale, 
Arms of some of the many noble families of Irelimd, 
connected with those of Galway. 

Hrm tluj 

■^iinillofl^ieChrfjujialon a reduced Scai^. 

"T^^y kM/:^^^^^ 




inSTOllY Ol- GALWAY. 31 

CHAP. 11. 


Earl^ JlistoTTj and Antiquities of Ireland disputed — Intemperate feelings of "writers 
on llie sid/jcct — Covie but little ~dtlun the scope of this ivork — The anciejit to'cn of 
Gahcaij made a chief point if division in the various partitions (f Ireland — In that 
hij Helxjr and Heremon — Bjj Eogan More and Con-cead-Chathach in the second 
ccnlunj—JVar between these princes, for an equal dividend of the revenues of 
Dublin and Gakcaij — The latter tlien a place of note — Destruction of Irish 7'ecords 
— Accounts of Ireland hij Tacitus and Ptolemy — Those of the latter doubted — 
Opinions of Camden, Ware, Baxter and others — That Galwai/ xvas the Nagnata of 
Ttolemij — Its origin uncertain — Destruction of the Town by the Danes — llebuilt bij 
the Conacians — Ravaged by the Momonians — Burned, and again revived in II70. 

The early liistory and antiquities of Ireland have been subjects of doubt and 
controversy, for a longer time, and perhaps in a greater degree, than generally 
occurs of any other country ; and, though it stands admitted, that, like those of 
most otlicr nations, the origin and primitive state of this Island are considerably 
involved in darkness and fable, yet, it seems also agreed, that few countries 
liave a higher claim to antiquity, ^ or have advanced better proofs in support of 
that distinction, than this, the most westerly and secluded kingdom of Europe. 
However, on this latter point, as on many others connected with the subject, 
much has been said and written on both sides ; writers stand in hostile array 
against each other, and throughout a discussion, wherein the spirit of calm 
investigation after truth should alone predominate, those angry disputants have 
generally indulged in the most acrimonious feelings, and not unfrequently in the 
most puerile reflections. Those who decried, as well as they who supported, the 
claim to antiquity, were, though from different causes, in this respect equally 
reprehensible. The former, in general unacquainted with the language, and 
consequently with the written memorials of the country, could not ])atiently 
brook the imputations of ignorance and misconception, which were most liberally 
bestowed on them by their antagonists; and therefore, after frequently supplying 
the place of knowledge by supposition, and of argmnent by angry declamation, 

^ Spencer, \\\\o was never cliar^cd with partiality to and, to the same (act, numberless otlier foreign testimonies 
|!lc Iri^h, ilcclareil near '.'50 jears a^o, lliat they were tlie could be adduced, witliout at all resorting to our native 
luubt ancient people ho knew ol' in this end of the world ; historiiins, or to the aucieiK records ol' the kingdou). 


they seldom fuiled to complete their labours by recriminating changes of national 
prejudice, and gross misrepresentation, against their more confident opposers. 

Such being the state of this literary warfare, it is e\'ident that much must 
have been left undetermined, and that a good deal still remains to be atchieved 
and many cool dispassionate efforts made, belbre criticism can have that " secure 
anchorage" so mucli to be wished for ; and until this desirable event shall take 
place, those points which have been so long supported on one side, and so 
strenuously contested on the other, can never be brought to a positive or 
satisfactory conclusion. The nature of these pages precludes the possibility of 
more than glancing at the question, and that merely in a local point of view 
and e\cn then, only so far as it bears upon the early existence and foi-mer 
celebrity of the place which is the subject of this work. Feelino- that the 
principal duty of a topographer is to state facts, the little that could be gleaned 
relating to a period so distant, dark, and doubtful, shall be faithfully exhibited 
and whatever may be the application made, or conclusion drawn from those 
statements, it is by no means intended to supersede, or interfere with tlie 
judgment or opinion of the reader. 

That the western coast of Ireland was peopled as early as any other part of 
the Island, appears from all the annals which purport to record the events of 
those distant times ; and, that the particular district, now comprehendino- the 
town of Galway and its vicinity, was one of the first positions which was chosen 
for the purpose of habitation, by the original settlers, is incontestibly proved 
from the same sources of information. By them it also appears that Galway, or 
the place on or near which it it is situate, was frequently made a chief point of 
division in the most ancient and celebrated partitions of Ireland ; and for this 
supposed reason, that, as it lay almost due west of Dublin, a line drawn from 
one j)lace to the other, would nearly divide the kingdom into two equal parts 
The first division of Ireland is attributed to Partholanus, a Scythian, who is 
stated to have effected a settlement here, some centiu-ies after the flood, and to 
have divided the kingdom into four equal parts, which he distributed amono-st 
his four sons. Of these, Fcaron, tlie third son, received the territory extendino- 
irom a place in Munster, afterwards called the Island of Barrymore, to Athcliath 
na mcaruidhe, now Clarins bridge, near Galway ; and the district from thence to 
Oileacbneid in the north, was assigned to the foiuth son Feargna. The second, 
or Firbolgian })artition of Ireland, is stated to have taken place A. M. '2500, 
when it was divided into five provinces, of which Connauglit, (so called, 
according to Keating, from Con and Oict, the posterity of Con, a druid of the 
Tuatha de danans, who afterwards inhabited that part of the country,) fell to 
the share of Geanann, one of their five principal commanders; and extended 
from Lumneacli, afterwards Limerick, including the place where Galway is 
situate, to Drobhaois, the present bay of Donegal. 


But passing over the disputed portions of our history, the more authentic 
accounts relate, that Heber and Heremon, tlie sons of" Milesius, divided the 
kingdom into two parts ; one of which was called Leath thuadh, or the 
northern, and the other Leath dheas, or the southern half. This division was 
effected by a line or boundary, drawn from Gahvay to Dublin, through Eisgir- 
riada, or the long mountains, which were fixed upon as the limits of both 
kingdoms. It is further related, that, in the reign of Eochaidh Feidhlioch, 
monarcli of Ireland, Connaught, tlion the largest province in the kingdom, 
underwent a division into tlu'ce equal parts, which that prince bestowed upon 
tluce favorite petty dynasts, Fiochach, Eochaidh-Allat and Tinne ; the second 
of whom received the territory from Galway to Drobhaois, and the tliii-d the 
district from Galway to Lumneach : that he then erected the ancient palace of 
Cruaclian, or Rathcruachna, (situate near the present village of Ballintubber, 
between the towns of Boyle and Elphin, in the county of Roscommon,) which 
from that time became the capital of Connaught, and, until long after the arrival 
of the English, for the space of near 1300 years, was the residence of its kiufs." 
.Some ruins of this once venerated place still remain, a rath, and a famous 
burying-place of the kings of Connaught, called by the natives Reilig-na-Rio"-h. 
Tiie last, and most famous partition of Ireland, was that which took place 
about the year 1G6, between Con, called in Irish Con cead Chathach, or of 
the hundred battles, then monarch of the entire Island, and Eogan kin"- of 
Munster. This division was nearly the same as that originally made by the sons 
of Milesius, but now more precisely determined by a line or boundary drawn 
across the kingdom, from Dublin to Galway, through Cluan-ard, Cluan-mac-Nois 
and Eisgir-riada. All to the north of this boundary was called Leath-cuin, or 
Con's halfj and all to the south Leath-mogha, or Eogan's half; which names they 
not only long afterwards retained, but in many places are known by to tins 
day. The partition being thus completed, the two princes quietly enjoyed their 
respective territories until the year 181, when Eogan, visiting Dublin, found a 
greater number of ships on the north side of the river than on the south, which 
consequently caused Con's mercantile revenues here considerably to exceed his 
own. Upon this discovery, Eogan complained of an infringement of their 
treaty, and, probably wishing to have a pretext for war, he contended that an 

>' It is erroneously asserted that the government, tlius Tlie following morceaii proves that fancy is not entirely 

lormc<l, was called Cunmarthnc, an error wliich arose confined to the regions of poetry. — Conniacneniara, or 

from the circumstance of that being anciently the name the Chief Tribe on the great Sea, comprehended the 

of several districts in Connaught. Thus Conmacne of v/cstern coasts of the present county of Galway. It was 

Dunniorc, in the present county of Galway, was the also called Conmacne-ira, or the Chief Tribe of the West, 

ancient estate of O'Siodhlan. Conmacne Cuiletola, now and lar-Connaught, that is. West Connaught ; likewise 

the barony of Kilmain, in the county of Mayo, was the Hy lartagh, or the Western Country, the chiefs of which 

lorJahip of O'Talcarain ; and Conmacnemara, in the are denominated Hv Flaherty or O'Flaherty, that is, the 

(oinitv of Galway, was the country of O'Cadhla, i.e. Chief of the Nobles of the Western Country, and con- 

O'Kcily. It is now the barony of BalUnahinch, or the tained the present baronies of >Ioycullen and Bailiiialiinch. 

ili-trict'of the Islands.— O'^Wc'/j. —Bcattford. 


equal distribution of the revenues in tlic ports of Dublin and Gahvay' was 
implied in the division of the kingdom ; and he not only insisted upon receiving 
it in future, but that Con should refund the surplus whieh he had received from 
the time of the treaty : this requisition was indignantly rejected, and a war 
ensued, which, after many vicissitudes, ended in the destruction of Eogan. 

Should these relations of our domestic writers, and particularly that which 
alludes to the trade of Dublin and Gahvay, excite any doubt in the mind of the 
reader, it should be remembered that Tacitus, one of the most respectable 
authorities of all antiquity, in his Life of Agricola, relates, in corroboration of 
these accounts, that Ireland, at the very time, held constant communication and 
traffic with the most formidable parts of the Roman empire, and consequently 
with Spain, to which Galway lies particularly convenient. Considering, 
therefore, that these facts are no wliere respectably controverted, but stand on 
as firm a foundation of historical authority as, under all the circumstances, can 
reasonably be expected at the j)resent day, it is manifest that Galway must have 
been, in those early times, a place of considerable note ; and, if the reader 
reverts to wliat has been said in the preceding chapter, concerning the probable 
derivation of the name of the town, from the circumstance of its commerce, he 
Avill find, that the authenticity of these historical accounts not only receives 
great additional support, but that the conclusion which is here drawn from 
them may, witli every degree of certainty, be pronounced accurate. 

It must, however, bc'particularly lamented, that much of the primitive state 
of tliis Island, and many of the transactions which occurred in it, previously to 
tlie introduction of Christianity, are wrapped up in a veil of almost impenetrable 
obscurity, and that the most laborious researches frequently terminate in little 
more than ingenious conjectures. The causes to which these defects may be 
attributed are various, but the principal seems to be, the destruction of our 
ancient records ; iu the first place, by the pious zeal of Saint Patrick, and the 
other christian missionaries, in their anxiety to destroy every vestige of lieathen 
superstition ; and, in tlie next, by the barbarous policy of the Danes, and their 
immediate invading successors the Anglo-Normans, by whom those venerable 
lights of antiquity were for ever extinguished. Another, and no inconsiderable, 
cause of the defects complained of, is, that the most valuable of the remnants 
wliich escaped tlicse devastations, and afterwards survived the wreck of time, 
are locked up irom the inspection of tlie curious, in a language which few of the 
present day understand ; a circumstance which has caused more misrepresen- 
tation and confusion on the subject of Irish antiquities, than any other whatsoever. 
These sources of information have, however, been carefully explored for the 

' Vide O'Halloraa'i Ilibtory of Ircliuid, Vol. II. p. 238. EJ. Dub. 1803. 


18^3739 35 

present work ; but so liUle of a local nature could be obtained, that it now 
hccomcs necessary to have recourse to foreign accounts, however imperfect, to 
elucidate this early page of our history. 

Ptolemy, the Greek geographer, who flourished in the second century, has 
liandcd down, through the medium of his own language, the names of several 
rivers, cities and tribes, then situate on the western coast of Irela)id. The 
accounts which he has given, though considered correct, and highly curious and 
valuable, are still liable to many objections ; and may, even without going so 
far as to coincide with the author of the Ogygia, in his remarks on their 
authenticity, be pronounced in many particulars erroneous, and such as cannot 
be entirely depended upon, without cautious and careful examination. To the 
veracity of the geographer nothing is imputable ; he related what he heard 
from those who had visited the country; for it appears that this Island, though 
unfortunately never under the dominion of the Romans, yet carried on an 
exteusive trade with the empire. Tacitus, in the tract before referred to, asserts 
that its ports and harbours were better known than those of Britain, from a 
greater commerce and resort of merchants ; and from those visitors it was, that 
I'toiemy drew the accounts which he gave of the coasts of Ireland ; for he does 
not seem to have mentioned, or even known any thing of the interior of the 
country, exc6pt a few places which lay immediately contiguous to the coasts. 

But our native historians having passed over, in silence, the several places 
mentioned by Ptolemy, the truth of his relation came at length to be doubted, 
and the existence of the cities and people, described by him, was called in 
question : this caused many writers, amongst whom Camden, Ware, Baxter and 
Harris are the chief, to exert much ingenuity to reconcile his accounts respecting 
this country in general, and to settle the situation of the several places which 
he has mentioned ; yet, after all their learned conjectures, the situations of 
many of these places still remain undetermined. The geographer having 
described the northern coast of Ireland, proceeds to the western, where he 
mentions a people called the Auterii, and a city as then existing, to which he 
gives the term " illustrious," and calls by the name of Nagnata, n«v"«t« -rcxif 
iiT.rr.u^,, Nagnata, an illustrious city. That this was the ancient town of Galway, 
according to the judgment and decision of some of the learned writers just 
mentioned, there can be no doubt, although others, at the same time, hold a 
contrary opinion, and think that the Auterii were the people then inhabiting the 
district ol' Galway, which, according to them, was their principal city. In 
order, however, to afford the reader an opportunity of forming his own judgment 
between these conflicting opinions, it may not be unimportant or uninteresting 
to lay before him what has been said, by those different writers, on the subject. 

Ware, whose opinion on Irish antiquities (though he was unacquainted with 
the Irish language,) claims every deference, says, that the Auterii resided in the 
countries comprehending the present counties of Galway and Roscommon, 

' >;; '. 


Mr. Beauford, a writer much more fanciful than correct, supposes them the 
inhabitants of the coasts of Galway and Mayo ; and, as the name, according to 
him, signifies an habitation on the western water, he thinlvs there is the greatest 
probability that their city was situate some where on the bay of Galway, to 
which the natives, during their commerce with the Gallic, Iberian and Roman 
merchants, resorted for the benefit of traffic ; if it were not, adds he, the 
ancient town of Galway itself. He again changed his mind, by placino- these 
people in that extensive district, now comprehending the coimty of Mayo, and 
says, they were evidently the ancient inhabitants of the Irish Ibh-Errus, the 
present barony of Errus in that county. By this he seems to have abandoned 
his former conjecture, leaving the opinion of Ware uncontroverted ; who, with 
a great deal of probability, tliinks that the town of Atlienry, commonly called 
in Irish Atli-an-righ, or Jitanri, was the city or capital of the Auterii : and, 
independently of any coincidence of name, which, howe\er, is very remarkable, 
the situation and antiquity of Athenry very much fivvour the opinion. From 
hence, thei-efore, it may be safely concluded, that tlie city of the Auterii, 
mentioned by Ptolemj, was not the ancient town of Galway. 

It now remains to ascertain the situation of Nagnata, then the principal 
city on the western coast of Ireland ; and, altliough satisfactory proofs and 
convincing arguments shall be produced, which will fully demonstrate it to 
have been the original towai of Galway, still, from the order and distances, as 
laid down by Ptolemy, it might, with every appearance of probability, be 
concluded, that Nagnata was situate more to the north, and somewhere in the 
direction of the present town or county of Sligo. But, as the writings of this 
author abound with errors and mistakes, many arising from incorrectness of 
information, and, perhaps, many more from carelessness of transcribers, no 
dcpendance ought to be, or indeed is, placed on them by the learned ; 
and particularly as to the situations of many of the places which he has 
mentioned. A writer, referred to in the last paragraph, who endeavoured a 
good deal, but often upon erroneous principles, to reconcile those differences, ' 
places Nagnata in the present barony of Carbery and county of Sligo ; and, to 
support this allocation, he alleges that the name is derived from Nagaetaegh, or 
the habitation on the sea ; but he seems to have forgotten that this would equally 
well apply to any other situation on the coast, as to that which was selected by 
him for the ])urpose of establishing his hypothesis. He then adds, tliat it was 
called by the old Irisli, Sliogld gae, or the race on the sea, but for this he 
does not give, nor, in truth, could he give, any authority; and he finally 
supposes, that it might be Cnoc na teagJi, or Druimcliff'e, in the county of Sligo, 
wliich, though at present only a desolated village, is said, in former ages, to 

i Transactions Roval I|■i^h Academy, Vol. III. 


have been a large town. Ware, however, declares, tliat he was not able to 
discover the smallest trace of" a city, so called, in all that tract of country ; and 
though he thinks, with every appearance of truth, that Ptolemy might have 
misplaced this city a little, he docs not mention where he supposed it might 
have been situated. Baxter, whose authority is most respectable, judges Galway 
to ha\'e been the place, " and says that the name means, in Irish, Ciianim guactie, 
or the port of the small Islands, alluding to the Isles of Arran, lying at the 
entrance of the bay, and the other small Islands lying nearer the town. He 
derives the name from Cuan, ' a port or harbour, na, a preposition of the genitive 
case, and uact oi' guact, a little Island, which, by transition into the Greek manner 
of pronunciation, would form Nagimta, for Nagnata he takes to be an error of 
transcribers. Harris, the editor of Ware, agrees with Baxter, saying, that the 
situation of Galway, according to Ptolemy, is pretty near the truth of this 
notion. If, in corroboration of the foregoing reasonings, recurrence shall be 
had to the testimonies of Tacitus, and also of our native historians, already 
mentioned, relative to the commerce of Galway, at the very time that Ptolemy 
dL'scribcs Nagnata as the most considerable place on the western coast of Ireland^ 
very little doubt can remain as to their identity. If it should still he necessary 
to call in the aid of probability or conjecture on the point, the reader mio-ht be 
reminded how indispensible the advantages of natural situation are alwavs held, 
towards rendering any place eminent or considerable; and, seeing that the bay 
of Gahvay possesses, in a high degree, all these advantages, it might be no 
small reason to conclude, that Nagnata, then the most celebrated place in this-- 
part of the kingdom, must have been situated some where on the bay : and, if 
he should go farther, and enquire for the particular spot, he might be assisted by 
considering the general practice of mankind, at all times, in building their 
habitations or cities at or near the banks of rivers; and then, combinino- the 
numerous advantages, which, in the particular instance of the position of 
Galway, attend the confluence of a considerable lake and the ocean, he will: 

' Xaguatae, apiiJ Ptolema:um populus est Ibcrni^ ; Nagnata, Ptolonia?o HoAi; 'Zvimuof, dicitiir, quod 

omncs tamen Libri levi laborant vitio : Qiiippe pro eo hercle vel hodie est, Gallna nostra, ita nominata scoto- 

ipioJ dobcrct esse ex Analogia lin<;iia> Nafua (hodie brigantibus de ciiltoribiis Anglis : siqiiidem vetusta lingua. 

li-;^iM:us Ncfw, et in noniuiilis exeniplaribiis adhnc pejus Gal pro qiiovis Peregrine est; mule et se ipsos Gallos 

W«r»a1; putoqiiodfieretvox Latina. Nagnatarum scdcm vocitabant Hrigantes Ibernia. Etymon liiijns loci in 

Omnactiam fiiisse mecnni sentet Camdenus. Quod superior* voce (jua-renduni est.— i^n.,^ Gloss. Ilril. 

qiiideni nomen correpte eflbrtur pro cuan na guactie, ^.'^' page .3, (note) it is mentioned that the town of 

n.iod portus est exinuarum insulnrum, qu;e hodie ab !'""'"''""''• '." L''<J"'erg, was presented to the ahl)ey of 

4. ■ ■ „...,?. n . T • Collis Victoria, or Knockniov, near Puam (uuiided Iw 

]:non sive Ents indigenis vocantur arrnn pro luenoii. ^, ,, . ,^,,, ' ,. ^ ,,-' '-■»'■'"'"", iuhmucu uy 

r . . „ n ^ n . ■ ■ .. \ <■ • /-^ 11- Cathal O Conor, king of Connaii'-ht, about the \ear 

Est autcm Ci«n Ibcrnis PoWiM, sicuti et hodiernis Galhs ,,q,, ,, , \a'^° ■<• i .i iV r • 

,, . I I . .■!>•.■/-. ., -• 1190. Jt would seem as it by the Irish Lismuriiaii. or 

p o Jngn/oct, nostns Britanms Co^se- met etiam ^/,,y„,^ „„ f,,^ j^,^^;^ ^.^^ „,4„^ ^,.^^^ ^1,^ parsonage 

sive altera ,luadan^ loquela uact vel Gnoct.) Parvam ^f which, for a long period before the establi'liment of 

Inisse insulam alias documuis. Est igitur ^a syllaha in the wardcnship by the Pope, belomred to that monastery • 

voce Naguatte pro Nota Gemtivi veten Brigantum if so, the circumstance would tend much to strengthen 

sermoae. Baxter's ingenious conjecture. 


iind that its situation vras the best adapted, and most probable phicc of any otlier 
ill that quarter, for tliat of the city in question. Considering, therefore, all the 
foregoing testimonies and reasonings, and the conclusions drawn from them, our 
eiitirc concurrence is given to the opinions of the learned and respectable writers 
above quoted, that the ancient town of Galway, though without any apparent 
nominal analogy, was the famous city mentioned under the name of Nagnata 
by Ptolemy. 

Having thus far endeavoured to ascertain the existence of this ancient place, 
the next object should be, if possible, to discover its origin and illustrate its 
history ; but these are totally involved in darkness ; and the only room that 
remains even for conjecture, is that of its having been so often made a point of 
division, in the various partitions of Ireland, as mentioned in the beginning of 
this chapter, whence it may reasonably be concluded io have been of very 
remote antiquity. 

It would be foreign from the intention with which this work was originally 
undertaken, here to consume too much time in describing the tribe, and people, 
who, according to Ptolemy or the native writers of Ireland, formerly inhabited 
the countries about Galway. As to the town itself, to which our attention is 
principally directed, no mention appears made of it for centuries after the 
period in which it is found to have been so considerable ; but there are extant 
several accounts of sanguinary contests, between the rival princes of Minister 
and Connaught, '" immediately in its neighbourhood ; and also of changes of 
inhabitants, and new settlements in its vicinity : but a dead silence reigns as to 
the place itself, which can only be accounted for, from the destruction of the 
ancient records and annals of the kingdom already alluded to; and this want 
or omission is not at all singular in the history of our island, for it is now most 

"" The animosities which subsisted between Con and seems he had a prior right, as it lay within the limits 

Eogan were kept alive bv their descendants. A bloody traced out from Galway to DuIjHm between Con and 

battle was foimlit, at ]Mai;h Mochrumc, near Galway, Eogan. He converted the whole into I'cnron cllum/i, or 

between Mac Conn, son of Mac Xeid, who succeeded Swnift land, for the maintenance of his knights, in order 

to Leatli Mogha, after the deatli of Eogan, assisted by to sccnre his conntry iigainst the Conacians. In an 

Liiig Laga, second son of Eogan, and Art, (son of Con endeavour to recover thisback, in the year 550, Guara, 

cead Chathach,) then king of Tara, assisted by the sons king of Connaught, was defeated with dreadful slaughter, 
of Olioll Ohnn, eldest son of, of whom seven were About this period, some of the descendants of Luii; 

killed in that battle. — Ogiig. Dealbhaodh, son of Cos, king of North Munster, settled 

In the year 360, Lni^ nieann, otherwise Lamh dcnrg, in the territory of Delvin Feadha, in Tirdaloch, to the 
or the btuodi) haudcd, king of Leath mogha, after being west of Galway. It was anciently divided into two 
harassed by the Conacians, who made frequent attempts districts called Giiomore and Giwbcag, which now coin- 
to adil the district, forming the present county of CUu-e, pose the whole barony ol' Moyculiin. The O'Conrjs 
to their territory, defeated them in several sanguinary were anciently chiefs of Gnobeag, until they were 
ci'gage'.iients, killed several of their chiefs, and, laying partly dispossessed, and partly made tributaries by the 
■waste their territories with fire and sword, dcpriveil them O'Flahertvs. — Oi/lcct. 

of Clare and Tiiomond, extending from the hay of About "the year 432, St. Patrick founded a church on 

Kileolgan, near Galway, to Limerick, and from Loc/i- the banks of Loch ^ealga, near Galway, which was 

J}tnrg to Lchii CiicliuUiii, or Cuchulliu's leap, now afterwards distinguished by the name of Domhnaclimorc, 

called Loophead, otherwise Cape leane, at the mouth of or the great church. — Ogvg. 
ihe Shannon. To this extensive tract of country it 


clearly ascertained, that many considerable places fonnerly had existence, of which 
very little more than their names have been transmitted to posterity. To notice 
a single instance, oat of many ; who can peruse the few and trifling accounts 
now remaining of the early history of Dublin, the ancient metropolis of the 
kingdom, without a conviction of the loss of the annals and chronicles, which 
recorded the events of those distant times ? 

At the commencement of the ninth century, the Danes began to pour in 
swarms i'lom their northern hive u])on Ireland ; terror and devastation marked 
their progress in every quarter ; neither the venerable remains of antiquity, the 
feelings of humanity, nor the divine spirit of the christian religion, could make 
any impression on those ferocious monsters, who, with fire and sword, burned 
and massacred all before them, without distinction. In the year 835, an army 
of these adventui'ers, under the command of their sanguinary leader Turgesius, 
over-run and ravaged the province of Connaught, " committing, in their progress, 
the most dreadful carnage; and, in the general wreck and destruction which 
then took place, the ancient town of Gahvay was destroyed. That this 
insatiable enemy did not spare a place so well adapted for commerce, or 
afterwards settle there, according to the policy adopted at Waterford, Limerick, 
and other parts of the kingdom, appears extraordinary, unless that they might, 
j)erhaps, have considered its situation as too remote, for purposes of internal 
traffic or conquest. 

Soon after the power of the Danes was completely ruined at the famous battle 
of Clontarf, the Irish applied themselves, with assiduity, to remedy the disorders 
occasioned by those invaders ; and the people of Connaught, well knowing the 
great advantages to be derived from the ])lace where the ancient town of" 
(jalway was situate, accordingly commenced improving, or rather reviving, the 
town, which was then reduced to the state of a miserable village, consisting of 
a few straggling huts, inhabited by fishermen and their families, some of whose 
names are given in a former page. In the year 11'^ t, a strong castle was built, 
and the town was put into a state of defence and security. ° The erection of 
this castle, and the consequent increase and improvement of the town, were 
\iewed with jealousy and suspicion by the people of Munster ; between wliom, 
and those of Connaught, there long subsisted a considerable degree of provincial 
competition and animosity : and, with destructive policy, it was determined to 
destroy the place, before it should become more formidable. In j)ursuancc of 
tiiis determination, Connor, the reigning king of Munster, in the year 113'J, 
dispatched a body of troops, by sea, under the command of Cormac Mc. Carthy •, 

■ Kealing and Ware. anil Turlogh O'Conor, monarch of IiThnul, (ulio sur- 

" Annals of Inisfnllcn and I,j/nrh''s I\ISS. — In the same ceeded in 11. 30,) hoon alter built tlirce brid^'es i]\ 

yciir were built, the castles of Dunlo, near Ballinasloe, Connaneht, viz. Atlilone, Athcrochta over the Sliaiiiioiij 

and Cuil-raaol, alias CiulJony, in the county of Sligo; and Duulo upon the river Suck. — Ann. Ini-J'. 



who, landing, besieged und took the castle of" Galway, then known by the name 
of Dune-bun na Gaillve, or iJiC fortification at the mouth ofGahcmj; and, having 
put the entire garrison to the sword, levelled and destroyed the castle and town, 
and soon after defeated and slew Connor O'Flaherty, Lord of lar Connaught. ^ 
In the following year, the king of INIunster himself marched at the head of an 
army into Connaught, laid waste the places called Ruadlibheitlicacli and Ik-alalJia; 
slew Cathal O'Conor, the Righdamhna, or heir apparent to the throne of Connaught, 
and Giolla na naomh O'Floinn, a chieftain of great power : after which, he 
biu-ned the fortresses of Dunmogli-dhairne and Dunmore, and all the other places 

^ The heads of this ancient aiiJ noble Irish family 
were, from the earliest period, Toparchs of lar, or 
western Connaiiglil, and they long struggled, with various 
success, against the power of the English. There appear 
frequent entries on the records during the reigns of 
Hen. III. and Edw. I. II. III. of Donachad O'Fflaherty, 
Kothery O'Fflaherty, I'tc. having, with many other chief- 
tains, liccn compelled to sue for and i)ay heavy fines for 
liaving the king's peace. Tiiese submissions were, how- 
ever, but merely nominal and temporary, and the sept 
maintained its independence to a very late period. They 
were always at variance with the Galway Colonists, whom 
they kept in a state of continual warfare, considering 
thcni as alien encroachcrs on their territory. — Vide Jiotc, 
jinnc 20. 

In tlie reign of Elizabeth, government, by fomenting 
divi>ions amongst this powerful sept, brought them to 
obedience. On t'Oth Oct. 1S69, Morougli ne dubh Mc. 
Tcine ly Flahcrlie was a])pointcd captain of the country 
of Ehirconaght, (by reason, as the queen's patent states, 
that Donald Xi-Cnnic (y Flahcriie, the present captain, 
was not sufficient or fit to exercise that office, in any 
rule, nor able to govern that country, and moreover 
was disobedient to the queen,) to hold during his good 
behaviour, as the queen's faithful subject ; and to defend 
and govern the said country, and the good sulijects 
thereof; to repair to the chief governors, and the council, 
whenever summoned so to do; to pay to the lord deputy, 
for his appointment and his admission to the said office, 
forty fat cows, and deliver them at Galway, as the lord 
deputy should direct; reserving to the crown all such 
rents, rights, services, burdens and demands, as were 
anciently due and payable out of the said country — Hot. 
Pat. II Elh. — He was afterwards knighted, and on 12th 
Jan. 1587, upon his surrender of his estate, and name of 
<)' Flahcrtic, and all Irish customs thereto belonging, 
queen Eliz. granted him all manors, castles, lordships, 
lauds, &e. the moiety of all felons and fugitives goods, 
fines and amerciaments, courts and other hereditaments, 
in Aghncnewer, 4 quarters, the castle of Fowagh, 4 
quarters, the castle of O'Herie, 4 quarters, Insye-Mc. 
Coyne, 2 quarters, the castle of Mocollen, (the 8th part 
excepted,) 3 quarters, Cloynenufte, 3 quarters, Ballene- 
I'orbagh, 1 quai-ter, Kellroe, 1 quarter, Bathcowna, 1 
<]uarter, Belleycowrke, 1 quarter, and CorcoUcn, I 
quarter, in the barony of Mocollen ; the castle of 
Bailennonagh, containing 18 quarters, in the barony of 
Rosse, county Mayo ; the castle of Ballcndownj 4 

quarters, Ballenehinsie, 1 quarter, Ballcnioyllen, 3 car- 
trons, Ballesellherne, 4 quarters, Moydollan, 2 quarters, 
Moybilley, 2 quarters, Rloyarde, 2 quarters, Moagg and 
Ardaghe, 1 quarter, Enielye, \ quarter, Kermorney, 1 
quarter, and Coneveyaghe, 1 quarter, in the barony of 
Ballenehinsie : all lying in the country of O'Flaliertie, 
called J/u-i-Covag/il, known by the names of Tiivmnrr, 
Tuubcgg, Connciiiarra and Lc Joj/es cuuii/iy, to hold to 
him and his heirs for ever, by tije tueutieth part of a 
knight's fee, as of the manor of Arkin, in the great Islaml 
of Arin, paying all compositions. — Patent inrollcil. 

In 15S4, disputes arose between the heails of the 
family, and on 3d July, 158,';, the lord deputy, at the 
instance ot Hon/ W Flalierlic, issued a commission to 
examine into tiie causes of these feuds. Upon this 
occasion it appeared, that the territory of Gnvbcgn, or 
Knoiidrg/r, was the ancient inheritance of Ci//cdii/f 
O'F/n/uilie, who died seized thereof in his demesne as of 
fee, and, that be and his sons lived at the Moi/cnllc\ and 
were the O^ Flaherties, and governors or chiefs of ail the 
country, and had services and duties out of evcrv part of 
Gnobegg ; that he had an elder brother, that had no 
part or portion of Gnubegg, l)ut had his portion, 
Gnomore: that Gnobegg contained the towns of Mov- 
cullen, (the chief town in the same,) Clondutf or Cloydiifl; 
Balle Mc. Gellevey, Theowre, Killehahine, Curraghduti; 
Cossowon or Cosshoone, Barna or Barney, Forbougli, 
Spiddell, Coylrowny or Kylle-Rowc, Moyseragli or Mo\- 
askrogh, Bocarna, Chayry or Ogharry, Tollokihan or 
Tulkihan, Ballyquirke, Ballemulgoyrie or Mulgurney, 
Curcnllen or Curculen, Leyteruiilianie or Leterniylany, 
and Gaerinana, the island of Innyshe Mc. Fryan or 
Innishe Mc. Atrire, with the lands in or of Connomara, 
Airdbeara, Ballinlenry or Ballinbury, Balle Ihry or Baile 
Ivvile, and Uynvylehoway or Ityuvyleohway : that the 
said Gnobegg was nieared and boimded, from Urawaii 
learwan or Srwan-Igrai-nn, north, to Galwaij, south, 
saving the liberties, ami so along the river of Allei/ or 
Donhelli), west, to Galiuai), east : that Hugh More Me. 
Gillediiff was son and heir to the said J/c. Killedujt'e, 
and his best son, and was possessed of all Gnobegg; and 
left Hughe Oge O'F/aherlie, his son and heir, wiio died, 
seized of the said premises: he left them to his son an(l 
heir, Aloriertagh or Murlugh 0^ Flahi rtie ; who left the 
said Rory, his only son and heir, by his wi;e, Evehn iiv 
Kirevau : that said Aloricrtagh was slain, in the castle of 
Moycullen, by the sept of Edmund (>' Flahertir, \\/. 
Bryan and JjvneU Crona, and the sejjt of JMorirrlo'-it 

)iisTOi:v oi' t;Ai.\VAY 


of" strength in tlie country. Turloii;li O'Brien, king- of Miinster, again, in the 
year 1 1 1'J, invaded Connauglit, and took and destroyed the town and castle of 
(j'ahvay. Tlicso ravages appear to liavc been soon afterwards repaired, for in 
11.5K tlic shi]is of " Galway Dune" and of Conniacnaniara, were sent upon an^ 
expedition to the northern parts of the kingdom ; and immediately after the 
following entry occurs in the annals of the town : II6I, strange ships were seen 
iti the harbour of Galway Dune, and the following day the town took fire. The 
ainials of Innisfallcn mention another conflagration, in II70, '' but are otherwise 
silent as to the town. It may, however, be concluded, that this disaster was 
speedily remedied ; tor although the combustible matter of which buildings 
u'erc then almost universally composed, rendered them more liable to the 
dreadful catastroplie of fire than structures of a more modern date and form, 
they were, at the same time, much more easily put together or repaired, in 
consequence of the general slightness "of their texture and materials. This 

Rrciih, topctlicr with four of his sons, ax\A tliat the said 
Ihi^h 0:ir, then W Fln'iertic, <;ran<lfatlier to tlie said 
Itiirii, wiis taken liy tlii; niui'ilcrtTs ; ana witii tliem 
lit'tained without meat or drink, until he died liv 
famine, at Movcullcn: that O' Flahcrtic used to eat 
meat among tlic inliabitants of tlie said places, and had 
moiiev paid to him; and, that the septe of the Purcelles, 
now inhabitors of the said lands, confessed, that tliere 
was due to the septe of Gillcduff, 40 pence sterling, of 
' nnnu-.d rent, (but now of late Mnmgh-nc-Do, waxing 
frtron^'c, took the rent,) and also that thev had 3s. 4i/. 
nnnnal rent, out of the Island Eildi/, paid by the 
I'urcelles.—/?,)/. Put. 29. Eliz. 

On IGth Au';ust, 1C07, it was found by inquisition, 
taken at Gal«ay, that Teige ne holly O' Flaherty of Ardc 
Mas chief of liis name, and that he had the title of 
0' Ftrilierti/, since the time of Sir Henry Sidney, lord 
deputy ; tliat he was seized in fee of the castle oi' Arde, 
aad -2 cartrons, called the two Ardes, and, under a division 
iL-twecn him and others of his competitors, of one half 
of Ballyudorvin and Ballinahinch ; that as chief of his 
niiine, or Toiiist, he was seized in tee, of the castle and 
island of Ballynahinch, and the fijhings of the river of 
Owcnmore, until one Tuig Alar 2Iorrouglie iic diilili, his 
two sons, and Mun-oiigli iie J\Iore O'Flalirrly, dispos- 
sessed him of the same; that by the composition with 
<|ucen Eliz. he was to hold the entire by kniahts service, 
«' iif the castle or manor of Ardkyu in the great island 
iif Arren. It was also found, that he had mortgaged 
•rveral lands, to Richard Martin, of Gahvay, merchant. 

At the same time, a similar inquest was held, as to 
Mitrroiigli ne Jllare, finding all his extensive property and 
rhief rents in Ciniamriru, and several Irish customs", viz. 
lliat for every cow, horse, &c. stolen within the barony 
ii'ven-fuM restitution should be made to (f Flu he it y; 
that the natives should furnish him with a butt of wine 
at certain times, that they should not take wreck of the 
».-a, without giving him notice, and whenever he should 
;;ive any of his daughters in marriage, that they should 
kilow a heifer, oat of every quarter of land, &c. — /«</. 

Murrough ne iSIore made the following 
mortgages, amongst others, of seve- 
ral lands, the fee simple of which 
are now held by the descendants of 
the mortg:igees. — Id. 
28th April, 1613. To Gillediific Mc. Mortagh, thecartron 

of Derrynclare, for four milch cows. 
8th Sept. 1615. To Nicholas Martin of Galway, mer- 
chant, Lettcrcamsy, for 20/. 
2d May, ICIS. To the same, several town lands, pareells 

of Ballinahinch, for 100/. 
Sth June, 1622. To Nicholas Martin, Geofti-y Lynch and 
Martin Browne, the lands of Lecar- 
row, Urrislouan, Ardage, lS:c. lor 
1000 years for 131/. 

To Nicholas Martin, Edward Browne 

and Martin Browne, the lands of 

C'leggaTd)egg, iS.c. f<ir 100/. 

Sth May, 1G2J. To Joiinock I.yuch, iS:c. the lanils of 

licuville, Lettergosse, Ballinakill, 

Ardbfar, Ardkill, and several others. 

3d June, 162 1. To Ednuuul Ffrench, James Darcy, &c. 

J cartrons in Monynmore, ilc. for 


Murrough ne j\I(ire, who, until the hitter period of 

his lite never obeyed any other liian the Brchou laws, 

was, perhaps, the last of the old Irish chieftains. He 

dieii on 16th Ai)ril, 1626, Icavinu Miirroiig>i ne Mart 

his son auil heir. J)iu-ing the civil wars which followed 

this period, the different clans of tlie name, lust almost 

the entire of their pro|>ertics ; a comjiaratively small 

j)ortion, however, still remains in the possession of 

Thomas Henry O'Flaherty, Esq. of Ivenionlield, Ccnmty 

Gah.vay, tiie lineal descendant of one of the chiefs of 

this illustrious family. 

'' Oupiriac C()iu)ni-r, Ik- t«i l()yi;ir) j-an l:)l)jp*)n 
po, j-.jn.v roampUiVi, djip caiflertn foipiiriie, 
''S'M' ■■^'p'^i*'*'''^^ ni-*!' o'l iccaona — Ann. Inuixf. 


circumstance accounts for the many melancholy narratives of destructive fires, 
with which our ancient chronicles, and even the annals of this town abound ; 
and it is to be regretted, that when the authors of these works, considered such 
visitations, like wars and battles, as too memorable to be silently passed over; 
they, at the same time, omitted many things which to them appeared of less im- 
portance, but which would now be more generally useful and interesting. 
Amongst these may be particularly classed, descriptions of the actual state and 
improvement of the country, which seldom found their way into these monastic 
compilations ; and which causes so great a scarcity of topographical knowledge, 
relative to the middle ages in Ireland. 

But another and much more important era than any which has hitherto 
occurred, occasioned by the Anglo-Norman invasion of this Island, now opens 
to our view. With that memorable and important event originated several new 
sources of information both of a local and general nature. The transactions of 
the country, but particularly such portions of it as fell immediately under the 
dominion of the invaders, were recorded ; and the greater part of the accumu- 
lated numiments thus produced, was preserved by means of established repositories, 
and carei'uUy handed down to the present day. Peculiar facilities of investigation 
liave enabled the author of this work to glean from those national arcliives, 
several facts illustrative of the history of this ancient town ; they will be found 
fully detailed in the ensuing pages, and which will, it is hoped, in some degree 
compensate for the deficiency of more early information. 

nisTOUY or galway. 43 



Arrhal of Strn?igl>o:c accoinpankd hij IViUiam F'llz-Andelm de Burgo, anccslur of 
tlic fcnnlh] of Claiiricardc — Landing of Ilenrtj II. — Submission and subsequent 
revolt of tlic Irish Princes — Unsuccessful at temj)t of Roderic O'Conor, the monarch, 
on Dublin — I'rcatj/ beliceen him and Henri/ II. — First hostile incursion of the 
Invaders into Connaught, and their defeat — Grant of the Province to De Burgo — 
Deposition and death of Roderic — Connor, his successor, defeats De Courct/ — 
Cathal, ivho succeeds, joins with Meilcr Fitz-IIenry the Justiciar!/, and subdues 
Dc Burgo — Treati/ between him and King John — Cathal dies, and Henry III. 
orders the Lord Justice to seize on all Connaught and deliver it to Richard De 
Burgo — Fedhlim, who succeeded Cathal, visits Henry in England, and obtains an 
order to be 7-es tared to his territory — The Castle of Galway fortified by O' Flaherty 
— 2'alen by De Burgo, who strengthens the Castle a?ul protects and encourages the 
Town — JValls, great Gate, and Toxcer erected — Increase of Trade and Commerce — 
Church of St. Nicholas built — Dispute betrvec7i the families of Blake and Athy — 
Death of JVilUam. Earl of Ulster, and seizure of Galway by Mac William Fighter 
— Charters of Murage and of the Staple granted by Edxvard III. — Removal of the 
Staple — jMerchanls of Limericlc jealous of the increasing trade and prosperity of 
Gahcay — Revolt and submission of the Town — Two Charters granted by Ricliard II. 
— Charter oj" Henry IV. — Mercantile Regulations — Establishment of a Mint — 
Charter of Edxvard IV. and Conflagration in the Toxvn. 

The successful invasion of Ireland in tlie twelfth century, by a few enter- 
prizing adventurers, is an event which has long astonislicd the world. The 
suddenness and insignificance of the expedition, the easy and unaccountable 
submission, almost without a struggle, of a numerous and warlike ])eople to a 
foreign foe, and the vast importance of tlie acquisition to the crown and kino-doni 
of England justly excited the admiration of mankind. The causes v.hich led to 
this great and memorable revolution will be ibund fully detailed in the histories 
of the times; its effijcts, which still continue, and which will influence millions 
vet unborn, are too well ascertained to require any new description : and as neither 
properly come within the limits of a work of this nature tlie following pages will, 
therefore, be confined to the local and provincial transactions which afterwards 
took place, so far as they could be found to affect, or have any bearing on 
the history of Galway. 


In the year 1171» Richard Earl Strongbow hvnded near Watcrford, accom- 
panied by William Fitz-Andelm de Burgo, a principal leader in the army, \vlio, 
after the success of the invaders, was appointed to the chief government of 
Ireland. ' Henry II. soon afterwards arrived with an army of 4U00 men, and 
having received the submission of some of tlie petty princes of Leinstcr and 
Minister, and of several of the bishojis and clergy, lie returned to England. 
Innncdiately on Ids departure, the princes and chieftains who liad so recently 
submitted to his authority, as if on reflection they felt ashamed of the 
jnisillanimity with which they bowed their necks to the yoke of serxitude, 
revolted and commenced hostilities. Roderic O'Conor, king of Connaught and 
monarch of Ireland, who tamely permitted the encroachments of the English, 
HOW, when it was too late, roused from his lethargy, crossed the Shannon with 
a considerable army, and proceeded towards Dublin, which he invested: but in 
consequence of the unhappy dissensions which prevailed among his troops, and 
which, amongst the Irish, were at all times the causes of their ruin, he was 
defeated, obliged to retreat, and sue for peace. He accordingly dispatched deputies 
to England, who met the king at Windsor, and there a ])eace was most solemnly 
concluded between the two monarchs. Roderic consented to do homage, a]id 
j)ay tribute to the king of England ; whereupon he was to hold his kingdom of 
Connaught, with the title of king, under him, Jie.r sub eo, and that in as ample a 
manner as he had done before the coming oi" the English. Our historians are 
unanimous in declaring that there never was any treaty more scrupulously 
adhered to than this by Roderic, while few Mere ever more flagrantly violated 
than it afterwards was, by Henry. 

In the year II7S, the English first set a hostile foot in Connaught. Murrougli, 
one of Roderic's sons, having recei\ed, or probably pretending to have received, 
some supposed injury, privately dispatched messengers to Milo de Cogan, ' who 
then lay in Dublin inviting him to march into Connaught, with a sufficient 
force, and pronusing, that he would be ready to assist him : holding forth, at 
the same time, great prospects of plunder. Milo, who only wanted the 
invitation, immediately set out, with upwards of 500 men, and soon arrived in 
Connaught; but having there met with a reception far difllerent i'rom what he 
expected, h.e was obliged to make a shameful retreat, with considerable loss. 

' This nolilciiian, was the great ancestor of the power- rariis titulis et siinima reruni ailmiiiiitratione potita. — 

ful iiiMiil}' of De Burgo and the Earls of Clanricarue, (pf Camlirensis Eversm pa. 53. 

•vhoni frcqiier.l. mention will be made throni;hout this "John de Cogan, a descendant of this Milo's, about 

work. Of his numerous and opulent posterity by two the year 120O, built the Franciscan Friary at Clare-yn- 

wives, the fuv.t the daughter of the king of EnL'land, and dowl now Clare Calway. It is a beautiful and curious 

the second tlui daughter of Daniel more O'BiJi'n, the piece of gothic architecture, and is still in considerable 

lust king of Cashel, Ciratianus Lucius s|)eaks as follows — |)rcservation ; particularly the high tower, which is raised 

Cujus jiropa'^o adeo loiige latcque per bibferniani ditl'iisn on ai'ches. The castle was afterwards erected by one of 

est, ut in singulis Insula- regioiiihus latil'unilia pluriuia, the fauiily of the De Burgos, 
ft sunuuaui nlenuiKiue duuiiii.ilioncui letulei'it; liono- 



nu traitor Murrough, was ilescrvccUy sentenced to lose his eyes, and suffer 
jHrrpetual imprisonment; but having been soon afterwards liberated, he became 
the Riu'lty cause of the most lamentable dissensions. 

William Fitz-Andclm de Ikirgo, who, during his government of Ireland,, 
formed the plan of obtaining u grant of tlie entire ])rovince of Connaught, 
(where, he hoped, in consequence of its distracted state, to be able to establish 
himself,) was no sooner recalled, than he confidently applied to Henry on the 
subject; of course representing llodcric as only waiting for an opportunity to 
retrieve his ruined affairs. Tlie king, who ought to have recoiled with 
indignation from such a request, on the contrary, in open violation of the 
treaty which lie had so recently entered into, (and which, it could not even 
be alleged was infringed on in any one article by Roderic,) in the year 1179> 
made the desired grant to William Fitz-Andelm and his heirs ; and although the 
grantee never, during his life, gained any benefit by the concession, the country, 
notwithstanding, became thenceforward, the melancholy theatre of war and 

Soon after this grant was obtained, Hugo de Lacy, one of the boldest of the 
adventurers, entered Connaught for the purpose of jffundering, but being 
resolutely opposed, he saved himself and his men by a precipitate flight. The 
province is described as particularly disturbed in 1181, and these disturbances 
seem to have continued for the five succeeding years. In 1186, the rebellious 
sons of the unfortunate Roderic were the first to dethrone their unhappy 
father ; they abstained, it is true, from the heinous crime of i)arricide, but they 
obliged him (perhaps to prevent it,) to fly and take refuge in the venerable 
abbey of Cong, in the present County of Mayo, where he found an asylum for 
the remainder of his life. Connor, one of his sons, ])laced himself on the 
throne, and soon signalized himself by routing, with great slaughter, John de 
Courcy, who, in 11 SO, taking advantage of the existing broils, made an 
incursion into Connanglit. Connor did not long enjoy his usurped dignity, he 
was killed by one of his brothers, who, in return was slain by his nephew, one 
of Connor's sons, whereupon Cathal, or Charles, surnamed Crovdearg, or the 
hloodfi handed, succeeded, and, soon after his succession, gained a victory over 
Ue Courcy, whom he defeated with the loss of 200 foot and 30 horse; in 
commemoration of which, he founded the abbey of CoUis Victoria, now called 
Knockmoy in the County of (Jalway. 

Roderic O'Conor, the last of the Irish monarchs, died in Cong, where he had 
lived in retirement for the last twelve years of his life. Immediately on his death, 
William Fitz-Andelm made every preparation to assert his claim to Connaught, 
and with an intention of making Cathal Carragh O'Conor, who had views oit 
the throne, subservient to his designs, he joined with him, routed Crovdearg, 
and the confederate troo{)s of Ulster and Mcath, and established Carragh : but 
not finding him so obedient to his wishes as he had expected, he soon after 


declared against him, and joining with Crovdearg, tlicy defeated Carragh, ul\o was ' 
slain in the field, and his death led to the restoration of his more fortunate rival. 
Tlie power and fame of De Burgo now became so extensive, that he openly 
declared himself independent of the crown of England ; made Limerick the 
seat of his power, determined on war and jjcace at pleasure, and was both feared 
and hated as well by the English as by the Irish chieftains. Cathal Crovdcaro-, who 
experienced his changeable disposition, was obliged again to have recourse to 
arms for his protection ; and joining with IMeiler Fitz-Henry, the Justiciary, they 
marched towards Limerick, where they soon forced that powerful chief to 
surrender and return to his allegiance. He appears to have remained quiet the 
remainder of his life. In the year 1^200 he founded the famous abbey of 
Athassell in the county of Tipperary ; and having died in U^04, he was there 
interred, leaving Richard, Lord of Connaught, his heir and successor. It is 
observed by our historians, that the foregoing expedition of Cathal and the 
Justiciary, was the first instance in which an Englishman was ever seen at the 
head of the native troops of Ireland. 

The death of William Fitz-Andelm did not retrieve the aftairs of Cathal, but 
ratlier opened upon Jiim more dangerous foes; to avoid whom, he wisely 
determined to enter into a treaty with king John, and if possible to depend 
lipon him for safety and protection. Accordingly in the year 1200, he 
surrendered two parts of Connaught, and agreed to pay one hundred marks 
yearly for the third part, which lie was to hold in vassalage ; ' but notwithstandino- 
this treaty, it appears that this proverbially perfidious English monarch, on l'2th 
September 1215, granted to Richard de Burgo, the entire of Connaught, which was 
stated to ha\e been held by his father, at the yearly rent of three hundred marks. 
This grant was confirmed in 1218, by Henry III. who, for the fine of a thousand 
marks, granted " the whole kingdom of Connaught" to Richard de Buroo and 
his heirs ; but in this concession it was provided that it should not take effect 
until alter the death of Cathal, who still maintained some shadow of rule and 
dignity, which he preserved until 1223, when he died. Tirlougii, his brother, 
succeeded, but he was soon after expelled by Gcofi'ry de Maurisco, the Justiciary, 
arid Hugh, a son of Cathal, was established; who, soon after endeavouring to 

« The following coinniiinication was ninde by Jolin to esse nostrum melius, iil fieri facialis, quia ad hoc bene 

Moilor Fitz-Hcnry on this occasion. — "Rex Mcilcro filio .nssentinius, si vos vitlerctis e.xpeilire, \crnntanien ciiram 

Ker.i-ici Justiciario Hilieriiite, Sciatis quoil Dcrcmiiit et opcram adhibeatis diligenlem, si poteritis opjwnere 

fxposiiit nobis ex parte Regis Connacic, quod idem Rex increnientinn de dono propter hoc ci)iicedcndui]i, quia 

e-Ligit tenere de nobis, terciam partem terre de Comwc sicut audivimus, ipse CCCC niarcas, propter hoc ilabit, ad 

pro C Marcis per annum, sibi et lieredibus suis, i^oniine minus, de gersuni, et effuiatis eciam quod doiiat de vaccis 

Karonie, et pro duabus partibus ejusdem terre, reddet et aliis rebus, i)er annum ad sustincnduui eastra nostra 

nobis annuatim, debituin tributuni, scilicet CCC Marcas. que ilhic firmaviiuns. Teste ine ipso, a'pud Ibelnill, L'odie' 

Et preterea concedet nobis, duos cantredos cum nativis Uecembris; per ipsum He,!,'eui. — Itv(. CI. 7 Ju'li. Tar. 

cornndem cantrcdorum, de predictis duabus partibus I.mul. For a subsequent dispatch li-oui the Kim; to the 

ad firmandum in eis, yel ad facieiuhun inile voluutatem Justiciar), containing a recital of the answer of the laltcr 

Dostrani ; et ideo vobis niandannis, quod si hoc viderctis to the above, sec Lelaud's Hist. Vol. I. p. 175. ' 


rentier himself independant, was assassinated by order of Gcoffry, and Tirlouo-h 
was once more restored. 

.Such was the gloomy picture of affairs in Connaught, and the melancholy 
state to which its native princes were reduced, when a mandate, dated l'2th June, 
I'J'^J, arrived from England, directing William Earl Marshall, the Lord Justice, 
to seize on the whole country of Connaught, (stated to have been forfeited by 
O'Conor,) and to deliver it to Richard de Uurgo, at the yearly rent of three 
hundred marks, for the first five years, and after that period, of five hundred 
niaiks, for ever: excepting however five choice cantreds of lands near Athlone, 
which were supposed to have been reserved for the use of that garrison. This 
unprinci])led grant was obtained through the influence of the famous Hubei't de 
Burgo, Justiciary of England, in fiivour of his kinsman, it was finally confirmed 
at 'Westminster, 21st December, 1226, and in the year following Richard de 
Burgo was appointed to the government of Ireland. 

The new governor with a view of promoting his views, and advancing his 
interest in Connaught, stirred up the usual cause of dissension in this unhappy 
province. He deposed Tirlough from the sovereignty, and established Fedhlim 
O'Conor, another son of Cathal, who afterwards proved himself the bravest and 
most politic of Roderic's descendants, and tiie only one who for any time retained 
the appearance of power. This prince, after acquiring his independance, i-esolutely 
resisted De Burgo's claims on his territory, and fortunately for him, his 
adversary's great friend, the Justiciary of England, having, at the very time, 
fallen into disgrace, the former was removed from the government here ; and 
the Irish prince profiting by the temporary embarrassment of his rival, consider- 
ably augmented his power. But still apprehensive tliat he could not long support 
himself in Connauglit by his own exertions, he suddenly passed over to England, 
attended by the Lord Justice, and there laid a long detail of his grievances and 
complaints against De Burgo before the monarch. Henry received his royal 
visitor in a manner worthy of his rank and dignity, and seemed so fully 
persuaded of the justice of his cause that he commanded the Lord Justice and 
nobility of Ireland to afford him every assistance, and use all their efforts to 
establish him in his territory. 

About this time the town and castle of Galway (which the reader was 
necessarily obliged so long to lose sight of,) became of importance to the parties 
contending for the sovereignty of Connaught. After the invasion, in II70, the 
castle was strongly fortified, and the town was put into a state of defence. " It 
then consisted of a small community, composed of a few families of fishermen 

° A5 many readers niny be curious to know the particular the late county Court-house. For centuries after the 

Mtiiation of this ancient edifice, it has been ascertained above period it was known by the name of the red Earl's 

that it stood in tliat part of the Town, called in the old castle, but it has been long since entirely dtinolished. 
nia[), the red Earl's lane, or Boalicr an-Iarlagh, near 



and merchants ; (many of whose names have been already given in tlie firet 
chapter,) and was principally under the protection of the O'Flahcrtys, who held 
the castle and surrounding territory, as feudal lords from the kings of Connaught. 
Upon the return of Fedlilim from England, Hugh O'Flaherty, chief of Ins 
name, declared in his favour, and in 1230 fortified himself in the castle of 
Galway. ' He was besieged on the east side of the river by Richard de Burgo, 
but being effectually relieved from the west by Hugh O'Conor, De Burgo, after 
several ineffectual endeavours to take the castle, was obliged to raise the siege. 
Irritated at the spirited resistance of Fedhlim and his adherents, he at length, 
summoned all his forces, and in 1'23'2, succeeded in driving that unfortunate 
prince from the province ; and, continuing his success, he finally took him 
prisoner, and established Hugh O'Conor in his place. Tiie town and castle of 
Galway, on this occasion, fell into his hands, and having then discovered the 
great importance of the ])lace, he, in the same year, built several considerable 
additions to the castle. Fedhlim, having immediately after, regained his liberty 
and kingdom, by the death of Hugh, which took place in V23S ; laid siege to- 
Galway, and having succeeded in taking the castle, he demolished all the new 
works : but his powerful antagonist, Richard de Burgo, soon after recovered 
the town, and thenceforth it became the principal residence of himself anil 
his descendants, " and finally the capital of the province, wliich it still continues 
to be. He then fortified it against the incursions of the Irish, and appointed a 
magistrate, who was indiscriminately called a provost or bailiff, and who governed 
the inhabitants by established laws. 

Fedhlim O'Conor preserved his ideal title, and with it, a scanty remnant of 
the kingdom of his ancestors, until the year 1265, " when he died, leaving his son 
Hugii to succeed him. The latter on his accession, having asserted and supported 
bis claim to the royal name and dignity, Walter de Burgo levied a body of forces. 

' Ann. Connacirp. MS. Hih. Trin. Coll. Dub. 

" KiLliiiril lie Biii\'o appears to have been a man of 
eminent military talents, lie was the greatest, most persc- 
verin'T, anJ, fin;'.lly triumjihant, enemy of the ancient race 
of O'Conor, « liose power in Connaii^ht he effectually ile- 
stroyeil, ami as firmly established his own, and that of his 
(k'sccmlants. lie bnilt the Castle of Loniihrea in IS.^C, 
and going to France, to meet the king of England, he died 
on the voyage in 1^-53, leaving Walter, the fir»t Earl of 
Ulster, 111- heir and successor. A. D. rj-J7 the Town and 
C'a lie of Galway were burnt. — Jiiinils. 

' On a great I'oll of the pipe of the 4Gth year of 
lien. III. A. 1). 12'ia, discovered, by the author, in the 
Exchequer in Dublin, there appear the following entries 
ol' the arrears then due by tho-,e rival chieftains out of 
this devoted province. 

Walter de Burgo owes 91/. IS.?, arrears of his last 
account of tlie rent of 25 cantrcds in Connaught. 

j^fethehmis O'Konechor (Vedldim O'Conor) owes GOO 
marks, for himself and Oeth (Hugh) his son, for having 

the king's pardon for all transgressions by them committed 
in Ireland. The said Fedhlim owes .5000 marks and 2000 
cows, for having three cantreds of land in Connaught, io 
fee farm, viz. the cantreds of Maekney, Tyrtotha, and 
Moylurg; as is contained in a certain schedule of his fine, 
and the fines of some others, and in his letters patent of 
the obligation of the saiil fine. 

The said Fedlilim owes 600/. rent of the said three 
cantreds for this year, and the year last past, as is con- 
tained in the writing obligatory (jf him the said Feilhliin, 
in tile treasury ; and lloo/. arrears ol the smne formally 
years preceding: and also owes lor the cantred of 
Tirmany, for this and the three la.-t years. 

Walter de Burgo owes 1000 marks rtMit of 25 Cantreds 
in Connaught, for this year and the year last j>ast, and 
1480/ H.V. If/, arrears of tlie same for many years 
preceding. — l{iil. J'ip. 

On similar Rolls jiresened in Berminghain Tower, it 
ap)iears tliat in 1281, Cathel O'Konechor paid a fine of 
200 cows for the king's peace, 'i'homas Mc. Dcniiod and 


Mul niarclieJ against him. Hugh, on liis side, made every preparation to meet the 
foe, and a battle took place, in wliicii he was completely victorious. De Burgo 
did not long survive this defeat; he died in the castle of Galway, in 1271 ; 
k'aving Richard, commonly called the Red Earl of Ulster, his heir and 
successor. " Hugh himself was afterwards slain, with 2000 men, by W'Dermott of 
Moylurg, who was another rival ; and thenceforth, imtil the total destruc- 
tion of the house of O'Conor in 131G, Connaught exhibited a horrid scene of 
blood and confusion. 

Amidst these troubles, the crowded town of Galway was sheltered under the pow- 
erful protection of the De Burgos. In the time of Walter and Richard, the first 
and second earls of Ulster, it increased considerably in trade and population, owing 
{)rincipally to their presence, and consequent protection against Fedhlim O'Conor, 
his successors, and the surrounding Irish. It was, however, found necessary, in 
order effectually to prevent their incursions, which were frequent and destructive,' 
to fortify the town, and surround it with walls. This work was accordingly com- 
menced about the year I27O ; and there is still extant, on the great roll of the pipe, 
(i Kdw. I. — the account of Stephen Annery and Adam Albus, collectors of the 
murage of the town of Gahy, in Connaught, from the festival of the Annuncia- 
tion of the Blessed Virgin Mary, 56 Hen. III. until the same festival, 3 Edw. I.* 
in which they account for 29/. 7*' f)^- received for customs of wine, salt, cloth, 
leather and divers other merchandize, ' whereout they expended 29/. 4*. 5(f. in 

Brien Mr. Doritiod 24 cows for the same. The sept of in Connaught, and Cathyl his brother, and other Irisli who 

(tie O'KflliLs I'-'O cows lor having the king's army removed are against the king's peace, forcibly occupy the hinds of 

from tlicm, and O'Flendegan 4 cows for having entry into Ricliard de Exon' in Connaught, so that nothing could bs 

two town lands near Roscommon. — Rnf. Pip, 9, li. T. — received out of the same." — Rot. Pip. 52, B. 'P. 
A. D. J2S5 Katliell O'Konechor paid 200 marks for ' William, liis second son, was called William de 

having entry into two and a half cantreds in Connaught Athenkip, from a place of that name on the Shannon, 

for .) years, and 300 marks for the rent during that time; where he was put to death by Hngh O'Conor, while liis 

and John Mape and John de Exon' were commanded not hostage, in the year 1270. 

»o deliver him the letters patent, until they should get '' On the roll of the pipe, 51 Hen. III. Gillcpatrick 

security for the money. — Cathel O'Konchor roth, 240 Mac Karly was fined 50s. on obtaining his pardon for 

cows for having the king's peace. O'Fergill 120 cows, and burning the town of Gaivy, and for the death of David 

Gilbert O'Kelly and David O'Kelly 10/. for the same. Bree; and several other instances of a similar kind are 

Donald O'lvelli, Owcyn O'Kelly, Donechad Moynagh found to have occurred in these turbulent and unhappy 

O'Kelly, Mackothe O'Kelly, Donechad fil' Con O'Kelly, times. 

«nd Magnesfil' Lewelyn O'Kelly fined lOOs. for contempt. ' Murage was a liberty granted by the king, for collect- 

At the same time, the burgesses of Roscommon paid lo/. ing money tow;irds walling a town. Aiitio 3 Edit: I. chap. 

fur the farm of the town yearly, and 10/. yearly for the 3. A murage charter, therefore, must, about this time, have 

picas and perquisites there. — Rot. Pip. 15, P. T. been granted to Galway, to authorize the collectors to 

On an Exchequer roll, A. D. 1324, there is an entry levy the above customs; but, after the most diligent search, 

that in that year, the three cantreds, which Fedhlim no trace of it could be discovered amongst the few records 

O'Conogher formerly held of the king in Roscommon, of these early periods at present remaining. In our search, 

were granted to Theodore O'Conogher of Connaught ; however, was found a ninrage charter granted to the bai- 

paying, vcarly, into the Exchequer 100 marks, under lifts anil good men of //M»f/'y, dated 13 Oct, 1312.— /fo/. 

condition of his delivering to the king a sufficient hostage Pat. 4 Ediu. II. — On the same roll there appears a royal 

f<jrpa\ing said rent, and also for keeping the king's peace; mandate, to prevent war between Richard de Burgo and 

and Henry Mape was ordered to receive and securely keep O'Brien of Thomond. 

the said hostage. — Rot. Mem. 18 Kdw. II. — Not long ' de vino, sale, lana, pannis, coreis, pellibus omnium 

after, viz. 1331, John Morice, Escheator of Ireland, agnorum et caprarum, piscibus, alecibus, et aliis diversis 

returned that " Ty rdelagli O'Conghy r, prince of the Irish et niinutis mercandisis. — Rot. Pip. 




masons and cra'pcntcrs wages, and expenses of" workmen assisting them in the 
wood and stone work during that time. On the same roll, there also appears 
the account of Robert Bayon, collector of the murage of Galway, from the 
Sunday next after the festival of St. IMartin, G Edw. I. until Tuesday on the morrow 
of St. Simon and Jude, S Edw. I. wherein he accounts for 27/. 13*-. 11^(/. customs 
of wine, salt, wool, cloth, leather, skins of all lambs and goats, fish, herrings, 
and other divers and minute merchandize, at the same place coming in during 
that time, whereout he expended, in making a large fire to biu-n lime, and for wood 
carried to the same, and for the wages of masons and other workmen employed 
for breaking stone, and conveying it to the same place during the same time, and 
for the wages of workmen and others assisting the masons to make walls on the 
side towards the sea, and to build a tower beyond the great gate," and in buying 
iron for fabricating crows, pickaxes, nails, and other tools, 5/. 17.s". 4<d.: and further, 
for wages of carpenters working about the tower, and for carriage of timber and 
carpenters work at the gate, and for various other necessary works, 11/. 5s. 7^/, — 
The contents of this ancient record are thus particularly specified, as they recount 
the first considerable improvements which were made in the town after it was pos- 
sessed by the English settlers ; and, trifling as the amount of the sums expended 
on these works may appear in modern times, they will be found, upon a compara- 
tive calculation of the then value of money, to have been very considerable. 

Before the erection of these walls and works of defence, tlie town, thouo-h it 
was, even then, the principal mart and most distinguished j)lace in Connau"-ht, 
was little superior, either in extent or form, to a considerable modern vilian-e : but 
after these works and improvements were completed, it presented the appearance 
of a regularly fortified town ; and, by thus insuring additional security and pro- 
tection, in those turbulent times, to the lives and properties of the people, it con- 
tinued gradually to increase. Several new settlers, from time to time, added to 
its wealth and trade, and considerably augmented the number of its inhabitants ; 
but particularly about this period the families of B/akc, Budlmi, F/bnt, Joj/es, 
Lijitdi, Martin and Skerrett, settled in the town, and principally laid the foun- 
dution of its subsequent prosperity. Tlie walls erected towards the sea were 
intended to prevent any descent from the western parts of Munster and Connaught; 
and the tov/er, beyond the great gate, was erected as a defence against any incursions 
from the interior of the country, and particularly by Lougli Corrib, which it 
seems to have been particularly designed to guard against. The building of the 
walls was continued at intervals during tlie succeeding century, at the termination 
of which tlie town was entirely inclosed. 

" In factura iinms rogi, ad calcem coniburciuluin, ct pra nini, tractantiiiin ct juvantium prcdictos ccmentarios, ad 

brisca, ibidem carriando, ct in stipciidiis oeiiientiirioriii,!, niiiros versus mare lac;endmn, et ad tiirrim ultra jna"iiam 

et aliorum operarioruui, pctrain lVan..'antiuni, ct |)ortau- portam facieiuluni. — Rot. Pip. li. T. ° 

lium ibidem, per iilciu te;:ir;iis, et in stipciuliis operario- 



Aucr these fortifications were erected, the foreign trade of Galway improved 
<•orl^iderably.'' Derinod More O'Brien, grandson of Soan Tiege or Tiege Aluinn, 
wluj resided at Troinra in Clare in 1'277, received 1'2 tuns of wine yearly, as a 
tribute from the merchants of the town, in consideration of protecting the 

* Tlie extent of the commerce of Galway, even at tliis 
early (late, may l>c ascertained from the following view of 
il3 cn-^tOMK anil rcvumus, compared with those paid in 
Limerick for corrc-pondin^ periods. In the great roll of 
t'lc Pipe No. f , preserved iji Bcrmingham tower, it appears 
that the nrat prurlnce of the customs paid in Limerick 
from the li.lli ol' April, 5 Edw. L (1277) to the festival of 
Saint Michael, in the 6tli year of the same king, was 6/. \Ss. 
End that their amount, for the same period, in Galway, 
was 21/. l.'i.t. '2il. in roll 9, it appears that the produce of 
the customs in Limerick, from Michaelmas in thc'Slh, 
until Easter in the loth year of Edw. L was 21/. 5s. 2d. 
and that in Galway, for the same period, they amounted 
to .'ijl. 5s. 1 0|rf. In roll 1 5, the customs of Limerick, from 
the festival of All Saints in the 14th, to the same festival 
in the 15th year of Edw. I. amounted to 9/. IBs. while iu 
fialwjy they proiluced for the same year, 3SL l.5s. Id. 
Soon after this, the trade of Limerick appears to have been 
reduced annost to nothing, »vhilc that of Galway conti- 
nued in the same flourislung state ; for on roll 1 7, the neat 
produce of the customs of Limerick appear to have 
amounted only to U-. Gd. foraperiod when they amounted 
in Galway to 18/. 4s. 5\d. 

The subjoined list and amount of the customs paid in 

(;,\lway, for several years before the year 1400, have been 

ciirefully abstracted from the great rolls of the Pipe, pre- 

•ervfd in Uermingham Tower. 

A.D. 127G 

l-'7 7 





1289 to 1291 

1290 to 1292 

1292 & 129.- 

1293 & 1294 
1296 & 1297 





















1321 & 1322 










Sc 1394 

118 5 10 
1398 78 5 O 

Fivr the years omitted above there are no accounts on 

In 12S3 the following account was returned of the 
jxisscssions which belonged to Wolter de Burgo in Galway 
and C'onnaught, and which Avelina his widow held in 
doAcr, from the day next before the festival of St. 

Urban the Pope, 2d Edw. I. to the 22d February, 8th 
Edw. I. 

Town of Galway. 

I. s. 

For 1 1 acres of the demesne of the town, 
which, with other lands before the tow n, 
were delivered by the king's writ to 

Richard, son and heir of said Walter - 2 

For the rents of the burgages there - 35 17 

For the lands held Mountenaye l 7 
For one place which William de Schepe- 

shend holds there - - - - 5 

For the mill - - - - - 3G 15 

For the fishing of the salmon weirs - 11 

For the rent of the eel weirs - - loll 

For the toll there - - - - 1 1 

For the rent of the burgages of the town 17 17 

For the perquisites of the Hundred Coiu't 1 1 C 

For the increase of the said penjuisites - 10 
For the increase of the salmon and eel 

weirs - - - - - - 1 G 


jC139 11 

- in Cathernemot and Cathoel. 

The principal Anglo-Normati Tenants of Walter de Burgo 
in Connaught A.D. 1280. 

Thomas Fitz Lyons and John Fitz Thomas, 2 cantreds 
in the lands of Kerymoy and Kerylothnarne. 

Henry de Rupe in Sylmorne. 

John le Chaun in Moyntcrathy. 

John Fitz ^Vil. de Cogan in Jloyntermolinnan. 

John Fitz Robert in Olonian. 

John de Cogan, sen. in Kenalcthy. 

Hubert de Burgo in Koratheg. 

Ric. de Rupella in Monbrach. 

John Dolfyn in Hathgorgyn. 

Mich, le Norreys in Casselfuligan. 

John Lynet, "» 

Norman Fitz William, 

Robert Barun, 

William Hose, j 

John Dolfyn in Galboly. 

^Villiam Core in Rathrody. 

Eadmundus Huskard and John de Burgo, Thomas Fitz 
Jordan and Dondonenald in Kylmalethyn, and Theo- 
bald Pinccrnus (Butler) the castle of Mylyck. — Jiul. 
Pip. \\, S.T. 

A.D. 1365, Jime 2. Joan, daughter and heir of Wil- 
liam Sepishend, chief miller of the mills of the town of 
Galway, gave and confirmed to Thomas JIartyn, and his 
heirs, .all the profits and emoluments arising out of the said 
mills of Galway, descended to her by hereditary right ; 
to hold as freely and quietly as lier said father, John her 
grandfather, and William her great grandfather, held the 
same of the Lords Walter, Richard and William de Burgo, 
late Earls of Ulster and Lords of Conuaught.— Tfo/. Fa(^ 
27, 28 Hen. VIII. 


harbour and trade from all pirates and privateers, by maintaining a suitable 
maritime force for the purpose/ The commercial duties also, which in these times 
were payable in the town, sufficiently evince its increasing consequence. In the 
year 1303, the revenue called the new customs (being an impost of three pence 
in the pound, due irom merchant strangers only, lor all connnodities imported or 
exported,) was first granted to the crown, and in the same year these customs at 
Galway were fanned out to Richard le Blake, ibr one year, for 32!. In 130G 
Thomas Sage and Simon Long were appointed collectors of the same duties, and 
also of the custom of two shillings for e\'ery hogshead of wine imported ; and in 
1307 they were granted for one year to Thomas Dolfyn, on the security of 
Edmund Ilusee, Philip Purcel, Richard le Blake, and William Seman. In October 
of the same year, the great customs of the town, viz. those payable on wool, 
sheepskins, or woolfells, and leather exported, were granted to Criicheus Hubert ; 
and the new customs were, at the same time, farmed to Crucheus Delpas, for 
the sum of 24/. ' These extracts, of which many more could be produced, 
sufficiently point out the extent and gradual increase of the commerce of Galway 
at this period. It was not, however, entirely uninterrupted, but had to contend 
against many difficulties and disadvantages, occasioned by those animosities which 
always subsisted between the English settlers and the original inhabitants of 
the country. About the time last alluded to, violent contentions broke out 
between the Lords of the Pale and the native Irish, and particularly between the 
Earl of Ulster, O'Brien, and the Geraldines in Thomond ; by which the trade of 
the town was so much impeded, that Andrew Gerard, a Florentine merchant, who 
v»'as keeper of the customs in 1310, had a considerable abatement : " for that it 
appears tliat the customs in Galvy were worth less in that year than theretofore. 

* Tlie O'Briens of Tromra, a territory in Thomond, ]ier Miijesty and licr predecessors, the temporal captains 

which was part ot" the ancient patiinidiiial Cbtatc of the or loriU of the islaiuU of Arran, ami their territories and 

O'liriini ol Arran, (doscon;lants of Bryan Bnron)lie,) hcredltauients elsewhere, under the name of Mac Tiege 

were soverci,i;n Lords of tlie Isles of Arran in the hay of O'Brien of Arran, time out of man's nieniory; and tiiat 

Cal'.vay, and of Trinnra in the County of Chn-e, until they had seen the said .Murrogh Mac Turlogh, authorised 

t'.ie rel^;n of Oucen Eii^'abeth; as appears hy an address by all his sept, as chief of tl)at name, and in possession 

which the Mayors and Slieriti's of the Cily of Galway of the premises as his own lawful inheritance, as more at 

wrote in their favor to that Qncen, wherein it is menlioned large, say they, doth appear in our books of records, 

that the corporation of that city paid them an additional wherein he continued, imtil of late he was, by the iriurping 

tribute of wine, in consideration of their protection and power of the O'Flaiicrties, expulsed, from whom it is 

expenses in guarding the hay and harbour of Galway taken by some in(juost found in her Majesty's favor, 

against pirates and coast plunderers. An authentic copy " We say uioreovcr," add they, " lliat the sept of Mac 

of that address is possessed hy John O'Brien of Clontis, TicL'e O'Brien of Arran, since the foundation of this city 

in the county of Limerick, esip.iire, who is now the wortliy nud town, were aldijii; and assisting to ourselves and our 

direct cifief of that princely fanfdy. — U'Jiiieu Dirt. predecessors against her . Majesty's and her predecessors 

It uray not be uninteresting to annex a copy of the enemies, in all times and places whercunto they were 

address here alluded to. It was signed on 30th March, called, as true, faitlii'ul and liege people to the crown of 

1S88, by John Blake, the mayor, and Walter Martin and England, to maintain, succour aiul assist the town." — 

Anthony Kirrivan, hailitrs, and countersigned by Anthony Ciil/eclrtuca. — For more of this sept see the account of the 

Dermot, notary, wherehv they testily to Queen Elizabeth islands of Arran in another part of this book. 
in favor of Murrogh Mac Turlogh O'Brien, then living, ' J{ut. Mliiu iScac. 

tliat tlic Mac Tieges of Arr;ai his ancestois, were, under 



by reason of the war lately raised and carried on between Richard de Burgo and 
Richard dc Clare in Totheinond," in the year following he had a regrant of the 
customs, paying yearly into the Excheqner fifty marks, for so long as he should 
thenceforth hold the same. These impediments, however, appear to have been 
but tein])orary ; tliey were generally of short duration, and were finally overcome 
by the perseverance and industry of the inhabitants. Tlie improvement of the 
town was also a constant object of their attention, and in the year 1-312 they 
added considerably to its strength, by the addition of the great gate and the 
adjoining works, which were erected under the superuitendence of Nicholas Lynch,, 
siirnanied the "Black Marshall." 

In 1'315, Ireland was invaded by Edward Bruce. Richard Earl of Ulster, joined 
by Fedhliui O'Conor, then the chief of his name, marched against him,' but wiis 

' The readiness with which Fedlilim O'Conor co-ope- 
mtuil uith tlie English forces agiiinst Briiof, as he appears 
to have (I me on this occasion, is one oCthe many proofs, 
«lfrch history and our records furnish, of the early and 
continued inclination of tlie Irish to be obedient to the 
lan's and irovernment of England ; unless when prevented 
h\- the rulers in Dublin, and the interested settlers 
throughout the land., by whom the persecuted natives 
«crc constantly L'oaded into rebellion. In the particular 
instance here alluded to, this disposition was peculiarly 
c\eniplified ; and it is the more remarkable, as these Irish 
princes had, lint a short ti?iie before, been mo-.t unjustly 
deprived of the oidy remaining portion of their ancient 
faiiiilv possessions, by the following process.— In the year 
1 30.') the Earl of Ulster presented a memorial to Edward I. 
again-.t Fedhlim, under the name of '• O' Conoghur (in 
friJniifin," {(>'Cuiiii;^Jiur llilicrnicus,) charging hiui with 
committing several enormities on his (the Earl's) lands in 
Cinnaught : contiguous to which, he stated, that O'Conor 
held certain lands, in farm of the king, called Seilmorthy; 
which he required should be granted to him, or to any 
oilier Englishman, either at the same rent which was paid 
hv O'Conor, or in exchange for other lands of tlio same 
value, in the reduced and peaceable parts of the countrv. 
Edward, by letter d.ited at V/yinlyngwelde 13th July, 
s;inic year, directed Sir John Wogan, loril justice of 
Ireland, to ascertain whether it would be to his prejudice 
lo accede to this rei]uc^t ; andto ascertain the value of the 
lands in question, and apprize him thereof without delay. 
The lord justice accordingly lield a court of inquiry at 
Tristledermod, before a jury; who found, that " the 
lands of Seilmorthy, wiiich contained five cantreils, caine 
to the kin-^'s hands, after the coniiuest of Connaught by 
Wilt'am d • Rnrgo. That a certain Irishman of tlie name 
of I'evKin C)'Conoghur, who stiltd himself king of Con- 
nauidit, held those lands from Henry HI. for 500 marks 
\earlv. Tli,;t the said Feylyni during his life kept the 
king's peac", and faithfully paid liis rent; but that after 
his il-ath his son arose and became a traitor, and destroyed 
the king's liege Engl'^h subjects in those parts ; and waged 
war against the 'xiug that now is, and prostrated his castles 
of Roscommon and liandon, (which castle of Roscommon 
Robert O'URbrd, when first lie was ap])ointed lord justice, 
liaJ repaired and strengthened at considerable expense,) 

in consequence of which he was outlawed, and died' 
the king's enemy — so that from the death of Feylym 
O'Conoghur, to the time that said Robert D'Utlbrd was 
again appointed lord justice, the king received little or 
nothing out of said lands, except one cantred called 
O'.Many, which he granted to Robert dc la Rokelc in fee 
farm. That Robert D'Ufibrd, at his second coming, by- 
iiieans of a considerable army and at great expense, again 
repaired the castle of Uoscommou ; and demised two 
cantreds and a half, part of said lands, to one O'Conoghur ; 
and that other lords justices had afterwai'ds granted the 
same to several of the O'Conoghurs, who rarely paid any 
rents thereout. That the lands wouhl lie worth 250 marks 
yearly, if tlie Irish were driven from those parts; but this,, 
they say, cannot be done without great power and expense, 
(far exceeding the value of the land,) as O'Conoghur is 
one of the five captains of Ireland. And tliey finally sav, 
that the king, without any prejudice or injury to himscif, 
or any other, might grant the same to the said Earl, or 
any other Englishman; hut that it would be more for the 
interest of the king, and of his faithful subjects in tlio-ii 
parts, if they were granted to the Earl : because he holds 
all his lands in. Connaught and Ulster, and has a great 
power of English and Irish contiguous, by which h(- could 
more effectually keep down the natives." — lint. I'lacil. 
B. T. c-j- Exempt, in ()[jic. Uvtulai: 

The grant was accordingly made ; and bv patent, dated 
I'ith Aug. 3 Edw. II. (I30<i,) rccitim;, that Richard de 
Burgo held all his huids and possessions in (!onnaught lor 
500 in:u-ks yearly, and other tenures, the king, in consi- 
deration ol his good and faitlil'ul services to Edw. 1. 
remitted the said yearly rent, and granted that all his lands 
should thenceforth be held by the other tenures or services 
due and accusto ned thereout: and bv patent dated the 
same day, he was appointed keeper of the castles of 
Roscommon, Randon and Athlonc, together with all the 
lands and tenements belonging to the same, during his lile. 

Notwithstanding all these services and rewards, it 
appears that the Earl of Ulster, soon after the invasion of 
Bruce, was put under ai'rest, and imprisoned in the castle 
of Dublin, on suspicion of having invited over that leader. 
He was soon after liberated; but not, however, until he uhs 
previously obliged to swear, that neither he, his friend-. 


defeated. On tlieii- reliirn, Roderic O'Conor, who in the absence of Fcdliliin 
made pretensions to his territory, was taken prisoner and put to death ; but the 
latter, soon after driven to desperation, declared for Bruce ; and, though he niade 
several incursions on the Eng-liiiii settlers in Connaught, he never was able to 
do any injury to Galvvay. Sir \\'illiam Leigli de I^urgli (who, in Iv'jG, founded 
the Franciscan friary in Saint Stcpiien's island, outside the north gate oi'the lov.n,) 
and Richard de Berminghani, the fourtii baron of Athenry, ^ were sent against 
him. Fediilim met them with a numerous army, and the most sanguinary engage- 
ment recorded in our history since the invasion was fouglit near Athenry, in the 
County of Galvvay, in which the native troops were signally defeated. Fediilim, 
the last of his name who assumed sovereignty, fell in the field, and with him 
(as is stated) 8000 men. The walls of Athenry are said to have been built from 
the spoils of the battle ; and the power of the O'Conors, which here received its 
final blow, was totally destroyed. 

This signal defeat of the Irish, which effectually established the dominion of 
tlic English settlers in Connaught, was followed by a short interval of peace, 
the happiest cflects of which were experienced by the town of Gahvay. The 
victorious De Burgos, who had now no enemy able to contend against them, 
ruled the entire province from the Shannon to the sea : they made Galway the 
chief point wherein all their power centered, and in which the principal heads of 
the family resided; in consequence of which, its trade, buildings and inhabitants, 
continued rapidly to increase. The church of Saint Nicholas was founded in 
1320, and many other useful improvements were made ; but the peace of the 
town was, about that time, disturbed by some deadly disputes which arose between 
the rival families of Blake and Athy ; and, in the commotions occasioned by them, 
several of the latter were slain. The church of Saint John of Jerusalem, which 
belonged to tlie knights templars, and stood contiguous to the chapel of Saint 
Nicholas, was suppressed in 1321'. In the same year Sir William Leigli de Burgh 
died, and was interred in the abbey of Saint Francis, founded by himself. lie 
left seven sons ; the eldest of whom. Sir William or Ulick, " called Ulicus de 

nor followers, would do any niisiliief to the citizen';, in in which the king of Connaught, O'Kelly I'ing of 

ivvciigc foi'hisi:;iprisonniciit — ii siii^'idiii' condition, which Maneach, and most of the nobility of Connaiii;ht aiul 

indicates as well the weakness oltlie then government, as JNlnnstcr, (calleil in those days petty kings of the territo- 

tlie great inlluencc of tins i>i)werrul Earl. He died on '2inh ries they possessed,) were slain. — 1 ru/.HJHS. Pedigrees, 

June, loiifi, in the priory of Athastal, (founded in 1200 Ujp're of Arms. 

l)y his ancestor Wiljiaui j'itz-Andelin,) and was succeeded ' This christian name, which at first was peculiar to this 

iiy his grandson William, the third Earl, who was the son family, but which was al'terwards used by sc\eral others 

of John, who died in Galwirt' in 1313. in the province, originated accorihng to the author of the 

^ This nobleman was the fourth baron in descent from HiberniaDominicana as follows: "£um"(i. e. Gnlielmum 

William de Benningham, who accompanied Strongbow to deAnaghkecn,)vocal)ant Hibcrni " Uliog," nomine scilicet 

Ireland. He was one of the principal eon<inerors of composito ex vocalis " Uliam" et " Oge," siguificantibus 

Connaught, and was called by the Irish Ilisdeiird-nn-^cnl/i, Gnlielnnun juveneni scu juniorem, per syncopen auteni 

i. e. Richard of the battles, from tl)e many engagements " Willog," aijt " Ulog" apud Hibernos, ct Ulick vcl Ulic 

hy him fought, and won from the natives, viz. the battle apud Angloa." — liib. Vniii. 
of Togher, the battle of Flulo and the battle of Athenry, 



Ana^hkccn, v/as the first Mac JViUiam Eighter. He had a son named Rickard, 
(from whom tlie name Clan-Rickard originated,) whose three sons, Sir William or 
Ulick, (the progenitor of the earls of Clanricarde,) Thomas and John, ' were 
ibiiiidcrs of several branches of this powerful and widely extended family. 

William, the third earl of Ulster, survived his grandfather Richard but seven 
years. He was basely assassinated by his own attendants, at his castle of 
Carrickfergus, in \SSo; leaving an only daughter, Elizabeth, to inherit his vast 
possessions." This circumstance occasioned a revolution, memorable, not only 

I This John, according to the same author, was founder 
of tlic rcipcctiible family of the name of Galway in Mun- 
jtir. He savs, that John De Bnrgo, sometime after the 
voar HOO, in whicli year he was chief magistrate in 
'G;vlwav, went to reside in Miinster, where he was called 
Joiin Galway, as coming from thence, by which name his 
dc^ccnilants are called to this day. This statement, how- 
ever, requires examination hcfoie it can he entirely ad- 
initicd; for in a close roll, is Uich. II. preserved in the 
Chief Kcmemlirancer's office, Dublin, there is an entry 
iiinccniing " Juhanncs Galwiy Ciris Cifildtis Walcrford" 
which proves that the name existed there before the al- 
lci,'fd removal of John de Bnrgo. It may, no doubt, be 
olijcctcd, tliat this was the same person ; but even if so, 
the autlior is still wrong as to the time of his emigration. 
The n;uiic, however, occurs much earlier ; for in tlie Bod- 
leian library at Oxford, S. 5, there is preserved an original 
mandate from Hen. III. to put Alen de Galwexj into pos- 
scssiun of the i>le of Rathlines and other lands in Ireland ; 
and in an inquiMtion taken in Dublin, in 1259, (found by 
the author amongst several ancient documents relating to 
the old abbev of (^t. Thomas the martyr, near that city, 
nnd now in the possession of the Earl of Meath,) one 
of the jurors is named Ilenrims Galvy : and again in the 
account of John de Slane, Richard deLyt, John le Poher 
and Henry de Bermcngham, yheriffs of Connaught from 
r.".i2 to 121)9, contained on the great Roll of the Pipe 
No. 26, preserved in Beriningham Tower, there occurs the 
name I'ttriis de Gnliy. All whicli circumstances shew 
how cautiously assertions, unsupported b}' authentic docu- 
ments, ought to be received. 

' By incniisition post mortem, taken after his death at 
Clare, before John Moris, Escheator, on the 8tli Decem- 
hi.T, 7 Edw. III. he was found to possess one half of the 
liur.:age of Caiway, " cum dimidio in btirgngic del Gnllir" 
which the burgesses there hoid in free burgage in fee. 
Al>o a stone house which used to be set for ."/. 6s. Sd. a 
year, but which then produced nothing, having fallen to 
the grourd; another house which the earl bought from 
William Mareschall, value 2s. yearly, and the pleas and 
jiercjuisites of the hundred court, which were worth yearly 
J/. — Inr;. in Tnr. Land. 

By a similar inquisition, taken about the same time at 
Athcnry, the earl was found to have held of the king, in 
capite, amongst others, the lands, tenements and rents 
following, in Connaught, viz. In the cantred of Owill- 
Botill.r; part of the manor of Loghrye, 10/. yearly from 
John Ic Botiller; in the same 10/. 13.?. -Ir/. for four town 
l.iiids held by John de Bnrgo ; 10/. 1".!. Ad. for the like 
held by O'N'ayl ; \Cl. l.'ijf. -id. for seven town lands which 

Robert Lawless held there ; 2/. l."j. 4f/. for one town land 
in Moyntraghin which William de Burgo held ; and 2/. 
IDs. arising out of Knappaugh ; 13/. (;.«. 8i/. out of the 
cantreds of Buk and Clew, held in freehold by the heirs 
of William Baret ; 13s. 4(/. out of one town land in Irth- 
loghton, but then producing nothing, in consequence of 
the war in those parts; 22*. out of one town land in 
(,'abragh and Raytrayny; Hi. ad. out of CVirbcggan one 
quarter; 18.?.4rf. out of Lisfarewell one tjuartcr ; 1 U. «(/. 
out of Calhyrbolan one quarter; L'i. out of Inchawyn by 
Richard Baret ; 12(/. out of Row ; and 2.«. out of a snuiil 
portion of land held there by (ieortry Marty n ; and in 
Hathberk divers tenements which \ield yearly, for suit to 
the lord's mill, six craunacks of oats, wortli yearly -Ju.v. ; 
13/. Gs. Sd. yearly out of the canUed of Twlaunl\"f; 2ij;. 
8d. out of one town lanil in Co:,tchhmgy, llitn producin;; 
nothing, on account of th.e war there; 100s. out of one- 
town land in Carne, and the pleas and perquisites of the 
court there, worth yearly 4.\.; 13/. fo. nd. yearly out of 
the cantred of Orruz, which John de Exon holds in tee; 
13/. r,s. Sd. yearly out of the cantred of Ty:tmoy, and 
40*. out of three town lands in Duiicoghy; 13/. (..v. Sil. 
yearly out of the cantred of ConuonloiuMor, and 1/. lOv. 
out of three town lands in Lcjghuill, but nothing then 
received thereout, on account of the war there. I'hat 
there was at Tobberbride one old castle, (inclosed with a 
stone wall,) of great utility towards preserving the peace 
ill thoaC parts, if properly ke|)t up, but that it stood much 
in want of repair; in the same place two carucates, and 
si\ty acres of land, each carucatc containing 120 acres, 
but i!OW producing nothing, because they lie uncultivated 
for want of tenant-., occasioned by the war there; also 1 'J 
acres of pasture, worth yearly i'2.s. one pastiira-.;e worth 
13.V. 4d. a wood pasturage in Rnthfarnan worth 2(>4-. St/. 
and another pasturage worth lo.v. ; a water mill at Rath- 
farnan worth 46i. nd. '20s. annual rent arising out of the 
prisage of ale ; a water-mill at Tobberbride worth .nSs.Sd. 
and 2b'i-. sd. out of the prisage of ale there; l-l/. out of 
one town land in Ballymakegan, and three town lands in 
Duydunns which M'Cortan held at v.ill ; the pleas and 
])erquisites of the hundred court of Tobberbride, 40s. 
yearly out of one to'.vn land in Ounan, which David de 
Burgo held; 12/. 13.?. 4d. out of five town lands in the 
burgages of Rathfarnan ; 2o/. out of leu town lands at 
Tobberbride ; 20/. out of the cantred of Slot-slow, but that 
the entire country was burned and destroy cd by the Irish ; 
5Gs. sd. yearly out of one Theod in Arkagh, and SGi: sd. 
out of one Theod in Kerymeyiig and Kcryloghnaun, all 
which were unproductive in consequence of the war alure- 
said : 13/. tJ.v. sd. \carlv rent arising out of the serjtMi;ivV 


as it related to this family in particular, but also as it concerned our town and the 
entire province. The De Burgos, thougli hitherto generally stedfast in their 
allegiance to the crown of England, while the heads of the name fVocjJiently filled 
the highest oHices of the state, were henceforth, for a period of nearly three 
centuries, at continual variance v>ith the government, frequently risiu"- in arms 
and openly setting its authority at defiance. Immediately upon the outra<'cons 
and premature death of the carl of Ulster, the chiefs of the junior branches of 
the family, then residing in Connaught, and princijially in the extensive districts 
comprehending the present counties of Galway and Mayo, dreading that all his 
possessions would fall into the hands of some stranger, tiirough a marriage with 
the heiress, took advantage of the favorable opportunity that ofTered for seizin"- 
on his estates. Accordingly, Sir William or Ulick, before alluded to, and Sir 
Edmund Alhanacli, or tlie Scot, (ancestor of the earls of Maj'o,) being the two 
most powerful of the family, entered into a confederacy, declared themselves 
independent, and then took possession of the entire territory; on the division of 
which the town of Galway, with the country to the Shannon, fell to the lot of 
Sir William. Aware, however, that by the course of the laws of England they 
would be deprived of their illegal acquisitions, they at once shook ofi" obedience 
to those laws, renounced their allegiance to the crown, and came to a determina- 
tion of protecting their newly acquired possessions, if necessary, by force. Their 
next care was to conciliate the natives in their favor; to effect which, they dis. 
continued the use of the English language, threw off their English dress, and 
adopted both the language and apparel of the Irish. They next changed their 
names: Sir William adopted the title of Mac U iU'iam E'lLiliter, and Sir Edmund 
that of Mac JVilliam Oughter : they then embraced the Irish laws, transmitted 
their possessions in the course of tanistry and gavelkind ; and Mac William 
Eighter, having taken possession of Galway, thenceforward took the title of 
lord of the town. 

That so daring and successful an encroachment upon hereditary right should 
be permitted by the government, would appear unaccountable, were it not known 

of Connaught, but now only Cl. :5s. Id. on account of the toxed totliesame, the advowson and presentation of both 

war, and the poverty of the tenants of those parts. That of which belong to the Earl and his heirs; and another 

the pleas and percjuisites of the great court of Connaught cluirch at Archdrahyn, taxed to six marcs, the advowson 

were worth yearly .TOO nuu-ks, but that no more could and presentation of wiiicli belonged to the Earl, and the 

be received than 100/. for the cause aforesaid. That the heirs of Kichard de Clare, alternately. That there are 

Earl held in his demesne, as of fee, 71 acres of land of the divers other lands, ns well in Connaught and Ulster as 

sec of Clonfert, at the yearly rent of ols. 6d. but then in other ])arts of Ireland, which are situated in the Irish 

worth nothing from the poverty of the tenants. That he parts, so that no jierson could come near the same, or 

also held, under the same services as all his other lands, receive any profit thereout ; because the Irish, in those 

the manors of Sligagli, Corne, Lune and Carbry, in places, would not permit any of the Jring's niinislers or 

Connaught, which had been worth 3331. Cs. 8rf. yearly, any Englishman there. It was finally found that Elizabeth 

but which were then unproductive on account of the de Burgo, aged one year and an half or thereabouts, was 

war there between the English and Irish. That there is the daughter of the said Earl, and his next heir. — Jmj.iu 

one church taxed to six marcs, and another at Owill eod. 


to liavc been, at tlie time, too deeply embroiled witli the native Irish : and 
jHrhaps, as the possessors were of Englisli descent, it was the less inclined to 
proceed with lig-our against them ; and might have also been inflnenced by an 
apprehension, similar to that which at tirst agitated the De Bnrgos, that, by 
tlie marriage of the heiress,' tlie pro))erty might fall into more dangerous hands. 
This, however, was not the case, for siie afterwards intermarried with Lionel, duke 
of Clarence, third son of Edw. III. who, in her right, became earl of Ulster; 
and from Jicr descended Edward, tlie iburth of that name, alterwards kii;g 
of England. '" Lionel, in right of his \\\{'c, laid claim to the usui-ped possessions 
of the De Burgos, and amongst the rest to Gahvay ; " but his claims, however 
founded in justice and right, were unattended to, or ineftectual : either from the 
policy of government, not wishing to embroil the country in his cause ; or, as is 
much more likely, from tlie turbulent state of the times. 

The De Burgos, for some time after their revolt, retained possession of Galway, 
but it soon returned to its allegiance. During the troubles which took place, its 
improvement appears not to have been unattended to. In the year 13-J.<2 the great 
v.cst bridge was built, luidcr the direction of Edmond Lynch Fitz-Thomas, who conimonly called Emon-a-Tuanc, from the great quantity of Ibreign wines. 
wliicli he annually imported. Tlie trade and revenues of the town, however, were 
considerably diminished, for on 3d December, 131.(), a commission" was issued 
by the treasurer of Ireland, to Walter Blake, for the custody of the great custom 
of Galway and elsewhere in Connaught, he paying into the Exchequer, for the 
entire, only 'I'll, yearly; and tiic slieritf of Connaught was commanded that taking 
from him sufficient security, and the usual oaths that he would faithfully serve 
tlie king, he should deliver to him the letters patent : and John Lawles, sou of 
John of Portraghery, late keeper of the customs, was ordered to deliver him the 
seal of office. This depression of trade was of short duration, ibr in the year 
l;i()l, soon after the accession of Edw. W. the countess of Ulster applied to the 
king on behalf of the town, and obtaincil a murage charter for the purpose of 

' By infjuisition post mortem, taken in !.'!]2, on tlie azure, on a chief of the first, tliree pallets between two 

(I'.'Lith of her mother, Matilda, Countess of Ulster, wiilow esi|uires dexter and sinister of the second, over all an 

o' tlic !atc Earl, the tonn of Galway, " Biirgus Gaivy, inescnteheon, ar';ent ; and in the second and third for 

('onmacnr.niara cantred, and Lon^-hrye niancr," were De Bnr^o, or a cross i;tdes. — These iu-nis continued to 

fonnd to belonj; to her. — Inij. in Tiir. Loud. be occasionally used in the official proceedings of the 

'" The only issneof this inarriaj;e\vasa daui;htei-,PhilIipa, torporation of Gah\ay, even so late as the last century, 
who was married, in l.TGH, to Edmund Mortimer, Earl of " By iii(|uisition post mortem, taken at Dublin after his 
March, Baron of Wigmore and Marshal of England, by dci'.tli in l.-r;;), the manor of Galway was found, aiiion"st 
di-cciit, and Baron of Clare, Trim and Coniuuight, and others, to have belonged to hiui in right of his wife. 
Earl ul' Ulster in right of his wife ; all which descended " I.youellns Dux Clarcncie, tenuit de domino Rege, iij 
to liii son Hoger, and his granilson Edunnid, until the capite, die quo obiit, et de jure Elizahcthe uxoris sue, filiu 
right merged in the crown of Enf;laiul, in the pers<m of Wilhelnii ComitisUllonie, nianneria deLon!.'hrea,'l'ohbe^- 
IMw. IV. The arms of fialway, which were adopte<l about bride, 'i'yloghohan, Longlimasipie, Sligoe, Galvy et Port- 
tlli^ tiiuc, were coni|iosed of the armorial ensigns of the dcninie, que valent 'MOl. per annum." — Iiiij. in Tiui'j 
Earls of March and IJIster. They were quarterly of four: Lniid. 
ui the first'and fourth for Mortimer, harry of six, or and " Kot. Jllem. 19 Eilw. III. 




effectually inclosing it v,-itli walls. The subjoined extract from tliis instrument 
will give the reader a view of the several articles of traiiic and commerce, v/hich 
in these times were prevalent in this part of Ireland. " The beneficial effects of 
the charter, and the subsequent encouragements v.hich were given to trade, were so 
great, that even so early as 137<5, the town was esteemed of sufHcicnt importance 
to have the king's staple established in it, for the sale of wool, sheepskins or 
woolfells, and leather. Before this time tlie staple for the sale of these com- 
modities was confined to two places in Ireland, viz. Cork and Drogheda ; a 
circumstance which was found, by experience, to have been attended with most 
serious evils, exposing to continual danger the lives of those who were obliged to 
sail from the other parts of the kingdom to pay their duties at these ports, and 
which, being frequently evaded, occasioned considerable loss to the public revenue. 

^ The original charter, from '.vhic]t the following extract 
is translated, remains on record in tlie tower of London. 
— The king to the bailiffs and good men of Galvy in 
li-eland greeting. — At the request of our beloved daughter 
il!iz.;bcth countess of Ulster, we have granted to you, in 
aid of the inclosing the said town, that for five years nc.\t 
following, you may take for saleable commodities, coming 
to tlie town aforesaid, the following cnstonis, \iz. 

For every cranuocU of whatsoever kind of corn, malt, 
meal, and sa't, for sale, one penny. For every erannock 
of wayde for sale, two pence. For every erannock of 
corker and symack for sale, one penny. For every eran- 
nock of bark for sale, one lialfpenny. For twelve cran- 
iiocks of every kind of coah fur sale, one penny. For 
twelve crannocks of lime for sale, one halfpenny. For 
every horse, nuirr, liobby, ox or cow for sale, one half- 
]:enny. For ten sheep, goals or pigs for sale, one penny. 
For five bacon hogs for sale, one halfpenny. For ten 
wooh'tlls for s-ale, one half|)enny. For every bide of horse 
or mare, hobby, ox and cow, fresh, salt or tanned for sale, 
one farthing. For every one hundred lamb-skins, goat- 
skins, bare-skins, wolf-skins, cat-skins and squirrel-skins 
for sale, one halfpenny. For every one hundred lamb- 
skins, hides of stags, hinds, bucks and does for sale, one 
penny. For every niill-.tone for sale, one penny. For 
two band niill-stoncs for sale, one farthing. For every 
large sack of wool for sale, (our pence. For every mea- 
sure of licrrings for sale, one farthing. For twenty lame 
ilsh in ship or boat for sale, one penny. For ever^ horse- 
load of sea-libh for sale, one penny. For every nian' 
of sea-6sh lor sale, one fartliing. For every himdred of 
large fresh-water eels for sale, one penny. For e\try 
salmon for sale, one farthing. For every lamprey for tale, 
one farthing. For eve/y tun oi wine and ashes for sale, 
foiu" pence. For every tun of hone} for sale, four pence. 
For everj' horse-load of honey lor sjle, one penny. For 
every horse-load of for sale, one penny. For every 
liorse-load of cloth for sale, one hallpenny. For every 
enti'e cloth of assize for sale, one penny. For twenty ells 
of Irish clotli, saie-wyche and v.orsteile for bale, one 
(jcnny. For twenty el's of English or foreign linen cloth 
'ii;r sale, one penny. For twenty ells of canvas for sale, 
< • • f:'jtbing. For ten felt ci'.ps lor sale, one hah'penny. 
io.- e\ery ca-pel or chaloim I'or sale, one farthing. F(jr 

every cloth of silk or baudekin for sale, one halfpennv. 
For every Irish cloak for sale, one farthing. For every 
ship coming to the aforesaid town, laden with saleable 
commodities, three pence. For every horse-load of cloth 
for sale, one haU'iicnny. For everj bundle of iron for sale, 
one halfpenny. For one hundred gads of steel fcr sale, 
one halfpenny. For one hundred large boards for s.''!e, 
one penny. For every thousand large sandals for sale, 
one jienny. For evejy thousand small sandals for sale, 
one half]ienny. For one hundred large hoards for sale, 
one farthing. For one hundred pounds of pitch and rosia 
for sale, one halfpeimy. For every stone of tallow, grease, 
butter and cheese for sale, one hahpenny. FtTr two 
thousand onions for sale, one farthing. For eight shancs 
of garlic for sale, one farthing. For every Ixjat laden with 
brush-wood for sale, one penny. For every boat laden 
with timber for sale, one penny. For every thousand nails 
for sale, one farthing. For every one hundred horse-shoes 
and clout-nails for carts for sale, one halfpennv. Foreverv 
thousand dislies and wooden platters for sale, one hair- 
penny. For tw eh e ropes tor tackling for ships for s;Je, 
one farthing. For ever)' thousand hinges for sale, one 
farthing. For every dozen of cordewune [ ] 

for sale, one halfpenny. Fer every one hundred of tin, 
brass and copper for' sale, two iience. For every one 
hundred of scalpyn and dried fi^h for sale, one penny. 
For ten stone of hemp and Max for sale, one f;utliing. 
For ten gallons of lamp oil I'ur sale, one halfpenny. For 
ten gallons of olive oil lor ointment lor sale, one" penny. 
For e\ery hundred of coloured glass for sale, one penny. 
For every hundred of white glass for sale, one hallpenny. 
For every hundred of averdupois for sale, one penni. 
For ever_\ other article exceeding the value of five shilhngs, 
luit herein specified, coming to the aforesaid town, one 
farthing. — By the Kegcnt liimtelf — J til. 34 Ldw. III. p. 
1, m. 20. 

'ibis miirage charter was afterwards renewed, and on 
enih October, 1574, a writ issued to the sherifi'ol Con- 
naught, to distra'u the provuft and haildls of (>'al\y, by 
all their lands and chattels, until tlicy .'liould render an 
account of the murage and pavagc by them levied and 
renewed, of all saleable commodities coining to the town. 
Rut. Mem. 48 E(hv. III. 



III order, tl)eret'ore, to obviate these inconveniencies, and also, as the charter 
expresses it, " for tlic relief of the burgesses and merchants of the town of Galvy, 
Mid that they and the other merchants of Connauglit might no longer incur the 
dangers of sliipwrccks, and otiier losses as they had theretofore suffered, by going 
towards tiie city of Cork to pay their customs," the staple was extended to 
Gal way. '' 

The revenues of Ireland were so reduced at this period, that the king (Edw. III.) 
found it necessary to send an agent (Sir Nicholas Uagworth,) from England, to 
ascertain and report the real cause of these distresses. One of the consequences 
of his mission appears to have been the removal of tlie staple so lately established 
in Galway, for tlie charter was soon after revoked by letters patent under the great 
seal of England ; and by writ of the lord justice of Ireland, dated loth May 
lo77, ' the sovereign, provost, burgesses and merchants of the town, were enjoined, 
that on market days, when the greater part of the people were assembled within 
the town, they should cause proclamation to be made that all merchants, who had 
theretofore paid their customs at Galway, should thenceforth pay them at the 
city of Cork. ' This measure, however it originated, appears to have materially 
injured the trade of this part of tiie kingdom ; and affords anotlier proof of the 
impolicy of the general system with which Edward III. conducted the affairs 
of Ireland. 

A few pages back, the reader was presented with a comparative view of tlie 
customs paid in Limerick and Galway, for several years ])revious to 1300 ; which 
proved the great superiority of the trade of Galway. This superiority was pre- 
served for several centuries by our merchants, and was a continual source of 
jealousy to their southern neighbours. In the year 1377> David BotiJlcr, one of 
the citizens of Limerick, complained to the lord justice against the provosts and 
bailiffs of Galway and Athenry, stating, that notwithstanding, amongst other 
charter liberties granted to that city, it was particularly provided that the citizens 
and their successors sliould, for ever, be free of all customs for tiieir <mods and 

'" Stuplicn do Valle, Bisliop of Mcatli, \vas thereupon 
■jppuintcJ collector of the great ami siiiall customs in the 
port, ])aying into the Excliecjuer 40 marks yearly ; and the 
king's seal called the cocket was to remam in his instodv. 
U<i'l. Put. -19 Edw. III. On the same day Nicholas CalV, 
one of the bnrgesses of the town, was constituted his 
deputy; and on the 12th May, same year, Stephen Penrys, 
aiiether hurgcss, was appointed comptroller: and it v. as 
urJered that one part oi' the seal, called the cocket, should 
veinain in his custody. — JRot. J\Ivm. Scac. 49 Edw. Ill, 

' Rot. Pat. 51 Edw. III. 

' The following is one of the many instances which 
occurred, of the general inconvenience occasioned hy the 
removal of the staple. — Thomas Lynche, John Athie, 
William Botiller, William Wcbbe and Edmund Blake, of 

Galvy, merchants, am! John liede, Ileory Hcryng and 
John O'Morkowe, meichantsof Alluu-ry, havin;; freighted 
a ship of Liibyk in S|)ain, with 5.3 lasts, and'is dacres ' 
(ISO,) and 7 hides in the port of Galway, she began her' 
voyage on St. Laurence's day, 141.3, for, there 
to pay the custom due for the said hides, because tlic king 
liad then no collectors of his customs at Galway; but 
being driven by a storm from the Irish coast, to the port 
of ScUise in Flanders, after her return, they deposited the 
custom (which the storm had prevejited them fiom |)ayin" 
at Kynsale, as was intended,) in the hands of the said 
Thomas Lynche; the king, njran their petition, pardoned, 
the contempt of carrying thehidesout of Ireland, without 
liaving first paid the iluti', '..Mth Julv, 1415. — Rut. Put. r. 


merchandizes in any jilace eitlicr in EngUinJ or Ireland, where they sliouhl 
bring them for sale ; yet tliose magistrates, from time to time, exacted divers 
heavy customs from In'm and his merchants, who frequently came ^vith goods and 
merchandize for sale to the said tov/ns. They were commanded by letters of tiie 
lord justice, dated at Tristledermot, I8t!i May, lo77/ to desist, under heavy 
penalties, from making those exactions for the future ; and thus v,as thrown ojjen 
to the inhabitants of Limerick a freedom of trade in the port of (jalv.ay, which 
those of the latter were not entitled to in that city. The mercantile i^alousies, 
above alhuled to, occasioned se\'eral contentions between those rival comnni- 
iiities, Vihich, in another place, there will be occasion to mention. 

About this time Thomas Alwyne was seneschal and receiver of the town : he 
was succeeded, on 4th July, 1885, by Thomas O'Casy, who, in addition to those 
offices, was also appointed receiver of all the king's lordships in Connaught ; was 
invested with power to hold tlie king's courts, appoint ofiicers and sub-ieceivers, 
levy the king's rents and the issues of liis lordships, constitute portrieves and other 
ofJicers, and receive their oaths ; superintend and collect all the fishings and other 
profits, and set them to farm yearly for the king's benefit; take the accompts, upon 
oath, of master Thomas Alwyne, the late officer, and receiver, and return the 
same into Chancery ; and, finally, to collect all debts due to the king, and return 
nccon.nts thereof into the Exchequer. For the better execution of all these exten- - 
sive trusts, he was invested with ample powers of distress and imprisonment." 
The many important duties which appear to have been thus concentred in one 
jierson, were soon afterwards divided amongst several ; and those which related 
to tlie town devolved principally on its chief magistrates, by the force of sub- 
sequent grants and charters from the crown. 

Sir "William De 15urgh, who was the then Mac JV'iUiam Eightcr, and conse- 
quently lord of Galwa}', having, after repeated provocations, revolted ay-ainst the 
Aveak and vacillating government of the day, once more involved the town in those 
rebellious proceedings. Amongst the plea rolls preserved in Bermingham tower, "■ . 
there is still extant the record of a pardon, pleaded by one Henry Blake against 
an indictment for high treason, for joining Sir William on tliat occasion. This 
])roccss was held before Milo, bishop of Cloync, and Thomas Hill, justices in the 
Connaught Districts, at the town of Robe, (now Eallinrobe,) on the Wednesday 
next after the festival of Saint Barnabj^ the Apostle, \S\)0, when it was presented, 
that Henry Blake of CJalvv, with other burgesses of the town, and also all the 
commonalty, by common agreement, in Nov. 1388, rang the common bell, and 
])aid the fealty, which they owed the king, unto William, son of llickard de 

■ Rat. Pat. 1 Jtirh. II. pointed snporvitors, keepers and reccivci's of the new 

" Hot. I'dt. D H'wii. II. — On C'ltli Api-il, loKG, Gi-onVcy loeket, in the town. — Hot. Pnt. 10 H'uli. II. 
El:ike, Stephen JJyvelync and V/iiiiaiii Seuian were ap- * i\'o. 289, 18 likli. II. 


IJurc'o, the king's enemy ; who, in the name of dominion, received from them the 
y.i'ui fealty, fishing weirs, fisheries, mills, rents, services, and all other emolu- 
ments in the said town belonging to the king : that they aided the said William 
to resist the king and his ministers, and afterwards rang the common bell, and 
delivered to him all the keys of the gates of the town, to resist and prevent the 
entrance of the king and his ministers. Sir William de Burgh having afterwards 
submitted '' and obtained pardon, the town returned to its allegiance, and peace 
and tranquility wore once more restored. 

From this ])eriod Galway continued gradually to increase. Its situation, trade, 
and rising population, soon attracted the attention of goverinncnt ; and it was at 
length resolved to give the town every encouragement, and render it a ])lace of 
prrmancnt defence and security. Accordingly on 8th Nov. 1306, a new and 
;)cri)etual murage charter was granted to the inhabitants by Richard the Second.'' 
'i'he preamble to this grant states, that the king, as well in aid of the town of 
(Jahy, (which is described as being situate in the marches, between divers his 
enemies and rebels, as well English as Irish, and by their daily incursions very 
nmch impoverished,) and, for the preservation of his faithful people therein, to 
be inclosed with a stone wall, as of the parts adjacent, and in aid of the paving 
of the town, granted to the ])rovost, bailiffs and commonalty, and their succes- 
sors, that, for all saleable things coming to the town by land or water, or passing 
from the same, they might take the several c'ustoms and tolls therein specified : 
and he commanded that they should cause tlie same, from day to day, to be levied, 
collected, received and had. Provided always, that the produce thereof should 
be faithfully expended towards the walling and paving of the town. The various 
commodities comprised in this charter prove the foreign and inland trade of the 
town, at this period, to have been very considerable ; and, by comparing them 
with the articles contained in the charter of 1361, commerce will be found to 
have increased very considerably between both periods. 

Previously to this grant the town was a corporation, by what the law tei'ms 
prescription, and was governed by magistrates appointed by the family of De 
15urgo, or by those deriving under them. But provision being now made for 
])crpetual defence and security, it was deemed necessary, for its greater encou- 
ragement and future preservation, to establish a corporate body, by royal 
grant, and to bestow upon it such privileges and immunities as other chartered 
towns in Ireland enjoyed. The king accordingly granted a second chartei-, dated 
iiGth January, 139(), the recitals of which give rather a melancholy description 

' It is stated !n tlie Hibernia Dominicnna that he was land; the close and patent rolls of the I9th and 20th years 

appointed deputy of Connaii^^bt on 8th December, 1388, of his reign being lost: nor could tliey be found in the towel' 

though he was in that year declared the king's enemy, as of London, though diligent scarcli was made for them. 

a)ipe;irs bv the above recited record. The oldest inspeximus, in which they are recited, is that 

' Neithex this, nor the succeeding charter of Rich. II. in the charter of Edward IV. which is iiindled in the 

iiunicdialely after mentioned, are extant on record in Ire- tower. — Rat. Pat. 4 Edw. IV. 


oi' the tlien exposed and defenceless state of the town ; but it is such an account, 
liowever, as reflects considerable credit on its inhabitants. It states that the town 
was the key of those parts of the king's land in Ireland, in which all his faithful 
and liege people, as well strangers as others resorting thereto, were received, 
protected, comforted and relieved ; but that it was then daily encompassed on all 
sides, as well by Irish enemies as English rebels, so that the burgesses and others, 
residing in and resorting to the same, dared not, without a considerable guard, 
either by laud or water, come to the town, or go out of it, lor the purpose of 
traffic and transacting their necessary business : and that the burgesses, for the 
safe custody of the tov/n against the malice of the said enemies and rebels, con- 
tinually, day and night, provided and maintained divers men at arms, at their own 
charges, to the evident impoverishment of their estate. The king, therefore, 
towards the relief and encouragement of the town, and that merchants and others 
might be the more induced and 'encouraged to reside and dwell in it, for the better 
resisting the said enemies and rebels, granted and gave license to the provost and 
burgesses, their heirs and successors for ever, yearly to elect among themselves a 
sovereign ; and he also granted that no merchants or otlier persons whomsoever, 
stranger or native, of whatever state or condition he might be, who should not 
be continually resident in the town, and sworn a burgess, should buy or sell any 
merchandize or victuals within the town, except by wholesale or in gross : and 
further granted, that they might thenceforth ibr ever enjoy all the privileges 
used and enjoyed by the town of Drogheda ; saving to the lord of the town and 
his heirs, the rents, services, fines, amerciaments, issues and profits to him and 
tliem, from the town and the courts thereof, belonging, and as they and their 
ancestors, lords of the town, were accustomed to receive. Such were the 
leading municipal regulations which were made at this period, and the beneficial 
effects of wliich the town soon afterwards began to experience. The privileges 
granted, though not particularly expressed, were very extensive, as appears by 
inspection of the ancient charters of Drogheda ; and the progress of the town 
must, at the time, have been very considerable, when, in its first charter of incor- 
poration, it obtained all the piivileges enjoyed by one of the most ancient and 
respectable corporate towns in the kingdom. 

Galway, having thus experienced the royal iavour and protection, entirely 
fulfilled all the expectations of government, and hencelbrth became the principal 
support of the English interest in this part of Ireland. Fronr a document, how- 
ever, found on record in the tower of London, entitled " A license to make war 
against the Irish enemies," and dated in the year llOO, it would seem as if tlie 
town, even after obtaining these charters, had revolted from its allegiance, and 
again raised the standard of rebellion.'' This, however, was not the case, and 

"■ The following is an abstract of this document tiaiis- mlniinils, niavois Sic. in Eni;lanJ and Ireland greeting. 
latttd fidrn the original. — Licence for niakinj; war asain t At the- sii[)plicatii)n of our beloved John Rodcricc, 
ll'.e l-.;..ii cutniics.— The Kill-. To all ami sin^uUu- liis WiUi.i.ii l\iiiii,lf, Edward White and Philip Tailloar, of 


Jhc iiistranient alluded to originated as follows. On the defection of Sir William 
l)c liurgli and the town in 13S8, Nicholas Kent, one of the burgesses, who refused 
to join them, departed privately for England ; and prevailed on some merchants 
of Bristol, under great promises of plunder, to fit out a predatory expedition 
against the town and the islands of Arran, which were then in the hands of the 
common enemy. To sanction, however, a proceeding of that kind by private 
individuals, the king's licence was necessary ; but before this could be obtained, 
or the other necessary preparations made, the town retnrned to its allegiance, and 
this nefarious project having consequently fallen to the ground, it enjoyed, from 
tiie time of its incorporation, a long and uninterrupted state of peace and 
tranquiUity. On 12th IMarch, hWi, Henry IV. granted a charter of confirmation, 
whereby lie accepted, approved and ratified, and to the provost, bailiffs and 
commonalty, granted and confirmed, the liberties, franchises, jurisdictions, 
privileges, cognizances, tolls and customs, contained in their former charters. 
Sir Stephen Lescrop was ai)pointed to the government of the county of 
Connaught, and receiver of the customs of Galway and Athenry ; with all the 
profits as well of the custom of the cocket, as the little custom within both towns, 
for one year, reserving the salmon fishery in Galway.'' The year following. Sir 
William de Biu'gh, John Lyverpull, "William Mirreson and John Mirreson, were 
appointed justices in the lordship and county of Connaught; the town of Galway, 
which was under the rule of its own magistrates, only excepted. Sir William was 
soon afterwards (.5th December, 1403,) constituted deputy of Connaught, at the 
fee of 80 marks ; with power to grant and receive all the revenues, issues and 
profits of the town of Galway, appertaining to the king by reason of the 
minority of Edmund, son of lloger late earl of March, and also of the great new 
customs in the port of Galway.*^ 

During this century the town extended considerably in trade and population. 
On iGth May 1425, William Botiller and John Rede were appointed to inquire 

Bristol, and Nicholas Kent, Burgess of Galway in Ireland, capture and plunder our lioje Enclisli. To the end and 

and in as much as they have given surety that they would cH'uct that if tlie ai'orcsaid John, \Villiani, Edward, Pliilip 

not presume to make war, or afford cause ot' making war, and Nicholas, shall he ahle by lorce and armed power to 

against any of the faithful Irish, or attempt any thing obtain and take the town and i^ilands aforesaid, they may 

against tlie form of the truces entered iiito bLtween us : liavc, hold and inhabit the same town and islands, taking 

we have granted and given licence to them, that they, to their own use and profit all ami singular the |)roperty 

with as men at arms as they shall chuse to have and of the aforesaid rebels and enemies of us, and all that 

provide at their own expenses, may take tiieir course for, which they shall be ahle so to obtain and take, the rights, 

and pass over to our said realm of Ireland, in four ships rents, revenues, services and other monies whatsoever to 

called the Christopher, the Trusty, the Nicholas and the our royal prerog:\tive there pertaining, always saved unto 

May of Bristol, and there may make war against the us; saving also the right of the son and heir of Roger de 

rebels anil enemies of us, being in the said town of Mortimer, late Earl of March, deceased, being within age 

Galway; which in times past was in our liegeance and and in our wardship, and [tlie rights] of all other our liege 

obedience, until now of late, that by one Sir William subjects whomsoever. Westminster the asnd of May. — 

liurgh. Knight, by the assent and treason of certain traitors By the King himself. — Hut. Pat. I. lien. 1 1"^, 7. m. 

therein, the said town was taken in war; and also the ' Rot. Pat. 3 }hn. II'. 

islands of Aroiis, which always he full of gailies to ensnare, ' Id. de anuis 4 and 5 Hen. If. 


of all and singular merchants, as well foreigners as natives, and as well those who 
came to the i)orts of the town of Galway and Sligagh, as to all other j)orts of the 
county of Connaught, with wine, oil, honey, wool, skins, hides, lead or other 
articles whatsoever, liable to custom or king's duty, and also of all those who 
shipped any such merchandizes." On 20th May, 1427, Sir Ulick de Burgo (son of 
.Sir William,) and his brother received an order for twenty marks and forty pounds 
out of the customs of the town, which were paid to his brotlier on 21th October 
ibllowing, to enable him to reduce the Irish,'' and on llth February, 1142, 
WilHam, son of Sir William Bourke, Knight, was granted 10/. to be paid out of the 
treasury of Ireland, in consideration of his laudable services in cnablino- the kino's 
collectors to collect the customs in the port of Galway.' The records of tliis 
period abound with entries, relative to the collection of the revenues of the town 
and their application; but as they do not impart any tlu'ng otherwise materiallv 
interesting, they are, for that reason, and also to avoid prolixitv, omitted. 

The increase of trade rendered commercial regulations necessary, and several 
useful mercantile laws were accordingly, from time to time, devised and" esta- 
blished. Amongst these, liowevcr, some are to be found of a different tendency; 
and particularly in the year MOO, during tlie magistracy of William Biihh Lynche/ 
then sovereign of the town, it was enacted by the corporation, " that ne merchant, 
ne maryner, ne shipman, should unlade, ne transport over the seas, unfremens 
goods, but only fremens, upon paine to Icsse the said goods or the just value 
thereof, and to forfayte 100 shillings ; which goods, forfayte, to be divided into 
three parts, one part to be to the reparations and building of tlie town walls and 
works, the second part to the reparations of the ciun-ch, and the third part to 
the officers, for the time being." This bye-law, which was evidently intended 
to support the monopoly of tlie corporation, however it miglit serve to benefit that 
body, and tend to enrich a few individuals, does not seem to have been calculated 
to advance the general interests of trade : nor could the following enactment, 
v.-hich was framed in the same year, add to tlie strength or increase the iiopu- 
lation of the town, viz. " That no dweller should set or sell land or tenement, 
within the same tov.n of Galway, to no Irishman, without licence fiom the council 
for the time being, on payn of forfiiiting said lands and tenements, and one 
hundredth shillings to be divided as above written."^ These bye-laws, however 
were confirmed in several years after, by Picrse Lynclie, the first mayor of the toAvn. 

lint. Mem. 3 Hen. VI. Hen. r/._ and on 21st April, I4J5, James Bodikvn wa 

appointed comptroller of the customs, in the same porti. 
—Hat. 2Iem. Pin lien. VI. — Soon alter tliis period, the 

' lint. Put. 20 Hen. VI.— On 2]st April, 1445, Alex- 
ander Lynch and Nicholas Slicrct, merchants, were ap- prisage of Galway was granted to Edmomi lloVd Dun- 
pointed collectors of the above customs, in the ports of boyne, during his'liie, for signal services a"ainst the Irish 
Sligo and Galway.— Tio/. I'nt. -23 Hen. VI.— On •J2d and for takmg Con O'Conor prisoner, °and delivcriu' 
Apr^J, 1450, Edmund Lynche and Vvilhani Allen (or Den) him to the lord dcputv.— {f nre. * 
oi' Gahvay, were appointed to the same. — Hot. Mem. 28. Corporation Book. Liber A. 


AVere any further proof requisite to indicate the consequence of the town at this 
jiciii).!, that of the estiibhsliment of a mint, for the coinage of tlie king's monies, 
ill a j)..:t of tlie kingdom so distant from the seat of government, wouhl be sufli- 
cii'iit. In the year 1 t6l, King Edward IV. by letters patent, dated at AVest- 
i;iinster, on the Gth of August, constituted " Gcrmyn Lynch wardeyn and 
p.i.iister worker of ourc monies and coignes within cure castle of Dyvehn (Dublin), 
ill oiu- land of Ireland, and within the castle of Trim; and also, we have granted 
and gyve full power and auctoritc to the said Gcrmyn, and to his depute, or 
dc'pulees, duryng his said lyf, to make all ourc monies and coignes, and to do all 
things that shall nede or long thereto, within the town of Galway, witiiin oure 
saiil land ol Ireland." This patent was confirmed by an act of the succeeding 
Iri-h ])arliainent, " in which the impressions, inscriptions, weight and value, of the 
>c\rial coins, in silver, brass and copper, were particularly specified. Not long 
;il'ter\\arils it was ordered, that English money should advance a Iburth part more 
in value in Ireland, than it was current for in England ; viz. that nine pence 
I'.nglish should pass for a shilling in Ireland, a shilling for sixteen pence, kc. ' 
which was the first time that any difference was made in the value of money 
liL'twecn the two countries." Mr. Simon says, that he never met with anj'^ of the 
cuius, struck in Galway, under the foregoing patent. ' 

'J'his grant was Ibllowed by a charter, dated L'Sth August 1 iGl', whereby tlie 
King, for the better enabling the town more strongly to resist his enemies and 
rebels, confirmed all the preceding charters, regranted the right to levy the tolls 
and customs, but to be expended about walling and paving, and not otherwise; 
and, for the greater security and safeguard of the town, he ordained, that no 
person, of whatsoever estate, degree or condition he should be, (the lieutenant 
and chancellor of Ireland wholly excepted,) should in any wise enter the town, 
unless by the licence, assent and superintendence of the sovereign, provost, bai- 
lilVs, burgesses and commonalty for the time being. ™ This prohibition was the 
iirst eflectual step taken to get rid of the control and interference of the Dc 
Burgos within the town, which was soon afterwards eflected. 

The annals of Connaught, and those of the four masters, record a terrible 
conflagration wliich took place in Galway, on Friday, the '2l\ day of June, Mv^ ; 
by wjiicli the town was nearly destroyed, and incalculable damage sustained by 
the inhabitants. This heavy misfortune was, however, soon overcome by the 
exertions of an industrious and already opulent community. During the long 
reign of Henry VI. and that of his successor, Edw. IV. several families settled 
in the town, among whom those cf Dcaiie, 1-Joitt, l-yrcnc'i, Morris, Biillcr, Fallon, 

' r,:j,n,iled Slalute, Bn/U Office. ' Essm/ nn Irish Coins. 

• ll'ure. ' CVu-. •" liuL Fat. i Edw. ir. p. 11, m.29. Tur. Load. 



NoIa?i, Port, Come or Qidn, and TuUij, are particularly noticed. At the period 
to wliich our narrative is now arrived, it was esteemed one of tlic most j)opu- 
lous towns in Ireland : trade kept pace with the increase of" population, and a 
spirit of industry pervaded the minds of the people ; but their energies were now- 
more particularly called fortli, by the melancholy accident wliicli had just taken 
place, and the damages occasioned by the fire were not only quickly repaired, 
but the town itself was materially improved, and soon after took its rank amongst 
the most considerable places in tlie kingdom. The relation of its affairs having 
been thus far continued through periods of which almost every local record and 
monument has been long and irrecoverably lost, an era now approaches, from 
which the memory of its transactions was better preserved ; and, consequently, 
the future helps, for the elucidation of its histor}-, will be found much more 
abundant and satisfactory, asan the following cliapter. 




Jf'a?-de?isJiip of Gakvai/ inst'ihiled hij the archbishop of Tnam, and confirmed by Pope 
Innocent VIII. — Charter of Richard III. — RcmarJcable instance cfi injledibk' justice 
— Forli/icalions built — Great fire in the torcn — Battle ofiKnoc- Tuadh — Hospital built, 
and several improvements made — Disputes bet'dceen Gahcai/ and Limerick — Prisage 
of icines claimed — Orders of Ilemy VIII. to the inhabitants — Tlie lird deputy. 
Grey, honorably 7-eceived in the town, and several Irish chiefs come in, and submit — 
Sir JVilUam de Burgh created earl of Clanrickard, and deprived of all power in 
Gakvay — Charter of Henry VIII. — Mercantile bye-laws — Charters of Edward VI. 
— The earl of Sussex, chief governor, anives in Galway, and is splendidly received 
— Sir Hem~i/ Sidney, his successor, airives in town — Insurrection of the JMac-an- 
Earlas — llieir defeat — Charter of Elizabeth — The lord justice. Sir JJllliam Pclham, 
arrives in town, and confii-ms the charter — Sir John Perrot, lord deputy, comes to 
Gakvay — Prisage of wines in the town, established by the earl of Orniond — 0/ie of 
the vessels oftlie Spanish armada wrecked in the bay — The lord deputy. Sir William 
FitzwilUams, arrives in town, puts several of the Spaniards to death — Sir William 
Russel, lord deputy, ar7'ives ami investigates the state of the toxim and province — 
Tlie town besieged by Hugh Ruadh O'Donnel — Licentiousness of the inhabitants 
of the cotmtry — 'The chief governor, lord Mounijoy, visits the toxvn — St. Aiigtis- 
ti/ie'sfort built — Charter of James I. — The town erected into a separate jurisdiction 
— T/te lord dcputi/. Viscount Falkland, arrives in Gakcay — His mun'ficcnce — Foi-t 
of Ballymanagh binlt — Several fortifications erected — Splendid entry into Gakcay 
and reception of Viscount Wenlxvorth, lord deputy — His ojipressive 2»'oceedings 
against a jury oj'' the county — Concluding observations. 

1 HE town of Galway having considerably increased in wealth and opulence 
daring the two last centuries, (by its constant and gradually extending com- 
merce with tlie nations oi' Europe, but particularly with France and S})ain, from 
whence its merchants annually imported vast quantities of wine,) and the prin- 
cipal part of the inhabitants being connected together by the ties of kindred, 
(which were daily augmenting by frequent intermarriages,) and by the more power- 
ful influence of mutual interest; the great and continual object of their care and 
solicitude was, to prevent any intercourse with the native Irish of the surrounding 
country, from whose vindictive dispositions (according to the accounts of the 

GB history of galway. 

town) and implacable, though, perhaps, just, and often provoked, resentment, 
many oi' the town's people had, from time to time, been deprived of their pro- 
perties and their lives. ■" In order effectually to attain this desirable end, and 
entirely to cut off all communication between the town and the natives of the 
country, it became necessary to accomplish two points : the first was, to obtain 
and establish a separate religious jurisdiction within the town, which should be 
independent of any exterior ecclesiastical power ; and, the second, to new model 
the corporation, and get rid of the interference of the De Burgos, whose authority 
liad now become insupportable to the inhabitants. 

Galway anciently belonged to the diocese of Annaghdov/n, which was united, 
in 1321', to the arch-diocese of Tuam ; and since that union it was governed by 
vicars, nominated by that see. In the year 1 184, the inhabitants prevailed on 
Donat O'Murray, then archbishop of Tuam, to release the town from his juris- 
diction, and to erect the church of St. Nicholas into a collegiate, to be governed 
by a warden and vicars, who were to be presented and solely elected by the inha- 
bitants of the town. ^ As it was necessary that this act should receive the sanction 
and confirmation of the Pope, a petition from the parishioners of the town 
was transmitted to Rome, in which they stated themselves to be " modest and 
civil people," and represented the inhabitants of the surrounding country as a 
savage race, brought up in woods and mountains, luipolished and illiterate, 
by Vihom they were often disturbed in exercising the divine duties of their 
religion, according to the English rite and custom; that they were often robbed 
and nundered by them, and were in continual danger, and likely to suffer many 
other losses and inconveniences if not speedily succoured, and they therefore 
prayed that his holiness would be pleased to confirm the institution of the arch- 
bishop. This petition was graciously received by the Pope, Innocent VIII. who 
granted a bull of confirmation, according to the prayer of the })etitioners. 

About the same time, the inhabitants also solicited Richard III. for a new 
charter, praying that they might be at liberty to elect thenceforth, for ever, a 
mayor and bailiffs ; that no person whomsoever, not ever, excepting the King's 
lieutenant and chancellor, (who alone were then ])rivi]eged,) should enter the 
town without licence ; and particularly that the lord Mac William, of Clanrickard, 

'Such appears to If.ive been the statement of tlic inlm- XIlv tijn coivinon ;ie peA/i ^alSiA : ma n;|t n; 
liitants of Galway; but, it" the accounts oi' the nccustil rv.\ji>be hrjc 

Irish could now be obtained, it is more than probable that , ,>•',, C. , , ^,v v^ »,!,„^---^ . /A,^„_,,^_ ,„ 

.1 1 1 1 r 1 . • II ni- .1- .1 L be b co.olc dn tin oo moctvoccv: common en 

tluvwoiddbctoLmdniatcnallyditlercnttroin those char,L;cs ■^'-J'-' ^^t ' i i 

III' tlicir adversaries. Xo faet'is Ixtter authenticateil tlian F^!^ jatbd |'.J0r. 

that, lorniany centaries anterior and su]>se.|nent to this ^^.^^ ^^^ ^^■ j, jj^,, ^^^.^, „„ Iriendship make ; 

]>enod tlic native Irish continned to enact aws in tlieir <^i,„„|,,,t thou, destruction will thee overtake ; 

own districts, to prevent any intereoiirse whatever with ,,^,,|| ,;^, ;_, ^^;;, ^^, ,.^i„ ^, „,|„,„ i.^ ,,,,„ . 

the Ensbsh settlers ; whose rapacity and want o. pnn- , j , iHciidship of an Englishman, 

ciple, says the historian, " were to notorious, that ihey ' 

:becaaie proverbial." — V'JJii//uriui. '' Appcmlir, No. I. 


aiul his licirs, should be for ever deprived of all rule and rvuthority witliiii the 
fywii. A new cliarter was accordingly granted, dated at Westminster, the 15th 
of December, 1 1-Sl., whereby the king confirmed all ibrmer grants, and renewed 
tlic powers to levy the tolls and customs, which he directed sliould be applied 
towards the murage and pavage of the town : he also granted license tliat they 
might, yearly, for ever, choose one mayor and two bailiifs, and ordained that no 
person whomsoever should enter the town without license ; and particularly 
ordained and granted, that from thenceforth neither the lord Mac AVilliam, of 
Clanrickard, nor his heirs, should have any rule or power whatsoever within the 
town, eitlier to act, exact, ordain or dispose of any thing therein, by land or by 
water, as he and his predecessors were anciently accustomed to do, without the 
special license and by the consent and superintendence of the mayor, baih'ffs and 
corporation, to whom he granted plenary power and authority to rule and govern 
tlic town.' The first mayor and bailiifs v.ere accordingly elected under tliis 
charter, on the 1st of August, 1185, and were sworn into office on the 29th of 
September following, whicli practise has continued without intermission to the 
present day. 

The bull was soon after received from Rome, and a meeting of the inhabitants 
was immediately convened in the town-aouse, where it was publiclv read, in the 
iiearing of all the people, on the od and Gth days of November, 1485. Bv this 
instrument, which is dated the 8th of February, 1481., the pope coiifirmeil and 
approved of the erection of the church of St. Nicholas into a collegiate, to be 
governed by a warden and eight vicars, who should be moral, well bred and 
virtuous men, and who were to follow the Englisli rite and custom, in celebratin'>- 
the mysteries of religion ; and he also granted tlie right of presentation of the 
warden and vicars to the chief magistrate or mayor, bailiifs and equals (pares) 
of the town for ever. "^ 

These municipal and ecclesiastical grants being obtained, gave general satisuic- 
tion to the people, and principally laid the foundation of the future greatness and 
prosperity of the town, which were also much advanced by the public faith and 
integrity of its mercliauts, and by the unsullied honor of the inhabitants, whose 
stw'ict adherence to truth and love of impartial justice became univei-sally pro- 
verbial. But as a single fact, in illustration of this statement, may prove more 
■satisfactory, and have a greater effect than any general description ; the reader 
will find it forcibly displayed in an appalling instance of inflexible virtue v/liich 
occurred about this period in Galway, and which stands paralleled by very few 
examples in the history of mankind. 

'T'r.-, cluirtcr of Rioli. III. with all preceding ;irants, " Tlie original bull lias been lost niaiiy years a^jo; Init a 
is I'.illv rociiiJ in tiiat of (lueeii Eii/.-.ibL'th. — Appcndt.r, cupy from an ancient tranbcri|)t !;< yivcn" iii tlie Anijonilix 
-^.•• .'//. Xo. II. . I • -■ 



" James Lynch Fitz-Stephen, an opulent merchant,, and one of the principal 
inhai)itants of Galway, was elected mayor in 11.93 ; at which time a regular and 
friendly intercourse subsisted between the town and several parts of Spain. This 
mayor, who froih his youth had been distinguished for public spirit, had, from com- 
mercial motives, on all occasions encouraged an intercourse tiiat proved so lucra- 
tive as well to his town'smen as to the Spaniards ; and in order the more firmly to 
establish the connexion between them, he himself went on a voyage to Spain, 
and was received, when at Cadiz, at the house of a rich and respectable nierciiant; 
of the name of Gomez, with the utmost hospitality, and with every mark of 
esteem suitable to his high reputation and to the liberality of his entertainer. 
Upon his departure for his own country, out of a wish to make some grateful 
return for the numerous civilities he had received from the Spaniard, he requested 
of him, as a particular favor, to allow his son, a youth of nineteen, to accom- 
pany him to Ireland, promising to take parental care of him during his stay, 
and to provide for his being safely restored to his friends whenever he desired to 
return. Young Gomez, who was the pride of his parents and relations, was 
rejoiced at this agreeable opportunity of seeing the world ; and the merchant's 
request was gratefully complied witli by his father. They embarked accordingly, 
and, after an easy passage, arrived in the bay of Galway. Lynch introduced the 
voung stranger to his family, by whom he was I'eceived with that openness of heart 


ost of the minor inciJcnts contained in tliis nar- 
ae the ofi'spring of fancy ; luit tiiis by no means 

'atliicts the truth of tlie principal occurrence. It has been 
ihielly ab>.tracteil from a publication, entitled " Georjie 
the tl'.irj," attributed to the cUisiic pen of the reverend 
Edward Mani;in, but has Ix'en liero extended for the pnr- 
j;ose of affijnliiit; some variety amidst so many uniform 
details from antjcnt records. — This, liowever, the author 
ap[ireltcnds may justly be deemed an insufficient reason; 
but as it is the oaly similar instance which occurs, he 
depends solely lin' iiiili!li;euce on tiie kindness of the reader. 
Other tradil.'ouary accounts of this interesting trans- 
action, give a ilifitrent description of the nature and origin 
of the crime committeil, which it may not be unintcre.sting 
brieHy to notice. According to these accounts, young 
Lvncli, t,he guilty anil unfortunate cause of this inelai:- 
ch(>ly tragedy, was sent on a voy.ige to Spain, as ca;)t;!in 
(if one of his father's shifis, for a cargo of wioe; tmd, 
ha\ing sq'.'aiiikTed or secreted part of the money uitli 
whidi he was entrusted, he availed himself of his father's 
c;cilit, to cover and and for a time to conceal the defi- 
ciency. The Spanish merchant who supplied him on the 
occasion, sent his nephew with him to Ireland, to receive 
the debt, and to establish a further correspondence. The 
ship proceeded on her voyage ; and, us every day must 
bring them nearer the place of destination, and discover 
tiie fraud intended by Lynch, he conceived the diabolical 
n solution of destroying his friend; and, having brought 
the major part of the crew over to his purpose, by pri>- 
mises of^ reward, and the rest by fear, on the night of the 
fi'tecnth d.iy, the uni'orlunate Spaniard was violently 
seized in !i:s bed, and thrown over board. A few days 
more bonJit them to port. His father and friends 

received hiin' with joy, and, in a sliort time, bestowed a 
sufficient capital to sit him up in business. Security had 
lulled every sense of danger; and he proposed for a 
beautiful girl, the daughter of a neighbour, in ni.arriagc. 
His terms were accepted, and the day appointed which 
was to crown his yet successful villainy; when one of the 
sailors, who been with him on the voyage, was taken 
ill, ami tiuding himself on the point oi death, he sent 
for the father, and communicated a full relation of the 
horrid deed bis son hiid con.initti d on tlie sers : thus far 
these accounts vary; but in every other circuji/btance 
they perfectly agree. It must, however, be staled that 
the truth of the entire occurrence has been doubtccL 

Archbishop King's collection', in pos.-.ession ofthcDublin 
Society, vol.1, p. .11^, contain the following entry of a 
horrid murder coimnilteil in (Jalway, apparently taken 
from the records of the Franciscan abbey there : — " Hur- 
rcndum homkidium accidit in villa Gulwei/, 22''. aug. nbi 
ijhidaiii fill', Jolianncs, media node, vcridiL ucunculi sui, 
(i2tHcluii rcoi^h pistoris, luorein it 'Jiliuvi ct vejivtcvi, 
piicriilinn 12 annormn, cum securi, tjiios in /lortiim nos- 
truni, fji'i contiguus J'uit, jirujccit- A". 1C25." — It has . 
been suggested to the author, that the nionuinent said to 
have been erected in 1624, to perpetuate Lynch's crime 
and punishment, (vide the niisceliancous plate,) possibly 
related to the latter circmubtance, which, though 
entered uiulcr the year 1625, iiiight have. occurred the 
year preceding. This, however, is mere supposition. — 
Few transactions of so old a date stand better authen- 
ticated than that concerning young Lyncli ; for, indcpen- 
deml) of the general voice of tradition, it ap|)ears recorded 
in several ancient mannscripts, many of which have passed 
through the hands of the author. 


and hospitality which has ever characterized the Irish, under any circumstances : 
and he also recommended him, in a particular manner, as a companion to his only 
son, who was but a year or two older tiian Gomez, and who was considered one of 
the fnicst youths of his time : the beauty of his person, and the winning softness 
of his manners, rendered him a favorite with the fair sex ; he was the idol of the 
people for his affability and spirit, and respected by all ranks for his abilities. "With 
su])crior height and dignity of mien, he possessed great muscular strength and 
intrepid spirit, and uncommon vigour of body and mind. Thus highly gifted by 
nature, and endowed with every great and good quality of the heart, he soon 
felt the delightful influence of his own attractions, by the general admiration and 
esteem which they excited in others. But his endowments were not unattended 
by what is too often seen united with superior qualities, a tendency to the plea- 
sures of libertinism, which greatly afflicted his father, who was himself exemplary 
for the purity of his life. He, however, now conceived the fullest hopes of his refor- 
mation, from discovering that he paid honorable addresses to a beautiful and 
accomplished girl, the daughter of one of his richest and most respectable neii-h- 
bours ; and he found additional satisfaction in procuring for his son the company 
of one so serious and well brought up as the youthful Gomez, who, he hoped, 
would assist to draw him entirely from his licentious courses. The vcar of his 
return from Spain, this worthy magistrate was more than usually solicitous that 
nothing shoidd happen to cast a stain upon his house or native town, of wlu'cii he 
then was mayor — a rank, in those times, of the greatest importance, and one, on 
the management of which, more than on that of any other civil cmplovment, the 
general security depended. The young men lived togetlier in perfect liarmon)", 
and frequent entertainments were given at the mayor's house, as well in lionor ot" 
the stranger, as for the sake of advancing the suit of his son Walter to tiie beau- 
tiful Agnes. At one of those festivals, which, as usual, she adorned with her 
presence, it happened that her lover either saw, or which, with lovers, is liie 
same, imagined that he saw, the eyes of the lovely maid beam with rapture on the 
young Spaniard. Wild with astonishment, the fairy spell was broken ; liis ardent 
and inu'uly passions took fire at the thought, and he seized an opportunity, not of 
asking his mistress if his suspicions were founded in fancy or reality, but of 
upbraiding her for her infidelity in terms of haughty anger: she, in her turn, 
astonished and irritated by such unexpected injustice, and that too from the 
chosen of her heart, affected disdain to conceal her fondness, and refused to deny 
the charge. " Love," says some philosopher, who assuredly had felt the passion, 
" for the most part resembles hatred rather than affection ;" and what now passed 
between these young persons was a confirmation of the truth of that remark. 
Though mutually enamoured, one obeyed the dictates of jealousy, the other of 
pride : they parted in violence ; and, while the forlorn Agnes may be supposed 
retiring to weep over her wrongs, her admirer, racked by the fiends and iiuies 



that possessed liis bosom, withdrew to revolve the direful project of rev^enn-e. 
Accident contributed at once to strengthen Iiis determination and facilitate his 
purpose. The following night, as he passed slowly and alone by the residence of 
the fair one, he perceived a man come from the house, and knew him to be 
Gomez, who had indeed passed the evening there, being invited by the father of 
Agnes, who spoke the language of Spain with fluency, and courted the society of 
all who could converse with him. Urged by his rage, the lo\er pursued his 
imagined rival, who, being alarmed by a voice which he did not recognize, fled 
before him. From ignorance of tlie streets, he directed his steps towards a soli- 
tary quarter of the town, close to the shore ; but, before he had quite readied the 
water's edge, his mad and cruel pursuer overtook him, darted a poinard into iiis 
heart, and plunged liim, bleeding, into the sea. — In the nigiit the tide threw the 
body of this innocent victim of insanity back upon the beach, where it was found, 
and soon recognized. The rash and wretched murderer (from himself tlie parti- 
culars vvcre obtained) had scarcely committed the sanguinary deed than he 
repented it ; but fear, or rather that feehng which teaches us to preserve life, even 
when we no longer love it, caused him to hasten from the scene of his crime, and 
endeavour to hide himself in the recesses of a wood, at some distance : here he 
could hide, but alas! not from himself; the shades of the night and tlie darkness 
of the forest were unto him as the noon of da}'. In agonies of desuair, he cried 
aloud, and rolled himself upon the earth ; and, wlien the first streaks of li'dit 
appeared in the sky, he rose with a settled resolution of exjiiating his guilt, as tin- 
as he could, by surrendering himself to the law, and with that intention was 
returning to town, when he perceived a crowd of persons approaching, amongst 
wliom, with shame and terror, he beheld his father on horseback, attended by 
several oflicers of justice and a military guard. On finding the body of the 
vS])aniard, it was evident that he was killed by a dagger which was tbund near 
him, his own being unsheathed by Iiis side, and-suspicion had also arisen that his 
assassin must have retreated towai'ds the wood, as a white hat, ornamented with 
feathers, had been found, by some fishermen, floating near the shore, as if blown 
from the road leading in that direction ; while the velvet bonnet, which the per- 
son slain had worn, lay beside the body. Had the imlia])py criminal wished to 
conceal the fact, his disturbed appearance alone would have betrayed him; but with 
])erfcct consistency, though in broken accents, he proclaimed himself the innr- 
dercr, declared liis contrition and remorse for the enormity to which frenzy had 
impelled him, and, imploring pardon of Heaven, desired to be conducted to prison. 
His disconsolate parent, oppressed by a weight of amazement and allliction, could 
scarcely preserve his equanimity, though a man of almost unexani])led firnniess: 
he foresaw the dreadful consequences of complying v. iih his frantic son's demand, 
and that, sliould he shrink from his duty, public disgrace awaited himself. As 
iiiaypr, he had the power of life and death, and he remembered that already in the 


cjsc of another, lie had used the authority given him with rigid severity. But, 
tlioii/fli he perceived that calamity must now overwhehii him and his race, he 
sacrificed all personal considerations to his love of justice, and ordered the guard 
to secure their prisoner. The command was reluctantly obeyed ; and the mourn- 
t'lii procession moved back to the town, penetrating, with difficulty, the immense 
crowds of people, whom, by this time, curiosity had brought out. A more 
extraordinary scene has seldom been witnessed : surprise, compassion and horror 
were discernible in the countenances of all. "While some expressed admiration 
and pity for their upright magistrate, many of the lower classes, feeling commise- 
ration for the fate of their favourite youth, filled the air with lamentations and 
sighs. The uproar alone would have told the sad intelligence to the merchant's 
family : but tliey were doomed to a still greater shock than wliat general rumour 
could give ; for the strong prison of the town lay immediately next to their own 
house, and the mother and sister of- the wretched Walter were spectators of his 
approach, bare-headed, pale, bound, and surrounded with spears. Their outcries 
and faintings added to this most terrific trial of the father's fortitude : but such 
moments are really the test of virtue ; the ordinary adversities of life are 
iusullicient to shew it in its genuine lustre, or prove how potent, how beautiful 
it is, or, indeed, to convince us, that there exists no force by which true virtue 
can be subdued. If words are inadequate to describe the great and sudden 
wretchedness which overspread this, till now happy ^and honorable, family, they 
arc still less so to picture the despair of the tender and unfortunate Agnes. To 
return, however : Within the short compass of a few days, a small town in the 
west of Ireland, with a population, at the time, of little more than three thousand 
persons, beheld a sight of which but one or two similar examples occur in the 
entire history of mankind — a father sitting in judgment, like another Lucius 
Junius Brutus, on his only son, and, like him, too, condemning that son to die, 
as a sacrifice to public justice. The legal inquiry which followed was short; and, 
on his own confession, strengthened by corresponding circumstances, the young 
man was fully convicted of the mtu'der, and, in public, received sentence of 
death from the mouth of his afflicted father, by whom he was remanded back to 
prison. If the Almighty looks down with pleasure on the virtues of mankind, 
here was an action worthy of approbation — a father consigning his son to an 
ignominious death, and tearing away all the bonds of paternal affection, when 
the laws of nature were violated, and justice demanded the blow. No sooner 
was his sentence known to the populace, than they surrounded the place of the 
criminal's confinement : at first they were content witli expressing tlieir dissatis- 
faction by murmurs of regret and expostulations with the guards ; but, by degrees, 
they became tumultuous, and were prevented only by the military force from 
attacking the prison, and pulling down the magistrate's house ; and their disor- 
«lcrs were ino'cased by luidorstanding that the prisoner was now desirous of 



being rescued ; which in some measure was true, for, as his madness subsided, 
his love returned. The thought of for ever parting from the object of his 
affections was intolerable, and he began to see of what value the gift of existence 
was, of which his remorseless hand had deprived an unoffending stranger. By 
strenuous exertions the people were, for the present, dispersed, and hints were 
even conveyed to them, that mercy would be extended to the prisoner. On his 
conviction, the mayor was waited upon by persons of the first rank and influence 
in town, and solicited to consent to a reprieve : his relations and friends joined in 
earnest entreaty, beseeching that his blood might not be shed ; but the inflex- 
ibility of the judge resisted the supplication, and he was inexorable. Whatever 
the inward struggles of the father and the man might have been, the firmness of 
the patriot was unshaken. He was not to be wrought upon, either by the dreatl 
of popular clamour, the odium that it would attach to his name, the prayers and 
tears of his kneeling family, the undcscribable despair of the hapless young lady, 
or, harder to withstand than all those, the yearnings of a paternal breast : buf, 
with a magnanimity that would have done credit to the sternest hero of Greece 
or Rome, he himself descended, at night, to the dungeon where his son lay, for 
the double and direful purpose of announcing to him, that his sentence was to 
be executed on the following morning, and of watching with him, to prevent the 
possibility of his escape. One can hardly fancy any thing more appalling than 
such a vigil as this. He entered, holding a. lamp, and accompanied by a priest, 
(from whom tiie account was received,) and, locking the grate, kept fast the 
keys in his hands, and seated himself in a recess of the wall. His son drew 
near, and, with a faltering tongue, asked if he had any thing to hope ; he 
answered, " No, my son ; your life is forfeited to the laws, and at sun-rise you 
must die. I have prayed for your prosperity, but that is at an end — with the 
world you have done for ever — were any other but your wretched father your 
judge, 1 might have dropped a tear over my child's misfortune, and solicited for 
his life, even though stained with murder — but you must die — these are the last 
drops which shall quench the sparks of nature — and, if you dare hope, implore 
that Heaven may not shut the gates of mercy on the destroyer of his fellow- 
creature. I am now come to join with this good man in petitioning Gou to give 
you such composure as will enable you to meet your punishment with becoming 
resignation." Then, as if fearful of relapsing into his natural softness, and of 
forgetting the great duty he had imposed upon himself, he requested the priest 
lo proceed: they knelt down, and administered the rites of the church to tlie 
iniliappy crir.iinal, to fortify him for the approaching catastrophe. The young's native spirit seemed gradually to be restored ; he joined fervently in prayer; 
sighed heavily from time to time ; but spoke of life and its concerns no more: 
and thus, with intervals of silence, the woeful night passed over. It was scaixely 
day, when the expected summons to prepare was given to the guards witliout. 


llic father rose, unci assisted the executioner to remove the irons which still 
bound his unfortunate son ; then, unlocking the door, he ordered him to stand 
between the priest and liimself, and lean upon an arm of each. In this manner 
they ascended a flight of steps, lined with soldiers, and were passing on to gain 
tlic street, where a strong escort had been appointed to receive and go along 
witli them to tlie usual place of punishment, at the eastern extremity of the 
town. Tiie concluding scene of tlie father's struggles and the son's misery was, 
it might be supposed, now very nigh ; but a trial more severe yet awaited them, 
and the unparalleled firmness of the former was to undergo a still further proof. 
The relations of the imhappy culprit surrounded the father : they conjured him 
again, by all the solicitude of nature and compassion, to spare his son. His 
wretched and disconsolate mother, whose name was Blake, flew in distraction to 
the heads of her own family, and at length prevailed on them, ibr the honor of 
their house, to rescue liim, and prevent the ignominy his death must bring on their 
name. They armed to deliver him from prison. Prodigious crowds had gathered, 
and were loud in their outcries for mercy, threatening instant destruction to the 
magistrate, if not complied with. In vain did he exhort them to preserve tran- 
quillity, and suft'er the law to take its course. The soldiers themselves were 
incited by the circumstances of this most pitiable case, and, no longer able or 
willing to do their duty, permitted the populace to approach the house, and to 
continue their well-meant, but unlawful, opposition. To attempt now to pass 
tluough them was hopeless : but having withstood their tears and prayers, and 
the still stronger appeal of his own affections, this virtuous, unhappy and resolute 
fiither determined not to yield from a motive of personal fear, but, by one 
desperate and incredible effort, to perform the horrid sacrifice which he had 
vowed to pay on the altar of justice ; and, if he fell, to fall as became a man, 
and not be compelled to prefer the advantage of an individual to the injured rights 
of his coimtry, and of liuman nature. It is probable he was prepared for this 
extremity ; for, turning back, and still keeping hold of his son, he mounted by 
a winding stairs within the building, which led to an arched window that over- 
looked the street in which the populace was assembled : he there presented 
himself and his victim, about whose neck he had previously fastened the rope 
with which he had been bound, and, securing the other end in an iron projecting 
from the wall, " You have little time to live, my son," said he ; " let the care of 
your soul employ these few moments — take the last embrace of your unhappy 
father :" — he embraced his unfortunate son, and launched him into eternity ! A 
few moments put an end to his existence. Expecting instant death from the fury 
of the rabble, this extraordinary man retained his station, satisfied with the silent 
approval of a good conscience, perfectly regardless of the applause or censure of the 
multitude, conscious of having fulfilled his duty to God, to man, and his country : 
but this act of greatness awed them j they stood motionless with amazement ; 


a sentiment of admiration and sorrow united alone prevailed; and, when all was 
over, tlicy slowly and peaceably retired — so wonderous is the influence of an 
exalted and daring mind, when actuated by the principles of virtue. — The 
innocent cause of this lamentable tragedy is said to have died of grief, and 
the father of her lover to have secluded himself from society for the remainder 
of his days, never having been seen again, except by his mourning family. 
His house still exists in Lombard-street, which is yet known by tlie name 
of " Dead-man's-lane ;" and the execution is said to have taken place at a 
window in the rear of the house ; though the vulgar error is, that lie was 
susnended over the front window, which is distinguished by a handsome represen- 
tation, carved in black marble, of a human skull, with two bones crossed beneath. 
It is dated in 1021 ; and is supposed to have been put up by some of his family, 
as a public memorial of a transaction which succeeding times looked upon witli 
astonishment, and wliich the production of the arts in this country sliould 
perpetuate with statues. Opinions may, no doubt, be divided as to the cruelty 
or inhumanity of the father; but few will question the integrity of the judge, 
or the equity of the sentence ; nor can it be any longer surprising, that, after so 
brilliant an example of justice, united to the general character of the inhabitants, 
the town attained, as before observed, that degree of universal credit, which it 
will be found to have done within little more tlian a century after this period. 

Tlie corporate regulations already detailed infused new spirit and vigour 
among tlie inhabitants. Several useful and considerable works were now un- 
dertaken by the corporation ; and, in the mayoralty of Andrew Lynch Fitz- 
Stephen, in 1498, the important communication from Lough-a-thalia to Ponla- 
vourline, which would have opened an easy passage from Lough-corrib to the sea, 
(and which is still so desirable,) was commenced, but never completed. The 
remains of this useful, but neglected, work are yet visible, and are distinguished 
by the name of " Lynch's Folly." In the same year the curfew-bell was intro- 
daced, and a considerable part of the fortifications from the shoemaker's-tower 
to the quay was built. These improvements were for a while impeded by an 
accidental fiie which took place in 1500, and consumed a great part of the town. 
The inhabitants, however, soon repaired these losses, and afterwards, from time to 
time, beautified the town with several most superb structures, many of which 
remain entire to this day; bearing dates and inscriptions which generally contain 
the names of their fbimdcrs, and denote the particular periods of their erection. 

The town had hitherto, for a considerable time, enjoyed the blessings of peace, 
except the predatory attempts of the Lish may be deemed exceptions; but 
William de Burgo, O'Brien of Thomond, M'Namara, O'Carroll and other chief- 
tains, having in 1504 risen in arms, they suddenly invested and took possession of 
the town. Gerald, earl of Kildarc, the lord deputy, assisted by O'Neal O'DoncU 
and others, marched against them with a considerable force : both armies met at 



tiio liill of Knoc-tuaclh, about seven miles N. W. of Galway; and although the 
ln«!i army is stated to have been the most numerous that had assembled since the 
arriia! of the Eiiglisli, it was routed with dreadful slaughter ; Mac William and 
•uic other leaders were taken prisoners, and the towns of Galway and Athenry 
••jrri'ndored. ' 

Foacc being tlius restored, the inliabitants again resumed their improvements. 
Ill I JOJ the streets were paved, and ^Stephen Lynch Fitz-Dominick, tiie mayor, 
futimletl an hospital, in tlie liigh street, for the relief of such of the respectable 
citizens as might happen to be reduced by sickness or other misfortunes : he then 
drew a deep Ibsse round the walls on the east, into which a branch of the river 
was turned that completely insulated the town ; and for these public-spirited works 
the corporation rewarded him w^ith a grant of a considerable portion of the ad- 
jacent land. In 1519 the town wall was extended one hundred and twenty feet 
westward of Michael's tower ; part of the quay was also built at the joint expense 
of the town and government; and the " young men" entered into a milibary 
association, and instituted a company amongst themselves, with the approval and 
sanction of the corporation. 

Daring the greater part of tlie reign of Henry VIII. the town enjoyed undis- 
turbed repose ; trade flourished ^ ; several useful bye-laws were enacted for the 
well ordering of the corporation, and many were also made to prevent any inter- 
course with the native Irish. As these bye-laws and regulations generally exhibit 
a curious and correct picture of the customs and manners of the town, at the 
successive periods of their enactment, since the year ItSl, many of tliem will be 
(bund in another part of this work. 

The city of Limerick, from an early period of our history, was jealous of the 
growing trade and prosperity of Galway, although the latter long retained its 
superiority. This jealousy was shewn on many occasions, but broke out violently 
in consequence of a mercantile dispute, which happened some time previously to 
1521-, between David Comyn, a citizen of Limerick, and some merchants of 
Galway. Comyn complained that he could have no justice administered to iiim in 

' The annaU of the four masters state, that " The battle town, cheerfully elate, after the fore-nieiitioneJ victory." 

Ill" Kiiuc-tiuulli was fou^'lit ou the 19th of Auijust, 150 1. Trntisl. 

Aficr gaining the victory, the loril justice advised with ^ A. D. l.';2:), the Kinj granted to Robert Cowley, of 

O'DoncIl to proceed iiiiinediately to Galway: O'Donell Dubhn, merchant, the lastuL'e of hides, commonly called 

«iiJ, ' Many of our people are overpowered and slain, anil the tees of the town of Galway; beinir two shillinys 

others of them separated from us ; I therefore think it sterlins money for every last (twelve dozen) of hides, 

hi->t to remain this nis;ht on the field, as a sign of our in every ship v\ithin the port of Galway, and the bavs 

victory, ami to form our camp; our scattered troops (lite- and creeks thereof, fun a term of 30 years, theretofore 

rally, our heroes and the dregs of our people) will then held by Stephen Lynch Fitz-Dominick. — Fiaiit 17 //»■». 

return to us, upon knowing our standards and colours.' VI !I. — Steplien Fitz-Arlhur Lynch was appointed rc- 

Tliat was done by them. On the next day the lord jus- ceiver of the cocket duties with the ancient fees, as T. 

ticc and O'Donell went to Galway, where the two sons Kirwan or any other held them. — Jiot. Pat. 27, nO llrii. 

of Mac William and liis daughter were made prisoners; VIII. — And John Goldawiith was appointed scarcJicr of 

alter which the lord justice remained some time in the the port. — Id. oj. 


Galway ; and, waiting lor an opportiniity, he seized the person of Ambrose Lynch 
Fitz-James, one of the inhabitants of the town, and kept him cloi^;e prisoner, 
until he was ransomed for a large sum of money. In consequence of this outni"e, 
hostilities commenced between the city and town, and great depredations were 
committed both by sea and land ; until the peojjle of Limerick, weary of the con- 
test, dispatched two of tlieir citizens, Christopher Artluu" and Nicholas Arthur, 
to Galway, to conclude a peace ; or, as the record of this transaction expresses 
it, " to pacylicat and put awaye all manner adversitye, rancour, and inconvenyeiis 
that have rysen or insurged between the city and town and habitantes of the 
same." Upon their arrival, the mayor, bailiffs and commonalty assembled in the 
town-house, and with one assent elected Walter and Anthony Lyncli Fitz-Thomas, 
to conclude " a perpetual peace and concorde" with tiie deputies of Limerick. 
The terms being agreed upon, a public meeting was convened on the 7tli of May, 
1521, and the subjoined curious articles " were signed and ratified on both sides, 

•'' Iv THE NAME OF GoDE, Amen. Tliis endentur 
made the sevcnthe daye of Maye, the xvi yeare of the 
roisne of Kii)L'e Hcnrye the eight, and of our Lorde 
l;V-'l, in llie coiirte house of Gaiweye, before Stcphyne 
Lvnche Fitz-Domynycke, then beinge mayor, John 
ridlon and Jolin French, baylyff'es, with tlieyr cohurgcns 
theyr resembled; hctwexte the city of Lynicryk of that 
one partye, and the towne of Gaiweye of tliat other 
juu'tve, VVytne*5Ethe, that Chrystofor Artur and Nich' 
Artur came and it^jpeyred in the same corte-house, and 
the\T shewed a letter of power and auctorytye, of the 
said cyty, and cytyzens of the same, for to pacyficat and 
put awaye all manner adversitye, rancor and inconve- 
nyens, that have rysen or insnrjred betwexte the said 
cytve and the towne of Galway, and betwexte the cyte- 
ZL-ns and habitauntis of the cyty of Lymeryk, and betwexte 
the conburgens of Gaiweye and habitantes of the same: 
and speciallye, as touchinge the matter dependinge be- 
twexte David Comen, of Lymcryke, cytczen, and the 
low ne of Galweje, for certeyne travers maU)er towchinge 
a bargayne of sake, the which bargayne IJaviil Conicn 
alleginge for hym, that he cowde have no ryght minis- 
treili to hyni in the said towne of Gaiweye. VV'herefore 
the said David attached, rested and rainesomcd one 
named Ambrose Lynch Fitz-Janics, merchantc, of the 
-laid towne of Gallweye, for the which tachein and rain- 
scnnvnge, ai'ose and insurgedc grcate inconvenyencys be- 
twexte the said citye and the towne of Gallweye. ^\ hcar- 
forc, in considci-alion, and angmetitacon, and fortyfvnge 
trauniinylytye, and of rcaste and peace, and concordabic 
aniytye and frendsbipj), betwexte the said cytye and the 
towne of Gallweye, the said niayr, ballyves, conburgens 
and comers of Gallweye, in the said courte house, with 
one assente elected and chosed Walter and Anthon\e 
Lynchc Fitz-Thonias, arlntratonrs to be assocyate wjth 
tlic said Chrystofor and Nich' Arthure, yn the towne of 
Gaiweye, ys belialfe, to the augmcntacon, pacificacon of 
a perpetuall peace and concorde betwexte the cytye of 
Lymryk, for the said matter, i;nd the towne of Gaiweye. 

Then the said arbvtrators, Chrystofor, Nicli' Walter 
and Anthonye, so cliosen and elected, betwexte the 
said cytye and towne, have for the universal welte, 
and augmentacon of charity and amytye betwexte the 
said cytye and towne, concordcd, a|ipointed, affirmed, 
and concluded jjcace betwexte the said cytye of Lymryk 
and Gallweye, betwexte the cytyzens and conburgens 
of both for ever; so that this accordcniente and fynal 
peace maye never be sepiirate, be none inconvenycnce, 
rancor ne dyscorde. 

Item, we the fbrs-aid arbitrators, have concorded, for 
the more affirmacon of the peace, and have leftc, that 
there shall be ne warycnce ne dyscorde betwexte the 
said cytye of Lymeryk, ne the towne of Gallweye, from 
thensforwarde, for enye accon or demandys, as towchin" 
David Comen and Ambrose Ljnchc, ys waryence, saivc 
that all forgyven in eyther syde, fro' the begen}nge of the 
worlde, unto this presente daje and date. 

Item, if so befalls that onye suyte or demande be made 
to eny person or persons before the mayrof Lymeryk, 
by eny of Gallweye, tliat the mayr of Ljmeryk, for the 
tyme beinge, shall mynyster justyce and lawe to them of 
Gallweye, accordinge the consuetude of the cytye; and 
yn lykewyse the mayr of Gallweye shall mynyster and 
liolde rygiit to them of Lymerjk, in lyke manner and 

Item, more, we the forsaid arbytrours have left and 
accorded, in one, that Ambrose Lynchc shall have of the 
crtye of Lymeryk, 37/. I3«. iri. and this to be deter- 
mined at Lymeryk as Xpofor Artur and Xich' Artur 
shall ileme and ixdresse; and the said moneye shall be 
payde to the said Ambrose; that ys to saye, the 17/. 13^. 
4(/. that Ambrose made of costys, shall be payde in this 
wyse, as to seye, tyve jiycccs of silver, wliych Ambi-ose 
lefte att Lymeryk, that ys to saye, four jneces wjih 
David Comen, and the other pece wyth John Kyce, which 
five peces sliall be dealyvered to Chrystofor Artor js 
handys, incontynente, yv) thoute eny del.nye, and the rest 
to be paiil, halfe by Mychellmas next followinge the date 



i.iul apparently to the mutual satisfaction of all parties : but as treaties are more 
rrt'fjiiently entered into, than inviolably preserved, so the people of Galway com- 
jilaiiicd that those of Limerick still indulged their resentment, although every 
matter in dispute was supposed to have been peaceably settled ; and charged tlieni 
with having again involved the town in fresh troubles, by insidiously instio-atiu"- 
Pierce, earl of Ormond, to make a demand for the prisage of wines, an impost 
which had never been tlieretofbre paid or demanded in Galway. 

The importation of tliis article formed, Irom a very early period, the most con- 
jiiilerable feature in the ibreign connnerce of the town ; and our annals assert that 
more wine was, for a considerable period of time, annually imported into Galway 
tiian into all the other parts of the kingdom.' As the Ormond family was entitled, 
by a grant from King Edw. III. to the prisage of all wines brought into Ireland, 
\iz. one tun out of every nine, and two out of every twenty, the loss to them, 
ill consequence of its retention ih Galway, was very considerable. The earl 
made the demand in the year 1526, and the town resisted payment. His lordship 
then made complaint, before the lords of the Star Chamber in England ; agents 
attended on the part of the town ; the question was solemnly debated ; and, after 
mature deliberation, it was decreed, that " Inasmuch as the earl could not prove 
that either King Edward III. under whose grant he claimed, or any other before 
the grant, or himself, or any of his ancestors, received any prise wines of any 
stranger or denizen, by any prerogative, custom or other law in the toM'n of 
Galway, so the town and corporation should pay no prisage, custom or toll unto 
the King, or any other person, other than they have used to pay in times past." " 
This decision, which was so flivorable to the town, caused great rcjoicin"-.s 
amongst the inhabitants, but had a contrary efl^ect on the people of Limerick, 
■who, irritated at the success of their rivals, dispatched private information to 
Henry VIII. that Galway had degenerated into the manners and customs of the 
Irish, with whom they corresponded, and to whom they afforded every assistance. 
This new attempt to injure the town also failed ; for the King, de})endiit<T on its 
well-known fidelity, was satisfied, without further inquiry, by sending over certain 
instructions, dated 28th April, 153G, ' that the inhabitants should use the Eno-Hsli 

(icrrof, and the other halfe to be paid be Maye nextc 
cn>uiiij,'c the same date; and the 'Jo/. that Ambrose paidc 
(0 David Cornell shal be dcallyvered and payde to 
Leonard Artur, for the 20/. that Ainlirose tookc anti had 
of the saiil Leonard Arture, and to be iliscempted oi'tlie 
soin aforesaid. 

Id wytncs of which \vc, the foresaiti arb}'trors, liave 
prayed and reijuyred Jlathewe Lorcane, notorye, to 
wrytc and si^n this our arbytracon und paeificacon, 
enJented under his si;,'n manual, and have subscribed 
our names with the meraltye ys seall, sett to tiie same, 
■chanireablv, wrytten at Gallwcye, llie day and year 

XroFon Autur. M.vt. Lorcant.. Lynchp. 
Nich' Artuk. Notariut. Antiio.nye Lv.vent. 

' They furtlier relate, that previously to the reign of 
Henry VII. and loni; suliscquent to the |)enod mentioned 
above, the merchants of Galway rurni>hcd almost the. 
entire kin^fdom with wine; and lliat for the convenience 
of supjilying Dublin, Droj;luda, and other circumjacent 
towns, they had vaults and stores at Athboy, in the 
county of Mealh, the ruins of which, it is added, remain 
there to this dav. 

' Hrcital of Decree; Uolls Off. Dublin. 

' From the curious and interesting nature of this < oui- 
niunication, it is here subjoined. 



order, habit and language, hold no correspondence with the Irish, and particularly 
Miat they should desist from forestalling the markets of Limerick, an olftncc of 
which they were also accused. Such were tlie petty animosities which subsisted 
between these rival communities; until Limerick, in the end, owing to political 
causes, gained the ascendancy, which it holds to this day. 

Ordinances kou Galway. 
Py Tin; King. 

WlU beloved, we pi'ete yoii well, signifyinge unto you, 
tliat we, willing, of our tciulcr ami zeale we bearo unto 
you, to the furtheringe of _\ our weale, profit, and com- 
"nioiiitie, and the extearpation of all abuses, hetherto 
used, or accustomed among you, will and require you, 
and nevcrthclessc straightly charge and command you, 
tiiat ye, firmly and unfeiguedly, observe tlie devises and 
articles ensueinge, perpctuallye. 

Item, that no marchant man, or any other man, or 
man's servant or servants, within oure towne of Galleway, 
or suburbs of the same, goe with no manner of merchan- 
dize nor victuals in the country, within 20 miles conipas 
of onrc said towne, save onlye to oure markett townes, 
but sufiisr thinhabitants of the country to resorte to the 
market of oure said towne, to sell theire wares and cat- 
tells, in our said market, according to the purporte of 
our charters given by us, and our noble progenitors of 
famous memorie, to you thinhabitants of oure towne. 

Item, that everie inhabitant, as well within the said 
towne, as the suburbs of the same, doesbave theire 
over lipps, called croiiipeanlis ; and sufier the haire of 
there hedds to growe, till it cover theire earcs, and that 
every of them weare English cap[is. 

Item, that noe man, nor man child, doe weare noe 
mantles in the streets, but cloaks or gowns, coats, dubletts 
and hose, sbapeu after the English fashion, of the country 
cloth, or any other cloth it shall jjlcase them to buy. 

Item, that noe man, woman or childe, weare, in their 
shirts, or any other garments, no saffron ; ne have any 
more cloth in there shirts or smocks but fyve standard 
files of that country cloth. 

Item, that every man pro\'yd, with all speed, long bowes 
and En;;lish arrowes, and hunt, shooting, and speciallye 
every holyday, and to leave all other unlawful games. 

Item, that eveiy inhahitniit within oure said towne 
endeavour themselfes in spenke Eugli':/!, and to use theni- 
sulfes after the English facon ; ami, speciallye, that you, 
an<l every of you, doe put forth your children to scole, to 
lerne to spcke English ; and that you fayle not to fnllfill 
theis our commandamcnts, as you tender our favor, and 
will avoyd our indignation and high di>pleasin-e. 

I'urthermoro, wlicrc we be credibi) informed, that con- 
trary to the effects of your pryvilcgcs and jurisdictions, 
granted unto you by us, and our noble firogcnitors of 
loving memory, to hold before the niaior, and bis baylifl's 
there, all manner of pleas and actions, and to the jud^es 
of the same, certeigne joung commoners of obstinacie 
;)rcsume to have their voyces in such processes ami judg- 
ments, inclyninge inordinate afl'ectiou to ther adhercut^ and 
friends, and the raysiugof sysme and contrarywise amongst 
you, and the disturbin^'e of administration of justice, we 
therefore williuge due redrcssc in t!i;'.t Jiarty, in avoyding 

all inconveyniences, will that the maior and baylifis llicre, 
callinge to 'them fower of the aldermen, doe minister jus. 
tice, ui all causes, between partie and [.artie; and if any 
person find him grieved, for lack of inditfcrcncie, to coni- 
plane to our deputy and couusaile in Ireland; and if ajiv 
commoner doe rebuke the maior, and his assistants, or 
repugne to obey ther decrees or judgments, that it be 
lawful for the maior to put them to warde, and punish 
them according to theire dcmerities. 

And also, where we be further informed, that malcfac- 
torers, commyting robryes and spoiles, be succoured and 
mayutained, with the freers niinours, and others, uecre 
that oure towne, who take upon them to have privileges 
as a sanctuarye, for all such malefactors, and will not 
suffer any of them to be attached, or to be justified br 
our lawes; we will and command you, that \e do not 
allow any such pryvyleges or saynctnaiies, but attache and 
hringe to their purgation, before our judges, all such 
malefactours, wheresoever ye n^ay apprehend tlicm, as 
well in any house of freers, or other religious, as in other 
prophane places ; and this our letterii shall be your suffy- 
cient warraunt and dischardge in that behalf; and in case 
any freers wille make resistance against you, in executinge 
the premises, that you take such freers, and them briiige 
before our judges, to be punished accordinge their dcser- 
vings, and rede this clause to the freers. 

Moreover, yf O'Brene, or any otlier Irishmen, be at 
warre with our deputy, or our subjects of oure citty of 
Limericke, that in ne wise by any coulor, practise or 
covyn yon sufl're ne vytoyls, iron, sault, or other como- 
ditie, to passe from you to them during the time of their 
contention, till they shalbe perfytly reconsiled, uppon 
paine of your allegiances, and allways that ye observe the 
articles before writtyn, speciiUlye concerninge the keeping 
of marketts, and that of your resorte with any merchan- 
dize amongst Irishmen, at any time. 

And where we be informed, that at such seasons as 
estraungers repaire within the haven of Limerick, cer- 
teigne of you forstail the markett of our sayd cittie, 
ahuing and procuringc the stranger marchants to repaire 
out of the haven of Lymericke to you, oflering them 
advantage above the protire of the said cittie, to their 
great dfsailvantage and comoditie, and jnihaunsinge the 
jirice of forraiue and alien marchandize, to the profitt of 
of alyens : We therefore will and conunaunde yon, that 
you doe not alure and provoke any marchandyse aryving 
in the said haven of Limericke to vou, ne they, to pro- 
cure any marchandjse aryvjng in theire haven, liom you 
to them. 

See that wee heare no further complaynt in this belianlfe, 
or in any of the premises, uppon you, as you intende our 
favours, and avoidingc of the contrary. — t;y\_^n at our 
manor of Oreenwych, the 2Sth day of April, in tlic 28th 
year of our reign. — Lair.bcth MS. 501, J'cl. 106. 


Leonard, lord Grey, the lord deputy of Ireland, having, about this time, re- 
rvivcil instructions Irom the king to oblige the Irish, by indenture, to acknowledge 
his supremacy, and renounce the Pope, ™ departed from Dublin on the lytli of 
Jtiiie, 1.537, with an army, for the purpose of enforcing obedience to these orders, 
.-.lUi on the 11th of July arrived in Gaiway. The corporation treated him and 
his English soldiers gratis ibr seven days; and the mayor and aldermen, according 
to .Sir Richard Cox, in his history, following the example of Limerick, took the 
oath of supremacy, and renounced the authority of the Pope. While his lordship 
remained in town, O'Flaherty, O'Madden and Mac Yeoris, (or Bermingham,) came 
ill, and made their submissions ; but when the king received an account of what 
had taken place, he wrote to the lord deputy, that ♦' their oaths, submissions 
and indentures were not worth a farthing, since they did not give hostages." " 
About the same time, Finglas, chief baron of the Exchequer, recommended that 
half the fee-farm of Gaiway should bfe paid to the lord deputy for the time being, 
and that the other half should be applied for repairing the walls, and providing 
ibr its security. The town was accordingly put into a state of defence ; the south 
(jnay, or new-tower gate, was built, and the walls were repaired and provided 
with guns : which latter circumstance gave rise to one of the articles of impeach- 
ment against the unfortunate lord Grey; for, having brought the artillery in a small 
vessel to Gaiway, lie made the town pay 34/. for the carriage." The hospital of 
St. Bridget, in the east suburbs, was founded for the poor of the town, and , 
eacli burgess was obliged, in his turn, to send a maid serv^ant to collect alms every 
sabbath day for its support ; a custom which was long afterwards observed. 
This charitable institution was fortunately completed in the year 15'13, when the 
sweating sickness broke out, and raged with great violence, destroying multitudes 
of the natives, and particularly the tradesmen of the town. 

The period at length arrived which was to put an end to the hereditary feudal 
intlnence and interference of the fiimily of De Burgo in Gaiway. In the patent 
of creation of Sir William de Burgh, the last Mac IVilUam Eightcr, to be earl 
of Clanrickard and baron of Dunkyllen, '' dated at Greenwich, 1st July, 15 13, the 

" Cox. ordre of education and nianjiers, iiiluibitinc; within the 

"Lord Grey, who was afterwards beheaded for mis- towne of Galwav; and the said William Burke, before 

cniuluct in the government of Ireland, was a violent that he was created earl, being a man of wylJe govern- 

rifoniicr. During his slay in Gaiway he seized and con- auncc in those parties where he dwelled, obeying neither 

fi>catcd the sacred utensils and ornaments of the church the king nor his grace's lawes, for good and reasonable 

of Saint Xicholas, of whicli see more in the account of considerations was coupled in lawful matrimonic with the 

the cluirch. said Deame Marie, and by leason thereof he was brought 

° Cvx. into soche civilitie, good order and conversation with the 

Mil the first year of the reign of Edw. VI. \SA1, king's honorable counsel), and his subjects within his 

Pierce Martin, of Gaiway, and Dame Mary Lynch, his grace's rcalnie of Ireland, that he the rather was procured 

Ril'c, " late wife of William Burke, earl of Clanrickard," to repaire into England to visite the king's majestic, where- 

p'Jtioncd the duke of Somerset, protector of England, upon he was created earl." The petition further stated, 

•'.ating, " tliat the said Marie was of a civile and Englishe that articles were executed on their intermarriage,, bj. 




cockets of Galway, to wliich he was theretofore entitled, and all pensions, profits 
and exactions within tiie town, were reserved to the crown, in lieu of which he 
■was granted an annual sum of 30/. sterling, payable out of the treasury, and the 
third part of the first-fruits, and the abbey of Via Nova or Clonfert. The following 
is the reservation : — Excepting always, and reserving unto us, our heirs and succes- 
sors, all that portion, custom, profit or pension of the cockets, and all and singular 
jicnsions, exactions, profits and commodities whatsoever, which the aforesaid 
William pretends or claims to have and receive from our town of Galv.ay, in our 
kingdom of Ireland aforesaid, so as that neither he, the said William, nor his 
heirs, shall henccforlh have or claim any thing whatsoever within the said town, 
but that they shall be totally excluded therefrom for ever.'"" Thus ended the 
authority of this ancient and powerful family in Galway, of which they were 
originally the principal founders and protectors, and afterwards governed with 
almost absolute control, for upwards of two centuries. 

This exemption was followed by a new charter from the crown, granted by 
Henry VIII. on .'id July, 1515, wliereby he confirmed all former charters, and 
added several very considerable privileges. The limits of tiie port were described 
from the islands of Arran to the town ; the corporation were freed from se\'eral 
excessive tolls within all the king's dominions ; and it was particularly granted 
that no person should pay any prisage for wines imported into the town, " because 
prisagc had not theretofore been accustomed to be paid there," "" nor any customs 

v.'Iiich tlic manor anil castle of Ki/lcolgnn were settled on 
I'.LT ilnring Iier miturai life, and that the earl had entered 
into several other covenants, none of which he carried 
i;!to execution : that at the time of their marriage 
b!;e " was a woman of f;reat substance," and that she 
was entitled inito, and claimed the third part of all his 
real and personal propeity : that notwithstanding his 
urace'^s orders to the lord deputy and counsel of Ireland 
to take coi;ni/aiice of their complaint, thev coidd obtain 
no final order iVom them, save that they ordered that the 
j)etitioners " should have a chain of golil, with a crossc 
iianging thereatt of fourteen ounces, value at oCl. \0s. 
sterling ; and also a cuppe, called a nutte, with a cover 
of silver, gilte, of sixty-eight ounces, valued at 17/. 
sterling, and another standing cuppe of silver, with a 
cover, double gilte, of forty-three ounces, valued at 10/. 
IGi. ■!(/. sterling, in part of 100 marks, rcceiveil with her 
in marriage; and of 50 marks bciiueathed unto her, niul 
of '■251. IS*, belonging to the children begotten by her first 
husband, which she delivered the said eric; wherefore 
they jnostc humbly bcseechethe your most noble grace, 
for the love of God, to regarde and ponder the said cause, 
that it may be called to examination before }our grace." 
An order was accordingly sent from Englaml to Sir 
Thomas Luttrell, chief justice of the common ji!v''a';; 
Walter Kardiil) second justice; and Patrick I'.arMewall, 
Serjeant at law, dated the 2.jd January, 15-17, authorizing 
them to finaily hear am! .iL-tticaine the iii.uur of ilie 

petition. This was accompanied by a letter from the duke, 
wherein he writes, " Surulie it might be lameutalile, th^it 
so noble man's wyfie, dehcrvinge so well towanle the king's 
majestie, by conforminge her husband, shoulde be lefte 
without livinge for lacke of justice." — The judges made 
their award or decree on the 1,1th of Xovember followins, 
stating, that tliey had sunmioned Hickard, then carl of 
Clanriekard, John Wackley and others, iigainst whom 
the petitioners complained; and that it appeared by proofs 
taken before them, " that the late earl was first married 
unto one Graii'tc iii/ Kcroil/, wiio was living at the time 
of the marriage bet« ten him aiul the petitioner, Mary; 
and that consequently the latter marriage was void, and 
she was not entitled to tliirds. But, as he bound himself 
in the forfeiture of 200/. sterling and 100/. worth of plate, 
to convey the castle and manor of Kylcoli;au to her at liis 
death, which, by his will, he left unto the present earl, 
and as he received the said Dame .Mary in marriage, 
afhrming and swearing there was no impediment to the 
same," they therefore ailjudged the zivjl. forfeited, and 
awarded same forthwith to be paid to the petitioners, with 
a special provisoe, that Dame .Mary, and her children hy 
the late earl, should be at all times at liberty to disprove 
the niarn'a!;e between him and Gruiiie ni/ Kcroill, — Jiut. 
Vat. 2 Etiw. VI. 

'' liol. I'ld. .3.3, .34. 35 tUn. VIII. 

' Tlii:, clause was inserted in consei|uencc of the attempt 
of the earl of Ormoml, in 152G, to compel the pauiicut 


■•h.-vtsocvcr for any other goods imported, save such as of old were accustomed 
to be paid. All manner of goods and merchandizes were allowed to be exported, 
I'xccpt woollen and linen goods : all such liberties and privileges as were enjoyed 
by the town of Uroghcda were fully granted and confirmed, saving, however, to 
tJie king and his heirs, all emoluments to him and his ancestors, lords of the 
town ' issuing thereout, and also the customs of the cocket ; and also saving to 
tlie portrevc and burgesses of Athcnry, and their successors, all such privileges 
ns tlicy were accustomed to have in times past, in the town and port thereof. ' 
Tlie flourisliing state of conunerce in Gahvay is fully evidenced by this charter ; 
and at J his period, and for upwards of a century afterwards, it was considered one 
of the first emporiums for trade, not only in Ireland, but, with very few exceptions, 
in the British islands. Its overflowing wealth and prosperity led the town to 
adopt measures and lay down certain regulations whicli proved contrary to the 
cstablislied laws of the land. Thus, a bye-law was enacted by the corporation in 
l.H'J, whereby it was "ordered, that no person of this town shall buy or sell with 
any mcrcliants of Lymbricke, Corcke, "Watterford, Dublin, or other towns or 
cillics for any goods, or cause same to be transported by land or sea, unless they 
come to this town as other strangers and merchants, in shipps, on pain of for- 
feiting the goods and '20/." This bye-law being in force, one Tliomas Filz Simon, 
a Dublin merchant, in the year 1518, imported a parcel of cloth into the town, 
wliich, after paying the accustomed legal duties, was found to be forfeited under 
this corporate regulation, and was accordingly seized by John Lynch and Edward 
Lyncli, then ci'stomers of the town. The importer's only remedy was by com- 
phiint to the chancellor of Ireland, the sole resource in those times for many 
cases, which, at present, can be redressed by the common law. The corpora- 
tion, in tiieir defence, represented that none, except the inhabitants, were allowed 
to sell any wares witliin the town, except in gross ; and that even for such wares 
fold in gross custom should be paid according to the ancient form, " used tyme 
of mindc," and confirmed by their charters. They also stated that the usage of 
the town was, that if any inhabitant should retail or sell the merchandize or ware 
of any stranger, colouring to be his own, by fraud and deceit, intending 
thereby to save the custom to the stranger, that such goods should be forfeited 
to the common use of the corporation, as was the case in tlie instance com- 
plained of. The chancellor, however, on 13th February, IJIS, " decreed otlier- 

of the prise wines, though the corporation afterwards ' This was evidently an allusion to tlie rijit of the king, 

allLiitd It was " rntlier to have strong; matter against tlie as descended Iroin Lionel, duke of Clarence, the husband 

[rincL than against the lord Orinond's title." Notwitli- of Elizabeth, daughter anil heiress of the earl of Ulster, 

.•tanding tliis clause, prisage was afterwards established ' Rul. j\[cm. Sine. 36 lien. VIII. — This charter is 

ii;;iiin^t the town, in 1581, of which sec a particidar recited at length in that of Elizabeth. — ylpjir?iil. Xo. III. 

iccount hereafter. " 2 Ed. VI. JJecrijcs preserved in Hulls UJ/iec. 


wise, and declared that the citizens of DubL'n could sell and retail, free 
of any custom whatc\'er, in the port of Galway ; and it was consequently ordered 
that the customers should pay back the customs, and restore the cloth. This deci- 
sion, which was made according to the strictest rules of justice, however it mi"ht 
have militated against the particular monopoly of the corporation, nuist, by frecin" 
so much of its trade, have been essentially beneficial to the town. 

During the short reigns of Edward VI. and lu's successor, jMar^', and tlic 
beginning of the reign of Elizabetli, Galway, far distant from those scenes 
of turbulent fanaticism which disgraced these unhappy times, contiiuied for 
a while to enjoy peace and tranquillity; but it was, however, destined soon to 
experience its reverses, and, though so remotely situated, to feel its share of the 
concussion which shook and agitated the great body of the kingdom. The spirit 
of reformation, though it proceeded slowly, at length found its way to the hitherto 
peaceable abodes of the town, and marked for destruction the possessions of 
those who were consecrated to their religion and their God. Edward VL in the 
third year of his reign, granted a charter of confirmation to the town, but con- 
ferred no new privileges. " The collegiate church of St. Nicholas was soon after- 
wards seized into the king's hands ; the catholic warden and vicars were dispos- 
sessed ; iind by letters patent, dated 29th April, 15,01, the erection of the church 
into a collegiate, by tlie bull of Innocent VIII. was declared void; but it was, 
at the same time, re-established by virtue of the king's power, as supreme head of 
the church. Patrick Kirwan, a layman, was appointeil warden, eight vicars were 
nominated, and several other alterations took place, which were but introductory 
to more important changes. 

These revolutions in religion, however they might have affected the morals 
of the people, did not damp their ardor for improvement. In 1.5.07, the east 
end of the tholsel was raised at the public expense, under the direction of the 
mayor, James Oge Lynch. The year following, which was towards the close of 
the reign of Queen I\Iary, the earl of Sussex, lord deputy, marched to Galway,' 
wliere he was splendidly received, having been previously met in procession by 
the archbishop of Tuam, the bishops of Clonfert, Clonmacnoise, and the clerg;y, 
who all testified their allegiance to the queen. The west gate and tower of 
defence, at the end of the bridge, were then built by Thomas Martin ; ' and, about ' 

• This charter is enrolled on the palejit roll, 3 Ed. VI. the chancellor of Ireland, in Dublin, ;,■( rrasliiw aim- 

Bolls Office. _ siimh. Not having attendcl, their hond bccivne furleiteil' 

» About this time, and indeed at much later periods, but having signified by letter, " the I'earc tlie\ had of the 

travelling from Galway to Dublin was attended with con- waics, and douhtins nioclie, if they shulde haVe tra\a\lej 

siderable danger, and wills wore frequently made b.fore throiiglie Irishniens' couutievs, without companye, to lia\e 

setting out. In l.-iSfi, Stephen Fitz-Arthur Lynch, Kid), been taken and spo.U'Hed," i"l was deemed sufficient to i.a\c: 

Blake and Andrew Browne, of Galway, merchants, tone- the forfeiture.— /I'n/. Ixcma. ,-, 4 Phil, and Mart/. 
ther with the archbishop of Tuam and the earl of Chin- ' By letters patent, dated L'th Se[jtcii-licr, 155s a "rant 

rickard, were bound i-i a bond for 1200.'. to appear before was n'.ade to Tlioujas Martin and heir., " of one place 


tlii* suimc time, several other public works and private buildings were erected. 
Arlir these improvements were made, the annals relate, that an Italian traveller, 
irjiliicod by its fame in Ibreign parts, visited the town, and that he carefully 
remarked and noted down its situation and extent, the style of its buildings, the 
laanners and customs of the inhabitants, and every other particular worthy of 
attention. They further state, that being at mass in a private house, (its celebra- 
tion in public having been in that year, 1568, first proliibited) he saw, at one view, 
(lie blessed sacrament in the hands of the priest, boats passing up and down the 
river, a ship entering tlie port in full sail, a sabnon killed with a spear, and 
Iiiinters and hounds pursuing a deer; upon which he observed, that although 
lie had travelled the greatest part of Europe, he had never before witnessed 
a sight which combined so much variety and beauty. At that time the town 
was described by Campion, in his history, as a " proper neat city at the sea side." 

In the following year Sir Henry Sidney, the lord deputy, inarched to Galway 
with an army, and established Sir Edward Fitton, knight, in the presidency 
of Connaught. '' For more than half a century before this appointment, the 
jirovince was peaceable, and exhibited no other infractions of the laws, than such 
as were perhaps inseparable from the then imperfect state of society ; but this 
new provincial governor was no sooner fixed in his appointment, than matters 
began to change. Cruel and sanguinary in his nature, his wanton severities 
goaded those, who were hitherto peaceably inclined, into acts of open rebellion; 
and particularly the sons of the earl of Clanrickard, commonly called the Mac- 
cn-Earlas, and their numerous adherents, who were driven into those unhappy 
courses, which, after entailing so much misery on the country, terminated in 
their own destruction. 

Tiiese troubles broke out with violence in 1572, and continued without inter- 
mission until 1575 ; when Sir Henry Sidney again visited the town, wiiich was, in 
the interim, miserably harassed by the incursions of the incensed Irish, under 
tiie Mac-an-Earlas. " When he arrived," says Stanihurst, " he found the town 
much decayed, and almost desolated ; sundry of the good householders having 
sought new habitations under Mac William l-lughter." — His own description of 
it is as follows : — " First, I find the town of Galwayc moche decaied, both in 

</ a water-mill, or a parcel of land siifTicicnt to build one Crofton, customer and collector — Finnt.-~am\ 15T0, 

cii, at the farther end of the bridj;e from Galway, and June la, Eihvard Adanie, comptroller of the customs and 

(•ackwards from it on the side nearest to the sea, at four subsidies of the port of Galuay — Id. — On •JOlh March, 

fxriicc a year ; provided that, within two years, he build a 1575, the office of searcher, ganger and curcitator, in 

j-ate nt the west end of the bridge, at his own expeuce, and by tlic liver and port of Galway, and within all 

iinilcr the inspection of the mayor and bailiffs of the the creeks and lesser ports annexed thereto, was granted 

liiHn, pf sufficient breadth ;md height, and a tower of to the mayor, bailitii and commonalty of the town. — 

•trmo and lime, for the defence and guard of the said Bot. Pat. 

gate." — Rol. Put. 5, 6 Mar. ' lie was the firet president of the province, and 

A.I). 156.'?, September 7, Anthony Fytton, gent, was was appointed by patent, dated 8tb June, I5GP, during 

a;'puinled searcher — Hot. Piil.—\:iQ'j, November fi, John pleasure, at ii fee vf 1.5.3/. 6s. Si/. English, yearU', with 



nomber of expert sage men of yeares and yonge men of warre, in respect of that 
I liave seene ; which great decay hath growen thorough the horible spoyle done 
upon them by the sonnes of tlie earle of Chmrickarde, in so moche as it was 
cvidentlye ])roved before me that fittie howsholders of that towne doe nowe 
enliabite under Mac William Croghter, "^ and it seemeth they have not onlye lost 
their wealth, bnt with it their wittes and hearts. Surely it may welle seeme they 
were in point to have given up all, and almost to have forgotten that they received 
any corporation of the crown ; but I trust they are now revived, and I hope on 
the mendingc liande." " — While his lordship remained in the town, the persecuted 
Irish, taking advantage of his presence, flocked into him for protection : seven 
of the family of the Clandonnells, and after them Mac William Oughter, " who 
could speak Latin, althongh he could not speak English,"" submitted by oath 
and indenture. Mac William, agreed to pay two hundred and fifty marks yearly 
for his country, besides contributions of men at risings out ; and he also con- 
sented that the Clandonnells should hold their lands of the queen. Upon the 
ratification of this treaty he was knighted, and received some small presents from 
the lord deputy ; and he requested that an English sheriff should be sent into his 
country, which was accordingly complied with. Owen O'Mayle, ° chief of Bori- 
shoole, in like manner, came in and submitted, as did all the other chieftains of 
the extensive districts now forming the county of Mayo. 

Tiie remainder of the country was still destroyed by the ravages of the Mac-an- 
Earlas, who obstinately stood out, and against whom infinite complaints were 

tlie Icadinij of "0 horsemen, 20 footmen and a lieutenant. 
—Rot. rat. 12 Elh. 

^ In tlie count)' of Mayo, the inliabitants ol' the town 
■vvho renioveil to this county, and settled in it at this 
perioil, were the founders and ancestors of the highly re- 
spectable families, of the GaKvay names, ever since residinii; 
there, and possessing vast estates, viz. the Blakes, Brownes, 
FIVcnehcs, Kirwans, Lynches, &c. 

'■ Letter to the lurds of the council, 2Sth April, 1S7C. 
—Colli lis. 

* Co.v — Stanihurst sa\s of the Irish, " They speak Latin 
lixc a vulgar language, learned in their common scliools 
of leachcraft (i. e. physic) and law, whereat they begin 
children, and hold on 16 or 20 years." — Even so late as 
the beginning of the eighteenth century, the English 
tongi'O was confined to a narrow space, while the Irish 
was universally spoken throughout the kingdom. 

The state of education in Ireland, during the reigns of 
Henry VIII. and Elizabeth, was truly lamentable. It is a 
fact, frequently mentioned by our historians, and authen- 
ticated by innumerable records, that the signatures of 
many Irish lords, even those of English extraction, were 
subscribed with a mark, they not knowing how to write 
even their own names. — Holung-head's description of the 
great earl of Desmond, though somewhat overchargeil, is 
curious :— " He was rude anil savage," says this historian, 

" both in apparel a?)d behaviour: he had neither learning 
nor manners, but lived after a barbarous fashion in the 
country, am! perhaps had not so much as a glass window 
to his house ; yet he was the best landed subject in the 
kiuii's dominions." — What, from a noble savage like this, 
could [lossibly be expected but resentment, and revenge 
for real or supposed injuries; causes to which may justly 
be attributed his manifold acts of treason and rebellion. 
' Father of the celebrated Grace O'Maley, better known 
by the name of Giana-wciil. This celebrated heroine, 
who was wife of J\[nc William Oughter, was so deter- 
mined and persevering in her hostility to the English, and 
committed so many acts of depredation, that it was found 
necessary, in 1579, to send a body of troops from GaKvay, 
under the connnand of Capt. William Martin, to l>esiege 
her romantic and impregnable castle of Carrick-a-Uilc, 
near Newport, in the county of Mayo. This expedition 
sailed from Gahvay on the 8th of March, bnt so spirited 
was the defence made by this extraordinary woman, that 
they were obliged to retreat on the 2Gth of the same 
month, and very narrowly escaped being made prisoners — 
a circumstance which would have been attended with 
the instant death of the entire. The names of the men 
sent on this occasion are entered on an old MS. book, 
which formerly belonged to Sir Edward Fitton, and whicli 
is now in the posscsiion of the author. 


nuile to the lord deputy. They, eitlier dreading his power, or rather wisliino- to 
ilir'iciiible for the present, as their subsequent conduct proved, voluntarily came 
ti. Galway, and, while the lord deputy was attending divine service in the church 
I'f Ht. Nicholas, on the sabbath day, they entered before him, and, kneelino- down 
ill a suppliant posture, confessed their fliults, submitted, and humblv craved 
pnrdon, promising amendment for the future, and that they would never more 
revolt from their allegiance to her majesty, or disobey her laws. They were 
Iiouever, innncdiatcly put under arrest, and sent close prisoners to Dublin • but 
In- the advice of the privy council, after receiving many sharp reprehensions, and 
<i)me trifling punishment, they were soon after liberated, and the lord deputy 
having remained three weeks in Galway, departed for Dublin, where he arrived 
on the Idth of April, 1577. 

Two months had scarcely elapsed when he received information, by express 
from the mayor of Gahvay, that the ,Mac-an-Earlas, notwithstandino- their late 
pretended repentance and submission, were again in arms ; that by the counsel 
and consent of the earl, their father, ' they crossed the Shannon by ni<rht, threw 
otf their English apparel, which tiiey had agreed to wear, and put on the dress 
of the Irish ; sent for all their friends to meet them, and brino- the Scots whom 
tlicy liad solicited ; and that, being assembled in considerable force, they marched 
towards Athenry, which they took and sacked, destroyed the few houses which 
were lately built there, set the new gates on fire, dispersed the masons and 
labourers who were working, and broke down and defaced the queen's arms, and 
others there, made and ready to be set up. On receiving this intelligence the 
lord deputy immediately set out from Dublin with an army, and in three days 
was in Connaught : the Mac-an-Earlas' forces dispersed, and tied to the mountains. 
The old earl endeavoured to acquit himselfj but no excuse would be accepted ■ 
iiis castles were taken possession of, and himself sent prisoner to Dublin, where 
he was kept in close confinement. The lord deputy then came to Galway, 
where having remained a few days, to secure and strengthen the town, and 
encourage the inhabitants who were in great consternation and dread that they 
would be surprised, and the town taken and plundered, as Athenry had been, he 
departed for Limerick. 

' If this chai\^c oguinst tlic carl was foiiiulcil in trutli, 
his siibsc(incnt comliict was very nnicli altered lor tlie 
better; for, in his last will, now hel'ore us, dated at 
Galway, ■Itli August, 1582, the following passage oceurs: 
" Item, last of all, I leave my blessing witli my sonues, 
U|Kin condition, tliat is, to sprve true and quietly, without 
any nrolestation or trouble, the Ouene of England and 
all her oTicers; and he or tliey that will doe contrary, I 
icave my perpetual curs with him." 

Stauiluirst, who has inserted in his history dcscriinive 
verses of the Irish noblemen of his tiiiie, has the follow ing 
of the earl of Claurickard: 

Quam mihi majoruni fama bona gcsta dedcrurit, 
Hanc mihi natoruin harbara facta iiegant. 

That glory, which my great ancestors won. 
Is by iny otlspring's graceless deeds imdont. 


The lord deputy was scarcely out of the province when these turbulent chief- 
tains again rallied from the mountains, assembled their followers, and, having 
hired two thousand Scotch forces, laid siege to the castle of Bailie RiogJi, or 
Loughrea, which lately belonged to the earl, their father, being one of tlie casdes 
taken possession of a sliort time before, and then garrisoned by Thomas Le 
Strange and Captain Collier, with one hundred foot and fifty horse. The castle 
was strong, and tlie besieged behaved with great valour, they made diflcrent 
sallies, in which six of the principal captains of the besiegers were killed, toge- 
tlier with one hundred and fifty of their men. Despairing of taking the castle, 
the assailants raised the siege, and directed their force against Mac AVilliam 
Oughter, who had never joined in their proceedings, and took several of his 
castles; but the lord deputy having arrived in the mean time, joined his forces, 
and the Mac-an-Earlas dispersed : the greatest part of their followers were de- 
stroyed, and they were never after able to raise force sufficient to disturb the peace 
of the country. ^ — From the detail of these melancholy transactions, which entirely 
originated in the narrow and unconciliating policy of the tiien government of 
iMigland towards its Irish subjects, there are few who would tiot be inclined 
not only to commiserate, but even to excuse and pardon, the infatuated resistance 
of tlie unfortunate Irish to that misguided government ; and particularly so, 
when tliey belicld the heads of a noble and powerful family, of English race, 
forced, by the unrestrained atrocities of a petty provincial governor, into a 
rebellion, in which so large a portion of the kingdom was nearly destroyed. 
Happy would it have been for Ireland had the spirit of conciliation and peace, 
guided by justice and tempered with mercy, actuated its rulers for ages past: 
its history would not now abound with the manifold and gloomy descriptions 
of murder, treason and rebellion, which disgrace almost every page of it. 

These troubles having at length subsided, the town was rewarded by the queen 
for its losses and fidelity to her government. On the 14th of July, 1579, slie 
granted it a charter containing most ample privileges. All similar preceding 
grants were confirmed, ])Ower was given to create, yearly, a recorder, coroner, 
cscheator, comptroller of the customs, ganger and all other officers, and to grant 
safe conduct, to and from the town, to all foreign merchants. Every mayor, for 
the time being, was created admiral of the port and bay, as far as the islands of 
Arran, and was to be entitled to all wrecks of the sea. The inhabitants were 

' A.D. 1580, one of these unliappy men, whose name botli condemned to die. The sentence was carried into 

was Williiira, and who was tlie youngest son of the earl execution by William Martin, the marshal, who caused 

of ClanricUard, together with a son of the earl of Tho- them both to be hung at the Market-cross, outside the 

mond, (who, notwithstanding his father's previous sub- east gate, and cruelly hastened their death, before their 

mission, hail also joined in those rebellious proceedings,) pardon, which was solicited and obtained by the mayor, 

wpre taken near Galway, and, after a sumninr\ trial, were cotiM arrive. — Aiinnh. 


rxcniptcd from attending at assizes, juries, or other civil duties, outside the town. 
'I'lie customs, as contained in tlie grant of Richard II. were confirmed with many 
adilitions, but were directed, liowever, to be appHed to the murage and pavage 
of the town. The mayor, slieriffs, burgesses and corporation Avere authorized, 
from time to time, to assemble in arms, and to pass and go with flags, displayed in 
hostile array, to any country, island, arm of the sea, or other place whatsoever, to 
t.ikc, recover and punish all robberies, felonies and crimes committed against them. 
The mayor and recorder, lor tiie time being, were created justices of the peace 
and gaol delivery within the town, the franchises, liberties and suburbs thereof ; 
and no other was to exercise like power therein ; nor was any other officer of the 
(jueen, her heiis or successors, to have any authority whatsoever witliin the town: 
power was given to have a prison and keeper thereof; and, finally, all privileges 
enjoyed by the city of "Waterfbrd and the town of Drogheda were fully granted." 
The queen's bounty did not stop, even after the extension of these ample privi- 
lugcs, but was further extended by patent, dated 11th September, 1578, in pur- 
•Miancc of letters under her own hand, stating, " The veary good comendacon 
ni;\de unto us, for divers respects, of our loving- subjects of our town of Galway, 
Ibr their dutyfulnes and good service sondry times constantly showed, as occasions 
have been ofiered, for which we would they should be considered and eucoradged:" 
tlic corporation was accordingly granted leases in reversion of the possessions 
of the dissolved monasteries of St. Francis, St. Augustin and St. Dominick, 
adjoining the town ; the parsonage, fishing and cocket ; and as much land as 
should amount to the yearly value of 100 marks, nearest the town, and most com- 
modious to tiiera. These, with other grants to the warden and vicars, and parti- 
cular encouragement to individuals, were the marks of the royal recompcnce and 
favor to tiie inliabitants for their sufferings and loyalty in those perilous times.' 

On the 7th of November, 1579, the lord justice. Sir William Pelham, arrived 
in Galwa}', accompanied by the earl of Thomond and the Berwick bands. " His 
lordship removed into the towne of Galwaie, twelve mills, verie rockie way, and 
tail of great loughes. The towne is well bulte, and walled, with an excellent 
good haven, and is replenished with many welthie merchants. The townes-men 
and wemmen present a more civil shew of life than other townes in Ireland do, 
and male be compared, in my judgement, next Dublin and Watterford, the only 

' Rol. Vat. 20 Elh. — This charter, under which the so many troubles, was removeJ from tlie presidency of 

town is entitled to so many vahiable privileges, contains Connan^ht; and Sir Nicliolas Malby, knight, was ap- 

rccit.ils by inspeximus of all preceding charters: it is there- pointed by patent under the privy seal, dated 3 1st March, 

fore {;ivcn at fnll in the Appendix, carefully compared and 1579. In his orders for the better governinent of the 

tniri'lated. An imperfect translation of it was made in province, the queen united the country ot Thomond, 

the )car 1693, by Elisha Cole, M. A. for the use of the afterwards called the county of Clare, to his governinent 

corporation. of Connanght. — Hot. Vat. 21 Wi-. 

' Sir Edward Fitton, whose violent proceedings caused 




lowne." " lie was most lionorably received; and, in order to encourage the inha- 
bitants, he confirmed certain articles, which were in effect as follows: — 

The charter of Gallewaie, with new liberties, confirmed. 

I^'ii'st. — " That no writ of subpoena shall be warded out of the chanccrie against 
anie injuibitant of Gallewaie, untill tiie partie which SLieth out the writ, have put 
in good and sufficient suertics before the lord chancellor or the maior of Gallewaie 
to ])rosecute the same with clfect. 

" That no new office or officer be erected in the towne of Gallwaie by anie 
dcputic or governour, otherwise than as they in times past have used to do. 

" That the maior, by the advice of foure aldermen, and other fbure discreet 
men of the towne, upon good considerations, may grant safe conduct and protec- 
tion to English rebels and Irish enimies. 

" That the merchants of the towne, which shall buie anie wares or merchan- 
dize of strange merchants, shall put in good and sufficient bonds before tlie maior, 
that he will well and trulie make paiment unto the said merchant stranger for his 
debt and dutie. 

" That if anie inhabitant of the towne use anie undecent and unreverent 
speach to the maior, that he shall be punished according to the qualitie of the 
fault and offense. 

" That the maior, bailiffes and inhabitants shall inioy, use and exercise all 
their ancient liberties, usages and customes. 

" That in all actions tried before tlie maior, the partie condemned shall paie 
reasonable costs, and the said maior shall not take anie fee for anie sentence, 
called Olc'igclJie. 

*' That no dead bodic shall be interred or buried within the towne and walles 
of Gallewaie. 

" That when anie strange merchants come to their port and haven, that the 
same be serched and viewed for weapons and munitions, and that none above the 
number of ten persons of the said ship shall come into the said towne. 

" That no stranger be suffered to take the view of the strength of the towne, 
nor to walk on the wals. 

" That the maior, from time to time, doo take the muster and view of all the 
able men, and of their furniture and armour. 

•• That all unserviceable people in time of service be sent out of the towne. 

" That sufficient vittcls, from time to time, be prepared to serve the towne for 
ten moneths at the least before hand. 

" That a store-house be provided alwais in the towne for a staple of vittcls to 
be kept there at all times." ' 

' BrcvinI nf the jnocecdiji^s of the Right Ilnn. Sir IV. I.nmhelh MS. 597, 27 C. 
Pelham, began 1 \lh Oel.lC<'9, aii'dcndini- 7th of Scjil . \ 5»0. ' Slnni/iunl. 



The loal justice, on departing, found it necessary to leave a company of 
soliiiers behind him, wliich were commanded by captain Casey ; and there being 
no barrack to receive them, he was obliged to hire a house for their accommoda- 
tion, the rent of which was paid by tlie queen. These were the first regular 
troops ever quartered in Galway. " 

Sir John Perrot, lord deputy of Ireland, visited the town in 1584. This able 
and excellent man, who " was renowned for valour and justice, and noted espe- 
cially for a humane and equitable attention to the ancient natives," " soon after 
iiis arrival divided Connaught into five counties, to which he gave the names of 
(jahvay, Sligo, Mayo, Roscommon and Leitrim, and addeil Thomond by the 
iKune of Clare ; " he appointed a sheriff in each, and established Sir Richard 
Bingjjam, knight, in the presidency of the entire. While in Galway, he observed 
many disorderly practices, the reformation of which he strongly recommended to 
the mayor and corporation. An inquiry was accordingly instituted, and several 
matters were presented for correction and improvement, upon the oaths of a jury 
of the most respectable citizens. An abstract of the proceedings on this occasion 
is i^iven in another part of this volume ; it will be found curious, and may enable 
the reader to form an idea of several manners and customs which, in these times, 
were prevalent in Galway, but which are long since obsolete and forgotten. 

Notwithstanding the turbulence of the times, trade, buildings and improve- 
ments were carried on in the town with persevering vigilance and industry. Wine, 
tlie principal article of traffic, was imported in vast quantities, on an average, as 
the annals testify, of from a thousand to fourteen hundred tuns annually. Exemp- 
tion from prisagc contributed not a little to the encouragement of this branch of 
commerce ; but the Ormond family, although worsted in their former endeavours 
to establish this claim, determined once more to revive it. Accordingly the earl 
of Ormond, in 1581/, instituted proceedings in the chancery of Ireland against 
the corporation, which they, relying on the decree of the star chamber of Eng- 
laiid pronounced in their favor, in 152(i, and on the exemption from prisage 

" A. D. 1601. Sir Francis Berkely had 1000 foot and 
50 horse in tlie town, from whence he inarched to Miinster 
to oppose the Spaniards, who landed at Kinsale on the 
i'J of September in that year. — J'ncal. Ilib. — In April 
I'.illdwini:, tlicre were hnt 200 foot left to giiai-d Galway 
ind Atlilone. — Mon/snu, To/. //. 

• Le.'aiiJ, Vol. III. p. 29o. 

° At the reqncst of Doiio{;h O'Brien, the fourth carl of 
Tlioniond, Qncen Elizabeth, in 1 fiOi, re-united the county 
of C'laro to the province of Munstcr. — The queen's mstruc- 
lion-i to the lord deputy were — " Forasnuich as our county 
of Clnrc was of ancient time within the government or 
precinct of our province of Munster, until of late annexed 
10 our province of Connaught, which we understand was 
I'jion some untrue surmise made by our conunissioners for 

Connaghte to the grievance and dislike of our snlijects of 
that county; our pleasure is, that you, our deputy and 
council there, shall speedily consider of this inforuiiuioii, 
and, if you find it not evidently an hindrance to our ser- 
vice, that then you spceilily give order, that, by revocatiou 
of our former conunission and letters patent for govein- 
inent of these several provinces, and by granting new com- 
missions of like authority and effect, and by all other ways 
requisite in law, you cause our said county of" Clare to 
be re-united and annexed to onr province of Munster, 
and to be reduced under the order and government of 
our president and council of Munster, which we are per- 
suaded will be for the advancement of our service, and 
the good liking of our loving subjects in tlio^e parts. — 
Rot. I'at. 43 Eliz. D. It. 5. 



contained in the cliartcr of Henry YIII. most strenuously defended. Tliey were, 
however, ultimately defeated ; and the earl's right to this valuable impost was 
established. As this is a subject somewhat curious and interesting, an abstract of 
the proceedings is subjoined. '' It was a question of considerable moment at the 
time, being, ])crhaps, the most important until then decided in the kingilom, and 
one in which there aj)pears to have been displayed a considerable portion of legal 
knowledge and historical learninij. 

'' 111 tlic year 1584, the carl of Ormond exhibited his 
bill ill the Chancery of Ireland against the mayor, bailiffs, 
Iiurgesses and coniiiions of Galway, setting forth that King 
Edward III. was seized of all the premises of all the ports 
and lla^■ens of Ireland ; that is to say, of every ship or 
barque of the lading of nine tuns, and from nine to twenty- 
one tun, and of twenty tuns and above, two tuns of the 
ohoicp of all the wines. That being so seized, he, by 
Setters patent, granted said premises to James Butler, then 
earl of Ormonde, from whom the right thereto descended 
to the ccMiiplainant. That this grant was confirmed by 
letters patent of Philip and Mary, but that the mayor, 
bailirts, burgesses and commons of the town of Galway, 
in the province of Connaught, not only always gave impe- 
diment in talking said prise wines, but also wrongfully 
recei\'ed and converted to their own use the value of 
5000/. of the prise wines grown there due, without any 
colour of right, but pretending prescription. — The de- 
fendants, by Anthony Lynche, Nicholas Lyiiche, John 
Skerritt, Domynick Islartin, Marcus Lynche and Edmond 
Frenche, made answer; wherein, amongst other things, 
they stateil, that neither the plaiutitt', nor any of his 
ancestors, since the said grant of Edward III. was seized 
of any prisage in the port of Galway, and that they, and 
all others bringing and discharging wines therein, were 
free and discharged of, and from the same. As evidence 
hereof they adduced an acquittal, by the privy council of 
England in the time of Henry VIII. and also the charter 
of that monarch, dated at Westminster, the 3d of July, 
in the ."6th of his reign, that no person thereaiter bringing 
■vvincs in any ship or boat to the key or port of Galway, 
and there discharging the same, should pay jirisage. They 
fu.-thcr stated, that in the reign of E<lward I. a compo- 
sition was entered into between that king and merchant 
strangers, whereby he, his heirs and successors were to 
receive two shillings cncrease of custom, out of every tun 
of wine, besides divers otiier encrease of customs upon 
sundry other sorts of merchandize: in consideration of 
which, the said king granted that all merchant strangers, 
repairing to every port of his dominions, should be free 
and (hsclrarged of any payment of prise wine, which en- 
crease of customs were ever since paid accordingly, and 
said merchant strangers freed and discharged of prisage. 
— To this the carl replied, amongst other things, that the 
said composition was made with merchant strangers onlv, 
and did not extend to Irelanil, and that if it even did, it 
was determined, as well by the death of Eilward I. a^ by 
the aforesaid grant of Edward III. As to the decree made 
by the privy council of England, he states that it was only 
until better proof should appear; and as to the idlegation 

that no prisage was paid by the defendants since the grant 
of Edward III. the same was detained by the forcible and 
uncivil dealings of the defendants, who made anil meant 
to make a commodity of their dwelling in a rcr ote part. 
The defendants rejoined, and, amongst other things, saved 
that the grant of Edward III. was made after ilie release 
of prise wines to strangers, and tlierefcre no more could 
pass than the prisage of the deniz<'ns of some other parts 
of Ireland, an.i not of Galway. That at the lime of said 
grant, si\id eommi-.sion was in force, and, when, was 
proclaimed through said king's don'inions, being higher 
esteemed to redound lo the general profit of both the 
realms of Enidand and Ireland, and extending infra reg- 
iimii cl jHilciluluHi siiniii, stretched to Ireland as well as 
to England, the same being then ei|ually under the govern- 
ment i>( Edward I. that merchant strangers still took the 
benefit thereof in England. As to the prisage of denizens, 
they sayed, that the corporation of Galwuy was, time out 
of mind, freed and discharged thereof, paying six pence 
tiinnage for every tun, which custom was grunted to llie 
corporation by Richard II. They then boldly stated, 
" That prisage is of that nature that a subject may law- 
fully prescribe to be discharged thereof against the prince, 
anel if not against the prince, yet against the complainant, 
being in respect of the prince a private person, prescri|»- 
tion lieth, notwithstanding his estate to be an estate in 
tail, the reversion thereof unto the prince ; and that, 
the rather, as the payment thereof is more hurtful than 
beneficial unto her majesty, for thereby trade with stran- 
gers is slakened to the great decay of her majesty's impost 
and other duties, wliicii would grow unto her majesty if 
strangers were not discouraged by claim and demand of 
the said prisage to resort hither, as in truth late experience 
declareth many strangers have been ; and :is to their uncivil 
dealing, and that they meant to make a eommodily of their 
dwelling in remote parts, they said that, since the first 
erection of their corporation, they have, with willing 
minds and furtherance, planted and increased civility, 
embraced the liberty of the law, and abandoned the con- 
trary." — The earl suneplied, and the cause was he;:r(l tor 
several days. On argument it was slated, in his behalf, 
that the decree of the star chamber, together with the 
composition with strangers and prescription, being the 
material points of defence, were resolved b\ Sir 
Broudy, knight, lord chancellor of England, and Sir 
Gilbert Gcrranl, knight, master of the rolls in Eiigland, 
(who were ilirected by the i|ueen to decide tliereon,) to 
be no title for stihiects or strangers to be discharged of 
the payment of prise wines, and this decision was openly 
shewed in court under their hands. Wherefore, and [larii- 



'Ilic year 1588 wa*; rendered memorable for the destruction of the celebrated 
Spanisli Armada. One of the ships which com^iosed this ill-fated fleet was 
wrecked in the bay of Galway, and upwards of seventy of tlie crew perished. 
Several other vessels were lost along tlie coast; and such of the Spaniards as 
escaped the waves, were cruelly butchered by order of the lord deputv, Sir 
W'ilh'am Fitz-Williams, who, finding, or pretending to find, fault with the alleged 
li'iiity of Sir Richard Bingham, the president of the province, commissioned one 
rowlc, deputy marshal, who dislodged these ini fortunate men from their hiding. 
])l:ices, and in a siunmary manner executed about two hundred of them, which so 
terrified the remainder, that, though sick and half-famished, they chose sooner 
to trust to tlicir shattered barks, and the mercy of the waves, than to their more 
merciless enemies, in consequence of whicii multitudes of them perished. In 
order the more efrectually to satiate his thirst for their blood, and to seize their 
rumoured treasures, the lord dejuity himself made a journey into Connaught, 
wliere tliis sanguinary man arrived in June, 1589, and on the 20th of that month 
lie came to Gahvay. Sir JNIurrough O'Flaherty, ^^'illiam Burke, the blind Abbot, 
and several others of the principal inhabitants of Mayo and lar-Connaught, came 
in and submitted ; but were put under conditions to give hostages, disperse their 
forces, deliver up all the Spaniards and Portuguese to whom they had p-iveii 
refuge, pay fines, and make amends for all spoils which they had taken. Fitz- 
"Willianis, while he remained in town, caused several of the Spaniards, delivered 
lip on this occasion, to be beheaded near St. Augustin's monastery on the hill, 
amidst the murmurs and lamentations of tlie people ; ' and, having thus wreaked 
his vengeance on these unfortunate men, he departed for Dublin. 

ciilarlv as the prescription, wliercliy the defendants claimed 
llicir discharge, was at divers times interrupted by seisin 
nnd possession, as appeared to the court by divers good 
matters, and especially by a livciy made in the reign of 
Henry IV. to Jas. Biitler, then carl of Ormonde, whereby 
he w;'.s restored to all the prise wines of Ireland, by these 
words: " De prtari luiioruiii in oriiiiOus puiittliHS el /oris 
iinrilimis Ihhcrniec" saving the \i hole pri^e wines of Corkc, 
and one half the prise wines of Waterford only, which were 
cnintcd to the said corporations lo;ig betbrc the time of 
Kdwardlll.: For all these and other reasons, the lord 
rlinnccllor and co'irt v.ere fully resolved that there was 
pood cause to decree for tlie carl. — Upon this the de- 
r-ndants produced a direction from the privy conncil of 
England, commanding the hearing of the canse before 
them. The carl soon after obtained counter directions 
from the same to have the canse de'-ided in Ireland. It 
mine on again to be heard; and the court, ;'.fter delivering 
their opinion upon each of the points of .leiencc, decreed 
that the earl should recover the prise wines of ail ships 
that should come to the haven of (ialway, or any of tlie 
creeks or other places of the same, and discharge wines 
tlicrc, whether belonging to deni/ens or strangers. No 
Jctrcc was made respecting the .joooi claimed for the 

back duties, but it was ordered that the eorl should have 
20/. for his costs, sustained in the suit. — " And for that 
the said porte or haven of GaU\ay lieth in remote partes, 
wliere the saiil earle anil his agents feare forceable resist- 
ance in seising of the sa'd prise wines," it was ordered 
that the governor nnd otiier pnncipal magistrates of 
Connaught, the justices of tlie same, the sheriff of the 
county of Galway, and the mayor and hailifl's of Galwav, 
for the time being, should lie enjoined to assist the earl 
in taking the same. — Thus ended this memorable contest, 
whicli was then considered of so much importance, but 
which at present serves only to sliev/ the extensive com- 
merce carried on in Galway at the above period. Before 
conchiding, it may not be tininteresting to notice the oi.i- 
iiion of the court on the operation of the act of tlie L'Tth 
of Edward III. which the defendants alleged confinneil 
the compo-ition with mcichant strangers: it was, "that 
the xanic licirg but in Engltiiiil, ruu/tl iint be effecliKtlin 
Ireland-" and thus it appears, that what Mtilyueux sq 
ably provc<l a century aiUr, was at this time the known 
and established law ol' the land. — Grig. Decree, Ruth 

'' Lynch, in Vita Kirovavi, relates that their dead bodies 
were caiefnlly w rapt in fine linen by tlie towns-women, and 



About this time several considerable works were raised for the defence and 
security of the tow n. Tlie point of Cean-na-hlialla, at the quay, was converted 
into a fortification, and furnished with great guns ; and a part of the adjoining 
walls was built at the expense of the corporation. The lord deputy, Kusscll, 
arrived here in 1595, and was received with great rejoicings : ' he remained but 
a short time. The object of his journey seems to have been to inquire into the 
state of the town and province ; and during his stay several complaints were made 
of the rigor and exactions of Sir Richard Bingham, the governor, for which he 
was afterwards removed. ' 

Soon after the departure of the lord deputy the northern Irish, led by Hugh 
Riiadli cyDonnell, after destroying the castle of Enniskillen, penetrated into 
Coiuiaught, and were joined by Tibbot M'Walter Kittagh Hourke, (upon whom 
they conferred the title of Mac U'ltUam,) and by several other powerful confe- 
derates. They commenced hostilities in January, 1590, and wasted, burned and 
destroyed almost the entire county of Galway. On the 15th of that month they 
invested Athenry, burned the gates, and entered the town ; but being repulsed 
in an attack on the castle, which was bravely defended, and having failed in an 
attempt to scale the battlements, they took possession of all the wall-towers, and 
as many of the inhabitants as guarded them they made prisoners. They then 
set fire to the town, which, with the exception of the castle that resisted them, and 
the abbey and church, which alone were spared, was soon reduced to ashes. ' After 

committed to burial : he furtlicr mentions that only two 
of the Spaniards escaped death on this occasion ; that 
they were /or a lonj; time concealed in the town, and 
afterwards fafely conveyed to Spain. 

' " As soon as he entered the city, four preat pieces of 
ordnance was discharged." — ^IS. turoiint uf liis journey 
presrri'cd in Lfiwbeih Vihrarif, No. 62. 

' He was succeeded by Sir Conyers Cliflbrd, knight, 
vho was appointed by privy seal, dated at Westminster, 
Sc-ptenibcr -Itb, 1597; liein^, as the appointment states, 
" a i;entleman of pood sufficiency and service both in 
war and peace, havirp been theretofore employed in that 
province." — Rvt. Pat. o\i liliz. 2, p. 

Sir Conyers Cliff'urd appointed his kinsman, James 
D'Arcy, deputy; and was himself soon after succeeded 
bv Sr Htnrv Dodivra, who was appointed in the year 
\r,99.— Fia'>!t, RolU Office. 

■ This ancient town was surrounded with walls from an 
early period : the castle and abbey were built by the 
Birmingham family, and there are still considerable 
remains of tlic entire. During the government of Sir 
Henry Sidney, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, several 
new works and in'provements were commenced ; but 
they were destroyed by the JIac-an-Earlas in 1575, and 
tlie place remained almost deserted until the year 15H4, 
when Robert Fowle, John Blown, and others of the 
former inhabitants, petitioned the queen's council in 
Jli'.glanJ for such encouragement as would enable thcni 

to bring over English artisans and tradesmen to settle in 
the town, to rebuild and improve it, and also to support 
sufficient force for its future protection. This petition, 
together with observations on each :u-ticle by the privy 
council of Ireland, to whom it was referred, were of the 
following tenor: 

The humble petition of Robert Fowle and John 

Browne, Gent, with dyvers other associates answered 

and allowed. 

1. Wheare they intend, with your lordships favorable 
hkyng, to carry into Ireland sundry laborers and art) - 
ficers for theuluibiting of the decaied town of Athenry, 
anil making of severall comodities within Connaght ; tliDt 
they n;ay have lycence, for thirty yeares, to transporte all 
souche comodities growing within that province, as hath 
not at cny tyme heretofore ben usually transported, so as 
the same be put into worke, and wroght; and that all 
others be restrayned therein during the said terme, bat 
souche as ether shalbe contributers to ther first chardge, 
or by ther allowance tberunto admytted, in respect 
whearof, her nnvotie to have the twentieth parte for 
custome of that whiche shalbe so transported. 

Thought very reasonable in all points. 

2. That they might have souch landes as they have, or 
shall take, in i'erme, to be manured 'for the provision and 
victualing of the said laborers and artyficers, free from 
all cesse, chardge and imposition, paying her majestye 
2(1. for every Irijli acre. 



tI:(-so proceedings tliey inarched towards Galway, determined, if possible, to make 
It siiarc the same fate ; and, on the .Sunday evening following, encamped in tlie 
vubnrhs. They immediately sent a priest to the gates, to request wine and other 
necessaries, ])romising to do no injury if they were relieved: he was answered from 
within, that it was the ancient and established custom of the town, never to open 
(heir gates at night; and with this reply he departed: but the following mornino- 
another messenger arrived with a letter from O'Donnell himself, entreating- vic- 
tuals and other necessaries for his men, for which he offered to pay, in ready money, 
whatever was demanded ; but in case of refusal he threatened the town witii 
innnetliate hostilities. The mayor and council assembled, and, after some delibe- 
ration, resolved upon returning an answer not only of refusal, but also of admoni- 
lioii and rcproacli. This answer they forthwith dispatched, upbraiding O'Doiniell, 
and the rest of his adherents, with breaking their allegiance to their natural prince, 
.md wantonly destroying the country and goods of her majesty's loyal subjects ; 
ami finally gave them to understand, that unless they returned to their dutv, 
rcf'orined their evil courses, and made amends for all the damages they had occa- 
sioned, they neither could nor would afford them any relief; and as to their threats 

JIlt innjosty is answcrcJ tlirou;^liout the wliole pi-o- 
vincc, 2(1. sterling for every Irish acre; yet for that 
this is an enterpri-^e of cliarge, and must begyn with 
charge, it wore not aniisse to rednce to 2rf. Irish the 
acre, so inucli ground as tlie gentlemen shall fernie 
to he manured for thor enterpryse. The other part 
of the article thought reasonable. 
3. That if they can procure thinhahytants of the said 
provynce willingly to yeald to bear the charge of 30 or 
»() horsemen, over and above the compositions already 
made, or by tlier industry cncrease her majesty's reve- 
nuci to that value, that they may liave the said number 
of horsemen in pay, for the defence of the said tower of 
Atlicnry, and all other her majesty's services there, being 
llie most fit place of the province I'or service, which they 
mean by God's grace to inhabit, and to fuiisbc such good 
Mcrkcs as the lord president of Wales began in his govern- 
ment of Ireland. 
7'hought very reasonable and necessary, and that the 
gentlemen are to have all tine assistance to draw the 
|ieople to bear that force. 
^. An.l whereas there is neitlier leet nor law-day kept, 
or the people generally sworn in obcdyence towards her 
majesty, which were very meet and necessary, that it may 
(ilea^e vour lordships to grant your favors lor the styward- 
ship of the same, with some convenycnt fee out of such 
profits as shall grow to her majesty thereby, by means 
» hereof the Irisbe customs by degrees may be cut off) and 
'ill small time be altogether abolyshed. 

To be considered how there may stywardes and leets 
he kept by such as (he governor shall appoint. The 
grant to extend no farther than for her majesties own 
lands, and that it prejudiced not the governor of the 
province in liis general charge. 
',. And further, that tliey may have authoritie of govern- 

ment among themselves, in form of a corporation for, the 
jioUtique ordering of their affairs. 
Thought very reijuisite. 

6. In consideration of which grants they will, God 
willing, maintaine 200 stowt labourers and artyficers 
which shall be trained and furnished with armor and 
weapons, and always ready to suppress anv rebellious 
attempts, and, after one year's setlyng, shall serve for four- 
teen days at their owne proper coats and ehar"es, once 
every year, if nede shall rei]uire. 
The offer very eommeiidable. 

Mem. where the gentlemen have named Athcnry onlv 
to he the place where they will set down and pcrforiii 
the works, in which poynt, in our opyuions, thev have 
too much restrained themselves, we wish that llic 
scope were enlarged over all the province, naniciv, 
to chose ther seat where tliey may find it; as it be 
no hindrance to her majestic, nor otfence nor wron" 
to any private person.— A'o^ Pnl. '_>'j AVc. 

Francis Walsingham. 
The queen accordingly', by privy signet, dated at West 
minster, the 18th Aprilj 15SS, directed the lord deputy 
to " passe forthwith a boke, containing not only a confir- 
mation of the old charter and preveleges of the said 
decaied town, but also a new grant to the full cttect of 
the said petition; because," as she adds, "it will re- 
dounde not only to their private commoditie, but also to 
the benefit of us and of that our realm, cspicalie of the 
province of Connaglu." — It does not appear, however, 
that any new charter passed tlie great seal, but several 
buildings were erected, and many other improvements 
made, which wck destroyed as above, in 159C. Since that 
time Athcnry has been entirely neglected, and, althoiiL-h 
once esteemed of so much importance, it is at present 
reduced to the state of an inconsiderable village. 


tliey liold them at defiance. Enraged at this message, O'Donnell immediately set 
fire to several liouses about the borders of the lake ; and the wind happenin'f to be 
in a nortli-east direction, full against that side of the town, the smoke hindered 
the inhabitants from perceiving the approach of the enemy, or preventiu"- their 
design, until almost the entire of the east suburbs was in flames. He then 
assembled his forces on Fort-hill, then called the Abbey-hill ; but as soon as tlicy 
approached the side next the town, the great cannon was brought to bear on 
them from the walls, and they quickly retreated. An armed party then sallied 
from the great gate, and, having gained the height of the hill, the enemy fled 
before them, leaving behind several killed and wounded. They encamped that 
night about three miles distant, and the day following departed for the countv of 
Mayo, burning every village in their way; amongst which upwards of twenty, 
belonging to the town, were entirely destroyed. 

The disorderly state of the province, and the vice and licentiousness of the 
people, about this time, were most lamentable. In the year IGOO, they were 
described in the following forcible terms in an assembly of the citizens of Galway, 
which was convened for the purpose of counteracting the cftccts of those evils: 
" August 1, This day informacon being made and moved in open courte, by cer- 
tain of the brcthern, of the ymmincnt loss generally all the corporation doc daily 
sustain for want of the administration of justice in tiie counties and shires of the 
province abroad, by means of the obstinacie, wilful disobedience, lyinn-e and 
deceit of the country gentlemen and inhabitants, that by no means there "can no 
remedy be had against them for the recovery of anie debt due, muche less of 
any roberies or spoiles ; ncverthelesse, upon the repair of them to this town of 
Galway, are so dayly supported and npholden by the mayor and his associats 
that noe justice can be ministered upon them ; tlie mayor ordinarily o-n,ntinn- to 
every of them, so comeing, his worde and protection to retourne s:.fe without 
any molestation ; the country iidiabitants, voide of all charitie, litle regardinre 
their duty to God, thereby making against the goods of the poore merchants^!'" 
In order to remedy these disorders, it was resolved that no such protection as 
that complained of should thenceforth be granted by the mayor, or any other 
authority, to any of the inhabitants of the country. 

At length arrived at the close of the sixteenth century, the reader now 
enters upon a period wherein he shall find tlie town of Galway to have acted a 
very conspicuous part in the eventful history of the times. Whilst the nation 
was agitated by the formidable rebellion of Tyrone, the town remained firm in 
its allegiance to the queen ; but now that alarming rumours of the Spanish invasion 
were daily afloat, government seems to have apprehended that here the first' des- 
cent would be made, as the most convenient point of connnunication with the 
insurgents of the north and west. Accordingly, in the year IGOO, the lord deputy, 
Mountjo3', caused the town to be put into a state of security, and furnished with 

jl Kx An-hni.f Tnn . CrL .Dub. 

Fnc Simile, of the. Original 

K.S' 4iu//ishnw ( '/itirclic 

Vt J-rihin'/s f'rr .<'ii'J<fie/-s on 

f/i, .r/,/f ,/■ f/,( C/iwc/),- . 

D, Odte Molts f . 

C^.TIu Im-a- rmU JOzfat Jw/h 

cf Stcn e . 
YL7Tupa/saffe bdH een the muVs. 

I, The upper cr miur wa// if Stiiir 
IS t eft hti/h hetiJes t/te pi/rap (( . 

\\..Vmilfiif S(i!ht:f fJirm;/H- I he ra/npier 

intr f/ic Icii't'r wcrL^' . 
lu.T/o: l)ifrJie.s-. 

F.ii:Tr<md fi'r Harciirihin's ilistm cf OalMvy . 



iiicii and arms; and, perceiving the advantageous position uftbrdod by tlie lull on 
wliich the monastery of St. Angustine stood, he laid the foundation of a fort on 
that eminence, within two hundred yards of the walls, which complete! v com- 
manded the town and harbour, and afterwards became one of the most conside- 
rable fortifications in the kingdom. 

The building of these extensive works of defence was carried on witli vigor. 
On the 10th of August, IGO'2, the lord deputy informed Mr. Secretary Cecil, that 
the fortifications at Gal way were almost finished, and that it would be needful for 
the place to have four demi-canons and four whole culverins, which he thought 
would make it of very great use against the Spaniards, if they should happen to 
land there, as he suspected, and that for this and other similar works it would be 
necessary to have some great ordnance." On the 18th of November following 
his lordship set out on his journey for Connaught, his principal design being, " to 
view the town of Galway, and to consider how the descent of foreign enemies 
might best be prevented." — He kept Christmas in the town ; and, judging it a place 
of great importance to be preserved from being possessed by any foreign enemy 
lie gave directions to finish the fort, which, from its situation, would so eftec- 
tuully command the haven, and defend the town from foreign invasion. "While lie 
remained, the O'FIaherties of lar-Connaught, the Mac Dermotts of the Courlews, 
O'Connor Roe, and many others, came in and submitted. 

James I. was proclaimed here in April, 1603. Upon the accession of this 
monarch, the Irish, supposing him a Catholic, entertained hopes that their ancient 
religion would be no longer proscribed, and accordingly the principal cities and 
towns of the kingdom immediately declared for the open and uncontrolled confes- 
sion of faith. The lord deputy made every exertion to suppress this rising spirit, 
and finally succeeded in putting it down. He issued particular orders to that effect 
to the magistrates of Galway, which were punctually attended to ; and he was 
soon after informed by the mayor, •' that liowsoever he found no seditious incli- 
nation in the citizens, " yet, to prevent disorders in these mutinous times, the 
governor of the fort had given him some of his soldiers to assist his authority, 
whom he to that pnrpose had placed in the strongest castles of the city." 

The fort being at length finished. Sir Thomas Rotheram, knight, was appointed 
governor, on 28th May, 1G03. His patent recites that the king, as well for the 
punishment and reformation of his evil subjects, as for the defence of his good 

• Afori/snu^s Hist. Vol. II. p. 186. — In the same com- full to their (i. e. the Spaiiianls) party; and 3'et will tliej 

munication his lordship states the reasons for erecting afterwards be such bridles to the countries all about them, 

these fortifications, and the great advantages wliich would as they shall never be able to rebel again." 

rc-5ult from them. " I doubt not," he says, " but these ' To take possession of the churcli, and establish the 

peater works will keep the towns (near which they Roman Catholic religion within the town, as was done a» 

stand,) in so great awe, as they will not suddcnl}' nor easily the time in many other parts of the kingdom, 




and loyal ones residing in the town of Galway, and St. Augustine's fort, near 
adjoining, tliought it very necessary tliat some meet person siiould be appointed 
commander of the said fort, and of all such companies thereof, horse ancl foot, as 
were then, or should thereafter be sent to reside there ; and, having conceived a 
good opinion of his valor, wisdom, and provident circumspection tor the managing 
of causes of like cfiect and moment, appointed iiim commander of said foot ancl 
forces, with the rule and government of all persons residing in or repairing to the 
bounds and circuits of his said command, as well within liberties as ^^ ithout, of 
the town and harbour of Galway. '' Sir Thomas appears to have merited the higii 
encomium contained in his patent : he governed the fort with unimpeachable con- 
duct for a period of thirty-three years, '^ and was elected mayor of Galway in 
1612, being the only instance in which that otRce was filled by any except a 
native of the town, or of its ancient names or families, for upwards of one 
hundred and seventy years. 

Immediately after the accession of James, the corporation petitioned for a con- 
firmation and extension of their privileges, which the king answered by letter 
under his own hand, to the earl of Devonshire, lord lieutenant, dated '20th 
December, lG03, stating that, " Although for some respects we thinke not fitt 
to enlai-ge any further liberties to them, than formerly they have had, yet wee are 
pleased that they shall have a confirmacou and renuinge of such privileges and 
liberties as by any former charters they doe hold." ^ — This answer not being so 
favourable as was expected, they declined for the present suing out the charter, 
expecting a more seasonable opportunity ; "^ which accordingly was supposed to 
have offered in 1G08, when they again petitioned, but with no better success than 
before, as appears by the king's letter, dated at Westminster, the 3d of March, 
in tliat yciu', and afterwards recited in the charter. Not discouraged at this disap- 
pointment, they immediately again renewed their solicitations, not only for a 
renewal and confirmation of all former privileges, but also that the town and 
liberties might be erected into a separate and distinct county ; sheriffs appointed 
in place of bailiffs ; and, in consideration of the great increase of mercantile 

" Hot. Pat. 1 Jac. I. 3 p. li. m. 30. 

" Jiir Francis Willoiigliby, his successor, was oppointed 
by tlic lord deputy, governor of the fort, pursuant to the 
Isin^'s command, by privy seal, dated Oatiands, Jnly 5lh, 
u;"C, durinj; pleasure, at 5s. per diem. — Rut. 12, 13 Ctir. 
I. 11. 11. 

" Rut. Pat. 2 Jac. I. 3 p. d. 

' Ahont this time Sir Arthur Chicl>ester, the lor<l 
deputy, established a circuit for judges of assize in Con- 
naught. They commenced in 1604, and, for many years 
after, the assizes for the comity of Galway \iere h'-ld 
alternately in Gahvay and Loughrea. ]n ICRO, the 
iCorporation petitioned the lord lieutenant and council, 

" that the assizes should l)c kept in the town of Galwav, 
and to prevent the removing it to Loughrea." — Cur'p. 
Roch, Lib. 1). p. 109. — For a long time, before and 
after this period, the judges were entertained free of 
e.Kpensc by the town, perhaps to indncc them to hold tlie 
assizes there. This was afterwards abridged to the pay- 
ment of their lodgings; and on 21st Septen)ber, 1771, it 
was ordered in common council, " that this corporation 
shall not for the fnttu'e be at any expense for the jud"e's 
lodgings." — Carp. Ruuk, Lih. I. — But this was repealed 
the 7th October following, and the e.\pense, 10/. yearh, 
lias been ever oince defrayed by the town. 



tfjiKuclioiis, that a guilJ of mcrcliants of the staple miglit be incorporated. — 
(ii'ol}iy Lynch Fitz-Doniinick and Patrick French Fitz-Ilobert were deputed to 
prc.icnt tills petition to the king in person ; and, througli the interference and 
interest of Rickard, then earl of Clunrickard, (who shortly before was appointed 
arst lord president of Connanght, ") their application proved successful. Accord- 
ii!g!y letters, signed by the privy council of England with the royal assent, were 
transmitted to the lord lieutenant of Ireland ; in pursuance of which, by charter, 
Jatcd 18th December, iGlO, all the former privileges of the corporation were 
fully confirmed : and as the town of Drogheda was one entire county by itself, 
incorporate in fact and name, distinct and separate from the counties of Louth, 
.Mcath, and all other counties, so it was given and granted that the town of Gahvay, 
ind all castles, messuages, rivers, rivulets, lands, tenements and other heredita- 
ments whatsoever, lying and being within the space of two miles of every part of 
tiie said town, in a straight line, should, from thenceforth, for ever be one entire 
county of itself, distinct and separate from the county of Galway, " to be named 

' The kina:, in the privy seal for this appointment, 
■Juis c.\|)resscs himselt": " For that we think it may make 
more I'or our serv-ice tiiat the province of Connanght have 
» governor witli certain title, as our province of Alunster 
ftitli, onr plcasnre therefore is, that upon siirrcnilcr of 
mrh letters patents as our I'ight trusty anj right well- 
ttloved cousin, the earl of Clanrickard, now hath for 
kii charge tlicre, you grant unto him such other letters 
fkiteiits, uniler our great seal there, witli tlie title of presi- 
licnt, in such form and manner as our president of Mun- 
Ccr hath, except you shall see cause, by advice of our 
council there, to alter any clauses thereof, or to add 
tinto it." — 'J Jnc. I. 3 p. — The patent is dated, Dublin, 
Hptcinhcr 1, 1004. — 2 Jar. J. 2 p. f. m. 49. — Sir Oliver 
Sl John, knight, and privy counsellor, was appointed 
lice-prcsident under tlie earl; and on 9tli June, 1615, 
.■"ir John King, kniglit, niuster-n, aster-general, and Sir 
lliouias Rothcrani, were appointed, jointly and severally, 
to be his majesty's chief commissioner or commissioners 
13 civil, with the council of the province, to admi- 
D'ltcr civil justice to the subjects there, iluring the absence 
of ihe lord-president and vice-president. — Rot, 13 Jac. I. 
1/../. m. 20. 

' IJciore the distribution of Connnught into counties, 
liy Sir John Perrott, in 1585, the entire province was 
divided into two great districts, called the counties of 
Connanght and Roscommon, wliose sheiiH's are mentioned 
in various records, as iiu- back as the reign of Henry III. 
It would be a matter of more difficulty than utility, at the 
present ilay, to trace out tlie limits and extent of those two 
ancient divisions; but as it may be of some importance 
that the true boundaries of the county of Galway, as 
originally laid down, should be known, a. id as the town 
»ai comprehended within the county, until separated as 
above, the following abstract is taken from an inquest, 
held on oath at Galway, on the 1 1th of August, 1C07, 
before Sir Anthony Scntleger, then master of the rolls, ajid 

Peter Palmer, second justice of the common pleas, in 
which its limits were accurately ascertained. 


" The county of Galwaye extended in length from the 
marysh of Alrniwq/i-Acng/i, buttingc eastcward upon the 
King's County unto Kanlcuni/i, bc)'ond JJiinoiiine, in 
Yenrconaglit, westward GO miles or tliereaboutes, and in- 
breadth, from the river or strcame of Buyhc, buttinge 
southwarde on the county of Clare to Lahog^li-Htuiituii, 
(so called, for that a principal man of the Stantons was 
slayne in that place,) adjoyninge to Claiimorrish, north- 
ward 37 miles, or thereabouts. — The boundes or mcares 
of the saide county begynieth beyond the river of Shcannn 
casteward, at the said niarishe of Alcinid^li-ki'ii^li which 
devideth the greate woods of Kilticroriiv, whereof the 
woods westward of the saide niarishe are included within 
the boundes of the county of Gallwaie, and the wood^ 
easteward of the niarishe arc of the King's County; and 
so bouudinge forwarile to the river of Brostiasih, and 
reyteyninge the eoiu'se of the strciune, it fallcth into the 
river of S/ieaiwn ; and, includinge the islands of Iiichc- 
ncgal and Inyslnnorc, it extendetli forward by easte, the 
islands of Jnlshfaddd, as the course of tlie strcame run- 
neth: from thence, includinge the islands of Poiifcljjvli/, 
it gocth dyrectly to Vii-reiuecgtiiu; and, includinge the 
islands of lllaniiivre and Iiiis/icahlij/, it runneth through 
Lvgliilirgirl, ami so to tlie river of Bni/hc, and hoUiinge 
that river against the strcame to Lug/iclnrj/. — The earle 
of Thomond doctli clialUndge a towiie laiule, consisiiuge 
of fowcr quarters, called Biilliinrowaial, Killraii/ri/ and 
Jiallyshaimiirjiif, which is iiichnJed within theise boundes, 
to be [larcell of the county of Clare that beinge beyond 
the memory of man held by the carles of Clanrickarde, 
and by them sett for rent to the C/nm/iidcs, a eejite of the 
jMc. AV Marrcs, who, upon discontent, came tliither to 
dwell. Theise fower quarters arc tounde and presented, 
upon the makinge of the composicon, to be parcell and 



and called the county of the town of Galway : that the site and precincts of the 
•abbey of Saint Francis and Saint Augustine's fort, and the lands belonginir to 
the fort, should be reserved and excluded from the county of the town of Galwav, 
and be and remain within the county of Galway : that the judges of assize and gaol 
deli\'ery might hold their sessions in said abbe}', and the sheriffs of the countv 
of Galway their county courts there. The mayor, bailiffs, burgesses and conniio- 
nalty, were incorporated by the name of the mayor, sheriff's, free burgesses and 
commonalty of the town. A guild of merchants of the staple, consisting of one 
mayor, two constables, and such number of merchants as they should think 
most expedient, was incorporated. Ulick Lynch was appointed the ffrst mayoi', 
and AV'alter Martin and Peter Lynch the ffrst constables. The corjjoration was 
empowered to have and use several ensigns and ornaments for tlie honor and 
dignity of the town ; and the mayor, for the time being, to have a sword borne 
Lefore him, as a mark of the very great eminence of the ofiice of mayor of the 
town, and of the authoritv thereto belonging. 

belonging to the county of Galwaye. — Reteyning the 
mcare from Ln^hetori/ to Aham-Imni/lie, it exteiideth 
to Afiancfi/ni/sxabiri/ and so to Lo^hnnc-ncbritliihini, and 
from thence sonthwaixl of Aijicvlclc-calani/ne and Dirrc- 
liiklcrnvirn, and so to J^ni^hnilhi/ and Dirrcliilicmc, and 
iVoni thence to the nieare of K iHincnpnff'arrcll it reacheth 
farther to tlie toi;her of Goi-tcfohbell, and so to Dromy- 
owrc and Knwdingc, the direct nieare to Mulh/nccaTliine, 
and alon^' the streame to Oin/nnecarhijme, then to Cap- 
j}er-I(!niii// ; and, retc}nin2 the nieare of Bn/lag/igrant/ 
and Ai/lciicffiiagh, it bntteth forward to the strcanie of 
Li>ii'g/icd, (I'roin wliich tlie place of BallalowgJicil takcth 
its name,) and so foi'ward to Jiellacrcnan, then to Miic- 
kani/; from thence to Tobherrlynedouoia and licatla- 
i:icd-(hmc, it exfendeth to Bcallnnlinghill, and hutting to 
Jia/inlorp and C/rt/iiega//, exchidin!;e Moncji-Yeffnne it 
retcynetli a certcyne nieare called Cappcirashcll, and but- 
tinjc forward to licnUufudud, and devydinje the rowc from 
hnghcntgie, it reacheth to KiUimj and Dawgotl ; from 
thence up the mountayne of Funrlwmorc, and holding the 
very topp of that mountaj'ne, bntteth forward to tilnjew- 
enrnc and to Tobbcrlijhc, from tlience to Currag/nnorc, 
and so it fallcth into the haye of Gallwaye; and from 
thence, includinge the islands of Arrttn, it extcndeth 
as the ocean boundeth upon the west of Yenrconnng/il, 
and forwarde aboute the shore to Bnllasse; and, cominge 
in at the north siile of the mountayne of Snlcmige, it 
extcndeth to Buiuigowsnglimare, and so falleth into 
Loghmaxhe, and cominge out of the logli, it reteyneth the 
nieare to the river of Conge, -which dcvydcth the demaynes 
of Conge from the barony of Boss, parcell of the said 
county. — This barrony of Ross is alledged to have been 
jnchuicd in the county of Mayo, upon the reducin.'c of 
Connaught into shire ground ; hut attei-, upon better con- 
sidcracon, for that the same was subjecte to the cuttinge 
and spendinge of the O'Flaherties, upon whom the Joyes 
(who inhabited the saiil barony) dc|)cndfd, and weare 
ahvaies cpntrybut;iry with the O'F lahcrtits, and did usually 

yield tliem risings out to all liostings, roods and jonmcM 
for the princes service, and withall that the said barony 
of Rosse was often dubly charged, as being supposed to be 
parte of ejther comity, which they, not bemge able to 
endure, made complaint to the lord deputie, and there- 
upon obtayned several orders from bir Henry Sidney, 
and Sir William Fitz- Williams, in tyme of theire govern- 
ments, to be united and joyned to the saide county of 
Gallwaye, within which, at the makinge of the coiiipo- 
sicon, it was founde and presented by inquest of ofiioe to 
be included, and so a yearly rent-chardge of 5s. sterling 
granted out of every quarter of free-holders lands in tlic 
saide barony, unto Sir Murrogh O'Fhilierty, knight, late 
deceased; and with all, it is manyfest that the inhabitants 
of the saide barony doe at this instant appeare, and "ive 
there attendance to the cessions of the county of Gallwaie, 
and not at Mayo, and that the sheriffe and collectors of 
the comity of Galwaie doe, by themselves, theire bailitfei 
and under officers, execute all matters concerninge their 
chardges in the same, as beinge within the limits of theire 
jurisdicons. All which, with many other reasons which 
wee omitt for brevcties sake, movinge ns to include the 
saide barrony within the buundcs of the county of Gall- 
waye, have so founde and laied it downe accordingly. — 
And now, returninge where wee left, we follow e tlie'saide 
mcai-e from the river of Conge into Loghe-Corb, includin'-c 
Jnc/icvicietn/cr, iiml (rom thence to Cana-Ini'iddery tbtre 
that gocth out of the loghe, on the east side, into the 
river of Oii'vii-Duffenis/i, and so to J\Ior/ne, and from 
thence agaynste the streame to Smwbcr, tlien to C/owiie- 
sheana; and, rctejninge the nieare to Clcynghtivnllin, it 
reacheth to Owennegomnici'^h :indl,o//rig/islau/on ; and, iiil- 
linge into the river of Down j\Ir. Kni/ni/, it extcndeth 
out of the same to G/ai/sscrlcny-Cuivsan, then to La/iniii/- 
dolloghliine : from thence it streatcheth to Barc-ctuwn- 
o/7.Y/Hc,then to Corrnvichelungeyt, and,holdinge the bound 
on the west of dmliinch/ine, it leatleth to Islurmure 
and I,n/nig/i-C/oirncii(i;,.f.i-cig/i ; and, buttinge forwiu'd to 



About this time a company, formed of tlie principal merchants, for the pur- 
jiosc of providing more spacious and convenient accommodations for the increase 
of shipping and commerce, commenced several new improvements along the 
quays and harbour, and by fort-hill and the fosse which surrounded the town wall : 
but, though they were bound to complete these undertakings within a limited time, 
the works gradually declined, and were never brought to perfection. It is probable, 
however, that they were at first suspended in consequence of a destructive fire that 
broke out in the east suburbs on the 1st of May, 1619, occasioned by a nuisket- 
shot unintentionally fired by some young men, amidst diversions usual on that 
clay, wliich fell on the thatch of a house, and spreading, raged so violently, that 
' it threatened the entire town with destruction. Tradition informs us tliat, shortly 
prior to this period, a Dutch colony, consisting of forty families, induced bv tlie 
situation of Galway, proposed to emigrate from Holland and settle in or near the 
town ; that they offered the corporation a sum which would be equivalent to 
3J,000/. at the present day, for the unfinislicd works above alluded to, and the 
adjacent ground, on which they were to erect, within fifteen years, several 
dwelling-houses and extensive stores, intending'also to take in a considerable por- 
tion of the strand; but that, through motives of mercantile jealousy, these proposals 
were rejected. — A circumstance connected with this aftair is also handed down, 
which, though bordering on the incredulous, is somewhat curious. Tlie Hollanders, 
as the story goes, contracted to cover over as much ground, as they wished to obtain, 
^vith a certain sj)ecies of silver coin, (but of what dimensions or value are forgotten,) 
and the space they are said to have marked out would have required to the amount 
already mentioned to purchase it. This glittering pro])osal was at first agreed to 
by the town's-people ; but, upon further reflection, they prudently considered that 
these industrious settlers might monopolize all their trade, and injure tlic town, 
and they accordingly had recourse to a most ingenious artifice to get rid of the 
agreement when it came to be carried into effect, by insisting that the ground 
was to be covered with the coin, placed not on the sides, as had been supposed. 

UtallanagliJcige, excluding tlie wood of AgJielog!/, (wliich 
is piate of the county of Roscommon,) it reaclicth to 
i'ciwrec-Hoe on ihe north side, a'; far as Laliagh-Coufintj ; 
and, incliidinjc the wood oi' Jjovjfcddeiy, it exteiulufh to 
I'oil/ncmotjriga and sol'alleth into tiic river of Si(c/u;{'.vl:\ch 
boundetli that parte of tlie county of GalKvaye i'rom the 
county of Roscommon;) and as the river runneth to the 
bridge of Beallmiwe, thence alonge tlie streamc to Dnw- 
nimion, where it comes out of the said river into the 
Iprooke or strcame of Owynbcgg, and from tlieuce to 
Kt/ilmony, then alonge the wood of Cregg, exc'udinge 
Ajlhttgowre and Aghogncid, it extcndeth forv.ard to 
Muni/ne Cornccai/skc, and so alonge the bogg to the saide 

river of Sucke, agayne at JRca/lagadd; and so, rcteyninge 
the streame, it goetli under the middle archc of the 
middle bridge of Bnllinasloe, and from thence with the 
course of the streame it falleth into the Sheanon, and 
goinge out of the same into tlie river oi Jlrossuagli (there 
are two Brosauaglis, this which meareth Sir John M'Cogh- 
lan's country on that side from the barony of Longford, 
and the otlier which falleth between Chmoiid and the 
south side of the said havony of Loiuj^fonl into the Sheanon,) 
and so from the liros.-,nagh of I\Jacoglilan's country to 
Jiiingnir/aiie, and so to ^Imiiirg//brgg, where wee began. — 
Original Iiiij. liolls Vffice, Chriiiccr^i. 



but close on the edges. This unexpected turn created so material a diflTerence, 
that it soon put an end to a treaty, which, if the entire be not, as is most likely, a 
fable, might have been of service to the country. 

But, passing over this and other idle and worthless tales of tradition, for more 
useiUl and authentic information, it appears that the town, county of the town, 
and county of Galway, were, in l6lG, at the instance of the carl of Clanrickard, 
erected into a separate jurisdiction, entirely independent of the presidency of the 
province — a circumstance which afterwards proved of the utmost consequence 
towards preserving the peace and tranquillity of this part of the kingdom. Upon 
his resignation of the presidency, his lordship was appointed governor or lieute- 
nant of the town and county, and of the inhabitants there resident, as fully as 
he had enjoyed and exercised the same as lord president of the province. ^ The 
lord deputy, Falkland, came to Galway in iCi'^^, and was most honorably received. 
His lordship knighted Sir Richard Blake Fitz- Robert, and Sir Henry Lynch, hart, 
and munificently bestowed 300/. towards building a college, and 500/. to portion 
and apprentice several orphan children of the town. He particularly attended to 
the state of the fortifications, and directed a fort to be built on the lands of Bally, 
managh, beyond the west bridge, the foundation of which was laid, and a good 
part of the walls built in 1625 ; and, at the same time, all the gates of the town 
were repaired at the ex))ense of the corporation. 

The appointment of the earl of Clanrickard to the government of the town 
having terminated on the death of King James, it was renewed by his successor j' 

GovrRNons of Galway. 
' RickanI, carl of Clanrickard, appointed by privy seal, 
dateJ Greenwich, Sd June, 161G; patent dated Dublin, 
July 12tli, 1810, during pleasure, with a power to appoint 
a deputy lieutenant; and, pursuant to the said privy seal, 
an annuity, pension, stipend or fee of 10*. English a day 
for lii'e, out of the revomies of said county and town, 
was granted to his lordship by patent, dated 29th June, 
ir.lo', and the like fee ot KVv. a day to his son and heir, 
Ulic'k Bonrke, baron ot Dnnkellin, for life, after his 
lather's death. — A'"/. /•■(//. 1-1 Jiic: J. 2 p. </. w. 8, 9. 

GcofiVcy Osbaldeaton, Esc], was made deputy during 
t'le carl's absence in England, September 4th, 162\. — Is) 
.M: I. 2 /). d. 

< Privy seal, dated Whitehall, iNIay 20th, 1G25; patent, 
Dublin, November 7th, same year. They had power to 
appoint a deputy during their absence; they anil their 
(l.'puties successively, from time to time, to be chief in 
the commissions of Oyer and Terminer with the justices 
of assize, in their circuits, within the said county and 
town; to be chief leader of the army therein, in the 
absence of the chief governor of Ireland, with power to 
raise and muster the county and town as should be thouglit 
expedient, and to have the command (as they had before) 
of the compa\iy of fifty foot, then in pay, by the establish- 
ments belonging to himself, his officers and compan}'. — 
Hu!. Flit. 1 Car. II. '-i p.f. m. 20. 

His lordship being still resident in England, appointed 
Sir Thomas l{otheram deputy lieutenant during pleasure, 
dated 2-lth April, 1G27, ( Uth should be) signed Clan- 
rickard. — Hut. 3 Car. I. 1 p. f. 

By two commissions, dated 20th July, 1627, the earl, 
and Sir Thomas Kotheram his deputy, and the privy 
council of Ireland, any two or more of them, (the earl or 
Sir Thomas to be always one,) were appointed to execute 
the civil and martial government of the county and 
town — 3 Cor. I. 2 p. f. — and by another commission, 
dated 28th February, 1G28, both the council and martial 

government were connnittcd to them — 4 Car. I. 5 p. d. 

and by commission, dated Uth March, 1635, Ulick, earl 
of Clanrickard, Sir Thomas Rotherani, his deputy or 
lieutenant, the privy council and others, were appointed 
eonnnissioncrs of nnisters and array, to treat with rebels, 
<Scc. — 1 1 Car. I. 1 p. <l. 

This separate jurisdiction, or, according to lord Straf- 
ford, " cantoned government," died with his lordship in 
165G, and the town and county were united to the presi- 
dency of the province, in 1621, under lord Mountrath. 
Presidknts of Connaucht. 

Upon the resignation of the earl of Clanrickard, in 
1616, Sir Charles Willmot, knight, viscount Willinot of 
Athlone, was appointed president of the province durin" 
pleasure, by privy seal, dated Greenwich, 3d Jiuie, 1,616; 
patent, Dublin, September 20th, ICIG — 14 Jac I. — Out 



Ihc preamble to whose grant states, that the king, taking into consideration the 
inuny and singular good proofs of his lordship's fidelity and sincere affection to 
the crown, and conceiving good hopes of the like in his son Ulick, lord Dun- 
kcllin, afterwards marquis of Clanricarde, (wliich it will be found were amply 
realized,) and the better to secure his subjects of the said county and town of 
Galway, appointed them to the government thereof during their respective lives. 
The improvement of the town and environs still continued to occupy the attention 
of the corporation. In iGoO, the square plot, at the green, outside the east gate, 
(since called Meyrick-square,) was set apart for the purpose of public amusement 
and recreation : it was inclosed with wooden rails, and handsomely planted round 
with ash trees, many of which were standing within the memory of persons 
yet living. The highway within the liberties, along Castle-Gar, was soon after 
completed : the new works at Barachalla and about the great gate, which were 
left unfinished in tlie mayoralty of Sir Valentine Blake, were likewise resumed 
and perfected. In the interior of the town, the main street, from the great gate to 
the cross, was paved, and several other valuable improvements were made, ^ which 
at length rendered the town one of the most perfect in the kingdom, possessing 
every convenience wliich could tend to promote the health or increase the com- 
forts of the inhabitants. 

of the patent were excepted tlie government of the county 
of the town of Gulway ami of the county uf {jalway, 
so long as the kin^ shoulil continnr llie earl of Clanricarde 
therein. — 1620, May ITtli, the lord deputy appointed Sir 
Charles Coote, knight, vice-president, in the absence or 
(hiring the |>leasure of Willmot, and, so long as he con- 
tinued in that office, chief leader of the army in that 
province, (the county anil county of the town of Galway 
i\cepted.) The subsequent presidents of Connaught 
were as follows, viz. 

1625, April 16th. Patent continuing Sir Charles 

Willmot (the former having detcrinined by King James's 
death) and Sir Roger Jones, vice-presidents. 

IGjO. — Sir Charles Willmot, and Roger, lord viscount 
Kanelagh, appointed during their lives. — Rnl. Pat. C Cur. 
II. r, p. 

IGll, April. — Thomas viscoimt Dillon, and Hemv 
\iscount Willmot, and the bishop of Atterbury, in Eng- 
land, appointed, vice Willmot and Kanelagh, deceased. — 
Hot. 12 Car. II. 

1645, May 12th. — Sir Charles Coote, knight and bart. 
of Mountrath, appointed by patent of this date, at W^est- 
niin^ter. — CrotnarU's linll, 1655, frst part, mi. 5. 

1660, July ."otii. — The same continued by patent, of 
tliis date, at Westminster. — Hut. 12 Car. II. 

1661, March 28th. — The same appointed president for 
life, under the title of Charles, carl of Mountrath. In this 
prant the coimly, county of the town, and citadel of 
(laKvav, were annexed to the presidency of the province. — 
Rnl. \z Cur. II. 

Decemlier 2'Ith. — John, lord Berkeley, appointed 

l\ privy seal, of tins date, (Mountrath, deceased) for lil'e ; 

patent dated January 13th, lOGl : Sir Maurice Eustace 
was his viru-presiiknt. — Rnl. 13 Car. II. 1 p. 

1G62, March '_'5th. — Tlie same appointed chief leader 
of the army within the province, ni the absence of the 
chief governor of Ireland, for the prosecution of any 
rebels or traitors and their aillicrents. — Rot. 4 Car. II. 
1 p. 

1666, April 2. — John, lord Berkeley, and John, lord 
Kingston, appointed by jjatent of this date, (former patent 
surrendered.)— /I'll/. IS Car. II. 

May 5th. — John, lord Kingston, appointed sole 

governor, by patent of this date, last patent surrendered ; 
Thomas Caulficid, Esq. was then vice-president. — Same 
Rull. — Lord Kingston was the last governor of Connaught. 

" In 1G37, the east tower gate was built, and the town 
clock erected at the c.tpcnse of the corporation. On 
loth May, 1639, it was ordered in council, " that, at 
the connnon charge of this corporation, all grants and 
gifts, under their conuuon seal, of the shops near or at 
the market thereof, shall be bought; the same, and all the 
places of the said market that side, as far as the stone- 
wall there, which CNtends itself to the way into our parish 
church of Saint Nicholas, be pulled down, and soe all 
the same to be reduced into a strong sufficient stone 
house, covered with slate, and to be under-])i-o|)ped with 
good stone pillars, whereby way thro' it shall be to the 
said church, as formerly it hatli been, and the up|)er parts 
to be made a fair common-hall or towlsci, with conve- 
nient chambers for the eonnnon counsill and tow ne clerkc, 
ior the safe keeping of all the towne records and writings. 
•~Ci>rporatiun JBuoh, Lib. A. — This building was finislied 
in IG-IG. 


Sir Thomas Wentwortli, (af'tenvardsearl of Straftbrd,) lord deputy of Ireland, 
visited the town in 1634 ; his entry was splendid, and his reception equally corres- 
pondent. During his stay he resided in the mansion-house of Sir Richard Blake, 
for whose polite attention he made tlie most grateful acknowledgments. He con- 
ferred the honor of kniglitliood on Sir Dominick Browne, the mayor; and, havino- 
expressed mucli satisfaction at the highly finished state and opulent appearance 
of the town, his lordship departed for Dublin, 

For the first fifteen years of the reign of Charles I. a time of profound peace 
in Ireland, there are but few particulars related of the town ; but, during the tur- 
bulent remainder of the life of that unhappy monarch, it took a leading part in 
the political transactions of the times, invariably manifesting the greatest zeal, 
loyalty and affection in his cause. The only occurrence worthy of remark durino- 
the former period, in addition to those already detailed, is the celebrated tyran- 
nical proceeding of lord Strafford against the sheriff and jury of the county of 
Galway. This able but despotic ruler having formed the unjust and impolitic 
design of subverting the title to every estate in Connaught, by shewing that the 
province, notwithstanding all prior grants to individuals, was entirely vested in 
the ci-own, and still at its disposal, caused separate commissions to issue on the 
15th of June, lG-J,5, directed to certain commissioners, who were to inquire, by 
the oaths of a jury, what estate, right or title, the king, or any of his progenitors, 
had to every county in the province. Leitrim having surrendered without trial, 
the first inquiry was held at Boy\e, in Roscommon, on 10th July following, when 
the jury found the king's title without scruple. This ser\ilc example was followed 
in Sligo, where the trial was held on the ^Oth of the same month, and in Mayo, 
wl'.cre it took place at BalHnrobe, on the 31st ;" but when they came to Galway their 
progress was stopped, and this arbitrary measure met w^ith the most determined 
and effectual oposition from the gentlemen of the county, whose independent 
spirit, strict adhtrence to truth and justice, and conscientious discharge of their 
duty, on this occasion, deserve to be for ever commemorated. The trial came 
on at Portumna castle, where, notwithstanding the presence of the lord deputy 
himself, who sat on the bench, and the many specious arguments made use of by 
council, to induce the jury to find the king's title, tliey unanimously found against 
it. His lordship, violently enraged at this decision, immediately put the sheriff, 
Mr. Martin Darcy, of the family of Kiltolla, and the jury under arrest, had them 
brought close prisoners to Dublin, and there tried before himself in the castle 
chamber. " We bethought ourselves," says he, " of a course to vindicate his 
majesty's honor and justice, not only against the persons of the jurors, but also 

i" The inquisitions tiiktn on this occasion, and afterwards things, the names of all tlin hmds, and principal proprietors 
in 1G37, remain of record in the Rolls Ofhce, Dublin, in the several counties, at the time. 
Tl'.ey arc very voluminoLis, ami contain, amon^rst other 



against the sheriff', for returning so insufficient, indeed we conceived so packed, a 
jury, and therefore we fined tlie sherift' in 1000/. to his majesty, the jurors in 
4000/. each, and to be imprisoned until the fines should be paid, and until they 
sliould acknowledge their ofltence in court upon their knees."' — The jurors 
petitioned to be discharged, but were refused, except upon condition of their 
making a public acknowledgment that they committed not only an error in judg- 
uicntbut even actual perjury in their verdict, terms which they disdaintnlly rejected. 
The sheriii" died in prison, owing to severe treatment," and the jury were most 
cruelly used, until, after suffering all the rigors of confinement, their fines were 
reduced, and themselves released, at the solicitation of the earl of Clanricarde. ' 
The lord deputy, still determined to carry his point, again caused two further 
commissions to issue ; the one, to find the king's title to the county ; and the 
other, to the county of the town of Galway. The commissioners met at St. 
Fi-ancis's abbey, on the 5th of April,' 1G37, when the present county jury, terri- 
fied at the example made of the former, was induced to find for the crown, as did 
tlic jury of the county of the town the day after, in the tholsel-hall. "" U]>on the 
return of these findings, the county was planted at a double rate, and the natives 
lost onc-Iialf of their lands, whereas the other less refractory counties lost but 
one-fourth. Thus terminated, through the influence of powei", this illegal pro- 
ceeding, for wliich, witli other arbitrary measures resorted to in England, and 
during his government here, the ill-fated Strafford afterwards lost his head ; but 

■ Slalc Lcllcrs. 

^ Tlic lord deputy, in a letter to Cliristophcr Wandcs- 
forJ, Esq. master of the rolls, from London, 'JStli July, 
le.'jS, expresses himself on this occnrrence in the following 
tinfceling manner: — "I am full of belief they will lay 
Uarcye tlie sheriffc's death to me. My arrows arc cruel 
that wound so mortally ; but I should be more sorry the 
king should lose his fine ; therefore I pray you consult it 
tlioroVvly with tlie judges." — Id. 

' Ciirtc. — The following extract, from the grievances 
voted " real" by the couunons, towards the end of the 
Strafford administration, has been sapjiosed, with every 
jirohabllity, to alhule to this case of the GaK\ay jury, viz. 
— " That jurors, who gave their verdict according to their 
consciences, were censured in the castle chamber, in great 
fines, somclinies piUored, witli loss of ears, and bored 
thro' the tongue, and sometimes marked iu the torehead 
with an iron, with otiior infamous puuishiiients." — Cttrri/. 

"' The following extract from this memorahie record 
will be found not undeserving of perusal. — The inquiry 
was held at the thclsel, on the eth of April, ieJ7. 


Lord Ranelagh, president of Connaught. 

The archbishop of Tiiain,. 

Robert, bishop of Eiphin. 

Mir Charles Coote. 

James Barry, second baron of the Exchequer. 

James DonncUan, chief justice of Connaught. 

Sir Francis Willoughby. 
Sir Edward Povcy. 
Anthony Dnpping, Esq. 


Sir Dominick Browne, of Galwaj", knight. 

Nicholas Lynch Fitz-iMarcus, alderman. 

GeoH'ry iVLvrtin, do. 

George Martin, do. 

Marcus Lynch Fitz-Christoplier, ilo. 

John Bodkin Fitz-Dominick, do. 

Francis Blake Fitz- Valentine, Esq. 

Nicholas Blake Fitz-Kobcrt, Esq. 

John Blake Fitz-Nicholas, burgess. 

Walter Blake Fitz-Arthur, do. 

Edmond Kirwan Fitz-Pati'ick, burgess. 

Alexander Browne Fitz-Dominick, do. 

Michael Lynch Fitz-Steiihen, do. 

Nii'holas Blake Fitz-Authony, do. 

AV alter Bro\ine Fitz-Thomas, do. 

Stephen Martin Fitz-Fraucis, do. 

Jasper French Fitz-Andrew, do. 

'Thomas Butler, do. 

The jury were directed to inquire " what estate, right 
or title the king, or any of his progenitors, had, or of right 
ought to have had, in and to tlie whole territory of 
Galway ;" and accordingly found tliat the county of the 
town of Galway was at all times part of the dominion or 
province of Connaught^, and that the province, in tlic 




its injurious cfiects, without benefiting the crown, were lasting and considerable. 
Irritated beyond measure at so glaring an act of injustice openly committed against 
them, after so many royal assurances in their I'avor, the gentlemen of the county 
loudl)- proclaimed their discontent, and fixed resolution to embrace any oppor- 
tunity which might offer to be revenged ; and of the reality of their determina- 
tion, the fatal events, which soon after took place, afforded melancholy proof. 

Before entering into a detail of the momentous transactions which immediately 
follow, it may not be uninteresting to the reader to dwell a little on the state of 
the town at this period. By the preceding facts, gleaned, with much labor, from 
the generally imperfect materials which, at this distance, have been spared by the 
hand of time, it appears that the town of Galway was esteemed the most distin- 
guished of any in the l<ingdom for wealth and trade, and that it ranked amongst 
the most considerable for strength and population. The causes which gradually 
led to this extraordinary change, from its original state oi" comparative insigniti. 
cance, appear also to have been its well regulated and increasing commerce for 
the three preceding centuries ; its advantageous situation ; but, above all, the 
enterprizing spirit and tried integrity of its inhabitants, which appeared on many 
occasions, and which are satisfactorily testified by various records. The extent of 
its commerce, and that at very remote periods of time, has been proved by indu- 
bitable authority; and its excellent situation needs only inspection to be convinced 

rcipn of Iloiirv II f. ami long btTore, contained thirty can- 
irciK of knul ; that Hciin HI. by Icttc-rs [latcnt, datcil 
at Wcsliniiistci', 21bt Uecciiihur, 122G, prantotl twenty- 
five lanrjL'ds, out of the thirty, to Kicharil De Burgo, 
ujion whose death Walter, otherwise Kaymond, his son 
and heir, fnti.Ted into possession. Upon his death Richard 
Do Eur;.'0, lord of C'oimanght, his son and heir, entered 
into possession ; npon whose death, John, his son and 
snccessor, entered into possession, and after him ^\'illianl, 
tarl of Ulster and lord of Connanght, his son and heir, 
liecanie jjossessed, npon whose death Elizabeth, his only 
daughter and heiress, entered into possession. That 
she married Lionel, duke of C'arence, the third son of 
Edward III. who, in her riglit, became carl of Ulster and 
loril of Connauulu. I'hat upon their death IHillippa, 
their only daui;luer and heiress, entered into possession; 
that she married Edinnml Mortimer, earl of ^lareh and 
lord of Trim, who, in her right, became carl of Ulster 
I'.nd lord of Connanght. That, npon their death, Roger, 
carl of March and lord of Trim, their son and heir, entered 
into possession, npon whose death they desceiuled to 
Ai^nv Mortimer, !iis only danghtcr and heiress, who mar- 
ried I'.ici^ard, (hil;e of Cambridge, who, in her right, 
became earl of Ulster and lord of Connanght. That, 
upon their death, Kidiard, duke of York, earl of Ulster 
:"vl lord of Connanght, their son and heir, entered into 
pu-sessicm, am! that King Eilward IV. was his son and heir. 
Tiiat Henry III. being seized of the five remaining can- 
trcds, not originally granted to Richard De Bnrgo, tliey 
tiescLndoil to Edward I. liis son, and from him, through 

the successive kings of England, to Edward IV. 

That Edward IV. being thus sciz.ed of the entire tliirty 
cantreds, they descended to Edward V. his son, and from 
him to lady Elizabeth, his sister and heiress, who marricJ 
Henry VII. That by an act of parliament, made before 
Sir Edward Poynings, at Drogheda, 10th Henry VII. 
reciting that the earldoms of March and Ulster and the 
lordships of Trim and Connanght were annexed to the 
crown, and that several records, rolls and inquisitions re- 
lating to them, were taken out of the treasury of Trim anil 
embezzled, it was enacted that it should be lawful for the 
king, Henry VII. to enter into all the said lands and lord- 
ships. That U[ion his death Henry VIII. his son, was 
seized, in right of his crown, of the thirty cantreds. They 
then found that Henry VIII. exercised his right by granting, 
by letters jiatent, to Janet and Ste[)hen h\ iich, the fishings 
of the river of Galv.ay, which were then enjoyed there- 
under. They found his charter to the town, his death; 
Edward VI. his successor, hi> charter, erecting the church 
into a collegiate; his ilcalh, and Elizabeth, his successor,' 
her charter, and the grant from her to the corporation, 
dated 1 1th iSepten.her, in the twentieth year of her reign; 
her death, and James I. her successor, his charter and 
death; and Cha.rles I. his successor, who they found was, 
on the day of the taking of said iiii|iiisition, seized in fee, 
in right of his crown, of the said tliirt\ cantreds, and of 
and in the said entire ])rovincc or dominion of Ccmnaught: 
and tliey found that the county of the town of Galway 
contained, by estimation, thirty-two <|Uarters of free iind 
chargeabli; land, — Oiig. Inq. liutls OJJicc. 


of llic advantages which must have been derived from it. The town, though 
early incorporated and governed principally by its merchants, was surrounded by 
a j)oor country, and persecuted natives, (with whom " the settlers," as they were 
called, were in a continual state of hostility,) and could consequently derive but 
few materials for export, or means of industry, from its local situation. The inha- 
bitants, therefore, were obliged to have recourse to distant parts of the kingdom ; 
and by becoming, in fact, the home-importers of the produce of France, Spain 
and England, and by exchanging the commodities of one country for those of 
another, the town gradually arrived to its present state of prosperity, while the 
country in its neighbourhood was immersed in poverty, wretchedness and vice. 
'This opulence, however, was now at its height; henceforth it contiiuied to decline, 
and gradually sunk almost to nothing, in which condition it continues at the 
present day. The reader will not be here detained by an investigation of the 
causes of this decay ; it will be reserved for another place, in order to proceed 
>vitliout further interruption to the following chapter. 




Opulence of Gahcay at the commencement of the Irish rebellion, QSd October, IG^I — 
Report of Sir Francis JViUovghbij, governor of St. Avgustinc'sfort, near Gakcai/, 
071 that event — The care of the earl oj Clanricarde to secure Uic peace (ftlte coiintij — 
'Loyal resolutions of the toiim — Disputes with the fort — Massacre at Shruel — Revolt 
of the to'icn, and siege qf^ the fort — The fort relieved, and the toxm siihnits to the earl 
of Clanricarde — Violent proceedings of the governor of the fort — He bomba7'ds the 
torcn — Lord Forbes arrives 'with a feet in the bay — Besieges the toxai — His barba- 
rous co7iduct — The fort besieged, taken and demoUslied — The toxvn declares in favor 
of the Irish, and against the parliament — Persists in its loyalty to the Icing — Several 

Jortf cations built — Tumults in the to-wn, occasioned by the pope's nuncio on the 
(juestion q/' the cessation — Compelled at length to proclaim it — 77ie nuncio departs 

Jrom Gakcay — The toxai advances money to the state — Grateful achmxcledgments of 
Cliarles II. — Dreadful plagxie in the toxvn — Marquis of Ormond takes shipping in 
Galxcay, and leaves the kingdom — Kegociations xvith the duke of Lo}'raine — His 
a^nbassador arrives i?i Galxcay — The toxcn besieged by the parliamentary forces under 
Sir Charles Coote — Its strenuous defence and final surrender — The plague rages — 
Cruel proceedings against the inhabitants — Licentiousness of the soldiery — Unjust 
measu7xs of the rule7's in Dublin, co7itrary to the articles of szn-render — TJte cotpo- 
ratio7i nexc inodelled — The ancie/it inhabitants tur7ied out of the toxcn, a77d the houses 
destrmjed — Plans of the gove7Viment relative to Galxvay — Lands and houses valued 
and sold — 2'otal decay of t/ie toxcn at tlie time oJ the l{estoraiio7i. 

A. period is now arrived, wliicli will be for e\er memorable in the history of 
Ireland, and in tiie transactions of which our town acted a very conspicuous part. 
Already, for upwards of sixty years, since the troubles raised by the Mac-a7i- 
Farlas were appeased, Galway enjoyed peace and tranquillity under the rule of 
its own magistrates. Warmly attached to the ancient religion of the land, firm in 
its allegiance to the crown, and obedient to the laws, it had arisen to an eminent 
degree of respectability, wealth and national consequence, when the never to be 
sufficiently lamented rebellion, or civil war, broke out in Ireland, on the '23d of 
October, lG41. 

Sir Francis Willoughby, who was then governor of St. Augustine's fort, near 
Galway, (which had been thoroughly repaired at considerable expense, in 1636, 



and rendered one of the most complete fortifications in the kingdom,) in tlie month 
of October, iGil, departed for DubHn, leaving the fort, with two companies, 
under the command, of his son, captain Anthony "Willonghby. He arrived there 
on the night of the '22d, and stated, in council, that neither at Galway, nor all 
the way from thence, did he observe the least disposition in any of the inhabitants 
to rise ; nor did he entertain any suspicion for the safety of his own person : and 
vet, had the design of an insurrection been general, he conceived the rebels might 
luive thought the seizing of him of some advantage towards gaining possession 
of that important fortress. ' 

Uhck, the fifth earl of Clanricarde, governor, for life, of the town and county 
of Galway, having fortunately returned to Ireland in the summer of Kill, was 
then at his castle of Portumna. " As soon as he heard of the troubles, he took 
every precaution for the security of the county. On the 28th of October lie 
dispatched messengers to Galway, to Sir Richard Blake, witli an account of the 
breaking out of the rebellion, and directions that the town should be most strict and 
vigilant in its watch and guards. This information was immediately communicated 
to tlic mayor and council: arms and ammunition, with which they were but badly 
j)rovided, were supplied: orders were issued to strengthen the town gates where 
they were weak and defective, and the guards and watches were doubled. On the 
Gth of November his lordshij) arrived ; he remained two days, diu-ing which time 
he put the town and fort in the best possible posture of defence, augmented the 
two companies of the latter to two liundrcd men, and directed the mayor and cor- 
poration to furnish it with provisions, with which it was but indifl'erently stored; 
and, to provide for his own company in Loughrea, he took out of the stoi-e-honse 
one hundred firelocks and as many pikes ; but more than half of these, upon trial, 
was found unserviceable. The consternation of the town was considerably 
increased by the archbishop of Tuam deserting his castle, and flying ibr refuge 
to the fort, and the subsequent treacherous surprisal of lord Clanricarde's castle 
of Aghnenure, in lar-Connaught, by young Movough-iia-c/iihh O'Flaherty. On 
the nth, a general assembly was convened in the tliolsel ; and it was, amongst 
other things, unanimously resolved, " that to the last man the said town of Galway 
would lose their blood and lives in his majesty's service, in the defence, and rvv 
tlic safety of the said fort and town." The fort was furnished with one hundred 

' Clog/ier MSS. Trin. Co!. Di,!>. 

' That the reader may become acquainted with tlie 
character of this truly great man, it is given in tlic 
viirds of the biographer of the dnke of Orniond, who, 
ui this instance, was particularly just, correct and inipar- 
tiiil — " He was a man of great piety and strict virtue, 
regular in his devotion, exemplary in his life, and consi- 
derate in all his actions. Ilis natural parts were very good, 
£;id innch improved by study, observation and reflection ; 

but whatever were the accomplishments of his head, ihc 
perfections of his heart were still more eminent. In u 
word, he was truly wise, truly good, and truly .. nour- 
ablc, and ought to be conveved down to posterity as one 
of the most perfect and rarest patterns of integrity, loy- 
alty, constancy, virtue and honour, tl'.at the age be liveil 
in, or any other, has produced." — Cmlc, J n/. 1. ;;. 212. — 
His lordship was a Catholic peerof Knglund and Ireland , 
J'iilc /lis S\Icmoirs, London, \',5',Jol. 



pecks of wheat, fifty pounds worth of timber and other necessaries, all which 
were to be paid for upon the restoration of tranquillity in the kingdom. 

• Notwithstanding these exertions, some misunderstanding interrupted the har- 
mony which hitherto subsisted between the fort and town. Captain ^\■illoughby, 
who was a young and unexperienced man, of hot and ungovernable temper, began 
to conduct himself in the most rash and violent manner towards the townsmen, 
■who, on tiieir part, were not without a large portion of pride, and particularly 
piqued themselves on entertaining high notions of honor. With these disposi- 
tions, on both sides, disputes were inevitable. Willoughby, on some trifling or 
pretended occasion, imprisoned some of the inhabitants, and placed guards of 
musketeers on their goods and ships; and the town, exasperated at those pro- 
ceedings, seized and imprisoned some soldiers belonging to the fort. At this junc- 
ture the earl of Clanricarde hastened to Galway, and witli diiliculty prevailed 
on the town to furnish the fort with supplies, whicli they had before refused to 
do without ready money. He remained in the town from tlie 5th to tiie 11th of 
February, and from the 1st to the middle of March; ^ and, so far succeeded iu 
composing those unhappy diiferences, the mayor and corporation, on the Idtli, 
signed a declaration, wherein they stated, " the fast fidelity of their ancestors 
to the crown of England, and how far this ancient colony hath been trusted and 
beloved by their kings successively, and in what happy condition and prosperity 
they lived under their powerful protection." They then declared their allegiance 
xmd determination, at the hazard of their lives, lands and goods, to preserve the 
tov/n in obedience, to defend his majesty to the utmost of their power and con- 
tribute for the mutual defence of the town and fort, for his majesty's service. 
Yv'illoughby, on the same day, signed a similar declaration of mutual amity and 
defence; and lord Clanricarde departed, on the 1 Ith, well pleased at having 
reconciled two such important places, upon which the })cace and security of the 
province so much depended. 

These pleasing prospects were, however, but of short duration. There was a 
faction in the town, headed by the clergy, which dissembled for a while ; but, on 
the departure of the earl, they openly avowed their intention of resistance, and, 
on the 19th of March, the flame burst out with more violence than ever. There 

' In the interim, iluring his absence from Galway, the 
<l;'ca;h'ul PKissacre at Slnuicl took pliicc. Tliis atrocious 
■sc nc of in n\lc)' was descriljcil by liis lordbliip, in a letter 
of the 19th of February, as follows: — 

" I received yesterday a laritc relation of the inhnnian 
anl barlnu'ous massacre of the poor linglisii, from Pierce. 
Ly ich, my tenant, of Shrncll, who was an e\e-\iitn<'is 
of that crue'ty bein^;; done npan, and on ea.eli side of tl:c 
brid e b;fjrj'the castle; the nuiiibrr of the i:ii:;li-,'i one 
hundred, lie afuniis it was done by those in the coumy 

of Mayo, and who, being before with my lord of iilavo, 
wonid fain have lodged within n)y castle, but neither 
intreatics nor threats coidd prevail. He also relates that 
the bishop of Kilalla, his wile and some of bis conipany 
were preserved by Ulicl; Burke, of Castlehacket, who 
sent carriages to convey them to the castle, being sick 
and almost starved, and that some others were kept alive 
in oilier places thereabouts. If any in this county had ii 
ba.nd in that wor':, I shall hazard much to give them their 
due puni^hnlent." — iMciiit'irs, Lmtil. 1757. 



liv an English ship in the bay, commanded by one Clarke, and her it Nvas deter- 
mined to seize. She had on board twelve pieces of ordnance, about a dozen muskets 
s.'id seven or eight barrels of powder; and, whilst the master was in the fort, and 
b.'vcral of his men employed in bringing ballast, Dominick Kirwan, some other 
inercliants and young men, disguised as boatsmen, and armed with pistols and 
ntlicr weapons, attacked the crew, killed the master's mate and another, wounded 
two or three more, and made themselves masters of the ship ; and, although several 
.sliots were fired from the fort, with tlic intention of sinking her, thev succeeded 
ill removing her out of its reach. On their return to the town, which was in 
confusion, they closed the gates, took possession of the church, and disarmed 
all' the Englisli within the walls. They then entered into an oath of union, which 
Sir Valentine Blake and others, but particularly the titular warden, Walter Lynch, 
and some fi'iars were most busy and zealous in promoting, " and they finally 
opened a communication with the insurgents in lar-Connaught, and the disaffected 
in the county of JNIayo, whom they invited to join in the confederacv, and to 
come to their assistance. 

This sudden and desperate affair, after so recent a reconciliation, at once sur- 
l)rised and alarmed the earl of Clanricarde. The mayor sent a messenger with 
dispatches for his lordship, wherein he endeavoured to explain and excuse the 
tnuisaction. He alleged the necessity of having arms to defend the town, in 
consequence of the injuries and insults received from the fort, and the little 
tlistinction made between them and open enemies. He stated that they, at 
first, offered to purchase the ship and goods, which being refused, the extremi- 
ties to which they were reduced com])elled them to seize her by force, for which, 
however, they meant to pay the full value ; and as to disarming the English, it 

' Oath of union taken bv the townsmen of Galwav. 

In the name of Goo, and the Blessed Viriiin Mary, 
anJ of the whole court of Heaven. I, A VV do profess, 
twifv and declare in my conscience, that our sovereign, 
Jo."J Kinj; Charles is the lawful sovereign, lord and king 
uf this kin:;doni, and :ill other his kingdoms and domi- 
nions; and that I «ill bear true faith and allegiance unto 
liiiii, his heirs, and lawful successors, and him and them, 
aiij the lawful rights and prerogatives of his crow n, -against 
al! fiircign powiT, states and potentates, and against all 
irjitorous practices will uphold, maintain and defend, as 
fjr, as in me lycth. 

I do further profess, promise and avow, to uphold, 
maintain and dv'fend, to the utmost of my power, the 
Ituinan catliolic religion ; and tliat I will not willingly do, 
fr siirf'er to be done, any harm or prejudice to any Homau 
ri^hulic that shall join in this union, in his life, I'.hertv, 
hi Is, goods or c'lattles, either for fear, hope of rewani, 
mcnge or niaiice; and that if any shall oppress or wrong 
any tl'.at shall take this oath, I will take the wrong done 
uolo uiyselt', and, as far as in me ly etii, will labour to get 

the party so wronged fit reparation, without distinction of 
any, for being of town or country. 

I do n}oreover protest, promise and vow, that I will 
sincerely and truly do my bcbt endeavours to uphold, 
maintain and defend the common laws of this kingdom, 
the statute vi' Magna Cliarlu, and all other statutes niade 
or established in this kingdoni for the liberty of the sub- 
ject ; and that I will never give way to change them, or 
any of them, without the authority of the "p;u-lia]nent ; 
and that I will maintain and uphold the liberties, privileges 
and rights of parliament, as far as it shall lie in my poux-r. 

Lastly, I promise, vow and protest, to he true and 
faithful to the corporation of (jalway, saving my faith to our 
sovereign lord the king; and that 1 will inain'tain, uphold 
and defend all the rights, liberties, privileges, immunities 
and possessions thereof; and that I wili well and truly 
observe their coimsels, and diligently and carcfidly obey 
tlieii- lawful commands; and, as far as in me lyeth, will 
protect all and every member thereof in the lawful frui- 
tion of hia life, liberty, lands, goods and chatllcs. So help 
nic God, and the contents oi' this hoh Gospel. 



was done to prevent any contention between them and otliers in the town • but 
principally from the like usage to the Catholics in Dublin, Cork and Youo-jial 
"whose miserable condition," adds the mayor, " did put us in mind of what we 
were to expect ;" and he finally concluded with professions of loyalty. To all 
this, lord Cianricarde returned a cool but deternn'ned answer, and he immediately 
commenced preparations to reduce them to obedience. 

In the mean time the town declared its intention to invest the fort, and made 
every preparation for the purpose, by raising a battery, and blocking up all the 
passages to it, in order to reduce it by famine. They were joined by some country 
gentlemen, and about thirteen or fourteen hundred men from Iar-Connau"ht and 
daily expected considerable assistance from Mayo: but, on the 13th of March 
captain Willoughby having received intelligence that a large body of the Jar- 
Connaugbt forces would, on that night, quarter in the east suburbs, he imme- 
diately set fire to all the houses in that direction, and the people within the town 
were vexed and mortified at beholding the entire in flames and burned to the ground. 
The earl of Cianricarde, whose first object was to supply the fort with provisions, 
dispatched about one hundred and forty carriages of wheat, malt and several 
otlicr necessaries, to his castle of Oranmore, from whence they were safely con- 
veyed to tiie fort by water. He then raised what forces he could muster in the 
country, to the number of seven hundred foot, and near two hundred horse, and 
on the '2d of April arrived at Oranmore ; where, finding that the two only land 
passages towards the fort, which were narrow, were occupied by the enemy's 
cannon, it was judged dangerous to attack the besiegers, particularly as they 
were entrenched in a craggy place, where his horse, which was his principal 
strength, could be of no service. He thereupon resolved to distress them by 
cutting offtheir supplies of provisions, of which they were already scarce; and with 
this ^"iew he placed strong garrisons in his castles of Oranmore, Clare-Gahvay, 
and Tirellan ; the last of which was situate upon a neck of land conmiandiii"- 
the river of Galway, and was committed to the charge of lieutenant Dermot O'Daly, 
a brave officer, "^ who, with three companies and thirty musketeers, performed 
most essential services. The rest of his troops he quartered up and down tlie 
barony of Clare, upon the tenants and estates of the townsmen and their friends, 
and with his horse scoured the plains, hindering all resort to the market, or any 
supply of provisions. The effects of these prompt and vigorous measures were 
soon felt, and produced discontents among the people within, and their auxiliaries 
without. The higher classes of the inhabitants were pot favorable to the violent 

' Grandson of Dermot O'Daly, of Lcrra, in the county loi-aship of JLcrra, witli all the towns and castles to the 
iif Giihvay, jent. who, on the aist June, 1578, olitained same bclonghig. — Fiaiil. 
a ^rant from (2iicen Elizabeth, of the entire mniior or 


proceedings which had taken place, and the remainder dreaded their consequences 
_;ul residt. Meetings were accordingly held, and it was at length resolved to 
liropose terms of" adjustment and pacification. 

The carl of" Clanricarde, anxious, for many pressing reasons, to terminate this, 
(.iaiigcrous revolt peaceably and with expedition, entered into a cessation of" 
arms to the end of the month. In the mean time commissioners were appointed 
to treat with his lordship ; and on the 2od of April, Sir Dominick Browne, 
Richard jNIartin, esq. and alderman Browne, for the town, and Sir Valentine 
Blake and Theobald Burke for the county, presented certain propositions, many 
of which the carl would not at all hearken to. Several meetings were held;. 
but before the terms could be finally adjusted, captain Ashley, in the Resolu- 
tion, a ship of thirty guns, four hundred tons, and one hundred and thirty men, 
arrived in the bay, having on board two pieces of cannon, forty barrels of" 
I powder, thirty thousand weiglit of biscuit and other pro\'isions for the fort. On 

receiving this seasonable supply, AVilloughby, whose enmity was implacable, was, 
with difficulty, prevented by the earl from bombarding the town. The inhabi- 
tants in dismay sent Geoffry Browne, Richard Martin, esqrs. and others to his 
lordship, with new, and, as they supposed, more acceptable proposals, but he now- 
refused to listen to any thing less than an absolute submission. The terms which 
he dictated to them were, to dismiss their garrison, send away the army from the 
camp, and give hostages; lay down their arms, restore all the goods taken fi-om 
the English, dismount the ordnance pointed against the fort, and demolish tiie 
new bulwarks ; to. sell or issue out no powder, anmumition or arms, but by warrant 
from his lordship; to deliver all the powder and ammunition, which were then in 
the town, into the hands of special conunissioners ; and, finally, that no powder or 
arms should be admitted to land in the town, but be brought directly to the fort. 
These conditions were discussed at a public meeting of the corporation ; and, 
although considerable clamor was raised in the town, and most violent opposition 
given by the clergy, ' all except the last were agreed to. But the camp before 


' The following singular manifesto, wliich was termed Anil whereas wee oiirsclvc;, and pcnerally all the doctors 

an cxcomnnmication, was is.Mic-d liv the warden, and pub- divines and professors now within the said tuwnc, after 

IL-lied by all the elcrgy, on this occasion : sufficient dcliheralion, have found and decided, by our 

" Whereas, yesterday, the Sth of May, by virtue of a words and subscriptions, the former two articles to l)e 

major voice, four things or articles were enacted in the against the profession of Catholic faith, and against the 

towlshill or courte-honse of the town of Galway, viz. that late oath publiokly, solemnly and ecncrally taken in the . 

all the powder and amun.tion, now within the said townc, said townc ; yea intended and required for extirpation of 

•liail be left and secured on four men's hands, to be dis- the said faith; and the two last very scandalous, shaniefid 

jwscd of according to the direction of our lord lieutenant- and dangerous, for mens soules and consciences. 

;:ovcrnor, for the tyme being. Seconilly, that all powder We, thertor, Walter Lynch priest, doctor of divinitie , 

End amnnition, hereafter conieing to the said towne, shall and of the lawes, prothonotarie apostolick, deanc of 

l>c sent unto the forte. Thirdly, to demolish our late Tname, and warden of Gallwav, fnUilling our dutic to . 

\serkes and hullwark, if the saiil lord lieutenant will soe God and to onr flock, to avoid all scandels and damrers 

tiiiiuiiand. r'inally,thatGal!way-inenshall send,froni lyme that have or may ensue hereafter, of or from such acts 

to tynie, hostages or pledges for performance of such arti- and articles, voted as formerly, in the name of Jcnus 

clc-s without any pledges required for their own securiiie. Christ, and by vertue of the authoritie wee have liuiu 



the fort becoming greatly distressed for provisions, and at length breaking up, the 
earl, on the lOtli of May, took possession of their trenches, and poured thirty- 
three great shot from his heavy ordnance into the town, at the same time sum- 
moning them by a trumpet to surrender. The mayor desired time until the next 
day, when, after much debating, the submission was resolved upon, and signed.^ 
On the following morning, Geoftry Browne and John Blake, both lawyers, and 
Martin Skcrrett and Peter D'Arcy, merchants, were sent as hostages, and on the 
IStli the gates were thrown open. The mayor, attended by the aldermen and 
several of the burgesses, attired in their robes of office, awaited the coming of the 
earl at the cross which divided the town and fort, and there he made his public 
submission, and delivered up the keys. The " young men" laid down their arms, 
and his lordship received the town into his majesty's protection, until his further 
pleasure concerning them should be known. 

Thus, at a time pregnant with the greatest danger, was " one of the strongest 
and most important towns in the kingdom, inferior to none for its trade, riclies, 
strength and situation," " reduced to obedience by the single exertion and influ- 
ence of the earl of Clanricarde, unassisted by the state, and almost without blood- 
shed. The disaffected throughout the province were greatly disheartened at this ' 
signal success, which was the more fortunate, as one Francis D'Arcy, a merchant 
of the town, in a ship laden with corn, arms and ammunition, had only two or 

him, and from the pastors of the Catholick Roman church, 

doe, by this our present sentence, excommunicate and 

anathematize, viajuri cxcomnninicatwne^ ipso fortOy nuUa 

allri expectala senferitia, mil dectaratioyic sejiteiitiiC, all 

huch persons as voted for tlie said articles, if, at or before 

the expiration of three dayes next ensueing the date herof, 

they will not vote to the contrarie in the said toulshill- 

housc, and therby rase, abolish and recall the said articles 

or acts made against all honestie, prudence and conscience. 

^Vee likewise pray, authorize and require you all, the 

fathers, scculors and rejjulars in this town, to publish and 

intimate to your auditors, in your several chappies, tliis 

our sentence and decii'e, and to see and procure it to be 

obscrv ed anil obeyed as far forth as you may. Dated this 

nvnth of May, 1G4'J, in our present nlace of habitation. 

Ori:;. MS. ' iv i! r u , 

° \\ alter Lynch, loardcn. 

" .Articles upon the submission of Galway. 

). 'I'hat the soldiers of the country, now harboured in 
the towiic, be immediately disniisseil, and not enterlaiucd 

•2. That tlie army be sent away from the camp, and 
none other entertained from the country but by his majes- 
ty's authority, or such as are trusted by him. 

". That the town forces, other than for the necessary 
watch and ward, and defence of the town for his majesty's 
service, be discharged. 

4. That the town gates be open, and free passage given 
to all his majesty's subjects to come, and go, and traffick, 
Hud the niarLct to be free to the tort, town ami country. 

so they enter not with unusual arms, or great number, to 
the endangering of the town. 

5. That the English now in town may come and go at 
their pleasure, at usual and accustomed hours, with their 
goods and provisions. 

G. That the keys of the church and colleges may be 
taken by the warden, dean York; and that there be free 
liberty for the exercise of the religion established in Eng- 
land and Ireland. 

7. That his majesty's laws be of force, but not to look 
hack to punish offences done since the beginiving of the 
troubles, or until his majesty's pleasure be therein known. 

8. That the new fortifications, or bulwarks in the town, 
towards the fort, go no further forward, but be left to the 
lieutenant-governor to be done with as he shall find the 
same dangerous to the fort, and the ordnance to be pre- 
sently dismounteil. 

P. That no ordnance, arms, ammunition or powder, be 
sold or issited out of the town, but by warrant from the 
said lieutenant-governor ; and all such powder and aniiiiu- 
nitioii, as is now in town, forthwith be left upon the 
hands of Edmond Kirwan, Kichard Kirwan, Alexander 
Bodkin, Martin Skerrett and Gefl'ryFonte, not to be issued 
out of town by them, or any of them, but by warrant 
and direction from the lieutenant-governor: the merchants 
to be paid for their powder at reasonable rates, before it 
be issued. 

10. That fitting security be given for the loyalty of the 
tow n. Walter Lynch Fitz-Ambrose, mnijor, 

" Carte. 


llircc days before put into a creek in lar-Con naught, and carried the entire to 
(ialway. By this means, besides the stores of provisions, a most seasonable supply 
of ten pieces of ordnance, sixty muskets, and two thousand seven hundred pounds 
vciglit of powder, fell into the carl's hands. The provisions were ordered for the 
use of the fort, and the arms to supply that and other garrisons through the 
country. — This happy result gave universal joy to every class of persons but the 
(lisaft'ected. The lords justices also, whose views were very different from those 
of lord Clanricardc, entirely disapproved of his receiving the submission, or 
granting protection to the town, and expressly directed him to receive no further 
submissions, but to prosecute the rebels and their adherents, harbourers and 
relievers, with fire and sword; and they soon after issued orders to all commanders 
throughout the kingdom, tending to the extermination of the Irish Catholics. 

Sir Richard Blake, Sir Roebuck Lynch, Patrick D'Arcy, Richard Martin, 
I'atrick Kirwan, the Recorder, and several others of the most respectable natives 
and inhabitants of Galway, had incessantly laboured, first to prevent, and after- 
wards to terminate, the commotions in the town. Many of them, being in danger 
of their lives from the fury of the rabble, were obliged to retire, but had now 
returned at the request of the carl of Clanricarde, who hoped by these means 
to preserve peace within the town, while he laboured for the security of the 
county. All his measures, however, were soon frustrated by the conduct of 
'W'illoughby and Ashley, the captain of the ship Resolution, that lay in the har- 
bour. The latter, who, in disposition, much resembled Willoughby, was also 
extremely covetous, and a violent parliamentarian, and, either out of avarice or 
from principle, made it a point to violate the pacification. He first seized and 
pretended to make a prize of Francis D'Arcy's ship, although she lay under the 
protection of the fort. He landed his men, and plundered the sea-coast all round 
the bay, pillaged Sir Richard Blake's house at Ardfry, and carried away his goods 
and cattle, and those of his tenants. Richard Morris, an old tenant of lord Clan- 
ricarde's in lar-Connaught, coming in a boat to Galway with some goods to 
discharge his rent, had the entire seized by Ashley's men, and no satisfaction 
could be obtained for any of these doings. Captain Willougliby's conduct was 
equally outrageous ; his soldiers endeavoured to hinder all recourse to the town, 
and those who attempted to have access to it were robbed by them. Although the 
town had punctually performed the articles agreed upon, yet the governor, without 
any cause, seized upon a large house or inn near the great gate, called the Bull, 
then kept by some English innkeepers, and in this he placed a garrison which 
considerably annoyed the inhabitants. He also sent a garrison to Castle-Gare, 
stationed another near St. Dominick's abbey at the west, and j)laccd disorderly 
sentinels at every gate, who abused such as offered to go out, attempting to take 
them prisoners to the fort, and exercise martial law upon them, besides killing and 



robbing the poor people tliat came to market, burning their fisliing-boats, and not 
suffering them to go out. When the inhabitants ventured to remonstrate ivitli 
him on these proceedings, he threatened to discharge his ordnance into the town ; 
and, not satisfied with the usual supplies from the country, he sallied forth in con- 
junction with captain Ashley, and with parties of horse and foot indiscriminately 
burned and broke open houses, carried away goods, and plundered the entire dis- 
trict, to the extent of upwards of one thousand sheep and two hundred head of 
cattle. This system of rapine and devastation had the effect, which perhaps the 
perpetrators intended, of exasperating the whole country. Captain AVilloughby, 
in one of his predatory excursions with a trumpeter and a troop of horse, couiing 
to a town of lord Clanricarde's, made a prisoner of one Redmond Eurkc, (serjeaiit 
of a company in the forces which lord Clanmorris had raised for his majesty's 
service,) a man of good character and an experienced soldier, respected and well 
allied in the country : him he bouiid, and, with two others, carried to the fort, and 
had immediately hanged, (in the view of the town's-people, who were looking on 
from the walls,) under the commission for martial law, which he lately received 
from the lords justices. ' After this outrage, which was little better than delibe- 
rate murder, he proceeded to open hostilities against the town, and, as if in a fit of 
frenzy, without any provocation, burned all the suburbs, the houses whereof were 
set for more than one thousand pounds a year rent, and obliged upwards of 
seven hundred flimilies to retire within the walls, to the great incumbrance of the 
town. He killed several of the inhabitants, assaulted and scaled tlie walls by 
night, and fired his cannon into the town for an entire day, though it produced 
no other effect than a vast lavish of powder, and a discovery of the small injury 
his ordnance could do to the town, together with the retreating back into 
the fort of all the guards and sentinels that had been placed near the gates. All 
these desperate proceedings were well calculated to create, and did accordingly 
cause, universal discontent and resentment, and occasioned and hastened the 
general and successful confederacy which afterwards ensued, and effected the des- 
truction of tlie fort, and finally ended in the total subversion of the royal authority 
in the country. 

Such was the situation of aftlilrs about Galway, on the 7th of August, 16'4.2, 
■when considerable agitation and sus])cnce were occasioned in the town by the 
appearance of a squadron of se\enteen ships, on the morning of that day, sailing 

\ IjOrd Cliininorris, unable to obtain redress for this Geoffry Fitz-Tbibot, ased about 70 years, and his wife, 

outrage, revolted from lord CUmricarde, and withdrew who was also old, and in a burnini; fever, were killed in 

liis troops from his majesty's service. He also vowed their beds,) he seized two or three of the soldiers, and had 

reven{;o iij;a nst the fo:t ; and having soon after snrprised thcni imnieiliately banned, as a reparation lor the death 

a party of its men pillaging the village of Kenvi/c, near of his men. Upon this his lordship rushed into tliose rui- 

Ualway, ( tliey murdered six people; among whom nous measures whieh al'terwards ended so lltally. — Carle. 


into tlie bay. They came to anchor in the road, and boats were soon observed to 
pass and re-pass between them and the fort. This was the fleet of Alexander, 
lord Forbes, who was appointed by parHament, (witliout his majesty's concurrence,) 
lieutenant-general of the additional forces raised by the London adventurers, to 
waste the coasts of Ireland in a privateering way. His first exploit, after his 
arrival, sutiiciently indicated his intentions, and put the town on its guard against 
him. He landed a body of men on the county of Clare side of the bay, and 
liiirncd tlie houses and wasted the lands of Daniel and Turlogh O'Brien, the only 
two gentlemen in that country who adhered to their allegiance, invariably relieved 
the Enghsh, and assisted with their long boats and provisions for the relief of the 
Ibrt, when it was besieged. Lord Forbes declared openly against the late j)acifi- 
cation, and required the town to receive a garrison of his men. A messenger 
arrived from him with a letter lor the mayor, and the form of a submission which he 
insisted upon, by which they were to confess themselves to have been rebels, and 
humbly submitting to beg his majesty's intercession for them to the parliament of 
England, and to declare they would admit such governors as the king and state 
should appoint, and until then put themselves under the protection of lord Forbes. 
This was followed by a proclamation of safe conduct to repair to his ship, ^ but the 
town's-peoplc were too wise to be caught in such a snare, and his lordship was a 
good deal mortified to find that they ]-efused all his proposals, and declined to 
receive his garrison, or to make the submission he required. On the contrary, 
insisting upon the pacification which they had made and observed, they applied' 
to the earl of Clanricarde for protection. His lordship represented to lord Forbes 
the iiital consequences that Avould attend a breach of the pacification and the 
commencement of hostilities against the town, by endangering the peace of the 
country, and making it the seat of war, which he would be totally unable either 
to prevent, or effectually oppose. But Forbes, stimulated by Willoughby and 
Ashley, and governed by the advice of the fiunous fanatic, Hugh Peters, whom 
he brought with him as his chaplain, and who was afterwards hung and quartered 
for his rebellious proceedings and the murder of the king, was entirely deaf to 
every remonstrance of reason or discretion. He landed his men on the west side of 
Gahvay, took possession of St. Mary's church, planted two ])icces of ordnance 
airainst the town, and burned all the surrounding villages. In this extremity lord 

' This proclniniition was expressed in the following in the road of Galway, to treat with mc concerning a 

l(rri!> : — Alexander, lord Forbes, lieiitenant-^enend of his inessai;e sent liy me to tlieni, and their humble submission, 

ninjuitv's iorcc; i)_v sea and land, sent for Ireland. — These by returning to their allegiance and due obedience to his 

arc- to signify and make i.eown unto yon, the mayor, majcbty and the |iarliament of Kngland, may sa!ely and 

alilcriiien and i-omnionalty of the tnun of Galway, and freely come anil return without fern- or danger of impri- 

iiiy otlicr whom it may concern, that any |)erson and sonnient. — Given under my hand, from on board the 

(iiTson^, ol what (]uali;y or condition soever he or they be Speedwell, this present 8th of Angnst, lfi42. 
cl, who shall be desirous to eomc on board my ship, now Alexander Forbes. 




Clanricarde, and lord Ranelagh, president of Connaiiglit, came to Tirrclan, to 
endeavour to paciiy matters; and, even while there, they conkl perceive tlie 
country around on fire, and heard of several women and children inhumanly killed 
by his men. They exerted all their power and influence to put a stop to these 
proceedings, and to persuade lord Forbes to withdraw his forces, and leave the town 
and country in quiet ; but even these entreaties would liave proved inefi'ectual, 
had he not perceived what little effect his battery had upon the walls, and that 
his men were becoming troublesome for want of payment. At length, finding him- 
self unable to take the town, or to execute his designs against it, he quit the bay 
on the 4th of September, and sailed for Limerick ; after having, with brutal rage, 
defaced St. Mary's church, dug up the graves in that ancient burial-place of the 
town, and burnt the coffins and bones of those that lay there interred : which 
barbarous conduct served but make his memory detested, and exasperated the 
minds of a people already rendered almost desperate from the treatment which 
they received. Immediately after his departure, a pinnace, which he left behind 
in the bay, took a merchantman belonging to the town, valued at near six thou- 
sand pounds, and made her a prize. Thus were these ill-fated people doomed 
to suffer all the miseries of war, and to be treated as enemies or the worst of rebels, 
at a time when they were desirous of peace, and particularly zealous in the cause 
of the king, and in the public avowal of their loyalty and allegiance. That there 
were, at the same time, many discontented and disorderly persons in the town is 
certain. The young men and lower orders wouhl not be governed by the magis- 
trates : the influence and interference of the clergy, who, from the beginning, 
were advocates for violent measures, were considerable; and the failure and pre- 
vention of their trade and traffic, at home and abroad, (a great portion of which, 
between the ships in the bay and the neighbouring towns, was usurped with many 
advantages by Willoughby;) all conspired gradually to lessen the inflncnce of the 
earl of Clanricarde in the town, and to prepare for the courses which were after- 
wards adopted. 

The disputes between th.c town and fort still continued unabated. The gates 
remained closed, and all intercourse was stopped. Willoughby, having seized some 
of the inhabitants, caused William Lynch, a freeman, to be executed on board 
one of the ships in the harbour, and kept one Geoffry Lynch under sentence of 
death in the fort ; while the town forces, on the other side, killed several of 
his soldiers. Both parties at length ap})ealed to the earl of Clanricarde. Wil- 
loughby offered to sign such propositions, for the safety of the town and accom- 
modation of all matters, as they should require ; and they accordingly proposed to 
throw open the east gate, and allow free traffic, on condition that he and all 
others, resident in the fort, should take an oath to be true and faithful to the 
king, and admit none to the fort, or under its protection, or within the reach of 


tiicir cannon, that adhered, to the parliament of" England, in opposition to the king ; 
'iut they should not molest the town, or any member thereof, by sea or land ; 
:.'ijt they should restore all prisoners, goods and chatties taken since the last paci- 
:Ication, and particularly the ship seized by the pinnace, or its value : and towards 
the conclusion of these conditions and proposals, which were presented to lord 
Cbnricarde by Sir Richard Blake and Patrick D'Arcy, they •' humbly intreat his 
lordship to take the present condition of this town into his serious consideration, 
;iiid beseech him not to forget his ancestors love to it, and their hereditary and 
never interrupted zeal and propension to love, honour and serve him and his 
l;ui)ily; and, after a sad contemplation of their representations unto him, that he 
may please to take that resolution thereupon that may be suitable to his favour, 
piety, honour and justice, and that he may be sure this town, in all fortunes, will 
continue the affection, obedience and respect it owes him." — Notwithstandino- all 
their endeavours, this treaty ended in nothing, owing to the insincerity and delays 
of Willoughby. Even while it was depending, his soldiers made two sallies into 
the country ; killing, in the first, by their own confession, a dozen of poor inno- 
cent people, men, women and children ; and, in the other, pillaging all the remains 
of Sir llichard Blake's stock at Ardfry. But what most of all evinced the real 
principles and intentions of the inhabitants of the fort, was the conduct of captain 
Constable, commander of one of the ships that came to assist it. This man, 
standing on the rampart of the fort next the town, called with a loud voice 
twice over to the towns-men on the walls, '• A new king, you rogues and traitors • 
your king is run away ; you shall have a new king shortly, you rogues." Froni 
all these and other circumstances, it was at length concluded that the fort was no 
longer in his majesty's obedience, but entirely at the disposal of the parliament. 

At this crisis colonel John Burke arrived in Galway, where he was joyfully 
received, having been some time before appointed lieutenant-general of" Con- 
naught by the general assembly of Catholics which met at Kilkenny on the 24th 
of October, 1642. Colonel Burke was born in the comity of Mayo: he was a 
man of great prudence and discretion, a brave experienced soldier, (having 
served upwards of thirty years in the service of Spain,) and high in the confidence 
of the town and country. He at first endeavoured to keep a fair correspondence 
with the fort ; ottered to open the gates; have the benetit of markets and free 
intercourse between it and the town, provided they contained themselves within 
bounds, v/ere obedient to the directions of lord Clanricarde, desisted from spoilino-, 
burning or plundering the country, killing or taking the town's-men prisoners, or 
relieving or aiding the puritans that daily come in siu'ps unto them, and who were 
tlie king's declared enemies. These amicable propositions being all rejected by 
Willoughby, and the castle of Clare-Gal way having, on the 2Sth of February, 
1G43, through the contrivance of Jonakin Lynch, the earl of Clanricarde's tenant 
tJiere, the carelessness of the warders, and the management of a Franciscan friar, 


been surprised l)y captain Thomas Burke, of Anbally, tlie acquisition of a ])lacC' 
of such strength and imjjortance at once determined their future proceed ino-s. 
Colonel Burke declared against the fort, and called upon the several gentlemen 
of the country to levy forces for the purpose of besieging it. Accordingly, 
in April, lGl-3, Francis and John Bermingham, son and grand-son of lord 
Athenry, Sir Ulick Burke, Hubert Burke of Dunamon, Redmond, Rickard and 
Thomas 15urkc of Kilcornan, Derrymacloghny and Anbally, the three Tei"-e 
Kellys of Gallagh, Aughrim and Mullaghmore, Sir Valentine Blake, Sir Roebuck 
Lynch, and other principal gentlemen of the county, took up arms, and marched 
with considerable strength towards Gahvay. Colonel Burke put himself at their 
head, and about the latter end of that month began to inclose the fort at a 
distance, and fortify some passages towards the sea, to hinder any relief from that 
quarter. He invested it with upwards of a thousand men, and posted a body of 
troops at Clare-Galway and Athenry, to prevent any movement which might be 
attempted by lord Clanricarde. Provisions becoming scarce in the fort, captain 
AVilloughby, who, on his part, was not inactive, dispatched a party of fifty men 
to make booty in lar-Connaught : they were discovered by the town, who sent 
some companies to lie between them and their boats, and most of them were cut 
off. In the beginning of May the siege was pushed on with vigor ; the town 
undertaking to defray the expense, and supply the forces which were drawn out of 
the country and the county of JMayo for the purpose. Two bulwarks and 
batteries were erected ; one on the point of St. Mary's church in the west, called 
Rintinane ; and the other on the opposite point of Jii/miure ; and a chain was 
drawn across the harbour, to hinder access by sea. Lord Clanricarde was unable 
to afibrd any reliefl 

Rear-admiral Brooke, in the ship Providence, arrived in the bay in the begin- 
ning of June, with provisions and arms for the fort ; but the batteries on the 
points of Rinmore and Rintinane hindered him from approaching. He endea- 
voured in the night to throw in supplies, but his long boats, being met by those 
of the town, were forced to retire. Captain '\^'illoughby, being thus disap- 
pointed of succour, desired permission from colonel Burke to deliver the fort to 
lord Clanricarde ; but this, in the moment of success, he refused to agree to, on 
any other terms than that ins lordship should take the oatii of union or association,, 
and not dispose of the place without the consent of the several persons under- 
named-' These terms the earl, with that consistency and loyalty which always 

' The titular ardiViishop of Tuam, lieutenant-general of Gallagh, captain Tcige Kelly Fitz-William, captain 

lord Mayo, colonel Bfni;inghain, colonel Kurke, lieu- Mnrrogli na-mart O'Flahtrty, captain Antliony Bra- 

tenant-coloncl O'Flalierty, scrjeant-ninjor G'Shaughncssy, liazon, captain Ulick Carrrig/i Burke, ca|>lain' Uliik 

serjeaiil-nu'.jor Burke, HichanI Burke Fitz-John, 'J'lioniiis Burke of Castlehacket, captain Junack iM'Thonnis, 

Burl^e of Anhally, John Beniiingliani, llnlicrt Burke, captain F.ilniond O'Flalicrty, captain Jolui Waddcn, 

capLain Tci;;e Kelly of A'.pjhriui, cai,tain 'JtiL-c liclly caj;t:',iu .Ijlin Browne, cajilain John Garv\-, cai'Uun 




mniked liis proceedings and character, totally rejected. Willoughby was then 
forced to treat for a surrender to the confederates. Articles having been 
accordingly agreed upon and signed," he surrendered that important fortress on 
the 20th of June, and also the castle of Oranmore, without the knowledge or 
consent of lord Clanricarde. The time of the surrender happened fortunately 
lor the confederates; for, on the following day, three large ships arrived in the 
bay with assistance. Captain Willoughby and his men embarked on Sunday, the 
'2.3th of June, in the Bonaventure, commanded by vice-admiral Swanlea, the 
Providence, commanded by rear-admiral Brooke, two pinnaces and a barque sent 
them by the town ;" thus leaving, by his misconduct, the second fort of importance 

William Burke Fitz-John, captain Willuim Burke of 
Clu^lnin, captain Walter Fitz-]\Iorris, and cii[)tain 
Richard Betajjli. — Clanricarde's Alemoirs. 

" Articles for the surrender of St. Augustine's fort, 
coiichuled the 20th June, 16<13. 

1. Captain Willouj^hliy, on the faith and honour of a 
kolilicr and a gentleman, doth covenant and grant, to 
and with lieutenant-general .fohn Burke, to deliver unto 
biiii tile fort, together with all the ordnance and unnnu- 
nitioii of war therein, excepting two [lieces of ordnance 
erjiitcd to the said captain Anthony Willoughliy, to 
carry with him, together with suiTicient match, powder 
and bullets, to serve unto the port, wherennto the said 
cajitain Anthony Willonghly shall first apply himself after 
lii> departure, from this port ; and such ordnaiice as the 
iaid cajjtaiu Anthony Willoughliy shall make a|ipcar upon 
o;ith to have been brou[;ht liy himself, and were not sent 
unto liiiu by the king or state. 

2. That the said captain A.nthony Willoughby, his 
ofiiccrs and soldiers, shall and may quietly and peaceably, 
Ntilhout interruption, carry away all the goods and 
clmttlcs wherein they Iiave gained any property by the 
bw of the land, or by the law of arms, or which they 
seized upon by strength and ii'om an)' of this town or 
country from the beginning of these troubles. 

3. That the said captain Anthony Willoughby, and all 
iir.ilcr his command here, and in Oranmore, shall have 
•ach goods restored unto them as they voluntarily 
deposited, or were violently intercepted, or unjustly 
detained from him or them by the inhabitants of Galway; 
and that he, and such as are under his command, shall do 
the like to the inhabitants of Galway. 

•1. That all the said several companies and particular 
persons under the command of the said captain Anthony 
Willoughby, or that please to go with him, shall and 
ni.iv have free liberty to march away to the waterside in 
coiiipliat arms, with their drums beating, colours Hying, 
matches lighted on both sides, bullets in month, muskets 
charged, and all other usual postures in a noble quarter, 
and so to continue until they be all safely shipped, 
•.\ithout any disturbance or opfiosiiion whatsoever, pro- 
vided that all English, Irish or Scotch, that please, may 
remain with their goods, and enjoy them with fulness 
and security. 

5. That there shall be no aggravation, or questioning of 
anv former matters by any townsmen, or others, against 

any under the command of the said captain Anthony 
^\'illoughby, whether it be for debt, t}thes, trespasses, 
hurt or damages whatsoever, either depending, or by them 
or any of them formerly connnitted, excepting" only such 
debts as shall apjiear to be justly due upon such person 
or persons, as shall expect from" them restitution of any 
goods or chatties. 

(!. That the prisoners on Imth sides, as well Mr. 
Loghlin as all others, shall be freely delivered up without 

7. That all the said cafitain's friends or acquaintance, 
either in Oranmore, Kilcolgan, or elsewhere, that shall 
please, have free liberty to march away with the said 
captain Willoughby, and shall have full" benefit of the 
said articles, as far forth as concerns them, and as the 
same is allowed or granted to those in the fort. 

8. That after these articles are signed and sealed, on 
both sides, the said captain Willoughliy shall be admitted 
to send a letter with a flying seal to the right honorable 
the earl of Clanricarde. 

9. That after these articles are signed and sealed, the 
captain of the ship shall be admitted to land here at 
KnockenduUen, and pass through the town to the fort, 
to confer with the said captain Anthony Willoughby. 

Of the conduct of the inhabitants of Galway during 
this siege, Bruodin speaks as follows, in his history of" 
those times, p. 75. — In ilia obsidione genuinos ae catho- 
licos, et veros regis et patria; libertatum anuitores 
demonstrarunt Galviensis civitatis nobiles et cives, prie- 
sertim vero, Blakei, Lincei, Bruni, Frincei, Scherati, Sec. 

° The following account of the subsequent tragical 
fiite of many of those unhappy men, shews that the slow, 
but awful, vengeance of Providence, which never fails 
sooner or later to punish the guilty, signally overtook 
them for the many massacres and murders which they 
committed on the unotlending inhabitants of Galway and 
its vicinity. " In May, )6W4, lord Ormonde sent cajitain 
Anthony Willoughby, with one hundred and fifty men, 
which had formerly served in the fort of Galway, froiij 
Dublin to Bristol : the ship which carried them was 
taken by captain Swanley, who in two jiarliament ships 
committed great ravages on the sea about Dublin, who 
was so inhuman as to throw seventy of the soldiers 
overboard, under pretence that they were Irish." — Carte. 
To/. /. ;j. 481. 



in the kingdom in the hands of the confederate forces, who soon after caused 
it to be demolished, by order of the supreme council. 

The rejoicings in Gahvay, on the surrender and demolition of the fort, were 
excessive ; public prayers and thanksgiving were offered up for this signal event 
and happy deliverance from its troublesome and dangerous neighbour. On the 
Cth of August they threw open their gates to the Irish, and immediately after 
raised three hundred pounds to enable them to lay siege to Castle-Coote,' in the 
county of Roscommon, which, with lord Clanricarde's towns of Loughrea and 
Portumna, were the only places of strength that held out in the province. 

Althougii the town was thus freed from exterior annoyance, the inhabitants 
wisely foresaw, from the unsettled and turbulent state of the times, that many 
serious troubles were likely to follow. They, therefore, resolved to be prepared 
against any future hostile attempts which might be made, and accordingly, before 
the end of the year 1G43, finished the east and south-cast rampart, beo-inuin"- at 
the great bulwark of the east gate, and extending from thence round to the little 
bridge which led to St. Augustine's abbey, together with the wall commencing at 
the works erected in the mayoralty of William Martin, and leading from thence, 
in a south-east direction, to the point of Cean-na-hhalla, at the quay. For some 
years after this period several considerable additions were made to the fortifica- 
tions. In lGf.3 the strong bulwark about Lyons-towcr was built as well to 
protect the abbey of St. Francis as to guard tlie Jittle gate. The flanker about 
the new- tower, and also that adjoining I^yous-tower, with the wall and ramparts, 
were completed in IGI7, under the superintendence of the mayor and Walter 
Joes, for the defence of the town walls, and of the shipping in the pool. These 
works w-crc soon after furnished with twelve heavy pieces of cannon, consist- 
ing of four brass and four iron of twelve, and four iron of eighteen pound ball, 
which were purchased in France by the directions of the corporation, and brought 
over by Francis D'Arcy. The gates were all repaired, and the new flanker 
outside the east gate was built in lGl-9. The following year the rampart and 
bastions, from thence to Kirwan's-tower, were completed, which finished the line 
of fortifications round the town, and rendered it, particularly for defence, the 
most considerable in the kingdom. 

The affairs of the confederates proceeded prosperously in Connanght, until 
the defeat and slaughter, by Sir Charles Coote, of the titular archbishop of 
Tuam in lGl.5, in his attemj)t to recover Sligo. The important consequences 
wliich followed this event, particularly that attending the discovery, among the 
archbisjiop's papers, of an authentic co])y of the famous private treaty between 
Charles I. and the earl of Glamorgan, are fully detailed in all the histories 
of this period ; but the subjoined dispatch, from the abbot of Kilmannock 
to the warden of GaKvay, contains a more satisfiictory account of the aiiidr itself 



liuiJ is clscwlicrc to be Ibimd. " During all the vicissitudes of tliese unliappy 
•inies, the town steadily adhered to its original declaration of allegiance to the 
l,i.'ii;, which it embraced every opportunity of publicly testifying. An offensive 
I u!)lication, intitled, " Disputatio apologetica de jure regni, kc." was about 
ijiis time written and published by Connor O'jNIahony, an Irish Jesuit, at 
Lisbon : its principal intention was to recommend the sej^aration of Ireland from 
Lngland, and to stimulate the descendants of the old Irish to choose a king 
of their own nation, and throw oft" the English yoke. This book was condemned 
bv the supreme council at Kilkenny ^ and ordered to be burned ; but the mayor, 
sheriffs, burgesses and commonalty of Galway previously assembled on the subject, 
and published a declaration, expressing their abhorrence of these pernicious doc- 
trines. Tliis document, which contains a manifestation of their then principles, 
;•;, for its curious import and singularity of expression, laid before the reader. '' 
About the same time the corporation farmed, from the commissioners-general of 
Connaught, for two thousand four hundred pounds, the excise, thirds and rents 
arising out of tlie town and county, for the year ending tlie 1st of May, IGIS : 

" " To the warilen of Gahvay. — Here is a ti-ue tragedie 
of the iinhappie expedition of Sligoe, viz. last: Sunday, 
in the afternoon, our forces, after taking tlie abbie of 
.Sligoe, and hearing of tlie approach of Coote with a 
«rong relief from the Xorth, begun to march hack from 
Sli;;oe; and tliongh they heat the enemie that day and the 
Aiv before, yet then, a few horse of the said enemie put 
them most shamefully to flight, in which flight (proh 
(iulor,) my lord archbishop, father Teige Coiiel, father 
Aujustinc Hig^in, with other clergymen, were killed, and 
pitlifnllie mangled, and soe left in the way near Sligoe. 
(Icncral TalVe sent a trumpet to Sligoe, and got newes, 
on the 27th instant, that the Scots will not part with my 
lord archbishop's body, without getting out of it thirty 
piunds sterling. The said trumpelter brought with him 
two letters from the comniaiuler of Sligoe, offering to 
exchange prisoners : ours write that they are kindly used 
liv them, and desire relief and ransome. John Garvy is 
jrrisoner in Xewtown, witli Mr. Jackson, and the rest at 
Migoe; their names are as followeth; Licut> colonels, 
Morogh Flaherty and John Garvey. — Majors, Richard 
li.nirke and William Shaughnessy. — Captains, Gerald 
niUon and Roger Costclo. — Lieutenants, Christopher 
Kvan, Conor O'Heyne and Teige Flaherty. — Cornets, 
J.ilin B.irnwell and William Tcrel. — F.nsigns, John 
IlcJlow, Bryan Kelly, Hugh ^Ic. Gillecooly and James 
I.iiicli. — Troo|)ers, Richard Bedlow, Edward Fitzgerald, 
Carrct Dillon, Richard Bourk, John Boyle, John Fitz- 
Garct, Francis Cadel, Christopher Kent, Richard Bourk 
;ind John Iliggiu.—Drumniers, Thomas Walsh and Connor 
yuin. — Two footmen with a cornet and seven troopers 
funiierlie taken in the skirmish at Ballimole. 

" The relief sent out of the North is come to Sligoe, of 
which it stands us much upon to beware, and not to sleepe 
but rather stand to the matter stiflie. The forces of this 
touiity arc at Strode, where they intend to remain until 
father direction. General Tatl'e writes that it is most 

requisite that the provincial counsel doe n:eet in all haste, 
to lay down a course to keep off the Scottish tyrants. 
I wrote to you yesterday, desiring your atleiidance at 
Tuame, the 4tli of the next month, ami now once again 
1 give you notice to be there then or the day at'ore, viz. 
next Jlonday, otherwise you may repent ; and soe much 
distracted and restlesse, I am yours, John Dowly. — 
Neale, .51st October, IG45.— Om^'. jIW. — The writer of 
this dispatch was one of the clergy who assembled at 
James' town, in the county of Leitrim, on the memo- 
rable 6th of August, 1G50, on which occasion he was 
proctor for the chapter and clergy of Tuam. 

" The general assembly of the confederate Catholics of 
Ireland met in Kilkenny, on the 10th of January, 1647. 
The following natives of Galway sat as representatives 
of the commons ; viz. Sir Richard Blake, of Arilfry, 
who was chairman or speaker of the assembly ; Patrick 
D'Arcy, the celebrated lawyer, who presided at the 
meeting, as the lord chancellor does in parliament; John 
Bermingham, Francis Blake, Dominick Bodkin, Edward 
Browne, Geoffrey Browne, Christopher French, James 
French, Patrick Kirwan, Martin Lynch, Nicholas Lynch, 
Roebuck Lynch and Anthony Martin. 

' 1647, September 11th. 

" By the mayor, sheriff's, free burgesses and commonalty 
of the town of Gahvay. 
" Whereas we have of late credibly lieard that a 
scandalous seditious book, intituled, " Disputatio apo- 
/ogctirn ft manifrstutiva dc jure re/'ni HihernicE pro 
Cril/in/icis Hibcrnis ndversns /icrcticm, (and have seen 
brief notes of the matter eontayned in it, full of vene- 
nious and vu-ulent doctrines, and damnable treasons 
against our king and coimtry,) hath been lately printed 
and published, most maliciouslye intending to distracte 
and alienate the hearts of his majesty's faithfuU catholique 
subjects of Ireland from their boundcn and diitifull 



the principal part of the money was immediately advanced, and the remainder 
stipulated to be paid within a few months. Trade seemed on the increase ; and 
the town, amidst the grievous troubles which agitated the remainder of the king- 
dojTi, enjoyed for a while a reasonable portion of peace and security. 

Tlie assembly at Kilkenny having found it necessary to conclude a cessation of 
arms with lord Inchiqnin, president of Munster, Rinuncini, the Pope's nuncio, 
imm.cdiately published a declaration against it. From this the assembly appealed,, 
and was supported by a great body of the clergy of tlie kingdom, together with 
the army under the command of the marquis of Clanricarde, lord Taalfe and 
general Preston. In vain the nuncio fulminated his excommunications ; his 
measures and party fell into discredit. In this dilemma he sought refuge in 
Galway, where he had some abettors, particularly the warden and others, wiiom 
his presence and exhortations stimulated to open acts of violence and commotion. 
The mayor was desirous to proclaim the cessation, but was prevented by the 
populace, wdio forced their way into his house, and wrested the ensigns of autho- 
rity from his hands ; but this insolence occasioned such a tumult, that, had they 
not been inmiediately restored by the very hand that took them, the consequences 
would have been lamentable ; and, even as it was, two or three men were killed. 
The cai'melite friars shewing some resistance against this proud ecclesiastic, their 
dwelling was assaulted by night, and their persons abused. In a fit of rage he 
ordered their bell to be pulled down, and placed two priests at the entry to their 
cliapel, to keep the people from resorting there to prayers. Those who favored the 
cessation were declared under censure •, the churches were closed, and all divine 
offices interdicted. In this state was the town, when the archbishop of Tuam, 
who declared against these measures, arrived. Having desired to see the nuncio's 
power for assuming such authority, he refused to produce it, whereupon the })relatc 
told him to his face that he would not obey: " Ego," ansvt-ered the nuncio, " non 
ostendam :" " ct Ego," replied the archbisliop, " non obediam ;" and he immediately 

nllfj;iaiicc ami nlicilicnce to their undoubtcil lawful 
tovcraiiliic lunl ami kin;;, Cliarlcs, tliat now is king of 
Great Britain, France ami Irelaml ; and that divers copies 
of the said bookc are dispersed into several partes of 
this kingdome; and albeit wee have made diligent search 
for finding oute the said bookc, and for learning who 
might be the true author of soe pestilent a worke, wc 
have not as yet attained to onr desires in that behalfe, 
bnt do expect that onr intentions therein will shortly take 
oHecte. Wherefore, in tl'.e interim, (by way of prevention, 
in manifestation of onr zeal, duty and allegiance to onr 
saiil suvc'.Tign lord and king, Charles, to his heirs and 
liiAui! siiece.^^orj, kings of England, and in full and open 
(Ic'i-lara'/ion before Gou and the world, that noe accident, 
wliii'.i happened in the late government of this his king- 
(Kiiac of Ireland, shall nor may induce ns to alter or 
viohue pur constant, sincere and faithfuU loyalty to his 

majesty, his lawfull lieirs and successors,) we thought fit 
and expedient, and well becomcing ns, by our ])ublii|'.ie 
and unanimous declaration of onr consciences in that 
behalfe, to protest, like as by these presents wee do protest, 
that wee doe, and always will preserve and continue iu 
our faith and allegiance to onr said soveraigne lord kiii'^ 
Charles, bis heirs and lawful successors, and that wee diS 
not embrace nor accepte any other power over us, in any 
temporal things or causes, which may any way derogate 
from his and their royal preheminency or authority, or be 
inconsistent with the same. And wee doe likewise 
protest and declare, that wee do utterly ilctcst and abjure 
the said daiimablc and seditious book, and doctrine therein 
contained, and doc and will censure and damne lite same, 
Willi the aiit/wr thereof, if we light on them, to scorching and 
revenging fire, whicll Ihej/ dcicrre! — Gou save the King. 
Cur I). Jlouh, A. " John Blake, niai/or." 


r.ftcr caused the church doors to be opened by force. The nuncio, finding himself 
t'luis opposed, summoned a synod to meet in Galway on the 15th of August; but 
the council forbiddiug the clergy to attend, and ordering all civil and military 
otlicers to stop their passage, they were unable to meet. Lord Clanricarde having 
been, in the mean time, reinforced by Inchiquiu, laid siege to the town on the 
nth of xVugust, and, hindering all access of provisions by land or water, the pro- 
moters of those violent proceedings, unprepared for a siege, were forced, about 
the Ith of September following, to surrender. They were then put under articles 
to proclaim the cessation, pay a considerable sum of money, and renounce the 
nuncio, who, thus finding all his measures frustrated, took shipping at Galway, 
on the 23d of February following, and departed from the kingdom. 

The English and Irish armies being now united, under the command of the 
marquis of Ormonde, Galway advanced him five thousand pounds ' on the security 
of the customs of the town, in aid of his intended campaign against the parlia- 
mentary forces. Upon this occasion his lordship knighted Walter Blake, the 
mayor. The melancholy news of the king's violent death soon after reached the 
town, and was received with every manifestation of sorrow. His successor, 
Charles II. was immediately proclaimed with the greatest solemnity. The mayor 
liad afterwards the satisfaction of receiving the following letter from his majesty. 
" Charles 11. 

" Trusty and well-beloved, we grcete you well. "Wee have been duly informed of 
the loyalltye and good affection that you and the cittie of Galway have expressed 
to us at all tymes, but especiallye of late, when others have soe shamefully betrayed 
the trust wee reposed in them, by resigning themselves into the hands and power 
of the rebells: wee doubte not but you will constantly continue the same loyalltie 
to us, with due care for the preservation of our just authority amongst you ; and for 
vour encouragement therein, wee assure you that wee are not only truly sensible 
of what you have alreadye done for our service, but as that cittie of Galway is 
one of the principal citties that hath eminently continued their loyalltye and 
devotion to us, soe shall we in due time conferre such priviledges and favor upon 
von as may be lasting monuments of your deserving above others, and of our par- 
ticular grace and acceptation thereof, and soe wee bid you farewell. — Given at 
our court in Jersey, the 4th day of Tebruarye, lGl-9, in the second year of 
our raignc. ' 
" To our trusty and well beloved the mayor and aldermen of our cittie of 


The day this communication was received in Galway was one of the last 
days of its greatness and prosperity. For upwards of a century after this 

' Carte says, that this sum was not paid by the town ' Corp. Book, A. — How far he afterwards performed the 
until alter tlie siege of Dublin. promise contahied in this letter wilt appear in the sequel. 



period, war, pestilence and persecution, succeeding each other in rapid and mchni- 
choly succession, afflicted its devoted community, and reduced this once opulent, 
populous and respectable town to the most unenviable situation. Since the com- 
mencement of the civil commotions, a degree of insubordination and licentious- 
ness had prevailed amongst the inhabitants, which it was not in tlie power of the 
magistracy cither to suppress or control ; and vices, before unheard of and un- 
known, and indeed incompatible with the integrity and simplicity of former man- 
ners, were now become prevalent and familiar. ' The population of the toMii 
had also increased considerably, several persons fi'om the country flocking in with 
their families and property lor protection ; and in this crowded state was the place 
when the plague made its appearance, in the month of July, ICAQ, and continued 
to rage with unabated virulence until the end of April following, during Avliicli 
time it swept away upwards of three thousand seven hundred of the inhabitants, 
including two hundred and ten of the most respectable burgesses and irecmcn 
with their families. Those who survived or escaped the contagion graduallv left 
the town, as the only means of preservation, until it was almost entirely deserted 
of its inhabitants. They assembled in the country ; and, having made a collection 
of two thousand marks to pay physicians and provide necessaries lor the sick, 
they formed a committee of health, whose judicious measures and assiduity tinally 
succeeded in eradicating the infection. An entry of this memorable visitation, 
made in the corporation book in the year 1G50, concludes with these words : " It 
is to be ever remembered how our Saviour, out of the abundance of his niercy, 
hath, about our Lady's day in lent last, freed and cleared tliis town and all the 
inhabitants thereof from the said sickness, so as they have returned to their o\^n 
dwellings, and ever since do inhabit them with as much security as ever bcibre." 
The town was no sooner freed from this dreadful visitation, than it becainc 
again involved in all the distracting politics of the times. The marquis of Ormoiul, 
having determined upon leaving the kingdom, arrived here in the beginning of 
December, accompanied by lord Inchiquin, colonels Vaughan, "VVogan, AVarrcn, 
and about twenty other persons of distinction, all of whom sailed from Glanci- 
nagh, in the bay, on board the Elizabeth, of Jersey, a small frigate of twcntv- 
four guns, and, after a hard passage of three weeks, landed at Perose, in Basse 
Bretagne. At the same time, a large Dutch ship, called the Seven Stars, sailed 
from Kilcolgan, which arrived at another port in France. The marquis of Clan.- 

' The following curious description is taken verbatim 
from a manuscript written at tin's period. — " The ensuing 
thin;^s brought no good success to the town, but rather 
ambition, discord and discredit ; viz. knights, lawyers and 
bomery-niastcrs : knights brought pride, lawyers intricacy 
and licentiousness, where all matters formerly were tried 
and determined by two honest burgesses or friends ; and 
rbomery-mastcrs brounht discredit in the highest degree. 

In old times they would rather liang theniselvcs than 
break or discontent strangers, but it is now made a 
conunon trade, to the great dishonour of the good, and 
famous report evermore held of thib town. They are 
also infected with pride, none being accounted worthy of 
good marriage or portion, however so well bied or edu- 
cated, unless he had a stone house or.good estate; like» 
wise in the said town the sin of lechery abounded," — JilS, 



ricarde, who succeeded as lord deputy, soon af"ter arrived in town, and knighted 
the mayor, Sir Oliver Oge French ; but he could not, however, prevail on the 
inhabitants to admit a garrison, or any number of troops, but what should be 
entirely under their own control. 

In the latter end of February, Stephen de Henin, abbe of St. Catherine, and 
ambassador from the duke of Lorrain, arrived in the bay of Galway, with offers of 
assistance and relief for the nation. The marquis of Clanricarde, as soon as he was 
apprized of his coming, repaired to Tirellan, and appointed a committee, com- 
posed of the bishops, nobility and gentry then in the town, to treat with Iiim ; 
but on ascertaining his proposals, which were, that the duke, his master and his 
successors, should be accepted as protectors of Ireland, with royal powers, and 
that some towns should be put into his hands, as security for what he should 
expend in recovering tlie kingdom, the lord deputy, with strong expressions of 
resentment, totally rejected them, as entirely derogatory to the king's honor and 
authority, and, preparing to depart from Tirellan, refused the abbe even an 
audience of leave. This reception so intimidated the ambassador, that he. imme- 
diately clianged his conditions, and consented to advance twenty thousand pounds 
on the security of the city of Limerick and town of Galway, Avithout any other 
stipulation. To this the marquis assented, referring all articles relative to the 
protectorship to be adjusted by a treaty at Brussels, which Avas to be managed 
by tlie queen, the duke of York and lord Ormond. He then issued a warrant of 
freedom to the town, " and articles of agreement were concluded between the 

" A warriint of freedom to the town of Galway. 
" Cliinricarcle. 
" Whereas the eity of Limerick and town of Gallway 
arc cautionary for the payment of twenty thousand 
pounds sterliii;; unto iiis limhncss the (hike of Lorrain, 
liis majesty's jnst dues therein heiiig hy us en;;agecl 
iDwards the repayment thereof, which rnj;agcnienl may 
liriii!; npoii the said city and town the burthen and 
troiiMe of ^'arrisons jnore than usmd ; we have taken 
tlie same into our consideration, and the willingness of 
tlio sail city and town to forward the service of his 
iii.ijvsty an.l this kin;;doin, and that they Iiave been, and 
at |irc;,L'nt are, at ;;reat expence in fortifyinj^ the said city 
find town ; are, therefore, liy the advice and consent of 
(he coiniiiis-iducrs, intrusted, in pursuance of the articles 
of peace, and at the e.u'uot recpicst of the mayor and 
iiiliabitants of tlie saiil town ot' Gallway, and of the 
ii;;uiits of the city of Limerick, pleased, that the said 
city and town, the liberties and counties of them, and 
c\cry of them, shall not contribute or be liable, during 
the time they shall be cautionary, to any of the applot- 
incnts or assessments in the county at large, or in any 
other place of the kingdom, other than upon the 
repayment of his highncss's disbursements by the kingdom. 
The said city and town shall pay their just proportion of 
the said twenty thousand pounds, and of such further 

supplies as his highness, his heirs and successors, will 
afford for the* service of the kingdom. And we are 
further pleased, that, during t!ie said engagement, the 
merchants of the said city and town shall have free 
liberty of CNportation of all native and foreign commo- 
dities, notwithstanding any act to the contrary ; tlier 
paying thereout his majesl^'s just dues, as, by the articles 
iiunle between ns ami the said ambassador, they are 
disposed. And we are further pleased that two hundred 
musketeers, with olhcers and a gunner, under the com- 
mand of Sir Robert Lynch, be forthwith sent to the Isles 
of Arran, with a reasonable proportion of aniniuriition, 
and three pieces of ordnance with necessaries; and that 
three months means he provided them out of the said 
twenty thousand pounds to be received, deducting 
thereout so much as the contributions of the said islands 
comes unto, according unto their dividend for tliat time, 
the said ammunition to be provided by the [iiiblick; and 
the said town of Gallway to furnish the three (lieces of 
ordnance, for which the said cor|)oration is to be paid, 
by the publiek, out of the next supplies : and after the 
expiration of the said two months, the said tv\o hundred 
men and officers to be there maintained at the public 
charge, as the rest of the standing forces of the eountv 
of Gallway. — Given at Tyrellan, the 7th of April, Itil." 
— Memoirs. 


ambassador and tlie major, slicriffs, burgesses and commonalty, by which it Mas 
covenanted that the town shoukl be governed according to its charters, be free 
from any imposition of taxes by the duke, or pay of his soldiery, secure in their 
persons, goods, lands, estates and possessions, upon which, if any injury should 
be committed, full reparation should be made ; and, tinaily, that the town should 
not be liable to repay the twenty thousand pounds, or any part tliereof, except 
its just proportion. Sir Nicholas Flunket and Geofl'rcy Browne, Ixj. were dis- 
patched by the lord deputy to Brussels, with directions to conclude the treaty 
in conjunction with lord Taaflfe. How this aftair was conducted and ended, may 
be found in all the histories of those times. They entered into articles with the 
duke, contrary to the directions which they had received. I'he loixl deputy made 
a formal protest against this unwarrantable proceeding ; and Lorrain, taking the 
opportunity, from some private unexplained reasons, put an end to the treaty. 

"Whilst this hollow ncgociation was going forward, the parliamen.tary forces 
proceeded ^\ith rapid strides towards the conquest of the kingdom. Pi-eston, the 
gallant Irish commander, betrayed and gradually defeated in c\ery other quarter, 
finally threw himself with a few troops into Galway, where he was intrusted 
with the chief command, and honored with the title of governor. The town 
was soon after invested by Sir Charles Coote and commissary-general Reynolds 
and was quickly reduced to a state of blockade. The castles of Tirellan, Oraii- 
more and Clare-Galway were taken ; and on the l'2th of August, 10,51, the enemy 
pitched their camp between Lough-a-thalia and Suckeen, v.ithin a few hundred 
yards of the walls. Limerick having surrendered on the S7th of October, a 
council of war was held by Ireton, to determine whether he should innncdiatclv 
march with his army towards Galway. The general himself and ses'ci'al oflicers 
were for this measure; but others complaining of the ill condition of their men, 
through sickness and severe service, and the near approach of winter, it was 
resolved that, for the present, they should summon the town to accept the condi- 
tions originally tendered to Limerick. Accordingly, on the morning of the Qtli 
of November, dispatches arrived from the lord deputy for the governor, (inclosing 
letters also to the mayor and inhabitants,) in which, after some pointed reflections, ; 
he informs him that if he shall freely communicate tlie proposals to the town's- 
people, and be himself, " waving the frivolous impcrtinencies of a soldier's honor 
or humor rather," inclined to capitulate, he might then expect to partake in the 
benefit of the conditions ; but that if he smothered or suppressed them, he might 
be sure that his head would pay for the trouble or mischief that should follow. ' 

* The interesthig nature of the correspondence which last political act of their eventful lives. For these reasoni, 

took place on this occasion, inilcptnclently of its never it is hoped, it may not be unaceept.ible to the reader, 

before having been made public, induced its insertion here. " To general Preston, 

It strongly displays the characters of the famous indivi- " I shall not now doe you the curtesie to summon you 

duals in question, and is further remarkable for being the at such a distance, because your gravity once chid nie for 



Enraged at this threat, Preston, ou the l^th, returned an angry answer of dcfi. 
ancc, teUiug Ireton that the " licads of those with him were as unsettled on tlieir 
siioulders as any he knew of within the town." The communication for the 
inhabitants was artfully contrived to create distrust of the garrison ; hut the 
example of Limerick operated more powerfully ; they seemed inclined to yield, 
and accordingly desired to know tlic particulars of the conditions which lie pro- 
posed. In the mean time Preston, dreading the event of a surrender, by which 
liislife would be endangered, took shipping in the bay, and went to France. Before 
any further negociation could take place, Ireton died in Limerick, of the plague, 
on the yOth of November, and was succeeded in command by lieutenant-general 
Ludlov/. On the death of this '• gloomy republican," a momentary gleam of 
hope passed over the desponding minds of the inhal)itants of Galway, and they 

it a; imaJvisedh-, but for the good men's snkc oftlie city, 
wlio pcrlinps may not be so angry in tlio nolioli ol' a 
soiiUlier's honor, as to inulcrst;uulc the quil)bles of it, or 
to find that worth or weight in them to admit in baiemce 
against the more feeling concernments of their own safety 
jind snb^i-.tence, thongli men of yonr unhappy breeding 
thinic such glorious trifles worth the sacrificing or ven- 
turing of other men's lives and interests for, (however 
vim would your owne,) I have here sent to tliem a sober 
tender of conditions, which they may (perhaps) think it 
behoves them to consider, while there's time, or rather at 
distance, than stay till tlic refusal bring miseliief or 
danger nearer to their doores. This, if you shall fairly 
communicate as 'tis directed, and especially if you be 
found compliant to the substance and effect of it, (waving 
the frivolous impcrtinencys of a souldior's honor or humor 
rather,) you may partake in the benefit of such conditions 
ai your i|nality renders you capable of. If you smother 
or suppress it, you may guess whose head shall pay for 
the trouble or mischief that shall follow, if Gou enable 
us to reach it, as I doubt not but lie will, because he is, 
and we have eminently found him still to be, a righteous 
iiidse pleadiiigc the qnarrell of the innocent, and a 
severe avenger of their blood .against those that spill it or 
li'ditly regard it, as well as a merciful fatlier and faithful 
master to those that seek and serve him. -Sir, your 
iiCnant. — Clare-eastle, 7th Nov. 1651. — H. Ireton." 
" For general Ireton. 
" It would prove noe curtesie unto nic your summoning 
Tne at such a distance, but rather a discurtecy, which had, 
in mv opinion, rendered you guilty of a second error 
ajainVt the rules of v.arrc. You may not think strange 
that the pcojdc of this towne should stand upon souldier's 
honor, and have skill to oppose an enemy, wlio have of 
tlicnisclves (without the assistance of others) long since 
stood out against the threats and attempts of the lord 
Forbes, who was general of a fleet when he beseiged them, 
and forced him to retire without any loss to themselves. 
If my profession be unhappy, (as you terme it,) I cannot 
liat admire you should follow the same, which, if it 
hitherto hath proved to your content, may hereafter 
prove unhappy to you, accordingc to your own judgment 
of it: and if men of that profession shall be backward 

in venturing men's lives in a just cause, (such as I ownc, 
being for my religiini, king and country,) they shall hardly 
attain to the effcctirg of any great enterprize. But sncli 
as hazard men's lives without a just cause, will one day 
answer lor their blood bel'ore Gou, the just judge, in 
which (when you reflect on your owne action--,) you will 
find yourself as guilty as others. Your letter to the 
nunor, aldermen and burges es of this towne, I delivered 
them, knowing their honest and gallant resolution to be 
such as they may not be drawn or temfited to any of the 
least distrust or jealousy of the souidiers an:ongst them, 
which you endeavour, by your letter, to fill their imagi- 
nations withall, for your owne ends and their utter ruine; 
and, had I suppressed or smothered it, I cannot guess 
whose head here should be subject to pay ibr it; for I 
hold that the heads of those with you are as unsettled on 
their shoulders as any I know in this towne. — Sir, your 
servant. — Galhvay, 1 2th Nov. 1651. — Thomas Preston, 

The dispatch for the citizens was as follows : 
" Gentlemen, I su])pose you cannot but understand that 
(as Gou hath pleaded to bless and dispose of our aflfaircs) 
wee have no place considerable in Ireland to intend next 
but your city, where, I believe, you must needs feelc some 
restraint already both to your trading and supplyes, and 
cannot but foresee more coming on, that will reduce joii 
(by GoL>'s blessing continuing with us) to extremity ere 
long, though wee should not at all deal with you in a more 
forceable way. And therefore, though I can expect little 
fruit of a formal sunnnons, at this distance and season, 
if you be under the power of a mercenary souldiery, (who 
will perhaps pretend point of honour, not to yield before 
more extremity or immediate force at hand, but really 
intend their ow n interests, soe farr as to keepe themselves 
in a warm (juarter and good pay, whilst they can,) thongli 
thereby (besides first milking oi' you dry ) tiiey bring you 
into as bad a condition at last as those in Limerick and 
other places have done the poore people tluit maintained 
them, and then, getting us good conditions as they can 
for themselves, to be gone, leaving you with your more 
weighty interests behinde to stand at tlic stake ; yctt not 
knowing but your wisdome may have kept yon soe far 
masters of yourselves and your citty, as to be able to rid 



ngain determined on tlie most vigorous resistance. About the beginning of 
December Coote again p-roposed the conditions ofl'cred to Limerick, but they 
declined the treaty. HostiUties warmly commenced, and continued -with Aarious 
success on both sides, until some reverses experienced by the town changed the 
face of affairs. Being in a slate of strict blockade, and provisions beginning lo gvow 
scarce, about eighty of the iniiabitants went privately out of the town, and seizing 
one hundred head of cattle, designed to drive them in, but being met on their 
return bv a party of the enemy, upwards of sixty were killed, and the cattle re- 
taken. This disappointment was followed by another much greater; i'or two 
vessels laden with corn, endeavouring to get into the harbour, were ptu'sued by 
two parliamentary frigates, who took one, and forced the other on the rocks, near 

yourselves of such puPsts when vou sec cauie,' I tlioudit 

Ik herchy to ottl'i' you, as once I diJ to Liiuerich, last 

year, wliiUt they were tlicir ownc masters, that if you will 

yet open yonr irates, an J snbniitt to the state of EngUuul, 

vou shall fuul more mercy anil favours lo all, save the 

ii:'ii;inal authors of the rebellion, the first engagers in 

eonnnand or eouneill therein, before the fu'at general 

assembly, or such as sate therein, than you sliall ever 

have from mcc, by bargaining for yourselves. Or if yon 

think it better for you to eapilula.te for eousiilerations, 

I shall (if you aeee|it them without furtlier trouble lo us) 

give yon the same in eti'eet which I tenderM to Limerick 

at uiy first sitting tlown before it this yeare, in ease they 

would have surremlercd then, soe as lo have set us free 

for other worke the remainder of the summer, which, if, 

upon the said example of what they by the refusal have 

lost, and what they came to at last, after all the distresses, 

impoverishments and miseries of the siege, yon incline to 

lay I'.old on wliiie you may, and soe prevent the like 

miseries, yo'a shall soone understand them from nice. 

Now, indeed, tiiongh you shoidil not bo overmastered by 

im luingry sharking souldicry, yet the multitudes of priests, 

those incendiaries of blood and miseliicf amorigst men, 

and of . other desperate persons (engaged upon their 

principles in the heginning of this rebellion, and in the 

iruu'dcrs and outrages therein eomniitteil) which I tnider- 

stanu you have amongst you, makes me apt to doubt that 

hv reception and protecting of them, and adherence tluis 

fai- r.uto them, (if not by any bloody and treacherous 

actinge of your ownc,) you may, in t!ie righteous judgment 

of God, be soe far involved with them in the same gnilt, 

as to be doomed to partake with them in flie same plague, 

and given up to be either overawed or deludcil thereunto 

by the same peraons, with whom and for wiiose sake you 

have soe made yourselves partakers in the guilt, or (at 

least) I am sure such as those amongst yon (soe far as 

ihcy can prcvaile to overpower you or deceive yon) will 

endeavor to engage you as decpe, render you as desperate 

as themselves, and make yonr wenltli and strength serve 

to maintain or perfect them, and their broken wicked 

interest, as long a^ ever they can. Yet whatever issue it 

have, I shall have tlie suti^i'action in n'vsclf of having 

discharged such a duty towards tlic saveing and real good 

of men, (ii' cajiablc of it,) and in iiaving by this a good 

tryal how God sufTers you to be inclined for mercy or 
judgment to youi'^clves, and see the more clearly, what 
dealing he calls for towards von from our hands. If you 
shall be blinded or hardened to the rcfnsall of this mercy 
whiht you may have it, and to put the state of iLngland, 
and us their servants, to the charge, bard bi[) and labour of 
drawing before you to besiege you, when there is noe 
town iint yours to protract the enil of the war, yon may 
well ex]>eet (since wee have nothing cUe considerable to 
do,) that wee shall endeavor to tlie utn.ost to n:ake yon 
|iay dearly for it in the i.^sllc, an<l more than others bcibre 
you, by how much you alone doe with lesse reason or 
hopes (and iv.oyc malignant obstinacy ) lengthen out our 
charge and trouble, and make your.-clves the single and 
more singular mark of justice. — Yours, H. Ireton." 
" Wee received yours, dated at the castle of Clare, the 
7th of this instant, wherein you seemed (under the cloud 
of a friendly advice) to set distrust and jealousy betwixt us 
and the souldicry amongst u., which perhaps the like 
hath wrought you desired eth'cts of divi>ion and distraction 
in Limerick and other places, to their owne mine: yet 
have v.'ce that confidence in the omnipotent God, wlio is 
the author and foimtaine of imion and charity, that 
nothing shall be able to rend or break the seitlcd 
conjimction which is between us in the towne, soe that 
howsoever God shall be pleased to direct onr intentions, 
it will appear by the eHe'ct to be the general act of all, 
without exception. You were pleased to speak in vour 
letter of condition ofitired to Limerick last year, and 
likewise of others ofKrcd by you to them, when first von 
sate before that eitty this yeare, of both which, wee being 
ignorant, cannot give that full resolutinn upon tho.e offers 
by you made. Wee doe expect from you that fiiil scope 
of both those conditions mentioned in your letter, and 
that without excejition of any person or (lersous in or of 
this towne,) whereupon wee will rctm'n unto you such 
answer and resolution as Goo shall direct iis, and wliicli 
shall become good christians, and men of our condi- 
tion and (|uality, and soe we remaine your servants — 
I'ichard Kirwan, mayor; Oliver FIVcnch, Stephen Ffrcnch, 
'J'houias Lynch, James Lynch, Dominick Browne, John 
lilake. — Galway, iL'th November, liiSl. — To general 
Ireton." — Council Booli. 



tlie islands of Arran, where slie was lost. ' These disasters were considerably 
liciglitened by the increased population of the town, which was crowded l)y n\ulti- 
tiidcs of the nobility, clergy, and other persons of rank and interest in the king- 
dom, who flocked hither as their last place of refuge and safety. Meetings were 
frequently held to deliberate upon the state of affairs, at wliieli the marquis of 
tlaiiricarde generally presided; and it was at length resolved, when too late, that 
proposals sliould be made for a general pacification and settlement of t)ie king- 
dom. Accordingly dispatches to that etfjct were sent by the marquis to general 
Ludlow, on the Itth of February, requiring, at the same time, a safe conduct for 
commissioners to carry on the treaty. To these proposals Ludlow, on the SItli, 
returned a very vague and indefinite answer, merely informing him that the settle- 
ment of the nation belonged to the parliament, who he was assured would not 
capitulate with those wlio ought to be in submission, and stood in opposition to 
their authority ; but, " if the Lord inclined their hearts to submission, such mode- 
rate terms would be consented to, as men in their condition could reasonably 
expect." The submission here intimated may easily be conceived to have meant 
little less than an absolute surrender of their lives and liberties to the mercy 
of the besiegers. The great council (as they were still called) again assembled 
within the town, and resolved to propose a cessation of arms, and demand a licence 
for conmiissioiiers to repair to tlie parliament in England. These proposals having 
been also rejected, ^ the principal part of tlie nobility and men of rank, then in 
the town, took siiipping in the bay, and left the kingdom in despair. 

Thus circumstanced, the inhabitants unanimously resolved to sell their lives as 
dearly as they could. Every preparation, both offensive and defensive, was vigo- 
rously made ; the fortifications were refitted ; communication with the country 

1 Luillow's T.Tcmoirs. Vol. I. 339. 

'^ All extract iVoni Ludlow's Ji-.)).itcht'i to Sii- Riclip.rd 
Dlakc, in answer to titosc ;)roi)osi;i'ms, will t'lilly Jjvclopc 
the views of the i)ailiaiiiciil;irv leuJcrs, and justiiy the 
ffiirs then enturtaiiieil oi' tlK'if iiuenllons. — " Y.)u reiterate 
the former applicatioii tVoni tlu earl of Chmriciirde for 
the settlement of tliis nation; ilitlerini; only in tiiis, tliat 
he woiiM have eapitulateil on liie plaee: you pro|.'Osc to 
repaire to Englaiul, ajiDivliendini; the former (ienyall to 
proceed I'roni want of power here, v. licreas the cliicfo 
proiiiuls were the nnrcasonahlcii'jss of the proposition, 
thai such (who are gnilty of a Moody and erucll massacre, 
at least engaged in the witooldiiii; of thein from ju-.tiee 
who are soe, whom the lighteons hand of Gou hath 
prosccntcd from field to iicld, from city to city, even to 
t!ie gates of Galway,) should be adn.ittcd to eapitnlate 
ahout the settlement of this nation with the pariianient 
of En^land, (their lav.fuU magistrate,) wlioin Goo hath 
nut only permitted to lie raised to their present height, 
a^ yon terme it, but by his owne outstretelieil arine and 
clorions presence hath enabled to become a tcrronr to 

cvill doers, and an encouragement to them that doe well; 
;inil this capitulation to be before they have either owned 
their guilt, or delivered up those Acluuis to justice, for 
whose iniquity the land mournes. Indeed if once the 
Lord would truly humble you under his omnipotent hand, 
for your raising and fomenting this unnatural (juarrell 
between two nations of late linked in love, allyed in blood, 
and not Uilierent in laws, (as yourselves coul'esse,) anil 
woidd incline you timely and readily to submit to their 
authority, (as the greatest part of the nation have already 
done,) i should then hope that deliverances were drawing 
niiih. As touching the cessation you pri)])0se, for avov- 
dinge the further efliision of christian blood, 1 conhl wish 
that this tenderness luul in the beginning posscst your 
spirits; but how such a cessation can be satisfactory to 
the parliament of England appcarcs not to iiiec, seeing 
they have bene at soe vast a charge in their pre[iarations 
for the putting a speedy issue totliis warr, wfiieh, by the 
Lord's assistance, shall be licwtily persecuted by your 
servant, " Edunind Ludlov e. 

" Dublin, irthMaidi, 1651."— (.'u^/ici/i'oeA-. 


inSTOllY Oi'^ galway. 

was renewed, and snccoiiis contracted ibr, which wonkl have enabled them to 
protract the v.'ar, and even render its issue in some degree doubtl'id. These pre- 
parations, though tlicy excited tlie alarm and raised the fears of the enemy, had, 
however, no other eifjct thaii that of rendering them more inclinable to terms of 
acconnnodation. The great dearth of pro\isions, which now threatened the 
besieged with all the horrors of approaching famine, at length obliged ihetn to 
submit to a treaty of capitulation with Coote. Commissioners on both sides were 
ap])ointed ; and the condilious originally offered to Limerick, by Iretou, were now 
made the basis of the articles, which were finally agreed upon, and signed on the 
5th of April, l(i5'2. By these articles, the town, forts, fortifications, 2vc. were 
to be delivered up to Sir Charles Coote for the parliament on the I'ith instant; all 
persons within the town were to have (piarter for their lives, liberties and persons, 
and six months time to depart with their goods to any part of the nation, or beyond 
seas. The same time was allowed the clergy to quit the kingdom ; and all those 
comprized in the second article were to have an indemnity for past ofi'euces, except 
Dominick Kirwan and others who were concerned in the attack on captain Clarke's 
ship on the 19th of March, iGfl. The inhabitants were to enjoy their estates to 
them and their heirs for ever, in all houses, castles, lands, S:c. within the town 
and the old and new liberties, with liberty to let and set same, but, in case of sale, 
to pay a third part of the price to the state of England. They were to be charged 
with no contribution but in proportion witli other cities and towns, and were to 
enjoy two parts of their real properties in all places within the state's dominion, but 
su'oject to regulations for remimeration when contiguous to castles, fortifications 
or streights. Upon surrender of the town, they were to enter into, and enjoy all 
their real estates, until persons should be a])pointed by the parliament to di.ipose 
of one-third thereof for its use ; and the composition of five thousand pounds, 
insisted upon for the third part of their goods ajul chattels, was referred to com- 
missioners for remittal or mitigation. The corporation charter and pri\ ileges were 
guaranteed, and liberty to trade provided for. All prisoners, natives or inhabitants 
of Galway, or the islands of Arran, were to be liberateil without ransom ; and all 
shi}) goods or merchandize, taken by laud or sea, going to, or coming fh)m the 
town, were to be restored. A breach of the articles was lo be deemed on!)' the act 
the person committing it. The lord presiden.t, Coote, was to procure them to be 
ratified and confirmed, within twenty days, by the commissioners, and also to be 
secured by an act of parliament. Sir ^'alentine lilake. Sir Oliver I'french, John 
Blake, esq. and Dominick Blake, were to be delivered as hostages; and, finally, 
the ncv/ castle at Tirellan and the fort in Mutton-island were to be surren- 
dered by twelve o'clock at noon on the day following.'^ These were the condi. 

Sec the articles of surreiidci- at full in tiic Ainii-iicllx.. 


'li'His upon wliicli tlie town of Galway surrendered to the parliamentary forces, 
.■.!:il which will for ever remain an indelible memorial of the perseverance and 
Ijravery of its inhabitants, who, after a siege of nine months, during which they 
viiiicred every human privation, at length succeeded in obtaining such articles as, 
if honorably observed, would have had no otlier eflect on the town than that of 
iraiiiferring its allegiance to the then rulino- power ; but how flagitiously they 
WL'i'O afterwards, infringed in every particular, will ai)pear in the sequel. 

8Ir Charles Coote, without delay, transmitted an account of his jjroceedings 
!o the commissioners of the parliament, in Dublin, for their approbation. His 
dispatches arrived on the 11th of April at the castle, and, tliough it was then the 
liour of midnight, a council of war was immediately summoned. The articles 
".ere taken into consideration, and, liaving been unanimously considered as 
:uo favorable to the besieged, several resolutions were entered into, which were 
;Jniost entirely subversive of their spirit and meaning. The result of this con- 
tlrcnce was disjjatched back that night, in order, if at all practicable, to prevent 
the ratification of the treaty, or if it should, in the mean time, be concluded, to 
iiavc their counter-resolutions, explanatory of its meaning, signed as soon after- 
,,< po.s<i!)le ; but they arrived too late for the former purpose, and the latter was 
i-ist!y rejected by the inhabitants, as an open violation and infringement of tlie 
. rtic !os. The town was surrendered on the l^tli, and colonel Peter Stubbers 
inaichiod in v>ith two companies of foot. The commissioners at Dublin exculpated 
tlioiiiselvcs to the council of state and parliament in England from having consented 
I.) the terms of the articles, hut, at the same time, stated that Sir Charles Coote, 
ia granting them, had, in their judgment, acted very faitiifidly, and conceived 
!!iat what he consented to was for the service of the state ; and, if he had not made 
•'lose concessions, there Vvas great possibility that more troops would be brought 
;:ito the town, which would have kept all tlie forces in those parts occupied 
/;anng the sumnicr. From the moment the articles were signed, it resolved 
\i) viohite them. Coote hiformcd the connnissioners, that if the parliament ordered 
tliat no Irish or Papists shouki be permitted to reside in any garrison in Ireland, 
!,j was sure the iniiabitants of Galway would declare themselves bound 1)5' such a 
i.'.w, ami th;'.t they wouhl not insist upon tlie articles. By these and similar con- 
t :\anccs they were gradually evaded, not, liowever, without leaving a perpetual 
■ ;aiii on tlie character of the then unprincipled rulers of tlie counti}-. 

With feelings of the deei)est emotion, the attention of the reader will now be 
turned towards the state of affairs within this devoted and uiihapj)y, though once 
; rospcrous and flourishing, town, whose inhabitants were the flrst in Ireland that 
I 'i/k up arms in defence of tlieir religion and king, and the last, either in Great 
llriliin or Irchuid, that laid them down. The surrender was followed by a 
[jiuine throughout the (.oiuUry, by which multitudes perished. This was again 
luccecded by a plague, which carried off thousands both in the town and the 



surrounding districts ; so that tlic severest vengeance of heaven seemed now to 
have been poured down on the heads of this devoted community. Many, driven 
to despair by tlic severities inflicted ujjon them, instead of avoiding the pestilence, 
sou2;lit refuge in death from their merciless persecutors. This dreadful visitation 
continued tor two years, during which upwards of one-third ol' the jiopulation of 
the province was swept away, and those who survived were doomed to undergo 
sufferings to which even deatli itself was preferable. Colonel Stnbbers, who was 
appointed military governor of the town upon its surrender, under pretence of 
taking up vagrants and idle persons, made frequent nightly excursions, with armed 
troops, into the country, and seized upwards of a thousand people, often without 
discrimination of rank or condition, whom he transported to the West Indies, ami 
tliere had sold as slaves. ^ JJu.t tlie town was the great scene of persecution. 
Immediately after the surrender, a contribution, amounting to four hundred pounds 
monthly, was imposed contrary to the articles, wliich terminated in the total ruin 
of the inhabitants. "J'his excessive charge was exacted with the utmost severity. 
An author who was then in the town relates, '^ that unless it v'as paid to the last 
farthing, at a certain hour, every Saturday, of which notice was given by beat of 
drum or sounding of trumpets, the soldiers rushed to the houses of the inhabi- 
tants, and, A\ith their muskets pointed to the breasts of the inmates, threatened 
them with immediate death, luiless paid whatever they thought proper to demand; 
and when, from the continual payments, the town's people were imable any longer 
to discharge it, such articles of household furniture as the soldiery could find, 
even to the clothes of the women, were seized, and sold in the market-place for 
whatever they would bring : so that, according to this author, the return of 
Saturday, being the period of payment and visitation, seemed to the inhabi- 
tants to realize the idea formed of the day of judgment, the sounding of llic 
trumpets striking them with almost equal terror. 

Henceforth the most violent acts of oppression and injustice openly took place 
without any control. The king's arms and every other emblem of ro}alty were 
torn dovv'n ; upwards of fifty of the Catholic clergy were shipped to the islands 
of Arran and Bophin, until they could be transported to the ^^'est Indies; and, 
being allowed but two pence a day each for their support, they were nearly 
famished. The churches and abbies were converted into stables tor the dragoons, 
the chalices and sacred vessels used as drinkiug-cups, and the old and valuable 

*■ These proceedinjis, -aided by the plague and sword, those times, that the wages of a common labourer, indc- 
nearly depopidatcd the whole country, and caused such pcndentiy of meat and drink, had arisen to -l/. 13«. yearlv, 
a scarcity of people, and so much enhanced the value of and that of an ordinary woman servant so high as 50<.— 
labour, that it became a matter of general coiiiplaint, in Annnls. 

' Lvnch, in vita Kirovani, 



ii!)raries of the clergy burnt or sold to the shops. The mayor and aldermen, 
:hoiigh expressly protected by the articles, were repeatedly abused and dragged 
to prison, for daring to remonstrate with the licentious soldiery, who set no 
buuiuls to their brutality and violence. " 

The inhabitants having repeatedly, but in vain, appealed to the governor 
:.^ainst these atrocities, at Icngtli ventured to represent their grievances to the 
coinniissioners in Dublin : "^ they received, however, such replies as shewed they 
■.u're to expect no relief from tluit quarter. After several specious and evasive 
_i;s\vcrs, to preserve the appearance of justice, orders of reference were made to 
t!io very persons complained of: they were finally informed that the articles of 
virrender, being still under consideration in England, could not be interfered 
with ; and they were thus dismissed, to undergo even worse treatment than 
before for at all presuming to complain. 

In the mean time the state was not inattentive to the security of the town. 
The east and west citadels were built, and se\eral new outworks added to the east 
i )rtifications. It also ajjpears that the very men who wei-e hourly violatino; all 
liiclaws of religion and humanity, with their usual consistency of character, now 
considered it necessary to erect a meeting-house " for the service of God," the 
ixpenses of which they took care should be defrayed by applotnient on the 
Catholic inhabitants. The question concerning the articles of surrender havin"- 
j.L-cn at length decided in England against them, contrary to the public faith, 
^!id to e\ery law of natuie and nations, the final destruction of the inhabitants 

' The Annnlb relate, that their avarice went so far as to 
'-«k open the to^lh^, and root the deail hoches out of 
•. lirirraves, in liopes of finding riches interred with them; 

;J that, when disappointed, tliey h'l't the carcases 

covered, so tliat tliey were oiltii found mangled and 
•-•fii bv the do;;s. — Aiinah. 

' The following extract from their memorial, or " list 
'f grievances," presented on this occasion, will fjive the 
; ..Jir some idea oi the abject condition to which this 

;tc fiourishing population was now reduced. 
" Grievances. 

" The poor distressed [lelitioners hum' ly represent unto 
'. .i;r lionora, that the connnissioners of this precinct doe 
; i! '^ive due respect to tliC major, but u|iou all occasions, 
A t!hir plfasini", imprison him with his alderujen. 

■' liiat whirca-. tluir tenants in the e^ist ami west fran- 
r!.:.^^ of the said towuc, who nii;,ht give a consiileiable 
i-i.taiKC towards the (launent of th.eir conlrilintion, as 
Uing there residint with their stock these seventeen 
ni'M;tiis paste, are taicen i'rom thei.i, and joyne<l with other 
lifOiiii-s; and our merchants afroad, who did contribute 
:u their charges, upon the hist diffidend, are charged 
aliroad, and e\i nipt jd from the petilloneis, which is an 
i:.c.;ii;;l ty done to the corporation, as they humbly 
n iKtiic, wherein they desire your honors relief. 

" That three parts in eight of the tythcs, great and small, 

of the parish of St. \ieholas, was invested in the n)avors 
of Gallway, and their predecessors before thcni, succes- 
sively, time beyond the memory of man, untill, about a 
yearc atul a halfe ago, the same was disposed of by the 
conmiissioners without answering any reservation thereout : 
their Innnhle request is, for the establishment of their 
possession and payment of the rent incurred fur the time 
past, pursuant to their capitulation. 

" The said mayor doth fmthcr olfer unto your honors, 
that his demesne lands in Kinmore, in the franchises of 
Gidlway, were disposed of by the cojnmissioners to the 
use of the horse ol the garrison without answering any 
rent therefore, this yeare and a halfe back, beiiig liis 
chief subsistence, contrary to their articles, wherein hee 
desires your honors relief. 

" That the petitioners being an ancient colouie of Eng- 
lish, plantcil in this nook of the country, have been, hv the 
crown of England, endowed with charters, grants" ;inil 
imnnities, as alao with the charler-custoin of the said 
towne held by the saiil corporation without interrujition, 
time beyond the memory of man, and to them expressly 
secured by their articles made upon the snrrejuler of 
the said town, yet the commissioners permit them not to 
enjoy same ; tluy therefore jiray your honors order for 

the q\iiet enjoyment thereol' without molestii'ion." 

Council Buoli, 



Avas now determined upon. The first step taken was to extina;nish the old 
corporation ; and accordingly, upon a petition from the " English Protestant 
inhabitants" of the town, an order was made by the council of state, on the 25tli 
of October, 1651', that the mayor and other chief officers should be " English 
and Protestants," and in case the then mayor or other chief officers were 
•' Irish or Papists," that they should be removed. This order was immediately 
carried into execution ; and Thomas Lynch Fitz-Ambrose, the mayor, John Blake, 
the recorder, and Richard Lynch and Anthony French Fitz-Pcter, the shcrifls, 
were deposed ; and, in their place, colonel Peter Stubbcrs, the governor, was 
appointed mayor, Robert Clarke recorder, and Paul Dodd and Marcns Lyiicli 
Fitz-Thomas ^ sherhis. The English soldiers were next made free, and the old 
members of the corporation finally disfranchised. 

This measure was only the prelude to others more serious : it was next deter- 
mined to banish all the native inhabitants out of the town, and to supply their 
place with an English colony. An order was accordingly made by the lord 
tlcputy and council, on the 23d of July, 1655, that all persons who claimed or had 
any right to any houses or other real estate, within or conliguons to the town, -. 
being popish recusants, should remove themsehcs and their families thereout 
before the 1st of November then ensuing, being paid, pursuant to the articles, 
their full value ; and, in case they should refuse or neglect to do so, the officers and 
soldiers were required to remove them. ^ Before the time limited for compliance 
with this ordinance had expired, another was issued more innnediate in its opera- 
tion ; for " the state taking into consideration the extraordinary strength of' the 
town, and the great intercourse the inhabitants had ibr many ages with the donii- 
nions of the king of S2)ain, and conceiving it probable that the S])aniard might 
entertain more than common hopes from that circumstance, under colour of giving 
-succour to the king of Scots," (Charles IL) they accordingly, on the 30th of 
October, ordered, " that all the Irish and other popish inhabitants should be forth- 
with removed out of the town, in order that accommodation shoidd be provided 
for such English Protestants, whose integrity to the state would entitle them to be 
trusted in a place of such importance." This order was carried into effect by 

' This inJividiinl, acconling to tradition, was the only 
native of Gahvay who chani;ed his principles and religion, 
and joined the comnion enemy of liotli; in consequence 
of which, all roninninication was denied him liy his 
Cricnds dnring his lil'e, and he is said to have ilicd of a 
broUen heart, occasioned by remorse and shame for his 

« Council Book, A 9. page 52. — On the 18th of October, 
colonel Richard Lawrence and Thomas Richardson, esq. 
were deputed to value the castles and houses. Their 
appointment was renewed on the 30th, and they were 
directed to sm'vey and appraise the houses in Gahvay; 
and all proprietors that desired it, under their hands. 

were to have lilierty imtil the loth of Xovembcr, 1656, 
to make sale of their interests to any Protestant that haJ 
not been in arms, or other«ise dlsaliccted : the tliinl part 
of the purchase-money to f;o to the commonwcallli. 
Such houses as should not be sold by tlie piuprictort 
before the 11th of December, 165 J, to be disposed of 
for a year's time by the governor to any Protestant not 
havint; been in arms against the conunonwealth ; provide! 
that the governor " do cn/jage such as shall take the same, 
that no waste or spoil should be committed on the hou><:i 
that stand empty and undisposed of, or suder saiiic to be 
spoiled or wasted by the soldiers." — IJ. 



t'oote, tlie lord president, witli unrelenting severity. " The wretched inhabitants, 
uithout distinction of rank or sex, except a few who were oppressed by sickness 
and years, were driven out of the town in tiie midst of winter, (which was, at 
the time, peculiarly severe,) and were forced to take shelter by the ditches and 
in poor cabins in the country, without fire or sufficient clothing, in consequence 
of wliich many fell victims to the uncommon inclemency of the season. Thus 
deprived of its inliabitants, who were succeeded only by soldiery, tlie town pre- 
sented the appearance of a military camp, without either order or regularity, and 
soon fell to decay. Tlie superb houses, which, in tlie language of the Annals, 
were " fit to lodge kings and princes," and are described as the best built and 
most splendidly furnislied of any in the kingdom, were seized upon and occu- 
pied by the lowest of the populace, until they were completely ruined. The 
trifling trade which recently remained had now entirely ceased ; and the town, 
thus circumstanced, resembled a rich bee-hive plundered of its treasures, while 
its industrious people lay smothered and destroyed. 

Tlie work of destruction being thus complete, the ruinous situation to which 
this unfortunate town was now reduced, at length forced itself on tlie attention 
of the governing ])arty ; and an expedient was soon devised, which it was sup- 
posed would remedy all that had been done. An act was passed in tlie parliament 
of England, on the 17th of September, 1G5G, " for the ascertaining and eifectual 
setting out of lands and houses in Ireland, in consideration of losses sustained 
bv Anthony Edwards and others, tlie well-affected inhabitants of the city of 
Gloucester," during the siege which that city sustained against the royal forces in 
iGi','. The intentions of this act not being yet carried into execution, Henry 

» On tlie Ttli of Noveiiibei- Coote made a report of his 
proccediiij;s in " clearing tlie town" uMiler tliis order, 
la which he states, that he had " dispensed only with a 
Wv pci'ions, who, through extreme age and sickness, and 
the unseasonableness of the weather, were unable to 
amove, but that the security of the place was well 
provided for." — Council Book. — In return for this com- 
munication he recei\ed the thanks of the state, but was 
cautioned to take care that the few, so dispensed with, 
I'wuld be ronoved as soon as the season would permit ; it 
king their desire " that so considerable a place should be 
iiitircly inhabited by Protestants ;" and he was further 
ilircctcd, that in the interim, and until the town should 
\< better inliabitod, he should " prevent any spoil bei;i^ 
r.uilc of the houses within the towne, cither by the 
sjukliers or others, who, without due care, would be apt 
(0 injure tliem upon all oceaaions; as also that they should 
W kept stanch, and in good repayre, in a condition to be 
tenanted at considerable rents, which that place yielded 
informer times more than any other cilly of this nation." — 
Council Book. 

This was followed, on the 19th of November, by 
further instructions to Coote, wherein he was ordered 

to " take care, — 1. That a draw well be sunk in the most 
convenient place within tlie east eitidcll of the citty of 
GaKvay. — 2. That three platforms be forthwith raisert ■ 
wherever it would be conceived would most tend to the 
publick service. — 3. That the several houses within the 
eitidcll be repaired. — 4. To keep within the towne twenty 
Irish masons and workmen : — and, 5. That the priests or 
fryars, now imprisoned within the town, that are above 
the age of forty years, be forthwith banished into France, 
Portugal, and other neighbouring kingdoms in amity with 
this commonwealth; and that the rest of the priests, that, 
are under the age of forty years, be forthwith shipt away 
for Barbadoes or other the American plantations ; and to 
give public notice, tliat in case any of tlicni return without, 
licence, they shall be proceeded against according to the 
laws ;" — i. e. punisJicd wiih death. — Id. 

On 1st September, lo'5fi, another order issued, "that 
the governor of the city of Galway do forthwith remove 
thereout all Irish Papists, and that no Irish be permitted . 
to inhabit therein, unless disabled to remove through ex- 
treme old ago or sickness, or bed-rid." It was also ordered, 
" that he should cause the weekly markets to be kept 
outside the city till further orders." — Id. A. 10. /). 1 03. 



Cromwell, the lord deputy, embraced this as a favorable opj)ortunity for phintiii"' 
Galwav with English settlers, to whom the forfeited lands and houses could 
be disposed of to the amount of 10,0U0/. being the compensation to be made to 
Gloucester. Having accordingly consulted the council in Dublin on the subject, 
he forwarded dispatches to England on the 7th of April, wherein, after statini^ 
that the public would suffer considerably, if some sjjeedy and effectual course wcrd 
not immediately taken for planting the town of Gal way, he adds, " His higlmess 
hath too perfect an understanding of that place, as wee need not add much; 
howbcit we may be bold to say, that for the situation thereof, voisenage and com- 
merce it hath with Spaine, the strayts, West Indies and other places, noe towne or 
port in the three nations (London excepted) was more considerable, nor, in all 
probability, would more encourage trade abroad or manufactures at home, than 
this, if well improved. It is a towne made very defensive both by art and nature, 
and consists of many noble buildings, uniform, and most of them of marble, whicli 
that country hath plenty of; yet by reason of the late horrid rebellion and generall 
waste then and since made by the impoverisht English inhabiting there, many ol' 
the houses are become very ruinous ; and inasmuch as there appears more encou- 
ragement for this new plantation than formerly {for that noe Irish are permitted to 
live in ihecitlij, or tcithin three miles thereof, the better to accommodate the inliabitants 
with conveniencies, the place becomes better secured,) and merchants have more 
hopeful gain by trade, tlian wlien the interest of the towne was in tlie Irisli and 
other Papists that lived there." It was then proposed that the town and lands 
about it, and other lands near Athlone, and at Ballinrobc, in Mayo, or such ])art as 
should be tliought fit, should be sold to the corporation of Gloucester, by whom the 
town coidd be colonized ; and he concluded by rcca])itulating tlie many ad\ anta"'es 
which would result from such an undertaking. The project \\as favorably 
received by Cromwell, and agreed to by the citizens of Gloucester, who sent over 
doctor Thomas Clarges, as their agent, to transact the business. 

A survey of the forfeited lands was accordingly made, ' of which Dr. Claro'es- 
-was put into possession. The several forfeited houses in the town were also 
surveyed and valued by captain William Webb and .lames Hinds;" and although 
they were, on the 17th of February, 1057, declared to be in the real and actual 
possession of Anthony Edwards aiulTliomas Whitcombe, in trust for the purposes 
contained in tlie Gloucester act, yet no immediate exertions were made to promote 
the plantation. But Cromwell having, just about that time, ordered that another 


' Sec Ific Appendix. — This siii-vcy was transmitted to the 
lord deputy ;md council by Mr. James Cuttc, one of tlie 
CO nmi sion^rs, liy which it appear,; I, that se\eii hundred 

•and sixty-three and a halfacres were bituatc in the liberties „ ^. . „^ ..„.„,, ^ ,„,„. .,„^ ..„„^„, „, ,„ 

of Galway, two hiMuh-cd in the harony of Athlone, and years piircluisc, to 3110/. 8j. which, wuh the value of \ 

two thousand near B^'.lhnrohc, in the county of Miwo, all the land, was witliiu eight shillings of the 10,000.'.— '\ 

'.vhicn were valued at 889/. -is -liul. Pat. Rolls Ojjice. Rot. Pat, 

' The schednles of these valuations, which arc also 
given in the Appendix, cannot but prove particulnrlv 
interesting to the descendants of the old families of 
Galway. The houses in the town were valued, at sLx 



sum of 10,000/. which had been formerly allowed the town of Liverpool for its 
losses in the parliamentary interest, should be satisfied out of the remainder of 
the houses in Galway, the lord deputy again pressed the subject of the coloniza- 
tion and improvement of the town, as well on the inhabitants of Liverpool as 
those of Gloucester. He represented to them, that for building, situation and 
strength, the town was of very great importance to the security of the nation ; was 
most advantageously situated for trade, having the sea open, and free for Spain, 
the Straits, the Indies and other places ; and that, before the rebellion, it was 
inhabited by many wealthy and flourishing inhabitants ; and that it would concern 
them to use their utmost diligence for speedily planting the place with English 
Protestants, by whom the houses, then ruinous, might be repaired, and connnerce, 
which was then utterly decayed, might be revived. The reader may anticipate 
that all these designs proved abortive ; the wished-for plantation never took place, 
having been perhaps only prevented by the unexpected and happy revolution which 
immediately afterwards followed. 

The appalling scene of atrocities, hitherto opened to the view of the reader, is 
now drawing to a close. On the 15th of September, 1G58, Richard Cromwell 
was proclaimed lord protector in Galway, with great rejoicings. The con- 
temptible corporation of the day, having no luore victims to persecute, began to 
quarrel amongst themselves ; and their disputes became so violent that the 
government was obliged to interfere, and threatened to annul the charter, and 
aholish their privileges. On the 7th of August, 1G59, an order issued to 
apprehend lord Clanricarde, Sir Richard IMake, and the other principal gentlemen 
of the county ; and on the '22i\, colonel Thomas Sadlier, the governor, was 
ordered to remove " all the Irish Papists" out of the town and liberties, and not 
permit them to return without licence from the commander of the forces. Other 
instances of persecution afterwards occurred, but they gradually decreased, both 
in number and severity; and some appearance of moderation and justice was finally 
introduced, and for a while established, by the restoration. 


CHAP. VI. "^■ 

FORCES, 1691. 

On the restoration of Charles II. many of the netu settlers disappear, and the old 
natives and former inhabitants return — Letters of the Icing to the lords justices, to 
restore them to their freedom and estates — A^iimosities and disputes heizveen them 
and the 7iexv settlers— yln instance of one of these contentions—Prejudice of the 
lords justices agaif7st the old natives— Opposition given to their claims — Excluded 
from corporate privileges, and finally expelled the town — l^ew rules established — The 
corporation lands, idth the charter and market duties, granted to Mrs. Elizabeth 
Hainilton — The earl of Essex, lord lieutenant, opposes the grant— His description 
of the decayed state of the toiim— Colonel Theodore Russell jmrchases the charter 
and market duties, a?ul is elected mayor — The king grants a nexv charter, containing 
many ample privileges — Population of the town co7isiderably diminished, and the 
houses falling to ruin — Many of the old ?2atives give security and are permitted to 
return to the town — They are soon aj'ter obliged to depart, owing to the clamors 
and discontent of some members of the corporation — Address to the king, on his 
escape J rom the Rye-house conspiracy — Accession of James II. to the throne — The 
Catholic inhabitants return to the town, and made free qj the corporation— Catholic 
clergy established in the town— New charter granted — Troubles begin, and thejbr- 
tifications of the town repaired — Resolulio)2s to adhere to king James and his govern- 
ment — Protestant inhabitants removed out of the town — Battle of Aughrim — Siege 
of the town — It surrenders on articles — Treatment of the Roman Catholics — Forti- 
fications built, to secure the conquest of the toxin and the islands. 

On the restoration of Cliarles II. such of the new settlers in Galway as were 
clistingLiished for the violence of their principles, or tlieir hatred of the royal 
cause, apprehending prosecution and punishment, suddenly disappeared; while 
as niany of the old natives, as siu-vived the past scenes of destruction, hailed with 
joy an event from which they expected, according to the king's repeated decla- 
rations, not only the termination, but also the reward, of their manifold sufferings, 
and particularly the restitution of their usurped privileges and estates. Accord- 
ingly, one of the first acts of the king, after entering upon the exercise of his royal 
function, was an order to reinstate the ancient inhabitants of Galway in the pos- 
session of their properties and privileges, directed to the lords justices of Ireland, 
ot the following!; tenor : 



" Charles R. 
" Forasmuch as the ancient inhabitants, freemen and natives of our towne of 
Gallway, in our kingdome of Ireland, have held that towne for us against a siege 
of'nine months, being encouraged and commanded thereunto by our several letters, 
and was the last towne of consequence, in that our kingdome, that held out for 
us against the usurped power : and whereas the said ancient inhabitants, freemen 
and natives, and our garrison there being reduced to necessity, have, at the ren- 
dition of the said towne, made quarter, and obtayned articles of warre from the 
commander in chief of the armie besiegeing the said towne ; by which articles, 
bearing date the 5th day of April, lGJ'2, amongst other things, they were to 
enjoy their freedoms, priviledges and immunities, and their resjiective interests, 
liouses and estates, in such maimer as in the said articles are mentioned ; upon 
consideration whereof, after full debate of that matter, at a committee of our 
privy councill appointed for Irish affairs, wee thought it reasonable and just to 
:illow and make good unto the said inhabitants, freemen and natives, the benefit of 
the said articles. — It is, therefore, our will and pleasure, and we do hereby order 
and require, that the said inhabitants, freemen and natives, and all other persons 
in tlie said articles comprised, shall have and henceforth enjoy all and sino-ular the 
benefits, advantages, libertyes, freedomcs, privileges and immunities, and all and 
singular the houses, estates, lands, tenements and hereditaments within the said 
towne of Gallway and libcrtys thereof, and elsewhere, which were promised unto 
tlicm in or by the said articles, as by the instrument thereof, perfected by you, 
.Sir Charles Coote, earle of JMountrath, bearing date as aforesaid, unto which we 
lei'er you, shall appeare ; and we do hereby require you to cause this our royall 
pleasure and commande to be duly executed as fully and as amply, for the advan- 
tage of the said inhabitants, freemen and natives, and others comprised, as the 
said articles and instrument aforesaid doth express, which you are there upon the 
place to peruse, examine and allowe, without other or future explanations or expo- 
sitions there, as tlie same was concluded on the rendition of tlie said towne : and 
we arc likewise pleased, and it is our will, order and commande, that the said 
inhabitants, freemen and natives, shall have and be allowed siicli further addition 
of grace as you shall find us engaged unto by our royal letters, or they can justly 
claime by the articles of peace concluded there in the yeare IGIS : and in as much 
as wo are informed, by the duke of Ormonde, that divers of the said inliabitants, 
freemen and natives, have in a more eminent manner than others, and in tlie worst 
of tymes, gyven testymony of tlieir loyalty and afii?ction to us, we requiie you 
particularly to inform yourselves of ihc said persons, and to troate, use and esteeme 
tliL'in as persons in a more speciail manner meritting of us, and accordingly to 
counlenaiice, favour and settle them in the same measure as we have provided 
for others by express names in our declaration. And it is our royall will and 
pleasure, and we require all persons concerned to give ready obedience to these 


our commandes and order, as they will answer the contrary at theire perllls. And, 
for the more speedy and efFectuall execution thereof, it is our will and pleasure 
that you issue and give your effectuall orders unto our commissioners appointed 
for executing of our publique declaration, and to all our commissioners, officers 
and ministers, who are or shall be employed or concearned in restoring of persons 
rcstorable, to cause this our order to be put in speedy and due execution : alsoe 
that you give order to our barons of our court of Exchequer, attorney and soli- 
citor-generall, and other officers there concerned, to cause all and every matters and 
things remaining in charge upon the houses and estates of any of the said persons, 
who are to be restored by virtue of this our order, to be putt out of charge, 
without further charge, plea or suite, other than the ancient charge ; and likewise 
tliat you command the trustees appointed for settling the securilycs for arreares, 
before the 5th of June, lO-iOj and all persons deryving from them, to suffer tiie 
said inhabitants, freemen and natives, and other persons before mentioned, without 
interruption, to possess and enjoy their severall estates, whereunto they are to be 
restored as aforesaid, and the profitts thereof, notwithstanding any disposall made 
or to be made thereof by the said commissioners whatsoever; for all which, tin's 
shall be to you, and all persons concerned, a sufficient warrant. — Given at our 
court, at Whitehall, the 17th day of June, in tlie thirteenth yeare of our rein-ne. 

By his majesties command." 
This gracious and equitable mark of tlie royal favor, liowc\cr sincere and 
■well intentioned the motives of tlie king might then have been, proved but of 
little use to those for whom it was intended. Party ieelings ran so high in the 
nation, that their claims were drowned amidst the general clamor of discontent; 
but the inveterate prejudices of the men in power against their religious principles 
operated more powerfully against them than any other cause. Tlie kino^'s 
declaration, also, as might reasonably have been expected, occasioned several 
animosities and disputes between tlie old natives, who reclaimed tiieir properties, 
iind such of the new comers as remained in the town, and who, depending on the 
partiality and protection of the existing government, resolved to run all Juizards 
rather than tamely surrender their newly-acquired possessions. In order to 
convey a general idea of the feelings by which tiiose contending parties were 
then agitated, an occurrence which took place between two of the most respect- 
able of the disputants is here selected as a specimen of the remainder. Robert 
Martin, of Ross, one of the natives of tiie town, having obtained an order 
from the king to be restored to the possession of his mansion-house in Galway, 
which was then in the occupation of Edward Eyre, the recorder, (and one 
of the members recently elected to represent the town in the new parliament,) 
he came to Galway to demand possession, which being refused, complaint was made 
to the lords justices that the occupant, Mr. Eyre, not only refused to obey the 
king's order, but also declared, " that he denied the king to be the only head or 



cliief governor of the kingdom, and that he did not value his order at eighteen 
pence." Upon receiving this information, the lords justices directed the attorney- 
general to lay it before the commons : the accused member was immediately 
.■•iimmoned ; and he delivered in a written statement, totally denying the char^-e, 
and challenging an immediate investigation/ After some further commu- 
nications and delays, the house at length came to a resolution, that there were no 
;;rounds for the complaint; and the recorder, having received some handsome enco- 
miums for his loyalty and integrity to his majesty, was unanimously acquitted. 
Tills injudicious proceeding, on the part of the accusers, proved considerably inju- 
rious to the interest of the old proprietors, and equally serviceable to the new; for it 

' Answer of Edward Evrc, Esq. 
" Robert ^Lirtinc, of I{oi->e, accoinpiiiiicd with liis 
!*)n-in-la\v, Isidoriis Lyncli, came to the hou^ie in Galway 
where I now live, t!ie property formerly of said Robert, 
a'mat some business, which being ended, the said Robert, 
in a jcstinj; manner, asked nte, what I wonld say if he 
fhoulil have his lionse aj;ain; to which I replied, " Witli 
:;ll Miy heart, Robert; I iiope you will admit Jiie your 
tenant, for I have h?stowed mncli in repairs, and have 
Iv.'ii civil to your niece and chiMren, to whom I have 
ci\cii room in the said honse;" to wiiicli the said Robert 
■■jiswcrcd, " Ye., in good faitli have you, and you shall be 
truant for a year and a day, and no ion;;er." I then asked 
liini, upon what account iie was so confident of his house; 
h; replied, " I have an order in my pocket from the king 
til bj restored to it." I th.en dcniandjd of him, whether 
his order was confirmed or allowed of by the lords 
i'l'ticci, pursuant to the late proclamation grounded on 
hi- iiinjesty's letter, "that, whereas many orders were by 
il!c Irish surreptitiously gotten, lirc." to wliich the said 
Roiicrt replied, " In faith it is not." I then told him, " I 
illil believe it wonld not be worth three pence unto him ;" 
nlicreupou Isidjrii-j Lynch said, " llath my order cost me 
lixtv pounds to our agents, and now not worth three 
pcni'ci' you may a* well deny tlie king's authority." I 
replied, " Xo, I deny that," meaning his inference. — 
Alter this, there was some jesting discourse ol their agents, 
and what m meys they had given them, and then we 
fri.-iidly parted, without any distaste. They, leaving me, 
met witli one Deane, Lynch, French, anrl cither natives 
of (SaKvay, who fell into discourse, that they had gotten 
prOcr^ for to return into the said town, and be as free as 
ever they were; to which Marline replied, " Yon may be 
J;n'vpd, for I was with the recorder lately, who told me, 
uar orilcr^, if not confirmed, woidd not be worth three 
pence." .N'icholas rrcnch rrplied, tliat it was high trea- 
wii and und;rv.iliiatijn of the king's authority to say, 
oar orders wei-c not worth three pence. The next day, 
Frci'.c'ii, captain Martine, and five or six more of them, 
»i;nt nnlo Mr. Bernard's iiouse, and told him that I had 
»-^!;cii treason, and that they hail written unto the lord 
fn;,nccl!or of it, and did not doubt but to liinder my 
•ilting in the house. Mr. Bernard immediately came to 
rnc, and acquainfcd me with all they said, and desired me 
to take notice of it, for lie was confident they would do 
Bc all the mischief tliey could. I replied, 1 valued not 

their malice on that account, and took no further notice 
of it. In ihe afternoon the said Bernard came a"ain 
unto me, where were present the mayor, aldermen, and 
about twenty gentlemen of the town, and with them the 
aforesaid Marline, and told me, that those Irish had been 
again at his house, and ranted high what they would do 
against me ; whereupon I desired a warrant from the 
mayor, and sent a serjeant and arrested Nicholas Frenclr 
and captain Lynch, who persuaded the serjeant to bring 
them unto me. French demanded of nie, wherefore I 
arrested him; I told him, because he had scandalized ami 
threatened me, he answered. He never heard me speak a 
word, but that Robert Marline, then jiresent, told him 
I had spoken treason ; to which the said Robert answered, 
" niou art a drunken, trepanning, lying knave:" and the 
said Marline being ilcsired by some [irescnt to relate what 
was said by me, that occasioned this noise, answered, 
that in a jesting discourse of their orders, I did say, " that 
unless they were allowed and confirmed by the lords 
justices, they would not be worth them three pence;"' and 
there was not one word spoken relating to the king or his 
government. I told the said Lynch, if he or any others 
had any thing to say against me, they shoukl give in their 
testimonies before the mayor: he answered, lie heard me 
say nothing, but that Marline told him so; but pcrcciviiiJ' 
he must go to prison, he fell into a great passion, and hid the 
.sheriff'take him into cuatody, for I was a rebel and a traitor. 
The next day, I intending for Dublin, he jirevailed witli 
several of the townsmen to mediate with me for his 
release, alleging that he was drunk, and in these fits he 
would abuse any one; that it would be his undoing, if I 
should leave him in gaol ; whereupon he was sent for, and, 
before many witnesses, acknowledged that he had injured 
me, and was sorry for it. I then gave order to h.ive the 
action withdrawn, he finding sureties to appear the next 
assizes, who did so; but after I came to Dublin, the said 
French went railing through the streets, shewing a letter, 
and reading of it, a copy whereof he said he had sent 
unto my lord cliancellor; whereujion he was again 
arrested, and, as I am informed, he then wrote to Patrick 
D'Arcy, who gave in the information that Mr. Attornev 
moved in this honorable house. Sec. — This is all I know 
and can say in answer to the said information, the 
contents whereof will be attested by many witnesses. 

" 'i7tli July, 1661. " Edward E}re." 

Com, Jour. Vol, J. ji, 439. " 



served not only to prejudice the minds of the lords justices against the former, 
but also to increase and strengthen the opposition of their opponents ; insomuch 
that, from the previously ruined state of their finances, the resistance and delays 
now given to their claims, and the consequent heavy expenses attending the 
prosecution of them, they were in general eitlier defeated, or abandoned in despair, 
and left unfinished ; in consequence of which, very little benefit, as before observed, 
was derived from the king's declaration in their favor; and whate\'cr part of their 
ancient patrimony the descendants of the natives afterwards possessed in the 
town, was priuciinilly obtained by purchase from the new possessors, whose titles, 
liowever acquired, had been ratified and indiscriminately confirmed by grants and 
leases from tlie crown." They were also continued in all the offices of the 
corporation ; and although several writs of Qiio-Xiarranto had been brought 
against them for exercising jurisdiction as a corporate body, and judgment finally 
obtained, they still retained their power in the town, through the infiuence of the 
duke of Ormond, and were ultimately triumphant over all opposition. Thus 
disappointed in their expectations of being restored to their properties, and that, 
chiefly, througli tlie indifference or ingratitude of a prince in whose cause they 
had been sacrificed, the ancient natives felt the less regret at their subsequent 
expulsion from the town, and consequent exclusion from all those corporate 
privileges and freedoms which they had formerly exercised, and which had been 
so honorably acquired and so long enjoyed by their ancestors. They withdrew, 
therefore, to brood in silence over their wrongs, but fiiUy resolved, however, as 
the sequel will shew, to embrace with avidity any opportunity that might present 
itself to redress them. 

The town continued to be governed under its former charters until the year 
1672, when the " new" rules, orders and directions were made and established 
by the lord lieutenant and council, pursuant to the act of explanation, " for 
the better regulating of the corporation of the town of Galway, and the electing 
of magistrates and officers there." By these rules, which have tlie force and 
effect of an act of parliament, — 1. The names of the mayor, sheriffs, recorder, 

* An inquisition taken in the tholscl, on 1st Marcli, 
1664, finds " tliat tlic lanils, commonly called or known 
by the name of Fort-hill, were part of the abbey of St. 
Aiignstiiie; and tliat same, with other abbey-laiuls, were 
invested in the crown in the reign of Henry VIII. That 
a fort for his majesty's use was erected on part of those 
lands, and continued in his possession until 164.'5, when it 
was surrendered by captain Willoughby to John Bourke 
and others, commanding the Irish forces, by whom it was 
demolished by order of the sii[jreme council. Wlio 
received the issues and profits since, the jury could not 
find ; but before the fort was erected, Nicholas D'Arey, 
deceased, was the reputed proprietor of the premises, 
and since the surrender there were several possessors, but 

under what title they could not find, and say the lands 
contain, by estimation, twelve acres. That upon the 
lands of Ballymanaiih, the foiuulation of a fort, and a 
good part ol' the w alls thereof, w ere laid and erected liir 
his majesty's use, about the year 1025, which continued 
in his possession, and in the custody of John Turner, 
deceased, until IG-41, when it was entrusted to the charge 
of Sir Richard Blake, knight, by the lords justices and 
council ; it contains, by estimation, one acre, but tlicy 
cannot find any known proprietor thereof except las 
majesty. That the lands of Mutton-island, containing, 
by estijnation, three acres, were made use of in common 
by the inhabitants of Galway and the liberties thereof— 
Orig. Inq. RulU Office. 


or town-clerk, to be annually elected for ever thereafter, are to be forthwith 
presented for approbation to the lord lieutenant, or other chief governor or 
;;ovcrnors, and the privy council ; and if they or any of them be not approved of 
within ten days, a new election shall take place, except in cases of such as die in 
their year of oftice.— '2. The warden to be nominated by the lord lieutenant, or 

uther chief governor or governors of the kingdom, for the time beino-. 3. AH 

oliiccrs of the corporation to take the oaths of supremacy and alle^-i^ance,' and 
also that against taking arms against the king/—!.. All officers to be°elected by 
the mayor, shcrifis and common council: all matters in debate first to pass the 
common council before being propoimdcd in tholsel, and offenders disfranchised. 
—5. All foreigners, strangers and aliens, as well others as Protestants, beino- 
merchants, traders, artisans, artificers, seamen or otherwise, then residiu"- or to 
come to reside in the town, to be admitted freemen daring residence and habi- 
tation, and to be deemed denizens of the kingdom, on payment of a tine of 
twenty shillings, first taking tlie oaths and paying charges: any person, magistrate 
or otherwise, refusing to admit such, or interrupting tiiem when admitted to be 
disfranchised. — These rules, which were in eflect the same that reo-ulated the 
(lihcr cities, walled-towns and corporations of the kingdom at the time, althouo-h 
introduced into the succeeding charter, continue in force to the present dav. '' 

Tlie reader will not be surprised that the same king, who had so uuo-ratefullv 
permitted the injustice that had taken place against the former inhabitants of 
(iaiway, and that, after spilling their blood and wasting their treasure's in his cause 
would equally disregard the interests of their successors in the corporation, who 
he was well aware, became his friends merely from necessity, and would remain so 
only as long as it was consistent with their interest. Of this he now gave a striking 
instance. During the civil wiu", the town's-people mortgaged, at different times 
and to several persons, almost the entire of the corporation property, consistino- 

' " This, wliicli was called " the little oath," was taken 
»«:iy hv statute, 4 Geo. I. .". 

* Alderman Edward Eyre, after so triumphantly de- 
fcalinu' the charge brought against him hy the ancient 
n.'.ives, became the principal ruler of tlie town and 
coqsoration, whose aflfiiirs he regulated as he thought 
(•ri>]«.r. On 20th April, 1670, he caused them to grant 
> !l■.L^e to trustees for his use, for 00 years, at tlie rent of 
rJ. yearly, of the principal pait of the corporation pro- 
frny adjoining the town, viz. 

" The small house on the town wall, wherein Robert 
Brown formerly dwelt, with so nuich of the void place 
I' llie breadth of the said house, takes up within ten foot 
cf tlic key-gate round by the town wall. 

" Tlie void place oppo^ite llarriichallii, alias the wood- 
kiy, iilong the river to Suckccn, and to the stone-gate and 
uujc« ay about to the cabins on the south side, leaving 

a sufficient highway, not exceeding twenty foot, between 
it and the opposite cabins. 

The lower part of the green, from the east side of the 
flanker pointing to the causeway, leading to Fort-hill 
along till it mears with the meadlc, and so to"john Thorn's 
house, at the beginning of the lane, leaving sufficient 
room for the cojumon highway mearing with the south 
and south-west, with the ancient bounds of Forl-hill. 

" The waste place on the backside of Tlionias Williams's 
garden, bounderl by the pool on the soutli side, round to 
the jetty of stones that joins with the place called the 
exchange on the key on the west-side, and bounded oil 
the south-eabt, castwani, with the bounds of Fort-liill. 

" The tiled shed on the key, a small place or dunghill in 
the river for erecting a mill beyond the west gate, and 
the cabins on the green, under the citadel on the iiijirkef- 
place, in the cast."— .fffi'is/. OJkc, odjubj, 1712. 



of their lands, and the charter and market duties, ' for several sums of money, 
which they handed over to the duke of Orniond and marquis of Clanricarde for 
the king's service. After the restoration the morlgagccs were found to be 
forfeiting persons ; and the premises having become vested in the king under, the 
acts of settlement and explanation, he accordingly, by letters patent, dated 5tli 
December, iGyS, "^ granted the entire to Elizabeth Hamilton, widow of James 
Hamilton, esq. one of the grooms of his majesty's bed-chamber, and to her heirs. 
This unexpected exercise of a dormant right, which it was supposed was obsolete, 
and such as would never have been thought of, or at least revived, ai^ainst the pre- 
sent corporation, created considerable alarm. JNIrs. Hamilton's agent, JNIatliew 
Quin, for daring to assert her rights, though under pretence of having offered 
insult to the mayor, was tlirown into prison, and every resistance was made against 
her in the town. She accordingly had recourse to cluuicL-.ry for redress, and, after 
some proceedings, which were defended by the mayor, '■' she succeeded in estab- 
lishing her claim, and thus laid the ground-work of the future decay and 
j-nonopoly of the corporation. Tiie earl of Essex, tiien lord lieutenant, at first 
opposed this ruinous grant ; but the king having expressly signified his pleasure 
that it should take place, his lordship Avas obliged to acquiesce. In a commu- 
nication on the subject to the secretary in England, he states, " As to the affair 
of the town of Galway, betwixt it and JMrs. Hamilton, kc. I cannot but tell you, 
that I apprehend this grant will be the ruin of that town. It was once a 
considerable place of trade, and one of the principal strengths of the kingdom: 
it furnished all the province of Connanght (it being the only frequented port 
there,) with foreign commodities ; but now I hear the merchants are all lea\in'T 
the place, and the gentlemen of that country are forced to send as far as this city 
(Dublin) for those things, whereof they used to be provided from thence." "^ 

Such was tJie melancholy state to which this once opulent town was reduced in 
the hands of its new possessors. The corporation, however, to prevent their utter 

' Particulars of the corporation property mortgaged 
for the state, previous to 1652. 

Tlie charter customs, mortgaged to Nicholas Blake, 
Gregory Lynch and otiiers, for L'OOO/, 

Tiie market customs, ^"hh the duties and fees thereof, 
together with tlic market-house, mortgaged to Jolni 
Blake, esq. late recorder, for 'loo/. 

The lands of Shantallo, in tl'.e west liherties, mort- 
gagcil to Gregory and Peter Browne and Roebuck Frentli 
lor 130/. 

The lands of Suckin, in the east liberties, containing 
twelve acres, formerly set to John Blake for 09 years, at 6*. 

Farranlosnona, in the west liberties, mortgaged to 
Jasper French for 40/. 

Knockanegeherne, in the west liberties, mortgaged to 
alderman P;.trick Mai'lin and alderman Marcus Ku'wan 
for 30/. 

A close called Lacybeh_v, in said liberties, mo:t£;a<»C(l 
to Martin Blake Fitz-Anchew for ."o/. wiih a lease. 

The close called the middle close, in the east liberties, 
mortgaged to the said Martin Blake for 45/. 

The lands of Loghanecraggy, in said liberties, mort- 
gaged to Thomas Lynch Filz-Patrick for 8(7. 

Laghtybcgg, in said liberties, mortgaged to John Browne 
and Andrew Quin lor GO/. 

Gorteno\ei-, in said liberties, mortgaged to Andrew 
Oge Blake for 85/. 

The island of Altanagh, in the west liberties, bestowed 
by connnon seal to the nuns of St. Clara. — Jiot. 25 Car. 


•■ Irrot. 9th Dec. 1 673. 

' Bill filed 28th January, 1673. Answer of Gregory 
Constable, the mayor, and others, 10th October, 1674. 
'' Stale Letters. Januari^i 2Zcl, 167-1-5. 



mill, solicited Theodore Russell, esq. a colonel in the army, who had amassed 
coiisiJcrable wealth, and was then settled in the town, to enter into a negociation 
with Mrs. Hamilton on the subject. He accordingly, on condition of being 
elected mayor, and continued in that office, purchased from her, in the year iCyi-, 
the charter, market and petty duties for 2,500/.' He was then elected, and served 
eleven years successively, during which time he continued in the exclusive receipt 
of those duties and customs ;'' and, encouraged by the commiseration expressed 
by the lord lieutenant for the decayed and ruinous state of the town, he and the 
rest of the corporation, in the year I67O, petitioned for a new charter, " for the 
encouragement of trade and his majesty's service in the town ;" and that the great 
disbursements of colonel Russell, " to redeem them from their lost condition, 
sliould be provided for, and further compensation made for his great pains and 
favonr therein shewed unto them." This application was favorably received by 
the lord lieutenant ; and accordingly the king, by charter, dated the 14th of 
August, IG7C), ordained and granted that the town of Galway should, at all 
times, for ever thereafter, be one entire and free borough of itselti to be known 
liy the name of the " town and borough of Galway ;" and that the town, and all 
V. itliiii t'ao miles of it, in a direct line, should thenceforth be a countv of itself. 

' Mrs. Hr"..T:i'ton aftcrwarc'.s ilispojc! of all t!ic lands to 
Jnliii ritzpatritk, by wlioni lliey were assigned to John 
Kirwan, bv uocU, Uatcil L'yth October, 16S1. — ViJcClmrl. 
Juc. II. 

' During tliis peviod colonel Russell CNpcricnocd much 
opriO'-ition. Ou 1st Aiigmt, 1679, apprclicnsJvu of being 
dIL-ctiially opposed in his election, he had a resolution 
pxsscd in council, that whoever was elected mayor for the 
ensiiini; year should serve without salary ; antl, although 
■.his secured his own return, he afterwards charged his 
usaal stipend of 200/. for that year. Tlieir disputes also 
l>i(|iicntly descended into downright scuriillty, of which 
an instance is given in the list of mayors and sheriti's. 
1:1 1G80, the following account was ilrasvn up against him 
i V tl:e other members of the corporation. 

Colonel Theodore liusscll, mayor of Galway, Dr. 
To several sums received for charter duties, 

Ac. from 'J 1st July, lo'T-l, to 30th Dec. 

1G7G 1514 4 10 

To charter duties received by Dominick 

B )ilkin, by your order, from oOth Dec. 

I';7C, to 2Jth JIarch, 16S0 - - ITOS 5 2^ 

T" John Vatighan, i'or rent of the market, 

from 2'.»tli September, 1G75, to 2'jth 

September, 1G78, at ICO/, per annum 480 
To same for rent of do. from 29th Sep- 
tember, !G78, to 29th September, 1C80 400 
To rent of the town lands lor live years, 

from 29tli September, 1675, to 29tli 

September, IGSO . - - - 274 18 4 

To the rent of the custom of the tin-f, at 
■ the briilge gate, for £ years, from 29tli 

Seiitembcfj 167C, to 29th Sep. 1678 40 o o 

To the charter duties of beef, from 21st July, 
1674, to C9th September, 1G80. No ac- 
count being yet given of it, notwithstanding 
we know it to be due by charter 
To the receipt of Dominick Bodkin, for goods 

sliipt by coast cocquettc - - - 1 1 S 3 

We find the receipts of the several branches of the 
revenue of the town of Galway, from the 21st Jnly, 1674, 
to the date hereof, to l)C as above stated, pursuant to 
order of council of 4th June last. Dated 5th June, 1GS2. 
Thomas Andrews, &c. 
This account was read in council on tlic loth October 
following, when the corporation was found indebted to 
colonel Russell in ^'1701 \Ss. 8d. — Cvrji. J}ooA. — In 
IGSJ, when they considered him over-paid, they again re- 
quired him to settle accounts, upon w Inch he charged 2000/. 
for ten years salary, as mayor : this they disputed, alleging 
he undertook to serve the office gratis; and, on the 14th 
November, 1G84, petitioned the lord lieutenant and 
council to refer the accoiuits to indifferent persons to 
report thereon. They wero accordingly referred to the 
honorable captain Richard Coote, Sir John Jo[.!iam and 
doctor John Coghill, wlio^e investigation proving uu;;i- 
vorable to the mayor, an order was made by tlie lords 
justices and coimcil, that he slionld give in security ; and 
on 25th April, 1G85, the following entry a]>pears on the 
records of the corporation: — " colonelRussell hath this day 
delivered in council the following pledges, &c. one silver 
bowl of Walter Atliy's, one silver taniard, one silver salt 
with a cover, anil two gold rings of Marcus /iniic Lynch, 
and two pieces of stuff' of Mr. George Davison's."— t'i>/yi. . 
lioo/,-, C. — The change in public affairs wbicli immedi- 
ately after took place, prevented any further iu\ cstig..tiou.. 


corporate and separate from tlie county of Galway, and be known by the name 
of the " county of the town of Galway ;" provided always, that judges of gaol 
delivery, justices of peace, sheriffs and other officers of the coimty at largo, 
should have free ingress and regress, to hold their sessions, &c. in the town. 
'That the corporation should consist of one mayor, two sheriffs, free burgesses 
and commonalty, to be called and known by the name of the " mayor, sheriff's, 
free burgesses and commonalty of the town and county of the town of Galway;" 
by which name they might purchase lands and goods, demise lands, and do all 
other things corporate, plead and be impleaded, and return members to parliament. 
The modern mayor, sheriffs, recorder and tov,-n clerk, were a])pointed, and their 
successors for ever thereafter, to be elective, and to hold for one year. That the 
mayor might appoint a deputy in case of sickness or absence, and that the usual 
oaths should be taken. That he and the recorder, and their deputies, should be 
justices of the peace for the county of Galway ; and directions were given for the 
election of mayor, in case of death in office. That the sheriffs sliould be elective, 
and all writs, bills, Sec. for execution within the town, should be directed to them. 
That no other sheriflF should enter the town to execute his office, except as before 
excepted. The names of the corporate officers to be presented, and the warden 
nominated pursuant to the " new" rules. That no officer should be capable of 
exercising his office until he should take the prescribed oatlis ; and, on refusal, his 
election to be void, unless dispensed with by govei'umcnt. That all officers 
should be chosen by the mayor, sheriffs and common council ; and that no 
freeman should vote, if not of the council. That no matter should be proposed 
in the tholsel until first passed in council. — Regulations were then laid down as to 
the admission of foreigners, artisans, &c. to their fi'ecdom. A guild of merchants 
of the staple was appointed : also that the mayor sherifls, free burgesses and 
commonalty might have and use such several vestments, ensigns and ornaments, 
" for the honour and dignity of the town," as had been used before the y3d day of 
October, 1G41 ; and that the mayor should have a sword borne before him, " for 
the greater eminence of the mayoralty, or office of mayor." That they should 
liave a tholsel wherein to assemble, and have full power and autliority to make bye- 
laws, and punish for the breach of them, provided such bye-laws and punishment 
should be reasonable, and not repugnant to the laws of the kingdom, or the "new" 
rules. That they should for ever thereafter hold a weekl}' coiul on every 
Tuesday and Friday, before the mayor and recorder or their deputies, of all pleas 
and actions upon the case, trespass, &c. arising within the town and county of 
the town, and cause the defendants to be attached by their goods and chattels, or 
their bodies to be arrested and imprisoned. The king then confirmed unto them 
nnd their successors, for ever, all manors, messuages, houses, countries, lands, 
kc. possessed by their predecessors, the mayor, &c. on the 22d of October, lOi], 
and all liberties, franchises, powers, authorities, &c. before that time granted 



Tinto tliem by any royal grants or charters, or enjoyed by any other right or titU'; 
^vhatsoever, saving to Elizabetli Hamilton her rights in and to any lands formcrh' 
belonging to the corporation, and to Theodore Russell his right to the cliarter, 
market and petty duties and customs lately assigned by her ; and it was specially 
ordained that the corporation should not demand or levy any of those customs, 
until he, his assigns or agents, should receive out of the same the sum of '2,,jOO/. 
vliich he disbursed, and be also paid oOO/. over and above, " as a reasonable com- 
pensation for the great pains and trouble imdergone on the belialf and for the 
good of that corporation :" after which they were to revert to the mayor, sheritis, 
free burgesses and commonalty for ever. ' 

For this ample extension of corporate privileges, tlie town was principally 
indebted to the earl of Essex, who evinced every inclination to promote its interest, 
and, if possible, to restore it to its original state : but all exertions of this nature 
proved abortive, for, being deprived of its former respectable population, and pos- 
sessed by a set of men their very opposite, botli in principles and character, who were 
bred up to a military life, and mostly ignorant of any other pursuit, commerce 
entirely declined, and even tlie buildings, for want of inhabitants, were falling to 
the ground. This latter circumstance caused the agent of the duke of Ormond 
(his lordship having some time before obtained a grant of several forfeited houses in 
the town,) to represent, in the year 1679, to the corporation, " that by reason of 
the removal of the market and Irish inhabitants, a greate parte of the houses 
of the towne are falling down;" and he then required, " that such of the Irish of 
the said towne as should give security might be restored." " This, after much 
opposition, was complied with only through necessity. Several of the ancient 
names and families liaving accordingly entered into recognizance for their 
peaceable demeanor, were pei-mitted to return, and tlie trade of the town imme- 
diately after began to revive. " Tliis soon awakened the rankliug hatred and 
jealousy of tlie members of the corporation ; and four months had scarcely elapsed 
■when they assembled, and, in a body, j-cpresented to the mayor, " that several 

' Enrolled 29 C/ia. IT. 2 p. — Vide Appendix, Xo. VII. 
for a copy of the cliartcr carefully collated with the original. 

■" C\,rp. B-ju!c, B. 
f^. ° Ahout this time the corporation became involved in 

a contest willi Mathcw Ouin, oiic oi the old natives of 
the town, coiiccrnini; a branch of their small duties and 
customs. — .An<!rew Lynch, Ouin's uncle, previously to 
;ii-ll, v.'as seized in fee of certain small duties, viz. four 
jicnce for every beef co%\', bullock or ox, and one penny 
fur every hop; or sheep, slaughtered in tiie town or liberties; 
three piMice for e^ei'v cask ol' buttei' sold, twenty [lence 
for every ton of beef, and twenty pence An- every ton of 
butter exported, (whicli were granted by the fonncr cor- 
■ poration to one of said Lynch's ancestors, in consideration, 
nf a sum of money, and an assignment of his dwelling- 
I'.ause, wliich was converted into a tholsel.) These 

duties havini; become forfeited, and \ested in the crown, 
were connnucd to Mathcw Quin, " in consideration of 
his loyalty and sufferings," by patent dated 19th February, 
1072, for 99 years ; and although, as he stated, they were 
never grantcil to the corporation, yet they obstructed him 
in the rceei|)t of thcni. lie was therefore obliged to appeal 
to chancery, and accordingly obtained a decree on 1st 
Jane, 1675, to quiet him in the possesion. — On!;^. Decree, 
Rulls Off. — In 16'80, the corporation coniplnined to the 
chancellor that Ouin, not content with his patent, had, 
by exacting beyond it, augmented to 300/. yearly, what, 
in I Ci I , was f-unictl for 1 s/. and pr.ayed relief. — Corpu- 
rutioii Book, B. — The affair was afterwards comiiiomisei? 
between them. In ICSJ, the duties of the markets and 
the ingate and outgatc customs were set for one vcar foe 
210/.— W. C 



intruders and un-iVccr.icii and others, who keep servants not fitly qualified, do 
daily intrude on our privileges, by thrusting themselves and their servants into 
our said corporation, and keep open shop, to the great indignitye of the hvudablc 
laws and customs of the same."" However inclined the mayor might be, 
he was unable to resist this intolerant body ; and, consequently, many of the 
persecuted pco])lc, who had been so recently admitted, were again obliged to 
quit t!ie town. '' 

For the Hvc succeeding years very little worthy of ol.iservation occurred in tlic 
town, with the exce})tion of a loyal congratulatory address presented, in l()SS, 
by the corporation to Charles II. on the escape of his majesty, and the duke of 
York, from the Rye-house conspiracy ; '^ and a memorial, in the year IGSI, from the 
Catholic merchants and traders, (many of whom had, in the interim, been per- 
niitted to return,) to theloi'd lieu.tenant and council, for a reduction and settlenieiU 
of the charter duties, whereupon a certain schedule was agreed to between thcni 
and the corporation, nnder which these duties afterwards continued to be received.' 
On the accession of James II. to the throne, the hopes of the proscribed Catholic 
jKitives of Gahvay once more revived, and they ventured more freely to approach 
the town. The king having soon after directed the earl of Clarendon, the lord 
lieutenant, to provide for the admission of Catholics to the freedom of corpo- 
rations, colonel Russell, the mayor, on the 'Joth of June, iGSG, received direc- 
tions from his lordship to admit to their freedom such of the Roman Catholic 
merchants and dealers as should desire it, without tendering the oath of supre- 
macy, or any other oaths except those of allegiance and of freemen, at the same 
time nominating nineteen of the principal persons to be immediately admitted 
free, and sworn of the common council. This communication was received with 
dismay. The council assembled ; and, after some debate, the mayor was requested 
to commu)iicate their readiness to admit these, and all other the natives and 

" Corporafion Bool; B. 

^ The words c;!' tlic Itoiium ]ioct miu'ht justly be 
iipphc'd lo the curporator^ on this occiision ; 
" Ncc tecum possum vivcrc, iicc sine Ic. 


' Vide Com. Jour. Vol. 7, AjipcncUx, for this ^x■hecl^^!e. 

' Tile foliowiii!,' extract iioiii tliis aildi'css v. ill shew the 
loyalty and priiiciiiles of the cor|)Oi-ation at this jieriod : 

" V.'e, your majesties diitii'id and loyal snhjcetd, have, in 
this remote an<;le of your dominions, heard of that most 
traytions and bloody conspiraej' of some execrable men, 
actuated by fanatical and rebellions ],rinci|)les, to assassi- 
nate the person of your most sacred miijcstie, ami of your 
royal brother, ami who by that act designed the sub\cr- 
sion of the best of governments, under the blessed influence 
whereof our ancestors flourished for so ma.ny ages, and 
became the envy of our neighbour nation*. The true sense 
of which most horrid contrivance, as it fills our hearts w ith 
humble adoration of that Divine Providence, tliut hath, by 

a series of mercies, so signally appeared in the constaiit 
preservation of your most sacred person, so likewise, villi 
just l-.orror against all traytroiis persons and principles; 
and this, dread sir, being the language of our souls, we 
prestune to lay ourselves with it at yoiu' royal feet, dcclnr. 
ing that we do, in heart and soul, alihor ail fanatical iiiij 
rebellious persons and positions, and are rciidi/ to sacrifice 
all thai is dear tii us, in the drfeiire iif your viosl incrcii 
person and government, and of i/onr dear and roj/al 
brother, and your majesties Imcjul heirs and snecessors, in 
the immediate and legal course of descent : nor can wc, iu 
this juncture, end our presumption, without rcndiriii; 
gratefid acknowledgements to yourtacrcd majesty forllic 
calnuiess we enjoy in this kingdom, under the sedulous 
administration of his grace the duke of Oni:oud, and Us 
excellciiey the lonl deputy ; and that the Almighty may 
ever shield your u;ajcstie irom violent and bluod-tliirsty 
men, and crown your royal head with all lasthig honoui 
and grandeur." — Curj). Zluuh; C. 


rnliabitants of the tovvn, to their freedom ; but as, by the rules of the corporation, 
tlicy were bound and sworn to maintain the ancient customs, one of which was, 
that the common council should be elected only on the Monday after Michaelmas 
Jay, they should be obliged to postpone tliat part of his directions imtil then ; but 
that, on the 2d of July Ibllowing, those to be admitted free would be projiosed 
in tliolsel. In answer to this, the lord lieutenant observed, that iji ej:traurtiinarij 
cases then xcere not hound to anjj particular daij to admit members of the council, 
and peremptorily directed immediate obedience to his former orders. ' Accord- 
ingly, in the begiiniing of July, one hundred and sixty Catholics, of the ancient 
fiames and natives, were sworn, and before the end of the year several others 
' ^\cre admitted, by v.hich time they obtained a complete ascendency in the 
corporation. ' 

After the severe treatment which tlie Roman Catholic inliabitants of the town 
hiul, for many years before this period,' experienced, it would be expecting more 
than the nature of man is capLible of, (at least in an aggregate body, actuated by 
the mingled feelings of passion, prejudice and revenge,) if tliey did not, on the 
present occasion, not only feel elated, but even ])rocccd to lengths which, under 
other circumstances, would be unjustifiable. In tlie scenes wliich follow, however, 
they exercised their newly-acquired power with moderation, compared with the 
former proceedings of their opponents. Soon after their admission, they informed 
the lord lieutenant tliat tlie revenues of the town were embezzled and misapplied, 
and offered to prove the fact, if an investigation were ordered. This was pro- 
mised; and the mayor, wlio was principally concerned in the charge, was directed 
not to ofler himself as a candidate for that ofKce the ensuing year, and he w^as 
soon after ordered to march with his regiment to Athlone. " On the 1st of 
August, IGSG, John Kirwan Fitz-Stephen, (afterwards Sir John Kirwan, of Castle- 
hacket,) a Catholic, was elected mayor for the ensuing year; and the earl of 
Chuu'icarde, another, was appointed governor of the town. 

From the accession of James II. Galway and its ancient inhabitants were parti- 
cularly marked out as objects of the royal fiivor and protection. The latter all 
professed the same religious princij)les as the king, (for adhering to which, it was 
nniversally known, they had suflered every species of degradation and persecution 
during the last thirty years,) a circumstance which, in itselfj was sufficient to 
recommend them to his attention. Independently of this, his ministers judged 
that, in case of any serious opposition and resistance to the arbitrary measures and 
rchgious projects of the monarch, it would be prudent to have a place, so con- 
siderable for strength and situation as Galway, (tliat so recently before had 
sustained so memorable a siege,) jiroperly munited, and entirely devoted to their 

' Cvrporntion Bool, C. Id. " Jd^ 


interest ; and, with this point in view, the strengthening of tlie town became an 
obiect of ..particular consideration. A draught of the fbrtitications having, hy 
. his majesty's order, been laid before him, he caused several additional works to bi.' 
planned out, wliich, if carried into eiFect, would have rendered the town impreg- 
nable ; but matters of a more momentous nature prevented their being put into 
execution. Lord Clanricarde, having arrived to take possession of his government, 
was receivcil with the most lively demonstrations of joy : every old recollection, 
W'hich endeared the memory of his great and distinguished predecessor, became 
revived in the minds of the people ; and the days of their greatness, though for 
ever past, seemed in fancy to be once more returned. Soon after his arrival, the 
mayor and corporation petitioned him to open an old ])assage through the upper 
citadel into the town, oir'ering, for the accommodation, to raise the surroundinj; 
vralls, make up the gates, and repair the draw-bridges, at their own expense, 
ilis lordship declined doing this on his own authority, but submitted the matter 
to the lord lieutenant, accompanied by his opinion, and that of several officers 
then in the town, that it would add considerably to the strength of the place. 
He further informed him, that the gate recpiired to be o])ened was the ancient and 
usual way from the country, but that, after the town had been taken by Cromwell's 
forces, it was walled up, and a bye })assage made outside the citadel, to render it 
more secure against the natives. The lord lieutenant, equally unwilling to give 
his sanction without having that of higher authorit}^ accordingly transmitted the 
entire to England "" for directions, "before he signified his assent. This extraor- 
dinary caution, in an affair of so trifling a nature, shews what importance was 
then attached to every circumstance connected with the security of the town. 

During tlie year l(iS7, multitudes of the former natives and their fiunilies flocked 
to the town, and were restored to their properties and freedom. The Catholic 
clergy also returned, and reclaimed their respective places of worship, to the inex- 
pressible mortification and grief of the Protestant inhabitants, who were quietly 
obliged to submit to this extraordinary change of affairs, without even daring to 
remonstrate against the encroachments which were daily making upon their rights. 
In the beginning of the year, Nagle, the king's attorney-general, issued a Quo- 
Xi^cuTanto against the corporation, upon which they entered into a resolution cither 
to plead or siu'render the charter, as the recorder, Sir Henry Lynch, should consider 
most prudent ; but judgment having afterwards passed against them, it was seized 
into the king's hands, v;ith a promise, however, of an immediate renewal containing; 
more ample privileges. To defray the expense of the new charter, one lumdred 
and fifty ])ounds were levied on the town, and on the 12th of March following 
it was obtained. As the nature of this short-lived though vohuninous instrument 

Letter to Lord Dartmouth, Mh Sept, IGSC. 



\i at present but little known, a translated abstract of its contents may, to many, 
prove particularly interesting ;' though, like all the other acts of king Jaines in 
Ireland, it was afterwards declared void. 

The restored natives having now succeeded in every point, to the utmost extent 
of their wishes, were principally occupied, during the greater part of the ensuin"- 
year, in the regulation of the town, and the establishment of tlie clergy. Their 

' Abstract of the cliartcr of James II. to Galway. 
The kina, after stating tliat tlie town was ancient and 
populous, ordained that it should for ever be and remain 
a free borough and a separate comity. — Tiie corporation 
to consist of o:ic mayor, o)ic recorder, twenlt/sLr aldermen, 
luv shcrifls, sixti/ free burgesses and one chamberlain. — 
John Kirwan, est;, to be the modern mayor. — Garret 
.Moore, c«q. Sir Walter Blake, bart. Roebuck Lynch, 
Kobcrt Bkikc, Doniiuick Browne, James D'Arcy, Oliver 
?dartvn, Francis Blake, Nicholas French senior, Henry 
B!.i!:c, Robert French, Andrew Blake, Martin Kirwan 
Fil7-l'atrick, AValtcr Blake esquires ; George Staunton, 
Ai'ibrose Lvnch, Stephen Dcane, Thomas Deanc, Robert 
Kirwan, Peter Kirwan Fitz-Francis, merchants; James 
Bro'.vno Fitz-Edward, William Hill, Jon.athan Perry, 
Thomas licvett, Thomas Simcockes and John Gerry, 
to be th.e modern tiroiti/sij: alderman diu'ing their 
rc'pective lixcs. — James Browne and Marcus Kirwan, 
r.oclcrn sherilfs. — Denis Daly, esq. one of the justices of 
the common-pleas ; Sir Henry Lynch, bart. one of the 
! .irons of the exchequer; Peter .Martin, esq. one of the 
iu?ticcs of the common pleas; Ce."ald Dillon, esq. prime 
firjcant. Francis Plowden, John Browne, Charles Daly, 
George French, George Browne, Anthony Dodkin, Xieliu- 
la-i Lynch Fitz-IMarcus, Arthur French, Peter Blake 
Fitz-Richard, Nicholas French junior, Richard Blake, 
Oiivcr Browne, Francis Foster, Patrick Lynch Fitz- 
l;obcrt, Joseph Lynch, Marcus Blake Fitz-Walter, 
.\a<lrcw French, Artlmr Lynch Fitz-Roebuck, Nicholas 
Lvnch Fitz-Rocbuek, John Blake Fitz- Valentine, Roebuck 
French, Patrick French Fitz-Roebueic, esquires; James 
K\anM. D. Thomas Martin M.D.Mark Browne Fitz- 
Waltcr, John Martin Fitz-Richard, Dominick Lynch 
Fi;z-John, Laurence Deane, Thomas Blake Fitz-Jolin, 
Ki'-h:u'd Lynch senior, Dominick Ffrench Fitz-Patrick, 
Thonws Lynch Fitz-Petcr, Gregory Nolan, Francis 
Blake Fitz-Andrcw, Edniond Skerrett Fitz-Dominick, 
Vatrick Blake Fitz-Andrew, Peter Blake Fitz-Nicholas, 
S;o|ihen Lynch Fitz-Nicholas More, Richard Lynch 
i aii.;r, Jasper French Fitz-Robert, Patrick D'Arcy, 
b'ucr D'Arev, ilartin D'Arcy Fitz-Ricluu-d, IMartin 
li'.Vrcy Fitz-Petcr, Patrick French Fitz-Gcorge, John 
lioJkin Fitz-Ambrose, Edmond Bodkin Fitz-Patrick, 
Sanuiel Cambie, Edniond Ffrencli Fitz-Patrick, James 
FlVcach Fitz-Andrew, Thomas Staunton, JNIartin King, 
Marcus L\nch, Thomas Ycaden, William Cleer and 
Denis Kelly, to be the modern sit/y burgesses during 
their respective lives. — Power was then given to elect a 
mayor and two slierill's yearly ; also, from time to time, 
ill case of .'icath, removal or vacancy, to elect aldermen, 
• and to fine cfliccrs elected who should refuse to ber\c, 
l)ut the fines not to exceed one hucJied marks, One 

chamberlain to be elected by the conunon council, and to 
be continued during its pleasure. William Hill appointed 
modern chamberlain. The corporation to have one 
recorder,^ to be called " the recorder of the town of 
Calway," ijuam diu sc bene gessciit : Thomas Lynch, esq. 
appointed the modern recorder, and power given to the 
mayor, sheriffs, free burgesses and commonalty to elect 
his successors. The aldermen, chamberlain and recorder 
before named, and their successors, and James Foster, esq. 
Thomas Bourke, esq. Francis Lynch Fitz-George, Francis 
Lynch Fitz-Janics, Patrick Nolan, Ignatius Browne, 
Nicholas Lynch Fitz-Dominick, Thomas Nolan, Nicholas 
Lynch Fitz-John, Peter L>ncli Fitz- John, John Joyes, 
Valentine Biowne, John Lynch Fitz-Michael, Martin 
French Fitz-Robert, Bartliulumevv Lynch, Andrew Athy, 
Baitholomcw Riiller, Nicholas Lynch Fitz-Wiliiaiii, 
Thomas Browne Fitz-Edw ard, merchants ; John Vaughan^ 
senior, Francis Knapp, Thomas Rutledge, Thoma? 
Andrews, Richard Wall, RichardBrowne, Thomas Wilson, 
Andrew Begg,ThomasLnglish, Peter French Fitz-Edmond, 
Peter Browne Fitz-Christopher, Francis Browne Fitz- 
Christopher, and Nicholas Lynch Fitz-Anibrose, were 
constituted freemen. 

The in.\\or was empowered to appoint a deputy in case 
of sickness or absence, and the leeorder to ajipoint ii 
deputy during pleasure. Deputies to take the usual 
oaths. Power given to the mayor and corporation to ap- 
point inferior officers during pleasure. A court of record 
to be held belbre the mayor and recorder on every Tuesday 
and Friday for ever, to hear and determine all actions, as 
well real as [icTbOiial, within the town, its franchises and 
liberties, with power to have a gaol within the town. A 
yearly fair on St. Bartholomew's day, and the three fol- 
lowing days; a market within the town every AVcdnesday 
and Saturday, and a court of pye-powder, with all tolls 
incident thereto granted. Power to the mayor, sheriHs, 
fieo burgesses and commonalty to appoint succeeding 
mayors, but they were not to exercise their office until 
approved of by the chief governor or go\ernors. The 
mayor, for the time being, to be cscbcator and coroner of 
the town and county of the town, also to be clerk of the 
market and master of the assayc for ever ; and to luive the 
assize of bread and beer, and weights and measures witbin 
the town and the franchises thereof. The shcritli empow- 
ered to hold county courts within the town and county 
of the town. The mayor and recorder, for the time being, 
to be justices of the peace, as well within the tosvn .and 
county of the town, as for the county of Galway at large ; 
and power to have tour other justices of the peace, of the 
aldermen of the town, within the town and county of t!ie 
town, (to be elected and appointed, from time In time, by 
the mayor and the rest of the cojiimon council,) to con- 

/; ; 



affairs, for a short time, bore every appearance of lasting peace and security, but 
all these flattering prospects were destined soon to vanish. Rumours of resistance 
to the government, and of secret associations for the purpose of opposing its 
measures, now, foi- the first time, awakened the town to a sense of approaching 
troubles ; and aware that, as Catholics, their fate depended on the continuance of 
the present order of affairs, they renewed their protestations of attachment to the 
state, and their determination to support it at the expense of their properties ami 
their lives. The most unlimited confidence was placed in their fidelity. The 
troops stationed in the town ha\ing been ordered on other duty by lord Tyr- 
connel, he confided the care of the garrison to the townsmen ; and on the 15th of 
October it was ordered, in common council, that '-all the inhabitants, under a 
certain penalty, should watch, each in turn, during the absence of the standing 

tiinio ill office respectively tUiriiig good belia\ioiu". John 
Kii'w;in, tlic prc-ciit modem iiuuor, Sir Wiilter Blake, 
baronet, Robert Blake and Doniiniek Browne, appointed 
tlie modern justices of tlie peace within the town and 
county of the town, during good beliaviour. Tlie justices 
of tlic peace, or any tlirce of them, of whom tlie mayor 
for the time being, or liis deputy, or the recorder for the 
time being, or his deputy, to be one, should, for ever, have 
power and authority to hear and determine all transgres- 
sions and matters whatsoever within the town and county 
of the town. Power granted to iiave, for ever, one guild 
of merchants of the staple, consisting of one mayor, two 
constables, and such number of the merchants of the town 
as to the said mayor and constables should seem expedient. 
The mayor of the town to be nuuor of the staple, and 
the shcrifta to be constables of the staple, for the years suc- 
ceeding their offices. George Staunton appointed rtiodern 
mayor of the staple, and Richard Lynch and Jonathan 
Pcrrj- constables, with all such privileges and powers as 
were enjoyed by any other mayor and constables of the 
staple in any other city or town in Ireland. Power given 
to the corporation to have a sword-bearer, and John .Scott 
was appointed to that office : also to have four Serjeants 
at mace at the least. Power also given to have two bur- 
gesses in parliament, to be elected by the mayor and the 
rest of the common council of the town and county of 
the town. All goods and chattels of felons, felos-de-se, 
and fugitives, an<l waifs and wrecks of the sea, arising 
within the town and county of the town, the franchises 
and liberties of the same, were granted to the mayor and 
corporation; also all such c.istles, niesMiages, burgages, 
lauds, tenements, iSic. and all goods and chattels, and 
magisterial insignia, francliises and liberties, &0. as the 
mayor, bailiffs, burgesses and commonalty of the town 
theretofore ever liad, used, or enjoyed under any char- 
ters, grants, or. letters patent, or under jiiiy other legal 
right, custom, use, prcscriution or title whatsoever, to 
hold of the king, as of his castle of Dublin, for the rents 
and services thereout due and accustomed. 

The several charters of Richai-il II. Henry VIII. Queen 
Elizabeth, and James I. were inspected, and all and 
singular the liberties, franchises, usages and customs, in 
'Jvery of them specified and contained, and in all other 

letters patent of any other kings of England to them 
granted, were fully confirmed to tlie corporation. The port 
of Galway, and the bay or arm of the sea wliich entcre 
between the islands of An-nii, and from thence flows to 
the town, were granted, and also that all vessels and boats 
which should enter the port should be loaded and dif- 
cliarged at the town. Several tolls and duties were granted 
for the maintenance and support of the town and coiintv 
of the town, and for the repair of tlie walls, gates and 
liridges, and for pavage and other public works, at the 
yearly rent of 31/. \'Js. Sd. to he paid to the king anJIiis 
successors, saving all and every jurisdiction and privilcgci 
belonging to the high admiral of the king, his heirs ami 
successors. Power granted to the mayor, sherifii., free 
burgesses and commonalty, and their successors, or tl;e 
greater part of them, to adnnt and make freemen of the 
town and county of the town, taking the usual outlis of 
a freeman and allegiance before the mayor. Power also 
given to the chief governor of the king, his heirs and 
successors, at his pleasure, by ordci' of the privy council, 
from time to time, to remove from the offices of mayor, 
recorder, aldermen, sheriffs, free burgesses, or other offi- 
cers of the town and county of ihe town. Power granted 
that the mayor, sherills, burgesses and commonalty, and 
their successors, might have, hold, use and enjoy to their 
own use, without molestation, all liberties, franchises, 
jurisdictions, taxations, usages, tnsloms, duties, ininiu- 
iiities, lands, tenements, goods and chattels, according to 
the tenor of the present letters patent : also grunted that 
in any commission of gaol delivery within the comity of 
the town, the ma) or for the time being should be the lira 
named in every such commission. Twenty or more of the 
conmion council were to form a council, and their acts to 
be valid. The charter of Edward VI. to the collrec 
recited. Power grantetl to the mayor, sherifi's, free bur- 
gesses and commonalty, anil their successors li>r cicr, 
yearly, on the feast of .St. Peter, to elect and remove the 
warden and vicars, with all such rights as were enjoMd 
relative to them on the 23d of October, 1G41, anJ ai 
were granted by Edw. VI. And the charter concludo 
with a saving for John Kirwan, the major, of his right \a , 
the lands purchased from IMrs. Hamilton. — Rut. I'at. i 
Jac. II. 2 2'- 


.-.-"iv." In answer to a communication from IVlr. justice Daly to the mayor, he was 
; lijnncd, on tlie 'ilst of November, that the town would be able to furnish three 
companies of foot, consisting of two hundred men, and a troop of horse ; and, on 
the Gth of December following, it was ordered, at a public assembly, that six 
companies should be raised. The walls were soon after cleared, the guns mounted, 
and the gates and fortifications thoroughly repaired, by the directions of the lord 
deputy, but at the expense of the town. The earl of Clanricarde was soon after 
cMipowered, by order of the common council, to prostrate all the cabins adjoining 
tliu walls, and to demolish the several forts in the east liberties. The ditches were 
5Courcd by the assistance of the soldiery ; the pillars at the exchange on the quay, 
:uk1 the wall at the point of Rintinane, were pulled down, and the draw-bridgc 
nt the west was made up. Tlie public markets were then ordered to he held in 
the high street before the mayor's Irouse; the town's-people got public notice to 
be timely provided with all necessary provisions, in case of a siege; and, before the 
ciul of the year, the town was put into a tolerable state of defence by the inha- 
bitants, who were fully resolved to hold out against any attempt which might be 
made by the enemies of government. ^ 

The king, as soon as he heard of these spirited preparations of the town of 
Gidway, expressed himself in the highest terms of satisfaction. In July, iGSf), 
three aditional companies were raised, and the ofticers chosen were presented to his 
majesty for approbation. " Tlie Protestant inliabitants were afterwards removed, 
by the governor, to the west suburbs, ibr the better security of the town. " In 
April following the mayor received directions, by order of the king in council, 
" to put out of the court of aldermen and common council, such Protestants and 
ilisailected men as sliould appear to him to be such, and to send their names 
presently to Dublin." Commissioners soon after arrived to view the state of the 
town, who directed several repairs to be made on the walls, and a fortification to 
be built round Barachalla. For these works 800/. were, on the 3d and 11th of 

* C:>:-p. Bnn/;, C. (then Sii-Tliom!is) Southwell, were taken prisoners in 168f>^ 

■ Tlio ofllccrs were, Stephen Lynch ritz-Nicholns, l)y James Power, high slicriH' of the county of G;ih\av, 

f ,|it.;in of the i,'reiit gate qimrtcr, who nominated Chris- and conveyed to the town for seciu'ity. This narrative, 

:'V!i'.r LynL'hFil;',-Pi;ti-r lieutenant, and WiUiam Vau;;han Lud^c, the author of The Peerage of Ireland, without 

r >i"\. — .M,i;-tiii I'rc'.nh Titz-Pcter, captain of tlie httle sufficient investigation, introduced into his account of the 

I .ti; c|;ijrtcr, who nominated .Jau)es Lynch I'itz-Dominick Southwell peerage — To/. )T. ]>. 20 — though lie might 

.( iitoiruit, and Francis Kirwan ensign. Alexander easily have perceived that it was a stateuient worked up 

;i.\'iH'''., captain of the new tower quarter, who nominated iiicrely to excite the attention of government towards 

\Vil!lniii Lynch Fiiz-AnJrcw licutcna.nt,and I'homas Ryan some of tlios'j individuals, at a time wiien few would ven- 

'ii-ii'ii; and Dominick Kirwan captain of the quay quarter, ture to contradict them. The truth however is, that this 

»liii nominated Francis L\nch Fitz-V/iUiam licutcuaut, party was intercepted while passing through the country, 

r_i 1 IV'ter Heync ensign, ;dl of whom were approved of in a state of open hostility, and that while they remained 

by the king. — Jil. prisoners in Galway they experienced the mildest trcat- 

' After the cessation of hostilities in Ireland, a narrative inent : they were all comfortahly lodged and carefully pro- 

n-a* [iiiblishcd purporting to give a true account of many vided for in the town, and many of them were even at 

rnicities pretended to have been inllicted on a number of large on their parole of honor, until they were c.\chan|^cd 

Proicstant gentlemen anil others, who, with the first lord alter the battle of the Boyne. 


July, ordered to be levied on the inliabitants. The community of St. Francis 
supplied stone and other materials ; and the remainder of that year and part of 
the next were consumed in their completion. 

The eventful day that was to decide the fite of the town was now drawing nigh. 
On the I'Jth of July, 1G!)1, the hostile armies of the two contending monarclis 
met on tlie memorable plains of Aughrim, whence the noise of their cannon might 
be easily heard at its gates. It is not our intention to enter into a description of 
the sanguinary and decisive engagement which here took place : the awful news 
of its result was known that niglit in the town, whither several of the fugitives 
fled for shelter. The alarm of the inhabitants may be easily conceived to have 
been extreme, and every preparation was made for defence. I\lany, however, were 
so panic-struck, tliat they would have compromised for their safety by immediately 
surrendering, almost on any terms. Lord Dillon, the governor, the Trench licu- 
tcn.ant general D'Ussone, and the other officers of rank in tlie town, immediately 
held a council of war. It appeared that the town, thougli strong and well stored 
with provisions, was deficient in men and arms, which were drawn away by 
degrees to supply other exigencies. The garrison consisted but of seven regi- 
ments of foot with a few troops of horse, and these neither full nor well armed; 
but their great dependance was on the promises of Balldearg O'Donncll, whom 
they hourly expected from lar-Connauglit with the troops under his conunand.' 
Tliough thus circumstanced, it was unanimously resolved to defend the town. 
General Ginckle, the English commander, having judged it necessary to reduce 
Galway before he should proceed to Limerick, after a few days delay to refresh 
his troops, marched on tlie 17th oi' July towards Atlicnry, and encamped on 

■^ A persecuted people will gra<:p nt every shadow in ex- 
j)Cclation of deliverance. Of this truth the career of this 
Iri-h adventurer is strongly i'lustrati\c. He was dcsceiulcd 
from one of the branches of the Tyrconnell family, and 
was born and educated in Spain, whither his ancestors fled 
from persecution in 1607. The Irish, who at all times 
were fond of listening and paying attention to old pro- 
phecies, (pai-ticularly such as predicted relief Irom the 
oppressions of England,) had an idle prediction for a long 
time current amongst them, that a descendant of that 
old family, who was to bo distinguished by a red mark, 
f If. Balldcai-g,) would restore their broken alfairs, and, by 
h'.s conduct and gallant actions, free his country from the 
yoke of the English. The coincidence of his name and 
frimily induced many to apply tliis prediction to Bnlldcurg 
V'Dciincl/, and he was accordingly sent for to Spain. Kc 
crrived in Limerick in September, 1 COO, and several 
thousands flocked to his standard. Their e.xjiectations 
however failed; he achieved worth noticing, nor 
does it appear that he was possessed of any one quali- 
iicatiou for command. During the battle of Aughrim 
he remained inactive at the house of a Mr. MilUr at 
Ballycuslican, sLk miles from Tuam; liaving a party 

of about one thousand men at Hcadford, Ballinrobc, and 
other parts of tlic country, who, when they heard i!:t 
rc-nlt of the battle, were for retreating to the nioiii;. 
tains; but the English army not coming up as soon ui 
they apprehended," Balldc::rg, at the instance of dodo: 
Lyiich, titular dean of 'J'uam, (instead of niarchin; 
to the relief of Galway, being the only point in which 
he coiiUl be then serviceable to liii party,) sent a boJjf 
of troops to Tuaiii, who, under pretence that llit 
peoj'de were making preparations to receive the EngliJi 
armv, pillaged and burned the town. He then marchid 
to Coug in'the county of Mayo ; but by tliat ihr.e, if he 
had ever intended it, he was rimlercil to rclicvt 
Cialway, for his followers dwindled away to about sii 
hundred men. He remained among the mountains iinlil 
at'terthe surrenderof the town, when he joined tl;e Er.L'liih 
army, and, having had the meanness to accept of a com- 
misMon from Ginckle, assisted at tlie taking of ^li;;!). 
Thus ended the career of this pretended deliverer: from 
which it may be concluded that the pre phecy was cidm 
false, or misapplied in his person. \\'hM became of liin 
afterwards has not bee;i thought worth the trouble of in- 


Oie surrounding plains. On the same day he advanced, with a party, three miles 
nearer Galway, to a rising ground, from whence he could see the shipping in the 
bay. On his return to tlie camp he found a Mr. Shaw, a merchant of tlie town, 
(who, with a few other Protestants, had that morning escaped,) from whom he 
received a full account how matters stood within. This information was the more 
satisfactory, as it differed entirely from what he had ])reviously received from 
others, that the garrison consisted of five thousand men, and those well armed ; 
that the stores were considerable, and the town almost impregnable ; that Sarsfield, 
with the whole of the Irish horse, was upon his march with a resolution to raise 
the siege ; and that Balldearg's party was above six thousand strong : all which 
led him to apprehend that he would have more trouble with Galway than he 
expected, and that the siege would be protracted to the ensuing winter ; a 
circumstance whicli, above all others, he was most anxious to avoid. 

At this junctin-e, Denis Daly, of Carrownekelly, in the county of Galway, esq.' 
second justice of the court of common pleas, and one of the privy counsellors of 
James II. " dispatched a messenger to general Ginckle, desiring that a party might 
be sent for him, who should seemingly force him from his habitation; a circum- 
stance which he conceived would lead to a more speedy surrender of the town. 
It seems that this gentleman, whose distinguished worth and integrity had gained 
him the confidence and esteem of all parties, had, with the other principal 
gentlemen of the county, for several months previous to the battle of Aughrim, 
held a correspondence with the English government, for the submission and 
general pacification of this part of tlie kingdom ; to cfiect which, he proposed, 
amongst other things, the surrender of Galway. He had measures preconcerted 
with a few of the principal inhabitants of the town for the purpose, vi-ho, clearly 
foreseeing that resistance would be useless, had privately authorized the proposal, 
promising all their assistance to have the town delivered up, and that on stipulated 
terms, much more advantageous than those subsequently obtained by capitulation. 
Matters being so arranged, a party of the English army had, in the preceding 
winter, marched as far as the Shannon, on their way towards Galway ; but the 
French party having, in the mean time, gained the entire ascendency in the town, 
the project failed. On the present occasion, iiowever, judge Daly conceived that 
the apparent forcible seizure of his person would induce those with M'liom he had 
formerly ncgociatcd, (and by whose assent he had made the undertaking to 
government,) to excite a party in the town who would insist on a surrender, to 

■> Thi-'. eminent individual, " whose impai'tiality and in- preserved by his son, the ri^ht honorable Denis Daly, rt 

tcgrity (in those arduous times) added lustre to his judicial distinguished senator in the Irish house of connnons, and 

character," \vas prandt'ather of the late James Daly, of by him transmitted to his only son, James Daly, aq. 

Dnnsandle, in the county of Gahvay, esq. who, aliout now representative for the county of Cahvay in the iui- 

the beginning of the present reign, acquired a prcponder- pciial parliaiiicut, — J'klc Ludae, Vol, III. p. 39C. 
ating influence in the corporation of GaKvay. wliich was 


prevent the useless effusion oflunnan blood : bnt in this he was also disappointed, 
for tlie French faction still prevailed ; and thougli some of the magistrates and, 
many of the tovv'nsmen were for surrendering, several of them were imprisoned 
for declaring their intentions. The defence of tiie town was tiierefore, as ah-eadv 
mentioned, determined upon ; and Ginckie, encouraged by the information of 
Sliaw, at length resolved to besiege it. 

This resolution was, however, considered by some as too ])rcmature : the sum- 
mer was now advanced, and Limerick, the principal strength and depcndance of 
the nation, was yet to be reduced. The capture of Galway, it was consitlered, 
would immediately follow that of Limerick, or, should it even hold out, that it 
v,'ould be more easily taken by a winter siege than that important place, whicli, 
the year before, had defeated tlie English army, commanded by tlie kin"- in 
person. It was therefore concluded, that it would l)e more advisable to statiou 
sufficient forces in Athenry, Loughrea, and the other neighbouring towns and 
positions, to keep the garrison of Galway in awe, and, with the main body of the 
army, wlule it was fresh and flushed with victory, immediately to Jay sieo'e to 
Limerick. Tlie general, however, more prudent!}' reflected on the danger of 
leaving so considerable a place as Galway behind him, which, althougli the o-ar- 
rison was then weak, miglit be reinforced by Balldearg O'Donnell, or by French 
troops which were daily expected in the bay, and thereljy become too powerful 
for his army, which had already been considerably reduced. For these reasons, 
he resolved to lose no time in commencing the siege, and made every necessary 
preparation for the purpose. He immediately informed the lords justices of his 
determination ; and they dispatched an express to ca])tain Cole, commander of 
a squadron then cruising about the mouth of the Shannon, to sail with all expe- 
dition to Galway, and empowered him to offer conditions, in case the town should 
make proposals; but he did not arrive until after its surrender, and was then 
ordered to return to his former station. 

"While these preparations were making for the siege, the town was equally active 
in preparing for defence. Tlie French began to repair the fortified works on the 
hill ; the town's-people were employed on the fort, near the south-cast corner of 
the wall ; several strong works were thrown up to defend the cast gate, and all tlic 
cabins and hedges round the suburbs were levelled. Within the walls eight funs 
were planted on the upper citadel ; near it was a platform of six, and eight or ten 
more were raised at the south-east corner. Upon the turret, which stood towards 
the middle of the long curtain that extended next the bay, there were two, and 
on the side next tlie river five more, which, with those planted towards the west 
and north, made about fifty pieces of cannon. Many of these, however, were old 
and ill-mounted ; some of the best guns belonging to the town iiaving been shortly 
])cfore taken away for other urgent services, and several fine brass pieces lay 
dismounted and useless in the streets. Although there was a considerable stoia 


of provisions, a grout quantity of meal, salt, and other additional supplies, was 
brouglit from the sliipping in the bay. Before the movement of the army towards 
the town commenced, a party of horse, commanded by the famous colonel Lutterel, 
attempting to a})]n-oach and assist the town, wlis met by a body of cavalry posted 
at Kilcolgan, and forced to retire. Th.e Irish commanders also attempted to throw 
in reinibrccments across the bay from the county of Clare ; but upon the appear* 
aiicc of captain Morgan, with a })arty vmder his command, they were prevented, 
alter a skirmish in which three or four of their men were killed and cigiit taken 
inisoncrs. These disappointments, however, did not dishearten the town but 
rather stimulated all its exertions, and every preparation was made to defend it 
to the last extremity. ' 

On the morning of the lOtli of July, the English forces, consisting of upwards of 
iburteen thousand men, chiefly infantry, marched from Athenry foi- Galway. The 
remainder of the army, consisting of three thousand horse and dragoons, was left 
there under the command of lieutenant-general Scra\'emnore and major-general 
Iluvigny, as well for the convenience of ibrage, and securing the passes for the 
cannon intended to be sent for to Athlonc, (siiould the siege prove tedious,) as 
for observing the motion of the Irish forces. The troops advanced in two 
'cohuTins, with .a rear-guard of one Iiundred men to each wing, commanded by a 
lieutenant-colonel, and pnc.h regiment preceded by a captain, ensign, and fifty 
firelocks. They met with no opposition in their approach, imtil they arrived within 
view of the town, when some skirmishes took place between the advanced posts 
and parties of the French and Irish forces. The latter set fire to the castle of 
Tircllan, to prevent the enemy making any use of it against the town, and retained 
the possession of the outworks of the castle, until they were driven from them 
by the repeated attacks of a superior force ; after which they approached the 
town by the river, and burned all the suburbs beyond the north-west gate. In 
these rencontres several of the English were killed. The Irish troops then 
entered the town amid loud acclamations, and the besieged manifested everv in- 

' Tlic following ilcscri|)tion of the town at this period of land, Iiaving G'ahvay bay on the south and south-east, 

was given by Stoi-y, author of the " Wars of Ireland" a large river coining from lough-Corl)e on tlie west, and 

who was liiniself attached to the English army at the time towards the north there lies a low bog, through the midst 

and present at the siege : — " The town of Galv.ay is, no of which runs a narrow but deep river, proceedini; fropi 

(ioiibt, one of the mo->t ancient in Irchuul; and yet I do not the great one that slides by the town : this river and bo" 

fmd many rep.iLirkable things of it formerly, it being always extend about a mile and a half towards the north-cast, 

rather a place of trade than action of anotlior nature. It and then end together, the river sinking under ground 

was first governed by a pi'ovost, then sovereign and at the foot of a large hill, but appears again at an olj 

haylift's, then a mayor and baylifts, now by a mayor and castle nigh Oranniofe, where it runs into the utmost 

sherirts. It was most of it burnt in the year 1500, but creek of the bay. 'The ridi;e of land between the bog and 

soon rebuilt by reason of the richness of the inhabitants : the ba}' towards the ea^l is Init very narrow, and may with 

the houses within the walls are generally very strong, and no great dillicidty be fortified, without which the town is 

streets narrow. There lived a great many rich merchants not to be defended, since an army may approach, under 

in it of late, by reason of the conveniency of its situation covert of the ridge, within less than an hundred yards of 

for trade with Spain or France, but most of them are the wall, where there is a raising ground that overlooks a 

Irish, The town is seated at the foot ol' a narrow ridge great part of the town." — London, ic;il-j. 



Mention of making the most vigorous resistance. Ginckle not expecting sucli 
immediate and determined opposition, as soon as a part of the army was drawn 
up as near the town as he could approach witli safety, judged it prudent to summon 
the garrison to surrender. He offered them tlie benefit of the lords justices' late 
declaration, if they yielded without giving him any further trouble or delay, but 
the governor made answer, " that jMonsieur D'Ussone, as well as himself, and 
the i-est of the ofiicers, were resolved to defend the place to the last." "While the 
messenger remained in town, tlie soldiery, impatient for action, discharged several 
sliots from the cannon on the walls, which was afterwards complained of as 
unusual, and contrary to the rules of vrar, but it appeared the men were not aware 
oi' the communication. The remainder of the day was occupied in fixing the posi- 
tions of the army round the town, during which the cannonading continued from 
the walls, though it was attended but with very little effect, in consequence of the 
i'avorable situation of the ground chosen by the besiegers. As soon as it was dark, 
the four regiments of colonels Tiffins, St. John, Monsieur Cambons and lord 
George Hamilton, with one Dutch and another Danish regiment of foot, and four 
stpradrons of horse and dragoons, all commanded by lieutenant-general Mackay, 
crossed the river nearly opposite the castle of Menlo, about two miles north of the 
tov/n. They were all safely o\-er by break of day, and met with no opposition 
except from a party of" dragoons sent to oppose their landing, which, being overpow- 
ered by superior numbers, was obliged, after a severe skirmish, to retreat. This 
formidable detachment (which was wafted over on floats previously constructed, 
but without success, to seize the only three ships that remained in the bay, and 
which sailed that night) occupied all the passes from lar-Connauglit, and put an 
end to any further hopes of succour from Balldearg O'Donnell. This disappoint- 
ment was followed by another, resulting from the treachery of one Bourke, a 
captain in the Irish army, who deserted, before the English were many hours 
before the town, and informed general Ginckle that the fort towards the south-east 
was nearly finished ; and, therefore, the sooner it was attacked, the easier it would 
be gained : he also added, that from its importance, as it commanded a great 
part of the wall on that side of the town, its loss would considerably dispirit 
tlie besieged. 

Tiie next morning, July 20th, count Nassau and general Talmash, with a party 
of grenadiers and two regiments of foot, were conducted, by Bourke, the safest 
and nearest direction to attack the fort, and the troops arrived almost at the foot 
of the works before they were discovered. This unexpected attack having caused 
considerable confusion within, the English pushed forward through some faint 
firings, and threw in their grenadoes, which obliged the soldiers to abandon the 
fort, and retire by a line of communication drawn between it and the town. In this 
action the English had only a lieutenant and five men killed, and but tM-o lieu- 
tenants and eight men wounded. As soon as they entered the fort, a tremendous 


fi'i' was o])ciied on lliein from the walls, by which several Arere killed and wounded, 
jKirticiihirlj their principal engineer, who fell as he was giving orders to his men. 
In the mean time the west suburbs were set on lire, to prevent their being 
pbsessed by the troops that crossed the river, and the besieged still shewed in 
every quarter the most determined resolution of resistance. But at that moment 
the principal inhabitants, who before were inclined to surrender, waited on the 
governor, and, representing the impossibility of maintaining the town a<i-ainst 
such an army, made use of every argument to persuade him to enter into a treaty. 
Tlieir councils at length prevailed, and at the hour often o'clock he ordered a parley 
to be Iieat, and dispatched a letter to the English commander, requiring safe con- 
iluct for some persons to manage a capitulation. This welcome message was gladly 
received by the general ; a satisfactory answer was immediately returned, and a 
cessation accordingly ])roclaimcd on both sides. The town's-people and soldiers 
crowded in great numbers to the walls, and the Englisli troops having approached 
near enough to hold conversation, several inquiries passed for their friends and 
acquaintance in cacii otiier's army. In the afternoon hostages were exchanged : 
those on the side of tlie English were lieutenant-colonels Pnrcell, Coote, and the 
marquis de Rheda ; and those of the town, lieutenant-colonels Lynch, Uurke and 
Reilly. The articles not being agreed to on that day, the cessation was continued 
until ten o'clock the following morning. In the mean time, several debates took 
j)lace in the town on the terms to be obtained and given ; but the hour limited 
liaving arrived before they were able to agree, Ginckle became impatient, and 
having ordered eight guns and four mortars to be drawn to the fort, which was 
taken the day before, he sent a drununer to the town to order away his hosta"-es j 
and, althougii the besieged demanded and obtained more time to agree anion"- 
themselves, his impatience Mas so great, that he sent once or twice to press 
them to a speedy conclusion. At length lieutenant-colonel Burke, one of the 
hostages, was permitted to go into town ; and Talmash, who evinced every incli- 
nation to lay the treaty aside, and even made some cold-blooded declarations 
that it wonld be preferable to attenq)t the town by storm, desired that " when 
they were ready to begin again, they would give a signal by firing a gun in the 
air;" but the other replied, " they would not fire a gun from within, until they 
were provoked from without." In a sliort time after, on the 21st of July, the 
articles were agreed to, signed and exchanged by general Ginckle, on the part 
of the English, and by the lords Clanricarde, Dillon and Enniskillen, on the part 
of the besieged. Of these articles, being sixteen in number, the principal were, 
that the town was to be surrendered on the following Sunday, the 2Gth of July, 
'riie French ofKcers and soldiers, and such of the garrison as wished it, to be 
conducted to Limerick. A free pardon to be granted to all within the town, with 




liberty to possess their estates, real and personal, and all other liberties and immu- 
nities which they held, or ought to have held, under the acts of settlement and 
explanation. The clergy and laity were to be unmolested in the private exercise 
of their religion, and the clergy protected in their persons and goods. The 
gentlemen of estates belonging to tlie town and garrisson to carry certain arms, 
and the Roman Catholic lawyers of the town were to have free liberty of practice, 
as in the reign of Charles II. ' 

Immediately after the articles were signed, the governor gave the earl of Clan- 
ricardc, lord Enniskillen, colonel Dominick Browne, lieutenant-colonel Bodkin 
and major Dillon, as liostages for tlie due performance of tlie terms to be ob- 
served, until tlie town should be delivered up. William Robinson, deputy pay- 
master of the army, was thereupon sent in to take an account of the stores, which 
were found to consist of eight hundred and fifty hogsheads of French meal, 
sixty barrels of salt, a considerable quantity of ammunition, and other articles of 
value. In the afternoon of the sanie day the English troops took possession of 
the outworks, and the governor dismounted the cannon on the walls. A friendly 
intercourse subsisted between both armies and their commanders until tlie time 
for surrendering arrived ; and about seven o'clock on the morning of the 26th, 
general D'Ussone went out to the English camp, where he staid about half an 
hour, and then proceeded with a guard to Limerick. Sir Henry Bcllasyse bein" 
appointed governor of the town, marched in with his own, colonel Brewer's 
and colonel Herbert's regiments, and about nine o'clock took possession of the 
guards, and planted his sentinels on all the posts in and about the town. AVhile 
the town forces were j)rcparing to march out, a quantity of gunpowder, wliicli a 
party of them was dividing in the street, suddenly exploded, by wliich several of the 
men had their eyes blown out, and upwards of twenty were dreadfull>- wounded 
and disfigured. This accident at tirst caused some confusion, the soldiers on each 
side immediately suspecting that they mutually intended to fall on one another; 
but, as soon as the cause was ascertained, these a])])reIiensions ceased. About ten 
o'clock lord Dillon marched out with the garrison, not being above two thousand 
five hundred men, (who are described as indifferently armed, and worse clothed,) 
having, according to the articles, six pieces of cannon, (four of wliicli were of 
iron,) drawn by English horses. They were also conducted to Limerick by a 
guard of horse and dragoons, and the same day, at noon, general Ginckle entered 
the town, and was received by the mayor, aldermen and recorder ; the latter 
having delivered a congratulatory speech on the occasion. ^ 

' Vide Appendix, Ko. VIII. Jie was second cobnel in the earl of Clanricarde's rogi. 

» Some time after tlie restoration of peace in the nient, then garrisoned in the town ; that on tlic surrcnj'iT 

kingdom, Sir Walter Blake, of Menlo, bart. petitioned he submitted himself to his majesty's sovcrmncnt, anj 

king William, staling, that dining the sicj^c of Galway, received a coinmission for raising a" regiment of foot in 


When the news of the capitulation of Galway arrived in England, it gave infi- 
nite satisfaction to the queen and ministry, and the articles were soon after ratified 
by their majesties. The event was perpetuated by a medal, on which is repre- 
sented a bust of the king crowned with laurel, and inscribed with his usual titles. 
On the top of the reverse are the arms of Galway fixed against two palm branches, 
placed on saltire between a cap and a bible, the emblem of liberty and religion. 
Tlie bottom is ornamented with two laurel branches twined together, and the 
area of tlie field filled with the following inscription: — " Galloxcaj/ rebeUium et 
Galloriim pemdl'niunn refifgium, post plurimas stragcs GuUelmo III. yiingno rcsti- 
tuiori religionis el Ubcrlalis, cum armajnentariis simul ac navibus reddiliir." — " Gal- 
Vav, the last refuge but one of the rebels and the French, is, after much 
slaughter, surrendered, with all its magazines and ships, to the great William III. 
the restorer of religion and liberty." 

Henceforth the allairs of the town will be found to present a very different ap- 
pearance from that which they held for many years before. For some time before 
and during the siege, it was agitated by three distinct parties ; first, those who were 
indined for moderate proceedings ; next, tlie more violent, who adopted the mea- 
sures of Sarsfield and Tyrconnell ; and lastly, tiie French, wlio generally favored 
the latter. Tiiese were succeeded after the surrender by two parties, the Protes- 
tants and Catliolics, whose opposition to each other became so violent, that the 
governor, at first, found it extremely difficult to regulate matters between them. 
The Catholics, by the articles of capitulation, were entitled to carry arms, and 
their number, which was considerable, exciting the suspicion of the governor and 
the fears of tlie Protestants, he was persuaded to apply for an order to hold courts- 
martial for infiicting summary punislnnent on such as should disturb the peace of 
the town. The inclinations and disposition of the governor soon became manifest. 
On the 1st of August, he informed general Ginckle, by letter, that he kept " a 
watchful eye on the Papists." " On that day a new nuiyor was to be elected: the 
Catholics, under the articles, insisted on the right, and the Protestants resolved 
to oppose them : each party separately proceeded to election, and botli, after 

his service; lliat he was tlic first Roman Catliolic in sought for any rccompence, altliough it was the expcc- 

Irchiiul tliat received his majesty's conimissioii, for tation of his iiiajcbty's favor tliat indaccil him to quit the 

I.iiiHTick was uot at the time reduced, and most of the service he was euL;aged in, his fortune in Ireland hci[i" 

pirrisini of Galway (according; to the |)ro\ibion in the hut small. The object of his petition was, that the kin^ 

articles of capitulation) went thither, except himself and would be pleased to direct the lords justices to consider 

some others, who were afterwards officers in his regiment; petitioner's services in favor of his father-i:i-l;.w, Mr. 

that until the surrender of Limerick he was stationed on John Kirwan, concerning some forfeited wool-bonds; Sir. 

the frontiers, hetween his majesty's quarters and the Irish, Kirwan " being a man who deserved well, and |)crformed 
where he anil his men behaved themselves with great care . many services to his majesty's subjects in their calami-- 

and fidelity; that he continued in his majesty's service tics." — Orig. MS. 

until disbanded; and that he had been at great expense >» Clarke's Currcsjwnclcucc, MS. Trio. Col. Dub. 
and trouble in raising the regiment, but never received or 



amich tumuU and confusion, made choice of tlie governor, who immediately 
appointed alderman Revett (the last acting Protestant mayor in 1GS5,) liis deputy; 
.and tiien described " the Papists in these parts" as " the most dangerous fellows 
in the world."' They were soon after deprived of all influence in the corpora- 
tion ; and the' mayor, availing himself of a pretext for the ])uri)ose, disarmed 
every individual of the persuasion within the town. " As an instance of his inteu- 
tions towards these people, lie recommended an order to issue, that some mcr- 
cliants, wlio were robbed near Atheiny, should be remunerated by the Catholic 
inliabitants, and quoted the good effects of a similar measure in tiie town the 
preceding winter. They, however, relying upon tiicir articles, appealed from 
his proceedings, and he was himself obliged, as governor, t0 transmit their petition 
for redress to the general. This had the desired effect, and obtained for them a 
temporary respite from the persecutions which they were afterwards doomed to 

To secure the conquest of Galway after the de])arture of the army for Limerick, 
all the batteries and other works about the town, raised both by the Enn-Iish 
and Irish forces, were levelled ; but the fort formerly connnenced on the hill 
beyond the south-east corner of the wall was repaired, and some fortified works 
were thrown up at the east gate, (thenceforth, in honor of his majesty, called 
U'UUam's gate,) and at the west end of the bridge. The go\'ernor also recom- 
mended that a fort should be built, and the castle repaired on INIutton-island, 
without which, he stated, that the shipping could not be secure in the bay. This 
was accordingly ordered, and one thousand pounds were granted for the purjiosc. 
The castle was fortified, and the fort provided with ten pieces of cannon : a com- 
pany of soldiers was then stationed on the island, another was sent to Arran, and 
the fort there was likewise repaired. The island and castle of Bophin (the latter 

* C/arlcs Correspond. — Colonel Toby Purccll, who was 
all this time in the town, openly arraipied the conduct 
of the povernor, and, on the 2J of Aiijjust, informed 
the lords justices, " tliat as lonj; as Sir Henry Bellasyse 
remains in Galway, his nnpopnlarity and covetousuess will 
produce mischief." He then recommended a proclama- 
tion of security to be issued, to encourage the people to 
brini; in provisions, which they were then deterred through 
fear from doing. — Id. — Col. Pureell, who, on all occasions, 
appears to liavc stood forth an advocate for moderate 
measures, by letter of the 6th of September following, 
complained to general Ginekle of the conduct of Edward 
Eyre, one of the governors of the county of Galway, 
describing him as " the unfittest man in the country to 
be in that st.ntion, and am much afraid his violent pro- 
ceedings will ruin that side of the coimtry. He violated 
protections, and asserted that the articles of Galway 
signified but little, being against an act of parluinient, 

and that their exeellencies did not understand the law." 
SaiiiL- cul/ccliuii. — These remonstrnnccs, however, witc 
unavailable, and the outrages complained of were suHlroJ 
to go on with impujiity. 

' He charged them with " growing insolent, expcctinj 

Sarsfield and O'Donncll's men to join." LI. — About 

the 25th of August, some countrymen were tried in the 
town, by court martial, for stealing dragoon horses, for 
which three were found guilty, and accordingly executed. 
On this occasion the governor informed general Ginckic, 
that " tlicre was a priest at their meeting, but they dij 
not condemn him, because the executing a priest Mould 
have made a mighty noise at the time. I took tliit 
occasion to disarm the Papists of this town, and shall do 
the same to the country as soon as the connnissiou of 
array arrives, and that the justices of the peace come 
into the counti'y." — Same collection. 


built by Oliver Cromwell, and tlien cominanded by colonel Tiniotliy O'Riordan,) 
having surrendered by capitulation, were also preserved in a state of dcfen-ce, 
this island being considered a place of great importance, and particularly so 
during a war with France, whose privateers could easily shelter in the harbour 
had the fort been demolished. — Thus, in the district of Galway, as in all otlicr 
parts of the kingdom, every necessary precaution was taken to secure the fruits 
of the sanguinary and disastrous war which had just terminated, and which 
established a free constitution and a system of laws calculated to secure the 
peace ami advance the prosperity of the country, if their beneiicial elfects had 
not been destroyed by the bigoted persecutions whicli soon afterwards took place, 
and which will for ever remain an indelible disgrace to the times immediately 
succeeding this period. 




After the surrender ) the greater part of the old natives and Catholic inhabitants are 
obliged to quit the town — JMeasures taken to jn'event their departure — Articles of 
Gahcai/ respected during the reign of' TJ'illiam III. — Accession of Queen Anne — 
Conijnission of array issues — Toicn militia raised, and tlie fort f cations repaired — 
Act to prevent thefurtlier groxcth of Fopery — Roman Catholics prevented J'rom pur- 
chasing houses or tenements in the town or suburbs — Tliose already residing give 
seciiritij pursuant to the act — 0)i the rumour of an invasion by the Pretender, tliey 
arc turned out of the town — Afterwards admitted — Again turned out during the 
rebellion in Scotland — Disputes between the members of the corporation — Galwuy 
act passes — Commerce of the town — Clandestine trade — Penal visitation in 1731 — 
Toicn militia neidy arrayed, and officers appoi)ited — Arms delivered out, and state 
if the ordnance returned to government — Strict discipline observed in the toxcn 
during tlie Scottish. rebellion oj' 171-5 — Particular account of the fortifications, and 
their decayed stale reported to government — T/wy are suffered gradually to decay — 
Disputes beticeen the governor, the corporation, and the merchants, about sliuttingthe 
gates — Description of the toxcn at the time — Trade declines — The mercliants petition 
parliament against the corporation — Resolutions of lite Jiouse — Neiv schedule of 
duties and customs agreed upon — Corporation disputes — Volunteers — Non-importa- 
tion resolutions — East India feet arrives in the bay — T'own yeomanry — Zhnon — 
Population of the tuWfi and liberties — Disputes and proceedings co?icerning non- 
resident freemen, the independence and parliamentary representation of the toxen. 

Having now passed over the turbulent transactions \vliicl\ disthiguisli the 
seventeenth century above all others in our national history, the tumults of war 
liencetbrth entirely cease ; but the reader, though no longer doomed to dwell on 
a continued narrative of sieges and battles, or to hear of the constant streaming of 
human blood in the field, is destined to encounter the no less destructive evils 
of civil bigotry and persecution, which, for more than half a century after this 
period, w ged legislative war against the population of Ireland, and particuhuly 
ogainst that part of it whose actions are detailed in the following pages. Those 
imj)ol;tic laws, however, which exiled so many thousand of Ireland's bravest sons 
to fight in every clime, and to conquer for every king except their own ; which 
compelled its clergy to seek foreign education, and, consequently, to return with 
foreign prejudices j and which left uncultivated the fields, and uneducated the 



children, of one of the finest countries on earth, are now no more ; tiic wiser 
councils of our present venerable sovereign at length prevailed, and those dismal 
times have long since passed by, never again to return. However desirable, 
therefore, it might be that the veil of oblivion were for ever drawn over these 
melancholy scenes, a faithful narrative of local transactions, free from any feelings 
of political or religious prejudice, (which are here totally disclaiu^ed,) can have no 
other effect at the present day, than that of exciting the surprise and commisera- 
tion of every liberal and enlightened mind, at the excesses committed by one 
party, and the miseries endured by another, in those distressing times. 

The treatment which the old natives and Catholic inhabitants of Galway cxpe- 
' rienced after the surrender, caused so many families to depart the town, that a 
general assembly of the corporation was convened on the tliird of April, 1693, 
for the purpose of devising means to prevent an evil of so serious a tendency, 
and particularly one which, if perseveixjd in, would nearly depopulate the town. 
They accordingly resoh-ed that the mayor and recorder should take the subject 
into their immediate consideration, and ordered that no passes should thenceforth 
be granted to any of the uihabitants ; and, particularly, that coercive measures 
should be taken to repress the licentiousness of the soldiery, and prevent their 
outrageous conduct towards the town's-people. Whatever local injuries and 
inconveniences they might thus endure, their rights, however, under the articles 
of capitulation, were publicly allowed during the reign of William III. and in some 
instances acknowledged even by ^larliament. In the act, passed in the 7th year 
of that reign, for the better securing the government, by disarming Papists, it 
was provided, that any gentlemen of estate, belonging to the town and garrison 
on the day of their surrender, might carry the arms therein specified; and in a 
subsequent act, to hinder the reversal of attainders, all persons comprised in the 
articles were particularly excepted. In a little time, howcA'cr, all restraint was 
laid aside ; in the succeeding reign they were entirely infringed, and the rights 
of the inhabitants became totally disregarded. 

The accession of Queen Anne to the throne was proclaimed in Galway, on the 
21th of March, I70I. Her majesty's commission of array soon after issued, 
under which three companies of foot, consisting of two hundred and fifty men, 
were raised in the town and liberties. ^ Mutton-island was again fortified ; the 
town gates were repaired, and the building of a new exchange was proceeded on. 

^ Tlie following iniliviiluals were rc.tnnicil as officers on Alderman Thomas Simcockcs, captain,"^ 

llils occaibion by the coiimiiibioners of array, for the appro- Robert Shaw, _ ( lieutenants i second company 

bation of povernnicnt, and were accurJin^jly appointed. — James Kibelt Vigie, J ' \ t^' J' 

Orig. MS. .larvis Hindc, ensign, J 

Alderman Thomas Staunton, captain, \ Alderman Jolm Gerry, captain, -j 

Robert Blakencv, ) i- , . I c .. Samuel Cambie, 

,, , T, ■' > lieutenants, >- first company. ..,, „ , ' 

■Hugh 1 nrner, } ' ( r .> iliomas roole, 

h::\ci Widrington, ensign, J Jolin Leu is, ensig 

lieutenants, C third company. 



"While these and other improvements were going forward in tlie town, the fate of 
the inhabitants was determined upon in parliament. In tiie famous act to 
prevent the fiuthcr growtli of popery, after reciting tliat the peace and safety of 
the kingdom and the welfare of her majesty's Protestant subjects would nuicli 
depend on the security of Limerick and Galway, and on their being in possession 
of Protestants, being considerable garrisons, it was enacted, that no person or 
persons that then were or should be Papists, or profess the popish religion, should 
or might, after the (ikh day of j\Iarch, 17'^'3, take or purchase any "house or 
tenement, or come to dwell or inhabit within the city of Limerick or the 
suburbs thereof, or within the town of Galway or the suburbs thereof; and that 
every person of the popish religion, then inhabiting within the said city and 
towii and suburbs of tiie same, should, by that day, before the chief magistrate 
of the said respective city and town, become bound to her majesty, her heirs and 
successors, with two suliicient sureties, in a reasonable ])cnal sum, to be ascer- 
tained by the chief magistrate, recorder and sheriifs of said city and town 
respectively, or any two of them, with condition for his or her faithfully bearing 
themselves towards her majesty, her heirs and successors, or, in default of giving 
such security, that such persons should depart out of the said city, and town 
and suburbs aforesaid, on or before the 2.5th day of March, 1705. " The Catholic 
inhabitants of the town accordingly entered into security pursuant to this act of 
parliament ; but even this had little effect towards preserving them from future 
trouble and persecution. Li the year I70S, on the rumour of an intended 
invasion of Scotland by the Pretender, several gentlemen and merchants of the 
town were imprisoned by order of government, and the remainder of the Catholics 
turned out of the town. Richard Wall, the mayor, in his dispatch to the privy 
council, described his proceedings under this order as follows : — '« I have, 
pursuant to order of last night's post, turned all the popish inhabitants out of die 
town and garrison, and have also committed the several popish priests to the gaol. 
I have also taken care to remove the market outside the walls, and have given 
orders to prevent mass being said in town." ' He also informed them, that the 
town militia consisted of about two hundred and fifty men fit for service, whom 
he represented as very inconsiderable, compared to the great number of popish 

' S/nl. C Annr, 1 705, r/mp, VI. sect. Jj. — It was how- 
ever provided, that nothing in the act contained bhoiild he 
conbtriicd to hinder seamen or day-labourers iVoni holding 
or dwelling in houses worth iOs. a }car, or under, witln'n 
the suburbs of Limerick or GaKvai, — Sect. 28. — The bill 
set forth, " that if any person or persons of the popish 
religion, other than such trading merchants, (viz. seamen, 
fishermen, and day-labourers, who did not pay upwards 
of 40j. a year rent,) not exceeding twenty in each of the 
towns of I-imerick and Galway, as shall be licenced by 
the chief governor and govcrjiors of this kingdom for 
th»c time bcinj;, shall presume to live, dwell or inliabit, or 

take any house or tenement in cither of the said towni 
or suburbs, he or they shall forfeit all his or their goods 
and chattels, and suffer imprisonment for one whole year. 
—Cmn. Jour. Vol. III. f. 1 7,3. 

' Orig.MS. dated i'j't/i March, I70|. — In April 170S, 
an East India fleet, consisting of si."c ships, arrived in the 
bay. The governor immediately informed the lords 
justices, that " a popish bishop and other Romish clergy" 
were on board of one of the ves;,els ; upon which he wai 
directed, " not by any means to snifer them to come on 
shore, but that they be carried to Great Dritain, to be 
disposed of tliere as her majesty shall thiiik fit." — Id. 


Inhabitants ; and entirely unprovided with arms, which he requested would be 
furnished as soon as possible. The town was then put into a state of defence, 
and il strong detachment was also sent to the islands of Arran ; but on the 15th 
of April following, colonel John Eyre, the governor, received directions from 
government " to admit the popish inhabitants of Galway to return to their 
dwellings, and to continue in the town, as formerly, and to suffer tlic markets 
to be kej)t and held there, as before the late directions were given to the contrary, 
nil apprehensions of any invasion from the Pretender being quite over." '' 'From 
thence they remained undisturbed until the 22d of March, I7II, when the 
mayor, in a dispatch from the secretary of state, concerning some French 
])risoners then in his custody, was ordered '• to cause the popish priests in Galway 
to be secured;" and in a subsequent dispatch to set those prisoners at liberty, he 
received their excellencies thanks for his good services in respect of the popish 
clergy, accompanied by an assurance that they were extremely well pleased with 
liis zeal and management therein, and expressing their hopes that lie would 
continue his "endeavours to banish the priests, those enemies to our constitution, 
out of that town, and cause those you have apprehended to be prosecuted at law 
with the utmost rigor." That these denrmciations were not unattended to, may 
be safely concluded : each succeeding mayor, as his best recommendation to 
the notice of government, exerted himself to surpass his predecessoi's in 
persecuting these defenceless objects of political wrath. Obstacles, however, 
sometimes occurred to defeat or delay those relentless proceedings. An instance 
of this nature took place in the year IJli^, when Robert Biakeney, who was 
then mayor, informed the secretary of state, " that one James French, a regular 
popish clergyman, had lain in gaol a long time, committed for high treason for 
returning from beyond seas after being transported, but that lie could not be tried 
for want of a Protestant jury of freeholders." Obstructions oi' this nature, 
however, were soon after removed by the interference of the legislature, which 
appears to have constantly kept a vigilant eye upon this town, as containing the 
most considerable and respectable Catholic community of any other then in the 

Although the establishment of the illustrious house of Hanover on the throne 
of these realms, by the accession of King George I. may be considered as the 
ilawn of toleration, after the dark and tedious night of religious persecution, which, 
until then, overspread this unhappy land, yet that event at first caused but little 
mitigation in the severity of tiic penal laws which afflicted the Catholics of Ire- 
land. Their operation was for some time afterwards even more severe, in con- 
sequence of the Scottish rebellion of 1715, which was raised and carried on in 

"^ Orig. MS.— loth April, 170S. 



favor of the Pretender. On this occasion, a new commission of array for Gahvay 
was directed to lord St. George, governor of the town, ' and others. A muster 
of all the Protestants in the town and liberties, able to bear arms, was accordint;ly 
taken ; and it appeared tliat they could furnish three hundred and seventeen 
eflective men, divided into five companies, for which the undernamed ' persons 
were recommended, and consequently appointed as^othcers. This afi'air took place 
in October, 1715 ; and in January following, Robert Blakeney, the mayor, 
" turned all the Papists out of the town except, about twenty merchants, fiom 
whom I took seciuuty, and quartered the two companies of brigadier Harrison's 
regiment (which were stationed in the east and west suburbs,) in the two waste 
houses where the nuns formerly resided, belonging to Mr. Porster and i\Ir. 
Martin." ^ The most particular attention was, at the same time, paid to the care 
of the walls gates, and fortifications ; and the xagilance and coercive measures of 
the military were so strictly exerted, that the town presented the appearance of 
an extensive prison in which the confined were permitted to walk during the 
day, but were closely locked up at the approach of night. " Even these extraor- 
dinary precautions were deemed insufficient, without further penal enactments 
and regulations, to ensure the safety of the town. 

About this period violent contentions arose between the principal members of 
the corporation, many of whom, commiserating the distressed condition of tlie 
Catholic inliabitants, became advocates for milder measures, and, for the purpose of 
counteracting the extreme severities of the existing laws, admitted several persons 

first liciil./ 

stfond ditto. ( 


■ first company. 

second ditto. 

' Lord St. George, baron of Hartley, in England, was 

appointed fjovernor of the town of Gahvay and vice- 

admiral of Connan;il)t, for his services in Flanders during 

the reigns of King X\'illiam and Queen Anne. — Peerage. 

' Alderaian Thomas Sinicockes, capt.") 

,S. Simcockes, first lieut. 

Robert Andrews, gent. seconil ditto, 
Maurice Hughes, ensigji, 

Alderman J^mies Kihett Vigie, eaptai 

Marli. Lynch, 

Edward Rhodes, gent. 
John Manion, do. 
Alderman Jarvis llindn, 

Eilward Barrett 

Thomas Hudson, gent. 

Michael Harris, do. 

Edward Eyre, esq. 

Alderman John Fcmuirc, 

Geofi'rv Cook, gent. 

Thomas Holland, do. 

Robert Shaw, junior, esq. 

Alderman Geor^^e Gcrrv, 

AN'diiam Hindc, 

Henry Perry, gent. ^...,i,,.,_, 

In 17^5, new officers were appointed in place of some 

of the foregoing, who died, and the militia was tlien 

fourth ditto. 


reduced to two hundred and thirty men, wlio had amonpst 
them only one hundred and twenty firelocks. — Vng. 

'^ Orig. letter from the mayor. 

" A circumstance which occurred about this period, 
shews the extreme aud jealous caution with whidi the 
town was guarded against any attempt, foreign or 
domestic, by which its b;il'ety could be endangered.— In 
August, 1713, Mr. Arkw right, then collector of the town, 
informed the commissioners of the revenue, that neither 
he nor any officer belonging to the custom house would bt 
permitted to go upon the town walls to look into the roaj 
and bay, and that none of the town gates would be 
opened for biin on extraordinary occasions in the ni^'ht, \ 
which proved highly prejudicial to the revenue, though 
that liberty had been formerly allowed. This represen- 
tation being laid before the lords justices, they immcdiatelj 
directed the commanding officer of the town to peniiit 
the officers of the revenue to go nj^on the walls whcnc\ei 
there should be occasion for it, and allow the surveyor to 
pass through the quay gate in the night-time, when hit 
juajesty's service should require it. — Orig. MS. — Who 
such precautions as those were taken against the civil 
officers of the crown, the restrictions imposed on ;be 
Catholic inhabitants may be easily conjectured. 


not residing in the town, to the freedom and privileges of the corporation. These 
proceedings of the moderate party occasioned several disputes between tliem and 
tliose of tlie opposite feeling, which at length proceeded so far, that alderman 
i'homas Simcockes and Edward Barrett, " on behalf of tliemsclves and divers of 
the Protestant aldermen, common council men, freemen, commonalty and Pro- 
testant inhabitants," on the 13th of September, 1717> petitioned parliament, 
complaining of the illegal and oppressi\'e practices and arbitrary proceedings of 
John Staunton, esq. one of the representatives of the town, and of Robert 
(,'o;itos, the then mayor, stating that, for several years past, a design hat! been 
formed and carried on by the magistrates and governing part of the corporation, 
lo support a popish and discoiu'age the Protestant interest within the town ; in 
pursuance of which design, nunneries, and other places of refuge and shelter for 
regular and secular priests, friars, and other offenders against the several laws in 
force in the kingdom, had been suffered, connived at, and encouraged within 
t(ie town and county of the town of Galway, contrary to law : that, in furtlier 
pursuance of the said evil design great numbers of Papists, by the notorious 
neglect of the magistrates, had been and were then permitted to inhabit in the 
town, contrary to law ; whereby, and by reason of several other discoui-agements 
to the Protestant interest there, and of such Protestants as then did or would 
reside therein, a sufficient number of Protestant freeholders could not be found 
ill the county of the town of Galway, to try offenders against the several acts 
then in force against Papists, whereby great numbers of popish priests, friars 
2nd dignitaries of the church of Rome, frequently landed from foreign parts, 
contrary to law, within the town and liberties, and, through the connivance of the 
justices of the peace, were sheltered from justice, and found protection therein, 
nnd from thence found opportunities to disperse themselves into all other parts of 
tlie kingdom : that, by the charters of Galway, the mayor and recorder for the 
time being, and, in their absence, their respective deputies, were the only justices 
of the peace within the county of the town, who had been principal instruments 
in obstructing the execution of the laws against popery, and had confederated 
vdtli many persons popishly affected within the town, and with divers other 
enemies to the Protestant interest, Avho were foreigners to the town, to form a 
common council to carry on their evil designs, by illegally excluding certain 
common coimcil men (who had been didy elected, admitted and sworn) from 
acting or voting therein ; and, having thereby procured to themselves a majority, 
had, for several years past, arbitrarily and illegally admitted into the same divers 
persons disaifected to his majesty and the Protestant interest; by means whereof, 
and other evil practices, the security of the town and garrison was greatly 
endangered, the residence of Protestants therein discouraged, prevented, and 
rendered unsafe, justice obstructed, many criminals protected contrary to law, and 
^Tcut grievances and mischiefs occasioned to the Protestant interest thereof; for 



all wlucii they prayed relief. The house liaving ordered that tlie matter of 
tliis petition shoukl be heard at their bar, council accordingly appeared, and 
witnesses were examined on tlie part of the accused ; but it was unanimously 
resolved, " that the petitioners have fully proved the allegations of the petition." 
Robert Shaw, es(j. the other ineniber for the town, then brought in a bill "for the 
better regulating the town of Galway and for the strengthening the Protestant 
interest therein," which passed both houses on the 5th and L)tli of December' 
ibllowing, and enacted, tliat from and after the 2.5th of --Decemher, 1717, it 
should be lawful tor the sheriffs of the town to issue their summons to any 
Protestant freeholder, having forty shillings a year in the county of Galway, to 
attend and serve on any grand or petty jury, for the trial of issues depending in 
the said county of the town, in any plea of the crown, whether capital or not ; and 
that such freeholders should be and were thereby required to serve upon any such 
jury, and such verdict as should be given should be as effectual and valid as'if the 
issue had been tried by the freeholders of the town ; ami that it should be lawful 
(or said sheriffs, on every venire facias, distringas, habeas corpora, writ or precept 
directed to them, to summon a competent number of the freeholders of the said 
county of Galway, being Protestants, to attend on every grand inquest and trial, 
in any plea of the crown, at the assizes, or any commission of Oyer and Terminer 
or gaol delivery there to be had, or at any trial at bar in his majesty's court of 
king's bench, Dublin, in any pica of the crown in such manner as tliey might 
have I done to the freeholders of the county of the town, under sucli pains, 
penalties and forfeitures, and in the same manner and form, and with the like 
benciit of challenges, as if they were freeholders within the county of the town, 
and that all fines and issues imposed on them should be estreated into the 
exchequer : and further, after reciting that it would be a great encouragement to 
the then Protestant inhabitants to continue, and to other Protestants to come 
and inhabit in the town, if foreigners or persons living out of the county of the 
town and liberties were excluded from being magistrates, sheriffs or common 
couucilmcn within the town, it was enacted, that from and after the 25th of 
December, 1717. no person or persons should be elected mayor, or sheriffs, or 
common councilmen, who should not be an inhabitant or inhabitants within the 
town and liberties at the time of being elected, and resident for one year before 
such election. " That it should and might be lawful for the lord chancellor, lords 


• While this bill was in progress tlirongh the house of too strong at the time, and their opposition was ineffec- 
lords, Francis, lord baron Athenry, Doniinick Burke, tual. — Com. Jour. 

Alexander Lynch, and other Protestant nieuibers of the 
corporation, presented petitions iigainst it ; lord Athenry 
Stalin^', " that it siil>iccted his honor to the highest 
iiii]iutatiou." Tl'.ev were hcaril hv council, who urged 

' By Stat. 21 Geo. TI. chap. 10, sect. 8. after reciting 
that many towns and boroughs in Ireland which sent 
members to parliament, had been theretofore obliged, for 
want of Protestant inhabitants resident, to elect into the 

many powerful reasons against the bill ; but prejudice was office of burgesses and other offices persons who did not 


commissioners, or other keeper or keepers of the great seal for the time being, by 
commission under the seal, to appoint such person and persons, not exceeding four 
in number, being inhabitants of the town or liberties thereof, to be justice or 
justices of the peace and quorum, during liis majesty's pleasure, in and throughout 
the county of the town and liberties thereof, with the same power as any other 
justice of peace, by charter or otherwise. That all and every person and persons, 
professing him or themselves of any trade, mystery or handicraft, that should 
come to inhabit, dwell or reside in the town, in order to follow th.eir respective 
trades, should and were thereby declared to be free of the town and corporation 
of (jalwav, and also of that company or corporation to which their respective 
trades belonged, without paying any thing for such freedom, and should continue 
freemen as long as he or they should inhabit or dwell in the town, and no longer, 
and should be enempted and freed from all corporation taxes and tines for not 
serving as beadle, for the space of seven years next after his or their coming to 
iuhahit in the town ; provided that no person or persons were to have the benefit 
of their freedoms, as aforesaid, unless he or they had been professed Protestants 
for seven years, or upwards, next before his or their demanding their freedoms 
pursuant to the act, and should also take the usual oaths of freeman, and the oath 
of allegiance, supremacy and abjuration, and make and subscribe the declaration, 
commonly called the declaration against transubstantiation, before the mayor of 
the town, who was thereby empowered and required to administer the same : 
and finally reciting, that since his majesty's happy accession to the crown, and 
particularly during the late rebellion in Great Britain, divers unqualified persons, 
and some of them of known or suspected disaffection to his majesty's government, 
had been elected sheriff's within the town of Galway, and, upon pretence of such 
their election, had all of them been admitted into and sworn of the common council, 
notwithstanding they had not been approved of by the chief governor and council 
of the kingdom to be sheriffs ; and that all such elections, without sucli approba- 
tion, were utterly null and void ; and that divers other unqualified and disaffected 
persons had been admitted into the common council since the 1st of August, 171-1-. 
It was, for the further security of the town, finally enacted, that the election and 
admission of all and every person and persons who had been so admitted and 
sworn since that day, except such as had been approved of, sworn and served as 
sheriffs of the town, should be, and were thereby declared null and void to all 
intents and purposes. ' — Such were the provisions of this elaborate local enact- 

inliabit or could not be rcMdcnt, anJ tliat doubts had town corporate or borough (not btin? a citj) should be 

arisen upon their acting, and that it was even then iiiiprac- ousted or molested onl v for not bein:; an inhubitaut or 

ticableto find Protestant inhabitants wliereby controversies resident at the tiuie of election — Vu/. VI. p. 351. 

were likely to ensue as to the legality of such elections; ' Stat. 4 Geo, I, Chop. 15. 
it was enacted, that no person duly elected an officer in any 



ment, (now known by the name of the "Galway Act.") by which the town was 
for some time after regulated, but which the increasing hberality of succeeding 
times has rendered of httle other use, at the present day, than to become a subject 
of historical narration, and to remain a lasting memorial of tlie illiberal feelings by 
which this and similar laws were enacted against the Catholics of Ireland. 

Amidst tlic numberless restraints wliich were tluis daily and liourly imposed 
vipon the defenceless inhabitants of Galway and its vicinity, they still retained a 
portion of the commercial enterprise which formerly distinguished their.anccstors; 
and trade, notwithstanding the many impediments under -which it languishctl, 
was not altogether neglected. "' Tlie severe scrutiny, however, to v.'hich the 
merchants were exposed, and the heavy duties imposed on their goods, induced 
many persons, in order to avoid the rigor of the officers and the exactions of the 
revenue, to enter into a contraband trade, which, notwithstanding the vigilance 
of the officers gradually increased, and the practice of " smuggling", for many 
years afterwards continued prevalent in the town. " Its open and regular 
commerce increased or diminished, as the penal laws were suspended or put in 
execution against the inhabitants. In some years after this period, when the 
vehemence of persecution began to subside, trade seemed on the increase, 
but it lasted only for a while : the spirit of the inliabitants was broken down 
by repeated aggressions and angry visitations under the penal laws : whatever 
remnant of trade and commerce had remained in tiie town gradually declined. 
Though some partial efforts were from time to time made to restore them, ° all 

""• A return of the revenues received in the town about 
this period remains on record in the office of the 
remembrancer of tlie exchequer. Tliey amounted — 
£. s. d. 
In 1715, to 5683 1 11 

— 17, G!)97 11 10 

— 23, 6956 1 10 

III the latter year tlie market customs and satea^c duties 
were set as follows, viz. 






The quay 


Corporation Book, F. 

" The following " account of the holes and pa■^sages in 
the town wall of Galwaj', through which brandy and 
oilier goods are conveyed into the town by night-time," 
vvn'i taken soon after this period. 

Abo\e the bridge a hole broke tlirough the town wall, 
liy the tuck-mill, which opens a passage into a yard 
Ipp.diiig to Abbey-gate-strcct; and a hole near it into the 
"uiviery yard. 






'J 4 







A hirge breach in the town wall, by Dominick Bodkiii't 

Below the bridge, a door broke through the town wall 
into a tan-ynid. 

A door iu the town wall, into Peter's Lynch's house. 

A door near the niavor's house. 

A passage through Martin's-niill into Kirwan's-lane. 

A door in the town wall into Michael Cavanagli's, alias. 

By the marsh, a hole broke through at Val. Browne's 
house, shut up and o|)ened as often as he has occasion to 
bring ankers of brandy into town. 

A liole likewise broke through the wall, where James 
Browne Fitz-Biu'th ; lives formerly one Xolan much 
frequented it. 

A large conduit into Simon Lynch's J'ard, much fre- 
quented in the running trade. 

A hole through the town wall into Jonathan Bodkin's 
vard, shut up now, but opened as often as he has occasion. 
'MS. liejwrt. 

° In the year 1730, during the mayoralty of John 
Staunton, esq. it was ordered in common council, thut 
Francis Lynch, of London, in case he should procure 
Galway to be established a port for the exportation of 
wool, and that a perpetual act of parliament to that clfcot 
should be passed by his management and at his expense 
should have the charter duties on the export of wool for 


were ineffectual ; and the present reduced state of the commerce of Galway 
affords a melancholy proof of the destructive policy of those laws, which, during 
the greater part of the last century, cramped the energies and impeded the 
j)rc>spcrity of the country. 

On the rumour of an intended Spanish invasion of Ireland in tiie year I7IS, 
lord St. George, the governor of the town, received dispatclies from the 
secretary of state m Dublin, " that the king, having had advice that the Spaniards 
intended to make an attempt on some part of his dominions in Ireland, and that 
tlicy were then transporting troops for the purpose, was pleased to signify that 
major-general AVynne should be sent to Galway to command the forces quartered 
tlierc for the defence of tlic town in case of an invasion." The general accord- 
ingly took the command on the '27th of March, 1719; and, having reviewed the 
fortifications, and put the town into a state of defence, he transmitted a full 
account of the condition and state of tlie entire to government, by whom several 
other repairs and improvements were directed. No attempt having been made 
by the enemy, as was apprehended, the strict military regulations then established 
in the garrison were by degrees laid aside. In the year 17-5, a new commission 
of array issued, and tiic deficiencies of officers and men in the town militia were 
filled up. The inhabitants from thence enjoyed an interval of peace until the 
year 17j1) when they endured the most severe penal visitation whicli had taken 
place for many years before, but which was also the last of the kind ever since 
experienced. On the Gth of November, in that year, an order was made by the 
house of lords, that AV alter Taylor, esq. then mayor of the town, should return 
an account of all the mass-houses in the town, and which of them had been built 
since 1st Geo. I. and what number of priests officiated in each, and also an 
account of all private mass-houses and popish chapels, and all commonly 
reputed nunneries and friaries, and what number of friars and nuns were in each, 
and what popish schools were within the town. The mayor accordingly issued 
liis warrant to the sheriffs, requiring them to apprehend and commit all popish 
archbishops, bishops, Jesuits, friars, and all other popish ecclesiastical pcrsonsr 
%vhom they should find within the town and county thereof; and likewise to 
suppress all monasteries, friaries, nunneries, and other popish fraternities and 
societies. Upon return of their proceedings to the house, their lordships " could 
not omit observing, that the insolence of the Papists throughout tlie nation is very 
great." '' A particular detail of this visitation will be found in the accounts of the 
ilifierent religious foundations of the town, which arc contained in another part 

six years. — Corporation BooJc. — This measure, however, one hundred and seventy-six ; and the heads of families 

appears never to have been accomplished. who had not entered into security were eight hunihed and 

" The Catholic inhabitants then residing in Galway, sixty-one. Total, 1037 heads of Catholic families then 

wlio had given security, as required by Stat. 2 Anne, were residing in the town. — Com. Jour. 



of this volume. '' From the proceedings and resohitions of the house of lords, it 
would appear as if all its fancied apprehensions of danger from the Catholics had 
arisen from this part of the kingdom, and particularly from Galway, to which its 
attention was principally directed. But these instances of persecution, which, 
for some time past, had been much more severe than frequent, liencefbrth ceased; 
and, since tliis last and most violent gasp of expiring bigotry, the Catliolic popula- 
tion of Galway, with very few exceptions, have remained unmolested on account 
of their religion. In the year 17'IU, a return was made, pursuant to the direc- 
tions of government, of the state of the town militia. It then consisted of " tluee 
hundred effective Protestant inhabitants," divided into five companies, the particu- 
lars of which were laid before the lords justices, and a list of the officers was also 
submitted for their approbation.'' There being no arms in the town, an order issued, 
in IT-iS, for one thousand muskets and bayonets for the town and county, of which 
two himdred and fifty were delivered to the militia by colonel AVynne, then gover- 
nor of the town. A return of the ordnance in the garrison was soon after made, 
by which it appeared there were in the town ninety-three pieces of cannon, but 
that almost the entire were dismounted and unserviceable. * Durins; the Scottish 

' That part of the rpport which related to the 
" popish" schools, stated tliat the mayor, on the iiifor- 
iiiation cl' Mr. Ganiett, master of the free school, gave 
hiin his \rarrant against one Gregory French whom 
he alleged to be a popish school-master, and to keep a 
Latin school; and that having called upon Mr. Garnett to 
know what he had done under the warrant, he said that 
French had dropped his school ; and being further exa- 
mined, he declared he knew of no other Latin school, and 
that he could give no account of any other, or of any 
English or writing schools, except that some of his 
scholars went out of school daily to learn to write, but 
could not tell from whom. He referred the major, 
Jiowevcr, to a licensed school-master, who rcturneil the 
names of Lalli/ licrmhtgham, Thiimm: Adams, K'wlinliis 
Cox, Wi//':am Casrberry, Thnmns Burke, George Fo',lvr, 
Denis Creaghane and JSryan Ifr/nes, popish school-masters 
and teachers of reading, writing and arithmetic. — Com. 
Jour. Vol. III. 2). 1 70. " 

' First Company, 
Dominick Biu-ke, esq. vice E. Eyre, deceased, capt. 
Kobert Cook, alderman, — J. Feuquirc, do. 1st lieut. 
Robert Mc. Mullen, do. — Gcoftry Cook, 2d ditto. 
Henry Lewis, burgess, — Thomas Holland, ensign. 

Second Company. 
Henry Ellis, esq. vice G. Staunton, dec. capt. 

James Disney, alderman, — T. Hendron, do. J st lieut. 
Jlathew, do. — E. Barrett, do. 2d ditto. 
Ambrose Poole, — Howel Price, do. ensign. 

Third Company. 
Rickard Fit/patrick, esq. vice S. Simcockcs, dec. capt. 
Francis Siincockes, aldm. — F. Simcockes, Ist lieut. 
Willir.m Hinde, do. — Robert Andrews, 2d ditto 

,\5ton Swanwick, burgess, — M. Hughes, dec. ensign. 

Fourth Company. 
"J'bomas Shaw, esq. vice Robert Sliaw, dec. capt. 

Charles Gerry, alderman, vice G. Gerry, dec. 1st lieut. 
Robert Andrews, ditto — \\'il!iani Huide, 2d do. 
Simon Trulock, burgess, — E. Shield , dec. ensign. 

Fif h Company. 
James Ribett Vigie, esq. vice J. Ribett Vigie, sen. 

deceased, capi; 
Charles Gcrr_\, 1st lieut. 
E. Rhodes, dec. 2d do. 
Jolin Manion, do. ensign 

Thomas Holland, aldm. — 

Henry Vaughan, gent. — 

John Johnson, — 

Orig. return, '27lli Afay, 1710. 

' The ordnance was then placed in the following 
positions round the town. 

Inside the quay gale on the parade 1 5 guns 

Outside do. on the quay 2 

Quay canton 2 

Quay bastion 8 

Tlie royal battery 3 

Citadel, barrack yard 1 G 

Citadel bastion 10 

South bastion 16 

East bastion 1 

North ba tion 4 
Citadel gun-room, and under it in the street 2 

Lyons-tower 8 

Abbey-gate 1 

Main guard 1 

William's-gate, an embrasure shut up 2 

William's-gate guard-house 2 

Total 93 
All dismounted excejit five, and of these four of the 
carriages are broke and rotten. There lies in the citadel 
store one brass mortar 1 5 inches ilianieter, w eight by 
estimation 2000lbs. but there are neither budgc-harrcis, 
handspikes, nor shafts for ladles or rammers to serve the 
cannon. Richard Hudson, gunner. 


- lollion in 171-J, the old prejudices against the Catholics were, for a uhile, 
s, -•■.ived; all persons entering or leaving the town underwent inspection; the 
;' :itcs (which formerly remained open until ten o'clock at night) were closed every 

fy Lav at four in the afternoon, and the strictest military discipline was established 
,•: the garrison. These precautions, however, were laid aside soon after the 
I' •".cut which occasioned them was over; and, since that time, no occurrence which 
ji ■ v(k place in the aiKurs of these countries, rendered a repetition of similar pro- 
p -tcdiiigs necessary in Galway. 

■ ,• In tlie year 17'1'7, Stratford Eyre was appointed governor of the town 

tj' , nd port, and vice-admiral of the province. This gentleman, soon after his 

K .:)])oiiitment, made several returns to government of the state and condition of 

^ :'ie town, together with the port, harbour, and surrounding fortifications. From 

|-^ 'Jicse docmnents, which contain many, local particulars long since forgotten, it 

:.! appears, that the fortifications were then entirely out of repair, and in a ruinous 

1^' condition. In one return he stated that the gates were all decayed, and particu- 

\j^- lurly that the gate at the parade quay had entirely fallen to the ground. From 

[^ the royal battery to the quay bastion, a distance of twelve hundred and eighty 

:' feet, there were several breaches in the parapets, which rendered it dangerous 

. and unsafe to post sentinels on that part of the walls. Between the west o-ate 

and Lyons tower, a distance of twelve hundred and forty feet, several holes were 

broke through, and cross walls were raised as high as the parapets, to inclose and 

shut in several back yards, the better to conceal prohibited goods. From the 

Lyons tower to the royal nine-gun battery, at William's gate, there was a 

breach quite to the ground, in length one hinidred and fifty-five feet ; and 

there was uo passage whatever for drawing artilleiy to the north bastion, or any 

comnuniication or way for the relief, but by stepping across the embrasures over 

William's gate. The walls in many places were bulged and nnght be easily 

scaled; the platforms were broke up and sunk, and the embrasures filled up, and 

covered with dirt and weeds. The walls of the castle and citadel barracks were 

very much out of repair, and in some places it was not safe for a sentinel to 

itand on them, and the citadel bastion (which was the only part of the town 

tlie then small garrison could hope to maintain or defend, if attacked by an 

enemy without, or an insurrection within,) was quite unserviceable. In this state 

the smallest privateer might sail into the harbour and insult the garrison with 

impunity, and no assistance could be given from the town to any ship, if attacked ° 

in the bay. It was then recommended that the most eflectual means to 

protect and secure the harbour would be to re-erect the battery formerly on 

Mutton-island, for which there were suilicient cannon to spare in the town, and to 

rebuild tlie sniall barrack which stood there for half a company of soldiers. By 

another return, dated the 2od of October, I7J7, it appears that no part of the 

Lyons tower was then remaining but the walls, though, if repaired, it would be of 



essential service in defending the town : that the nine-gun battery and the south 
bastion were in a defenceless state ; and that it would be absolutely necessary for 
the defence of tlie town that they sliould be repaired, as they were the only 
works pointing to Fort-hill (where the fort had been formerly erected, of wliicli 
nothing then remained but tlic ruins of a guard-liousc,) against wliich, if possessed 
by an enemy with artillery, tlic town would not be tenable. From tlie royal 
battery to the quay bastion, along the curtain, there were several breaches (wide 
enough to receive hogsheads,) made by smugglers who inhabited the adjacent 
houses ; and on this curtain there were two projecting flankers which might be 
repaired at a small expense ; and if three guns were mounted on that called " the 
Devil's Battery," they would be essentially serviceable in defending the curtain. 
The quay bastion (from whence alone an enemy in the port might be annoyed 
with ordnance, and which also covered the bridge, and was tlie only place for 
defending the town in case of an attack from the west,) was rendered useless by 
encroachments and buildings erected on it. Beyond this there was another bastion 
called " the Quay Canton," of which the platform was tolerable ; and from the 
quay bastion to the end of the curtain, behind the comity gaol, the wall was good. 
At the extremity of this there was room to erect a small battery, which might be 
of great service in co\'ering the west gate, and defending the town if attacked 
from that quarter, this being the only entrance from lar-Connaught, (the high- 
lands of the country,) wliich was inhabited by a people whom it would be prudent 
to guard against, and to have a watchful eye over, and which was the most likely 
place in this part of Ireland for an enemy to make a descent on. From thence 
to the bridge the town wall broke off, and that space was closed by mills, tan-yards 
and dwelling-houses. The river ran by in a sharp current, and there were several 
windows and doors which opened to the water, through which people had admit- 
tance to town when the gates were locked ; but the governor, on seeing some 
passing that way, had them stopped up. At the west there was formerly a draw- 
in-idge, and over the gateway a guard-room, which was repaired and fitted up for a 
corporal and six men. At the lower yard of the condemned barrack, adjoining 
the bridge, a battery might be erected, which would also secure the bridge. From 
thence to Abbey-gate, and along to Lyons tower, there was a very decayed and 
weak old wall, by which the river ran in a shallow channel as far as the Abbey- 
gate. There were no flankers or towers in all that space, but there were several 
holes open for the conveniency of running goods, which the governor had closed 
up. From Sander's-lane to Lyons tower there was a rampart fourteen feet broad, 
in the memory of several persons then living, but no trace thereof remained ; it 
had been thrown into gardens at the back of Lombard-street, and nothing was left 
but the walls, which were scarce broad enough for a single person to walk upon. 
There were two powder magazines, one in Lombard-street and one in the Citadel, 
both of which were very insecure, and unsafe places to keep powder in, being 



tiic loftiest of all tlic surrounding houses, and so remarkably conspicuous that they 
might be distinguished from the other buildings at the distance of a mile from 
cither side of the town, added to which they were not bomb-proof. The dilapi- 
dated state of the walls was attributed to " breaches made at different times by 
unregistered Papist merchants, (who, by express laws, had been })rohibited from 
living within the town or liberties,) the more effectually to run goods and to carry 
on the smuggling trade ;" but it was added, " that if the money arising from the 
tolls and customs were applied to their repair, they would be kept in a respectable 
and good state of defence." In order to prevent further encroachments on the 
walls or injury to the fortillcations, as well as to provide for the better security of 
the town, it was recommended that the guards should be doubled, ' and several 
other alterations were zealously suggested, which, perhaps, as not being considered 
necessary by government, do not appear to have been attended to. The moul- 
dering fortifications of Galway were,' therefore, suflered gradually to decay; the 
enlightened rulers of the country, even then, wisely foreseeing that it was not upon 
the precarious tenure of a few uncertain garrisons, but upon the general concilia- 
tion of the people, that the English interest would be most beneficially advanced 
and strengthened in Ireland. 

Governor Eyre, though, to all the knowledge and experience of the soldier, lie 
appears to have united the accomplishments of the gentleman and the information 

' Before 1 747, sentinels were placed at the following 
vtations — William's oiitsiile gate — William's inside gate 
liy tlie f^i\;i;\l-linusc — Abbey iiate — West gate — \Vest gate 
cimnl-room — Gaol quay gate — Parade quay gate — Citadel 

rn;i<n\?.ii'.? 'Jastle barrack gate — South bastion, where the 

■only cp.;inon are mounted — Stairs on the quay parade— 
Qj:iyha;tioii — Main guard — Old condemned barrack gate, 
tu p!-e>er\ e tlie king's hou?o, and to have an eye to the 
to«n saol — Back of the said barrack, the town being open 
l!icre -End of Samlcr's-Uiiic, to watch the backof Lombard- 
street magazine, adjacent to m hich are private gardens and 
a Franciscan nunnery — Governor's house — Commanding 
oiTicer's barrack — Collector's house — Total 20. In 1747, 
t!ie "overnor represented the following sentinels as iieccs- 
farv, viz. 
Two at each of the five gates into t)ie town 10 

On the walls from the royal b:v.tion to the > ^ 
west sate ■i07'5 feet at proper distanres ) "^ 

On the walls from the west gate to Lyons I 
tower, I'JIO ditro S 

Oil the walls from Lyons tower to tlie castle, ? ^ 
792 ditto ... > ~ 

On the several bastions, viz. 'Williani's, South, 1 
Ro\al, Devil's, Quay, Lyons, North and > s 
the Cita lei, one on each ) 

At the four several guard-rooms, viz. main ') 
guartl, William's gate, Alibey-gate and > 4 
West-gale ) 

At the three several and distinctly separate \ 
Ijiirrack gates i 

Powder magazines, being in separate store- ) 
houses 5 

At the town and county gaols 2, collector's i 
door 1, commanding officer's door 1, gover- > 7 
nor's house 2, and infirmary 1 ) 

Total 44 

Tie afterwards recommended that t\vcnty sentry-boxes 
of brick and stone should he built at the following posts, 
and stated them to be absolutely necessary for the security 
of the town, the protection of his majesty's revenues, and 
the presei'vation of the w alls from breaches, through w hich 
smugglers were continually attempting to introduce run 
goods, viz. at William's gate — Abbey-gate — AVest-gate — 
AVatcr-gate — Quay-gate — Custoni-hmise — Qu.ay-parade, 
at th.e foot of the stairs ascending the to« n wall, at Nlagcn- 
nii's house, where the town is open to the river since the 
bridge barrack was built — At llie end of S.miler's-lane, 
where M'Dimough, the informer, was kidnajiped by the 
snuigglcrs, and conveyed out of the town — On the wall, 
back of Lombard-street barrack — At the jiowder maga- 
zine — On the wall at Lyons tower — On the wall over 
William's gate— On the bastion that points to the lake — 
AVithin the gate of the bridge — Lombard-street barrack 
— At the powder magazine — On the walls between the 
nine-gun battery — and at the quay bastion — Total 20. — 
Also, that a magazine should be erected for lodging the 
powder of the garrison, but none except the last appeals 
to have been completed. — Orig. j\IS. 



of the scholar, still, having been bred in the old military school, he, like many 
others, imbibed all tlic leading prejudices of the times against his fellow-subjects of 
the Catholic persuasion, from whom he was taught to apprehend every danger both 
to church and state. He, therefore, viewed all their actions with a watchful ami 
jealous eye, and, during his continuance as governor, never failed to communicate 
his apprehensions to government." These fcehngs, having also influenced liis 
management in the town, often involved him in unpleasant contentions with the 
inliabitants. Amongst other alterations which he niade after his appointment, 
that of closing the gates at the early hour of four in the afternoon, leaving the 
wickets only open luitil evening, was considered particularly annoying. This 
])ractice the town's-people represented as a general inconvenience, never resorted 
to except in cases of public apprehension or danger, and that, when no such iuid 
existed, so strict a regulation became totally unnecessary. Accordingly the 
mayor, sheriflts, deputy recorder and other members of the corporation, waited on 
the governor, with a memorial, signed by themselves and several others of the 
Protestant and many of the Catholic inhabitants, requesting that he would permit 
the gates to remain open until eight o'clock in the evening, and the wickets until 
ten, according to ancient custom. Upon his declining to comply with this requi- 
sition, a memorial was presented to the lord lieutenant, in his answer to which, 
the governor adduced many reasons to justify his refusal. He assured his excel- 
lency, that this complaint against him had its rise, not from any real inconve- 
nience or detriment, but from party prejudice; and stated that he was possessed 
of proofs to shew that the mayor and sheritFs had received presents from the 
Papists, to " nose" and insult him, and to represent him as distressing the inhabi- 
tants, and putting them under difficulties injurious to the trade and commerce of 
the town. " As to closing the gates at an early hour, the greatest possible necessity 



" In December, I "-IT, it was represented to j;ovcrniiieiit 
that the town of GaUvav was a post of very i;rcat conse- 
(|uence, ami no Mrrison in Ireland recpiircd more the care 
and attentionof a governor, especially hi time of war; there 
hein^' six friaries and nnnneries, two Po|)ihh chapels, eight 
Popish schools, above thirty Papists to a Protestant, and 
lit least two hundred popish ecclesiastics within tlie town 
antl snbnrhs, many of whom were ai;ents and emissaries, and 
all of them affected to the interests of France and S|)ain, 
for whose snccess they publicly ])rayed in their chapels. 

That nmnbers of popish cccie»iastics arrived daily in 
Galway from abroad, iiy way of Holland to Cork, and 
appeared publicly in tlie streets: and to such a dei;ree of 
insolence were the Papists !;rown in the town, that one 
of thcni insulted a clerL'yman of the established church; 
others struck the town sheriti'-, and many notoriously 
interested themselves in the election of town magistrates, 
and appeared in plaid vests. 

That riots and mobs were frequent, and within the last 
twelve months three sentinels had been knocked down at 
the west gate, one of them by two Douiinician friars 

named Burke and Geoghegnn, and the other two Iiy 

'i'hat of late years several old Protestants, and the 
children of such, had been perverted to the popish reli- 
gion, bv the ijidef'atigable assiduity, diligence, and unli- 
uiited and uncontrolled access these ecclesiastics had to 
the town and suburbs indiscriminately. 

That being alarmed and apprehensive for the safety of 
the garrison, at the great increase, power and influence 
of i)o|)ery therein, and the formidable number of Papists 
in and about the town, (considering the defenceless nnd 
ruinous condition of the walls and fortifications,) tlic 
governor thoniiht it his dutv to represent those several 
particulars.— cij/g. MS. 

" The governor attributed the resentment of the mer- 
chants on this occasion to an order which, he stated, lie 
obtaineil from the secret committee of the East India 
Company, rciiniring the captains of their ships in the port 
not to communicate or transact their afliiirs with Pajiists 
who might betray them, but to employ Protestants, such 
as he would rcconiinend. — Id. 

iiistohy of galavay, 181 

existed for such a measure. The town lay at an extreme point ; there was no 
travelling by land beyond it, and it was not a thoroughfare. The entrance for all 
hiiid traffic was at the east gate ; and beyond the west gate lay lar-Connauo-ht, a 
country inaccessible to wheel carriages, and inhabited by Papists, who supplied 
the markets with such necessaries only as were brought in on back-loads : the 
wickets, therefore, (which were large enough for any horse or cow to pass 
through,) being open until nine at night in winter and ten in summer, trade could 
not be interrupted in that quarter. The two gates towards the west led to the 
qiuay; and as all custom-house business ceased in the evening, when the revenue 
otHccrs retired, it could convenience none but smugglers, or recruits for fbrei"-n 
service, (and many of eacli frequented the town,) to keep these gates any longer 
open. The two other entrances were at the Abbey and William's gate. Through 
the first nothing but turf and water entered, and private brewers and distillers 
only would draw home cither after night-fall. Fuel was brought down Loiigh- 
corrib and landed at the "Wood-quay, where it was taken up in kishes, and wheeled 
into the town. Through William's gate, being the grand entrance, all carria"-es 
and inland merchants goods were brought for exportation or market; but the 
inns and stables being in the east suburbs, and no accommodation in the town, 
it could be no detriment to trade, that goods, which arrived after the gates were 
locked, (and which, according to a constant prudential practice, Mere alwaj-s 
examined at the gate, lest ammunition or arms were concealed,) should remain 
for one night where the carriers and horses whicli brought them shouhl unavoid- 
ably set up. Moreover, carriages could not so effectually be inspected in the 
dark ; and as there were no other but popish merchants in the town, (though 
they were forbidden by express laws from inhabiting therein, and had been for- 
merly every man turned out,) the caution of examining chests and casks consigned 
to them appeared evidently reasonable and prudent. As to conveniences for life 
destined for market, the same reason held good. Besides, in all well-regulated 
markets, till the bell rung at a certain hour, nothing was sufilered to be sold ; 
therefore market-folk had no business in town till the morning of the market 
day ; for, should they be permitted to come in over night, they would be sur- 
rounded by forestallers and regrators, who would purchase their commodities, and 
retail them the next day at an extravagant price. — Having thus shewn how neither 
the trade, commerce, markets or fair-dealing inhabitants could be injured or incon- 
venienced by locking the town gates, the advantages which attended the measure 
were next to be considered. It was of service to his majesty's revenue, by pre- 
venting private brewing and distilling, and operated as a check upon smugglers, 
who would otherwise convey unentered goods into and out of the town. It was 
a great security to the garrison from surprise, for no man could pass through the 
wickets imqucstioned by the sentinel, and, for that reason, would be a restraint 
on ill-designing men, and French recruiters, from coming into the town. AH 



rstrangcrs were examined at the gates, a caution wliich could not be observed so 
ciFectually in the night-time, when a crowd might rush in through a wide gate- 
way ; and these precautions were at the time absohitely necessary, as several 
French officers, of Irish birth and extraction, were then in the town with their 
relations. " There was also every probability that the restless, active, subtle and 
industrious agents and emissaries of" Rome, the ])opish ecclesiastics then in the 
town, might worlv on their devotees, (who were exceedingly numerous,) and pre- 
cipitate them to attempt to seize upon the garrison. Tliey might represent to 
tliem that the undertaking was feasible, as the possessors seemed to tliink them- 
selves in perfect security: that the garrison, arms and ammunition they would 
thereby possess, would secure them from being dislodged for some months, in 
which time they would have succour from France : tliat tlie country being devoted 
to the same cause, they would, be sufficiently supplied with provisions : that their 
friends would, at the same time, rise upon the several troops quartered at Head- 
ford, Loughrea and Gort, which would make them masters of the wliole country: 
that their success would encourage other disaffected parts of the kingilom to rise; 
at least, that the goveriuTient, mistrustful of their inclinations, v.oiikl not venture 
to draw off troops from such parts, and could not, tlierefore, bring togetiier a 
number sufficient to recover the town without a train of artillery, without wiiicli 
it would be impossible to drive them out : and that, supposing tlie worst, thev 
might, in the end, make a safe retreat into the inaccessible highlands of lar- 
Connaught and Joyce-Country, and there remain in ])erfect security, until an 
opportunity should offer to carry them off to France. Finally, to lay gi-ounds for 
all these alarming conjectures, allusion was made to the insolent behaviour of the 
Papists and their clergy, at Gal way, in September, 17'f-5, upon th.e appearance, 
on the coast, of the homeward-bound East India fleet, consisting of fourteen 
sail, whilst they were supposed to be the Ferrol squadron ; whicli proved how 
ripe they were to lay hold of every occasion to attempt the subversion of the 
government. All these representations, however, forcible as they were, and so 
^vell calculated to rouse the attention and to excite the alarm of government, 
proved ineflectual. The rulers of the country were well aware that the Catholics 
had neither the power, nor yet the inclination, to give any disturbance; and 
that, according to the declaration of a distinguished senator in the house of 
commons, soon after that period, " not a man of them moved tongue, pen or 
sword," upon that or any other occasion, to give the slightest uneasiness to the 

" Aliont tliis time it was ako represented, tliat two was also seen in tlie neidibourhood, and at the house of 

Irisli ollicers of tlie name of Biirkc, belongjiii; to Dillon's his kinsman, Knlicrt Siartin, of Danyni, who, it ivas 

regiment, who were made prisoners at Cnlloden, appeared stated, " coidd, in twcnty-ibnr hours, firing at least ciulit 

publii-ly in town; and that one SarsSeld, (of Lalii's re^d- hundred men to the i;ates of the town, as ah-olutdv 

mcnt,) an avowed Jacobite, who escaped from tluit battie, dcioted to him as the Camerons to Lochiel."— OW". MS. 



government. They remained, therefore, unmolested in Gahvay, wliere they 
have ever since given continual proof of their steady loyalty ancl sincere affec- 
tion, from principle, for the government of the country. 

Notwithstanding the many impediments under which the Catholic inhabitants 
laboured, their numbers considerably increased, while the Protestant part of the 
population appears to have as rapidly diminished. " ]\fany animosities, however, 
still subsisted between them : the latter were supported by law, enjoyed the 
favor and protection of government, and, exclusively composing the members 
and officers of the corporation, possessed all the municipal power, which, in 
many cases, they exercised rather severely against their more numerous, though 
less favored, town's-men. ^ Whatever portion of its former trade remained in 
the place was chiefly confined to the Catholic merchants ; but they were so 
oppressed by excessive charter-duties and other unauthorized exactions of the 
corporation, that they, by degrees,' abandoned the town, and this trifling rem- 
nant of its former commercial greatness gradually declined : ^ thus aftbrding 
another proof of the fatal tendency of those proscribing laws, which so long- 
prevented, and whose surviving effects even still, in several instances, operate 
.ngainst the prosperity of Ireland. 

Upon the hap])y accession of his present majesty to the throne of these realms, (a 
circumstance which will be ever gratefully remembered and commemorated with 
joy by the Catholics of Ireland, as the termination of their heavy political sufferings, 
and the cause of their now enjoying many of the privileges of our invaluable 
constitution,) the people of Galway, encouraged by that auspicious event, and 
also by the increasing liberality of the tim_es, ventured to petition parliament 
against the partial and illegal proceedings (as they termed them) of the corpo- 
ration. ' Their statement, which was entitled, " The petition of the merchants 

' 111 the year 1762, it was stated in the house of com- 
mons, oil the part of tlie corporation, that Galway was 
mostly inhabited by Papists, and that the population of 
the town and liberties amounted to fourteen thousand 
souls, of which scarcely three hnndrcd and fifty were 
Protestants. — Cum. Jour. Vul. VIJl. 

^ The power of quartering or billetting soldiers was 
vested ill the mayor; and several complaints were, from 
time to time, made i)y the inhabitants, of the partial and 
opprcs'ive exercise of this authority. IMany of them, to 
avoid the burden, niulerwent annual contribution to the 
mayors; and such of the rest as did not send yearly presents 
«cie surely visited by a file of these troublesome inmates. 
So:nc, who remonstrated, were eoniinittcd to prison, and 
compelled to take the oaths, or pay certain fines. In the 
vcar 17-19, upon some remonstrance of this kind by the 
inhabitants, they were summoned before the major, who 
threatened that, unless they instantly complied with his 
orders, he would put the popery act (which hindered 
them from residing in the town) i.nto imaiediate execu- 
tion. — Id. 

^ In 1742, the trade of the town began rapidly to 
decline. From the year 1731 to 1758, the merchants, 
under all their disqualifications, had fourteen or fit'tetn 
ships at sea; but in 17C2, there were only three or four 
vessels belonging to the town ; one only, laden w ith beef, 
cleared out during the entire year 1761; and another, 
freighted with butter, in 1762. — Irt. 

" The following communication from the " mayor, 
sheriffs, and sundry resident free burgesses and freemen," 
to John Eyre and Rickard Fitzpatrick, esqrs. represen- 
tatives of the town, dated loth November, 1761, (which 
was commonly called the "Black Petition,") will evince 
the feelings of the then corporation for the remainder of 
the inhabitants. — It stated that several shopkeejjcrs and 
dealers, of the Roman Catholic conmumion, assumed a 
privilege of selling, and exposing to sale, divers commo- 
dities anil manufactures, to the manifest prejudice of the 
Protestant tradesmen and artificers, freemen of the town: 
that they emplojed journeymen, and carried on branches 
of handicraft business, which they exposed to sale in their 
shops, without being competent judges of the goods i» 


and inhabitants of the town of Galway, and the gentlemen, freeholders and 
farmers of the connty of Galway, in behalf of themselves and others, the inha- 
bitants of the said town and county," was presented by Robert French, esq. of 
Monivea, an active senator, and one of the most opulent and respectable of the 
descendants of the ancient Galway families; and it informed the house, ^ " That 
the corporation had charters to levy off all goods, imported and exported, certain 
duties, which were granted for the particular purpose of paving the streets, repairing 
the walls, and keeping the custom-house quay and otlier public buildings in gootl 
order and repair, but that these objects had ceased, for that government, for many 
years past, had been at the whole expense of repairing the \valls ; and the pcti- 

iiiniiiir;i<(ur('i!,!i:iiI«itlioiit si'i'viiig niiv legal ap|M'cnticcship 
ti> :iiiv MU'li art. Halt or niyslcry, coiilrai'}' .to tlic real 
intent anil meaning of the Galway aet, anil tlic royal 
charters granted to their ancient corporation. They then 
infonneil them, that they heard that Mr. Perry, one of 
the representatives for LimericP;, had promised his consti- 
tuents to employ his best endeavours in obtaining an act of 
parliament for redress of the aforesaid grievances, and 
therefore I'cquested that they would concur in promoting 
such an act, and also to add such clause or clauses in 
favor of the freemen of Galway as might efli;ctually res- 
train such sliopkeepers and dealers from the like practices 
for the future, to the furthering and promoting the Pro- 
testant interest among them in general, and encouraging 
the tradesmen and artificers of tiie town to make neces- 
sary and useful iniprovemer.ts in the manufactories of their 
several callings. 


Charles Rivctt, nmi/or. 
John Mandevillc, J , ■.„ 
Jiiuics Galurailli, J •" 
Hem-y Ellis. 
John Hamlin. 
James Jones, 
lliehard Mathews. 
Joseph Scymoin'. 
Henry White. 
George Drnry. 
Henry Cove)'. 
James Forster. 

George Staunton. 

John Grace. 

Edward Murphy. 

Charles Lopdell. 

Ellas Tanker\illc. 

John Mortimer. 

HuL'li Montgomery. 

Henry Vesev, imi^lcn. 

Edmun.l French. 

Kodoljiluis Kent. 

Edward Uod-wortli. 

I.uke Dovlgworth. 
It is a singular fact, that many of those [)ersons an 1 
their descendants afterwards became members of the 
Catholic persuasion: the son of one of them is at present 
Cuholie wtu'den of Galway. 

" The petition against the corporation was supported 
bv several witnesses, whose evidence eoiitaiiis numy par- 
ticulars concerning the town, before and at this |)erjod, 
from which, as not being elsewhere to be found, the fol- 
lowing short abstract is taken. Andrew French, (who 
prinei[>ally promoted the petition for the pur[)ose of abo- 
lishing the charter duties, as they were not applied to th.e 
public use of paving the town and keeiiing the walls in 
repiur, and whose father and grandfather were respectable 
merchants in the town, since the beginning of that cen- 

tury,) after stating, that In sonic years he and llicv paid 5 
or tiOOO/. duties to the crown; m 170"1, only ],joo/.; very 
little the year before; but in 17S8 and llC'j, about I or 
5000/.; proved that since the year 171 2 or 17H, liie\ paid 
over and above, between 2 and .jOOO/. ior charter 'duties 
and perquisites to the corporation: (w hereout its wilnesscj 
could not prove that any had been expended ibr the pur- 
poses directed by the charters, except that a simi had been, 
about the year 17."1, applied to repair part of the walls 
and build a guard-house: that M. a year were given for 
mending the locks of the town gates : that the niaia 
guard-house and oflicers room were ke]it in repair; tliiit 
1 4/. were expended in 1757, to rejniir the quays ; and thnt 
the pavements between the two east gates, before William's 
gate guard, the main guard, the town gaol, and county 
court-house and gaol, the whole quay, the brid'je, the 
tholscl, for half the breadth of the street, and the centre, 
of the stiuare in the parade, had been and were then 
paved at the expense of the corporation.) He also proved 
that out of every one thousand deal boards inijiorted, 
the mayor, without any authority, exacted ten as a 
perquisite, besides the charter duties, the water hailifl's 
ten, and the warden three, (which last originated, in 
Catholic limes, to make eolTins lor the i)oor,'but which 
he believed the then warden never applied to that use;) 
and that out of every cargo of salt, six bushels went to 
the mayor, six to the sheriHs, three to the recorder, six 
to the water-bailiffs and six to the warden, which were 
worth from \s. to Is. 6(1. a bushel; and that 4(1. a ton was 
taken for kelp, which was then the principal export of 
the town. It was also proved that e\ery country butcher 
was obliged to give, yearly, two stone of tallow to the 
mayor, ami two more to the sheriH's: that the I'Jd. house- 
hold loaf weighed eleven pounds: that "id. was exacted 
for every boiit load of turf, containing from twenty to 
forty statute kish, then worth about Od. each : that eveiv 
fishing-l)oat (about one hundred and sixty) belonging ti) 
the town was eimqielled to pay Cil. yeariy for entiring; 
also two huiulred herrings anuuiiily tothe ma) or, the saii.e 
to the sherilts, and a like number to the w.iier-haildii, 
iK'sides two lumdreil more for liberty to dry their nets on 
the shore, which were exacted by the ow ner of the soil 
.Several other instances of illegal exe.etion were also 
adduced, for which the reader is referreil to the Cummvns 
Juiiniah, Vul. I'll. Jj,j,c,ulU: 


'.ioiicrs were obliged to pave the streets at their own expense : that tlic custom- 
!ioiis(.' quay was most shamefully neglected, and so far gone to ruin as to render it 
■jiisalc for any vessel above thirty tons burden to load or unload there : that the 
corporation had, notwithstanding, all along levied the charter duties, which, witli 
311 additional unwarranted charge ui)on every vessel coming to the town, enlianced 
the price of goods and merchandise, imported and exported, nearly three per 
cent, to the very gi-eat detriment of the merchants, who were thereby i-endered 
incapable of selling their goods upon equal terms with the other trading towns in 
the kingdom : that, for many years past, great extortions were practised by the 
toll-gatherers at the gates and maricets of the town : that the fishery of Gal way 
was capable of being made the most considerable in the kingdom, and, if properly 
followed and encoui-aged, would bring wealth to the town, and be the means of 
rearing a great number of able seamen for his majesty's service; but being so 
burdened with corporation taxes and perquisites, it was going to ruin and deca}% 
and a great number of able young fishermen were obliged to go to foreign 
countries to seek for bread, at a time when they might enrich themselves and 
their fiunilies at home, and be useful members of the community, had they met 
with reasonable encouragement : that the country butchers were prevented, by the 
exactions of the corporation from su])plying the town with meat : that the applot- 
inent of the public taxes and vestry money, by the corporation, was partial and 
unequal, and had become grievous and biu-densome : that the billeting of his 
majesty's troops had been partiall}', illegally and oppressively executed : that the 
members of the corporation converted its large revenue to their private benefit: 
tliat the only public edifice kept up by them was what they called the market-house, 
though it was no more than a small ground cellar under the military infirmary, 
from which infection was continually apprehended : that in consequence of these 
and many other vexatious measures, practised in the administration of the afiiiirs 
of the town, many iamilies had removed from it, others were pre\ented from 
settling, and the gentlemen and farmers of the adjacent counties were discou- 
raged from supplying the markets ; in consequence of which, a general complaint 
had prevailed for a series of years past in the town and country, and the neces- 
saries of life were considerably enhanced, to tlie great destruction of trade, tlie 
diminution of the inhabitants, and impoverishment of the town.— Such were 
the measiu-es i)ursucd by the corporation of Galwa}', since the revolution, and 
such the ])ernicious consequences which attended their proceedings ; all which, 
after minute investigation before a committee, were jjronounced, by the unani- 
mous voice of the legislature, to be true. On the lyth of February, 17G'2, the 
connuittec made their report, and sidjmitted their resolutions, which were after- 
wards confirmed by the entire house, viz. " that the trade of the town, which was 
formerly very considerable, had greatly declined for some years past : that tlie 
several detailed exactions of tlie corporation were oppressive, unwarranted, inju- 

A a 


rious to trade, and contrary to law and charter : that they greatly discouraged 
the fishery of tlie bay and harbour, which was one of the best in the kingdom : 
that tliey took sevei-al illegal tolls, and partially and op])ressively quartered the 
military on the inhabitants. It was, however, also resolved and declared, that 
the corporation had expended the money iU'isiug from the tolls, dulics and 
ci'.scoins, in the rejjairs and paving those jiarts of the streets iletailed in the 
report, and in j)aying salaries to the mayor and other oflicers of the corpo- 
ration, whicli sahiries v/ere highly conducive to the preservation of the peace, 
order and good government of the town, and were necessary to maintain the 
authority of the magistracy : and they finally reported that the laws in force, 
if properly executed, v.'ere sufiicient to redress the grievances committed in the 
markets, and that it was the duty of the magistrates to see them so executed. — 
During the proceedings of the committee, the corporation proposed to relin- 
quish the perquisites complained of, and to accommodate all matters in dispute, 
by adhering either to the schedule contained in the charters, or to the agree- 
ment entered into, in lG84, with the merchants of the town. These pro- 
posals, in the then stage of the business, being rejected, a " petition from the 
common council, freemen and freeholders of the town, on behalf of themselves 
and the other Protestant inhabitants of the town and liberties," was presented to 
the house ; wherein, after setting forth their title by charter to the duties, and 
their offers of accommodation, and the refusal of them, they stated that there 
were, in the town and liberties, forty Popish inhabitants for one Protestant : that 
tlie few Protestant merchants were discouraged from following trade or business, 
the Papists in general declining to deal with them ; and the wealth of the town, 
or by much the greater part of it, being in their hands, they thereby acquired 
considerable influence and power over the indigent Protestant tradesmen : that 
tlie corporation rents amounted to 150/. a year, and their whole revenue (which, 
exclusive of perquisites, did not exceed "1251. annually,) was then, and had been 
tor several years l)eJbre, scarcely sufhcient to pay the salaries of the magistrates 
and ollicers, and other necessary expenses ; and that, shoidd they be deprived of 
any part of the tolls, duties and customs granted by tiie charters, they would not be 
able to support the honor and dignity of the magistracy, or maintain their inde- 
pendence against the wealth and power of the Popish inhabitants ; whicli would 
necessarily, as they apprehended, subvert the Protestant interest in the town. — 
This petition being received, and the committee not having recommended the 
abolition of the charter duties, which was tlie principal object of the merchants, 
the entire terminated in an agreement between tliem and the corporation. A 
new schedule of duties and customs was accordingly framed, agreed upon, and 
presented to the house on the 13th of April, by Mr. French : " upon which, it 

' Vide Appcmlix., for this schedule 



wxs resolved, that it would tend to improve the trade of the town, and be of 
niiitiial advantage to the corporation and the inhabitants of the town and county. 
Tiius ended a proceeding, v>hich, though not attended with all the success oriixi- 
lully expected, yet had the effect of reforming the cor])oration, and of putting 
an end to many practices which were tlicretofbre prevalent, and wliich liad proveii 
so injurious to the interest of the town. 

Circumstanced as, from the preceding accounts, it appears the corporation of 
Gahvay was at this period, its landed possessions alienated away, and its members 
composed of a few resident Protestants, principally tradesmen and sliopkeepers, 
the greater part of whom, according to their own shewing, were witliout wealth, 
weight or consequence, (for although there were several respectable non-resident 
members, they do not appear to have interfered in the affairs of the corporation,) 
its sinking, as it soon afterwards did, beneath the influence of a single family, 
h.caded by an individual of high rank and talents, was inevitable. Since the 
revolution, the several leading families of Eyre, Shaw, Staunton and Fitzpatrick, 
successively commanded the representation, and directed the affairs of the town ; 
but the interest of the first generally prevailed. The descendants of judge Daly 
(who was so conspicuous at that period) afterwards became members of the cor- 
poration ; and, at the commencement of the present reign, James Daly, of Car- 
rownekelly, his grandson, was the first on the list of the common council of the 
town. " This gentleman, who was one of the earliest and firmest advocates of the 
Catholics of Ireland, had many friends in Galway, whose infiuence (uniting with 

< On 1st J;imiary, 17G-J, 
composed of the following ni 
I'litk. Fitzpatrick, Imemdcrs 
J. Eyre, ^\rccourt,S J'nr/imnt. 
James Daly, Carrownekelly. 
Charles Daly, of Callow. 
Thomas Laniliert. 
Thomas Taylor. 
EJmniul Kirwan, of Daluin. 
Dom. Skcrrett,of Balliiuiiift'. 
Gregory French, of Aggart. 
John French, of the same. 
Henry French, Tolwrpadder. 
Thos. Bodkin, of Carraliegg. 
,'\ndrc\v ICirwan, of Creg^. 
A. Lynch, of Kafcake, alii/. 
'J'hos. French, of .Moycidlcn. 
Francis ^lartin. 
Patrick Blake. 
Richard lilake. 
Peter Kirwan. 
Eilnunui French, vicnr. 
E'Jni. Bodkin, of Kilcloony. 
fi. Blake Bodkin, of Annagli. 
Robert French. 
Edwai'd E) re. 
Kobcrt Ejrc, of Eyrccoiirt. 

the common council was 
embers, \iz. 

\V. Taylor, of Castletaylor. 
Hedges Eyre. 
Simon Marshal!, collector. 
Richard Martin, of Dan^an. 
Patrick Blake, ofCorballv. 
Charles Blake, of Coolcu'n. 
J.O'Hara, loum clerk ^S' all;/ ■ 
Thomas Staunton. 
D. Burke, ;«i/.Yd- of jicacc. 
John Burke. 
Benjamin Burke. 
Henry Ellis, ;'H.r/;>i? of peace. 
J. Staunton, of Yonglial. 
J. Staunton, recorder. 
Tlios.Stauuton,of Olilberry. 
(i. Staunton, oi Cargin,o.7y. 
John Staunton. 
Thomas Sinicockes, licar. 
George Simcockes. 
H. White, ]iort-si(rrcj/or. 
Thoinas Wadman, vicar. 
Francis \\'ai!man. 
Kodolp. Kent, burrachnait. 
Jervis Hinde. 
Thoinas Shaw. 

Stratford Eyre, governor. 
John Morgan, of KUcolgan. 
John Morgan. 
Mathcw Pemiefatlier. 
Henry Va\ighan. 
Charles Uivett, nprlliccan/. 
'I'. Kell\, couiiscllor-al-la'w. 
Bartholomew Hanly, ath/. 
John Hiunlin, atloniei/. 
Thomas CIntterbuck. 
Sam. Ovacc, /icnrllt-iiioiiri/-c. 
Robert Mitchell, iuii-liulder. 
George Barry. 
Vi'illiani Irwine. 
Xapper GittarJ, vicar. 
E.Taukerville, «'a/c7j-HK(Xrr. 
Charles Lop.ldl. 
Jolni Ijondell. 
Charles Lopdell. 
James Fitzpatrick. 
Edajunil Fit/patrick. 
Henry Vcsej-, icarJen. 
Janics Shee. 
Samuel Shone. 
Joseph Seymour. 
George Lewis. 

Croasdailc Shaw. 

John Shaw. 

John Kelly, of Fidanc. 

John (Jihson, land-wuilcr. 

Edward Miir|)hy. 

Airg. Swanv. ick, lide-wailcr. 

James Foriter, tanner. 

James Jones, baler. 

'J'obias Sherwood, se.rtoii. 

Edward Sheilds,.(/«)(-),;rt/,c;-. 

George Driu-y, chandler. 

James Galbraith, tai/lor. 

Hugh Wilkinson. 

Rich. Mathews, sliuc-malccr. 

John Sallow, vintner. 

Hugh Mor.tgomery, baler. 

Francis Montgomery. 

J. Jiandcville, up/,v/.i/erer, 

Fred. Covey, liouse-jniner. 

Rev. Fred'.'rick Gryer. 

Richard Ti'uelocke, smith, 

George 'i'homas, gli,-Jcr, 

John Mortimer, ueaver. 

George Brabai;on, esij. 

William Joyce. 

James Ricluu'ds, hosier. 

Total 101. 



that of Rickard Pltzpatrick, one of its representatives in parliament, and who 
had invariably snpj)orted tlie Daly against the Eyre interest,) finally succeeded in 
establishing him and his family in all the rights and pri\ileges of the corporation. 
A new and unexpected corporate opponent, however, soon after appeared. 
Patrick Blake, esq. of Drum, who was descended fi;oni one of the ancient fiunilics 
of the town, and who appears, though ultimately worsted, to have been actuated 
by a wish for its general interest, gave considerable trouble. This gentleman w;h 
elected mayor in I??!, and the town soon after became a scene of tuuudt and con- 
fusion. One of his tirst acts of office was the admission of several resident inliabi- 
tants to the freedom of tiie corporation, by which his design to weaken tlie influ- 
ence of the Daly family immediately became manifest. " He next disfrancliised 
several non-resident fj-eemcn, •' because," as the act of council ex})resses it, " they 
were elected in violation of the statute for the better regulating the town of Gal- 
way, and strengthening the Protestant interest therein, and in order to perpetuate 
the government of the corporation in the power of several gentlemen and others of 
the county of Galway and elsewhere, Avho have no interest or concern in the town 
of Galway, or wlio pay any scot, lot, or other contribution therein." — These 
])roceedings immediately gave the alarm. Denis Daly, esq. then member for the 
county, hastened to town, and appointed James (afterwards Sir James) Slice to act 
as deputy mayor, who, having done so in opposition to those in ofiice, was instantly 
disfranchised. A memorial was then laid before the chancellor, stating that his 
lordship was, by stat. tth Geo. I. empowered to appoint four justices of the 
})cace, who should reside in the town, but that this act was frustrated by the 
])ersons w!io then held the commission not being resident, and prayino- redress. "^ 
The following year, a double return of mayor ^ and shcriflfs was made, and the 
})rivy council approved of Denis Daly to be mayor, and Thomas Bodkin and John 
Thomas, sheriffs. In the mean time the preceding magistrate and his party held 
over, and for some years after elected their own mayor, sheriffs, and other corpo- 
rate officers. Proceedings were instituted in the courts of law, and several disputes 

' On this occasion Robert O'llara, the town-clerk, 
rari'icil away t!ic books, and refused to act; upon wliich 
the mayor appointed \atli. Cook in liis place, and liad a 
new corporation book iinniediatelv provi<led. — Lib. I. 

I CoHitcil, 11/// l},c. 1771, Denis Boues Daly and 
several others were tlien di^lVanchised, " for interrni>tini; 
the business this Ai\\, ami for making a noise and confusion 
at this and many other coe.neils, aithough they were 
required iiy the mayor to witlulraw." — Lib. I. — On 1 1th 
February, 1 77'.', another council was held, into which that 
gentlema.i a'ul others " forced their way, and, having 
refused to withdraw, the council was dissolved." Denis 
Daly was alVcrwards disli'anchiseii ; hut peremptory 
■writs of iiiaudaaius luiving issued, he and the suNcral 

other depi-Ivcd pcr»o)is were again restored. — Id. 

•^ Coi'.nril, l.s7 Atiiiu.'it, 1772, Lord Eyre proposed 
Nathaniel Cook; Ignatius Blake, of Ardf'ry, proposed 
Denis Daly ; fifty-one voted for the latter and sixty-four 
lor the former, uhercujjon he was declareil duly elected, 
" because ;\Ir. Daly wa^ not an inhabitant of Ciaiwav, and 
dill not spend seven days in the whole within that'to;in, 
since 1st August, 1770;" hut having, notuithstandijii| 
been approved of as above, it was resohcd, by the late 
mayor and his friends, that the other " should hold over 
until another were properly appointeil, and that he should 
be indemnified for so iXomg."— Lib. I. — Thcv persisted in 
this determination for some years afterwards, but were 
finally obliged to yield. 




iinil s.uigiiiiuirv iltu-is wcio, Irom time to tiino, the consequences of these corpo- 
atioii I'oiuls. In iiio year 17 T'"', they burst forth with greater violence than ever. 
Mt. Daly, however, by his own personal hibors, and tlie indefatigable exertions 
■ ! liis friends, preserved his ascendancy ; and this distinguislied, virtuous and 
patriotic individual, tliougli often obliged to contest, at tlie point of the sword, 
ifilli his determined and resolute rival, was ultimately triumphant, and com- 
|!clclv succeeded in rendering his influence in the corporation in a manner 
'.A'rcditary in his family. 

During the continuance of these disputes, the improvement of the town was 
«brgotten; the walls, gates and fortifications, which were left without repair, 
presented a most ruinous appearance, and trade was entirely^ neglected. Tliough 
thus circumstanced, the inhabitants had, however, the solitary consolation of 
Ijcing no longer doomed to penal inflictions for their religious tenets. In the 
vcar 1778, tlie first great legislative interference took place in their favor. " 
The flame of patriotism, which soon after spread over the kingdom, shone round 
this district with peculiar brightness. All that was great, good and respectable of 
its community, ranged themselves in the lists of the patriots, and the \'oluntccrs 
of Gahvay^ presented a military association, which, for respectability of rank, 
extent of property, or purity of intention, has seldom been equalled. The town 
5oon became conspicuous in the national struggle for independence, and was the 
first in Ireland that entered into resolutions against the importation or consump- 
tion of English goods until the grievances of the nation should be redressed, ' an 
example which was generally followed throughout the kingdom. Tiie town 
vohmtcers were embodied on the olst of JNIay, 1779, and amounted to about 
four hundred well disciplined troops, divided into six battalion and two ilank 
companies. Richard Martin, esq. of Dangan, their first elected colonel, on a 
rumour of having supported the then administration, was deprived of the com- 
fimnd"; but that highly spirited descendant of the ancient natives of the town, 
luiviiig satisfactorily refuted the accusation, he was reinstated, and afterwards 

" It was not until the year 17Sl' that tho law which 
viliJLTteil Pa|)ist3 to certain (lenahici, who took any 
^. )u>c, or came to (!we!l in LijMcrick or Galway, or tlicir 
v.hurh-;, wa-i repc-ilcd bv the act then pav^cd, " tor the 
fj.-;luT rchcl" of his majesty's snlijects of this kinmknn 
(Tofi'sing the Popish religion." — Si'nl. 'Jl, 2-, Gen. III. 

' These rcsoUitions were of the followinj: imp'ort : — 

I. We will never vote, on any .'nture election for any that will not jive a sulficient test not to vote 
f r .wn money-bill of !on;,-jr Juration than tlu'ce months, 
:'} lliat clansc in the iiuitiny bill wliicii makes it 
(-.rp.tiial is repealeil ; till I'oynin'^'s law i^ moilifieil ; as 
»f liolil the privy coinitil now a foiirtli power in our 
lei-blare, aiul the iriterference of the Knglish attorney- 
;:".frtil in our laws unconstitutional and derogatory to 
'Jic iliu'nity of the Iri^n nation. 

II. That seeing the partial requests, not only of a sliire, 
Ki of a petty corpoi'ation, in England, more attended to 

than tlie just deniaJids of an aggrieved nation, deterniined 
US to enter into the following resolution of non-coiisunip- 
tion of English goods until our grievances are redressed, 
viz. That we will not, for ourselves or families, buy 
from any importer or retailer any Englisli goods made of 
wool, eottou or silk, or any refnied sugar or porter; and 
we expect from all merchants we deal with a test that 
the aforesaid articles arc Irish. If any in our port should, 
contrary to these resolutions, import, or any retailer in our 
tuwu buy in any other (lort, English goods, and pass them 
for Irish, on conviction, we will pnllli^h his or their names 
in the puljlic papers, that the world may know the traitors 
to their country, and be guarded from dealing with them 
for the future. We IiO|)e the diH'erent manufacturers all 
over the kingdom will co-operate with tlie good wishers 
of the nation in their favour, by not raising tiie price of 
their goods beyond their real value. — Orig. J\IS. 
^ History nf the IrUh I'aluntccis, pngc 00. 




continuetl in that lionorable station during the existence of tlie corps. They 
were several times reviewed, with the volunteers of" the county, in Gahvay, Tuam 
and Louglu'ea, by tlie earls of Clanricarde, and Altamont and the celebrated 
Henry Flood, successively reviewing generals ; and, after preserving the public 
peace, obeying all the constitutional commands of government, and, at the same 
lime, co-operating in the grand and successful objects of this immortal asso- 
ciation, they peaceably laid down tlie arms which they had voluntarily taken up, 
and again resinned their station, with honor and applause, amongst their fellow- 
citizens in society. 

For some years after this period, nothing worthy of observation occurred. No 
commercial exertions were made, ' nor were any improvements luidertaken. A 
System of parliamentary electioneering seemed alone to have occupied the public 
mind ; and, although the years 1783 and 171)0 became memorable for contested 
elections both for the town and county, " very little appears to have been done to 
boiefit either. The forlorn situation of Galway about this time may be ascertained 
from a well known melancholy fact, that, until the Catholic bill of 1793, grass 
frequently grew in many of its most public streets ! From that period, however, the 
inhabitants began to exert themselves: the limits of the town were soon extended 
beyond the walls, and several buildings were erected in the cast and west suburbs. 
The year 17!)'f' was rendered remarkable for the arrival of tlie homeward-bound 
East India fleet. This noble squadron riding at anchor in the bay, and combining 
with the surrounding scenery, presented a grand and most picturesque appearance, 
and reminded many old persons, then living, of what they had heard in their youth, 
concerning the former trade and concourse of shipping to the town. " During the 
troubles which afterwards disturbed the kingdom, the inhabitants of Gahvay were 
conspicuous for their peaceable demeanor and unshaken loyalty; not an individual 
suftercd for rebellious proceedings; and to their credit be it recorded, that, though 
their principles were devoted to the constitution of the country, they were free 
from the vile spirit of political and religious prejudice so prevalent in other parts 
of the kingdom. The readiness with which the ranks of the militia and the yeo- 

' Fyoni 1 TR" to 1 7n-I, thci'C were rcnistercil, as belonging 
to tlic port of GnUviiv, sevciity-foiir vcr^-.els (all Britisli built, 
ixoopt one prize ot'l'orty-seveii tons vliiih was niiule free) 
r.T lisliin^', eo;'.sl ami toreiyn trade containing two tlionsaml 
live Innulrcil and eighty-five tons, and two lunulred and 
<eViMit\-six seamen. — Tliis registry, which was I'ar ex- 
tteded, within the same period, by some oi' the n:ost 
iiiconsijcrable sea-ports in the kingdom, proves at once the 
ruined state ot the trade of once rommercial town. 

"' On tiie ISth of Angiist, ITS,-), an election Cor two 
Kn:g'.".ts of the shire, to represent the county of Galway 
in parliament, commenced in the tow n. The candidates 
weie, Denis Daly of Dnnsandle, William Power Keating 
Trench of Gari;ally, Ednnnid Kirwan of Dalgin, and 
Kichard Martin of Dangan, csijr-. and, after a contest of 

fift^■-tw■o days, the two former were declared duly eleclcil. 
A similar election commenced on 5d May, 1 7S0. The 
candidates were, William Power Keating Trench, Joseph 
Ikiiry Blake of ArdiVy, (afterwanis lord'W'allscourt,) anJ 
Anthony Daly of Callow, csqrs. and, after a contest of 
thirt_\-two days, tlic two former were declareil duly clccltJ. 
The town election commenced on the Ijth of j\kiv. 
The Kight Hon. Denis Daly, Sir .Skiffington Snijth aiij 
liichard Martin, e^(lr. were the candidates; and, after i 
poll of four days, the two former were returned. 

" De Bnrgo, who wrote aljout the vcar 175.5, relates, 
that he had heard from persons of credit, then living, 
that they had seen eighty merchant vessels at oacc lu 
the bay of Gahvay; but that in his time there vcre 
scarcely three or four. — Jli/i. Uum. pni^c 3'J.'^. 


rnnniy corps or volunteers were filled up, afforded convincing proof of the prin- 
riplcs of the Ci-itholic inhabitants of Galway. ° On the landing of the French at 
Kilhila, in August, 1798, the gallant and humane general (afterwards lord) Hut- 
' liiiison commanded in the town ; and being, at the time, entirely destitute of 
rsourccs to enable him to march against the enemy, the merchants, in the space 
of all hour, made up a sum of fifteen hundred guineas, with 'which tiiey presented 
him, and by which he was enabled to join general Lake, with the troops under his 
■ Tiiirnand, to meet tlie enemy. The town yeomanry also joined their forces, and 
i';ui their share of the disgraceful defeat at Castlcbar. During their absence the 
town was left without military protection, and the Catholic clergy were indefati- 
gable in their exertions to preserve the public peace. On this occasion, one of the 
regulars of St. Augustine presented a novel spectacle — a friar standing sentinel on 
the west bridge, to prevent the entrance of disaffected persons to a place where, 
Nvithiu the memory of many then. living, he would himself have been doomed to 
Iraiisportatlon or death for daring to appear or return : thus affording a strlklno- 
example of the mutability of human opinion, and of the happy change whicli had 
taken place in the public mind during that period. The question of Ico-Islatlvc 
iiiiion between the two countries soon after began to agitate the kuvdom ; and the 
promises made by Mr. Pitt and lord Cornwallls, to the Catliolics of Ireland, secured 
many of the inhabitants of Galway in its favor. An address was accoi'dlngly voted 
by tlicm in February, 1799, in which the necessity of that measure v/as maintained 
with remarkable energy of expression. " In the constitution of the empire, as It at 
present stands," say the}^, " we discover the seeds of party animosity and national 
jealousy: A Protestant parliament and Catholic people ! — hence religious dissen- 
sion and civil discord: Two legislatures In the same empire !— hence legal preju- 
dices and commercial rivalry. By the settlement of 1782, the Irish parliament 
acquired the right of Independent legislation — a right equally unsafe to exercise 
and not to exercise. To exercise It would have been to endanger the unanimitv, 
and tliercby to hazard the division, of the empire ; while, by declining to exercise 
the right, the Irish parliament brought upon Itself tlie imputation of abject 
submission to the British legislature. This imputation begot contempt, that 
contempt discontent, and that discontent rebellion. For this radical defect in 

" The co^mns^ions for all tlic ycoiiniiirv ofTiccrs of First Lieut. Doniiriic!< Diily. Rowcs E-m 

Irclaml were si-iicd on the 51st of October, ll'.iti. Tliosc Secoiul ditto. J. BiirUe. Sr.imiel Hanlev 
of Giihvay were — 

Galway Volunteers. SccomI Ballidwn Cuiiqi. Li^ld hij'r.iihij Cotnpnni/. 

,-. , ,,. Carali-j,: Capt. Mark Lynch. Jolm Frauds Hiitcliiiisoii. 

r . HI u,''',"'''V , ^- 'y'"""' ^'"'V- Fir.-t. Linn. Thos. Browne. I knrvBlal.f. 

Cap .Marcus 1 l,,Ke I y,.ch. Ottnvel J'uxlej . Second ditto. Val. Blake. K.chard French, 
firjt Lieut. Uohcrt Marlni. Ulick O'Brien. 

Second ditto, llich. Butler. Andrew Bui'ke. - Fusilier Cvmjiaiij/. 

., ,. ,, I'l/anlnj. Captain, Frniicis Blake, 

r.n, v" 1 " n' ""T"-'- , i' !"■' ^,"""'""' Cmupanij. First Lieut. Val. Blake. 

Capt. iNich. Power irejich. Edininul f itzpatrick. Second ditto. James Browne. 



the polity of the empire we can sec but one remedy, and tliat remedy is an union." 
Though the earliest and most successful efforts were made in its favor by tlie 
earl of Clanricarde, tlie archbishop of Tuam, and others in the county of Galway, 
it was, notwithstanding, the first part of Ireland that was proclaimed to be in a 
state of disturbaTice ; and as several persons openly asserted that such a measure 
was totally unnecessary at the time, they consequently concluded that it was 
resorted to for no other purpose than that of carrying the question of union by 
military coercion. Hov.evcr that may be, it is certain that the good people of 
Galway have been disa})pointcd in their reliance on ministerial ])romises, and 
that, were the question to be agitated again, many of tliem would think and act 
in a very diflerent manner on tiie occasion. 

Soon after the commencement of the present century the princijial part of tlic 
town walls was prostrated, and several extensi\e stores and timber-yards were 
erected and laid out on their ruins. '' The buildings in the east and west suburbs, 
at Dominick-street, Newtown-Smith and Meyrick-square, were still carried on, and 
all within the walls got the name of the old town to distinguish it fi-om these new 
improvements. The return of the inhabitants of the town and liberties, under 
the census act of 1812, amounted only to tv.cnty-four thousand four hundred and 
cighty-foiu- ; but those to whom the enumeration was entrusted Avere, according 
to their own subsequent accusations of each other, guilty of gross neglect and 
omission in tlie execution of that duty. The general and most probable opinion 
is, that the population amounts at present to about forty thousand, '' which com. 
prebends a vast number of daily increasing poor, without trade, manufactures, or 
adequate employment. The consideration of this growing evil, combined with 
other local v.ants and inconveniences, at length induced many of the inliabitants 
to attribute the entire to neglect and inattention to the interests of the town, 
by its parliamentary representatives ; and it was finally concluded, that if it 

' Tl'.e OKI foniJcations of GaKvav liavc been recently 
(.■oiitcinlcd tbi- ill the courts of law, as often as they 
iunnerly v.ere at llic month of the cannon. They are 
claimeJ on one I'.aiul by the representatives of 
Eyre, who, in IfiTO, {Vi'cic iin.'i; ]mi\c l-i.) mile.) ohtaincd 
a lea^c from th.c corporation, wliicli was ai'te;'\iarus 
Ti"K'\\eil on l::th May, 171-', a\'.tl on lac oilier hy his 
iii:ij..-l', 's boanl of orilnanee, in ri,ulit of the crown. This 
luiard aecoriliiHily, on ftli July, IVDL', gnr.iteil a lease 
of the town walls and s.irronniliii:; fosse, sixty-three 
feet wide, to James S.kerrett I'or oni; hundred years, at 
'lol. yearly rent, under which several thousand pounds 
liave 'i.ecii", since ISOO, o.pended in valnalile iiuprove- 
iiients. But althongU the (jnestion has been often legally 
'.li;.c:isscd, it still remains undeteriniiied — a circunislanco 
wi.ich lu'.s, in some degree, proved iujaricus to ihe town 
h\ ULterrin^ indi\iduals iVoui greeting buildings on tho^e 
extensive cunccrns. 

■i Before the destrnction caused by the civil wars, in 
the seventeenth century, tl)c population of GaKvr.y was 
esteemed the most considerable of any tow n or city in 
the Kinrrdoin, except Dnhliii. At the conimencemeiit of 
the last century it uas reduced to le^s than one half. In 
ITCL', it amounted to fourteen tlionr.aud {JlJc ji. isj.) 
In 17SH, Mr. Iii:4ie, in his es-ay, returned the lioii-isuf 
the town at nine lunulred and fort\-scvcii ; in 17i)'.', ai 
one thousand two lunulred aiul twelve; but it nowappiart 
tliat both were below the nninlier. In the impeifcct return 
of 181 'J, they were set down at three thousand tlint 
hundred and firiy-tlirce, which, considering the dcust 
population of the place, ou;;ht to fnrnUi many niurc 
inhabitants than were then reliirned. In lai-l.thcy wire 
stated, before a coiiimiltee of the house of conuuoiis, ut 
fifty thousand, but this was considered as an exairwralion. 
The opinion, therefore, which seems to approach iicarcit 
to the truth is that id^ove stated. 

HISTOKV OF GALWAY. 103 been represented by members acquainted with its situation or solicitous for 
its welfare, tliese increasing evils would have been jirevented, and many mea- 
y surcs might have been adopted for its benefit. "While these feelings were yet 
\ alive in the minds of the principal inhabitants, it happened, rather opportunely, 
tliat a vacancy occurred in the representation of the town. The sheritls, without 
• anticipating any resistance, proceeded, according to the usual formality of clec- 
'ion, to return the Hon. Frederick Ponsonby, the nominee of Mr. Ualv, but 
ihcv were warmly opposed by colonel Richard JNIartin, Jyhn French Madden '' 
; and Richard Maunsell, esqrs. who formally protested against the illegality of 
the proceeding, as being held without due notice. Their objections, however, 
were over-ruled, and the member was declared duly returned. These gen- 
"■^ tlemen then took the opportunity of addressing the town's-people, who had 
t 'assembled merely from curiosity : they informed them, that the repetition of what 
they had that day witnessed bad occasioned all the wretchedness and poverty, 
all the immorality and vice, by which they were on every side surrounded; 
that, although they appeared unconscious of the fact, this was the real and sole 
cause of all their distresses : hence it was, that their prisons were crowded with 
('.cbtors and malefactors, their quays left without shipping, their store-houses 
empty, their poor without employment ; and, in fine, that the town itself had 
become almost proverbial for uncleanliness and inconvenience, witliout either 
trade, manufactories, or business of any description. They further stated, 
that all those evils were perpetuated to elevate an individual who was unac- 
% qiiainted with the town and its interests, and a stranger to the inhabitants, and 
^ that, consequently, they were virtually unrepresented in the great coimcil of 
the empire ; and they finally concluded by reminding their auditory of the neces- 
sity of adopting some speedy and effectual measures to prevent the futui-e recur- 
rence of similar proceedings. Although, from the preceding view of former 
events in Galway, it is manifest that the cause of its present decayed state was 
very different from that assigned by these gentlemen, yet their discoiu'scs had all, 
and perhaps tlie only effect which the speakers intended. The subject became, 
for the first time, a matter of discussion amongst all ranks ; it was ke])t alive by 
occasional appeals from the press : public meetings were held, and speeches 
delivered, in which the right to nominate representatives without the concur- 
rence of the people, to rule the corporation, aj)point its officers, and dispose of 
all places of trust and emolument in the town, were freely canvassed. The 
source of this control was traced to the influence maintained by means of 

' Tliis gentlcinan originated, and afterwards, by his talent to cnsm-e its success. Iluucver, therefore, the 

•pccchcs and writings, strennonsly supported, the opposi- question may terminate, Mr. Fieneh Madden merits the 

lion against j\Ir. Daly, in the prosecution of which he wavnicst gratitude of the inhahilants of Galway, lor his 

appears to have expended Ujjwards of lOOO/. of his pri- long continued exertions to pi-omote every measure con> 

\jte property, and ajiplied nuich time and considerable neeted with the interest of ihe town. 

B b 



non-resident freemen, (of whom the corporation had been for many years princi- 
pally composed,) to counteract wliich, the inhabitants were called upon to register 
their freeholds. Subscriptions were then entered into, and every preparation 
was made to contest the approaching election after the then ensuing dissolu- 
tion of parliament. 

While these efforts were making to weaken the influence of Mr. James Daly in 
Gahvay, he and his numerous friends, both in the town and county, made every 
exertion to defeat the objects of his opponents. Of the exaggerated evils, before 
enumerated, they denied the existence ; or even admitting that, in so large and 
unemployed a population as that of Gahvay, some of those grievances were to be 
found, they could not be attributed to the corporation, or to the parliamentary 
representatives of the town, but were occasioned by the decay of public spirit in 
the merchants and wealthy inhabitants, and by the habitual idleness and want of 
industry so prevalent and conspicuous amongst the lower orders. The town's- 
people were reminded, that the right of jNIr. Daly was sanctioned and strengtiiencd 
by the legal exercise of the corporate privileges for more than half a century, 
with the continued approbation of government, which, it was not to be sup- 
posed, would countenance any measures contrary or injurious to the general 
interest of the country: they were also reminded of the many benefits conferred 
on them by his ancestors, wlio had not only originally succeeded in rescuing the 
town from the tyranny and bigotry of the former corporation, but had afterwards 
invariably exerted themselves in its favor ; that these circumstances ouglit to 
have called forth the gratitude of the community for their descendant, who 'was 
himself pursuing the same line of honorable conduct, or at least have prevented a 
combination which was set on foot by a few ambitious or intermeddling individuals, 
Jbr the purpose of dc])riving him of his legal rights, and of those advantages to 
which he was for so many years entitled. These and many other arguments urged 
against tlic " Independents," as they were now denominated, had considerable 
weight with numbers of the most respectable of the inhabitants, many of whom 
at length resolved to su])port Mr. Daly. I\Iany others, including the more mode- 
latc of his opposers, admitted that the representation of the town and the enjoy, 
inent of tlie corporate privileges could never, as the place was then circumstanced, 
continue general or popular, but would, in process of time, inevitably fall into the 
hands of some more politic individual : they, therefore, unanimously declared, 
that if Mr. Daly had ])aid more attention to the common interests of the place, 
had resided amongst them even for a portion of his time, or applied some part of 
the revenues of the town to promote the public convenience, .to pave and light 
the streets, and to establish some form of munici])al police, or any regulation to 
preserve peace and oi-dcr amongst the people, they would, from the hercditarj' 
attachment which tliey had all along borne to his family, cheerfully support him 
to the last cxtrem.ity. If, at this juncture, advantage liad been taken of those 



volin!;.-^, ihcrc can be no tloubt but tliat mucli, if not the entire, of the pro- 
•jLcUngs which afterwards followed would have been prevented ; but Mr. Daly, 
irritated at the opposition, chose rather to rely on his legal rights, and the result 
j. roved that he was not entirely mistaken. 

The long wished for dissolution of parliament having at length taken place in 
1S12, Mr. ^^alentine Blake, of Menlo, was prevailed upon to oifer himself as the^ 
popular candidate ibr the town : Mr. Ponsonby, the late member, was again put 
in nomination, and, after a severe contest, was declared duly elected. A petition 
was tlicn presented against his return, and, after several proce'ediugs before a com- 
mittee of the house of commons, his election was pronounced void, and jSIr. Blake 
was declared duly elected. This success occasioned the greatest rejoicings in the 
town ; but the committee having also determined the right of election to be in 
the freeholders and freemen, the great question of non-residence still remained 
undecided. To determine this important point, on which the entire business- 
now depended, proceedings were instituted in the king's bench. In the mean 
time the exertions of Mr. Blake and the Independents were uninterrupted, and 
their endeavors were again crowned with success. On the election which took 
place after the dissolution of parliament in 1818, that gentleman (whose conduct 
in the senate and attention to the interests of the town met with the warmest 
approbation of his constituents,) was declared duly elected by a considerable 
majority over INIr. Prendcrgast, the friend and nominee of Mr. Daly. This 
second victory, by which the independent cause seemed to be finally and firmly 
established, caused universal joy. Public dinners were given to signalize the event, 
and the triumphal procession of the victorious and popular candidate through the 
town was the most splendid ever before witnessed in this part of Ireland. ' These 

' The following account of this procession is taken 
from the public prints of tlic day. — Mr. Blake, " the 
choice of the people," had a majority of one hnndred 
and eii;hty-nine by the sheriff's books. On the 15tli of 
July, the res|)ectiv'e guilds ol the corporation assembled 
at Xtwtown-Siiiith, and the procession commenced in the 
following order : 

A flag, bearing the inscription, " Sec the conquering 
hero comes ;" a fisherman with a fliig, motto, " A long pull, 
a strong pull, and a pull all together," followed by three 
Imndred of his profession. 

Tile ditferent guilds or companies, whose right to the 
corporation was established, each bearing a Hag with an 
a|i|)ropriate tle\ice anil inscription, 

A boat, emblem. itic of the Galway arms, covered with 
blue and pink, tastefully decorated with wreaths of flowers, 
aud placed on the carriage of a chaise, drawn by horses, 
in which was seated a militaiy band, playing appropriate 
tunes during t!ie procession. 

Four gentlemen carrying white wands and banners ; 
motto, " Blake and Inilependencc." 

Four more ; motto, " Galway shall flourish." 

Four ditto; " Our charter and oiu' rights," 

Four ditto; motto, " The glorious majority of 189." 
The splendid chair in which the representative sat, 
crowned with a wreath, composed of oak and laurel 
leaves and flowers, under a triumphal canoi)y, beautifully 
decorated, surrounded by several of his friends. 

Four gentlemen beai'ing white wands antl banners; 
motto, " Unanimity." 
Four more ; motto, " The man of our choice." 

Four ditto ; " Purity of election." 

Four ditto; " No non-residents." 

Freemen and freeholders walking six and six, to the 
number of four hundred, all decorated with oak and 
laurel leaves. 

The procession, thus arranged, proceeded, amidst the 
most triumj)hant plaudits of the populace, through the 
principal streets of the town, greeting, iu their progress, 
the several families- favorable to their cause, and ended 
at Meyrick-square, The greatest unanimity prevailed, 
and, although upwards of twenty thousand people were 
assembled, not a single acciilent occurred. The town 
was brilliantly illinninated in the evening, and every po*. 
sililc demonstration of jo)' was evinced on the occasion. 


feelings, however, were soon after consiilerably depressed by tlie decision of 
the judges in favor of the non-resident freemen of tlie corporation. Tliis 
.decision, so favorable to the rights of Mr. Daly, and so contrary to the expecta- 
tion and wishes of the Independents, again renders it doubtful to which siile 
victory may ultimately incline : the next vacancy or dissolution of parliament will, 
however, determine that point ; and, in the mean time, Mr. Daly remains in the 
fidl exercise and enjoyment of all the riglits and privileges of the corporation. 

Having now fulfilled oiu' intention of tracing, through a great variety of facts 
and docmrients, the history of this town, from its origin to the present time; 
having beheld it, as it were, in a state of infancy, protected by the fostering haml 
of the powerful family of De Burgo; then, arrived at full maturity, anil iiiijja- 
tiently rejecting the rule of its former protectors ; again, in a more advanced 
period, increasing in power, flourishing in wealth, and crowned with honor and 
]uosperity ; and, finally, through fatal reverses of afJ'airs, languishing, as at the 1 
present period, in a state of neglect and decay ; our narrative shall here be closed; 
not however, w ithout expressing a final hope, that whoever shall possess the con- 
fidence, may never forget the interest, of the town : that he or they may direct 
the attention of the rulers of the country to a place which, though now so reduced, 
had been formerly so considerable ; and which, if its foreign trade and iionie 
manufactories were at all promoted or encouraged, would prove of incalculable 
benefit to this neglected, unimproved, and consequently xuiproductive, quarter of 
Ireland. The promoter of measures, such as these, by difliising innumerable 
blessings amongst the community, and augmenting the resources and revenues 
of the country, would enjoy those exalted feelings which accumulated wealtlj or 
elevation of raidi cannot always bestow : he would, moreover, command tlie 
grateful sufl^rages of the present, and secure the lasting praises of future gene- 
rations, and be deservedly ranked amongst the benefactors of mankind. 

.Rcs/(yi7u'c (>[' t//r .-l/iivcr //t /tKij ■ 



A Y. 



1 HE earliest magistrates of Galway of" whom any account remains extant, were 
jrrovoxl.s or j^ortrevcs, (called also bai/ijji or senesclials,') appointed by the earls of" 
Ulster, and the family of De Burgo, until 139G. These were succeeded by sove- 
reigns and j^rovosfs, elected under the charter of Richard II. until li:85, when a 
mai/o)' and bailUJs were created, (the latter being changed into sheriffs, by the 

' Tlic original armorial bearings and coi-porate seal of 
Gahvay were tlie arms of tlic De Burgo I'auiily, and tlie 
curls of Ulster, " Or a eross giiles," whieli were eonti- 
luicd until aliout 1.j68, when, upon the intermarriage of 
Ednnind Mortimer, carl of March, with PhiHpjia, daughter 
and sole heiress of Lionel, duke of Clarence, and eari of 
Ulster, (by Elizabeth his wife, sole daughter and heiress 
of William De Bnrgo, earl of Ulster,) the arms of both 
these noble families were qiiartcved and assumed by 

the town. {See also page 57, note m, where, for Mor- 
timer read second and third, and for Do Bnrgo first and 
fourth.) In 139'd, when the town was entirely surrounded 
by walls, and that other fortifications were erected, the 
corporation took for arms, " Azure, a chevron, or, 
between three eastlcs, triple towered and masoned, 
argent;" but when commerce increased, these were again 
succeeded by the antiijue galley as above, which was 
the geiKral form of merchant ships after the reign of 


charter of James I. in IGIO.) Of the magistrates for the two preceding period* 
no list noAv remains, the old corporation books and records being lost. The fc\r 
names, therefore, which follow were collected from ancient docnments, but are by 
no means to be considered as perfect. So far, however, as they extend, they are 
accurate. From the year 14.81- to the present time, the list of mayors, bailills am! 
sherift's is complete. Several curious By-laws, enacted since that time by the 
corporation, have been extracted by the author from their books of records, (par- 
ticularly the old volume. Lib. A.) and the orthography, which is remarkable for 
bordering, in many instances, on that of the Irish language, (from the indiscrimi- 
uate use of English and Irish by the inhabitants) is, tor its singularity, preserved. 
Provosts, Portreves and Sovereigns. 

127 i- Thomas De Lince, jyrovost. 

1290. Richard Blake, alias Caddell, bailiff or j^ortreve^ 

1353. Stephen Penrise, provost. " 

1378. Richard Scared, alias Scaret, provost. 

1414.. AValter Skeret, do. 

11.17. The same, do. 

11.31.. Edmimd Lynche, sovereigii. 

1441. The same, do. 

1448. William Allen, alias Den, provost, died, 

1460. William DitM Lynche Fitz-James, sovereign. 

14G1. James Develin, do. 

1 i&2. William Oge Allen, alias Den, do. 

I47G. Thomas Lynche, do. 

. John Skeret, provost. 

1484. "William Lynche, sovereign' 

1485. Tile same, last do. 

John Lynche Fitz-Edmund, last provost. 

Mayors, Bailiffs and Sheriffs. 
Mayors. Bailiffs, 

1485. Pyerse Lynche. Andrew Lynche Fitz-Stevne. 

Jhamis Lynche Fitz-Martin. 
14SG. Domynick Lynche Fitz-John. Richard Mares. 

Geffrc Blake. 
By-laws enacted by the Corporation. 
Tliat no man of this corporation be served witli any writ or process until the matter be firtt 
tried by the mayor and council of this town, sub jjccita 20/.'' 

Richard II. — Sec Strutl's Antiquities. — These arras, ivhich ' This sovereign died in 1476; \yiniain, his son, \»Iio 

coiitimie to the present dav, are — " Argent, an antique \va« sovereign for many years, died in 14y2. 
galiey with one inast, the sail furled, floating in waves of " On 2il Jnne, 150-t, Niciiolas Blake was fined 40/. for 

the sea, proper ; on the centre point, in an escntcheon, issuing the queen's writ a<jainst the warden ami Ilicliard. 

the arms of England." Joyce, " young man," his farmer, " without first sniw; 

" Tliis provost was afterwards bailiff" and collector of thcra before the mayor and council according to anciiiu 

the new customs; he died in ljir>. custom." — Corp.' Buok, A. 




11-9 1'. 










William Lynche Fitz-Saunder. ' 
Geffere Lj-nche. 
John Lynche Fitz-John. 
Robuock Lynche. 
John Skeret. 

Thomas Lynche Fitz-Edmond. 
Jhamis Lynche Fitz-Stevnc. 
John Lynche Fitz-Edmond. 
Thomas Blake. 
Walter Lynche Fitz-Ilobert. 

Domynick Lynche Fitz-John. 

Andrcwe Lynche. 

Jhamys Lynche Fitz-Martin. 

Geft'ere Lynche. 

RoboLick Lynche. 

John Lynche Fitz-John. 

Edmond Deane. 

Walter Lynche Fitz-Thomas. 

Stephen Lynch Fitz-Dominick, 


No bailiffs appear to have 
>been elected from 14SG to 

That every inhabitant sliall have such reasonable 

Wallintyn Blake. 

Thomas Bodikin. 

Walter Lynche. 

Olyver Lynche. 

Peter Martin. 

Martin Font. 

Peter French. 

.Stevne Lynch Fitz-Jamis. 

Jamys Lynche. 

Nicholas French. 

David Kyrvan. 

John Mares. 

Patrick Lynche. 

Walter Lynche. 

Cornell Fallon. 

William Kyrvan. 

John Bodikin. 

William Martin, 
lulmond Athy. 
Robert L\'nch Fitz-]\Lartin. 

weapon acconling to liis calling, 
sub pa'iia \2d, 


Richard Bcffge made free, on condition of liis keeping a conion house or ynne (inn) for 
victualling and lodging strangers: and at the request of Andrewe Fallon, on behalf of his 
daughter Julian Fallon, wiio is married to Donell Ogc O'VoUaghon, (O'Nolan) of this towne, 
goldsmith, and for the better relief of said Andrewe, who is okl and impotent, the said Donell 
made free, on condition of maintaining him. 


If any outlandish man or enemy of the inhabitants shall take any of them for any discord 
or words between any brother or neighbour of Galway, so that one neighbour procure for 
evill will to his neighbour, so be taken as aforesaid; that then lie which procureth such taking 
shall ransom and restore again that person, rendering to him all his loss and damadges, and the 
rcninindcr of the goods to the prince and olFicers for the time being. 

That no housholder be an hostler, nor no mayntayner of the conion horsse, or harlots, on 
payn of 6s. Sd. 




Thomas Bodikin. 

Artur Lynch. " 

Stevne Lynch Fitz-Dominick, 
Stcvne Lyncli Fitz-Jamys. ' 
Jhamys Lynch Fitz-Stcvn. 
Jhamys Lynch Fitz-Gcft'rc. 

1512. Jliamys Lynch Fitz-IMartin. 

1513. Vv'alter Lynch Fitz-Thomas. 

Richard Deane. 
Laynard Lynch. 
WiUiani Josse. 
Antony Lyncli. 
Richard Lynche. 
"William Maryse. 
F^dmond French. 
Adam Fainit. 
"William Kyr\an. 
Yallyntin French. 
Stcvn French. 
Nich. Fitz-Artnr Lynch. 
Wyllani Atliy. 
Laurence Bodikin. 
Jonock Kyrvan. 
Janiys Skeret. 

That no bouclier take no cnaye-goiiUc nor skcingh-glac out of no cow lliat lie selletli. 

That whatsoever man, woman or childc, be found fouUinge the streets or walls, either by 
night or clay, to lose 2d. Alsoe, every dweller shall make clean before his door once a week, 
and that no dung heaps be made on the streets, sub j^ccna ild. 

Whatsoever man or woman have any kync in towne shall keep them in thcer houses both 
summer and winter, and if they be found on the streets to pay 4r/. and no swine or goat to be 
kept in towne above fourteen days, on payn of killing. 

That every couper shall give towe toune hopis for a pcnye, thre pipe hopls for a pcnyc, tlirc 
liogshedds and barrel! hopis for a penye. That the shore men, or cottoiiers, bliali give isse 
baunlac, six, seven bauniac of frisc for towe pence, eight baunlac, nyne baunlac, ten baunlac 
for thre pence, and a shore mantill for 10(/. sub jxena lid. 


That all idle men and women not able to pay watch tax ne talladge be expulscd the town: 
tliat the fishers of the logli shall bring into the market thre dales in the wicke, and to give an 
liuiulrcil eeles for 2d. 

That no butter be sold above one penye a pound, and no dearer, on payn to lose \2d. and 
liis boily to be jnit in prison that doth the contrary. 

That no honey be brought to towne except it be good and merchantable; and that no 
dweller shall become surety for any gent of the country, nay ransom none of them. 

• This mavor fell over the West bridge, on the 25th ' The church of St. James, at Newcastle, v\as built b; 
Bi' November, in this 3'ear, and «as drowned. — Airnah. this mayor. — Id. 


Mayors. Bailiffs, 

l.'jll. Stevne Lynch Fitz-Waltcr. Robert Lynch Fitz-John. 

Edmond Athy. 
1515. Jhaniys Lynch Fitz-Stevn. .John Lyncli Fitz-Dominick. 

John JNLuis. 
15 IG. Stevne I^ynch Fitz-Janiys. Gabriel Lynch. 

Thomas Kyrvan. 
1517- Stevne Lynch Fitz-Dominick. John Lynch Fitz-Andrewe. 

JNfartyn Lynch Fitz-John. 
151S. John Eodikin. Domuick Deane. 

Martin Lynch Fitz-Jamys. 
' 15 ly. Wylliani Martin. Bartholome Faunt. 

Richard Martin. 


That none of the towne buy cattle out of the country, but only of true men. 

That the mayor, warden and bailiO's shall be first sei'ved with all provisions at market, and 
l!i(j;i who iii'st conies is first served. 


That no man of the town shall lend or sell galley, botte or barque, to an Irishman. 


That no jierson shall give ne sell to no Irish any munition, as hand povins, calivres, poulder, 
Icade nor sail potter, nor yet longe bovcs, cross boves, cross-bove stringes, nor yearne to make 
the same, nor no kind of weajjon, on payn to forfayt the same and an hundred shillinfi-s. 

That every shippe, that comith a fishing within the havin of Galwey, shall pay half tethes 
to tlic colladge of all such fish as they thall take witliin the said havin yf they take fire, watter 
and s:Tvice within the said town or havin. Also, that every tope man jiaye 40s. and every 
small man 20^-. and 4lb. of gounpouldor to the towne and corporation. 

15 IS. 

If any man should bring any Irishman to brage or bostc upon the towne, to forfeit I9d. 

That no man of this town sliall ostc or receive into ther housses at Christemas, Easter nor 
no feaste elles, any of the Burks, M' Williams, tlie Kellics, nor no cepte elles, withonto license 
of the mayor and councill, on payn to ibrfeit 5l. that neither O' ne Mac shall stiutte ne 
swaggcre thro' the streets of Gallwaj-. '■' 

That no freeman quit the town without license from the mayor, suh 2'<xna 20s, 


That if any man, fre or imfre, be founde by nighte time in any man's liousse, to give cou- 
pillation, or to do with the good man's servant niayd or daughter, by way of advoutrev, to le^s 
'JUs. and also to the g'ood man, in whos housse the same person is found with the said facte or 
ciyrac, to lessc to that good man 20.<;. and he that bcgetteth a freman or merchaund's dau'diter 
with child shall marry her, or give her a sullicient portion towards her preferment until! 
anotlicr snan. 

That no Irish judge nor lawire shall plede in no man's cause or matter within this towne or 
coiu'te, for it agreeth not witli the king's laws, nay yet the empi'ors in many placis. '' 

' Tills law was principally dii-ectcd against tlic O'Fla- i- The native Irish (-.vliose love of strict anil impartial 
hcrties, O'Concrs, O'Kcilics, O'llalloranb, Macnamaras, justice was celebrated even by their enemies) neither 
and the Mac Williams of Clanrickiii-d. ueknowlcdijed nor obeyed any otlier than the Brehon lav.s, 

C C 




1520. iNIartin Faunt. 

1521. Anthonye Lynch. 

1522. Stcviie Lynch Fitz-Domnick. 

1523. Stevne Lynch Fitz-Jhamys. 
152k Adam Faunt. 

1525. WiUiam JNlartin. 

152G. Stevne Lynch Fitz-Jamys. 


Richarde Blake, 
Olyver French. 
Artor Lvnch. 
.lohn Frencli. 
John Fallon. 
Tliomas Kyrvan. 
Peter Lynch. 
Ambrose Lynch, 
Richard Faunt. 
Walter Lynch Fitz-John. 
Henry Jose. 
Marcus French. 
Thomas Blake. 


That no preste, moncke ne shanon (canon) nor frer shall have no w e ne lemon in any 

man's housse within this towne and that man which keapeth or hostotli the said w e or 

lemon to forfait 205. 

That no man shall build, make, or repayre any strawe or taclie house fov leare of fyre, no 
nigher the towne wallcs then fourteen feet unless they bo covered with sklatts, and that to l)c 
the heads of the stretts, as to say, the both sids of the great gate and both sids of the new 
towrc and both sids of the littell gates, except both the great stone housses, as Martin and 
John Lynch is housses and alsoe as John Cayre ys housse to be excepted, yf they cover tk 
same with sklatts. 

That no man of this towne shall syll ne land to no outelandisli man, no kinde of armor as 
shorte of maylle, ne skell ne harnes, un payn of 20s. 

That no man be made frc unlcbS he can speke the English tonge and shave his upper lipe 
weekly, sub picna 20s. ' 

That no carpcndcr nor mason shall not have for his hyre and wages but two pence naturallit 
every day, with mcate and drink. 

lo tlic reign of James I. Until then the Englisli linvs were 
hi force only within the P;ile, wliich consisted of the 
counties of Duhlin, KiUhiro, Menth :nul Lonth, and 
within the cities of Duhlin, Cork, ^V"i^terfo^l, Limerick-, 
Galway, and a few other places. 

' Until ahout the hcs^inning of the eighteenth century 
the Irish wore the gli/i'i or long Howing hah-, anil also the 
cromhcal or beard on the upper lip. — 0^ H<dlornn. — That 
the old English inhabitants of tlie marches adopted this 
Irish custom, appears by an act made in a ])arlianicnt 
I'.eld at Trim in 14-l(j, by which, as a mark of distinction 
between the English and Irish, the wearing the beard on 
the upper lip alone was prohibited under a hea\y penalty. 
IViirc, cliai). p. 

The costume of the Irish, when the above b\-law was 

made, may be ascertained from an act of parliament in 
1537, whereby it was, amongst other things, enacted, tluS 
no subject should he shorn or shaved above his ears, or wca 
glibbs or crom-meals (i. c. hair on the up]x-r lip) or lints 
dyed in saffron, or above seven yanls of linen in tlii-J 
shifts, and that no woman wear any kirtle or lucki-J-uf 
or embroydered or garnished with silk or couclicJ, ut 
laid with usker, after the Irisli fashion, and that no persot 
wear mantles, coats or hoods after the Irish fasliicia. 
(except women, herdes, horse-boys, and soldiers at ikt 
ris;ng-out liostings, and journeys on rode, all which nii:i.-". 
wear mantles,) and that every body shall endeavour to 
learn the English language and conform to the En;I;-l 
fashion, &c. — Ir. Htuliilvs, I'ul. I. p. 121. — See also uoif, 
pa. 80, unii-. ■ 




1527. ^Vyllame Maries. 

1528. John Lynch Fitz-Andrew. 

1529. Richard Gare Lynch. ' 

1530. Jhonock Kirvane. 

1531. Jhaniis Skerrct. 

1532. Antonye Lynch. 

1533. Ricliard Blake. 
153 1-. Thomas Kyrvane. 
1535. Ricliard JMartine. 
153G. Richard i\rartine. ' 


Richard Bodikin. 
Thos. Lynch Fitz-Stevne. 
Richard Kirvane. 
Johnockyne Lynch. 
Edniond Lynch. 
Francis Blake. 
Marcus Lynch. 
Stevnc Lynch Fitz-Arthur. 
Walter Skerret. 
John Lynch Fitz-John. 
Marcus Lynch. 
Johneck Lynch Fitz-Stevne. 
Anthony Blake. 
Thomas Martin. 
Christ. Lynch Fitz-Stevne. 
William Lynch. 
Dominick Lynch. 
George Skerret. 
Dominick Lynch. 
George Skerret. 

That whoever plays at choitts or stoincs, but only to shoot in longe bowes, shorte cross bowes 
and hurling of darts or spercs, to Icssc at every time 8c/. 

That in what housse, shopo or seller ther be found players at cards, dyce, tabulls, nor no 
other unlawfidl gamys for moneye, by younge men, and spccialloe by prentisys nor Irishmen 
on payn to lose the moneye they play for, and also where they play to pay 20i-. 

That whatsoever countryman shall spoyle, robb or woiinde any of the inhabitants of tin's 
town, citiicr by iande or water, shall have no priviledge in no man's house within this towne, 
unless for debte. 

Any inhabitant who should begin any strife, debate or quarrel or draw out sworde, daTfrer 
or knife, to pay lOOi-. the weapon to be naylled and put up in the pullorie. 

Whatsoever woman, of what degree she be, bearing childe, shall not make comon bancks 
and great expcns as in tynie paste, but shall kcap her acostomed beads during her ple.isure, 
without any rcsorte of comon house haunters, save only lier friends, such at she listc, on payn 
to forfeit 20,f. and also whatsoever man or woman goeth into any such house, asking or seeking 
for meat and drinke, unpraied or bidden, to pay Gs. Sd. 

' This mayor, ilcpartins; on a voyage, fired a gun in the liis descendants, and by all tlie sept of the Lynches.-yln;?a/i. 

haven hi honor ot tlie town. His voyage proving pros- ' This mayor, entering tlie bay after a long voyage, like- 

perous, the circiinistancc was esteemed ominous, and was wise fired a gnn near the little castle of Mutton-island which 

accordinglypracliscd for upwards of a century afterwards by was long afterwards observed by his posterity. — Iil. 





Martin Lynch Fitz-James. 

Jhone French. 
Arthur Lynch. ™ 
1510. Dominick Lynch Fitz-James. 

1541. Tiiomas Lynch Fitz-Stephen. 

1542. Henry Jose. 
Jhonickin Lynch, 
Edmund Lynch. 
Thomas Kervan. 






Patrick Lynch. 

Nicholas Lynch. 

Nicholas Blake. 

William Skcrret. 

And. Lynch Fitz-Stephen. 

James Oge Lynch. 

Ambrose Lynch. 

Geo. Lynch Fitz-Waltcr. 

Peter French Fitz-Wadeii 

Jhamis Kcrvicke. 

Edward French. 

Patrick French. 

Edmond Kirvan. 

Edmond Bodikin. 

William Lynch. 

Thomas Lynch. 

Ambrose Lynch. 

Stephen FaLiiit. 
That no man of Athcnryo, althongli he boui^hte his freedomc hi tliys towne, be fre, unles 
he kcapc liousc and fyrc and pay tax and tallailge, unless it be a young man havin"- no house 
here or there. 

That no person, under a penalty of 20^. shall send any meate or drinke to any that keepeth 
sanctuary in the abbays, easte or westc, fearing to come into the townc to pay their debts. 


That any person or merchant of this town tliat shall make any bargayn or contract in 
Spayne, Franch, or any other lands, for wyne, salt, yerne, or any other kind of wares, slialJ 
afore he put the said siiop or wares in booke or custonic, lynile to the mayor and ollicers of 
this town suflicicnt and substantinll siirties that he or they siiali wel and truly contente and pay 
the stranger of his payment, for the discharge and credit of the town and inhabitauntz thereof. 


That widows have a third parte of all such goods as were in the lawfnll possession of their 
husbands, undisposed of before their deaths, and not otherwise. 

Andrew Browne, of Athenry, admitted to the fi-eedom of the town, "^ 

1 5 !■ I . 
That no sanctuaryc be allowed for debtors longer than twenty-four hours. 

That no person of this town shall buy or sell widi any merchaunts of Lymbricke, Corckc, 
Watterford, Dublin, or other towns or citties, for any gootis, or cause same to be transported 
by land or sea, unless they come to this town as other strangers and merchaunts in ships, ou 
payn of forfeiting the goods and 20/. 

"" Tliis mayor dicil in office, am! Avtliiir Fr 
(rUofiVy was elcctci! in liis pliicc. 


" 'i'liis is the first mention of tliis name in the ainisis of 
tl'.e town. 



1540. Stephen Lynch Fitz-Arture. 

1547- Thomas Kyrvane. 

1518. Dominick Lynch Fitz-John. 

15-19. Thomas Martin. 

1550. Richard Kirvane. 

1551. John Oge Lynch. 

155^. Jhonock Lynch Fitz-Stephen. 
1553. Patrick Lynch. 
1554'. Nicholas Lynch Fitz-Stephen. 

Jhamys Fannt. 
"Walter Skerrett. 
Ambrose Lynch. 
Stevn Faunt. 
John Jose. 
Dominick French. 
Givane Favuit. 
Jhamys French. 
Denysc Kirvane. 
David Bodikin. 
John Lynch. 
Perse Lynch. 
Andrew Browne. 
Robock Lynch. 
Anthony Frenclie. 
Dominick Browne. 
Henry Lynch. 
David Kyrvan. 

Nicholas Coine, or Quin, and his son Thomas Coine admitted freemen. " 

That if any gentleman, by caste or weste, apprehend any the town's adversaries, who doth 
spoill and robe the conienc of the same of their provision and merchandiz, by land or sea, 
and scndinjT that naughty person into this town to answer for such faults and crymes, that 
immediately there shall a qucstc pass on him, and if the queste condemn him to death, the 
mayor and officers sliall forthwith put him to execution, under penalty of 20/. 

For sundry and divers injuries and wrongs that the septs of Clan Donze, Clan M'Conchour, 
Clan Calehoy, the Hallorans, Slought-etaggard and Fiarctics, ther chctfe captayns, doth dayly to 
the inhabitants of this town, that when any of the said septs with tlieir captayns be found in 
town, to be taken and rested until restitution be made for all hurts and damages as he or any of 
liis sept (loth to tlie inhabitants; and that the mayor nor officers shall not license nor pardon 
none of the said septs to come within this town, without bccnse of those to whom they commit 
ill.'.' trcspacis, or owinge debts. 

That the mayor, for the time being, sliall have of the fishers of the logh or ryvere every 
fisli day, betwixte Michaelmas and Ilollontide, but two hundred small elles, and every of the 
bailiffs to have erne hundred ; and from Hollontide forth it is ordered that the mayor, for tlie 
furnishing his table with fresh fishe, shall have the election of two libbers, whom he liste, and 
every of the bailifft's to have in like a fisher to keep their house witli fishe. 

That the mayor and bailiffes do sustain four masons annually to work on tlie murage and 
pavage of the town. 

" This nimily is very ancicnfm Galway. (See prge GG, Its present respectable representative. Petei' Qiiin, reside* 
uo'.c ante, and the account of the rnindscan Al>b^\ .) .it I'oUoiiyh, near tlie lonn. 






Nicholas Blake. 

Peter French Fitz-Jolin. 
Pierce Lynch Fitz-Johu. 


William Skerret. 

John Blake Fitz-llobert, 
IMartin Frencli. 


Jhamis Oge Lynch. 

Bichard Lynche. 
Walter Lynclie. 


Ambrose Lynch Fit.z-Martin. 

Dominick Lyncli. 

Rich. Lyncli Fitz-Patrick. 


George Lyncli Fitz-AVilliam. 

Peter Lynch. 
Roboke French. 


Stevne Lynch Fitz-Arthur. 

Jhamis Lyncli. 

Nich. French Fitz-Olyver. 


Nicholas Lynch Fitz-Stevne. 

Nicholas Lynch. 
Martin Lvnch. 


Thomas Blake. 

Patrick Blake. 
Walter Blake. 


Thomas Oge Martin. 

Jhamys Lynch Fitz-Artor. 
Patricke I\Iartin. 


Nicholas Blake. 

John Lynch Fitz-Thomas. 
John Fitz-Henry Blake. 


Peter Lynch Fitz-Vadyn. 

Nicholas Lynch. 
Andrew Mares. 


Jhamis Kyrvicke. 

William Martin. 
Richard Browne. 


Edmond Kyrvane. 

Jhamys Lynch, 
Martin Kyrvan. 


Dominick Frenchc. 

AVillicke Lynch. 
George Frenche. 


Givane Fante. 

Gregory Bodikin, 
Valentine Frenche. 


Denys Kyrvane. 

John Martyne. 
Ambrose Bodikin. 


Roboucke Lynch, 

Rolande Skerete. 

Nich. Frenche Fitz-Vadien 


Johne Lynch. 

John Lynch Fitz-William. 
Marcus Lynch. 


Pierce Lynch Fitz-Olyver. 

Charles Lynch Fitz-Ulick. 
Olyver Oge Frenche. 


Andrew Browne. '' 

Anth. Linclie Fitz- Marcus 
Nich. Kyrwan Fitz-Denis. 

' Tlii: mayor clicd in office, and James Kyrvicke, who was mayor in 15CG, was elected i;i Iiis place. 




1575. Dominick Browne. 

1576. Peter French Fitz-John. 
1577' Fevers Lynch. 

1578. John Bkike Fitz-Richard. 

1579. Ivlartin Frencli. 

1580. Dominick Linchc Fitz-John. " 


C James and JMich. Lyncli. 

I Fitz-Stephen Artor. 
Thopjas Kerowan. 
Geo. French Fitz-Edwarcl. 
John BUxke. 
Francis Martin. 
Christopher Lynche, 
James Dorsey. 
Marc. Lynch Filz-Stcplien. 
Richard Butler. 
Thomas Lynch. 
John Skerret. 


jNIem. the 14 of July, one TNIorchowe j\Iac Tirrilip,li Mac Dcnill, chief of his nacion, called 
Cliiiiteige of Aron, appeared bcl'ore the mayor, baililib and combrethern, clainiinge to have the 
;incient custom of Coinioice arid Mcnlcs due to liim and to his auncestors within the town, to say, 
for two days and two nights, and the mayor, &c. calling- before them auncient old credibel 
persons, they declared u]ion their oaths that they never heard of their parence, or saw the said 
sept have no more within this town but only two meales. It was thereupon ordered that said 
sept shall have no more but that two, they being always bound to serve, attend and wait upon 
us and in our service, as their auncestors hath bene; also the said sept is bound to give the 
accustomed JMralcs and Connoive to all the comcnc of Galway when they shall repaire to the isles 
of .-Iron : and the mayor, &c. did grant and promise to be aydors, helpers, mayntainers and 
assisters of said Ckniteige against all persons that would lay siege, spoille or raise the said 
iihuuU or castcll of Aron, or otherwise wrong the said Morchowe or his sept.'' 

The exportation of grown timber prohibited. 

■Many and simdry grcdy, detestable and inordinate gains of living of interests or cambics, 
.liter the rate of a peck of wheat or a good hyd for the inarke, by the yearc, has been taken 
lij) by such as lent money, ordereil that none be herealter taken but by such as are autliori;!cd 
by her majesty's laws. 

'' Thi'i ninvor ums (listiir^iiishcd for inoiiy public spii-itecl 
sets. I!c a:-i;iiieil liis )iian»iou-!iouse to the coqioration 
(o ill'. „• us a tliolscl, iu cousiilLnitioii of wjiicli lie obtained, 
amongit otbcr tilings, a graut of ctrtaiu duties on all 
provibious sol,! -.vitbiu the town o!' e>:|'orted. — fl'kle p, 
Hy, iiolc ».) — He also founded a seliool i,t the place on 
the (juay, called Cun-u-bhnlla, wJiicli «as afterwards con- 
verted into a fortification. — Aniia/s. 

This }ear (I08O) C'oiifiuO/iar JiJac-an-Ifig/t, alias Connor 
King, an inhabitant of Arran, died at the cxtraordi- 
narv age of two hundred and twenty }-ears. " lie reiiiejii- 
licreil when th.erc were but three stone lioiiscs, together 
with the ablicy, the red i-arl's house and Athy's castle, in 
GaKvay; a small chapel where St. Nicholas's church 
stands, and another on the site of .St. Mary's, in the v/cst 
£ul)urbs." ll is also added, " that he killed a beef in his 

own house every Christmas, for one hundred and cigh.ty 
years." — Id. 

' James Lynch Fitz-Anibrose, niereliant, some time 
before this period obtained a mortgage of the entire islands 
of Arran from the above eliicftaiii. In June, 1575, it was 
agreed between them, " that in case the said sept of C/nn- 
fcige had deceased and perished, the said mortgagee should 
be their sole heir, and jiossess A/-oh and their w bole lands." 
It was, afterwards agreed, " that if in case the said C/iin- 
leige sbouid decease and perish nlltogclhcr, the whole coin- 
mons and corporacion of Galway should be their heirs, 
and possess the whole isles of Aron and all other their 
lands, and that said sept should not alienate or mortgage 
no part, lie parcell of Aron, to any person without their 
consent and licence." — It aftcrv.ards appears, however, 
that " Teigc F.turgh, Jlorcl'.uive Morowe, Concbur ?.Ie> 



15S1. Peter Linche Fitz-Marcus. 

158'2. Robooge French Fitz-Jolm. 

1583. Nicholas French. 

158 i, Nicholas Lynch. 

1jS5. James Linche Fitz-Arthur. 

Dominick Martin. 
jNIarciis Linche Fitz-Pctcr. 
Walter Joyce. 
Edtnond French. 
Ant. Linche Fitz-Thomas. 
Ollipher Browne. 
Richard Martin. 
Jeftiy Martin. 
Steplien Kirowan, 
Thomas Browne. 


Any inhabitant conforting, lodging or mayntayning in liis house or otherwise, any bawdry 
or hai'lotts, sball fbrtVit every time 20^. 


That no inhabitant licncefortli pay any cess, tax or talledge, but according to liis ability of 
goods and lands. 

Articles touching reformacions in the common\sealth, i^re&entcd the 
25th of February, 1585. Vide page ^\. 

That the young English tailours and thcr boys be varagraunts, the most in the towne usinge 
all unlawful! picis and lacivious expences bothe by day and night, yea and withal! pleinge ye 
w e whose names partlic will hereafter insue. 

Tliat non be sullered to use any l<ynde of unlawful! games or jilays to disceive and make 
the [icopic ydle, and shoun to erne tlicr lyving by good anti lawi'iiU means. 

Tliat no young man, prcntiz or otherwise, slial! weare no gorgious apparel!, ne silks, either 
within or without thcr garments, ne yet fyne Icnitt stockins either of silke or other costlie wise, 
weare no costlie long rills thick and started, but be contented witli single lilTs, and that also 
tliey slial! weare no pantwoflcs, but rather be contented witli sliowse. 

That generallic all tliartillicers in towne do exact and take ibr thcr wourke farr more tlian 
is alloweil unto them by tlie assise of the towne, and besids that ther exaction of money, they 
exact and take acquavite, wyne, mcate and drinkc, bred, broth, fleash, candles and flaxe, with 
many other things. 

lliat all sellers of victuals do take of the people vcric unreasonable gaincs, farr beyond that 
reasonable allowances allowed them by thassisc of the towne, according to the rates ledd by 
the marckett. 

That many in towne, and ospeliallic noursses are ingrossers and incroachers ofmarckctts, and 
also they who are better and most ]>i-ovided, besides the markett and have most store of cornc, 
be the first that ingiossclh and incroacheth the markett ther. 

Great latches and slacknes in our watclic and warde armour and weapon, and wouist of all, 
a great waunt in this towne, viz. of powlder, matcho and munition, whiche we protest to be 
prevented as well by the governor of the reallme, as alsD by the corporation, so fiirr fourth as 
the powrc corporations habylitie will reache, and that the same be provided in tymc, ieariuTo 
of any imnienent daunger. 

Moi-i'howc, TerrilngU Meoaeh, TeiL'e Mc. Tcrrilngh, Morcliowe Mc. Tcrrilagli Mc. Doi)i!l tiieir attorney for >ic. IVlorchu'.vc-, 'i'ci-c Mc. TcniUigh Ogc, and ranscniingthe isles of yira« Irani JaiDCs Linclic, ajul ii'^rccd 

(;oiicl:or Mc. Moricrta^li Mc. Brcne, gentluncn, all of that all siicli parts as he should so ransci]) should beloii" 

Anin, and Uermod Mc. Cormock Mc. Conchor, of the to him and his heirs for ever. Cvrii. JCu-j!< A. Vuh 

•castle of TrovMuorc, on Hth July, 157 5, appointed captain Ti<itc il, page 5C, aide. 


Mayors. T3ailiffs. 

15SG. William ^Martin. Vallantine Elake. 

Marcus Linche. 
1587. John Blake. Walter Martin. 

Anthony Kirrivan. 
IJSS. Andrew JNIareis. Patrick Kirowan. 

George Maries. 
1J89. Richard Browne. Oliver Kirowan. 

P. Prencli Fitz-Vallantin. 
1590. James Linche Fitz- Ambrose. John Martin Fitz- Patrick, 

W. French Fitz-Nicholas. 


That ne free of fislie, viz. of ylcs (eels) be taken by ne way whatsoever, bcgyn the 15th of 
Aprille to llie springe following tlic same; and also that no red samon be taken, nor cruc of 
san)on as hi the statute in that behalfe is provided, Act-na-Jio-jili, alhvays excepted, for that 
we found it so by antiquitic ; and fearinge the distraction of the fish, to prevent the same, that no 
Ivmed hids or fiaK be suiTered to be put into the ryver. 

That all artilEcers, craftsmen and comon labourers, do take more than they shoidd for ther 
liicrc, bothe by the ycare, quarter, moncthc and ilaye, iar over thassise set dowiie by the 

i'liat the show-makers, glovers and skinners of this towne, do not well tawnc tiier lether, ne 
yet utter the same accortling to the markett ; and, to prevent the same, yt is good to establish 
and order that they make good stuff, and utter the same according to the markett. 

That the ncwc statut, made by the goldsmithes, concerning ther ownc facultie or arte, is 
coiiimenila'jle, so as they shall observe the same, and mend ther former faults. 

Th:il inr.ay merchaunts and handy-craftes men have relinquibhed their mansions in towne, and 
krape di':i;;=olvcs in the coinitrie without answering tax and talladge, scott and lott within this 
lu'.', ac, front tvmo to tyme, as apereth by the names in Nicholas Linche, the towne clerke, Iiis 
booke; and, to prevent the same, it is good to establish that every of them do come to dwell 
in tr-wne, or otlierwise to order a fyne Icsse ther libcrtie as apcrteine. 

That a more straighter order be taken to barr the making of afjiiavite of corne then lieitlierunto 
L:ith bcene used, for that the same is a consumation of all the provition of corne in the comon 

Tiiat no freeman witliin adge shall have no utteraunce in the trade of merchandize until lie 
become aprentizc to an housholder that shall pay taxe and talladge, except onelie a man's heire. 

No craft-:sinan, or, as it were- grey mcrchaunt, go abroad to buy or sell (under pretence 
of being'.' iv.rvaunts to freemen) any kinde of merchandize, cattell or other things, that shall 
not be :.>:' taer owne facjuiltie ; and that no weaver shall weave either lynyne clothe or single 
friese, i;!i '.er t!ie breede of three quarters of a yarde, on payne of Ibrhucter. 

That neither iiortcrs, harpers, messengers, millers, bakers, bowchers, or any nowrscs, or 
any kynde nf craftesman, do at no festivall tymes, or at any other tyme, come to any man 
k iiowse, to crave cither for benbridge, oflringe, meate, or any ch inke, by any way whatsoever, 
in v;iyne, on payne of ini[)risOinnent and loss of a crowne, as well of the giver as also of the 

That vf any honest mane's wiffe be convided (invited), that she bringe noe more in lilr 
company but one, on payne of a crowne. 

Til. It jione do presinne to inter into any house of banckctt (banquet) without he be con- 
vitk-i; and yf he be convided, to have his billet under the coavider's liand, on payne of a 

I'hat no cou'e or bulloge under thadgc of three yearcs be kylde to be solde, upon jiayne 
of foriaictors. 

D D 


Mayors. 15aili(Ts. 

1.591. Ulick Linche Fitz-Etlmond. James Linche Fitz-Martin. 

Peter Blake. 

1592. Valcntyne French. John Lynch. 

Geffrey French. 

1593. John I\Iartin. Robnck Martin. 

Artliur Lynch Fitz-James. 
1J91'. Ronaldc Skerrett. Pierce Lincli Fitzjohneck. 

Patrick Linch Fitz Ulick. 
1.59.5. Marcus Lynch Fitz-Nicholas. Th. Lynch Fitz-Donniick. 

Gregorie French. 
151)6. Oliver Oge French. P. Oge French Fitz-Pcter. 

"William Lynch Fitz-Petcr. 

'l"li:it 110 kyiulc of sake, in rcspectc of waclires or gifte, be given to any boteman, either fur 
saile or \va(ij:;es, no yet to any caple-man (horse-man), for his caradge or sacke, ne yet for 
suckcs ytsell, but money. 

That none siial! ncitlier cutt truffs or digge the mcailowcs and pasture of this towne, either 
bv caste or weaste, especialHc Cossuckin to the cragge of Castle-gnre by Poihnorycline, and 
all aboutc the salt-water loagh, and in like manner in the meadowes and pasture of tiie weaste, 
within our frauncliis, in no place and in any wise ; that the lu.'igh weys be lu'itlier hedged or 
nianurede to ineroachc the coinon way, on payne of foifaictor for every theas defaults, not 
onh'e all tlie labour and nianuraunce, but also xx.?. tofies quoties. 

That no sea-men or sea-man, or, as 1 would say, fisher-men or fisher-man, do take in hande 
oitlier the plowghc, spade, or teithe, that would barr them tiom fyshinge, botiie to serve 
themselves and the comon wcalthe with fyshe, in consiileration whereof that the said fisslicrs 
and thcr wills and faniylie be reasonablie served belore others with all necessaric sustenunc and 
foode of provition as comcth to the market, whereby they niought be the better liable to 
erne ther said livinges that vvay, and have the better hope. 

That, according to tliauncient statuts, the recourse of the runynge water, thats to say, the 
little gcate ditche water, all alonge that intrcthc throiighe Nicholas Linche's mill, and the water 
tliat intrethe into the gutt, all alonge to the yssuing out of the same in Wartiiie's mill, be 
alKvaycs keapt cleaiie, as well within the walls as without. 

That thaquavitc that is sould in towne ought rather to be cakl aqua mortis, to poyson the 
people, then comfort them in any good soite, and in lik maner all thcr bycre ; and all wherein 
tliojlicers, in refbimynge tlie same, have nede to be mor vigilant anil inijuisitive than they be. 

Ther is no good bread made to be soulde, neither well made nor well backte, nc yeti good 
cheape, as the markett goes, but rather by lialf and half to deceave the ]icople: for the 
reformation whereof we fynd, that men and women of good skill in making and bakingeof 
l)read be thereto appointed accordinge, and as the rates of the markett will be sett down by 
tholficers, so as yt bo penny, halfpenny, farthing, always to be founde. 

That no victillinge-hoiise, seller, or shoppe, where any victaille, wyne, or aquavite is, be 
not in any honest sorte keapte cleane, wherein ther is neither sittinge-place, clollie, diili, or 
any other service, which have great nede of reformation. 

That all the mcate that is thought to be either sodde or roasted by the bowcherous cooks 
of this towne is not worth the eatinge, and therefore is not siiflrablc, whicli also Iiath nede 
of refoimation, so as all to be cleane, and retayiled by [lenny, Iialfpenny, (iirthing, and were 
thcr cleane aprons ; and that thcr be no homes siitfcied to be where the meate is ailressing. 

Thtit, accordinge thauncicnt statuts, hoggs be not sullied to be fcdde within tiie towne, 
and especiallie upon the markett place. 




Anthony Lynch Fitz-Marcus. 

Nicliolas Kirwan Fitz-Denis. 

Mychell Linchc. 

Francis Martin. 


Patrick Kirwan. 
Andw. Blake Fitz-Patrick. 
Marcns Blaise. 
Patrick Blake. 
Chr. Linclie Fitz-Richard. 
Patk. French Fitz-Olipher. 
Marc, Lynch Fitz-Martin. 
Fdmond Lynch Fitz-Pyers. 
Christopher Lynch Fitz-Gcorge. Robert Blake. 

Nicliolas Lvnche. 

James Dorsy. ' 

Marcus Lynch Fitz-Stephen. 

Marcus French Fitz-John. 

Robert Blake. 
Nicholas Dorsy. 
Martin Galdij Lynch. 
Oliver Martin. 
Martin Founte. 
Christopher Blake. 


That no man sliall draw, or cause to be drawn, the wool! of liis sheep at no tymc, but 
rather shorn thi-m in due tyme, and not otherwise. 

'Ihat no motion or slieepe be burnt with the skyn or wooll to tlicnd, that both mou^ht 
veric well serve ther owne tomes otherwise. 

That candol makers have verie greate nede of reformation, for that tliey sell neither light 
nor si>;ht, neither good tallowe nor good trcede, ne yet any good stuffe at all for candells. 

That no artificer, or man of occupation whatsoever, not sufFrede to be idilie wandringe and 
wngginge abroatl tlie streets, tavcrnes, or other places, upon workinge dayes, without a 
f]utiall good cause ; duringe which tyme they must goe either without cloke or mantle, havinge 
in ther hands some token of ther owne craftes toolls. 

I'hat no woman shall were no gorgiouse aparell, but as becomcth them to do, accordinge 
to tiier caliingc, and in espetiall they shall all together foregoe the wearing of any hatts or capjies 
oilu'v.vise collored than blacke, and upon them they shall weare no cosllic hatt bands or cap 
bands of gold trcede ; the mayorascs only excepted. 

That no woman shall make no open noise of an unreasonable chree, after the Irishrie, either 
bcfjre, ne j'et alter, the death of any corpes, moche less in the house, streete, and before all 
in the church, the house ne yett in the ficldes ; we meane ther singing songs, songc to the 
praise of men, both deade and also alive, and not to God everlyvinge. — Orig. MS. 

' This mayor died on 1 2th June 1 GO" ; and Christoplicr 
L)ncli Fitz-Georgc, who was mayor the year before, was 
chosen ill his pUice for the reiiiainilcr of the year. 

In the year IfiO-l, Andrew French, a native of Galway, 
(hcing reduced in his circumstances,) went with liis sons, 
Eilniond and Geoffrey, to Spain, where they soon rose to 
eminence: the latter was appointed governor of a consi- 
(icrahle fortress in the West Indies, and his brotlier re- 
fciver of the kinf;'s plate ; he was also honoured with 
ihc order of knighthood of Saint Jago, and finally became 
aJmiral of the Spanish fleet, which annually brought 
home the treasiu'es from the West Indies. His son An- 

tliony was chosen one of his majesty's pages in ordinary, 
and, having conniianded a troop of horse in the war 
against France, he was taken jirisoncr, but was soon after 
ransomed for a considerable sum by the king's orders, 
lie died without issue, but left a sister lionouiably mar- 
ried in Spain. — Annals. 

In 1C08, Lady Jacob, daughter of Ulick Lynch, of 
Hampton, came to Gahvay to obtain her pedigree. Her 
suite «as superb, and she was received with every mark 
of distinction. At this time, a famous school was kept 
in the town by one Alexander Lynch, which contained 
several hundred scholars. — ■Anna/s. 



160,5. John Skcrrctt Fitz-"\Villiani. 

G. T>yncli FilzDomiiick. 
John Lync!) iMxziiarci'S. 
]G0(). Edmoncl French Fitz-llobuck. Peter Lyncli Fitz I\iiiicus. 

Pierce i.vnch Fit-'.-Jouick. 

1607. Richard :\Iartin. 
1()0S, Steplicn Kirowan. 
1009. Ohphcr Browne. ' 

liiai'iin i)oriey. 
Pohoi t rMaiiiii. 
Martin Dorsoy. 
J.nn.'s ; .,.1- Dorsey. 
]Sic!:')l;).s French. 
Doninick i>io\vne. 

IGIO. Richard Bodikin 


Patrick Tviartin. 
C'!nistop!ii;r BoJikin. 
lOll. A'alentine Bhike Fitz-Walter 7 Anch-e\v Lyucii I'uz Jo'in. 

Fitz-Thomas. " 
IG12. Sir Thomas Rotherara, " 

1G13. Walter INIartin. 

iGlk Nicholas Dorsey. 

1015. Pierce Lynch Fitz-Jonack 

3 '1 lion;as LLike. 
JNlarcus Lynch Fitz Cliris- 
topher. Adam Fauntc. 
Jam-js ()p:e Dorsey. 
George JSIartin. 
James 0-^e Dorsey. 
Francis Mail in. 
Pierce Martin. 
Jonack Lynch Fitz-Picrce. 

That every freeman, being merchant, dwelling in towne, keeping crork and pan, and 
paying tax and talladge, sliall have a voice in electing oflicers yearly, and also in ah general 
matters which shall happen. 

October 2d, the earl of Thomond, Sir Oliver St. John, vice president of Connauglit, Sir 
Thomas Uotlieram, knight, governor of St. Ausustinc's fort, and Uoy-cr 0'ShaujTiuiessv,es(i. 
were elected irecmcn. 

' Tliis mayor was deposed for refusing to take the 
oatli of supremacy, and Tliomas Browne was elected in 
his place ; but he, having also refused to take the oath, 
was fined jt'lOO, and Ulick Lynch was chosen for the 
remainder of the year. 

" Tliis mayor was also deposed, for the same reason, by 
Sir Oliver St.John, in the presence of William O'Donnell, 
archbishop of Tuani, (who had shortly before translated 
the New Testament and Book of Common Prayer into 
Irish,) and his place was supplied by Kichard Martin. 

In \G\\, the " youn;j men" obtained a charter from 
the corporation, instituting them a body politic of them- 
selves, and empowering them to make by-laws for the 
good government of their company. Their " captain" 

was privileged to sit next the sheriffs at all public meet- 
ings, and to be an esquire for the u'ar. They were also 
exempted from paying- taxes ; in consideration of which, 
they were bound to keep watcii and ward. — Annah, 

' This year, no person eligible to the office of mayor 
could be found in town, who would take the oath of su- 
premacy ; in consequence of which, SirTliomas Uothcnim, 
governor of St. Augustine's fort, was appointed. 

>' Peter French Fitz-Valentine was elected n-.ayor tliii 
year ; but, having refused the office, he was fined £UM\. 
The above mayor was then chosen in his place, and \\;is 
also re-elected for the succeeding year, as no other 
would take the oaths. 






Pierce Lynch Fitz-Jonack. 

Francis Lynch Fitz-Peter. 

Nicholas Lynch Fitz-George. 

James Darcy Fitz-James. 

Andrew Lynch Fitz-John. 

Robert Martin. "^ 

Patrick Martin Fitz-AValter. 


Jolni French. 

EdnuHid Lynch. 

Thomas Lynch Fitz-Piers. 

James Semper. 

James Sem])er. 

Marcus Lynch Fitz-George. 

jMarcus FrcnchFitz-Marcus. 

Peter Martin Fitz- Walter. 

JMarcus Frencli. 

James Semper. 

Luke Rawsone. 

Marcus Cornin. 

James Lynch. 

Pierce IVIartin. 
JNLarc. Oge French Fitz-Marcus. James Lynch. 

GcoHrey French. 
Robert Blake Fitz- WalterFitz- ' '■ 
Tliomas. ^ 

Geoffrey French. 

John Uiake. 

A\'alter Browne. 

M'lUiam Blake. 

Jasper I\LirtinFitz-Nicholas. 

Marcus Skerret. 

Thomas Lynch Fitz-Nicholas 

Fitz-Stephen Fitz- Arthur. 
James Lynch Fitz-jNIartin 

Fitz W illiam. 
Sir llicliard Blake Fitz-Robert 7 Edmond Kirowan. 
Fitz- Walter Fitz-Andrew, knt. 3 Nicholas Blake. 
Sir Charles Coote, knight, Sir John Bourke, of Dcrryniacklaghney, knight, Mr. John 
Bourke, of Downsandle, esq. and John Jacob, of Galway, admitted freemen. 

Edmond Bourke, of Kilcornan, esq. Wahcr Bourke, of Turlagli, in the county of Mayo, 
esq. and Donell M'Robuck Birmingham, and the heirs of their body begot, elected freemen, 
they bearing scot and lot. 


Ordered in Council, that any person wlio shall scandalize and unmannerly behave himself in 
^iceches to to the mayor, siiail forfeit J. 20. 

That no outrage, howling, or shoutings, be made in or out of the streets of this towne, at 
the burial of any deceased person ; but that all such barbarous courses be given over, on payne 
of ns. tor each abuse; whereby all and every corpes here be carried to liis grave in a sivell 
orderly fashione, according to the form in all good places observed. 

' Tills mayor died in ofncc, and liis place was filled b^- take the oath of supremacy. Thus circumstanced, it wag 

his father, Kichard Martin, who was mayor in IC07, with difficulty persons could be found to fill the office, 

and u ho was also elected in place of Val. biake, in 1611. In oriler to remedy this inconvenience, the corporation 

• Until tins year, the nii.yor was elected soleiy by the at length resolved.'that every freeman should have a vote 

aldermen and shenfi's, (the former cither been at the election ; in consequence of which, the above was 

mayors, or such as \> ere jlijiible to be so,) . na no Catholics the first catholic mayor for the last thirty years, 
were admitted for ir.nny years, they invariably refusing to 




John Lynch Fitz-Richard. 


Ns. Lynch Fitz-Jonikine. " 

Sir Valentine Blake Fitz-Walter 
Fitz-Thomas, knt. and bart. " 
Geffrey Martin. "^ 

George Martin Fitz-Walter. 

Patrick French Fitz-Gcorge. ^ 

Sir Dominick Browne, knt. 

Richard Lynch Fitz-John. 
Stephen Martin. 
Martin French. 
Alexander Bodkin. 
Francis Blake. 
Richard Kirwan. 
Robert Kirowan. 
John French Fitz- Sphen. 
Pierce Martin Fitz-^Valter. 
Jonicke Lynch Fitz-Peares. 
GeorgeFrench Fitz Patrick. 
Walter Blake Fitz-Andrew. 
Mich. Lynch Fitz-Stcphen. 
Dominick Lyncli Fitz-John. 
Ns. JSIore Lynch Fitz-Marcus. Wm. Lynch Fitz-Andrew. 

Christ. Bodkin Fitz-TIiomas. 


May 17. — For as much as the grace of God is the best revenue of this towne, and his 
blessing our greatest rents ; and that charitable distributions are, according to liis divine 
promise, a hundred folde rewarded, both in this and the other world; it is ordained, that the 
collectors of the rents and revenues of this towne shall, once everie year, distribute jfilO 
[jctween the poor widows of tlie birth and blood of the towne, in imitation of tiiat good 
widow, commended by our Saviour, who cast her two niitcs into the treasurye; and in 
liope, that the supj)lying the needful exigents of the poor may increase our comings in, and 
thereby enable us to do works tending to God's glory, and the good of the commonwealth. 

Enacted, that sturdie beggars and poor scholars be banished ; and that such poor and 
needie men, born in the towne, as shall be allowed to begge, shall iiave leden tokens fastened 
to their caps, to distinguish tiiem IVom others. And for as much as divers strangers, and some 
of the towne, doe keep blind ale-houses, which are the relievers of idlers and malefactors, 
who, by cheating, cozening, and villainies, doe disturbe the quiet and peace of the towne, 
it is ordered, that the several constables of the several quarters and franchises doe, everie 
quarter session, present the names of such, and of all other persons selling beer, ale, &c. 
tluit a certain number of select men may be named and licensed to doe the same. 

'' Alderman Marcus B'.akc was clioscn mayor this year, 
Imt died on tlic morning of the day he was to enter into 
ofueo. " It pleased CJod Almightie to call him ont of 
this transitorie hie to the everlastinge, and onto of the 
chicle chaire of this towne (whereof' lie was to take jios- 
scssion) unto a better and more glorious seat in heaven." 

' This year it was stipulated that the mayor's salaries 
should not exceed £\2 stcrlini;, " same being the stipend 
ull tlie old mayors had ;" and that the recorder should 
have but ^10 aycar, " which was all that our first recorder, 
J>[r. Dominick Martin, ami .Sir Harry Lynch, elected 
recorder alter him, received." Since the mayoralty of 
Sir Thomas Hotheram, in KilJ, the mayor's salary 
ainouiitcd to £100 yearly. 

On 1st August, Oliver Martin was chosen ma3-or, 
and Andrew Browne Fitz-Oliver and Edward French 
Fitz-Patrick, bheriti'a; but Sir Thomas Rotheram having, 
on l-'tli 8e|iteinbcr following, come inti> the tholsel, and 
produced a letter from the privy coiiiicil, ordering that 
the magistrates should take the oath ol' supremacy, the 
mayor and sherills elect requested until the 27th for 
consideration, upon which they declined to take the oath, 
and the ofiicers above named were accordingly chosen. 
It was then ordered that the major should have the former 
stipend of ^100 a year for his salary. 

' This sheriff be(jncathed ^10 yearly, for ever, to release 
poor prisoners confineil for debt in the gaol of the town. 



/ ■. 



IGoG. Ant. Lynch Fitz-James. 

1637- Sir Tiiomas Blake, bart. 

iGoS. Sir Robuck Lynch, bart. 

1G39. John Bodikin Fitz-Domnick. 

iGlO. Francis Blake. 

iGtL Walter Lynch Fitz-James 2 
Fitz-Anibrose. 3 

1642. Richard Martin Fitz-Oliver. ' 

iG'tS. Sir Val. Blake, junior, knt. ^ 
and bart. 3 

16M<. James Darcy Fitz-NIcholas. 

lGl-5. Edmond Kirwan Fitz-Patrick. 

IGIG. John Blake Fitz-Nicholas. 


Geft'ry Font. 

Domnick French. 

INlarcus Lynch Fitz-William. 

James Lyncii Fitz-Stephen. 

Thos. Lynch Fit z- Ambrose. 

Peter Lynch Fitz-Pcter. 

John Kirowan. 

Francis Atiiy. 

Geffry Blake. 

^Martin Lynch. 

John Martin Fitz-Geffrey. 

Matt. Martin Fitz-Nicholas. 

Domnick Skerret. 

John Bermingham. 

Oliver Oge French. 

John Kirwan. 

Domnick Darcy, 

Robert Martin Fitz-Jasper. 

Dom. Browne Fitz-Xiciiolas. 

JVLirtin Kirwan Fitz-Andrew. 

Domnick Blake Fitz- Robert. 

Nicholas Bodkin Fitz-David. 

An order declaring the right of precedencie in station, and public meetings, within the 
county of the towne of GaUvay j wherein, nevertheless, it is meant and intended, that bar- 
roncts and knights shall hoide and enjoy the places and precedencies to them of right due; 
and tiiat none sliall challenge and enjoy any place but such as go in gownes, except tlie 
captain of tlie " young men." — I. The Mayor. — 2. Recorder. — a. Mayor of the staple. — 
i. Aldermen that bore oflice by their senioritie. "^ — .3. Sheriffs for the time beinge. — C. The 
captaine of the young men. — 7. Lawyers that were recorders, with theirgownes. — 8. Aldermen 
peers, according to their senioritie, in their gownes. — 9. The coroner, in liis gowtie. — 10. The 
chamberlin and esche;itc)r, in their gownes. — 1 1. Lawyers and barristers, in their gownes, who 
did practice, according to their senioritie. — 12. Constables of the staple, or late sheriffs. — 
13. Ail other sherill's that bore office, according to their antiquitie. — 14. The four captaines 
of the four quarters. — 15. Burgesses, according to their senioritie of house-keeping. — Lib. A. 

' Tills ma_\'or (who rcsiJcJ at Dungoric, in tlic county 
of Galway) ;'.|)pe:irs to have been a popular and favourite 
tharacter in those times. He was chosen aKIcrniaii and 
mayor of this tosvn in his absence, witliout his knowledge, 
and at first refused the offices ; but afterwards accepted 
tlieni, " at tlic instance of the corporation and of many 
honourable persons, to the great content of all tlie inha- 
bitants of this town." — T.ih. A. He bequeathed ^300 to 
b\ii!d a chapel in St. Francii' alihey, and anotlier in St, 

Nicholas' church ; and left legacies to all the convents 
and abbics in Connaught — Ih. 

' The alJennen were usually chosen on the evening 
of the last day of July, at a meeting of the mayor, re- 
corder, and such aldermen as bore the ofRce of niavor, 
commonly called " short council ;" and one or two were 
chosen yearly, to supply the place of the new majoi', 
and such aldermen as might happen to die. 



IG17. Walter Browne. 

1648. Sir Walter Blake, knt. 

lGl-9. Thomas Lynch Fitz-Marcus J 

Fitz-Martiii. j 

1G50. Sir Oliver Oge French, knight. 

1C51. Richard Kirwan Fitz-Thomas. 

1G52. Michael Lynch Fitz-Stcphen 

Ordered, that lieutenant-colonel William O'Shaughnessie 
in bloode to the K/iole toxmc, and for the good nature and 
family doe bear to it) and his posteritie shall be hereafter fr 


Domnick Martin Fitz-Tho. 
Peter Browne Fitz- James. 
JMartin Blake Fitz-Andrew, 
James Blake Fitz-Nicholas. 
Steph, Lynch Fitz-Nicholas. 
Anthony Lynch Fitz-John. 
James French Fitz-Edmmul. 
Peter Lynch Fitz-x'lnthony, 
Thomas Lynch Fitz-Patrick. 
Arthur Lynch Fitz-,Stepheii. 
Alex. Lynch Fitz-Andrew. 
^Villiam Martin Fitz-Steplien. 

(in consideration of his allyance 
affection that he and his whole 
eemen of this corporation. •> 

'' This noble Irish family, of tlic Hcreviionian line, (ciijus 
nobilitiiteni, antitjuitatein, ct intcgrltatcin, qui non novit, 
Hibcniiaui non novit. — De i?»)go.) was, from the earliest 
jicrioJ, connected with the old natives of GaUvay. .Sir 
Dcrmot, the seventh in descent from " Scachnusy," 
from whom the name taken, havinj; in 1 543 submitted 
to Henry VIII. and surrendered his possessions, that mo- 
narch, by letters patent, dated ."d December the same 
year, reeitinj, that althimgh he aiul liis jiredecessors, 
kings of England, were the true possessors of those pre- 
misses, yet that Sir Dcrmot and his ancestors possessed 
them unjustly against the crown, until lately, being truly 
sensible thereof, he relinquished the same, accordingly 
granted to Sir Dcrmot, c/iiff <</' liis name, and his heir 
male, hi cnpite, by llie service of a knight's fee, all the 
estate uhicii he had in ihe n]anors, lordsl;i]is, lands, iS:c. 
of Gort-Inchigorie, and several other lamls ; with a 
provisoe, however, of Ibrfeitnre, in case of any confe- 
deracy or disturbance against the crown. — Hot. I'al. 35 
Jlai. VIII. — Sir Dcrmut had two sons. Sir Rory and 
Dcrmot : the former was married to the lady Onora nj/ 
Bricn, and had two sons, William and Darby. After his 
death, his widow, his brother Dermot, and William his 
eldest son, having some dirpiites about the property, they 
were submitted to the arbitration of several members of 
the j";"ivy council of Ireland, who made their award on 
the 'J 1st March, 15rO; by which, amongst other pos- 
sessions, the lordship of Gort-Inehigorie, &c. was assigned 
to Dcrmot, as chief of his name. — Rut. Pal. 13 Eliz. — 
Dermot, his son, died 8th July, 1(506, seized of the ter- 
ritory of Kinalea, alias " O'Shanghnes' country," leaving, 
Ro'ier, otherwise Gilleduffe, (tlien ageil twenty-three years 
and married,) his heir, and Shyly A>« Hubert his widow. 
Sir Dermot, the son oi' lioger, died iu l(i73, leaving by his 
wife, the daughter of lord Barry, Kogcr, who, in l(;.ss, 
Married Helen, the daughter of Connor O'Dryen, lorcl 

viscount Clare. He afterwards joined king James's forces, 
and was engaged at the battle of the Bojne, I'rom which 
he retiu'ned home sick, though not wounded, and died 
iu the castle of Gort, on the llth of July, iG'io. He 
was attainted on llth May, 1G97, and king Widiara 
granted all his estates, (which were declared forfeited,) 
in custodiani, to Gustavus, the first baron Hamikon; 
but he having soon after obtained a grant 01' other lands, 
the king, by letters patent, dated Iflth June, 1C97, 
granted ^o Thomas (afterw.irds Sir Thomas) Prendergast, 
in consideration of his good and acceptable services, (the 
discovery of tliC assassination plot, tSrc.) all the estate, real 
and personal, of Roger O'Shaugl'.nessy, esq. deceased, in 
Gort-Inchigorie, and sevcnd other lands in the barony of 
Kiltartau, and county of Galway. By a subsequent fatent, 
dated 'Joth Si.|jtcniber, l(;;is, reciting the foregoing grant, 
and also that his majesty was iufoimed, that the estate? 
were then annually worth ^500, but that they had since 
proved very deficient of that sum ; and it being therojal 
intention that i^JOO a year should have been gr.uuej, 
several other lands of the dear yearly value of oSlt.Os. ■2\d. 
situate in the several counties of Tippcran, Galu.'iv, 
Robconnnon and Weslmeath, vsere granted accordiujv.— 
Hot. Pet. 10 }yill},im ///.—Colonel William G'Shsr.L.h- 
nessj', the lieir of Roger, the last possessor, Inivinv died in 
exile in France, in 17-14, was succeeded by liis cousin- 
gernian, Coleman, then titular bis!ui|) of Ossorv, H-lio 
instituted proceedings at law against Sir Thomas Prcn- 
dergast, the son of the patentee, for the recoverv of the 
estate of Gort. These proceedings were continued aliir 
the bishop's decease by his next relative, P.oebuck, and 
after hii death by Joseph O'Shaughjiessy, his son, v.ho, 
having to contend against wealth and power, wiiliuut ilie 
aid of either, wai ultimately deicated ; and tinis ended 
one of the njost ancient and resijcciable ab'jri!;ii!al 
families in Ireland. 







Arthur Lynch Fitz- Anthony. 

Nicholas French. 

Arthur Lynch. 


Thomas Lynch Fiz-. 


Richard Lynch. 

Anthony French Fitz-Peter. 

Col. Peter Slubbers. 

Paul Dodd. 

Marcus Lynch Fitz-Thoraas, 


Lieut. Col. Humphr 

ey Hurd.'^ 

John Camel. 
Jolin Mathews. 


Paul Dodd. 

John Peters, 
Mathew Forth. 


Gabriel King. 

Jarvis Hind. 
Thomas Harvest. 


Sir Chas. Coote, lent 

. andbart. 

John May. 
Richard Ormsby. 


John Mathews. 

Richard Bernard. 
William Speed. 


John Morgan. 

Geo. Scanderbegg-Bushell. 
John Pope. 


John Eyre. 

John Murray. 
Robert Brock. 


Henry Greneway. 

Benjamin Veale. 
Walter Bird. 


Edward Eyre. 

Richard Walcott. 
John Barrett. 


John Morgan. 

William Fleming. 
Thomas Semper. 


Col. John Spencer. 

Robert Warner. 
George Young-Husband. 


The same. 

George Davison. 
William Jackson. 


The same. 

Christopher Surr. 
James Berry. 


The same. 

Richard Bernard. 
John JuU. 

' Sliortly before this period, colonel Ricliard Grace, 
uf Movelly Castle, in the Kind's County, (one of the 
bravest otficers of his time, and also one ol the most 
stcdhist adherents of the un';raleful Stuart family,) while 
defending an important pass in the neighbourhood of 
Galway, at the head of 3000 n)en, was defeated in a san- 
guinary engagement by colonel Ingoldsby. — This defeat 
was followed by the speedy reduction of the entire 

On the 25th of October, 1654, the mayor and sheriffs 
wci'e removed by order of government, and those imme- 

diately succeeding were appointed. — Vide p. I "6. 

' This mayor (according to the annals) was originally 
a carpenter ; and Mathews, one of the sheriffs, is stated 
to have been by trade a v/caver : they also inform us, 
with marked feelings of contempt and indignation, "that 
Cromwell's soldiers, with all coblers, butchers, bakers, 
soldiers and mechanics," wore at this period indiscri- 
minately made free of the corporation ; while the foinicr 
respectable natives and gentry were turned out of the 
town, and stript of all their possessions, which were 
seized upon by those rapacious invaders. — Amuits. 



\{ji)0. John Peters. 

IG70. ' John .May. 

1(171. Richard Ornisbj. 

1(>7~- Gregory Constable. 

1073. Tiic same. 

Ifi71<. Col. Theodore Russell. 

IG75. The same. 

■ 1()70. The same. 

1077- The same. 
1(j7S. The same. 

IG79. The same. 
IGSO. The same. 

IGSI. The same. 

Ordered, tliat several persons in the order named 
ure not fit to live in the towne, or men useful to tlie 


William Hardiman.' 
Robert Mathews. 
Robert Warner. 
Abraham Cowell. 
John Geary. 
John Vanghan. 
Thomas Andrews. 
William Hill. 
Thomas Revctt. 
Tiiomas Cart Wright. 
Thomas Buck. 
Marcus Harrington, 
.foini Flower. 
Thomas Poole. 
John Clarke. 
Richard Browne. 

Thomas Staunton. 
John Amory. 

Thomas Simcockes. 
Samuel Cambie. 
The same. 

(principally the ancient families of Galwav) 

' This imlividual appears to have been somewhat dis- 
tiiiguislicj above his bi'other corporators of this period. 
Soon alter the restoration lie was appointed b}' the duke 
of York (afterwards James IL) agent over the lands 
granted to liis royal highness in the counties of Mayo, 
Galway and Clare. His accounts (from which the fol- 
lowing acknowledgment is taken) contain many curious 
particulars: — "We do hereby acknowledge to have re- 
cciveil from Mr. William Hardiman, of Clalway, the just, 
full Euul complete number of thirty-seven bonds, iS:c. for 
tlie use of his royal highness, James duke of York, by 
order, unto us given by his royal liigliness, 1st May, Itiuy, 
James Knowles, William Cooper." — Orig. AIS. 

This name, though apparently of foreign derivation, is of 
genuine Irish origin. According to tradition it was at first 
(fllartigan, (an ancient family of ^Munster,) but bs pro- 
vincial pronunciation, and transposition of letters, it 
became O'Hargidaii or Hargndon; and was afterwards 
transformed into the seemingly £nglish sirname IltutlhuKn, 
as a kind of protection against the cruel persecutions of 
the unfortunate Irish during the seventeenth century. 
This I'aniily appears to I'.ave inherited large properties in 

Connaught long after tlie English power prevailed in 
tliat province : amongst others, the extensive tract of 
Jirif/y-IIaigaduii, near Longhrea, (now the estate of the 
right hou. Denis Bowes Daly;) lauds of the same name 
in the parish of Ballycalla, barony of Kihnain, and 
county of Mayo, and the ruins of an old castle, in the 
parish of Kilmainmorc, same barony and eountv, still 
peri)ctuate the name of their forjner proprietors' By 
inquisition, on record, taken at Athenry 1 Uh Sept. 1G07, 
it was found tliat Doimg/i lleiigh U' I In r'gadati or llartigaii, 
from whom the author of this work is descended, "\vas 
seized in fee of several lands in the eountv of Gahvay. 
During the civil wars, his offspring (some of whom adopted 
the sirname Hardiman) were deprived of the wliole, and 
many of them were reduced to indigence, or, to use the ex- 
pression contained in tliememoirsof the lateChas.O'Conor 
concerning the ancient Irish families, " they melted into 
peasants before his face." The writer of this, liowever,cvcn 
still j)0:st"sscs a siuall hereditary property in Mayo ; and 
he hopes, that ;il'ter treating of so many other names and 
families ibroughout this volume, the imlnlgent reader will 
excute hi:, introducing these lev, words concerning his own. 




Col. ThcodoreRussell- 

The same. 

Tiie same. 

The same. 

John Kirwan Fitz-Stephen. 

The same. 

Marcus Lyncli. 
WiHiam Hoskins. 
Thomas Yeaden. 
William Iloskiiis. 
Tiiomas Yeaden. 
Tiiomas "Wilson. 
Richard AA'all. 
Thomas Wilson. 
George .Staunton. 
Jonathan Pcrrie. 
James BrowneFitz-Gcoffiy. 
Marcus Kirwan Fitz-Uomk. 

That notice be given forthwith to all per^'ons tliat are not free of the corporation, that they 
do not presume to trade by retail witiiiii tlie town, either in shops or houses, or their goods 
shall be seised and sold. — Tlie next year, alderman Robert IMathews, for abuse given by him to 
the mayor, was suspended from council j and it was ordered, " that such persons as liave borne 
olUces "in tliis corporation (masters of compmys excepted) shall, every Sunday, in the fore- 
noon, attend tiic king's sword to church in their gowns; every person neglecting, to pay iialf 
a cobb each time, and upon refusal be expelled the council, and that no person do ^iresume 
to sit in the mayor's first seat without iiis gown." 

That any of the council who shall depart without taking leave from Mr. Mayor shall forfeit 
a cobb. AlbO that the charge of new casting the old bells and two new bells, and raising the 
steeple of this town, be defrayed out of the public revenue of this corporation. 

Ordered, that no cattle be hereafter slaughtered within this town, nor suffered to come into 
it; that no milcli cows be permitted in, and that '2s. lid. fine be imposed on any one tin-owing 
carbage into the river. The next year it was ordered, that all meat blown in the shambles 
should be seised, and disposed of to the prisoners and poor. sGl5. were ordered alderman 
Uevctt for entertaining the judges of assize for six j'cars past ; and every inhabitant was directed 
to pave belure his door in such manner as the mayor and sheriffs should direct. 

That the charter be forthwith taken out, and that it is the sense of the council that their 
liberties be enlarged ibiir myle, lo say, to Clare Bridge, and so proportionably to the south- 
ward as far as Oranmore, and in the west as far as Forbagh to the sea si;le, and as i;ir as 
Clyda'h towards the lough, and that the old priviledges in the former charters before 164-1 
be obi:i;uetl ; that is, the election of warden and the mayor to be vice-admiral within the pre- 
cincts of the port, and he and the recorder to be justices tliroughout the province. 

" This mayor (the only Catholic that filicd the office scizetl, of the castles of Castle-Hackctt and Cahirc- 

sincc 1C54) was the firit proprietor m his name, of the Morris; but that Mc. Haikelt, the chief of his name, 

ancient e»! '.to of Castle-Hackett, «Iiich ori'^ir.allylicloiijjcd and others of th^j sefjt of the Hacketts, claun the afore- 

to th'.' iiHckett fmriily. — Vide page 16, ii<ili:—By inqni- said castle of Castle-Hacl:ctt, with the two quarters of 

siti'jn t;ik;Mi 2!itli Jan. 1584, it was foaiul, "that Uiic hiinl adjoining." — licvi.Olf. — This ancient sept was also 

.Mac Hcdaiond Mac Jloylcr died on the •2-X Sept. 1571, driven to Mayo after IC-IJ, and is now nearly extinct. 




1688. Dominick Browne. 

1689. The same. 
1C90. Arthur French." 


Francis Blake Fitz-Andrew. 
Domk. Bodkin Fitz- Patrick. 

"WiHiam Clear. 
Oliver French. 


On the petition of Joseph Fl in, master of the joyners, masons, shipp-wrights, plasterers, 
turners, slaters, sawyers, upholsterers, miliars and millwn'njhts, a new charter was frranted to 
those different Ejuilds, and a similar one soon after to the company of tallow-chandlers, soap- 
boilei-s and smiths. It was afterwards ordered, that all the natives, and others, who were en- 
titled to their freedom, might, at any time, attend before the mayor, and be sworn without 


The clerk of the privy council having, by letter of the 15th April, signified that his majesty 
(James II.) required the mayor of Galway to call a common council, and agree upon such 
rates of provisions as they should judge reasonable between buyer and seller, the following 
were accordingly ordered, viz. — Iron to be sold to the retailer at 18s. the cwt. and by him for 
22s. — salt at I5s. the barrel, according to the usual measure of the town, and to be retailed at 
I7s. 6d. being IJ-rf. for each quart of heapctl measure — Flemish hops to be retailed at 2s. per 
lb. — stall-fed beef, the best not to exceed 2d. for the choice pieces, and i^r/. by the quarter- 
ordinary beef not to exceed Id. per lb. — mutton id. — veal and pork I i^/.— bacon 'jil. — cheese 
'J}jd. — fresh butter id. — the best salt butter 3d. — soap 'id. — candles iSd. — French wine to be 
sold to the retailer at jflO the tun, and the retailer to sell it at 12(/. the quart — brandy to be 
sold to the retailer at £50 the tun, the retailer to sell it at 15(/. the quart — the best beer and 
ale to be sold at 2d. the quart — and small beer at ^d. — Lib. C. i* 

" Colonel Alexander M'Donnell was mnyor until tlie 
Sth of December, when lie was rcPioveJ by order of 
government, iind tlic above appointed. 

° In the sunniier of IGss, a vast swarm of insects, of 
tlie Scnrnbcus or beelle kind, appeared on the S. W. 
coast of Galway, not far from the town : they were 
brongh.t by a S. W., and proceeded towards Head- 
ford, where, and in the adjacent country, they lay by 
thousands among the trees and hedges, hanging to the 
boughs in clusters, and sticking to the backs of one 
another, like bees when they swarm. In this manner 
they contiinicd quiet during the heat of tlve day ; but 
towards evening they simultaneously took wing, with a 
strange noise, resembling the distant beating of drums, 
and in such vast and incredible numbers, as to darken the 
air for many miles round. In a short time they devoured 
ail the leaves of the trees; and the country, though it 
was then the niiildle of sunnncr, was left as naked as if 
it had l)ecn the depth of winter. The grinding of the 
leaves in the mouths of this vast multitude made a sound 
similar to the sawing of timber. They destroyed all the 
pardons round the country, and particularly Mr. Martin's 
btautil'ul plantations at Dangan ; entered the houses, 
and, crawling about, fell into the food of the peojile ; 
iind wherever they happened to strike, they left a slight 

mark behind. Their spawn they deposited near th» 
surface of the ground, where it did considerable damage, 
by devouring the roots of the corn and grass. These 
formidable invaders weic, however, easily killed : smoke 
was their greatest enemy, and one wet da^ destroyed 
great heaps of them. They proved good food for the 
swine and poultrj', and, according to some, were also 
used by the poorer sort of people. From the time of 
their first ajjpearanee they continued to proceed progres- 
sively with the westerly wind, and in IGDC they reached 
the Shannon ; but they were gradually destroyed. The 
year before, about forty or fifty liorsc-loads were found 
lying dead along the shores of the bay for miles westward 
of Galway. It was supposed that this new colony, 
coming from their native lands, Normandy or Britanny, 
in France, met with a coEitrary wind, which having blown 
them into the sea, they were drowned, and their bodies cast 
ashore. Since that time, however, nothing of the same 
kind has appeared. — See lionle and Molincux's Xal. 
History of Jrcland. 

" These prices are higher than might have been expected 
at so distant a period ; but they were considerably en- 
hanced by the circumstances of the times and the situatiou 
of tlie town, which was at the tunc in daily expectntiou 
of being besieged. 



John Gibbs. 
Richard "Wall. 

Thomas Coneys. 
Francis Knapp. 
James Ribett Vigic. 
Francis Knapp. 
James Ribett Vigie. 
Marcus Lynch. 
Jarvis Hinde. 
Marcus Lynch. 
Thomas Poole. 
Jarvis Hinde. 
Thomas Poole. 
Samuel Simeockes. 
Robert Blakeney. 
Samuel Simeockes. 
Robert Blakeney. 
John Broughton. 
John Feuquire. 
John Broughton. 
That no person but a freeman keep open shop in Galway or the liberties thereof, or sell 
or expose to sale any wares therein, except on market clays, and paying quarterly."^ 

That the two last mayors do pay =£50 each (out of the arrears due to them) towards building 
the Exchange or the Tiiolsel, and that the present mayor shall have j£200 salary, allowing 
£oQ for tlie same purpose. In IVO-t it was ordered, that no mayor should have more than 
jfloO, (in no7 it was reduced to £).00,) until the Tholsel should be built, and that the 
number of aldermen should not exceed twenty-six. 

For the services of lieutenant-colonel Nicholson in fortifying Mutton Island, " which will 
encourage shipping to resort to this port," he was provided with lodgings at the expense of 
the corporation. 


Sir Henry Bellasyse, bart 


Thomas Revett. 
The same. 
Thomas Simeockes. 


The same. 


Thomas Cartwright. 


John Gerry. 


The same. 


Thomas Andrews. ■* 


Richard Browne. 


Thomas Staunton. 


The same. 

' This mayor bestowed an ornamental case to preserve 
the king's swonl in St. Nicholas's church. 

' This oppressive by-law was entirely directed against 
the Roman Catholic inhabitants, none of whom were then 
Irce. They petitioned the lords justices and council 
against it, but without eft'ect; it continued, therefore, 
rigidly in force for many jears after, and was one of the 
principal causes of the decay of the town. 

The) car 1701 was rendered memorable for the great 
slioals of herrings which v/ere taken ic the bay, although 

only seventy fishing-boats were employed during the 
season. On the night of the ISth of September they 
amounted to 1000 barrels, which were sold for is.Gd. 
and, at the end of that and the following year, for 8(/. a 
thousand. Codd was also taken in snch quantities, thongh 
at an unusual season, that the best was sold for a penny, 
and, in 1705, for a halfpenny a piece. At the same time, 
prime mutton .sold in the tow n from four pence to six 
pence a quarter, and ordinary small mutton for thrtw 
pence, and [fm.—Aniiuk. 




1703. James Ribett Vigie, 

1701.. John Eyre. ' 

1705. The same. 

170c. The same. 

1707. Kichard Wall. 

170s, John Gibbs. 

170fJ. Jarvis Hinde. 

1710. Edward Eyre. 

1711. Tlie same. 

1712. The same. " 

1713. Robert Blakcney. 

1711'. The same. 

1715. The same. 

I71G. Robert Coatcs. 

17 17. The same. 

171 8. jVIark Wall. 

John Fenqiiire. 
George Gerry. 
"William Hinde. 
George Gerry. 
Marc'us Wall. 
William Fisher. 

William Fisher. 
Henry Lardner. ' 
Edward Barrett. 
Henry Lardnei". 
George Staunton. 
Charles Gerry. 
Robert Mason. 
David Tenant. 
Robert Coates. 
Edward Rhodes. 
Charles Morgan. 
William Moore. 
James Lynch Fitz-Marcus. 
Thomas Smith. 

Sanmel Blood. 
Thomas Hendron. 
John Gibbs. 
Thomas Hendron. 
Richard Hutchinson. 
Geflrey Cooke. 
John Marmion. 
John Grindleton. 


Tliat all the popish sliop-kecpcrs do appear before council, and shew cause why tliey should 
not pay quartcridgc. 

Tlie several persons who, in Xovember and December 
common council, having been so elected manifestly vitli a t 

last, were elected members of the 
esign to evade the statute which 

'This mayor bestowed £200 of his salary towai'ds eouncil, alderman Edward Eyre (whose father, in 1670, 

liuildin^' tlie Exchange. obtained a lease of part of said ground, with several 

' Alderman Edward Eyre objected to this sheriff for other parcels,) declared that he would agree to grant a 

having; a popish wife. piece of ground, coiitaining about thirty jierches, for that 

" May 12th. — Thcneccssity and advantage, to the town purpose; in consi(ieration of which, the corporation, 

and corporation, of having a spacious entrance open and (himself being n)a}or,) on the 19th of May (bllowinp, 

imbuilt licfore Vv'illiam's-gate, leading to the east suburbs extended the term of his lease to lives renewable for 

and to Boher-niore, having been this day presented in ever. — Curjioration Book. 





Samuel Simcockes. 


The same. 


William Ilinde. 


The same. 


The same. 


George Gerry. 


George Staunton. 


Charles Gerry. 


Charles Revett. 


Richard Revett. 


John Gibbs. 


Robert Andrews. 
John Hautenville. 
Francis Wheeler. 
Tliomas Holhuid. 
Edward Rhodes. 
Howell Price. 
John iVIarmion. 
James Ribett. 
Jolm Marmion. 
John Cox. 

Richard Hutchinson. 
Francis Wheeler. 
Charles Rivett. 
Erasmus Irvin. 
Robert French. 
Robert M'Mullin. 
John O'Hara. 
Robert Cooke. 
Henry Morgan. 
Francis Simcockes. 
Patrick Bkike. 
Andrew Hohnes. 


on the 25th of said month of Dec. was to be in force, and in order to perpetuate the govern- 
ment of this corporation in several gentlemen, and others, in the county of Gahvay, and 
elsewhere, who have no interest or concern in the town, or pay any scot, lot, or other contri- 
bution therein, by means whereof the Protestant inhabitants are greatly discouraged, and that 
part of the statute, whereby Protestants are encouraged to come and dwell in the town, will bo 
frustrated, if not prevented ; ordered, June 30th, that these persons be no longer members 
of the common coimcil. 

' The foUowinj; document will shew the estimation of 
the Simcockes lamiK' in Galwaj' since the revolution : — 
"We, the mayor, recorder, clerjiy, and the rest of the 
Protestant gentry of the town of Galway, do certify that 
Mr. Richard Simcockes, of this town, mariner, is de- 
scended from an ancient Protestant family of this jilace ; 
lluit, soon after the late haii|iy revolution of Kini^ \Vil- 
liain 111. of i^lorious memory, his ,i;randfather, alderman 
Thomas Simcockes, was mayor of this town two \ ears 
successively, as was also his father, alderman Samuel 
Simcockes, soon after the accession of his late majesty. 
King George I. when, for their well-known loyalty and 
warm attijction to his illustrious house in the preceding 
critical times, both his grandfather luid faxlicr wa'c, at tile 

same time, appointed justices of the peace for this town, 
in the first connnission that was ever granted, pursuant to 
an act of parliament then made for strengthening the 
Protestant interest therein, and were honored with 
conmiauds in the militia in every array since that happy 
acra ; in which stations tlicy aci|uittcd themselves with 
integrity and credit, agreeable to the true Protestant 
princi[)les, which they always professed, ami which arc 
still retained by their descendants now living liere, as we 
vei'ily believe they are by the said Richard, w ho is married 
to tfce daughter of an old Protestant, and, during his 
abode here, made constant jirofcssion of them. 

Given under our liunds this 25lh of February, 1752." 
Ori-. MS. siiiuid. 






John Staunton. 

Rickard Fitz-Patrick. 
Nehemiah JNIorgan. 


Walter Taylor. 

George Staunton. 
Henry Ellis. 


Charles Morgan. 

■ Nicholas Staunton. 
Patrick Blake, junior 


GeofFry Cooke. 

Richard Barrett. 
William Fairservice. 


John Bird. 

John Simcockes, 
Hugh Wilkinson. 


Dominick Burke. 

Robert Cooke. 
Anthony Taylor. 


John Staunton. 

Henry Ellis. 
Patrick Blake, jim'wr 


Dominick Burke. 

Robert M'Mullin. 
Thomas Northeast. 


Rickard Fitz-Patrick. 

Rickard Barrett. 
William Fairservice. 


Henry Ellis. 

Henry Vauglian. 
Simon Truelock. 


Thomas Holland. 

Aston Swanwick. 
Henry Lewin. 


Robert Cook. 

Croasdailc Shaw. 
John Johnson. 


.lohn Disney. 

(jeorge Simcockes. 
Jolm Hamlin. 



Tliiit the recorder, for tlic time being, quatenus recorder, but no longer, shall sit and 

vote in the connnon council, though not admitted a member thereof. — [repealed 21th July, 

1772, LiO. I.) — Also ordered, that £'M be paid to alderman Ciiarles Revctt, apotliecary, to 

furnish his shop with drugs, proper for supplying the IVotcstants, or others. 

* On 10th June, 1730, a patent for an additional 
iveekly Monday market, and four additional markets on 
every I'oiir Fridays next before Cliristiiias day, together 
^^■itll three additional i'airs on 20th May, 10th September 
and loth October, to be held on tlie square plot next 
the cast {;ate of the town, was obtained by the corpo- 
ration. — 4". Geo. II. 'J }i. — (It may here be added, that 
the patent for a fair on the 2-lth August and the two days 
following, to be held at Fair-hill, or at the abbey of 
St. Dominick, near Galway, was obtained on the 1 9th 
June, 1615, by Nicholas Darcy, esq. — 11° Ja. I. 2 p.) — 
In the same year, 1730, Andrew Lynch and his son? 

were discharged from gateage, customs and taxes, for 
seven years, for keeping the streets clean. 

"• During the great frost in 1739, the rivtT was frozen 
from the bridge to the mouth of Loiigh-Corrih, and 
continual rea'cations were held on the ice. from die 
Wood-quay to Newcastle and TerrihiTi-bridge. This 
memorable winter was followed by famine and pesti- 
lence, in which multitudes of the poor perished; and, 
during the summer of 1741, an epidemic fever raged so 
violently in the town, that the judges adjourned the 
assizes to Tuani. — Annals. 1 




Michael Fairservice. 

Tobias Sherwood. 

Charles Ilanihn. 

Tiiomas Sherwood. 

John Johnson. 

John Siiaw. 

George Thomas. 

Francis Wadnian. 

Geori^'e Sliaw. 

Edward Shiehis. 

Francis Hopkins. 

Henry Covey. 

Elias Tankerville. 

John iMandeville. 

John Morgan. 

Jolin Lof'tus. 

Ixichard Mathews. 

George Drury. 

Aston Swanwick. 

Jose])h Seymour. 
By- laws. 
On 20th February, ordered, that .£900 be granted to alderman Rickard Fitzpatrick, Iiis 
heirs and assiigns, by mortgage of all the corporation lands and revenues, to reimburse liini 
his expence for several yeais, in assiduously supporting the rights, privileges and immunities 
of the corporation. — Also, that no succeeding mayor be allowed any salary whatever, but by 
the appointment of the majority of the common council. 

Ordered, that the following address be presented to his majesty, Geo. II. to congratulate 
him on liis safe return to his British dominions : — " We, the mayor, &c. of tliis ancient 
and loyal corporation, beg leave, with humble and joyful hearts, to congratulate your 
ni:ijesty on your safe and happv return to your British dominions, which we consiiier as the 
greatest bles.-ing to all your subjects ; and beg leave to assure your majesty, that none of them 
are more truly sensible of the happiness we enjt)y under your majesty's mild and wise adminis- 
tration, or more aidently wish a long continuance of it ; aiul we will lay hold of every 
occasion of testifying the most unfeigned and zealous loj'ally ami aficction to your maiesty's 
person and government. — Dated and given untler our common-seal, at the Tholsel in Gahvay, 
the lith day of December, 1752." 



Thomas Shaw. 


George Piirdon. 


Jolni Mills. 


Croasdaile Sliaw 


James O'Hara. 


James Disney. " 


Joliii Eyre. 


The Hon. Fras. 

Annesley. " 


James Staimton. 


John Hamlin. 

•The year IV-IJ was remarkable for a great full of corn this year, whicli greatly rulicvcci the country, 

snow, by wiiicli vast nmiibers of sliecp and black-cattle '' This year a double return was made to the pri\'7 

were destroyed. The farmers surrendered their hokl- coimeil for mayor, aiid the}' appro\ed of tlie above, who 

in"s, and the best lands in the province were set was sworn, by his father, a justice of the peace for the 

for 5s. an acre. Many, who took long leases at tliis county. 7'he last major held over until he was cUspossesscil 

period, were enriched in tlie space of a few years, wheat by the military. 

havini soon after risen from Gs. to 18,j. a cwt. John ' This mayor died in office, and John Eyre was elected 

Freiicli, merchant, imported upwcrds of 3000/. worth of in his place. 

r r 





Ambrose Poole. 


George Simcockes. 


Jolm Shaw. 


Patrick Blake. 


Robert Cooke. 


Edward Shields. 


Croasdaile Shaw. 


Thomas French. 


Charles Revett. 


Charles Daly. 


Henry Ellis. 


Colonel John Eyre.'' 


James Daly. 


Henry White. 


John Gibson. 


= Thomas Taylor. 


Denis Daly, of Dunsandle 


Anthony Daly. 


Patrick Blake. ' 


John Mandcville. 
James Jones. 
John Johnson. 
Samuel Shone. 
George Driiry. 
Hugh Wilkinson. 
Edward Murj)]iy. 
James Galbraith. 

Richard Blake. 
Hugh INIontgomery. 
James Foster. 
Henry Covey, 
James Galbraith. 
John INIandeville. 
Richard Blake. 
Hngh Montgomery. 
Edward Mur})hy. 
James Galbraith. 
Elias Tankerville. 
Charles Lopdell. 
Luke Dodgworth. 
Hugh Wilkinson. 
George Lewis. 
Hugli Montgomery. 
Charles Daly. 
Edward Sliiclds. 
Samuel Grace. 
Robert M'Miillin. 
Ednumd Fitz-Patrick. 
Richard Blake. 
George Diury. 
Elias Tankerville. 
Thomas Chitterbuck. 
Luke Thomas. 

* Tliis year thci-e wa'; n double return for mayor. The 
faiiiiidates were RickardFitzpatrick, and Richard Martin, 
of Danean. Neither being aiijirovcd of by the privy 
•.oiiniil, another election was directed, when the above 
mayor \vr4S approved of, and accordingly sworn. 

" ITO's, Tlinrsday, October -Ith. — Francis Lynch, of 
Rahoon, was ■^worn one of the grand-jurors of the town, 
and v>as the fivsi i;unLL!n Oathojic v.lio served as s-uch 

' For soine years after this the town was considcraMf 
agitated by corporate disputes Ijctwecn this mayor, liii 
successor, and their respective friends. — {Sec p. 18S.^ 
In Michaeliuas-terni, 1 772, application was made to lilt 
King's-bcnch for liljerty to file an information apiiriii 
Denis Daly for usurping the office of mayor thai year, but 
witliont efl'cct; judgment of ouster was, however, ohtaiiinj 
by the sheriffs. The former officers, at the same time, held 
over, ami retained the corporation seal, and were rcgularlj 




1772. Denis Daly. 

1773. Cliarlcs French. 
I77'l'- Rev. Edmoncl French, 

1775. Elias Tankerville. ^ 

1776. James Shee. 
1777- Denis Daly. 
177s. Peter Daly. 



Thomas Bodkin. 
John Thomas. 
John Morgan. 
Jlobert .Squibb. 
George '1 iiomas. 
Samuel Grace. 
Robert OTIara. 
James Shee. 
Samuel Grace. 
James Biuke. 
Robert Squibb. 
"William Burnett. 
John Morgan. 
Michael Kelly. 

Orilcrod, tlint the frccdoni of this corporation be presented, in a gold box, to the rin-ht 
lioiiorable W'altti- Biirgli, accoiDpaiiicd wiili the following address: — " We, the mayor, &c. 
fuHv sensible of the gri'at ability and diligence manifested liy you in a judicial character anionn-st 
u-;, :nul of llie virtue and (irniiiess exerted in your legislative capacity, beg leave, as a small 

mark of our gratitude, to ofler you the frc^ecloni of this ancient and once flourishini town .1 

ilistiiiction which your spirited endeavours have so eminently contributed to recover. We 
iniist, at the same time, in common with the rest of Ireland, Ian ent the prevalence of those 
coiuicils which extorted a resignation from tiiat servant of the crown, in wliom the people 
implicitly conMded, and whose wisdom adopted the only remaining mode ot averting the ruin 
of this countrv." 


elected for some years after, but not approved of by the 
privy council ; and tliou^-b the town hud thus to bo:ist of 
so many ninglstvatcs, it was, in fact, never less peaceable 
lliiin dnrinu' that period. John Staunton, the recorder, 
died on the sd December, 1772. James O'Hara, co;in- 
sillor, was elected and sworn in his place by tiie approvctl 
partv, and Martin Kirwan, counsellor, by the other; and, 
alti\ouj;h judgment of ouster was oljtained against the 
former for usurpation, he still retained the office. No 
other charge took place until the death of Clntterbuck, 
one of the adverse sheriffs, in 1774, when his place was 
Hijiplicd bv Henry Covey, bnriiess. — Orig. MS. 

' This year a petition was presenteil to the lord lieute- 
nant and conned, statin;;, that on the 1st of August, 
Patrick Blake, mayor, Martin Kirwan, recorder, Henry 
Covev, esq. one of the sheriffs, and about sixty of the 
comiiion council, assembled, between eleven and one 
o'clock, at n convenient place within the town, and 
proceeded to the election of corporate officers ; that peti- 
tioners, Saiiuiel Snncockes, Martin Kirwan, Charles 
Revett, Charles Truelock, and John Haudin, were elected 
and chosen mayor, recorder, shei'itT, and town-clerk, and 
that their names had been, tlierenpon, presented to U;e 

privy council : but tliat afterwards, on the same day, the 
reverend Edmond French, who took upon himself to 
act as mayor, and Samuel Grace and George Thonjas, as 
sheriff's, presided at a pretended assen)bly of the conunon 
council, for the same purpose. That, petitioners and 
many members of the common council there present, 
protested against, and objected to, the legality of that 
assembly ; but, notwithstanding, James O'liara, Thomas 
Bodkin, John Thomas, and Denis Daly, with several 
other persons who usurped the offices of common council- 
men, insisted that said election should proceed, and, 
accordingly, took upon themselves to elect the officers 
above iianied, i\\\d present them to the ]irivy council for 
approbation, though not in the name or under the com- 
mon seal of the corporation. — Petitioners, therefore, 
prayed to be heard by council, and that they should be 
approx ed of, and the others disallowed. — Orig. jI/5, — 
'J'liis petition, however, fell to tlie ground ; and the 
entire opposition being attributed to the circumstance of 
originally admitting Patrick Blake to be sworn mayor, 
none but members of the name and family of Daly have 
been mayors of Gahvay since the year after this pe" 





Hyacinth Daly. 


Denis Daly. 


Hyacinth Daly. 


Anthony Daly. 


Denis Daly. 


Denis Bowes Daly. 


Denis Daly. 


Rev, Ralph Dal}'. 


Denis Bowes Daly. 


Denis Daly. 


Peter Daly. 


Denis Bowes Daly. 


St. George Daly. ' 
Richard Daly. " 
Denis Bowes Daly. 


Major Peter Daly. 


Hyacinth Daly. 


St. George Daly. 


Hyacinth Daly. 


Denis Bowes Daly. 


James Burke. 
Samuel Grace. 
John Bradley. 
Sanniol Grace. 
]\lichael Kelly. 
Samuel Grace. 
Michael Kelly. 
John Bradley. 
John Lynch. 
'\^"ilIiam Frazer. 
John Morgan. 
John Bradley. 
Robert Squibb. 
John Bradley. 
John Morgan. 
Luke Thomas. 
Michael Kelly. 
Charles Donnellan. 
William Frazer. 
Robert Squibb. 
Michael Kelly. 
Edmund Fitzpatrick. 
John Bradley. 
Robert Squibb. 

Thomas Browne. 
Charles Morgan. 
Peter Daly. 
Edmund Fitzpatrick. 
John Bradley. 
Robert Squibb. 
Hyacinth Daly. 
Michael Burke. 
Denis Bowes Daly. 
F'dmund Fitzpatrick. 
St. George Daly. 
Hyacinth Daly. 

i" 1779, May olst, the Galwav volunteers were cnibo- Alicli. Blako.csq. of Frcnclifort, capt. of tlieliglit infantrs. 

r'.icil, ai.U the followhig offieci's elected : i\Ir. Jasper Lynch, adjutant. 

){ic!i-.r,; Martin, esq. of Dangan, colonel. ' Brother of tlic rinlit honorahle Denis Daly, and 

.lan-.cs Shoe, esq. deputy mayor, lientcnant-colonel. afterwards one of the judi:es of the King's-bench." 

John K'laI.e, esr>. of Coolcun, major. ^ This major died in ofHcc, and Deiiis Bowes Dah, 

.». O'l-Ii-.-a, esq. recorder, capt. of grenadier company, esq. succeeded to the end of the year, 
•'•li.rk I.yi:cli. ts j. capt. of the IxUti'.llion company. 




1799. Colonel Peter Daly. 

1800. Hyacinth Daly. 

ISOl. Colonel Peter Daly. 

ISO'2. Hyacinth Daly. 

1803. Denis Bowes Daly. 

1801'. James Daly. 

1805. Hyacinth Daly. 

ISOG. Denis Bowes Daly. 


The same. 
Hyacinth Daly. 
Denis Bowes Daly. 
James Daly. 
Hyacinth Daly. 
Denis Bowes Daly. 

1813. Hyacinth Daly. 

1814. James Daly. 

1815. Hyacinth Daly. 
I8IG. The same. 
I8I7. Parnell Gale. 


James Daly. 
Tlie same. 


Denis Bowes Daly. 

John Thomas. 

Thomas Browne. 

John Thomas. 


John Strogen. 

JNIichael Dillon. 



Michael Dillon. 

Charles O'Hara. 

William Mason. 

Charles O'Hara. 






Thomas Browne. 

Francis Eagar. 

Jethro Bricknell. 

Francis Eagar. 




Michael Dillon. 

Matthew T. Smyth. 








20, . 






s, . 



26, . 





12, . 



] 4-6-1-, 


28, . 





15,' . 





3, . 





6, . 





H-, . 





IS, . 





M, . 


-■ IL 



12, . 

. MLiiage Charter. T Of these 

. Charter of Incorporation, >■ enrolments 
. Charter of Confirmation, J by inspexin 


Murage Charter.— Tiof. Pat. 34 7?rfiu. ///. Tower of London. 
Charter of the Staple. — Id. id Edw. III. Berniingham Tower. 
Murage Charter. ") Of these three charters there no 

extant, but they are recited 
peximus in the succeeding grants. 
i:ike.- Rot. Pat. 4 Edn: IV. Tower of London. 
New Charter of Incorporation. No enrolment extant, but recited 

in the subsequent cliarters. 
Former charters confirmed and new privileges granted. — Itot. Mem, 

36 Hen. VIII. Hem. -office. 
Clur.ter of Confirmation. — Rot. Pat. 3 Ediv. VI. Rolls-office. 
New charter granting various privileges. — Rot. Pat. 20 EUz. ih. 
Chai'ter appointing first sheriffs, and erecting the town into a 

separate county. — Rot, Put. 8 Jas. I. ib. 

New Charier of Incorporation Rot. Pat. 22 Cha. II. ih. 

Like. (Inoperative since IGOl.) — Rol. Pat. 1 Jama II. ih. 



The corporation was first empowered by the charter of 
recorders. The lirst elected was Dominick INIartin, in ]505. 
and sworn annually with the mayors and sjierifis. 

15V5. Dominick Martin. 
IGIO. Damian Peck. ' 

Dominick iMartin. 

1G2.5. Sirilcnry Lynch, bart.' 
1630. Stephen Lynch. 

1632. Marcus IMartin. 

1633. Stephen Lynch. 
163G. Thomas Lynch Fitz- 

lOL-S. John Blake. 
1G,54. Robert Clarke. 
1655. Henry Greneway. 
IG57. James Cuffc. 
165[). Edward Eyre. 

1GG3. Hcnrv ^^'Ilalev. 
IGGG. John Shadwell 
IG7O. William Sprigg. 
IGSG. Sir Henry Lynch, bart. 
16S7. Thomas Lynch Eitz- 

I69L Nehcmiah Donnellan. 
1G91-. AViliiam Handcock. 
16<)5. Robert Ormsby. 
1706. John Staunton. 
1717. Arthur Ormsby. 
171s. Robert Shaw. 
17-5. John Staunton. 
1I73O. Thomas Staunton. 


Elizabeth to elect 
They are chosen 

Robert Shaw. 
Edward Eyre. 
Dominick Rurkc. 
Eyre Ercnch. 
John Staunton. 
John Morgan 
James Staunton. 
John Staunton. 
James O'Hara. 
John Morgan. 
James OTiara 
James 0'Hara,jun, 

Town Clerks. 
The duty now performed by tlie town-clcrk was originally executed by a 
corjjorate officer, called a notary ; wln'cli office was filled by Nicholas Mulligan 
from 1539 to 15G1, and by Thomas Coleman from 15G1 to 1573; also, during 
the reign of queen Elizabeth, Anthony Dermot, Marcus Martin and Christopher 
Efrcnch, were successively notaries, as appears by the corporation-book A. 
where their names occur signed to several official acts ; and Nicholas Lynche 
appears also to have been " town-clerk" in 15f^5. — (vide page 209.) The 
charter of Charles II. first gave a power to api)oint " some discreet person to 
be town-clerk." — Jerome Russell was the first appointed, and to Iiim succeeded, 

IG79. Robert Shaw. 
1()71<. Richard Rcvctt. 
17^8. Robert M'MuUen. 
1729. Richard Revett. 
I73G. Alexander Lynch. 

:i738. Robert Cook. 
JI71I. Robert M'iMullen. 
1 1742. Robert Cook. 
II757. James O'Hara. 
I177L Robert O'Hara. 

1775. James O'Hara. 

1777. Robert O'Hara. 
' 177''^- James O'Hara. 
11789. Robert O'Hara. 
'18I2. John O'Hara. 

' Tliis rccortlcr wns elected under the cliarter of Jas. I. " Sir Henry Lvncli was tliis year appointed one of tlic 

and his tee v\;\s angnicnteil, |)roviik'd he should not name barons of the Excliequer; and iiis successor (wliu, at his 

a tlepntv without the consent of tlie mayor, aldermen request, was noniinatetl rccoriler) iietitioncd lord Tvr- 

aud freemen, llis election took place in consequence of council that he niiyht he di-.pensed with from taliin" the 

his predecessor hiivini; refused to take the oath of snpre- oath of supremacy, which was accordingly yrauted. lie 

inacy ; but l.e doci not appear to have continued long in was sworn into office on the 1 8th of JNIav, H;«7. 
office, for the preeeduig i-ecordcr iiniuediatcly after suc- 
ceeded, and continued until 1625. 


J Parliamentary IIephesextation of Galwav, and a List op the Members- 

H FOR the Town since the Reign of Elizabeth. 


:,{ The most ancient sninmonses to the parliament of Ireland extant, are directed 

*■ to tlic barons and members by name. In the year 1310, Richard de Biirgo was 

I siimnioned for C'onnaught. — Rot. Clans, 3 FaItc. II. — In subsequent records of 
f that and tlie succeeding reign, otiier members of the same family were summoned 

? J'or the "county of Connaught." — Id. 4G and 4.-8 Ediv. III. — After tliis period, 

writs were directed to tlie sheriffs of counties and magistrates of cities and towns. 
It does not appear that Oalway returned any members to the memorable Irish 
parliament convened at "Westminster in ISyO ; but, on the ^'^d of January, the 
year following, the provost and bailiffs were summoned to appear at a parliament 
to beheld at Trisdeldermot, on Monday next after the feast of embers; and they 
were afterwards lined z£\Oi) for not attending. — Rot. Clans. 1 Ric/i. II. — Alike 
summons issued, dated 11th .Sej)tcml)er, 1380. — Id. dc aim. 1. — another 29th 
April, 13S!:3, and one in 139 1. — Id. de Ann. 5 and 18. — Similar summonses at 
the same time issued to the provost and bailiffs of Athenry. In the great roll of the 
Pipe, 11 Hen. VI. in Berm. Tower, the chief magistrate and constable of Galway 
were fined lOOs. because, at the council of the lord the king, on Friday next after 
the feast of St. Nicholas the bishop, in the 8th year of the king's reign, they 
neither attended by themselves nor by proxy, nor returned the king's writ to 
them at that time directed. The same roll contains an entry of another fine of 
^10 against them, because they did not return the king's writ to the parliament 
lield at Dublin, on Friday next after the feast of the Holy Trinity, in the 9th 
year of the king; and in anotiier record {Rot. Fat. 28 Hen. FI.) the sovereign 
and provost of the tov.'n are fined £i'0 for not returning the king's writ to them, 
directed to the parliament, held at Drogheda on Tuesday next after the feast of 
St. jNIark, 1 150. — Of the names of the members comprising the several parlia- 
ments of Ireland before the year loJ9 there is no account extant; but, from that 
period to the present, the following is a correct list of the successive represen- 
tatives of the town of Gahvay: 

15J9- Jonoke Lynce, of Galwa}'. 
Peter Lynce, of same. 

[For llic parliamciU of 15C3 no IKt extant.] 

158J. Peter Lynche. 
Jonoke Lynche. 
Ptobuck French Fitz-Jolm. 

1G31. Sir Thos. Elakc, of Menlogh, hart. 

Nicholas Lynch, of Galway, aid, 
1G39. Sir Robert Lynch, of same, hart. 

Sir Valentine Blake, of ISIenlogli, 

[EsiicIIlhI '2Qd June, 1GI2, for tlie ixbcllion.] 

1G13. Valentine Blake, of Muckinis, aid. iGGl. Edward Eyre, esq. 

Gcof.Lynch Fitz-Dom. of Galway. j John Eyre, of I'-yrccourt. 




I6S9. Oliver Martin, esq. 
John Kir wan, esq. 

[rarliamcm of James II.] 

1692. Sir Henry Bellasyse, ]<nt. 

Nehemiah Donnellan, esq. 

IG95. Richard St. George, esq. of Kil- 

rush, Co. Kilkenny. 

Robert Ormsby, esq. 
1703. John Staunton, of Gahvay, esq. 

Edward Eyre, esq. 
1713. John Staunton, esq. 

Samuel Eyre, of Eyrecourt, esq. 
1711- John Staunton, esq. 

Robert Shaw, jun. esq 

Edward Eyre, esq. 

[John Staunton mis-elected.] 

1727- Jolin Staunton, esq. 

Thomas Staunton, esq. aid. 
1732. Thomas Staunton, esq. 

[Alderman Tliomas Staunton deceased.] 

1735. Dominick Burke, esq. 
171-7. Rickard Fitz-Patrick, esq. 

John Eyre, of Eyrecourt. esq. 

[Uickard Fitz-l'atiick mis-elected.] 

1761. John Eyre, esq. 

Rickard Fitz-Patrick, esq. 
I7C7. Denis Daly, of Dunsandlc, esq. 

[Rickavd Fitz-Patrick, deceased.] 

17C)S. James Daly, of Dunsandle, esq. 

Robert Frencli, of Ivlonivea, esq. 
177 . Robert French, esq. 

Anthony Caly, of Callow, esq. 
I77C. Denis Bowes Daly, esq. 

Anthony Daly, esq. 
1733. The same. 

[Antliony Daly, esq. in the room* of Denfs Daly, 
who made his election to serve for the Co. 

1790. Right honorable Denis Daly. 
Sir Skeffington Smyth, bart. 

1792. Right honorable Sir Skeffington 
Smyth, bart. 
Peter Daly, esq. 

[Sworn 19th June, 1792, in the rooin of his brother, 
the right honorable Denis Daly, deceased.] 

1799- St. George Daly, esq. 
George Ponsonby, esq. 

[St. George Daly re-elected, having accepted the 
oiKce of his majesty's prime sergeant at law, 
Sworn L'od February, 1799.] 

Imperial Parliament. 

ISOi. Denis Bowes Daly, esq. 

1805. James Daly, of Dunsandle, esq. 

1812. The honorable Fred. Ponsonby. 

1814. Valentine Blake, of Mcnlo, esq. 

[The honorable Fredi-rick Ponsonby mis-elected.] 

1818. Valentine Blake, esq. 






Collegiate Church of St. 'Nicholas. * 
This ancient and venerable edifice, which, for extent and architectural beauty, 
is inferior to very few ecclesiastical foundations in the kingdom, stands a lasting 
testimonial of the piety, wealth and jniblic spirit of its founders, the former 

' The festival of St. Nicholas is celebrated on tlic 6th 
of December. lie was a native of Wyi'a, an archiepis- 
copal see, and the capital of Lycia, in Asia, of whicii he 
was elected archbishop. He died there A.D. 3-12; and 
tlic universal honor in which this holy man was held 
testifies his great merit and sanctity. He was particularly 
esteemed the protector of mariners, who never failed, 
on going to sea, to implore his mediation for a snc- 
ccsbfal \oya;;c ; and he was also, from the innocence of 
his life, lield to bo tlie patron of children. A curious 
illustration of tlie life of this primitive saint is contained 
in doctor Milner's excellent History of W'incliester. In his 
Life liy Aiban Butler, the account of the tr.ans- 
lation of his relics to Italy is taken from Surins and 
others : — " (,'crtain merchants of Bari, a seaport in the 
kingdom of Xapler., situate on the Adriatic (Julf, sailed in 
three sliips to the coast of Lycia, aiul, watciiiug an oppor- 
tuait} when no Maliomctaiis were near tlie place, went 

to the church in which the relics of St. Nicholas were 
kept, which stood in a desert place, three miles from the 
sea, and was guarded by a small community of monks. 
They broke open the marble coffin in wliich the sacred 
bones lay, and carried them oil" to their ships. The 
inliabitants, upon the a!ai-ni given, pursued them to the 
shore with horrible outcries; but the Europeans were 
got safe on board. They landed at Bari on the 9th of 
May, 1087, and the sacred treasure was deposited by the 
archbibhop in the church of St. Stephen. On the first 
day thirty persons were cured of various distempers; 
and, from that time, the tomb of St. Nicholas of Bari has 
been tamous for pilgrimages. — Tliis enterprise could only 
be justified by the laws of a just war, joined with the 
apprehension of the sacrilei;ious impiety of the Mahom- 
etans."— r,,/. XII. 

The collegiate seal, above delineated, represents St. 
Nicholas with his mitre, crozier, &c. At his riyht appear, 



inliabitants of Galw.ny. It is situate on a gentle eminence, nearly on the north- 
west extremity of the town, and contig'uous to the river, on the .site of a small 
chapel, which was the original and only place of worship belonging to tlic 
settlers, until, their wealtli and affluence having increased with their industry 
niiJ trade, they resolvetl to adorn the town by erecting a more superb structiuv 
i'or the service of the Deily. The present church was accordingly founded in 
1.J'20, and, on its completion, w'as solemnly dedicated to St. Nicholas of jMvra, 
the tutelar saint of mariners, who was chosen as the patron of the town in 
consequence of its early and extensive commerce. Tlic original foundation 
was gradually enlarged by the piety of individual benefactors, until, in course 
of time, it became one of the finest ecclesiastical structures in Ireland. 

The town of Galvvay originally belonged to the diocess of Enachdune, an 
ancient bishoprick, united in lo'-2h to the archiepiscopal sec of Tuam. " Since 
this union the churcli of St. Nicholas was governed by vicars, instituted by that 
see, who were commonly of Irish extraction, and, of course, entirely different from 
their English parishioners, as well in their principles as in their manners and com- 
mon habits of life. In this state, discontents and jealousies between the clergy and 
their flock were inevitable. The latter constantly complained that their Irish 
])astors were generally prejudiced against them, as being of English origin, ami 
that they invariably countenanced and abetted their own friends and kinched of the 
Irish race, by whom the town was on all sides surrounded, and with whom tlie 
town's-people were in a state of continual hostility. The affairs of religion being 
thus circumstanced within the town, Donatus O'M array, who was elected 
archbishop of Tuam in 11.58, at length interfered, and, in consideration, as is said, 
of an ample equivalent bestowed by the inhabitants, and annexed to the sec, he of 
his own authority erected the church of St; Nicholas into a collegiate of exempt 
jurisdiction, by letters under his seal, dated the 28th September, 118i, " and to it 
united the parish church of St. James of Balenclaer, (now Clare Galway.) This 
act having obtained the sanction of pope Innocent AT II. by bull, dated the 
sixth of the Ides of Eebruary following, (as particularly detailed in a former part 

kneeling, tlic three vii-gins whom he rescued from tlic 
(lunger of prostitution ; and on a table at his left, the 
tlirce purses of money with wliicl) he jjerfornied that siy- act of charitj'. This seal is coeval with the wardenship. 

'' This union atlbrds as singular an instance of clerical 
ntpacity as occurs in the ecclcMastical annals of Ireland. 
In Harris's valuable edition of Ware a detailed account of 
tile entire transaction is given, which, after a careful exa- 
mination by the author with the original records in 13ir- 
liiMigliaM Tower, was found particularly Just and accurate. 

' This intercoting doeument (which will be found in the 
Ar;'c;u;ix, JS'o. I.) was s!i|)poseil, for the two last cen- 
'.11 ■:.■:, to have been lost : it was, liowe\cr, lately found 
v.i)iO' ^,t a pa-ce! of an.'jient AI'^S. i)v the autli'pr, v. Iio 

expects to have it, with several other original muniments 
concerning the church, restored for future preservation, 
aniong.-.t its archives. For the bull of Innocent VIII. con- 
firming this act of the archbishop, see Appendix, No. II. 
Ware, mentioningthc death of archbishop 0'iMnrray,savs, 
"he died the ISth of Jannar}-, as a]ipears out of the 
Neerolog}', or book of mortality of the collegiate cliurch 
of Galway, but the year is not mentioned." — From thii 
passage it is probable that he hail seen this houli, 
the contents of which nnist have l)ceu highly interoling 
anil curious ; but it is supposed to be now lost, for, 
although the most diligent search was maelo by t!ie luitlior, 
he has not been able to discover any trace of it, e.vtT|)t 
a few extracts among the Clarendon MS. f. lu. 



of tin's volume,) the inhabitants, or ratlicr the mayor and equals, (parex) of the 
town immediately proeeeded to the eleetion of" a warden and vicars, accordino; to 
the powers with which they were so amply invested by these ecclesiastical 

The inhabitants of Gahvay, having thus succeeded, to th.e fullest extent of their 
wishes, in getting rid of an exterior, and establishing a domestic, nomination of 
the clergv, now began to direct their thoughts lowards the endowment of the 
college and the improvement of the church. Dominick Lynch Fitz-John, one 
of the most opulent merchants of the town, who was mayor in M'SO, and chiefly 
instrumental in promoting the original institution, was one of its princijnd 
benefactors, lie made several additions to the church, and built a part of the 
college-house, or residence for the wardens and vicars, to whom in his will he 
also bequeathed several legacies. " The union of exterior additional parishes, to 
extend the jurisdiction and increase the revenues of the college, was next 
attended to. On the 7th of August, l.t8G, William Joyes, archbishop of Tuam, 
and a native of the town, ' confirmed by his deed all the former grants and 
privileges of the collegiate church, warden and vicars j' and he soon after united 

''The followlnj; interesting extract lias been taken from 
his l;i5t will, written originally in Latin : — 1, Dominick 
l.vnclie, mercliant and Inirgessol'tlie town of'Galvie, in the 
diocese of Enaclulnne, being sick in boJy, hnt ot' soimil 
mind, do make my will in the I'orin following, within my 
liouse, on the li-'tli July, 150S, in [irescnce of Manriee 
Y-Ceniiiiane, a skilful physician, who, at my rccjuest, 
wrote this my will, these persons being present, \iz. 
master Tlionias Molga and the warden of the collegiate 
cliiirch of the town of Galvic aforesaid, master Walter 
C'a>sin, canon of the cathedral churches of Tuam and 
Enachdunc, Cornelius M'Meoltall, Andrew Mares and 
Cornelius O'Cona, and many other witnesses. — Jiiijirimis, 
I iiivc mv soul to the Almighty God and the blessed 
Virgin Mary, and the other heavenly saints, and my 
boJv to be interred in the aforesaid church, in the chapel 
f.l' tiie blessed Mary, with my parents and wi.e, Anastaii.i 
M;i/i\n. — //oh, I institute my eldest son, Steplien, (whose 
\iit'c, in the same year, foimded the monastery of St. 
Au'.'usline on the hill,) my heir and prmcipal executor.— 
lion, I order the said Stephen to finish the new work 
begun by me in the churcl), and to build an altar, in 
honor of St James the apostle, near the next cohmni of 
the chapel of tiie blesse.l .Mary afore.siid.— //fw, I leave 
to two priests, il.ily pra;. ing for me, "and the soids of my 
parents and wife, (of whom one shall celebrate in the 
chapel of the blessed .Mary, ami the other at the aforesaid 
altar of St. James, and both uf them in the clioir, daily 
receiving victuals from tl.e saiil college,) the tenements 
which I purchased Irom Jolni Sloiic O'.Meolkalliil, within 
the town, the house which I pnrehascci t'roin Edmund 
Blake, with its appurtenances, the house which I purchased 
from Sabina Ymcrywire, situate near the house of my 
brother, i'eter Lynch, and all my lamls and tenements 
in Atlmary by me bought and possessed, as you will see 
in my book. — Item, I leave to every convent in Ireland 

1 3s. 4(1,— Ilcm, to the convent of the monasteries of 
Galway 4/. — Item, to the works of the chapel of the 
blessed Mary of the hill, in the west part of our town, 6/. 
and to the poor in the poor-house of the families of our 
town 1/. 13i. -Jrf. — Item, to the house of the lepers of 
Galway and Atlmary U.— Itcm, for the reii.urs of our 
town 5/. and for the repairs of the holy cross of our 
church 1/. — Item, I leave to be divided amongst the poor 
•lot.— Item, to the i)oor on the day of my death twenty 
linen scarfs, and to the college one silver cup, weight 
eight ounces. — Hut. I'nl. 25 Ilcii. I'll I. 

' This and all the other grairts, bulls and original 
documents mentioned in the following account ol the 
church, are now, amongst many others, in the possession of 
the author, who hopes to have them restored to iti 
archives foi' futtu'e presei'vation. 

= Archbishop Sli'wi/, or Jo) , was advanced to the see 
of Tuam by provision from Home on 17th May, 1485. 
He died 28th December, 1501, as appears by the colle- 
giate book of obits. — ]\'arc. — During this and the suc- 
ceeding ccntui'y, several natives of Galway became 
dignitaries of the Irish church. On 26th March, l-i~9, 
Walter Bhike, who was educated at Oxford, obtained a 
|irovision ti'oni pope Sixtus IV. to tlie archbishoprick of 
Tuam ; but the donation could not take etiect, because 
Donat O'Murray was then living. He was afterwards, 
aiipoiuted bishoj) of C'lonmacnoisc by Innocent VHI. 
in 1487. Christopher Bodekine, a native of Galway, 
was appointed in 15oG archbishop of Tuam by Hen. VHI. 
In ] 584, John Lynch Fitz-James was appointed bishop 
of Elphin by (jueen Elizabeth. He surrendered his see 
in IGll, but was charged with wasting its revenues: 
and it was said, " that he lived a concealed, and died a 
public papist." He lies buried in .St. Nicholas' church. 
On 24th May, 15.32, Stephen Kerovan, of Galway, was 
translated from the bishopriek of Kilinaeduach to that of 



to tlic church the parishes of Fiiranmore, MoygcuIIyne and Skrync. "^ Notwlth- 
ptandhig these unions, tlie wardens and vicars were soon after obliged to petition 
the pope, com))hiiiiing that certain persons had questioned the union of Skryne 
and MoygcuIIyne, altliough they luid obtained jjosscssion of tlie vicarages, ilie 
vearly fruits, rents and profits wliereof did not aumially exceed fourteen nunks, 
and they lunnbly ))raycd that his hoHness wouhl be, therefore, pleased to conrirm 
the union; which, by bull, dated the 1th of the Nones of Jiuie, 11-9-, the 
pope accordingly ap))i'oved of and confirmecL About the same time, Richard 
de Burgo, clerk of the diocess of Annaghdown, having obtained letters from the 
lioly see respecting the rectory and vicarage of Furanmore and the vicarage of 
]\Ieary, for the creation of a new canonry, and the erection of one of them into 
a prebend, the archbish.op, by his letters, dated from Galway, l^th of November, 
1492, expressly prohibited the judges, named in such apostolical letters, from 
proceeding in any manner in such erection. By these and similar means the 
possessions of the collegiate church were gradually extended and ])rotected, 
until the wardens, at length, found themselves at the head of an extent of 
territory and population not infei-ior to some dioceses in the kingdom. 

While the possessions of the college were thus rapidly increasing, tlie 
inhabitants of the town were not inattentive to their favorite building, the 
church. James Lynch Fitz-Stephen (who was mayor in 14<)3, and who luul 
condemned and executed his only son for a rash and cruel murder, see }). 70,) 
made many valuable additions to the church, and, in particular, presentetl the 
beautifully stained glass with which the eastern windows were adorned. John 
Lynch Fitz-Edmund, who was mayor the year following, contributed a large 
sum towards finishing the college-house. Peter Lyncli, burgess, erected in the 
church the chapel and altar of St. Katherine the Virgin ; and by his will, dated 

Clonfcrt; and in 1G02, Roliiml Lindie, anotlier native 
of Galway, was appointed liis successor in Clonfcrt. 
This prelate also charged with dciVaudingand injm-ing 
his successors, by alienatin;,' away tlie pro[>erty of liif 
fhurcli. In 1606, he made a lease of the entire lands of 
the hislioprick, consisting of twcnty-ciglit denominations, 
to Robert Blake, for ninety-nine years, at 5/. per aiminii. 
— Vide Hams' X Ware. 

' The archbishop, by his letters, dated on the feast of 
the Conception, 1-187, nnitcd tlie rectory and vicarage of 
the parochial church of Fiiranmnrr (Oranmorc) and the 
vicarage of Alcaiy, both iu tlie diocess of Anaghdown, 
to the collegiate church, reserving annually out of Fiir- 
nninorc twenty-one ounces of silver money, and out of 
Mean/ seven ounces. By letters dated ! 2th April, l-iss, 
lie united the vicarage of the [larish church of St. Mary 
of Hal/itinn, (llahoon,) being then vacant by the death of 
Somit-Y-DiiiiaiH, the last posse^sor thereof; and, on the 
8th of June following, Theobald dcBin'go, " ciiief of his 
nation," by his deed (reciting apostolical letters of the 

holy see, directed, at the instance of the warden nnj 
priests, to John de Burgo, canon of Anaghdown, con- 
cerning the union of the parish churches of il/(i//gCH////iif 
(Moycullen) and lialliuiic (Rahoon) in Gnubrg, to the 
collegiate church, in which it was directeil that before 
the union the consent of the patron should be obtained,) 
granted all his right of patronage to those rectories to 
the collegiate church iu free and iicrjietual alms for ever, 
provided that the warden and vicars, and their successors, 
should continually pray for hiin, and for the soids of hi* 
predecessors and successors for ever. On the vigil of 
All Saints, in the same year, Conir/ii(s ()'IIa//i(rtii/ii, 
perpetual vicar of Moi/^^L-iilli/iie, resigned his living to the 
archbishop of Tuam, for the [)urpose of completing its 
iniion to the collegiate clun-ch ; and, on the Rtli Februarv, 
I'ini, on the petition of the warden and vicars, the arcli- 
I)ishop united to the collegiate the vicarage of the parish 
church of Skruue to his collation, then of I'all right 
belonging by the free resignation of Jttlia ilc Jlurgo, 
perpetual vicar thereof. — Ori^. Dccih. 

tllSTOKY 01' GALWAV. 237 

Otii February, liO'i', devised " liis principal stone tenement in Galway, and ten 
acres of" arable land in Athenry for ever, for the perpetual sustenance of one 
gk^od and proper priest, who sliould daily celebrate mass therein for the souls 
of himself, Ellen Blake, his wife, their ancestors, friends, and all the fiiithful 
departed." — .Several similar instances of individual benevolence and devotion 
occur about this period, by which the possessions of the church were considerably 
augmented. " 

The warden and vicars were not, however, permitted to enjoy their newly 
acquired possessions in peace, but were continually harassed by the surrounding 
diocesan clergy, who invariably contested the right of union of the several 
'parishes, and gave the new incumbents every possible opposition. At length, in 
11-90, they were obliged to petition pope Alexander VI. stating, that, although 
the several parishes were canonically united to the church of St. Nicholas, yet 
that JNIaurice O'Flaherty, clcrkc, laid claim to the vicarage of the parish church 
of jMoycullen ; that llodejick O'Kennewaj^n and Owen O'Flaherty claimed the 
vicara<;es of Kylcommyn and Kilrowan ; and that Richard de Burgo and others 
claimed the rectories and vicarages of Furanmore and Meary ; and they liumbly 
prayed relief from his holiness. A bull accordingly issued to the bishop of 
Clonfcrt and David de Burgo, canon of the cathedral church of Clonfert, 
giving them full power to hear and determine between the parties. These 
commissioners met on the 17th of December, 14<97» in the parish church of 
Ballynpatrick, in the diocess of Clonfert, and, after a solemn investigation, 
pronounced judgment of intrusion against the persons complained of, and others. 
These decisions, however decisive as they were in favor of the warden and 
vicars, did not entirely suppress their opponents, and they were again obliged to 
have recourse to the holy see. Another bull accordingly issued, dated the 7th of 
tlie Ides of January, 1501, directed to the archbishop of Tuam and others, 
cmpov.'ering them to admonish " all those sons of iniquity" who had in any 
manner invaded the rights of the collegiate church, or usurped any of its 

* The warden anil clergy, fimling tliemsclvcs fii'inly c>ta- agreed — 1. That the warden and \'icarcs shall daily save 
Wished, and I'rcc from anyccclcsiastical control, cxci-pt tli;;t or binqe in tlic qucre the tyes or lionres, as /f mo, sexto 
of Rome, iit leni;tli rcboived to disimte the power of the and noito — 2. That they sliall live together continually — 
corporation to interincddle with their all'airs after the 3. That no prcate nor vicar be found out of their cham- 
nccessary business of election was over. The latter hers or coUedgc-house witliout lawful business at night- 
insisting on this right, the clergy appealed against their time — 4. That four boies should be assistcing and helpingc 
intcrl'ereuce to the archbishop of i'uani, and several to singe dail}' at the quere, especially at Mary-mass, at 
(lirtcrcnces arose, which, had they not been speedily tlie expense of the vicars and colledge — 5. That the 
tcrniinited, might have proved fatal to the college. A mayor and counsaill shall henceforth cunlrotil, mrrccte 
general meeting, however, of both parties took place in and puiiishc the wardens and vicars, without any coni- 
1-1U7, in the Town-hall, when the following rules and plainte to bo made by them or any of them to bishope 
reiiuUitions were mutually agreed upon, viz. : — " In tlie or archbishope, save only to the mayor and counsaill — 
honouringe of Almighty (iod and furtherance of his o". That the mayor and counsaill shall have the election 
divine service, the mayor and counsaill being assembled of the warden yearly, and all prests and clerkcs, or any 
together, with Sir K^nry Brenegan, warden, and the man else to serve in the cluird) or colledge," — Cor^ 
rest of the colledge of this town, it was concected biuI Jjjoh A. 



possessions ; and if they slionld not restore vhat they had taken, and desist for 
tlie future, then to pronounce against tliem tlie sentence of excommunication. 
This strong remedy seems to have had the desired effect, for it does not appcn; 
that any opposition was given to the college for several years after, witii tlie 
single exception of its determined opponent, Richard de Burgo, tlie canon of 
Annaghdown, Avho, in 1502, petitioned the pope, claiming tlie right to the 
rectory of Ballinclaer, though it had been united to the collegiate church at the 
time of its original institution. A commission accordingly issued, directed to 
Florence O'Cannovan, to inquire concerning this alleged claim, who, after inves- 
tigating the matter, decided against it. For some years after this decision the 
college ciijoyed a respite from external opposition, which John Benningham, 
warden in 1514, and Flenry Brangan, warden in 1557,' were successful in 
preventing, until the archbishop of Tuam united the vicarages of the parish 
churches of Kinlaghan and Srdwer to the wardenship, when two of the diocesan 
clergy, Meiler and Thomas Mac Shonyn, having laid claim to those livings, 
obtained letters from Home allowing their claim, under which they received all 
the iruits, rents and profits of the vicarages. The warden and vicars, on their 
part, charged them with having obtained these letters surreptitiously, without 
stating the imion which had been made ; and having brought the question 
before the archbishop, he made his decree on 9th January, 152G, ainiulling 
the adverse claim, and confirming the previous imion. This dispute was suc- 
ceeded by another concerning the rectory and vicarage of lloscam, which had 
been shortly before luiited by the archbishop, but was claimed by Edmund 
de Burgo, archdeacon of Enachdune. On the petition of John O'Dermode, 
then v.'arden, to cardinal Wolsey, a commission issued to the dean of Kilfenora 
to investigate this claim and determine between the parties, who, by his decree, 
dated the 5th of August, 1529, confirmed the title of the college ; and thus 
terminated all further litigation concerning its exterior possessions. '' 


' hi May, 1519, the cclehratpil Maurice ilc Portii, alias 
O'i-'ilif'ly, a native of Cork, who in 1506 was appointed 
arclibiihop of Tiiani by pope Jnlins II. lancieil in Galway 
ironi Italy. He was received in tlie town with the liiyliest 
honors; but, bein^ seized by a sudden illness, he died 
before he conid celebrate his first mass, (althon^h certain 
inikik'ences were granted to all who should hear it,) and 
vas interred in the abbey of the Franciscans, to which 
order he beloni;ed. He \^as a man highly esteemed by 
l)is coteniporarics for his virtues and learning, and was 
talUd " Flos nnmdi," or " Flower of the world," for his 
many excellent endowments. His successor, Thomas 
O'MuIlaly, or Lally, presided at a suiod held in the 
town in 1523, at which were present the bishojis of 
Kihnacdnagh, Aehonry, and several others. AVare sup- 
po'.es llic ilecre cs of this s\ nod w ere lost. Archbishop 

Lallv died 28th April, I 5."G, and was interred under tlie 
same tomb with his predecessor, Maurice de Portu.— 

' The morals of the vicars at tliis period may be ascer- 
tained from the following order of the corporation : - 
" 1530, Enacted, that any preste or vicar of the collcd^c 
fonnil with any fault or crime, to lose one hundred shillings 
and their benefice; and also if he or they keep any 

w e, being with child or bearing him children, t« pay 

the above penalty." — Corp. Bimh A. — It may, however, 
be necessary here to observe, that this is the only impu- 
tation which occurs afl'ecting the moral character of the 
clergy of this town, though many encomiums are extiiiil 
celebrating the exemplary piety and virtue of their suc- 
cessors, to the present day. 



During the continuance of these disputes, the improvement of the church was 
carried on witliout intermission. John French, who was mayor in 1.538, matle some 
very considerable additions to it, and, amongst others, erected tlie spacious wing- 
extending from tlic north pinnacle to the Chapel of tlie Blessed Sacrament. Soon 
after this the first sym])tom of reformation appeared in the town. Lord deputy Grey 
having arrived, he seized and confiscated the ornaments of the church ; and Sir 
AVilliam Brabazon, vice-treasurer of Ireland, in his " ^CCOlUlt Of JlcVDCi.ef, 
£Dl*naiUCnts;, CrOSJ.SJCS ailtl Inmgrs; COnfi^CatCn," returns " Ibrty-five shillings, 
being the price of such articles seized at Galway, received from Leonard, late 
deputy of the king." This inadequate return would induce a supposition eitiier 
that the confiscation in Galway was trifling, or that the embezzlement, witli which 
the ill-fiited deputy was afterwards charged, was considerable. However that 
may be, no farther inconvenience was sustained by the town on account of 
religion during the remainder of th6 reign of Henry VIIL In 151.2, Christopher 
Bodkin, archbishop of Tuam, ' at the request of the mayor and burgesses, in a 
provincial synod then held in the town, confirmed to the college all the benefices 
which it had justly and quietly possessed, and all other benefices which it there- 
tofore held, and which were afterwards occupied by any others, with all their 
rights and appurtenances : and here the force of native partiality in this arch- 
bishop, and his predecessor, William Joyes, (who were both natives of the town,) 
is remarkable, they being the only prelates who had confirmed the privileges 
of the collegiate church from the time of its original institution. " 

The alarming changes daily making in the afl[airs of religion, and the 
indiscriminate seiziu'e of all ecclesiastical property during the latter years of 
Henry VI II. had, for some time, rendered the clergy and people of Galway 
apprehensive for the safety of their collegiate church and property, and 
more particularly when they saw the three monastic foundations of the town 
dissolved, and their possessions seized into the king's hands. After long deliber- 

' Christoplicr Bodfkinc was consecrated bislioi) of 
Kilmacduach at Marseilles, in France, -Itli November, 
15.)) or l')J4. By the favor of HeniT VIII. he was 
translated to the hishoprick of Tiiani on the 15th of 
Pclirnarv, 1556, and, at the same time, held the see of 
KiliiKicilnaih by (li>|iensatiun. 1 le dieil full of days at 
Taani, in 1572, in the thiity-sixili jear al'lcr his trans- 
lation, and his body was conveyed to Galway, and there 
interred.— /r«;r. 

"" In the year 15-!6, it was ordered in council, that 
the warden and vicars should not set any lands, tithes or 
other revenues of the college, for more than one year. — 
Corp. Book yf.— Before this regnlation they alienated 
several p.^rtions of tlie collegiate pro|)erty for long terms. 
On 8tli April, I5I-), JohnBcrmingham, then warden, 
together with the vicars, leased nnio John Fernando, 
merchant, a tenement and garden lookii'.g towards the 
altar of St. Katherine in the church, and situate in the 
Fisher's-huic, between the tenement of Xicholas Calf on 

the east, that wherein Jolin Moilyn dwelt on the west, 
the town wall on the south, and the king's-way on the 
north, paying yearly 1 3*. 4rf. and two capons, with their 
feathers, to the warden and vicars, and Gs. t^d. to the 
monastery of the friars minors of the town. — Uriq. Deed. 
Even after the prohibition the same practice continued. 
On the 19th December, 1519, they granted unto Tliomas 
Porte, mariner, and his heirs for ever, the tenement 
which lay between the houses of John O'Finaglidi and 
Nicholas BoUan on the west and north, and the king's 
street and the town wall on the cast and soutli, at the 
yeariy rent of 6s. Scl. and two capons.— Signed, Patrick 
Blake, warden, Patrick Kyrwan, Thomas Fryncli.Ednnuid 
Flahert), John Talman and John Brangan, vicars. — IrJ. — 
This by-law w as revived in 1 GOV, under the penalty of 
"expulsion of the transgressor out of the collet;e-liouse 
and church as an unprofitable member, and also torfeitln;; 
•20/." — Cuip. liook j. 



atlon, therefore, they determined to yield to the pressure of the times, and 
secure the safety of their rehgious establisliment, by withdrawing their spiritual 
allegiance from the pope, and transferring it to the king. A petition to his 
majesty, expressive of this determination, was consequently prepared, but his 
death intervened before it could be presented. The appearance of affairs on the 
accession of Edward VI. not having lessened their apprehensions, they persevered 
in their former resolution, and accordingly a memorial to the same efl'oct 
(and particularly calculated to succeed in its object, by flattering the king's 
supremacy, and representing the livings as poor and deserted,) " from the mayor, 
bailiffs, co-burgesses and commonalty, was presented to the lord deputy St. Legcr 
by Richard Blake Fitz-John, the agent employed on the occasion. ° The matter 
was referred by the deputy to the king and council ; and, after two years 
delay, the royal grant was obtained under the privy seal, and by authority of 
])arliament, dated at AVcstminSter the 29th April, 1551, whereby the king, as 
supreme head in all aftiiirs of religion, changed the church of St. Nicholas 
into a collegiate, to be tor ever after called " The Royal College of Galway ;" 
and ordained Patrick Blake, merchant, one of the priests there, warden, and 
Patrick Kerewan, Thomas Frenchc, Darby O'Hoysshyne, John Talman, Derby 
O'Rowane, John Dermoyte, John O'Brangan and Edward OTHartie, vicars 
choral : the college to consist of a warden and eight vicars, who were to be a 
body corporate, and have perpetual succession, possess a common seal, and 
enact by-laws for its good government. The mayor, bailiffs, burgesses and 
commonalty, anil their successors for ever, were empowered to elect a warden 
yearly, and to rcmo\c, deprive and depose him and the vicars, and others in 


' This memorial ftatcd the foundation of the collegiate 
cluircli and its confii'uiatioii, as the custom then was, by 
tiic Roir]an bishop, anil hniiibly praveil it might be 
confinncd in its original state, with a \vai\len and twelve 
viears :, that it shoidd be govcrni.u by the mayor and co- 
buipcsses, witii exeniptii)n from tlie diocesan or anv 
other ordinary jurisdiction: that they, as theretofore, 
in the king's name, miglit, ont of the vicars, elect one 
warden every year, and the vicars at tlieir prescnliition 
to be elected by tlie warden and co-vicars, and to be 
torrccted, punished and removed, according to their 
merits and demerits, by the mayor, hailitl's and co- 
burgesses: that, for the angnienlation of divine wor^llip, 
and the more ample sup])ort of the war<len and vicars, 
the rectory of the* collegiate chnrcli, oceu])icd, under 
V. hat right they knew not, by the monks and abbot of 
C'/'M I'irioiitc, might be united to the college, with a 
|;(.rjiLti:al union and conhruiation of all tile benefices, 
iij.l^ and r.p|>urlei!ances wliich ouglit to belong to it, 
paitionLirly t.:e vicara.i and eiiivcrpal fourtiis, called the 
l.i^llop's <|uartcr, ihe i;e'.<.rted rectories and vicarages of 
Itaheon, .Miucuilcn, l"or;'niiiore ai'.d nuscam, the" small 
\icarage5 of (jlarr, Kilconx-n, Mealy and ^kryne, and aU 
tlieir uLi'Ar laiuis ; and, imully, the church of 

St. Nicholas should be changed into a collegiate by the 
royal anthorit\', to be from thenceforth ibr ever afttr 
called the King's College of (jalway. They further 
stated, that the sept of the O'Flaherties and otiier Iri>liry 
claimed a right to bury their dead in the cluirch, luiilcr 
pretence wlicreof they often tnmultuously entered the 
town, endangering the lives of the inhabitants, and de- 
stroying the place: they, therefore, also prayed his nmjcsty 
to grant them, for this purpose, the cluirclies and biiriiil- 
phices outside the walls, belonging to the dissolved nioii- 
astcries of St. Francis, St. Uomniick and St, Augustine. 
— Orr_^. Transmpt. 

" Tliij a^ciit, at'ter " two years extraordinary labour 
and attention" in this business, demanded from the 
warden and vicars, according to agreement, thrce-l'ourtlis 
of the tithes of Kiitnllagh; wliich they resisted, asserting, 
that he undertook to obtain the grant for " ten niaiij, 
which tliey pai<l him in gold anil cross groats." — J'hn 
agreed to siihmit their dilferences to the arclibislu'ii of 
Tiiani, the mayor of the town, and others, who, in the 
first place, ordered the parties to " be cliarilaidy iaclineil, 
and to piay for each other," and then awarded the titliej 
to Ukike during his Ync.— Urii-. J/A'. 



their places to constitute ; and to chastise, correct and punish them, as occasion 
should require. TIic rectories, vicarages, &c. mentioned in tlie memorial were 
for ever united to the college ; and the cemeteries of the three dissolved 

monasteries were also granted for the purposes mentioned in the memorial. '' 

Such were the principal alterations made in the constitution of the colleo-iate 
church by EdwardVL; and under liis charter, with some short interruptions, it has 
been go\erned to the present day. 

An era having been thus formed in the church government of Galway, hence- 
forth it will be necessary to consider the affairs of religion in a two-fold point 
of view, first as they relate to the Protestant, and next to the Catholic interest 
within the town. Although, by the grant just recited, the church of Saint Nicholas 
was changed into a Protestant institution, yet the warden and vicars, for many years 
after, continued of the old religion, owing to the immediately succeeding Catholic 
reign of queen jNIary, and the unsettled state of ecclesiastical aflairs in Ireland 
during the first years of her successor. Soon after the accession of the former 
princess, the attention of her Irish rulers was directed towards the state of 
religion in Galway. Sir Patrick Blake, the warden nominated in the charter of 
Edward, was summoned to meet the queen's commissioners ; but having neglected 
to attend, a peremptory order was issued to the mayor to apprehend and send 
him in safe custody within twenty days, with a denunciation of severe punish- 
ment in case of neglect. This measure had the desired efiect : the warden 
attended ; but, having satisfied the commissioners, he was dismissed by them, 
without suffering any further inconvenience. " 

About this time many considerable additions were made to the church by 
Nicholas Lynch Fitz-Stcphen, grandson of Dominick Lynch, whose munificence 
has been already recorded. Nicholas was mayor in 1551 ; and, having repaired 
the works formerly erected by his grandflither, he afterwards built the 
adjoining tower and the south aisle, then called " Our Ladle's Chapel," but 

• Under tlii-i grant the warJcn; have ever since retained 
possession of those burial groiintU, whicli they generally 
larmed out to undertakers, whose cliarijes lor interment 



o i: 

2 s;- 

were as follow : 

Chancel before any of the altars . . 
Warden's gronml ailjoining .... 

Body of the abbey 

Witiioiit the precincts 

For anv internieul in the church of 
St. Nicholas, usually applied to the 

use of the parish 10 

his said that the following families only have privilege 
of burial in the elmrcli, viz. : the Lynches, D'Arcys, 
Browncs and Frenches : according to some the Kirwan 
family is also cntitleil; but, according to others, their claim 
has been always disputed. 
" The il'Uowing was the mandate which issued to the 


mayor on this occasion : — " Theass shalbe to rcquier you, 
and nevertheless in the qucne's ^la"" name, straiglitly 
to cliarge and connnand your, us you will answer to the 
contrary at your extreme perill, that ye faill not to appre- 
hend and take Sir Patrick Blake, prest, warden, or prin- 
cipall of the prcsts, and senil him in salve custod\ to us, 
soe that he faill not to he witli us and others, her highnes' 
connnissioners, at 'I'ermonfcliyn, within xx'"^ daics after 
ye receive these |iresents ; with intimation that if ye do 
not execute your cliari, as is aforesaid, the sarjaunt 
at arnies, to your lourtber trouble, punishment anil 
cl'.arilgcs, shall immediately be sent, to bring both you 
and him. — From Dublin tliis 2Gth of October. 
Yo'. friends, 
To our welbeloved frend, Ardmachan. 

the mayor of Oalwav. Henry Dravcott." 




now bettor known by the name of Lynch's Aisle. — These were the last 
improvements, of any consequence, made by the Catholics in the church during 
the remainder of this century. "■ 

Upon the accession of queen Elizabeth, and the consequent alteration in 
religion, the Catholic clergy of the town foresaw that a change was not far 
distant, and tliey accordingly alienated and granted, in perpetuity, to their friends 
and kindred, the greatest part of the possessions of the college, ' insomuch that, 
when it was afterwards seized into the queen's liands, and transferred to the 
reformed clergy, they were found considerably reduced. The same apprehensions 
of change also prevented the wardens and vicars from paying the necessary 
attentiou to the exterior parishes, in consequence of which they were 
gradually usurped by the diocesan rectors. ' The church being at length sur- 
rendered to the established clergy, whatever remained unalienated of its former 
possessions were also delivered up ; but, being found totally inadequate to 
their support, it became necessary for government to interfere, and uphold this 
infant foundation of the newly established faith by augmenting its means: 
accordingly, by letters patent, dated '20th September, loy'^j the queen, in con- 
sideration tluit " the warden and vicars, and tiieir successors, should continue 
together, and entertain a godly and learned preacher amongst them, from time 
to time, at their own charges," granted unto them the late dissolved monastery 
or priory of Annaghdown, " in tlic county of Galway, with all its temporal and 


' In tliis rcifrn the riptit to the rectory or parsonage of 
the town Ijucaiiio a subject ot" Ic'.sul contention. It formerly 
bclonsed to the monastery of C'olhs Victoria, or Knoek- 
moy, anil, liaving been sci/eil into the king's hands, was 
granteil in farm to Eilmnml Lynch, who held it until 
one Richard ]5urke, clerk, having obtained letters of 
provision from the sec of Rome, and also a confirmatory 
maiklate from the queen and council of England, was 
put into possession by tlic mayor. Lynch, tberenpon, 
complained to tlie chancellor against the mayor and 
mercluuits of the town, stating, that Burke had through 
fear ab-condcJ ; and it apjiearing, moreover, that he was 
a provisor, and that tlie parsonage was not presentable, 
lieing appropriated to the monastery, as was certified by 
the archbishop of Tuam, and that the pretended letters 
from the queen and council were counterfeit, orders 
accordingly issued to the mayor to restore L^nch to his 
former possession. — Decree 3 and •! I'litl. and Mart/. 

' One of these grants, from its meritorioas ijnport, 
deserves particidar notice. — In 155G, Martin Lynch pe- 
titioned the warden and vicars, stating, that " he had 
bciun a certayne work, in the worshipe and honour of 
Ahnighty God, to harbour the poor and needy within this 
town, to uphold which he humbly sup[)licated a grant of 
three houses, situate in Slioeinakcr's-lane, worth ten 
slulUngs yearly; and ihey, 'perceiving the good and 

godly opinion of the said Martinc, and also considering 
tlie meretorious great workc done by him upon the said 
poor man's house, and his pure and sincere devotion, 
inclined their hearts to grant his petition." — Orig. Pet. 

On 2-lth July, 1 50], .Sir Clement Skcrrett, warden, 
together with the vicars, demised to James Lynch Filz- 
Richard, merchant, the large parcel of land situate ut 
the west, calleil Gortekev\ne, and extending round to 
Gortegany, at the east of the town, for twenty-one years, 
at four pence yearly rent. Andrew Galtj/ Lynch after- 
wards obtained a similar demise. — Orig. Deeds. 

' In 1568, the new warilen and vicars petitioned the 
president and council of Coimaught against John Boorke, 
then sheritf of Connaught, and against Walter and Willi;un 
Boorke Fitz-John Fitz-Mojler, who had wrongfulK di>. 
possessed them of the profits and fruits of the vicaragu 
of Slirower, (Skryne,; in Tome and Kiidagh, to wliith 
they pretended title in right of Sir John M'Willjam, 
priest, Dermot O'Rowan and John O'Conoghe. In 
consequence of this petition, an order was made that the 
collegiate clergy should be no longer interrupted or dis- 
turbed in the possession of these vicarages. — Orig. jl/.S". 

" The particulars of this grant were as follow :— " Tlie 
late monastery or priory of Anaghduane, alias Er.aghcoiiic, 
half an acre, with all the edifices, buildings, gurdcni 
and orchards within the same ; six acres arable in Anaglt- 



spiritual possessions. They soon after obtained a similar grant of the monastery 
of Ballintubber, in the county of Mayo. In tlie same year several useful 
alterations were made in the church : the western windows were enlarged ; 
and, over one of them, the date still remains engraven in stone. About the 
same time several otlier improvements were undertaken. " In the mayoralty of 
James L}nch Fitz- Ambrose, in 1590, a belfry was erected, and a chime of new 
Ijells provided, under tlie superintendence of the mayor, but at the expense of 
the inhabitants and corporation. " 

Henceforth, in order to avoid confusion, the affairs of the collegiate church 
shall be distinctly noticed under two separate heads ; first those I'ehiting 

duanc; 2 cottages, 40 acres arable, 24 pasture and 12 
wood and underwood inLisliducli, in O'Flahcrtie's coiin- 
trv; 12 acres arable and 10 pasture in Shcankill and 
Miicknyes; -10 acres in Owre and 20 in Cliockane, all in 
the same country ; a ruinous cliapcl and 12 acres in Oran, 
and 6s. Sd. chief rent out of Lispidell, all the temporal 
possessions; and the rectory of Ballinacourty and Clan- 
rickard, with a moiety of the tythcs and other spirituall 
profits in Ballinacourty, Ballinclohy, Owrane and Creg- 
;uina, belonging to the said rectory, (the other moiety 
thereof belonging to the bishop of Tuam and the vicar 
that scrvcth the cure ;) the rcctorie of Killcumin, in 
O'Flahertie's country, with all the tithes, (those due to 
the vicar excepted;) and the rectories of Carigin and 
Lisduch, in the same, being part of the spu-itual posses- 
sions of said late monastery, for fifty years, at the rent 
of Cl. 1 Is. Id. yearly." — Notwithstanding these grants, 
the affairs of the collegiate clergy continued on the 
ilccline. In 1585, Sir Henry Burke, the warden, was 
arrested by order of the archbishop of Tuam, and detained 
in (wison, " for fifteen marks, due for small benefices." He 
petitioned Sir Nicholas Malbie, chief commissioner of 
Coniiauglit, stating, that the benefices were waste, and in 
a desert country, that the college was reduced to great 
poverty, and praying for redress ; otherwise " that they 
should be obliged to sell such livings as they then had for 
their sustenance, and also for the sup[)ort of many poor 
children whom they kept in the college." — Orig. MS. 

" 1585, February 25th, in the iiujuiry alluded to, page 
91, the following particulars occur concerning the 
church : 

1. " That the wardian and vicars of the qucn's colladgo 
in Gallway, tymc out of mynd, arc seized in right of their 
said colladge of five-cighte partes of all the personal! and 
prcidiah tietlies coiiiinge and growinge within the town, 
the liberties and franchises of the same. 

2. " That all who have bene suspected to absteyne 
tlicin from church to here God's dyvjne service, accor- 
(linge to her majestie's proceedings, contrary to the pro- 
clamation that ;\lr. Maior diil settlbrth, that all those who 
have bene in towno, neglcctinqe their due to God and 
the prince, be deeplie fyned by Mr, Maior ; and if any of 
theni doe make any kyndc of conteiupt, that all such be 
both iynished and punished according to thcr deserts. 
The names of the dci'aulters, the clerke and scxten, wdio 
lia\e chardge thereof, will dclyvcr iippe ; and \\hethcr 

any in this corporation do use any other servise prohi- 
bited by God and her majestie's lawes we are thereof 

.". " That the wardian, vicars and priests do use only 
God's di\'ine service daylic, according to her majestie's 
injunctions, and do there minister sacraments and sacra- 
incntalls accordinglie. 

4. " That John Linche, now lord bishop of Elphinen, 
and in those days wardian of the colladge of Gidlway, 
has of the colladge plate two cups or pics of silver in 
lending, (viz. Margaret Athies pic parceil gilted, and a 
bastian pic all gilted,) which he did put in pawn imto 
James Dars}e, and wrongtulhe doth detayue from the 
said colladge. 

5. " That it is expedient that the colladge do geve the 
first offer of all such ther tietlies as they will sell, to the 
freemen of the towne before any other : our nieaninge is, 
because thartiflicers, for a greate parte of the yeare, leave 
ther habitation anil kcape them from the towne, neither 
aunsweringe watch or warde, as should appertein, moche 
lesse to aplie thcr haudy-craft to thcr owne and the comoji 
wealthes no smale ilamadge. 

6. " That in respecte of ther good service, the clerke 
and sexten shall iiave ther ordinari allowed them upon 
the colladge boorde ; and when the full number of nyne 
mynisters be not in the colladge, that then the clerke shall 
have so moche money as cometh to the ninth portion ; 
in consideration whereof lie shall not onelie serve and 
reed the chapters, but also teaclie the [iriests' boyos to 
singe and play, over and bcsids his owne chanlge for 
teacheiiig other youths." — Id. 

* In 1(520, Ambrose Lynch, son and administrator of 
this mayor, conijilained to the chancellor against the 
corporation, " concorninge charges of works and making 
of bells, and other things, by the said Jaincs, in tlie time 
of his meralty, for the common utilitye and profitt." — It 
ajipearcd that the corporation had originally disputed 
these expenses, and that the matter was then submitted to 
arbitrators, who, on 20th Scptenilier, 1502, awarded, that 
" sundry of said workcs were beneficial and necessaiie 
for the utilitye of the commons and corporation, and tliat 
said James Linche should have of thciii G~l." — This sum 
not having been paid, the chancellor now ordered the 
corporation to pay it forthwith, with ■10/. interest, fo 
retaining it thirty years.— OWg. Derree. 



to the Protestant, and next to the Catholic wardens and vicars of the town, of 
both of whom an nninterruptcd succession has been ever since continued. Tliose 
of the established church had, since the Reformation, been elected under the 
charter of Edward VI. ; and nothing remarkable appears to have occurred concern- 
ing them initil after the troubles of l64'l. A survey of the possessions of the 
college (of which an abstract is subjoined '') was shortly before that disastrous 
period taken by lord Strafford; and, in l639, his lordship recommended John 
Ilardinge, vice-provost of Trinity College, Dublin, to tiie mayor, to be elected 
warden. Upon this recommendation, the corporation, considering " the dilapi- 
dations and ruins of the colledge, and of tlie means and livinge thereunto 
belonging, as allso tiie merit and integrity of the said John Hardingc, and his 
willingness to do good in that place, and to restore the colledge to a descent 
state and order for the service of God, to the credit and ornament of this 
towne, and to the honour and meraorie of the founders and benefactors thereof, 
tor the better inhableing the said John in his so pious intentions, tliey accordingly 
agreed, pursuant to tiie powers contained in the grant of Edward VI. to elect 
him annually during his life, * he demeaning himself well,' provided their so 
doing should not tend to the avoydance of the said grant, or the loss of any 
privilege contained therein." — Leaving doctor Ilardinge, therefore, in possession 
of the wardenship, the reader will now return back a little, to ascertain the 
state of the Catholic clergy in the town after tlie Reformation. 

>' Possessions of the College or St. Nicholas, 1C37. 
Town nnd Llhcrlic.i of Gnlwni/. 
" 111 the west tVaiicliiscs a [larcel of laiul, called Cap- 
pcnavcagh, -10 acr. halt' a cartron, boumlcd on tlie south 
liy the highway towards the sea. — In the east franchises 
Gortrahillin, 12 acr. lying between Doghusk on the east, 
and CU'ga-linch on the west. — Gortniganny, alias Knock- 
aneganny, ^ acr. lying between tlie Siickin on the north, 
and the king's highway on the south. The college is 
situated towards the church ; is bonndcd on the cast by 
I.nnibard-btrect, and is now in the possession of the 
w arden and vicars. 

Town nnd L'lhcrlics of Al/ienri/e. 
Gortnafaha, westward from Athenrye, 20 acr. ; Gort- 
nagastalle G acr. ; Gurtnacloneganna, in tbiir parcells, 
(iacr. ; in Clowncganna 1 acr. ; Packrekeill, westward, 
'.' acr. , Fairig, I'arkbegg, westward, u' ^ acr. ; Gortfoyle 
(,"apple, eastward, '2 acr. ; Floiighvonycn, castwaril, 2 acr.; 
(Jortnccnrtesc, and a small meadow, eastward, 2 acr. ; 
(iortboy, northward, 8acr. ; Gortnelegan, Gortnefoyle, 
northward, 4acr. ; Gortdavack, northward, containing a 
d ly and a half's ploughing; Rahin, northward, -V acr. ; 
Goitlongh, sonthward, Ijacr. ; Gortboybcgg, southward, 
•J acr. ; Gortncgcssy, southward, -Iacr.; three stangs of near (iortncgessy, a day and a half's ploughing ; and 
(Jortranecroiighic, sonthward, 2 acr. 

Kilcnmen Par'nh. 
A parcel of gleabe called Gortaglass, G acr. 

liaJtoon Parish. 
Gortagkish Iacr.; and in Dimkellin barony 5 acr, 
dispersed near the sea, called Ffossaghimore, within the 
coininoners' lands, and belonging to tlie two parish 
churches of Balinecourt and Oranniore ; in Killaineeiie 
\ acr. 

Oriinnwrc Parish. 
Gortaglesh ,- acr. three houses and a garden-plot; in 
Roscain (|uarter, near the cluircli, .3 acr. called Goitsa- 
gard ; and in Garran 2 acr. leased to Michael Ilore 
Lynch, belonging to Ballinacourt church. 
Clare Parihh and liaront/. 
Acaranoulan, westward from the church of Clare, 1 acr.; 
11 ridges in Gortenagoishy, N. E. from the church ; one 
field or gort called (Jortcaglish, lung in the qr. of Com- 
nion ; and in Kilmoylan barony one gort, called Gorta- - 
tegart, 2 acr. in Croghbane qr. 

[The above mentioned particulars (for so much) agree 

with the Strafford's survey taken of the clergys' lands 

in the parish, barony and county aforesaid, reniuiniag 

of record in his inajest)''s siu'veyor-gcncral's office] 

Extracted A. D. 1G89, ~i Anthony Petty, 

per me, H. Browne, > Dtp. ^iirvc^ur-Gcueral." 

warden. — Orig. Cojij/. } 

niSTouy OF galway. 245 

As the reformed warden and vicars were chosen under the grant of Edward VI. 
^ so those of the Catholic persuasion were uniformly elected under the bull of 
I pope Innocent VIII. This instrument, it will be recollected, vested the power 
of election in the mayor and bailiffs, or equals of the town, for ever. On the 
I change of religion, when the corporation became vested in the members of the 
V- Protestant faith, the Catholic inhabitants still continued annually to assemble, 
f (but in a private manner, to avoid persecution,) and regularly elected their own 
mayor, bailiff'^, sheriffs, and other corporate ofHcers. These were, however, 
Init merely nominal ofncers ; and they appear to have been continued solely for the 
purpose of preserving the succession of the Catholic wardens and vicars. This 
anomalous proceeding was soon questioned by the Catholic archbishops of Tuam, 
who claimed a controlling power when the corporation was changed, and 
they denied the competency of the self-formed body, styling itself a Catholic 
corporation, to act under the pope's authority. The town's-people, however, who, 
at all times, were particularly jealous of any encroachment on their ecclesiastical 
rights, invariably resisted the interference of the see of Tuam, which afterwards 
occasioned several disputes between them, as will appear in the sequel. In the 
year lir-lO, James Fallon was elected warden by the Catliolic corporation, upon 
which he wrote to the arclibishop, " that, though I am well satisfied of the 
particular privileges granted to the town, and that the confirmation does belong 
to tlie i)odv of the coUedge, still, to avoid scruples, I thought it very conve- 
nient, in person, to ask coniirmation from your grace's vicar, which he would 
not grant, unless he had a general petition from the town ; but this they refused, 
for fear it would diminish in the least their privileges, and so go to the Protestant 
archbishop, and be lost." He then added, " TJic people of litis toxca arc so 
stedjasl in tlie mafter, tliat, for all the clergy in Ireland, llieij xcoiild not lose 
one atom of their privileges." — The question terminated here for the present ; 
but the warden and town's-people, to prevent similar claims for the future, 
procured in 1635, a confirmatory grant from the then pope. Urban VIII. This 
iiistrumer.t, the then archbishop of Tuam asserted, was obtained surreptitiously, 
and immediately after, in 1037, he revived the claim, on the ground " that the 
wardiMiship was not exempt from the ordinary's visitation, or from paying him 
a synodic'-un." The warden, on the contrary, insisted, " that his collegiate 
church was ecclesia insignis collegiata et exenipta ah ordinaria jiirisdictione ;" 
but to this the archbishop replied, '« that he deceived himself by attributing 
to hiis own tho.;e privileges which he found to have been granted to collegiate 
churclies, haheiitis Jurisdiclionem episcopalcm, vel quasi episcopatcm, of which 
his is nut, ul palet legenti ejus privilegia, qua; sunt restringenda el non ampli- 
(inda." — These ecclesiastical disputes here ceased for a while, but were renewed,, 
with greater warmth than ever, after the restoration of the Catholic corporation, 
■i. ill lCf3. 



In lGl-3 the Catholics possessed tliemselvcs of the church, antl, on the ISth 
of June, " mass uas solemnly sang therein, and a sermon .preached by father 
Jphn Kegan, of the society of Jesus, after a discontinuance tliereof ever since 
the sui)pression." ^ About this time a vacancy having occurred in tlie parisli of 
Clare, tlie archbishop of Tuani refused to admit a priest presented byWalterLyncli, 
the warden, except on these conditions; 1st. that the archbishop should approve 
of him ; '~d. tliat he should be obedient to the provincial and diocesan synods 
and statutes ; 3d. that he should give no contradiction to the archbishop's 
visitation, correction, procuration, &:c.; 4th. that he sliould give under his h.ancl 
to be obedient to his lordship's sentence touching the controversy between them. 
These disagreements occasioned violent personal animosities between the con- 
tending ecclesiastics, wlio proceeded to excommunication on both sides. They 
at length agreed to submit to the final determination of the bishops of Elphin 
and Clonfert, the vicar apostolic of Kilmacduagh, Sir Lucas Dillon, knt. one of 
the supreme council, and Richard Martin, esq. mayor of the town, who finally 
succeeded in composing their differences.^ The warden and vicars soon after 
obtained a grant from the corporation of three parts in eight of the tithes, both 
great and small, within the town, to "recompense them for the profits of their 
livings, expended since the troubles in repairing tlie church and college-house, 
and paying 40/. yearly to one of their body for preaching every Sunday in the 
church." — Of their collegiate rights and privileges the clergy and inhabitants 
were always specially careful, but they were particularly so against any infringe- 
ment of the see of Tuam. This feeling was forcibly evinced in 1G48, when John 
J5urke, the then archbishop, after his dispute with the nuncio, (vide page 125,) 
caused the church doors to be broke open ; he was obliged, on the following day, 
to sign a declaration, " that, by so doing, he did not intend to interfi^re with the 

' On tlie 15th of Au!;iist followinj; " the first general 
procLsi-ioii touk place alter the reconciliation of St. >;i- 
cliolas his cluirch was nuide; and in tlic Jirocession, among 
tlie mendicants, this order was observed : first went the 
Carmelites, then the Eremites of St. Angustine, then the 
Franciscans, then the Dominicans, with a s'lho jure of 
the Franciscans and Angnstinians." — Li!>. A. 

The magnificence of the ehnrch before the Reformation 
(which was partiallj- revive<l at tliis period,) may be 
estimated from the nmnbcr of cliapels and altars wliich it 
contained, and in almost the entii'e of which divine 
service was often celebrated at the same time — 1. the high- 
altar of St. Nicholas, in the choir — 'J. the altar of Jcsns 
Christ, in the chapel of Christ, jndging, at the right of 
the entrance to the choir—.", the altar of St. Michael, in 
the chapel of the Guardian Angels, between that of 
Christ and chapel of St. Mary Major — 4. The alt;ir of 
St. Mai'\' Major, in the ancient chapel of the Lynches — 
;'. the a'.iar of the Blessed Mary, in the new :.nd great 
.-■!;\;i'.-! uf tin- Blessed M.iry. on the s^uth wing oi' the 

ehnrch, under the title of the Blcsseil Mary, Mother of 
God — (S. the altar of St. James, at the sontii column of 
the church — 7. the altar of St. Catherijie, in her gilt 
chapel, opposite the altar of St. John the Baptist — 
8. the altar of St. John the Baptist, joined to the eolnmn 
of tlie pulpit — 9. the altar of St. Bridget, at the north 
column — 10. the altar of St. Martin, near the north 
gate— 11. the altar of the Blessed Sacrament, in the 
altar dedicated to it, in the north part of the church— 
1 2. the altar of St. Anne, in her chapel, in the north 
wing of the chm-ch — 15. the altar of St. Patrick, in his 
chapel, originally dedicated to him — I), the altar of the 
Holy Trinity, in its chapel, at the right of the entrance 
to the choir, imder the organ. — Otrl j\Inji. 

° The vicars then were : doctors Andi-ew Lynch and 
•Tames Fallon, and fathers John Lynch, Patrick Lynch, 
Grcgorie Skcrrett, Henry Joyce, James Fallon and 
Connor Fallon, for the town ; and fathers William Cor- 
muily, Thomas Lany, James Sheoy and Teige Davillv„ 
for the out-parishes in controversy. 




liberties of the colIcge.".^ — Tlic important changes, which soon afterwards took 
place, gave a respite to these clerical contentions ; they were, however, resumed, 
after a lapse of many years, when the Catholic clergy re-appeared in the town, 
and were not finally concluded until the succeeding century. 

During the usurpation of Cromwell, the Catholics were indiscriminately banish- 
ed," and the rights of the Protestant warden and vicars were totally disregarded. 
The cluuch was also considerably injured by the soldiery, who converted the 
chapels and aisles into stables, and destroyed almost the entire of the ancient and 
venerable monuments, insomuch that at the Restoration it "was found entirely in 
a state of dilapidation, and in total want of repair. Doctor James Vaughan 
was appointed warden for life by patent, dated 23d March, 1CG3. During 
his incumbency, which continued many years, nothing particidarly worthy of 
observation occurred until the year 1(18% when the diocesan clergy of Tuam 
laid claim to the qiiartn j}ars, or quarter cp/scopnls, ' for which they petitioned 
the lord lieutenant and council. This affixir led to another which vitally con- 
cerned the rights of the college. John Vesey, the then archbishop, having 
prevailed on his clergy to drop their petition, undertook to obtain from govern- 
ment a grant in commendam of the wardenship of Galway after the death of 
warden Yaughan, who was then considerably advanced in years, upon which 
the quarta pars was to be restored. That event having soon after taken place, 
king Charles II. accordingly, by letters under the privy signet, dated from 
^\'indsor the 30th of August, iGS-i, reciting that the wardenship was then 
void, and in his majesty's gift and disposal Jure jjletw, directed the duke of 
Ormoad to pass letters patent for its perpetual union to the see of Tuam, 
securing, however, the quarta pars to tlie vicars of the respective parishes and 
their successor for ever, they paying to the archbishop a proportionable increase 
of proxy for such addition. The grant accordingly took place ; but the clergy 

' Even (Uiriii!; tlie comparatively milder rcit;n of Char- 
les II. tlie Cutliolic derjiy were severely persecuted. 01" 
this an instance shall Ijc yiven from an ori,:;inal document 
now before us : — In 1C74, Grc^or)' Constable, tlien mayor 
of Galwav, informed the privy council thai several of the 
popish clergy in the town , connnanded liy the late pro- 
chrii.ition to ilepart the kini;dom, were willing, in con- 
formity thereto, to transport themselves in a ship then in 
the harbour, bound for France, but that one Lynch, the 
master or owner, would not undertake their freight under 
40s. for each, which they pretended they were not able 
to raise, therefore the mayor prayed their excellencies 
directions. On consideration of the matter, it was resolved 
by tlie board, on 18th May, "that it was not fitting his 
majesty should be at the ex|)ensc of that or any other 
sum upon tluit account ;" and they ordered, " that it 
should be signified to the mayor, thai the said persons, at 
their perils, should transport themselves ; and that the 

major is to do his duty in seeing them transported accor- 
din;4ly." ' Jo. Davys. 

u/ig. MS. 

' The quarta ephcopalls pars was originally that portion 
of tithe or oblations which, before tlie institution of 
parishes, was reserved to the bisho|) for his maintenance; 
the other three parts being employed for the support of 
the inferior clergy, the repairing of churches and suste- 
nance of the poor. The Connaught bishops were muclt- 
impoverished by the improvidence of their predecessors, 
who, from time to time, made fee fainn and otlicr long 
leases of their revenues, and their clergy were worse 
provided for than any other in the kingdom.— Ware. — 
Archbishop Singe, who succeeded in 1716, had an act of 
parliament passed the year after, divesting bis see for ever 
of the (juarta pars, and settling it on such of the clergy as 
should discbarge the respective cures within the dioceses 
of Tuam and Enachdunc. — Stat. 4 Geo, I. ch. XIV. 



^vere disappointed in the expected restitution. The archbishop induced them to 
enter into a new treaty, and procured their consent that he shoukl enjoy tlie 
quarta pars during his incumbency, which continued for thirty-four years after j 
and, although he was often elected warden of Galway, the union was never 
esteemed valid, being entirely contrary to the charter so recently before granted 
to the corporation. " 

On the accession of James II. the Catholic clergy again assembled in the 
town ; ° and, on 29th March, KiSS, the then corporation informed archbisliop 
Vcsey that his majesty had been pleased to grant them a charter, containing, 
amongst otlier privileges, a power to elect a warden and eight vicars, and 
granting tlie rights and revenues belonging to th.e wardensliip and college, and 
others in his grace's possession, which they requested he would forthwith order to 
be delivered to them, except the church and cemetery, during the pleasure of 
government. ' On the 1st of August following, they proceeded, under tlie 
charter, to the election of the clergy, when father Henry Browne was cliosen 
warden for that year ; and fathers Henry Joice, Michael Lynch, James Fallon, 
Jolni Bodkin, Jerome Martyn, Nicholas Nolan and Thomas Lynch, were elected 
vicars. Doctor Vesey having resisted the claims of the corporation, they 
immediately resolved, that all acts which gave or allowed him any right, title, 
interest or possession in and to the wardcnship, by any way of election, reception, 

'' During these transactions several improvements were 
made ill tlie church. — In 1G8.", tlie steeple, which coni- 
maiuls an extensive ])rospect ol' tlie bay and surrounding 
country, was erected, on arciies, over the centre of the 
building : two additional bells were, at the same time, 
provided, and two others were added in 1720", wliich 
increased tlie number to six. Tliey are all remarkable 
for sweetness of sound, which some assert is caused 
by the contiguity of the church to the river. They bear 
tile following inscriptions : — I. " Kcnvcd be Master James 
I-inche, Mayor, and Hugh Butwall, first bonder of thes 
lulls ir,w', 'I'. W."_'j." " Vouip Gaudclroy, de la rue, 
par la grace de Dieu, Abbe dc St. .Saulue, et 8r. deCauron 
Walois nionne ])our servir a 1' egliso du diet Cauron, 1G31. 
Lovis Jongrce nous at faict, I KS 1 ." — 3. " At the Corpora- 
tion Charge, Theodore Russell, Mayor, T. S. H. P. Ch. 
Wardens, 16S-1." — 4. " This at the Corporation Cluirge, 
T. K. Mayor; Tho. Sinicockes, Rich. I'hiinmer, Ch. 
AVarilens, 1 (iS4." —5. " At the Corporation Charge, 
Charles Gerry, Mayor, Tobias Covey, Founder, l7'J(j." 
— G. " At tile Corporation Charge, Charles Gerry, Mayor, 
T. C. 1 72G." 

' In February, ]fi8|, the Catholic warden received a 
transcript of the following letter i'rom doctor James 
Lynch, titular archbishop of Tuam : — " After our very 
hearty commendations, wee have received certain intel- 
ligence that the queen is (/iiic/c with child, and, takeing 
into our serious consideration how much the peace, 
tranciuility and v.'clfare of tiicsc kingdoms depends upon 
bis majesty having an heir male, wee doe think fit to 

recommend it to your lordsliip to give directions to the 
secular priests and regiilai-s witliin your diocese to offer 
up their prayers incessantly to the con^crvation of licr 
fruit, and that it niav please God to send her a prince of 
\V'ales, and that each of tliem say one masse every wecke 
to that intention until she be delivered ; and so, not 
douliting of \our lordship's ready coiii[iliance herein, wee 
bid your lordship \cry heartily farewell.— From his ma- 
jesty's castle of l)ublin, the LMth January, lG8f. 

Your lordship's very lovini; I'riend, 


These prayers, it appears, had the detiired cH'ect, for, 
on the '22ii of June I'ollowing, lord Tyrcoimell wrote to 
the warden to otter up public thanksgivings for the birth 
of the prince. — Oriff. Letter. 

' He refused to com])ly w itii any of these requisitions, 
and filed a bill in the chancery side of the Exchequer, 
praying relief against their encroachments. By this it 
appears that the then possessions of the wardensliip were: 
" the houses, towns and lands of Cappaneveigh ; the 
whole tithes, great and small, ol' the parish oi St. Mcl;olas; 
three qrs. of the tithes, great and small, of the parislus 
of Oranniore and Clare ; one quarter of the parish of 
Ballynacourte ; three qrs. of the parishes of Mo\cu,lcn, 
Ralioon and Kilcummin ; one (|r. of the parishes of 
Skrcen, in the county of Galway, and Shrule, in the 
county of Mayo." — It was also stated, " that the quarta 
pars of all, except the parish of St. Nicholas, «as the 
ancient revenue of the see of Tuam, and never enjoyed 
by the warden."— Orig. Hi//, 1th Nvi: IGHB. 


allowance, or otherwise, sliould be annulled and vacated. His grace Iiavin"- also 
retained the church, the newly-elected warden and vicars, in July, lG8y, 
petitioned the king ibr lea\'e to take possession of it, together with the college- 
house, stating that the latter " was absolutely in ruin, and that the church was 
going fast to decay." This petition his majesty referred to the then judges of 
assize ; but they not making any order on the subject, the warden again petitioned 
the king, stating, «'that, by the established law of the land, no Protestant minister 
or church-man had any right to the church or livings ; that he was in the possession 
of the latter for the last two years ; and that no divine service was then admin- 
istered in the former, either by Protestant or Catholic," and ])raying " that he 
might be at liberty to make use of it." Before his majesty's answer could arrive, 
lord Clanricarde, the governor, anticipating that it would be liivorable, delivered 
the possession of the church to the warden, who immediately took down all the 
pews, and commenced the necessary I'epairs. He enjoyed it, however, but ibr 
a short time: after the surrender of the town to general Ginckle, in iGyi, it 
was again restored to the established clergy, and in their possession it has ever 
since remained. 

Soon after the restoration of the church, archbishop Vesey petitioned parlia- 
ment that the archiepiscopal see might be removed ii-om Tuam to Galway ; a 
change which, after some consideration, was accordingly resolved upon by a 
committee of the entire house, who further recommended that a cathedral and 
dwelling should be provided for his grace ; that 2000/. should be raised to defray 
the expense, by a tax on the town and liberties, 500/. whereof were to be 
appropriated for the purpose of repairing, building and beautifying the church. 
A bill, pursuant to these resolutions, was prepared, which, on Gth September, 
l6fJ7, was referred to a committee ; but, a petition against it having been, 
in the mean time, presented by the corporation, the bill was consequently 
rejected. This ineasure of doctor Vesey would, if successful, liave been of 
considerable benefit both to the town and the see ; and, although the advantages 
which would attend such a change are obvious, yet the subject has never since 
been revived by any of his successors. What further remains concerning the 
affairs of the church, since that })eriod, will occupy but very few words. In 
I72G, an organ was erected, which cost the corporation 130/. In l7'ol, the 
reverend Samuel Simcockes was elected warden, in })lace of Henry Hait, 
deceased. The income of the wardenship was then estimateil at .000/. yearly, 
but it is now considerably more. The present jjossessions consist of the vicarage 
of the town, with the rectories and vicarages of Ballinacourty, Clare-Galway, 
Kilcommon, MoycuUen, Oranmore, Ilahoon and Shruel. A church has been 
lately erected in Kilcommon ; but there is neither church, glebe-house nor 
' glebe-land in any of the other out-parishes. The reverend James Daly, the 
present warden, is resident in the town, and has cure of souls of all tliese 

I I 



parishes. The duty is performed by him and two resident vicars. They arc 
elected annually under the charter. The latter receive a stipend of 75/. a year 
each, and are said to rank as king's chaplains. The warden has been always entitled 
to the tithes and emoluments of the parish of St. Nicholas, and to three-fourths of 
the tithes of the other jjarishes.^ The right of presentation to tlie remainiii"- 
iburtli belongs to the see of Tuam in free disposal ; but the warden and vicars 
chu'm an exemption from any other interference or jurisdiction of the archbishop 
except that of visitation. 

This already protracted detail shall now be concluded with a brief description 
of the venerable building to which it relates, and which, without exaggeration, 
may be pionounced one of the most perfect and beautiful specimens of the simple 
Golliic or Norman architecture, (by some called the pointed style,) now remaining 
in tin's kingdom. The exterior of this ancient edifice, though evidently the work 
of different periods, is remarkable for uniformity in the execution, and for order 
and ])lan in the general design. Like most ecclesiastical edifices of the same 
style of architcctuie, it is built so as to resemble in shape the sacred emblem 
of our salvation : and within its ample walls, it has been ascertained, that 
upwards of five thousand persons might be conveniently accommodated at divine 
service'. It extends in length, within, from the east end of the choir, along the 
nave, to the principal entrance at the west, Lj;J feet ; in breadth, from north to 
south, including the transept, or cross aisle, IQG feet; and in height, to the 
vaulted roof; 42 feet 10 inches. The side aisles are separated from the nave 
by two rows of Gothic pillars, with arches springing from them, which support 
the roofs. Each of these pillars is S feet 10 inches in circumference; 1 '2 feet 
10 inches from the base to the top of the architrave ; and the chord of each 
arch measures 14 feet G inches. From the intersection of the aisles arises the 
scpiare tower on which the stee])le was erected in I680, in a style of architecture 

' Tiii'sc parishes arc not coiilisiuiiis. Tlicir extent is 
C(iiii|iiite.l to lie 'J4 miles Uv 17. IJallinacoui-tv lies in the 
li.ii-o.i\ of Diiiihell_vn, G iniles S. S. E. rioiii Galuay, and 
is sitnate on the li;iy ; Clare-Oalwuy is distant H\ N. K. 
and is sitnate on the river Clare; Kileonnnon, in the 
barony of Moyenllen, is I'JJ N. W. and is sitnate on 
I.ouL;li-Corrili ; .Moycnll. n, in tlie barony of the same 
name, 7 .\. \\'. ; Oranmore, in the barony of Dnnkellen, 
'I S. K. ; liaiioon, in Moyenllen, 3\ S. \V. sitnate on the 
bay ; and Shrnel, in the baiony of Kilmain, connty of 
Mayo, ."-; miles N". from lieailford, sitnate on the Blaek- 
Kiver. Besiiics the income arisintj from these living's, which 
is sniipoicd to average abont looo/. yearly, the warden is 
also in possession of 11 acres oi' glebe at lioscam, 
where tlje ruins of an old abbey are still to bo seen, 17 
acres at iloyallen, both lyini; E. of the town; also of 
10 acres at Cai)panaveai;h, towards the W. (where there 
is an ancient bnrial-place, bnt none interred in it for 
many years;) S acres abont the ehnreh of lioss ; lOacres 
i!i Kilemnn;in, and the cjllc^chonse in the town: sup- 

posed to prodnce alx)nt 251/. yearly, over and above the 
tees for burial in the ditlerent cemeteries; w hereout dc- 
dnetinu^the 150/. yearly for the two vicars and abatenicnls 
on the tithes, it is calculated that the income of the 
wardenship now averages, as above, about lOOo/. vcarh. 
The taxes imposed at vestries vary in their annual 
amount. Of these the inhabitants to the east of the tow a j 

pay considerably more than those on the west, compre- 
hending Kahoon and the other oul-parishes Ibrmini; the 
wardenshij), which are exempt on the payment of id. an 
acre, under an ancient commutation. Besides the suni 
expended on the repairs of the cluireh, the follouin;; 
yearly expenses are permanent, viz. : — organist ■!('/.; clerk 
S-i/. 2s. C<1. ; sexton -Ji'/- ; attendance on clock and chimes 
1.5/. ; vestry-clerk 1 1/. 7.«. ticl. ; chorister P/.; door-keeper 
'Jl. 5i: 0,(1. ; sacramental bread and wine 8/.; candles bi; '^ 

fuel S/. ; foimdiing cxjienses ahout 13(i/. ; cofEns fur i.'ic 
interment of paupers uncertain ; constables for eollcctiii;; 
the out-parishes S/. ; incidentals uncertain. All whicli 
generally :nnount to about 350/. annually. 



110 way corresponding witli tlie rest of the building. The entrances and 
windows, wliich all display the pointed arch," were richly decorated with 
sculptured ornaments, containing many allegorical and ecclesiastical subjects, and 
exhibiting various traces of drapery, intermixed with fruit, trefoils, festoons, kc. 
ill the same appropriate style, ingeniously designed and elegantly executed. 
Some few of these are still remaining, which escaped the ravages of time and 
the devastation of the fanatic crew by whom, as already detaileil, almost every 
sacred monument in the church was destroyed ; and it is here added, with 
regret, that what even these dcspoilers had spared were ultimately doomed to 
destruction by the ignorant alterations of modern church-wardens, under the 
s])ecious name of repairs and improvements. Notwithstanding these interpola- 
tions, however, the interior of this spacious structure, taken from the western 
vestibule, and terminated by the lofty window in the choir, (which, with those 
on the west, had formerly been embellished with beautifully stained glass,) 
presents, even still, a view altogether worthy of its external appearance, and 
one capable of inspiring the mind with mingled sensations of awe and ^•cneration. 
When, with this view, the spectator shall, iu his imagination, combine the fourteen 
ornamented altars and chapels, already enumerated, with which the church hatl 
been once so brilliantly adorned, the monuments and numerous statues of saints 
and other holy men, amongst whom that of the patron, St. Nicholas, was 
eminently conspicuous, ' a tolerably adequate idea may then be formed of the 
ancient splendor and magnificence of this stately edifice. 

To proceed, liovvever, to particulars, it will be necessary, in the first place, to 
notice the north or French's aisle. This compartment corresponds in height 
with the roof of the nave; but a portion of it and the adjoining transept is 
occupied by the organ-loft or gallery, erected in the last century, nearly 
parallel with the pulpit, but, as it must be confessed, with very little display 
of taste, either in the design, position or execution.'^ Although the traces 

'' Thcvc arc tlirec entrances to tlie church:—!, the 
principal at the west front— 2. a small but hantlsonic 
archcil gate-way leading to the north aisle— .3. tiie soutli 
porch, so iniich admired for its curious architecture. Tliis 
last is a pcrl'ect S(|uarc of 1 1 feet 1 hich, and sustains the 
sexton's apartment, which is ascended hy a flight of stc]is. 
It ajipcurs well uorthy the notice of all persons tliat visit 
this church, heing curiously groined, the ribs springing 
from the four corners, and uniting in the centre with 
uiico::mion heanty. It was built for the acconmiodation 
of the poor by James Lynch Fitz-Stcphen, mayor in 
M9,", alreaily celebrated for dooming his only son to 
(loath ibr peipetratiug the horrid crime of murder, riilf 
p. 70. There arc eighteen principal windows to the 
church, viz. : 1 over and 2 beside tlie high altar, 2 in 
the north trausejit, 2 in the south, 4 in the north aisle, 
3 in the south, r> in the west front, (the central one 
facing the nave,) and 1 in the old sacristy, or present 

' A few of these statues, elegantly sculptured in marble, 
were saved from the general wreck, an<l, after a laj)se of 
many years, were placed near the parish chapel, in 
Middle-street. They may be still seen in the south wall 
of the now collegiate chapel, all in perfect preservation, 
except the fices, whicli had been wantonly iiuitilated. 

A very ancient circular baptismal font of black marble 
is still preserved in the church. It rests en an antique 
sculptured base, and is ornamented with (Jotliic work, 
trefoils, &e. amongst which the figure of an Irish wolf- 
dog appears engraved. It is placed nearly op[)osite the 
south porch. 

* On the north of French's Aisle, a small passage leads 
to two modern additions to the church, whicli have been 
called, but without any apparent reason, Browne and 
Patrick's Aisles. The former is 24 feet long, and lo feet 
r, inches broad ; and the latter (also called Fyre's Aisle, 
from some members of that iauiily which lie interred iu it) 
is of the same length, but only 1 1 feet !) inches broad. 


of antiquity throughout tlie church are less numerous than might be expected 
from the date of the buikling, there are, notwitlistanding, a few liandsome 
monuments, and some inscriptions, which shall he noticed in order. In this aisle, 
on a black marble grave-stone, the following Irish names are legible :— 

(LCIilirlnnis iD't£5uun nuD rir)argai-ct II, Ji^iguanc; on another, ji^crc lictlj 
tljt IcDy of Ca r^or— forD, ©)I)umaUcr, anD W toifc, "luaninta 

CljlingC — lOijO— 1-577 ; and on anotiier, curiously engraved, ll)ir Jjetlj tI)C 

XoDi Of £Dn a9onm})a ©'Ciernao!), anti l)i0luife, JKatc IRirnaniganoIjili, 

ant; !ji0 iirOtlJCr, CcigC ©g— an' 3Dni 15S0. ' Passing from the north to tlie 
south transept, Joyce's marble altar, placed in an arclied recess, forrniii"- a 
curved square of 9 feet 10 inclies, deserves notice. This recess was converted 
into a commodious pew, some years since, by the O'Hara family, to the memory 
of some of whom a handsome, monument has been here erected. 

On entering the south or Lynche's aisle, the polished marble altar and window 
of exquisite beauty, built by the founder of this extensive wing, and which now 
form its principal ornaments, will innncdiately attract attention. On both sides 
of this curious altar there arc raised tombs, highly sculptured, belonging to 
various brandies of this ancient family: one of these is the tomb of Nicholas 
Lynch Fitz-Stephen, by whom this aisle and the adjoining tower were erected."" 
A small marble tablet, inserted on one side of tlic altar, contains llie foilowiii"' 
inscription conmicmorating one of his descendants : 

©tirpc clarus, amor militum, tcrrou inimicorutn, actatc iulicntX 
scncv iiirtutilius, nuuitio non Digno craltatuu aD cocluni, 14°. o^artii. 
anno iDcnuni iGi-i.— ^'tcp'oanu^; Ljnicii. 

Many otlier monuments and sepulchral inscriptions arc interspersed throughout 
this aisle, " but the principal are to be seen in the choir, amongst which those 
belonging to the Eyre family are the most conspicuous. There are several 
spacious vaults in various parts of the church ; but tliey are seldom opened, 
having been almost entirely abandoned, at the time of the Reformation, by 
the Catholic fiimilies, who resorted to the abbey of the Franciscans, where the 

Tlie ancient sacristy (v.hicli server at present for tbe 'A plain crave-stone, near tlic opcninj of this aislo, 

vcstry-rooui,) on the left of the liii;h-altar, is a large contains the "following inscription :—lIere1itth tlie BoJv 

ami coninioilions aj'artiiient, aiul formerly served for the of Elislia Coles, Master of Arts and of the Laivna-e^i, 

repository of the eluireh plate, ornaments, &e. which and late Master of the Free-Scliool of Galway, who dicJ 

were esteemed of considerable value. 20th day of December, Anno Domini 1680.' 

I On a similar grave-stone, immediately adjoining:— Elisba Cole was born in Northamptonshire, in England, 

Here lieth the Bodys of Richard Browne, and his wife, and was educated at Oxford. He first became usher of 

Cate Browne, their son, Matliew Browne, and his wife, Mercliant Taylor's school, and was afterwards appointej 

■Mary Terney, and their children. God rest their souls, master of Erasnuis Smith's free-school in GaUvav. He 

Amen. Ki'ij. wrote several useful books, particularly an English ami 

■"Tl'.islKuuhonie tower, which is the principal ornament Latin dictionary in 8vo. — /('ooi/'i J. O.— Ilis'naiiic is 

of ti.e south end of the church, formerly contained a scarcely legible on the flag that covers his remains. 

!;rand organ ; and also a belfry, which usually rung for On a small niurnl tablet, at some distance:— Near this 

ilivhie service, except on Sundays, when the great bell place lies the Body of Henry Jolly, Lieutenant of Grc- 

was solemnly toiled. The key of the entrance always nadicrs in the Hon, General James Dormer's Ke;;iimi!i 

vrmained with the founder and his family. of Foot. 



ancient monuments arc consequently more numerous : and, thougli the cemetery 
attached to the church is extensive, it is said that none, even still, are interred 
in it but members of the established religion. 

The ancient college-house, or former residence of the warden and vicars, is a 
spacious edifice, situate within fifty feet of the western extremity of the church. 
Some remains of antique sculpture are yet to be seen here, with the entrance of 
a subterraneous passage (long since closed up) which led to the high-altar in 
the choir. This house is now divided into several tenements, occupied by various 
families, who hold under the established warden ; and with it this section shall 
be closed, in order to proceed to the consideration of the other religious cstablisli- 
nients in the town. 

An elegant iiifirblc monument, on tlic nortli side, of 
the choii', cont;iinb tlie fullowirig inscription : 

Near this place are inten-cil the remains of Eihvanl Eyre, 
Esq. son of Giles Eyre, of Brickworth, near Salisbury, in 
Wiltshire, Esq. together with his wife, Jane Eyre, a vir- 
tuous, charitable, pious, anJ in all respects an exceeding 
good woman. Three sons and two daughters their children. 
He was a thorough honest lini^t'islnimu : 
which plain character bespeaks him eminently 
possessed of all good and virtuous qualities. 
He lived greatly beloved by all that knew him, and 
died, much lamented, on the 14th of April, 108". 
In memory of so worthy a Father and Mother their 
duteous Son, Edward E:/rc, of Gallway, Esq. has 

erected tliis Monument. 

Here als'o lies Edioard Ej/re, Esijr. who erected 

this monument. He died ye. 5 of Nov. 1 7."9, aged 76 yrs. 

He married Jane, the Daughter o'i Sir ITw. Mai/nard, 

of Walthauistow, in E>scx, Bart, by whom he had ■! Sons 

and 5 Daughters. His \Vife and 3 Daughters surviveil him. 

He left large Charity to build an Alms House, 

and to maintain 12 Poor for ever. 

On another handsome monument, immediately adjoining 

the last, the inscription is as follow s : 

Near this place rests, 

in full assuj'ance of a blessed Resurrection, 

Jane Eyre, 

Daughter of Sir William Maynard, Baronet, 

and Uelict of Edieard Eijrc, late of G<dieiiij, Esqre. 

She was a loving ami obedient Wife, 

a careful antl indulgent Mother, 

Attable and courteous to her Acquaintance. 

Ilcr pieli/, prndenec and well-dispo-.ed boiinlj/ to the pnnr, 

giving bread to the hungry, and eloalhing the naked, 

made her a worthy example to her Sex. 

She took leave of this World on the 29 clay of Decern. ITfiO, 

in the 8Kth year of her age, resigned herself 

clicori'nlly into the hands of her Redeemer, 

with a lively faith, a stedfast hope, and that charity 

which never fails to obtain an Inheritance among 

the Saints in light. 

Two Daughters, Elizabeth and Margaret, survived her. 

The Sum of ^.lOO was given by the Widow, Jane Eyre, 
to the Corporation of Galway, for the j early Sum of 

£24, to be distributed in Bread to 3G poor Objects, on 
every Sunday, for ever. 

Near these is the following inscription on a black 
marble monument : 

Here is interred the Body of Robert S'.annard, 
Lieutenant in the Konorable Colonel Hamlasyde's 
Reijiment of Foot. He was third Son of Robert Stan- 
nard, of the County of Corke. He was born at Wexford, 
and dved here, of a malignant Fever, on the 10th day 
of March, m the yeare of our Lord 1720, in the 3 l ycare 
of his aje. He served his Coimtry in Spain faithfully. 
He lived soberly, and dyed nmch lamented. 

On a neat oval monmnent on th.e south side of the choir: 

Near this 

place lyetli t!ie Body 

of Mrs. Elizabeth Tenison, 

Wife of Major William Tenison, 

who departed this Life June the 

2.5. 1741. 

She was a woman of an exceeding 

good character in all respects of Life, and 

died much lamented by all her 


Likewise his second Wife, Ann Tenison, 

who was equal in character, and 
died, equally lamented, April 1st, 1744. 

The inscription on the monument of the O'Hara family : 

Beneath lie 

the Remains of Elizabeth O'Hara, 

WiCe of Gert'rie O'Hara, Esqre; 

She was an English Woman; honest, 

sincere, charitable, a loving and obeilient 

Wife, and, in every respect, a good example 

to her sex. She lived beloved, and died 

regretted, after a long ;md painful illness, 

on the 20th of Jidy, 1790, aged 02. 

Here also lieth Geflrie O'Hara, Escjre. 

formerly a Captain in the E. India Service, 

who, alter many voyages, settled in Galway, 

the place of his birth ; and died, nmch 

lamented, on the 25 April, 179.'!,. 

aged 77. He was a good Seaman, 

an upright Magistrate, and 

an honest Man. 



CoUcgidle Chapel of Si. Xicliolas. 

ON the surrender of tlie town in 1()91, the cluncli was delivered ii]) to tlic 
estiiblislied clei'g'y by John Bodkin Fitz- Andrew, who was then, and ibr many years 
after. Catholic warden." The several chapels and altars, shortly before re})nircd 
and erected, were immediately broken down, and tl\e interior was again fitted up for 
the administration of divine service according to the rites of the established 
religion. By the articles of capitulation it was stijjulatcd, that tlie Komaii 
Catholic clergy and laity of Galway should be secured in the prhalc exercise of 
■their religion, and that the former should be also ])i'otectcd in their persons and 
goods. Upon that event, the Catholic corporation secretly assembled, and, 
witii the concurrence of the warden and chapter, divided the town and suburbs 
into separate districts or distinct parishes, ^ which division has continued with 
very little alteration to the present day. "Warden Bodkin was succeeded by the 
reverend Edmund Lynch ;^ and the persecutions against the Catholics raging 
violently during his wardenship, the scattered remnants of the collegiate 
property were collected and privately transmitted to France. Here they were 
converted into money, which was placed at interest ; and tlie fund having, 
in a few years, considerably increased by donations and bequests, was applied 
to tlie purchase of an income in Paris, v.'hich was annually remitted to Galway, 
and divided amongst the warden and vicars for their support." The sacred 
utensils and other chiu'ch plate, then \alued to be worth upwards of 500/. were 
also conveyed to France, and deposited in the Irish college at Paris, where tiicy 
remained until the period of the French Revolution, when tiiey were seized and 
conliscatcd. During tlie incumbency of warden Lynch, and also of his successor, 
Patrick Skerrett Fitz-Michael, ^ the persecutions against the Catholics continued 

" Tlie TcvercnJ Henry Joyce, Catliolicr warilen in tlie 
rei^'ii ofCli'.irlesII. was siicceeJcd l>y Matliew Lynch, who 
coiitiTiiicd pastor for twentj-eisht years. In the rei;;n of 
James II. the revcrcnii Henry lirowne was elected in his 
place, on wliich occasion none bnt those of " the 12 or 1.3 
fumUlcs" were allowed to vote. For some time alter this 
period the mode oC election was by writing the canili- 
dates names on slips of paper ; and this plan was 
adopted in consequence of the danger which attended 
meeting for the purpose, under the penal-laws. Warden 
Boilkiu was born in 1653. He recei\ed holy orders at 
Madrid in IfiVG, from doctoi' James LMich, Catholic 
arciibi>kop of Tuani. He was a man of exemplary piety, 

and died in the odour of sanctity. MS. Acivtint. — 

Archbishop Lynch died in France in I7J5. He bequeathed 
'J5l. a year towanls the support of Galway students in 
Varis, where his bust was to be seen in St. Paul's eluirch ; 
and also a full-length [lortrait in the Irish eollcpe, painted 
in the ancient costume, with a long beard reaching down 
to his breast. 

I" Viz. : the Qiiay-qnartrr, Tower-quarter, Gate-quarter 
a. id East-suburbs; part of the parish of Oranmore in 
-iie cist libcties; and part of the same iu the comity at 

large; Ralioon in the west liberties; that part of the 
parish of Clare-Galway in the east liberties; Kilcoikv, 
part of the west liberties and suburbs ; and part of the 
jiarisli of Uahoon in the county of the town of Galway. 
After this division the warden |)residcd over the " Qa^iv- 
(]uarter," and the vicars officiateil in the other districts: 
before this, it is said, they only acted as his coadjutors. 

' In his time the reverend Peter French, a native of 
Galway, who, for upwardsof thirty years, \i as a celebrated 
missioiier among the Indians of ]\Iexico, returned to Ills 
native town. This apostolical charader compiled a cate- 
chism or exposition of the Christian faith in the Mc.\ii:m 
tongue, and converted multitudes li-om idolatry. He died 
in Galway in 1690. 

•I Of this fund the warden received about id. and caih 
of the vicars about 25/. annually, until the preach 
Kevolution, -when it was confiscated, with all the other 
church property in that country. 

" 'I'his warden received holy orders, in 1C79, at Sala- 
manca, in Spain, from Peter Sala/.ar, bishop of that place. 
Before his election to the wardenship, he officiated a> 
pastor of the Ciitc-iinnrtci ami Eiisl-su>iiubs. 



unabated. ' Tlic Catholic corporation, or " lay-patrons," however, from time 
to time assembled, and elected the wardens and vicars ; but these persecuted 
individuals were repeatedly arrested and imprisoned for attempting to perfoi-m 
J their clerical duties, insomuch that they were often obliged to officiate in the 
dead of the night, and not unfrcqucntly to steal, disguised in woman's apparel, 
to visit the sick and dying. These severities, however, gradually declined ; and, 
.ibout the year 17 -'J, tlic warden and vicars fitted up a chapel in a w:u-ehouse 
belonging to Anthony Eodkin, merchant, situate in Middle-street, where they, 
for the first time since the surrender of the town, publicly ofiiciated. In 1731, 
the severe penal visitation, already described, (p. 171',) took place ; and the 
« subjoined extract from the return made by the mayor, on that occasion, will 
gi\e the reader some idea of the state of the Catholic clergy in the town at 
that period. ^ 

x\ short time previous to this event; the reverend Patrick Bermingham, of