Skip to main content

Full text of "History of the town of Bernardston, Franklin county, Massachusetts. 1736-1900. With genealogies"

See other formats



LlJIu L 













Zng^ by H'W Smith, from a Vaffu.' iy J AAVhipple 


JlJBjmAJSllit^TON, MA?*5i~ 




Town of Bernardston 







Press op E. A. Hall & Co., 








J\n tlobing Commemoration 









The history of this town is, by far, of much greater value and 
interest than a casual observer of to-day would be led to believe 
possible. It is, therefore, with a feeling of deepest satisfaction 
that the completion of this work is viewed, — all the more intense 
because undertaken purely from motives of veneration and cher- 
ished remembrances of childhood associations. 

As is well known to many residents of the place, this is the third 
attempt made to embody in permanent form the history of our 
ancestors, their stru»-a-les to reclaim the land and establish for 
themselves a home on the frontier. The late Lieut." Governor 
Henry W. Cushman began making notes of conversations held 
with older inhabitants as early as 1835. A native of the place, and 
thoroughly interested in local historical research, he sedulously 
collected, so far as he was able, each and every item of information 
which, by any possible chance, he might need in the preparation 
of the history he some day expected to publish. His death pre- 
vented the fulfillment of his hopes. His papers were all bequeathed 
to the New Ensfland Genealoorical and Historical Society of Boston 
(of which he was a member), and for twenty years, to those locally 
interested, it seemed as if the fruits of his labors were lost. 

In April, 1884, the town appointed a committee to procure the 
papers, finish up the work as might be necessary, and publish the 
same. It had been said, and was supposed to be the case, that, had 
Mr. Cushman lived, a month's labor was all that would have been 
required to complete the manuscript for publication. With the 
aid of an amanuensis, this might have been pretty nearly correct, 
for, to one who had been studying the subject and collecting mate- 
rial for so long a time, the general plan of procedure and scope of 
the work must have been practically arranged, mentally at least, 
and the need of a certain date or fact had but to become apparent 


when it could be almost instantly produced. As it was, the com- 
mittee, Rev. Stillman Barber, Dr. (). A. Wheeler and Mr. Frederic 
Chapin, procured from the New Enjjland Society rooms in Boston, 
about 1700 papers, varying in size from a piece three or four inches 
square to a sheet of foolscap, and containing not only items rela- 
tive to town matters, but also personal and business letters, invita- 
tions, notices and even telegrams ; altogether a most heterogeneous 
collection, and one which, without a thorough perusal, might well 
seem of no practicable application to the subject. The committee 
were disheartened by the presentation of so many and unexpected 
obstacles, and the matter was then given no further consideration. 

Under the stimulus of an ever-growing desire to learn of the 
days of old, to prove or disprove the many traditions, and having 
these desires fostered by the willing relation of many facts and 
incidents drawn from the retentive memories of family friends, 
the wish grew that others, too, might be better informed. vSuch 
was the inception of this volume. As the work progressed, the 
fact of how much was irrevocably gone by the passing of the for- 
mer generation, was borne home with overwhelming force and 
augmented the resolve already made, that all which was at pres- 
ent garnered in Memory's storehouse should be culled, that the 
harvest might be golden. 

During the winter of 1889 90 these same papers of Lieut. Gov. 
Cushman were procured from the late Mr. P. L. Cushman, who had 
accidently found, and, recognizing the hand-writing of his cousin, 
Lieut. Gov. Cushman, taken them to his own home for safety. 
A discriminating research was made, and all in any way relative 
to the work proposed, laid one side ; the rest were returned to the 
Society in Boston. 

At the annual March meeting, 1900, the town passed a vote mak- 
ing an appropriation to assist in the publication of this work, ap- 
pointing Rev. D. H. Strong, Messrs. O. W. Gray and R. L. Crowell 
as a committee to have the matter in charge. 

In the winter of 1900 there was received from Rev. C. C. Carpen- 
ter of Andover, a few pages of manuscript " History of T^ernard- 
ston," written probably about 18 14 by Major Stephen Webster. 


This quaint compilation of facts had been found among the 
papers of the late Dr. Carpenter, and further reference is made to 
it on pages 245, 6, 7. 

Careful perusal and consideration of the best methods of pro- 
cedure followed. It soon became evident that everything in hand 
was of a decidedly fragmentary nature, and that the only systema- 
tized work left, was that embodied in the lectures delivered before 
lyceums, several of which had been published in the County 
papers as they appeared. Taking these as a basis, verifying and 
adding to the notes left, by careful research and close examination 
of the original records of both town and churches, as well as by 
an extensive correspondence, the result is herewith presented. 
And it is hoped that it will be received on its merits as an at- 
tempted faithful narration of what has been endured by those 
sturdy yeomen who gave the best efforts of their lives, of their 
free, untramelled spirit, to our immediate progenitors that they, 
in turn, might enjoy greater blessings and still further pave the 
way for a life of comfort and comparative ease for those who 
should come after them. So closely were the people allied and so 
dependent was each upon the other that the whole record is, as it 
were, a grand mosaic. Separate the lives and deeds as you will, 
each forms a small section, complete in itself, ornamental of itself, 
and furnishing examples worthy of emulation. Fit these sections, 
cement them firmly — as the lives and common interests of our 
people have always been 'cemented — and who shall say that ours 
does not express a living panorama of bravery, sufferings, priva- 
tions and hardships, merging finally into the greatest blessings 
that a cultured civilization can bestow? 

It remains to gratefully acknowledge the cheerful and ready co- 
operation which has been everywhere extended, coming, as it has 
in many instances, from entire strangers. Thanks are tendered 
to Mr. Wm. P. Greenlaw and the New England Genealogical & 
Historical Society, of which he is a member, for the loan of books 
and manuscripts; to the Town Clerks, Messrs. Slate and Crowell, 
and to the local pastors for their interest and kindness in looking 
up and loaning books and papers ; to Messrs. O. W. Gray, who 
has generously made and contributed the valuable maps ; and to 


George E. Burrows for his patient and painstaking work in the 
matter of illustrating. Both these gentlemen have a high stand- 
ing in their professions and their advice and disinterested labor in 
this matter has been of the greatest assistance in the preparation 
of the work. To Hon. Geo. Sheldon, and not least of all to my 
dear father and grandfather, who have always stood ready to ad- 
vise and revise, and to give from retentive memories many facts 
which it would otherwise have been difficult to obtain ; to my 
mother, who has always lovingly lightened home duties that needed 
time for research might be secured, and, finally, to each and every 
one who, by ready response to inquiries and with words of kindly 
encouragement, have thus assisted in bringing the matter to a suc- 
cessful termination. 

Few words will suffice to place this work before the friends and 
former townspeople, as well as those of future generations, for 
whose perusal, pleasure, and it may be profit, it has especially been 

The value of local history is, year by year, becoming more and 
more apparent in this section, so rich in historical reminiscences. 
It is a difficult matter to find a place so secluded that careful re- 
search does not disclose some fact of interest to the general public. 
In the primal settlements of new countries there is always a 
marked similarity; even before the Christian Era we see the same 
parallel. The "survival of the fittest." 

From the days when pagan Britain surrendered to the more 
dvilized Roman government, through the so-called dark ages 
Town to the time of Christ; then through the centuries succeed- 
ng, in the old world,— the then only known world, — the result is 
he same, — knowledge and strength combined triumph over ignor- 
nce and its attendant weaknesses. So in the early settlements in 
ur own country, the arts and means employed in military warfare 
ventually overmatched the daring cunning of the uncivilized 


The study of ancient history and of the pre-historic races is pos- 
sessed of a peculiar fascination, and the lives of many of our most 
learned men are expended in patient research and writing regard- 
ing the same. If, then, this deeply buried matter is of such inter- 
est and importance as to thus engage the wise men of our day, is 
it clainling too much to assume that each and every one of us 
ought to have some definite knowledge, first regarding the found- 
ing of the places with which our individual lives are intimately 
connected, and secondly concerning the lives and deeds of those 
to whom we directly owe our very existence? It would seem that 
a spirit of veneration would prompt such inquiry, but unfortu- 
nately this has not always been proven the case. The general his- 
tory of countries is now taught in the schools. Hence, as a rule, 
the young people of to-day are better informed upon such topics 
than were those of fifty years ago. On the other hand, formerly 
the early settlement of the country was a common subject. Had 
those of former generations realized the value of the knowledge 
they held and committed the main facts to writing, how much bet- 
ter instructed might we of to-day be! Much is now irrevocably 
gone and much that remains is so obscured that the most patient 
research alone will separate the true from the false, and not im- 
possibly then the shadow of doubt must rest upon some portion of 
that retained. 

In the time that is left, ere our aged men shall have passed be- 
yond, let us each strive to glean all which their retentive memories 
have thus far perpetuated, and then see to it that the same is re- 
corded somewhere and in available shape, remembering that, 
while each may not regard prominence in the literary or historical 
world, it is the sum total of the little things, — common every-day 
happenings if you will, — which must enter into the construction of 
the grand, completed whole. The chronological table is filled only 
when each fact occupies its appropriate niche. 

No attempt has been made to connect the events transacted here 
with those of the outer world, except so far as is necessary to a 
proper understanding of the same, and it is in the hope that some 
degree of information may be imparted to those now upon the stage 
of action, and with the certainty that those of a future generation 


may see here as plain a record as possible, that this work is placed 
before the public. To those already near the golden gate may it 
revive pleasant memories! As it has been undertaken in a spirit 
of kindly affection, that its many shortcomings may receive a 
kindly criticism is all that is asked. 

It is only by the ready assistance of friends that much needed 
material has been obtained. To them and to others let it here- 
with be returned. 

Lucy Cutler Kellogg. 

Greenfield, Mass. 
Feb. 1902. 




Location and Boundaries — Additional Grants- — Colraine 
Gore — District of Leyden^Names of the Town and 
their Origin— Natural Features — River, Brooks, 
Mountains, Glen, Soil — Productions — Anecdote of 
Samuel Connable. - - . - - - i-8 


Early History and Origin — The Falls Fight — Petition for 
a Grant — The Reply — Territorial Grants — Proprie- 
tors — First Proprietors' Meeting — Division of Land 
— Numbers of the Lots Drawn — Josiah Scott's Set- 
tling Bond — Collectors — Plan of the Town Ordered 
— The "Gore" — First Families— Church Matters. 8-27 


First Settlements — Location of the Forts — Methods De- 
vised for Escape from the Indians — Mr. Norton's 
Dismissal — Indian Hostilities — Burk Fort and its 
Inhabitants — Records of Military Service — Anec- 
dotes — Letter from John Burk to his Wife — Resi- 
dents in 1760 — Rev. Mr. Wright's Call and Accept- 
ance — Incorporation of the Town — Pound Ordered 
— First Town Meeting and Town Officers — Petition 
for Relief from the Province Tax— First Represen- 
tative, Major John Burk — Extracts from his Diary — 
His Commissions. ----- 27-48 


Roads — Votes relative to Roads and Bridges — Bridges — 
Mills — Taverns — Stages — Railroad — Industries — - 
vShoe-shops — Snath-shops — Lime-quarries — Black- 
smiths — Stone-work — Rope- work — Tailers — Har- 
ness-making — Distilleries — Cutlery — Stores - 48-72 



Political and Military History — Patriotic Position Taken 
Durinof the Revoluticm — Committees of Inspection 
and Safety Appointed — Their Duties — Case of Jacob 
Orcutt — Revolutionary Soldiers — Captain Joseph 
Slate — Action in regard to the State Convention — 
Amount of Supplies Furnished — Votes in the first 
State Election — Valuation of the Town in 1780 — 
Shay's Rebellion— War of iS 12— Civil War— First 
Volunteers — Roll of Bcrnardston Men who served 
in the Arm.y — Relief Work of the Ladies — Presenta- 
tion to Lieut. Hurlbert. - - - - 72-95 


District of Leyden — Fall Town Gore. - - - 95-101 


Ecclesiastical History — First Parish — Organization — Pearly 
History — Early Ministers — Ordination Sermon — 
Rev. John Norton — Rev. Job Wright — Rev. i\masa 
Cook — Rev. Timothy Rogers — Society becomes 
Unitarian — Unitarian Pastors. - - - 101-149 


Baptist Society — Pastors — Orthodox Congregational So- 
ciety — Pastors — Universalist Society — Pastors — 
Methodist Society — Pastors— Dorrellites. - - 149-190 


Bernardston's Centennial Aug. 20, 1862. - - 190-222 

Cushman Library — Schools. . - - - 222-245 

Historical and Local Items — Rt)ll of those who vServed in 
Wars of 1744-1758 — Revolution — Shays Rebellion — 
War of 1812 — Civil War — Postmasters — Town 
Officials. ------ 245-272 


Homes — Park -Public Buildings — Cemeteries — Town 

Farm— Conclusion. ----- 272-282 
Genealogical Register. ----- 282-525 


Page 2, line 23, and page 14, line 16, read r>criiard instead of 

Page 2, line 24, read Hampshire instead of Franklin. 

Page 6, line 3, read stratum instead of strata. 

Page 29, line 4, read as instead of 71s. 

Page 30, line 32, read Rebecca Perry, Miriam and Moses Scott 
instead of the tliree latter. 

Page 49, line 3, after //pj, insert see page 121. 

Page 65, last line, omit word now. 

Page 82, line 3, read under Kin.gly instead of uiikingly. 

Page 152, line 14, read i2j instead of ^9. 

Page 166, line 11, read three instead oi five. 

Page 296, line 23, read Burk instead of Brick. 

Page 379, line 26, read 5/(7^(?r^/ instead of Safford. 

Page 384, last line, read Euda instead of Enda. 

Page 412, line 5, read Miss instead of Mrs. 

Page 422, next to last line, read Anson instead of Alison. 

Page 436, line 8, read Frank E. instead of Frank J. 

Page 486, line 20, omit Stebbins. 


Here are to be found some families whose records were re- 
ceived too late to go into the Genealogical Register in their proper 
places, also two or three unintentionally omitted. 
Cutler, Joel", (James^ Abner', Thomas', Thomas^ James' of 
Watertown), b. May 20, 1796; m. (i) Apr. 10, 1828, Charlotte, 
dau. of Abraham Moore of Dover, Vt., who d. Mch. 16, 1832, 
ae. 29 years; m. (2) Mch", 1835, Ruby Haskins, widow of 
Andrew A. Rawson. She was b. in Dover, Vt., Feb. 14, 
1803; d. Nov. 28, 1888. Mr. Cutler resided many years in 
Dover, purchasing in i860 a small farm in North Bernard- 

ston, the place now owned by Talbot, and where he 

d. Mch. 20, 1890. Until over 90 years of age he was able to 
look after his work. He retained a vivid recollection of the 
events of the War of 181 2. Had : 
i. Ephraim \V.", b. Aug. 13, 1829; d. Feb. 6, 1830. 

A step-daughter, Lucy Maynard Rawson, b. Feb. 19, 1825; m. 
Mch. 17, 1853, A. Utley Chase of Bernardston. 

Lanphear, Charles and George, brothers who came from the 
north part of Colrain to town some years ago. Charles re- 
sides near the iron bridge at the village on the Lathrop 
Cushman place, George on the Fox Brook road. 

Rice, Arland Fayette-', (Jason A.', Jason C), b. in Rowe, July 
16, i860; m. Mch. 23, 1 89 1, Mrs. Ada R. Thayer, dau. of Fay- 
ette Snow of Rowe. She was b. Oct. 25, 1863. Mr. Rice re- 
moved from East Charlemont to Bern., Dec. 5, 1891, pur- 
chasing the Benjamin F. Hale place on the Gill road, his 
present home. Children: 
i. Amy Hannah^ b. Mch. 24, 1898. 
ii. Ari.and Snow\ b. Jan. 18, 1900. 

ToTTLN(;iiAM, E. H., is l)y trade a painter having his shop in the 
old Universalist church building. • His home is the place 
formerly owned by George Brooks, north of the New Eng- 
land House. 





Location and Boundaries. — Bernardston is situated contiguous to 
the State of Vermont, in a section of the beautiful Connecticut Val- 
ley justly famed for the grandeur and variety of its scenery. One 
of the northern towns of Franklin County, its boundaries are : On 
the north, the State line, on the east, the towns of Northfield and 
Gill, on the south. Gill and Greenfield, and on the west, Leyden. 
It is distant from Boston about loo miles, west by north, in lati- 
tude 42 degrees, 43 minutes, and longitude 4 degrees, 19 minutes, 
east of Washington. Its shape is nearly that of a trapezium, none 
of its four sides being either equal or parallel. From a survey 
made by Lt. (tov. Cushman in 1830 it is seen that the west is the 
longest and the north the shortest side. The average distance 
north to .south is five miles, east to west, four and one-half miles. 
At that time it contained twenty-three and one-fourth square miles, 
or 14.895 square acres. 

Florida Grant. — When the town was first laid out it was not defi- 
nitely known where the vState line was, but in 1763 the line was 
run, and it was found that a strip about one-half a mile in width 
on the north side, belonged to New Hampshire, which at that time 
included Vermont. . To compensate the proprietors for the 
thus sustained, the Legislature granted, in June, 1765, about 7,500 
acres on Hoosac mountain, which land is located within the pres- 
ent town of Florida, and the grant was confirmed in November of 
the same year. In 1779 trouble began with regard to town division, 
which was settled in 1780 by action of the Legislature, setting off 
2,576 acres lying west of Green river, to Colrain. This was in ac- 
cordance with the wishes of the inhabitants of the " Gore," as the 
land thus disposed of had come to be known. March 12, 1784, the 


town was again shorn of her possessions by the district of Leyden 
being set off. It has twice received small annexations, the first 
time in 1838 when a small strip of land located near Mr. Hurlbert's 
factory was acquired, and the second, June 10, 1886, when the south- 
east corner of Leyden was ceded to the parent town. To-day the 
town of Bernardston comprises but about one-half of its original 

Nauic. — Its early name commemorated the event to which it di- 
rectly owed its existence, — the Falls Fight. Doubtless because of the 
length of the name " Falls Fight Township" as it was first called, 
came the gradual contraction to " Fall Town," and the stream " Fall 
River " probably took its name from the town and the circum- 
stances of its settlement, rather than the town having been named 
from the river, as some in recent years have asserted. Up to 1762, 
the time of the formal inc(M'porati()n of the hamlet into a town, this 
was the name by which the pioneer settlement was known. In 
January, 1762, the General Assembly of the Province of Massachu- 
setts Bay set its official seal upon the petition presented by the in- 
habitants, and the name of Fall Town lingered only in the memo- 
ries of those to whom the place was possessed of a personal interest. 
To the world at large " Barnardstown " suggested the little village 
in northern Franklin County. This name was bestowed in honor 
of vSir Francis Ikirnard, baronet of Nettleham, Lincolnshire, Old 
England, and Provincial G(Jvernor of Massachusetts under George 
the Third. 

The fact that the place was named for a Tory (lovernor has, at 
times, aroused the ire of some of her citizens, but some measure of 
consolation may be gleamed from the truism that the man could 
hardly have been held alone responsible for the age in which he 
lived, nor yet for having been born a British subject. May not the 
circumstance of his being considered by his king worth}' to assume 
such a position, serve in some degree to mitigate this feeling? 

The sentiments which led to the settlement of this country and 
the subsequent life of the colonists, — these two things of them- 
selves would prevent anyone loyal to the British ruler from being 
acceptable to the people. The independent spirit here fostered 
was directly opposed to the policy of the English government, and 


Oppression was the inevitable result. Had Eng-land realized the 
strength of her offspring we might almost have looked for more 
diplomatic measures. Severe indeed was the lesson she had to learn! 

The present name, Bernardston, — Barnardstown suffering con- 
traction, — is less suggestive, and, to the casual observer, there is 
nothing, as in the first names, to indicate anything relative to the 
town's history. 

River and Brooks. — Fall River bisects the' town from north to 
south, entering the Connecticut at Kiverside a little below the Falls 
where occurred the memorable fight. It is. a beautiful, placid 
stream whose waters are unusually clear and cold, owing perhaps 
to its being fed by innumerable springs and small streams. The 
source of its east branch is just south 'of the slate quarries in Guil- 
ford, Vermont. On the farm of Mr. Abbott Brown in North Ber- 
nardston it is joined by the north-west branch, coming down from 
the mountain west. 

As in all places, the land is irrigated by brooks, some of the 
larger being locally known as the " Newcomb Brook," the " Ceph 
Slate " or " Branch Brook," " Dry" and " Mill" brooks, the "Casey 
Brook," " Moll's Brook " and " Fox Brook." Many of these names 
suggest their origin and application. The " Newcomb," " Casey," 
" Fox " and " Slate " brooks ran near or through the farms of men 
bearing those names. 

"Moll's Brook " owes its name to "Old Aunt Moll Foster" who, 
in her later years, became a town charge. She lived in a log house 
in " Moll's Hollow " (likewise named for her) east of the Burk 
bridge near where the brook empties its waters into Fall River. 
" Dry Brook" starts on " Huckle Hill," on the David Severance, — 
afterward David Streeter — farm, and acquires its name from the 
fact that in its course downward, in the " Purple Meadow " back of 
the location of the Lieut. Sheldon Fort site, it is invariably dry in 

One characteristic of the brooks here is, that they are all moun- 
tain brooks, and their course carries them down through gorge and 
glen, forming by the roadsides numberless picturesque scenes and 
cool retreats, most inviting upon a summer day, or most beautiful 
to behold when in the grasp of winter. 


Natural Features. — The natural features are everywhere varied 
and pleasing. The town is nestled in the valley running north and 
south, girt about with rugged hills, offshoots of the Green Moun- 
tain range. The principal elevations are locally known as West 
Mountain, Bald and Ragged Mountain, or, as the latter has been 
designated of late, "Tame Cat." West Mountain is nearly 630 feet 
in height, the others but little less. "From the top of West Moun- 
tain, which is a rock but a few feet in width, there is a beautiful, 
variegated and extensive view of the surrounding country, extend- 
ing south as far as Connecticut. North the view is intercepted by 
the Green Mountains and north-east the Monadnock rises like an 
island in the midst of an ocean. At the south-east the 'deep roll- 
ing Connecticut ' may be seen winding its course through the val- 
ley, as a poet has beautifully expressed it, ' Giving verdure to na- 
ture and morals to man.' 

More than 50 towns, probably, are in sight, 1 1 churches can be 
seen with the naked eye and, with a telescope, more than 20 can 
be discovered, and a tract of country which is scarcely excelled in 
point of the fertility of the soil and the virtues of its inhabitants." 
Thus Lieut. Gov. Cushman, in 1861, described the outlook. 

Passing on toward North Bernardston, Wildcat looms above the 
horizon to the left. This grand old mountain is seen to its best 
advantage from its northern approach, where its densely wooded, 
precipitous sides are sharply delineated, and, with its companion. 
Tame Cat, opposite, and the beautiful meadow farms and peace- 
fully flowing river between, it presents a scene of rarely equalled 
beauty. From the wild nature of the place rather than from the 
ferocious animal has the name been applied, and many have been 
the hunting expeditions planned in days of yore, with Wildcat as 
the objective point. 

Upon the opposite side of the river is Tame Cat or. as it was ear- 
lier known, " Ragged Mountain." This elevation has always been 
much more accessible, and after the timber was cut from it, the 
wood-choppers gave it the name in contrast to the appearance of 
Wildcat opposite, and Tame Cat it remains to the present. At 
North Bernardston the mountain at whose b'ase lie nestled the farm 
and buildings of Myron Corbett, has long been known as " Crow- 





berry Hill," while across the river is East Mountain, whose south- 
ern elevation is " Tame Cat." 

Bald Mountai)i.- — '• Ball Mountain " for short, — lies a little farther 
east and south of Tame Cat and is said to derive its name from a 
bald, rocky spot near its summit, where the only vegetation ever 
found is a little moss clinging- here and there to the crevices. 

On the east side of this mountain is " Huckle Hill," rendered 
memorable as being: the orio^inal site of the first church, and hav- 
ing located thereon also one of the first dwellings, the " Dea. Shel- 
don Fort." The huckleberries growing there in such profusion 
gave it the name. Stratton Hill is the name of a gentle rise of 
ground located north-west of Grass hollow, in the east part of the 
town, north-west of the Purple place, while east of Dry Brook is 
" Snow Hill," the early home of the vSnow family. In that portion 
of the town incorporated into the district of Leyden are found 
" Frizzle Hill," named for the Mr. Frizzle who settled there, and 
" Beaver Meadow," so called from tlic great number of beaver for- 
merly found there, while in the south-east part of the town is Shel- 
don Hill. 

Certain districts of the place have always been thus denominated, 
and the older people of today will tell with pride how the great 
number of geese kept by the residents on South street caused that 
road to be known as " Ctoosc Lane," while " Burk Flat " was so des- 
ignated because of its containing the John Burk Fort in the town's 
early history ; and how one of the village worthies, years ago, used 
to facetiously call this same " Flat" " The plains of Abraham," for 
what reason, history is silent. 

There are no very remarkable or striking curiosities here situ- 
ated. Perhaps the glen upon the Newcomb I]rook merits more 
than a passing notice, fr(nn its (nvn natural beauty, and also l)e- 
cause here was enacted one of the many tragedies incident to the 
Indian warfares. The place referred to is near the site of the 
old Connable sawmill. The passage is not more than 12 to 15 
feet in width and from 60 to 70 in depth. The water here falls 
over the solid rock to the basin beneath. Over this place the 
Indians passed on a log, en route to Canada after the pillaging of 
Deerfield in 1704. One of the captives, (probably Hannah, daughter 
of Samuel Carter,) here met her death. 


The soil is largely composed of gravel, and it is due to this that 
the roads are so easily kept in so good a condition. In sections a 
strata of red sandstone appears. There are. here and there, some 
mineral deposits, but not in sufficient quantities or in quality pure 
enough to be of any practicable value. On the mountain on the 
north part of the Levi Park place, where the lime and iron ores 
are found, there are .scattered small mineral springs, whose waters 
are impregnated with magnesia, sulphur and iron, and that to such 
an extent that the soil and stones are covered with a thick, yellow 

Productions. — The alluvial meadow lands have been brought to a 
high state of cultivation. In 1828 it was estimated by persons com- 
petent to judge, that the town produced 8000 bushels of rye and 
as much corn ; also that there was made that year 5000 barrels of 
cider. In 1862 Mr. John Sanderson sent to the New York market 
his famous ox, " Constitution " or " Hero," said at that time to have 
been the largest beef creature ever dre.ssed there. He was of a 
roan color, a grade Durham, small horn, and of the following mea.s- 
urements: height, 5 feet 9 inches, largest girth, 11 feet 5 inches, 
length from roots of horns to tail, 9 feet, width of back, 4 feet, 
width across rump, i foot 1 1 inches, across shoulders, 3 feet 3 inches, 
between forelegs, 1 foot 4 inches, length from hip to root of tail, 
2 feet 1 1 inches, length from ham to brisket, 7 feet 5 inches, girth 
around neck forward of shoulder, 9 feet 5 inches. His dressed 
weight was 2,473 pounds. A large portion of this w^as purchased 
for the Enelish market and the sum realized was invested in about 
12,000 pounds of other good meat for distribution among the sol- 
diers' families. Just a year later, in February, 1863, INIr. Imla K. 
Brown slauofhtered a half-blood Chester hog, age 17 months and 1 

t)' ■^'to 

week, which at that time was considered a remarkable animal, 
weighing, after hanging ten hours, 752 pounds. As the years go 
by the Bernardston farmers keep pace with the times and take a 
commendable pride in their vocation and productions. The latter 
are of a nature to be found in all farming communities. An abund- 
ance of good timber abounds, chestnut being now predominant. 
Anecdote of Samuel Coiinnl'Ie.— li is a fact known to comparatively 
few, probably, that the inhabitants of Bernardston were among the 


first to make to any great extent, what has now grown to be a staple 
article of ci')mmerce in New England, namely the maple products. 
To whom the honor of discovery belongs or whether we must go 
back to the old Indian legend, we cannot tell. In " Dodsley's Reg- 
ister " for October, 1765, it is stated that a " method of making sugar 
and molasses from the sap of a certain tree called the maple, com- 
mon in the New England colonies, has just been discovered and 
put in practice at several portions of New England, but especially 
at Bernardston, about 20 miles from Athol." In connection with 
this industry is an anecdote of Mr. Samuel Connable, one of the 
pioneers of the place, and a man remarkable for his ingenuity and 
self acquired mechanical skill. Of him it is said that he gathered 
" the sa]) in a basket and boiled it in a tub," which is literally true, 
and was published at the time in the English periodicals, accord- 
ing to Lieut, (tov. Cush man's papers. The explanation of this 
seeming impossibility is found thus. The sap was gathered in a 
basket, when frozen. The boiling in a tub does not seem quite as 
admissable as truth, but in those days one article was required to 
be put to as many uses as possible, and among the possessions of 
Mr. Connable was an old fashicMicd " ]:)(^tash kettle" very large 
round, conical in shape, but withal, shallow. How to utilize this 
became a study. Finallv his ino-enuitv KSusjo:ested that greater 
depth might be acquired h\ placing a tub top of the kettle, so pro- 
curiuij:: a " set work " tub with cars to it, in which a handle could be 
inserted, he remx)ved the bottom, placed the tub within the top of 
the kettle and firmly packed the two together, something after the 
manner of calking, and when his kettle — or tub — call it as you 
will — was suspended from an improvised crane of crotched sticks, 
over an open fire, he was ready in reality to " boil sap in a tub." 
The contrast between this and the modern methods is certainly 

And as in the subsequent pages, we see most plainly the vicissi- 
tudes experienced and successes achieved, and the many obvious 
comparisons, we may, in the same proportion, realize that 

" The s^rcat eventful Present hides the Past ; but through the din 
Of its loud life, hints and echoes from the life behind steal in 
And the lore of home and fireside, and the legendary rhyme 
Make the task of duty lighter, whicli the true man owes his time." 


proprietors' meeting — DIVISION OF LAND— NUMBERS OF THE 

The early history of Bernardston is so closely identified with 
that of contiguous towns, that, in treatin<^ of it, that of Leyden, a 
part of Colrain, and other territory must necessarily be included. 

The origin of the township properly antedates the grant of land 
made in 1735 by the General Court, 58 years, when at the present 
site of Riverside, near Turners Falls, occurred the " Falls Fight." 
There were two accounts of the engagement written within a year 
of its occurrence. One by Rev. William Hubbard of Ipswich, the 
other, anonymously, and signed " N. vS." Both of these accounts 
are well worthy perusal and vary only in minor details. i\fter 
careful research Rev. George Bodge prepared the following ac- 
count for the Genealogical Register (April, 1887), and has given 
it in a full and accurate manner. 

Falls Fight. — " A company consisting of volunteers and many of 
the inhabitants of the towns along the Connecticut River mounted 
upon their own horses, and armed as each might be able, or from 
the garrison, took up the line of march in the evening of May i8th 
from Hatfield towards the Falls, twenty miles away, through the 
woods. Taking their way northwards through Hatfield meadows 
and on by the road where both Lathrop and Beers had met disaster 
and death, past the ruins of Ueerfield, they cro.ssed the river at the 
northerly part of the meadow (a late high authority says ' at the 
mouth of Sheldon's brook ') and thus eluding the Indian outposts 
stationed at a place now called ' Cheapside ' to guard the usual 
place of crossing. These Indians, it is said, overheard the crossing 


of the troops and turned out with torches and examined the usual 
ford, but finding no traces there, and hearing no further disturb- 
ance, concluded that the noise was made by moose crossing, and 
so went back to their sleep. A heavy thunder shower during the 
night greatly aided the secrecy of the march, while it drove the 
Indians to their wigwams and prevented any suspicion of an attack. 
This danger safely passed, the troops rode forward through Green- 
field meadows and crossing Green River, 'at the mouth of Ash 
Swamp brook to the eastward, skirting the great swamp' (says 
Mr. Sheldon) they at length, about daybreak, reached the high land 
south of Mt. Adams, where the men dismounted, and leaving the 
horses under a small guard, pushed on through Fall River and up 
a steep hill, and halted, silently awaiting daylight, upon the slope 
above the sleeping Indian Camp. Here all was wrapped in pro- 
found sleep. It is said that a great feast had been celebrated the 
night before by the Indians, at which they had gorged themselves 
with fresh salmon from the river, and beef and new milk from the 
Hatfield cattle. Not a guard had been set and no preparation had 
been made, so secure were they and unsuspicious of an English 
raid. And now with advancing daylight the sturdy settlers gath- 
ered silently down and about their unconscious foes, to whom the 
first warning of danger was the crashing of a hundred muskets, 
dealing death in at their wigwam doors. Many were killed at the 
first fire, and scarcely a show of resistence was made. The savages 
who escaped were terrified at the thought that their old enemy 
was upon them and fled towards the river yelling 'Mohawks! 
Mohawks!' and wildly threw themselves into the canoes along 
the banks, but many of these overcrowding the canoes, were thrown 
into the river and carried over the Falls to certain death; others 
were shot in attempting to reach the other side ; others were chased 
to the shelving rocks along the banks and there shot down. It is 
said that Capt. Holyoke there dispatched five with his own hand. 
Very few of the Indians escaped and their loss was computed by 
contemporary writers at 300. Only one of the English was killed 
and he by mistake by one of his own comrades, and another was 
wounded in this attack. The soldiers burned all the wigwams and 
their contents, captured the tools of the Indian blacksmiths who 


had set up two forges for mending arms, and threw ' two great 
piggs of lead (intended for making bullets) into the river.' But 
while this was being accomplished, the several larger bodies of 
Indians upon the river above and below, rallied, and from various 
quarters gathered in and about the English. A small party acted 
as decoys and showed themselves crossing the river above, and 
succeeded in drawing a portion of our forces away from the main 
body only to meet a large force and regain the command with diffi- 
culty. Capt. Turner, enfeebled as he was by disease, collected and 
drew off his troops towards the horses, while the guards were 
about this time attacked by the enemy, who hastily withdrew at 
the coming of the main body. Mounting their horses, the English 
began the march for Hatfield. The Indians in increasing numbers 
gathered upon flank and rear ; Capt. Turner led the van, though 
so weak from long sickness as scarcely able to manage his horse. 
The intrepid Capt. Holyoke commanded the rear guard, but in ef- 
fect conducted the retreat. The Indians advanced upon the left 
and rear and several sharp skirmishes ensued, while they tried to 
separate the rear guard from the main. Once Capt. Holyoke's 
horse was shot down and he narrowly escaped capture by the In- 
dians who rushed forward to seize him, by shooting down the fore- 
most with his pistol, till his men came to his aid. On the left of 
the line of march, nearly all the way to Green River, was a swamp 
in which the Indians found safe cover. A rumor was started (by 
an escaped captive it is said) that Philip with a thousand warriors 
was at hand, and a panic ensued. 

The guides differed as to the course, and some following one and 
some another, disorder prevailed and the command was broken up. 
Two parties leaving the main body were cut off and lost. Captain 
Turner pushed forward with the advance as far as Green River, 
and was shot by the Indians while crossing the stream- near the 
mouth of the brook upon which afterwards stood ' Nash's Mills.' 
His body was found near the place by a scouting party a short time 
afterwards. John Chase of Newbury, in 1735, testified that he was 
in this expedition and helped to bury the body of Capt. Turner. 

The whole command now devolved upon Capt. Holyoke, who 
led his shattered forces, fighting every rod of the way to the south 

I'K'rrnoN ok samuei, hunt. ii 

side of Deerfield meadow to the place now known as the ' Bars' 
(according- to Gen. Hovt's account). That the retreat did not end 
in a general massacre is doubtless due to the skill and bravery of 
Capt. Holyoke in keeping the main l)ody together, and in protect- 
ing flank and rear while pushing forward to avoid the chance of 
ambuscades; as it was, they found on arriving at Hatfield, that 
some forty-five or more of their men were missing. Rev. Mr. Rus- 
sell's letter of May 22nd gives some account of the losses, and says 
that six of the missing have come in, reducing the number of lost 
to thirty eight or nine. Of the Indian losses he gives the report 
of vSergt. Bardwell, that he counted upwards of one hundred in and 
about tlie wigwams and ah^ig the river banks, and the testimony 
of William Drew and others that they counted some ' six score and 
ten.' Hence we cannot but judge that there were above two hun- 
dred of them slain." 

Petition of Sanuici Hunt. — The services and sufferings of this in- 
trepid band of Capt. Turner's certainly merited a fitting recognition 
from the government they sought to protect, and a favorable re- 
ply was received to the following, presented November, 1734. 
" A petition of Samuel Hunt, of Billerica, for himself and other 
suri'i-i'ors of the officers and soldiers that belonged to the com- 
pany of Capt. Turner, and the representatives of that are de- 
ceased, shewing that the said company in 1676 engaged the Indian 
enemy at a place above Deerfield, and destroyed above three hun- 
dred of them, and therefore, praying that this Court would grant 
them a tract of land above Deerfield suital^le to make a township." 

Reply. — The reply to this petition shows the condition which our 
former legislators deemed necessary for the welfare of the future 
town. In the House of Representatives Nov. 28, 1734, " Voted that 
the prayer there-of be so far granted, as that the petitioners have 
leave by a surveyor and chain-man upon oath to lay out a Town- 
ship of the contents of six square miles, to the Northward of the 
town of Deerfield, in the unappropriated lands of the Province, and 
return a plat there-of to this Court for confirmation within twelve 
months, and that the said township is granted to the petitioners 
and such other Officers and soldiers that were in said fight above 
Deerfield, commonly called the Falls Fight, and to the descendants 

12 REPLY. 

of any of the ofificers and soldiers that were in said fight and are 
deceased, and that shall be admitted by the committee hereafter 
named ; provided the grantees do within four years settle sixty 
families in said township, and have each of them an house eighteen 
feet square and five acres of land brought to English grass, or broke 
up by plowing, and also build a convenient Meeting House, and 
settle a learned orthodox Minister among them, lay out a home lot 
for the first settled minister, and another for the Ministry, each of 
which to draw a seventieth part of said township ; also a lot for the 
school, of one hundred acres, the remainder to be divided into equal 
parts among those that are admitted, and that John Stoddard, Jo- 
seph Dwight, Charles Church, Samuel Danforth, Esqrs., with such 
as shall be appointed by the Honorable Board, be a committee to 
receive the claims of all such as shall challenge by this grant, and 
are empowered and required to admit all such Officers and Soldiers 
as shall within a twelve months from this time put in their claims 
and give satisfactory accounts of their being in the fight, and shall 
also admit one and only one, of the descendants of each of the Of- 
ficers and Soldiers that were killed in said fight, or since deceased, 
provided they put in their claims and make their challenge within 
twelve months as aforesaid. And the committee are further di- 
rected always to give preference to the eldest of the sons of each 
officer or soldier, deceased, that shall put in their claims, and in 
case no son puts in his claim within twelve months, then to give 
preference to the eldest male descended from any such Officer or 
Soldier, deceased, that shall put in their claims as aforesaid, and 
all others shall be excluded." 

TJic Grant.- — The land granted included what is now within the 
limits of Bernardston, Leyden, a portion of Colrain, and a small 
belt which was afterwards proven to have belonged to New Hamp- 
shire, in all a tract 6 miles square. A previous grant to a Mr. Fair- 
weather of 500 acres, situated in the east part of the new township, 
together with the inountainous and waste lands included, so reduced 
this in value that, in 1741, as the proprietors increased numerically, 
they petitioned for and obtained another tract not yet covered by 
any prior grants. 

The following is a copy of the original order for calling the first 


meeting of the " Mantlers of Fall Town "' and the return thereof. 

'•In the House of Rep'tives, Dec. 24, 1735. 
Ordered, That Thomas Wells, Esq'r, be empowered and directed to notifie 
the Grantees of the Tract of Land or Township made by this Court to the 
Officers and Soldiers that were in the Fall fight above Deerfield, and to 
their Descendants, that they appear at some town in the County of Hamp- 
shire as soon as conveniently may beto chose a Moderator and Proprietors' 
Clerk and to agree upon effectual methods for the laying out and fiulfilling 
of their grant and to call meetings for the future. 

Sent up for Concurance. J. Quincy, Sp'kr. 

In Council, Dec. 26, 1735. 
Read and Concurred. J. Willard, Sec'y. 

Consented to. J. Belcher. 

A true copy. 

Examined pr Thomas Mason, Dep't Secry." 

On the back of this order is the follovv^ing in the handwriting of 
Esquire Wells. 

" Hampshire ss. Dec. 26, 1735. 
Pursuant to the Directions of the Within order I the Subscriber have No- 
tified the Grantees of the Township within mentioned by posting up notifi- 
cations in those towns where any of the porsons concerned Dwell to appear 
at ye house of Mr; Benjamin Stebbins of Northampton in sd county on 
Jan'y ye 27, 1735-6, for ends and purposes within mentioned. 

Tho's Wells." 

It will be observed that this order was signed by Gov. Belcher 
Dec. 24, and the return made Dec. 26. The grantees dwelt in 21 
different towns in Massachusetts, scattered from Amesbury to 
Kingston in the east and from Deerfield to Suffield on the Connect- 
icut River, beside 13 towns in Connecticut. Those were not the 
days of fast mails and Esquire Wells does not tell us how he exe- 
cuted his commission. 

This grant of 500 acres had its origin as follows : — Nov, 24, 1720, 
in Council at Boston was received a petition from John Fayer- 
weather in behalf of himself and others, grandchildren and heirs 
of Jonathan Payne, late of Boston, deceased, shewing that about 
1673, by direction of the Colony of Massachusetts Bay the latter 
did run the southern line of said Colony to Hudsons River, having 
the whole charge of the business thereby incurring great expense, 


hardships and fatigue. For this service the General Court granted 
him, May 12, 1675, 1800 acres of land, and 4000 acres to be laid out 
in two different places. Payne's death occurred before he could 
procure the grant. 

The " Plat " of the survey was returned Nov. 21, 1721, Timothy 
Dwight, Surveyor. The land was laid out between Northfield and 
Deerfield upon a brook known by the name of Dry Brook, begin- 
ning 20 rods west of the ford way over said brook and running 
north. By this we see that Dry Brook received its name at least 

15 years before the grant of Falls Fight township. 

Considering the circumstances of its origin, what could be more 
appropriate than that the name of " Fall Town " should be be- 
stowed, thus commemorating the " Falls Fight " of a half century 
before! This name the hamlet retained until its formal incorpora- 
tion as a town in 1762, at which time the name of " Barnardstown " 
was adopted in honor of Gov. Barnard, a Provincial Governor of 
Massachusetts Colony under King George the Third, of England. 

Claimants. — The soldiers and descendants of those deceased who 
were entitled to claims in the township granted were : 

Joseph, only son of Hope Atlierton, of Dt'erlield. 

Nathaniel, from Nathaniel Alexander, Northampton. 

Thomas, eldest son of Thomas Alvord, Middleton. 

John, son of William Arms, Deertield. 

John, son of Timothy Baker, Northampton. 

Samuel, son of Samuel Bedortha, Springfield. 

John Field, descendant of James Bennett, Decrlield. 

John, son of John Barbour, Springfield. 

John, son of John Bradshaw, Medford. 

Isaac, son of John Burnap, Windham. 

Samuel Clesson, descendant of Peter P>ushrod, Northampton. 

Samuel, son of Samuel Boltwood, Hadley. 

Samuel, son of Robert Bardwell, Ueerfield. 

John Hitchcock, descendant of Samuel Ball, Springfield. 

Stephen, son of Stephen Belden, Hatlield or Northampton. 

Richard, son of Klnathan Beers, Watertown. 

Samuel, son of vSamuel Beldin, Hatlield. 

Preserved, son of Preserved Clapp, Northampton. 

Thomas, son of Japliet Chapin, vSpringtield. 

Samuel, son of vSamuel Crow, Hadley. 

Joseph, descendant of Joseph Crowfoot, Wethersfield. 

William, son of William Clark, Lebauon. 


Noah Cook, descendant of Noah Coleman, Hadley. 

Benjamin, son of Benjamin Chamberlain, Colchester. 

Nathaniel, descendant of Joseph Chamberlain. 

Samuel, son of John Conniball, Boston. 

John, son of John Chase, Newbury. 

William, son of Nehemiah Dickeson, Hadley. 

vSamuel Jellett, descendant of John Dickeson, Hatfield. 

Benjamin, son of Benjamin Edwards. Northampton. 

Joseph, son of Joseph Fuller, Newtown. 

Samuel, son of Samuel Field, Deerlield. 

Nathaniel, son of Nathaniel F'oot, Colchester. 

John, son of John Flanders, Kin«^ston. 

Isaac, son of Isaac Gleason, Enfield. 

Richard Chuch, descendant of Isaac Harrison, Hadley. 

Simon, son of Simon Grover, Maiden. 

vSanmel, son of Joseph Griffin, Roxl)ury. 

John, son of John Hitchcock, vSpringfield. 

Luke, son of Luke Hitchcock, Springfield. 

Jonathan, son of David Hoit, Deerfield. 

Jonathan vScott, descendant of John Hawks, Waterbury. 

Eleazer, son of Eleazer Hawks, Deerlield. 

James, son of James Harwood, Concord. 

John Doud, descendant of I^xpeiience Hinsdell, Middleton. 

vSamuel, son of Samuel Hunt, Tewksbury. 

William, son of Abel James, Lebannon. 

John, son of John Ingram, Hadley. 

Sanmel, son of vSamuell Jellett, Hatfield. 

William, son of Robert Jones, Almsl)ury. 

Medad, son of John King, Northampton. 

Francis, son of F'rancis Keet, Northampton. 

Martin, son of Joseph Kellogg, Sulield. 

John, .son of John Lee, Westlield. 

John, son of John Lyman, Northampton. 

Joseph, son of Jo.seph Leeds, Dorchester. 

Josiah, son of Josiah Leonard, vSpringlield. 

John, son of Cornelius Merry, Long Island. 

Stephen Noble, descendant of Isaac Morgan, formerly of Eiilield. 

Jonathan, son of Jonathan Morgan, SpringfiehL 

Thomas, son of Thomas Miller, vSpringlield. 

James, sou of James Mun, Colchester. 

Benjamin, son of John Mun, Deerlield. 

John, .son of Phillip Matoon, Wallingford. 

John, son of Godfrey Xinis, Deerlield. 

F^benezer, son of Medad Puniroy, Northam])ton. 

Sanmel, son of Caleb Pumroy, N. H. 

Sanmel, son of Robert Price, Glastenbury. 

Samuel, descendant of John Preston, Hadley. 


Thomas, son of John Pratt, Maiden. 

John, son of John Pressy, Almsbury. 

Henry, son of Henry Rogers, Springfield. 

John, son of Thomas Reed, Westford. 

Nathaniel, son of Nathaniel Sikes, vSpringfield. 

Nathaniel, son of Nathaniel Sutliff, Durham. 

Samuel, son of Samuel Stebbins, Springfield. 

Luke Noble, descendant of Thomas Stebbins, Westfield. 

Ebenezer, son of William Smeed, Deerlield. 

Joseph, son of John Smith, Hatfield. 

James, son of James Stephenson, Springfield. 

Thomas, son of Joseph Seldon, Haddam. 

Josiah, son of William Scott, Hatfield. 

John, son of John Salter, Charlestown. 

William, grandson of Capt. Turner, Swanzey. 

Benjamin, son of Benjamin Thomas, Stafford. 

Capt. Joseph Winchell, Jr., descendant of Jonathan Tailer, Suffield. 

Samuel, son of Samuel Tyley, Boston. 

Preserved, son of James Wright, N. PI. 

Cornelius, son of John Webb, vSpringfield. 

Jonathan, son of Richard Webb, vStamford. 

John, son of Benjamin Wait, Hatfield. 

Pvleazer, son of Kleazer Webber or W^eller, Westfield. 

Capt. Thoinas, son of Thomas Wells, Deerfield. 

Ebenezer, .son of Joseph Warriner, Rnlield. 

Jonathan, son of Jonathan Wells, Deerlield. 

William, son of Nicholas Worthington. Colchester. 

John, grandson of John vScott, Klbows. 

" The Committee appointed to inlist the officei's and soldiers in 
the fight called the falls fight under the Command of Capt. William 
Turner then slain, and the Descendts. of such as are Deceased and 
that are intitled to the grant of this great and general Court made 
them of a township, have attended many times that service & re- 
turne the list above & aforesaid which contains the persons names 
claiming & from whome and Which the Committee have accord- 
ingly allowed all which is Submitted." 

William Dudley. 

Ezekiel Lewis. 

John Stoddard. 

Joseph Dwight. 

John Wainwright. 
Boston, June, 1736. 

In Council June 23, 1736. Read and ordered that this Report be 


accepted. Sent down for concurrence. Simon Frost Dep'v Secre- 
tary. (Mass. State Archives, Vol. 114, pag'e 610.) To this list Mr. 
Williams in the " Redeemed Captive " adds the names of Samuel 
Colby of Almsbury and Iri^al Newbury of Maiden. 

As will be seen, a number of the claimants resided in Connecti- 
cut ; also some of the soldiers were at this time living, and person- 
ally applied for their allotments, as in the cases of Nathaniel Alex- 
ander, John Chase, vSamuel Beldin. John Bradshaw, Joseph Fuller, 
vSamuel Hunt, James Mun, Jonathan Wells and others. 

Proprietors' Meetings. — The grant was confirmed Jan. 21, 1736, and 
six days later, Jan. 27, according to a notification issued by the 
House of Representatives, the Proprietors held their first meeting 
at the house of Beniamin Stebbins, at Northampton. Ebenezer 
Pomeroy was chosen moderator, also proprietors' clerk, Thomas 
Wells, Esq., Samuel Field and Jonathan Hoit of Deerfield were 
elected a committee whose duty it should be to " examine ye place 
agreeable to ye Act of ye Genii Assembly where ye Town Shall 
Ly and when They by viewing, obtain satisfaction where to lay sd 
town. Then to Gett itt Laid out by a vSurveyor and chairman under 
Oath." They were further instructed to prepare a plan of the 
township, subject to the acceptance of the proprietors and ulti- 
mately to confirmation by the General Court. 

The second Proprietors' meeting was also held at Mr. Stebbins' 
home the succeeding fall, Oct. 6th. In the notification all are 
warned to " Come prepared to Pay ye First Charge For Laying out 
sd Township." The land was laid out in four divisions ; the first 
was planned in such manner that each proprietor received a "Home 
Lot '' of not less than 50 acres, and all " Entervail or meddow Lands 
Should not be Laid out In ye aforesaid 50 acre Home Lotts." The 
committee having this division in charge was Ichabod AUice of 
Hatfield, William Dickson of Hadley, Hezekiah Wright of North- 
ampton, Samuel Field of Deerfield, Benjamin Munn, Jonathan 
Hoit and Eleazer Hawks of Deerfield. A commendable spirit of 
fairness and honorable dealing with each other was most excel- 
lently portrayed by the minute instructions given this committee. 
Among other things they were particularly requested to note, in 
all cases the quality of the land, and wherever they found that 


which seemed inferior, to offset the same by an additional quantity, 
that all might be made as nearly equal as possible. The first 
charges made were for 3 pounds a person, and no one was to be 
admitted to a draught until he had paid that sum. About this 
time it was again voted to petition the General Assembly for an 
additional grant, upon the ground that the grantees were more 
numerous than in other towns granted for such like military ser- 
vices. Thomas Wells was invited to prefer the petition : but if 
any further action was taken in the matter at this time it was not 
recorded. It is not improbable, however, that the " Gore " received 
in 1 741 was the result of a revival of this petition. 

In 1737 there had 97 proven their claims to a proprietorship in 
the new town, consequently it was deemed advisable that the land 
should be divided into 100 lots, 97 proprietary, and 3 to be known 
as Public Lots, i. e., devoted to the use of the church and school. 
These latter were to be " Pitched upon by ye Committee that Laid 
Out ye Same and the Lotts Pitched upon by ye Committee are as 
foUoweth ; viz. the Minister's Lott, No. 6, School Lott, No. 60. The 
Ministry Lot, No. 26." 

Thus we see that amid the hardships incident to the settlement 
of a new and hostile country, our sturdy ancestors did not, for a 
moment, lose sight of the fact that in a religious and educational 
development lay the means of facilitating their own and their coun- 
try's progress. 

Having taken the first steps tending towards future moral and 
mental advancement, their attention was turned to the disposition 
of the Home Lands, all who were there then drawing their number 
or "Ticket." The absentees were to be instructed to apply to the 
Clerk who kept " The Remainder of ye Tickets not now drawn." 

" And here followeth a Lift of ye Proprietors' Numbers That 
each proprietor drew " those marked :{: designating the ones who 
gave the required bonds for settling. 

Home lot. 


eadow lot 

tjohn Rurke, from Nathaniel AlcxaiuUr, 

No. 9 

No. 67 

Thomas Alvard, 

" 58 


John vShcldon, from John Arms, 

" 36 

( ( 

John Raker, 

" 59 

" 35 

Joscpli Atherton, 

•• 98 



Jonatlian Wliite, from vSaniucl Bcdortha, 

J0I111 Kly, from John Barbour, 

John Bradshaw, 

Jonathan Wells, P'sq., 

Sti.'])hen Rehlin's Heirs, 

Samuel Tyky, 

Joseph I'uller, 

Samuel Hunt, 

William Turner, 

tCa])t. Thomas Wells, 

Jo.seph Iax'cIs, 

Isaac Burna]) 

Samuel Clesson, 

J Aaron vSmith, from .Samuel Boltwood, 

t Samuel Bardvvell, 

John Hitchcock, 

Richard Beers, 

Ichahod Allice, from Samuel Beldin, 

Captain Preserved Cla]i]), 

+Shem Cha])in, from Thomas Chapin, 

Samuel Colton, from Samuel Crow, 

William Clark, 

:Noah Cook, 

James vScovel, from Benjamin Chamberlain, 

Nathaniel Chamberlaiti, 

William Dickeson, 

vSamuel Jellett, 

Hezekiah Wri<rht, from Benjamin P'dwards, 

vSamuel Field, 

X Nathaniel Foot, 

John Hinsdell, from Isaac Gleason, 

Kbenezer Sheldin, from Richard Church, 

tjohn Hitchcock, 

Luke Hitchcock, 

Jonathan Hoit, from Judah Wrij^ht, 

Simeon White, from Jonathan Scott, 

John Doud, 

X Eliezur Hawks, 

John Ingrams, 

F^henezer Sheldon, from Samuel Jellett, 

+ Joseph Bascom, from Medad Kinc;, 

+ Charles vSheldin, from F'rancis Keet, 

Josejili Kello<i;j,(, from Martin Kellojjg, 

John Lee, 

Josiah Leonard, 

: Thomas Miller, 

Home lot. 

Meadow lot" 

No. 79 


" 12 

" 42 

" IOC) 

" 21 

" 6 

" 19 

■' 48, 46 

■' 92 

" 9.3 

" 3,0 

" 54 

" 12 

" 66 

" 78 

" ?, 

" 41 

" 75 

•• 16 

" 91 

" .38 

" 94 

" 47 

" 14 

" 61 

" 40 

" 56 

" 1 

" 5" 

" 50 

" -3 

" 18 









1 1 





" 84 

" 20 

•' 87 

" 99 

■' 62 

" 5' 

■' 55 

" 96 

" 76 

" 52 

" 32 

No. 9.S:8i 





vSanniel Rennt'tt, from James Mun, 
+ Benjamin Mun, 
John Motunc, 
+ Jolin Nimes, 

Josc})li Barnard, from I^benc/.L-r I'umroN-, 
vSanmtl Pumroy, 
Samuel Preston, 

+ Aaron .Stcbbins, from vSamuel Stebhins, 
Aaron Noble, from Luke Noble. 
+ Ebenezer Smead, 
Joseph Smith, 
ijosiah Scott, 
John Lyman, 
Capt. Joseph Winchall, 

Joseph Mitchell, from Preserved W'rij^dit. 
:john Wait, 
: Klie/,er Webljer, 

Shein Chapin, from William Worthint^ton, 
Thomas Seldin, 
These yt follow Drew Lolts ,'iftcr yv Mce 

iHezekiah Wrij^ht, from John l-'ield, 

t Nathaniel Sikes, 

Samuel Cunnibell, 

Stephen Noble, from Jonathan Mori^an, 

John Alexander, from John Webb, 

Samuel Blancliard, from John Pratt, 

Samuel Blancliard, from vSimon (iruver, 

Kbenezer Warriner, 

Timothy Coo])er, from Henry Roi^er.S, 

t Charles Coates, from James Stevenson, 

William James, 

William Scott, from J(jlin Scott, 

Nathaniel Sutliff, 

Jonathan Webl)er, 

Tile Minister's Lot, 

The School Lot, 

Charles Clark, 

John Pressy, 

benjamin Thomas, 

Jonathan Morj^an, 

Josiah (irisvvold, from Jose])!) Crowfoot. 

Thomas Goodwin, from Samuel Pierce, 

William Jones, 

John Reed, 

John Salter, 

Home lot. 

Meadow lot. 

No. 68 


" 41 

" 30 

" 23 

" 35 

" 27 

" 39 

" 90 

■• 69 

" 21 

" S3 

" 81 

" 35 

• 64 

" 24 

" 23 

" 33 

" 89 

" 37 

'■ 48 

" 49 



" 24 

No. 7 

" 27 

" 11 

" 51 

" 28 

" 34 

tinj^' of M 


.4th, 1; 

Home lot. 


cidow lot. 

No. 86 

No. 72 

" 88 

" 40 

" 67 

" 97 

" 45 

" 1 00 

" 57 

" 95 

" 29 

" 22 

" 62 

•■ ,S8 

" 10 

" 44 

" 85 

" 53 

" 70 

" 6 

•• 19 

" 6u 

" 70 

" 37 

•■ 64 

■• 54 

" 94 

" 71 

■' 45 

" 74 

•• 42 

•• 84 

" 83 

" 52 


'• 63 

" 10 

" 5 

" 48 






I)|\1S[()N OK .MI':a1)<)\V lots. 21 

oinc lot. 


L-adow lot. 

No. 2(J 

No. 2 


" 28 
" 3« 

( ( 

" 53 

John Mezz}-, 
James Harwood, 

Okcs Answer, from SaiiuR-l ('.rifntli, 
John MandL-rs, 
The Ministry Lot, 

(The edi^es of the leaves upon which tlu- nxnnhers of tin- last tliree lots were re- 
coriled have been worn oft. ; 

In addition the followino' drew meadow lots: 

Meadow lot. 

vShem Cha]:iin, from Cornelas Webh, No. 49 

Widdow Beldin, " 7, 

J Ile/.ekiah Ne\vconiI), " 98 

Isaac 15ij.^elow, " 86 

Charles Case, " 60 

Simon Grover, " 82 

I\l)ene/.er Sheldin, " 79 

Jndah W'rii^ht, from Jonathan Iloit, " 36 

Jonathan Scott, from .Simeon Wait, " 97 

F^lijah Williams, " 93 

John Merry, " 88 

: Joshua Wells, " 8 

Kbenezer Sheldin, from Samuel Tumro}-, " 68 

tjohn Catlin, 3rd, " 63 

Thomas Pratt, " 46 

After the dispo.sal of tlie lot.s a,s above, thi.s meeting was ad- 
journed to what would pc^.s.sibly seem an unseasonable hour, seven 
of the morning following; to tliose of whom we write, however, it 
was of no uncommon occurence, for tluring the succeeding four 
years mention is frequently made of meetings being held at that 
hour, and in one instance, at six. A possible explanation may be 
found in the fact that many of the proprietors, being non-residents 
of Deerticld, (where the most of the meetings were held) were nec- 
essarily obliged to remain over night, and preferred, or rather, 
needed the most of the dav wendimr their wav homeward, through 
paths which, at the best, were fraught with many and unseen dan- 
' ''e r.s 

At this adjourned meeting were appointed Ebenezer Barnard 
and Shem Chapin to prevent any strip or waste being committed 
upon the land, prosecution being the penalty of all such depreda- 
tions. In October, 1737, this action was so modified that the priv 
ilege of cutting sizable wood and timbjr was pjrmittel. In th'3 


spring this was followed by a vote restricting the prerogative to 
such wood as was used upon the place. 

Prior to this, no really definite steps had been taken toward set- 
tling within the limits of the new town. All that had been accom- 
plished was, necessarily, work of a preparatory nature. Now it 
was deemed advisable to further comply with the conditions of the 
grant and procure settlers to the number of sixty, and a committee 
was chosen for that purpose. They were instructed to receive 
bonds of looij" from each settler. The bond taken from Josiah 
Scott is still in existence, and is an interesting document of which 
the following is a copy : 

Josiah Scoffs Settling Bond. — " Know all men by thefe Prefents 
that I, Josiah Scott of Hatfield in the fd County of Hampfhire in 
Province of Mafsachufet bay in New England, houfewright. Am 
holden & Stand firmly Bound & obliged unto Samll Field of Deer- 
field In fd County aforefd Treafurer for the Proprietors of the fall 
fight township above Deerfield aforefd So Called, to his Succefsors 
in fd office in the full & juft sum of one Hundred Pounds Current 
Money of New England to be Paide unto the fd Samll Field in his 
capacity aforefd or to his Succefsors in fd office or to his or theire 
Certiani Attorney for the ufe of fd Proprietore to the which Pay- 
ment well and truly to be maide, I bind myselfe my Heirs, Excters 

(two words not decipherable— ) firmly By thefe Prefents 

Sealed with my Seal, Dated this 29 Day of April in the Eleventh 
year of his majesties Reign Anno Domini one thoufand Seven Hun- 
dred & thirty Eight. 

The Condition of this obligation is such that whare of the Grate 
& General Courte have Granted a tract of Land for a township to 
the officers & Soldiers and theire Defcendants that ware in the fall 
fight in the year 1676, on Condition that they settle vSixty familcys 
in fd townfhip, Each to Build a Houfe 18 feet square and 7 feet 
studd & clear & Bring too 6 acres of Land for Plowing or to Grafs. 
Reference to fd Grant Being Had will more fully appear & the sd 
Josiah Scott Being a Propriett)r in fd townfhip, if therearefore he 
the sd Josiah Scott do by Himselfeor some other meet Person Buld 
a Houfe as a fore sd on the Lott No. 33 In the firft Devifsion of 
Land in sd townfhip or on any other Parte of his Propriaty their 


& settle a family clear & Bring too 6 acres of Land for Plowing or 
to Grafs, as a aforesd & do all that is required of a Setlor in sd 
township in order to fulfill the Terms on which sd townfhip is 
Granted according to the true Intent & meaning Their-of within 
the Time Limited By Sd Court then the above obligation to be 
voide & of None Effect But on Default of any Parte theire of to 
abide & Remaine in full force & vertue. 

Josiah Scott. (Seal.) 
Signed Sealed & Delrd 
In prefence of us 
John Barnard 
Abner Barnard." 

From the existing records it would seem that it was with some 
difficulty that the sixty settlers were secured. An iS.^" bond was 
required of the non-settlers and it was voted to take this of Joshua 
Fuller, Joseph Fuller, William Turner and Thomas Seldin, at their 
request. Later it was reported that the thirty-seven non-settlers 
paying iS£ each, it was impossible to secure the requisite sixty, 
hence it was decided to raise the non settling bond to 22^^. It ap- 
peared that five had been dilatory in their choice of lots, and had 
not yet paid their first assessment of t,£. Therefore, at the next 
meeting the Clerk " in open meeting " was to draw lots as to which 
the delinquents should be of the number to settle, or to give a 22;^ 
bond. There were but 42 who expressed themselves ready to take 
up their abode in the new town, therefore the Proprietors, consid- 
ering that 27 of their number had failed to give a bond either way, 
and that there remained then 17 to make up the number required, 
instructed the Clerk to draw lots to fill the vacancy. The result 
was that these were to settle : 

Thomas Alvard 
IchaVjod Allice 
Jonathan White 
Samuel Cunuabell 
John Ely 
William Jones 
Stephen Beldin 
John Lyman 
Josiah Leonard 
Henrj' Rotters 

drew lot No. 











24 COI.l.KCinKS. 

Nathanifl vSiitliff drc-vv lot No. 53 

Joseph MiU-liL-ll 49 & 29 

.Saiiiiicl Iknnctt ' 68 

John Rl'l(1 ....>. ^, 

Capt. JosL'])h Wincliall " " " ^8 

William .Scott 85 

Hcnjaniin Rug<^ 51 

Now, and perhaps to their surprise, the Proprietors found that, 
ineluding the Minister's lot, there were sixty-one lots taken. This 
being one more than the number called for. permission was given 
Ebenezer Barnard to become a non-settler by giving the usual 22i^ 
bond. The proceeds of these bonds were to be devoted to the es- 
tablishment of a house of worship and the maintenance of a Chris- 
tian minister. As a matter of fact, Samuel Cunnabell was the only 
one of these positively known to have settled in town, and in the 
excitement of the perilous Indian warfare which so soon followed, 
it is more than probable that this clause in the conditions of the 
grant was soon lost sight of. 

As yet the people resided at such distances that it was consid- 
ered necessary for three collectors to be chosen ; they were Mr. 
Samuel Blanchard for the district exclusive of Hampshire County, 
John Hinsdale for the upper part of that County, and Aaron Steb- 
bins for the lower part and any other place not before mentioned. 

According to the instructions given by the General Court a plan 
of the township was prepared by Surveyor Nathaniel Kellogg and 
presented by the proprietors to Ensign Jonathan Hoit for safe 
keeping. At a subsequent meeting it was ordered to be passed to 
Mr. Elijah Williams. In the Mass. State Archives, Vol. 35, p. 21, 
is a plan, drawn in 1734. 

June 13, 1739, Messrs. Williams and Kellogg were desired to pre- 
pare a plan upon parchment of the first division Home and Meadow 
Lots. July 2nd, 1807, this parchment plan was referred to by Ep. 
Hoyt of Deerfield as being used by himself in preparing a plan of 
that portion of the town known as " Frizzell Hill," and which was 
a part of the territory set off as Leyden. 

A plan drawn by Dr. Caleb Chapin was, in 1893, in the pos.session 
of his grandson, Mr. S. W. Chapin (since deceased), and is an inter- 
esting and valuable document, 'i^hat this plan must have been 

rKi'irioN voK 'I'liK " coRi':. 25 

made at a much later date is evident by its containing all the font- 
divisions of land. 

Up to this time, 173S, the Proprietors' clerk had been Ebenezer 
Pumroy, whose residence was at Northampton; now tlie most of 
the business seemed likely to be manai^ed at Deerheld, or within 
the limits of the new township, therefore it was decided to elect a 
clerk residino" nearer, and I^vbenezei- I'arnard, a resident of Deer- 
field, was chosen by a great majority. The succeedinLj year choice 
was made of a new moderator in the person of Elijah Williams, 
who, with vSamuel I'ield and Ii^benezer Sheldon, was also appointed 
to lay out the roads. Hereafter upon the application of 7 proprie- 
tors the clerk was instructed to call a meetiu'r, notifications beinof 
sent to Deerfield, Hatfield, Northampton, Hadlev, Spring-field, 
Wethersfield, "Mauldin (Maiden) and Watertown, thirty days before, 
and the same advertised in the " Public Prints." From these towns, 
doubtless, the most of the first settlers came. Mcjnday, October 19, 
1740, a vote was passed that a man be sent with a petition to the 
General Court for the gore of land lying between the township and 
Boston township No. 2, above Deerfield, and to get the plat of the 
town confirmed. Thomas Wells was asked to represent their claims 
and, if successful, he was to receive for his services 150 acres of 
land anvwhere in the gore. Mr. Wells ol)tained for the town the 
additional territory sought, but for some unexplainable reason the 
t(^wn later rescinded their vote regarding his payment, and ten- 
dered him, instead, the sum of 50/'. 

CliurcJi listablisJicd. — In the meantime, as reference to the eccle- 
siastical history will show, a church had been erected, and Septem- 
ber 23, 1 74 1, w\as rendered memorable by the meeting of the day 
at which it was voted to settle a Minister. Out of the 48 votes cast, 
Rev. John Norton received 47. A committee was chosen to confer 
with Mr. Norton and draw up ])lans for his settlement. Eliezer 
Plawks, Chairman, submitted the following: 

" As to a vSettlement, Mr. Norton Shall have a 70th. Part of the 
Six Miles Square which is the original Grant of sd township, or an 
Equail Part of the whole township with each Proprietor, the ufe of 
the ministry Right During his abode in the work of the Ministry 
in sd Place and 200^ to be paid him half in money and half in 

26 FIRST S F/n' I. KKS. 

Work or Materials for building", within one year from the time of 
his settlement in sd work. 2nd, As to his sallery he shall have one 
hundred and thirty pounds pr Annum for the first five years, and 
then to advanee five pounds pr Annum until it Amounts to 170^^ 
pr xVnnum, the liills to be equal to vSilver at 29s. pr ounee, or Silver 
at 2(js pr ounee and his firewood brought to his door." These pro- 
])()sals were aeceptcd by the proprietors and idtimately by Mr. Nor- 
ton. He was settled November 25, 1741, the exereises oeeurring 
at Ueerfield, and at tlie same time the present Unitarian ( then ( )rtho- 
dox) ehurch of Deerlield was organized. To defray the expenses 
of this oeeurrenee a tax of 3/" was imposed upon eaeh original 
right — publie rights exeepted. 

A seeond division of land was now eontemplated, and presumably 
laid out. In this divrsion each proprietor, in turn, had the privil- 
ege of laying out his property wheresoever he eliose in the undi- 
vided lands, the newlv aecjuii'ed gore excepted. 15v this division, 
eaeh had his possessions increased by one hundred acres. 

I-irst Settlers. — Thus we have traced the- origin and foundation 
of the settlement, its history as revealetl by the records found upon 
the proprietors' Ijooks. The conditions of the grant had been com- 
plied with, the church established, the pastor settled, the business 
meetings of the jM'oprietors held at home, the first one at Mr. K)ben- 
ezer Sheldon's, September 23, 1741, and the first one held at a pu.b- 
lie nlace haviuLT Ijeen convened at the church or Meeting House, 
vSeptember 2, 1742. All things looked auspicious foi- a healthy 
growth of the colony, which at tiie close of the year 1743, numbered 
17 families, so far as known as follows: 

1. Saimicl C()iiiui))Lil. S. IMosus Scott. 

2. Lt. I'^ljciK/.L-r vShchlon. 9. Rev. John Norton. 

3. Dca. " " 10. John Lcc. 

4. Maj. John Ihirk. 1 1 . James Couch. 

5. Calcl) Chapin. 12. Capt. Kddy Ncwconil). 

6. IVtcr Ncwconil). i.V I.<t. David Rider or Ryther. 

7. Sihis Newc-onih. 14. John Perry. 

Little did the inli.abitauts realize that harrassing times were so 
near at hand. The recital of the occui-rences of the next twenty 
years is one of almost constant warfare and a struggle for e\'en 



Forts. — The years 1744 to 1748 will be remembered as marking 
the duration of King George's War against the Freneb and Span- 
ish. Previous to this time there had been a few settlements made 
at Fall Town. The first four hcnises, or forts, as they were called, 
were located as follows : At what is now North Bernardston stood 
Samuel Connable's fort. The site of this is the late Madison 
Ryther Place, the ell of which was a part or whole of the fort built 
by Mr. Connable in 1739, ^"^^ i-'' ^^ill standing in a good state of 
preservation, as is also the large addition made many years prior 
to the Revolution. This was the second dwelling erected in town. 
Major Burk's fort being the first, as well as the largest, and the two 
Sheldon Forts, the third and fourth buildings being raised in 1740 
or early in 1741. 

On Burk Flat was the Burk Fort, on the site of the place built by 
Russell Bates, now owned and occupied by Mrs. Tenney, a widow, 
and nearly opposite Mr. Merick Slate's, the barn standing over the 
original well. Lt. Ebenezer Sheldon's Fort was in the east part of 
the town, between the Huckle Hill road and the Robert Cushman 
farm, or more accurately speaking, in the south-west corner of the 
Purple meadcjw, the location being now pretty nearly marked by a 
knoll a few rods east of the road leading to Huckle Hill. The 
Deacon Sheldon fort stood upon Huckle Hill near the Seorem Slate 
place, or more definitely, on a slight elevation a few rods east of 

28 FOR'J'S. 

the road and opposite the house of John B. Field. The construc- 
tion of these forts was much the same as of others of the colonial 
period ; they were built of hewn logs, provided with port-holes and 
watch towers. The Burk Fcnt is described as being six rods square, 
built of timbers lo to 12 feet in length, pointed at the top and placed 
perpendicularly in the earth, close together. At each corner an 
elevated watch tcnvcr was provided for the sentinels. The fort 
contained eiirht houses, some of these being little more than a "lean- 
to," the outer walls of the fort constituting the outer walls of the 
house. Every precaution possible was taken to guard against the 
peculiarities of the Indian warfare to which a frontier settlement, 
as Fall Town then was, must necessarily be exposed. One method 
of escape as devised by Samuel Cunnable in his fort was told by 
his grandson, Joseph Cunnable. In the north-east room of the, in one corner of the floor, were certain short boards. Origin- 
ally these were left un nailed and were concealed by a bed, so that 
in of a sudden Indian attack, boards might be displaced 
at a moment's warning, a secret escape made into the cellar and 
thence by a private way. By this means the inmates hoped to be 
saved from a capture and merciless destruction by the Indian foe. 
June 14, 1744, war having been declared between France and 
England, fcjrts were built at " East Iloosuck " the location being 
now in North Adams near the line of Williamstown, named Fort 
Mas.sachusetts ; on the high countrv in Rowc, Fort Pelham ; in 
Heath, Fort Shirly. There were built in Colrain, two block houses, 
in Fall Town, one, in Greenfield, one ; Fort Dummer was situated 
just in the northern limit of Vernon, Vt., No. 4, at Charlestown, 
N. H. These forts formed a part of a cordon or line of defence 
extending from Fort Dummer on Connecticut River in Vernon, to 
I)ea. vSheldon's Fort on Iluckle Hill, thence to Morrison's Fort in 
Colrain, across lloosac ^Mountain to Fort Massachusetts. 

During this war there arc no records either of meetings or settle- 
ments b)' the proprietors, :ind this circumstance, together with for- 
mer oral testimony and the known hostility of the Indians through- 
out the colonies, confirms the conclusion that the .settlers either 
returned to moi'c thickly populated districts, or betook themselves 
to tlie forts for better protection. " Jul\- 17, 1745, 1 have ordered 


Corporal Alexander back to Fall Town by reason of his family is 
there. (Signed) Ephraira Williams." In tlie j^etition which the 
people in 1762 presented to the General Court for relief from the 
Province tax, they give us evidence of the hardships endured, that 
the war which began in 1744 was very disastrous, one house was 
burned, sundry cattle killed and all the people save two families 
left town. Because of the "troubles of the times" Mr. Norton was 
invited to " remove from the ministry in this town for the present." 
During one year of this war the Government stationed a Sergeant 
and eight men at both Burk's and Deacon Sheldon's Forts. Major 
Burk held the office of Sergeant and had the command of a fort 
and soldiers. During an attack by the Indians in 1747, (Lt. Gov. 
Cushman), or May 9, 1747, (Doolittle's narrative), he was wounded, 
there being but two men with him at the time. Their small force, 
however, did not prevent their repulsing the foe and mortally 
wounding two. During this struggle, the wives of Major Burk 
and Sergt. Caleb Chapin each loaded two guns until the barrels 
were so hot they could not bear their hands upon them. Thus in 
times of war, as well as peace, did these fearless women prove them- 
selves indeed helpmeets. 

There seems to have been some sort of a company organized for 
the protection of the settlers very early, for upon the back f)f a 
notification for a {proprietors' meeting, dated March S, 1 742-3, is the 
following in the same hand writing as the notification : 

b'ORT SHia.lJ(JX. 
Capt. Wright. Clerk Chapin. 

Ensign Hawks. Drunimcr Fuller. 

Sergt. Burk. Soldier Eandlier. 

Corpr. Newcouil). 

No date is appended to this note and it not improbably refers to 
the eight men stationed by the ( Tovernment at the Fort during one 
of the years of the Indian warfare. The document is yellowed 
with age and the margin a little ragged, but the text is well pre- 
served and perfectly legible. 

In 1746, the Deacon Sheldon fort was the scene of hostilities. 
One day Lt. Sheldon heard the report of guns and rightly concluded 
that Deacon vSheldon's fort was attacked by Indians. "There being 
but two or three men with him, thev mounted their horses and. 




with their muskets, their eonstant companions, rode hastily to the 
assistance of their brethren in clanger. Having arrived near the 
place, he found the Indians so numerous that to fight them openly 
would be folly and ensure his own defeat. Here the quick, pene- 
trating mind of the warrior is seen in the stratasfem he laid. Beinsf 
within hearing of the Fort but concealed by the woods, he began 
to give his commands to his men in a loud voice, and to ride from 
one direction to another as though he had a large number of men 
with him, directing the other men that were with him to do the 
same. The stratagem succeeded admirably. The Indians, suppos- 
ing that they were attacked by a force superior to their own, soon 
began their retreat, and with their accustomed war-w^hoop and set- 
ting fire to one house, left the brave Lt. Sheldon and the people in 
the fort free from further molestation." It was supposed that the 
Indians, upon this occasion, were piloted by a young Indian lad 
whom Major Burk had f(nind upon the banks of Fall River near 
his fort. He took him into his family, tatight him to read and 
work, giving him the name of John Harmon. But the Indian na- 
ture remained unchangeable, and upon reaching manhood the lad 
ran away from "Old Aquilise," as he called his would-be benefactor. 

July 15, 1747, Eliakim, son of Lt. Sheldon, while at work in a 
field just without the walls of the fort, w^as fired upon by an Indian, 
receiving wounds from which he died the following night. His 
body was buried near by, on the east side of the present road lead- 
ing to Huckle Hill, and the older inhabitants recall a rough brown 
stone as formerly marking the site of the grave. 

The surrender of Fort Massachusetts in Adams in 1746 is of local 
interest, inasmuch as some of our people were there pre.sent, as 
follows : 

Chaplain John Norton, fohn Perry and his wife Rebecca, Moses 
Scott, his wife Miriam and their children Ebenezer and Moses. 
The three latter died in captivity in Canada. Constant ward and 
watch only brought about a comparative safety, and the hai'dy 
frontiersmen were impressed for man v and perilous tasks. In 1747, 
James Couch received 7s. 6d. for three days scouting. David Rider 
or Ryther was sent upon scouting duty to l^'ort Bridgman, situated 
in Vernon, \"t. In 1749, rvbcnc/.cr vShcldon, vSgt., I'^benezcr Sliel- 

WAR OF 1755. CAl.Kll CIIAIMN. 3 1 

don, Jr., " Centinel," Remembrance, Abner and Elijah Sheldon and 
Ebenezer Severance were out in Col. Israel Williams' Company. 

1755 marks the beginning of the French and Indian Wars which 
broiiQrht terror and desolation to so manv homes in the Connecticut 
Valley. Fall Town suffered, as did many other places, although 
not to so great an extent. In so much danger were the inhabitants 
that they again removed to the forts for better protection, most of 
them going to the Burk fort. Those who lived there for the ensu- 
ing five years were : Major John Burk, Samuel Cunnable and James 
Couch (one family), Lt. John Severance, Zebulon Allen, David 
Rider, Sr., Caleb Chapin, John Foster, Dea. x\aron Field and Dea- 
con Sheldon, in all about fifty persons. The people who sought ref- 
uge there were indeed fortunate in not being molested. 

Anecdotes. — In connection with this war there are two well authen- 
ticated incidents worthy of perpetuation ; the first shows the self- 
sacrifice and forethought for others so often required, and the sec- 
ond, the courage so often displayed by the mothers of the race. 
In 1755 a regiment was raised in Western Massachusetts by Col. 
Ephraim Williams, the founder of Williams College. In one of 
the companies of that regiment were Sergt. Caleb Chapin and his 
sons, Joel and Hezekiah Chapin of Fall Town. The principal seat 
of the war, at this time, was in the vicinity of Lake George. Col. 
Williams' Regfiment was ordered to make an attack on the French 
forces under Baron Dieskau. In passing through a ravine, the reg- 
iment was ambuscaded by French and Indians, defeated, and Col. 
Williams killed. In the flight which succeeded, Serg. Chapin and 
his sons kept together for some time, but being wounded, the 
strength of the former began to fail, and realizing that his sons 
remaining with him meant for them certain death, he sternly com- 
manded them to leave him to his fate, saying, "Go! Save yourselves. 
Your lives are more useful than mine. Go and take care of your 
Mother and her family. Go at once and God bless you all." By 
this most noble and heroic act of Sergt. Chapin's the lives of his 
sons were saved. They returned the next day to find him near 
where they had left him, dead and scalped, with the tomahawk 
buried in his head. The instrument of death was preserved and 
some years ago, presented to Lt. Gov. Cushman, who in turn, de- 


posited it at the rooms of the American Antiquarian vSociety at 
Worcester. Among- the early settlers was Zebulon Allen, who, 
with his familv resided in a loi^ house near the Dalton Newcomb 
place, so called. One day. having- loaded his gun, he went out to 
his corn-field, within, as he supposed, a safe distance from his house, 
leaving his wife and two or three small children. Having com- 
pleted her household tasks, Mrs. x\llen began spinning flax. Like 
the good wife as described by Solomon, "She layeth her hands to 
the spindle and her hands hold the distaff." Upon hearing a slight 
noise at an open window behind her. she turned, and to her horror, 
beheld two Indians dressed in warrior's costume and armed with 
guns and knives. Instantly recognizing the utter impossibility of 
either defence or flight, also the uselessness of attempting to alarm 
her husband, she, by a seemingly superhuman effort, returned to 
her work, apparently as calmly as before. To her unspeakable re- 
lief the unwelcome visitors soon glided away as noiselessly as they 
had approached. Thus by sagacity, heroism and self-control did 
Mrs. Allen preserve the lives of herself and little ones. A possible 
explanation of t!ie unusual conduct of the Indians may be found 
in the fact that they, being cunning and wary themselves, and con- 
sequently looking for stratagem in others, niay have imagined from 
Mrs. Allen's unlooked for and unusual demeanor, that they were 
menaced by some near ^ukI unseen danger and judged discretion 
to be the better part of valor. These two incidents forcibly illus- 
trate the manv and great dangers through which the inhabitants 
of the town pa.'^sed during the first twenty years of its settlement. 

In such a state of sieg-e was the entire region, and in so great 
danger from the marauding parties of French and Indians, that 
frecjuent petitions were sent to the Massachusetts Oovernment for 
aid, and especially from the cordon of forts extending from No. 4 
(Charlestown) on the north, down through Hinsdale and Northfield, 
thence to those lying to the westward. In 1756. Lt. Ebenezer Shel- 
don wrote that his " Was the (;nly garrison in the place. The 
enemy were here several times last summer and Repulsed. His 
son was killed. Have expended 300^;" O. T. in relniilding and 
picketing the fort, which was a place of security for himself and 
his neighbors. This your petitioner has done, being determined 


not to flee before the enemy, if he can possibly help it. But his cir- 
cumstances are such, that he is unable to bear so great a charge." 
He especially desired pecuniary assistance repairing his fort. Dur- 
ing this year Sgt. Ebenezer Sheldon, Jr., and seven men were sta- 
tioned at Sheldon's Fort. vSgt. Remembrance Sheldon and seven 
men were stationed at Burk's Fort. During 1757, Sgt. Remem- 
brance vSheldon and 16 men were stationed in Fall Town, Col. Israel 
Williams being in command. In 1758 the line of forts was under 
Capt. John Catlin, vSgt. Remembrance Sheldon and eleven men 
were at Burk's, and Sgt. Amasa Sheldon and eight men were at 
Sheldon's Fort. September 24, 1758, Capt. John Catlin of Deerfield 
died in the service at Burk's Fort. March 15, 1755, Commissary 
(Elijah?) Williams charges the Province for "15 pounds of powder 
and thirty and one half pounds of lead and three dozen flints deliv- 
ered to John Burk for Burk's Fort." Among other supplies given 
out that winter were nineteen o-ailons of rum to Lt. Burk for Shel- 
(Ion's Fort. 

Military Lists. — July 5. 1755, IMajor Williams wrote Col. Israel 

Williams that thirty scouts report making frequent discoveries of 

Indians at Fall Town, Colrain and Charlemont and were daily seen 

at Fort ^lassachusetts. In Col. Israel Williams' Company scouting 

to the westward until October 18, 1756, were 

Kbfiiezer Sheldon, Jr., .St^t. Wareham Smith. 

Noah .Smith, Ccntiiicl. William Harper. 

David Rider. Amasa Sheldon. 

John vSeverance. Stephen Coats. 

Nathaniel Day. Charles Coats. 

Waitstill .\l^er. Elislia vSheldon. 

.Samuel Fri/.zell. Samuel F'airchild. 

John 15urk, Sj^t. Zebulon Allen, Centinel. 

Joel Chapin. Ichabod Warner. 

(Gardner Kello_t(i<. David Allen. 

Jonathan INIoody. James Couch. 

Aaron Field. William White. 

^Muster R(j11 from October 19. 1756, to January 23, 1757, Aaron 
Field, John Severance, Elijah vSheldon, Ichabod Warner. They 
were engaged in scouting to the westward. A scouting party un- 
der command of Lt. Matthew Cles.seon was out from March to 
April 25, 1756, among whom were Scott, vSgt. and Amasa 

34 SOLDIERS, 1755—1760. 

Sheldon. May 31, 1764,1110 former made solemn oath tliat none 
had received any pay for the above scout. In 1756 John I>urk was 
captain of a company at Fort Ivlward, mtistercd October 1 i. The 
same year vStephen Webster held a like ])osition in the late intended 
expedition ag'ainst Crown Point. This year Ezekiel Foster, Cor- 
poral, was out twenty days on the western frontier, likewise John 
Workman for twenty-three days. The latter was also out from 
June 27 to October, 1758. "Feb. 24, 1760, lehabod Warner ae. 26, 
born in Lebanon, Ct., eidistcd for the total reduction of Canada" 
(vState Archives.) Capt. John Ihirk's enlistment roll, endinp^ No- 
vember 30, 175S, was as follows fi'om l^^all Town : 

John l''ostcr, vSj^t. John I'nrk, Lt. 

Caleb Chapin. John vSc\ crancc. 

James Couch. .\aron I'icld. 

David Riikr. vSiniton Hall. 

John T'oster, Jr. Rufu.s Sarycant. 

Joel Cha])in. Ze))ulon Allen, Sijt. 

John h'oster. .\niasa Sheldon. 

Joshua Wells. Moses vScott. 

vSaniuel Friz/.ell. W'arehani vSniith. 

Charles Coats. Remembrance Sheldon. 

Oliver Medcalf. Ichabod Warner. 

Michael Friz/.ell. l^lijah Sheldon. 

Capt. Burk's company was one of 17 under command of Col. Jos. 
Frye. The regiment was composed of iSoo men. 

Major Ihirk. — Maior r>nrk also particijiatcd in the battle of Lake 
(ieoro-e, and the followinu" letter to hi.s wife <'"ives an idea of the 
terrible experiences of Indian warfare. 

''Lake Sacrament, now called bake (ieorge, Sept. m, 1755. 
Dear Wife: — 

1 wrote to you yesterday, l)nt was not allowed to say any more than that 
I was well, and that we have had a battle >.\;c. The |)articulars of the en- 
gagement, 1 now semi you by ('aiH. Wyman. On the 7 inst., our Indians 
discovered the traek of a large body of the enemy east of us. On the 
eigiith, Col. Williams with a Detachment 1000 strong, marched in pursuit, 
or to make discovery. They marched in the road 3 miles south, and being 
discovered by the enemy, (as we arc told by the krent h Oeneral who is 
taken by us) were wa\-laid by iSoo l^'rencJi and Indians. The l''reiu'h lay 
on one side of the road on rising grouiul; the Indians on the other side in 
a swamp. I'aia of ihc fi-eiuh were regular troops: these lay sonth. Their 


scheme was to let our men inarch t}uite to the south end of the ambush, the 
regular troops to give the first fire, then all to fire and rush out; which if 
they had done they would have cut our men all to pieces. But the general 
says that a beady Indian who was very eager, fired as soon as they entered 
the ambush. Then the enemy pursued and fired briskly, and having the 
advantage of the ground, obliged the men to retreat, which the French 
Creneral says they did very regularly. We at the camp heard the guns: 
were not suffered to go out, but to make ready to receive the enemy, lest 
they should rout us and take our baggage, for we knew they retreated by 
the guns, (viz. our men.) 'I'he enemy drove on very furiously, but while 
they were coming we placed our cannon, felled trees, and rolled logs to 
make a breastwork all around the camp, but it was a poor defence. The 
regulars marched along the road 6 deep till they got near our camp, then 
all fired upon us and we upon them with cannon and small arms. They 
made a very smart push, but we stood firm, and I believe there never was 
such firing before and had not our cannon broke their regulars and affrighted 
their Indians, they might, perhaps, destroyed more of us if not taken the 
camp. The battle began between 10 and 11 and continued till between 5 
and 6 afternoon at which time we were so hot upon them that they began 
to draw off. Our men pursued some way; we were so fast upon them that 
they left their dead and wounded on the spot. The enemy all drew off to 
where they ambuscaded our men at first. While we were engaged the peo- 
ple at the other fort at the carrying place heard our great guns, and sent 
200 New Hampshire and New York men to relieve us. These met the 
enemy stripping our dead, engaged them smartly, drove them off the 
ground. They fought 3 hours, took 2 prisoners and 2 scalps. We have 
taken about 25 prisoners in all. One is the general of all the French forces 
in North America. Another officer called aid-de-camp who was stunned 
by a cannon-ball and lay till night, came in and surrendered himself. The 
French General is wounded in the knee and thigh, and like to recover. 
Some of the captives are dead, others very badly wounded. One is Mr. 
Thomas French's sisters son, cousin to Lue. He says that Lue was killed 
in the engagement. We have had a very smart battle, but got the victory. 
The French general says we have broke his army all to pieces. We have 
been out and burietl our dead, and got a great deal of plunder, guns, blank- 
ets, provisions iS:c. We have lost some famous men in battle a *list of which 
1 send, belonging to our regiment, and also of the wounded and missing 

*This list, if sent as above, must have been detached from the letter and long since 


as far as I am able. This is the best account I can get at present uf the 
dead, wounded and missing. Let cousin Chapin know that her dear hus- 
band is certainly dead and buried. Joel and Hezekiah are well. I can 
sympathize with her for it is a great loss to me as we were friends and 
neighbors. Pray God to comfort her. Hope our friends and neighbors 
will not be disheartened at this news and so fail of coming to assist us. 
They that love their religion and liberty I hope will not fail to come to the 
help of the Lord against the mighty. Now is the time to exert ourselves. 

P. S. 1 have wrote you in great haste, not so well as otherwise. 1 re- 
ceived a letter frtnii you last night. Pray send as often as you can. The 
army is in high spirits. Hope we shall have Crown Point sooner or later. 
W'e have done a good job toward it. 

Loving wife, since the scout is detained till to-morrow 1 add something 

more. Yesterday we buried on the road 136 dead corpses of ours; to-day 

4 more. I believe about 15 or 20 were buried at the camp. Several of our 

Indians were killed. King Hendrick is killed. The day after battle every 

captain carried in an account of dead, wountled and missing. The whole 

of the dead and missing was 191 and about 224 wounded in our regiment. 

Since this account several are come in that were missing. Col. Titc )m 

is killed. Capt. Regas is dead — killed. 1 mention those because some 

may know them. The account carried in was as followeth: Col. Williams' 

regiment 50. Col. Ruggle's regiment and others 1 must omit; I cannot 

find the account. The French general is a very great man, has been an 

old warrior in Flanders. He says his army consisted of some of the chief 

men in Canada, a great many of which are killed. The chief man that 

headed the army at Ohio against Praddock is killed here. I'his general 

had an exact account of all our proceedings, our numbers antl chief officers 

and als(j a list oi all his own troo[)s and forces. Perhaj)-. this may be of 

service t(^ us. This is the best account I can semi; it is not alttjgelher 


Your Icjving husbaiul, 

John PukKE." 

Peace. — Between the year.s 1755 and 1760 there are no e.Kistin^;- 
record.s. About the latter date peace a;4-ain rei<^ned and the .settler.s 
resumed their wonted occtipation.s, reniovinj^' from the fort to their 
own homes so long deserted. In 1760 there were 25 families in 
town, loeated as follows: In district No. i, Sgt. Joseph (?) Allen, 
Zebulon Allen, and Caleb Chapin; No. 2, Remembranee vSheldon, 
Joshua Wells (on vSeorim Cushman's place), Lt. Rider, vSgt. John 


Foster, Lt. Howe (on G. Kingsley's place), Capt. Scott and Mr. Friz- 
zell ; No. 3, Samuel Cimnable and James Couch; No. 4, Maj. Burk, 
Dr. Ezekiel Foster, Benjamin Green, (a settler that year) ; No. 5, 
Job. Wright, Joel, Hezekiah, Selah and David Chapin, Dea. Eben- 
ezer Sheldon. Aaron Field, Lt. John Severance; No. 6, Capt. Amasa 
and Elijah Sheldon, Charles Coats and Moses Tute (spoken of else- 
where as " Old Tute.") 

At one of the first meetings called after the inhabitants' return 
home the question of repairs came up. After so long a period of 
comparative disuse and neglect, bridges, roadways, &c., had una- 
voidably fallen to decay, hence committees were appointed to at- 
tend to all neces.sary repairs. 

AVt'. Job WrigJit. — Since the removal of Mr. Norton at the begin- 
ning of the Indian troubles, there had been no settled pastor, the 
pulpit being supplied as occasion presented. March 5, 1761, it was 
voted to extend a call to Rev. Job Wright of East Hampton and 
to offer him in addition to his regular salary of 6(>£ 13s. 8d. in 
money and 40 cords of firewood, the sum of 133^^ 6s. 8d. The suc- 
ceeding May the committee reported Mr. Wright's acceptance of 
the call and July i, 1761, was chosen as the date of his ordination. 
One committee was appointed to provide entertainment for the ex- ° 
pected visitors and another to carry and lay "3000 of board " in the 
galleries of the meeting house that people might " set with more 
conveniency." Although but 23 years of age at the time of his 
settlement, Mr. Wright's long pastorate proved his worthiness for 
his chosen profession. At its close, he remained in Bernardston, 
identifying himself closely with her interests, and in return recog- 
nized by her citizens as one of their most useful and honored resi 

Petition for Toivii Govcrnvient. — Up to this time the territory in- 
cluding Bernardston, Leyden and a part of Colrain had been known 
as " Fall Town." Now the question of incorporation arose and 
speedily found many adherents, the settlers feeling that if they 
were invested with the privileges arising from such a form of gov- 
ernment they would be materially benefited and taxes lightened. 
It had been found that the northern boundary of the township was 
an encroachment upon New Hampshire's territory (then including 


the present State of Verment), hence a belt a half mile in width had 
been surrendered to that State. Consequently the following peti- 
tion for incorporation and an additional grant was presented to 
the General Court December i6, 1761. 

"To His Excellency Francis Bernard Esq., Capt. General (!s:c. 'To ihe 
Honorable his Majesties Council and House of Representatives. — 

The Memorial of some of the proprietfjis of Pall town Humbly sheweth, 
that whereas the Proprietors of ?"all town did in the year 1744 settle a 
Minister who was obliged to leave said town on account of ye War, anti 
the said Proprietors did the last year settle another minister, which has 
been very heavy u])on ye said [:)roprietors your Memorialists therefore hum- 
bly pray that the Inhabitants of said Fall Town may be incor[)()rated into a 
town by the name of Barnard and be invested with all the privileges of the 
rest of the Towns in this province and may be directed to raise their taxes 
and defray their charges as the rest of the towns do excepting a reasonable 
tax upon the unimproved lands for the present — and considering the large 
number of the proprietors in said Township, their great expense in settling 
two ministers, and a large tract of land falling into New Hampshire, your 
Memorialists humbly pray the proprietors of said Fall Town may have a 
tract of land granted to them to make them equal with other grantees of 
the government for service Done and Vour petitioners shall as m duty 
bound ever pray »S:c. 

Fall town Dec. 16, 1761. Ebenezer Sheldon, Jr. 

John Severance. 

Elijah SHELt)ON. 

Joseph Allen. 

John Burk. 

Daniel Dexter. 

Jonathan Ashley. 

Thomas Williams." 
The Act for erecting the New Plantation called Fall Town, in 
the County of Hampshire, into a town by the name of Barnardstown 
was passed to be enacted in the House of Representatives and also 
in the Council on the fifth of March, 1762, and the next day March 6, 
it received the signature of Governor Bernard. Also a grant ot 
7544 acres was made, which land is now within the township of 
Florida, upon Hoosac Mountain. 

Barnardstown now took its place beside other towns in the State 
and its first town meeting was called in the chtirch on Tuesday, 


May II, 1762. Mr. Joseph i\llen was chosen moderator. At an 
adjourned meeting, held 14 days later, these town officers were 

Town Clerk, Maj. John Burk, (an office which he held 22 years.) 
Town Treasurer, Dea. Ebenezer Sheldon. Selectmen and Assessors, 
Maj. Burk, Moses Scott, Remembrance vSheldon. Constable, Aaron 
Field. Tithingman, Joseph Allen. Wardens, James Couch, Re- 
membrance Sheldon. Surveyors of highway, David Ryder, Moses 
Scott, vSamuel Hastings. Deer reaves, James Tute, Samuel Hast- 
ings. Hog reaves, Moses Scott, John Foster. Joel Chapin. Fence 
viewers, (for which office it was customary to choose the tallest 
men), Samuel Cunnable. Joel Chapin. Scaler of weights and meas- 
ures, Sgt. John Severance. 

At the second annual March tuceting in 1763 the offices of sur- 
veyors of wheat, and of shingles and ckijiboards, were added with 
Joel Chapin, Lt. Sampson Howe, and Lt. Howe, with David Rider 
as the respective incumbents. 

The next year a pound about 34 feet square was projected, but 
of its proposed location, or as to whether it was really built, there 
IS nothing to determine. Upon it was to be e.Kpended 12 days' work 
and as much team work as was necessary. 

K commendable order was at this time passed ensuring the pres- 
ervation of all trees bordering the roads, and as we enjoy the many 
beautiful drives abcnit our place ought we not to hold in grateful 
remembrance these many wise acts of our forefathers? Truly their 
deeds live after them ! 

In 1762 the townspeople petitioned the Legislature for relief 
from the Province tax. In the petition they give as reasons that 
the whole of the land under improvement was but 34 acres. Of 
the 20 years which had elai)sed since the first settlements were 
made, 12 had been spent in warfare. The war began in 1744, when 
there were but 17 families in town, and proved very disa.strous. 
May 6. 1746, Burk's Fort was attacked by a large party of Indians, 
there being but three soldiers within the fort at the time. They 
successfully defended it, however, till a man some 40 rods distant 
suceeded in giving the alarm to one farther away. The Indians 
seeing that their presence was tliscovered, quickly withdrew, leav- 


ing two of their number mortally wounded. Maj. Burk was also 
slightly wounded near his shoulder blade. In 1747 Dea. Sheldon's 
house w^as burned, while at Lt. Sheldon's Fort, Eliakim, son of Lt. 
Sheldon, was shot by the Indians, 10 cattle were killed and all save 
two families fled the place. 

This petition portrays most vividly the hardships our progenitors 
experienced, about which we in our peaceful homes can hardly 
form an adequate idea. In 1764 it was voted that Maj. John Burk 
should represent the town in the General Court, and he accordingly 
went as Bernardston's first representative. 

/o/m Ihirk's Commissions. — Bernardston did well to thus honor 
one of her founders and one who had alwas's done so much for her 
protection. He probably did " more for the improvement of the 
town and for advancing its reputation than any other man. He 
went through all the regular grades of military offices, from that 
of corporal to that of major. And let it be remembered a military 
title in those days was a mark of superiority." His first commis- 
sion was as follows: 

" Province of the Massachusetts ]>ay. (Seal.) 

William Shirley Esq. — 
('aptain General and Ciovernor in Chief in and 
over his Majesties Province of the Massachu- 
setts Pay in New England <S:c. 

To John Burk — Gentleman — Greeting: 

Py Virtue of the Power and Authority in and by His Majesty's Royal 
Commission to Me granted to be Captain (reneral <.S:c. over this His Majes- 
ty's Province of the Massachusetts Ba\\ aforesaid I do, (by these presents) 
reposing especial'l'rust and Confulence in your Loyalty, Courage and good 
Conduct, constitute and a])point Vou the saiti John liurk — to be Ensign of 
a Company of Volunteers for his Majesty's Service for the Defence of the 
Western Frontiers under the command of ('apt. Phineas Stevans to be 
posted at the l''ort called Nund)er Four. * .1= * * 

You are therefore carefully antl diligently to Discharge the Duty of an 

Lj^(..Q^.-» ^ t! -K 'T' -t- f* -t* T^ 

in leacHng, Ordering and e.xercising said Company in .Vrir.s, both inferior 
officers and .Soldiers, and to kee|") them in good order and Disci]")line; here- 
by commanding them to obey you as their F^nsign and yourself 

to observe and follow sucii Orders and Instructions as you shall from time 


to time receive from Me as the Commander in Chief for the time being, or 
rather, your Superior Officers for His Majesty's Service, according to Mil- 
itary Rules and DiscipHne, Pursuant to the Trust reposed in you. 

Given under My Hand and Seal at Arms at Boston, the first Day of 
March In the twenty first Year of the Reign of His Majesty King 

George the Second, Anno; Domini 1747. 

W. Shirley. 
By His Excellency's 

J. Willard, Secr'y." 

In 1748, Major Burk participated in what is known as " Hobb's 
fig'ht," a severe skirmish which occttrred on Stmday, June 26, be- 
tween the Indians and a scouting party of about thirty tinder com- 
mand of Capt. Melven. This contest took place some 35 miles from 
Fort Dumraer, up West River, (Vt.) and lasted several hours, "man 
to man as it were — each one relying upon his personal skill to hide 
himself behind trees and logs, and to kill the Indians, who were 
finally compelled to retreat." There were three men killed and four 
wounded. Zebulon Allen of Bernardston was also in this affray, 
at that time holding the of^ce of Sergeant. 

His second commission appointed him " an Ensign in the fort 
Company in Fall Town under the Command & Ebenezer Shel- 
don Jun. is Lieutenant in the northern Regiment of Militia in the 
County of Hampshire whereof Israel Williams Esq., is Colonel," 
and is dated Aug. 14, 1754, signed by W. Shirley, Governor. 

His third commission, dated the loth of the next September ap- 
pointed him " Ensign of the forces raised and posted at Greenfield 
and Fall Town in the Regiment of Militia under the Command of 
Col. Israel Williams." 

March 29. 1755, he was commissioned as "Capt; Lieutenant of a 
company of foot under the command of Col. Ephraim Williams be- 
ing part of the forces raised within the Province for the defence 
and protection of his Majesties territories from the encroachments 
of the French at Crown Point and upon the Lake Iroquois — com- 
monly called by the French, Lake Champlain — and for removing 
the encroachments already made thereof which forces Col. Wil- 
liams is Commander in Chief." 

It was during his service in this campaign that he wrote the let- 


ter already oiven. From his diary is extracted the following, which 
will still further show the demands made upon soldiers at this time : 


" Thiiisday, jjst. (1755) I was ordered up the river wilh about 30 men to 
see what 1 could discover, but saw nothing. Tarried still at Saratoga. 
Our men went out to Saratoga Fort and dug out of the earth 1 114 cannon 
l)all. The men, about 300, went u|) the river to make the road. 1 tarried 
in the camp. 

Friday, ^iiii^. Jst. The army all moved to the second falls above Saratoga, 
4 miles. \\'e drew the Batteaux u[> the llrst falls, load and all; it was fatigu- 
ing, but the men worked like lions, some t(j the neck in water. W'e had 
about 180 batteau.x. This day the men had half a pint of rum more than 
tlie allowance. 

Satiiyda\\ 2nd. We tarried at the falls and got our batteaux in the river. 
'I'he Dutch came u[) wilh t^2 wag(jns, carried all our provisions by, and some 
tents. Our guard that went U[i the river to make ready, saw 4 or 5 hulians. 

Sitnda\\ jrd. We moved to carrying [)laje, Col. Lydies' house, about 45 
miles from Albany. It rained hard this night: some provisions g(Jt wet. 

JSIonda\\ 4ih. I was ordered to attend the court, which adjourned to this 
day. It was adjoui'ned again to l'"riday next in the afternoon. 1 was or- 
dered with 5 men to scout round the cam|is, but made no discovery. 

Tiicsila\\ jt/i. 1 was ordered to take 9 men and go to the l>ake Sacra- 
ment. I/ieut. May, Ensign Siratton ami l^nsign Stevens went to make the 
number. .\s we marched we saw 3 deei", 1 bear, and an old mare and a 
wolf, which was at the lake. We came a little back from the lake and 

IVcdiiesday, 61I1. We returned to our camps, brought in an old mare, 
pit;ked some huckleberries, brought some to (ieneral Lyman. Made no 
discovery; g(jt baik bv 3 o\lot k. This dav the man conlined for sodomy 
was whipped 100 stri|)es and drummed out of the company. 

77ii/i sdtiv, "///. I tarried in the camps. The men got tind)er foi- a store 
house anil bark to cover it, \'c. .\ scout was sent to the drowned land, at 
the place called by the l)ulch Zia/iortcr. 

Friday, Sth. 'I'arried at the caiuj); hidp about the fort t'a[)tain i'atler- 
son set out for \\ Ood Creek with 30 men. He was orderetl to go to the 
mouth of the creek. 

Siilurda\\ Ljtii. 1 lariit.d at tlu' camps; woikcd at drawing lumbei', \-c. 
'I'he scout that went for the diowned land returned, hut ilid not llml it. 


Sunday, lOth. We work at forting our company; set up 15 foot of stock- 
ades. Mr. Williams preached two sermons. The scout returned from 
Wood Creek; they saw signs of Indians, viz. a piece of bread stuck up in 
the path. Maj. Hoar and Lieut. Nixson set out for Albany. 

Monday, 1 ith. I help get some timber. 1 tarried at the camps. A scout 
set out for Crown Point, another fur the South Bay, and another for Lake 
Sacrament. 'I'he two last returned. They reported that they saw Lidians, 
but upon examination it was their own men. Some men went to Saratoga, 
to kill some Dutch cattle. 

Tuesday, 12th. 1 tarried at the camp and hel[) get timber. Some went 
to clear roads. The men that went to Saratoga returned, brought some 
beef, and brought news that the rest of the army was coming near by. 

Wednesday, ijth. 1 tarried at the camps; went over on the island after- 
noon to get gate timber. Ceneral Lyman had an express from (iov. Fitch, 
and some newspapers which gave an account of the death of Gen. Brad- 
dock, and that the army was defeated. 

Thursday, 14th. Gen. Johnson, Col. Titcom, and Col. Williams, with a 
great number of forces, came to the carrying place, with some Indians and 
20 cannon, 2 of which were thirty-two poumlers, and a great many wagons. 
The general was waited upon with a number oi men, and (jn his arrival 
saluted by the ofificers and the discharge of field pieces. Connecticut boys 
and Rhode Island all came. 

Friday, J§th. A council was held; it was determined to send for more 
men to join us at our head quarters. "Little or no work done this day. A 
scout from Crown Point returned; no news. 

Saturday, 16th. I tarried at the camps; did little or nothing. A scout 
came from Fort Massachusetts. I heartl from home. 

Sunday, ijih. I was ordered by Gen. Jcjhnson to scout, with 1 i men 
and 7 Indians, to the Lake Sacrament. Capt. Passore, bound for the So. 
Bay, with 30 or 40 white men and 6 Indians, marched 4 miles with us, and 
turned off. I marched 10 miles. Connecticut and New York forces ar- 
rived with women; a man was drowned. 

Monday, 18th. We marched to the Lake; made no discovery of an enemy. 
Six of the Indians went farther westward. We sat out from the lake at 
orie o'clock, and got home before dark. 

Tuesday, igth. Tarried in the camps; did ncjthing. A general Court 
martial was held. (}en. Lyman, C'ols. Ruggels, \\'illiams, (ioodrich, were 
ordered to be ready to meet at all hours. 


]]'ednesday, 20th. 'I'arried at the camps. A general court martial was 
held in trial of Lieut. Noble and others. Capt. Ayres began to dig a trench. 
A great number was employed at digging. 

Thiirsiiay 2nt. Tarried in camp. Saw Nelly and Polly, in great taking 
for the women, — were all ordered away. Five Indians of the Six Nations 
came from C'anada. Oeneral court martial. About 120 men employed 
digging in the trenches. 'I'he Indians brought news from Canada, that 17 
ships were at Quebec, 600 regulars; that 8000 were exjiected at Crown 
Point, 300 out. 

Friday, 22nd. I tarried at the camp. A council sat; determined to go 
by Lake Sacrament. 1 sent a letter to my wife. Trenching yet, sawing 

Saturday, 2jrd. Four hundred men were ordered to go upon the road; 
1 went |)ilot. Cleared 6 miles. 'Ihe women were sent to .Albany. When 
they went off there was a great lui/za. Trenching and sawing with whip- 
saw yet. 

Sunday, 24II1. 1 was not well; I had a bad cold. Kept in the tent all 
day. Mr. Williams preat'hcd two sermons. ;\ number of men went upon 
the road. Some Indians came to us; informed of more coming. Lieut. 
Noble read his acknowledgment before the assembly. 

Monday, 2^tli. 1 tarried at home in the cam]:)s. A scout sent to Fort 
Massachusetts, — Serg. .Avery, who was one ordered to Deerfield. 1 wrote 
to my wife. 'Prenching and sawing and making a powder house. All go- 
ing forward briskly. 

Tuesday, 26/h. Cen. Johnson, Cols. Ruggels, Williams, (jooilrich's regi- 
ments, and some Rhode Island and york forces, about 1500 men and 200 
wagons, marched forward for Lake Sacrament. March 6 miles and camped. 

Wednesday, 2~tli. We all marched 4 miles and camfKul. We some 
clearing and large causeways to make this day. 

Thursday, 2Stli. We cleared the road 10 miles; got to the lake. The 
men worked very hard this day. One of the men found a gun and Indian 

Friday, 2i)lh. Went to clearing by the lake, making a causeway, ^vx. 
The wagons returned for more stores. .About 20 Lidians came to us. 

Saturday, jotlt. 1 was matk; captain of the guard. Ileihirick, with about 
170 Indians, came to us, they were saluted with a round of guns, and the 
nuMi all drew n]i to receive them. The clc;aring went off brisklv. One 
man killed, 1 taken, 3 escapc^l. They were keepnig cattle at tlu' great 
carrying place. 


Sunday, jist. A number of wagons and cannon came up, guarded by the 
Rhode Islanders and Yorkers. Clearing carried on still. At night the In- 
dians had a great dance. 

Monday, Sept. ist. Capt. Porter, with some Indians marched to the So. 
Bay to intercept the enemy that did st)me mischief. Some canoes were 
seen by our Indians up the lake. I tarried by the camp and cleared for 
tenting. Alarm at night; a sentry shot at a horse. 

Tuesday, 2nd. Capt. Porter and men returned. The Intlians marched 
forward. Five Indians that went out five days ago, that went to the carry- 
ing place at the north end of lake, saw 15 of the enemy. Could not come 
to speech. Our scout returned from Fort Massachusetts. I tarried at the 
camps. Moved our tents. 

Wednesday, jrd. Gen. Lyman, Col. Titcomb, Col. Gilbert came to us 
at Lake George. Some Indians came and joined us. It is said that they 
came 1100 miles. I tarried the camps. 3 Indians went a scalping to Cr(jvvn 

Thursday, 4th. I was ordered to go up the lake with Capt. Stodtiard and 
Capt. Ingersoll, and 3 other white men to carry 3 Indians, who were going 
to Lake West, and we sailed 15 miles. Landed the Indians; returned by 
II at night. Began to build a fort. 

Friday, §th. I was very bad with a cold; tarried at the camps. No 
news this day. 

Saturday, 6th. I went to get a cask out of the store-house, &c. Heard 
that eight or nine of the sick were dead at the other forts. Batteaux, 
stores, daily coming up. Fort building, scows making. 

Sunday, jth. A scout of Indians came in who have been to Crown Point, 
and inform us that they saw as they returned the signs of a large army 
marching south in 3 files; designed as they suppose, for our fort, at great 
carrying place. A man who was thought to have deserted was found dead 
at the other fort; killed by the fall of a tree it is supposed. 

Monday, 8th. Col. Williams was sent out with 1000 men in search of 
the enemy; determined to march toward the south bay. They marched 
so in the road 3 miles, when they were waylaid by the enemy and fired 
upon. The enemy having the advantage of the ground, obliged our men 
to retreat to the camps; killed and wounded a great many by the way. 
The enemy made a very smart attack upon the camps, but we stood ground 
and drove them back. Took the general and aid de-cam [), and about 25 
prisoners. New Hampshire and york men at the other fort, at the carry- 


ing- phu.e, heard the great guns, came up and met the enemy stripping our 
dead; drove them from the ground and took 2 prisoners. 'I'hey fought 
them three hours, ami we fought them from between 10 and 11 till between 
6 and 7 afternoon. No such battle before in North America. 

Tuesday, gth. About 300 we sent out to bury the dead. 1 went with 
them. The men forward took a start, ran back; were stopped by the offi- 
cers. I''ound it too late to do the business. Returned to the camp:;, brought 
one wounded man of ours, a great deal of plunder, i\:c. 

Wediicsda\\ lolh. We went out again, liuried 136 dead (;f ours, and some 
l''rench. IJrought in a great deal of plunder and I'Vench provisions, and 
one of oiir wounded, a scout from the other fort and from Hoosuck, Capt. 
Wyman. 1 sent a letter to my wife. All a-fortifying at the camps. Col. 
W'illard, Capt. Symers. came up with a nundjer of wagons with provi- 
sions, cVc. The wagoners went back, the Indians went off home. A great 
number of men went plundering; found a great deal. Buried 4 more of 
our men." 

Major Bttrk was also present at the surrender of Fort William 
Henry, Ang-ust 10, 1757, escapincr from that massacre clad only in 
his " deer skin breeches and his watch," while his reported losses 
inehided 328^^ 8s. continental currency, (or about $50), and a "To- 
bacco box, I pound." 

His fifth comtnission appointed him " Lieutenant of the Forces 
posted at Fall Town, Colrain, Charlemont, Northfield, (xreenfield, 
Hunts Town, Pontoosuck and Stockbridge under Israel Williams, 
Fsc| , (who has the Chief Comtnand of the Forces in the Western 
Frontier.") This paper was dated June 5th, 1758, and was signed 
bv T. Pownall, (lovernor, and Thos. Clark, Depty. Secy. 

His next commission appointed him " Captain of a Company in 
a Regiment of Foot whereof Brigadeer General Timothy Ruggles 
is Colonel, raised by me to be employed in his Majesties Service 
the ensuing Campaign," dated March 31st, 1759. His seventh com- 
mission appointing him Major is as follows : 

"I'rovince of the Thomas Pownall Ksq. 

Massachusetts ilay. Captain (leneral and (iovernor 

Seal. in ('hief, in and of His Majesties 

Province of the Massachusetts JJay 
in New Kngland and \'ice .Admiral 
of t lie Same ivc. 


To John Burk Esq. Greeting. 

By Virtue of the Power and Authority in and by His Majesty's Royal 
Commission to Me granted to be Captain General &c. over this His Majes- 
ty's Province of the Massachusetts P>ay aforesaid I do by these Presents 
(rep(jsing especial Trust and Confidence in Your Loyalty, courage and good 

conduct) constitute and appoint You the said John Burk to be Major 

of the First Batallion of a Regiment whereof Timothy Ruggles Esq. is 

You are therefore carefully and diligently to discharge the duty of a 
Major in leading ordering and exercising said Regiment in, Arms both in- 
ferior Officers and Soldiers and to keep them in good order and Discipline 
and they are hereby Commanded to obey you as their Major and you are 
yourself to observe and follow Such Orders and Instructions as you Shall 
from time to time recieve from the General and commander in Chief of His 
Majesties Forces in North America 1 your Colonel or rather your Superior 
Officer, according to the Rules and l)isci[:)line of War in pursuance of the 
Trust hereby reposed in you. 

Given under my H;ind and Seal at Arms at B(jston the day of February 
In the thirty third Year of the Reign of His Majesty King (reorge the 
Second, Anno, Domini, 1760. 


By His Excellency's 

A. Olliver, Sec." 

The orii^inal of the first, fifth, sixth and seventh commissions are 
in the possession of tlie "Ciishman Library" at Bernardston and 
the others vv^ere presented by Gov. Ctishman to the American Anti- 
qitarian Society at Worcester, Mass. 

Such is the military record of Major John Burk prior to the Rev- 
oltition. In that crisis he was " ever a firm and unwavering friend 
of his country, and by his influence did much in our glorious strug- 
gle for liberty. * - He was a man of a sotmd, discriminating 
mind, of good edtication for the times, — a judicious politician — a 
practical christian — one of the pillars of the church, and a man 
much beloved in private life. In short, as a man, as a soldier, as a 
statesman, and as a Christian he was eminent. And what higher 
eulogiiim can be pronounced tipon any man?" 



HigJnvays. — As in all places settled during" the colonial period, so 
here the first roads were little more than mere bridle paths through 
the forest. The proprietors, when they came, were upon the very 
frontiers of civilization, and of necessity their attention centered 
UDon their homes and the means of subsistence. Later more time 
was given to the consideration of other matters, hence, after a few 
years, we find mention made in the records of their annual meet- 
ings, of their roadways. 

In the early settlement of the place, the inhabitants were located 
principally upon the river, north from the present iron bridge, 
north-east onto Huckle Hill, east to the Lt. Sheldon Fort, later 
known as the " Purple Place." Why the Hill should have been 
chosen as a site for the Meeting House, or seemed especially desir- 
able for a home location, it might, perhaps, seem difftcult to under- 
stand, unless because a path from Greenfield, or Deerfield, as the 
territory was then called, was here laid out. A retrospective glance 
toward the colonial history of most towns in Massachusetts suggests 
striking similarities, showing that very often upon the hii^hest 
ground were the first buildings erected. This may be tracable to 
two causes; protection from the dampness of the more marshy 
lowlands, and a greater degree of security from the Indians. Upon 
the river, the superiority of the land and its ready adaptability to 
their needs, doubtless had its influence. Therefore we find that 
the earliest roads were in these sections of the town, seemingly 
following no prescribed plan other than to pass by the dwellings 
of the inhabitants. 











No known plan of these early roads is in existence. In the Massa- 
chusetts State Archives, Vol. 12, p. i, is this plan protracted Mch.26, 
1795. It would almost appear that this was a vState paper prepared 
with especial reference to the location of the churches, inasmuch 
as many roads known to have been then laid out are not therein 
delineated. The votes taken reg-arding the early roads are here 
'given at length, inasmuch as they tend to show, not only the loca- 
tion of the roads, but also who were the families in town, and, to 
a certain extent, the places of their habitation. 

Probably the first recorded action on highways was in 1740, when 
it was ordered that highways be laid out wherever the committee 
should deem it advisable. The old " King's Highway " was pre- 
sumably the first road and ran from the Burk Fort east, the river 
being forded, through a portion of the lot known now as the " Town 
Farm " to Deacon Sheldon's Fort upon Huckle Hill. Thence a 
road ran south-east to the Lt. Sheldon Fort. Some of the other ear- 
lier ones were from Lt. Sheldon's, in the east part of the town, to the 
sawmill, probably what was called the county road ; a part of the 
way this nearly concurred with the present Northfield road, one of 
the exceptions being that it ran around by the place now owned by 
Mr. George Parmenter. Other roads ran from the county road 
by the sawmill to Simeon Hall's ; from the sawmill to Sg. Allen's ; 
from Moses Scott's to Deacon Sheldon's; from Samuel Hastings", 
probably on Huckle Hill, to Dry Brook ; from the county road to 
Amasa Sheldon's ; from Benjamin Green's southward ; from Deer- 
field to Colrain (which road passed through Fall Town), from or 
near Major Burk's north as far as Samuel Connable's. The first 
road to Greenfield ran nearly parallel with the present main road, 
but further to the east, down by Mr. P. L. Cushman's, and is to-day 
known as the " Back Road to Greenfield," or " Lamp-black Street." 

In 1764 it was voted that a road be laid out from the bridge by 
the sawmill to Lt. Sheldon's ; from house lot No. i6 down by Moses 
Scott's house ; that the road from the bridge to Lt. Sheldon's be 
established ; that the road laid from the county road by the saw- 
mill to Simeon Hall's be a town road. 

Dec. 31, 1765, voted that Moses Scott, Deacon Sheldon, Major 


Burk, David Rider, Amasa Sheldon, be a committee for the preser- 
vation of timber on the several roads in town. 

1766. Among- the existing- roads at this date were those from 
Moses Scott's to Sgt. John Severances'; Samuel Hastings' to Daniel 
Slate's ; The country (county?) road to Amasa Sheldon's ; the saw- 
mill east to the country road ; the sawmill to Joseph Slate's and 
Sgt. Allen's ; Deerfield to Colrain ; road to the west part of the 
town ; road to Elijah Sheldon's lot, above the Fairweather farm ; 
from the country road the west side of Fall River to Ichabod 

1767. Road from James Couch's to Michael Frizzell's lot, No. 73, 
ist division, be confirmed ; from the sawmill to Joseph Slate's, and 
thence toward Sgt. Allen's, be confirmed as far as the "slow at the 
swamp;" from the south-east corner of Simeon Hall's lot. No. 80, 
ist division, up to the Province line. 

1769. Road by Simeon Hall's up to Thomas Wooley's and from 
this road down to Ichabod Warner's house be confirmed. 

1770. Road from David Ryder's corner of the garden fence down 
to ye road that comes from the sawmill ; from the corner of the 
garden fence west 25 degrees S. 58 rods to Daniel Dexter's lot ; 
from the north-east corner of Ezekiel Foster's house to the south 
line of Benjamin Green's land. 

1 77 1. Road across Aaron Field's and Thomas Gilley's lot, then 
across Dry Brook, and so up sd Dry Brook to vSamuel Hastings' 
north lot, then up by west end of said Hastings' lot and the west 
end of Daniel Slate's lot to Elias Parmenter's lot. 

1774. To confirm road up to David Smalley's and so to David 
Page's land ; to confirm the road from Nehemiah Andros's log- 
house up to his lot, through David Rider and William Fox's land, 
sd Rider to have $4.00, and wood on road through his land ; con- 
firm the road to Ichabod Warner's viz., from Simeon Hall's to Prov- 
ince line ; to Moses Smith's land so as to leave Samuel Ellis's house 
one half a rod to the west of the road ; to build a bridge over Fall 
River on the road from Major Burk's to the meeting house, to be 
done out of the highway work, Major Burk, David Rider and Moses 
Scott to be a committee to build said bridge ; voted that all the 
men that live north of the north-west branch of Fall River shall be 


allowed to do their quota of highway work towards building a bridge 
over said branch on these terms: that Hophni Rider will give two 
days' work ; Ichabod Warner, four days ; Simeon Hall, two days ; 
Jacob Orcutt, one day; Samuel Cunnable, Jr., one day; David 
Smalley, two days' work toward building said bridge and if above 
mentioned work does not finish it, it must ly by till further order. 
Voted that John Burk, Moses Scott and Remembrance Sheldon be 
a committee to determine where Benjamin Green, Jr., shall build 
a house on the sawmill yard, and what he shall give for the land 
if they think there is room for a house and not incommode the 
mill yard. 

1776. To confirm the road from the slab bridge across Dry Plain 
to the road west of Samuel Hale's. It comes into said road at the 
bridge, a little north of Samuel Hale's house. 

1777. To confirm the road going by Joshua Wells' house to the 
Guilford line. 

1779. To confirm the road laid from the south line of the town 
east of Lemuel Robbins' house, and so north to the pole bridge on 
Dr. Cushman's land. 

1786. That a road be laid out from Zebulon Allen's west to Ley- 
den ; also from Ichabod Warner's to the sawmill yard. 

1789. To lay a road across Fall River from the road on the east 
side to the road on the west side, just north of Daniel Loomis' ; 
to build a bridge across James Couch's brook, where the county 
road is laid. 

1803. To discontinue the road from Tute Hollow, so called, by 
the Casey house to the Gill line. 

1 8 1 1 . To discontinue the road from Dry Brook to Deacon Snow's. 

1 8 14. Voted to procure five scrapers and that it be left with the 
surveyors to purchase them. 

Prior to the Revolution an act was passed which in some degree 
anticipated the work of the modern rural clubs and improvement 
societies, inasmuch as by it all were prohibited from cutting any 
trees located within the bounds of the highway. Had it not have 
been for this wise regulation, some of our most attractive drives 
might, probably would, have been despoiled of much of their nat- 


ural beauty. The improvements on the roads have been continu- 
ous, and to-day, go where you will about the town, they are found 
to be in excellent condition, and conceded to be among the best to 
be found in the county. Winding in and out, following the trend 
of river and brook, between and over the mountains, prettily wooded 
in many places, well shaded a greater portion of the way, one needs 
but a soul in harmony with Nature to deeply appreciate the ever 
changing panorama with which the eye is constantly greeted on a 
drive about our beautiful town. 

Bridges. — One of the first, if not tJic first bridge to be built in 
town, was across Fall River, near or on the site of the present iron 
structure at the village. In 1740, Caleb Chapin, John Hitchcock 
and Josiah Scott were chosen to build a bridge " near the sawmill." 
Later on, in 1744, the committee upon bridge-building was Gershem 
Hawks, Ebenezer Sheldon, Jr., Moses Scott, Noah Wright, John 
Burk and Peter Newcomb. Probably the first bridge was built 
under the direction of one or both of these committees. In the 
Connable Genealogy, mention is made of three bridges being con- 
structed across Fall River by Samuel Connable, one of the first set- 
tlers. The first, built in 1741, was the first in town, the second, in 
1750, and a third in 1760, located near the sawmill. 

During the period of the Indian wars, and the subsequent com- 
parative desertion of the town, ruin and decay became apparent on 
all sides. Upon the dawn of peace in 1760, the settlers returning, 
devoted their attention to the restoration of order, and Samuel 
Connable and Moses Scott were chosen to rebuild the bridge, the 
price agreed upon being 2']£, ($90.00.) For this sum they were to 
pitch the timbers above water mark and take any further precau- 
tions which would render it more durable. About 1780 it became 
evident that further repairs, or possibly a reconstruction of this 
structure, must be soon forthcoming, and March 3, 1783, it was de- 
creed that the bridge should be made 12 feet in width between the 
posts, that it should be " what is called a Hook Bridge and planked 
with sawed planks for a covering 3 inches thick." 

March 7, 1774, it was voted to build a bridge on the road from 
" Major Burk's to the Meeting House," which has been since known 
as the " Burk Bridge." Hitherto the river at this point had been 
forded. Now a substantial iron bridge spans the river. 


In 1800 there is mention made of repairing the old bridge across 
Fall River near Dr. Ryther's sawmill. In 1774 there was one also 
to be built across the north-west branch of Fall River upon the site 
of the one now near the home of Mr. A. C. Brown. The 26th of 
the December following, it was voted to build a part of the bridge 
over Fall River, on the Greenfield line, provided that Greenfield 
will build their part, the building to be done the ensuing summer. 
Presumably this plan was not then put into execution, from the 
fact that July 26, 1781 — seven j^ears later — it was voted to " Raise 
tlie sum of 4£ los. to pay the master workman for framing this 
town's part of the bridge at the Iron Works, and to purchase rum 
for the raising of the Bridge." The iron works here referred to 
occupied a position near or on the site of E. S. Hurlbert's factory, 
the territory being upon what was then the boundary line between 
Bernardston and Greenfield. This bridge was once the scene of 
what would have, in the majority of cases, proven a serious acci- 
dent. In April, 1797, as Mr. Consider Cushman, with a cart, yoke 
of oxen and a horse, was crossing the structure, the sleepers gave 
way, precipitating Mr. Cushman and his teams into the stream some 
15 to 20 feet below, amid the fallen timbers. In an almost miracu- 
lous manner Mr. C. and his animals escaped unhurt, and his cart 
was found to be intact. So says Lt. Gov. Cushman, who also adds 
that Bethan Dickinson was an eye witness of the affair, and that 
P. L. Cushman, ist., soon appeared with proffered assistance. The 
bridge was not immediately repaired, and the next August the re- 
mainder was swept away by the "August Flood." This flood caused 
much devastation along the course of the river. Heavy and pro- 
longed rains quickly raised the waters, converting them, for the 
time being, into a most turbulent torrent, and so suddenly did this 
rise occur that in some cases it is said that cattle were surrounded 
and carried off, while the mills and bridges from the source to the 
mouth of the river were, almost without exception, swept away. 
This IS the only occasion upon which damage to so great an extent 
has been wrought by our ordinarily peaceful stream. The bridges 
were soon rebuilt and about 1870, the wooden bridge across the 
river at the village was replaced by the present substantial iron 
one. At the north part of the town, across Newcomb brook, iron 
has also superseded the wood, and, without doubt, as the older 

54 MILLS. 

bridges yield to time and decay, the stronger and more durable 
material will come into even more general use. 

Mills. — The proprietors of this township early recognized the 
advantages to be derived from the water power in their possession, 
hence we find this note in the record of their second meeting, held 
October 6, 1736, at the home of Mr. Stebbins at Northampton: 
"Att ye same Time itt was Voted that the Committee shall take 
effectual care In Laying Sd Home Lotts out that they preserve and 
not Lay out any Stream or Place or Places sutuble and sufficient 
to set any mill or mills upon, but that they may be preferved for 
ye Good and benefit of ye Proprietes and so be att their disposi- 

Further action was taken at a meeting held May 5, 1737, as fol- 
lows : Messrs. Ichabod AUice, Jonathan Hoit, Samuel Field, Eben- 
ezer Sheldon and Benjamin Munn were chosen a committee to 
" Take effectual care there be a saw-mill erected in sd place speed- 
ily upon ye Falls In Fall River In That Place upon sd River be- 
tween where ye entervail or Meddow land Is, or Lyeth upon sd 
River and yt the Man or Men ye committee agree with to Sett up 
sd Mill Shall have ye sole benefitt of ye sd streem half a mile up 
sd River from ye Middle Falls in sd PLiver for ye benefit of ye 
Proprietors, for a sawmill and a grist mill, and that no man shall 
erect or sett up any mill or dams ; viz. either saw or grist mill be- 
low ye Mill or Mills the man or men The sd Proprietory committee 
shall agree with so near his sd mill or mills so as any way to dem- 
nifie him In ye Improvement of his sd Mills." In October ensu- 
ing, it was voted to raise the sum of 40^^, the same to be applied 
toward the erection of the sawmill, and the above mentioned com- 
mittee were empowered to agree with Joseph Mitchell, or some 
other person to undertake the work, the succeeding summer. A 
grist mill was likewise projected, to cover the cost of which a tax 
of los. a person was imposed. The saw mill was the first to be 
completed, but at what date there is nothing upon record to show. 
We may suppose that the committee having the matter in hand 
executed their commission promptly. That some portion of the 
work was speedily accomplished is shown by the entry made 
June 13, 1799, when the statement was made that certain meadow 

MILLS. 55 

lands were overflowed because of the mill dam havmg been con- 
structed ; those whose property was thus inundated were granted 
the privilege of making an exchange for any undivided lands they 
might prefer, the said exchange to be made at their own expense. 
Whether any availed themselves of this opportunity is unknown. 
This mill was located just south of the present iron bridge, and 
occupied that position until about 1870. Among the later owners 
was Job Goodale, who leased the property to his son-in-law, Zebina 
Newcomb. September 15, 1879, ^^e Newtons of Holyoke bought 
and shipped away all the mill machinery from this old sawmill, 
and the building itself was torn down the next month. 

At intervals the grist mill project was agitated, but with no defi- 
nite results until March 6, 1775, when Samuel Connable built a 
" Corn Mill '' upon the north-west branch of Fall River. At a much 
later date one was put in and run in connection with Mr. Goodale's 

The second sawmill was built on the Newcomb brook by Captain 
John Connable, and in the raising of the same he had only the 
assistance of his daughter Molly, and the "Old White Mare." This 
location is connected in a most vivid manner with the Indian ter- 
rors experienced by the older town of Deerfield, inasmuch as near 
here one of the Deerfield captives — an infant — was most cruelly 
thrown down into the gorge, thus meeting its death at the hands 
of its captors, they being en route to Canada. On this brook was 
a shop owned and operated by Solomon Newcomb and located 
about a half mile above the Connable mill. Here was made almost 
all articles for domestic use, from turned woods, such as churns, 
cheese presses, chairs, &c. 

A short distance below the Connable mill stood the gin distil- 
lery. Into this Ezra Newcomb put gearing and started a saw and 
shingle mill. He sold to Ralph Cushman, and he, in turn, to George 
Thompson. The latter sold the gearing to wSheldon Wright and 
Gaines Green, who, later, transferred it to a mill which they had 
built on Branch brook, near Galusha Newton's farm. The mill was 
sold about 1846-8 to Zenas Cutler, who took down the building, 
moved it to his place, and transformed it into a barn and hop house. 

The waters of West Branch turned the mill wheels owned by 

56 MILLS. 

Socrates Sheldon, wlio finally sold his interests to Olivier and Rno^- 
j:^les Bagg. Hucklc Hill's representative in this industry was John, 
son of Deacon Daniel Slate, \vh(\ about 1840 or 1845, built a saw- 
mill on Dry Brook ; this only had an existence of two or three 
years. At about the same time, Stephen Gore built another on 
Burk Flat, which was successively sold to Joseph Cheeny, Col. 
Aretas Ferry, Henry Park and Lucius M. Wcatherhead. It is now 
owned by a Mr. Welcome and is one of the two still running". 
Oeorge Alexander had a sawmill on the brook north of P. L. Cush- 
man's fishpond, the dam being where the present one is. 

In the west part of the town, upon Mill brook, Increase Sumner 
Hale owned and o]:)erated a sawmill. As the weight of years bore 
heavily upon him, his son, Hartly, succeeded to its management and 
removed it to a position opposite the depot, utilizing steam as motive 
power, and combining with this a gristmill. Later another change 
was made, purchasing in iS.So the mill site and power of the mill 
formerly owned and operated l)y Chaunccy vSlate, whose mill had 
been burned. Here a good water power was available and Mr. 
Hale steadily increased his lousiness, finally removing his sawmill 
to this location. These mills were sold from his estate to Chas. 
Barber, by whom they were operated until destroyed by fire July 22, 
1899. Upon this site he has erected a sawmill whicli is now oper- 
ated ])y John Chapin. The grist mill was built on the west side 
of the road, fitted out with rdl modern improvements, a large ele- 
Vcator built in, the power being transmitted from the river by cables. 
To the milling business he has added trade in flour, grains and 

These mills, in connection with the one now owned by Mr. Wel- 
come two miles north, are the only ones which check the eea.seless 
flow of the streams in their oceanward course. 

V^nvcriis. — To one inclined to make close inquiry regarding the 
establishment ;ind ready adaptrd)ility of houses of public entertain- 
ment for different purposes, in former times, many interesting 
facts are revealed. Not only did they serve to provide accommo- 
dations for the travelling ])ublic, l)Ut also as a place iov keeping 
relavs of horses upon the v.irious stage routes, as a conv'cnient place 
of assemblage, at which all the absorbing topics of the day were 


discussed, and the town, lacking- other suitable public buildings, 
as a place in which to hold their annual meetings. Certainly the 
old time taverns in this place were used for these very purposes. 
And who that has read Irving's Rip Van Winkle, does not recall 
the peaceful scene there depicted — the venerable white-haired, 
white-bearded old man, sitting calmly smoking beneath the spread- 
ing branches of the old tree by the village inn, either with the 
children by his side or else discussing the political situation ? And 
having read, who is there so lacking in imagination as not to be 
able to see just such scenes re-enacted under the spreading branches 
of the fine old trees about the old Chase Tavern at North Bernards- 
ton, or at the New England House at the village? Trees, noble 
specimens of their kind, which have been mute witnesses of scenes, 
peaceful and warlike, joyful and sorrowful ! Trees lending to the 
place a charm of their own and inseparably associated with the 
places in memory! 

As early as 1760, Elijah (or Elisha) Sheldon, kept a tavern near 
Huckle Hill and this, no doubt, was the first one here. Upon the 
farm now owned by the Frizzell Bros., and near the site of Burk 
Fort, Major John Burk kept, in 1763, a tavern, which fact was an- 
nounced by a shield shaped sign, having painted upon its centre a 
decanter and glasses, while large letters surrounding this design 
declared that here was provided " Entertainment for Man and 
Beast. John Burk." This sign was preserved and by Mr. Richard 
H. Hoyt presented to the P. V. M. A. of Deerfield,and can now be 
seen in the Society room. This hotel was a part of the original 
Burk Fort, it having been removed from its first location and a 
front built on. 

In the house now owned by Mr. Abbott Brown in North Bernard- 
ston is recognized what was for years known as the "Connable Tav- 
ern." For many years this house was kept by Mr. Brown's maternal 
grand-parent, Capt. Jonathan Connable, and was presumably opened 
to the public about the year 1800. A half mile further north, and 
the same distance south from the Vermont line, stands the old 
" Chase Tavern," long used as a for changing horses upon the 
Brattleboro stage route. This had a number of owners, among 
others being a Mr. Root, son of Major Root, Col. Wright of South 


Deerfield, Rufus Chase and his son vSanford, Sage Newcorab and 
his son-in-law Ford, and lastly Mr. E. C. Newton. Since about 1882 
the house has been closed to the public and is now occupied as a 
private dwelling. About 1795 Ruel Willard came from Greenfield 
to live upon his landed estates. He returned to Greenfield, and 
again in 1805 removed to Bernardston to his farm and tavern stand, 
where he died May 24, 1806, ae. 54. This was located on or near 
the place owned by the late Frederic Chapin. 

The present hotel, the " New England House " at the village, had 
its beginning near the opening of the ninteenth century, when it 
was kept by Major Webster, who sold it to P. L. Cushman, who was 
the proprietor many years. Among those who succeeded him were 
Lt. Gov. Cushman, John N. Purple, P. L. Cushman, 2nd, from 1847 
to 1850, and Willard Owen. The latter gentleman was born July 10, 
1820, died November 29, 1892, and his body brought back to Ber- 
nardston for burial. For some time the stand was kept by Eli C. 
Fox, who sold in April, 1864, to Isaac P. Morrison of Brooklyn, 
N. Y. The October following it was purchased by Mr. John San- 
derson and Col. Ferry and by them leased in December of that 
year to William Bascom. vSucceeding the last named as lessees 
were Henry C. Uenham and Joseph Scott. The later lessees have 
been Mr. O. C. Allen, who assumed control in November, 1879, '^^^^ 
by whom it was most successfully conducted for about 10 years, 
and Mr. H. Taintor. About 1888 or 1890, the property was sold to 
Frederick K. Clough and was leased by him to Mr. Frank Turner. 
The present owner and proprietor is Mr. 11. B. Reed, who came here 
from Vernon, Vt. He has taken a deal of professional pride in 
refitting the house throughout with all modern conveniences to be 
found in large places and the same spirit of improvement has been 
displayed in the barns and ice houses. The large and rapidly grow- 
ing number of patrons from surrounding towns bears ample testi- 
mony to the luxurious cuisine and service there provided. The 
town is to be congratulated upon having one of the best hotels in 
Franklin County. 

Stag-iS a)id Railnxxd. — The first means of conveyance succeeding 
the primitive method of horse back riding, was by stages, the ad- 
vent of which was hailed as a marked advancement. The appear- 


ance of the stage was the signal for an unwonted activity, and when 
it is considered that all communication with the outside world came 
through this avenue, can it prove after all, a source of wonder ? In 
the thirties, the stage line between Greenfield and Brattleboro, 
passing through Bernardston, was operated by Asher Spencer, a 
resident of Greenfield. He had what was designated as the "Tele- 
graph " or fast line, carrying the through New York mail north- 
ward. On this line it was required that seven miles an hour be 
covered, no account or allowance being made for inclement weather 
or the poor condition of the roads. For failure in this direction a 
forfeiture of $100.00 was exacted. For this service the best of horse 
flesh was procured and special coaches made in Albany, N. Y., were 
used. The drivers were only allowed to carry six inside passen- 
gers and an extra charge was made for travel. The ordinary coach 
line was running, in addition to the "Telegraph" line and by far 
the largest part of the travel was done by means of the latter. The 
usual rates of transportation were about five cents a mile. In sum- 
mer there were three stages daily each way ; during the winter 
but two. 

This was the manner in which we must imagine our ancestors 
travelling up to the year 1846. At this date the Connecticut River, 
now the Boston and Maine, railroad, was opened, passing through 
Bernardston, and from thence the stage was an institution of the 
past. This railroad is the only one passing through the place and 
its excellent service is fully appreciated by its patrons. 

Industries. — Bernardston has always been, and probably will be, 
essentially an agricultural and educational town. Its natural ad- 
vantages all foretell this. From time to time manufacturing indus- 
tries have sprung up, suited to the needs of her inhabitants, and 
this is something traceable in the early history of all pioneer towns 
— the very demand creates its fulfillment. Towns of much size 
being remote from each other, and far from Boston, which during 
the 1 8th century was the principal market place, the people of nec- 
essity made for themselves, so far as possible, all articles needful 
for common or daily use. Thus we see why so many tanneries and 
shoe shops, scythe-snath and blacksmith shops, saw and grist mills 
and such like industries had an existence. In the following account 


of those established in this town only approximate dates are ^^iven. 
In the ag-gregate it seems like an unusual amount of business for 
the size of the place, but it must be borne in mind that one fol- 
lowed the other in the majority of cases, and in this way the seem- 
ing paradox is explainable. 

Tanneries and Shoc-sliops. — Some of the first of these to be estab- 
lished were the tanneries and shoe-shops. The present Cushman 
Hall is on the site o'f probably the largest of these old tanneries. 
It was owned by Izatus Sheldon and Elizur Chamberlain, about 
1830 to 1840. In connection with this, they owned and carried on 
shoe-shops. Chamberlain's shoe-shop was on the corner opposite 
where the library now stands, owned at present by Mrs. Harriet 
Brown. Tanninii; their own leather, employing oftentimes a dozen 
men in working it up, they found a market for their productions in 
the distant vSouth. Although in company, they each hadaseparate 
shoe-shop. They also employed Mr. Amos Carrier, who had a shop 
just south of the present residence of Mr. Frank Burrows on South 
street. After the di.ssolution of their partnership, Mr. Carrier car- 
ried on the same business for himself at his old stand. Sheldon's 
shop was in the back part of his house, on the site of the one now 
occupied by Mr. vSumner Stratton. The tannery was sold out to 
one Joel Fay, who came from the vicinity of New Salem. He ran 
It for three or four years, when it was given up, and a part torn 
down, probably not far from 1850. A second part was moved to 
the present library location and converted into a blacksmith shop, 
which was occupied by the Fox brothers, Selah Wright, and Eli C. 
This was later owned by Mr. J. N. Dewey, and moved to its pres- 
ent position back of the Universalist church building. Mr. Dewey 
sold about 1880 to Wells Bardwell, and he, May, 1880, to A. Kenney. 
It is now occupied by Mr. Cairns. 

A third portion of the old tannery was moved to a position on 
South street, standing where Dr. Bowker's barn is now located and 
was occupied by Col. Ferry as a .scythe-snath shop. This was finally 

A second tannery was situated at North Bernardstoii, east of 
Charles r>agg's place and upon the river, owned by Lewis Prouty. 
About i860, lames Linton owned and ran a shoe-shop, which was 









afterward bought and run by Lucius and Marcus Cook in the old 
Goodale Academy, later transformed into a dwelling by J. N. Dewey. 
These shops all did a fair amount of business according to the old- 
time method. In 1829 there was advertised as being for sale a 
house, wood house, tanner's shop, shoemaker's shop and bark mill 
on a fine stream. Quartus vSheldon was then living on the prem- 
ises. About 1845 John Allen made and repaired shoes, his place 
of business being at North Bernardston. In 1872 the largest in- 
dustry probably in this line the town has ever had was started by 
N. S. Cutler, in the manufacturing of women's, misses' and chil- 
dren's shoes. A shop was built upon the old Ur. Brooks place on 
vSouth street and a force of fifteen hands employed. This enter- 
prise steadily grew until some fifty hands were busy, and with 
the increasing cares and needs, partnerships were formed with 
Capt. George Warner, a native of Bernardston, now resident in 
Lynn, and with George T. Cutler, a brother of the senior member. 
In 1880 the business had assumed such proportions as to render 
the distance from a more desirable shipping point and banking 
facilities a most serious drawback ; consequently after much delib- 
eration and careful consideration, the business was transferred to 
Greenfield, Mass., July ist, 1880. 

Scytlu'-snatJis. — About 1840, Col. Ferry owned a scythe-snath shop 
located where Dr. Bowker's barn now stands. This was burned 
and he rebuilt on the river south of where is now the Barber mill. 
Here, until 1867, a prosperous business was carried on. Col. Ferry 
retiring, sold the property to James Haynes, who in turn disposed 
of it to Alburtus Weatherhead. The latter converted it into a 
wheelwright shop, carrying on that business until his death. In 
the settlement of his estate, E. S. Hurlbert became possessed of 
the property, leasing the same to J. Henry Nichols for the manu- 
facture of cutlery. 

Blacksmiths. — In a shop situated between the present iron bridge 
and the old sawmill site, vSelah W. and Eli C. Fox, brothers, car- 
ried on blacksmithiiig. Here they made the snath trimmings 
used by Col. Ferry, and the business careers of these two firms 
were nearly or quite contemporaneous. 

Near by the shop of Messrs. Fox was located another, owned by 


Medad Squires, just west of the present residence of Mr. O. W. Gray. 
ITpon the site of the present brick store building there was. at an 
early date, one owned by Horace Atherton. This one was burned 
in 1S21, but was soon after rebuilt, used for a time, then removed 
to the lot upon which now stands the house recently owned by the 
late H. N. Porter, upon the river bank. April 2, 1828, Jared Fox and 
Jedediah S. Woodard, blacksmiths, dissolved partnership and the 
business was continued by Fox, who in October, 1829, sold the 

same to Pliney Merrill, whose apprentices, Stratton and Frank 

vSnow, carried on the business. Subsequently Enoch Moore bought 
this and during; his ownership it was again devastated by fire. In 
rebuilding, Mr. Moore chose a site about a quarter of a mile to the 
south. This shop he sold to Josiah P. Day, who owned and oper- 
ated it many years, finally selling the same. Mr. Moore soon after 
built another forge on the next lot south of Mr. Day's. The build- 
ing is still standing, but has long since fallen into disuse. One of 
the last occupants was William Chase, who in 1879 removed thence 
to the stand owned by Mr. Dewey. Where now Mr. ^Sanderson's 
ice-house stands, Joel Doty at one time plied his trade. In the 
north part of the town, near the location of the recent store. Dea- 
con Gore's forge and bellows were to be seen. This subsequently 
passed to the ownership of Benjamin Arnold Streeter, while upon 
the opposite side of the street was one owned by a Mr. Lee. The 
first blacksmith in town was a Mr. Bailey, who had a shop in the 
old Burk Fort. Mr. Bailey was the seccmd man to be buried in the 
old burying ground in or about 1757, a soldier's interment there 
being the first. 

With the exception of Messrs. Day and Dewey's shops, the exist- 
ence of most of these antedate the war or the year 1865 at the lat- 
est. The precise dates relative to many it has been well nigh ini- 
possible to obtain, and the same applies to other industries. Close 
inquiry from the older inhabitants elicits the information that "such 
a one had its beginning when I was a boy, and might have been 
run until I was about so old." No doubt there were tethers in the 
early settlement of the place not here mentioned. 

Gravesto)ics.--\i may be a fact not generall}' known that very 
many of the black slate slabs in the old cemetery, as well as some 


in the new, were produced from native soil, and were quarried and 
sawed by Samuel and Caleb Chapin. Their quarry was situated 
on the top of West Mountain, very nearly opposite the hotel. About 
1830 they conducted quite a business in this line, their shop being 
located upon the banks of the Blake pond, so called, a little above the 
late Mr. P. L. Cushman's. Here they did their sawing- by water 
power, using a smooth edged piece of steel for a saw, and making sand 
and water, slowly sprinkled and poured on in the track of the steel, 
do the work of sawing. The lettering on these stones was done in 
a building which has stood until within the last twelve to twenty 
years, just north of Mrs. Janette Chapin's place, at the corner of 
Depot and South streets. Mr. Nelson Blake purchased their shop, 
thereby securing the water power, and here he established a wheel- 
wright shop, which he conducted until his death. The next own- 
ers of the place were, .successively, George Green, Mr. Merrifield, 
and, lastly, C. C. Cook, formerly of Turners Falls. 

Minerals. — Among the minerals here found are lime and iron, 
and with varying degrees of success have the ores been mined. 
Lt. Gov. Cushman is authority for the statement that in the year 
1769, Major Burk dug about 20 tons of limestone at the Chapin 
quarry which he sent away. Where, was not recorded, if known. 
About 1830, the Chapin brothers — Samuel, Caleb, Dana and Justin, 
built a lime kiln about three-quarters of a mile north of the village, 
on the east side of the Brattleboro road, between that and the 
bridge crossing the river to the old cemetery. Quite a mound is 
discernible there to-day and, should an excavation be made, the 
remains of this old kiln would be revealed. The stone was obtained 
from the mountain just west, on the farm recently owned by Harris 
Williams. This industry was carried on for some i 5 to 18 years, but 
as the lime produced was of an exceedingly strong and inferior 
quality, as well as of a very dark color, it was not especially succes.s- 
ful. About 1780 the iron works were in operation on the present 
site of E. S. Hurlbert's factory, and here the ore obtained on West 
Mountain was smelted. Ore has in recent years been dug on Mr. 
Harris Williams' farm, the right being sold by him to New York 
parties. This, however, had no marketable value, the ore being so 
strongly impregnated with sulphur. There is also a slate quarry 
at the north end of the Fairweather farm, so called. 


Carding Machmcs. — Up to 1825 a wool carding machine was run 
on Fall River, east of Blake's pond, by Simeon Cushman. From 
his estate it was purchased, in May of that year, by P. C. Alexan- 
der and Jason Brown. They advertised to manufacture wool on 
shares. Up to 1828 John Wait and Jason Brown were in company, 
then the business was advertised as being for sale, also a sawmill 
on the premises. This was later owned by Richard Montague, 
being purchased by him of Truman Shattuck, and this was the one 
owned by Col. Ferry and A. Weatherhead. About 1810 Oliver and 
Ruggles Bagg began to run a carding machine and fulling mill on 
the west branch of Fall River, west of the old Chase tavern. This 
was an enterprising firm, they conducting, in addition to this busi- 
ness, a saw and grist mill, and adding the branch of cloth dressing 
in 1829. In 18 1 8 George Alexander advertised " a good stand for 
clothier, also a carding machine in good repair." August, 1801, 
Ebenezer Hills assumed control — by purchase or rental — of cloth- 
ing shop lately owned by George Mowry. September 4, 1807, John 
Purple purchased the clothier's works formerly owned by Ebene- 
zer Hills. 

Rope-making. — About 1800, Israel Slate engaged in an industry, 
which, in this town, has never had a rival, that of rope making. 
Formerly large quantities of flax were here raised annually. Of 
this Mr. Slate (aided by his sons) took his share, returning the best 
of flaxen rope in the shape of bed-cords, clothes-lines, halters, or in 
heavier piece rope as desired. His place of business was his home- 
stead, the present residence of his grandson, Mr. L. A. Slate. Orig- 
inally the house was in the shape of a letter L, and in the long part 
running at right angles to the street, he used to stretch and twist 
his rope, or failing in finding the requisite length there, he often- 
times used to stretch it across the road, leaving just space so that 
a team might pass upon the further side. His grandsons. Deacon 
Henry and Mr. Francis L. Slate, have both, in their boyhood, worked 
at this trade. 

Tailors. — 1830 or there abouts, marked the advent of two tailor 
shops in town. One was kept by Lorenzo Parmenter, at the pres- 
ent home of L. F. Whithed. The second by Charles Slate, at a 
house which stood between the Ferry and Fontaine places, just 


north of and opposite the hotel. Both of these gentlemen were 
Bernardston boys who learned their trade at Northfield. Mr. Par- 
menter is at present a resident of Edgartown, 111. Mr. Slate died 
some years since at his home, the old Baptist meeting house across 
the iron bridge. Another tailor, Mr. L. Pi.erce, was in business 
about i860 at the present home of John Chapin. 

Harness tind Saddle-Making. — The harness and saddling indus- 
tries have been represented by two firms. The first of these was 
in 1815, in which year Theodore B. Hoyt came here from the older 
parent town of Deerfield. He settled in North Bernardston and 
had a saddler's shop in the back part of the house recently occu- 
pied as a dwelling by Charles Bagg. After remaining here three 
or four years he moved to the place since owned by vSamuel Conna- 
ble, farther south. Thence he moved to the village, occupying 
the Dr. Carpenter place, and having a room for his business over 
Horace Atherton's blacksmith shop. Here he remained until that 
building was burned, when he was again forced to change his loca- 
tion, this time choosing a place over the Zebina Newcomb store, 
then situated on the lot owned now by Mr. J. P. Day, just east of 
the Unitarian church. In the spring of 1821 he purchased the 
property where now stands the Institute, and there built a house, 
at the south-west corner of which was the well, still to be seen 
upon the Institute grounds. Here the business remained until 
1832, when another change was made to the place now owned 
by Moses Aldrich. After a twelve years' residence here, he re- 
moved to the present Clogston place upon Burk Flat. In the mean- 
time, harness making had been added to the original trade of sad- 
dle-making, and Mr. Hoyt's son, Richard H., had been admitted to 
a partnership. From 1842 on, the latter successfully a.ssumed 
charge of the business, and in 1850, the father's health being im- 
paired, he retired. A .shop was built opposite the residence, 
and here the business was carried on until 1873, when Mr. Hoyt, 
changing his residence to the Dr. Brooks place on South street, 
transferred it thither. So long as he lived in town, until 1881, he 
continued to work for a greater part of the time at the harness- 
maker's trade. The second representative in this business was 
Anson Flint, who, about 1850, had a shop in the ell of the house 
owned by the late Mr. Albert Hare, on South street. 


Distilleries. — Formerly the distilleries were common throughout 
the country. Going through the town with an older inhabitant, 
these old land-marks are frequently pointed out and spoken of, or 
perhaps more properly, the sites they used to occupy. Of the cider 
mills it is not my purpose to speak at length, but of these cider 
and gin distilleries there were four or five, and they being in 
New England, comparatively an institution of the past, they seem 
to deserve, at least, a passing notice. 

Probably the earliest one to be erected was the one still standing, 
built by Joseph (?) Connable not far from 1780. This was later 
owned by Samuel Connable, always by some member of the family, 
and remained in use until about 1865 to 1870. Fifteen years ago 
this distillery formed one of the many picturesque scenes with which 
the North Bernardston road abounds. The old building at the 
north end, painted red, with " skim milk and redding," the long 
trough running high overhead, to the large, wooden, unpainted 
tank, the long roof erected over it, the immense wheel near at hand, 
the whole overgrown with a tangled mass of vines, while a profu- 
sion of wild flowers relieved the more dense green of both back 
and foreground of overarching trees and shrubs, all these combined 
to produce as quaint and charming a picture as could be imagined. 
Now behold the change! The tank, trough, wheel and shed, gone : 
the tangled wildwood and flowers cleared away, and the old red 
building, surrounded by a smooth, grassy plot, was all that was left 
to attract the eye of those passing to what was once the scene of 
so much activity — and now that is gone. 

About 1800 a gin distillery was built on the Newcomb brook, just 
to the west of the present bridge. The timbers of the dam across 
the head of the ravine have stood until within a very few years. 
This distillery was run by Major Samuel Root. This was the 
place where one of the Deerfield captives met death at the hands 
of the Indians, as already referred to in this chapter. Cruel as the 
fate seems, may not the little one, too young, probably, to realize 
danger or recognize fear, have thus been spared a more terrible 

About this same time there was a cider distillery built on Huckle 
Hill. It was owned by a kind of corporation of the resident farm- 

CIGAR MAKINC. CU'II.Kk\'. \V1 1 EP:i,\V KIGl ITS. 67 

ers, and was located in the hollow back of the present school house, 
and between Elias Parmenter's and Simon Edwards' houses. This 
had an existence of about 35 years. There was also one at the east 
part of the town operated by Squire Hamilton, and another on Mill 
brook, owned by Lieut. Hale. 

Cigars. — At different times within the past 15 years there have 
firms engaged in the manufacture of cigars. The first was George 
Lane in the old Goodale Academy. The second, Sanderson and 
Hale, who occupied a part of the Cutler shoe-shop, which was moved 
in 1880 by John Baker to a i)osition opposite the cemetery at the 
village, and by him fitted up as a wheelwright shop. They were 
succeeded by a firm from Westfield. The latter remained but a 
short time and the shop itself was finally burned. 

Lntlc7-y. — The only manufactury now located in town is that of 
E. S. Hurlbert & Co.; upon the site of the old foundry. In 1853 Mr. 
Hurlbert began to make here steel hoes, corn knives and rakes, in 
the production of which he employed 15 hands. This business he 
increased greatly, adding thereto the making of brick and plastering 
trowels and corn-cutters, also a fine line of cutlery. During this 
time he formed partnerships with John Cushman and S. N. Brooks. 
About 1880 he associated with him Walter E. and Henry Nichols, 
who later succeeded tcj the management of the business, Mr. Hurl- 
bert being in poor health, hi 1892 the Nichols Brothers bought a 
factory in Greenfield, moving their share of the works there, and Mr. 
Hurlbert again assumed the entire charge of the industry he has so 
successfully nurtured. The present firm is comprised oi E. S. Hurl- 
bert, Henry Crowell and x\lonzo Alford. 

W'licclivrights. — At different times there have been a number of 
wheelwright shops here. In addition to the ones already mentioned, 
George T. Cutler had one a little south of the Cutler house, at the 
north part of the town. ( )n and near South street there were three, 
one in the present garden of Henry Keet, owned by Chester Wright, 
one at the Ziba Newell place, which was later moved out onto the 
west road, and to-day stands on the place lately owned by Hiram 
Norton. At the old stand of Nelson Blake is now Air. C. C. Cook's 

Stores. — For many years this place has supported three general 


Stores, sometimes four, each doing- a fair amount of business. Prob- 
ably the one which brought to its owners the greatest wealth was 
the old "Zebina Newcomb " store years ago. This, in its first loca- 
tion, stood on Mr. J. P. Day's lot, just east of the Unitarian church. 
About 1835 he built and moved into the brick store, and later the 
old building was moved back on the original lot and converted into 
a barn. Succeeding Mr. Newcomb in the management of the busi- 
ness, came his two sons, John C, now of Chicago, and Richard F., 
now of Quincy, 111. Upon the death of the elder Newcomb. the 
property was sold to Lorenzo Park, who, in two or three years, 
rented the same to Messrs. Allen and Lyman, the latter a son-in-law. 
Mr. Allen finally bought out his partner's interest, and conducted 
the business alone, until failing health obliged him to retire, when 
Mr. Park sold the property to O. W. Gray, then of Philadelphia, Pa. 
The latter gentleman leased the place to E. K. Burgess of Broad- 
brook, Ct., whose stay in town proved to be of short duration. 
From the time of his departure until 1894, the business at the vil- 
lage was divided between the other two stores, Mr. Gray convert- 
ing his building into an office for personal use. In the fall of 1894 
it was refitted, a new stock of goods opened up, and again the 
" Brick store"' took its place beside the others. Under Mr. Gray's 
efficient management its success is assured. 

From 181 5 or 1820 to 1830, vSamuel Wells Willard kept a store in 
one room of his dwelling, the house owned by the late Hartley Hale 
on the " Green." At about the same time, Capt. John Hunt suc- 
ceeded to a store which stood opposite the hotel. Who the first 
owner of this was, is not known. About 1835, Col. Aretas Ferry 
came to town and soon bought out Mr. Hunt. In 1858 the project 
of forming a " Union Protective Store " was carried out. The or- 
ganization of this association was perfected on the fifth of Septem- 
ber of that year, and Col. Ferry's store was henceforth known as 
the "Bernardston LTnion Store of Division No. 50. of the New Eng- 
land Protective LTnion." The object of this association as stated 
in their constitution was to "Provide to the members groceries 
and provisions at the lowest possible price, by means of an agency 
established in Bernardston and conducted on a Cask basis exclu- 
sively ^ Business was begun on the 24th of October following or- 


ganization, with a capital stock of $860.00, there being 86 shares at 
$10 each. The amount of goods sold during the first eleven months 
was $6643.32, a net profit of $187.00, being shown. The salesman 
employed to conduct the store was Gilbert S. Mattoon of North- 
field. At the annual report it was given out that the amount of 
capital was insufficient to successfully carry oa a business of that 
character. The second annual report showed but little improve- 
ment, the capital stock having been increased only by the sale of 
three shares, while about $50.00 worth of molasses had been lost 
by the carelessness of a teamster. The whole affair seemed to be 
devoid of success, and at a special meeting called for December 17, 
1855, it was voted to accept the proposition of Mr. A. J. Aid rich to 
assume the debts of the corporation and pay each shareholder 
eleven dollars in goods, or ten dollars in cash or flour, at the option 
of the shareholder. Thus the end came for the Union store, and 
Mr. Aldrich w\as the next owner. Succeeding him was L. B. Wright, 
who conducted the business successfully until his death. Upon 
the disposal of the real estate by the administratrix the stores and 
fixtures were bought by Mr. O. C. Allen, who carried on the busi- 
ness for a time, selling to Ransom L. Crowell. Under the admin- 
istration of the latter a most successful business has been built up. 
At the present time his son Henry is in partnership — R. L. Crow- 
ell & Son — and by close attention to business and the wants of 
their patrons they have won their way into the fullest confidence 
and esteem. x\nd that the public appreciate their efforts is shown 
by their prosperous and steadily increasing trade. 

A younger claimant to patronage appeared in the store erected 
across the street from the post office by A. M. Stratton, between 
1850 and i860. This store has also steadily won its way by the 
careful management and consideration of the proprietors. Messrs. 
Park and Gould bought out Mr. Stratton and eventually Mr. Gould 
purchased the interest of his partner. He most successfully con- 
ducted the business until his death. George R. Paige of New Salem 
bought the property at the settlement of Mr. Gould's estate, and 
by his gentlemanly bearing and careful attention to all the details 
of its management, sustained the excellent reputation which this 
store has always borne. The store is now owned and successfully 


managed by Sumner S. Stratton, successor to W. A. Stratton & 

For a few years Lucius and Marcus Cook owned and carried on 
a store in the old Goodale Academy building. At the north part 
of the town there was for many years a store which drew its pat- 
ronage not only from its own territory, but much from the neigh- 
boring towns of Guilford and Leyden. The first store here kept 
was in the room of the old hotel, which has since been utilized as a 
dining room. George Bugbee of Brattleboro was the proprietor. 
The Hinsdale house, so called, was built by Luke Gore, who had a 
store in the south end of his residence. Further to the south, Mr. 
Alvin Howe built a store opposite his dwelling. He sold it to 
Timothy K. Horton, who, as did his predecessor, had there a good 
business. The third owner was George Temple; he, in turn, sold 
to Green. This building was finally burnt. The store occu- 
pied for some time by J. O. Bliss, was bought bv him from Messrs. 
Smith and Jaquith, who secured it in 1879 fi'<^m A. M. Stratton, 
acting for the creditors of G. Plaisted. Mr. Bliss closed his store 
at North Bernardston in 1894, having taken a position with Mr. 
Gray at the brick store at the village. 

Among the earlier stores was one standing by itself, or kept in 
ahouse which did stand near the meetinghouse in 1795, owned by 
John Harte. In May, 1804, Oliver Cooley removed his stock of 
goods from the store, which he occupied at as early a date as 1801, 
to the store near Medad Squires' blacksmith shop. This was prob- 
ably the store kept on the "Green" in a log house. In June. 1804, 
Mr. Clement vSmith came to town, opening a general store in the 
building vacated by Cooley. From about 181 2 to about 1818, Elijah 
A. Gould was a merchant in town. July 22, 1818, the firm of Har- 
ris and Maxwell was dissolved by mutual consent, the latter con- 
tinuing in trade in town. According to all accounts Henry R. 
Sheldon and Samuel Willard also "kept store " in the log house on 
the "Green," but there seems to be a confliction in the few dates 
obtain'able concerning them and their business transactions. 

Pockctbooks. — About 1S70 this industry was established in town 
by Mr. Emil Weissbrod, remaining for two or three years. This 
was located in the house just north of the late Obed Dickinson on 


Depot street. The business was removed to Montague and later 
to Greenfield, in which place it has come to be recognized as one of 
the leading industries. 

Lawyers. — The lawyer's profession has had at least one represen- 
tative here, for in December, 1822, Jonathan A. vSaxton removed 
here from Deerfield and opened a law office. How long he re- 
mained is unknown. 

Among the agricultural products not already mentioned, is, or 
rather was, one, the harvesting of which was the signal for a good 
time as well as considerable hard work. In the autumn the hop 
fields presented a lively appearance with the young men and maid- 
ens gathered from afar and near for the hop gathering. The fields 
of Zenas Cutler, Joseph Connable and David Streeter were among 
the first to be devoted to hop-raising, not far from 1S35, and for a 
number of years that was considered a most profitable product. 

The beginning of O. W. Gray's successful career as a publisher 
of maps was in town, where he did the first work in making the 

In closing this chapter upon Bernardston's industries, it is with 
a feeling of deep regret that it may be that much has been left not 
chronicled ; that in a manner, it is a poorly treated, un.satisfactory 
one. This may be attributed, in part, to a lack of sufficient dates 
and positive information, although all effort has been expended to 
secure the same. Then, in times, as is sometimes the case 
now, one business was so interwoven with and dependent upon 
another, especially in rural communities, that classification is diffi- 
cult. It is hoped, however, that enough has been said in a general 
way to give an idea of what has been accomplished here in a busi- 
ness way, and to arouse enough interest in the matter, so that, in 
the future, senile one better qualified can take up the research — the 
thread here broken off — and successfully wind up the narrative. 


RE(;ARI) to the state CONYENTION— amount of supplies FUR- 

Hitherto the transactions of the town meetings so nearly repre- 
sent the daily lives and deeds of the inhabitants that it was deemed 
best to give them, in some degree, chronologically. From the ear- 
lier records many abstracts are given ■vcrbatiui, in the hope that the 
quaint orthography may prove as entertaining to the reader as to 
the writer. Should any, perchance, think that the text of the orig- 
inal records has been too closely followed, let this serve as an ex- 
planation, and if need be, apology. Not only do these quotations 
reveal the style of recording the proceedings of those days, but to 
a careful observer, much as to the educational advantages, and the 
use made of them by our former scribes. From this date forward 
the work is arranged in topics as they would naturally occur. 

The annals of the town have now been brieilv broui^^ht down to 
the momentous Revolutionary period, a period fi'aught with dan- 
gers and deeds of patroitism never to be obliterated. The begin- 
ning of this war properly luarks the commencement of a new epoch, 
and perhaps one of more general interest to us, occurring as it 
does within the recollection of some of our childhood associates. 
The people of this town have always been zealous for the cyuse of 
liberty, and in the colonial struggle we can but recount with be- 
coming prid^^he part taken. Although the town had scarcely 


recovered from the effects of the Indian wars, it raised its full quota 
of soldiers and furnished largely of funds and provisions. They 
were among the first to resist by force the oppression of a foreign 
power, and to plant the tree of liberty in a soil which they had de- 
fended by their arms and which had been watered by their blood. 
In common with their country men, their motto was "We determine 
to die or be free." Truth compels us to record the existence of 
six Tories in town, but in the face of so much enthusiasm, their 
sentiments were kept to themselves. At this time, Bernardston 
numbered not far from 500 inhabitants. January 30, 1775, when 
war was an almost assured event, a committee of inspection was 
appointed, consisting of John Connable, Elisha Burnham, Joseph 
Slate, Joel Chapin, and James Couch. The committee of corre- 
spondence was Aaron Field, Elisha L. Burnham, Stephen Webster, 
Jonathan vSheldon and Hezekiah Newcomb. These two commit- 
tees were later united and for the succeeding years were as follows:^ 
1776. 1777. 

Capt. Elisha Bunihani. Capt. Elisha Burnham. 

Aaron Field. Major John Burk. 

Lt. Joseph Slate. Remembrance vSheldon. 

Daniel Newcomb. .Stephen Webster. 

Caleb Chapin. Joel Chapin. 

James Couch. 

Jonathan Sheldon. 

In May of this year a second committee' was chosen and author- 
ity was transferred to them. They were 

Capt. Elisha Burnham. Lt. Daniel Newcomb. 

Sgt. Elijah Kingsley. Lt. Severance. 

1778. 1779. 

Lt. David Rider. John Connable. 

Thomas Edwards. Jason Parmenter. 

Jason Parmenter. Elijah Kingsley. 
Elijah Kingsley. 
William Fox. 

Lt. Joseph Slate. Lt. Joel Chapin. Samuel Hastings. 

These committees were possessed of almost unlimited power ; 
they could cause the arrest of suspected persons, or their confine- 
ment within the limits of their farms; as we are told, in some cases 
they did. In 1776 they made an example of one Jacob Orcutt, 


who was found guilty of altering a six penny bill to a six pound 
note. He was tried before the committee of safety and sentenced 
to receive thirty lashes on the bare back at the hands of the consta- 
ble, Samuel Connable. The courage of the latter proved unequal 
to the task, and the punishment was finally administered by Lieut. 
Ezekiel Foster. This occurred in May, at Major Burk's house. 
After the chastisement, the culprit was given a glass of rum and, 
it is needless to add, quickly took his departure. 

I li^ 5s. 2d., a sum equal to the province tax, was ordered raised 
and paid into the town treasury, there to remain until ordered out 
by the town. The Provincial Congress urged that the towns and 
districts within the State hasten to comply with the important de- 
mands laid upon them, therefore. May 10, 1775, the collectors in 
Bernardston were instructed to gather the Province money within 
three weeks, and pay it over to Henry Gardner, Esq., of Stowe. 
They further showed their patriotism by voting that the province 
rate of all enlisted persons, or of those who might enlist during the 
year, should be also forwarded to Mr. Gardner. Sixteen men were 
to be secured to serve in the Continental army in addition to those 
already in the service at Cambridge. The names of those from 
our town given collectively cannot be found, but by a careful peru- 
sal of the treasurer's book we learn of some who served their coun- 
try at this time. 

March 6, 1786, there was paid to 

Jabez Deiinison, for serving as a continental soldier, 12^. 

Henry Lee, " " " " " 12^. 

Samuel Connable, " " " " " 11/ 2s. 6(1. 

Benjamin Cook, " " " " " 12/,". 

Rbenezer Ninis, " " " " " 12^. 

Kzekiel Foster, " " " Militia " 10/ 10 s. 

Samuel Green, " " " " " 10/," ids. 

Lt. John Severance, his son Daniel's bounty, 10^. 

Daniel Davis, for serving as a continental soldier, 12^. 

Owen Rriggs, " " " Militia " 6£.. 

Records Wilbur, " " " " " 6£. 

Daniel Chapin, " " " " " 9/. 

vSamuel (xuild, " " " " " 9/. 

Isaac Smith, " " " Continental " 12/. 

Joseph Hale or Renoni Hrown ye hire of soldier, 'iOjC- 

Moses Scott, " " " " 10 ^ los. 


The State archives add to this list the names of Samuel Barnard 
and James Merrett as being six months men for 1 780, at which time 
Ebenezer Nims also served for six months. 

These were presumably the sixteen men secured, and this only a 
month after the battle of Lexington. It was also voted that "those 
persons who took powder from the common stock last spring in the 
alarm (probably the Lexington alarm), and returned home soon 
after from Cambridge, are to be accountable for the same to the 
town." Soon after, June 17, 1775, occurred the battle of Bunker 
Hill, the news of which rapidly spread throughout the colonies. 
All the peaceful arts were laid aside and every one assumed the 
defensive. Almost every man old enough to carry a musket re- 
paired to the scene of action. An example of this kind occurred 
within less than a mile from this place, a fact, which, though it 
may seem to border on the marvellous, is, however, well authen- 

Capt. Joseph Slate, a hero of the French and Indian war, was 
ploughing that self-same day on West Mountain. At different 
times during the day he heard, or thought he heard, the sound of 
cannonading, although at the distance of 100 miles. Often he ap- 
plied his ear to the ground to satisfy himself. He predicted that 
that day blood was again spilled in defense of his country. And 
he was right. So sure was he that he heard firing, that before 
night he left his ploughing and went to Deerfield to learn the fact, 
and the next day he was on his way towards Boston, where he re- 
mained the most of the season. Those who read this statement 
may be disposed to think that, in this instance, "coming events 
cast their shadows before " and that something akin to the spirit 
of prophecy might have stirred the blood and quickened the ears 
of the brave old soldier. I content myself with recording the fact 
without undertaking to explain it. If it proves nothing else, it 
proves the feverish excitement to which men's minds had been 
worked up. (Lt. Gov. Cushman.) 

Appropriations of money and drafts were frequently made and 
in the aggregate would have done much credit to an older and 
more thickly populated community. 


The roll of Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., dated April 20, to May i, 
1775, is as follows: 

Lieut. Ezekiel Foster, out ten days. 

Serg. Elijah Kingsley, " " 

Corp. Asaph Alku, " " 

Corp. Ebenezer Scott, " " 

Samuel Turner, " " " 

John Connable, " " " 

Ezekiel Foster, Jr., " " 

John Coats, " " 

Nehemiah Andrews, " " " 

Reuben Shattuck, " " 
Daniel Chapin, 

Thomas Hunt, " " 

David Davis, " " 

William Chad wick. " " 

Lt. Joseph Slate, " fifteen days 

vSgt. Joel Chapin, 

Caleb Chapin, " thirty-nine days. 

Samuel Hasting.s, " fifteen days. 

Samuel Connable, '-' " " 

Hezekiah Chapin, 

Simeon Allen, 

John Severance, " thirty-three days. 

Col. Whitcomb's regiment, Capt. A. Wells' company, dismissed 
September 23, 1775, contained from Bernardston 

Ensign Ezekiel Foster, second lieutenant. Ezekiel Foster. 

Elijah Kingsley, third sergeant. Jason Parmenter. 

Asaph Allen, first corporal. John Hunt. 

Robert (Reuben?) Shattuck, 3d corporal. Sanmel Turner. 

John Coats. Zebadiah Slate. 

David (Daniel?) Davis. Hezekiah Chapin. 

David (Daniel?) Chapin. Nehemiah Andrews. 

Ebenezer Scott. William Chad wick. 
Thomas Hunt. 

The payroll of the above men credits them with being out from 
May first, in all, three months and eight days, and travelling i 12 
miles. The same year, for eight months' service, is found the 
name of Arad Sheldon upon the coat roll of Capt. Joseph Stebbins' 
company, Col. J. Brewer's regiment. The company was made up 
of men from all over the State. September 28, 1775, Capt. David 
Cowden's company (of Pelham) Col. Woodbridge's regiment, ser- 
vice near Prospect Hill. Coat roll, James McColoh, Sgt. On the 


coat roll appears the name of John Workman, May 24, 2£ i8s. 7d. In 
Capt. Wentworth Stuart's 3Lst reg., Sept. 29, 1775. vSeptember 17, 
1776, ration or mileage money for company, under command of 
Capt. Samuel Taylor of Roxbury, out three months to Dec, 1776. 

Joseph Slate, Ensijjjn, 120 miles at one penny, total lo/," ris. 

Joel Chapin, Sgt., " " " " " " 10^," iis. 

Jacob Webster, " " " " " " iq/. 

Jonathan Slate, " " - " " - 10^. 

June 9, 1779, in Col. Wells' regiment, were Jonathan Griffin, ae. 
34 years ; Reuben Whitcomb, ae. 21 ; Simeon Cotes, ae. 21. When 
mustered these were delivered to Ensign Thomas Clark. 

To march to horse neck under Col. John Mosely, in Capt. Mc- 
Clellan's company, was Silas Green. In July, 1779, in Col. Wells' 
regiment, Capt. Sheldon's company, were Thomas Wolloy, ae. 50 ; 
Calvin Weld, ae. 16; Thias Johnson, ae. 16; vSamuel Barnard, ae. 16. 
From September, 1777, to January, 1780, there was due the town 
of Bernardston for supplies for soldiers' families, 152^^ i6s. old cur- 
rency, or 3^^" i6s. 5d. consolidated sums. Due to John Burk, 6£. 
"Mustered and Received of Mr. Samuel Guild, chairman of Class 
No. — for the town of Bernardston, a certain Jacob Orcutt, a re- 
cruit for the term of three years. 

Seth Bannister, Capt. 
Springfield, Sept. 18, 1782." 

The following is a copy of a letter written by vStephen Buckland, 
whose descendants resided within the district of Leyden, or rather 
that portion of Bernardston afterward incorporated as such. It is 
of interest in connection with the Revolutionary war: 

On board the Prison Ship N. York, April 9, 1782. 
Sir: — 

Before this comes to hand you doubtless will hear of our fate. We ware 
taken the 2nd. just by the Brige perseverance of 14 size Kops Com- 
mander. Ezekel Olmsted is slightly wounded but will be well in a few 

da3''s. All the Rest are well, poor Mikel was drowned by the over Seting 
of the Boat and several others narrowly escaped. 

Our situation you can guess, if you can do anything for us should be glad, 
if you Git any person to Exchange for any of us you must Git him or them 
paroled and send them in on condition that they Git the persons Exchanged 


that you Send them for or to Return, for you send Ever so many in a tlag 
they will not be Exchanged for us 

Remember me to my family and friends 

1 am Sir yours 


Mr. Aaron Oi.MsrEAi). 
Capt. Gideon OtMsrHAD. 
Mr. Abraham Mii.lkr. 

P. S. April 22nd. Ewd. Leger was on board yesterday and informs 
that their will be no exchange for privattears men that he had got Liberty 
to take twenty prisoners only that war taken in Merchantmen. Our situa- 
tion is truly distressing Espeshely our people for they were stri|)ed of 
everything even to the Buckles out of their Shoes and Buttons out of their 
Sleeves hats Coats and Jackets. Many of them have got the small i)ox and 
must all have it that have not had it and have not a fathing of money. 
You would do well to inform their friends tliat if they are Inclined to Send 
them any Relief they may if an opertunity presents. 'I'heir is on bord this 
ship about Seven huiulred prisoners and Increasing all most livery day. 
You can Esely Gess what a Life we must Live and hot weather a Cuming 
on — at present we are as well as can be Expected, what [)r()visions we Git 
is very Good it is an Excellent place to [prepare a man for (Erockelation?) 
Lieut Warner stood in the Brige that took us and had the promise of being 
put ashore. 1 hop he is got home before this. 

If you can think of any way by which you could git us out Shold be very 
Glad, for my part I cant think of any at present but to make the best of 
a bad Bargain. 


To Mrs. Mary Buck land. 

Prison Ship of N. York April 22th, 1782. 
M_y Dear: — 

before this Cums to hand you will doubtless hear of our Misft)rtune. 
1 have nothing to Right but that we are all well Except some have got the 
Small pox, poor Mikel was drowned by the overseting of the WyaI ami sev- 
eral others in Great Danger. 

1 hoop it wont be long before we will get home by Sum means or other. 

Give yourself ncj uneasiness about me. 1 live very well and remain yt)ur 



Stephen Bucki.and. 

Mrs. Buckland. 


On the reverse side of this letter is the following- in explanation 
and also it supplements the record: 

May the 7, 1783. 
Stephen 13uckland Dyed in the Prison Ship garly At New York in the 
39 year of his age. 

And Mammy "as in her 37 year of her Age 

Polly Buckland was 13 years old. Hannah Buckhnul was i i years old. 
Betsey Buckland was 3 years old Ral[)h Buckland Was 9 months old 

When our Daddy Dytle A time that never will l!ee forgot By us tho we 
were very young. 

(Unsigned. ) 

This was evidently written by one of the (^Ider daughters. 

Hannah Buckland m. Alch. 24, 1779, Capt. Joncathan Btidington. 
She was then of East Hartford, Ct. 

This letter portrays a different side of the Revolutionary strug- 
gle, the greater part of those engaged in service from this section 
being among the land forces. I have endeavored to find some clue 
as to the identity of the Lieut. Warner referred to, but without suc- 
cess. He doubtless belonged to some of the Connecticut families 
of the name who were numerous in the vicinity of Hartford. 

In February, 1778, the town voted 50 pounds, nominal value $167, 
as bounty to any person enlisting for a term of eight months. Ow- 
ing to a depreciation in continental currency at this time, the real 
value was not far from $35. In the succeeding May, it was voted 
to pay for all rations for those sent from town to serve in the army. 
In July of that year it was voted that Sgt. Joseph Allen and Corp. 
William Fox be allowed to join the army, also that Major Stephen 
Webster receive the sum of 63^ — or about $50 — for serving eight 
months in the militia; that the west part of the town make Joshua 
Wells, Jr., a reasonable satisfaction for serving as a militia soldier 
eight months, and that they furthermore find one man as a military 
soldier for six months to go to Albany, as their proportion of the 
two draughts before last spring. September 8, 1778. a company 
of thirty men under command of Major John Burk — he then 
acting as Captain — was ordered to be ready, equipped with arms 
and ammunition upon any emergency to oppose the enemy. Again 


in June, 1780. it was decreed that nine men should be engaged in 
the war six months and that they, should each receive 40 shillings 
($6.67) per month, or " Wheat, rye, Indian corn, wool, flax, neet 
cattle, or sheep at silver money prices." The next month — July — 
thirteen additional men were called for, but who they were is un- 
known. 1 780- 1 78 1 there were enlisted for three years 

Ebcnezer Scott, April 16, ae. 37. Edward Dowidson, June i, ae. 2\. 

William Hegus, " 20, " 20. Timothy Stark, May 24, " 60. 

Levi Duncan, " 20, " 24. 

In 1780, fifth regiment of foot, Capt. Alvord's company, Col. Brew- 
er's regiment, were 

Charles King, for three years. John Cotes, for cij^ht months. 

Samuel Mallin, " " John Evens, " 

Joshua Harding, " " Moses Tute, " " " 

vSamutl Kimpland, " " 

July 24, 1780, Lt. Col. David Wells' regiment, 4th and 5th com- 
panies, 5th regiment, were 

Elijah Rislcy, ae. 22. Eleazcr Groover, ae. 19. 

Amasa Bus.sel, " 19. 

Records Wilbur, " 17. 

Elijah Walworth, " 18. 

Amos Williams, " 16. 

Rufus Foster, " 19. 

Samuel Green, " 20. 

David Wooley, " 20. 

Daniel Severance, " 17. 

Owen Briggs, " 22. 

The response for provisions for their fellow citizens and country- 
men was equally ready and generous. In 1775-6 Moses Scott, Jr., 
carried blankets to Cambridge for soldiers belonging to this town. 
In 1775 were sent 445- pounds of bread and 115 pounds of pork to 
Capt. A. Wells' company, while in October, 1780, in accordance with 
a call made by the General Assembly, were forwarded 3360 pounds 
of beef, and the ensuing January, 6454 pounds additional were sent. 
In 1779 the town voted to supply Samuel Farrer's family with 
provision, he being then in the army. All of this, added to the 
amount of the Province taxes levied, constituted a heavy demand 
upon the resources of our ancestors, but one which by their uncom- 
promising integrity and fervent belief in their country's rights, 
they were enabled to meet most heroically. 

The action taken by the town regarding the formation of the 
new government is on record as follows, September 30, 1776: 

"Then the question was put Whether they will give their consent 


that the present house of Representatives of this State of Massa- 
chusetts Bay in New England together with the counsil if they 
consent, in one body with the House and by equal voice Should 
consent, agree on and enact a constitution and Form of Govern- 
ment for This State as the Said House of Representatives and 
Counsil aforesaid on the fullest and most mature consideration 
shall judge, will most conduce to the Safety, peace and happiness 
of this state in all After Successions and Generations, and if they 
would direct that the same be made Publick for the Inspection and 
Perusal of the Inhabitants before the satisfaction thereof by the 
Assembly, and pafed in the Affirmative by a Great Majority." 
Capt. Elisha Burnham was chosen to represent the town in the 
General Assembly of the State, and to him at a later time were 
given instructions respecting the Articles of Confederation and 
Perpetual Union of the American States. Two years later, Apr. 15, 

1778, the draft of the constitution was received, and that its import 
was foreign to the views of the people is shown by there being but 
15 votes out of a total of 71 cast for its acceptance. August 19, 

1779, the question of voting for a new constitution or form of gov- 
ernment came up again, and this time there were 68 for and two 
against it. The representative for the next year was empowered 
to vote for the calling of the State convention for the sole purpose 
of forming a new constitution, provided that when one is formed 
it shall be sent back to the people, and if two-thirds are for it, it 
shall be established, and if more than one-third are against it, then 
it shall become null and void. 

The fall following, a convention was called at Cambridge for the 
purpose of forming a constitution. To this convention Bernard- 
ston declined to send a delegate. July 14 of that year a similar 
convention had been held at Concord, the transactions of which 
were obnoxious to our good people. They accordingly chose a 
committee to "write the committee of Convention to convene at 
Concord the first Wednesday of October next, and shew reasons 
for their disapproval of the doeings of the convention." Capt. Elisha 
Burnham, Lieut. John Severance and Robert Riddle constituted 
this committee. May 10, 1780, 30 out of 39 voted for the " third 
Article m the bill of rights," and 26 out of 29 favored the remain- 
ing articles of the Constitution. These several actions of the town 

82 shay's rebellion. 

delineate the jealousy with which they regarded any movement 
which savored of an encroachment upon their civil rights, and 
viewing their grievances as endured unkingly rule, can we wonder 
at it? 

At a town meeting held September i, Monday. 1780, the follow- 
ing vote was taken, under the newly formed and accepted Consti- 
tution, for Governor, Lieut. Governor and Senators. Governors: 
John Hancock, 16; James Bowdoin, 10. Senators: Col. John Bliss, 
13; Caleb Strong, 15; Major Joseph Hawley, 13; Capt. McClel- 
lan, 4 ; Gen. Daniel Danielson, 7 ; Rev. Job Wright, i i ; Moses 
Bliss, I. 

Thus we see the constant self-sacrifice and the ready responses 
made for and to the demands of the war. In exchange for these 
came the merited satisfaction and pride in a self-formed govern- 
ment. No longer must the people bow themselves to a Monarch's 
caprice. In matters social, civil or religious they were answerable 
only to their own people and the officials whom they chose to place 
in power. In 1780 the assessors returned for Bernardston 33,477 
acres, from which a deduction of 5000 acres was made for ponds, riv- 
ers and unimproved lands, leaving 28,477 acres, rateable at 12,489^^" 
I2S. The value of the grain on hand was i \j£ 4s. The polls re- 
turned were 1 19, while the houses numbered 1 17. Truly a record 
which we may well view with commendable pride and satisfaction. 

Shay's Rebellion. — Scarcely had peace been regained after the 
fiercely contested Revolution before Mas.sachusetts, especially the 
western counties of the State, were called upon to suppress the 
vShay's Rebellion. In the feverish condition of mind succeeding 
the war, many did not comprehend the exact situation of public 
affairs, and it needed but one bold and unscrupulous enough to 
assume the command to obtain a ready following of insurgents, 
and such a leader was found in the person of Daniel Shay, who 
was born in Hopkinton, Mass., in 1747, ^^^^ di\Q^ at Sparta, N. Y.. 
September 29, 1825. Although not prominently connected with 
the first movements of the rebellion, he was finally placed in com- 
mand, not impossibly because of his having become somewhat fa- 
miliar with martial duties while serving as sergeant at Bunker 
Hill, and afterward as captain in the Revolutionary army. 

shay's rebellion. 83 

There were numerous causes assigned by the insurrectionists for 
their action, among which were the following: that the salary paid 
the governor was too high, the senate was aristocratic, the lawyers 
extortionate, and most of all, the existence of partial taxation, es- 
pecially as applied to western Massachusetts. As a redress of their 
grievances they demanded an issue of paper money and the re- 
moval of the General Court from Boston. An effort was made by 
the authorities to allay their discontent by the abatement of certain 
back taxes and debts, but without success. In August, 1786, the 
trouble began, the malccjntents having as one of their primary ob- 
jects the abolishment of the courts, beginning thus early to assail 
the power of the Government so recently established, and that, 
too, at such a cost of human life. Enough of victory favored the 
rebelling forces to enable them to carry on the insurrection until 
the last of February following, when the movement was quelled 
and the leaders fled. This affair is of local interest inasmuch as 
among Shay's followers were some from Bernardst(jn. In an en- 
gagement at Springfield in the beginning of 1787, the troops for 
the defense under command of General Shephard, fired upon the 
Shay's party, killing f(jur — Messrs. Spicer of Leyden, Ezekiel Root 
of Bernardston, Hunter of vShelburne, and Webster of Gill. This 
repulse followed closely by the retreat to Pelham, and the destruc- 
tion of many of their number dispersed the already confused mob. 
Their leaders lied the State and the insurgents themselves were 
speedily brought in by the cavalry. In attempting to secure one, 
Jason Parmenter of Bernardston, in the east part of the town, he 
fired upon the capturing party, killing Jacob Walker of Whately. 
Parmenter was tried, convicted and sentenced to the gallows. All 
the preparations were made, and the criminals brought out ready 
for execution, in accordance with Gov. Hancock's orders. Then, 
and not until then, was a pardon produced and read, and this par- 
don was afterward extended to Shay and his leaders. 

Thus did Massachusetts receive her rebellious sons into favor. 
It was during this rebellion that Capt. Caleb Chapin commanded a 
company of four months men in Col. Ezra Badlam's regiment, and 
from the old payroll formerly in the possession of a descendant, 
the late Lucius P. Chapin of Bernardston, and by him donated to the 



P. V. M. A., are gathered the names of some who quickly responded 
to their coimtrv's summons: 

Caleb Chapin, Captain. 
David Hoit, Jr., Lieutenant. 
Elisha Ransom, Rnsifjn. 
Eliel Gilbert, Clerk. 
Abiathar Joy, " 
Robert Bard well, " 
Samuel Pollicy, " 
Samuel Hart, Corporal. 
Stephen Lawrence, " 
Josiah Osjijood, Jr., " 
Thomas Nichols, " 
Ephraim Williams, P'ifer. 
Aretas Lyman, Drummer. 
Cornelius Gilbert, Private. 
Rosel Alvord, 
Ebeuezer Peck, " 

Caleb Thayer, 
John Briggs, 
Timothy Warren, 
Chester Gunn, " 

Phinea-s Osgood , ' ' 

Joseph Osgood, " 

IsiahDow, " 

Thomas Rand, Private. 
Nathaniel Walker, 
Elias Bardwell, " 

Levi Sartwell, 
Daniel Bliss, 
Abiezer Richmond, " 
Jacob Hollida}-, " 

Gaius Field, " 

Miller Mitchell, 
Simeon Hastings, 
Walter Stewart, 
Zepheniah Jones, " 

Elisha P'oster, " 

Eleazer Lawrence, " 
Setli Denio, " 

Timothy Larraba, " 

Ebenezer Emes, " 

Elijah Scott, 
Burriell Hay ward, " 

Erastus Barnard, " 

Nathaniel Doakes, " 
Elijah Walker, " 

David Osgood, " 

Among these there are comparatively few Bernardston names to 
be found, although doubtless most of them came from this vicinity. 
After keeping troops in the western counties four months, they 
were withdrawn, and white winged peace sprang up, Phoenix like, 
from the quickly crushed but dangerous insurrection. Most author- 
ities agree that had Shay po.ssessed sufficient knowledge to have 
skillfully commanded his forces, unlimited success might have at- 
tended his movements. In the civil war, some few writers cited 
the case of Shay's insurrection to all such as were disinclined to 
accept the tax imposed, and it certainly seems as if one such lesson 
would be all that was needful in a Government's history. 

IVar of 1S12. — Concerning the war of 1812 there is nothing upon 
the records. In its corporate capacity the town took no part, and 
it is not definitely known who went from here, although at dift'cr- 
ent times there have resided here survivors of that war. The ab- 
sence of any action of the town at that time is explainable by the 

WAR OF l8l2. 85 

fact that Gov. Strong, then Governor of Massachusetts, was opposed 
to the war, and when upon the outbreak of hostilities, President 
Madison issued a call for troops, he requested of the Supreme Court 
of Massachusetts its opinion as to the authority of the President 
to require a State to send its soldiers outside of the State, subject 
to a general, other than the President himself, as commander-in- 
chief of all the American forces. The decision of the court was 
that in certain coiitiugoicic's the President might call out the State 
militia, but that, as there was no power given the President or 
Congress to determine when those contingencies did really exist, 
the Governor of a State must determine the question for himself. 
Hence the President's call had no force. Gov. Strong declined to 
call for troops, and many soldiers went to New York State and en- 
listed, and were probably credited to that State rather than to the 
State to which they actually belonged. 

According to a letter written by xA.lpha Ryther in 1863, there 
were, in 18 14. fifteen men called for from town, and thirteen re- 
sjDonded. Some of them were, besides Mr. Ryther, Elijah Tryon, 
fifer, Hosea Aid rich, Erastus Ryther, Ebenezer Nightengale, Gor- 
ham Chapin, David Guellow and a st)n of William Newcomb of 
North Bernardston. These men belonged to the second regiment, 
second brigade, fourth division. The Captain was David Strick- 
land of Greenfield. The company was ordered to Boston about 
September 1, 1814, and remained for three months, being stationed 
successively at Cambridgeport and Commercial Point at South 
Boston. Mr. Ryther was for a time clerk of the company, but hav- 
ing lost the roll, could only give this much from memory. Who 
were the other members of this company is not known. Had 
Massachtisetts taken any concerted action, we may be assured that 
this town would have responded in a ready and enthusiastic man- 
ner. All the records of this war, or in any way pertaining to those 
who went from the State of Massachusetts, are to be found in Wash- 

The first half of the ninteenth century probably passed by, in a 
sense, uneventfully. The country was at peace ; the inhabitants, 
prosperous. Passing events interested our townsmen, as they do 
to-day, for the time being; the morrow furnished fresh food for 


thought; the social and educational side of life received its full 
share of attention, with the result that the schools were built up, 
the lyceutn, spelling and singing schools, now almost forgotten in- 
stitutions, prospered ; days were taken for the improvement and 
beautifying of public, as well as private, property. In short, a happy, 
prosperous life was here depicted, such as is only attainable in a 
community at unity with itself and the outside world. Each pur- 
sued his wonted calling, running the race that was set before him, 
and many of the town's patriarchs, ap])roaching their time appointed, 
were tenderly laid, by loving hands, within "God's Acre." 

Civil War. — The beoinningr of the civil war marks another crreat 
epoch in the Nation's history, and one which cast its reflection on 
every town in the country; while the stirring events which then 
transpired are mirrored in the minds of all the passing generation. 
Through the latter part of the fifties, excitement and party feeling 
ran high on all political issues of the day, and glancing backward 
40 years, we can see our town eagerly watching, with others, the 
attitude assumed by the Southern States, and in imagination we 
can enter into the feverish excitement which everywhere prevailed, 
and dominated men's actions, when throughout the country was 
flashed the news that Fort Sumter had been fired upon and hos- 
tilities actually begun. Never lacking patriotic enthusiasm, Ber- 
nardston now fully sustained her former creditable record in her 
ready accession to the demands of the national government, and 
her citizens harbor a justifiable feeling of pride at the remembrance 
of the noble deeds performed by her heroic sons, a feeling which 
is tempered and saddened by the loss of some of her loved ones 
who fell while in the performance of their duties. 

" It sintjcth low in every heart, 

We hear it each and all, 
A song of those who answer not, 

However wc may call." 

At a town meel^ing held July 22, 1862, for the express purpcxse of 
taking action relative to the quota called for, Mr. I. K. Brown was 
cho.sen moderator, and the following resolutions, presented by Ur. 
William Dwight, were unanimously adopted: 

"'I'hat we, as citizens of the town of licniardston, with a view t() the 
suppression of the most atroci(Mis rebelhon of modern times, do hereby 


heartily endorse the policy of the President of the United States and hereby 
express our confidence in his tried patriotism, his integrity and devotion 
to the welfare of the whole nation. 

Resolved, That the town of Bernardston in response to the call of the 
President come forward with a willing heart to lay upon the altar of our 
([lomnion Country the lives of our sons and the treasures of our jieople in 
defense of that noble constitution and union, the preservation and perpet- 
uation of which, is the solemn duty of every individual throughout the 
length and breadth of our land. 

Resolved, That the exigencies of the hour call upon old i\nd young, rich 
and poor alike, to rally around the old flag of our fathers antl consecrate 
our energies to the defence of this, the best Government that a kind Provi- 
dence has bestowed upon Man." 

It was voted that "a bounty of $100.00 be paid to each of the eleven 
recruits for Massachusetts Volunteers in the service of the United 
States that may enlist in Bernardston agreeable to the call of the 
President of the United States. To be paid when such recruits 
are mustered into service — and that the selectmen be instructed 
to borrow a sum sufficient to pay the above Bounty and use the 
credit of the town for that provided that a sufficient guar- 
antee fund shall be raised by voluntary subscription to indemnify 
the selectinen in the above action, if the action of the town in pass- 
ing this vote shall be illegal and shall not be legalized by future 
legislation." This guarantee fund was immediately raised. The 
call of the country fell upon hearts just as loyal as ever beat within 
human breast, and to Herbert G. Horton must be given the honor 
of being the first volunteer. Immediately upon the adoption of 
the above resolution, he presented a inuster roll headed with his 
own name. This prompt action had its effect, and five names were 
soon placed beside his upon the roll. At the motion of Rev. Mr. 
Ruberg, three cheers were given with a will, after which the meet- 
ing was adjourned, six of the eleven recruits called for having been 
quickly secured, and the number was soon made good. During 
the summer of 1863 the excitement was intense. The response to 
calls made for men was everywhere less ready than heretofore and 
it was found to be impossible to fill the ranks by voluntary enlist- 
ments. Hence a draft was ordered, beginning in this county, 
Tuesday, July 14, 1863, at 10 a. m. All males between the ages 



of 20 and 35 years, except the unmarried (whose limit was extended 
to 45 years) were subject to this draft, and were to serve three years 
or through the war. The draft for the ninth district called for 
3066 men, including exempts, for whom 50 per cent was allowed, 
and Bernardston was required to furnish twenty-three. Those 
drafted from here were, in the order in whicli the draft proceeded: 

Ward A. Ferry, Sumner F. Streeter, Charles P. Cushman, Henry 
L. Lamb, Moses Nelson, Edwin C. Burrows, Joseph Hatfield, Zenas 
Butterfield, David Wells, Charles Lascoway, H. Duane Fox, Aaron 
W. Field, Almon D. Hale, Galusha Newton, Henry O. Root, Eze- 
kiel Hale, Eugene Tern pieman, Francis D. Hale, Joseph W. Cross. 
Chauncey O. Haley, Timothy B. Carpenter, Lucius W. Cook, Henry 
Hale. By subscription, the citizens raised a fund to pay such 
drafted men the same bounty as was paid those who went as volun- 
teers in 1862. Consequently each able bodied man either went or 
sent a substitute. Under the President's call of March 14, 1864, the 
quota assigned this town was eight. 

Those who responded to their country's call were as follows, those 

whose names are marked with an asterisk being the ones who lost 

their lives in the service ; those marked f have passed away since 

and all are rightly classed as among the honored dead: 

2ist Regimeut. 

Charles O. Frizzell. *Lucius C. Hale. 

*James W. Hale. * Edward Lachore. 

*George E. Hale. 

27th Regiment. 

R. C. Briggs. 
Michael Sullivan. 

loth Regiment. 
William H. Scott. 
*Charles C. Harris. 
George Thompson. 

31st Regiment. 
A. N. Johnson. 

37th Regiment. 
Bart. Sullivan. 

4th (Vt. ) Regiment. 
C. O. Haley. John Haley. 

John Manning. 
W. A. Thompson. 

tOeorge W. Wells 
*M. F. Slate. 
I/. B. Streeter. 

J. J. Aldrich. 

Geoffrey Vaile. 
tF. D. Hale. 
Dennis Bartis. 

Dwight A. Reed. 
John Albett. 

B. R. Morrison. 
D. R. vScott. 
Josiah P. Day. 

Henry Baldwin. 

H. A. Wolf. 



tHerbert G. Horton 
tEnos H. Burt. 
D. L. Fairman. 

33rd Regiment. 

tT. L. Sheldon. 
tDavid Newell. 
+J. H. Weeks. 

Mason Drury. 

15th (Ct). Regiment. 

♦Charles A. Boyle. 

9th Regiment. 

Z. A. 

52nd Regiment. 

R. F. Newcomb. 
William F. Oaks, 
tj. S. Slate. 
tE. C. Newton. 
*James M. Thompson. 
C. R. Gould. 
tA. W. Kingsley. 

6th Regiment. 
Rev. A. N. Field. 
56th Regiment. 
William Woodrough. *George 

3rd Regiment, Cavalry. 
William Vanall. 

J. C. Fairman. 
C. J. Hutchins. 
A. F. Thompson. 

*H. J. Hale. 

n. S. Hurlbert. 

tH. P. Lyons. 

+L. P. Chase. 

I. L. Thomas. 

tLucius M. Weatherhead. 

George W. Thorniley. 

L. B. Grout. 

Butter field. 

tD wight Park. 
tD. H. Wheeler. 
F. R. Park. 
H. W. Hale. 
F. C. Slate. 
Q. W. Benjamin. 
W. S. Whitcomb. 

W. Woodrough. 

George W. Haskins. 

* Henry T. Sheldon, 
tjoel N. Nash. 

tHenry O Streeter. 

4th Regiment, Cavalry. 

A. L. Haskins. *Fred Hale. 

57th Regiment. 

Anson Booter. George Norwood . 

14th Regiment, Battery. 

William H. Walbridge. 

2nd Regiment, Heavy Artillery. 

Charles T. Scott. *George A. Willey. 

William Palmer. James Quinn. 

1st Regiment, Heavy Artillery. 
George Hughs. 

23rd Regiment. 

tjohn W. Temple. A. T. McClure. 

Joseph Slate. 

Regiment unknown. 

Charles Huber. Hector Murphy. 


Among the sons of Bernardston who served under enlistment 
from other places, should be mentioned Capt. George Warner, now 
resident of Lynn, Mass., who went from Springfield, Mass., attained 
the rank of lieutenant in the 27th regiment, Co. K, and at the bat- 
tle of New Berne, lost a limb. As soon as the wound was healed 
and an artificial limb fitted, he returned to active duty, afterwards 
becoming captain of the company. He was also for a time con- 
nected with the subsistence department at New Berne. Likewise 
from vSpringfield went Laroy Z. Cutler, who enlisted for nine 
months in Co. A, 46th Reg., M. V. M., yet saw eleven months' ser- 
vice ere his return home. 

The existing condition of alTairs was the best to bring out the 
character of the people and many patriotic examples might be re- 
corded. At the time Henry W. Hale was drafted, his father gave 
him $300.00, the sum required for his commutation. This he re- 
turned with the remark that "The government wants some one to 
take my place and I may as well go." Mr. Hale served his country 
with credit to himself, passing through some thrilling experiences, 
and as a reward for his fidelity then, as well as a mark of the re- 
spect in which they hold him now, his former comrades have be- 
stowed upon him the position of commander of the Edwin E. Day 
Grand Army Post, in the town of his adoption. 

Rev. J. B. Green, pastor of the Unitarian society, connected him- 
self with the sanitary commi.ssion for some time and rendered val- 
uable aid to that organization. 

In 1862, October 27, Lieut. E. S. Flurlbert, with his soldiers from 
this place, also some others in the same company, reached here on 
the evening train, receiving an ovation worthy their brave spirits. 
The ladies had procured a sword, sash and revolver, and with the 
citizens generally, repaired to the hotel then under the manage- 
ment of Mr. E. C. Fox, whither Lieut. Hurlbert and his men were 
escorted by a large procession headed by a band. Here, to Lieut. 
Hurlbert was presented the articles by Master Everett Fox, on be- 
half of the ladies, in the following words: 

"I'o you, Sir, the honored officer of a band of patriots from our own 
midst, the exercises of this occasion have an uncommon interest. To us 
all, it will be a matter of pleasant memory: and the presentation of an ele-" 


gant sword and sash by the ladies of Bernardston to our l)eh:)ved Lieut. 
Hurlbert, to be used in the salvation of an afflicted country from traitorous 
hands, will go down in the history of this town to the latest times, as a 
worthy deed of respect to one of her noblest sons. 

But, Sir, however much we admire the business energy you have shewn 
in years now past, and which have added much to the standing and growth 
of our place; however much we admire your intellectual and social quali- 
ties, which have endeared you to a large circle of friends, that earnest, de- 
cisive, yet courteous demeanor which has ever marked your intercourse ; 
still, your history even now begins; your sphere of highest usefulness, of 
patriotism, such as will give honor to yourself, and mark-with glory the 
annals of our community, just now opens before you. You, with your brave 
companions, are to write with the death dealing edge of the sword and 
bayonet in the hearts of our foes, lessons of terror to tyranny, of love to 
freedom and humanity. May Ood crown you with the highest success. 
The ladies of Bernardston, in whose behalf I make this presentation, thus 
express their confidence in you, their high hopes and the pride which they 
feel in the noble position you are to hold in our country's cause. This 
honor is not meant for you alone. The ladies thus shew their regard to 
every noble spirit that from Iiernardston has enlisted in the army of our 
common country as compatriots with you. They and we alike rejoice that 
one of their number has been selected for a post of so great importance. 
This occasion is a token of regard for them, through you, as their lieuten- 
ant, and well may we honor them. You, soldiers of Bernardston, have 
shewn your patriotism, your courage. While some trembled and cowered, 
you stepped nobly forth. No man of Bernardston can sacrifice more than 
you are doing for a noble cause — -it is not property, it is home and life you 
lay upon the altar of our country. You offer to live or die for her, as the 
god of battles may direct. O, haw unlike those dastard, coward, cringing 
souls, who besiege the surgeon for exemption papers, yet can daily labor 
for themselves or charge a dollar a day to their neighbors for their work — 
dead to the high call of their country — may God have mercy on their cow- 
ardly souls! 

In behalf of the ladies of Bernardston, contributing therefor, I, who 
would gladly be of age to accompany you in your perils and honor, present 
to you as a token of their esteem and high hopes, and with regard for the 
soldiers, your brave associates, this beautiful sword and sash: and in the 
sentiment of the Spartan mother to her brave son, to whom she had pre- 
sented a shield, saying, 'Return either with this shield or upon it,' so say 


they to you, reluni to us bearing this in triumph from many a gory field 
of battle, or if you are destined never to return, we trust your brave heart 
will never tarnish its brightness, except in honor to our country's flag." 

Lieut. Hurlbert responded as follows: — 

"Through you, Sir, it now becomes my duty to thank the fair donors for 
this valuable testimonial of their regard. And I trust, if by a kind provi- 
dence, 1 am again permitted to return among you, I may bring this valued 
gift, untarnished by any act of mine, or its lustre dimmed except by trait- 
or's blood. 

And, Sir, when I say, thank the fair contributors, 1 mean all that that 
word can possibly express, I think I feel the full weight of the responsibil- 
ity resting on me in accepting it, 1 have sworn to do all that in me lies to 
support that Ccjnstitution and that Union which has been handed tlown t(j 
us by our fathers and sealed with their blood: come what may, I shall 
strive to do my duty in maintaining them. 

I take it for granted, however, that not only to me is this token pre- 
sented, but to all who from this town have taken their lives in their hands 
and present them as a freewill offering in defence of the dear ones they 
leave behind. We know we are leaving those dear firesides around which 
so many pleasant memories cluster, in exchange for long and wearisome 
marches, sleepless nights, and all the wants and privations of an army in 
an enemy's country: but trusting in the righteousness of our cause, we 
cheerfully accept them. .And 1 trust, God helping us, the fair givers shall 
never have cause to blush for any act of those whom they have by this gift 
commissioned to battle for the salvation (^f our common country." 

Upon the sword was inscribed, "Presented to Lieut. E. S. Htirl- 
bert, by the ladies of Bernardston." 

Thtis do we see how the brave and independent spirit which led 
the women of the pioneer families to aid their husbands and sons 
in the treacherous Indian warfare, shows itself in their descend- 
ants. A hundred and fifty years later, nearly, the women were ac- 
tively engaged in doing all in their power not only to stimulate 
patriotic sentiments, but also to relieve the wants and sufferings of 
those who were so dear to them. Boxes were prepared and sent 
to the field, and the benefits derived from their contents would 
have amply repaid all denial and self-sacrifice made, could the con- 
tributors have witnessed the same. The younger, as well as the 


older, ladies had their org'anization and worked with a will, prepar- 
ingf delicacies and comforts which were sent to the different com- 
missions for further distribution. And who shall wonder if an 
occasional written word of encouragement was included in the 
" comfort bag-s " sent ? Or that the recipient of such should most 
gratefully acknowledge the favor, as did one young man who, in 
one of his communications to a Bernardston maiden, thus described 
himself: "My hair is red, I should have been good looking, had not 
the Lord unfortunately set both my eyes watching my nose." Such 
matters, little things in themselves, no doubt helped many a poor 
soldier through the long hours of weary marching, or served to 
vary the monotomy of camp routine, and if, by such means, dis- 
heartened spirits were encouraged, just in that proportion was good 
rendered to the cause for which all, at home and abroad, were most 
earnestly engaged. 

Of those who lost their lives while in the service, Lucius C, .son 
of Allen B. Hale, of the 21st regiment, was wounded and died in 
the hospital at New Berne, N. C, April 12, 1862. James W., son 
of John Valentine Hale, died at the same place of a fever, April 8, 
1862. He was in the 2 ist Massachusetts regiment. Edward Lachore 
was killed in the battle of New Berne. George Hale was drowned 
in the Potomac river. James Thompson died in a hospital. Charles 
S., son of J. S. Slate, died in the Philadelphia hospital, November 5, 
1862. He was aged 21 years, a member of the 4th Vt. regiment. 
Sergeant Barnard, son of Ziba Newell, was killed in the battle of 
Malvern Hill, near Richmond, July 28, 1864, at the age of 27. He 
was shot in such manner as to sever a main artery, and bled to 
death immediately. His body was robbed by rebels, into whose 
hands it fell. Sergt. Newell was a member of Co. F, ist Massachu- 
setts cavalry, and although but 27, had been in between 30 and 40 
battles and skirmishes. He had a brother killed in the battle of 
Antietam. William Woodrough and son George were killed before 
Petersburgh. Frederic Hale died at Fort Magruder, near Williams- 
burg, Va., of congestion of brain and lungs. Charles A., son of 
William Boyle of Bernardston, died at New Berne, N. C, of spotted 
fever, October 10, 1864, ae. 27. He was a member of the 15th Con- 
necticut volunteers. Henry T., son of Russell Sheldon, died at 


New Berne, October 12, 1864, ae. 18, a member of the 2nd Massa- 
chusetts heavy artillery. 

" Down the dark future, through long generations, 

The sounds of war grow fainter and then cease; 
And, like a bell with sweet, solemn vibrations, 

I hear once more the voice of Christ say, "Peace!" 
Peace ! and no longer, froift its brazen portals. 

The blast of war's great organ shakes the skies; 
But beautiful as songs of the immortals. 

The holy melodies of love arise." 

-' V/. - 



Up to the year 1784, the history of Bernardston is the history of 
Leyden. From that time on, it is as the record of mother and 
daughter, each depending upon, and assisting the other, in certain 
directions. And not alone in municipal, religious and educational 
matters, but by the strong and near ties of kinship existing between 
the inhabitants, are the relations more closely cemented, as a 
thoughtful perusal of the records will show. 

In the earlier days of the parent town, the settlers, branching 
out from the north part, seemed to follow the water courses, and 
going in a westerly direction, we soon find, up the Newcomb brook, 
the homes of the Connable, Newcomb, Willis, Shattuck, Foster, 
Bagg and Frizzell families. The causes leading up to the separa- 
tion were, as in the case of the "Gore," natural ones. Up to the 
Revolutionary period it is supposed, and everything substantiates 
the supposition, that, dividing the town into equal quarters by run- 
ning lines north and south, and east and west, at right angles, by 
far the greatest number of families would have been found in the 
north-east quarter, and here also was located the only public build- 
ing, the meeting house, likewise the only place that we definitely 
know to have served the purpose of an inn. Hence when settle- 
ments began to be made in the west part of the town about the 
year 1770, the people were obliged to travel, probably, two-thirds 
of the breadth of the township to attend divine service. This one 
thing must have been a powerful factor for division, for in those 
days, if one was absent from church, the question put was not where 
is he, but hozv is he, for it was a generally accepted fact that illness 
alone would cause such absence. The natural features of the coun- 
try presented many difhculties to be overcome in the making of 
good roads at a time when the men not in the service of their coun- 
try, had their time fully occupied in clearing the land and erecting 
the customary log-house. So these early roadways, many of them, 


we may safely conjecture, were little more than bridle paths through 
the densely wooded country, and full of unseen dangers to the un- 
wary traveller. Imagining ourselves in their conditions, can we 
wonder at their thoughts turning toward a nearer township, a 
nearer civil and religious home ? The first settlement was made 
in the east part of Leyden on what is now called Frizzle Hill, by 
a Mrs. Frizzle, and the next, at about the same time, a little distance 
north, on Beaver meadow. These portions of the town were com- 
paratively thinly settled for a number of years, and at the time of 
its division by the Legislature in 1784, it had not enough inhabi- 
tants to constitute a town, hence was called the district of Leyden. 

At a town meeting held in 1779. it was voted that the land lying 
east of Green River be divided by a line running due north and 
south into two towns or districts, and the- final division in 1784 was 
the result. After this they united with Bernardston in choosing 
a representative to the General Court, but chose their own town 
officers. Some of those residing in Leyden prior to this time were 
John Connable and his sons, who came in 1772, Oliver Babcock, 
David Page in 1779, Ezra Shattuck in 1780, Capt. Jonathan Bud- 
dington in about 1783, Caleb and John Adams, Andrew Henry, 

Lieut. Reuben Shattuck, Charles Packer, Ezekiel Foster, 

Spicer, Capt. Agrippa Wells, Lieut. Daniel Newcomb, Samuel Guild, 
Alpheus Barstow, Selah Chapin, Lieut. Joseph Eason, Nathaniel 
Eason. Uriah Wilbur came from Rhode Lsland about 1780. Li 1784 
the following persons are supposed to have come to town: John B. 
Demontal and family from Shelburne, John Moore and family, 
Mary Moore and family from Palmer, Sylvester Crandell and fam- 
ily from Guilford, Vt., John Wells and family from Springfield, 
Vt., Jehial and Polly Niles from Connecticut. Oliver Noyes and fam- 
ily from Guilford, Vt., Daniel Edwards and family from Coventry, 
Ct., Solomon Dimmock, Bedgood Bulfish and wife, Ellen and Sarah 
Cole, all from Enfield, Ct., Levi Brooks and family, Thomas Brooks 
and wife from Guilford, Vt., Benjamin Grinnell and wife from 
Rhode Island, James Phillips and wife from vSpringfield, Mass. 
In 1785 there came from Guilford, Vt., Jcxshua Noyes and family, 
David Dennison and family, John Burrows and family. In 1787 
John Saunders and family from Rhode Island, Peter Brown and 


family from Montague, Jabez Knapp and family, Enoch Childs and 
family, and Joseph Engley from Taunton, Benjamin Carleton from 

This settlement was named Leyden after the town of Leyden, 
Holland, and the residence of the Puritans for a time prior to their 
emigration. It is claimed that one Coolidge, probably David, came 
from Rhode Island and established himself on a farm, the first 
inhabitant. If so, he must have been here as early as 1770. 

The act of division was passed March 12, 1784, Tristam Dotham 
being speaker of the House, Samuel Adams, president of the Sen- 
ate, John Hancock, Governor, and John Avery, Secretary of the 
Commonwealth. The first meeting was called by a warrant issued 
by David Smead, Justice of the Peace, dated Greenfield, April 22, 
1784, and directed to Caleb Adams, the meeting to be called at the 
dwelling house of Lieut. Joseph Eason on the 26th. The meeting 
was holden accordingly, and David Severance, Esq., presided as 
moderator, Alpheus Barstow was chosen town clerk, Samuel Guild, 
treasurer, Capt. Agrippa Wells, Charles Packer and Lieut. Reuben 
Shattuck, selectmen and assessors, and Capt. John Adams, consta- 
ble and collector, for which he was to receive 3^^ is. 

At the time of Captain Buddington's settlement in town the place 
is thus graphically described: 

"But few people lived in this hilly wilderness. Here and there 
the smoke of the log cabin struggles through the thick woods of 
oak, maple, beach and chestnut. The Indian still lingered, though 
his dependence on the whites had made him friendly. The deer 
was plenty in the woods and sometimes the childlike wail of the 
panther would startle the mother from sleep." The log school- 
house soon appeared. One of the oldest inhabitants used often to 
relate her experiences in teaching in those early times. To her, it 
seemed wonderful how the children came out of the woods to school 
and how they would return to the woods, and she be left alone. 

In 1789 it was voted to form the district into four school districts, 
and in 1791 to 60^ for the purpose of supporting schools the 
ensuing year. The school committee made their first appearance 
in the year 1803, the first one chosen being Samuel Connable, John 
Hunt, Isaac Bullock, Paul Babcock, Benjamin Baker. Joseph Bab- 


cock and Nathan Hastings. A committee has been annually 
chosen since, with one exception. In 1805 it was voted "not to 
Raise a School Committee." Comparatively little is found con- 
cerning the earlier schools, and the cause is traceable to the divi- 
sion of the district into the four school districts so soon after the 
incorporation of Leyden, and each district was charged with the 
care and expense of its educational interests. 

In its religious history the place is at marked variance with most 
places, in that the first church organization effected was not of the 
standing order, or Congregational denomination, and to the pres- 
ent time no society or church of that faith has been found within 
its bounds. In July, 1780, nine years before the appearance of the 
Baptist society in Bernardston, a Baptist church was organized in 
Leyden. The members worshipped presumably in private houses 
or in Colrain until 1797, when there was erected by several persons 
in company, called the " Meeting house proprietors," a place of 

The Methodists early formed a class here, and in 18 10 a church 
organization was effected. In 1841 a church was built, and for the 
first time the Methodists found for themselves a permanent home. 

In 1830 a Universalist society was organized, but had an exist- 
ence of only three years. In 1867 the .society and church was re- 
organized with 24 members, and with their Methodist brethren 
united in holding services in the one church at Leyden Centre. 

Fall Toivn Gore. — As has been stated in a preceding part of this 
work, this " Gore " of land — so called — was early applied for, and 
granted to the proprietors upon their representations that, numer- 
ically, theirs exceeded the usual number of grantees proportion- 
ately to the size of the township granted. Feeling strongly the 
reasonableness and justice of their claims, the proprietors, in 1736-7, 
began the agitation of a petition to the General Court, inviting 
Thomas Wells to prefer the same on their behalf. Probably no 
further definite action was then taken, if so, no trace of it is to be 
found in the records of the proprietors. 

On Monday, October 19, 1740, a vote was passed that a man be 
sent with a petition to the General Court for the gore of land lying 
between the township and Boston township No. 2 above Deerfield, 



tliiis sliowin^^ that altliou^li immediate aetion liad been suspended, 
the jirojeet liad not been L^iven over. The same Thomas Wells 
was asked to represent them at IJoston, he to receive for his ser- 
vices, if suecessfnl, 150 acres of land anywhere within the (rore. 
His mission was attended with favorable results, and at a later date, 
the town for some unknown reason ha\'ini^ rescinded their vote con- 
cernini^; his payment, tendered him the sum of 50/". Just the rea- 
son for the inhabitants desiring" this particular gore, it would seem 
hard to determine, separated as it was from the town by natural 
boundaries. The only theory we can advance is, that it adjoined 
their possessions and ]:)romised to become marketable ])ro]-)ertv. It 
seems to have been a bone of contention, so to speak, a greater part 
of tlie time until its hnal annexation to Colrain in 1779. As apart 
of the parent town the inhabitants had no interests in common with 
her citizens. The latter were, as we have seen, located principally 
tipon Iluckle Hill, Hald Mountain .and North I>ernardston sections. 
The church where the residents of the (jore were expected to re- 
pair on the Sabbath and to take part in the town gatherings, was 
on the highest point of Huckle Hill, and the distance, some four- 
teen miles as the road was then laid out, and it was to this fact that 
some of the agitation concerning "movin<^ the meetin;^ h<->use" may 
l)e traced. 

At one time an attempt was made to divide the town into two 
districts in order to facilitate the transaction of town affairs, the 
part situated within the (rore to belong to the sotith-west district, 
but without success. A revival of this project resulted in the sep- 
aration of the district of Leyden. This state of affairs existed un- 
til 1771, and we may presume that the feeling was intensified when 
the inhabitants of the (lore preferred a petition to Governor Hutch- 
inson setting forth their grievances as follows: "For years past and 
now labor under very difficult circumstances, by reason of being 
such a distance from the meeting house of iJernardston aforesaid, 
which is not less than fourteen miles from the nearest of us, and 
then we are obliged to go through a part of Shelburne, and part of 
(ireenfield which is the way the road now is, and the only way that 
it ever can go as your petitioners would furtlier inform your Hon- 
ours that it is impossible t(^ git a road anv other way by reason on 


a large River with very high Banks on both sides and the water 
many times in the year is so high that there is no possibility in 
eettino: across and when over the river the mountains are so high 
& Rocky that it is impossible to get a road over them; and whereas 
your Petitioners are obliged to bear their proportionate part of the 
burdens of the Town when they receive no benefit therefrom they 
therefore petition for annexation to Colrain," which town was but 
two and one-half miles distant. The petition was signed by John 
Workman, George Clark, Andrew Henry, David Morris, Andrew 
Luck, Robert Riddle, Abraham Peck, William Stewart. 

The defense prepared October 2, 1771, set forth "that four of thti 
petitioners do not belong to Bernardston, they live in Colrain and 
probably will never live upon their lands in Bernardston, some of 
them. That the petitioners have not represented the River and 
Hills in a true lic^ht ; The River is not so large but that a tree will 
reach across and a bridge may easily be made to stand on said river 
and the Banks and hills are passable in some places. That it will 
very much hurt, if not spoil another parish in the west part of the 
town finally." 

As to the faithfulness of the representations of the defense the 
existing highways and bridges to-day bear witness. Colrain citi- 
zens themselves, although carrying the vote favoring annexation, 
did so in the face of strong opposition from those resident in the 
west portion of the town. The parent town carried on the opposi- 
tion to the movement until 1779, when it was finally voted that that 
portion of the town lying west of Green River be annexed to Col- 
rain, thus surrendering 2576 acres of land. At this date it is sup- 
posed that there were 16 families settled within the limits of the 
Gore. The names of thirteen (;f them were as follows, and doubt- 
less others were some of those signing the petition of 1771: 

Joliu NcwfU. William Nelsou. 

Oliver Newell. John Coffran. 

01(1 Roinus (colored). John Matthews. 

Benjatuin Carleton. John Hurlbert. 

John Bolton. Jolin Workman. 

Thomas vShearer. Abraham Peck. 
Moses Ranger. 


ROC T: RS — S( )C I KT V 1 ! !'X'( » M KS U N I T A R I A N — I ' N 1 T A R 1 A N TAS T( ) RS. 

Another branch of our history now confronts us in the record of 
our clmrchcs and tlicir important work The cliureh and school 
characterize a town as well as a nation, each exertin;^' in a similar 
manner their civilizini^ and elcvatiuL^ influence. 

" Above the forest's flowing shade 

The Altar and the School appeared; 

On titat the Kifts of faith were laid, 

On ihis their precious hopes were reared." 

The importance attached to the early establishment of a place of 
worship is shown by the conditions of the grant, one of which was 
that a meeting hottse should be built within four years. At a meet- 
ing held in Deerfield, in June, 1739, the proprietors voted to build 
a meeting house which should be 50 feet long, 40 feet wide and 
23 feet between joists, and in the summer of 1739, two years after 
the arrival of the first settlers, it was built. Although the place 
chosen was bleak and uninviting, the meeting house was located 
on the south part of Huckle Hill just south of the farm of John B. 
Field, upon the highest point of land and a few rods west of the 
present road, probably near the centre of population at that time. 
The building was but partially finished inside, and no money ex- 
pended in what would now be considered the most necessary ad- 
jtincts. The original locaticMi is thus described: The building was 
to "Set in or near the Road between the 26th. and the 6th. houfe 
lotts Somewhere Between the South Line of the 6th lott and the 
North line of the 5th and that the committee that shall be Ch<~)fe 
to build the meeting houfe Determine as to the Perticular Place 
whare it shall vStand." A later vote authorized the committee 
already chosen to prepare the material "to Gitt the sd houfe framed 
and Raifed and Covered." After beginning work the lot selected 


was found to be very inconveniently located, therefore it was voted 
that three acres from lot No. 3 be utilized as bein^' nearer where 
the lumber was framed. A committee was chosen to jxirtially fin- 
ish the buildini:^, "to Lay the Lower Floor, Build a Pulpit and make 
the Body Seats." 

In October, 1740, it was voted that "there be 20^ paid out of the 
Proprietor's treasury for the support of preaching the (xospel in 
Fall Town the ensuing winter," and at an adjourned meeting that 
"A committee be chosen tc; cut the brush and burn them, ten rods 
round the meeting house."' At the first proprietors' meeting held 
in Fall Town (at the house of Lieut. Ebenezer .Sheldon) vSeptem- 
ber 23, 1 74 1, it was voted by a majority of 47 out of 48, that Rev. 
John Norton be invited to settle in the ministry. His answer to 
the call appears on the early record books as follows: 

" To the Proprietors of fdll town aclj(jyiiinjj^ to Dcerfield — Ocntlcmeii — 
you made your application to me by your comtee Laft vviiUcr tu Preacli 
the Gospel with you and in the Spring 1 reed a .Second application from 
another comtee to ccnitinue with you for some time aiul alfo have by a 
comtee chofen by you on the 23d day of Sej)teml)er batt Reed your Invi- 
tation to settle in the ministry among you and the olfers you made me. 
1 thereupon made it my care to address the throne of (irace for direction 
in this affair which is of so Great lmi)ortance. I mu>t i:onfess my un\vt)i- 
thiness and Inefficiency for so Important a Work aiul it is with 'rrembling 
I have Entertained thought of it but when I consider how Desirable it is 
to serve the Enterest of Christ and of Souls and of being Instrumental in 
the hands of Ciod to Lead Souls to Chri>t and the all efficiency of Christ 
to make the weakest means I'owerful to thet Kiul I think 1 can Say 1 I )e- 
siree in the fear of God and with a humble Dependence on him for assist- 
ance to Enter upon that work where and when God shall ("all me t(j it and 
understanding their is a General Desire among you that 1 should take upon 
me the Work of the Gospel ministry among you whiefi I must Needs Say 
Inclines mv hart to ycju ami Gives me a Greater Desire of Settling wiili 
you than with any other people. 

As to the offers you have made me 1 don't know but lli-y are sufficieiii 
to support me if they are not 1 conclude it i^ your intention to I )oo moi^e 
for me, if I [a'eacdi the (/ospel 1 look upon it Rea>onabk- 1 should live <if 
the Gospel I purpose no other iavtdyhootl but that, and then 1 should lie 
unfaithfuU to you shoiiKl 1 leave the ministry to se<.'k a i.ivelyhotid any 


Other way. 1 hope I shall not expect Great things and I hope you will not 
suffer me to want if you are able to do for me. as to the seventieth part 
of the Six miles Square or an Equal part of the whole Township with Each 
Proprietor the first is the most but yet I think it will be the least trouble 
to you if I should accept of the h'.st. I therefore do it yet I hope you will 
consider it and Grant me a wood lot Near to that you offer me. As to the 
Settlement I to Live with it and be Content to suffer with you in the day 
of your Small things and truft you will Not Suffer me to want, when you 
Can Relieve me. If my Necessities Should Call for more. I desire your 
Prayers that if God should bring me into the ministry among you 1 may 
come to you in the fullness of the blessing of the Gospel of Christ and So 
1 Remain yours to Serve 

Deerfield, Oct. 13th. day John Norton. 

.A Domini 1741. 

Mr. Norton was accord in j^ly settled with a salary of 130^^ for the 
first five years and afterwards to increase 5^^ annually till the sum 
should be \'jo£ ($566.66) annually, and his firewood brought to 
his door. He was to have 20oi^ settlement money, one-half in 
money, and one-half in labor or materials for buildino;-. 

His ordination sermon was preached by Jonathan Ashley, A. M. 
It was published and the only known copy is to be found in the 
rooms of the P. V. M. Association at Deerfield, and through the 
courtesy of Hon. George Sheldon the following copy has been ob- 
tained. It has been said that a copy was also in the possession of 
WcM-cester Antiquarian Society, but Lieut. Governor Cushman's 
research proved the impression to be erroneous: 


Romans XV. jo. 

No2u I befeecli you, Bretliren, for the Lord Jefus Chrift Sake, and for the 
Love of the Spirit, that ye ftrive toj^ether with me, in your Prayers to God for me. 

That fame Spirit of Pride and Malice, which the Pharifees manifefted 
towards our bleffed Lord himfelf, whilft fulfilling his Miniftry in the Flefh, 
|)revailed very much againft his Church after his Death, and Afcenfion into 
Heaven; wherefore the Church of Chrift at Jerufalem was greatly oppreffed, 
and many were afraid to unite themfelves to it, for fear they fhould fall 
under the Displeafure of the Rulers; and efpecially were the Rich and 
Great unwilling to hazard their All for the Sake of Religion, fo that the 


Number of Believers confifted chiefly of the poorer Sort, who were not well 
able to fupport the Gofpel. St. Paul therefore the Apoftlet the Gentiles, 
endeavors to ftir up a Spirit of Charity amongft them ; and tells them, they 
were Debtors to the Jews, and ought to give them of their carnal Things, 
fince they had fo largely received of their fpirit-ual Things, ver. 27. (Such was 
the Temper and fuch the primitive Spirit in the days of the Apoftles; and 
would to God there was more of it handed down to us in thefe remote Ages.) 
And when the Apoftle had obtained a Collection among the Gentiles, and 
was going up to Jerufalem to deliver the fame to the Saints, he writes this 
Epiftle from Corinth to Rome; wherein he informs the Chriftians there, that 
whem he fhould Journey into Spain, he purpofed to come to them, and af- 
fures them he fhould come to them in the Fulnefs of the Bleffings of the 
Gofpel of Chrift ver, 29. And therefore he befeeches them to ftrive in 
Prayer for him to (iod. In the Words we may obferve, 

1. The Duty recommended, and this is ftriving. And he lets them know 
he was engaged in it himfelf. Strive together with me He does indeed tell 
us, 2 Tim. 2. 24. That it is not lawful for a Sefvant of the Lord to ftrive. 
But there he ufes a different Word (Macheftbai) which ffgnifies to contend 
in Anger and with Weapons: But the Word here rendered ftrive, is Agoni- 
shai to be in an Agony, or to agonize; and the fame Word is ufed, 
Luk. 13. 24. 

2. The Manner of ftriving; and that is, in Prayer; in which we are to be 
in an Agony. Thus Jacob wreftled in Prayer, Gen. 32. 24. So Chrift him- 
felf was in an Agony of Prayer, Luke 22. 44. And Epaphras laboured fer- 
vently in Prayer, Col. 4. 12. Our Prayers fhould all be fervent and in- 
wrought Prayers. 

3. What it is the Apoftle urged them thus earneftly to ftrive for in Prayer; 
and it was that he might come unto them in the Fulnef of the Bleffings of 
the Gofpel of Chrift; that he might come to them with Joy by the Will of 
God, and be refrefhed with them, verfef 29 c\: 32. 

4. The Motives to this Duty of earneft Prayer for him. And they are 
the Lord Jefus Chrift's fake and the Love of the Spirit. As if the Apoftle 
had faid; be it fo you have no Love for me, yet if you have any Defire to 
advance the Kingdom of your Lord; and have any Defire to feel the bleffed 
Influence of the Spirit upon your own Hearts, and fee the Operations thereof 
upon others, then pray for me, that my Miniftry may be profpered. 

Hence the 

DOC T. That it greatly concerns both Minifters, and People to unite 


their eanieft Kiuieavors, and moft fervent I'rayers to Ciod, that the (ireat 
Ends and rurpofcs of the Miniftry may be anfwei'ed. 

When our Lord had purchafed a Church here with his own lUood, and 
was about to defcend up on hio;h; lie did not leave it comfoftlefs; but fent 
down his Holy Spirit, which wonderfully fdled the Hearts of his People: 
nor did he leave his Church without Means and Hel[:)s for its (irowth and 
Increafe; but gave Gifts to Men, Kph. 4. 8. He was pleafed to conftitute 
an Order of Men to teach and build Men up ni the Faith, and gracioufly 
has promifed them his Prefence to the End of the \V\)rl(l. 

Now, do we confider what their lUifinefs is, who it is that fentls them 
forth to it, and how they muft, e're it be long, render an Account to him: 
how does it concern them in an efpecial Manner to be fervent in S[)irit 
fervein the Lord? xVLankind are ready to think the Work of the Miniftry 
is an eafy Employment, very much freed from all Difficulties; and many 
have envied them their Eafe; yea it is to be feared fome have left their 
fecular Employments, and turned into the Miniftry, that they might indulge 
greater Sloth and Idlenefs: But fuch Men are grofly ignorant of the fhar[) 
Conflicts & fevere Agonies which attend a faithful Difcharge of the Minif- 
try. Oftentimes Earth and Hell unite againft them. 

Wherefore a People are not to look upon themfelves altogether uncon- 
cerned about the Miniftry; whether it be fucceeded or not; but muft do 
all in their Power to promote the great Defigns of it; they muft do nothing 
to oppofe, and hinder it themfelves; and when they fee it laboring under 
Difficulties, and Oppofitions, they may not fit ftill, and leave Minifters to 
grapple with them; but muft appear for their Help, and fay to them as the 
People once did, to Ezra, Chap. 10. 4. Arife, for this Matter belongeth 
unto thee: we alfo will be with thee, be of good Courage and do it. It is 
of great Concern, that a People as well as Minifters do what they can to 
forward the Miniftry. 

But in handling this Doctrine I propofe Firft, To fhow what it is that 
Minifters cS: People are to endeavor after and pray earneftly for. 

Secondly, Point out the Manner in which they are to feek the Advance- 
ment of the Miniftry. 

Thirdly, Give fome Reafons of the Doctrine. 
Laftly. Apply the Truth to Minifters and People. 

Firft then, I am to show what it is Minifters and People are to endeavor 
after and pray earneftly for. 

And in general it is the Glory of God by the Salvation of Men in the Way 



of ihe ('r()f|)el. The (/lory of (ioti is the great ImkI of our Creation, ami it 
is what we fhoiiid always aim at in our Actions. As we are Men we shouUi 
endeavor fo to live that Ood may be honored by us: and as we are Minif- 
ters and C^hriftains we are efpecially concerned to prcjinote the Honor and 
Cilory of (lod, by feeking cuir own, and the Salvation of (jthers, in that Way 
revealed by Chrift in the (fof[)eI: And in order to this, 

I. Minifters muft ftrive and even be in an Agony, till (thrift be formed 
in their own Souls, and the Souls of their Hearers. 

Men are not always c<jnverted when they enter into the Miniftry many 
Instances there have been of their Converfion by their own Miniftry. lUit 
if this be the Cafe of any Minifters not to converted, Iniw fliouUl they cry 
to God Day and Night for pardoning and faiictifying Mercy? .\iid give 
no Peace to themfelves till tiiey are born of the S[)irit of (iod; left while 
they preach the (iofi)el of Clirift to <jthers, they be a Ccd'taway themselves, 
I Cor. 9. 27. How fhould they wreftle in Prayer till they know the Work 
(.)f (lod upon the Heart, aiul can feelingly l)itty, and travail in iiirlh with 
others ? .\iul when this happy C'hange is elTectcd 111 their own Souls; how 
Miould they ftrive and agonize in I'rayer till CMirift be formed in the Souls 
of their Hearers? (l-al. 4. 19. 

And if Minifters have ever felt the Terrors of the Law, ami cxperieiu'ed 
the Comforts of Ood's S[)irit, they can't be eafy till their l'co[)le are bro't 
out of a State of Sm and Heath into the I'avour of (iod, they will not reft 
till they have refcued them from the Hands of the Devil, and introduced 
them int(J the Kingdom of our Lord jefus ('hrift. .NLiiifter^ mult take 
much Tains for the Converfion of their Hearers; and efpecially if at any 
Time they [Perceive a good Work begun m their Souks; they thould never 
give over till it end in a thoro' Converfion to Cod. 

And at the fame Time that Minifters of the (iof|)el are travailing in 
IJirth for their own and the Souls of others, a People mufl join with them 
anti pray earneftly for them. Have any of yon an unconverteil Minitter, 
ycni may not reject him even for that; you have no fuch Warrant from the 
\V(;rd of (iod; to do this would be to impeach the Wifilom of our i.oid 
Jefus Chrift, who commanded the Hearers to obferve and do all thai ihc 
Scribes and Pharifees taught them. Mat. j;,. 2. j,. .\iid it would be to 
make your felves wifer than the Wifdom of (iod, who chotc one to the 
Apofllefhip whom he knew was in a State of Nature; ami at that very Time 
forefaw he W(Uild lift up his Heel againft him. 

Your Duty m fuch a Cafe is to pray earneftly to (iod for him; that he 
maybe made of (iotl a faithful experimental Mmifter of Jefus Chrift Ami 


is your Minifter labouring for the Converfioii (jf you or yours, can you 

neglect ftriving with him, 'till fuch a bleffed Work be effected in you ? 

3. Minifters and I'eople are unitedly to endeavor to u|)hokl and promote 
real Piety and (jodiinefs among themselves. 

Minifters must ftrive to be exemplary themfelves, to be Patterns of Pa- 
tience, Holinefs and heavenly Mindenefs; they muft refift all 'Pemptations 
to Lewdnefs and Vanity. It is a great Reproach t(J Religion when Men, 
who bear the C'haracter of C'hrift Ambaffadors, give themfelves up to Sen- 
suality, and have no Government over their Paffions and Appetites. Put 
this has been unhappily fometimes the Cafe to the great Difhonour of 
C'hrift. Would we be Minifters of our afcended Ltjrd and glorified Re- 
deemer, we muft avoid everything which tends to bring ourfelves and his 
Doctrines into Contempt. 

And all fuch as profefs themselves Christians muft be very watchful over 
themfelves, ami walk circumfpectly, not as Fools but as Wife, redeemein 
the 'I'ime, Eph. 5. 15. 16, 'I'hey muft avoid all Appearances of Evil, and 
live up to the Character they fuftain. Nor is it enough here, that Minif- 
ters and People are externally f(jber and religious; but they muft kee[) up 
the Life and Power of Godlinefs, as well as the Form of it, Tim. 3. 5. 

And do Minifters and Pe(^ple at any 'Pime observe Religion dying, how 
fhould they ftrive tcjgether, to revive it? Is any Sin prevailing and grow- 
ing rampant; they must awake t(j put a Stop to it and face it down: It is 
not enough that Minifters exert themfelves; but a People muft alfo join 
their ftrongeft Endeavors and moft fervent Prayefs: they muft ftrengthen 
the Hands, and encourage the Hearts of Minifters; as they in Ezra 10. 4, 

3. Minifters and People are concerned to do all in them lies to preferve 
Peace and good Order among themfelves. Chrift's Bleffing to his Church 
was Peace, joh. 14. 27. And the Gofpel often enjoins Peace u[)on the 
Followers of Chrift. Hence we are commanded to live i)eaceably as much 
as possible, Rom. 12. 18 and to follow the 'Phings which make for Peace, 
Rom. 14. 19. And Peace amongft a People is very neceffary in order. to 
the flourifhing of Religion: 'Phe Spirit oi Ciod will not dwell in the midft 
of War and Contention. How watchful therefore fhould Minifters and Peo- 
ple be that they don't fall into Strifes and Animofities? Satan is always 
ready to cast in Bones of Contenti<jn: Minifters muft ftrive fo to live that 
they may give none Offence to any; and that Satan may have nothing to 
improve againft them to (.leftr(jy their Ufefulnefs: .And a People muft avoid 
all Occafions of Contention, by living in Love, by bearing with, and for- 


giving one another. And is any Keud fpringing up, iiow does it concern 
us all to quench the Coals. 

4. Ministers and People muft unite their Endeavors and Prayers that the 
Doctrines of Chrift may be preferved pure and unmixed with Errors. We 
are all bound earneftly to contend for the Faith, Jude 3. And efpecially 
fhould it be of a great Concern to fuch, as are appointed to 'Peach the 
Truth to others, to be well grounded themfelves in the Truth. Minifters 
may not indifferently embrace any Tenets; thinking it no Matter fo their 
People are eafy with them; but they muft examine the 'Pruth, and when 
they are well inftructef in it, muft teach it to others: and they are com- 
manded to convince Crainfayers, Tit. i. 9. And is any Herefy fpringing up 
at any 'Pi me, they muft make a vigerous Oppofition; and a People muft 
affift them herein, left the Corru|)tion become epidemical, and prove fatal 
to the Souls of many. 

So alfo it equally concerns APmifters tS: People to preferve the Worfhip 
of Ciod unmixed with the Inventions and Superftions of Men, Moses in 
building the 'I'abernacle, was to follow exactly the Pattern fhown him in 
the mount: So we in all our Worfhip fhould pattern arter the Mind of God 
revealed in his Word. We muft keep up a holy Jealoufy for God's Wor- 
fhip, and be always ready to refcue it from the Impofitions of Men, which 
however pleafing they may be to carnal Reafon, yet are condemned by 
God, and unfafe for us. 

5. Minifters and People muft do all they can to fupport Chrift's Author- 
ity in his Church, that his Paws and Government may take i')lace upon 
'I'ranfgrelTors. 'I'hat Chnft has left Authority in his Church is certain, 
Mat. iS (S; 1 Cor. 5. In whofe Hands it is repofited, 1 fhall not now attempt 
to determine; nor is it neceffary it fhould be decided, would Minifters and 
People aftist and ftrengthen one another, and both do what in them lies to 
reclaim Sinners and bring them to Repentance; but fo long as Minifters 
and Pople are jealous of one another and all they aim at is to ingrofs the 
Power into their own Hands; and refufe to ftrengthen one another, 'Phings 
will grow worfe and worfe if poffible. It is a Reproach to Christians that 
there is fcarce fo much as a Shatlow f)f Government in the Church; and it 
is fo hard a Matter to bring Offenders to humble themfelves; and obftinate 
Men cannot be brought to fubmit to Order. Hap])y would it be, Minifters 
and I'eople unite to recover the linking .Authority of Chrift in particular 
Churches; fuice we can't have anv Help from Councils of Churches: Au- 
thority is as necessary in a CHiurch as in a Kingdom: and the more this 
finks, the more will Religion die with it. Minifters therefore muft bear a 


Teftiinony againft Offenders; inuft boldly call them t<^ Account; and a 
People niuft ftrengthen a Minifiers Hands and encourage his Heart herein; 
and may not juftify the Wicked, as is too commonly the Cafe. 

6 It concerns Minifters and People to endeavor to fuppiM't the Honour 
and Credit of the Miniftry. However a corrupt and degenerate Age may 
defpife Men of a facred Character; yet certainly the Work of the Miniftry 
is the moft honourable Employment in the World: and Chrift affures us. 
that fuch as defpife them defpife him, Luk lo, i6. He will have them ef- 
teemed highly for their Works fake, r 1'ef. 5. 13, and accounted worthy of 
double Honor, i Tim. 5. 17. And when we confider how much the Succefs 
of the Miniftry depends upon the Kfteem Men have (jf Minifters them- 
felves, fhall not both they and a People l\o all they can to advance their 
Credit and Reputation? They nuift themfelves live fo holy and exem[)lary 
that none may have any Reafon to cenfure and Reproach them. They 
muft ajDprove themfelves to the Confiences <jf Men. Their Lives and Con - 
verfations muft be fuch as will command Reverance from Men. But then 
Minifters are Men of like PafiPions, and fubject to like Temptations with 
other men, Act. 14. 15. And if they do any Thing inconfiftent with their 
Character and Calling; a People muft bear with their Infirmities, overlook, 
and cover their Failings, (iod has guarded their Reputation better than 
any Mens whatever, i, Tim. 5. 19. How afraid then fhould you be to f[)eak 
Evil of them, as is the common Practice of Mankind? As tho' they hired 
them into the Miniftry t(j let loofe reproachful Words of them? But not- 
withstanding all the Care God has taken to preferve the Reputation of 
Minifters, how ready are Men to fpread every Failing they are guilty of to 
the greateft Diftance? But when Minifters are thus wounded in their 
Reputations, their Ufefulnefs is greatly deftroyed. 

And in order to your upholding the Credit (^f the Miniftry you muft fup- 
port them honourably whcj labour for your Souls. God commanded that 
tlie ().\ which treadeth (Hit the C(;rn fhould n(jt be muzzled, Deut. 25. 4. 
Which the Apoftle api)lies to the [)refent Cafe, i Cor. 9. 9. 10. And he 
lets us know there is the fame Reafon they who preach the (rofpel fhould 
live the Gofpel as they who atteml upon the Altar fhould be Partakers of 
the Altar, Verfes 13. 14. ]]ut it is certain, the Priefts under the Law were 
allowed by God a vaftly greater Maintenance than Men are willing to allow 
ALnifters of the Gofpel. It is a vain Imagination fome men have, that if 
-Minifters are kept poor and dependant, they will be more faithful, that they 
may not be rejected by the l'eo|)le: This is the Way to make them Ser- 
vants to Mens Humours, inftead of Servants to their Scdvation; if thev are 


kepi mean ami low, ihev will not have Courai^e to repi"ove Men Ix^ldly, and 
face tiowii their dailii^y Sins: their Strength is not the Strength of Stones, 
nor their l''lefh IJrafs. |(j1). 6. 12. And if tliey are kept poor and depend- 
ant, when Troubles arife and Men evil intreat them, they are ready to fink, 
antl know not how to [lerfift in their Work. And it is to be feared this has 
overborn and wafted the Spirits of fome of the faithful Servants of our 
Lord Jefus Chrift. 

Secondly. I am to fhow in what Way and Manner Minifters and People 
are t(J endeavor to promote the great Ends of the Miniftry. 

And the [^articular Way the Apoftle points out to us all is Prayer: Yet 
we are not U) fup[)ofe this is the only Method i\'Iinifters and People are to 
ufe, for the Liglu of Nature, and the Word of Ood itfelf, will teach us to 
add to i'rayer all reafonable Means and Endeavors; but as we are intirely 
dependant ui^on God and Christ for our Salvation, and can do nothing for 
ourfelves; fo nothing is more reafonable than this, that we fhould make 
known all our Wants to God, and commit all our Cares to him by Prayer; 
Me alone can profiler (jur Endeavors, and grant us our Defires. And ef- 
pecially fhould Minifters of C'hrift be fre(|uent in this Duty of Prayer; they 
are altogether of themfelves insufficient for this Work, and all their Suffi- 
ciency is (jf God, 2 Cor. 3. 5. And how earneftly fhould they implore 
upon their Knees the compatfionate Pretence of their Eord, and the gra- 
ciouf Influences of his Spirit, to conduct them into the Paths of Truth, and 
fave them from the endlefs Labyrinths of Error? That he would Sujiport 
and Comfort them under all the great Diificulties and Difcouragements they 
meet with in their Work? How fhould they agonize in Prayer, and j^lead for 
the Inlluence of the S[)irit in all their more private or [)ul)lick Services? 
That both in their Studies, and in the Congregation they may a[)prove them- 
selves to God, and l)e faithful Minifters of the New Teftament? They mufl 
alfo l)e much in Prayer f(>r their People; muft carry all their Cafes to (iod. 
They nuift i:onfefs and bewail their Sins before (ioil, and intreat God to fpare 
them, Joel 2. 17. V'ea they muft do this, when (iod feems to be ready to 
deftroy them: Minifters may not hide themfelves in the Day of God's .\n- 
gei. Minifters muft plead with G xl for all the Mercies their People want; 
and efpecially for the Graces of his Holy Si)irit u|)on them. 

Minifters muft be: well accpiaiiited with the St;ite of their I'Mocks, Prov, 
27. 23. 'I'hat they may fmt their Prayers to their various C'ircumstances. 

And at the fame time that Minifters arc thus wrestling m Prayer, a I'eo- 
ple muft alfo lift up holy Hands to God, and labour earneftly in Pr;iyer for 
their Minifters and themfelves It is not enough th;it von put up tome 


cold Petitions for your Minifters on Lord's Days; and yet perha[5s this is 
more than many, who would be accounted Christians, do. You muft wret- 
tle in Prayer for them that Ood would be with them; direct, atfift, fecceed 
and profper them in their Work; and this fhould be Matter of your daily 
Prayer, both in the Clofet and Family; fo alfo how earneft muft you be in 
Prayer for yourfelves, that God would keep you from Sin, and guide you 
in the l-'aths of Life and Peace. 

But as Minifters and People ftand in different Relations to one another, 
it concerns them to ftrive in different ways to forward and fucceed the 

I. Then, as to Minifters they muft take much Pains to be furnifhed with 
Knowledge for their Work. They muft give thenifelves to reading, and 
attend continually upon ihefe Things, i Tim. 4. 13, iS: 15. 'I'hat they may 
handle the Word of God skilfully, and be Workmen that need not be 
afhamed, 2 Tim. 2. 15. They muft convince Gainfayers, 'I'it. i. 9. and give 
to every one his portion in due Seafon. which they never can do unlefs 
they are Men of Knowledge and acquainted with Learning of diverfe Sorts. 
It is in vain for Minifters to pretend they need not take Pains for their 
Difcourfes; and that the Spirit of God will fuggeft Truths while they are 
fpeaking. We are not fo to expect the Affiftance of the S[)irit at the pref- 
ent day. We muft fearch out acceptable Words, Reel. 12. 10. However 
Men of fuch a Stamp who defpife humane Learning and Study may be ad- 
mired and followed when Men are over heated with Zeal; it is certain they 
cannot laft long; and in a little Time their Folly will be known to all Men; 
and the World will as much defpife them as now they admire and carefs 
them. .\ Minifter may at fome Times have a call to enter into the desk 
with but little previous Meditation <S: Preparation; but always to do this 
is Prcfumption and inexcusable Arrogance. 

And while we are composing our Sermons, we muft endeavour to fuit 
them to the Confciences of Men, and not to their itching Ears; We muft 
ftrive for fuch \\'ords as will awaken Mens Hopes and Fears, and make 
them engaged for the Salvation of their Souls; and not ftudy for polifhed 
Words and Ftrains of Rhetorick, which will foar above Mens Understand- 
ings, and make no lafting Impreffion upon their Souls. 

— And not only must Ministers ftrive to compofe their Sermons well; but 
muft take Pains in the delivery of them. I fhall not pretend to determine 
whether it ought to be with or without reading their written Notes: I think 
there is much needlefs I)if|Hite in this Matter; and after all there is Lib- 
erty of Confcience. J!ut let the Way and Manner be what it will, Minif- 


ters inuft fpeak in the Name of God and with Authority. Their Words 
their (refture, and very countenance niuft difcouver them in earneft for 
the Salvation of Souls. Minifters muft not be cold andlifelefs in the Defk; 
but fhould be Flames of Fire, Heb. i. 7. When they addrefs themfelves 
to Sinners they muft be Sons of Thunder, denouncing the Terrors of the 
Law in fuch a Manner that Fear and Trembling may take hold on them. 
And when they fpeak to awakened and waery Sinners, it muft be with fuch 
tendernefs and Compafion that they may be drawn to Chrift for Life and 
Reft, If Minifters are cold and lifelefs in their Delivery, they will make 
carelefs and dead Hearers. 

So alfo they muft take much Pains in their publick Prayers and manifeft 
fuch earneftnefs and fo fuit themfelves to the State of their Flocks, that 
they may command the AttentitMi of the People. And in all their Conver- 
fation they muft endeavor fo to behave themfelves, fo to teach, e.xhort, and 
reprove Men privately that all may profit by them as well as in their pub- 
lick Miniftry. 

2. On the other hand a People muft (according to the Relation they 
ftand in to Minifters) take much Pains that the Miniftry may be fucceeded. 
A People muft then take due Care to attain to a fuitable preaching of the 
Word of Ciod. You muft break up the fallow ground of your Hearts, Jer. 4, 
3. That the Seed to be fown may be received into good Ground. If you 
come to the publick Worfhip without any Preparation of Soul, you cannot 
e.xpect to profit by what is delivered to you: It will be no more than a dead 
letter. And is not this ona great Reafon why Multitudes have heard 
'Fhoufands of Sermons, and never profited by them? If Hearers do not 
awake the Powers of their Souls with Metlitation and Prayer to hear the 
Word preached, Minifters may ordinarily preach to elead Walls and lifelefs 
Images, to as much Advantage. 

You muft alfo embrace all Ojiportunities to hear the Word preached, and 
not neglect affembling your felves together, Heb. 10. 25. What will all the 
Study and Pains of a Minifter avail, if you will not attend upon their .Min- 
iftry. \'ou muft willingly mifs no 0|)portuiiity of hearing, left you mifs of 
fome Truth that might awaken convince ami c(.)mfort your Souls. 

And you muft ftrive to hear aright what is preached to you. Mar. 4. 24. 
You muft take Pains to underftand it, and not allow your Tho'ts to wan- 
der to the ImuIs of the I'^arth; nor your felves drowned 111 Sleep, while 
Truths of the greateft Importance are delivered to you. 

.And you muft take nuu h Tains to treafure u|) in your Memories; that 
you may pray over what you hear. It is unhappily the C'afe of many Hear- 


ers, thev never carry any Thins^ from the Houfe of God. Hut would you 
profit bv the Miniftry, you muft often think of what you hear, and pray 
(A'er it, that Crod would blefs it to your Salvation. 

And you muft l)e careful to practice what y<m hear from Time to Time; 
otherwife it will be of no .Vdvantage to you. Mat. 7. 24 — 27. Many think 
if they hear good Difcourfes and commend them they anfwer their Duty; 
and are eafy if they never put them in Practice; but the Knd of Hearing 
is to Practice; and how careful fhould you be to Practice what you hear, 
left the wicked One take it from you. 

And to fum up all here with refpect to a Peaple, would you ftrive together 
with Minifters to promote their Miniftry; you muft govern your own Fam- 
ilies. And herein yini will make their Work much eafier, ami more happy; 
Hereby you may do much towards the Peace of a Church, and flourifhing 
of Religion; but if you are negligent m this Point, you will ley a Founda- 
tion for Rebellion i.\: Trouble in the C'hurch. If Children are not bound 
to obey at Home, they will not fubmit eitlier to Minifters or Magiftrates. 
It is what Crod mention^ of Aliraham to his Honour, that he governed his 
Houfehold, Creii. 18. ly. .And a Want of this has been the Caufe of fo much 
Trouble and \'e.\ation to Minifters and fuch a World of Diforder and Con- 
fufion in Church iV State, Would you then help and encourage Minifters 
of the Crofpel, yt)u muft tram up your Children in the Nurture and Admo- 
nition of the 1 .ord. 

Thirdly, Proceed we now to give fome Reafons oi the Doctrine. 

1. Then, when we ( onfider how very great ant! noble the Ends and De- 
figns of the Miniftry are: it is enough to animate Minifters and People to 
do all they can to promote the fame; Xow thefe are nothing fhort of the 
Cilory of (iod, and the eternal well being of immortal Souls. W'hat can we 
better employ our souls about, and fpend our Strength for, than thefe? 
Thefe are worthy our higeft Ambitn^n, and well deferve our warmeff En- 
deavours. Can we do to much for (rod's Honour, or the Salvation of our 
own Souls.' .And thefe arc what the Miniftry is aiming at 

2. The greateft and weightinefs of this Work oi the >[iniftery calls for 
the mutual Endeavors of Minifters anil People. Have Minifters fo much 
u[)on their Hands, and will they not be concerned U) acccjmplifh the fame? 
Can they loiter and indulge Sloth' And have a People any Pity for Minif- 
ters, and know how great a liurden they fuftain, can they refufe to affift, 
encourage and ftrengthen them? Cod commanded his People to help even 
an .\fs labouring under a Ikirdcn, E.\. 23. 5. And can you omit bearing 
with the Minifters, and ftriving with them' 



3. The fucceefs of the Miniftry depends very much upon the joint En- 
deavors of Minifters ami People to j^romote it. What ran either Minifters 
or I'eople tlo ah)ne' If Minifters are zealous and laborious in their Work; 
vet if a People remain c:arelefs iV slothful, they will have Reafon in com- 
|)lain they labour in vain: So, if a I'eople are ftriving in I'rayer, and Minif- 
ters are void of Life, there will be but little Fruit: Hut when they both 
unite their Kndeavors and Prayers, there is a Profjiect of a ,y[lori()Us Har- 

4. The Confideration that Mmifters are emplcjyed to advance the King- 
dom of our Lord Jefus Chrift, ought to invigorate Minifters and People to 
ufe their beft Endeavors and promote the iXHniftry. If we have any Love 
t(; the L()rd Jefus Chrift, who has loved us to the Death, fhall we not feek 
the Advancement of his Kingdom of Peace in the AVorld? His (govern- 
ment is moft happy eS: reafonable: His Laws are all juft and good. And 
fhall we not feek to promote fuch a Kingdom in the World ? Which the 
more it prevails, the more hai)py it will make Men; for his \'oke is eafy, 
and his Burden light, Mat. 29. 30. 

5. Have Minifters and People any Love to the Spirit of Ood, they will 
ftrive together. If they have any Defire to feel the bleffed influences of 
the Spirit of (rod upon their own Hearts; or do thev long to fee the blelted 
Fruits and Effects of it upon the Souls of others, they will ftrive together 
herefor; The more faithful and labourious .Minifters are, ami the more a 
Fec.iljle ftrive to [M"oht, fo much the more is the godd Spirit (jf (iod t:herifhe(l 
amongft a People: Hut if NLnifter^ are unfaithful, and a People are care- 
lefs and flothful, they will quench the Spirit of (iod, and drive him from 

6. The perfect circumstances of Religion in the Country reciuire the moft 
vigorous F'.ndeavors of ^Lnifters aiui People to fupp(Ul the fame. (lod has 
been |)leafed remarkably to revive his Works m our Laud: Hut by Reafon 
of the Lnprudencr ;md over heated Zeal of one Set of Men; and the CoUl- 
nefs and Lulifference of another towards Religion; il is dying in many 
I'arts of the Land: and we are in the utmoft Danger of falling into the 
wildeft Confufion in our religious Affairs. Some are haftening on the great - 
eft Ivxtravegante in Religion, and others growmg into a Coldiiefs aiul Con- 
tempt of the Work of (iod. And it is now high Time for Minifters and 
People to ufe their beft Endeavors to guaril Religion, and fave themfelves 
from the a|)proaching Calamities? 

7. Hoth Minifters and Pi'o|)le are accountable to Chrift their Judge for 
what thev do. We niuft all ftand before the ludgmeiit Seal of Chrift. 



Rnni. 14. 10. And iimft _L,M.Vf an account of ourselves, vcr. 12. Miiiifters 
for what tlicy have ])rcache(l, ami \'ou for what you have heard, and how 
you have profited bvit: And what Account cm we i(ive,ifwe have not done 
our }'auleavors to advance' the Kingdom of our Lord lefus ("hrift' If Min- 
ifters are not faithful to thi^ charge then- Truft, and a l'eo|")le don't take 
("are to profit undei' their Miniftrv, lunv ama/.mi; will their account be' 

What remains is to appl_\- What has been fa:d to Minifters and l*eo|)le. 

rsi^ I. (.)f Information- And what vou have heard fhews you how falfely 
they jutlge of 'rhino's, who env\- Minifters their Work becaufe it is attended 
with i^reater Kafe than other l->mployinen ts. Tiiex' know not what 'I'rials 
and Sorrows the_\' are i-xercifed with, who attend u|)oii thr Miniftry: Wdiile 
you eat and llee[) tweetly, Minifters {ci-^\ u]")on the liread of '{"ears, and 
Sleep (lies from tiieni: 'I'ln')- have Agonies aiul Strugi^les whu h the Workl 
know not of. 

So alfo what has been faid fhews us what Reafon both Minifters and Peo- 
ple have for Ihimiii.Uion and Self-Abafement : We have all chme too little 
U>r C'hrift; Have not Itroven together as we on^ht to liax'e done; The beft 
and inoft faithful Minifters have Reafon to be afhamed thev have ftroven 
no miM-e to advance the KiiiL^rdom of ("hrift, and the Salvation of Souls and 
may juftly fay, they have been unprofitable Servants, 17. 10. Ami 
that I'eople who have ftrove mofl to advance the Kin^alom of C'hrift, and 
the Salvation of their Souls, ma_\- juftly fay in many 'I'hinj^s we have of- 
fendetl all, jam 3. 2. 

We ma_\- alfo from what has been faid, account for it that the Mimftry is 
attended with no better Succefs. Minifters and People don't ftrive to- 
gether, and are not tiiitably concerned to promote Religion; would they 
ftir up themfelves and put their Hands to the Work, would nut a merciful 
("lotl do for them what thev't do themfelves' 

We alfo learn from what has been faid it fhould be Matter (_)f great re- 
joycmg, when Ood pours out his Spirit, to both Minifters \: People, for now 
Minifters may expect much Suc( efs m tlu'ir Work, and a Peeple hope for 
the SalvatuMi of Souls. So on the other Hand how fhould they mourn 
when ("rod takes away his Spirit from them; for then .Minifters will labinir 
very much m vam; and a i'eoj)le will grow cokl, and draw back in Reli- 

USE. II. Of Direction to Minifters and I'eople. Would 'I'hey mutually 
ftrive together : 

I, Ret both Minifters and People endeavor to entertain jufl Thoughts 



(if one another. It has too oftfii happened becaufe Minifters and a People 
have entertained wroiiLi; Tliouiihts of ea( h other, iii a little Time they have 
fallen into a fhaiiiefiil coldnefs and null fferenc\' towards each other: Thus 
a I'eoplc fomelinies when they call a Mmifter aiiion^ them exalt him above 
Meafure; and frareely will allow luimaiie Frailties in him; lUit this is only 
to prejjaie him for the i^reater [''all: lake a Pendulum the farther it is 
ftretihed on one iHle; will m its return fwint:; as far on the <j[:)[)ohte Side. 
And even fuch a People are eommonlv as readv to debafe him as before 
to e.xalt him Pet a Peo[)le therefore' look upon their Mmifter as a Man 
of the fame Paftioiis and Infirmities with I liemfeKa's; and exjieet he will 
fail 111 fome '1'hini.js as well as they 

S(; let a Mmifter look upon his People as Mrii who have manv Remaiu- 
ilers of (."orriipt ion, from whom he mufl expect to receive: Injuries and 
Abufes, Miniftcrs li.ive fometimes been ready to look upon then People 
wholly free from thefe 'I'hmi^s, and when thev luive evilly mlre.ited them, 
have been ready to fink under it. 

2. Let Miniflers and Peo[)le take |)ains to i^row and mcreafe m their I.ove 
for one another; and then they will ftrive to,L,^ether; and will not (;p|)ofe 
one another. 

Minifters mufl lo\-e their Peo|)le as their fpei lal ("hari^e, whofe Souls 
thev :ire accountal)le for. And if ihcv [lerifli thru' their Neglect, the\' iiiuft 
anfwer for them to dod. .And let a Peo|)le look upon their Mmifters af 
fpetial blehm^s bcftowed l)V (.'hrift the i.::reat lltMd > >\ the C^hurch, l-lpli. 4, 
II. I J \ ]. ;iiul a Peo|)!e ought to love them m a high IK'grec as fuch 

,V W'oukl Mmifters and People flrive togctluT, let them le.irii to bear 
with and cover over one another's bailings, .\ Mmifter mutt be very fpar- 
ing in fi)reading abroad tin; W'caknefs or Sins of his People; and a Pc'ople 
muft always conceal as much as pothble the Infirmities of tluir Mmiflcrs 
Pet not the [•ailings of Minifters be: the Subject of vour ("onversatiou, :ind 
the Xews you Ccirrv abroatl with you. A want of this mutUid bearing be- 
tween Minifters :ind Peo[)le has greatly hindered the Mimftrv and the Sal- 
vation of Souls. 

.|. Pet Minifters and Peojile make the .\dvancement of Religion their 
ijreat Pufinefs. Poth Minifters ;ind I'eople are too cold in the Service of 
("hrift, by lveaf(m of their being too much engaged m worldly AM.iirs. .\ 
I'eople think hard to fiip|)ort the Mimftrv, and do much to |)romote it; be- 
caufe they are more com erned to pnimoir fomething elfe. N'mv if tlu' 
Advancement of Chrift's Kmgilom lies nearefl the llearts of Minifters and 
People, they will ftnve together. 


USE. 111. Of Motive to Miiiifters and People to ftrive toi^ether. Aixl 
I. Let us all 'confider how much the Lcjrd jefus Clirift has done for us. 
He freely undertook for our Reilemptioii ; left the (rlories of I leaven; c;anie 
down and dwelt in Flefh; He who was rich eiii|)tied hiinfelf and betanie 
poor, that we might be made rich. 2 Cor. 8. 9. He obeyed the Law which 
we had broke; and has [laid the Debt we owed to l)i\inc juftiie He fuf- 
fered the fhameful and cruel Death of tlie Oofs, and is afcendcd into 
Heaven, ther to make Literceffion for Sinners: And now can we be unwil- 
ling to do all we can for Chrift. who has done fo much for us' 

2. Let Mmifters and I'eople confider how awful it will be to pcrifh after 
they have lived under the (lofpel, the one preaching and the other hearing 
the glad Tidings of Salvation Barely preaching the Word of (rod, or hear- 
ing the Gofpel preached, will not intitle Men to SalvatiDu; and many who 
now preach, and hear the Gofpel preached, will another Day hear Chiift 
fay to them, I know you not, Mat. 7. 22. 23. Luk. 15 25 liut can .\Lri- 
ifters or People bear the 'I'hots of being thus difowned bv Clirift. 

3. Often think what Joy and Satisfaction it will yield you m the great 
Day of Acc(.)unts to be found together at the right Hand of Chnft. What 
pleafure will it be to Minifters to fee m that Day great Xumbers of their 
People, whom they travailled in Birth for, ftaiuling with them at the right 
Hand of Chrift cloathed in white Rainment, This will afford and 
inexprelfible Joy to Minifters and I'eoj^le. 

To conclude. Let us all keep in view the (jlories of the upper World, 
and that unfpeakable Reward which will be given both to Minifters and 
People who are faithful and ftrive together to promote the Kingdom of our 
Lord Jefus Chrift. Eye has noi. feen, nor Ear heard, nor can it enter into 
our Hearts to conceive of the great Things God has prepared for fuch, 
I Cor. 2. 9. And both Minifters and People wh(j ftrive together to [)romote 
the Ringdom of Chrift: and are made the happy Inftruments of recovering 
Souls from Sin to God, will fhine as the Brightnefs of the Firmament, and 
and as the Stars for ever and ever." 

The charge was given Mr. Norton by Rev. Reniamin Doolittle 
and was as follows: 

"When our bleffed Lord afcended up on high, he gave Gifts to Men; 
and this was one of the precious gifts of our afceniled Redeemer, even a 
fettled Miniftry, an Order of Men feparated and ordained to the Office and 
VVork of the Ciofpel Miniftry, to teach and inftruct Men in the Way of Sal- 
vation: And God having in his wife Providence inclined the Hearts of this 



l'eo[)le, to call vou to this Li;rt:at aiui ^Dod Work amon^i llu-in; ami your's 
alfo tt) accept their InvitatiDii : We the I'Jclers aiul Metfiiigers now prcfciit, 
being fatifified of your (iifts and (^ualilicalions therefor, do now hcarldy 
join together to feparate and ordain you to the Ciofpel Miniftry according 
to Chrift's Appointment, aiul particularly a I'.iftor over this Cluirch, whofe 
Call you have now accepted: And we give thee Charge in the Sight of (iod, 
anil before our Lord Jefus Chrift, who fhall judge the C2uick and the Dead, 
at his Appearing and Kingdom, to take the Overfight thereof, not for lilthy 
Lucre fake; but of a ready Miiul. And we truft the great Lord of the 
Harveft will be with yt)u; who calls you to Labour iii hi> \'ineyard, and 
make you an able, faithful, aiul fiu-cefsful .NLiiifter of the New Teflanient. 

And we folemnly Charge you before (rod, to [ireach the Word; be iii- 
ftant in Seafon, antl out of Seafon : Repnn'e, Rebuke, t*'-.\hort, with all 
l^ong fuffering and Doctrine. 

Take Care to fhow thyfelf approved, a Workman that needeth not to be 
afhamed, rightly dividing the Word of 'I'ruth; and give to everyone hif 
Portion in due Seafon. Crive Attendance to Reading, to ivvhortation, to 
Doctrine; holding faft the faithful Word as thou haft been taught, ai;cor(l- 

7 ■— ^ 1 

ing to the Scriptures of Truth; that thou mayft be able to exhort and con- 
vince Gainfayers. 

Take care alfo to inftruct the ignorant, convince the erroneous; coiuend 
earneftly for the Faith once delivered to the Saints; \'ou nuift rebuke the 
obftinate, and comfort the feel)le minded. 

Make full Proof of thy ALniftry; Meditate ui)oii thefe Things; give thy- 
felf wholly to them; that thy profiting may a[)pear to all .Men. 

Take heed to thy felf, and thy Doctrine; that thou mayft both fave thy 
felf, and them that hear thee. 

\'ou muft pray ior this People both in publick and (ii-ivate and be iheir 
daily Interceffor at the Throne of (irace. 

Do thou alfo now receive .\uthority to admmifter the Sacraments, and 
Seals of the New Teftament, to perfons fiiitabiy (pialilied: taking Care 
always to diftinguifh between the precious and the vile; remembring that 
Holinefs becomes God's Houfe for ever. 

Unto thee are now committed the Keys of the Kingdom of Heaven the 
Key of Doctrine, and the Key of Difcipline; them that Sin rebuke before 

And we now folemnly Charge thee before the great Ci(M), the Lord Jefus 

Kicirr iiANM) OK ri-:i,i.()\vsiiir. i 19 

Chrift, ami the elect Aiifjels, that thou obferve tliefe 'rhini^s without pre- 
ferring (Mie before aiujther; doing nothing by I'artiality: keep thy felf pure. 

Let no Man defpife thee; but be thou an ICxaniple to the JJelievers, in 
Word, in Converfation, in Charity, in Spirit, m I'aith, \n I'urity. 

Confider alfo that a JJifhop must be blauielefs, and the Servant of the 
Lord muft not ftrive, but be gentle tt)\vards all Men. 

He nuift be patient, m Meeknefs inftructing th(jfe that opiiofe theni- 
felves, if peradventure God may give them Repentance to the acknowledge- 
ment of the Truth. 

Carefully thus feed the Flock of CHRlS'l' now committed to your Charge; 
not as being a Lord over (rod's Heritage, but as an exam|ile to the l-'lock: 
And when our bleffed L(jrd, the great Shepherd fhall api)ear you shall re- 
cieve a Crown of Olory that fadeth not away. 

The Right Hand of Fellowship was given by Rev. Joseph Ashley: 

Dear Sir, 

We now declare you a Mmifterof jKFUS CHRIST, and a Taftor of this 
Church, over which y(ju have now recieved a f(.»lemn Charge, regularly in- 
trcjduced into the Miniftry, and c(jnfecrated there'to as CjOD, Angels, and 
this Affembly now Witnefs; and therefore with hearty Affection we ncnv 
recieve you into the Fellowfhip of our >Lniftry; ami acknowlege you as a 
Brother and Fellow Labourer therein; which beuig attended with many 
and great Difficulties, we may juftly fay with the Apoftle, Who is fufficient 
for thefe Things? There is alfo much Need of the mutual Prayers and Af- 
fiiftance of all employed in the Miniftry; and therefore we both promife 
the fame to you; and ex[)ect it from you; And as a Teftimony hereof we 
give you our Right Hand ever wifhing (Irace, Mercy and Peace from Gotl 
the Father, and our Lord Jefus Chrift, may be multiplied to you, and this 
little Flock, over which the Holy Ghoft has now made you an Overfeer. 

Mr. Norton's ministry lasted about four years, when he was asked 
to "remove froin the Ministry in this town for the present," proba- 
bly on account of the wars which were then beginning", a request 
with which he complied. From this time until 1761, there was no 
settled minister in the place, althottgh from the records we learn 
that the pulpit was occasionally supplied, Rev. Mr. Ashley having 
preached several times, also others. The Indians were constantly 
harassing the settlers, and carried on a continuous warfare until 
1760. For twenty-two years our forefathers were subjected to pri- 

I20 SETTLEMKNT OF KF.V. |(>i; WRK.lll' 

vations, toils and sufferino^s, of which wc, in our present peaceful 
homes, can form no accurate idea, homes too, that were obtained 
only through their courage, perseverance ;ind lihjod. 

In April, 1760, the Proprietors voted "to chose a Committee to see 
that the meeting house be not burned or otherwise damaged." The 
reason of this vote was found in the fact that hunters fretjuently 
set fires in the forest for the purpose of starting game, and in this 
way often burned over many acres, sometimes endangering dwell- 


In January, 1761, a call was given to Rev. Job Wriglit [\lv. Nor- 
ton being then settled over a parish in Connecticut, i 1 le accepted, 
and, at the age of twenty-three, was ord.iined, in July, 1761. Mis 
salary was fixed at 66£" 13s. 4d., and 133^ 6s. Sd., as settlement 

In 1768, the qtiestion of moving the meeting house was agitated. 
As the west part of the town became more thickly settled, such in- 
habitants felt that their convenience ought to be consulted in some 
degree. Practically the town was dudded into two districts, each 
striving for the supremacy. They were unable to reach a decision 
at that time, althougli a committee was appointed. In 1772, the 
subject was revived and a committee chosen "from al)road." The 
gentlemen constituting this committee were Capt. Joseph Root of 
Montague, Capt. Nathaniel Dwight of P)elchertown and Capt. Wil- 
liam Lyman of Northfield. They, having no personal interests to 
consult, chose a spot about half a mile south of the original site, 
near the house recently owned by Albert Chapin, and thither the 
building was removed in December. As the original records put 
it, "Mr. Samuel Connable Shall have the whole ordering of the af- 
fair with respect to drawing the meeting house." It was moved 
whole, by means of capstans and rollers, and by men alone, the 
time occupied being about a month. The ground over which it 
was moved was hilly and rough, ill suited in every way for such a 
work, and much credit was dtie Mr. Connable's mechanical skill in 
bringing the affair to so successful a termination. One of the pow- 
erful agencies in olden times is shown by the following: "1772, 
Voted, that Major John P)urk be allowed for the rum he has found 
the Town while drawinir the Meetinu' house." 







■ i 


^ ■ 




N, v/^ "N( 












1 i 



„. 1 










The meeting house now stood about fifty rods west of the Rev. 
Job Wright's residence, and here it remained until 1791, in the 
meantime having the interior nearly finished. In 1779, it was voted 
to nail up the windows, put on the boards that had come off the 
building to "make if more comfortable," also that "ye windows in 
the lower part to be made so as to slip up." 

As the town grew and became more evenly populated, the ques- 
tion of a second remove was brought forward, and in 1788 a com- 
mittee was appointed to determine the center of the town. March, 
1791, saw a new location agreed upon, and 150^ raised to carry on 
the work of removal, the mone}' to be payable in beef, wheat, rye, 
Indian corn, flour, wood, neat cattle and sheep at current cash prices. 
This time the building was taken down, moved, and put up again 
in the same shape and size. Deacon Jonathan Sheldon, Hezekiah 
Newcomb, Esq., and Mr. James Couch were the ones having the 
matter in charge. x\t this time Rev. Amasa Cook was pastor and 
"for the convenience of a Common around the House of public 
worship," he deeded June 2; 1794, one acre, two roods and 34 perches 
of land whereon the meeting house stood, to the church and so- 
ciety. This plot was bounded north bv land of Barnice Foot, west 
by town road, and east by his own land. This was the first re- 
corded gift to the .society. 

Reference to the plan on the following page will show its location 
more definitely. Just the reason for the making of this plan must re- 
main a matter of conjecture. It is of interest to us in that it re- 
veals the location of some of the roads, and the names by which 
they were then known, and gives a definite location to the two then 
existing "Meeting houses," also the saw and grist mill at the vil- 
lage. This plan, protracted March 26, 1795, is found in Vol. 12, p. i 
of the Mass. State Archives. 

It was now located near the point of intersection of three roads, 
and near the subsequent residence of two of its ministers, Revs. 
Cook and Rogers. It was finished off inside, and furnished with 
a pulpit and thirty square pews. There was also a gallery for the 
accommodation of the choir and children. The latter were not al- 
lowed places by their parents, that being considered highly im- 
proper. They were accordingly placed in the gallery, the boys on 








one side, the oirls on the oilier, and (jrder was enforeed by ihe 
tithinoinan. Wlietliji" the \-oung-er portion of the eongregation 
l^leaned more of benelit from the sermons of those days and under 
such discipline, is an ethical problem easily solved in most minds. 
Among- Lt. Gov. Cushmairs papers is found this comment on the 

"The niL'fliiiu; house, ;ls al last coiiipleled, had one apperulajjje which we, 
111 ihis possibl)- (Ic.t^eiicratc ai.^c (') have ciitircl}" omitted. 1 refer to the 
circuhii' 'Sountling board' siispcndeti ovet" the preacher's he<'ul 111 the i)ul- 
pit. 1 reiiieinbei" it well in my early days, the ver\' natural incjiiiry for 
what possible pur[)ose that could be placed thei'c. And the only satisfac- 
tory answer (the science of acoustics I was not (juite old enough to then un- 
derstantl) was, that if the Minister did not preach sound doctrine, it would 
fall on him and crush him to atomsl How far it k.e|)t the clergy of that 
period from the adoption of any heresy, neither the church records nor the 
traditions of the time> give any reliable information." 

For tliirt}- three years the nieetino house remained untouched 
b\- the builders' hand, except that, in accordance with a vote passed 
in 1794, it was "colored yellow." 

In 17.S2, at his own request, Rev. Mr. Wright was dismissed, and 
Lt. John Severance, Deacon Zebulon Allen, Capt. Nathaniel Cush- 
man, Mr. Sheldon, fames Couch, Elijah Sheldon and Capt. Joseph 
Slate were chosen a committee to determine with Mr. Wright his 
terms of dismission; a further account of this will be found latter 
on in his biography. The Council for his dismission met March 
13, 1782, and "dissolved the union between the Rev. Job Wright 
and the Church of Christ in Bernardston," where Mr. Wright had 
been past(U" for 21 \-ears. His successor was Rev. Amasa Cook; 
whose answer to the call extended is as follows, and now for the 
first time do we find the name "Church" applied. 
""To the Church of Chiist m Bernaydston. 

As you under your (^resent circumstances, being destitute of any spirit- 
ual guide or Teacher regularly settled over you in the Lord have been 
[)leased to Manifest a gotnl and baudable disposition for a regular resettle- 
ment of the (iospi'l in the Ordinances thereof among you, according to the 
(ios|)el rule iV the usage of the standing churches in this Land, you did at 
a meeting helil on the '8ih day (jf Sept. A. ]). 1 7S3, elect me as your pastor 
>S: gave me a call to settle among you m the work of the Gospel Ministry. 

124 SKITLKMliN' r OF RK,\ . lIMurilV RoiJKUS. 

And as the other inhabitants of the saitl town of liernardston in Legal 
Town meeting, on the 15th clay of September, A. 1). 17^3, concurred with 
)'ou in making choice of me t(j serve as a Gospel Minister in this Town, and 
have shewed a commendable disposition freely to contribute of their Tem- 
poralities to the support iS: M iintenance of the Oospel Ministry. 

brothers of tlie Church and other inhabitants of said Town, I cannot 
but acknowledge the great respect and high esteem that you have herein 
manifested for me, unequal as 1 know 1 feel myself to be for such an Im- 
portant undertaking ; what you have dcjiie has Commanded my most Ser- 
ious attention. 1 have advised with my friends upon the subject, and after 
the most deliberate and mature consideration, depending entirely upon the 
Cjrace and strength of Christ to qualify ine to the right discharge of the 
work to which 1 am now called. Provided that the 'Town without any care 
of mine provide me with 40 cords of fire wooti annually so long as I shall 
continue to be Minister in said Town, the other articles which the town 
have voted considering their circumstances and the difificulties of the times, 
1 am satisfied with, in case the salary be paid me annually while 1 shall con- 
tinue your minister, Providing this my answer shall be accepted by both 
Church and Town, 1 lIo consent and agree to settle with you in the work 
of the Ministry, who am with sincere love d\M\ esteem, yours to serve in the 


A.MASA Cook. 
Pernardslon, Oct, 17, 1 7<S3. 

To the Church of Christ aiul other inhabitants of the Town of Jk'rnard- 
ston \-c, " 

December, 1S03, it wa.s x'oted to number the pews in the meeting', and that it .should be done in the pi'esenee of the meetint^. 

In 1S05, Mr. Cook was dismissed with some ditiieulty. and in 
1S09, tlie Re\-. Timolli)- Rollers was settled. The names of tliose 
])LTS()ns wlio attended the town meetino' called to eonsidei" the set- 
tlement of Mr. lioL^ers were as follows. They are g'iven as show- 
ing who some of the residents of the }:)laee were at that time: 

Dr. S. I'rcntiss. Mhen S. iMeld. James Couch. 

Thoiuus Snow. Capt. Josei)h Slatt-. Tliomas W. Ripley. 

J()se])li Sanderson. Dr. C. Clia])iii. Daniel Looniis. 

l.t. iM. S(|uires. Dca. J . I'leld. Tim. Shelilon. 

William Newromli Oeorge I'armenter. Capt. Jonathan Slate. 

Israi 1 .Slate. I",. I'arment(.r. IClias rarmeiitcr. 

Ivnsi;.^]! ('• . .\lL\an(ler. Tim. Slate. Major S. Wclister. 


John Purple. Major S. Root. Gideon Ryther. 

Dea. P. Snow. John Hale. Ezra Connable. 

Et T. Hale. Joel Smith. P. Newconib. 

Thomas L. P-dwards. N. Fox. Moses vScott. 

Simon PM wards. John Burke. David Dennison. 

Samuel Williams. Ral])li Cushman. Chester Wrij^hl. 

Dalton Newcoml). vSimeon .\lj;jer. Joel Warner. 

Jo.seph Smith. P^ Chaml)erlain. Capt. Chapin. 

Jona. .-Mien. P>.ra Purple. R. Hastinj^.s. 

David R\ther. C. Hastinj.js. Gamaliel Kinj.^sley. 

Timothy F.Roger.s, to the Church and vSociety in Bernardston. 
"Brethren and beloved. 

S'our attention aiul candor, your kindness and liberality towards ine, 
merit niy grateful acknowledgments and strongly attach me to you. The 
recent exertions which have been made in my favor, will, I hope, justify 
me in accepting ytuir invitation aiul enable me to devote myself to the work 
to which you have called me. 'I'his is infinitely important. Who is ade- 
ciuate to the discharge of the arduous and solemn duties of the Christian 
Ministry! I am not sufficient of myself; my sufficiency must come of God. 
Go to Him, my brethren, antl pray for me. If God Almighty own and 
strengthen and guide me, then will I lead you, and guide you to Jesus. 
Bernardfton, 24th, July, 1809." 

In 1824, settlement.s had been made .so as to bring the centre of 
])opulation nearer to the present village, and as the church was in 
some degree removed, it was again taken down and rebttilt on its 
present site, Major Orra Sheldon being the architect and builder. 
It was dedicated Jan. 12th, 1825, a .sermon was preached from Ro- 
mans XV. 5-6-7 verses by the pastor, Rev. T. F. Rogers, under 
whose teachings the society changed from the Calvinistic to the 
Unitarian doctrine. Kl this time the belfry was added, and in 
June, 1824, it was voted to purchase a bell. The next year, 1825, 
it was voted to exchange the bell, althottgh no cause for so doing 
is recorded. Yet it is probable that its being imperfect may have 
been the motive, for from the Gazette and Herald, under date of 
Augttst, 1828, we learn that the bell was purchased of Revere & Co. 
of Boston, but the tone was never considered satisfactory. Owing 
to the failure of the firm from whom the purchase was made, no 
exchange was possible. In May. 1828, close observation revealed 
a small crack in the side of the bell where the tongue struck. A 

126 iTRrnASR C)y A ciirRCii m-:ij.. 

j^enius of the place proposed to remedy this, and with that in view, 
cut out the crack about one-half an inch in width, and it was claimed 
that the bell was as i^ood as new. The records show that in 1829 
it was prop(jsed to raise money by subscription, and to add to the 
avails of the broken bell and procure another as larg'e as the fund 
would buy. P. L. Cushman, Hatsell Purple and OHver Root were 
to superintend the hang'ing- of the bell. This bell is the one in 
present use. 

To Rev. Mr. Rogers must also be given the honor of founding 
the Sunday vSchool library. He originated the idea and gave five 
dollars as a nucleus of the library fund, and asked the society to 

contribute the sura of ten dollars, which they did. In 1S47, 

Snow, Col. Ferry,,!. K. Brown, J. F. Hale and Zenas Cutler were 
appointed a committee to investigate and report whatever repairs 
were needful, and a second committee consisting of Dalton New- 
comb, J. F. Hale, Jason Brown, John Sanderson and Daniel Slate 
was chosen to make all such repairs as the judgment of the first 
named committee might deem advisable. 

On the second committee Mr. Sanderson declined to serve and 
the Hon. Henry W. Cushman was chosen in his stead. 

The interior of the building was essentially altered by the re- 
moval of the circular gallery, the high pulpit and the division of 
the large room into two, the upper one being fitted for an audito- 
rium, while the lower one was to be sometime finished as a vestry, 
at this time it was left ver\- plain. The building was re-dedicated, 
Oct. 31, 1850, with a sermon by Rev. John F. Moors — then of Deer- 
field — text, John xvii-3. This dedicatory sermon, also that preached 
by Rev. Mr. Rogers, is in print. In 1852, a reed organ was purchased, 
which did good service for a number of years. In 187 1 it was re- 
placed by a double bank pipe organ of sweet tone. 

In 1879, the building underwent another season of change ac- 
cording to the plans of Messrs Almon Newcoml), P. L. Cushman 
and N. S. Cutler, this time more especially in the interior. An ad- 
dition was ])laced upon the south end, making room for the (U*- 
gan and choir behind the pulpit, while the vestry downstairs gave 
way to the pleasant Sunday School rooms, parlor, kitchen, etc. 
Could the original builders of the church view it to-day with its 


modern conveniences and comforts, great would be their astonish- 
ment, and with their strict puritanical ideas, it would be doubtful 
if they would consider some of our modern places of worship as 
justifying the end sought. When we consider that in former times 
such a thing as heating the House of God was unheard of, the dif- 
ference between past and present, is the more striking. The near- 
est neighbors were expected to furnish coals for the foot stoves at 
noon during the moderatel}' cold weather, while in midwinter, 
when the cold was too mtense, services were held at private dwell- 
ings, and at the annual town meetings, places were appointed for 
that purpose. Many such obvious comparisons might be depicted 
would space permit. 

The next record of any gift to this society, aside from Mr. Rogers" 
contribution to the library fund, is dated Nov. 21, 1828, when the 
society voted to "accept of the Present made by Miss Rachael C. Pur- 
ple, which was a note held by her father, John Purple, against this 
parish at his decease, valued at $87.10." 

In 1850, at the time of the re-dedication of the church, the society 
was most generously remembered by Mr. and Mrs. Henry Perkins 
of Hartford with a large and beautiful bible for their desk, and by 
Hon. Edward Epps Powers of Columbus, Ga., with a silver com- 
munion service. Upon the acquisition of the latter, the old service 
was donated to their Methodist brethren, and is used by them at 
the present time. How this first service was procured the records 
are silent. 

In July, 1880, Rev. J. B. Green, a former pastor, caused to be 
placed upon the walls of the parlor a handsomely framed portrait 
of Channing, the Eminent Unitarian Divine. Other portraits now 
ornament the walls, being gifts of different friends interested in 
the welfare of the society. 

In Lt. (tov. Cushman's death the church lost one of its most 
able supports. His interest in his church he demonstrated by his 
bountiful remembrance of her needs. In his will he bequeathed 
his residence, valued at $4000, to the society for a parsonage, also 
fifty shares in the Franklm County National Bank, valued at $5000 
par, and $500 to be called the Cushman Library Fund. The Bank 
shares were to be called the Cushman Religious Fund, the income 


to be used for the support of an able pastor, provided the society 
shall annually raise not less than $200. Thus the church as well 
as the town has g-ood reason to hold in grateful remembrance one 
(jf her illustrious sons. 

In Mr. J. P. Hale, late of New York, is recognized another of the 
benefactors, not only of this society, but in some degree of all in 
town. April 2, 1S71, he gave to the Sunday school the sum of $100 
to be used to replenish its library. Several years ago he gave the 
income of $1000, to be devoted to the maintenance of an annual 
"union picnic," and at his decease it was found that to the society 
with which he was wont to worship in former davs, he had be- 
queathed the sum of §10,000. From such examples ought not all 
to learn "To crowd the narrow span of life with wise designs and 
virtuous deeds." 

Just wlio were the original niembers of this church it is difficult 
to determine. The earliest records now extant are embodied in 
tlie first town records, and llicrc being at tiial time Ijut the one so- 
ciety. all were ta.xed alike for its support. The earliest church 
record comes down to us m the call for a council to settle Rev. T. F. 
Rogers. Sept. 19, 1809 The church being called the Church of 
Christ. The treasurer's book of accounts commences March, 18 17, 
at the time of the separation of church and town affairs. The first 
record of the first clerk, Elijah A. Gould, Jan. 29, 1817, is for a call 
for a meeting of the "Congregational Society to assemble at S. 
Perrins' Inn." The first mention in the society records of the word 
Unitarian is in a call June i, 1835. ^^^ ^ meeting of the proprietors 
of the pews in the Unitarian church. That name was retained 
until 1842, when the name of the First Congregational society 
again appears. In the warrant for the meeting in 1850, the name 
is Unitarian Congregational society. Afterwards, for some years 
it is given as the I'nitarian society. The name Congregational 
Unitarian society appears in 1855, for that year only. From that 
time the name V\rs\. Congregational, or Unitarian society, was used 
up to the time of the final settlement of the name as "Congrega- 
tional Unitarian Society" by act of the Legislature, Feb. 19, 1891. 

At the first ])arish meeting held .March 3, 1817. jobGoodale, Caleb 
Chapin and Major vSamucl Root were chosen a committee to select 

One of Bernardston's Benefactors. 

( ON ( , Ri:( ; A 1 1 ( ).N A L L' X I lA R 1 AX SOC I KTV. 


those papcfs rclntive to the eoncerns of the first parish, now in the 
hands of the tcnvn treasurer, Ralph Cushman, and transfer them 
to Z. C. Newcomb, the parish treasurer. In a warrant for the 
March nieetiuL^ held that )'ear is found an article to see if the so- 
ciety would examine the expediency of holding- parish meetings 
separately from the town meetings, but the minutes of the meeting 
state that it was voted to pass over this article. If the early rec- 
ords were kept apart from the town records it is to be deeply re- 
gretted that they were not more carefully preserved. The first 
existing record upon the parish register bears the date of Jan. 29, 
1817, at which time the society had had an existence of 75 years. 
In 17S3, the vote for Rev. Mr. Cook is on file as follows: 

Capt. Cushman. 
Jaiiic-s Couch. 
Ca])t. Caleb Cliapin. 
Iknjauiin Green, Jr. 
L,t. Joel Chapin. 
Thomas Hchsards. 
Joseph Allen. 
vSamuel Hastini^s. 
William Newcomb. 
Ensign John Connal)le. 
Joseph .Atherton. 
Prince Snow. 
Reiil)en l-'ri/.zell . 
William Orris. 
Ilezekiah Newcomb. 
Ivt. Jona. Severance. 
Asaph .\llen. 

Klijah .Sheldon. 
Caleb .Sheldon. 

In all, iift\- for and six against the vote. 

If the above were not all actually church members, they were 
probably so connected with the parish as to be considered as hav- 
ing a legal voice in the g-cwernment. 

In February, 1S91, by act of the Legislature, the name of the so- 
ciety was changed to " Congregational l^nit.arian Society of Ber- 
nardston," thus legalizing all be([uests as well as proving itself an 
incorporated st^ciety. 

Remembrance .Sheldon. 
Daniel Loomis. 
Ca])t. Joseph .Slate. 
.Samuel Connable, Jr. 
Joseph Denio. 
John I'oster. 
Joseph Hale, 
laisha B. Sheldon. 
Reuben Ingram 
Kbenezer .Slate. 
.Stejihen Webster, Jr. 
William Ilawes. 
William Vox. 
.Scba Allen. 
Doctor Cushman. 
Lt. Neliemiah Andros. 
John Burk. 

Zebulon .Allen. 
Jonathan .Sheldon 

Capt. Moses .Scott. 
Aaron Field. 
Ilezekiah Chapin. 
Daniel Slate. 
Jesse Field. 
John Pinks. 
Moses .Scott, Jr. 
Lt. Jona. Slate. 
FClias Parmenter. 
Lt. Michael Frizzell. 
John Rurke, Jr. 
Lt. Fzekiel Foster. 
Calvin Bliss. 
Israel Bagg. 
David Rider, Jr. 
Jona. llurlbert. 

Capt. Amasa Sheldon. 
Klijah Kingsley. 

130 KE\ . JfHIN NORTON. 

Rev. John Norton, born November 16, 1715. in the parish of Ken- 
sing^ton. llien a pai't of Farniinirton. now within the present town of 
Berlin, Ct., was the fourtli son and child of John and Anna (Thomp- 
son ) Norton of Kensington, g'randson of fohn and Rtith (Moore) 
Norton of Farmington. and great ij;randson of John and Elizabeth 
Norton of Hranford, Ct. The family is of Norman descent, and 
the first of the name La Seur Norville (afterward changed to Nor- 
ton I, came to Fmgland from Normandy with William the Conqueror 
in 1066, as his constable, then a military (office of high rank. The 
family in lingland settled in Sharpenhow. a hamlet of Bedfordshire. 

John Norton graduated at Yale college, class of i"]})"], probably 
sttidied theology in vSpringfield, settled as pastor in Fall Town, at 
Deerfield, November 25. 1741, (). vS., at which time a church for 
that town was also founded. Owing to the condition of the coun- 
try and the l"'rench and Indian wars his ministry here was of short 
durcHtion. ^After his dismissal from the ministry in this town he 
passed his time among the cordon of forts extending through 
Franklin County, liaving been appointed chaplain of them in Feb- 
ruary, 174*^. His wife and three small children resided in Fort 
Shirley in the town of Heath, which fort he seems to have made 
his headquarters. In August, 1746, he was taken captive at Fort 
Massachusetts and with the rest of the garrison carried to Quebec, 
where he remained about a year, was then exchanged and returned to 
Boston. In January, 1748, he a{:)pears again as a resident of vSpring- 
field, at which time he petitioned and received from the General 
Court i" £, los. for his services and sufferings while in captivity. 
November 30, i74<S, he was installed as the first pastor of the Con- 
gregational church at East Hampton, Ct. Here he remained until 
his death with the exception of a few months in 1755-56, during 
which time he was chaplain of the forces raised by the colony tt) 
go to Crown Point. In 1760 he served as chaplain of the third reg- 
iment raised for the expedition against Canada; the length of this 
time of service is unknown, but it was doubtless a short one. Mr. 
Norton died of small-])ox March 24, 177S. In the inventory of his 
estate was included a library of 29 volumes and 96 pam})hlets. 

He married hvunice, daughter of Luke and ICli/.abeth (Walker) 
Hitchcock of Springlicld. She was born ^Llrch 2. 1712 I3,died 


Mav 27, 1796. A great-great grand-daughter of Rev. John Norton 
is now living in Bernardston in the person of Mrs. Jonathan Field 
Cushman. So far as can be learned, Mr. Norton was a man of fair 
abilities, pious and devoted to his calling. 


Asenath, b. in Springfield, October 13, 1738; m. July 13, 1758, James 
Bill of Lebanon, Ct.; She d. January 2, 1810; eleven children. 

Elizabeth, b. in Springfield, December 19, 1740; m. November 6, 1766, 
Nathaniel Clark; She d. May 18, 1770, leaving a dau. Eunice. 

John, Jr., b. 1743, probably in Fall Town; ni. September 19, 1765, Ede, 
dau. Jabez Clark; d. May 11, 180S; had nine children. His widow m. a 
second time. 

Anna, b. Fall Town, September 22, 1745; d. at Fort Shirley, August 26, 


Jacob, b. December 15, 1748; d. in a prison shi[) in New Ycjrk during 

the Revolution. 

Elias, b. October 21, 1750; d. Novembers, 1750. 

Anne, b. March 29, 1752; no positive further record. 

Eunice, b. October 23, 1754; d. unm. October 12, 1845. 

Elias, b. also October 23, 1754; eventually became a loyalist and for a 
time lived in the provinces. Retarned and d. in Addison, Me., about 
1846; left a widow but no other known family. 

Rev. Job. Wright, second minister of Fall Town, was born at 
Easthampton, Mass., October 13, 1737, graduated at Yale college 
in 1757, and was ordained as minister of this town the first day of 
July, 1761. He continued in the ministry nearly 21 years — to 
March 13, 1782,— when he was, at his own request, dismissed on ac- 
count of the financial troubles of the times, and perhaps, also, from 
some disrelish of parochial duties. The council for his dismission 
consisted of Rev. John Hubbard and Deacon Samuel Root of North- 
field, Rev. Judah Nash and Joseph Root, Esq., of Montague, and 
Rev. Roger Newton and Deacon Ebenezer Graves of Greenfield. 
The terms of his dismissal were "that he shall be freed from pub- 
lic taxes, both poll and land tax for five years from the date hereof, 
and longer in case arrears due to him from the town for services 
are not paid up by that time, and furthermore, that he shall enjoy 
all the other civil privileges during his residence in town, that be- 
long to settled ministers of the Gospel." 


As an example of the difficulty of procuring money, the follow- 
ing vote, passed in 1781, will serve: "To raise sixty six pounds, thir- 
teen shillings and four pence silver money, to pay Mr. Wright's 
sallery and to be paid in silver, wheat, rye, Indian corn or flax at 
silver money price — or paper money at the common exchange." 

After Mr. Wright left the ministry at the age of 45 years, he 
was engaged in the cultivation of his farm and in public duties. 
He was for three years one of the selectmen and assessors of Ber- 
nardston, five years town clerk, and two years town treasurer, and 
was frequently appointed to fill other public offices. He was sev- 
eral times a candidate (but not elected) for the office of Senator in 
the Legislature. He also received a commission as justice of the 

As a preacher of the Gospel his sermons were chaste and in- 
structive. As a man he was kind and affectionate and as a Chris- 
tian he exemplified the doctrines of the Bible in a high degree. 
His piety was ardent and exemplary, and his qualities in the circle 
of domestic and social life, endearing. His mind was quick and 
his judgment rapid in the attainment of its object. He was seldom 
engaged in polemic tlieology, was no dogmatist, believing as many 
others do, that but little good can result from religious controver- 
sies; that a good life is the best preparation for death and the fu- 
ture world, and that Christians should devote their whole attention 
to the practice of the religion they profess. 

In his politics (and he devoted considerable attention to that sub- 
ject) he was ever a firm friend to liberty and equal rights for all 
men. During the Revolutionary war he was a Whig in heart and 

One of his contemporaries, the late Hon. Samuel C. Allen of 
Northfield, thus spoke of him: "I loved Mr. Wright for the sim- 
plicity of his manners and his highly intellectual attainments, 
combined in so great a degree with the Christian character and 
conduct. It always afforded me a feast to hear that good old man 
converse. He was very sociable and his mind was well stored with 
correct and useful ideas of men and things which he communicated 
to others with a great deal of ease and pleasure. The talents and 
usefulness of Mr. Wright were much underated by his parishoners 
and the people of Bernardston." 


He died in the town January 24, 1823, aged 85 years. Of him 
we may truly say in the language of Holy Writ. " Blessed are the 
dead that die in the Lord; yea saith the Spirit for their works do 
follow them." 

Rev. Amasa Cook, the third minister of Bernardston. was born 
in Hadley, Mass., in June, 1 750, graduated at Brown University, 
Providence, R. I., in i776,studied theology with Rev. Dr. Hopkins 
of Hadley, Mass., was licensed to preach August 2, 1780, b)^ the 
Hampshire Association, and preached for a time at Rowe. In Au- 
gust, 1783, he "was hired to preach on pr()batif)n of settlement in 
the work (^f the ministrv " in Bernardston, and in September of 
the same year it was voted to "settle him and give a salary of sixty 
pounds ($200), and to raise three pounds every year until it should 
amount to 75 pounds per annum. Also to give him 140^^ settle- 
ment money ($466.66)." Mr. Cook accepted these propositions and 
was ordained November, 1783. According to Governor Cushman 
the Rev. Dr. Hopkins of Hadley preached the sermon, but refer- 
ence to a paper prepared by A. H. Washburn, Esq., of Vernon, Vt., 
and by him read before the P. V. M. A. in 1872. shows that the 
ministers assemblimr the eveniny; before the ordination was to oc- 
cur, It was discovered that the one who had been selected to preach 
the ordination sermon was absent. This duty was placed upon the 
Rev. Bunker Gay. Said he, " I have made no preparation for this 
occasion." As it was voted not to excuse him, he accepted. From 
his previous acquaintance with Cook, he selected for his text, 
"There is death in the pot," found in ii Kings, 4th Chap. 40. 

For several years previous to 1805, disaffection had arisen in the 
society of which Mr. Cook was pastor, principally because of his 
growing intemperate habits, and some had left and joined the Bap- 
tist. In March of that year, a committee was chosen to "settle the 
difficulty with Mr. Cook." They reported that they were unable 
to settle with him. But the objectionable conduct of Mr. Cook and 
the consequent dissatisfaction of his society were both increasing. 
Mr. Cook wrote a letter to the selectmen, in which he stated that 
he had understood that there was a dissatisfaction in town and 
that he would agree to the calling of a mutual council and abide 
by its decisions. Previous to that time, Mr. Cook having been set- 
tled for life agreeable to the usage of that period, had objected to 


the calling of a council. The council to which Mr. Cook finally, 
with great reluctance, agreed, which was to decide all questions 
both civil and ecclesiastical, consisted of Rev. Roger Newton of 
Greenfield, Rev. Thomas Mason of Northfield, and Rev. John Tay- 
lor of Deerfield. After a protracted hearing in which both Mr. 
Cook and the society were represented by able lawyers, Hon. R. E. 
Newcomb of Greenfield for the society, and Hon. George Bliss of 
Springfield for Mr. Cook, the council finally advised that Mr. Cook 
be dismissed and it was accordingly done in May, 1805. 

The former pastor, Mr. Wright, and some of his ministerial col- 
leagues were present at this council, although not members of it. 
Of Mr. Wright some of his friends inquired, at that time, if, " in 
their opinion, he ought, with other members of his church and 
congregation to clothe himself in sackcloth and sprinkle dust on 
his head in mourning at the prospect of their being left destitute 
of a minister, or whether he was not entitled to a song of exulta- 
tion over his neighbors in remembrance of the circumstances of 
his separation from them." Rev. Bunker Gay replied, "Sing! Sing!" 
Mr. Wright observed that he was no singer, but only spoke meta- 
phorically, and had no song prepared for the occasion. Said Mr. 
Gay, "Then sing this, and we will assist you: " 

"Reduced to want, with lantern jaws, 

My people I forsook; 
And to avenge my righteous cause, 

God sent them Parson Cook." 

The objections to Mr. Cook were on account of his moral char- 
acter and conduct. He had strong intellectual and logical powers 
and considerable ability as a preacher. In the early part of his 
ministry of 22 years, he was successful and acceptable to the peo- 
ple. But one of the besetting sins of the times overcame him. 
"The wine when it is red " was a temptation which sensitive na- 
tures and a character broken by suffering and disease, impelled by 
the common habits of the people of that day, could not resist. The 
unfortunate close of his ministry had many palliating circumstancs 
which would not be admissible at this age of the world. He died 
in Bernardston, June 11, 1816, in his 66th year. The following is 
the epitaph on his gravestone in the north burial ground of the town: 

"If all my life I tried in vain to save, 

Hear, O hear me speaking from the grave." 


His wife was Mary Dorothea, daughter of Captain Obed Foote 
of Gill. She was born in Waterbury, now Plymouth, Ct., June ii, 
1764, married Mr. Cook at Gill, in 1783. Mr. Cook was born June, 
1750. Their children were 

Amasa, b. February 6, 1788. 

Amanda, b. March ^, 1790; d. October 25, 1794. 

Payton Randolph, b. January i, 1792. 

Mrs. Cook m. (2) a Mr. McCloud, and died at Persia, Erie Co., 
N. Y., April 17, 1835. ae. 71. 

From 1805 to 1809, several persons supplied the pulpit of that 
society, among whom were Revs. Caleb Atwater and Elihu Rock- 

Rev. Timothy Foster Rogers was the fourth Congregational min- 
ister of Bernardston, born in Tewksbury, Mass., March, 1791. "It 
was his happiness to be the son of pious parents whose example and 
prayers had a powerful influence upon him in childhood and in 
after life. His mother was endowed with the most excellent qual- 
ities of mind and heart." He w^as prepared for college at Phillips 
Academy, Andover, and graduated at Harvard university in 1802. 
A classmate thus spok-e of him while in college : " During the 
whole of his college life, it was his firmly fixed purpose to make 
theology his future profession. He had been bred up in the Ortho- 
dox faith, in the most rigid form, and brought within the walls of 
the university his attachment to its principles and his earnest zeal 
in their advocacy and defense. Yet on further inquiry into, and a 
closer investigation of religious subjects, he was led gradually to 
abandon the doctrines of his early adopted creed, for those of a 
more liberal and heart cheering faith." 

Mr. Rogers pursued his theological studies with Rev. Asa Pack- 
ard of Marlboro, Mass., and completed them with Rev. Dr. Lothrop 
of West Springfield. He commenced preaching in 1806, and deliv- 
ered his first sermon in Bernardston, February 26, 1809. The so- 
ciety invited him to become their pastor on the 27th of April fol- 
lowing, and he was ordained the 20th of September, 1809. The 
ordaining council consisted of Rev. William Wells. D. D., of Brattle- 
boro, Vt., Rev. Asa Packard of Marlboro, Mass., Rev. John Foster 


of Brighton; Rev. Jacob Coggin of Tewksbury, Rev. Samuel Wil- 
lard, D. D., of Deerfield, and Rev. Jason Chamberlain of Guilford, 
Vt. The sermon was preached by Rev. Mr. Foster. 

May 29, 1 8 10, Mr. Rogers married Mary, daughter of Jacob Pierce 
of Woburn, Mass. For about thirty years she was afflicted with 
a very painful insanity, which continued until her death, July 5, 1846, 
at the age of 60 years. Their children were 

Mary, b. December 17, 1812; m. John Mowry of Leyden, resided in Ber- 
nardston. She died May 3, 1872, aged 59; he died August 26, 1878, ae. 76. 

Timothy Pierce, b. November 18, 1814. 
William, b. August 6, 1823; removed to Canada. 

For about 12 years after his ordination, Mr. Rogers lived in great 
harmony with his people. But that was a period of theological 
controversy, and it could not be expected that his society should 
be exempt from the spirit of division then so common, especially 
in the Congregational denomination. The ablest minds among 
the clergy of New England were, in the early part of this century, 
engaged in discussing the great doctrines of the Trinity, the atone- 
ment. Total Depravity, Election, Regeneration by the special influ- 
ence of the HolySpirit and kindred tenets of the Calvinistic faith ; 
and the result was a division of the Congregationalists into parties 
or denominations called the "Unitarians," and the "Orthodox." In 
1882 Mr. Rogers and his society being of the Unitarian faith, nine 
of his church members left and formed the "Orthodox Congrega 
tional Society." Others also left and joined a newly formed Uni- 
versalist society. As a consequence, his society became much 
weakened. But such trials of his faith and patience only made 
him firmer and truer to his conviction of duty. He would not leave 
his people in the days of their adversity. For several years he sup 
plied other pulpits one-half of the time, being employed by the 
"Massachusetts Evangelical Society " and also by the "Society for 
Propagating the Gospel among the Indians and others in North 
America" in that service, preaching the other half of the time to 
his own people. The Rev. Dr. Parkman of Boston, secretary of 
the latter society, in his report of Mr. Rogers' services, remarked 
of him that "he fulfilled his work with characteristic fidelity, godly 
simplicity and in a spirit of faith unfeigned, commending himself 

REV. A. M. BKIDGK. 1 37 

wherever he went, as a good steward of the manifold grace of God." 
Thus Mr. Rogers sacrificed much for the support of the Gospel as 
he understood it, in the town of his adoption and among a people 
he greatly loved. The result in after times showed the wisdom of 
his course. 

In January, 1825, Mr. Rogers preached a sermon at the dedica- 
tion of the meeting house which had been removed and rebuilt by 
his society, which was printed, the only one he ever published. 

In the autumn of 1843 he had a paralytic affection, from which 
he never recovered, but he continued to perform his parochial du- 
ties, although greatly enfeebled in body and mind, till a year or 
two before his decease, which took place February 26, 1847, ^t the 
age of 66 years. About a year prior to his death, he had the great 
satisfaction of witnessing the settlement of a colleague and to see 
his beloved society so far increased in numbers and wealth as to 
be able to support regular ministrations of the Gospel each Sab- 
bath, which had not been done for the preceding twenty-four 

Rev. Asarelah Morse Bridge, fifth minister, was born in Lancas- 
ter, January 21, 1810, and was the son of Josiah Bridge. His early 
education was acquired at the common schools of that town and at 
the academy. When 14 he entered a store in Boston, where he 
remained 6 years. He then studied two and one-half years at New 
Salem academy, and in 1832 entered the Divinity school at Cam- 
bridge, graduating July, 1835. August 2nd of that year he com- 
menced preaching as a candidate in Norton, and his service proving 
acceptable, he was unanimously invited by the Congregational 
(Unitarian) parish in that town "to settle with them as their pastor 
in the Gospel Ministry." He was accordingly ordained the 27th of 
January, 1836. At a meeting of the parish in August, 1840, Mr. 
Bridge was dismissed by "the mutual consent of all parties,", and 
on November 1st of the same year he preached his valedictory ser- 
mon to that society. 

At a meeting of the church September 30, 1842, it was '"Resolved 
that we have full confidence in Rev. A. M. Bridge as a pious, faith- 
ful and devoted Christian Minister ; and that we cordially recom- 
mend him as such to those with whom he may be called to labour." 


Mr. Bridge was installed colleague pastor of the Unitarian soci- 
ety with Rev. Timothy F. Rogers of Bernardston February 18, 
1846. Sermon on that occasion by Rev. Chandler Robbins of Bos- 
ton from the text John x. 16. The other services were as follows: 
Introductory prayer, by Rev. Mr. Barlow of Warwick; reading of 
the Scripture, by Rev. Mr. Moors of Deerfield ; prayer of installa- 
tion, by Rev. Mr. Harding of New Salem: charge by the Rev. Mr. 
Livermore of Keene, N. H. ; address to the people, by Rev. Mr. 
Willis of Walpole, N. H., and the concluding prayer by Rev. Mr. 
Stearns of Rowe. The sermon was printed. 

Having remained in Bernardston about four years, he asked for 
a dismission and preached his farewell sermon March 31, 1850. 

May I, 185 I, Mr. Bridge was settled in Hampton Falls, N. H., at 
which place he resided in February, 1863, but was then in very 
poor health, and is since deceased. He was twice married, the sec- 
ond time to Mary Ann, daughter of David and Sophia Fullom; she 
was born in Boston, December 5, 1819. His children were 

Mary Ellen, b. at Bernardston, July 31, 1846. 

Charles Lee Fullom, b. at Bernardston, January 16, 1849. 

Emma, b. at Hampton Falls, N. H., .August 19, 1853. 

Next came Rev. Thomas Weston, the son of Capt. Coomer and 
Mrs. Hannah (Doten) Weston, born in Plymouth, Mass , August 30, 
1 82 1. His early education was received in the public schools of 
his native town. Being of studious habit he continued to study 
even while engaged in other occupations, and thus fitted himself 
to enter the Meadville (Penn.) theological school. Beginning his 
attendance there in 1846, he pursued the regular course of study, 
graduating in June, 1849. 

After supplying various pulpits for short periods, he became pas- 
tor of the church in Bernardston, December, 1850, and continued 
there until the spring of 1852. 

He was married April 29, 1852, to Lucinda, daughter of Ralph 
Cushman of Bernardston., She died in Greenfield, Mass., Decem- 
ber, 1889. They had one daughter, Mary Kay Weston, born at 
Bernardston, September 12, 1855. 

In the autumn of 1852, Mr. Weston became pastor of the Unita- 


rian church in Northumberland, Penn., where he remained two 
years. Returning to Massachusetts, he was installed pastor of the 
First Congregational church in New Salem, April 18, 1855. After 
four years of service here, he assumed a like charge at Farming- 
ton, Me. ; here he resided for five years, then transferred his min- 
isterial labors to the society at Barnstable, Mass., where he remained 
nine years, being in addition to his ministry, librarian of the 
Sturgis (Free) library. In 1872 he removed to Warwick, Mass., re- 
maining here for six years. In 1878 he became pastor of the first 
church in Stowe, Mass., where he continued seven years. Becom- 
ing permanently lame — -from the effects of a fall — he relinquished 
parish work, and in the summer of 1885, took up his residence at 
Greenfield, Mass., where with his daughter he now resides. 

Mr. Weston has always been much interested in the cause of 
education, and has served as superintendent and school committee 
in most of the towns in which he has resided. He has occasionally 
preached as a supply since his retirement. A sermon preached at 
the funeral of Dr. Elijah W. Carpenter of Bernardston was pub- 
lished in November, 1855, accompanied by an obituary and an ex- 
cellent lithographic engraving of Dr. Carpenter. He has also had 
published a Fast day sermon at Farmington, in April, 1861, and a 
Thanksgiving day sermon delivered at the same place, Novem- 
ber 21, 1 861, was published in the "Franklin Patriot," a newspaper 
printed in that town. 

Mr. Weston has now in composition an interesting history of 
his native place, Plymouth, teeming with valuable historic reminis- 
cences, and containing an extended and vivid account of the Pil- 
grims. This is not, however, prepared with any definite plan for 
publication, Mr. Weston expending his leisure in the study and 
research so congenial to his taste. 

As a pastor, he has always been devout and faithful; as a writer, 
he is concise and entertaining. He is also a member of the Ma- 
sonic fraternity, in whose gatherings he takes a keen interest. 

Rev. William Wallace Hebbard followed, preaching for the First 
Congregational (Unitarian) society for three years, commencing in 
April, 1852, and ending the 25th of April, 1855, but was not installed. 
He was born in Lisbon or Topsfield, Me., March 9, 1823-4, and was 


the son of Timothy Merrick and Mary (Dyer) Hebbard ; wa.s mar- 
ried in Granby, Ct., January 29, 1845,10 Martha Sybil, daughter of 
Dr. Daniel Benjamin of that town. vShe died in Bernardston, 
July 28, 1854. 

Mr. Hebbard was educated in Brunswick, Me., preached as a 
Universalist in Sheffield,, in 1843, subsequently at Granby, 
Ct., and afterwards at Adrian, Mich., in 1846-7. He studied 
medicine with Dr. Lee, a homeopathic physician of Hartford, Ct., 
and graduated at the medical college, Brunswick, Me., in 1848, 
practiced medicine as a homeopathist in Attleboro and Waltham, 
Mass., studied theology at the Divmity school at Harvard univer- 
sity, graduated in July, 1851, preached about four years as a Unita- 
rian, then relinquished the ministry and took up the practice of 
medicine. He was a political lecturer of the anti-slavery and Re- 
publican parties, afterwards engaged in the dry goods business in 
Boston. In 1864 he resided at "Swango." Richmond, Me. 

He was con.sidered an eloquent preacher and lecturer, and some- 
times wrote poetry, but his frequent changes diminished his use- 
fulness. During the Fremont campaign in 1856, he. by invitation, 
delivered his great poem "The Patriot's Hope," in nearly every 
State in the Union. He died in Nashua, N. H., December 10, i8g- 
where he had resided for a number of years. One son, Dr. E. C. 
Hebbard of Boston, survives him. 

Rev. Darwin Harlow Ranney preached for the First Congrega- 
tional (Unitarian) society from December, 1855, to April, 1861, five 
years and four months, but was not installed anrl resided during 
that time with his family at West Brattleboro, Vt. He was the 
son of Hon. Waitstill Ranney of Townshend, Vt., and was born at 
Chester, Vt., December 13, 1812. He obtained his preliminary 
education at Chester (Vt.) academy, was graduated at Middlebury 
college, Vt., in the class of 1835. He was ordained as an evangel- 
ist of the Baptist denomination at Westport, N. Y., the same year, 
and was employed at Westport and Ludlow, Vt., and at Claremont. 
N. H., for five years as a preacher of that denomination. Becotn- 
ing dissatisfied with the exclusiveness of the Baptists, and think- 
ing it his duty to maintain the doctrine of open communion, and 
that all professed Christians in any locality should unite in one 

RKV. JOHN i;. (;reen s settlement. 141 

church on the basis of discipleship with Jesus Christ, he adopted 
independent views of Christian fellowship and discipline and pub- 
lished a small volume and some tracts on Christian Union. 

Hence for fifteen years he was called a "Unionist " and preached 
to different s(^cieties on this basis at R(^ckingham. Vt., and subse- 
qtiently at Dover and Wilmington, \"t., where he assisted in organ- 
ing three churches with the Bible c/z/j' for a creed and the recog-ni- 
tion of the personal right of judgment in the interpretation of the 
Scriptures. During the latter part of that time he preached to the 
Unitarian society of (Trcenheld, Mass., where he had an invitation 
to settle in the ministry, but for prudential reasons, declined it. 
In February, 1855, he removed to a farm at West Brattleboro, Vt., 
where he resided fc^r a long time. In 1860-61, he was elected a 
member of \"ermont House of Representatives from Hrattleboro, 
where he distinguished himself as an able debater and a judicious 
statesman. He married vSybil Hale McKinne\- of Westport, N. Y., 
January, 1836, and had six children. He ])reached his farewell 
sermon to the society in Hernardston, March 31. 1861, subsequently 
preaching in Wal[)olc, N. H., and Vernon, Vt. Upon his departure 
from town, appropriate resolutions were drafted expressing the 
appreciation of his labors in the behalf of the society. He died in 
New York (?) and is buried in the cemetery at Townshend, Vt. 

Rev. John Bremner (Treen was a pastor greatly endeared to this 
society, a native of vScotland. When cjuite young he came to this 
country, and received his theological educati(jn from the Meadville 
Divinity school, from which he graduated in 1861. In August of 
that year he became pastor of this church and was ordained Feb- 
ruary 5, 1862. It was during Mr. Green's pastorate that the stirring 
events of the first part of the civil war took place, and he was soon 
found in the front ranks joining the sanitary commission with 
which he was connected some time and where he rendered most 
excellent service. In 1864 he resigned his pastorate here, imme- 
diately accepting a call from the church in Leominster, where he 
remained about three years, going thence to Chelsea. In Febru- 
ary, 1876, he resigned to accept a call to a church in Montreal, 
Canada, remaining there three and a half years; thence he went to 
Brattleboro, Vt. Succeeding his residence and work there, he be- 


came for two years agent for the American Unitarian association 
and the Christian Register association in the matter of their pub- 
lications. He then preached in Louisville, Kv-, for a year, at the 
expiration of which time he was settled in Gloucester, Mass. Six 
years were spent in the Master's service there, when a resignation 
was tendered that he might take the charge of a mission in the 
"North End," Boston, carried on by the Boston Benevolent Frater- 
nity of Churches. Here he remained two years, during which time 
the population had become changed to such an extent by the ad- 
vent of the Hebrews in that section, that the mission was abandoned 
and Mr. Green was obliged to seek a new field of labor. In June, 
1 89 1, he was installed pastor of the Christian Union church in 
Reading, Mass. 

He has been twice married. Of his children, one son has followed 
in the footsteps of his father, in that he has cho.sen the ministry 
for his life work. 

Mr. Green is a most pleasing speaker, sincere in his convictions 
and earnest in his efforts to impart the truth of Holy Writ to his 
people, and upon his occasional ministrations here to his former 
parishioners, is eagerly welcomed by those who hold him in fond 
remembrance. He is now settled in Newberg, N. Y. 

The next pastor, Rev. Charles T. Canfield, was born in Danby, 
N. Y., April 13, 1833, graduated at Harvard in 1852, from the Har- 
vard Divinity school in 1855. His first settlement was at Lock- 
port, 111., in 1856. From this he was forced by illness to resign in 
the second year of his pastorate. He came east, settling in Ux- 
bridge, Mass., where he was ordained in 1859. ^^ '862 he left to 
enter the 36th regiment, Massachusetts volunteers, as chaplain. 

February 12, 1861. he married Louisa B. Haywood of Walpole, 
N. H. In 1864 he came to Bernardston, remaining here until 1866, 
when he assumed charge of the Divinity school in Boston. LTpon 
the transfer of that school to Cambridge, he remained in Boston, 
being engaged for about three years in teaching. Subsequently 
he assumed, for several years, the agency for different charitable 
institutions. In 1891 he was settled over the Unitarian church in 
Ellsworth, Me., but owing to illness, remained only about a year. 
In November, 1893, he went to Bath, N. H., where he now is in 


charge of the Unitarian society. His pastorate here was of short 
duration, and as pastors he and Rev. Mr. Campbell, on that account, 
were among the least known, perhaps, of any who have occupied 
the pulpit of this society. 

Rev. Stillman Barber, the son of Azariah and Rhoda Temple 
Barber, was born in Warwick, Mass., July 21, 1818. His father 
was a farmer and he was early called upon to perform such duties 
about the farm as his years would admit, consequently the educa- 
tional advantages afforded were limited, the amount of schooling 
received being ten weeks in summer and winter until the age of 
ten years, and for the succeeding six years, ten in winter only. 
Possessed by a great love of study, and realizing the need of judi- 
cious use of the time allowed for that, he was enabled to master 
the common English branches, adding thereto enough of the sci- 
ences, United States history and the higher mathematics, so that 
fourteen weeks attendance during the two succeeding years at a 
private school, served to qualify him for teaching. This vocation 
he pursued during the winter months for seven succeeding years. 

In 1840, he attended two terms of school at New Salem academy. 
From the age of sixteen on, it was his custom to devote at least 
one hour daily to study, more if possible, and in order to do this 
and facilitate the end so eagerly sought, namely, the acquisition of 
a thorough education, all amusements and recreations enjoyed by 
others of corresponding age, were of necessity given over. When 
sixteen years old, he made his first appearance as a public speaker, 
delivering a lecture before the district school lyceum. Two years 
later he began the study of Latin, carrying his books with him to 
the hayfield in order to secure the coveted time. 

April 22, 1841, he was joined in wedlock to Mary C, daughter 
of Moses and Lydia Fisher of Warwick, and they immediately be- 
gan housekeeping, she aiding, by adding dressmaking to her other 
duties. ]\Ir. Barber cultivated a small farm and at the same time 
increased his income by devoting all spare time to the perform- 
ance of whatever other work came to his hands to do. There have 
been three children born to them: Charles S., the eldest, Frank- 
lin wS., who died August 29, 1856, and Carrie A., a graduate of the 
Framingham Normal school, and now a teacher in Plainfield, N, J. 
Mrs. Barber died February 21, 1898. 

144 •<>"-'^'- HENRY F. CAMPBELL. 

Mr. Barber's relig-ious convictions were formed at the early age 
of sixteen, and with slig^ht modifications, always existed practically 
the same. At this time h6 had an ardent desire to enter the Chris- 
tian ministry, but was dissuaded from making the necessary prep- 
arations. When the Meadville Divinity school was established in 
the year 1844, determination to enter it came also, and the opening 
of its second year saw him enrolled as a student. The three years 
course ended in graduation in the summer of 1848. Immediately 
he began his ministerial labors at Como, 111., a town upon Rock 
River, where he remained during the summer of 1848, preaching 
also for a time at Rockford, 111., and returning east in the late fall. 
The succeeding year was spent largely in Massachusetts, preach- 
ing whenever and wherever occasion presented. In the winter of 
1849-50, he was called upon to candidate in Rowe, Mass., and after 
preaching two Sundays, received a unanimous call to settle over 
that society, a call which was accepted. He was ordained June 1 1, 
1850, the now Bishop Huntington preaching the sermon. 

After a three years pastorate, he was successively a resident and 
pastor over the societies at Hubbardston, Townsend, Mendon and 
Tyngsboro, Mass. In the spring of 1868 he received and accepted 
a call to assume a pastoral relation over the Unitarian society in 
Bernardston, which relation continued in force three years. 

After 1873, the time was largely devoted to agricultural pursuits, 
in which he always took a deep interest. He was president of the 
Franklin Farmers' institute, frequently lecturing before it, and 
was in 1893 a vice-president of the Franklin Agricultural Society. 
He was also greatly interested in historical matters, following 
closely the matter presented by the local historical society, the 
P. V. M. A. of Deerfield. He died February 15, 1901. 

Rev. Henry F. Campbell occupied the Unitarian pulpit here for 
a time in 1871. Upon leaving his charge here, he removed to the 
eastern part of the State, where in 1881, he perfected some inven- 
tions and successfully engaged in business at Cambridge. He in- 
vented a machine for making barrel hoops, which proved an un- 
qualified success, and Mr. Campbell was able to dispose of a part 
interest in the same at a sum which rendered him financially in- 


In 1884, it is understood that he was preaching for a Unitarian 
church and society at Francestown, N. H., where he had devoted 
some $2,000 to the improvement of the church building. For some 
years his time was wholly given up to secular pursuits. He was 
in 1894 in Boston, and one of the company owning Lookout Moun- 
tain hotel in Tennessee. 

Rev. Samuel B. Flagg was born in Grafton, Mass., August 6, 
1828, where he died November 16, 1900. He is descended from 
one of the original settlers of that place. His primary education 
was supplemented by attendance at the Friends school in Bolton, 
then Leicester academy and (Juaboag seminary, Warren. He en- 
tered upon a collegiate course at Brown university, from which 
institution he graduated in 1850. Designing to become a member 
of the medical fraternity, he studied for that profession with Dr. 
H. Parker at Grafton, continuing his studies at Woodstock, Vt., 
and Boston, Mass., after which he enrolled himself as a student at 
the Berkshire medical school in Pittsfield, completing the course 
and graduating in the class of 1855. He successfully engaged in 
practice in Boston. Convinced that his duty to his Maker called 
him in other paths, and following the dictates of his conscience, 
he soon made a second choice in the matter of his life work, elect- 
ing the ministry. He entered the Meadville Theological school, 
graduating therefrom in 1859. His first pastorate, of six years' 
duration, was at Kalamazoo, Mich., where he was instrumental in 
organizing a church and society. Returning east, he was in 1865 
installed over the society at Waltham, Mass., remaining there un- 
til 1868, when he resigned. For a year and a half he acted as stated 
supply at Sandwich, Mass., to which parish he was again called in 
January, 1893, and where he for some years resided, a much loved 
pastor among a cherished people. 

December 29, 1869, he married Anna B., daughter of William W. 
Allcott of Kalamazoo, and grand-daughter of the late Osias Bangs 
of Cambridgeport, Mass. vShe died May 8, 1900, in Grafton, Mass. 
There are two sons, Charles, who was for a time a tutor in Bowdoin 
college, Brunswick, Me., then in the library at the Capitol, Albany, 
N. Y., now in the Congressional library, Washington, D. C, and 
George, now in San Francisco, Cal. 


In 1 87 1 Mr. Flagg came to Bernardston, remaining there for 
eleven years, a term of service equalled by none since Mr. Rogers' 
death in 1847. During his stay the society experienced a healthy, 
steady growth, and the wonderful example of steadfast faith, cour- 
age and devotion there displayed, not only cemented more closely 
the existing relations between pastor and people, but also exerted 
an influence for good over the best interests of the community. 
Not alone for his own church did he labor, but his usefulness was 
extended to the sister churches and the schools, and all have reason 
to hold in grateful remembrance the deep and abiding interest man- 
ifested, and the harmonious results. 

After leaving town, and before returning to Sandwich, he min- 
istered at several places, chief among them being Marshfield, Mass.. 
and Dixfield, Me., and wherever his lot was cast, to an unusual de- 
gree did we find him enjoying the esteem and respect of those 
with whom he was brought into contact, and as was also his wife, 
active in promoting the welfare of both society and Sunday school. 

Rev. William Jenkins was born in Boston, February 7, 1827. His 
collegiate education was acquired at Harvard, whence he graduated 
in 1848. Designing to make the ministry his profession, he en- 
rolled himself a student at the Cambridge Divinity school, com- 
pleted the course and graduated therefrom in the class of 1855. 
The 19th of the September following, he was ordained at Law- 
rence, Mass., where he remained until July, 1864, a pastorate of 
nine years. June, 1865. he was settled at Northampton, going 
thence in 1870 and locating the succeeding June at Brattleboro, Vt. 
Here he remained several years. In November, 1884, he was called 
to the church in Bernardston, and his ministrations here lasted un- 
til June, 1892 — in all eight years. 

It will be noticed that wherever Mr. Jenkins has been called, 
there he has remained for a considerable time, having had but four 
settlements in his thirty-seven years of ministerial work. This cir- 
cumstance is an eloquent testimony of his moral worth and intel- 
lectual ability, also of the esteem in which he has been held by his 
parishioners. His present residence is in Dorchester. He has re- 
tired from active service, feeble health obliging him so to do, and 


in his retirement he can look back upon a life well and happily 
spent in a noble calling. 

Rev. Francis Wilder Holden is the son of Josiah Holden of Waits- 
field, Vt., where he was born July 28, 1862. His academical edu- 
cation was received at the Barre, Vt., academy, graduating in the 
class of 1885. He prepared himself for the? ministry at the Mead- 
ville Theological school, from which he graduated in 1891. He be- 
gan his professional duties while pursuing his theological studies, 
preaching during different summers at Strawberry Point, la., Ar- 
cadia, Wis., and Grand Haven, Mich. A year was spent in Roches- 
ter, N. H., and during that time he had the satisfaction of seeing 
a society organized and take its place beside sister churches in the 
denomination. Thence he came to Bernardston, where his ordina- 
tion occurred January 10, 1893. the sermon being preached by Rev. 
R. A. Griffin of Northampton. His connection here was terminated 
January, 1896. He married August 18, 1896, Gertrude, daughter 
of Leander Lynde of Gardner, Mass. Began preaching in Norton, 
Mass., September i. 1896. During his pastorate here he closely 
allied himself with the young people of the society and the Young 
People's Fraternity bears evidence of his zeal in that direction. 

Rev. Richard Elliott Birks, the present pastor of this society, 
was born at Stowey Middleton, Derbyshire, England, in 1846, the 
son of Rev. William Birks, whose busy parochial life furnished a 
worthy example to the three sons, all of whom became Unitarian 
ministers. Originally the Birks family were Scotch, but during 
the days of the first Stuarts, settled in England, "Being always lib- 
eral in Theology and politics." The Elliotts were a well-known 
puritan family, and Richard Elliott, the ancestor of Richard Elliott 
Birks, was a contemporary of John Wesley, and entered the min- 
istry at the personally expressed wish of the latter. " The Unita- 
rian Chapels or Meeting houses in the county of Derby, were mostly 
founded by the old English Presbyterians, who might be justly 
called the liberals of the Puritans. They built their churches and 
left them free from fetters of creed or covenant, in trust for the 
worship of Almighty God. Many of the first pastors were of the 
noble 2000 — ministers who were ejected from the parish churches 
in 1662 (Charles the Second's Reign) because they objected to swear 


to be loyal to a ' bad ' King (not believing in the divine rights of 
kings) and also refused to give their assent and consent to every- 
thing in the book of common prayer. It was of such stock and in 
the old meeting houses and manses still largely supported by the 
descendants of those sturdy and independent puritans," that Mr. 
Birks was reared and it is evident that he freely imbibed of the 
spirit of intelligence, thrift and manly independence of the people 
of that locality. From his father, a disciple of Dr. Channing, he 
received his early education and teachings in Unitarianism. 

When just ready for the university, his father's death obliged 
him to change his plans, and his latter education was obtained 
wholly by his own efforts, but by self-sacrificing perseverance he 
was enabled to prepare himself for the ministry, and was ordained 
at Topsham, Devon, England, in 1872. He was afterwards minis- 
ter at Northampton, Tan worth, Chichester, Gloucester, Douglas, 
Isle of Man and finally at Rawtenstall, near Manchester, in all of 
which places he rendered good work, being especially successful 
in building up and restoring societies in those pnrishes where there 
had existed a lack of religious enthusiasm and life. He was in 
this country during the last years of the civil war, returning for a 
brief season to London in 1866. His marriage occured in Boston 
in 1867, and he kept his residence there until 1871, when he again 
crossed the water, returning in 1892, and coming to Bernardston 
in 1896. 

Besides his ministerial labors, Mr. Birks has always taken an ac- 
tive interest and part in all matters pertaining to improvement and 
education, being always found upon the liberal, progressive side, 
and his record since coming among the people of Bernardston is 
but a rounding out and completion of the busy, useful life he spent 
in England. He numbers among his transatlantic acquaintances 
some of the foremost writers and leaders in reform, who hold him 
in grateful remembrance. Although having been here but a short 
time, the .society have recognized his sterling qualities and are glad 
to thus number him among their cherished pastors. 



Chronolog'ically the Baptist society ranks second. January 7, 1782, 
the town " Voted that those persons who are professed Baptists 
and have attended that particular form of worship shall be freed 
from payinjr ministers taxes so loni^ back as they have been of the 
Baptist persuasion and have attended sd worship." 

Up to this date there having been but the one religious society, 
all were taxed for the support of the common church. This vcjte 
of the town shows their willingness to extend to others what they 
themselves, or their fathers, sought in their emigration from Eng- 
land, — freedom to worship according to the dictates of one's con- 
science. Such toleration of new sects or denominations was not 
then so common, and this fact renders the incident all the more 

" Ay, call it holy j^round, 

The soil where hrst they trod, 
They've left unstained what there they found, — 

Freedom to worship God." 

In 1789 a liaptist society was organized, and the year following 
a church built on the east corner of meeting house and church 
street, near the place lately owned by Philander M. vSlate. The 
same year Elder Levi Hodge was ordained as their first pastor. 
wSubsequently the church, a small one-story building, was sold, the 
society having become much smaller because of internal dissen- 
sions, and the meetings were finally discontinued. January i, 
1808, an ecclesiastical council met at the house of William Fox. 
Jeremy Parker was chosen moderator, and John Noyes, clerk — 
both members of the church in Conway. After prayer and delib- 
eration it was decided to organize, and January i i the following 
named persons subscribed themselves members of the P)aptist 
church in Bernardston: 


Reuben Park. William Fox. Moses Smith. 

Samuel Sikes, Jr. Jonathan Sanderson. Selah Hastings. 

Reuben Alj^er. Eunice Smith. Mary Park. 

Susanna Hastings. Abigail Green. Rachael Carey. 

Lovice Darling. 

A considerable deofree of interest must have existed in the 
church, for the rest of that year saw 30 members added to the 
original thirteen. As evidence of their prosperity, in 1817 a new 
church was built a few rods west of the former one. The interior 
of this remained unfinished until about 1835. This may be ac- 
counted for in some degree by the parish records, which show that 
from 1822 until 1831 the society was without a settled pastor, and 
during this time the Congregational society met with them, each 
furnishing preaching half of the time, when they could so do. 
About 1835 the building was completed, and used until 185 1, when 
it was sold and i.s now owned by the estate of Mrs. Ashley and oc- 
cupied as a dwelling. 

In the summer of 185 1 the present house of worship was erected, 
and dedicated December 10 of that year. The dedicatory sermon 
was preached by Rev. Mr. Baldwin of Brooklyn, from the text, 
"God is Love." In January, 1842, a revival was experienced, con- 
ducted by Elder Coles of South Reading. It lasted four weeks 
and resulted in much good, adding about 20 to the church. In 1853 
the society membership was 93. For the past ten years services 
have been held a greater part of the time. The society is known 
as the Communion Baptist, and in 1888 there were 46 mem- 
bers, of whom 16 were non-resident. During the Rev. Mr. Worth- 
ington's pastorate in 1880, the audience room was repaired and 
partially refurni.shed, adding much to the attractiveness thereof. 
Mr. J. V. Hale has also done quite a good deal for the .society in 
different ways, proving himself a friend in time of need. 

Elder Jeremy Parker of Guilford, Vt.. supplied one-quarter of 
the time for one year, commencing March 20, 1809. George Stock- 
well alternating for a time. During the nine year.s the society 
worshipped with the Congregationalists, some of the supplies were 
Linus Austin, Rufus Fitts, E. Montague and Tristam Aldrich. In 
1834 and 1836, Rev. Edward Davenport of the 2nd Congregational 


church in Colrain supplied one-half of the time, and in 1837 the 
pulpit was supplied in the same manner by James Parsons of the 
State convention. 

Since completing the above, through the courtesy of Rev. A. A. 
Davis, pastor, his manuscript history of the Baptist society in this 
place was placed at the disposal of the writer. There are in ex- 
istence two record books, one of the church and one of the parish. 
He has endeavored to bring into reconciliation the accounts con- 
tained in both, and has woven them into a continuous history, and, 
of course, was enabled to give a much more minute and graphic 
description than would be permissible in a work of this nature. 

He places the origin of the church and society in the year 1806, 
taking the ground that whatever may have existed prior to this 
date was wholly traditionary, and not supported by any recorded 
evidence, hence must have related wholly to a Baptist society, and 
that up to 1806, the Baptist church, as an organized ecclesiastical 
body, did not exist. In this it would seem that he may have erred, 
for upon the old proprietors' record book under date of January 7, 
1782, is the following: "Voted that those persons that are professed 
Baptists and have attended to that particular form of worship shall 
be freed from paying ministerial taxes so long back as they have 
been of the Baptist persuasion and have attended sd worship." 
This vote alone, and it is a recorded action of the town, would 
tend to show that there was enough of a band of Baptist brethren 
to enable them to carry on their own form of worship whether in- 
corporated as a distinct society or church, or otherwise. Gov. Cush- 
man goes still farther and says in his historical lectures upon the 
town's early history, which was published in the Franklin Mercury 
in 1833, that "In 1789 the Baptist Society was organized in this 
town and in 1790 their first meeting house was built and the same 
year Elder Hodge their first minister was ordained. This meeting 
house stood on the corner west of Gamaliel Kingsley's and was in 
shape and size something like the Universalist Meeting house. 
Elder Hodge remained about ten years and a few years afterward 
the meetinghouse was sold. After this. Elder Rogers preached 
to the Baptist society a few years, but was never ordained. Elder 
Green was the next settled minister." Gov. Cushman's father was 


a lifelong resident of this place and his birth antedates the forma- 
tion of the first society by 1 1 years, and of the present society, in 
1806 or 1808 as the two church and parish books record it, by 28 
or 30 years. Had there been no Baptist society and church in ex- 
istence until he had reached that age, would he not have been cog- 
nizant of the fact, and saved his son, who aimed to be the town's 
historian, from making any such misstatement ? It would certainly 
appear so, for he was an educated man, interested and well informed 
relative to town affairs. Furthermore Gov. Cushman has the cor- 
roboration of Rev. Erastus Andrews, a former Baptist pastor, who 
writes in a letter dated June 22, 1863, " Elder Levi Hodge was or- 
dained in Bernardston." Now is it supposable that a man can be 
ordamed over a society and church which does not exist? And 
again, the plan of the town protracted in 1795, found opposite page 49 
and deposited in the State Archives, gives the exact location of both 
Baptist and Orthodox meeting houses. This church was but a 
small one-story structure and as the society as a society and the 
church so far as is known, as a church, went out of existence soon 
after Elder Hodge's departure to Warwick, (his next charge) it was 

The church and parish records vary by two years in placing the 
organization of the present society, or the reorganization of the 
original one, as the case might be. The book per.sonally examined 
placed the date of organization as 1808. Mr. Davis gives it as 1806. 
That there were meetings held with a view to organization at both 
times is evident, from the fact that these two meetings are recorded 
as being held at different places and with different presiding offi- 
cers. The church was not built until a subsequent date, as hereto- 
fore stated, and prior to its erection, meetings were held at Mr. 
Samuel Green's, or as a life-long resident of the place said, "In Sam 
Green's kitchen," and the said Samuel Green's home went by the 
name of the " Baptist Tavern," from the fact that all the supplies 
of the Baptist society found there a temporary shelter. 

The rest of the record as given by Mr. Davis coincides practically 
with the account given, only as already noticed, carried out much 
more minutely. It might be added that the society's method of 
raising funds has in several instances nearly proven a Scylla and 


Charybdis, the steerini^ clear of which has been well nij^h an im- 
possibility. The society did not submit readily to direct or com- 
pulsory taxation, and the methods of discipline which some at- 
tempted to exercise caused such men as Deas. John Burk and 
Uaniel Slate to be excluded, and for no t^reater sins than that they 
saw fit to occasionally attend services held in other churches. This 
seems a restraint upon the freedom of worship sou^-ht by the pil- 
grims in their emigration to this country wholly t(j be unlooked 
for in their descendants, and especially in a town where the first ac- 
tion in religious matters taken by the town beyond the establish- 
ment and maintenance of its first society was. to extend freedom of 
worship to those who felt they could no longer ally themselves with 
the existing forms of the country. 

Concerning the earlier Baptist ministers comparatively little can 
be obtained. Elder Levi Hodge, who was early ordained over the 
Baptist society, was a native of (ylastenbury, Ct., and brother (jf 
Wm. Fox's first wife. He served in the Revolutionary war. Upon 
the organization of this church he was sectired as pastor, coming 
here from Easterly, Ct., retaining the relationship until iSor, when 
he became pastor of the Warwick and Royalston churches, being 
installed o\^er the church in Warwick in June, 1802, which engage- 
ment he fulfilled until his death in 18 19. It is said of him that he 
was a great worker in both secular and religious enterprises; not 
an educated man, but one highly esteemed as a useful and good 
minister in the Master's service. 

Peter Rogers, the pastor of the society upon its reorganization, 
was a native of Connecticut, and came to Bernardston from Kil- 
lingly; he was a soldier in the Revoluti(ni, being appointed as one 
of Gen. Washington's Life Ouards at the battle of Monmouth, 
going out from New London, was in many important battles, win- 
tered at Valley Forge and was discharged at Yorktown. 

He went into the war a rich man ; at its close he literally begged 
his way home, continental bills having depreciated so that they 
were not accepted long before he reached New London, where he 
found that his property had been burned with the burning of the 
city. He therefore learned the cabinet maker's trade, but soon 
gave it up and studied for the ministry. Prior to his settlement in 


Bernardston in 1815, he was pastor of one or more churches in 
Connecticut, and also of the Baptist church in Leicester, Mass. He 
remained in Bernardston until 18 19, when he removed to Swanzy, 
N. H., going thence to Waterloo, 111., where he died at the extreme 
age of nearly 100 years. His ministry in Bernardston was marked 
by an extensive revival, 80 being added to the church by baptism 
one winter. It is said that " a hole was cut in the ice, the people 
immersed, and not one took cold." 

Elder Edward Green, who was early of Halifax, Vt., was ordained 
over the Baptist society here November 25, 1819, the sermon being 
preached by Rev. George Witherel. He continued here in the 
ministry about three years, and at a much later date resided in 
Pownal, Vt. 

Elders Davenport of Colrain and Lamb of Guilford, Vt., each 
supplied the pulpit between 1822 and 1831. They, however, did not 
claim Bernardston as their residence, and the opinion has been ex- 
pressed by some of the later pastors of the society that they should 
not be properly counted as ministers of tJiis Baptist society. 

Rev. Benjamin Franklin Remington of Adams came here in 1831, 
remaining three years. In 1863 he was supposed to be in New 
York City. 

Rev. Aaron Burbank's ministry here covered one year. He 
came in 1838, from the eastern part of this State (?). 

Rev. Erastus Andrews was born in Templeton, May 19, 1805. 
His father, Rev. Elihu Andrews, was pastor of the Baptist church 
in that town. In 18 16 he removed with his parents to Hinsdale, 
N. H., where he spent his minority. In 1827 he received a license 
to preach and was ordained as pastor over the Baptist church in Mid- 
dlefield (N. H.?)May 20, 1829. The next year he spent as a supply 
in Agawam. In April, 1831, he removed to North Sunderland, tak- 
ing pastoral oversight of the church known as the Sunderland and 
Montague Baptist church. In 1855 this charge was resigned and 
his residence changed to Shelburne, where through that year he 
supplied half the time, the other half being devoted to Bernard- 
ston. In 1836 a unanimous call came to him to return to North 
Sunderland to his former parish, which he finally accepted. In 
1839, his health being impaired, he again resigned and an absence 


of 5 years ensued. During^ this time he preached from the fall of 
1839 to the spring of 1S41 at Bernardston, also about the same 
length of time at Hinsdale, X. H.. and the remainder of the time 
was spent in traveling through the New England and Western 

With returning health his old parishioners in Sunderland again 
extended to him a third call, thus showing how closely he had en- 
twined his life with theirs. This call he heeded, remaining with 
his beloved people until 1857, in all a period of 20 years. In 1858 
he assumed charge of the church in Suffield, Ct., remaining there 
for three years. At the expiration of this time he returned to his 
old home in Montague, where he had lived during the greater part 
of his last pastorate at North Sunderland, and this became his final 
earthly home. 

In 185 1 and again in 1832, Mr. Andrews ably represented the 
town of Montague in legislative halls as Representative, while in 
1855 he was sent as Senator from Franklin County. For seven 
years he was an active member of the board of trustees of the Shel- 
burne Falls Academy. In 1859 the honorary degree of A. M. was 
conferred upon him by Brown University. Thus we see that Mr. 
Andrews labored for the best interests of mankind, not only in the 
lines prescribed by his ministerial calling, but also in advancing 
educational and legislative mea.sures in accordance with his nat- 
ural good judgment and excellent business capabilities. He mar- 
ried ]\Iay 10, 1829, Almira, daughter of John and Martha Bartlett 
of West Boylston, Mass., who died in Montague, in January, 1891. 

Their children were 

Emory Pearl, b. March 28, 1830; was ist Lieut, of Co. C, 31st Reg. 
Mass. Vol. Also provost sheriff of New Orleans under (ren. Butler. Prior 
to the war he was preceptor of Hollis Institute at So. Braintree, Mass. 

Charles B., b. November 4, 1830; graduated at Amherst in 1858; became 
a lawyer of Kent, Ct., and afterwards governor of the State. 

Martha Ann, b. September 3, 1833; m, Dr. E. P. Alden of Hoosick 
Falls, N. Y., December 1, 1858. 

Erastus, C, b. May 17, 1835. 

John L, b. April i, 1837; died September 29, 1839. 

Thomas D., b. September 26, 1839; d. May 5, 1856. 

Augustus P., b. April 30, 1841. 


E. Benjamin, b. January 10, 1S44; was a nun-cuinniissioned (officer of 
I St Reg. C't. Artillery; [iresident of Brown University of Providence, R. 1.; 
now superintendent of schools, (Chicago, 111. 

Joseph I.., b. November 27, 1S45; was a member of Co. F, 52nd Reg. 
Mass. Vol. 

Arthur K., b. March i, 1849. 

FK)ra N., b. August 23, 1850. 

Rev. Charles Farrer settled in Bernardston in 1S42, and remained 
there three vears, removini^ thenee to Tennessee. 

Rev. John Green was born in Belchertown, Mass., June 17, iSoi. 
His education was acquired at the Amherst academy, and at what 
is now known as the Madison University of Hamilton. N. Y., (grad- 
uating from the latter June 2, 1830. While a theological student 
at Hamilton he preached one year as a sttpply to the New vStock- 
bridge Baptist church in Peterborough, N. Y. During the month 
succeeding his graduation he began his labcjrs in the Leicester. 
Mass., Baptist church, and by request of the society was ordained 
as an evangelist August 19, 1830. and recognized as pastor ISIay, 


August 2, 1830, he was joined in marriage to Miss Mary Thomp- 
son of Munson, .Mass. His ministry in Leicester terminating 
April I, 1840, he next went to Shutesbury, reinaining there 5 years. 
He came to Bernardston in April, 1845, and closed his connection 
with this society April i, 1848. During the next six years he was 
stationed at Florida and Huntington, four and two years respec- 
tively. Owing to failing health the duties of his profession were 
abandoned the most of the titne until i86[, when in April he be- 
came pastor of the church in North Leverett, Mass. 

Rev. George Edwin Fuller came from Chesterfield, N. H., to 
Bernardston in 1848, remaining four years and going thence to 

Rev. Calvin Baker was of Cornish, N. H. He came to this place 
in 1852, but remained only a year. 

Rev. Harvey Crowley's pastorate lasted from 1855 to 1858. He 
later resided in New York State, and died in Rochester, N. Y., 
December 23, 1862, ae. 59. 


Rev. George L. Stockwell was born in Lnnenberg-, Vt., Janu- 
ary 20, 1818, and there his early education was obtained; later he 
studied in Massachusetts. He was ordained in the ministry in 
Weston, Vt., June 17, 1844. In 1858 Mr. Stockwell was settled in 
Bernardston, and continued there until March, 1861, when he re- 
moved to Springfield, Mass., where he was engaged with others in 
endeavoring to found an agricultural college, which enterprise had 
its origin in efforts previously made b}' Hon. H. W. Cushman to 
establish an agricultural department at Powers Institute in Ber- 

Rev. George L. Ruberg was born May 28, 1828, on Nantucket 
Island. He was of Swedish extraction, his father, b^hn Georfre 
Ruberg, being born in vStockholm, vSweden, October 2],, 1793. He 
emigrated to Nantucket, which was his home for forty years. Here 

he married, his wife's name being Nancy ; she was a native 

of Nantucket, being born there May lo, 1803. Until the age of 15 
the subject of this sketch regularly attended school, going as high 
as the grammar department. During the next year the time was 
necessarily divided between work and instruction from a private 
teacher. When 17 years old he was apprenticed to the dry goods 
trade, his employer being a man who allowed many opportunities 
for study, and who did all possible to expand and develop his 
clerk's ideas concerning the meaning and aims of worthy living. 
Prior to this time, in Mr. Ruberg's own words, "I had failed to com- 
prehend the ends and object of life ; could not see why it was that 
one like myself should have an existence at all." His opportuni- 
ties for theological study were as nothing. Such time as could be 
spared from business was spent in studying the Gospel, and at the 
age of 1(9 years he felt that his life work must be associated with 
the diffusion of its teachings. A lack of means, however, prevented 
his giving the time to preparation that he considered necessary to 
successful work. Hence for some years he kept on in his secular pur- 
suits. In May, 1861, having fitted himself as best he could, he be- 
gan to supply the pulpit here for the Baptist society, with the result 
that in July of the same year the church extended a unanimous 
call for his settlement. This he accepted and, by a council called 
for the purpose, he was publicly set apart for work in the Gospel 


ministry October 23, 1861. Mr. Ruberg- was in char^je of his par- 
ish here for four years, leaving September. 1865. In the year 1852 
he married Mary Abby, daughter of Capt. Henry J. vStarbuck of 
Nantucket. She was born at the latter place March 21, 1S31. They 
had three children, Nelson Curtis, born February 12, 1855: vSusie 
Maria, born March 6, 1859; Henry Jud.son, born May 28, 1861. He 
died in North Egremont, March 6, 1901. 

Rev. Thomas Wrinkle was the pastor of this .society from 1866 
to August 2T,, 1868. 

Until 1 87 1 there was no settled pastor. In June of that year 
came Rev. B. F. Tuck. He ministered to the wants of the people 
for six years, removing from this place in 1877. In July, 1884, he 
was stationed at Acworth, N. H. 

Rev. A. \V. Goodnow came in 1877, and was dismissed in May, 
1878. He was followed by Rev. J. H. Parmalee, born in Wilming- 
ton, Vt., May 4, 1823. He was the son of Dennis Parmalee, a dea- 
con of the Baptist church of that place, as was also his grand- 

His education was obtained by attendance at the academies of 
Townshend and Ludlow, Vt., supplemented by a college at 
Waterville college, now Colby University, Maine, from which he 
graduated in 1850. A year was then spent in teaching, as princi- 
pal of the North Conway academy, succeeded by a two years' course 
at the Theological seminary at Rochester, N. Y. His ordination 
to the ministry took place soon after at Xenia, Ohio, and for several 
years he preached in the States of Iowa, Illinois and Wisconsin. 

During the latter part of the war of the Rebellion he had charge 
of the Christian commission work at Vicksburg, Miss. 

About 1871 Mr. Parmalee came to Bcrnardston, making this town 
his home for the next sixteen years, and preaching here as well 
as in the neighboring towns. His pastoral charge of the Baptist 
society here extended from May, 1878, to October, 1879. 

In 1887 he removed to De I'^uniak Springs, Fla., where he is en- 
joying the relaxation to be obtained from a small vineyard and fruit 
grove. He also devotes his time to such ministerial calls as arc 



made upon hiin. His family consists of a wife, daug-hter and son, 
Frank. The latter is married and a resident of the east part of 

Rev. J. Shephardson came in April. 1880, and was dismissed in 
June, 1881. 

Rev. W. A. Worthington preached here most acceptably from 
June 18, 1 88 1, to May, 1883. He was later stationed at Groton, Vt., 
(1883) and in May or June, 1884, died suddenly in Concord. Vt. 

The following named gentlemen succeeded Rev. Mr. Worthing- 
ton, but no biographical notices have been obtainable: 

O. L. Shephardson, ]May, 1883, dismissed October i, 1884. J^hn 
Randlett supplied until April i, 1885. W. vS. Walker. May i, 1885, 
dismis.sed April i. 1888. William F. Newton of Mt. Hermon school 
supplied until June, 1889. Sumner Latham, September, 1889. 
A.A.Davis. 1892, dismissed 1895. Rev. Mr. Everett supplying 
since 1897. 


The greater number of the original members of this society be- 
longed to the P^irst Congregational church, and withdrew from that 
when it became identified as being of the Unitarian faith. Clin<'-- 
ing to the religion endeared to them by long asscjciation and train- 
ing, they soon sotight a new h(jme where they might carry out its 
observance. With this end in view a council was called at the 
house of Hon. Job (loodale— now owned by Mr. Willis Stratton, at 
which Rev. Samuel Taggart was chosen moderator, and Rev. James 
Taylor scribe, and resulting in the formation of a society January 9, 
1823, with 15 members: 

Mrs. Phoflit Hastinj^s. 

Mrs. Mary I). Cook. ( Rev. A. Cook's wife. ) 
Anna Scarle. 
George Parnienter. 
vSaniuel W. Chapin. 
Joseph Slate. 
Mrs. Syhia E. Slate. 
Rufns Hastings. 

Not owning a place of worship, an arrangement was made with 
the Baptist society whereby they obtained the use of that church 
alternate Sabbaths. In 1831 Judge Goodale erected a small build- 

Jonathan vSlate. 
Job Goodale. 
Mrs. Lydia Cjoodale. 
Timothy Slate. 
iVIrs. Tirzah Slate. 
Samuel Hastings. 
Mrs. Olive Hastings. 


ing just east of his residence, securing to them the land by will. 
It was dedicated August i8, i83i,a sermon being preached by Rev. 
Aretas Loomis of Colrain. 

Judge Goodale also gave to the society the parsonage, together 
with the adjacent building, then known as Goodale Academy. The 
latter was disposed of, together with the greater portion of the land 
bequeathed. In 1846 the church was thoroughly repaired and en- 
larged, some of the alterations being executed in a novel manner. 

According to the Rev. D. H. Strong the building was removed 
and the foundations relaid on a larger scale. Restored to its posi- 
tion the old church was split "through the middle, lengthwise, cut- 
tine ridcre and gable, wall and floor alike as one might saw a box 
in two. Then the two sections were moved apart to the outer walls 
and the space built up between." A belfry was added, within which, 
tiirough the generosity of Mrs. Lydia Goodale (widow of Judge 
(Toodale) a bell was soon placed. The church was rededicated 
July 2, 1846. Sermon by the pastor. Rev. Willard Janes, from the 
26th psalm. 8th verse. 

In 1890, through the munificence of Mr. Richard F. Newcomb of 
(^uincy. 111., a native of Bernardston, and a descendant of Judge 
Cxoodale, the building was materially changed, Mr. R. L. Crowell, 
chairman of the committee, having charge of the work. An addi- 
tion was placed upon the north end, thus admitting in tasteful 
arches the pulpit, organ and choir loft and speakers' platform. 
The windows of the auditorium are of cathedral glass 

"Through which the lights, rose, amber, emerald, blue," 

glow in soft radiance upon the assembled worshippers. 

Downstairs in place of the old vestry one beholds everything 
which gofxl judgment could suggest pertaining to convenience and 
comfort. The Sunday school rooms are pleasant and well adapted 
to their use, while for the social gatherings of the parish, parlor 
and kitchen supply every need. Furnaces have supplanted the old 
stoves; in fact all bespeaks the sound taste and judgment expended 
upon the different capartments, and in these accessories and the ren- 
ovation, free from del^t practically, the society arc to be congratu- 
lated. Tlie rededication occurred December 12, 1890, the sermon 
being delivered by the Rev. Mr. Cowan of South Deerficld, from tlic 


text "Thy kingdom come." The interest of the occasion was en- 
hanced by the presence and participation in the exercises of the 
resident pastors, also of those of the neighboring towns. An in- 
teresting account of the founding of the society was given by the 
pastor, Rev. Mr. Strong, and letters filled with kindly expressions 
from absent friends were read. 

"Two large revivals have been experienced, one in 1841, when 
41 were admitted to the church in one year, one in 1852, and 11 
were admitted. In 1839 ^^ accession to the church was made by 
members from Gill." 

For a considerable portion of the time since 1840 missionary aid 
has been received. 

The society has been designated as the "First Presbyterian," 
later, in 1831, as the "Evangelical Congregational," and since 1833 
as the "Orthodox Congregational." In 1891, at the first annual par- 
ish meeting after the repairs were made, the following was resolved: 

"That we, members of the Orthodox Congregational society of Bernard- 
ston, hereby express their heartfelt thanks to Mr. Richard F. Newcomb of 
Quhicy, 111., for his very generous gift towards reconstructing and reno- 
vating their house of worship. This gift is the more appreciated since it 
comes from one representing the family of the original donor of the church 
property — the Hon. Job Goodale, whose devotion and support while the 
church was in the weakness of its infancy, makes his name inseparable 
from its history. 

Voted, That the foregoing resolution and votes be placed upon the rec- 
ords of the society and a copy of the same be forwarded to Mr. Richard 
F. Newcomb. 

Voted, That the church building now owned and occupied by the Ortho- 
dox Congregational society of Bernardston be hereafter known as the 
"Goodale Memorial Church." 

At present there are about sixty church members. 


Timothy Slate, chosen 1824. Died 1847. 

Perrin M. Richards, 
Samuel \V. Chapin, 
Lymau Griswold, 
Curtis Chapin, 
Henry Slate, 
Arthur F. Wells, 




Dismissed 1849. 
Died 1 85 1. 
(?) " 1863. 
" 1875- 


Rev. Vinson Gould, the first settled minister of the Orthodox 
society, was installed October 30, 1833, ^^"^ the sermon on that oc- 
casion was by Rev. Artemas Boise. Mr. Gould was born in Sharon, 
Ct., August 13, 1773, graduated at Williams College, in 1797; was a 
tutor two years at that college ; studied divinity with Dr. Backus 
of Somers, Ct., and was ordained at Southampton, Mass., August 21, 
1801, as colleague with Rev. Jonathan Judd, first minister of that 
town. Dismissed from Southampton, January 5, 1832. He was 
dismissed from the society in Bernardston, December 21, 1836, 
after a ministry of a little more than three years. He resided af- 
terwards at Southampton, and died there April 4, 1841, ae. about 
68 years. In 1808 he married Mindwell, daughter of Dr. Sylvester 
Woodbridge of Southampton. She died in 1837. During his min- 
istry in Bernardston he was preceptor of "Goodale Academy." 
Mr. Gould's ministry continued at Southampton till the fifth of 
January, 1832, a period of 31 years. Among his qualifications for 
sermonizing, was a remarkable power for illustration. Very few 
ministers made more pertinent use of passing events. The lead- 
ing characteristic of his mind was quickness of apprehension. He 
seized with the rapidity of instinct or intuition upon any casual 
incident Which could throw any light upon the subject in hand. 

He gave much time and thought to the promotion of the interests 
of the common school. His peculiar talents had here a fine opportu- 
nity for employment. The ease, the perfect facility with which 
he could adapt his remarks to the capacities of those whom he ad- 
dressed, have been acknowledged by all who were familiar with 
the circumstances. The same interest in children was manifest 
in the annual catechetical instruction which he superintended. In 
the summer of every year, nearly all the children and youth in the 
place between the ages of six and sixteen assembled in two par- 
allel rows in the aisles of the meetinghouse, and recited to the pas- 
tor in the hearing of many of the congregation in four or five suc- 
cessive Sabbaths, the whole of the assembly's shorter catechism. 
The considerateness with which Mr. Gould put the more difficult 
questions to the trembling catechumen so that he could not miss, 
will long be remembered. 

" Early in his ministry he labored for some months with good 


success as a missionary in the destitute portions of Maine. When 
it was proposed to remove Williams college to Northampton, Mr. 
Gould acted with gratifying success as an agent in raising the large 
fund which the trustees of the college named as a condition of the 
removal. Of the old and very useful Harnpshire Missionary Soci- 
ety he was a trustee and active friend. The Hampshire Education 
Society also found in him an intelligent and warm supporter. The 
dawn of the foreign missionary enterprise in i<Sio he hailed as the 
indication of a brighter era to the church. Of the property which 
God had given him (larger than most clergymen are favored with) 
he was a liberal almoner. At a day when comparatively few Chris- 
tians were awake to their great duty of laboring for the conver- 
sion of the world, he entered with characteristic ardor into the va- 
rious plans of benevolence." 

After his dismission from the church in Southampton in 1832, 
Mr. Gould taught a high school in South Hadley. He subsequently 
preached for some time in Bernardston. He then returned with 
his family to his house in Southampton, continuing to preach as 
occasion offered, m the neighboring towns, and still feeling the 
deepest interest in the progress of the Redeemer's Kingdom. 

Rev. Bancroft Fowler was installed as the second pastor of this 
church December 21, 1836, and the sermon was preached by Rev. 
Roger G. Hatch of Warwick. Mr. Fowler's ministry here was of 
two years' duration, he being dismissed December 31, 1838. He 
was born in Pittsfield, Mass., September 12, 1775 ; graduated at 
Yale College in 1796; studied law at Northampton two and a half 
years; was tutor at Williams College from 1799 to 1801 ; then as- 
suming the same position at Yale, where he remained until 1804. 
May 22, 1805, he was settled as pastor at Windsor, Vt. He was dis- 
missed from there in 1819; from this time until 1825, he occupied 
the chair of professor of sacred literature at Bangor seminary, then 
took up his residence at Pittsfield, Mass. In 1828 he took charge 
of a female seminary at West Brookfield, remaining there until 
1 83 1. He was installed as pastor of the Second (Orthodox) Con- 
gregational church in Northfield, April 21, 1831, and after a pastor- 
ate of about five years, was dismissed July 20, 1836. He then took 
charge of Goodale Academy in Bernardston, and was installed pas- 


tor of the church there, as before mentioned. November 20, 1839, 
he was settled at Greenfield, N. H., and dismissed from there 
April 22, 1845. His final residence was at Stockbridge, where he 
died. He was twice married, first to Lucretia Curtis, who died at 
Bernardston, October 12, 1837, aged 49 years; second, to Miss Ripley 
of Greenfield, Mass. (?) She was buried at Greenfield, N. H. 

Rev. Frederick Janes, the third minister of this society, was born 
in Northfield, Mass., May, 1808. His collegiate studies were pur- 
sued at Yale and Amherst colleges, but he did not graduate, al- 
though he spent several years in teaching and studying theology. 
November 8, 1837, he was ordained as an evangelist in New York 
City by Rev. Joshua Leavitt. Until 1838 he preached in North 
Walton, N. Y., then until 1840 in Colchester, N. Y. November 4, 
1840, he was installed as pastor over the society in Bernardston, 
the sermon being by Rev. Charles Wiley of Northampton; he was 
dismissed after a pastorate of three years, November 9, 1843. In 
1844 he was installed in Pelham, where he remained but a year. 
The three succeeding years he was agent for the American Protes- 
tant Society, then assumed charge of a female seminary in West- 
ern New York. After remaining here a year he preached some 
time in Michigan, then (1854) took up his residence in New York 
City, where he became the editor of the "Christian Parlor Maga- 
zine." He was the author of the genealogy of the Janes family. 
His last years were spent at the home of a daughter in Willing- 
ton, Ct., where he had at one time preached, and his decease oc- 
curred there the latter part of the year 1890, at the age of 82 years. 
His father was Deacon Xenophon Janes of Northfield, and his an- 
cestor, William Janes, who came from England in 1637. Wm', Sam- 
uel", Jonathan', Ebenezer', Xenophon". He married September 15, 
1833, Paulina Burnell, who died November 20, 185 1, married (2) 
January 18, 1853, Rachel B, Truesdale, who died 1874. 


Margaret P., b. September 17, 1834. 

Mary S., b. June 28, 1836. 

John C, b. July 6, 1839. 

Lucy A., b. June 10, 1841; m. Albert Leffer. 

Josephine A., b. December 10, 1854. 


VVm. A., b. November 11, 1856. 

Anna F., b. April 3, 1858. 

Isabella, b. June 10, 1861; d. May 9, 1864. 

Charles H., b. October 23, 1865. 

Rev. Charles Kendall was born in Westminster, Mass., Febru- 
ary 14, 1 81 3, and was a son of Edward and Polly (Gerrish) Kendall. 
His early life was passed in his native place, serving as clerk in a 
country store six years. When 1 8 years of age he became personally 
interested in the subject of religion and he chose at once the min- 
istry as his department of labor through life. In 1832 he entered 
Westminster Academy, and began his preparatory course under 
Wm. C. Clark, finishing the same under Josiah Clark, (who was 
later of Easthampton). In the fall of 1834 he entered Amherst 
College, remaining there two years, when the failure of his health 
compelled him to leave. In 1837, having in a measure regained 
his health, he returned a second time to Amherst, and graduated 
in 1839, i^ ^ class of 57. That fall he taught a select school in 
Oakham, entering the Union Theological seminary in New York 
in December of that year. From here he graduated June 24, 1842. 
He was licensed to preach by the third Presbytery, N. S. in New 
York, April 8, 1842, and the succeeding August began his labors 
in the ministry at South Hadley Falls. He left there in Febru- 
ary, 1843, after fulfilling an engagement of 6 months. In the au- 
tumn of 1843 he received an invitation to settle over the Orthodox 
Congregational society in Bernardston, which he accepted, and 
was ordained January 24, 1844, Rev. T. Packard, Jr., preaching the 
sermon. He remained in town until 1853, when, on account of im- 
paired health, he left for a residence in East Tennessee, but was 
taken ill on the way, which induced a change of plans. He was 
for six months engaged in teaching a female seminary in Mercers- 
berg, Pa., where also he supplied for the greater part of that time 
the pulpit of the O. S. Presbyterian church. He was dismissed 
from his pastorate charge in Bernardston, July, 1854, having been 
there ten years. The same year he began to labor with the church 
in South Royalston, Mass., and continued until January, 1856. The 
following May he was invited to take charge of the Trinitarian 
church in Petersham ; here he remained until October, i860, when 
he removed to Auburn, Mass., to take charge of the church in that 


place, and where he remained six years. From conscientious mo- 
tives Mr. Kendall was never installed over but one church. As a 
supply he felt that he could accomplish more good and he always 
identified himself with the church where he labored, thus becom- 
ing responsible to his own church. He was married July 25, 1842, 
to Maria, daughter of Abraham and Elizabeth Howe of Marlboro, 
who died September 28, 1858, in Petersham. Mrs. Kendall was 
educated at i\mherst and Mt. Holyoke seminary. She had the 
care of the female department in New vSalem academy one or more 
years, and was also associate principal in the academy in Mexico, 
N. Y. She left five children: Harriet E., born vSeptember 2, 1843, 
in Marlboro; Charles Henry, born July 15, 1845, ii^ Bernardston and 
Agnes Maria, born September 15, 1858, in Petersham. Possessed 
of a quick, well-balanced mind and a kind and benevolent spirit, 
she was always greatly Vjcloved by every people among whom her 
lot was cast. 

On June 21, 1859, ^^- Kendall married (2) Sarah E., daughter of 
Benjamin and Mary Gilbert of Stamford, N. Y. vShe was educated 
at the female seminary in Mercersberg, Pa., and for some time was 
teacher in the Collegiate Institute in her native place. 

Mr. Kendall was a man who won his way into the hearts of the 
people in a manner given only to a few, and not only his old parish- 
ioners, but the townspeople as well, all hold him in loving remem- 
brance. Throughout the county he was well known for his constant 
interest in all good reforms, in education, music and temperance. 
That he possessed a keen sense of the humorous, is illustrated by 
the following incident : While preaching in town he borrowed one 
Saturday afternoon a five dollar bill from the parish treasurer. 

Monday morning he promptly paid it back, and upon Mr. N 's 

remarking that it was the same bill which he had borrowed, Mr. 
Kendall replied Yes! He had simply borrowed it because he thought 
that he could preach better with the knowledge that he had a little 
money in his pocket, from which we may conclude that in those 
times, in the smaller places at least, money was not at all times any 
too plenty. Likewise it may have illustrated a truism in that the 
sense of possession even of a little, enters largely into the element 
of success. 


Mr. Kendall died March 19, 1873, in Windham Center, N. Y,, 
where he was in charge of the Congregational Society. "He passed 
away as he had lived, with a perfect trust in the Lord." 

Rev. Willard Brigham was born May 4, 181 3, in Marlboro, Mass., 
where his paternal ancestors had resided since the first settlement 
of the town. His collegiate education was obtained at Williams 
College, from which he graduated in 1838. Pursuing his studies 
further, he completed the Andover Theological course in June, 

1842. For one year, 1839-40 he taught the academy at Pepperell. 
In the winter of 1842-3 he went to Wardsboro, Vt., and May 24, 

1843, was installed over the Congregational church in North Wards- 
boro. Here he remained 12 years, being dismissed March 20, 1855. 
The two succeeding months he supplied for the church at Plain- 
field, Mass., receiving a call to settle there and to which a negative 
answer was returned. From June i, 1855, to March, 1856, he sup- 
plied at Bernardston, removing thence to Ashfield, Mass., where 
he was formally installed March 12, 1856. 

Mr. Brigham was twice married. His first wife was Maria Dav- 
enport of Boylston, with whom he united himself May 4, 1843 J she 
died in Ashfield, September 21, 1857. His second was a Miss Cleve- 
land of Medford, Mass. His children were Helen F., Albert J., 
Herbert W. and Mary M. Brigham. 

Succeeding Rev. Mr. Brigham, came Rev. Harrison Greenough 
Park. He was ordained August 12, 1856, and dismissed April 26, 
1858. Mr. Park was the son of Rev. Dr. Calvin Park of Providence, 
R. I., and a brother of the distinguished Andover theologian. He 
was educated at Brown University and Princeton vSeminary. 

Prior to his pastorate here, he had been engaged in ministerial 
work at South Dedham, South Danvers and Burlington, and had 
also been engaged in the publication of a family magazine. 

After leaving town he had a short pastorate at Westminster, Vt., 
and was for several years agent of the Massachusetts Temperance 
Alliance, residing at Norwood, Mass., where he died June 28, 1876, 
in his seventieth year. 

In 1854 he published a book, entitled "A Voice from the Parson- 
age." He was a talented and able preacher, but his connection 


with a business establishment — which he entered into with the 
hope of bringing new residents into the town and so advancing 
the interests of his charge — interfered with his pastoral success. 
One of his daughters — Julia, was married to Henry, son of Mr. 
John Valentine Hale of this place. 

Rev. Theodore Jarvis Clark has twice been connected with this 
society, the only pastor thus honored. 

He was the son of Dea. Enos and Susan Allen Clark, and was 
born at Northampton, Mass., February 14, 18 15. His collegiate 
education was obtained at Williams, graduating from that institu- 
tion in 1836. The succeeding year was spent as a teacher at Ken- 
yon College, Ohio. His theological studies were begun at East 
Windsor, Vt., remaining there one year, then teaching a year at 
Northampton, and finishing his studies at the Andover Theolog- 
ical school in 1841. 

October 5, 1842, he married Julia Pierpont, daughter of Alvah 
and Mary HoUister of Manchester, Vt. October 1 1 of that year he 
was ordained pastor of the church at Cummington, Mass., received 
his dismission May 26, 1852, but continued to preach there as a sup- 
ply until April 11, 1859. J^^^ ^9 following, he was installed over 
the church in Bernardston, continuing in that relation till May i, 
1861. June II, 1862, he took pastoral charge of the second church 
in Ashfield, Mass. 

In 1885 he returned to Bernardston to reside. Soon after, the 
pulpit of the Orthodox society was left vacant by the resignation 
of Rev. Mr. Grimes, and Mr. Clark was invited to supply, which he 
did until May, 1888, nearly three years. 

His ministry here was characterized by a feeling of good fellow- 
ship with all his ministerial colleagues, and an earnest, hearty co- 
operation on the part of his parishioners. He died 1896, at North- 

Rev. Daniel H. Rogan was the pastor of this society from 1861 
to 1863. He was a native of Tennessee, where he was preaching 
at the breaking out of the rebellion. Ardently supporting the 
Union's cause, he was obliged to sacrifice all that he had and flee 
to the northern States, a section with which he was acquainted, as 


he had graduated at Amherst college and his wife was an Amherst 
lady, Miss Hunt. He preached his farewell sermon in Bernardston, 
March 23, 1863, and was ordained over the north parish at Green- 
field, Mass., the next Sabbath, March 30. He was a man cordially 
remembered by all, an excellent preacher and devoted to the best 
interests of the cause in which he labored. 

Rev. Andrew Butler Foster was the son of Andrew Butler and 
Clarissa (Davenport) Foster; he was born in Brookline, Mass., De- 
cember 6, 1 8 19. Four years later his father died, and his mother 
returning to her former home, Dorchester, Mass., it was there that 
his boyhood was spent, and his primary education received. In 
1833 he entered Phillips-Andover Academy, three years later — 
1836 — he entered Amherst College, where he remained for the four 
years' course, graduating in 1840. 

He first connected himself with Dr. Codman's church in Dorches- 
ter in 1836. Upon the completion of the collegiate course in 1840, 
he began his ministerial studies at the Connecticut Theological 
institute at East Windsor. His ordination took place in 1844 at 
Orford, N. H. Here he remained for seven years, asking for and re- 
ceiving his dismission because of a throat trouble, which obliged 
him to abandon, for the time being, his professional work. During 
this time he was associate principal of Thetford, Vt., academy. In 
1852 he resumed ministerial labor, being installed at Petersham, 
Mass., and remaining there three years. His succeeding pastorates 
were at Erving, Gill, Hanson, Westminster, Vt. In 1863, he as- 
sumed charge of the Congregational parish in Bernardston, going 
thence in 1865 to Orange, Mass. 

In 1872 a return of the throat trouble formerly experienced com- 
pelled him to again give up his chosen vocation, and he accordingly 
engaged in business, purchasing an interest in a drug store in 
Orange. He later succeeded to an entire ownership. In 1889 ^^il" 
ing health obliged him to retire from any active labor. His death 
occurred at Orange, February 25, 1891. 

Mr. Foster was married October 3, 1844, to Irene C. Cooley of 
Amherst, Mass. 

Rev. Truman Allen Merrill is a native of Maine, born in Pros- 


pect in 1 8 18. His father was Rev. Thomas Merrill, a pastor of the 
Baptist church in Prospect from the year 18 14 until his death in 

Mr. Merrill early engaged in teaching, which avocation he most 
successfully pursued for three years in the city schools of Bangor, 
Maine, also in the country towns in his native vState. His theolog- 
ical study was obtained at Bangor Theological seminary, from 
which he graduated in 1855. His ordination in the gospel minis- 
try took place at Bristol, Me., July 14, 1858. He served brief pas- 
torates in Richmond and Belfast, then in May, 1865, took up his 
work in Bernardston, where he labored most successfully for eight 
years. Upon his arrival the society seemed in a weak condition, 
but hard work soon developed an interest in religious work, and 
during the years that followed, Mr. Merrill had the satisfaction of 
seeing the church established once more upon a firm and progres- 
sive foundation. The church edifice was thoroughly repaired and 
the organ purchased, thus adding to the attractiveness of the place 
of worship. Especially was a fraternal spirit inculcated, and union 
meetings with other denominations were carefully arranged and 
most successfully carried out, thus bringing about a spirit of re- 
ligious harmony throughout the town, and a brotherly interest each 
for his neighbor, was excited to an unusual degree. 

The interest instilled by early teaching and educational work 
accomplished in Maine, led Mr. Merrill to immediately identify 
himself with all educational movements here, and a valuable acqui- 
sition he proved himself. For seven years he served as a member 
of the school board, having as his coadjutors the foremost men of 
the place. At the time of his removal from town he was secretary 
of the board of trustees of Powers Institute, and had previously 
served on the board of trustees of Cushman Library. Public sen- 
timent concerning temperance reform made remarkable progress 
during his residence here, and Mr. Morrill was always to be found 
earnestly advocating its importance and furthering the cause by 
all possible clean, business like methods. 

After his departure from town, he served successful pastorates of 
eight years in Wayland, Mass., four in Chesterfield, and two each in 


New Braintree and Southville, Mass. He then had charge of a 
mission in the town of Industry, Me., where a large part of his 
boyhood was spent. 

In 1840, when the country was beginning to be shaken with the 
anti-slavery agitation, Mr. Merrill decidedly arrayed himself on the 
side of right and had the satisfaction of depositing his first presi- 
dential ballot, in company with one other young man, for James G. 
Birney, the abolition candidate. This was in Industry, Me., and 
was the beginning in that town of the Republican movement. 
Two votes for liberty and righteousness against 200 for the spoils 
of office and slavery, for there seemed to be no principle at stake 
in nearly all cases. Five years later he was chosen to represent 
the town in the State legislature on the abolition platform, winning 
the election against the two candidates of the other parties. He 
had no taste for political life, but was always a fearless defender 
of honesty and riglit in political principles and methods, and to-day 
is not ashamed of his first vote or of the part he bore in the forma- 
tion of public sentiment that bore fruit in the election of Abraham 
Lincoln to the Presidency, and in the latter 's proclamation, issued 
January i, i<S63, which emancipated three and a half millions of 
human beincjs and made our nation free. 

Mr. jNIerrill brought with him to his life in Bernardston a wife 
and three daughters, who were most helpful to him in parish work. 

"Mrs. Merrill was a model minister's wife, wise, kind, efficient. 
With such a wife as she no minister could help being successful. 
When tidings came of her death in 1890, there was sorrow in many 
homes in Bernardston as in other parishes where her influence had 
been felt, and where her memory is cherished with high esteem. 
The beloved daughters now reside in Maiden, Mass., where Mr. 
Merrill makes his home when not engaged in the mission work." 

These twenty years' absence have not weakened the interest 
always felt in our beautiful town, and the social, religious and edu- 
cational history of the place is indebted to Mr. Merrill for much 
of his fostering care and deep forethought expended while in this 

Rev. L. M. Pierce, although born in Olney, 111., in 1842, is de- 

172 REV. L. M. PIERCE. 

scended from New England ancestry. His parents removed to Illi- 
nois from Londonderry, Vt., and when Mr. Pierce was but a few 
years old, returned to their earlier home in Vermont. Here he 
spent his boyhood, receiving" his elementary education in the com- 
mon schools. He finished his preparatory studies at the Spring- 
field, Vt., seminary, and in 1861 entered the Middlebury, Vt., col- 
lege. The Civil War, which caused such a change in the plans of 
nearly every one, was responsible for a cessation of his studies dur- 
ing the year 1864; a portion of that tune was expended as a dele- 
gate to the Christian Commission in the hospitals of Washington, 
U. C, and the rest in the army of the Potomac. 

In the spring of 1865, collegiate work was resumed. Graduation 
occurred in 1866, with the honors conferred of being salutatorian 
of the class, and of the Waldo prize for scholarship and good con- 
duct. While in college he was a member of the Phi Beta Kappa 

In early manhood, while attending the seminary at vSpringfield, 
Mr. Pierce experienced religion, soon after uniting with the Con- 
gregational church in Springfield. Conscientious in his motives 
and most sincere and earnest in his convictions, he from the first 
was drawn to ministerial labor and soon made choice of work in 
that direction as being the means by which he could best serve his 
Master's cause. His theological studies were pursued at Andover 
Theological seminary, beginning in the fall of 1866, and graduat- 
ing in 1869. He immediately began to labor as a home missionary 
in Glenwood, Miss., remaining until 1871, when returning East, he 
became pastor of the Congregational church at Provincetown, Mass. 
After a year spent here, nervous prostration, resulting from typhoid 
fever, necessitated a complete rest. 

Some months later a call was received from the Congregational 
church in Bernardston, which was accepted, and his pastorate there 
began November i, 1873, terminating July i, 1883. Upon his re- 
moval from town, a vacation was taken, three months being spent 
in travel abroad, the countries of ICngland, .Scotland, Belgium, Ger- 
many, Switzerland and France being visited. May i, 1884, he was 
settled over the church at Blackstone, Mass., which has continued 
to be his charge and residence. 


REV. D. H. STRONG. 1 73 

May 24, 1876, Mr. Pierce married Catherine Billings of East 
Arlington, Vt. Mrs. Pierce is a graduate of Mt. Holyoke Seminary. 

During Mr. Pierce's able pastorate of nearly ten years here, the 
time was one of great prosperity to the church, the membership 
having been increased over 75 per cent., which fact bespeaks in 
most favorable terms the eloquence and wise discharge of the 
duties devolving upon the head of the organization. 

Rev. Frank J. Grimes supplied the pulpit from 1883 to 1885'. at 
which time Rev. Theodore J. Clark entered upon his second pas- 
torate, remaining until May, 1888. 

In October following came Rev. David Humphrey Strong, a son 
of the late Rev. David A. Strong. He is a native of South Deer- 
field, being born there May 7, 1856. His boyhood was spent there 
and at Colrain, whither his parents removed in 1866, and it was at 
these places that he laid the foundations of his education. In 1873 
he entered the Williston Academy at Easthampton, intending to 
complete the course therein prescribed, at the same time engaging 
in amateur printing. The close of the first year, however, neces- 
sitated a change of plan, as broken health caused for the time be- 
ing a suspension of both study and work. Not to be thus foiled, 
he continued a little later, as his physical condition would admit, a 
course of private study, by supplementing which with one or two 
terms of schooling, he was enabled to enter, on examination, Wil- 
liams College in 1878. Graduating here in 1882, he immediately 
entered the Hartford Theological seminary, where he remained 
three years, graduating in 1885. While here, during the intervals 
of study he engaged in work for the Home Missionary Society. 
The summer of 1883 was spent in Freedom, Maine, as acting pastor 
of a church, although not licensed as a preacher. Twelve months 
later, receiving papers of license from the Hartford Central Asso- 
ciation, he went West, choosing for his station the town of Dwight, 
situated upon the Dakota prairies, and preaching in a schoolhouse, 
the only church known in too many of the Western villages. Here 
he numbered as among his workers in the Sunday school, John 
Miller, who afterwards became the first governor of the new State 
of Dakota. His work prepared the way for a church organization, 
and recently a church has there been erected. 


Upon the completion of his studies in 1885, Mr. vStrong was united 
in marriage to Miss Abbie Hardy of Colrain ; soon after he went 
to the State of Vermont to serve as pastor of the Congregational 
churches at Weston and Londonderry, and it was while here that 
he was regularly ordained to the gospel ministry. Three years 
were here spent, but the arduous duties necessitated by a double 
parish proving too great a strain, he withdrew from that field of 
labor, and in October, 1888, formed a connection with the Congrega- 
tional church in this place. It is not too much to say that the con- 
stant prosperity and increased interest in the society well attested 
the popularity of Mr. Strong, and at the same time bears witness 
to his capabilities for his chosen profession. 

Mr. Strong was also the efficient librarian of Cushman Library, 
a position he held since September, 1889. 

In 1900 he resigned his pastorate, much to the regret of both the 
society and townspeople, and accepted a call to the Congregational 
church at Williamstown, Orange County, Vt., his present residence. 

The present pastor is Rev. Edward Day, a graduate of Andover 
Theological seminary, and a man much intere.sted in and devoted 
to literary pursuits. 


This society was organized as a "Restoration Society." Au- 
o-ust 20, 1820, a warrant was issued by Jonathan Allen for a meet- 
ing of those interested in and inclined to this form of worship and 
belief. The petition for this warrant was signed by George Alex- 
ander, Eliezer Chamberlain, Horace Atherton, Izatus Sheldon, 
Charles J. Ryther, Stephen Webster, Dr. Gideon Ryther, David 
Ryther, Joseph Pickett, Francis Munn. Doubtless these were 
among the first church members. September 4, 1820, a meeting 
was held at the village schoolhouse. Of this meeting, Samuel Pick- 
ett was chosen Moderator, James Doty, Clerk, E. Chamberlain, 
Treasurer, Stephen Webster, Samuel Pickett and Dorus Bascom, 
Committee. Roswell Purple, Collector. 

The first service recorded was held November 5, 1820, at the 
schoolhouse. Rev. Jacob Wood being the officiating clergyman. 
In June, 182 1, use was made of the Baptist church, in which services 


were held. Oct. 7, 1822, Samuel Pickett, Joab vScott, Eliezur Cham- 
berlain, James Doty, Jr., and Jona. Connablc were chosen a com- 
mittee "to get the wherewith to build a meeting house" and a 
constitution was adopted. 

Feb. 4. 1823, it was voted to build a church : money ($800) was 
raised by subscription for that purpose, and 4S rods of land pur- 
chased from Job Goodale, Esq. The building committee was Sam- 
uel Pickett, Isaac Burrows, Roswell Purple, Horace Atherton and 
Izatus Sheldon. May 17 of that year, by action of the legislature, 
the society took the name of the First Universalist society, having 
changed their creed somewhat, led by Rev. John iJrooks, then 

In 1852 the building was thoroughly repaired and a belfry added, 
the rededication taking place December 22 of that year. At this 
time many who were regular attendants joined the society in Ley- 
den, withdrawing to a membership with the Bernardston church 
at the time of its formal organization (or reorganization) June 2, 
1872, at which time there were 16 church members. 

The society, always a small one, continued to hold services at in- 
tervals until about 1884-5, when it was finall}^ deemed advisable to 
dispose of the church property, and in 1888 the society's real estate 
was deeded to the Mas.sachusetts Universalist convention. The 
building was accordingly sold, and was about 1890 converted into 
a carriage and paint shop. The Universalist society, as such, ceased 
to exist, and its few members found for themselves a religious fel- 
lowship with the other societies. 

Rev. Jacob Wood was for a time the acting pastor upon the first 
establishment of the society, but was never formally settled so far 
as is known. 

Rev. John Brooks was the first settled pastor, he being ordained 
as an evangelist in 1823. He continued to preach about five years, 
then returned to his original profession, that of a physician, and 
as such was much better known. Further account of his life will 
be found in that part devoted to genealogy. 

The society was not able to continue a settled pastor, at all times 
being small, and the necessary aid financially not being forthcom- 


ing. Hence it is that there are so many intervals between the set- 
tled pastors, when either services were discontinued entirely or 
held occasionally as a supply could be procured. Much of the 
time it was voted to procure preaching one quarter or one-half of 
the time in proportion to the amount of the funds which could be 

Rev. Orren Perkins was the third pastor of the Universalist so^ 
ciety, which relation he sustained from 1847 to 185 1, four years. 
He was the son of William Perkins, a farmer of Savoy, Mass., 
where he was born August 11, 1823. Of a naturally slender con- 
stitution, his efforts to obtain the rudiments of knowledge were 
required to surmount various difficulties. But a small portion of 
his time could be devoted to learning, at the best, his father requir- 
ing his assistance upon the farm a greater part of the time when 
bodily health and strength admitted much activity. With passing 
years, however, his health improved, and by making the most of 
the time allotted, he found himself at the age of 19 years sufficiently 
advanced to be able to assume a position as teacher, which vocation 
he followed the most of the time for the three succeeding years, 
attending to farm work during his vacations, and devoting all his 
leisure hours to study. It was during these years that he made 
choice of his profession, and immediately set about preparing him- 
self for it by studying theology with the pastor of the Universalist 
society in Adams, and reciting in Greek to L. O. Sayles, Esq., of 
the same place. 

His ministerial labors began in Bernardston in June, 1847; here 
he was ordained, and in December of that year he married Miss 
Sarah M. Clinton of Cooperstown, N. Y., and by whom he has three 
children. In 1851 he was invited to take pastoral charge of the 
society in Wilmington, Vt. Here he remained three years, meet- 
ing with good success, and the society were unanimous in desiring 
his services retained. Owing to the ill health of Mrs. Perkins, how- 
ever, this course seemed inadvisable. He next preached for a time 
at Shirley Village, Mass., and in June, 1855, he accepted an invita- 
tion extended by the Universalist society of Winchester, N. H., at 
which place he was still stationed in 1862. 

Although devoting himself largely to his profession, he still 

REV. II. B. BUTLER. 1 77 

found time to accomplish a good deal in the line of educational 
and literary work. In i860 he publi.shed selections from the writ- 
ings of the Rev. Dr. Chapin, entitled " Living Words." 

In 1861 he was appointed by the Governor of New Hampshire 
as school commissioner for Cheshire County, receiving a reappoint- 
ment the next year. In 1862 he was chosen as representative to 
the State Legislature. 

Rev. H. B. Butler, son of Moody and Lydia (Burt) Butler, was 
born in Greenfield, N. H., January i , 1 827. His father was a farmer, 
and like others of that calling, needed his son's assistance. Con- 
sequently no regular course of study was pursued, although allowed 
the privileges of the district .school. An eager desire to learn and 
a resulting determination to make the most of each and every op- 
portunity, made possible what would have been otherwise unob- 
tainable. He was permitted in his leisure moments to recite Latin 
to a physician of the place. When nearly 18 years old he was en- 
abled to spend three years at the Lebanon, N. H., Academy, and 
one year at school at Swanzey and Marlowe, N. H. During this 
time the winter months were spent in teaching. Attaining his 
majority, he gave up his studies for the time being, and entered a 
paper mill at Bennington. N. H. August 27, 1849, he married Mil- 
licent K., daughter of Caleb C. and Lydia (Simmons) Dagget of 
Westmoreland, N. H. 

In 1 85 1, Mr. Butler began his ministerial studies under the direc- 
tion of Rev. N. R. Wright of Washington, N. H. The latter is now 
(1892) residing at Lynn,, aged nearly 90 years. While here 
he also studied Greek with Prof. Sanborn, author of Sanborn's 
Grammar. In 1852, he began as a Universalist preacher, still, how- 
ever, continuing his studies. In April, 1853, he began his labors 
in Bernardston, preaching also in Chesterfield, N. H., — one-half of 
the time being given to each place. His pastorate here lasted for 
14 years, 6 months, and not only was he endeared to the people of 
his parish, but also to the citizens generally, and faithfully did he 
serve their interests in the offices he was called upon to fill. 

For nearly three years he was selectman, and for 12 years chair- 
man of the school board. While living here, there were five chil- 
dren born to him. In 1867 he removed to Munroe, Wis., where he 


labored six years in his ])rofession, then he went to Algona, Iowa, 
his present residence. For three years he had charge of a parish 
at ()wattonna, Minn. He is now living on a farm with his son, his 
wife and daughter having both passed to their final, the for- 
mer in December, 1889, the latter in April, 1889. 

To the people of the passing generation in town, the mention of 
]\Ir. Butler's name recalls both vivid and pleasant remembrances 
of his association here, and the gO(jd he so worthily rendered in 
his Master's calling. 

Concerning the Revs. White, Thompson and Danforth, but little 
has been learned. Their pastorates here extended over but a short 
time each. Following came the last settled pastor the s(;cicty had. 
Rev. Ezekiel AV. Coffin. His pastorate here extended over some 
two or three years. He was an invalid when he came, and in No- 
vember, 1879, 1^^ resigned because ui increasing infirmities. His 
death occurred December 11, 1S79, "^ paralysis, aged 69 years, 
3 months and 27 days. "Though nearlv a stranger when he came 
to reside in town as pastor of the l^nix'crsalist church, yet b_\- ear- 
nestness, patience and large sympathy, though an invalid and a suf- 
ferer all the time, he endeared himself to all with whom he became 
acquainted, and to his parish, for his Christian work, he was the 
object of its richest reverence and love and it never seemed weary 
in ministering to his wants." He left a wife, Mary l\. \V. Coffin, 
and one son, Frank H. Coffin. 


The carl)- history of this society it is well-nigh impossible to ob- 
tain, from the fact that the first church records were destroyed by 
the burning of a dwelling within which they were kept. This loss 
is greatly to be deplored, as much of value and interest is irrevoca- 
bly gone. It is known that a Methodist class was formed in town 
as early as 1799, but of its prosperity iraclition does not say. From 
that time to 181 r all facts are lost. Doubtless from the memory 
of some older inhabitants one might glean some information, could 
we know to whom to a])ply. Probably there were some devotees 
of that denomination, although not enouuh to enable them to found 
a church. 


According to the historical notes now extant the first record of 
Methodism in town is found as follows: 

"Coppy of the Doings of the Society called Methodis. liern. Dec. 6. 181 1. 
At a society meeting of the methodis. proceeded as follows. 
I St chose Samuel Hoges moderator. 
2nd " Peter Jacobs. Clerk. 

3rd " Zadoc Briggs ^: Asap. Munn, committee, "who certified that the 
following persons belonged" to the Methodis Religious Society in Bernard- 

Peter Jacobs, Teacher. Frederic Thomas. 

Samuel Hoges. Sara Briggs. 

Ansel Brij^gs. Elijah Kiu,t(slcy. 

Lymau Jacobs. Chileab Hale. 

Zebediah Darling. Asaliel Wrisley. 

Stephen Kenney. John Chace." 

Asaph Munn. 

From an old class book bearing the date 183 1, at which time 
Humphrey Hains and Philo Hawks were the ministers, is found 
the names of Orange Scott, Presiding Elder, and Joseph Connable, 
leader. In May, 1842, Philo Hawks still in charge, the members 
and friends of the Methodist Episcopal church in Bernardston met 
according to previous notice at the house of Hosea Aldrich and 
fonned themselves into a society with 21 members. The meeting 
was opened by prayer by Rev. Philo Hawks, and Timothy K. Hor- 
ton was chosen ■ moderator, Timothy P. Slate, clerk. "Voted to 
form ourselves into a society to be called the Methodist Episcopal 
Society of Bernardston. We names are hereunto annexed 
acknowledge ourselves as belonging- to said society: 

Levi Park. Hepsibah Atherton. 

John Nelson. Amasa Sheldon. 

Gamaliel Kingsley. Freedom A. Hale. 

Timothy P. Slate. Parmelia Hastings. 

Timothy K. Horton. John Wells. 

Ruggles Bagg. Elvira Hartvvell. 

Anson Flint. Reuben Park, Jr. 

Seth Field. Hiram Whitcomb. 

Hosea Aldrich. Charles P. Guillow. 

Albert Corbet. Charles S. Park." 
Moses Aldrich. 


William Gordon was in charge of Gill circuit, to which Bernard- 
ston then belonged, and Rev. Asa Haynes, a highly esteemed local 
preacher of Guilford, Vt., supplied the pulpit. In 1844, Rev. Icha- 
bod Marcy was appointed pastor, having charge of the district lying 
between Northfield Mountain and North River, Colrain. The ser- 
vices were held in the Universalist church, and a Sunday school 
was organized. Rev. John S. Day and Rufus P. Buffington came 
next. During the pastorate of the latter, the society for some rea- 
son found it difficult to hold its own, and for a time after his dis- 
mission the pulpit was supplied. In 1852 the church was built, 
during the pastorate of Rev. Solomon Cushman. The land upon 
which the church stood was purchased of Miss Mary Chamberlain, 
and the church erected by Mr. Phillip Traver of Greenfield. It 
was completed and presented July i, 1852, to the following named 
gentlemen, trustees of the society: John Nelson, Charles S. Park, 
R. Park, "Jr., T. P. Slate and H. Smith. The dedicatory sermon 
was preached by Dr. Terombly of Brooklyn. Dr. William Butler 
was present and also took part in the exercises. Mr. Horace Smith 
was ordained local deacon by Bishop Baker at Westfield, April 23, 
1854, and often preached as supply, thus aiding much at a time 
when the society stood in need of support. In 1856-7 there was an 
average membership of about 50. In 1873 the parsonage was built. 
About 1874 a revival of much interest was experienced, led by the 
" praying band " of Springfield. As a result a large number were 
added to the church. In 1881 the church was enlarged, the inte- 
rior thoroughly repaired, and rededicated free from debt Decem- 
ber 9, 1 88 1, Rev. I. G. Ross being the pastor. At the present time 
the society membership is about 75 ; much interest is manifested 
and the Methodist Episcopalians are recognized as one of the lead- 
ing societies of the place. The officers of the church embrace two 
class leaders, seven stewards and five trustees. The steward's duty 
is to see that the pastor's claim is met for his support, and to report 
at each quarterly conference the financial affairs of the church. 
The board of trustees hold the church property in trust for the 
benefit of the church. They are required to see that all needful 
repairs are made and are accountable to the quarterly conference, 
to which they report annually. 



The pastors of the church have been : 

William Tod, ------- 

Oliver K. Rosworth, in charj^r, D. K. Tiaiinister a supply, 
William Kimball in charge, Wni. Wilcut a supply, 
Moses Stoddard, - - - - 

Pliilo Hawks in cliarge, David Winslow, associate, 

Asa Haj'nes of Guilford, ------ 

David Todd, -..-..- 

Icliabod Marcy, ....--- 

John vS. Day, m. Int. rec. July r2, 1S45, Anna 1'. I'rostof Newl)ury,Vt 
Rufus P. lUiffington, ------ 

John Rickets, -------- 

William Clapp, ------- 

Solomon Cushman, ------- 

J.Jones, -------- 

John Capen, -------- 

John Noon, ------- 

Amos Bowker, -------- 

Rufus Gerrish, ------- 

A. N. Field, (went to the war) . . . _ . 

G. N. Merrilield, ------- 

Osmon W. Adams, ------- 

J. F. Crowl, ----... 

A. Baylies, -.-...-- 

W. WMgnall, --..--- 

M. C. Chapin, -------- 

J. Cadwell, ^ ..... . 

N. F. vStevens, died here June 8, 1879, . - - - 

Ichabod Marcy, ------- 

C. H. Vinton, ....... 

I. G. Ross, ------- 

T. C. Martin, -.--.-- 

F. M. Miller, ------- 

A. W. Baird, -------- 

James Sutherland, - - - - . . 

Frank H. Wheeler, ------- 

Wm. Von Best, ------- 

Rev. Long, ---_.... 

F. Bell, --..-.-. 

Rev. L. I. Holloway, ------ 

The greatest number of members recorded in one 
i860 is 108, during Mr. Vinton's pastorate. 
Concerning the very early ministers of this denomin 

1 83 1 




, 1846 
























I 899- I 900 

year since 
ation there 


is comparatively little to be learned for the most part. Upon the 
establishment of the church in 1831, Rev. William Tod ministered 
to its needs for a year. 

Following him came Oliver E. Bosworth in charge, and Rev. 
D. K. Bannister as a supply, 

David Kingsley Bannister was born in Chesterfield, ]Mass., 
March 23, 1808 ; he was one of nine children, the oldest son, and 
next to the oldest child. When nine years of age he left home to 
earn his own way in the world, consequently his educational ad- 
vantages were very slight, but they were improved to the utmost 
When 14 years old the death of his father rendered it necessary 
that he should contribute to the support of the family. From this 
time on, he labored in the summer and taught school in the winter. 

At the age of 23 he took a decided religious stand, and soon af- 
ter devoted himself to the ministry, receiving an exhorter's license 
.signed by Ephraim Scott. For nine months he gave himself wholly 
to study, preaching as occasion presented. In 1833 ^^ received 
his first appointment under the presiding elder, Orange Scott. His 
work was on the Gill and Colrain circuit, and included several 
towns, Bernardston being one of the number; this was a six weeks' 
circuit. In 1834 he joined the conference on trial, was sent to Lit- 
tle Compton, R. I., and the succeeding year, to the Barnstable cir- 
cuit. His success from the very beginning was most marked, 
everywhere winning the love and confidence of his people, and his 
power and influence for Ihe Master's cause was most decided. Ac- 
cording to the custom of the times, during the first five years of 
his professional life he received his board and lodging largely from 
his parishioners, and in addition, from $66.00 to $80.00 yearly. In 
1836-7 he married Harriet Newel Steele, daughter of Rev. Joel 
Steele. They had seven children, of whom three are living. He 
died at Ludlow, Mass., June 27. 1886. His family still reside there. 

As reference to the list of pastors will show, there were a num- 
ber who mini.stered to this church during the next ten years, most 
of them remaining but a year or so. 

Rev. Ichabod Marcy has twice been appointed to lead this soci- 
ety in worship; first in 1844-5 and again in 1876-9. He is descended 
from John Marcy, who came to this country April 13, 1686, from 


England. He settled between 1686-9 i^ Woodstock, Ct. ; married 
Sarah Hadlock, who was born at Roxbury, Mass., December 16, 
1670, had eleven children. 

Mr. Marcy was born in Leyden, Mass., July 16, 181 1. Until the 
age of 16, he attended district schools for about two months each 
year. For the next five years he served an apprenticeship to a 
hat-maker. He was converted in Colrain, and was one of the first 
in organizing a ^lethodist church in that town. His ministerial 
studies were begun at Shelburne Falls in the spring of 1833 ; there 
and a year spent at Wilbraham, prepared him for college, and his 
further education was obtained at the Wesleyan University at Mid- 
dletown, Ct., from which he graduated in 1839. ^^ '^4^ ^^ began 
preaching, and in 1844-5 '^^'^s located at Bernardston, Gill and Ley- 
den (which constituted a circuit), as he was also in 1876-9. He 
saw 46 years of active work, more than is allotted to most pastors. 
Mr. Marcy was the first preacher appointed to the charge in Ber- 
nardston ; the circuit then included Gill, Leyden and Northfield, 
at which places one-half the time was spent, the other half being 
devoted to the Bernardston parish. At this time there was neither 
church nor parsonage owned by the society, and services were held 
at the Universalist church. 

Mr. Marcy has been long known in this community, and has en- 
deared himself to many outside of his denomination. He died 
March 20, 1899, i'^ Dorchester, Mass. He married Sarah Haws, 
daughter of Elijah and Rebecca Gill of Chesterville, Me., June 23, 


Charles De Witt, b. October 24, 1842. 

Harriet Eliza, b. May 26, 1846; m. W. D. Murdock. 

Rev. A. N. Field was here only a short time by reason of his tak- 
ing part in the great civil conflict then engaging the nation. His 
wife, Nellie, died August 9, 1862, at the age of 25 years. 

Rev. F. M. Miller was here from 1884 to 1887. 

Rev. Solomon Cushman was born in Southwick, July 28, 1804, 
and was the son of Capt. Simeon Merritt Cushman. His lineage 
is traceable to Rev. Robert Cushman, the Puritan ancestor, through 


Simeon M.,' Solomon,' Benjamin," Thomas,' Elder Thomas,' Rev. 
Robert.' He married November i, 1824, Betsev Williams, dauofh- 
ter of William Prentice. His was not a collegiate education, but 
rather such as a hard working student could obtain in the common 
schools. In 1838 he was ordained to the ministry, and preached 
in various places in New Hampshire and Massaohusetts. He was 
in Bernardston two, and Gill one and one-half years. While sta- 
tioned at the latter place, he died suddenly October 8, 1853. He 
was an able, earnest preacher, winning for himself the respect and 
esteem of all. 

Rev. A. W. Baird was the son of a farmer, and born in Lysan- 
der, N. Y., January 13, 1846. His minority was passed in farm and 
shop work, acquiring such knowledge as was available in the dis- 
trict schools. At the age of eighteen he became possessed of a de- 
sire to acquire a better training preparatory to entering the minis- 
try, and accordingly entered the Falley Seminary, N. Y., through 
which he finally worked his way, and entered the theological de- 
partment of the Boston University, graduating after a four years' 
course in 1872, since which time he has had various appointments. 
Mr. Baird made it his home in Bernardston from April, 1887, until 
April, 1890. 

Rev. N. F. Stevens resided in town until his death, June 8, 1879, 
ae. 48. He was in feeble health for a number of years. 

Rev. Horace Smith was ordained as an evangelist at Hadley, 
February 27, 1822, and went to Trumbull County, Ohio, in the ser- 
vice of the Hampshire Missionary Society. Many of the latter 
years of his life were spent in town as a carpenter, his last home 
being in North Bernardston, and later, the site of the old Brick 


In various parts of the country one frequently reads accounts 
of and wonders at the strange so-called religious zeal manifested 
Fanaticism seems oftentimes a more appropriate term. While 
we see and wonder, how many of the younger generation, surely, 
realize that about the year 1794, there sprang up here in our midst, 
a sect, whose teachings were just as fanatical and just as foreign 


to all civilized Christian practises as was possible for them to be. 
From the name of the founder of this order, William Dorrell, came 
the name of these strange believers, "The Dorrellites." In 1882 
F. M. Thompson, Esq., read a most excellent paper upon this sub- 
ject before the P. V. M. A., and free reference has been made to 
his production for much of the following, supplemented by notes 
of the conversations held by Gov. Cushman with both Mr. Dorrell 
and some of his followers. 

On Monday, January 27, 1834, in company with Geo. T. Davis, Esq., 
of Greenfield, Gov. Cushman writes that he visited "William Dor- 
rell — alias — the famous imposter, Dorrell." He was the son of an 
English farmer, born in Yorkshire, Eng., March 15, 1752. He be- 
came in early life a soldier, serving through three campaigns in 
Ireland ; after this he emigrated to America and served through 
two campaigns here, being under Burgoyne at his surrender in 

Upon his resumption of civil life, he settled at Petersham, Mass. 
Here he married Polly Chase, a woman ten years his junior. At 
the expiration of two years he moved to Warwick ; his home for 
some succeeding years was in Northfield, in 1784 going thence to 

In appearance he was described as being large of stature, six 
feet or more in height, his forehead full and sloping, eyes quick, 
"and having the phrenological development of firmness very full 
indeed." He was in many respects a most remarkable man, al- 
though a most ignorant and intemperate one. Intoxicated to the 
worst degree, or perfectly sober, he was never known to make an 
engagement which he did not fulfill to the letter. Uneducated, 
not even able to read or write, he nevertheless possessed an unusu- 
ally retentive memory, being able to repeat a large portion of the 
Bible from hearing it read by his wife. He was possessed of a pleas- 
ing address, which, combined with good native talent, must have 
constituted an important factor of his power. 

His home at the time of Gov. Cushman's visit, was in the north- 
west corner of Leyden, in a poor old smoky house, situated away 
from the traveled road and remote from any residence of human 
beings. The furniture consisted of a table, loom, bed, crockery 


shelves and two or three chairs. There at the age of 82 or 83 he 
lived alone, possessed of remarkably good health. Although he 
then had no followers, he still clung to his belief, saying that the 
Bible was "all wrong, all wrong!" He thought that some of the 
old Dorrellites still clung to the religion, even though they might 
not publicly acknowledge it. Even at that age he took a pride in 
telling his callers that he would persist in getting drunk occa- 

With his beliefs and the teachings he sought to instill into the 
minds of his followers, it seems unparalleled that so many promi- 
nent men of the time should class themselves as among his adher- 
ents. Asa rule the Dorrellites were respectable, churchgoing men, 
several of them town officials, and numbered some 20 or 30 families. 
Among them we find the names of Hezekiah Newcomb, Samuel 
and John Connable, Ezra vShattuck, Charles Packer, Messrs. Dewey 
and Eddy, Zenas, Reuben and Michael Frizzell, Capt. Parmenter, 
Joshua Wells, Abner Evans, Mr. Paige, Amos Burrows, Reuben 
Sheldon, James and Pitts Phillips, Charles Stearns, David Potter, 
Jedediah Fuller and John Dixon: Probably the greater part of 
these were residents of Leyden. 

The first revelation which led to the founding of the faith came 
to Dorrell while he was "chopping." He did not .seem to be able 
to recall it exactly, but in his conversation gave it as "Render your- 
self an agreeable sacrifice," or something similar. There were 
many subsequent ones pertaining, no doubt, to the practises to be 
put in execution. "His first success as a preacher was about 1794, 
and gaining a few followers the strange doctrines soon spread from 
neighborhood to neighborhood and quite a number of respectable 
people were attracted by them and cast in their lot with their hu- 
manitarian leader, for the doctrine as first declared was founded 
upon the principle that man should not eat of flesh, and should not 
cause the death of any living creature. The doctrine was carried 
to that extent that no member might wear shoes or use harne.sses 
made" of leather, or use the skins of animals for any domestic pur- 
pose." The majority of his followers wore wooden shoes made by 
one of their number, Ezra Shattuck. To this rule Mr. Amos Bur- 
rows was an exception, and from the fact that his blacksmith bel- 


lows were first covered in the usual manner with leather, and a 
covering of painted cloth put on outside so that he nominally con- 
formed to the custom merely, we may conclude that he was not as 
enthusiastic a member of the fold as some. The harnesses were 
made of rope, and much of the cloth used for domestic purposes 
was a coarse tow cloth. 

"With his success in obtaining followers, his inspiration increased 
and he was led to preach that every generation of men had its Mes- 
siah ; that He was the Messiah of Ids generation ; that no arm of 
flesh could hurt him; that there was no resurrection from the dead; 
that when 'resurrection' was spoken of in the Bible its meaning 
was a resurrection from a state of sin to spiritual life; that Jesus 
Christ was a spirit ; that he took a body ; that he died, but that he 
never was raised from the dead ; that all who are raised from a 
state of sin to this spiritual life become perfect ; that they can then 
do no sin, and are no more responsible to the civil law, and are be- 
yond all 'principalities and powers.' There was no future judg- 
ment, no knowledge after death of what passed in this world ; that 
God had no power over man to control his actions, therefore there 
was no need of prayer. He had no hope for the future, but he had 
an abundance of assurance that all was well. He was perfect, his 
body being in perfect obedience to the spirit, and his followers 
were comparatively perfect, as the members of the body are per- 
fect when compared with the head ; that all covenants made by 
God with men were ended, and he was the head of a new cove- 
nant ; that neither Moses nor Christ wrought miracles, and that Jie 
stood precisely the same as Jesus Christ, and that while no person 
might worship his human body yet he might be worshiped as 
Christ was worshipped, as God united to human flesh." 

This is the substance of a "confession of faith," if it might be so 
called, obtained from the lips of Dorrell by the Rev. John Taylor 
of Deerfield in 1798, the interview being had for that purpose. 
As the freedom of sin arrived at by the followers of this new seer 
led them into the commission of acts condemned by the majority 
of people as grossly immoral, Dorrell was very cautious, the Rev. 
Mr. Taylor says, about committing himself on those subjects, but 
upon the subject of marriage he declared that when a husband or 


wife became perfect, by being raised to the spiritual life, the other 
party was not holden by the old covenant or the civil law ; and if 
both were raised, still the parties were not holden to each other 
and had perfect right to promiscuous intercourse. 

The sect had no meetings for worship, as they considered all 
days alike, one day as holy as another, and according to report their 
later meetings were scenes of most outrageous and beastly conduct, 
interspersed wiih the singing of "bacchanalian songs and lascivious 
addresses." At one time seven Dorrellites were complained of for 
raising a building on Sunday. Securing Richard F. Newcomb of 
Greenfield as their attorney, all were cleared but one. 

The sect had a common treasury, and the office was filled by a 
shrewd business man, and it is a common report that the Dorrellite 
treasury was the foundation of the fortune of one of the wealthiest 
and most influential families in this portion of the county, but 
whether there is more truth in the story than the fact that the 
founder of one of our most highly respected families was the treas- 
urer of the sect, I know not. 

The sect was at the height of its prosperity about 1798, but Dor- 
rell having become addicted to habits of intemperance, his influ- 
ence with the more respectable portion of his followers began to 
wane, while he more vigorously proclaimed his possession of supe- 
rior powers and his immunity from all bodily weaknesses and harm, 
to the disgust of the better portion of the community, who believed 
that he was the representative of the evil spirit rather than the 

The final meeting of the sect is described by Thomp.son, in his 
gazetteer of Vermont, in the following language : "At length, at 
one of their meetings, a goodly number having assembled, Dorrell 
opened with music, and began to deliver a discourse. Among the 
spectators was one, Capt. Ezekiel Foster, a man of good sense, of a 
giant frame, having a countenance which bespoke authority. When 
Dorrell, in the course of his remarks, uttered the words ' No arm 
of flesh can harm me, Foster arose, indignant at the blasphemy 
and boasting of Dorrell, and stretching forth his brawny arm, 
knocked him tlown with his fist. Affrighted and almost senseless, 
Dorrell attempted to rise, when he received a second blow, at which 


he cried for mercy. F'oster promised to forebear on condition that 
he would renounce his doctrine, yet continued to beat him. A 
short parley ensued, when Dorrell yielded and renounced his doc- 
trines in the hearing of all his astonished followers." They, ashamed 
of having been the victims of such duplicity, quickly departed, and it 
is a remarkable fact that none of them were afterwards known to 
form any connection with any religious society. Dorrell himself 
was made to promise that his own life should pay the penalty of 
any future impositions. 

In the practices of his religion he claimed the assistance of his 
black fiddler, Jack, who was, he said, possessed of plenty of both 
ignorance and cunning. When asked why he had set up a religion 
of his own, his reply was "To see what fools I can make of people." 
He admitted himself to be an ignorant old countryman, and that 
he had led the people a wild goose chase long enough. 

Dorrell spent the remainder of his life in Leyden, nearly 50 
years, but for many years prior to his death he was maintained as 
a town charge. He died Aug. 28, 1846, aged 94 years, 5 months, 13 
days. He had literally starved himself to death by refusing any 
food, saying that he had lived long enough, and that if he con- 
tinued to eat he never should die. He has descendants living in 
and near the territory which witnessed the scenes brought about 
by Dorrellism, who are numbered as being among our intelligent, 
respected citizens. 



The history of no nation or race would be complete without an 
account of its festive days. They are to be fcmnd in some form in 
every known country, the manner of their celebration differing, 
not only on account of the kind of an event to be commemorated, 
but also in direct proportion to the character, intelligence and civ- 
ilization of the participants. A little thoughtful retrospect will in- 
controvertibly establish this truism. In the aboriginal tribes of a 
country, the highest motives ascribed for any celebration are usually 
found either in the rites attendant upon the offerings to their 
heathen deities, the intensity of their observance being proportion- 
ate to the imaginary blessings conferred, or which they wish to 
receive; or perhaps in feasting because of a victory recently ac- 
quired over some neighboring tribes. Usually a superstitious relig- 
ious tendency pervades it all, and the observance is typical of a 
people whom scientists would place upon almost the lowest plane 
of civilization. Through all the so-called heathen races this man- 
ner of celebration, modified in one way or another, is apparent. As 
we advance in the civilized scale, notice the pace assumed and main- 
tained by the mind, until in the intelligent civilized races of to-day, 
the character of the celebrations is such that it is as well the in- 
tellect to which food is administered. And in the progress which 
present generations are making in this direction may be found 
striking illustrations of the increasing power constantly being ac- 
quired by mind over matter. 

In the lives of individuals, the rapidly passing years bring to 
each many days, the ob.servance of which are attended with feel- 
ings pleasurable; and then again, with emotions too sacred to be 
shown even to the most intimate and sympathizing. And to many, 
days come and their celebrations in which conflicting emc^tions 
are each striving for the supremacy, for it often happens that in the 
keenest pleasure there is a trace of pain impossible to be eliminated. 


So it is in a town's and a nation's history. They each have their 
days of mourning and of gladness; but in such cases these ele- 
ments are kept more distinct. As our country grows older, how 
manv places do we know and read of which are celebrating their 
festive days, days which are peculiarly their own, in that they are 
anniversaries of their natal days, and by their records such towns 
show that they have reason to take a pride — and a just pride — in 
what they have accomplished, and with the prospect of doing still 
more in future years. 

With such feelings do we imagine the inhabitants of our town to 
have been stirred. as they realized that very soon would be here the 
one hundredth anniversary of her incorporation. And when we 
recall that at this time the whole nation was in the midst of a 
fiercely contested civil war. that her existence was seriously threat- 
ened, and that in spite of all these things which the feeble spirited 
might have termed discouragements at the beginning, these towns- 
men following in the late Gov. Cushman's lead, got up such a mag- 
nificent one hundredth birthday gathering, and one which in its 
results has exerted such lasting beneficial influences, is it any won- 
der that we experience such feelings of pride and exultation at the 
remembrance ? 

As early as 1861, the matter was agitated and it was voted that 
"this town will, in its municipal capacity, at such time during the 
next year as shall hereafter be determined upon, in a suitable and 
proper manner, celebrate the one hundredth anniversary of its in- 
corporation as a town." 

The town of Leyden entered enthusiastically into the matter, and 
appointed a committee to confer with the committee chosen by the 
parent town. On the i ith of January, 1862, these committees met 
in the town hall at Bernardston, chose Hon. Henry W. Gush man as 
chairman, and voted to have the celebration on Wednesday, the 
20th day of August, 1862. vSub-committees were appointed and the 
committee separated, agreeing that this celebration should be one 
" worthy the descendants of the old ' Falls Fight Township' and 
which will be creditable to those towns a hundred years hence," 
and how nobly this committee fulfilled their mission, the event 
proved. The following invitation was issued : 



To all the people of Bernaicistoii and Leyden, — to all who have resided 
in, or are natives of either of those towns, and to all who are connected 
with them by ties of consanguinity or marriage: — 
Brethren and Friends: 

At a legal meeting of the Town of Bernardston, held on the 5th day of 
November, 1861, the following Preamble and Votes were unanimously 
adopted: — 

WHEREAS, the territory now contained in the TOWNS OF BER- 
NARDSTON, LEYDEN, and a part of COLERAINE, was granted by 
the Legislature of the Province of Massachusetts in 1734, to those and the 
descendants of those whcj were in the battle fought on the 18th of May, 
1676, at Turners Falls on the Connecticut River, — between the Indians 
and the English settlers, — which grant for about 25 years, was called "The 
Fails Fight Township," or "Fall Town." 

AND WHEREAS, said territory was incorporated as a Town by the 
name of Bernardston, in 1762, and therefore, the first Centennial Anniver- 
sary of said town occurs during the next year: 

AND WHEREAS, the remembrance of the important eras in the life 
of individuals and of communities furnishes a good opportunity, in accord- 
ance with the higher principles of our nature and of an enlightened and 
Christian civilization, to review their past history and experience, and form 
resolutions for the future; 

THEREFORE VOTED, That this Town will, in its municipal charac- 
ter, at such time during the next year as shall hereafter be determined on, 
in a suitable and proper manner, celebrate the One Hundredth Anniver- 
sary of its Incorporation as a town: 

VOTED, That a Committee of Twelve, consisting of the present select- 
men, Town Clerk, School committee and Constable of the town, and five 
others at large be appointed to make all the arrangements and take such 
measures as may be necessary to carry cnit the object contemplated in this 
celebration : 

VOTED, That the district and other schools be invited to attend the 
Celebration in a body, wiih their teachers and friends, 

.'\N1) W i n''J\.i-',AS, The Town (;f Leyden was for many years a part of 

THEREFORE VO TED, I'hat the inhabitants of Leyden be invited to 
join with us in this celebration. 


The following committee was appointed agreeable to the foregoing vote, 
viz. — S. N. Brooks, Town Clerk; S. J. Lyons, I.K. Brown, P. L. Cushman, 
Selectmen; Rev. H. B. Butler, B. S. Burrinvs, School committee; E. C. Hale, 
Constable; Hon. H. W. Cushman, Prof. L. F. Ward, Hon. John Sander- 
son, R. F. Newcomb, Dea. David Streeter, at large. 

At a legal meeting of the town of Leyden held the same day, the follow- 
ing vote was passed: — 

VOTED, To unite with the town of Bernardston in celebrating the one 
hundredth anniversary of the incorporation of that town, and to choose a 
committee of five to confer with a like committee from said town, in fur- 
therance of that object; and that DAVID MOWRY, HORACE POTTER, 
constitute said committee. 

And at a meeting of the aforesaid committees of Bernardston and Ley- 
den held in the town hall in Bernardston on Saturday, the irth day of Jan- 
ary, 1862, Hon. HENRY W. CUSHMAN having been chosen Chairman, 
and Silas N. Brooks Esq. Secretary, it was 

VOTED, That whereas the 6th. day of March, on which the Act In- 
corporating the town of Bernardston was passed, and the i ith. day of May, 
on which said Act was accepted by the town, are inconvenient days for a 
general ^meeting of the people, the Celebration of the Centennial Anniver- 
sary of the Incorporation of Bernardston be appointed on 

And on that day all the descendants of "Fall Town" and all who are in 
any way connected with them, be invited to assemble at the town hall in 
Bernardston, at 10 o'clock A. M. and join in such Public Exercises as may 
be appropriate to such an occasion. 

Come, then, Kinsmen and Friends: — Come one and all, to this gathering 
of the lineage of a common ancestry — this meeting of an historic era — this 
One Hundredth Jubilee of our natal or adopted town. Come once more 
to the home of your Fathers; to the hearth stone where you first saw the 
blessed light of Heaven. Quench your thirst again from 'the old oaken 
bucket,' which hangs in the well. Stand once more, if never again, at the 
graves of your ancestors and the monuments which commemorate their 

Another event of this kind none of us will ever attend. So far as we can 
learn, there is now no person living who was born in 'Fall Town,' one hun- 
dred years ago; and in all human probability the child is not yet born that 


will be present at another Celebration of this kind a hundred years hence. 
It is then, a rare occasion, — a glorious era — an event of no common interest. 

Let all who by consanguinity, by marriage or by residence are in any 
way connected with the towns of IJernardston and Leyden meet on that 
day in the Spirit of a Common Brotherhood and a Sympathizing Christian- 
ity; and with Music, with Prayer and Praises to the Criver of every good 
and perfect gift, with Speeches and Sentiments, and a Union at the festive 
board let the day be spent joyfully, and h()|)cfully, in commemoration of 
the past, ami in memory of the trials, the virtues, the piety and the intel- 
ligence of our Common Ancestry. 

And although the present year may be clouded and rendered less auspi- 
cious by a rebellion of the slave holding States against the best government 
ever devised by ?Nan, and many of our brethren and friemls may be engaged 
in the patriotic duty of sustaining the Flag of our Lhiion, its Constitution 
and Laws; yet while we do not forget our country and its brave Defenders 
in our prayers and by our contributions, let us also obey the injunctions of 
sacred writ: ' Remember the days of old, and consider the years of many 

And while standing thus at this central p(jint in the great Cycle of Ages, 
and looking back through the vista of a hundred years, we may draw les- 
sons of wisdom from the history of the past and form resolutions for a 
higher walk in the path of duty in the coming years. ' 

All of a kindred birth and a kindretl spirit are then cordially invited to 
join in this Centennial Celebration. Our Hearts and our Homes shall be wide 
open to receive and hospitably entertain all the sons and daughters of the 
'Old Falls Fight Township."' 

Such was the cordially v^orded invitation issued by the commit- 
tee of arrangements, and according to the published reports, was 
readily accepted by 2500 to 3000 persons. At about ten in tlie morn- 
ing a procession was formed near the town hall under the guid- 
ance of S. J. Lyons and F. \V. Carlton, assisted by T. B. Carpenter, 
P. L. Cushman, E. S. Hurlbert, Marcus Cook, B. vS. Burrows, C. W. 
Severance, Capt. F. R. H. Allen, Jason Brown, H. O. Root, J. N. 
Dewey, L K. Brown, J. Buddington, Jr., R. H. Hoyt, R. F. New- 
comb, L. A. Slate, A. W. Carpenter. S. P. Chase, Asa Fisk. S. R. 
Hills, D. N. Carpenter and Charles Cushman. It consisted of chief 
marshals, band, committee of arrangements. President and Vice- 
Presidents, orator and poet, tt)astmaslcr and reporter, invited speak- 


ers, clergy, choir, selectmen and ex-selectmen of Bernardston and 
Leyden, people over 80 yeans in carriages, people over 70 years, 
sons and daughters of Bernardston who reside abroad, visitors from 
neighboring towns, district schools of Leyden, district schools of 
Bernardston and adjoining schools, teachers and scholars of Pow- 
ers Institute, Goodale Academy, citizens of Leyden, citizens of Ber- 

Under the escort of a band from Hatfield the procession wended 
its way around the square near the depot, thence to the Institute 
grounds, where upon the north end of the lot a bower had been 
erected and seats provided for 1500 people. The seats were soon 
filled, and hundreds were obliged to stand throughout the exercises 
which followed. The choice of President of the day fell upon Hon. 
John Sanderson of Bernardston. For Vice-Presidents, upon Jon- 
athan Buddington, Dr. T. S. Vining, Daniel L. Morgan, Zadoc King, 
E. W. Packer, A. O. Buddington, Briggs Potter of Leyden ; Lsaac 
Barton of Greenfield; Dorus Bascom of Gill; Ralph Cushman, 
Simon Edwards, Isaac Burrows, Col. Aretas Ferry, John Nelson, 
Dr. Noyes Barstow, Seorim Cushman, Z. C. Newcomb, Capt. Jos- 
eph Slate, Dr. William Dwight of Bernardston. The exercises of 
the day then took place in the following order: 

1st. Music by the Hatfield Band. 

2nd. Selections from the Scriptures, by Rev. T. J. Clark of Ashfield, (a former 

pastor in Bernardston. ) 

3rd. Prayer by the oldest Ex-Clergyman present. 

4th. Original Hymn, by Rev. John B. Green. 

5th. Historical Address, by Hon. Henry W. Cushman. 

6th. Original Hymn, by Rev. George h- Ruberg. 

7th. Poem by Dr. John Brooks, the Octogenarian Poet of Bernardston. 

8th. Anthem, Creation. 

9th. Concluding Prayer by Rev. Mr. Brigham. 

loth. Benediction. 

Upon the conclusion of these exercises a procession was formed 
and marched to what is now known as Cushman Park, where all 
were entertained at dinner by E. C. Fox, proprietor of the hotel. 
The noon hour passed, the people again adjourned to the Institute 
grounds, where the after-dinner exercises were opened by brief 
and appropriate address of welcome by the President, Hon. John 
Sanderson. Mr. S. N. Brooks performed the duties of toastmaster, 

196 TOASTS. 

in a manner most appropriate and pleasing. The first toast an- 
nounced was 

Leyden. — "Sixty-eight years ago, as our Daughter she left the parental 
hearth-stone. To-day, as our Sister, with a warm greeting, she returns 
to it." 

Rev. Thomas Marcy of Framingham, a native of Leyden, replied 
to this sentiment, paying a noble tribute to his native town and 
her sons. He stated that Leyden had produced among her other 
noble children, 1 1 clergymen, four doctors and three lawyers. 

Former residents of Bernardston. — "Scattered from Labrador to the 
Pacific Isles. Living, they honor their aged Mother, Dying, they bequeath 
her tokens of their life-l<jng regard. We have gratitude for the dead — a 
welcome for the living " 

Responded to by Justice Willard, Esq., of Springfield, in one of 
the most spirited and telling speeches of the day. Among the 
other old residents of Bernardston, he gave a biography of old Nat, 
the negro fiddler, who was present with his fiddle at all the merry- 
makings of his boyhood days, and whose proficiency upon that in- 
strument was superior to that of the Ole Bulls and other modern 

Ex-Clergymen of Bernardston. — "In former years have they sown here 
the 'good seed which is the dread of life.' Though some may have fallen 
by the wayside, some been choked with them, still may the harvest pro- 
duce an hundred fold." 

Rev. Erastus Andrews of Montague responded to this sentiment. 
He spoke of the early history of the Baptist society in Bernardston. 
He stated that Capt. Turner, the hero of the Falls Fight, was a 
Baptist, and that his services were at first refused by the Governor 
of Massachusetts on account of his religious belief. He also gave 
as an incident of the respect other denominations in Bernardston 
had felt for the Baptists of that time, that upon the occasion of the 
funeral of one of its early pastors, as the procession was passing 
the house of a good Orthodox deacon, he left his work in the field, 
stopped the procession and treated it to pailsfuU of the best toddy 
of the day. This the speaker thought was at least true " Cogniac 

Rev. Charles Kendall also spoke in response to the sentiment, 

TOASTS. 197 

referring to the ex-clergymen and the good feeling that generally 
existed in the town towards their religious teachers. He spoke of 
some of the ex-pastors as being "fast drivers," but could not drive 
fast enough, however, to get out of the town as soon as their pa- 
rishioners wanted to have them. 

Rev. A. M. Bridge and Rev. Rufus Gerrish also replied to the 
toast. Mr. Gerrish gave as a sentiment : 

The Growing Beauties of Beniardston. — " May their lustre never be 
dimmed. " 

Residents abroad who have married daughters of Bernardston — 

" Our loss has been their gain; 

And never will we forget — 
' Ev"n while we sigh for those blessings gone ' — 

We've 'more of the same sort' yet." 

The American Antiquarian Society of Worcester. — "Located at the 
'Heart of the Commonwealth,' and aided by the wealth and guided by the 
talent of an enterprising city, it is doing a great and good work in ' Con- 
sidering the days of old — The years of ancient times.' " 

Responded to by Hon. Isaac Davis of Worcester. 

Massachusetts Historical Society of Boston.— "Venerable for its age, for 
the ability of its members, and for the great amount of its historical col- 
lections. We honor it as the Pioneer m the domain of historic research." 

Responded to by Hon. George T. Davis of Greenfield, who spoke 
of the syinpathy the society felt with celebrations of this kind, of 
our former and present struggles for a national existence, and of 
the prominent part Bernardston had taken in the first and was now 
taking in the last. He gave as a sentiment: 

Descendants of the First Settlers. — "All the more dutiful to the demands 
of the present, that they are not forgetful of the past." 

Education — Our Common Schools and Powers Institute. — "Our children 
will well obtain the first, while over the second and last we keep strict 
watch and Ward." 

This sentiment was responded to by Prof. L. F. Ward, who gave 
as a sentiment : 

The 'I'own of Bernardston, its Characteristics — Prosperous Educational 
Institute; Flourishing Christian Churches and Enterprising People. — "May 
the next Centennial anniversary find these characteristics none the less 
worthy, but increased and enlarged proportionately by time." 

198 TOASTS. 

Goodale Academy. — "The memory of its usefiiUness as an educational 
institution is yet green in the hearts of its graduates." 

Responded to in a pleasant three minutes speech by Pliny Fisk, 
Esq., of Shelburne, a former principal of the academy. 

Soldiers of Bernardston and Leyden Who Have Fallen in Defence of Their 
Country's Honor and Their Country's Flag — Martyrs in the Noblest Cause ! 
— "While we weep with their friends who mourn their early loss, we rejoice 
in the thought that this sealing of their courage and their patriotism with 
their heart's blood x'i not in vain. By such sacrifices was our Liberty bought 
— by such shall it be preserved." 

Responded to by the band. 

Major Stephen Webster, Major Samuel Root, Capt. Joseph Slate, Capt. 
Stephen Buddington, Capt. Caleb Chapin, Sergt. Joseph Allen, Samuel 
Green and their numerous comrades who sustained the name and honor of 
Bernardston in the dark hour of our Revolutionary struggle. — "In the pres- 
ent dark hour may their descendants emulate their bright example with 
the same glorious results." 

Responded to by the band. 

The Ladies — Invariably toasted at every American gathering. — "The 
wonder is that they are not yet done brown, but diV& fairer than ever." 

Responded to by Jtidge Tyler of Oswego, N. Y., in a pleasant 
and patriotic speech. 

Three cheers were then given for the Bernardston and Leyden 
boys who have gone abroad and so ably represented their native 

Lieut. George Warner of Bernardston. — "One of whose limbs is now on 
Southern soil, on the battle-ground at Newbern, and who is present to-day 
— a fit representative of the old Puritan pluck." 

Three cheers were then given for Lieut. Warner. The toast- 
master then proposed three cheers for the star spangled banner; 
three more for the music the Yankees fight under, and three more 
for the band, which were heartily given. 

The following volunteer sentiments were then given : — 
"Long live the Republic. Death to secession and no resurrection. May 
the time of our redemption speedily arrive. We need some more effective 
weapon than administering the oath of allegiance. We call it not inhu- 

TOASTS. 199 

man to put every rebel and rebel sympathizer out of the United States. 
Put true men in office and not graven images. In the words of Benton, 
'we have been bamboozled long enough!' " 

Maintain Constitutional Liberty, Framed by Our Fathers. — "The storm 
which shakes the oak, only loosens the earth around its roots, and its vio- 
lence enables the tree to strike its roots deeper into the soil. So shall it 
be with the crisis of the Union." 

The Town of Bernardston — "Fortunate in having in its very few rich men 
those who are disposed to promote the cause of education." 

The Past Century and That which is Coming. — "The one has seen our 
country materially prosperous, with slavery, and may the other see it both 
materially and morally prosperous without slavery." 

His Excellency, Abraham Lincoln. — "A second Washington, sentof God, 
as we trust, to conduct the nation thrcnigh a war which is to result in es- 
tablishing the truth of the declaration, that 'all men are equal,' m regard 
to 'certain inalienable rights.' " 

Bernardston's Share of Soldiers in the Present War. — 

" All trials, thus far, prove of courage no lack. 
For none who are wounded are hit in the back." 

Hon. E. Kirkland of Brattleboro, Vt., who married his wife in 
Bernardston, btit who was prevented from attending the celebra- 
tion by illness, sent the following sentiment; — 

The Town of Bernardston, whose Natal Day We Now Celebrate. — "May its 
ne.xt anniversary find it, not as now, a member of a nation torn with war, 
but of a free, united and happy people, with every evil and bitter thing re- 
moved from its borders." 

Hon. William A., late mayor of the city of Milwaukee, 
Wis., a former resident of Bernardston, sent the following: — 

Bernardston. — ''Settled more than a century since by an intelligent and 
industrious class of people, noted for their independence of opinion on all 
political and religious matters — may its present and future inhabitants con- 
tinue to maintain a like independence on all questions, thereby manifesting 
to the world, that freedom of thought and speech is not dangerous to civil 
or religious institutions when reason is left free to combat it." 

H. D. Newcomb, Esq., a distinguished merchant of Louisville, 
Ky., a native of Bernardston, sent the following : 

"During the past ten years I have been interested in the manufacture of 


cotton, on the banks of the Ohio, which has suggested to my mind the fol- 
lowing sentiment which I beg leave to offer: — The Cotton Manufacturing 
Interests of New England — The splendid result of sixty years persistent 
labor and skill directed to that object— now periled by the loss of its trained 
operatives, increased burdens on its capital, and the prospective diminu- 
tion in the cultivation of raw material." 

It now being half past four, the rest of the day was given to the 
students of Powers Institute. Aaron W. Field of Bernardston, a 
student of Williams College, delivered an address, and M. D. Col- 
lister of Sullivan, N. H., a student of Middlebury College, deliv- 
ered a poem, and thus closed the exercises of a day which was des- 
tined to become by reason of the pleasant associations revived, 
and the valuable and interesting commemorative exercises, not to 
speak of the attendant gift of one of her most noble and best be- 
loved sons, a red-letter day in the town's history. 


(By Rev. John B. Green, Pastor of the Unitarian Society ) 

We meet, the sons of honored sires, 

Around one altar here, 
To sing and venerate their deeds 

And shed a passing tear. 

We sing those deeds of daring bokl, 
Where, joyous, leaps yon wave. 
They fought— some crowned with glory, fell 
And filled a warrior's grave. 

And surely we can ne'er forget 

The debt we truly owe — 

While clothed in green, these hills are seen, 

Or wrapt in spotless snow. 

A place and home their deeds have won 
To us, their children, here; 
And while we emulate their lives, 
What foe have we to fear ? 

Their first desire, to worship God 
And act His holy will; 
For, ere themselves a shelter found, 
A church was ou the hill. 


And now we meet with grateful hearts 
For what the}' did forego, 
Who planted here the seeds of truth 
A hundred years ago. 

And when the sun forgets to rise, 
And stars their place resign. 
Will we forget the debt we owe 
The sires of "Auld Lang Syne." 

Now may the God our Fathers loved 

Grant us the gift divine, 
To guide us in the better way 

As He did THEM, lang syne. 

Then welcome, welcome, one and all. 

To this our festal day; 
We open wide our hearts and homes, 

Let care be far away. 

Lt. Gov. Cushman's address was a most excellent one, of an histor- 
ical nature, covering the more important happenings of the past. 
To repeat it in full would be but to repeat much which has already 
been given in the earlier pages of this work; hence it has been 
deemed best that the incidents and early records stand in their re- 
spective places. Indeed they are so closely interwoven with the 
daily lives and deeds of our forefathers, as to render a separation 
out of the question only by breaking the thread of the narrative. 
And because of this, is given extracts, rather than the address in 
the form delivered. 

''Felloiv Citizens and Friends: — We are assembled to-day in accordance 
with some of the purest and noblest impulses and principles of humanity. 
The love of 'home sweet home,' and of kindred and friends, is, not merely 
an innate desire of our natures; it is more than that; it is an indication of 
a cultivated and refined sentiment, — it is obedience to 'the higher law' of 
the Christian life. 

And connected with this principle is the feeling of regard and veneration 
for the place of our birth; — for the home of our childhood or our maturer 
years; for the spot where our eyes first saw the blessed light of heaven 
and the glorious works of God; for the scenes that were familiar to us 'in 
days of Auld lang syne " — for the old oaken bucket which hangs in the 
well, from which we have often quenched our thirst in years long since 


passed and for the graves of our ancestors, who years ago, finished their 
work on earth and have gone to their eternal reward. 

' Lives there a man with soul so dead, 
Who never to himself hath said, 
This is my own, my native land?' 

Such views are common to all in a greater or less degree; but they are, 
in a particular manner, the feelings and guiding sentiments of the educated 
and thoughtful, of those who have seen many years come and go and whose 
heads are whitened with the frost of three-score years. 

Animated by such sentiments, we have met to-day, a band of brothers 
and friends, — not to plan schemes for our material wealth; not to select 
candidates for political promotion; not even to celebrate the independence 
or victories of our country; but we meet to review the past ; 'to consitler 
the years of many generations '; to attend to the neglected and remember 
the forgotten; to renew the recollections of our early days and bring to 
mind the toils, the sufferings and the virtues of our fathers. We have 
come together on this one hundredth anniversary of the incorporation of 
this little municipality, not to celebrate the great things of earth; but with 
deep feelings of veneration for the past, to take old friends by the hand 
once more, perhaps never again; U) look back on our journey of life, and 
thus, by the contemplation of the good or the evil we have done to be 
guided in the future of our mortal course. Says another, 'it is a privilege 
to learn what shall be from what has been, to turn experience into proph- 
ecy; to view in the mirror of the Past, the vision oi the Future." 

And you will permit me, Ladies and Crentlemen, on this pleasant occa- 
sion tinged as I know it must be with sadness when we remember many 

dear friends who have passed the dark waters before us; — permit me to 
extend to you all a most cordial and hearty welcome. As a true son of the 
old 'Falls Fight Townshij"),' I offer you all the salutations of this anniver- 
sary. It gladdens the heart to meet so many cheerful countenances on 
the one hundredth j ubilee of the independent municipal existence of our 

And in a particular manner would I extend the hand of friendship and 
fraternal regard, to those who have come from distant States, to join with 
us in the services of this joyous d.iy. Welcome all, from the prairies and 
the cities of the great west; from the Green mountains of Vermont, and 
from States and homes more or less distant from us — welcome to this gath- 
ering of the descendants of a common ancestry, welcome all who by birth 
or residence, by ties of consanguinity or marriage, all who have come here 


today because you cared for Bernardston and Leyden for what they con- 
tain or have contained. In behalf of my fellow-citizens, 1 bid you all a 
hearty welcome. And I would, also, with a like cordiality welcome those, 
who by a love of historic studies and who feel a deep interest in genealog- 
ical researches are attracted to commemorations of this kind. Sympathiz- 
ing with us in the sentiments of antiquity, we are most happy to meet you 
all on this historic era — this one-hundredth standpoint in the cycle of 

And I must not forget to receive with an open hand and heart this large 
concourse of children and youth who have assembled to join in the services 
of this anniversary occasion. I see before me, a numerous band of teach- 
ers and pupils of Powers Institute, of every school district in Bernardston 
and Leyden and several schools from the adjoining towns. Most happy 
am I to greet you with joyful salutations on an anniversary which none of 
you, in any probability, can ever attend again. Your smiling faces, your 
gay dresses, your beautiful bouquets and waving banners, all show me how 
much you enjoy and how long you will remember the services of this day. 
Welcome, my voung friends to the instructive events of the passing hour. 

One hundred years ago ! Who can understand the mighty past? Who 
can fathom the years of a century! What immense changes in the condi- 
tion of the human race; what vast results have come from the progress of 
civilization by the Anglo-Saxon race in America, during that period ! Think 
for a moment of the condition of things in Europe, in America, on this 
spot, even, in 1762 and in 1862. Then — and now. One hundred years 
ago the people who had settled along these pleasant valleys and on these 
hillsides, were few and far between. Now, a pleasant village is near us 
where the arts and amenities of civilized life are cultivated and where the 
school houses and the church are among the most prominent institutions 
of the place. And more than all the railroad and telegraph, the most strik- 
ing indications of the mechanical inventions of this epoch with their im- 
mense power to promote the comfort and facilitate the business of man, 
are both of them in our midst. 

One hundred years ago and not one of us had seen the cheering light of 
day; not one of this large assemblage were then among the living. And 
so far as we know there is now no person alive who was born in Fall Town 
a hundred years ago. And but one person is living who was born within 
13 years after the incorporation of Bernardston. And that one — Mr. Dan- 
iel Hale — the oldest living person who was born in the Falls Fight Town- 
ship is not here to-day. Another venerable form sits by my side — Mr. 


Edward Nelson^now in his 98th year, who made Leyden his adopted town, 
more than 60 years ago. We rejoice that by the blessing of God he is with 
us to-day, a living memorial of the year 1765, the year of his birth; the 
senior by more than ten years of any person in Bernardston or Leyden. 
His trembling form shows the decaying influence of almost a hundred win- 
ters; and the solemn fact, that though many years may be granted us, yet 
the time of departure to another and better life, must come to all ! 

With these introductory remarks I now propose to take a topic which 
has engaged my attention more or less for many years and which seems 
peculiarly pertinent to the object for which the day is set apart — A com- 
memoration of the beginning and the history of this town, including Ley- 

And here perhaps, a word of apology may be proper. It was with much 
reluctance that I took the place of the distinguished gentleman who was 
expected to address you at this time. Residing in a distant, foreign State, 
of eminent abilities and official position, connected by consanguinity with 
many of this audience, we were of course much disappointed that Hon. 
Elisha H. Allen could not have been here as the principal speaker to-day. 
The short time 1 have had to prepare what 1 have to say, must be an apol- 
ogy for any shortcomings of this address. 

The history of this town, unlike that of many other towns, who were off- 
shoots from a mother town, runs back to and is connected with the early 
events and wars in New England. If our origin is not as romantic and 
apocryphal as that of Romulus and Remus, the founders of ancient Rome, 
we are nevertheless, indebted to some of the important and startling events 
of the early Indian wars for the first idea of the settlement of this town. 
In order therefore that we may understand the origin of the grant of this 
territory by the Legislature of the province of Massachusetts bay in New 
England, in 1734, it is necessary to cast our minds back to prior events. 

In the first settlement of New England at Plymouth in 1620 our Pilgrim 
fathers were influenced in no small degree, in connection with other great 
principles, with a strong desire to carry the gospel to the heathen. Ani- 
mated by that high and God-like motive, they brought with them and car- 
ried into practice, in their intercourse with the aborigines of this country, 
the noble principles of justice aqd integrity; granting to them their origi- 
nal right to the soil, and taking nothing irom them except by a fair bar- 
gain and equivalent. Hence it was that, for more than 50 years after the 
first Puritan had stepped on Plymouth Rt)ck, to a great extent, peace and 
harmony existed between them and the Indians. 


But half a century had passed away and Bradford, Winslow, Brewster 
and Standish and their contemporaries had gone to their eternal rest. 
Massasoit, Samoset, Squanto and the other Indian chiefs had also died, 
and in the places of these just and peaceable men, another generation had 
come forward, whose civilization and Christian life did not equal that of 
their fathers. The red men became enraged at the frequent acts of injus- 
tice by the English settlers; and influenced by jealousy and revenge, the 
natural attributes of the race, commenced a series of pillage and murder 
on the unprotected white men. 'King Phillip's War,' as it is usually called, 
was the consequence, in which, under that famous and noble chieftain — for, 
as an uncivilized Indian he certainly had heroic and noble qualities — a war 
of extermination was commenced about the year 1675, in which nearly all 
the New England Indians were united and the Mohawks of New York, 
also joined them. Eew and feeble as were the military defences of our 
people, the Indians supposed, with considerable reason, that they could 
cut off and entirely destroy their enemy, who they had sagacity enough to 
perceive, were gradually occupying their most valuable corn lands and 
their fishing and hunting grounds. * * * * 

It will be observed that there are three prominent ideas running through 
that act (referring to the grant, and its provisions,) each of them indica- 
tions of the public sentiment and the average civilization of the best men 
of that period. First the grant was based upon the principle of justice. 
It was a consideration for the valuable service of the grantees of their pred- 
ecessors. It was of compensation so far as it could be, for the labors, 
sufferings and losses of the soldiers, who, at a very critical period of 'King 
Phillip's War,' volunteered their services and periled their lives for the 
safety, yea, for the very existence of the colony. Though late, yet justice 
was done to those heroic and self-sacrificing men. I trust in God that 
equal justice may in due time, be done to the patriotic and brave men who 
are now risking their lives in defence of the government of our beloved 
country. Then, it was an Indian enemy, who, perhaps, had some reason 
for their conduct, — that sought to destroy and thus blot out the entire col- 
ony. Now a base and wicked set of rebels are seeking to destroy the best 
government ever devised by man and to base it on a slave holding oligarchy. 
As in the course of Providence, the Indians disappeared from the country, 
and civilization, with all its manifold benefits, have spread over the land, 
so, at an early day, if a God of justice reigns on high, I trust that the 
power and influence of the secession rebels will be swept off, to return no 
more forever. 


Second, the provisions for education and religion, the school and the 
church, m the act granting this town is another evidence of the far-sighted 
wisdom and sagacity of the leading minds of that age. One thirty-fifth 
part, amounting to 600 acres, was thus set apart by the original act and 
subsequently confirmed by the proprietors for the support of the Christian 
ministry; and it is a fact which should be mentioned in this connection 
that a part of the proceeds of the sale of this land set apart for ministerial 
purposes at that time, is yet held by one of the religious societies of this 
town, the successor of the first religious organization in Fall Town; and 
the proceeds of the sale of the schooling lands is yet held by the town, 
and the income is used annually for the support of the district schools. 
More than a hundred years have elapsed since those lands were sequestered 
for the education of the people, and the money for which they were sold 
yet remains. In view of such good judgment and prudence in our fathers, 
we may very properly be proud of their memories. 

It will also be noticed that the original grant required the erection of a 
'convenient Meeting House and the settlement of a learned, orthodox min- 
ister within four years.' As we shall see hereafter, that condition was 
more than complied with; for a meetinghouse was erected the year after 
the first settlement commenced, and was the first framed building in town; 
and a minister was settled soon after. Another provision of the original 
grant required the land to go, when the father was deceased, to the oldest 
son; and in case there was no sons, then to the oldest male descendant, 
thus excluding by the law of primogeniture all daughters from any right 
to their father's land, a law which we, at this time, should consider very 

Our local history then runs back to, and is connected with an important 
battle in an early Indian war, without which, this town, in all probability, 
would have been settled by an entirely different class of men. How mys- 
terious are the ways of Providence! These broad and beautiful fields, this 
pleasant village and this large collection of kindred and friends might 
never have been without the terrible death-struggle at Turners Falls on 
the i8th of May, 1676. 

Struggling on, year by year, through trials and difficulties which we can 
poorly appreciate we now see a fair and goodly land, covered with com- 
fortable dwellings and inhabited by an intelligent and moral people. For 
all these blessings — for the example of wise and pious ancestors — for these 
broad acres and this goodly laml, 'Let us praise the Lord; for his goodness 
and mercy endureth forever.' 


And now, m view of the past, what are the duties and responsibiUties of 
this day and of coming time ? 

Men and Women of Bernardston andLeyden; all that is worth living for 
in life — or hoping for in death depends mostly on you. This large con- 
course of children are soon to take our places and to be the fathers and 
mothers of coming generations. With them is the hope of the future. As 
the child is, so is the man. Four great principles cover the whole ground 
of their future lives, ist. Education; 2nd. Religion; 3rd. Pecuniary pros- 
perity and 4th. A free and good government. A people that have these, 
have all that is necessary for prijsperity — for success — for hap[)iness in life. 

I entreat you then, Brethren and Friends, looking forward into the great 
future which no man can fathom; 1 entreat you to consider well the inter- 
ests of the rising generation. By the blessing of Ood you can make this 
town 'The home of the gootl and the land of the free.' .Standing on this 
high point in the cycle of ages and with a prophetic eye looking forward 
a hundred years I charge you to cultivate, and try every means in your 
power, to diffuse the inestimable blessings of Education and Religion, — of 
successful industry and a Free Government. 'I'hen you may be assured 
your children and your children's children — through a long line of genera- 
tions 'will rise up and call you blessed.' 

But before 1 close I must for myself and in behalf of this large assem- 
blage of friends, pay my respects to the 20th day of Aug. 1962; — Far down 
in the long vista of years 1 see a large gathering of men, women, and chil- 
dren — not one of whom is here to-day — assembled t<:) celebrate the second 
Centennial Anniversary of the Incorporation of Bernardston. A large 
crowd is here. The sun, like to-day, shines brightly on their cheerful faces. 
They talk freely of us— who long since have been known only by the mar- 
ble monument or the sculptured granite. They think and speak of us and 
of what we do and say to-day. To them 1 have a few words to say. 

Men and Women who may meet here on the 20th of August, 1962, we 
send you greetings of a Universal Brotherhood and of a Sympathizing 
Christianity. That you will do more and better than we have done or can 
do, we fully believe. A hundred years of labor and of experience must add 
much to your advancement and must place you much higher in the scale 
of Christian civilization than we are. Look kindly then, we beseech you, 
on the shortcomings of this generation and of the services of this day. If 
we send down to you the blessings of a republican government, you must 
improve and perfect it. If we leave you schools and churches you must 
make them better. We know well and we regret it greatly, that 'the Chris- 


tianity of Christ,' is yet i)ut poorly understood, and less perfectly practised 
by us. Ikit we believe in the progress and ultimately in the high jiosition 
of the human race. If we have done little, you must (.\o more, and thus 
the great design of our Heavenly Father, m the creation of us, his children, 
will be accomplished. 

Kinsmen and Friends, the path of a higher destiny is yours. Peace and 
the blessing of God be with you. 

And finally, may this large assemblage — and an(nher that will meet a 
hundred years from this day, for a similar purpose — and all who in coming 
ages may attend Centennial Celebrations of the Incorporation of this their 
native or adopted town — all — all finally meet in 'the great hereafter of the 
blessed,' and sing praises 'unto Him that sitteth on the throne and to the 
Lamb forever and ever.' " 


(By Rev. George L Riibcrg, Pastor of the Baptist Society.) 

Kindred and friends, 'tis here we meet, 
•With kindly welcomes each to greet; 
With cheerful hearts we join in praise 
For this review of other days. 

'Tis of the past we join to sing, 
A fresh memorial here to bring — 
United in one gladsome throng. 
Singing a Centennial Song. 

A hundred years! all, all have fled. 
Our Fathers gone, they all are dead, 
They, every one, have passed away. 
Who first beheld our natal day. 

The savage now no longer roams 
These groves and fields, our hill-side homes, 
With treacherous eye and wary breath. 
The loved and loving threatening death. 

The lovely scenery around — 
The winding streamlet's gentle sound — 
All speak the blessings and the praise 
Secured and won in former days. 

roEM. 209 

What glorious thoughts our hearts inspire ! 
What patriot words our bosoms fire! 
As we now stand and here incline 
Our thoughts to scenes of olden time. 

We stand to-day the past review, 
The present brings us conflicts new, 
The memory of the honored brave 
Should stimulate our flag to save. 


In my own self-defence, 

Christian ladies and gents. 

Who have gathered before me a host, 

I begin by proclaiming 

I'm no poet worth naming. 

But merely a rhymer at most. 

Don't take it amiss 

If I pass over this 

To sketch here and there other things. 

As I chance to find means 

From the ends and betweens 

Of history, gathered in strings. 

I must talk, I suppose. 

As one who well knows. 

For a century now that is past, 

Of the town and the race 

Occupying this place, 

And which lately is changing so fast. 

Till within a few years, 

For aught it appears, 

The most to excite admiration 

Was our excellent roads. 

And the pleasant abodes 

'Tween the east and the west elevation. 

On what's called Huckle Hill, 

(As is true even still) 

Some go-ahead farmers resided, 

And up there stood the church. 

As if left in the lurch. 

With all of religion one-sided. 


There they gathered each week, 

Dressed up tidy and sleek, 

To listen to sermons and prayers, 

But in winter half frozen, 

As if all were supposin' 

'Twas wicked in church to have fires. 

To complete self-denial, 

Neither orgati nor viol, 

Noraught that would make a sweet sound, 

Was allowed for a minute, 

Lest the De'il might be in it, 

And pleasure thus carnal abound. 

When for singing all ripe. 

Leader blew the pitch-pipe. 

And he and the choir took the sound. 

And the singing that followed, 

Not artfully mellowed. 

Would a sensitive ear quite astound. 

Then the parson did preach, 
(Meaning hard hearts to reach) 
For never much less than an hour. 
Till some hearers were mad, 
And others were glad, 
Declaring the sermon a power. 

When the sermon was done, 

Up they rose every one. 

All turning their seats back with a noise, 

There to stand, as in fear, 

A long prayer still to hear. 

Postponing, at least, half their joys. 

Like of this was the fashion, 

Through much of the nation 

In times we call early and rude, 

And it's fair to presume. 

When such customs found room. 

They were hailed as becoming and good. 

But as time passed away, 

And the people grew gay. 

Or more and more generally pious, 

They moved the church down 

Tow'rds what now is the town. 

Though it didn't then come very nigh us. 

I'OEM. 211 

By and by, with some pain, 

They moved it again, 

And once more again even later, 

And they then built up more. 

E'en the fifth of a score 

To prove the town quite a sin hater. 

There they stand all in sight, 

Each a lantern of light. 

To guide the poor traveler benighted, 

So that all with fair gait 

Cannot fail to go straight, 

Or if not may be speedily righted. 

These five sects as they grew, 

Sought for something to do, 

To make all around them to flourish, 

So they built up the schools. 

Unlike bigoted fools, 

Such as virulent party doth nourish. 

No schools far around 

Can be easily found 

That show in a better condition. 

And from them have up-grown. 

And them almost alone. 

Our men who sustain high position. 

And since here in our town. 
Besides schools of renown 
We have a far-famed Institute, 
'Twere a pity our sons 
Shouldn't prove useful ones, 
As of fair education the fruit. 

Our daughters we trust. 

If not marked as the first 

For external polish and show. 

Would be chosen for wives. 

To make happy the lives 

Of husbands, as faithful and true. 


When our town was he^un. 

Scarce a work could be done 

Unguarded l)y musket and sword, 

For the Indian was near 

To inspire all with fear 

I^est his murderous yell should be heard. 

The children and spouses 

Were kept in block houses, 

Of which two stood up east on the hill, 

And so great was the care 

To protect them up there, 

That the Indians no one's blood did spill. 

I'P north stood a fort, 

To which all could resort 

In case of a savage surprise; 

And the)' lived year by year. 

Thus familiar with fear 

As where safety in watchfulness lies. 

When our town 'gan to flourish, 
And the virtues to nourish, 
vSome half of a centurj- ago, 
The old serpent came in, 
With temptations to sin 
So as Kden, our town to undo. 

All at once, with a will. 

Alcohol to distil, 

From the cider, the corn and the rj-e, 

The old serpent began, 

Through his instrument, man, 

To carry his schemes bold and high. 

vSad times then were known. 

And such seeds then were sown 

As by this time had wrought complete ruin, 

Rut a grand reformation 

Took place in the nation 

And kept us our town from undoin'. 

In politics most 

Of our peo])le can boast 

They are democrats (juite to the core. 

POEM. 213 

But they're called by such names 
As, in false cheating games, 
Might really cheat twice in four. 

We all are the friends 

Of each measure that tends 

The mass of the people to bless 

So, called what you will 

We are democrats still. 

And not a whit more or whit less. 


Full forty years ago I came, 

With sober, unambitious aim 

To Beruardston to dwell; 

The houses then were brown and sparse, 

The signs of elegance were scarce, 

And signs of wealth as well. 

From place of business called the Green, 

Three houses only could be seen, 

Or four, I think, at most. 

Whose tops ascended tow'rds the sky 

To what is called two stories high. 

At very moderate cost. 

No church near by could then be seen 
And all was silent on said Green 
And through the district round; 
For days, except that stages run, 
You saw no stir, except for fun, 
And scarcely heard a sound. 

The village seemed no business place. 
The people seemed a quiet race. 
With comforts at command; 
The mountains tow'ring in their pride, 
And all the verdant vales beside, 
Displayed a prospect grand. 

Those mountains and those vales remain, 

And now are clothed with grass and grain, 

As we admiring see; 

The houses also where they stood. 

By care and painting have kept good. 

And grown as twelve from three. 

214 ^^- JOHN BROOKS. 

Some mansions, even now appear, 

And some are added, year by year, 

Our village to adorn: 

No blacksmith's shop or tanner's yard, 

Which once our lovely church street marred, 

Now stands there "all forlorn." 

Instead of one store, high up stairs, 
With but a few ^mercantile wares, 
As once by Newcoinb kept. 
We now in town have three or four, 
From each of which as much or more 
Is often cleanly swept. 

Near Newconib's, now, where once so still, 
There runs a famous working mill. 
Thousands of boards to saw; 
And up the stream there stands one more. 
Built on dry land by Stephen Gore, 
That works without a flaw. 

Three other saw'mills long have stood, 
Besides one lost in whelming flood, 
A long, long time ago; 
Two grist mills grind our rye and corn 
As fast as those that eat are born. 
And streams with water flow. 

Three blacksmiths keep our horses shod. 
And each would think it truly odd 
Had he no work to do; 
Three doctors, also, go the rounds. 
When any sickness much abounds, — 
And undertakers, too. 

Five ministers attempt to live 
On what the people choose to give 
To have them preach and pray; 
Five carpenters, perhaps, are here. 
Who lay up money, year by year. 
Unless too much they play. 

Some lawyers, I believe, have tried 

In our good village to abide. 

But never tried it long; 

They found at law we scarce would sue. 

E'en if we lost what might be due. 

Or took it in a song. 

POEM. 215 

Two hundred farmers, more or less, 
Preserve from hunger and distress 
Themselves and all around. 
By grain and grass, and things that grow. 
From what thev plant and what they hoe. 
And gather from the ground. 

We have shoemakers here, 'tis said, 
Who rank as masters of the trade, 
And in good times must thrive; 
We've one machine for carding wool. 
While some cut garments out by rule. 
And all to live, contrive. 

But finally, to crown the whole. 
Nought comes so near perfection's goal, 
Except what perfect grows, 
Considered in all points of view. 
For qualities both good and new. 
As do the modern hoes. 

A modern hoe put side by side, 
With such a hoe as was supplied 
An hundred years ago. 
Would be so much a sight to see 
That Barnum would demand a fee 
And keep them for a show. 

A modern hoe would hardly weigh 
A third of one of former day. 
Nor much more like it look 
Than finest needle to be found 
Looks like a bar that weighs a pound. 
Or wafer like a book. 

I've seen the hoes that then were made. 

And partially once learnt the trade 

With such to hoe the corn; 

Their weight alone did little lack 

Of breaking shoulders, arms and back. 

And made one look forlorn. 

Their shovels tallied with their hoes, 

And took the strength, we may suppose, 

A common cart to fill, 

That 'twould to haul, through mud and mire, 

A load at which a horse would tire, 

Or turn a cider-mill. 


A dumped thing, all made of wood, 
Except a point of iron good, 

That shovel, firm and strong; 

The man who used it proved, no doubt, 

Because he used it he was stout. 

If not to be so long. 

Their axes, too, with dangling blades, 
Fashioned as if begun for spades. 
Were mean wherewith to chop; 
The handle seemed, as if in spite. 
Where'er it crooked to not crook right. 
As rise when it should drop. 

Their plows were also wooden tools. 
Plated with iron by no rules. 
And hard to draw or hold; 
A man and yoke of oxen, now, 
Would do as much a field to plow. 
As three of each of old. 

And thus it was with nearly all 

Of what a farmer's tools we call, 

An hundred years ago; 

We old folks know, for they remained 

Till some of us had manhood gained. 

When they were here to show. 

The women then had cards and reels. 
Their great and little spinning wheels. 
And looms the cloth to weave; 
They then were busy all the day. 
Sometimes out door a raking hay, 
Their husbands to relieve. 

With health most women then were blest. 

But not so flattered and caressed 

As in these modern times; 

Much exercise in open air, 

Some hardship, with rustic fare. 

With highest health most chimes. 

'Twere matter once, of boast and pride 
How well a farmer's wife could ride. 
With husband, on one horse; 
The man got seated well before, 
While just behind the pillion bore 
The wife, two-thirds across. 

POEM. 217 

Thus oft to church they passed along, 
Among the Sabbath-keeping throng, 
To join in prayer and praise; 
And if this service something cost. 
To them 'twas far from being lost. 
Or heirs they chanced to raise. 
» * * * * 

On such occasions women all 

Wore shoes whose heels stood up so tall 

Their weight fell on their toes; 

The shoe was pointed, like a skate. 

The heel ran down the toe to mate, 

And both were dangerous foes. 

Cocked hats and wigs, about those days, 
Fashioned and dressed in various ways. 
By men of grace were worn. 
And breeches buckled at the knees. 
Looking by far too tight to please, 
All comfort seemed to scorn. 

When men of hair did show no lack. 

They had it cued up in the back. 

Some like a rat-tail file; 

And cued with eelskin, it was said 

Its slender length has sometimes made 

A portion of a mile. 

These hints of men's and women's dress. 

Show what prevailed in every place. 

Say seventy years ago; 

And then these fashions were not new, 

(If memory is correct and true,) 

But through the century flow. 

Whether in minor things of taste 
Our modern fashions are more chaste 
Than those of olden time, 
May be a question of such doubt. 
That prudence prompts to leave it out, 
And thus commit no crime. 
« ♦ « * * 

As God's good angel from on high 

Who brought, at first, the gospel nigh. 

As tidings good to all. 

So in the future shall it prove, 

Inciting men to deeds of love, 

Not daily, few nor small. 

2i8 A. w. field's address. 

A century hence, if we shall know 
The gains in wisdom here below, 
Through a pure gospel's aid, 
The town of Bernardston, I trust, 
Will take full rank among the first, 
Perfect in wisdom made. 

Mr. Aaron W. Field, then a student in Williams College, and 
representing the Institute, addressed the audience upon "The three 
fundamental means of acquiring an education.'' In an instructive 
and entertaining paper he demonstrated that the first of these 
methods was self-help. Contrasting the body and mind in their 
respective seasons of activity and rest, their voluntary and invol- 
untary powers, and deducing therefrom the fact that in order to 
increase in knowledge and perfection, we must exert ourselves, 
intellectually and physically to the uttermost. Application is the 
one thing which determines success. "If therefore we would live, 
we must think ; we must send out our thoughts on foraging expe- 
ditions to gather in provisions for our moral and intellectual 
growth." The second means cited was assistance from others. 
"The human race, is as it were, a web, every person of which is a 
thread. Our characters, wealth, learning and social condition are 
the stripes and checks of the fabric. Every step we take jars the 
whole earth. Every thought we utter influences all succeeding 
generations. If these things are so, what great opportunities there 
are for obtaining knowledge from each other ! One way of learn- 
ing from others is by means of schools. They are an institution 
adapted to the wants of the race. No country can arrive to any 
degree of civilization without them. They are the foundation of 
all democratic and republican constitutions, the roots of the tree of 
liberty. The prohibition of them is the direct road to tyranny. 
Their establishment and maintenance the direct road to liberty. 
Therefore, it becomes legislators and statesmen, and the public 
generally, to see that every child has its share of schooling, for by 
neglect, minds may be allowed to slumber in forgetfulness, that 
otherwise would arise and shine and be a blessing to themselves 
and the world. * * * The third means of acquiring an educa- 
tion is instruction from God. Education is something more than 
the enlightening of the intellect. The affections need educating 


as well as the intellect. That, and that only, is true education, 
that enlightens the mind and purifies the affections. God does not 
delight in a great intellect unless it is governed by a great heart, 
beating in unison with His own. * * * Would you be educated 
in the true signification of the term, then help yourselves, obtain all 
the assistance you can from other people and receive the instruction of 
God. The two last means require study and self-exertion. There- 
fore activity is an attribute of the true man, without it there can be 
no progression." 

After reading letters of congratulation from former residents of 
Bernardston, who were unable to be present, S. N. Brooks, Esq., 
read the following : 

To the Inhabitants of Bernardston : — ■ 

Fellow Citizens: — The observation and experience of my whole life have 
satisfied me that education and religion are the great and fundamental 
principles on which the prosperity and happiness of all communities must 
depend, and that it is the duty of all men to promote those objects by all 
the means within their power. 

Your religious institutions consist of five religious societies, all in suc- 
cessful operation; of five church buildings, all pleasant edifices, and in 
good repair, with five pastors, all men of ability and zeal in the sacred 
calling, of five Sabbath-schools for the religious education of the young. 
and as many Sunday school libraries. Thus your arrangements for pr(j- 
moting religious principles, and spiritual attainments are ample and suffi- 

Your institutions for educational purposes consist of six school districts 
with as many school houses and schools all well endowed, where the pri- 
mary branches of education are well taught. In Powers Institute you have 
a high school in successful operation, with a fund for its support, and with 
a convenient, tasteful and eligible building, where your children can ac- 
quire the higher branches of education. 

But in order to render your means of education and social progress com- 
plete, you need a public library; a want that has often been felt and ex- 
pressed by the people of your town. To supply that deficiency, I propose 
to give to the town of Bernardston the sum of one thousand dollars to es- 
tablish a free public library therein and one hundred dollars a year for ten 
years, (if I shall so long live) for its enlargement. Also the sum of five 
hundred dollars for the erection of a suitable fire proof library building. 


Provided^ however, that the town shall at a legal meeting accept of such 
donations, with the following conditions, viz., ist. That said library shall 
be forever free for the use of all the people of Bernardston, for the teach- 
ers and students of Powers Institute, and for those families who reside in 
the adjoining towns who are regular and paying members of any religious 
society in Bernardston. 

2nd. That said library shall be controlled and managed by a board of 
trustees, consisting of the town clerk, school committee and selectmen, 
ex officio, of the town of Bernardston ; of all the resident clergymen and 
physicians of said town and of twelve other persons to be chosen by ballot 
at a legal meeting of the said town of Bernardston, and after the first elec- 
tion to be chosen at the annual town meeting in March, and to hold their 
offices for three years, one-third of said number to be elected annually, six 
of them shall be from the respective school districts, and three at large, 
and any person who shall give the sum of one hundred dollars for the en- 
largement of said library shall be an honorary trustee for life. 

3rd. That the town of Bernardston shall authorize the selectmen to pay 
annually for the services of a competent librarian who shall be appointed 
by the board of trustees aforesaid; to pay for a full insurance against loss 
by fire of said library, library building, and the furniture therein, and to 
pay such a sum as the trustees shall deem sufficient for the repairs of the 
library building, and the books and furniture therein, so that the same shall 
be kept in a good condition. 

4th. That no religious sect, political party, or any other combination of 
that kind, shall ever pervert said library to its own particular uses, the pro- 
motion of literature, art, science, religion and human happiness being the 
main objects of its foundation. 

Hoping that the foregoing donation with the conditions annexed, may 
be acceptable to the people of Bernardston, and that the library thus estab- 
lished on the first Centennial Anniversary of the Incorporation of the town, 
may prove of inestimable value to all the people for ages to come, is the 
devout prayer and ardent wish of your friend and servant, 

Henry W. Cushman. 
Bernardston, Aug. 20, 1862. 

Amid the applause which followed the reading of this communi- 
cation, but one feeling and sentiment was expressed. Thankful- 
ness and appreciation of the magnitude of the gift, coupled with 
a just feeling of pride that in its author was a true son of the noble 
old town. Could anything have been more appropriate to com- 


plete the festivities of the day than that such an institution as this 
was designed to be, and so handsomely endowed, should be pre- 
sented in such manner as not only to be a benefit to those of the 
present generation, but also to their children's children? 

There was a notable number of old people present, the oldest 
person present from Leyden was Mrs. Nancy, wife of Capt. Ezra 
Foster, ae. 8i years; Briggs Potter and Chester Hastings, over 70 
each, also represented that town. 

From Bernardston the following named persons over 70 years of 
age were present : Rufus Guellow, 90; Mrs. D. Hale, 87; Mrs. Lydia 
Goodale, 86; Letitia Field, 83; Lydia Mitchell, 86; Reuben Park, 81; 
Phoebe Merriam, 82; Widow Clark, 80; Mrs. Sanderson, Israel 
Bagg, 85; Mrs. Ormilla Marsh, 70; Marian Scott, 75; Phoebe Good- 
rich, 75; Anna Parmenter, 74; Mrs. Bradley, 75; Margaret Wells, 70; 
Tartia Dickinson, ']-]; Doci. John Brooks, 79; Joseph Slate, "jy, 
James Butler, 72; Cyrus Briggs, 73; Jesse Field, 70; Z. C. Newcomb. 
70; Horace Atherton, 71: Simon Edwards, 75; wife, 72; Simon Shel- 
don, 75; Ralph Cushman, 79; T. B. Hoyt, 76; Mrs. Lucinda Slate, 
75; George Thompson, 75; vSamuel Howe, "jy; Levi Park, 76; Mrs. 
Eunice Slate, 79; Lurena Chapin, "jd; Lovina Hale, 78; Triphena 
Pratt, 'j'j\ Caroline Root, Seorim Cushman and wife, Mrs. Jason 
Brown, Mrs. Thomas Snow, Alpha Ryther, over 70. 

During the delivery of Mr. Cushman's address, just as he uttered 
the words, "might makes right," the platform upon which he was 
standing, and the president and several others sitting, went down 
with a crash. Fortunately no one was injured, and after a hearty 
laugh the speaker proceeded, and it is only safe to suppose that 
such incidents but added zest to the occasion. 

The celebration surpassed the expectations of even the most san- 
guine, and not one in the large audience but felt the better for the 
revival of old associations and the renewal of old acquaintances, 
and as they separated, each to his or her own home, resuming once 
more the duties which led them in greatly diversified paths, they 
could but have felt that they were the better off for having once 
more revisited the home and recalled the old familiar scenes of 
their childhood days. Each could but exclaim, "It was good to 
have been there." 



In the present age of progression, one of the important factors 
in education is the establishment and maintenance of a thoroughly 
good collection of volumes, not only from the current literature of 
the day, but also such from the pens of older writers as seem best 
adapted to the needs of those for whose benefit the library is de- 
signed. Especially is this true of a town which is in any degree 
an educational town. Among the first to recognize this truism in 
this place was Lieut. Gov. Cushman, and with characteristic disin- 
terestedness he determined that those with whom he was daily 
associated, those who had become so near and dear to him, should 
reap the benefits accruing from the establishment of such an insti- 
tution in their midst. A perusal of the preceeding chapter reveals 
the definite form assuined by his thought. Such a magnificent 
gift could but have deeply touched the hearts of the townspeople, 
especially as mature consideration must have shown not only how 
much it meant to them, but also to future generations. 

On the sixth of September following the announcement of the 
gift, a town meeting was held. It was unanimously voted: 

"That whereas a com'municatioii, proposing a gift of money for the pur- 
pose of establishing a free public Town Library, was presented to the in- 
habitants of Bernardston, by the Hon. Henry W. Cushman, on the occasion 
of the Centennial Celebration of the incorporation of the town, Aug. 20, 
1862, therefore, 

Voted, by the inhabitants of Bernardston, in town meeting assembled as 
follows, — 

1st. That we accept the aforesaid valuable present of 'One thousand 
dollars to establish a Free Public Library in Bernardston, and one hundred 
dollars annually for ten years for its enlargement; and five hundred dollars 
for the erection of a suitable fire proof library building,' (making a total 
of twenty-five hundred dollars) with the conditions and provisions there- 


unto annexed; and we hereby engage faithfully and truly to abide by and 
carry out the same, according to the true intent and meaning of the gen- 
erous donor thereof. 

2nd. That we hereby, for ourselves and our posterity, who are to be long 
benefited by this judicious liberality, tender our gratitude and thanks to 
the Hon. Henry W. Cushman for this munificent gift which does so much 
to render our 'means of education and social progress complete.' 

3rd. That future generations may be reminded of the origin of an insti- 
tution from which they as well as ourselves will obtain so much that con- 
duces to true improvement and lasting happiness, we hereby direct that 
the library thus estabhshed, shall forever be called the 'CUSHMAN LI- 

4th. That the Hon. Henry W. Cushma.n be an honorary Trustee for life, 
of the Cushman Library. 

5th. As we recognize the wisdom and sagacity of dispensing bounties 
like the present during the life time of the giver, we will endeavor so to 
conduct the management of the Library as shall conduce most effectually 
to the good to be derived from it by ourselves and our children, and most 
evince our constant gratitude to its donor. 

6th. That a copy of the foregoing votes be presented by the Town Clerk 
to the Hon. Henry W. Cushman, and also furnished to the Greenfield Ga- 
zette and Courier for publication." 

The building i.s of brick, 36 feet and eight inches long, and 
twenty-five feet wide, two stories in height, and in its design is 
well adapted for its purpose. The lower story is occupied by the 
library proper, a small reference or reading room, and a safe built 
into the walls near the entrance, furnishing a fire-proof reposi- 
tory for books and papers. Through the liberality of Hon. John 
Sanderson, the upper story was added and done off into a hall 
known as Sanderson Hall, and by his heirs presented to the town 
in April, 1900. This for several years was utilized for small gath- 
erings, and may be still so used, or as additional library room, as 
circumstances should require. The window caps and sills, also the 
pilaster capitals are of brown sandstone, while over the door, in 
letters of the same appears "Cushman Library." Others became 
actively interested in the enterprise so that upon the completion 
of the building contributions to the books purchased out of the 
fund given had increased the number to nearly two thousand, and 


by the yearly additions made, that number has been increased to 
6690, (1901), works of fiction, juvenile, history, travels, miscellan- 
eous, science and mechanics, poetry, theology; moral and religious, 
agriculture, art and architecture, reference. Government records, 
reports, messages and documents, law. being included. 

The dedicatory services were held upon the first anniversary of 
the gift, August 20, 1863, and were as follows: 

ist. Singing by the choir, Anthem. 

2nd. Reading of the Scriptures, by Rev. D. Wright. 

3rd. Prayer of Dedication, by Rev. H. B. Butler. 

4th. Singing by the choir of the original hymn by Rev. J. B. Green, 


Welcome, dawn of better days, 
Welcome to our glens and braes. 
Welcome Knowledge, claim thy bays, 

Claim, and wear for aye. 
Let us raise a joj-ous song, 
Let the hills the sound prolong. 
Rising frona a grateful throng, 

Welcome, Wisdom's sway! 

Now let darkness backward flee, 
P'olly here must homeless be. 
Error, exiled, none may see, 

In the coming light, 
Better days for truth have come. 
She with us shall find a home. 
Bigot hate shall soon lie dumb. 

Baffled by the Right. 

Now let grateful thanks ascend. 
Thanks to Him our Heavenly Friend, 
Who a generous soul did send 

Here to bless us all. 
Bless us here with knowledge free. 
Bless the race, if faithful we; 
Better friend we'll never see, 

Blessings on him fall. 

5th. Address, by Hon. Geo. T. Davis. 

6th. Singing by the choir of an original hymn by Dr. John Brooks. 

7th. Poem, by P'red P. Brown, of Williams College, formerly of Powers Institute. 

8th. Prayer by Rev. G. L. Ruberg. 

9th. Singing by the choir. 

loth. Benediction by Rev. C. N. Merrifield. 








The townspeople can but realize the sentiments so beautifully 
expressed by Dr. Channing. when he wrote : 

"It is chiefly through books that we enjoy intercourse with superior 
minds, and these invaluable means of communication are in the reach of all. 
In the best books great men talk to us, give us their most precious thoughts, 
and pour their souls into ours. God be thanked for books. They are the 
voices of the distant and the dead, and make us heirs of the spiritual life 
of past ages. Books are the true levelers. They give to all, who will faith- 
fully use them, the society, the spiritual presence of the best and greatest 
of our race. No matter how poor I am, no matter though the prosperous 
of my own time will not enter my obscure dwelling. If the Sacred Writers 
will enter and take up their abode under my roof, if Milton will cross my 
threshold to sing to me of Paradise, and Shakespeare to open to me the 
worlds of imagination and the workings of the human heart, and Franklin 
to enrich me with his practical wisdom; I shall not pine for want of 
intellectual companionship; and I may become a cultivated man, though 
excluded from what is called the best society in the place where I live." 

Nobly have our people testified their appreciation of their valu- 
able library by choosing and placing where it cannot fail to catch 
the eye of all who enter, this most appropriate expression of Chan- 
ning's, "God be thanked for books." The librarians have been: 

1. Noyes Barstow, M. D., 

2. Rev G. L. Ruberg, 

3. Rev. T. A. Merrill, 
t4 William D wight, M. D., 
fS- Rev. Stillmau Barber, 
t6. Mrs. A. R. Cushman, 
t7. Mrs. M. D. Bardwcll, 

8. Fannie A. Bardwell (Mrs. Chas. Parsons), 

9. Nellie M. Hale (Mrs. Walter E. Nichols), 

10. Carrie M. Slate, 

11. Mrs. Mary A. Kenney, 

12. Nellie R. Haskell, 

13. Rev. D. H. Strong, 

14. Rev. R. E. Birks. 

+ Deceased 


As in their emigration to this country, the Pilgrims sought lib- 
erty of thought and action in religious and eventually in civil mat- 













1 t 


), " 

( i 


), " 



i i 











ters, so one of their first duties subsequent to their settlement was 
the establishment of their church and schools. In the one they 
and their children might enjoy without alloy, the expounding of 
doctrines concurrent with their own train of thought ; in the other 
the youth might receive an education unbiased by such sectarian 
influences as were exerted to a greater or less degree in their trans- 
atlantic home. And still further extending their liberal ideas, they 
resolved that the schools should be equally approachable by all, in 
a word that they should be free. Into such channels of thought 
and action did the tyranny to which they had formerly been sub- 
jected, turn their thoughts. Free schools had their origin in our 
grand old Bay State. In marked contrast to the stand so early 
taken by her puritanic settlers, were the sentiments expressed in 
1 67 1 by Sir William Berkley, first Governor of Virginia, in a letter 
to the English King, "I thank God there are no free schools nor 
printing presses here, and I trust there will not be this hundred 
years; for learning breeds up heresies and sects and all abomina- 
tions. God save us from both." What an eloquent plea for the 
introduction of the very things he so strongly condemns, for what 
is more to be desired than that knowledge should be as freely dif- 
fused as the very air we breathe ? As the latter in its purity is 
essential to bodily well-being, so is absolute purity and freedom of 
thought conducive to highest mental condition, and upon what 
more than this does the true establishment an^ maintenance of the 
best principles of our State and National governments depend? 
The dissimilitude of puritanical and tory ideas on this subject is 
most excellently portrayed by a comparison of this quotation from 
Sir William's letter with the words of Rev. John Robinson to the 
Pilgrims before they left Leyden for their future and unknown 
home. Above all things he charged them to build churches, estab- 
lish .schools, and read the Bible without sectarian prejudice, for, 
said he, " I am convinced that God has more light yet to break 
forth out of His holy word. Receive such light gladly." 

In many places the first instruction imparted was by the minis- 
ter upon secular as well as religious subjects. Doubtless this was 
true in our town in some measure. The first discussion relative 
to the foundation of a school system arose in 1769. In 1770 there 


was granted to the several school districts of the town the stim of 
two pounds, proportioned as follows: 

School at Connable's, 7 shillings. 

'■ Hasting's, 13 

" Dea. Sheldon's, 26 

" " Lieut. vSeverance's, 14 

At a town meeting held in December, 1770, six pounds were ap- 
propriated for the use of a .school, and the town fathers were in- 
structed to provide a place and appoint a time for keeping the 
school. In 1 77 1 it was ascertained that there were "90 cliildren in 
town who want schooling," hence one shilling four pence each was 
voted, or a total of si.\ pounds. Again in December, 1772, there is 
recorded that the town voted "to raise one shiling and six pence 
for each schoolar in town for schooling, whicli is seven pounds ten 
shillings, and that boys from six to sixteen years of age, and girls 
from six to twelve years of age shall be reckoned as schoolars, and 
that the schoolars at ye south end of ye town, up as far as Major 
Burk and Daniel Loomis on ye river, and on ye east side of ye town 
up as far as Amasa Sheldon's, shall go to Mr. Remembrance Shel- 
don's house to school; and that all ye schoolars on ye hill from Mr. 
Wright's north, shall goto Sergt. John Severance's house to school; 
and that all ye schoolars from Benjamin Green's north, and so out 
to Simon Edwards, shall go to Samuel Connable's house to school 
and that those people in ye west part of ye town may have a school 
where they can agree, and if the money that has been raised and 
is now being raised for schooling is not expended for that purpose 
in the term of one year from this time, the schoolars shall not be 
entitled to said money." 

What a contrast is here presented to the methods in vogue at 
the present! In the majority of cases, school-life is hardly consid- 
ered as much more than thoroughly begun at what is here set down 
as the limit of scholarship. Very narrow minded and penurious 
would the youth of to-day consider those in authority should they 
see a vote so restricting what they have come to consider as their 
just rights and privileges; and yet, it was with just such advan- 
tages as that many of the foremost men of former times ac- 
quired their educations. Knowing how precious was the time 


allotted them, they were taught to and did utilize it to the utmost. 
A little later on, in early manhood, supplementing it, perhaps, by 
an hour of study snatched here and there from the performance 
of a hard day's work, or possibly either late at night or by rising 
at an earlier hour than that prescribed by the traditional early ris- 
ers of olden time. 

Another fact is here noticeable which shows the spirit of liberal- 
ity which prevailed in our town. From the very first, girls were 
admitted to the privileges of the schools. In colonial days, many 
contended that their education should be limited to a thorough 
mastery of domestic duties. Book learning was considered super- 
fluous. Take the town of Medford for instance. It was not until 
1776 that the subject of female education was noticed, then only 
in this manner: "Voted that the master instruct girls two hours 
after the boys are dismissed," and at this time their schools had 
had an existence of 80 years. Ten years later girls were granted 
the privilege of attending schools during the three summer months. 
It did not take our town anv such leng^th of time to realize the 
need of educated women, hence we find boys and girls up to a 
certain age sharing the same educational advantages, and the re- 
sulting facts proved the efficacy of the method. 

At a meeting held by adjournment at the house of Mr. Elijah 
Sheldon, December 20, 1773, it was voted "that all the Schoolers 
South of Ens'n Sheldon's and Daniel Loomis's shall go to one 
School, also that all the schoolers from Mr. Wright's north on ye 
hill shall go to one school, that all the schoolers from Benjamin 
Green's north shall go to one school, that all the schoolers at Beaver 
Meadow and Frizzell Hill go to one school, also that those school- 
ers joining on Colraine be allowed their proportion of money for 
Schooling." April 17, 1772, for his services as teacher, Zebulon 
Allen received the sum of 1-12-0-O; May 29. 1773, Widow Shad- 
dock, 1-17-4-0; June 22, 1774, there was paid to Mary Cunnabell 
for "keeping school," i- 15-0-0; to Huldah Sheldon, for the same, 
2-8-0-0. These four persons were undoubtedly the instructors of 
the youth of the town prior to the Revolution. 

From this time until 1784, nothing appears upon the records to 
indicate that anything was done in the matter of education. Ow- 


ing to the unsettled condition of the country, and the active part 
which the town assumed during the Revolutionary strife, is it not 
safe to suppose that the money hitherto appropriated for educa- 
tional purposes was now freely given to the support of the colonial 
cause, which as we have seen, the inhabitants of the town so warmly 
espoused ? Another reason may be found in the fact that in many 
cases, the fathers of the families being away in the service of their 
country, so many of the youth may have been obliged for the time 
being to have assumed the duties usually devolving upon their 
elders, as to render the number of scholars too small to continue 
the schools advantageously. After the beginnings made in educa- 
tional matters, we can hardly explain a cessation only by some 
such hypothesis. As we consider the probable financial condition 
of the most of the residents at this time, we can readily understand 
how they might not be able to meet all the demands for outside 
matters. Be that as it may, there must have been a good and suffi- 
cient reason for even a temporary suspension. 

As we have seen, the custom hitherto prevalent was for the 
schools to be kept at private houses, the financial standing of the 
town not being such as to warrant the erection of school buildings. 
An effort toward progression was made when, in 1784, it was or- 
dered that the town be divided into four school districts, and that 
each should build a school house, or provide a place in which to 
keep the school at its own expense. The division was as follows : 
the south-east part of the town as far west as Joseph Denio's and 
Capt. Burnham's, taking in Mr. Wright's, Hezekiah and Joel Chap- 
in's, Jonathan Sheldon's and Ebenezer Slate's families, should con- 
stitute one district, and their school house should stand in the road 
by the south-west corner of Caleb wSheldon's farm. The north-east 
district extended west to Ball Mountain, south to Calvin Bliss's. 
The school house was to stand in the road south of Lieut. Sever- 
ance's where Elias Parmenter's road comes into the road that leads 
from Lieut. Severance's to the meeting house. The north-west 
district was to contain all north of John Burk's west of the river, 
and all north of Daniel Loomis's on the east side, to Ball Mountain. 
The school house was to be located south of the lane that leads from 
the road to Samuel Connable's. The school house in the south-west 


district was assigned a position in the sawmill yard. At this time 
it was also voted that the public money be divided by the assessors 
on the common list of each district, and that each district have their 
proportion by this rule. The districts, as will be noticed, coincide 
very closely with the present division. Two years later a little 
change was made in this plan, owing probably to some little dissat- 
isfaction having arisen. The south-west district was to divide and 
•become two districts "provided they can agree among themselves, 
otherwise the whole of the west street from Joseph Hale's south 
and west inclusive, shall be one district." The inhabitants from 
Oliver Parmenter's to William Thayer's and John Coat's on those 
roads, and all east and south of those roads, are to comprise one dis- 
trict and the place for their school house is at the cross of the road 
leading "to Northfield on the one hand and Caleb Sheldon's on the 
other." Capt. Burnham and Joseph Denio were to be annexed to 
the south-west district. "Hill from Mr. Wright's north make two 
districts, Mr. Edwards' house to be the dividing line and he shall 
have liberty to annex himself to which district he shall choose and 
that the centre from Mr. Wright's to Mr. Edwards' of the south dis- 
trict shall be the place for their school house. The north district 
school house shall be set under the hill on the road leading to Mr. 
Daniel Slate's, if the majority choose it, if not on the top of the 

In 1796 the school tax was $261.1 1. Three years later the "Sing- 
ing School Committee " brought in a bill in behalf of Elias Par- 
menter for $10. 

April 7, 1800, the first school committee was appointed as follows : 
Samuel Flagg, Dr. G. Ryther, Ensign T. Hale, Nehemiah Wright, 
David vSeverance and Thomas Horseley, one member for each dis- 
trict, and thereafter the choosing of such a committee was an an- 
nual affair. In addition to this committee, there was, in 1815, a 
second one appointed, viz. : Job Goodale, Esq., Capt. Oliver Root, 
David Severance, Dr. Chapin and Joseph Connable, with the rever- 
end pastor, to visit the schools at their beginning and ending, to 
inspect their regulations and to see that the money raised for that 
purpose be properly applied, and to encourage the "schoolars." 

Thus do we see what our ancestors with their limited means were 

F.XDr)\vMr,\TS. 231 

able to accomplish, and considering the difficulties under which 
they labored, could we expect them to do more? Many towns set- 
tled by a different class of people, would have done much less and 
then felt proud of the result. As a town or country is first popu- 
lated by people whose natural tendencies lead them toward peace 
or war, so do we find, almost invariably, those particular character- 
istics in their descendants, and that, too, in a marked degree. Ber- 
nardston has always been an educational and religious town, those 
two elements being unusually developed in her inhabitants, and 
her schools take high rank. There was a fund of $716.00 derived 
from the sale of the school lands, which, as will be recalled, were 
included in the original one hundred lots as first appropriated by 
the proprietors, and the interest of this fund was to forever be de- 
voted to the public schools. They also receive the income of $5,000 
bequeathed by Edward Epps Powers, who also endowed the insti- 
tute bearing his name, and who has thus generously remembered 
the place of his nativity, the one condition annexed being that the 
town shall annually raise the sum of $300. By the will of Judge 
Goodale, the sum of $200 was bequeathed to be loaned at interest, 
and both principal and interest to be an accumulating fund until 
the amount reach twenty thousand dollars, after which time the 
annual interest of the said twenty thousand dollars "shall be ap- 
propriated by the town for the support of the poor so far as neces- 
sary and the residue for the support of the common schools, and a 
public library, if that should, by said town, be then thought expe- 
dient." This is now about $7,000. 

Probably the greatest number of pupils were enrolled between 
the years 1840 and i860. At this time the attendance in district 
No. 3, for example, was in winter habitually 60 to 70 in number; now 
not over a quarter as many, and what is true of this in a great meas- 
ure, is true of all. This is accounted for in two ways. First, be- 
cause of a slight decrease in population, and second, a decided de- 
crease in the size of the families. Look in what portion of the 
town you will, one acquainted with the families of yore, and of to- 
day, can but note the contrast ! And what is true of this town, in 
this respect, is equally applicable to others. 

The town makes an annual appropriation for its schools, which 


with the income of the funds before mentioned, is a sum sufficient 
not merely to maintain the former grade, but to constantly raise 
the standard. 

The wants of the higher departments have always been met in 
the two institutions so generously established by the former resi- 
dents, and since fostered by the citizens, Goodale Academy and 
Powers Institute. 


The first advancement made from the district school system had 
its origin in the generosity of Hon. Job Goodale, who, in his will, 
proven December 17, 1833, says: 

"Whereas I have in contemplation the erection of an .\cademy in Ber- 
nardston to be called a school of useful science, and free from all sectarian 
theology, and whereas in pursuance of said plan on the tenth day of June, 
A. D. 1832, I contracted in writing with one Orra Sheldon to erect the nec- 
essary buildings for the accommodation of said school as will appear by 
the contract aforesaid. Now therefore to provide for carrying my wishes 
into full effect in case of my decease I hereby give, devise and bequeath 
to Zebina C. Newcomb and Joseph Slate and the survivor of them, all my 
right, title and interest in and to the contract made with the said Orra Shel- 
don as aforesaid in trust and for the use of the said academy as hereinafter 
expressed and devised. I also give and devise to the said Zebina C. New- 
comb and the survivor of them about five acres of land and the house on 
the same lying south of the highway and between the Unitarian and Uni- 
versalist meeting houses in said Bernardston and south of the same being 
all the land lying there which I purchased of Zebina C. Newcomb, in trust 
and for the use of Said Academy, upon which land the said Sheldon is to 
construct and erect the buildings specified in his said contract. In the fur- 
ther execution of this trust, it is my will that the said Zebina C. and the 
said Joseph or the survivor of them shall as soon as may be procure an act 
of the Legislature incorporating themselves and their associates as propri- 
etors of said academy, with the usual provisions and privileges in such 
cases. 1 also request in addition thereto a special provision authorizing 
and directing, that the annual net income of said corporation over and 
above paying all necessary expenses shall be annually appropriated toward 
the support of preaching the gospel in the Orthodox Congregational soci- 
ety as aforesaid." 


In pursuance with the instructions herein given, the buildings 
were erected, and in the present residence of the late Mr. J. N. 
Dewey, is seen the Goodale Academy building. It was Mr. Good- 
ale's design that the pastor of the Orthodox Congregational society 
should also act as preceptor of this school, but this did not prove 
successful and was speedily abandoned as being impracticable. 
Mr. Pliny Fisk of Shelburne was the teacher of this institution 
for many years ; under his tutorship the school acquired a promi- 
nent position among the educational institutions of the day, and it 
is estimated that fully 1900 pupils profited by his capable instruction. 

In pursuance with Mr. Goodale's design the first teachers of this 
institution were the pastors of the Congregational society: Rev. 
Vinson Gould, from its foundation in November. 1833. until 1836, 
Miss Mary Strong, assistant; Rev. Bancroft Fowler, 1836 until 1839; 
Pliny Fisk, from 1840 until February 21, 1857. 

Concerning the lives and works of the two first preceptors, a full 
account will be found in another portion of this volume, they both 
being pastors of the Orthodox Congregational society. 

Mr. Fisk was by far the longest associated with this institution, 
and to the majority of people the mention of Goodale Academy 
brings to mind the familiar face and form of the man so long its 
principal. He was a native of the town of Shelburne, Mass., born 
July 30, 1817. Being the son of a farmer, his boyhood was spent 
in the routine duties which that calling demands, attending school 
as occasion presented, and the cessation from labor would admit. In 
September, 1836, he entered Amherst College, graduating in 1840. 
His standing while a member of this institution was indicated at 
his graduation by receiving from the faculty an appointment, show- 
ing that in scholarship he ranked among the seven first in a class 
of 44. 

Immediately after graduation, he assumed charge of Goodale 
Academy, remaining two and a half years : then he accepted the 
principalship of the high school in Greenfield, remaining there a 
year and a half. At the expiration of this time he was urgently 
requested to return to his first school in Bernardston. This be did, 
retaining his connection with that school during the remainder of 
its existence. 


He married in vSlielburne, August 29, 1844, Orilla H. Peck, who 
was born in Leverett. Mass.. February 21, 1822. They had five 

Harriet Amelia, born in Beniardston, May 17, 1847. 

Son, born in Shelburne, November 3, i86r; d. November 5, 1861. 

Pliny, Jr.. born in Shelburne, October 26, 1862. 



Mr. Fisk was always interested in the cause of education, serv- 
ing as a member of the school board in Bernardston several years, 
and in a like capacity in Shelburne from March, i860, to March, 
1863. During the years 1861-2-3. he was one of the selectmen of 
Shelburne, two years chairman of the board, also chairman of the 
board of assessors in 1862-3. In 1858 he was chosen representa- 
tive to the Legislature from the First Franklin District. 

Retiring from teaching, he devoted his energies to farm life, 
achieving here success as well as in his professional work. The 
confidence and respect in which he was held by his townsmen and 
the community at large, was well illustrated by his repeated elec- 
tion to responsible positions of public trust. He died in Shelburne, 
after a long illness, December 12, 1872. His family removed to 
Greenfield, where they resided until the fall of 1892, when the son's 
business interests being in Boston, they removed to Arlington, 


As is indicated by the name "Powers Institute," this school owes 
its origin to the love of the old town which existed in the breast 
of one of her sons, who by the following provision in his will, thus 
sought to do her honor. 

"To the town of Bernardston, State of Mass., I give and devise one hun- 
dred shares in the capital stock of the Franklin County Bank, at Greenfield, 
Mass., the par value of which is ten thousand dollars, the income of which 
shall forever be used for the purpose of education in said town in the fol- 
lowing manner, viz: One-half of the annual income of said stock shall be 
expended by said town, for the support of common or public schools therein, 
in the same way and for the same purposes that the money now raised by 


taxation for the support of the schools is used provided that said town shall 
annually raise and expend for the support of the comaiDU schools therein, 
a sum not less than three hundred dollars. 

And the other half of the annual incc^me of said bank stock shall be used 
and expended by said town to maintain and supp<jrt a grammar, or high 
school therein." 

In meeting assembled March 22, 1856, the inhabitants most grate- 
fully accepted this legacy of Mr. Powers, expressing by appropriate 
votes and resolutions their thanks for the same, and directing 
"That a good education for the mass of the people, being of the 
highest value and importance as well in reference to our temporal 
interests as to otir ftiture welfare, we will honor the name, the 
memory and the wisdom of the benevolent donor, by directing that 
his legacy shall forever be called the 'Powers vSchool Fund.' " The 
school which was founded by means of his generosity was to be 
called also by his name, and the executor of the estate was requested 
to inscribe upon his monument, which was erected in the cemetery 
at the village, his body being brought thither for burial, "He was 
the Donor of Ten Thousand Dollars to the Town of Bernardston 
for Schooling." 

The control of the fund and the management of the Institute is, 
under the plan adopted by the town, vested in 21 trustees, of whom 
the school committee are members. Eighteen of the trustees hold 
office for three years, one-third of the number retiring and one- 
third being elected annually. Of these, six are chosen from the 
respective school districts, seven at large, two from Greenfield, one 
from Leyden, one from Gill and one from Northfield. In the early 
spring of 1897 a change was made in the trustee board reducing 
the number of trustees to twelve, and electing only inhabitants of 
Bernardston. It was declared by the authorities "That it is a school 
conducted according to law, under the order and superintendence 
of the authorities of the town of Bernardston and as such is a high 
school within the meaning of the statute, relating to the payment 
of tuition by towns for scholars attending therein." Now the tui- 
tion of pupils from outside Massachusetts towns having a valuation 
of less than $500,000, is paid by the State, making the advantages 
of this school free to all such. 


The Institute is situated on the north side of Church street, some 
15 rods from the street. The plan is that of a cross, the main part 
of the building is 65 feet long, 34 wide and two stories high, with 
two entrances, one from the north and one from the south. On 
either side wings are attached, one story in height, and 16x33 feet, 
so that the entire width is just equal to the length, 65 feet. Sur- 
mounting the whole is a cupola, upon which is an observatory, af- 
fording line and picturesque views of the surrounding country. 

The interior of the building is both pleasant and convenient. 
The lower floor is devoted to recitation and ante-rooms ; the school 
rooms are of equal size, connected by sliding doors, and directly 
accessible from the entrance halls. They are each 32x33 feet and 
13 feet in height. Smaller recitation rooms are in immediate con- 
nection. The upper story is devoted to a large hall, or rather was 
originally, for within a few years it has been subdivided, so that 
the space now devoted to a hall is much smaller than in the orig- 
inal plan. 

Belonging to the Institute is a large and well selected philosoph- 
ical apparatus, the gift of Hon. H. W. Cushman, who was a most 
active and efficient agent in carrying out the instructions of Mr. 
Powers in regard to the school ; during his life he always took a 
personal interest in the welfare of the school, giving freely of both 
his time and money for its advancement. 

The cost of the grounds was about $750.00. Of this sum Mr. John 
Sanderson paid $300, Col. Ferry $250 and the town $250. 

The Institute was dedicated with appropriate and interesting ex- 
ercises September r, 1857. The order of exercises was as follows: 

Music by the Band. 

Prayer by Rev. H. G. Park. 

Original Poem by J. D. Canning. 

Address by Hon. George S. Boutwell, Secretary Massachusetts Board of Education. 

Original Ode by Mrs. P\ H. Cook. (Tune America.) 

Poem by E. W. B. Canning, A. M., Principal of the Stockbridgc High School. 

Anthem by the Choir. 

Prayer by Rev. D. H. Rauney. 

Closing Hymn. (Tune Old Hundred.) 

Benediction, Rev. H. G. Park. 

Within three years Henry W. Cushman built and gave to the 


town the use of Cushman Hall and the ground whereon it stands. 
Cushman Park. The Hall has always been used as a residence for 
the principal and his family, while the two upper stories are de- 
signed as dormitories for students attending from other towns. 
Thus is a pleasant home afforded and where the personal care and 
oversight of the principal can be secured. The cost of the Hall 
was about $5,000. and in honor of its giver has always been known 
as Cushman Hall. 

From the catalogue of Powers Institute, recently published, we 
gather that within the more recent history of the school, several 
gifts have been received which merit acknowledgment. Through 
the generosity of Rev. George H. Clark and Mrs. Susan Ferry Clark 
of Hartford, Ct., a sufficient sum of money for the equipment of 
the department of physics and of chemistry has been donated, and 
these departments are to-day equal to any of similar schools in this 
section. In addition to this, several public spirited gentlemen, 
assisted by the town, have purchased and given to the school a fine 
binocular microscope of high cost, and the class of '89 added a re- 
fracting telescope of the value of seventy-five dollars. Classes in 
natural science have donated sundry pieces of apparatus from year 
to year. In 1895 Mr. and Mrs. Clark, always the generous friends 
of the school, added to their other gifts a fund of $5.000 — a sum 
equivalent to the original endowment of the Institute by Mr. Pow- 
ers — to be called the Aretas Ferry Fund, in memory of Mrs. Clark's 
father. The interest of this fund is to supplement the town's an- 
nual appropriation for teachers' salaries. A fine portrait of Col. 
Ferry accompanied the gift, and hangs in Chapel Hall. 

A number of other portraits adorn the walls of the Hall : one of 
Prof. Ward, presented by the Tri Kappa society: of Prof. Hunt, 
presented bv himself (together with a valuable collection of min- 
erals for the school cabinet), and portraits of Profs. Sanborn, Jack- 
son and Underwood, also of Mrs. E. C. Jenness, an assistant teacher 
for seven years, given by their respective pupils. To these the 
town in '95 added a portrait of Mr. Powers, 

In November, 1890, an alumni association was formed, the out- 
growth of a series of re-unions extending over a period of more 
than ten years. Prof. Lucien Hunt, of Gorham, Me., was elected 


president — 3. position which he still holds — and the time for the 
triennial re-unions was fixed for the third Wednesday in August, 
the next coming lu 1901. 

The principals have been : 

I. H. D. Foster, A. B., - - - Sept. 9, 1857, 1858. 

L. F. Ward, ... - peb. 22, 1858, March, 1863. 

Joseph W. Cross, Jr., - - - March 3, 1863, March, 1864. 

Lucien Hunt, - - - 1864, July, 1868. 

h. F. Ward, - - - - July, 1868, Aug., 1871. 

Sylvester Dixon, acting principal one term, by proxy. Under Prof. 
Ward's regime. Profs. S. C. Smith and R. C. Barrett occupied the 
principal's chair one year each. 

7. A.J.Sanborn, - - - - Aug., 1872, Aug., 1877. 

8. Frederick E. Stratton, - - 1877, July, 1879. 

9. L. McL. Jackson, - - - July, 1879, 1883. 

10. B. A. Goodridge, - - - June 11, 1883, 1885. 

11. Miss Rllen Bradley, acting principal for spring term of 1885. 

12. E. L. Underwood, - - - 1885, 1890. 

13. C. L. Mitchell, - - - - 1890, 1892. 

14. F, S. Brick, - - - 1892, 1896. 

15. Bixby, - - - - 1896, 1898. 

16. E. E. Sawyer, - - - 1898. 

Henry D. Foster, A. B., who was the first principal of Powers 
Institute, began his work here September 9, 1857, and remained 
for two terms. Prior to his coming here he had held a position 
as teacher in what was then the Brattleboro Academy. He contin- 
ued his work of teaching until 1864, when he became the editor of 
the Ludlow Gazette, at Ludlow, N. H. He was also register of 
deeds. He died at Grafton, Vt., in October, 1869. 

L. F. Ward was the youngest of the five children of Nathaniel 
and Cynthia (Clark) Ward and was born in Wardsboro, Vt., Novem- 
ber 17, 1824. His father was born in Holliston, Mass., July, 1777 ; 
removed to Vermont when 17 years of age, and was one of the first 
settlers of Wardsboro (that portion which has since been set off to 
Dover), where he was a successful farmer. 

Mr. Ward enjoyed the best educational advantages to be derived 
from the common schools, and being wholly devoted to his books, 
and assisted by his mother, herself an excellent and successful 
teacher until her marriage, he had at the age of 12 advanced him- 
self to an enviable position in point of scholarship. In mathemat- 

L. F. WARD. 239 

ics he was especially proficient, and it was always a branch of which 
he was particularly fond and in the expounding- of which he was 
remarkably clear in his later professional work. "One of the high- 
est of all the means of youthful improvement, he enjoyed in his 
native town a library of choice history and biography. To the ex- 
istence of this library more than to any other single influence may 
be attributed his love of study and familiarity at an early age with 
the best models of the English language." His academical educa- 
tion was largely received in the higher schools of Townshend and 
Chester, and two terms at Burr Seminary, where he finished his 
preparatory studies. During this time he rarely attended more 
than two terms of the school year, but kept up with his classes by 
close and continuous application at home as his relaxation from 
farming duties would admit. 

He took the four years' collegiate course at Dartmouth, graduat- 
ing in 1847 with a of young men of excellent ability. Upon 
his graduation he took charge of Saxton's River Seminary, Vermont, 
which he continued with good success until the spring of 1850, 
pursuing in the meantime the study of law in the office of General 
Kellogg of that town. 

February 28, 1850, he married Henrietta, daughter of Joseph and 
Jerusha Leach of Saxton's River. That spring he removed to 
Westminster, where for a year he taught the Westminster Semi- 
nary. At the expiration of this period, through the urgent request 
of the trustees of Saxton River school, seconded by a largely signed 
petition of the citizens, he returned to his first charge, remaining 
until the spring of 1854. He was also engaged during this time at 
Saxton's River in the mercantile business, conducting the same by 
the aid of assistant while he gave his chief attention to the .school. 

Influenced by the earnest solicitations of his Westminster friends 
and the better railroad facilities there, he returned to that place 
in 1854, built a home for himself and determined to make that his 
permanent residence. To his pupils he had so endeared him.self 
that they accompanied him in a body. In 1855 he was elected for 
Windham county as a member of the council of censors of the State 
of Vermont; this position he held for two years. 


In 1858 he resigned his position and assumed the principalship 
of the Institute in this town, and his advent here, as in other places, 
was marked by his bringing nearly a hundred former pupils. Prob- 
ably the greatest number ever registered here was during Prof. 
Ward's administration. The average attendance for the first five 
years was over 1 50 a term, and one term it is recalled that it reached 
the number of 270. His first engagement here extended over five 
years. Upon his retirement from this school he returned to his 
former home, Westminster, where he had always owned the 
home built in early manhood. He died in April, 1882, in West- 
minster, Vt. 

His children were 

LaFayette Joseph Nathaniel, born in Saxton's River, .August 11, 1851. 

Arthur Allen, born at the same place, May 11, 1854. 

Joseph Warren Cross, Jr., the successor of Prof. Ward, was a na- 
tive of West Bo.ylston, Mass., and a graduate of Amherst College. 
Prior to coming to Bernardston he was for five years a popular and 
acceptable principal of the Chatham, Mass., high school. He mar- 
ried in Keene, N. H., February 26, 1863, Jennie L., daughter of 
Francis Foster of Keene. January 18, 1864. he advertised to open 
a family school in Sterling. 

Lucien Hunt is a descendant of the so-called "Amesbury Line " 
of the Hunt family. Of the three brothers of the line, one Phillip 
removed to Sanbornton, N. H., into what came to be later known 
as the "Hunt neighborhood." His children numbered twelve, and 
Phillip Jr., the eldest of these, was the grandfather of the subject 
of our notice. His father, Anthony Colby Hunt, was the seventh 
of eleven children, and when only eighteen years of age married 
Mary Chase of Deerfield, N. H. "She was a woman of strong char- 
acter, industrious, careful and conscientious." Mr. Anthony Hunt, 
after successive residence in Gilmanton, Sanbornton and Weirs, 
N. H., removed to the neighboring State of Vermont, being one of 
a little colony which settled the town of Woodbury. Here Mr. 
Lucien Hunt was born. His father remained in Vermont 17 years, 
then returned to vSanbornton, and the town which he had helped 
to found was deserted. Mr. Hunt was not slow to appreciate the 
advantages afforded by his residence at Sanbornton Bridge, and 


every opportunity for securing an education was most eagerly em- 
braced. He was fortunate likewise in having the best of teachers. 
He began teaching in the Bay Hill district, Northfield, when but 
sixteen. He next pursued the vocation at Natick and Kingston. 
During all this time he earnestly devoted himself to study. "He 
had read Latin — his favorite study — far beyond the college course ; 
a suitable amount of Greek ; many volumes of French and German ; 
beside most of the English branches required by the college cur- 

In 1863 Wesleyan University (Middletown, Ct.) conferred the de- 
gree of A. M. His work as principal of the Marlow, N. H., Acad- 
emy met with phenomenal success. His engagements in his chosen 
work of teaching called him successively to Castine, Me., Standish, 
Me., and Bost(m. Mass. While in the latter place, his health be- 
came impaired to such an extent as to induce him to take a two 
years' vacation, and it was during this period that he took as his 
partner in life. Miss Caroline Higgins of vStandish, Me. Her "so- 
cial nature, executive ability, kindness and the happy faculty of 
making the best of everything, have procured hosts of friends 
wherever their lot has been cast, and lightened the toils and per- 
plexities incident to a most laborious profession." 

Mr. Hunt next engaged with the trustees of Powers Institute for 
five years and soon his magnetic influence became apparent in the 
remarkable and healthy growth of that institution. At the expi- 
ration of his term of service he was invited and urged to renew 
the contract, but preferred to respond to a loud call from Falmouth, 
Mass. Here he remained for twelve years. His last service was 
as principal of McCoUom Institute, Mount Vernon, N. H., where 
he remained for two years. F'rom this he resigned, purposing to 
expend the time left in literary labor, a pursuit most congenial to 
his tastes. He is a trustee of McCollom Institute, also of the New 
Hampshire Conference seminary at Tilton, N. H. Mr. Hunt's pres- 
ent residence is Gorham, Me. 

R. C. Barrett, '70-'/ 1, was born in 1830 in Webster, Mass., re- 
ceived his education in the public schools and in Phillips Academy, 
Andover, Mass. He began teaching when 21 years of age, and ex- 


cepting three years' service in the civil war, has followed it contin- 
uously. He is now principal of the "Advanced Business Depart- 
ment " of Euclid Ave., Business College, Cleveland, Ohio. 

S. C. Smith, ^-jx-Ti, studied at Worcester high school and grad- 
uated at Amherst in 1866. He taught continuously as principal of 
high schools until 1874, when he became a master in the English 
high school, Boston, Mass., which position he still holds. 

A. J. Sanborn, '72-77, was born in Craftsbury, Vt., in 1830. He 
studied at Craftsbury and Dartmouth College, graduated from the 
college in Cincinnati in 1858, taught as principal of high schools or 
seminaries, or served as superintendent of schools until 1877. He 
compiled a volume of poetry entitled "Green Mountain Poets." 
Upon giving up his position here, he retired to a farm in New- 
port, Vt., where he died in 1880. 

Frederick E. Stratton was born July 5, 1847, ii^ Athol, Mass., 
where he remained until the age of 16 years. He entered Williams 
College in the fall of '67 without a condition. In the winter of '66-67 
he taught his first school, and was called upon the next winter to 
take charge of the same one. During his sophomore year he took 
first prize for excellence ip mathematics, graduating in 1871. Dur- 
ing both freshman and junior years he taught one term. He was 
also during his senior year selected as one of six by his college and 
the lyceum of natural history connected therewith, to go on a sci- 
entific expedition to Central America, he to act as treasurer of the 
expedition and to have charge of the botanical researches. In 1871 
he was principal of the Orange high school ; in 1873-6, of the New 
Salem academy, from which he came to Bernardston in 1876. 
While here he was president of the Franklin and Hampshire Coun- 
ties Teachers' Association. In 1879 he went to Boston, securing 
from the supervisors a first grade certificate of qualification, mak- 
ing him eligible to teach in Boston schools in any position. For 
the next four years he taught in and about that city. In 1883 he 
accepted the principalship of the Davenport, la., high school, at 
that time the largest high school in the State, and the first to intro- 
duce, under his nine years' administration, departments in cooking 
and manual training. For five years he was president of the city 
Y. M. C. A. He was one of the first board of directors of the Iowa 


State Teachers Reading Circle, and was for several years the State 
secretary. In 1890 he was offered a professorship in Iowa College, 
but remained in Davenport until 1892, when he accepted the prin- 
cipalship of the academy connected with Carleton College. He 
married in 1874, Mary T. Goddard of Davenport, and they have 
one daughter. 

Lewis McLellan Jackson. Disabled soldiers of the late war who 
were so unfortunate — or fortunate — as to be sent to Amory Square 
hospital in Washington, D. C, have pleasant recollections of the 
chaplain's interesting group of children, who. by their engaging 
prattle and pretty ways, whiled away many hours that would oth- 
erwise have been very monotonous. Only two of these little ones 
lived to reach mature years, one of whom was Lewis McLellan 
Jackson. He was the son of Rev. E. W. and Abbie (McLellan) 
Jackson, born in 1854, in Indianapolis, Ind., where his father was 
at that time stationed as pastor of the Methodist church. Upon 
the maternal side he claims vScottish ancestry. His early years 
were spent in Washington and Maine preparing for college at Gor- 
ham. Me., and taking a four years' course at Wesleyan University, 
at Middletown, Ct., graduating m 1875. He then spent four years 
in teaching and newspaper work. He came to Bernardston in 1879, 
having as an assistant Miss Annie Hedge Noble — now Mrs. Penrose 
L. Baldwin,— and in 1880, Miss E. O. Putnam of Danvers, a gradu- 
ate of the Salem Normal school. In 1883 he removed to Athol, 
where until 1886, he was principal of the Athol high school, since 
which time he has been engaged in life insurance, locating in Wor- 
cester. On account of failing health, he removed thence in 1891 
to St. Paul. Minn., where he remained until May, 1895, when he 
was appointed manager for the Northwestern Ohio, for the Ohio 
Mutual Life Insurance Company, with headquarters at Toledo. 

He married first in 1880 or 1881, Estelle A. Fisher of Springfield, 
Mass. She died in 1887, leaving one child, Harold F. Married 
second, October, 1893, Linna E. Rider of Worcester. Mass. 

B. A. Goodridge, '83-'85, born in Lyndeboro, N. H., in 1857; 
studied at Tilton, N. H. ; graduated from Boston Seminary in 1881; 
engaged in teaching and lecture work ; took a course of study in 


Harvard Divinity school ; was in Europe in 1 890-1; settled as a 
minister in Harvard, Mass., in 1892 ; is now pastor of Christ church, 
Dorchester, Mass. 

Ellen L. Bradley, spring of 1885: graduated Wheaton seminary; 
a teacher most of the time since ; resided in Boston, Mass., where 
she died in July, 1901. 

Edward L. Underwood, 1885-90, born in Boston; graduated Brim- 
mer grammar school 1874, B(xston Latin school 1878, Harvard Col- 
lege 1882; became principal of the Canton high school 1890, and 
in 1892 took the position of instructor in science and mathematics 
in the John P. Hopkins' classical school, which he still holds, hav- 
ing his residence in Canton, Mass. 

Clarence L. Mitchell. 1890 -2, graduated Bowdoin College in 1889; 
is now teaching at Warham, Mass. 

Francis wS. Brick, 1892-6. Born in Lowell, Mass.; graduated 
Maine State college in 1888; superintendent in 1889, of schools m 
Berlin Falls, N. H., prior to his service here. He went thence to 
Belfast, Me., where he took a position as superintendent of schools 
in March, 1900. He accepted alike superintendency of the district 
including Agawam, South wick and Granville. 

For the sketches of Messrs. Barrett, Smith, Sanborn, Goodridge, 
Underwood, Mitchell, Brick and Miss Bradley, I would acknowl 
edge indebtedness to the catalogue of Powers Institute. 

Prof. J. H. Bixby was here for some two years, going thence to 
Granby in the fall of 1898, where he died August 4, 1901. 

E. E. Sawyer, the present principal, is a graduate of the Bates 
college, class of 1888. Subsequently he held the position of pro- 
fessor of science at vSaratoga, N. Y., then principal of the high 
school in Pepperill, and later superintendent of schools in the town 
of Maynard, which position he resigned to become principal of the 
Institute here. The present success of the school testifies as to his 
abilities in his work. A.ssociated with him are Missc-s M. K. White, 
and Ida Chapin, the latter in tht; prej:)aratory department. 



It appears from a few pages of manuscript now in the possession 
of Rev. C. C. Carpenter, that the earliest attempt made toward pre- 
paring a history of this place was not far from i(Si4 presumably, 
when Major Stephen Webster took the matter in hand. All that 
he wrote would not exceed four or five pages of foolscap, and the 
substance has been herein incorporated ; nevertheless the interest 
which gathers about these old documents and their value, has led 
to a few extracts being made. It will be noticed that for the times, 
the spelling was evidently phonetically exact. The first paper is 
thus headed: "Fall Town — vSence Rernardston." Then follows a 
very brief reference to the " 99 men or their Heirs who Cut off and 
destroied a large tribe of indians at the Grate falls " * * * "for 
other events of that refair to Hebords History." 

Mention is next made of Ebenezer Sheldon and John Burk as 
"distinguished carrictors." In succession is noticed the extent and 
boundaries, surface under which latter heading is mentioned Craggy 
Mountain in the neighborhood of Bald Mountain, soil and produc- 
tions. In speaking of 

"The grains of rie in pertilur of which it produces from 10 to 30 bushels 
per acre of which kind of grain it may be Computed that the Town rases 
7000 Bushels pr Annum, and may be sed to be the Staple Comedty; and 
will make more than 8 Bushels pr Sole of its poperlation but their is but 
verey littel Beaf or pork for markit nor Butter and cheas for E.xportation ; 
S'heap air raised verey Considerable and in perticlucr the merino or Spanish 
and grateley increased sence the troubles and difuculteys of Commerce 
they prove to be helthy and thrive well and have added grateley to the 
welth and Independence of the town for which its inhabitants are strongly 



"The inhabitants are all Lutherans or Calvinists their air too Socierties 
in Town; what is Called prisperterians — or Standing order and an Incor- 
perated Society of Baptists. The Standing order or first Societey * * * 
have settled the Revd Mr Timothy F. Rogers who has ben with them more 
than five years to their inteer satisfaction being a verey E.xampley man; 
and of liveley tallents. The Baptists or Second society air rather in a 
broken Situation not having aney Settled minister with them, but still they 
attend Constantley on Set days for the most part have the Gospill explained 
to them by Some teacher of Chrischanety in privat Buildings not having 
aney hous bult in purticler for this purpos but gineraly they air good inhab- 
itants and much given to devotion." 

He then g-oes on to speak of road.s, mentioning county roads from 
(jreenfield to Brattleboro. from Greenfield through Bernardston to 
Northfield "and .so on to keen m New Hatnshire," one from Gill 
to Bernardston, and one from Montague through the "Easte parte 
of Bernardston." 

"At present in town U)o grist mills .S: two Sawmills one clothers worke iS: 
one ('arding machine on fall river all of which do business and some of 
them largeley; on mill Hrook is a Sawmill — and on Couches Brook is a 
sawmill such is the situation of this mill Seat that the Warter falls in a verey 
short distance more than one hundred and fifty feat its fall is like going 
down a [)air of Stairs \: is one of natures (!ureyoseteys the warter being 
forced through as it wair a s(;lacl mountain of roks the banks being of solad 
roks & forced as by the hand of arte iV not more than ten or twelve feat 
wide at top over this aStonashin gulf we are told the Indians passed with 
their Captives after destroying Deerfield on a log. * * * Their air 
fore distiireys but onley one at present which works grain which Consumes 
about 15 bushels pr day of ne and corne and manufactures about 45 galh^ns 
of gin pr day." 

In treating of the forts and the Indian troubles, he mentions 
many things already given, and gives the information that in their 
attempt to fire the Deacon Sheldon fort the Indians burnt a house 
belonging to Remembrance Sheldon, and standing without the fort. 
The last topic treats of manners and customs and is as follows : 
"The Inhabitants air princepley from Connecticut or descendants of Par- 
ents from that State — yet their air some of the desendance of the first Sel- 
lers who wair from Hatfield (.V dearfield iv some from the Eastward in this 



State — the state of Society may be said to be Good as its iniiabitants air 
nearley on a levil as to present Support their not being one of its Inhabi- 
tants who air dependant on the Town for Assistance; their air no lordlings 
hear to look down its sufrages but all are open and bold, tenasious of their 
Wrights; Grate lovers of Contrey and strongley attached to the Constitu- 
tion & government of the United States, their air no persons who indulg 
themselves in rioting & drunkardness as is the case in some places; their 
is but too or three casses among its poperlation of its inhabitants indulging 
themselves in drunkardness & they air held in contempt, theving is al- 
most unnone as is allmost all breaches of the peace — their has not ben a 
Conviction found against aney of its inhabitants for breaches of the pese 
of aney magnitude for more than twenty years and onley one for more than 
forty — the Females air plaine in their manners industrious hospitable Char- 
itable Curtious to Strangers Virtuous fond of their husbands; and good 
mothers & profrolic." 

In the presidential contest in November, 1844. party feeling ran 
high, and the interest taken therein was well demonstrated by the 
action of two of the then Bernardston boys temporarily employed 
in Springfield, P. L. Cushman, 2nd., and George H. Burrows. 
These men held opposite views, and on election day Mr. Cushman 
returned to town to vote; upon learning of this fact, Mr. Burrows 
drove to Bernardston, arriving there about a half hour later than 
his fellow townsman, and it was said by those conversant with the 
facts, that it was a heated race between the two in covering the 
distance between the two places. 

A copy of the original Proprietors' records has just been found 
in the attic of the home-of the late William Boyle on South street. 
This was made in 1762 by Jonathan Ashley, probably, a son of 
"Parson" Ashley. Until found by the administrator of Mr. Boyle's 
estate, its existence was unknown or forgotten. Fortunately it is 
in a good state of preservation, and should be in the future prop- 
erly preserved. 

The shape of the lots as delineated upon the plans given in the 
old Proprietors' books is most irregular, curious and interesting. 
In some cases the form given is that of a triangle, and in others 
the number of sides vary from this to one whose boundaries are 
marked by 22 lines. Quite a number were found bounded by 16 
and 18 lines. 


One lot, No. 3, of the third division, was laid out to Reuben Dick- 
inson, Joseph Smith being the original owner. The east side of 
this was on common land, which in turn bordered on "Rattlesnake's 
Den," and the latter upon the mountain. The end of the lot joined 
Peter Newcomb's lot. 

Two lots. No. 80 A and R, were laid out to Azariah Van Horn. 
A was the corn mill lot, and lav west of said mill. H was the sec- 
ond part of the draft Iving between the Great Mountain and Fall 
River on the east side of the river n(^rth of meadow lot No. 70. 
The S. W. corner stood by the S. side of a pond. This lot was 
doubtless near the present iron bridge, and it is an easy matter to 
fancy that in the meadow north are traceal)le the outlines of this 
old pond. 

Lot No. 27, laid out February 22, 1743. "This lay on th(^ plain 
called Dry Plain the N. E. corner being about W. 30 rods, E. of 
S. E. corner of the Mill lot No. i 1." 

Lot No. 40, — 50 acres — "Beginning at a Chestnut tree at a place 
called Chestnut Hill in the north part of the townslii[)." 

Recorded March 28, 1763, p. 243, on tlie back of Uie plan of lot 
No. 190, A., is this note: "Plan of ye Gore yt takes in some of ve 

This plan was in the third division, laid out to David Ryder. 

"April 12, 1777, Major Noah Goodman of vSouth Hadley, writes 
to the Board of War, concerning large deposits of IrcMi Oar in Ber- 
nardston, on land belonging to Maj. Timothy Dwight, who has 
fled to Mississippi : The 'oar' could be brought about seven miles 
to the landing on the Connecticut and taken to where the furnace 
should be set, for about $6 per tun." 

Joseph Nash of South Hadley also writes to the Board of War 
that there is large quantities of "oar " there, very handy to ship by 
river to the propo.sed furnace at South Hadley. (State Archives.) 

These little descriptions of ])lans are of interest in that they show 
the names given in olden time to certain localities and in some in- 
stances the names of original or early owners. 

John D. Bouker of the Registry of Deeds. Greenfield, has blue 



prints of the early maps and plans i)f the town. They are well 
worthy of study, and accessible at his office. A copy will also be 
found in Cushman Library. 

The names of those engaged in service during the French and 
Indian wars of 1744-55 are as follows: 

Alger, Waitstill. 
Allen, Joseph, Sergeant. 

" Zebulon, Corporal and Lieutenant. 
Bolton, John. (Fall Town Gore). 
Burk, John, Major. 
Carey, Richard. 
Chapin, Caleb, Serg. 
" Hezekiah. 
Joel, Lt. 
Catlin, John. 
Coats, Charles. 
Couch, James. 
Cushman, Consider. 
Day, Nathaniel. 
Denio, Joseph. 
Evans, John. 
Field, Aaron. 
Foster, John, Serg. 
" Jr. 
Frizzell, Michael. 
" Samuel. 
Fuller, Drummer. 



Kingsley, Dea. F^lijah. 


Medcalf, Oliver. 
Newcomb, Corp. 
Rider, David, Lt. 
Sargeant, Rufus. 
Scott, Moses, Capt. 
Severance, John. 

" Ebenezer. 

Sheldon, Abner. 
" Auiasa. 


Jr. Centl. 
" Remembrance. 
Smith, Noah. 

" Warham. 
Warner, Ichabod. 
Webster, Stephen, Capt. 
Wells, Joshua. 
Workman, John. 
Wright, Capt. 

Hall, Simeon. 

Samuel Connable's house is described as being on the west side 
of "The great Chestnut Hill." 

Sergeant Foster, Jr., died in the Burk Fort, and was buried in 
the old burying ground. 

The first woman who died in town was Dea. Foster's first wife. 

Among those resident in town in 1752 were Jo.seph Barnard, Dan- 
iel Dexter, Moses Scott, John Hooker, Aaron Denio, John Sever- 
ance, Samuel McClalin on the home lot No. 6, through which a road 
was propo.sed, Matthew Clesson and Capt. Elijah Williams. 

Fall River was called by that name as early as January 1 1, 1755. 

Capt. Caleb Chapin being about to make a journey to Boston, was 
commissioned to trade for his neighbors: 



"The account of Articles Which 1 must get at Boston. For my Self, 
One Sadie, Salt, Rum. Pepper, Spice Pins Darning Needles One Tunnel 
One Silk Handkerchief Bohe tea Putte for my Window Gun Powder Flints 
one file one scain of Black Sewing silk Ginger Indigo one scain of Read 
Sewing Silk. 

For Lemuel Martindale Shot and Tea and Salt. 

For Abner Smead, i gross of awls, i gross Tacks i pair of Cards i thou- 
sand of Pins \ of Shuger 2 lbs. of Tea i Candlestick half pound of Indigo 
2 pound of Copras. 

Dr. Cushman. (la?) tches 3 pair all 2 shillings a Pair — 5 Brass Nuts, one 
Small lock and Key-Lach Nails 5000 Rum and pound of Tea. 

For Timothy Bascom half bushel of Salt, i lb. of Tea. 

For Caleb Alvord -| Box of glass 6x8 — i set of Tea dishes, 2 Pr. of H. 
(IL.) 2 Pr. of H. (Door hinges). 

For Sheldon & Chapin One Barriel of Rum One too Quart and one Gill 
measure tea &(***?) One Spelling Book." 

The following is the minister's rate for the year 1764-5 made 
February, 1765. 

Sergt. Joseph Allen. 
Major Burk. 
Richard Bailey. 
John Bolton. 
Joel Chapin. 
Caleb " 

Daniel ' ' 
James Couch. 
John Chambers. 
Charles Coats. 
George Clerk. 
Samuel Cunnabell. 
John P'oster. 
Ezekl. " 

Nathl. " 

John Frizzell. 
Aaron Field. 
Thomas Gillis. 
Benjamin Green. 
Mi. Frizzel. 
Colo. Hawks. 
Sampson Howe. 

Samuel Hastings. 
Simo. Hall. 
George Lyons. 
Abem. Peck. 
David Rider. 
Deacon Sheldon. 

Rememce " 
Amasa " 


Joseph Slate. 
Daniel " 
Moses Scott. 
Wido. Luce. 
John Severance. 
James Tute. 
Moses " 
John Workman. 
Joshua Wells. 
David Wood. 
Ichabod Warner. 
Majr. Williams. 
Thom. Pomeroy. 
Daniel Newcomb. 


At one time Major Burk found a young Indian along Fall River, 
whom he took and attempted to bring into a civilized state. He 
called him John Harmon, taught him to read, write and work. 
John designated Major Burk as " Old Aquilise," which freely 
translated from the Indian would have something the meaning of 
having the keen qualities of perception peculiar to the eagle. 
When the Indian reached manhood he ran away, still retaining 
the Indian traits to a marked degree. It is supposed that he piloted 
the Indians who attacked the Deacon Sheldon Fort and who were 
repulsed with some loss. 

March 4, 1771- William Peat had the smallpox the previous sum- 
mer. The charges at this March meeting were assumed by the 
town and amounted to eight pounds, four pence two farthings. 

March 7, 1777. "Then the question was brought before the meet- 
ing as to whether Doctor Polycarpus Cushman and family should 
remain in his own house and have the smallpox, and it passed in 
the negative. Then the question was put, whether the town would 
provide any other house for him, and that also passed in the nega- 
tive." Then natural inquiry would be, where were they allowed 
to stay during their illness? All records are silent. 

The Revolutionary soldiers credited to and who have lived in 
Bernardston are, so far as has been ascertained : 

Alger, James. Coats, John. 

" Roger. " Reuben. 

Allen, Asaph Dea. First Corp. " Simeon. 

" Joseph. Connable, John. 

" Simeon. " Samuel. 

Andrews, Nehemiah, Lieut. " " 

Atherton, Joseph. Cook, Benjamin. 

Barnard, Samuel. Cushman, Artemas, Capt. 

Bolton, John from Colrain Gore. Davidson, Barnabas. 

Briggs, Owen. " Edward. 

Bussell, Amasa. Davis, Daniel. 

Chad wick, William. " Jonathan. 

Chapin, Caleb, Capt. Dennison, Jabez. 

" Daniel. Evans, John. 

" Hezekiah. Farrar, Samuel. 

" Joel, Serg. Foster, Ezekiel, Lieut. 

Selah. " " Jr. 




I'ostcr, Rufus. 
Fox, William, Corporal. 
Green, Samuel. 
Griffin, Jonathan. 
Groover, I^leazer. 
Guild, Samuel. 
Harding, Joshua. 
Hunt, John. 

Hastings, vSamuel. 
King, Charles. 
Kingsley, I)ea. Ivlijah. 
Kimpland, vSamucl. 
Lee, Henry. 
Mallin, vSamuel. 
Merritt, James. 
Neweomh, William. 
Nims, Plbenezer. 
Parmenter, Klias. 
Pinks, John, a Tory. 
Risley, PZlijah. 
Root, Samuel, Major. 

Scott, Rbenezer. 
Moses, Jr. 
Severance, Daniel. 

" John, Lieut. 

Shattuck, Reuben, Lieut. 
Sheldon, Arad. 

" Reuben. 
Slate, Joseph, Capt. 

" Jonathan, Capt. 

" Zebulon or Zebadiah. 
Smith, Isaac. 
Turner, vSamuel. 
Tute, Moses. 
Walworth, Elijah. 
Webster, Jacob. 
Weld, Calvin. 
Whitcomb, Reuben. 
Wilbur, Records. 
W^illard, Ruel. 
W^illiams, Amos. 
Wolley, David. 

" Thomas. 

Workman, John. 

Ryther, Hophni. 

In 1780 the assessors returned the number of acres in Bernard- 
ston as 33,477, from which a deduction of 5000 acres was to be made 
for ponds, rivers and unimproved lands. The rateable estate was 
valued at 1 2489^ 12s., value of the g-rain on hand was 117/^48., 
number of polls, i 19, houses i 17. 

The names of those appearing- on the town rate for the year 1781, 
Charles Packer collector, together with the number of polls, is here 
given as being the most authentic record of the inhabitants at that 
time. Those residing in that part afterwards Leyden, are marked 
:J:; in the (joref, so far as is known. It is evident that this relates 
more particularly to that section afterward incorporated as Leyden 
and Col rain : 

Adams, Johu. one poll. 

Alexander, vSolomon. " " 

:;:Barsto\v, Alpheus. 
tRurnhani, PUijah, Capt. 
+ Bro\vn, I'eleg. 
Hriggs, Knoeh, three polls. 

tBabcock, Joseph, Capt. 
Bigelow, Noah. 
+Babcock, Peleg. 
tBarstow, Hezekiah. 
Clark, Klisha. 
Crumb, Phineas. 
tCateley, John. 

two polls, 
one poll. 

TOWN RATE FOR 1 78 1. 


Clark, Joseph. one poll. 

JCorse, Asher. 

+Chapen, Daniel. 

: " Selah. 

tCrandell, Jared, Capt. 

Crumb, Billington. 

Crowfoot, Thomas. 

Coolidge, Daniel. 

Craudall, Joseph. 

tDavenport, John. 

+Eson, John. 

JEsen, Richard, Jr. 

tEsen, Joseph. " 

Elliott, Joseph. 

tFrizzell, Reuben. two polls. 

Fish, James. one poll. 

tPrizzell, Michael. two polls. 

+Foster, Ezekiel, Jr. one poll. 

Hunt, John. 

Gates, David. 

Green, Jepthah. 

tGuild, Samuel. three polls. 

Green, Paul. one poll. 

Morgan, Timothy. " " 

iNoyes, Amos. " " 

JNewcomb, Daniel, Lieut. " " 
Orvis, William. 

Bagg, Israel. " " 

Potter, David. 

Palmer, Humphrey, one poll. 

itPacker, Charles. 
Pembleton, " " 

t Wilbur, Uriah. two polls. 

Wheat, Samuel. one poll. 

tWalsworth, William. 
W^ells, Joshua, two and one-half polls, 
t Wells, Ner. one-half poll. 

Wells, Asa. one poll. 

Walsworth, James, Capt. two polls. 
" Amos. one poll. 

Wilson, James. " " 

Whitman, Benjamin. " " 

Wells, Agrippa, Capt. " " 

Vining, Ebenezer " " 

tHarris, Benjamin, Dr. " 


McCumber, Jonathan. " " 

tCunnabell, Jonathan, Ensn. two polls. 

Dewey, David. 
Matthew, John. 
Weson, Henry. 
tLucey, Deacon. 
tStuart, William. 
tCochran, Thomas 
tCarlton, Benjamin. 
tRiddle, Robert. 
tPeck, Abraham. 
tWorkman, John. 
tShearer, Thomas. 
tClark, George. 
tMorris, David. 
tFolton, Roljert. 
tFolton, William. 
•♦•Ranger, Moses. 
Wilson, Widow. 
Fish, Joseph. 
Walsworth, James, Jr. 
Graves, Deacon. 

+Babcock, Oliver. 

one-half poll, 
one poll. 

iSpicer, Jabez. " " 

tShattuck, Reuben, Lieut. " 
t " Ezra. 

tWalsworth, Nathan. 

The sum total of the tax was ^^1857, ys. 

"In assessing the above tax we have laid £\i i i s. 4(1. on the poll 
& Two farthing & i i-ioo of a farthing on each pound of Estate. 

Aaron Field, ) 
Moses Scott, f 

In 1782 the undivided land was then divided among the original 



1782. At the raising of Major John Burk's house, after the frame 
was raised, an anthem was sung. The words were found in the 
13th verse, of the 14th chapter of Revelations, and were set to the 
tune of "The Judgement Anthem ": 

"And I heard a voice from Heaven saying unto me, Write blessed are 
the dead which die in the Lord from henceforth, yea, saith the Spirit that 
they may rest from their labor; and their works do follf)w them." 

(So said Israel Slate, November 7, 1857.) 

May 7, 1783, mention is made of land on Dry Plain, so called, near 
the Hackmetack swamp. It was bounded on two sides by land of 
Chileab Hale, third by that of Dr. Cushman, fourth Mr. Phillips. 
This swamp was probably the one east of the schoolhouse in dis- 
trict No. I. 

Israel Slate paid a visit in 1783 to his father's old acquaintancies 
in Chatham, Ct. Among other places, he stopped at Gideon Hurl- 
bert's, who had a "dozen children — three daughters, asked leave 
to keep coinpany with Phoebe, — that was in March ; agreed to go 
down again ; went in November, stayed three or four days, agreed 
to marry her, asked leave, saw her again in December, and was 
married in February. I had a pine table, a pine chest and two 
old beds; no bedsteads. Moved in where I now live. Had no bed- 
stead in here for some time." Mr. Israel Slate stated that during 
the Shays Rebellion, the principal government men in town were 
his father, Capt. Slate, Capt. Chapin and Esq. Newcomb; that Ma- 
jor Webster and Lieut. Andrews both had to get bonds. Jonathan 
Hale, Lieut. Ryther, Joseph Atherton were among the Shays men. 

Jason Parmenter of Shay's Rebellion fame, expected to be hung, 
and it is said that the night before the appointed day for execution 
he spent in prayer. When his pardon was read to him at the gal- 
lows, he was so overcome that he fainted. He was a brother of 
Elias Parmenter of Gill. 

In the Shay's Rebellion were : 

Chapin, Caleb, Capt. Nelson, Edward, from the District of 

" Cyrenius. Leyden. 

Foster, Ezra. Root, Ezekicl. 

Parmenter, Jason, Capt. 


The following copy of a letter from John Burke, Jr., to his father 
may not be uninteresting-. 

Bernardston, March 14, 1784. 

Honored father Sir I Received your letter the ninth Instent which In- 
forms me that you are well and that you want your horse and Some money 
in which I had a Very Good Opportunity to Send the horse and money by 
Mr. Seba Allen I Sent three Gines in Gold. 

We are all well and in good helth the winter has been Very Surveer and 
we was Like to be Short ont for hay and I had an Oppitunity to Sell the 
Old Oxen and I thought Best to let them go and took the money. 

The New State man and Yorkers keep quareling yet One Spicer of this 
Town Sot out to goo to Gilford with a Yorker and the New State man well 
Lade the road and Shot Spicer through So that he r3ied in a few ouers So 
know more at present So 1 Remain your Son John Burke Jr. 

To Major John Burke 

This letter shows that at this date the spelling of the name Burke 
was with an e final. Up to this, the e was seldom used. 

Concerning the tragedy referred to in the letter, Hall's History 
of Eastern Vermont states that Daniel Spicer of Bernardston, a 
young man of good repute, started to accompany David Goodenough 
of Guilford, to the latter town to visit the family of Goodenough, 
and that Goodenough was a "Yorker" ; that they were stopped by 
soldiers and Spicer killed. A letter from Timothy Church, Wil- 
liam White, Nathaniel Carpenter and Samuel Bixby, four refugees 
who had removed to Bernardston, was dated this town March 10, 
1784, and by them sent to Gov. Clinton of New York, narrating the 
murder which occurred March 5, 1784. This letter was also printed 
in the Massachusetts Spy under date of April 8, 1784. 

I am of the impression that Spicer was an inhabitant of that part 
of the town incorporated that year as the district of Leyden. Of 
his family nothing has been learned. 

November 12, 1785, we find the first mention on record of a per- 
son being warned from town, notice being then served on Abraham 
Briggs. In 1797 was warned one Ross, stopping at Samuel Green's 
and the same year on one Hill "who resides in the house owned by 
Simeon Hall, lately deceased." January, 1790, there was warned 


from town Nathaniel Cuiiice, negro of Providence, R. I., a labourer 
"who has lately come into town for the purpose of abiding therein 
and not having gained the town's consent therefor." No further 
mention is made of him upon the town records, but the suggestion 
comes that he may have been the "Nat the fiddler," who about 1800 
lived on the present Institute grounds. This custom of warning 
people out of town had its origin in the fact that according to the 
then existing laws, no one so warned could ever become a town 
charge, nor were any discriminations made in the practice. 

February 9, 1790, Stephen Webster, constable, presented a bill for 

36 services, ■2£ 8s. od. 

20 miles travel, 3. 4. 

Total. 2£ IIS. 4d. 

in discharge of this duty of warning persons from town. The list 
is appended as presenting evidence of the former residence of 
some of the older inhabitants: 

Reuben Parmenter of Sudbury. 

William Haws, a transient person. 

Nathan Nichols of Connecticut. 

Timothy Wilcox of Greenfield. 

Benjamin Cook, a transient person. 

Samuel vShattuck of Greenfield. 

William Larking, a transient person. 

Simeon Alger and Simeon Alger, Jr., both of Connecticut. 

Moses Smith, a transient person. 

Jeptha Green of Springfield. 

Jonathan Hurlbert of So. Hadley. 

Samuel James and Isaac Turner of Charlestown. 

Oliver Newhall of Colrain. 

David Town of Williamstown. 

Captain John Brooks of Connecticut. 

Parley Streeter of Guilford, Vt. 

William Wise of New Haven, Ct. 

Samuel Nichols of Greenfield. 

ICbenezer Severance of Greenfield. 

William and John Ritter of Luenburg, Worcester Co. 

Levi Wells of Greenfield. 

John Sanderson, a transient person. 

Thomas Loveland of Greenfield. 

John Evans and John Flvans, Jr., transient persons. 

I<<])hraini P<dwards of Guilford, Vt. 

George Morely of Glastenbury, Ct. 



Noah Fox of Glastenbury, Ct. 

Xvilliam Brooks of Connecticut. 

Jonathan Rich of Athol. 

David Squires, a transient person. 

Joseph I'tter, late of Greenfield, labourer. 

Joseph Wood, late of Greenfield, labourer. 

The following- town rate made March. 1787, John Burke Collector, 
gives approximately the names of the heads of families in Bernard- 
ston proper at that time : 

Allen, Seni. one poll. 

" Asaph, Dea. two polls. 

" Joseph. one poll. 

Audrus, Neheniiah, Lt. 
Atwell, Oliver. 
Allen, Seba. 
Alvord, Joseph. 
Brown, Abraham. 
Brooks, John, Capt. two polls. 

Burk, John. one poll. 

Bell, John. 

Cushman, P. Dr. three polls. 

Chapin, Caleb, Capt. one poll. 

Couch, James. " " 

Cunnabell, Saml. Jr. 
Chapin, Zalmuna. 

Consider. ." " 

Cunnabell, Saml. 

Chapin, Dr. .... 

Evans, John. two polls. 

Esen, Richard. one poll. 

Euda, John. " " 

Fox, William. 

" Noah. 
Foster, F^lisha. " " 

Green, Bjenjamin, Jr. 
Hale, Joseph. 

" Jonathan. " 

" Chileab. two polls. 


" Widow Lucy. 

Hale, Asahel. 
Kene, Reuben. 
Leach, Ephraim. 
Loveman, Thomas. 
Newcomb, Hezekiah. 

Pinks, John. 
Rider, David, Lieut. 

Robbins, Lemuel. 
Ritter, William. 
Root, Samuel. 
Slate, Joseph, Capt. 

.Sheldon Remembrance. 
Sanderson, John. 
Sheldon, Elihu. 
Smith, David. 
Stebbins, Joseph. 
Town, David. 
Wolley, Thomas. 
Webster, Stephen. 

Warner, Ichabod. 
Wright, Thaddeus. 

Wood, .Samuel. 
Whetten, Robert. 
Curlice, Nathaniel. 
Allen, Widow. 

one poll. 

two polls, 
one poll. 

one-half poll, 
one poll. 

real estate, 
one poll. 

real estate, 
one poll, 
two polls, 
one poll. 

real estate. 

one poll. 

real estate. 

Of several of these it has been impossible to obtain any further 
record. Presumably they may not have resided here for any great 
length of time. 


At this time the unimproved land belonging to non-resident pro- 
prietors was as follows : 

Joshua Fuller, 





50 i 


(1 1 ( 



( i 


(( (( 


f ( 

( 1 

1 ( 

(( (( 



( ( 


it a 


' ' 

* * 


Major vSelah Bar 






Cook, Noah. 




J J 



Belding. David. 





1 1 a 





May 12, 1788. "Voted to restrain rambs from running at large 
from September first until the fifteenth day of November." 

The first census taken in town was by Mr. David Saxton of Deer- 
field in 1790, in accordance with an order issued by the Govern- 
ment. At this time the population was 691 persons, the number 
of families 108. At that time Leyden contained 991 persons, 
300 more than the parent town. In 1800 the census was again taken. 
It then contained 780 persons, a gain of 89 in ten years. In 1830 
it had increased to 945, and from that time to about 1875, the num- 
ber fluctuated between that and 990. At no time has it quite 
reached 1000 inhabitants. It is now considerably less. 

June 20, 1793. "Land on Hoosac Mountain was taxed one and a 
half penny an acre, to be paid in three months for the purpose of 
making a road across the grant." 

March 17, 1795. "Moses Scott, Jr., carried the chain, his father 
being blind and confusing thereto." 

March 23, 1796. A gentleman came to Boston from Vermont in a sleigh 
drawn by two /arge dogs owned by Dr. Cushman of Kernardston. They 
traveled upwards of forty-five miles daily, and the owner had been offered 
$50 for them, an offer which he refused. — Gazette. 

1798. "Voted to empower the selectmen to provide a pall cloth." 
This vote was evidently carried out, as a year later we find direc- 
tions given that it be entrusted to the po.ssession and care of Mrs. 
Levina Burke. 


In the year 1798, there was so great a scarcity of grain that for 
many weeks — from February until the harvest — the people ate but 
very little bread, subsisting chiefly upon meat and potatoes. 

Friday, February 26, 1802. "The dwelling house of Ichabod War- 
ner was consumed by fire together with its contents. A quantity 
of flax had been placed in a room to dry, which took fire in the 
absence of the family and set the house in flames immediately. 
This is the second accident of the kind Mr. Warner has met with." 

This house stood a few rods south of the present home of Mr. 
Albert Warner, in the south-east corner of the home lot. The cel- 
lar hole is still to be seen. 

June 17, 1803. Friday. About 4 p. m. the inhabitants of the north-east 
part of the town experienced a most violent storm of rain attended with 
wind, hail, sharp flashes of lightning and tremendous thunder. The clouds 
rushed together from all quarters in confusion and the rain fell in torrents 
for about one half an hour. It then began to hail, which fell in such size 
and force as to destroy almost all the grain, fruit, grass and vegetables. 
The hail was adjudged to be half as big as hens' eggs. The farms of the 
late Deacon J. and T. Sheldon received greater injury from washing than 
by hail. Have not learned that the inhabitants suffered much by lightning, 
though it made its way into the top of a tree standing within three rods of 
Deacon J. Field's house, and taking the grane ran to the roots. A son of 
Mr. Field standing within 12 paces of this tree was knocked down but re- 
ceived inconsiderable injury. Remarkable. — Gazette and Courier. 

In 1 8 10 it was voted to "Vendue the Town Poor to the lowest 
bidder," the first mention made of such a proceeding. 

In the north-east corner room of the Ryther house is a remark- 
able specimen of mural decoration which was applied about 18 10 
to 181 5. A man came to town from parts unknown, doing the work 
in payment for board. He likewise painted the walls in a room of 
the ^/^Aldrich house opposite the lime kiln site, now torn down, 
and a room in the Burk tavern. He was here, so far as can be 
learned, for some months. One day men arrived suddenly from 
the east part of the State of New York, some say from Albany, de- 
parting with this man as their prisoner, and it was always supposed 
that he was arrested as a spy, the War of 1 8 1 2 being then in progress. 

The design upon the Ryther house was painted free hand in 


water colors, or something of a kindred nature, and in blocks or 
squares, each containing a spray of strawberries with leaves. At 
the top of the base boards is an arrangement of draped flags done 
in panel form. Over the fire board is an elaborate representation of 
Boston harbor with ships, and on the other half, of Boston common. 
To be appreciated it should be seen. The colors to-day are as fresh 
apparently, and the walls in as good a condition, as when the work 
was done nearly a century ago. The design in the old Aldrich 
house was similar, there cherries being combined with the straw- 
berry patterns. 

Bernardston was represented in the War of 1S12 by 

Chapin, Cyrenius. Newcomb, Samuel. 

Gorham. Nightengale, Ebenezer. 

Aldrich, Hosea. Ryther, Alpha, Clerk. 
Guellow, David. '■ Erastus. 

Newcomb, Tryon, Elijah. 

Charles Jarvis. 

October 29, 1812. "Advertised in the Publick Prints of ye day. 
An Elephant show at Major Webster's Inn. Probably the only 
chance many will ever have of seeing this great natural curiosity." 

May, 181 3. ".Died in town an Indian ae. about 35." [Unitarian 
church Rec] 

January i, 1834. "During the 25 years preceeding, there has oc- 
curred 302 deaths in town." 


"An English Turnip was raifed in the garden of Joseph Conable of Ber- 
nardfton, in this county, meafuring 46 inches round the middle weighed 
thirty pounds with the tops attached to it; & when the tops were removed 
and the turnip wafhed, it weighed 23 pounds!!!!" — Franklin Herald, Tues- 
day, Nov. 12, 1816. 

In 1 8 16 the only place in town where any seed corn was raised 
was on the Samuel Wright place, at the north end of the Bald Moun- 
tain road. The next year his seed corn sold at a high price. The 
summer of 18 16 is known locally as the cold .summer. It is said 
that snow flew every month during that year. 

On Tuesday, January 20, 1829, a man called at the inn of Henry W. 
Cushman, in Bernardston. He lodged there that night, and remained 


about there the next day, and again lodged there Wednesday night. Thurs- 
day morning he was called to breakfast, but did not appear, and Mr. Cush- 
man went to his room where he found him with his throat cut from ear to 
ear. He gasped two or three times after the room was entered, and ex- 
pired. A coroner's inquest was held upon the body — verdict, Fel-o-de-se. 
The name of the person and his place of residence are unknown. There 
was nothing about him by which the jury could ascertain, either. His 
height was about five feet eight inches, his complection light, brown hair, 
and he appeared to be about 40 years old. His dress was a black coat and 
pantaloons, striped vest, snuff colored frock coat, cowhide shoes, black fur 
hat, high crown. He came from the north on foot, with a small bundle 
done up in a striped cotton handkerchief. No money or papers were found 
upon him. — Gazette and Herald, Jan. 27, 1829. 

In 1836 there were located in town "Two grist mills, four saw- 
mills, two carding machines and clothier's shops, one factory for 
making cotton-batting, one card-board factory, three stores, two 
'Public Houses,' four churches, one high school, six district school- 
houses, one harness "maker, several shoe-makers, one wagon-maker, 
one tannery, one scythe snath factory, two shingle machines, one 
cabinet maker, one blacksmith, three distilleries ; about 160 dwel- 

Tuesday morning, June lo. 1856. "Mr. Israel Slate is 94 years 
old to-day. But four persons have lived in town to his age. James 
Couch, 99th year. Elijah Kingsley, the eldest, looth year. Mehit- 
able Burk, (widow of Major John Burk), ae. 97 when she died. 
Major Burk's sister, Mrs. Remembrance Sheldon, ae. 97 years. 
Mrs. Burk was a little the oldest." 

Originally the site of the present boarding house — Cushman 
Hall — and the land adjoining both south and east, was included in 
one large farm, bounded as at present on the north and west by 
roadways, one of which was spoken of as the " stage road to 
Dartmouth College," and the other as the "County road to North- 
field." On the north side of the latter road, the land was bare of 
buildings save, possibly, one log hut. The present Institute grounds, 
on the east side certainly, were covered with a dense growth of 
pines, whose tops stretched far upward toward the bltie above, and 
whose roots were, many of them, submerged by the waters of the 
present pond, which then rose much higher than now. In 1760 


there were but seven families living within the limits of District 
No. 2, the now central part of the village, and the growth of the 
town during the next thirty years was not sufficiently rapid to lead 
us to think that the inhabitants had any more than doubled during 
that time. 

Between 1760 and 1762, there appears in town one Samuel Hast- 
ings. If not immediately, within a few years, probably, he pur- 
chased the large farm situated south of the so-called County Road, 
and during the next twenty-five years became quite a prominent 
man in town affairs. In 18 13, being advanced in years, he sold his 
farm to his son, Rufus. About this time there must have been built 
upon the present boarding house site, a tannery, which, with the 
tanyard, occupied about a quarter of an acre, and which was ex- 
cepted in the 12-acre tract which Rufus Hastings sold, in 18 19, to 
Thomas Snow and Gamaliel Kingsley, who in turn sold it at a later 
date to the late Lieut. Gov. Cushman, by whom it was given to the 

During these earlier years, the brook running through the park 
was not the placid little stream of the present, but was tumultously 
hurrying along on its course to the pond which was then to be found 
west of the tanyard, forming two or three little water falls on its 
way. The outlet of this pond was into the meadow, or rather swamp 
land, south, as the present meadow land then was. This swamp 
was covered with a thick growth, largely alders, and was the favor- 
ite lurking place of the speckled beauties of the brook. People of 
an earlier generation would have told you that, in the days when 
"Gill pork " was in common use, it was no unusual sight to see the 
mothers of the families wending their way to the Fox brook, as it 
flowed on its course through the present park, and in the falls there 
firmly secure the salt-fish destined for the family dinner, return- 
ing in the morning for the fish then freshened. 

At the tanyard a busy industry was carried on, and the tan vat 
proved tempting to the youth of the day, who then, as now, were 
full of the spirit of mischief, and at least one impromptu bath was 
taken therein, followed by an unexpected plunging into the pond 
conveniently situated near by, after which the dripping culprit was 
sent home to receive the maternal chidings. 


The first building on the present Institute grounds was probably 
the log hut built there among the pines between the years 1790 and 
1800. The first hint of the occupant of the same is found in the 
recorded action of the town relative to warning Nathaniel Curlice 
from town, January, 1790. The town had done its duty and no fur- 
ther town record of him do I find, but in the year 1800, or therea- 
bouts, there appears in the hut among the pines, one who was 
familiarly termed "Nat the Fiddler," a negro whose services as fid- 
dler were much sought for in the evening gatherings of the young 
men and maidens of the place. His daily occupation was a prosaic 
one. Turning his attention to the natural products of his home 
lot, the tar he produced from the pine trees we may presume to 
have rivaled the color of his face. Quite a little work did he in his 
line, but after a few years Nat, the fiddler, disappears, and the only 
thing: we know of him further is contained in the record of death 
found in the Unitarian church book, under date of August 11, 1818, 
his age being given as 63 years. 

This property on the north side of the County Road was origi- 
nally a part of the farm of P. L. Cushman, the right which he pur- 
chased of Medad Pumroy. The present Institute site, after its 
occupancy by Nathaniel Curlice or "Nat the fiddler," was, in 1821, 
sold by Mr. Cushman to Theodore B. Hoyt. Mr. Cushman repur- 
chased the place of Mr. Hoyt, and later sold to Mr. Obed Dickin- 
son, the next owner of the land, and at the time of the building of 
the school house the site was purchased by Col. Ferry, John San- 
derson and the town, the two gentlemen paying $550 out of $750. 

The roll of those credited to Bernardston who served their coun- 
try in the Civil strife: 

"Albett, John. Brings, R. C. 

Aldrich, Dwight. Burt, Euos H. 

J. J. Butterfield, Z. A. 

Bagg, Frederick L. Chase, L. P. 

Baldwin, Henry. Day, Josiah P. 

Bartis, Dennis. Drury, Mason. 

Benjamin, Quartus W. Fairman, D. L. 
Boyle, Charles A. " J. C. 

Booter, Anson. Field, Aaron W. Rev. 



Frizzell, C. O. 
Gould, C. R. 
Grout, L. B. 
Hale, Francis D. 

" Fred. 

George E. 

" Henry W. 

" H.J. 

" James W. 

" John Henry. 

" Lorenzo. 

" Lucius Cushnian. 
Haley, C. O. 

" John. 
Harris, Charles C. 
Haskins, George W. 

A. L. 
Horton, Herbert G. 
Huber, Charles. 
Hughes, George H. 
Hutchins, C. J. 
Hurlbert, Ebenezer H. Lt. 
Johnson, A. N. 
Kingsley, A. W. 
Lachore, Edward. 
Lyons, H. P. 
Manning, John. 
McClure, A. T. 
Morrison, B. R. 
Murphy, Hector. 
Nash, Joel N. 
Newton, E. C. 
Newcomb, R. F. 
Newell, David. 
Oaks, William F. 
Park, Dwight. 

" F. R. 

Palmer, William. 
Quinn, James. 
Reed, Dwight. 
Scott, Charles T. 

Dwight R. 

Slate, Charles. 


;' J- s. 

" F. C. 

" Joseph. 
Streeter, Henry O. 
Sheldon, Henry T. 
Streeter, L. B. 
Sheldon, T. L. 
Sullivan, Bart. 

Temple, John W. 
Thompson, James M. 
" George. 

W. A. 
Thomas, I. L. 
Thornily, George W. 
Vaile, Geoffrey. 
Vanall, William. 
Weather head, L- M. 
Walbridge, William H. 
Weeks, J. H. 
Wells, George W. 
Wheeler, D. H. 
Woodrough, William. 

George W. 
Whitcomb, W. S. 
Willey, George A. 
Wolf, H. A. 
Thompson, A. T." 

Of these it should be said that some were substitutes and from 
other places. 

In Gov. Cushman's will is the following : — 

"After the decease of my said wife, 1 order and direct that the sum of 
$10,000 shall be paid to the first town in Massachusetts, of not less than 
one thousand inhabitants, which shall take and forever retain, by an act of 
incorporation, by competent authority, the corporate name of Cushman; 


but the town of Bernardston may take said legacy as aforesaid, without 
having one thousand inhabitants; and if no town in Massachusetts shall 
take said legacy within five years after the decease of my said wife, then 
any town in the United States of not less than one thousand inhabitants, 
which shall comply with the conditions of this legacy by taking the name 
of Cushman, shall be entitled to receive the said sum of Ten Thousand 
Dollars and the interest that shall have accumulated thereon; said sum to 
be safely invested in General Government or State Stocks or Bonds, and 
the annual income and income only, shall be forever used by said town of 
Cushman for the maintenance and support of a High or Grammar School 
in said town." 

Among- the flourishing institutions of the days past there was in 
Bernardston a "Farmers' Club and Agricultural Library Associa- 
tion." This was a fully officered association, meeting weekly for 
discussion and study of the^best methods in vogue as pertaining 
to farming. The members seem to have been enthusiastic, and to 
have enjoyed exceptional advantages in the way of having talented 
speakers and lecturers from those who stood high in the vState as 
experts. It was in existence during the years 1859, '^O- 61 and '62, 
surely, and the meetings were largely attended by the citizens and 
their wives. 

Of an entirely different nature is the Bernardston Thief Detect- 
ing Society, which has now had an existence of 69 years. This is 
also a society firmly established on a business basis, and which has, 
as occasion presented, done efficient work within its sphere. An- 
nual meetings are held, at which officers are elected and necessary 
business transacted, after which the time is given up to entertain- 
ment and sociability. The ladies are always present at these gath- 
erings, and the annual meeting and supper of this society is one of 
the established social functions of the place. 

The following is taken from Gov. Cushman's scrap book and 
may prove of interest. 1856: 

"We learn from the Rochester, N. Y. Daily Union that two splendid 
locomotives recently placed on the Toledo (Ohio) Wabash and St. Louis 
R. R., of which road George H. Burrows of Bernardston is Supt. and John 
E. Carpenter of Bernardston is Paymaster, have been named the 'George 
H. Burrows,' and 'John E. Carpenter.' Two beautiful headlamps for these' 
locomotives have recently been made at Rochester. Their immense re- 


flectors are plateci with gold over silver and copper, and the cases are hand- 
somely painted and mounted with brass. On either side of the cases are 
portraits of the gentlemen whose names the locomotives bear of the size 
of life, and so accurate that those who know the original will have to take 
a second look or they may be deceived by the counterfeit. While the above 
gentlemen were connected with the Rochester and Niagara Falls R. R., 
they had sent to them daguerreotype likenesses of their fathers, Isaac Bur- 
rows and Dr. E. W. Carpenter of Bernardston. One night an unknown 
artist at Rochester got hold of the daguerreotypes, and before morning, 
painted them as large as life on the head lamp of the locomotive which 
was to take out the morning train. In the morning the engineer, Frank 
Burrows, another son of Isaac's, came out to start his machine and in pas- 
sing the head of it was startled to see Dr. Carpenter staring at him. Upon 
going around to the other side, his father was seen looking down at him 
with a stern visage, upon which it is reportetl Frank was so startled that he 
took to his heels and it was some time before he could be convinced that 
they were nothing but painted likenesses of the above gentlemen." 

An antique round topped window sash, now crammed into the gable end 
of a building at the cutlery works, belonging to E. S. Hurlbert, once shone 
resplendent behind the altar and sounding board of the Congregational 
church, while it st(Kjd near Rev. Mr. Rogers' homestead, occupied to-day 
by IrVin Barbffr. When the church was taken down and its parts to some 
extent incorporated into the new church, Unitarian, erected during the 
pastorate of said Rogers, the old sash was discarded and I'educed to less 
dignified service. — Gazette and Courier, Aug., igoo. 

Aug. 15, 1 88 1. Mr. George Wells, ae. 81 years, completed a copy 
of the old Proprietors' book, having expended two years upon the 
work. The copy was deposited in the P. V. M. A. rooms at 
Deerfield. The original is in the town's possession in Bernardston. 
The copy was made in accordance with a law passed, having in inind 
the preservation of old town records in more than one place, so 
that loss by fire would not obliterate the only existing record. 

Concerning Mr. Isaac P. Morrison, who was a native of New 
Hampshire, and at one time kept the hotel here. At the breaking 
out of the Rebellion, he was a resident of Georgia, but sympathized 
strongly with the north. His union sentiments endangered his 
life there, an'd after many futile attempts, he succeeded in reaching 
the sea coast, where obtaining a skiff, he hazarded his own, his 
wife's and children's lives by boldly pushing out to sea. For seven 


days they floated and rowed about, when they were picked up by 
a northern bound vessel. Mr. Morrison when rescued had worn 
the flesh from his hands by his constant endeavors to row to land 
farther north. 

One of the residents of the town, Joseph Warner, died in 1883. 
There was always an air of mystery about him, and from the fol- 
lowing provisions of his will it is not to be wondered at that he 
was not understood by his neighbors: 

"First. My will is that whether I have one dollar or a million at my 
decease there must not one cent go to help along religious craft, that relic 
of barbarism that Kingcraft and Priestcraft have managed to keep the 
world in mental slavery enough to torture and put to death millions for 
their honest opinions. 

Fourth. I direct that there must not be a bell struck at my death or 
burial, and no man or woman acting in the capacity of a priest is to have 
anything to do with the matter, but my executor is to lay me after death 
where my niece, Mary E. Kimball shall direct, provided she does not di- 
rect him to lay me in any cemetery in Bernardston. 

Sixth. If at my death, after settling the provisions of this will there is 
any remainder, the interest of said remainder is to be used for the support 
of my wife, but^ not one cent for any religious purpose, and at her decease 
whether in the hands of my executor or my niece, M. E. Kiinball, it is to 
be used to oppose that horrid old monster of Kingcraft and Priestcraft 
called Religion." 


Died April i, 1884, David Pratt, aged 103 years, 4 months, i day. 
He was born in Shutesbury, Mass., November 27, 1780; removed 
when a young man to Greenfield. He enlisted in the war of 181 2, 
served his time in the Company of Captain Jeremiah Green of Guil- 
ford, Vt., and was honorably discharged. While in this service he 
took part in the battle of Plattsburg, also witnessed the naval 
"fight" between McDonough and Coinmodore Downey on Lake 
Cham plain. He came back to Greenfield in 18 13, and in 18 14 mar- 
ried Lucinda Bertlett, who died in 1878. They had eight children. 
He had resided in Guilford, Vt., Leyden, and for the last years of 
his life, in Bernardston. 


The first government postmaster in town was Dr. Gideon Ryther, 


who had the office located in the south-east room of the house of 
the late William Eaton Ryther. Here it was kept for many years. 
Gov. Henry W. Cushman succeeded Dr. Ryther, and during his 
administration the office was moved to the Cushman hotel. 

D. W. Temple was the next postmaster, his location being upon 
the present site of the Stratton store. He was postmaster for some 
time. 1 86 1 being one of the years which he served. 

By Dr. William M. Dwight it was kept in a building south of the 
Goodale Academy. He had it moved to the present location, the 
office building then being new. 

For many years Mr. Israel Putnam of North Bernardston was 
postmaster, he driving to the village to attend to his duties. 

He was succeeded by Mr. A. M. Stratton, and he in turn by Mr. 
Wells Bardwell, the present incumbent. 

The town now has rural delivery, a convenience much appreciated 
by the patrons of the office. 

In connection with the office should be mentioned the efficient 
service which was for so many years so faithfully rendered by Ar- 
nold Scott. Although blind, he for many years regularly made 
two trips daily through South street, and rarely did he make a mis- 
take in the delivery of the mails. His service was rewarded by 
those whom he served so long and well. 

At North Bernardston not far from 1850, the Government ap- 
pointed Miss Lucy Cutler as postmistress, and as long as health 
permitted, she distributed the mails at her father's home. Upon 
her giving up the position, the office was transferred to the store 
kept by T. K. Horton, where it remained until the decrease in the 
amount of business caused its suspension. 

The officials of a town are usually some of her representative 
men ; the names of those who have been called upon to take charge 
of her affairs are, therefore, of both value and interest as showing 
who the prominent ones were, and to whom the present prosperity 
of the place is indebted for the former judicious management in 
municipal matters, while incidentally it gives a clew to whom were 
the inhabitants. 

The first town meeting was held at the house of Lieut. Ebenezer 



Sheldon, May ii, 1762. At this the selectmen chosen were John 
Burk, Moses Scott and Remembrance Sheldon. 

Those since then have been 

Zebulon Allen, Moses Scott, Remembrance Sheldon, 

John Burk, Zebulon Allen, Remembrance Sheldon, - 

John Severance, Aaron Field, Amasa Sheldon, - - - 

John Burk, Remembrance Sheldon, Zebulon Allen, - 

John Burk, Ebenezer Sheldon, Sampson Howe, 

John Burk, Ebenezer Sheldon, Remembrance Sheldon, 

John Burk, James Couch, John .Severance, . - - - 

John Burk, Aaron Field, John Severance, - - . - 

John Burk, Elijah .Sheldon, Joel Chapin, . . - . 

John Burke, Elijah Sheldon, James Couch, - . . . 

John Burk, Samuel Hastings, Moses .Scott, - - - 

Elisha Burnham, Elijah Kingsley, Caleb Chapin, - - - 

Elisha Burnham, David Rider, Ezekiel F'oster, - - . 

John Burk, Aaron Field, Jonathan .Sheldon, - - - - 

John Burk, Elisha Burnham, Amasa Sheldon, - - - 

Moses Scott, Ezekiel Foster, Samuel Hastings, . - . 

Hezekiah Chapin, Hezekiah Newcomb, John Burk, Joseph Slate, James 
Aaron Field, Moses Scott, Elisha Burnham, . - - - 

Caleb Chapin, .Samuel Guild, Daniel Loomis, 
Amasa .Sheldon, Joseph Slate, Hezekiah Chapin, Jared Crandall, 
David Rider, Hezekiah Chapin, Alpheus Barstow, Hezekiah Newcomb, 
Packer, -------- 

Aaron p-ield, Reuben .Shattuck, Zebulon Allen, - - - 

Job Wright, Jonathan Sheldon, Zebulon Allen, - - - 

Job Wright, Asaph Allen, Artemas Cushman, - . - - 

Job Wright, Joseph Slate, Hezekiah Newcomb, - - - 

Elisha Burnham, .Samuel Hastings, Artemas Cushman, 

Job Wright, Hezekiah Newcomb, Joseph Allen, - - - 

Jonathan Sheldon, Artemas Cushman, Seba Allen, - - - 

Jonathan .Sheldon, Caleb Chapin, Jr., Seba Allen, 

Joseph .Slate, Artemas Cushman, .Seba Allen, - - - - 

Joseph Slate, Caleb Alvord, Seba Allen, - - - - 

Asaph Allen, Caleb Alvord, .Samuel Hastings, - - - 

Elias Parmenter, Caleb Alvord, .Samuel Hastings, 

Elias Parmenter, Caleb Alvord, Seba Allen, - - . - 

David Severance, Prince .Snow, Seba Allen, 

David Severance, Stephen Webster, Gideon Ryther, - - - 

Samuel Hastings, Caleb Chapin, 2nd, Jonathan Allen, 

Thomas Hoseley, Gideon Ryther, David Severance, - - - 

.Samuel Flagg, Stephen Webster, David Severance, 

Samuel Flagg, .Stephen Webster, Samuel Sykes, Jr., 

Thomas Hoseley, Gideon Ryther, Jonathan Allen, 


- 1764 


- 1766 

- 1768 

- 1770 

- 1772 


- 1774 


- 1776 


- 1778 
Couch, 1779 

- 1780 

- 1782 


- 1784 


- 1786 

- 1788 

- 1790 
1 791 

- 1792 

- T796 

- 1798-9 

- 1803 


Samuel Sykes, Jr., Gideon Ryther, David Severance, - - - 1805-6 

Samuel Sykes, Stephen Webster, Jonathan Allen, . . . jgo^ 

John Hamilton, Stephen Webster, Oliver Cooley, . - - - 1808 

John Hamilton, Gideon Ryther, George Alexander, - - - 1809 

Samuel Root, P. L- Cushman, George Alexander, - - . - 1810 

Samuel Root, S. Webster, Ezra Purple, Jr., - - - - 181 1 

John Hamilton, Samuel Green, Ezra Purple, Jr., - - - - 1812 

John Hamilton, S. Webster, Jonathan Allen, - . - - 1813 

John Hamilton, S. Webster, Socrates Sheldon, . . - - 1814 

John Hamilton, Job Goodale, David Dennison, - . - . 1815 

John Hamilton, Jonathan Allen, P. L- Cushman, - - - - 1816 

P. L. Cushman, Jonathan Allen, Rufus Hastings, - - - . 1817 

Job Goodale, Ralph Cushman, Orra Sheldon, ----- 1818 

Jonathan Allen, Hatsel Purple, George Parmenter, - - - 18 19 

Jonathan Allen, Hatsel Purple, John Hamilton, - - . . 1820 

Jonathan Allen, Hatsel Purple, Oliver Root, - - - . 1821 

Pliney Warner, Hatsel Purple, John Hamilton, - - - - 1822 

George Parmenter, Joseph Connable, John Hamilton, - - - 1823 

George Parmenter, Joseph Connable, Z. C. Newcomb, - - - 1824 

Hatsel Purple, Elizur Chamberlain, Samuel Root, - . - 1825 

Hatsel Purple, Elizur Chamberlain, Jonathan Allen, - - - 1826-28 

Hatsel Purple, Isaac Burrows, Joseph Slate, - - - . 1829 

Oliver Root, Isaac Burrows, AdoJphus Hale, ----- 1830 

Ralph Cushman, Isaac Burrows, Hatsel Purple, - - - - 183 1 

Ralph Cushman, Isaac Burrows, Adolphus Hale, - . - - 1832 

Oliver Root, Joseph Slate, Rufus Chase, ----- 1833 

Oliver Root, Adolphus Hale, Rufus Chase, ----- 1834 

Isaac Burrows, Adolphus Hale, Rufus Chase, - - - - 1835-37 

Ralph Cushman, Adolphus Hale, Joseph vSlate, - - - - 1838 

Luke Gore, Adolphus Hale, Isaac Burrows, - - - - 1839 

Otis Warner, Adolphus Hale, S. B. Slate, ----- 1840 

Otis Warner, Adolphus Hale, Isaac Burrows, - - - - 1841 

A. E. Parmenter, A. Hale, D. W. Temple, . - . - - 1842 

A, E. Parmenter, Isaac Burrows, D. W, Temple, - - - - 1843 

A. E. Parmenter, A. R. Kingsley, John H. Burk, - - - - 1844 

D. W. Temple, Rufus Chase, John E. Burk, - - - - 1845 

D. W. Temple, John S. Allen, John E. Burk, ----- 1846 

D. W. Temple, John S. Allen, A. E. Parmenter, - - - - 1847 

D. W. Temple, Isaac Burrows, Richard Montague, - - - - 1848 

John E. Burk, vSamuel I. Green, Ed. H. Snow, - - . - 1849-51 

John E. Burk, Joel N. Dewey, L. H. Sprague, ----- 1852 

D. W. Temple, Israel P. Hale, R. R. Park, - - - - 1853 

D. W. Temple, Israel P. Hale, S. B. Slate, . . - - - 1854 

S. B. Slate, Israel P. Hale, Zenas Cutler, ----- 1855-56 

S. B. Slate, S. J. Lyons, I. K. Brown, ------ 1857 

Marcus Chapin, P. L. Cushman, I. K. Brown, - - - . 1858-59 



Lathrop Cushmau, P. L. Cushman, Samuel J. Lyons, 

Tmla K. Brown, P. L. Cushman, S. J. Lyons, 

J. M. Slate, P. L. Cushman, G. J. Green, 

J. M. Slate, P. L. Cushman, J. F. Hale, 

J. M. Slate, B. S. Burrows, J. F. Hale, 

H. B. Butler, B. S. Burrows, J. F. Hale, 

H. B. Butler, R. H. Hoyt, Henry O. Root, 

Almon Newcomb, R. H. Hoyt. Henry O. Root, 

E. S. Hurlbert, S. H. Atherton, H. O. Root, - 

E. S. Hurlbert, C. R. Hills, H. O. Root, 

H. O. Root, E. S. Hurlbert, C. R. Hills, 

H. O. Root, E. S. Hurlbert, A. B. Warner, 

R. L. Crowell, C. R. Hills, John B. Field, 

H. O. Root, John B. Field, Myron L. Corbett, 

A. M. Stratton, Myron L- Corbett, L. H. Gould, 

O. W. Gray, Myron L. Corbett, E. L. Field, 

Fvdwin B. Hale, Charles Bowker, Myron L- Corbett, - 

Charles Bowker, E. B. Hale, Willis A. Stratton, - 

Charles Bowker, E. B. Hale, A. S. Atherton, - 

E. B. Hale, M. L. Corbett, J. W. Chapin, - 

M. L. Corbett, E. B. Hale, E. C. Martindale, - 

E. C. Martindale, E. B. Hale, L. Dwight Slate, 






















In very many instances, if not at all time, the selectmen have 
also assumed the duties of overseers of the poor, and assessors. 

The town clerks have been 

Major John Burk, 
Job Wright, 
Seba Allen, 
Job Wright, 
Seba Allen, 
Gideon Ryther, 
Jonathan Allen, 
Gideon Ryther, 
Jonathan Allen, 
Ralph Cushman, 
Jonathan Allen, 

I 763- I 785 
1 785 -1 788 
1 788- 1 790 

1 798-1801 


Ralph Cushman, 1822 

Jonathan Allen, 1823 

Zebina C. Newcomb, 1824 

Jonathan Allen, 1852 

Ralph Cushman, 1826-1834 

Henry W. Cushman, 1834- 1853 

Silas N. Brooks, 1853- 1872 

S. J. Green, 1872-1877 

Henry Slate, 1877-1893 

Henry L. Crowell, 1893-1901 

Bernardston sent, in 1764, as her first representative to the Gen- 
eral Court, Major John Burk. In 1784, Leyden was set off as a dis- 
trict, and in 1809, became a town. During the intervening years 
the two places joined in the choice of a representative. In 1857, 
Bernardston was incorporated as a part of District No. i, and now 
the representatives are cho.sen from the towns in the district. Up 



to this time, those who have gone to look after the town's interests 
in legislative halls, have been as follows : 

John Burk. 
Elisha Burnham. 
Hezekiah Newcomb. 
Alpheus Barstow. 
Caleb Alvard. 
Jonathan Budingtou. 
Lemuel Foster. 
Gideon Ryther. 
Stephen Webster. 
George Alexander. 

P. L. Cushman. 
Hatsel Purple. 
John Brooks. 
Jonathan Allen. 
Henry \V. Cushman. 
Adolphus Hale. 

D. W. Temple. 
Isaac Burrows. 
John H. Burk. 
Samuel S. Wright. 

E. S. Hurlbert. 

John Hamilton. 

Since its incorporation into District No. i, the representatives 
from town have been for the District : 

Pliney Fiske, 1858 

Silas Brooks, 1866 

Almon Newcomb. 

Richard Hoyt, 1879 

Dr. O. A. Wheeler, 1883 
Myron L. Corbett, 1890 








Already have we seen the care exercised over the education of 
the youth'of the place. It remains for us to look for a moment at 
the homes of education, and not only by this expression is meant the 
schoolhouses, but as well, the homes from which the young people 
are sent out. In the different districts are seen comfortable wooden 
buildings, in good repair and of neat, attractive appearance, wherein 
are spent the hours set apart for education. They are furnished 
throughout with the needful appliances for the branches designed 
to be there taught, and are in keeping with the needs and means 
of the scholars and town. As we pass through the town on our 
way from one of these schoolhouses to another, we can but notice 
the universally neat and comfortable appearance of the homes. 
Good taste and a spirit of order is the rule, and from such homes, 
protected by all that quiet. Christian influence can suggest, do the 
young people go forth to their daily tasks. The schools and the 
homes alike are of a high order, and most creditable to the place. 
Thriftiness is plainly inscribed on all sides. 

At the village is located the greater part of the town property. 
Near by the churches stand the library, the Institute and di- 
rectly opposite the boarding house, Cushman Hall, and adjoining 
the latter, Cushman Park, a tract of land containing two and one- 
half acres. This land was bequeathed to the town by Henry W. 
Cushman and occupies the corner opposite the hotel. Much has 
already been done toward beautifying and improving this, and in 
time it is destined to become a most beautiful spot. In the spring 
of 1877 it was set over with trees of different kinds and the occa- 
sion was made a gala day. Conspicuous in the history of the day, 
was the setting of a circle of trees by eight men over 80 years of 
age, about one tree which was held by Mr. Israel Bagg, aman then 
in his loist year. A most impressive sight was this, of the nine 


oldest men in town thus gathered, their heads whitened by the 
frost of more than the allotted threescore and ten winters, their 
forms, many of them, bent and withered as if typical of what the 
young trees they planted might become after exposure to the ele- 
ments for the number of years represented by the years of their 
lives. These gentlemen were as follows : David Pratt, ae. 97, Jesse 
Field, 85, Horace Atherton, 87, Lucius Chapin, 85, Joel Cutler, 82, 
Silas Fox, 81, Ruggles Bagg, 81. 

The Fox brook, so called, runs through the park, and across it 
there are two neat bridges; paths have been opened, flower beds 
laid out, a well and well house and band stand constructed, and as 
the advancing years render the shade greater, and the improve- 
ments now made annually more pronounced, Cushman Park cannot 
but become a "Thing of beauty and of joy forever." 

On the second lot east of the library stands the town hall, the 
one place of size sufficient to supply the needs of the town for a 
place of public gathering. It is a large two-story structure, pro- 
vided with a large hall upstairs, and a smaller hall below ; connected 
with the latter are dressing-rooms and kitchen, the whole combin- 
ing to supply the wants of all. The present building was dedicated 
January 8, 1878. The old hall, which had done duty for so many 
years, was moved from the lot around the corner to a location north 
of the postoffice, and is now used as a dwelling house. Recently 
the town has built near this a brick fire proof vault for the better 
preservation of the records. 

In the spring of 1901 a benefaction came to the town from Mrs. 
Abbie Burrows Coy (daughter of Isaac Burrows) of Little Rock, 
Ark. She offered a clock to cost $600 to the town, provided a suit- 
able tower should be built for its reception. This gift was grate- 
fully accepted by the town, and measures taken to have the same 
placed within a tower to be placed upon the town hall. 

The town has two cemeteries, the old and the new one. The 
former is situated about three-quarters of a mile north of the vil- 
lage, east of the river, on a gentle rise of land. It was laid out at 
the time of the town's settlement, or soon after, and it is said that 
Mr. Baily, the first blacksmith in town whose shop was within the 







Z " 

< H 

5 < 
n u 

A X :=, a: 












































walls of the Burk Fort, was the second man buried in this old cem- 
etery. The interment took place in 1757. "A soldier was buried 
before him. Name unknown." [Lieut. Gov. Cushman.] 

Dec. 2, 1776, the town voted to fence the burying- ground; the 
posts were to be four and one-half feet high, and there were to be 
five rails to a length. At present there is no fence about the ground. 
The space originally allotted for the yard has nearly all been taken 
up, and many curious inscriptions are here decipherable. The 
stones are in a fair state of preservation, for the most part of slate, 
and probably the greater number of them were gotten out by the 
Chapins from their quarry. 

In 1782 it was voted to purchase one-half acre of land of either 
Lieut. Daniel Newcomb or Selah Chapin for a burial place to accom- 
modate those in the west part of the town, and this is the yard now 
known as the Beaver Meadow cemetery. The new cemetery, as 
the one at the village was designated, was laid out in 1826. Orig- 
inally it contained one acre and three rods, and was divided into 
1 10 lots measuring 25x7, feet with walks three feet in width. The 
tomb was built by the town in 1 83 1 . the proprietors of the yard giv- 
ing five lots for that purpose. According to the constitution of 
the corporation, the association is called the " Proprietors of the 
Bernardston Cemetery Corporation." By purchase in recent years, 
the original size of the yard has been doubled. It is kept neatly 
fenced, and the income of $1,000 bequeathed by Lieut. Gov. Cush- 
man in 1863, is devoted to its care and improvement. Many hand- 
some and expensive stones are here to be seen, and the owners of 
the lots all take a commendable pride in rendering the last resting 
place of departed friends as attractive as possible. Quite a num- 
ber of bodies were removed here from the old cemetery when the 
present yard was laid out. 

Let us now pay a short visit to these last earthly resting places of 
the dead. Do some shrink from entrance, thinking it a gruesome 
place, and that mournful, melancholy feelings are portended ? Or, 
perchance, it may seem suggestive of morbidness of spirit. If so, 
pray you strive to banish the idea, and once within the portals, see 
if therein are not recorded "Thoughts which fix themselves deep 
in the heart, as meteor stones in earth, dropped from some higher 


sphere." By any one who will enter an old yard reverently, and with 
a mind intent upon gaining some knowledge relative to those whose 
mortal remains are therein contained, how much may be learned! 
To a real lover of history such a place is always attractive. Many 
and curious inscriptions are found, and it is a noticeable fact that 
preceding generations were wont to place upon the stones inscrip- 
tions which should bear to the passerby either a vivid idea of the 
characteristics of the departed, or an admonition for better prepa- 
ration for death. Inquiry among those remaining, has served to 
convince me that in the majority of cases, the epitaphs, seemingly 
crude and uncouth, or marked for their apparent inappropriateness, 
in reality reveal beneath the casual reading a hidden meaning in- 
dicative of the real life passed here. Such seems especially true 
of many to be found in the burying ground in our town, viewed in 
the light which the genealogical research expended has revealed. 
Whether our predecessors were governed by pedantic motives in 
their choice of inscriptions, or merely conformed to the custom of 
the times, we can only conjecture. 

Not with irreverent feelings, then, — albeit there may be a strong 
appeal to our sense of the ludicrous at times — let us enter, nor yet 
with reluctance, but freely, with a desire to study, with all our mind 
concentrated upon supplementing the delineation of the character 
of those already referred to in these pages, by such grains of knowl- 
edge herein obtainable. 

As we enter we read of a man who was one of the most promi- 
nent of his time in both civil and military affairs: 

" Were I so tall to reach the pole, 

Or grasp the ocean with iiiy span; 
I must be measured by my soul, — 

The mind's the standard of the man." 

Concerning a good deacon of the place, likewise prominent in 
town matters, it is recorded : 

"He possessed in an eminent degree the social, civil, and moral virtues; 
his religion was reason, his morality, benevolence and his political senti- 
ments dictated by a love to his country. His talents were good, his man- 
ners engaging and his conversation a just mixture of manly sentiments 
and Attic Humour. His last moments were calm and serene and his exit, 
dignity in ruins." 


Was one of the g-ood dames of the town possessed of a shrewish 
disposition ? Who shall say, when from the grave she says : 

"My friends, remember my hard fortune, live in harmony, union and 

By the widow of one of our early settlers was composed the fol- 
lowing : 

"In justice to his character it may be said, If the profession and visible 
signs of religion and piety, together with the amiable virtues of sobriety, 
temperance, truth, economy and discretion, constitute a worthy character, 
we may place them to his credit." 

"While at my calling as I wrought. 

By God's supreme decree 
Rapacious death rushed quick as thought 
And snatched my life from me." 

The poetical part refers to the manner of demise, the man dying 
instantly while sitting, resting on his plow in the field. 

The stone erected for the earliest physician bears the following : 

"Vain censorious beings little know 
What they must soon experience below. 
Your lives are short, eternity is long, 
O think of death, prepare, and then begone. 
Thus art and nature, powers and charms, 
And drugs and receipts and forms 
Yield us at last to greedy worms, 
A despicable prey." 

The tribute paid to the son of a worthy deacon of the place is in 

part in Latin : 

"Quod cuique temporis advidentum 

datur, es debet esse contentus, 
Breve enim tempus aetates fatis est, 

longum ad bene honesteque vivendum." 

"Death's near approach with calmness thou couldst view; 

And cheerful bid life's many scenes adieu, 

And feel without a groan thy frame decay. 

And patient wait the glad expiring day. 

But while thy earth with native earth combines, 

Thy mind celestial seeks celestial climes 

Where nobler scenes unfold bright proof of poet's rise; 

And new born beauties charm thy ravished eyes." 

Here is a stone simply marked " T. E." As it is near some 
erected for members of the Edwards family, we conjecture that 
this marks the resting place of another Edwards. 


Upon the stone erected to a venerable captain, aged 83, we read : 

" Tho' age must die, youth also may. 

O then prepare without delay 

For death and for the judgment day." 

Turning again we encounter the grave of a worthy woman, wife 
of one of the early deacons of the place. The following exhorta- 
tion appears : 

"Mortals, attend for you must die 
And sleep in dust as well as I ; 
Repent in time your souls to save. 
There's no repentance in the grave. 

Concerning another of Bernardston's physicians the stone asserts 
that he " was born of wealthy and respectable parents at Hart- 
ford, Ct." 

One of the prosperous farmers of the place died in 1840. Read 
his epitaph ! 

"His hour had come and angels round him wait 
To take him to their glorious happy state 
Where free from sickness, death and every pain 
He does with God in endless pleasure reign. 

Transporting tho't ! dear partner now adieu ! 
I feel no sorrow but to part with you: 
O thou, my comfort, thou't, and only care. 
In these last words thy kindness I'll declare. 
The time is short till we shall meet again 
With Christ to share the glories of his reign." 

Upon a stone placed at the grave of a son of the preceding, is 
this : 

" The grave is near the cradle seen. 
How swift the moments pass between ! 
Unthinking man, remember this, 
Though midst of sublunary bliss." 

The epitaph placed upon the stone of an aged person is as fol- 

" Marbles and urns can never mark the spot where the soul is destined to dwell." 

"To live and die is the lot of man." 

The headstone placed at the grave of the wife who died at the 
age of twenty-eight years asserts that : 

"From sorrow, distress & pain, She soon ran her round of virtues, then 


full of faith, devoted to God, She left us to mourn her early departure." 
At the grave of an infant we read that 

"When the archangles trump shall blow 

And souls to bodies join, 
Millions may wish their days below 

Had been as few as thiue." 

As we prepare to retrace our steps, yet one more attracts us: 

"Hear O my friends the solemn call 
Death is pronounced upon you all, 
Be wise in time your state to see 
Before your called to follow me." 

With this admonition ringing in our ears we depart, having taken 
but a hasty glance through the yard, picking out here and there a 
bit, and may we feel none the worse for having spent a half hour 
in the " city of the dead." 

The town farm, or the charity farm as it is oftentimes called, 
is located on Bald Mountain and is the gift of Hon. Job Goodale, 
in accordance with the eighth item of his will, which reads as fol- 
lows : 

"I give and bequeath to the town of Bernardston a certain farm in said 
town which I bought of Hatsel Purple at auction called the Loomis Place, 
and of the heirs of the late Stephen Webster, containing about 100 acres 
also about one and one half acres which I bought of Saxton Kingsley ad- 
joining the same, near the buildings. It is my will that the premises afore- 
said shall belong to the town under the care and superintendance of the 
overseers of the poor for the time being, who shall appropriate and dis- 
tribute the net income of the same annually among such industrious and 
deserving poor in said town as shall fall into sickness and distress as they 
shall judge proper without reference to religious sects or denominations." 

Near the depot was a pretty grove, which was, in 1870, purchased 
by the Connecticut River Railroad Company and fitted up as a pic- 
nic ground. A considerable sum of money was expended, with the 
result that it in times past attracted large numbers of pleasure par- 
ties. In October, 1900, the timber in "The Grove," also the pavil- 
ion, was sold by the Boston and Maine railroad to Baxter P. Bur- 
rows, by whom the fine trees were felled. 

To an unusual degree has our town been favored with gifts. 
The men of the generations past were, as has been seen, of sterling 


integrity and modest worth, who, realizing from their personal 
youthful struggles the hardships which might beset the path of 
their successors, have sought to pave the way for all, by contribut- 
ing generously from their accumulated wealth. As most enduring 
monuments to the names of some, do we see the Institute, Library, 
Cushman Hall and Park, the town farm, while to the religious so- 
cieties much substantial aid has been rendered as noticed in that 
portion of the work devoted to the ecclesiastical history of the place. 
It is a fact worthy of note that wherever an old resident of the 
town is to be found to-day, and Bernardston's sons and daughters 
are scattered throughout the length and breadth of our grand 
United States, they all express unanimously their love and vener- 
ation for the place of their nativity, and their appreciation of the 
lessons inculcated by the lives of their progenitors. 

"Brave men and faithful ! It is not necessary that the present 
generation, now quietly reaping the fruit of your heroic endurance, 
should see eye to eye with you in respect to all your testimonies 
and beliefs, in order to recognize your claim to gratitude and ad- 

And those of the present generation ! Do they not deserve a 
passing notice? Look for a moment into the colder north, the 
east with its bracing sea breezes, into the south where the balmy 
air is ever redolent with summer sweetness, or enter the portals 
of the far reaching west of our country, and can you find a section 
to which our town has not sent a representative? No! In all the 
various callings of life, useful and honored in their chosen voca- 
tions, filling a niche here, a corner there, with varying degrees of 
prominence in the religious or secular, social or political, profes- 
sional or mercantile life, do these now resident in our beloved town 
look for and find those who are bound to them by the ties of early 
association or a close and abiding kinship. 

And no less sincere and deep-rooted is the affection and loving 
remembrance entertained by these absent ones for those whose 
privilege it is to maintain the high standard which Bernardston 
has so long enjoyed. No merely idle assertion is this. Ample 
substantiation is found by the ever recurring visits to childhood 
scenes and in more than all else, the feeling that inspires the senti- 


ment of so many that when their earthly lamps are extinguished 
and their spiritual lamps brightly burning, all which then remains 
of the body be committed to the dust of that town in which the 
eye was first opened upon the beautiful world of nature and of God. 
Could more silent, yet speaking, testimony be adduced ! 

Those now upon the stage of action, residents of our honored 
town ! In their lives, in the quiet performance and conscientious 
discharge of daily recurring duty, in the self-denying, self-develop- 
ing Christian lives, spent in perfect accordance with nature's handi- 
work and her manifold designs, can we not trace the spirit of those 
who have gone before, and who expended the best of their lives 
that the present might become what it is? 

And in the generations to come will not this same latent, inde- 
pendent, noble and self-sacrificing motive prove dominant, so that, 
down the ages, those looking backward upon these annals shall 
be moved as by a common impulse to exclaim with one of our loved 
Massachusetts poets: 

"Sternly faithful to duty, in peril and suffering and self-denial, they 
wrought out the noblest of historical epics on the rough soil of New Eng- 
land. They lived a truer poetry than Homer or Virgil wrote." 




Herein will be found the genealogical record and biographical 
notices of those who first settled our town, also their descendants 
within reasonable limits, so far as it has been possible to obtain 
them. To these have been added the names of many who have 
in later years become prominently identified with town affairs. 
No work of this kind has ever been or ever can be published with- 
out errors or omissions, and it is too much to claim perfection for 
the work herein recorded, but all that painstaking inquiry and re- 
search can do to obviate omissions or errors has been patiently 
done and it is hoped that the result will bear the test of close scru- 
tiny. Many visits have been made, town, church and family rec- 
ords examined at length and reconciled to each other, and a large 
correspondence entered into, in the attempt to embody a record 
which shall be correct. 

The plan used by the New England Historical and Genealogical 
Society is the one here followed. 

Succeeding a sketch of the heads of the families, will be found 
the names of children in the order of birth, so far as ascertained, 
numbered by Roman numerals. The figures preceding individ- 
ual names indicate that the record is subsequently continued, and 
will be found later on, with the corresponding figures the starting 
point of a new family. If the information is limited, or the person 
leaves the family by marriage, or, in many cases, if they have re- 
moved from this locality, their record is given at once. The ances- 
tors of each head of a family are given, enclosed in parentheses 
at the beginning of his family record, the generation of the same 
being indicated by the exponent figures. 

The frequent repetition of common words such as born, married, 
died, baptized, etc., has led to the use of ordinary abbreviations. 
The interrogation is used to express doubt or uncertainty. Where 
no state is mentioned, Massachusetts is to be understood. 

The biographical notices have been placed in this portion of the 
work, believing that not only is this their proper place, but also 
that their interspersion among the genealogical data will enhance 
the interest of that portion of the work, and incidentally enable 
the reader to more readily trace out the ancestral connection, than 
if placed in the first part of the volume. 


Adams, Benjamin, (Joseph of Hadley), came to town from Hadley 
in 1882, carrying on a lumber business, and it is a little re- 
markable that for one hundred and fifty years, his ancestors 
had engaged in a like business. He m. Luthera Bangs, dau. 
of Charles H. Wheeler of Hard wick, in 1841. She d. Sept. 19, 
1900. A few years before his death, Mr. Adams purchased 
the J. N. Dewey place, originally the Goodale Academy, 
which he made his home, as does now his son, Joseph H. 
He d. Mch. 19, 1900. They are buried in Bernardston. 
Children : 

i. Joseph H., b. in Hadley, in 1845, grad. Amherst Col., 1870; was 
for many years teacher in New York, afterward in the School 
of Technology, Brooklyn. Since residing in Bernardston he 
has been correspondent for the local papers, unm. 

ii. Charles Wheeler, b. in Hadley, in 1848; resides in Putney, Vt., 
a lumber dealer. 

1. Aldrich, Joseph', according to the records of the Proprietors' 
book, was of Guilford, Vt. Among the records of marriages 
returned by Elder Levi Hodge (Baptist) May 29, 1793, is that 
of Joseph Aldridge, of Guilford, Vt., and Tamar Hale. At 
this time Tamar Hale was a widow, her husband having 
been drowned at Turners Falls while fishing. Her maiden 
name was Scott; her husband's given name is unknown. 
She had sons by her first husband who either removed to, 
or at one time resided at Londonderry, N. H., whence they 
came to visit their mother and relatives in Bernardston. By 
the Proprietors' records, Joseph Aldrich and Tamer Hale 
were married Feb. 14, 1793, he then being 21 years, and she 
38 years of age. She died June 5, 1823, at the age of 6-] years. 
Mr. Aldrich m. (2) Anna,' dau. of Israel' Bagg of Bernard- 
ston. She died Aug. 8, 1847, ae. 69 years. He was born in 


1763, and died May 15, 1850. He lived on the place now- 
owned by George Parmenter on the old road to Northfield, 
about a mile east of the village. Children : 

2. i. HosEA^, b. Dec. 4, 1793, in Guilford, Vt. 

ii. MosES^, b. Oct. 22, 1795; ^- Sept. 14, 1820, Lucy^ dau. of Reu- 
ben'^ Park. She was b. Feb. 7, 1805. They rem. to Vernon, Vt., 
where he died. She afterwards went to St. Paul, Minn, 
iii. Rachael^, b. Sept. 17, 1797; m. Loren^ Hale of Gill, Nov. 11, 
1819. She d. Oct. 21, 1869. 

2. Aldrich, Hosea', (Joseph') b. Dec. 4, 1793, in Guilford, Vt., m. 
(i) Betsey\ dau. of Jonathan' Park, Sept. 7, 18 [5. She was 
b. Aug. 21, 1797, and d. Sept. 13, 1861; m..(2) April 15, 1864, 
Harriet Whiting of Northfield. She d. Nov. 19, 1864, ae. 

52 years ; m. (3) widow of John Potter of Gill ; m. (4) 

Streeter of Vernon, Vt. He died Apr. 25, 1881. He resided 
east of the iron bridge where the Huckle Hill road branches 
from the main road. Served in the war of 1812. Children: 

i. Rachael Almeda^, b. May 30, 1816; m. Oct. 30, 1834, Asa C. 
Wheelock of Greenfield; res. Waltham. 

ii. AsENATH Pamela^, b. Apr. 27, 1818; m. Apr. 9, 1840, Warren 
Randall of Pelham; died in Springfield. 

iii. Consider^, b. Aug. 15, 1820; m. Mch. 18, 1846, Caroline, dau. of 
John Wells; rem. to Plymouth, New York State, where she died. 

iv. Tamar Climena^, b. Jan. 21, 1823; m. (i) Aug. 17, 1843, Calvin 
Field of Leverett; m (2) Henry Russell; died in Brooklyn, N. Y. 

V. Jonathan Joseph^, b. Jan. 12, 1825; m. June 6, 1847, (i) Lucy 
Arlin; m. (2) Emeline Weatherhead of Guilford, Vt.; res.. Nat- 
ural Bridge, N. Y. He was a vol. in the 37th Reg. Mass. Vol. 
for three years in the Civil War. 

vi. Moses^, b. Jan. 27, 1827; m. Nov. 26, 1850, Lurancy- S.*, dau. 
of Oliver'' Bagg. She was b. Dec 31, 1825, and d. Feb. 16, 
1888. He resides with his son about a mile north of the village 
on the place he purchased of Henry Park. The prior owners 
were George Tyler, Zebina Newcomb (who came into posses- 
sion of the property through the Goodale estate) and Amasa 
Rogers. Is a farmer. Has: i. Oliver Freemont^, b. Aug. 29, 
1856; isunm.; resides with his father. 


vii. Ira^, b. Feb. 14, 1829; m. Aug. 21, 1853, a dau. of Abraham Mil- 
ler of Southampton; resides in Holyoke. 
viii. Patience'^ Aurilea, b. Dec. 12, 1834; m. Aug. 21, 1853, Dwight 
S. Elliott of Southampton. 
ix. Elvira Mary^ b. Sept. 18, 1836; m. (i) Nov. 6, 1864, Daniel 

Haney; (2) Edward Twiss; resides Northampton. 
X. Lewis^, b. Oct. 14, 1838; d. Oct. 23, 1900, unm. 
xi. Phoebe^ Melinda, b. Aug. 23, 1S42; m. Horace Bartlett; res. 
1. Aldrich, Joel' (probably Peter', Peter', Peter', Jacob", George' 
from England) b. Feb. 11, 1796, in Guilford, Vt. It i.s sup- 
posed that there is a connection between this and the family 
of Joseph preceding on the Aldrich side. His mother was 
a sister of Joseph's wife. Tamar Scott Hale Aldrich. Joel 
m. (i) Feb. 15, 1818, Almeda' dau. Samuel' Hale of Gill. She 
was b. Feb. 22, 1 794, and d. Nov. 11, 1850. He m. (2) Apr. 24, 
1852, Mrs. Mary Ann', widow of Joab Fairman, and dau. of 
Oliver' Sheldon. She died Feb. 10, 1862. He resided in the 
south-east part of the town ; died Aug. 13, 1870. A farmer. 
Children : 
i. Diana Almeda'', b. Jan. 22, 1819; m. May 30, 1840, Lorenzo C. 

Holton of Gill; d. Sept. 18, 1873. 
ii. Lusina Ann^, b. Dec. 19, 1820; m. Nov. 16, 1843, William Wood- 
ruff of Northfield; she d. 1885. Resided nearly opposite Joel 
Aldrich's, near Gill line. He and his son George enlisted in 
Civil War and were both killed in battle of Petersburg. Other 
children were James and Joel, both of whom reside in Florida, 
a dau. who d. young, and Joseph who lives in Boston, 
iii. Samuel Hale', b. Feb. 5, 1823; m. May 8, 1862, Martha A,*, dau. 
of Otis'" Chapin. She was b. Oct. 17, 1834; he d. Mch. 21, 1892. 
His widow resides in East Bernardston. Had: i. Otis^ J., b. 
July 4, 1861; res. Milton. 2. George W.**, b. Oct. 24, 1864; 
res. Bern, on the home place. 3. Dwight Lyman*, b. Dec. 29, 
1865; res. Bern. 4. Julia S.*, b. June; d. July 6, 1867. 5. Cora 

Bell*, b. May 24, 1868; m. Sommers; res. Orange. 

iv. Julia Salmira^, b. Dec. 30, 1825; m. Jan. 29, 1846, John B. Slate 

of Ware; res. Battle Creek, Mich. 
v. Stephen Joel'', b. June 4, 1828; m. Jan. 24, 1853, Abigail B. Jones 
of Brattleboro, Vt. He died Oct. 6, 1867. She purchased in 


1901, the Alvan Alexander place on South st. Had: i. Em- 
ma J**, b. July 21, 1853; res. Bern. Unm. 2. Herbert J*, b. 
Dec. 21, 1854; d. Oct. 15, 1885, in North Adams. 3. Susie Al b. 
July 22, 1856; d. July 2, 1877. 4. Minnie B^ b. July 2, 1858; 
m. (i) John Bemis, m. (2) Nelson \V. Simons; res. (jill. 

vi. VViLLARD Lyman", b. July 30, 1830; m. May 29, 1851, Salmira 
Jones of Brattleboro, Vt. He resides in Greenfield. Had: 
I. Ella E^ b. Apr. 28, 1852; m. Dec. 21, 1870, Charles L. 
Frink of Greenfield; d. Feb., 1872. 2. Etta Ml b. July 4, 
1854; m. Aug. 16, 1883, Lyman \V. Cooley; res. Greenfield. 

vii. James Proctor'', b. Nov. 12, 1832; m. in the West; resides now 
in West Northfield; has several children. 

L Alexander George", traces his ancestry through Thomas', 
Ebenezer', John', George", to John' who came to this country 
from Scotland, according to a family tradition, before the 
year 1644, and settled in Windsor, Ct. George' Alexander 
was b. May 26, 1769; m. (i) Feb. 14, 1795, Sophronia', dau. of 
Dr. Polycarpus" Cushman of Bernardston. She was b. May 7, 
1775; d. Aug. 3, 1814; m. (2) Apr. 13, 1815, Mary, dau. of 
vSeth Lyman of Northfield. She was b. June 2, 1783. Mr. 
Alexander was a clothier by trade, residing on the "Green." 
He was ensign and lieutenant of a militia company in town; 
served as selectmen and assessor in 1809 and 18 10, as repre- 
sentative in 1809 and 1812. He d. Oct. 12, 1829. Children: 

i. PoLYCARPUs Cushman'. b. May 7, 1802; m. Sophronia*^, dau. of 
David* Severance Sept. 22, 1829; she d. May 6, 1844, ae. 39. 
He resided in the house north of the Institute. By trade, a 
machinist. "A highly intelligent and respected man;" d. No- 
vember I, 1870. Had: i. Ralph Cushman**, b. Oct. 10, 1834; 
d. Sept. 7, 1835. 2. Seth S.** d. ae. i yr. 8 mos. 3. Loring 
C. m. and resides in Holyoke. 

ii. George Austin'', b. Mch. 27, 1809; m. 'rry[)hena'', dau. of Thomas 
L.^ Edwards, Mch. 27, 1832. She was b. Jan. 29, 1815; d. 
Sept. 9, 1836. Mr. Alexander was by trade a brick-mason, re- 
siding on the Field place on Huckle Hill. His residence (1897) 
was Northfield. Had: i. Sylvia Tryphena,** b. Mch. [9. 1834. 
2. Maria Edwards**, b. Aug. 29, 1836; d. July 24, 1837. By 
second wife: 






iii. SoPHRONiA C/, b Jan. 9, 1S16; m. 1835, Stephen W. Kenney. 

iv. Lucy', b. Oct. 4, 1817; d. Apr. 20, 1818. 

V. Seth Lyman', b. Jan. 11, 1819; d. in Erie, Pa., Mch. 27, 1851. 
vi. Elias', b. Apr. 23. 182 1. 

"Luther Skinner of the family of Mr. Alexander, b. Jan. 13, 1801." 

Alexander, Alvan', b. 1807; m. Martha Houghton, who d. No- 
vember 13, 1900. He came to thi.s place from Brattleboro, 
Vt., locating on South street, where for many years he car- 
ried on the shoe-making- bitsincss. He died Jan. 26, 1891. 
Children : 
i. Martha Henrietta^, b. Dec. 10, 1843; m. (i) July 5, 1865, 

Leroy M. Stearns of Readsboro, Vt. ; m. (2) in 1876, Walter 

Gould; res. Minneapolis, Minn. 

Alfurd," Alonzo a., was born near Burlington, Vt. ; was for many 
years a resident in Brooklyn, N. Y. Upon his removal to 
Bernardston he purchased and refitted the place formerly 
owned by N. S. Cutler, and earlier by S. N. Brooks and his 
father. Dr. John Brooks. This is now known as Cedar Lawn. 
He m. Feb. i, i860, Chloe Cornelia", dau. of Dea. Henry' 
Slate. She was b. Feb. 18, 1842. She has been and is a 
prominent worker in charitable and temperance societies, 
she w^as president of the Non-Parti.san National Branch of 
the W. C. T. U. Mr. Alford is interested in the civil affairs 
of the place, and a member of the firm of E. S. Hiirlbert & 
Co. No children. 

Alger, James, b. about 1760. The dates of birth would indicate 
that he and Rogfer miijht both have been brothers of Simeon 
mentioned below. He enlisted for Revolutionary service No- 
vember 14, 1776, at which time his residence was given as 
Fall Town, ae. 21 years. His term of enlistment was "dur- 
ing the War." He seems to have been in various commands, 
serving as private; he also " reported on command with sap- 
pers and miners." He was twice recorded as having deserted, 
the first time being gone two, and the second, six months. 
He enlisted into the Continental army from Capt. Amasa 
Sheldon's company. 


Alger, Roger, b. about 1758-9 ; residence Bernardston; enlisted 
for the town of Hadley May 28, 1777 ; term of enlistment, 
three years ; ae. 27 years. His record likewise reads " De- 
serted July, 1779." 

Alger Simeon, b. 1762. In 1790 there was warned from town Sim- 
eon Alger and Simeon Jr., both from Connecticut. He lived 
northeast of the Torrey farm, at the e.nd of a now abandoned 
road. This location was east of Dry Brook ; died Aug. 4, 
1822, ae. 60. A Lucinda Alger was pub. to Jona. Shndrefs 
of Northfield, June 14, 1801, probably of this family. Among 
the children of the family was : 

i. Simeon^, Jr. 

ii. RoxY^, who m. Horace Thompson. 

iii. Reuben^, b. 1787; m. Mch. 24, 1810, Rhoda Allen of GreenfieKJ. 
She d. in V^ernon, Vt., Nov. 22, 1853, ae. 68 years. He died 
Jan. I, 1849, ae. 62. He resided on Huckle Hill. A daughter 
Alice'', m. Israel' Bagg. 

1. Allen, Joseph', Sgt., (Benjamin/ Edward', a weaver of Ipswich, 

Mass., in 1658. According to a family tradition, came from 
Scotland, where he was a soldier under Cromwell, upon the 
Restoration, and was probably one of the first settlers in 
Suffield, Ct.) was b. in Suffield, Ct., 1701 ; removed to Ber- 
nardston in 1757 or 1759 from Deerfield, settling on place 
later known as Dalton Newcomb place, now owned by W. 
Wight. Hem. x'Vpr. 24, 1727, Hannah, dau. of(Capt. Joseph 
and Hannah (Arms) Clesson. She was b. at Deerfield, July 5, 
(705, and d. at Bern. May 13, 1790. Sgt. Allen became a 
prominent man in town, holding a number of town offices. 
He d. in Bern. July 17, 1785, and is buried in the old ceme- 
tery. Children : 

2. i. Zebulon\ b. Oct. or Nov. 22, 1727, at Deerfield. 

ii. Simeon'', b. 1728, at Deerfield, where he died in infancy. 

iii. SEM^ b. Feb. 9, 1730-1; d. July 24, 1754. 

iv. MarV*, b. Nov. 5, 1732; d. ol the "Throat Distemper," May 15, 

1744, ae. 1 1 years. 
V. Seba'', b. Sept. 16, 1736; d. May 20, 1744. 

ALLEN. 291 

vi. Joseph^, b. Mch. 14, 1739-40; d. Apr. 30, 1744. 
vii. AsAPH^, b. Sept. 16, 1742; d. June 24. 1744. 
viii. Marah\ b. June 12, 1747; d. June 30, 1747. 

'l"he fifth, sixth and seventh children died at about the same time 

as their sister, Mary, and of the same disease. 

2. Alt. EN Zehulon', (vSgt. Joseph', Benjamin", Edward',) b. at Deer- 

field, Oct. or Nov. 22, \72j\ m. Nov. 21', 1751, by Rev. Jona. 
Ashley to Freedom Cooley of Sunderland. vShe was born 
at vStinderland, Mch. 12, 1734, and died at her son Simeon's 
in Leyden, Sept. 16, 1801. Mr. Allen probably came to Ber- 
nardston about 1756, and as did his father, made his home 
on the present Wight place near the railroad crossing". He 
was always prominently connected with military affairs, ser\^- 
ing as corporal and lieutenant in tlie French and Indian War 
of 1755-8. Oct. 19, 1756, to Jan. 23, 1757, he was stationed 
at Colrain in Capt. Israel William's regiment, about which 
time he saw much service in scouting in the westward. 
Earlier, from Dec. \ i, 1755, to Oct. 18, 1756, he was sentinel. 
His name appears on John Burk's enlistment roll ending 
Nov. 30, 1758, at which time he held the rank of sergeant. 
He was engaged in several sharp skirmishes, among others, 
Hobbs Fight, and at which one of the Indians. Sackett, 
boasted that he "knew old Zeb Allen and that he had killed 
him at the first shot," but the truth of this statement Mr. 
Allen's safe return to town disproved. He took his part in 
the civil affairs of the day, serving for the years 1763, 1764. 
1784, as selectman. Was also one of the early school teach- 
ers of the place. (See ante 228.) He died at Bernardston, 
Feb. 15, 1786. Children : 

3. i. Asaph"', b. in the fort at Deerfield Oct. 22, 1752. (T. R.) 

4. ii. Simeon"', b. Apr. 6, 1755. 

5. iii. Joseph'', b. in Hurk Fcjrt, Mch. 29, 1757. 

6. iv. Seba^, b. in Bern. Aug. 16, 1759. 

V. Mary"', b. Feb. 2, 1762; m. Thaddeus Wright of Waterbury, Vt. 
where she d. Mch. 5, 1801. 

7. vi. Jonathan^, b. Apr. 20, 1766. 

8. vii. Samuel Clesson% b. Jan. 5, 1772. 


viii. Electa^, b. Feb. 26, 1775; ^^e d. at Derry, N. H., at her tlau. 
Mrs. Ordways. She m. Dec. 21, 1797, Ellsworth, son of Capt. 
Hunt and brother of Samuel C. Allen's second wife. They had 
two children. 

3. Allen, Asaph', Deacon, (Zebulon*, Sgt. Joseph', Benjamin', Ed- 

ward',) b. in the fort at Deerfield, Oct. 22, 1752; m. about 
1773 or 1774, Persis", dau. of Remembrance' Sheldon of Bern. 
She was b. in Bern, in 1757, and d. Feb. 13, 1852. Mr. Allen 
served in the Revolution, going out as corporal in Capt. A. 
Wells' Co. vol., Saml. William's reg., which marched Apr. 20, 
1775 ; service 10 days, and again as first corporal May i, 1775, 
in Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. Whitcomb's regiment ; was 
discharged Sept. 23, 1775 ; the latter part of his life he drew 
a pension. Served 1786 and 1794 as selectman and town 
treasurer. In Feb., 1796, he removed to Waterbury, Vt., 
where he died Mch. 19, 1841. He was a man much respected, 
and for many years officiated as deacon in the church, being 
first appointed to that office in Bern, when 19 years old. 
His children were, most of them, born in Bern., and their 
births are there recorded. Children : 

i. RoxANNA^ b. Aug. 10, 1778; m. Mch. 25, 1795, Jared George of 
Greenfield, 'I'he next year they rem. to Vt., where they died, 
ii. Zebulon'', b. May 9, 1780. 
iii. Sophia'^, b. Dec. 26, 1781; d. May 23, 17S3. 
iv. Sophia'', b. Dec. 20, 1783; ni. David Harrington of Vt. 
V. Eliakim'', b. Feb. 24, 1785; m. and had seven children, 
vi. Asaph, Jr**., b. Mch. 13, 1788; was twice m.; rem. to Ohio, 
vii. HoRis, b. July 3, 1790; d. Jan. 15, 1791. 

viii. Horace", b. Aug. 15, 1792; m. and resideti in Waterbury, Vt. 
ix. Charles S^, b. Feb. 24, 1795; '"• ^'^^' I't^sided in Waterbury, Vt. 
X. Persis*, b. July 2, 1797, in W^aterbury; m. 
xi. Seba*, b. Aug. 16, 1801, in Waterbury. 

4. Allen, Simeon', (Zebulon', vSgt. Joseph", Benjamin', Edward',) 

b. Apr. 6, 1755; m. Experience", sister of Ner" and dau. of 
Joshua' Wells of Leyden, where he d. in 1819. He probably 
lived in or near Beaver Meadow, at a place near the point of 
intersection of the town lines of (aiilford, Leyden and Bar- 

ALLEN. 293 

nardston. Served in the Revolution, going out as private 
in Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. Saml. William's regiment. 
Children : 

i. Martha", b. Sept. 14, 1775; m. Seba Dean of Guilford, Vt ; rem. 

to Windhall, Vt., where they both died, 
ii. Erastus", b. Nov. 2, 1777; emigrated to New York State where 
he m. Paulina Wilder and had a family. 

9. iii. Solomon*, b. Jan. 5, 1780. 

IV. Experience'', b. Nov. 3,1783; m. Socrates'' Sheldon of Leyden. 

10. V. Simeon", b. Oct. i, 1786. 

vi. OziAs'', b. Mch. 5, 1791; d. unni. in the U.S. Army about 1814. 

5. Allln, JosEPFd", (Zebulon\ Sgt. Joseph", Benjamin", Edward'), 

b. in Burk Fort. Mch. 29, 1757. He m. (i) Eunice -. She 

d. Feb. 6, 1808, ae. 47 ; he m. (2) Anna Sophronia, widow of 
Joseph vSinith in 1814. She d. Jan. 14, 1818, ae. 58. Mr. Allen 
was in the battle of Bunker Hill, and enlisted again for one 
year, Jan., 1776, under Capt. Thomas Alexander. For many 
years he received a pension ; was selectman in 1789. He d. 
Dec. 28, 1828; he lived on Huckle Hill. Children: 

i. Robert", b. Feb. 13, 1781; d. July 8, 1803. 
ii. Richard Willard', b. Jan. 22. 1783; d. 
iii. Dorothy", b. Feb. 4, 1785. 
iv. Edward'^, b. May. i, 1787. 

V. Eunice", b. Mch. 15, 1790. 
vi. Electa", b. Oct. 12, 1792. 

vii. Joseph", b. Sept. 16, 1795; ^^- ^Q^- 28, 1805. 

viii. Roxanna", b. July 20, 1798; m. Caleb^ Chapin, Dec. 10, 1816; 
she d. Jan. 14, 1866. 
ix. Charles®, b. Feb. 3, 1801. 

0. Alle.m, Seb.\', (Zebulon', Sgt. Joseph', Benjamin", Edward'), b. 
Aug. 16, 1759; he m. Joanna", dau. of Aaron' Field in Aug., 
1786. He died July 10, 1798, and she m. (2) Salmon Clapp 
of Montague. Mr. Allen was town clerk nine years, select- 
man and assessor five years. Had : 
i. Clymene Emiransa", b. Nov. 20, 1786; d. Sept. 11, 1802, ae. 16. 

7. Allen, Jon.\than\ (Zebulon', Sgt. Joseph', Benjamin", Edward'), 


b. Apr. 20, 1766; he m. (i) Chloe°, dan. of Moses' Ba.scom of 
Gill, May 1 8, 1 788. She was b. July 1 8. 1 770. d. May 2,-1815; 
m. (2) Betsey", dau. of Joseph^ Bascom of Greenfield, to whom 
he was published May 10, 18 17. She was b. Mch. 30, 1792 ; 
d. in New Haven, Ct., Nov. 4, 1865. Mr. Allen was promi- 
nent locally, being justice of the peace, for eight years town 
clerk, eleven years selectman and as.sessor, three years repre- 
sentative to the General Court; also held manv minor offices. 
He was one of the committee elected to revise the Constitu- 
tion of the State about 1836 or 37. In earlier life he lived in 
a house now gone, on the south side of the road leading west 
to Frizzell Hill, just beyond Mill Brook. Later his home 
was the old "Tavern stand," the site of the present E. C.and 
E. D. Hale place. His final home was on the farm occupied 
by the late Frederick Chapin, now by R. Harris. His trade 
was making grave stones : it is said that he made his own 
stone. He died Aug. 28, 1836. Children: 

i. Alfred Bascom", b. June 5. 1789; m. Vilate', dau. of Capt. .\rte- 
mab'' Cushman, Dfc. 22, 181 1. She was b. Mch. 30, 1791; re- 
sided Colchester, Vt.; d. July 25, 1872. 

ii. Aurellia", b. Nov. 17, 1791: d. June 12, 1794 

iii. Lewis Capet'', b. May 20, 1793; m. Mary D. Hoyt of New York 
City, Aug. 12, 1833; resided Stratford, Ct. ; d. Oct. 29, 1873. 

iv. Charles Jarvis^, b. Feb. 6, 1795; ni. Maria Bliss of Northamp- 
ton, May 29, 1816; resided New Haven, Ct., where he d. No- 
vember 21, 1882. 

v. George Anson", b. May 17, 1797; m. Chloe' dau. Capt. Arte- 
mas" Cushman, May 26, 1818. He d. in Burlington, Vt., where 
they resided, Sept. 4, 1846. She d. there July 30, 1832; was b. 
May 30, 1793. 

vi. Patrick. Wells", b. Feb. 4, 1800; d. Aug. 26, 18 19, in New 
Haven, Ct. 
II. vii. Frederick Ellsworth Hunt", b. Oct. i, 1801. 

viii. Albert G.", b. Feb. 28, 1804; d. Oct. 17, 1834, on a boat on the 
Ohio River. 

ix. Harriet (^hloe", b. Dec. 4, 1805; ul Joel Spaulding then of Green- 
field, Oct. 3, 1830; he d. in Watertown, N. Y., in 1858; she d. 
Dec. 5, 1886. 

The original portrait was painted in 1835. 

ALLEN. 295 

X. Clymene Sophronia*', b. Dec. 25, 1807; m. Levi Gilbert of New 
Haven, Ct., Oct. 4, 1830. Mr. Gilbert was a member of the 
Legislature and of the Common Council. She d. Jan., 1892. 

xi. Jonathan Cooley^, b. July 24, 1812; d. at Columbus, Ga., Sep- 
tember II, 1833. 

By second wife : 

xii. Paul Jones", b. Nov. 10, 1826; m. Sarah R., dau. of William Boyle 
of Bern., May 13, 185 i. At the breaking out of the Rebellion 
he enlisted in the Conn. vol. for three years, and participated 
in the b.ittle of Fredericksburg. He lived for many years in 
New Haven, Ct. ; is now resident of Bernardston on South st., 
on place he purchased of Silas Brooks in 1867. Had: i. Liz- 
zie", b. Feb. 2, 1854; d. young. 2. Sarah Louise', b. Nov. 5, 
1859; m. Frank O.'' Root of Bern., Dec. 8, 1885; resides in 
Rochester, N. V. 3. Grdce Eliza', b Aug. 15, 1861; m. Charles 
Barber Dec. 19, 1883. 

S. Allen, Samuel Clesson', (Zebtilon', Sgt. Joseph', Benjamin^ 
Edwai'd',) b. Jan. 5, 1772; 111.(1) Sarah", dan. of Hezekiah" 
Newcomb of Bern. She was b. Aug. 8. 1774; d. Jan. 22, 
1797; m. (2) Apr. 10, 1797, Mary, daiu of Elisha or Capt. Sam- 
uel Hunt. She d. Feb. 13, 1833, ae. 58 ! ™- (3) Aug., 1841, 
Rosannah Smith, widow of x-Abner Ferry of Granby. She d. 
in Princeton, 111., June 9, 1867, ae. 83. "Mr. Allen wa.s a man 
of active habit and a vigorou.s intellect and his opinions had 
great weight in the part of the country to which he belonged." 
He was a clergyman and lawyer, a graduate of Dartmouth 
College in 1794; representative, 1806-10; State wSenator, 
1812-15; member of Congress, 1817-29 ; executive councilor, 
1829-30; again vSenator in 1831 ; resided. New Salem, Green- 
field and Northfield, at the latter place "Bennett's Meadows." 
He d. Feb. 8, 1842. Children: 

i. Samuel Clesson*^, b. in Bern., Sept. 11, 1793. 
ii. Joseph Priestly'^, b. May 3, 1795; d. at Troy, N. Y., 1838. 
iii. Infant", b. and d. Jan. i. 1797. 
By second wife: 

iv. Martha Hunt", b. .Apr. 28, 1798; m. Oct. 23, 1817, David A. 


V. James Bowdoin", (twin) b. Dec. 26, 1799; d. at Saginaw, Mich., 

U. S. military station, Aug. 21, 1823, unm., a lieutenant in U. S. 

vi. John Jay®, b. also Dec. 26, 1799; (twin) d. at Bennetts Meadow, 

Nov. 15, 1857. 
vii. Zebulon^ b. Jan. 6, 1802; m. Martha, dau. Luther Holton, 1838, 

resided Northfield, (Bennetts Meadows). Had: i. Fannie, m. 

2. Fred Z.. m. Hicks of Greenfield; resides on the home farm. 

3. Lillian, m. of Westfield. 

viii. Elisha Hunt^, b. Jan. 28, 1804; rem. to the Sandwich Islands, 
wheie he was made chief justice in 1863. 
ix. F'rederick HuNr'', b. Feb. 3, 1806; m. Harriet, dau. of Oliver 

Cooley and widow of Jackson Dickinson of Deerfield. 
X. DwiGHT*, b. Mch. 20, 1808; d. Jan. 24, 1891; was judge of the 

Supreme Court. 
xi. Sarah Newcomb®, b. Aug. 8, 1810; m. Feb. 6, 1834, Hon, Joseph 

Appleton of Bangor, Me. 
xii. Mary Lyman®, b. Apr. 8, 181 2; d. unm. July 2, 1868. 
xiii. Arthur®, b. Sept. 7, 1814. 
xiv. Edward*, b. Aug. 5, 1818; d. in Australia. Aug., i860; m. 

9. Allen, Solo.mon', (Simeon', Zebtilon", Sg-t. Joseph', Benjamin^ 

Edward',) b. Jan. 5, 1780 ; m. (i) AbigaiT, dati. of Selah' and 
Jerusha Chapin of Leyden. She d. Mch. 24, 1833 ; m. (2) Bat- 
sey Enos. He d. Dec. 23, 1856. Both are buried in the cem- 
tery at Beaver Meadow. Children : 

i. John', b. Feb. 25, 181 1; d. young, 
ii. Martin^ b. Dec. 15, 1814. 

iii. John^, Feb. 11, 1815; m ; d. Oct. 17, 1858, in Patriot, Ind. 
iv. Jerusha^, b. June 29, 181 7; res. Cincinnati, Ohio; m. Mack 

V. Simeon^, b. Sept. 3, 1S19; m. and rem. to Virginia, 
vi. James^, b. June 9, 1823; d. in the West. 

10. Allen, Simeon', (Simeon", Zebulon", Sgt. Joseph', Benjamin^ 

Edward',) b. Oct. i, 1786; m. in 1806, Mary, dau. of David or 
Jonah Wyles, and widow of Dr. Samuel Flagg. She was b. 
in Colchester, Ct., Mch. 25, 1767 ; d. in Bern. Aug. 11, 1845. 
Their intention was published Aug. 30, 1806. He lived 

ALLEN. 297 

north-east of the present Keet mills, on an old road leading 
off from the present Beaver Meadow road. He d. Mch. 20, 
1830. Children: 

i. Franklin Mattoon', b. in Bern. Apr. i, 1807; m. in PVanklin 
Mills, Ohio, Dec. 15, 1833, Clarissa Root. She d. there in Feb- 
ruary, 1843, and he, June i, following, in Kent. Ohio. They 
had five children, two of whom were living in 1861. 
12. ii. John .Sanford", b. in Bern., Sept. 19, 1809. 

11. Allen, Frederick Ellsworth Hunt", (Jonathan', Zebulon*, 
Sgt. Joseph", Benjamin^ Edward',) b. Oct. i, 1801 ; m. Mari^ 
M. Grover of Hartford, Ct., Nov. 29, 1827. For several years 
he was captain of a company of cavalry. He resided on 
the place now owned by R. Harris. By trade he was a brick 
mason. For many years he was the popular and efificient 
chorister of the choir connected with the Unitarian church. 
He is also remembered as often being called upon to act as 
moderator at the town meetings, and likewise as an auction- 
eer. His home was always noted as a hospitable place where 
generous entertainment of the finest quality was always 
forthcoming. Then he bought the Doty shop and moved it 
from back of the brick store to a position south of the then 
Universalist church ; he d. Feb. 3, 1871. His widow resided 
in New Haven, Ct., with her dau. ; d. Jan. 29, 1899. Children : 

i. Lucinda^, b. Sept. 29, 1828; d. Dec. 30, 1831. 

ii. Luke'', b. May 18, 1832; m. Antoinette Maria, dau. of Philander 
M. Slate, Jan. 14, 1867. They have always resided in Bernard- 
ston, where Mr. Allen has followed the mason's trade together 
with farming. Had: i.A Frederick* Ellsworth Hunt*, b. Apr. 5, 
1872; m. July 4, 1901, Lucy F., dau. of John Chapin. He is a 
blacksmith, having his shop just north of the Barber mill. 2. 
Anna Maria*, b. Dec. 27, 1880. 

iii. Catherine Maria^, b. May 18, 1837; m. June 9, 1881, John Mc- 
Carty; resides in New Haven, Ct. 

iv. Jonathan Hunt'', b. Aug. 23, 1840; m. (r) Mch. 7, 1867, Ori- 
anna Elvira*, dau. of Enoch^ Moore of Bern. She d. Dec. 4, 
1873, ae. 30; m. (2) Jan. r, 1879, Jennie Z., dau. of Munroe Cur- 


tis, now of Millers Falls. Mr. Allen resides in Bernardston and, 
like his brother Luke, combines the trade of a mason with farm- 
ing. Had: i. SusanMV right**, b. Apr. 12, 1871; m. Frederick 
Bertine, Jan., 1898; resides New Haven, Ct. 

By second wife: 
2. Olive Jennie^, b. Nov 19, 1879. 

12. Allen, John Sanford', (Simeon', Simeon', Zebulon\ Sgt. Jos- 
eph", Benjamin', Edward',) b. Sept. 19, 1809; m. Elizabeth 
W.,daii. of Jo.seph and Ro.xanaCapron of Leicester,Vt., v^'here 
she was b. Apr. 19, 1813. They were m. in Hudson, Ohio, 
May 18, 1836. He was selectman of Bern., 1846-7; was by 
trade a mason, and all his efforts in life were characterized 
by frugality and energy. In 1839 he removed to No. Bern.; 
in 1850, to his newly purchased farm in the northern part 
of Greenfield, where bed. Jan. 26, 1892 ; she d. July 19, 1896. 
Children : 

i. Oscar Capron^ b. in Franklin, O., Mch 8, 1837; ni Sept. 18, 
1867, Louisa Jane*, dau. of Lucius^^ and Hannah Chapin, and 
widow of Edward K. Smith; she was b. Dec. 18, 183 i. In early 
manhood he followed the trade of a mason, later engaging in 
the mercantile business in Greenfield. He then kept a general 
store in Bernardston, and later succeeded to the management of 
the New England House, and afterward to the Elm House in 
Greenfield. He is now, in company with his son, proprietor of 
the American House, Greenfield. Had: i. Hattie Louise", 
b Mch. 6, 1869; m. Oct. 28, 1890, Adam VVolfskiel of Greenfield, 
where they reside; hasone dau., Gretchen A. 2. John Lucius", 
b. Dec. 21, 1872; m. Feb. 22, 1893, Mae A., dau. of James Lang- 
don of Philadelphia, Pa.; res. Greenfield; is in the hotel busi- 
ness with his father under the firm name of O. C. Allen & Son. 
No children. 

ii. Mary Elizabeth'*, b. in Franklin, O., Apr. 26, 1838; d. Feb. 27, 

iii. Mary Eliza*, b. in Bernardston Jan. 2, 1840; m. Charles Emer- 
son Ballou Nov. 16, 1864; resides in South Shelburne; has five 

iv. Charles Flagg*, b. Jan. 4, 1842; m. Dec. 9, 1880, Lizzie M., dau. 
of Henry Handforth. He was a member of Co. A, 52nd Reg. 


Mass. Vol., during the Civil War. In early life he learned and 
followed the trade of a mason; he now resides in (Ireenfield, 
where he has been several years foreman of the cutting de- 
partment in the shoe factory. Had: f. Graced d. Mch. 17, 
1889. 2. Charles^ d. Apr. 6, 1889. 

V. Isabella Maria^, b. Sept. 23, 1843; m. Nov. 27, i860, Edwin 
Connablc* Burrows of Bernardston, where they reside. 

vi. Sarah Elizabeth'*, b. Sept. 23, 1845; res. with her brother Frank; 

vii. Julia Wyles^ b. Oct. 29, 1847; m. Sept. 7. 1869, Meric Philander 

Slate of Bern., where they reside; no children, 
viii. John Frank^, b. in Cireenfield, Apr. 10, 1850; m. in Leyden, 
May I, 1878, Lottie L.'-*, dau. of Ransom'* Foster. She was b. 
Sept. 24, 1854. They reside in the north part of Cireenfield, on 
the farm formerly owned by his father. Had: i. J(jhn Fos- 
ter'*, b. Mch. 6, 1879, in Greenfield. 2. Gertrude May", b. 
Sept. 17, 1882; d. June 17, 1885. 3. Nellie Elizabeth^ b. 
June 14, 1886; d. Apr. 27, 1887. 4. Herbert Frank^ b. Sep- 
tember 14. 1888. 

ix. LuciNDA Ella^, b. in Greenfield, May 25, 1852; m. Isaac C. Bar- 
ton of Greenfield, where they reside. 
X. Emma Gertrude*, b. Nov. 16, 1854; m. Jan. i. 1874, PVank \V. 
'I'yler of Riverside; she d. Apr. 26, 1875. 

xi. MiLiA Helena*, b. Sept. 5, 1857; m. Nov. 2, 1876, Adelbert 
S." Atherton of Bernardston, where they reside. 

Andrews, Andros, Andross or Andrus family. Upon the early 
records we find all spellings for the same name. Lieut. 
Nehemiah' Andros was the first representative in town. 
He first built, about 1779, the old house on the Dr. Carpenter 
place. In its original location, it stood where the Geo. W. 
Brooks house was later, north of the New England House. 
It was "moved by Benj. Green, around by the old postoffice, 
and across lots." In 1774 it was voted "to confirm the road 
from Nehemiah Andros's log-house up to his lot through 
David Rider's and William Fox's land." He is descended 
from John' (of Farmington, Ct., in 1672.) through John^ 
Stephen', Charles'. The latter (Charles) was in the Revolu- 
tion from Glastenbury, Ct., and had quite a family of chil- 
dren. The fourth son was Nehemiah, b. May 28, 1746, and 


m. (i) in 1775, Hannah Fox of Glastenbury, Ct ; m. (2) in 
1778, Elizabeth Scott of Bern. She was b. about 1754, and 
d. Mch. 18. 1842. 

1. Andrews, Neii em iah", served in the Revolution in Capt. Agrippa 
Wells' Co., Col. Saml. William's reg., Apr. 19, 1775, service 
10 days, and also as private May i, 1775, in Capt. Agrippa 
Wells' Co., Col. Asa Whitcomb's reg. He also had the title 
of lieut., but whether acquired in Revolutionary service, \I 
know not. In 1786 he was surveyor of highways. He must 
have come to town not far from 1770, and removed thence to 
Guilford, Vt., probably to the place since known as the "Sol 
Andrews" place about 1790. Hed. Mch. 8, 18 13, at Guilford. 
Children : 

i. Hannah*, probably that one who m. Oct. 17, 1792, Elihu Scott. 

ii. Elizabeth". 

By second wife : 

iii. Solomon", b. in Bern. Oct. 6, 1779; m. Betsey Gaines, who was 
b. in Guilford, Vt., Nov. 23, 1780, and d. Aug. 16, 1856. He moved 
from Bern, to Guilford, Vt.. with his parents when ten years of age; 
became an extensive land holder at one time, owning it is said, 
one thousand acres. He d. Mch. 24, 1867. Had: i. Lu- 
rancy', b. Feb. 7. 1804; m. Mch. 13, 1828, Pliny R.^ Warner of 
Bern. She d. Sept. 26, 1857. 2. Luther', b. June 24, 1805; 
m. .Aug. 14, 1828, Matilda, dau. of Nathaniel Tyler of Guilford. 
3. Lester', b. Apr. 7, 1807; m. Delilah Gore of Halifax, Vt. 4. 
Solomon', b. Mch. 6, 1809; m. Minerva Session. 5. Sanford', 
b. July 31, 1810; m. Jan. 21, 1839, Mary A. Haynes of Guilford. 
He d. in Guilford, July 7, 1897. 6. Abigail', b. Jan. 13, 1812; 
m. 1833, David P. Colgrove; m. (2) Neri* Chapin of Chicopee, 
Mass. 7 Nehemiah', b. May 25, 18(3; d. Aug., 1817, 8. 
Otis', b. June 23, 1814; d. Aug. 11, 1814. 9. Elizabeth', b. 
Sept. 6, 1815; m. (1) Jan. 28, 1833, Richard (rains; m. (2) No- 
vember I, 1858, Pliney R.' Warner of Bernardston. She died 
June 18, 1896, in Michigan. 10. MarduUa Lucina', b. Jan. 15, 
1817; m. Nov. 27, 1839, Daniel McClure of Guilford; resides 
Brattleboro, Vt. 11. Nehemiah', b. June 5, 1818; m. Apr. to, 
1849, Abbie Weatherhead; m. (2) Sept., 18C8, Lizzie Guellow. 
Both are dead. 12. Clarissa Elvira', b. Jan. 16, 1820; m. No- 


vember 14, 1849, Joshua Stafford; resides GuiKord. 13. Ches- 
ter'', b. Feb. 25, 1827; d. Feb. 26, f82i. 14. Kmily .Mehssa'', b. 
July 15, 1822; m. Mch. 25, 1840. Charles H." Bagg; d. July 20, 
1849. 15. Delight Pemelia', b. Aug. 11, 1824; d. Feb. 4. 1826. 

iv. Gracia®, b. in Bern. July, 1781; n\. W'heelock Aldrich. 

V. Elijah*^, b. in Bern. May 6, 1783. 

vi. Nehemiah^, b. in Bernardston, July, 1785; m. 1806, Olive Aldrich. 

vii. Otis*, b. in Bern., May 12, 1788; m. Mch. 21, 181 6, Susan Ellis. 
viii. Chester'', b. in Guilford, Vt., May, 1790. 

ix. Chloe", b. in Guilford, Vt., June 15, 1792; ni. Aniasa Aldrich. 

X. Luther C.^ b. 1794; d. 1796. 

Arms, Seth\ traces his descent throug-h Thoma.s^ William^ to Wil- 
liam\ who first appears in this country about the year 1676. 
He was b. July 7, 1757, published to Joanna, dau. of Joseph 
Wright. Mch. 10, 1781. Mr. Arms resided here for a time 
about 1800, later at Bloody Brook, vSouth Deerfield, Mass. 
Had eight children. 

Ashley, Mrs., came here from Fall River, purchasing the old Bap- 
tist church, which had been converted into a dwelling. Her 
second husband was Israel Phillips. vShe d. in 1900. The 
place is now owned by her son Edward of Waterbury, Ct., 
and by him used as a summer residence. Children : 

i. Daughter, who m. Mr. Robertson of Fall River, 
ii. Edward, has been twice m.; is a dentist residing in Waterbury, Ct. 
iii. Hattie M., ni. \Villiam A. Robbins of Waterbury, Ct., 1884; d. 
iv. Jennie F., m. James H. Clarke in 1892; res. Philadelphia, Pa. 
V. Eben L., was for five years with the Scovil Manufacturing Co. of 
Waterbury, Ct.; snice 1884 has been engaged in stock raising 
in Montana; m. Mch. 12, 1901, Sadie Henrietta-^ dau. Edwin 
C "^ Burrows; resides Flat Willow, Mont. 

Atherton. The Athertons of this place are directly descended 
from Humphrey', who, perhaps, came from Preston in Lanca- 
shire, where the name continued as late as 1780. He was 
of Dorchester,, in 1636. In 1650 he was major general 
of the Massachusetts militia, and captain of ancient and hon- 
orable artillery; was representative nine years. He was 
thrown from his horse by riding over a cow, receiving inju- 


ries from which he died the next day, Sept. 17, 1661. His 
son, Rev. Hope^ Atherton was chaplain under Capt. Turner, 
Through Joseph^ Adonijah\ Oliver^ and Joseph', is the line 
of descent traced. 
Atherton, Joseph", was b. Apr. 28, 1758. He was a Revolu- 
tionary soldier, going out as private in 1776, and serving in 
several commands until 1780. In Capt. Newton's Co., Col. 
S. Murray's Hampshire Co. reg., he held the rank of cor- 
poral. He resided for quite a time in Bern.; in 1800 in 
Greenfield. He m. Mch. 29, 1780, Meriam\ dau. of Capt.^ Scott. vShe was b. May 12, 1760; d. Mch. 3, 1844. 
He d. Apr. 6, 1834. and. as is his father, is buried in the 
cemetery on Log Plain, in the north part of (jreenfield. 
Children : 

i. Olive', b. Sept. 26, 1781; m. July 2, 1807, John Ea.son. 
ii. Allen', b. Nov. 2, 1783; 111. Feb. 5, 1810, Ruth Grinnell; died 
Auy:. 1845. 
iii. Ralhh^, b. Sept. 3, 1785; d. Mch. 22, 1803. 

iv. MEkkV\ b. Apr. 26, 1787; m. (i) Apr. 12, 1806, Lieut. Enos H. 
Burt. He d. Feb. 23, 1814; she m. (2) Joab Scott. She died 
Feb. 20, 1876. 

V. Joseph', b. Aug. 3, 1789. 

vi. Horace', b. July 14, 1791 ; m. Apr. 29, 1817, Rhoda^, dau. of Con- 
sider'^ Cushman. She was b. Feb. 17, 1798, and d. Sept. 14, 
1830. He was a blacksmith by occupation, and resided just 
south of the present residence of Rodney Park. He lived the 
last years of his life on the south-east corner of .South and Depot 
streets. He d. P'eb. 6, 1879. Had: i. Lucinda Submit**, b. 
Oct. 3, 1817; m. Nov. 28, 1844, Justin Slate. She d. Septem- 
ber 7-8, 1889. 2. Marian Sophia*, b. June 26, 1819; m. (i) 
Oct. 27, 1839, Jason H Plummer of Brattleboro, Vt., by whom 
she had two sons; he d. Jan. 29, 1862; she m (2) Nov. 28. 1882, 
Samuel H.*" Atiierton ; resides in Bern. 3. Rhoda", b. Jan. 10, 
1821; d. Nov. 24, 1821. 4. Rhoda**, b. Ntjv. 9. 1822; m. Poly- 
carpus Loring** Cushman, Apr. 14, 1847; resides Bern. 5. Knos 
Buri^ b. May 31, 1826; d. Oct. 12, 1826. 6. Clesson Chani- 
berlain'*, b. Nov. 22, 1827: res. Clareniont, N. H. 7. Josc()h 
Burt'\ b. Mch. 5, 1830. 


vii. Hepsibah", b. July 17, 1793; d. Apr. 11, 1877; unin. 
viii. Henry'', b. Sept. 8, 1795; ''^- M'^h. 27, 1819. 
ix. Oliver', b.Mch. 6, 1799; d. Mch. 15, 1799. 

2. Atherton. Joseph', (Joseph", Oliver", Adonijah', Jo.seph^ Hope'', 

Humphrey\)b. Aug. 3, 1789; m. Martha Chamberlain. Mch. 14, 
181 1. She d. about 1853. H!e was resident of Leyden ; he 
d. Aug. 9, 1841. Children : 

i. Joseph-, who in. Allen of Windsor, Ct. He resided and d. 

in Hartford, Ct. 

ii. Martha^, who m. Charles Webster of Hartford; res .\kr(Mi, O. 

iii. Newion C, who ni. Harriet Hall of Windsor, Ct.; d. in Hartford, 

iv. Bartlett-, who ni. and d. in Hartford. 

3. V. Samuel H.**, b. May 25, 1S20. 
vi. Harry*; d. young. 

vii. John**, b. Mch. about 1825; m; d. 

viii. Elizabeth**, ni. George L. Burr; res. Hartford, Ct. 

3. Atherton, Samuel H.* (Joseph', Joseph', Oliver', Adonijah\ Jos- 
eph^ Hope^ Humphrey',) b. May 25, 1820 ; m.(i)Oct. 2. 1842, 
Roxanna M.^ dau. of Gamaliel- Kingsley of Bern. ; she was 
b. July 3, 1822 ; d. Aug. 18, 1845 : ^^- (2) Sept. 24, 1846, Abi- 
gail, dau. of Chester Taft of Townsend, Vt. She d. July 5, 
1881 ; m. (3) Nov. 28, 1882, Marian Sophia", dau. of Horace' 
Atherton and widow of Jason Plummer. Mr. Atherton re- 
sided for several years at the village, where he was looked 
upon as one of the substantial men of the passing genera- 
tion. He held the office of selectman for the years 1872 — 
1878, inclusive, and has always worked for the promotion of 
the town's interest in public affairs. For many years he car- 
ried on the farm until recently occupied by his son, Adel- 
bert, on Burk Flat. He in 1901 removed to the home of his 
son on the old John Burk place. Some years ago in com- 
pany with the latter, he engaged in soap manufacttiring, 
which business has proven successful, the firm name being 
S. H. Atherton and Son. Children : 

I, Adelbert Samuel^, b. Oct. 13, 1850; m. Nov. 2, 1876, Milia* H., 
dau. of John S. Allen of Greenfield. She was b. Sept. 5, 1857. 


Mr. Atherton carried on the farm on Burk Flat formerly owned 
by his father, with whom he is associated in the business of soap 
making, one of the town's successful, enterprising men. In 
1895 he served as selectman; in the spring of 1901 he removed 
to the site of the old John Burk place, having built thereon a 
modern house. For several years he has been the town's choice 
as moderator at their annual meetings, and is also a popular 
auctioneer. Had: i. Lila Gertrude'", b. July 8, 1878. 2. Fred 
Samuel"*, b. Jan. 27, 1881; d. F'eb. 5, 1901. 3. John Chester'", 
b. July 15, 1884. 4. Raymond Allen'", b. May 30, 1886. 5. 
Abby Elizabeth'", b. Mch 23, 1888. 
ii. Fred Albert^, b. Apr. 18, 1853: d. in Colrain, Feb. 16, 1S62. 

1. Bagg, Israel', (Thomas^, John^ John', who i.s supposed to have 

emigrated from Plymouth, England, and died in Springfield, 
Mass.,) was b. Apr. 16, 1752 ; m. Jan. 11, 1776, Sarah^ Green. 
She was probably a sister of Samuel, and dau. of Benjamin' 
Green, b. 1754; d.Jan. 13, 1832. He came from West Spring- 
field to town about 1756, settling in the north-west part of 
the town, at the end of a road leading north from the Ley- 
den or "Newcomb road." He d. July 10, 1838. Children : 

2. i. Israel^ b. Apr. 14, 1777, in West Springfield. 

ii. Anna^, b. 1778; m. Joseph' Aldrich, his second wife. She d. 

Aug. 8, 1847, ae. 69. 
iii. Chi.oe*, whose marriage intention with Aaron-' Fox was entered 

Feb. 28, 1807. 
iv. Maugritta^ m. Asa Wells of Leyden, June 9, 1816. 
V. Sarah', whose marriage intention with Eber Barker of West 

Springfield, was entered Jan. 2, 1807. 
vi. dau.^, who d. young. 

3. vii. Luther*, b. 1790. 

4. viii. Oliver*, b. Aug. 1793. 

5. ix. RuGGi.ES*. b. Aug., 1796. 

2. Ba(;g, Israel', (IsraeT, Thoma.s-', John', John',) b. Apr. 14. 1777, 
in West wSpringfield ; m. (i) Rachael Felt of West Springfield. 
She d. Jan. 21, ICS35. ae. 61 years ; m. (2) Alice, dau. of Reu- 
ben Alger of Bern. Mr, Bagg was a farmer, always living 

BAGG. 305 

upon the ancestral home in the north-west part of Bern. 

He d. July 28, 1878, having reached the unusually great age 

of loi years, six months. Children: 

(The order of birth is uncertain.) 

i. Harriet^ b. 1797; m. Mch., 1822, Chester^ Ryther. She d. in 

Aug. or Dec, 1847. 
ii. Clarissa*', m. Rufus Wells of Leyden, to whom she was published 

Aug. 9, 1819. They rem. to New York State, 
iii. Ann*\ m. (i) Edwin Lyndes of Guilford ; (2) Noah Ball of Brattle- 

boro, Vt. 
iv. Sarah'^, m. Timothy Proctor Slate of Bern., Mch. 13, 1825. 
V. LuciNDA*', b. 1805; m. John Wells; res. Bern. She d. Feb. 27, 

1862; he d. July 27, 1855, ae. 57. 
vi. Chloe*^, m. Phineas Page; resided for a time in the north part of 

Greenfield, but later rem. west, 
vii. Justin*^, b. 1814; m. Livonia M.', dau. of Daniel'* Sanderson of 
of Bern. He resided just south of Hendrick Slate's place; d. 
Mch. 4, 1852, ae. 38. She died Sept. 21, 1887, ae. 80 years, 
1 1 mos. 

3. Bagg, Luther' (Israer, Thomas'\ John', John',) b. 1790; m. 
Thankful C. Hale of New York State. Their intention was 
recorded July 21, 18 16. Mr. Bagg resided with his father; 
d. Oct. 22, 1841 ; Mrs. Bagg m. (2) Nov. 15, 1843. Seorem' Hale 
of Bern. He d. July 2, 185 i ; she m. (3) Mr. Tracey of Sun- 
derland. She d. May i, 1870, in Montague. Children: 
i. Richard'', m. Apr. 5, 1842, Emily J.^ dau. of George W.^ Hale. 
She d. Jan. 5, 1848; m. (2) Mch. 6, 185 1, Mary H., dau. of Jesse 
Field. She d. May 30, 1888. He resided on or near the old 
homestead until after his second marriage, when he removed to 
Montague. He d. in 1894. Had: 1. Mary Ellen', b. June 20, 
1843; m. Henry Dickinson of Montague, where they reside. 
2. George', res. Montague; unm. 
ii. Sylvira R.'^, b. 1820; d. Oct. 20, 1843; unm. 
iii. Margaret M.", m. Wm. W. Easton, Nov. i, 1841; res. Feeding 

iv. James M.'^, b. Sept. 10, 1824; m. Mary Ann, dau. of Rufus Friz- 
zell of Leyden. Their intention was recorded Mch. 29, 1848. 
She d. Oct. 28, 1876, ae. 55 years. For a few years after her 


death Mr. Bagg continued to reside on the old Bagg farm off 
the Newcomb road, adding the trade of a carpenter to the du- 
ties of a farmer. The last of his life was spent in Greenfield. 
He d. suddenly in Bern., Oct. 12, 1898. Had: i. Francis A.^, 
b. Jan. 26, 1849; m. Hattie J., dau. of Mrs. M. D. Bardwell of 
Bern.; res. Brattleboro, Vt. 2. Henry A.", b. Sept. 26, 1850; 
m. Mary Ann., dau. Samuel Connabell, who d. Feb. 25, 1899. 
He d. Dec. 28, 1893; one dau., Susie^. 3. Sabry Ella", b. De- 
cember 24, 1855; m. Wells T. Bardwell; d. Feb. i, 1885. 4. 
Angle S.^, b. July 26, 1859; m. Irving Whitney; res. Fitchburg. 
5. Mary S.^, b. Aug. 17, 1861; m. Henry L. Stiles; res. West- 
field. 6. Alice L.", b. Mch. 12, 1866; m. Harry E. White; res. 
V. Israel^ m. and rem. to Conn., where he d. 

vi. Sarah*, m. Silas ?.■* Hale, Apr. 20, 1848; she d. Apr. 1893. 

vii. Laura^, m. (i) Geo. Walman; (2) Silas Morgan; res. Orange. 

viii. Frederick Luther*', m. Abbie Thomas of Sunderland. He was 
in the Civil War, serving three years in the 32nd Mass. Reg. 
He participated in 16 battles; res. South Deerfield. 

Of the Bag-g brothers, Oliver and Ruggles, a record of the life work 
of one is practically that of the other. They were married 
on two consecutive days, and immediately moved into the 
house owned by Theodore B. Hoyt at North Bernardston, 
which is the one recently owned by Chas. Bag-g, the three 
families having their own apartments and using one cook 
stove in common. In about a year they bought of Socrates 
Sheldon his mills and property located on the west branch 
of Fall River. Here an extensive business at the saw and 
grist mills was carried on, and they soon after increased 
their plant by the addition of a carding machine and fulling 
mill until that was one of the busiest places to be found in 
the entire section, people coming from miles around. With 
increasing prosperity they built the substantial two-story 
double house, the north and south halves being exact coun- 
terparts, and here the two families resided. A daughter of 
Oliver, Miss Rosella Bagg, now lives there entirely alone, 
and to her the location must suggest many thoughts of the 

BAGG. 307 

former times when in place of the now wild growth of brush 
on the old mill sites, and the solitude of the wooded road 
and river bank, there was once so much life and activity. 

4. Bagg, Oliver^ (Israer. Thomas^ John", John',) b. Aug. 1793 ; m. 

Oct. 20, 18 1 7, vSarah B., dau. Edd}^ Chapin of Guilford, Vt. 
She was b. June 29, 1796; d. Mch. 28, 1872; he d. Mch. 13, 
1878. Children: 

i. Ri)])Y C", b. Nov., 1818; m. Nancy, dau. Chas. Babcoclc of Ouil- 

ford. He d. Mch. 8, 1876. 
ii.", resides on the old homestead; unm. 
iii. LuRANCV S.*, b Dec. 31, 1825; m. Moses^ Aldrich, Nov. 26, 1850. 
She d. Feb. 16, 1888, ae. 62. 

5. Bagg, Ruggles^ (Israel', Thoma,s^ John^ John',) b. Aug., 1796; 

m. (i) Hester, dau. of Elder Peter Rogers of Leyden, Oct. 19, 
18 1 7. vShe d. Oct. 5, 1877, ae. 83 years; m. (2) Sarah A., 
(Gooderich) Treadwell. She d. in Greenfield, Oct. 6, 1896, 
ae. 82 years. He d. Jan. 11, 1892. Children: 

i. Henry R.^ b. Aug. i, 1818; m. Lucretia Johnson of East Med- 
way in 1839; res. West; had a dau. Abbie. 

ii. Charles H.*^, b. Mch. 26, 1820; m. (i) Mch. 25, 1840, Emily Me- 
lissa^, dau. of Solomon'^ Andrews of Guilford. She was born 
July 15, 1822; d. July 20, 1849; m. (2) Dec. 31, 1851, Betsey 
VV. Burnett of Guilford, Vt. Shed. Feb. 20, 1897, ae. 71 years, 
II mos. Mr. Bagg was a clothier by trade, carrying on also a 
small place. He until recently resided at North Bernardston; 
now lives with his dau., Mrs. Davis, in Providence, R. I. Had: 
I. Clarissa F.', b. Jan. 30, 1841; m. Nov. 30, 1865, Emory L. 
Tubbs of Guilford, Vt.; res. Providence, R. I. 2. Hester Rog- 
ers', b. July 6, 1843; m. Schuyler N. Davis; res. Providence, 
R. I. 3. Charles Henry', b. Aug. 15, 1848; was for a time an 
Episcopal minister, residing at Naporville, 111., but is now en- 
gaged in secular pursuits. 4. Hollis Boyden^ b. June 29, 1857; 
is m. and res. in VVaterbury, Ct. 

iii. Hester Maria*, b. Oct. 23, 1833; m. (i) Feb. i, 1853, Field 
VV.* Cushman; (2) Frederick Chapin, both of Bern. She resides 
with her dau., Mrs. Pember, in Boston. 


Bailey, Richard. Oct. 22, 1764, voted "that Mr. Richard Bailey 
be improved to git the Town eased of the Country tax." 
A Mr. Bailey was the first blacksmith in town, and his shop 
was in the old Burk Fort. He was the second person interred 
in the old burying ground. 

Barber, Azariah', (Azariah', Zachariah', Elisha*, Zachariah^ Zach- 
ariah^ George', b. in England, 161 5, emigrated to this coun- 
try in 1635. "Was a Puritan of distinction, one of the early 
settlers in Dedham and Medfield. He was the chief Military 
officer of the district and a member of the Colonial Govern- 
ment,") b. in Warwick, Sept. 9, 1823; m. Elmina M., dau. of 
Henry Ball of Warwick, Nov. 19, 1859. ^^ soon after took 
up his residence in town, residing successively on the pres- 
ent Frizzell place and at the village, in all about seven years. 
He then removed to Northfield, which place he made his 
home until 1898, when he returned to town, purchasing the 
home of the late Andrew Wood, just east of the iron bridge 
at the village. Had: 

i. Ellsworth Williams*, b. Mch. 10, 1864; d. June 6, 1892. 

Barber, Rev.', (brother of Azariah',) b. in Warwick, 
July 21, 1818 ; m. Apr. 20, 1841, Mary C, dau. Moses Fisher 
of Warwick. She d. Feb. 21, 1898. He d. Feb. 15, 1901. 
(For further account, see page 143.) Children : 

i. Charles Sumner**, b. Aug. 22, 1852; m. Dec. 19, 1883, Grace 
EYizaJ, dau. of Paul J.*' Allen. For many years he was a success- 
ful traveling salesman for the jobbing firm of Cutler, Macintosh 
& Co. of Springfield. About 1896 he gave up traveling and re- 
turned to Bernardston, and bought out the milling business 
owned by the late Hartley Hale. Has two children : i. Edith 
Louise^ b. Feb. 27, 1885. 2. Mary Elinor', b. Dec. 5, 1888. 

ii. Franklin S.**, b. Nov. 27, 1855; d. Aug. 29, 1857. 

iii. Caroline A.**, b. Jan. 18, 1859, a most successful teacher in I'lain- 
field, N. J. 

Barber, Gilbert A., came to town not far from 1885. from Guil- 
ford, Vt. Resided at several places, finally purchasing the 


old "Priest Rogfers " place, later owned by John Mowry. 
This is now occupied by his son, he having- removed some 
distance south, nearer the village. 

Bardwell, Mrs. Mary D., widow of Guy Bardwell, came here in 
1868 from Montague, Mass., and purchased the place now 
owned by Miss Mariette Chapin; is now living in Maynard, 
Mass. Children : 

i. Hattie J., m. Francis A.' Bagg of Brattleboro, Vt., where they 
now reside. 

ii. Fred W. He is postmaster, being appointed in 1885; unm. 

iii. Wells, T. B., m. Sabra Ella, dau. of James Bagg. She d. Feb. i, 
1885; m. (2) Jessie Wet here 11; is a blacksmith residing in Brattle- 
boro, Vt. 

iv. Fannie A., m. Charles H. Persons, 1884, of Bern. They now re- 
side in Maynard, Mass. 

Barstow, Alpheus, son of John and Elizabeth Newcomb Barstow, 
was b. in Norwich (now Franklin) Ct., or in Canterbury, Ct., 
in 1748. Elizabeth Newcomb was the seventh child of Heze- 
kiah, who was the original owner of the Newcomb lands in 
Bernardston and Leyden, and a sister of Silas and Peter, the 
first Newcomb settlers. Alpheus Barstow m. Content Car- 
ter ; was selectman in 1783, lived within the territory after- 
ward Leyden, where he was prominently connected with 
town affairs ; d. about 1840, ae. 92 years. 

Barstow, Noyes, Dr. He succeeded Dr. Dwight in the practice 
of medicine in town. He m. Mary, dau. of John Caldwell of 
Northfield. She was b. July 20, 1821. He is now a resident 
of Springfield, where his sons are engaged in business. A 
dau., Eloiene Frances, d. Aug. 11, 1858, ae. 8 yrs., 11 mos. 

1. Barton, Isaac, b. Mch. 21, 1768, is supposed to have been line- 
ally descended from that Samuel Barton who early in the 
1 8th century removed from Fratningham to Oxford, from 
which place Isaac is supposed to have removed to this sec- 
tion, purchasing, Apr. 24, 1809, the John Hall farm, located 


in that part of Leyden since annexed to Bern. Sept., 1815. 
he sold this place, moving to the Burk farm upon Burk Flat, 
where for one or two years he made his home with his son 
Benjamin. With this same son he bought a farm in New 
Salem, May 30, 181 7. Here he resided until the spring of 1 833, 
when, with his son David, he bought and moved to the pres- 
ent Henry Barton farm in Riverside, Gill, Jan. 13, 1838; he 
sold this, removing thence and purchasing, Mch. 12 follow- 
ing, a farm in the north part of Greenfield, the place now 
owned by Mrs. Leonard. He m. Hannah Pierce, who was 
b. Mch. 10. 1766, and d. Apr. 5, 1856, He d. Dec. 2, 1840. 
Children : 

i. Benjamin, b. Aug. 3, 1789. About 1825 purchased the Barton 
farm at Riverside, Gill, which is now owned by his grandson, 
Henry; m. (i) Sarah Parsons; (2) Asenath Hoseley Day. Had: 
I. Leonard, b. Dec. 21, 1814, in Bern.; res. Riverside; d. unm., 
Oct. 22, 1897. 2. Bradford, who m. Mary Frost. Children: 
George L., d.; Edward B., d.; Henry, who m. Emma, dau. Lu- 
cius Weatherhed of Bern.; Hattie L. 

ii. Joseph, b. Sept. 27, 1791; settled in Oswego, N. Y. 
2. iii. Isaac, b. Feb. 8, 1794. 

iv. Nehemiah Pierce, b. June 30, 1796; was twice m. ; settled in 

V. Hannah, b. Apr. 10, 1798; m. Lucius'' Chapin; d. Apr. 21, 1885. 

vi. David, b. Mch. 31, 1801: m. Olive, dau. Warren Horr; she d. 
June 12, 1849; he d. Oct. 9, 1845. Had: i. Ellen, b. Oct. 27, 
1828; m. Alonzo Megrath of Greenfield Oct. 30, 1859; resides 
in Greenfield. 2. Hannah, b. Dec. 30, 1830; m. Mark Streeter; 

res. Denver, Col. 3. Lucy, b. 1832; m. May 13, 

1857; d. Apr. 15, 1859. 4. Warren, b. 1834; res. Ohio. 5. 
Isaac Rich, b. 1836; res. Batavia, N. Y. 
vii. Sarah, b. June 5, 1804; m. Chas.^ Scott of Gill — his second wife, 
viii. Louisa, b. Jan. 8, 1808; m. Jan. 1836, Salem Rich of Greenfield. 
(Factory Hollow). She d. May 9, 1881; he d. Apr., 1901. 

2. Barton, Isaac', (Isaac',) b. Feb. 8, 1794; m. Matilda^ dau. John' 
Hale Mch. 23, 18 18. She was b. May 26, 1792; d. Mch. 17, 1866. 
He d. Apr. 12, 1867. He resided in the north part of Green- 


field, where he was a farmer and tanner. He and his family 

were always identified with the Unitarian society in town. 

Children : 

i. Son. b. and d. Jan. 3, 1819. 
ii. Ophelia, b. Oct. 15, 1821; m. Apr. 20, 1843, Sanford P. ^ Chase 

of Bern.; d. Sept. 2, 1858. 
iii. I.YMAN G., b. Jan. 19, 1827; m. Apr. 29, 1852, Lucy R.^ dau. of 
Ralph^ Cushman of Bern. He succeeded his father on the farm 
and tannery in the north part of Greenfield; now resides at the 
street. He is a civil engineer, was county commissioner and 
has been prominently connected with town affairs. Had: r. 
Isaac C., b. Mch. 13, 1853; m. L. Ella, dau. John S. Allen; res. 
Greenfield; two children. 2. Alice M., b. July 21, 1863; d. 
Nov. 20, 1863. 3. Walter L., b. July 3, 1869; m. Julia Mar- 
tin; res. Greenfield; one dau. 

Benjamin, E. Everett, b. in Montag-ue ; purchased about 1895 the 
Col. Ferry place, which was earlier owned by Polycarpus L. 
Cushman and his son, Henry W. This farm comprised the 
original grant made to Medad Pumrey of Northampton who 
was in the Falls Fight. Under Mr. Cushman's ownership 
the farm comprised one hundred and seventy-five acres. To 
this Mr. Benjamin has added until his landed estate now 
consists of over three hundred acres, one of the largest farms 
in town. Here Mr. Benjamin spends a portion of his time, 
the rest being devoted to the shoe business, he traveling 
for and being a considerable owner in the Thomas G. Plant 
factory. In this venture, as in his farming, he has met with 
remarkable success, and on his place here is to be found all 
that pertains to the most progressive agriculture. 

BiXBY, George H., son of David and Lydia Bixby, was b. in Hav- 
enhill, N. H., Mch. 12, 1827. About 1883-5, he took up his 
residence in town, purchasing the place formerly owned by 
Samuel Green, and later by Henry W. Hale, on the North- 
field road. He has come to be recognized as one of the 
town's most methodical farmers. He m. Sept. 7, 1856, Sarah 
Eliza", dau. of Thomas J." Newcomb. Has: 
i. Eleanor Lydia, b. Apr. 4, 1859; m. June 15, 1887, Hendrick 
A.5 Slate. 


Bolton, Dr. W. J., was for a few years a practicing- physician here, 
succeeding Dr. W. H. Pierce. While here he m., Jan. 17, 
189-, Annie, dau. of Harris Williams, then of town. They 
now reside in Athol. 

BOWKER, Ch.'VRLES", M. D., (Melvin', Liberty' of Pembroke) is one 
of the two medical practitioners of the town. He was born 
in Savoy, Mass., Sept. 16, 1824. His earlier studies were 
pursued at the common schools and at Wilbraham. Some 
time was also devoted to teachinof. His medical studies were 
furthered at the Berkshire Medical College in Pittsfield, 
Mass., from which he graduated in 1854. His earlier years 
of practice were spent in Savoy and Wilbraham, four years 
in each town. During the war he was in the service one 
year as acting assistant surgeon. Upon the close of the war 
in May, 1865, he settled in Bernardston, where he has since 
successfully followed his profession, gaining many friends 
and life-long patrons. He is a meinber of the Massachusetts 
Medical Society. He and his family have always been ear- 
nest and devoted members of the Methodist church, also 
much interested in the temperance movements and cause. 
Was selectman 1892-3-4-5. He m. (i) in 1847, Delcy D. 
Dunham ; she d. 1852 ; (2) Harriet P., dau. of Samuel Dawes, 
in 1853. Children : 

i. Delcet H., m. George T. Swazey; res. Vt. 
ii. Alphonzo v., a physician residing in Athol, Mass. 
iii. Samuel D., a physician residing in Rowe, Mass. 
iv. Effie L., m. Aug. 4, 1896, Theodore C. Forbes; res. Greenfield. 
V. Arthur H., res. Athol. 

vi. Rose E., resides in Greenfield; a teacher of music; m. Aug. 25, 
1900, Frank H. Maxwell. 

Boyle, James, was first located at Troy, N. Y., where he m. Miss 
Van Dusen, of Dutch descent. Their children were : 

i. James. 

ii. Susan. 
iii. Nancy, 
IV. Charles. 


2. V. William, b. in Troy, N. Y., May 2, 1798; m. (i) in Warwick, 

Mary Rand; she d. in Woodstock, N. Y., Mch. 14, 1824, aged 
24 years; m. (2) at Keene, N. H., Apr. 26, 1826, Betsey Rugg. 
She d. in Bern., Dec. 3, 1879. He d. Sept. 30, 1866. Their 
home was on South street, the place now owned by James Shippee. 
Had: i. William Alexander, b. June 1816, at Keene, N. H.; 
d. Dec. 18, 1817. 2. Mary Priscilla, b. Apr. 26, 1823; m. (i) 
Nov. 14, 1844, Nathan Wyart; (2) John Glazier of Stratton, Vt. 
She d. in Greenfield, Mch. 1901. By second wife: 3. Elias 
James, b. in Keene, N. H., Jan. 27, 1827; d. Sept. 4, 1892. 4. 
Sarah Rugg, b. Oct. 7, 1828; m. Paul J. Allen, May 13, 1851; 
res. Bern. 5. William Sidney, b. Jan. 7, 1830; m. Laura Hast- 
ings of Gill, Apr. 19, 1856; d. July 4, 1871. 5. George Henry, 
b. Apr. 19, 1831; d. Nov. 4, 1831. 6. George Alvin, b. Oct. 25, 
1832; m. Emily Green of Alstead, N. H. 7. Matilda Jane, b. 
Jan. 5, 1834; d. Jan. 20, 1853. 8. Elizabeth E., b. Apr. 2, 
1835; d. Jan. 27, 1856. 9. Charles Alex, b. July 3, 1837; d. 
Newbern, N. C., Oct. 10, 1864; he was a member of the 15th 
Conn. Vol. 10. Anne K., b. Nov. 4, 1838; m. Albert Frank 
Totman June 23, 1864; she d. at Easthampton, June 22, 1901. 
Ti. Susan Edna, b. July 30, 1840; m. Joseph Gray, i860; res. 
New Haven, Ct. 12. Ada Harriet, b. in Greenfield, Feb. 10, 
1842; m. Simeon B. Childs of Iowa, Mch. 29, 1865. 13. Grace 
Wellman, b. in Bern. Feb. 18, 1845; m. Sept. 18, 1869, Edward 
P. Pomeroy. 

Brewster, Oliver, was early of Lebanon, Ct., coming thence to 
town in 1765. Dec. 1769, it was voted to meet at his house 
"eight sabbaths of the winter ensueing." This action was 
taken in accordance with the then prevailing custom in Ber- 
nardston to thus provide for a place of worship during the 
most severe portion of the winter season, the meetinghouse 
being probably a little more frigid than even puritanical 
training could endure. He also held one or two minor town 
offices as late as 1776. Of his family little is known. A dau. 
Ruby m. about 1749, Henry Bliss, and resided later in Col- 
rain ; had Calvin Bliss, who was a resident of Fall Town 


Briggs, Owen, b. about 1758; enlisted in the Revolutionary army- 
July 24, 1780, for three months; was discharged Oct. 10, 1780. 

Brooks, Daniel, m. Patty", dau. of Samue? Green. She was born 
May 4, 1799. He first appears in Gill, settling near the Ber- 
nardston line ; d., ae. about 51 years. Children: 

i, George VV., m. Jane S. Donelson of Colrain. She d. Jan. 30, 
1877. ae. 51 yrs. He was a carpenter, residing north of the 
New England House. Had: i. Maria L., m. Frank O.Pike; 
resides Athol. 2. Mary C, m. Myron T. Graves of Montague, 
where shed. June 14, 1882, ae. 24 years. 3. Fred, who is dead. 

ii. Martha, m. Chauncey Lincoln of Montague. 

iii. Eunice, b. Sept. 12, 1827; m. Samuel Connable, Oct. 6, 1848; 
she d. Sept. 20, 1886. 

iv. Electa, m. Erastus Wood of Monson. 

Brooks, JoHN^ Dr. (Nathaniel' Capt. of Worcester,) b. in Worces- 
ter Jan. 12, 1783. When about sixteen years of age he be- 
gan teaching winters, which occupation he followed for eight 
winters. In the interim he learned the trade of bookbind- 
ing, and followed this with his teaching. In the fall of 1802 
he went to Walpole, N. H., where he remained for two or 
three years. In 1804 he engaged in the study of medicine 
at Westminster, Vt., spending some three years with differ- 
ent physicians and in attending medical lectures, then began 
the practice of medicine and surgery in Newfane, Vt., where 
he resided fourteen years and built up an extensive business. 
He represented that town in the legislature. In 1819, on 
account of an extremely distressing illness of his wife, he 
relinquished his practice and removed to Dummerston, Vt., 
remaining about two years. During this time he began 
preaching the doctrine of universal restoration, and in re- 
sponse to a call from the First Restorationist, afterwards the 
Universalist church in Bernardston, removed thence in 1822, 
and settled there as a preacher of that doctrine. During his 
long residence in town he was honored by election and ap- 
pointment to various positions of trust. In 1824 he was 
representative to the General Court, and re-elected for seven 

BROOKS. 315 

consecutive terms. After a residence here of about five 
years, he was called upon to such an extent as a physician 
that he abandoned the ministry, intending- to resume preach- 
ing, however, at some future time, but this was prevented 
by a chronic throat difficulty, and thereafter until past the 
age of eighty years, he was favorably known as one of the 
leading physicians of the place. Dr. Brooks acquired a con- 
siderable local reputation as a writer both of prose and poetry. 
A portion of a poem upon the Centennial celebration of the 
place is found in the earlier pages of this volume, while sev- 
eral of his sermons and some controversial writings upon 
religious subjects were published as they appeared. The 
last years of his life he became convinced of the benefits of 
total abstinence and accordingly gave up the use of ardent 
spirits, tea, coffee and tobacco, after a moderate use of all 
for more than sixty years. "And I only wonder that I in- 
dulged in their use so long." Dr. Brook's home was for 
many years on the site of the present Alford place. Cedar 
Lawn, on South street. He m. (i) Mch. 19, 1807, Nancy Red- 
ington of Walpole, N. H. vShe d. Mch. 30, 1823, and Sept. 28 
following, he m. (2) Mary, dau. of Moses Bascom of Gill. 
She d. Mch. 9, 1862, aged 66 years. He died vSept. 9, 1866. 
Children : 

i. Mary Caroline^, b. Mch. 6, 1808, in Newfane, Vt.; m. 1843, Col. 
Jesse Smith of Philadelphia, N. Y. She d. in Janesville, Wis., 
Feb. 10, 1896. 
ii. Sidney Reddington\ b. Aug. 25, 1809; d. Dec. 15, 1813. 

iii. JoHN^, b. July 31; d. Aug. 15, 181 1. 

iv. Nancy'\ b. Dec. 16, 1812; d. Feb., 1813. 

V. John Prentiss'', b. Dec. 22, 1813; d. Feb. 11, 1823. 

vi. Nancy^, b. May 7, 1816; in, Apr., 1847, Stephen Core of Bern. 
She d. 189-. 

vii. Catherine^, b. Aug. 21, 1818; m. 1844, Linus Yale, Jr., the in- 
ventor of the Yale lock; resided in Shelburne Falls. She d. in 
Deerfield, Mch. 22. 1900. "Mrs. Yale had an excellent literary 
faculty and a beautiful and delicate imagination. She wrote 
much for the Home Journal of N. Y. when Nathl. P. Willis was 
editor. With her unusual talents, Mrs. Yale might easily have 


been a figure in American literature; as it is, aside from her 
'Story of the Old Willard House' — the Manse (Deerfield), 
which was her last home — and a very charming wonder-book 
published two or three years ago, she had sent out to the read- 
ing world no evidence of her ability." 
viii. Elizabeth^, b. June 14, 1821, in Dummerston; m. 1844, Charles 

Carter of N. Y. City; d. Oct. 17, 1859. 
ix. Fannie^, b. Jan. 25, 1823; d. Apr. 12, 1823. 
By second wife: 
X. Jane Center^, b. July i, 1824; d. Sept. 26, 1825. 
2. xi. Silas Newton^, b. Dec. 30, 1825. 

xii. Jane Frances^ b. Oct. i, 1831; m. June 24, 1853. Halbert S. 
Greenleaf, Col. of the 52nd Reg., Mass. Vol., in the late war; 
resides in Rochester, N. Y. 

2. Brooks, Sila.s NEWTON^ (Dr. John' Capt. Nathaniel',) b. Dec. 30, 
1825; m. Apr. 24, 1849, Melissa, dau. Isaac and Rebecca L. 
(Connable) Burrows of Bern. She was b. Mch. 8, 1829. Mr. 
Brooks' earlier life was spent in his native town where his 
wide spread infltience was always exerted for her best inter- 
ests. His business in addition to his agricultural pursuits 
was that of manufacturing farm tools in company with Mr. 
E. S. Hulbert. He also found time for and successfully 
devoted himself to the civil affairs of the place. For about 
thirty years he most satisfactorily filled such positions as 
town clerk and treasurer, trustee of Powers Institute, and 
one of the school board, for three years representing his con- 
stituents in the Massachusetts Legislature, two years in the 
House, and one in the Senate, besides being an actively in- 
terested member of the Franklin County Agricultural Soci- 
ety. He had the settlement of many sizable estates, among 
others the Cushman estate, of which he was executor and 
trustee, and which he had in charge at the time of his death. 
In 1 87 1 he removed to Chicago to engage in the lock manu- 
facturing business, in the firm of Sargeant. Greenleaf and 
Brooks. In his new home he was quickly looked upon as a 
man of mtich intelligence and business ability. He was a 


prominent and highly respected member of the Massachu- 
setts Society of Chicago. He d. in Chicago, 111., April 15, 
1897. Children: 


i. Mary Amelia"*, b. Apr. 29, 1850; d. Feb. 11, 1857. 
ii. John'*, b. May 31, 1852; tn. Feb. 19, 1889; firm name Tower & 
Brooks Company. Had: i. John Bernard^, b. June 8, 1891. 
2. Kenneth Burrows^ b. June 23; d. Oct. 23, 1893. 

iii. Halbert Greenleaf^, b. Mch. 13, 1858; m. Sept. 13, 1S83, 
Emma J. Hinchman. She was b. May 10, i860; resides Roch- 
ester, N. Y., where he is assistant manager of the Sargeant and 
Greenleaf Co., lock manufacturers. Had: i. Clara E.^, b. 
July ID, 1884; d. Apr. 14, 1890. 2. Edwin H.^, b. Oct. 19, 
1886. 3. Florence^, b. Apr. 25, 1891. 4. Bryant ].\ h. 
June 23, 1893. 5. Frederic O^ b. Mch. 4, 1898. 

iv. Bryant Butler"*, b. Feb. 5, 1861; m. Mary, dau. of Judge VVil- 
lard of Alexandria, Neb. 

V. Jeannie MELlssA^ b. Dec. 27, 1868; m. (i) Somers; (2) 

Feb. 6, 1900, Frederick H. Jones of Chicago, 111., where she re- 
sides; two children. 

Brown, Benoni, was surveyor of clapboards and shingles. 1782 ; 
m. Feb. 11, 1784, Mercy, dau. Nathaniel Dickinson of North- 
field. She was b. Dec. 22, 1742. 

Brown, Jason, b. in 1802; m. in Guilford, Vt., Mary, dau. of Arte- 
mas Sheldon, and widow of Simeon Cushman. She d. Oct. 25, 
1875. He m. (2) Lucy (Gaines) widow of Silas Scott. He d. 
Jan. 30, 1890. He resided near E. S. Hulberfs factory. 
Children : 

i. Henry2, 5_ Mch. 27, 1828; d. Feb. 3, 1830. 
ii. Henry Cummins^, b. Jan. 8, 1830; d. Aug. 17, 1831. 

Brown, Imla K.\ (Isaac and Delinda Keep. Isaac Brown was b. 
in Dover, Vt., in 1793, removing to Guilford when 10 years 
of age; he m. Delinda Keep, b. in Groton, Mass., in 1790,) 


b. in Guilford, Vt , May 4, 181 5 ; m. (i) Mch. 27, 1838, Eunice 
Emeline", dau. Capt. Jonathan' Connable. She d. June 4, 
1872; he m. (2) Nov. 17, 1874, Hattie Cook, dau. of Hart 
Larrabee of Greenfield. During the winters of 1837 and 8, 
he taught in Bernardston and while there married, immedi- 
ately after taking up his permanent residence in town, locat- 
ing on the place then owned by his father-in-law in North 
Bernardston, and which he afterward purchased. He brought 
to his work energy, intelligence and good judgment, and 
soon became one of the town's most successful farmers. He 
held many positions of trust, served as selectman for several 
years, was a trustee of Powers Institute from its establish- 
ment, likewise of Cushman Library, of which he was presi- 
dent after Mr. Cushman's death in 1866, a member of the 
New England and Franklin County Agricultural Societies, 
for two years president, of the latter, and for three years 
represented the county in the State Board of Agriculture. 
Mr. Brown was a constant attendant at and a liberal sup- 
porter of the Unitarian church. He d. Jan. 10, 1892. Mrs. 
Brown resides on Church street. Children : 

i. Laura Keep'', b. Jan. 16, 1841 ; m. Jan. 16, 1861, Henry Clay** Cush- 
man; resides South street. 

ii. Emma Wright^, b. Apr. 2, 1846; m. Mch. 6, 1866, J. Howe Demond. 
She d. in Northampton, 1894. Had two daughters. 

iii. Abbott Channing'', b. Apr. 23, 1849; m. Dec. 17, 1873, Nellie 
Susan, dau. Charles C. and Chastina (Hardy) Noyes, born in 
Franklin, N. H., Feb. 6, 1854. Mr. Brown has been actively 
interested in educational matters, both as a teacher in his early 
manhood, and for a long time as a member of the school board. 
He owns the fine ancestral farm at North Bernardston. Mrs. 
Brown is and has always been, since her residence in town, ac- 
tively interested in music. She has been for many years the 
much appreciated organist of the Unitarian church. Had: i. 
Susie Noyes*, b. Mch. 16, 1875; m. Oct. 17, 1894, William Tyler 
of Vernon, Vt. ; res. Boston; two children. 2. Emma Nellie'', 
b. Apr. 1890; d. Mch. 11, 190 1. 

1. BURK, John Maj."', b. Nov. 28, 1717, in Hatfield, and was son of 

BURK. 319 

John Burk and Mehitable Hastings. John Burk, the father, 
was b. in Northampton in 1689, and was the son of Richard 
Burk and Sarah (Woodford) Allen. The origin of the family 
is not positively known, but one Richard Burk, whose wife 
was Mary Parmenter, d. at Sudbury, in 1693-4; m. Sarah", 
dau. Lieut. Jonathan and Mary (Field) Hoyt of Deerfield, 
Dec. 6, 1740. She was born July 9, 1719; d. Aug. 16, 181 5. 
Major Burk was one of the first settlers in town, and a fuller 
account of his life than it is possible to give here, is embodied 
in the preceding pages. His home was the Burk Fort upon 
Burk Flat. He bought Lot. No. 43, 2nd division. Nov. 27, 
1761, he bought of Widow Ruth Burnham, Elisha Burnham, 
Widow vSarah Hooker of Farmington, John Allen and Ruth, 
his wife, of Windsor, all of Hartford Co., Conn., Lot No. 71, 
2nd division of meadow land. May 10, 1749, he purchased 
of Remembrance and Mehitable Sheldon the "original site 
No. 43." He also owned Nos. 49 and 152, 3rd division, laid 
out in 1743. To this plan is annexed this note: "No. 152 
joyns on Fath Sheldon 96 R on M. Scott -j^ next to Coats 
Swamp 57 ye N end 64 Rods." Of Josiah Griswold of Weth- 
ersfield, Ct.. he bought No. 42, 2nd division of meadow lots, 
June 23, 1749. Apr. 14, 1781, he secured 13 acres, a part of 
Draft No. 68, 4th division. " It jynes Southerly on Land 
Belong to Doc Williams and weft on Land Belonging Alfees 
Beftow." (Alpheus Barstow). His life was one of continued 
activity. In 1742 he was chosen one of the committee to lay 
out highways. In 1766 he was assessor and collector, sur- 
veyor of highways 1775, selectman from 1766 to 1780, the 
years 1765, 1774-5 and 8 excepted ; Committee of Correspond- 
ence Inspection and Safety 1777, town treasurer 1782, 83, 84, 
and for many years her representative to the General Court. 
He died at Deerfield while there attending a convention, 
Oct. 27, 1784. Children: 

i. Sarah*, b. at Hatfield; m. Joel Chapin. 
ii. Ruth'*, bap. at Deerfield May 31, 1752. 

iii. Mehitable'*, b. at Bernardston, July 15, 1753; m. Capt. Jonathan 
Slate; d. Feb. 8, 1823. 


iv. Lydia^, b. April 4, 1755, in Bernardston; m. Dea. Jesse' Field. 
She d. May 26, 1808. 
2. V. John*, b. Sept. 15, 1760. 

2. BuRK, John*, (Maj. John', John^ Richard',) b. Sept. 15, 1760 ;m. 

Lovina . He d. July 17, 1796. She m. (2) Feb. i, 1809, 

Solomon Smead of Greenfield (his second wife). She died 
Mch. 28, 1829, ae. 64 yrs. He built and lived in the house 
on Burk Flat formerly on the site of the present Atherton 
place, opposite the road leading across Burk bridge. Children: 

3. i. John\ b. May 8, 1785. 

ii. Horace'"', b. Oct, 25, 1788; m. Lovina F.'^, dau. Lieut. Israel'^ Hale, 
Oct. 22, 1812. He d. Nov. 26, 1815. She m. (2) Alpheus^ Chapin 
Nov. 14, 1816. She d. Aug. 21, 1843. 
iii. Daniel LooMIS^ b. Nov. 9, 1791, d. May 12, 1822. 
iv. LoviNA^, b. Oct. 6. 1793; d. Aug. 21, 1794. 

3. Burk, John', (John\ Major John^ John^, Richard',) b. May 8, 1 785; 
m. Roxy Merely of Gill. Their intention was published 
Sept. 27, 1806. She d. July 15, 1816, ae. 28. He d. June 7, 
1813. Children: 

i. Levina® Rowena, b Aug. 19, 1807; d. July 18, 1824. 

ii. John Erie'*, b. 1810; m. Elvira L."*, dau. Elias Parmenter June 7, 
1829. She was b. Aug. 10, 1807; d. Nov. 16, 1897. He was 
for many years a deacon in the Baptist church; was selectman 
1844-5-6-9-50; a representative in the Legislature; a justice of 
the peace, and at the time of his death had just been elected 
one of the trustees of Powers Institute. He was a man greatly 
beloved and his death, which occurred Mch. 23, 1858, was deeply 
regretted. Had: i. Infant dau.', d. Mch. 2, 1831. 2. John 
E.^, b. 1838; d. young. 3. (]orisann Elvira'^, d. Dec. 11, 
1 84 1, ae. 3 years. 

BuRN.i.wi, Eliphas, was in town in 1769. In 1772 he was chosen 

BURNHAM, Elisha, Capt." (Capt., William' of Farinington, Ct., Rev. 
William', William', Thomas' of Kensington, Ct.,) b. Feb. 12, 
1730 ; m. Sept. 7, 1749, Jerusha Lee. He was quite a promi- 

^ . J \^^\ BURi^HA^— BURROWS. 321 

/ nent man in town, serving as selectman 1774-75-77-80-88; 
'~ .4^ a member of the Committee5of Correspondence and Inspec- 
/ tion 1775, of Correspondence, Inspection and Safety 1776-77; 

was warden 1782-83. He resided in Leyden at the foot of 
Frizzell Hill. For some years after the incorporation of the 
district of Leyden, the mail for that place was carried by 
Mr. Burnham from Greenfield, he making the trip on foot. 
He d. May 28, 181 5, and is buried in Beaver Meadow. 
Children : 

i. William**, b. Oct. 14, 1750; d. young. 

ii. Jerusha^, b. May 27, 1752; m. Oct. 15, 1772, Selah Chapin of 

Leyden; she d. 1817. 

iii. RoxALiNDA**, b. May i, 1754; m. 
iv. Abigail*, b. June 7, 1756; m. 
V. Chloe^, b. Dec. 28, 1757; in. 
vi. Sylvia^, b. Jan. 7, 1760; d. Mch. 3, 1769. 
vii. William^ b. Dec. 25, 1764; m. 

viii. RuTH*^, b. Dec. 5, 1766; m. Dec. 22, 1789, Hezekiah^ Newcomb; 
d. Apr. 9, 1846. 
In addition to these children as given in the Burnham genealogy, 
there were also : 
ix. Sylvia'*, b. about 1767; m. about 1790, Dr. Cyrenius" Chapin; 
"said to be the handsomest girl ever married in the Congrega- 
tional meetinghouse." She resided at Buffalo, N. Y., where she 
d. Oct. I, 1863. 
X. Elisha*, b. about 1772; m. Mehitable Caswell, 1797; he died 
Nov. 14, 1841, ae. 69. 

Burrows: The earliest account of this family dates from the lat- 
ter part of the tenth century, they being descended from the 
Normans and people of distinction. The first known ances- 
tor was Fulbert, an officer under Robert 2nd, fifth Duke of 
Normandy. The family dates from the year 978, located at 
Falaise, the Norman name being DeBurghe. At the con- 
quest of England by William the Conqueror in 1066, Herohir 
DeBurghe, Lord of Contraville, " by Profession a tanner and 
engaged extensively in the business " was granted large es- 
tates in England, where the family name extending over six 


centuries and a territory from the vicinity of London to 
Manchester, received three spellings, becoming Anglicized 
from the Normon form DeBurghe to Burrows, Burrowes and 
Burroughs, The English history of the family runs through 
thirty-six generations. Their family have a coat of arms, 
crests and heraldic insignia, the motto being " Audaces 
fortuna jurat" — "Fortune favors the Brave", and this has 
been admirably illustrated in the Bernardston branch of the 
family. With the Pilgrims in 1635, it is claimed that there 
came from Manchester, England, three brothers, John, Wil- 
liam and Robert. The two former settled in Pennsylvania 
and New York. Robert removed early from the neighbor- 
hood of Boston settling at^Wethersfield, Ct. ; thence, about 
1643, with a few others, he went to and made a settlement at 
Pequoit, now New London. His grant of land there situated 
on the west bank of the Mystic river dates 1651, "Goodman 
Robert Burrows was chosen first ferryman to ferry horse 
and man across Mystic river for a groat " (four pence.) 
From this Robert Burrows is descended Joshua of Groton, 
Ct., the ancestor of the Bernardston branch of the family. 

He m. Jane , and d. Dec. 31, 1775, at the age of 26 yrs. 

She m. (2) a Mr. Davis of Leyden, where they resided and 
had a large family of children. She d. Aug. 12, 18 18, ae. 
70 years. Children : 

i. Joshua^. 

ii. VViLLSwoRTH^; one of these sons were drowned. The other was 
the ancestor of Mrs. Lurancy Burrows, wife of Horace Smith. 
2. iii. Amos^, b. Aug. 16, 1772. 

In several families of the first settlers of the town there are marked 
characteristics running down the generations, and it seems 
well to note these. Following out the motto of their trans- 
atlantic kinsmen, the Burrows family have acquired for them- 
selves a more than local name. Always hearty, they dis- 
played cordiality and hospitality to an unusual extent. 

2. Burrows, Amos', (Joshua), b. Aug. 10, 1772. When twelve years 
of age he was bound otit to learn a blacksmith's trade in 



Groton, Ct. When a young man he came to Leyden, settling 
south of the Beaver Meadow cemetery. The cellar hole is still 
to be seen. Here he resided until 18 14, when he removed to 
Gill, settling on the place recently owned by his son, the late 
Nelson Burrows. While in Beaver Meadow he was promi- 
nent among the Dorrellites, being treasurer of that sect. 
See ante, pages 186-8. He m. Nov. 17, 1794, Phoebe', dau. 
of John' Hunt of Leyden or North Bernardston. She was 
b. in Bern. Oct. 3, 1776. She was a remarkable woman, a 
type of energy, endurance, enterprise and power, and withal 
a strongly religious woman. She d. Apr. 24, 1862. Mr. Bur- 
rows d. Dec. 31, 1855. Children : 

i. John Hunt\ b. June 7, 1795; d. young, 
ii. IsAAC^ b. Mch. 24, 1797, in Leyden. 

iii. Erastus^, b. Aug. 24, 1800; m. Fanny, dau. John Hamilton, Oc- 
tober 17, 1820. She was b. Oct. 17, 1802, d. July 15, 1885. 
He resided near Mt, Hermon station; d. Apr. 10, 1869. Had: 
I. Asenath*, b. Apr. 8, d. Apr. 13, 1822. 2. Jane A.*, born 
July 9, 1823; m. Orren Slate. She d. Apr. i, 1865. 3. Jo- 
anna M.^ b. June 12, 1825; m. (i) George K. Butterfield; (2) 
David Bunnell; res. Greenfield. 4. Amos*, b. Feb. 19, 1828; 
d. in Buffalo, N. Y. 5. John H.^ b. May 23, 1830; res. Bos- 
ton. 6. Washington I.'*, b. Dec. 24, 1833; res. Pennsylvania. 
7. Andrew Ashley*, b. Jan. 25, 1837; res. Greenfield. 8. Fanny 
Ellen*, b. July 19, 1839; m. Mr. Fish; res. 111. 9. Isabel A.*, 
m. Lewis Morse; res. Boston. 10. Mary*, m. Ed. Felton; 
res. Northampton, 
iv. Salmon Hunt^, b. Dec. 11, 1802. 

V. Amanda Martha^, b. Mch. 5, 1805; m. Phineas D. Keyes Apr. 8, 

vi. Lura Maria^, b. Sept. 13, 1807; m. Eliphalet Sawtell, Dec. 9, 
1823; res. Greenfield, where their children and grand-children 
still live, 
vii. Horace^, b. Aug. 5, 1809; m. Martha Remington, Jan. 2, 1838; 
d. Oct. 3, 1864; resided Gill; had son George, who res. Conn, 
viii. Jarvis Fish^, b. Jan. 16, 1812. 
ix. Martha Almira^, b. July 22, 1814; m. George W.^ Newcomb, 
Jan. I, 1824; res. Bolton, Mass. 


X. Nelson^, b. Mch. 12, 1817; m. Feb. 11, 1840, Phoebe L., dau. 
Levi Park. She was b. Sept. 22, 1818; d. June 5, 1901. Mr. 
Burrows inherited a part of and resided in the home of his father, 
Amos. He was a man prominently connected with civil affairs, 
being one of the leading men of Gill, where he held town offices. 
Was County commissioner several years, president of the Frank- 
lin Mutual Insurance Company, director in the Greenfield Sav- 
ings Bank. His Masonic affiliations were with the fraternity at 
Greenfield; d. Feb. 28, 1900. Had: i. Martha M.^ b. Oct. 21, 
1841; m. (i) Park D.* Shattuck, Jan. 3, 1865. He d. Dec. 5, 
1868; m. (2) John Sprague, Oct. 14, 1874, who d. Sept. 8, 1879; 
m. (3) in 1890, Horace Bailey; res. at her old home, the Nel- 
son Burrows place. 2. Uau.*, b. and d. Aug. 9, 1846. 3. Baxter 
P. ^ b. Aug. 21, 1847; m. (i) Jan. 19, 1870, Josie R. Johnson, whod. 
Nov. II, 1878; m. (2) Dec. 16, 1880, Abbie I. Pickett, who d. 
Sept. 18, 1887; m. (3) Oct. 2, 1888, Lucy F. Field. He resided sev- 
eral years with his father, and later on the Salmon Burrows place, 
as a farmer. He now resides on South street, Bernardston, be- 
ing extensively engaged in lumbering. Children: i. Nelson 
Park^, b. Jan. 8; d. Apr. 28, 187 1. 2. Mabelle ].\ b. Aug. 20, 
1872; d. Apr. 29, 1888. 3. Beulah M.\ b. March 22, 1875; m. 
James T. Downs; res. New Haven, Ct. She d. July 19, 1898. 
4. Burton N.', b. Jan. 17, 1878. 5. Leon 0.\ b. July 9, 1883. 

Burrows, Isaac', (Amos^ Joshua',) b. Mch. 24, 1797; m. Rebecca 
Louisa", dau. Capt. Jonathan^ and Asenath (Wright) Conna- 
ble, Oct. 30, 1 82 1. She was b. June 13, 1803, and d. Apr. 6, 
1874. He resided during the greater part of his life on what 
was a part of the old David Ryther farm, afterwards owned 
by E. C. Burrows, and more recently by Frank Burrows. 
Later he built and resided in the house nearly opposite, 
now owned and occupied as a summer residence by his grand- 
son, George E. Burrows. He was selectman for eleven 
years ; d. Dec. 4, 1865. Children : 
i. George Hunt*, b. Dec. 21, 1822. 

ii. Julia Louisa^ b. Sept. 21, 1826; m. Apr. 22, 1845, Barnabas^ Snow, 
iii. Melissa Minerva*, b. Mch. 8, 1829; m. Apr. 24, 1849, Silas'* New- 
ton, son of Dr. John^ Brooks. 
iv. Frank Lorenzo*, b. Aug. 11, 1831; m, Nov. 28, 1855, Josephine 
Sarepta^, dau. Amos^ and Sarepta (Cushman) Carrier. She was 



b. Nov. 3, 1834; d. Sept. 15, 1892. For many years Mr. Bur- 
rows was engaged in railroading in the west. Upon his retire- 
ment from that work he came back to town, whither his family 
had preceded him, and purchased his father's old place, which 
he greatly improved. His own residence was on South street, 
the place formerly owned by Amos Carrier. He d. Oct. 3, 1901. 
Had- I. Maveret Philena^ b. Aug. 10, 1867; m. Harry A. 
Perry, May 28, 1890; res. Manhattan, Kansas. Three children. 
v. Edwin Connable'*, b. Feb. 6, 1834; m. Nov. 27, i860, Isabelle 
Maria^ dau. of John S. and Elizabeth Allen. She was b. Sep- 
tember 23, 1843. Until 1885 they resided on the old Burrows 
homestead. This they then sold to O. W. Gray, and rem. to 
their present home, the Sumner Hale place. Had: i. Charles 
Edwin^ b. Oct. 23, 1862; m. Nov. 14, 1894, Florence Maude, dau. 
of William Atherton of Gill. Has: Ruth Augusta'', b. Sept. 7, 
1895. They now reside in Gill. 2. Elizabeth Rebecca^, born 
Apr. 7, 1865; m. Apr. 19, 1883, John William Handforth of 
Greenfield. She d. Feb. 3, 1895; four children. 3. Abby Ma- 
ria^, b. Apr. 28, 1869; m. June 12, 1899, John G. Bryant of Wind- 
sor, Vt. ; res. Greenfield, Mass. 4. Sadie Henrietta\ b. July 29, 
1871; m. Mch. 12, 1901. Eben Learned Ashley; res. Flat Wil- 
low, Montana. 5. Ellen Louise^, b. July 18. 1874; m. Wallace 
J. Harrington, Dec. 21, 1892; res. Riverside, Gill. 

vi. Henrietta Wright*, b. Feb. 26, 1837; m. Dec. 23, 1856, Ezekiel 
C.*, son of Horace^ Hale. 

vii. Frederick Albert", b. July 12, 1839, went West. 

viii. Abbie Maria", b. Feb. 7, 1841; m. Mch. 13, 1866, Lucien W. Coy, 
a banker of Little Rock, Ark. Prior to her marriage she was a 
teacher and superintendent of schools at Winchester, N. H. 
In commemoration of the place of her nativity and the home 
of her ancestors, she has recently donated to the town a clock 
which is to be placed on the town hall. Had: i. Jennie Eve- 
lyn, b. July 8, 1868; is m. and lives in Brookline. 2. Julia 
Louisa, b. July 22, 1870; is m. and lives in Bethlehem, Pa. 3. 
Lucien W. Jr., b. Jan. 25, 1879; was professor in Institute of 
Technology, Boston; is now in the Phillipines, serving in the 
Red Cross hospital corps. 

4. Burrows, Salmon Hunt', (Amos^ Joshua',) b. Dec. 11, 1802 ; m. 
Miranda A.^ dau. of Levi' Park, May 27, 1829. She was b. 


May 25, 1809, and d. Oct. 15. 1875. He resided in the east 

part of Bernardston, the farm adjoining his farther's, Amos 

Burrows. The buildings have been destroyed by fire. He 

d. Feb. 20, 1855. Children: 

i. Barnard Hunt^ b. July 17, 1831 ; m. Susie Gould, Dec. 14, 1858; 
rem. West, making his home in Cambridge, 111. He d. Apr. 3, 

ii. Bryant Salmon"*, b. June 26, 1834; m. Mary E., dau. of Lyman 
Griswold, May 3, i860. She was b. Jan. 31, 1835. He was 
selectman 1864-5, niany years a member of the school commit- 
tee; taught many years; resided in the east part of the town. 
He d. Oct. 12, 1880, of injuries received by falling trom a load 
of hay. Had: i. Willie S.^, b. July 13, d. July 21, 1862. 2. 
Clayton H.'', b. Nov. 3, 1864; drowned at Shelburne Falls Sept 5, 
1884. 3. Urania^ b. Oct. 19, 1863; res. Shelburne Falls, 
iii. Levi Park^, b. Mch. 4, 1836; m. (r) Nancy M. Bascom, Nov. 28, 
1857. She d. May 30, 1863. He m. (2) Phedora^, dau. Robert 
Cushman, Apr. 25, 1865. She was born Nov. 23, 1839; d. July 1 1, 
1899. He resides in Greenfield. Had: i. Stella N/, b. Jan. 4, 
1868; m. Harry Beebe; res. Greenfield. 2. Levi C, b. Mch. 22; 
d. May 27, 1878. 
iv. Phoebe Josephine", b. Mch. 26, 1839; m. Charles H. Tyler, 
Apr. 26, 1857. She d. in Shelburne Falls, June 8, 1896. 

V. Emergene M.*, b. July 4, 1845; m. Henry B. Green of Vernon, 
Vt., May 4, 1864; d. Sept. 27, 1875. 

5. Burrows, Jarvis FISH^ (Amos', Joshua',) b. Jan. 16, 1812; m. 
Beulah Minerva Wright, Mch. 31, 1835. She was b. May 17. 
1804; d. Feb. 24, 1889. He resided in Vernon, Vt., where for 
many years he was the popular landlord of the Burrows 
hotel. He d. Sept. 23, 1875. Children : 

i. Hunt W.", b. Jan. 28, 1836; m. Isabella J., dau. of Pliney R. War- 
ner, Apr. 29, 1858; resided in Vernon, Vt., where he d. July 3, 
1874. She still lives in Vernon, Vt. Had: i. Silas F'.paphro*, 
b. Jan. 27, d. Sept. i, 1859. 2. J-arvis Fish\ b. Feb. 26, 1861; 
res. Vernon. 3. George Warner*, b. Apr. 25, 1863; d. Apr. 2, 
1864. 4. Warner Hunt' Wright*, b. July 24, 1865; res. Vernon. 

ii. Beulah M.^ b. Feb. 11, 1840; d. Feb. 8, 1842. 

iii. Infant son, d. 1844. 






6. Burrows, George, Hunt', (Isaac', Amos', Joshua',) b. Dec. 21, 
1822 ; m. Sept. 11, 1850, Mary Elizabeth, dau. Gen. B. F. Cook 
of Northampton. She d. July 19, 1881. Mr. Burrows was 
in the employ of the Connecticut River railroad for ten years, 
being- the first conductor of passenger trains to run into 
Greenfield and Northampton. In 1852 he was superintend- 
ent of the Rochester, Lockport and Niagara Falls road, re- 
signing in 1855 to becone general superintendent of the 
Toledo, Wabash and Western Railway. He continued in 
the service of different roads until 1873, when he assumed 
control of the western division of the New York Central, 
when the best known work of his life began. In 1893 he 
tendered his resignation; the management of the Central 
road refused to listen to his proposition, but instead, pre- 
vailed upon him to accept a leave of absence for one year. 
During this time he visited Europe, the Holy Land and 
Egypt. He returned in the spring, but did not again take 
up active business employments. He d. Mch. 9, 1896, and is, 
as is also his wife, buried in Northampton. Children : 

i. George Ely^ b. Sept. 30, 1861; m. June 19, 1894, Fanny Brun- 
dage. Mr. Burrow's home is in Buffalo, N. Y., where he is a 
member ot the firm of Matthews Northrup Publishing Co., being 
assistant treasurer. He has taken a deep interest in the suc- 
cess of this work, and much of interest concerning the earlier 
generations of the Burrows family was by him contributed. 
His father's old home in town he owns and occupies as a sum- 
mer residence. Had: i. Gordon Hunt", b. Jan. 10, 1896. 2. 
John Bi-undage*^, b. Nov. 15, 1897. 3. Frank Ely*". 4. George 
Matthews", b. Feb. 6, 1901. 

ii. M.ARY Elizabeth^ b. Nov. 24, 1866; m. George E. Matthews; 
res. Buffalo. Had: i. George .Matthews. 2. Harriet Mat- 
thews. 3. Burrows Matthews. 

Burt, Enos H., Lt., b. 1785; m. Merry', dau. Joseph' Atherton, 
Apr. 12, 1806. She was b. Apr. 26, 1787. He d. Feb. 23, 1814, 
and she m. (2) Joab Scott. She d. Feb. 20, 1876. Children : 

i. Joseph Atherton, b. 1807; d. July, 1810. 
ii. Enos Bartlett, b. 1809; d. Oct. 11, 1810. 


iii, Enos, m; d. in Bern. His wife d. in Cortland, N. Y. Had: i. 

Kate M., m. Cherry; resides in Cortland, N. Y. 

iv. Catherine C, b. Sept. 28, 1813; m. Mch. 29, 1835, Charles S. 

Park. She d. Oct. 12, 1881. 

Cairns, Egbert' E., (Hugh', who was b. in Ireland, Hugh', who 
was b. in Scotland, Robert', (?) of Scotland) b. Sept. i, 1854; 
m. Sept. 16, 1885, Eva M. Mayo of Johnville, P. Q. She was 
b. Feb. I, 1864. Mr. Cairns is a prosperous blacksmith, own- 
ing the old Dewey shop at the village. He came to town in 
Apr., 1 89 1, from East Clifton, P. Q. About 1894 he purchased 
his present home of Mrs. Perry nee Cobleigh, on the street 
running north from the library. Children : 
i. Ethel Irene*, b. May 19, 1888. 

ii. Earl Harold*, b. May 5. 1890; d. Apr. 3, 1891. 

iii. Harold EGBERT^ b. June 4, 1893. 

iv. Leland Mayo*, b. Feb. 5, 1898. 

Cairns, Justin A.\ (Hugh', Hugh', Robert', (?)) brother of Egbert, 
b. June II, 1857; m. Hannah, dau. of Joseph Taylor, June, 
1882. She was b. Nov., 1857. Mr. Cairns came here in the 
fall of 1890, and about 1897, purchased the farm of the late 
Hartley Hale, " on the Green," which he successfully carries 
on. Children ; 

i. Ethel*, b. Sept. 23, 1885: d. Oct., 1885. 
ii. Bernice a.*, b. Oct. 28, 1887. 
iii. Son, b. July 4, d July — , 1897. 

Carey, Richard, was of Deerfield in 1747, Bernardston 1753, Green- 
field 1759, Northfield 1760, Newberry, N. H. 1765, but soon 
returned to Northfield. He was b. 1717; m. June 19, 1759. 
Mary Frizzell of Bernardston. He was a soldier on the fron- 
tier 1755 to 1758. He d. Mch. 30, 1799. Children: 
i. Dorothy^, b. June 30, 1760. 
ii. Lydia^, b. Nov. 7, 1763. 

iii. Patience^, b. Nov. 7, 1766; d. young. 

iv. Son^, b. Mch. 8, d. Apr. 2, 1777. 

V. Patience^, bap. Aug. 8, 1773. 

vi. Huloah^, bap. May 14, 1775. 



Carpenter, Dr. Elijah Woodward', (John', John*, David', David*, 
SamueP, Wi^lam^ William',) was b. in Brattleboro, Vt., Sep- 
tember 7, 1788 ; m. (1) Sophia Field of Northfield. Dec. i, 
1814. She was b. July 14, 1783 ; d. May 18, 1822. He m. (2) 
Vallonia, dau. of Dea. Timothy Slate, Dec. 5, 1822. She was 
b. Dec. 25, 1798; d. Aug. 23, 1873. 

Dr. Carpenter came of good New England stock. The son 
of a Revolutionary soldier, who was with Washington at Val- 
ley Forge, and who emigrated to Vermont from the ances- 
tral home at Rehoboth immediately after the war, he inher- 
ited to a marked degree those qualities which characterized 
the men and women of that period, and which won such suc- 
cess for him in after life. Working on a farm until he was 
twenty-one years old, he mastered the common branches by 
himself, and by attending one term at Brattleboro Academy, 
taught successfully, and then studied medicine for three 
years with Dr. Cyrus Washburn of Vernon, Vt., attending 
lectures also at Yale Medical College, and later at Berkshire 
Medical Institute. He began practice here in 18 14, at first 
in North Bernardston, where he taught the district school 
in the winter of 18 14- 15. He soon removed to Bernardston 
village, living for a short time in the house of Hon. Poly- 
carpus L. Cushman, then settling on the site of the familiar 
homestead (built 1829) on the corner of "the Green," a cut 
of which is herewith shown. Here he continued to live and 
to practice his profession in this and the neighboring towns 
until his death, Nov. 28, 1855. His funeral was held in the 
Unitarian church. Rev. Thomas Weston preaching the ser- 
mon, and the other pastors of the town assisting in the ser- 
vice. The sermon was published, together with a tribute 
from his life-long friend, Lieut. Gov, Cushman, extracts from 
which follow : 

"For upward of forty years past, Dr. Carpenter has continued un- 
interruptedly, night and day, in storm and in sunshine, the practice 
of the profession to which he has given his whole attention and de- 
voted all his energies. Success has, therefore, crowned his efforts. 
But few men have stood better with the community in which they have 


lived for so long a period, or with the brethren of their profession. 
For many years he has been a member of the Massachusetts Med- 
ical Society and recently a Councillor of that society, and was Presi- 
dent at the organization of the Franklin County Medical Society, 
being the senior member present. As a physician, he was neither 
a radical reformer nor an unyielding conservative, but early applied 
to his profession the injunction of Scripture, 'prove all things, hold 
fast that which is good.' Hence he was all his days a close student 
of Nature as well as Art. In his practice he was cautious and care- 
ful, believing that good nursing and the operation of nature were 
the great restorative remedies. He therefore had the entire love 
and confidence of his patients. * * * jp, ^w j-j^g relations of life 
he was, emphatically, a true man. No one ever even suspected his 
integrity, for honesty and reliability were his most marked character- 
istics. He was for many years an active and valuable member of 
the school committee of Bernardston, and held other offices of honor 
and respectability. 

Although Dr. Carpenter was never a member of any church, yet 
the religious element in his character was marked and decided. He 
was a constant attendant (when his professional duties would per- 
mit) on the services of the Unitarian society, and was for many 
years a teacher or superintendent of the Sunday School of that soci- 
ety. * * * j^jg v^rhole life of threescore and seven years was a 
perfect commentary of what a good man and a Christian physician 
should be. But in the nearer relation of husband and father, Dr. 
Carpenter was most respected and beloved. There, at his own fire- 
side, no one was ever truer or better. There, where a man will ever 
show his true character, he was a pattern of goodness and parental 
love, mingled with prudence and discretion." 

Dr. Carpenter was an " old line Whig " in politics, but at the 
breaking up of that party, he promptly followed the anti- 
slavery movement, sending word by his neighbor Newcomb 
to a political convention at Greenfield, which he was unable 
to attend : "Tell them I am a true Free Soil Whig temper- 
ance Republican!" Children : 

i. Edward Jenner", b. Aug. 4, 1825; m. Mary Jane, dau. of Lyman 
Frink of Greenfield, Feb. 14, 1850; she d. May 16, 1900. From 
1849 proprietor of periodical bookstore in Bratileboro, Vt., and 
for twenty-seven years librarian of the Brattleboro library. He 











removed to Amherst in 1896; d. there June 16, 1900. Had: i. 
Clarence E., b. Mch. 31, 1851; civil engineer, Topeka, Kansas. 
2. Edward VV., b. July i, 1856; printer and publisher, Amherst; 
m. Ester M. Hastings, Apr. 25, 1882; two children. 3. Allan 
Lawrence, b. Oct. 31, 1858; d. Feb. 25, i860. 4. Maud, b. 
Oct. II, 1867; m. Malcolm A. Carpenter, Mt. Auburn, Mass., 
Feb. 24, 1896; one child. 
ii. John Erasmus", b. March n, 1827; m. Elvira Homer of Chicopee 
Falls, July 8, 1851; she d. June 5, 1869. In early days clerk 
for Z. C. Newcomb, Bernardston, and also in Greenfield and 
Chicopee Falls; then bookkeeper for the C R. R. R., at Spring- 
field, and station agent at Northampton; went with George H. 
Burrows- to Rochester, N. Y., in 1853, as paymaster on xN. Y. 
Central R. R.; in 1855 to Toledo, O., as paymaster on Toledo. 
Wabash and Western R. R., filling that position until his death 
(the result of an accident, when on his pay train), Nov. 29, 1875. 
The following is quoted from the funeral sermon preached by 
his pastor at Toledo: " Reared by parents in whom the sturdi- 
est truth and virtue bloomed and fruited in sunniest kindliness 
and most active charity, and spending his life in a calling that 
gave him an extended and intimate acquaintance with his fellow- 
men, Mr. Carpenter inherited both in his blood and in the de- 
veloping circumstances of his life, a large and true heart, which 
he suffered no trials or temptations ever to narrow or to harden, 
but which he preserved without change, except towards increas- 
ing generosity to the very end of his life. With that filial affec- 
tion which cared for an aged mother even as she once cared 
for him, with that generous charity that moved so freely at 
every call of suffering, with that openness and kindness of soul 
which in so many ways nobly distinguished him, he had a fixed- 
ness of moral principle, a discriminating judgment, a sensitive 
conscience, a sterling sense of honor, right and propriety, an 
intelligent and orderly habit of thought, a painstaking industry 
and an independent self-reliance that gave strength, solidity 
and reliability to his convictions, his purposes and his work." 

Had: i. John Albert, b. Oct. 13, 1853; d. (drowned) May 21, 

1870. 2. Charles H., b. Sept. 21, 1858; d. Dec. 12, 1863. 3. 

Minnie H., b. Dec. 2, 1863; d. Jan. 15, 1864. 
iii. Timothy BROWN^ b. June 13, 1829; m. Jennie Swail of Detroit, 

Mich., Feb. 2, 1887; in earlier years, cabinet maker with Miles 


and Lyons, Greenfield; lived with his mother in Bernardston 
until her death; has since resided in Toledo, O. 

iv. Cyrus Washburn^, b. Jan. 6, 183 . In early life clerk for Z. C. 
Newcomb, Bernardston, and for S. Allen's Sons, Greenfield; 
then clerk in dry goods business in Springfield and Rochester, 
N. Y.; from 1854 to 1858 conductor on N. Y. Central R. R. 
between Rochester and Niagara Falls; afterwards in hotel busi- 
ness at Rochester, St. Johnsville, N. Y., Staten Island, and 
Newark. N. J., being proprietor in latter city of the Continen- 
tal hotel, 1874-86; has since resided in Dover, N. J., where he 
is interested in real estate matters. 

V. Charles Elijah^, b. Nov. 9, 1833; d. May 18, 1834. 

vi. Mary SoPHIA^ b. Jan. 24, 1835; a young lady of lovely character 
and of marked success as a teacher in the town, until her early 
death, Mch. 30, 1856. 
vii. Charles Carroll^ b. July 9, 1836; m. Feronia N., dau. of Ezra 
and Luthera (Knowlton) Rice of Auburn, Mass., May i, 1862. 
When a boy he was clerk in Major H. Tyler's "periodical de- 
pot" and telegraph office, Greenfield, and several years later in 
Merriam's bookstore. He began attending Goodale Academy 
under the principalship of Pliny Fisk when nine years old, and 
afterwards fitted for college there, at VVilliston Seminary, and 
at Kimball Union Academy, Meriden, N. H. Feeble health, 
however, prevented him from entering college. In a summer 
trip to the coast of Labrador, taken for the benefit of his health, 
he became interested in the unprivileged condition of the shore- 
men of that wild country, and afterwards (1858) went there un- 
der the auspices of the Canada Foreign Missionary Society of 
Montreal to explore the region with reference to the beginning 
of missionary work. A station was located at Caribou Island, 
in the Straits of Belle Isle, and lumber taken down the St. Law- 
rence for a mission house there, convenient to the fishing fleets. 
Another station, with church and school, was subsequently es- 
tablished on Eskimo river, for the benefit of the native popula- 
tion, who wintered in the interior. There being no physician 
on the coast, the young missionary, having taken two courses 
of lectures at Harvard Medical College, was able to be of ser- 
vice to the sick, both sailors and shoremen. The severity of 
the climate compelled him and his wife to leave the coast in the 



•^>. A. loa^(u->u6 



fall of 1864, although he returned to his mission for the follow- 
ing summer. In the winter intervening, he was in the service 
of the U. S. Christian Commission at City Point, Va., acting 
as cashier of the commission for the "Armies operating against 
Richmond," entering Petersburg on the morning of its capture, 
and being at Richmond a few days later when General Charles 
Devens reviewed the Union troops in front of the Confederate 
Capitol, and a hundred guns were fired in honor of Lee's sur- 

From 1866 to 1872. Mr. Carpenter was superintendent of the 
"Lookout Mountain Educational Institutions" on Lookout 
Mountain, Tenn., established by Christopher R. Robert of New 
York, with the design of furnishing a loyal, Christian education 
to the white youth of the South, impoverished by the long war. 
From 1872 to 1875 he resided at Andover, Mass., engaged in 
theological study; was pastor of the Rockville Congregational 
church, Peabody, Mass., 1875-80, and at Mt. Vernon, N. H,, 
1880-85. He then retired from the active ministry, and has 
since resided at Andover, Mass. He was the first editor of the 
Andover Townsman, 1887-89, and since 1886, has been a con- 
tributing editor of the Congre<;aiionalist, writing in part over the 
non de plume of ''Mr. Martin." For ten years, 1890-1900, he 
has been the secretary of the alumni of Andover Theological 
Seminary, publishing its annual necrologies and address lists. 
He has also worked for several years on a biographical catalogue 
of the Phillips Academy, Andover. While in Essex County he 
he was a member of Essex Institute, Salem, and has been since 
1885 a resident member of the New England Historic Geneal- 
ogical Society. He received the honorary degree of A. M. from 
Hamilton College in 1869, and from Dartmouth College in 1887. 
Had: i. George Rice, b. Oct. 25, 1863, at Eskimo River, 
Labrador; fitted for college at Phillips Academy, Andover; 
graduated at Harvard University 1886, being assistant instructor 
in English, 1885-86; studied in Paris and Berlin, under a fel- 
lowship from the University, 1886-88; post-graduate student at 
Harvard, 1888-89; instructor in English there, 1889-90; asso- 
ciate professor of English, Massachusetts Institute of Technol- 
ogy, 1890-93; non-resident lecturer at VVellesley College, 1892- 
93; professor of Rhetoric and English Composition, Columbia 
University, New York, from 1893. Author of several text-books 


in English Grammar and Rhetoric; editor of "Translation of 
Dante's Fleven Letters," " Selections from Steele," "Selections 
from American Prose," "Longman's English Classics, etc.; m. 
Mary Seymour of New York City, June ii, 1890; one child. 2. 
Charles Lincoln, b. June 17, 1867, at Amherst, Mass.; fitted for 
college at McColIom Institute, Mt. Vernon, N. H.; graduated 
at Dartmouth College, Chandler Scientific Department, 1887, 
and at the Thayer School of Engineering, 1889; assistant engi- 
neer on Nicaragua Canal (chief of hydrographic party. Grey- 
town), 1889-91; Boston Board of Survey, 1891-98; connected 
with an exploring and mining expedition in Northern Alaska 
(the Koyukuk River) since 1898; m. Charlotte F. Sullivan of 
Wilkesbarre, Pa., Dec. 15, 1892; two children. 3. William 
Bancroft, b. Feb. 10, 1869, at Lookout Mountain, Tenn.; fitted 
for college at Phillips Academy, Andover; studied three years 
in Amherst College, and graduated at Harvard University, 1890, 
where he took a post-graduate year, 1890-91; instructor at 
Southboro (St. Mark's School) and Taunton; sub-master of 
high school, Woonsocket, R. L, 1893-1900; instructor in math- 
ematics, Mechanic Arts High School, Boston, from 1900; m. 
Katherine M. Hoyt of Newfane, Vt., Dec. 21, 1893; one child. 
4. Jane Brodie, b. Nov. 4, 187 1, at Lookout Mountain, Tenn.; 
fitted for college at Punchard High School and Abbot Academy, 
Andover; graduated at Mt. Holyoke College, 1897; assistant 
instructor in English there, 1897-1900; post graduate student 
at Teachers' College, Columbia University, 1900-01. 5. Miriam 
Feronia, b. Sept. 21, 188 1, at Mt. Vernon, N. H.; fitted for col- 
lege at Punchard High School, Andover; now in Mt. Holyoke 
College, class of 1903. 
viii. Sarah Alexander, b. Jan. 26, 1839; m. June 29, 1865, Henry 
Martyn McCloud, son of Lewis and Minerva (Slate) McCloud 
of Amhert, Mass., editor and printer; later, insurance and real 
estate agent. Had: i. Mary Carpenter, b. Nov. 28, 1867; d. 
Jan. 19, 1868. 2. Mabel, b. and d. Aug. 14, 1868. 3. Albert 
Carpenter, b. May 24, 1870; in business with his father; in. Edna 
A. Carter, Aug. 8, 1894. 

Carrier, AMOS^ (Kneeland' of Gill,) b. 1792 ; m. (i) Mary', dau. of 
Con.sider' Ctishman, Oct. 28, 1817. vShe was b. Nov. 5, 1799; 


d. Nov. 2, 1829. He m. (2) 1831, Mrs. Sarepta", widow of 
Stillman vSpurr, and dau. of Consider' Cushman. She was 
b. Feb. 19, 1795; d. Jan. 11, 1889. Mr. Carrier resided on 
South street, at the place now owned by his son-in-law, Mr. 
F. L. Burrows. Here he had a shoe-maker's shop which was 
located south of the house. He d. May 26, 1862. Children : 

i. Consider Cushman^, b. Jan. 17. 1818; d. Aug. 22, 1852. 
ii. Benjamin Nelson^, b. Sept. 29, 1819. 
iii. Delia Elmina^, b. Aug. 26, 1821; m. S. RusselF Hills, May 27, 

1845. She d. Nov. 6, 1891. 
iv. DwiGHT A.^, b. Nov. 10, 1823. 
V. Ralph A.^, b. Nov. i, 1827. 
vi. Mary C.^, b. Oct. 7, 1829; d. in Covington, Ky., July 12, 1850. 

By second wife: 
vii. George Albert^, d. Aug. 8, 1832, ae. 16 mos. 
viii. George Albert, 2nd.^, d. Jan. 25, 1834, ae. seven months, 
ix. Josephine S.^ b. Nov. 3, 1834; m. Frank L." Burrows, Nov. 28, 
1855. She d. Sept. 15, 1892. 

Catlin, John", (Joseph^ John^ John' of Wethersfield, Ct.,) b. 1704. 
He early entered the military service, attaining the rank of 
captain. Served under Captain Kellogg- in Father Rasle's 
War; was lieutenant of a company of snow-shoe men in 1743 ; 
in command of Fort Shirley from Dec. 10, 1747 to Apr. 3, 
1749 ; in the summer of 1749, was in command of a company 
above Northfield ; Sept. 13, 1757, he led a company of 52 men 
from Deerfield to Fort Massachusetts. In 1758 he was in 
command of the cordon of twelve forts extending from North- 
field to Pontoosuc on the West, with headquarters at Burk's 
Fort in Bernardston, where he d. Sept. 24, 1758. He m. 
June 15, 1727, Mary, dau. of Benjamin Munn. She d. Nov. 10, 
1763, ae. 58 years. Children: 

i. JoHN^, b. Aug. 8, 1727; d. Aug. 9, 1727. 
ii. Catherine^, b. Jan. 8, 1728-9; na. Jan. 10, 1750, Ebenezer Clapp 

of Northampton, 
iii. Rachael^, b. Sept. 9, 1730; m. June i, 1749, Abner Barnard of 

iv. Joseph^, b. Aug. 4, 1732; settled in Connecticut. 


V. Seth^, b. July i6, 1734; settled in Deerfield. 

vi. Mary\ b. Nov. 27, 1736; m. Oct. 5, 1758, John P. Bull. 

vii. Oliver*, b. Jan. 16, 1738-9. 

viii. Mercy*, b. Sept. 13, 1741; in. Dec. 11, 1765, Consider .Anns of 

ix. UoROTHY^ bap. Dec. 18, 1743; m. Dec. 29, 1763, Phineas iMunn. 

Chadwick, William. Went out as a minute man Apr. 19, 1775 ; 
was discharged from the service Aug. 12, 1777, having served 
several enlistments. 

Chamberlain, Eliezur, came to town from Durham, Ct., in i8o<S, 
lived in the log house on the Institute grounds two years, 
then built and removed to the house recently owned by his 
nephew, Samuel Atherton, between the library and town hall. 
He m. Content, dati. of Samuel Pickett. She d. June 27, 
1862, ae. 74. Had : 

i. Mary M., b. June, 1808; d. Apr. 5, 1878; unm. 

Chapin, Calebs The progenitor of those bearing this name in 
New England is believed to have been Dea. Samuel Chapin. 
who removed from Dorchester or Boston to Springfield in 
1642. He d. in Springfield, Nov. 1 1, 1675; had eight children. 
Of these, a son, Japhet^ was b. in 1642. He was twice mar- 
ried, settled in Chicopee, and was in the Falls Fight. His 
son, Thomas^ was one of the original grantees of the Falls 
Fight Township, but sold his right to his nephew, Caleb', 
the fifth child of his oldest brother, Samuel.^ 

1. Chapin, Caleb', (SamueP, Japhet', Samuel',) was b. May 29, 1701 ; 
m. Catherine Dickinson of Hatfield, Dec. 9, 1726. He re- 
moved from Springfield to his purchase of his Uncle Thomas'' 
right in this township, in or- about the year 1740, having 
then four living children. He was in the expedition against 
the French and Indians, and was killed in battle near Lake 
George, Sept., 1755, as heretofore described, during the 
French and Indian War. His wife d. July 16, 1791, ae. 86 

CHAPIN. 337 

years. He resided on the west side of South street, the house 
being back quite a distance from the road and between the 
farms of Messrs. Root and Barber. Children : 

i. Catherine'^ b. Oct. 27, 1727; d. Oct. 22, 1734. 
ii. Caleb^, b. Nov. 13, 1729; d. Sept. 17, 1734-5. 

2. iii. Joel*, b. Apr. 22, 1732. 

iv. Catherine^ b. May 2, 1734; m. Elias Sheldon of Northampton. 

3. V. Caleb^ b. July 2, 1736. 

vi. Hezekiah", b. Nov. 11, 1738; m. Eleanor Smith, who d. Nov. 28, 
1818, ae. 74 years. He was selectman and assessor 1779, 82, 83. 
He served in the French and Indian War in Col. VVhitcomb's 
Regiment, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., stationed at Colrain, Octo- 
ber 19, 1756, to Jan. 23, 1757. In the Revolutionary service he 
went out as private in Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. Saml. 
Williams' regiment of minute men, which marched Apr. 20, 1775. 
The latter part of his life his residence was in Guilford, Vt. 
He d. Mch. 24, 1820. Had: i. Catherine**, m. Feb. 14, 1795, 
Seth Shattuck; settled in Vermont. 2. Hezekiah*^, b. July 8, 
1779; m. Widow Lydia EUenwood, Dec. 5, 1810; d. May 30, 1862. 

3. Cynthia*. 4. Sally*. 5. Nelly«, m. in Guilford, Vt. Per- 
haps that Eleanor who m. Dec. 6, 1809, Henry Lawrence. 

vii. Daniel^ b. Sept. 30, 1741; m. Susanna Wells. He was tithing- 
man in 1772, surveyor of highways 1774-78, constable and col- 
lector 1780. Went out as a private May i, 1775, in Col. Asa 
Whitcomb's regiment, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co. He later re- 
sided in Leyden. Had: i. Hepzibah^ 2. Ruth*, m. twice, 
and had two sons who became Mormons. 3. Sabra", d. young. 

4. Daniel'^, d. in Leyden. 5. Ezra*, d. in Vermont. 6. Su- 
sanna*, m. Salem Baker; d. in 1852. 7. Calvin", resides in 
Black River Country, N. Y. 

viii. Hannah*, b. Sept. 21, 1744. 
ix. Submit*, b. 1747; d. 1815. t>^ J^TrJ--^. GWytf)^ 

4. X. Selah\ b. Aug. 18, 1750, in BurK Fort. 

2. Chapin, Lieut. Joel', (Caleb', SamueF, Japhet', vSamuel',) born 
Apr. 22, 1732, in Springfield; m. (i) Sarah Burk, who died 
Apr. 16, 1 78 1, ae. 40. His marriage intention with Widow 
Rhoda Scott of Winchester was recorded Dec. 26, 1790. He 
was selectman in 1771, also held other minor town offices. 


He had quite a military record, serving with his father in 
the French and Indian War, acquiring there the title of 
lieutenant. Dec. ii, 1755, to Oct. 18, 1756, he was out "to 
the westward" ; in Capt. Israel Williams' Co., stationed at 
Colrain, Oct. 19, 1756, to Jan. 23, 1757. His name appears on 
John Burk's enlistment roll ending Nov. 30, 1758. At the 
time of the Revolutionary War he was on the Committee of 
Inspection 1775, and of Inspection, Correspondence and 
Safety 1777 and 1780. He was out in active service as ser- 
geant in Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. Samuel Williams' 
regiment of minute-men, which marched iVpr. 20, 1775, three 
months, to Dec, 1786, at which time his mileage money for 
120 miles, at id., was 10 pounds, ir shillings. He d. Mch. 17, 
1803, according to his gravestone, or 1805, as given in the 
town records. Children : 

i. Joel", b. Sept. 7, 1763; m. June 14, 1797, Alice Penfield. He d. 
June 27, 1803; is buried in old cemetery. Had: i. William'', 
b. Feb. 20, 1798. 2. Henry", b. Oct. 20, 1799; d. Oct. 6, 1800. 
3. Joel, d. Aug. 17, 1803. 

ii. Eddy Eurke^, b. Jan. 30, 1765; m. Sept. 3, 1795, Ruth Parmenter 
of Bernardston or Sudbury. They resided in Guilford, Vt., 
where he d. Mch. 12, 1818. Had: 1. Sally Burk", b. June 29, 
1796; m. Oliver Bagg, Oct. 20, 1817. She d. Mch. 28, 1872. 
2. Sophia Parmenter', b. May 22, 1800; m. Charles Babcock 
of Guilford, Vt., where they resided. 
5. iii. Israel^, b. Apr. 23, 1767. 

iv. Solomon'', b. Dec. 27, 1769; m. about 1799, Rebecca Porter of 
Rhode Island. She d. Nov. 26, 1854, ae. 78. Resided in Guil- 
ford, Vt., where Mr. Chapin d. Feb. 9, 1822. 

V. Sarah'', b. Aug. 9, 1772; d. Sept. 15, 1777. 

vi. Thankful^, b. Nov. 11, 1774; m. Joel** Warner, Apr. 27, 1799; d. 

Apr. 5, 1812. 
vii. Oliver", b. Mch. 22, 1778; d. in 'I'homsbn, Ct. 
viii. Gratia", m. Joel Warner. 

3. Chapin, Caleb', (Caleb', SamueF, Japhet', Dea. Samuel',) b. July 2, 
1736 ; m. Rebecca^ dau. of Ezekier Bascom of Gill. She was 
bap Dec. 24, 1740; d. Feb. 14, 1825, ae. 84 years. His occu- 

CHAPIN. 339 

pation was making mill stones, laying stone and farming. 
After leaving his father's farm, where he spent a portion of 
his early manhood, he located on a farm around West Moun- 
tain, now owned by Mr. Pratt. He was selectman 1774, 81, 
91. He began his military career under Major Burke, his 
name appearing on the enlistment roll of the latter, ending 
Nov. 30, 1758. At the Revolution, he was Committee of Cor- 
respondence, Inspection and Safety for 1776, was in the ser- 
vice at Cambridge, and later made captain of the fourth Co., 
5th Reg., 2nd Brigade of the 4th Division of Militia, July i, 
1781. His captain's commission is still preserved in the 
family. He was captain of the military Co. in town, and 
went with the Hampshire troops under Gen. Shephard to 
Springfield at the time of the Shays Rebellion. He died 
Nov. 10. 1815. Children: 

6. i. Caleb*', b. Aug. 20, 1759, in Burk P'ort. 

ii. Rebecca^ b. Nov. 26, 1761; d. May 12, 1766. 

7. iii. Zalmuna^, b. Apr. 3, 1764. 

iv. Consider^, b. Aug. 26, 1766; resided Elk Creek, Tenn.; d. i860. 

V. Cyrenius^, b. Feb. 7, 1769; went as waiter to liis father in the 
Shays Rebellion. He m. Sylvia**, dau Elisha^ Burnhain, about 
1790. She d. Oct. I. 1863. He resided in Buffalo, N. Y., where 
he d. Feb. 20, 1838; was a physician and surgeon; in the war 
of I 81 2 was Col. of the militia; taken prisoner when Buffalo was 
taken by the British, but by great skill and daring, escaped with 
his men while being taken under a guard to Kingston ; was again 
taken prisoner, sent to xMontreal and kept nine months. He 
returned to find his home burned by the Indians in the destruc- 
tion of the town in 1813, and his family scattered. In 1818 he 
returned vyith his reunited family to Buffalo, and was reimbursed 
by the Government for the loss he had sustained. 

4. Chapin, Selah', (Caleb', Samuel^ Japhet^ Dea. Samuel',) b. in 
Burk Fort, Aug. 18, 1750; m. Oct. 15, 1772, Jerusha, dau. of 
Capt. Elisha Burnham. She was b. Mch. 27, 1752; d. June 30, 
1 8 17. He served in the Revolution two months at Cam- 
bridge ; was hayward 1775 ; surveyor of highways 1780 ; con- 
stable 1782. He d. May 30, 1830; resided in that part of the 
town set off as Levden. Children : 


i. Selah^, b. Sept. lo, 1773. 

ii. Abner^, b. July 22, 1775; m. and had four children, 
iii. Hannah^, b. Aug. 29, 1777; m. Apr. 29, 1798, Benjamin Green of 


V. Elisha\ b. May 24, 1782; m. (i) July 13, 1808, Ann Ward, who 
was b. Jan. 28, 1782; d. July 24, 1812; m. (2) Abigail Judd. 
He resided in Beaver Meadow, Leyden, where he was promi- 
nently connected with town affairs, being justice of the peace 
73 years; on the board of selectmen 13 terms; a member of the 
Legislature four years, and in 1820 assisting in the revision of 
the State Constitution. He d. June 23, 1835. Had: i. Den- 
nis^, b. June 10, 1809; grad. Amherst College, 1837; m. Annie 
R. Smith; resided in Vermont; was a minister. 2. Oliver', b. 
Feb. 12, 181 1; ni. June 13, 1843, Louisa Caroline', dau. James 
Coach* Root. x'\fter his death she resided several years in Ber- 
nardston, later with her nephew, Herman Root. Mr. Chapin 
was selectman of Leyden for 11 years. By second wife: 3. 
George'', b. Apr. 19, 1817. 4 Harriet^, b. Sept. 25, 1818; m. 
John E. Shattuck, Mch. 1845. 5. William'', b. May 22, 1820. 

vi. Abigail*, m. Solomon^ Allen of Leyden; d. Mch. 24, 1833. 

vii. Sylvia^ b. 1787; d. Jan. 20, 1794. 
viii. Manly*^, b. 1790; d. Apr. 10, 1800. 

ix. Lorenzo^, b. Jan. 20, 1793. 

X. Leonard B.", b. Apr. i, 1795. 

Chapin, Israel', (JoeP, Caleb', SamtieP, Japhef, Dea. Samuel',) 
b. Apr. 23, 1767 ; m. July 27, 1788, Esther Webster, (perhaps 
dau. of Stephen) of Bernardston. She d. June 11, 1810. He 
resided on the place now owned by Moses Nelson ; went by 
the name of " Col." although in what way the title was ac- 
quired is unknown. He d. either June 14, or July 30, 1837. 

i. Israel", b. Aug. 26, 1787. 

ii. Anah^, b. Nov. 17, 1788; m. Jeremiah Packer, Jr., June 23, 1818. 
iii. Otis', b. March 21, 1791. 

iv. Alpheus', b. Sept. 16, 1792; m. Nov. 14, 1816, Lovina H.^, widow 
of Horace Burk, and dau. of Lieut. Israel-' Hale. She d. Aug. 21, 


CHAPIN. 341 

Accordino^ to the Chapin genealogy there was also 
V. Eunice", b. 1805; m Silas G.'^ Fox; d. Dec. i, 1888. 

0. CnAPiN, Caleb', (Caleb', Caleb\ Samuel', Japhef , Dea. vSamuer,) 
b. Aug. 20, 1759, in Burk Fort, his parents having taken up 
their residence within the fort some time before because of 
the Indian wars then being waged, removing a year or two 
after his birth to a farm in the south part of the town. On 
account of feeble health in childhood, it was decided that he 
should become a physician. He was the second physician 
and the first native physician of the place, and his early edu- 
cation was obtained at the first school house erected in town, 
near the Zebina Newcomb store. He was subsequently a 
private pupil of the Rev. Job Wright, under whose instruc- 
tion he remained until he had mastered such English studies 
as were then taught. He acquired a knowledge of geometry 
and its application to surveying, and had pursued the study 
of Latin so far as was deemed necessary preparatory to the 
study of medicine. The latter he pursued with Dr. Todd of 
Northfield, and a physician in Whately. He began practis- 
ing in town about 1785, continuing it, and in connection with 
it, surveying, in his own and adjoining towns until 18 17, 
when he removed to Caledonia, N. Y., where he resided nine 
years, adding to the duties of his profession, those of post- 
master. He then returned to Bernardston, where he resided 
until his death, Nov. 28, 1839. He m. about Sept. 1786, Mary, 
dau. of Rev. Job Wright of Bernardston. She was b. Janu- 
ary 28, 1765, and d. July 10, 1827. His residence was at the 
corner of Depot and South streets, the place owned by the 
late Wright Chapin. In person he was tall and well propor- 
tioned, in manner courteous, which combined with attractive 
conversational powers, and in later years a fondness for re- 
lating the incidents and experiences of his early life, ren- 
dered him an agreeable member of society. He was gener- 
ous to a fault, and as a consequence, old age, after a life of 
remarkable activity found him with small pecuniary posses- 
sions. In politics he identified himself with the "Federal 
Party " and being of an ardent temperament and zealously 


advocating the principles of that party, in those times of 
bitter political controversy, he was frequently brought into 
discussions with his political opponents, the Democrats of 
that period. But he lived long enough to see that while 
there was much true and wise in both these parties, there was 
also some portion of error in each. He was a firm believer in 
the Christian religion, and he and his wife were for many 
years members of the Congregational church. He showed his 
interest in the town by making a survey and plan of the same, 
the latter being among the effects of the late Wright Chapin, 
his grandson. vSo far as is known it is the only complete plan 
of the town in existence. Recently c(^pies of this have been 
made. In making this survey he found many small trian- 
gular pieces of land, especially among the more moimtainous 
portions of the town, which in the original assignments were 
unappropriated. He, taking into consideration the fact that 
he was a direct descendant of one of the original proprietors, 
by a kind of "right of discovery " took up the land, no one 
raising objections. Children : 

9. i. Samuel Wright', b. Dec. 25, 1787. 

ii. Seth", b. Jan. 26, 1790; ni. Sylvia, dau. of Dr. Cyrenius® Chapin of 
Buffalo, N. Y. 

10. iii. Caleb', b. Aug. 18, 1792. 

iv. Gorham". b. Mch. 16, 1795; d. Oct. 15, 1841. He was a lawyer 

residing in Ohio. 
V. Marshall', b. Feb. 27, 1798; d. Dec. 26, 1838; was a physician 

residing in Detroit, Mich. 
vi. Dana", b. Aug. 22, 1800; removed to Penn., where he had a large 

vii. Horatio', b. June 16, 1803; was twice married; resided at South 

Bend, hid., where he was a bank cashier, 
viii. Jon W.^, b. Aug. 12, 1806; d. July 12, 1808. 
ix. Justin', b. Sept. 16, 1808; resided Greenfield, where he died .-Vu- 

gust 22, 1874. 

7. Chai'IN, Zalmuna", (Caleb', Caleb\ SamueF, Japhet', Dea. Sam- 

CHAl'IN. 343 

uel',) b. Apr. 3, 1764; tn. Lydia Wallis. She d. Nov. 15, 1835, 
ae. 70 years. He resided upon his farm around the moun- 
tain on place now owned by Mr. Pratt. He d. May 20, 1854. 
Children : 

11. i. Lucius', b. Sept. 23, 1792. 

ii. Marcus', b. Aug. 22, 1795; m. June 5, 1830, P.unice, dau. of John 
Bangs, and widow of Alvah Cushman of Bernardston. She d. 
Nov. 17, 1856, ae. 60 years. He was selectman for the years 
1858-59. He d. |an. 30, 1866. He lived around the mountain 
on the place now owned by A. F. \Vells. 

12. iii. Zalmon', b. June 18, 1798. 

iv. Isabel', b. June 25, 1801; res. Bern.; unm. ; d. Sept. 23, 1870. 
V. EzEKiEL^, b. Oct. 21, 1802; d. June 14, 1813. 
vi. Margaret', b. Mch. 30, 1805; d. Oct. 25, 1884; unm. 
vii. Lydia', b. Nov. 7, 1S07; d. June 14, 1818. 

S. Chapin, Otis', (Israel", Joel", Caleb', SamueP, Japhet', Dea. Sam- 
ueP,) b. Mch. 21, 1791; m. Elizabeth Stephen, Dec. 29, 1814. 
She d. Aug. 4, 1879, ^^- '^'^ years, 8 months, and was the last 
of the original members of the Baptist church as reorganized 
in 1814. He was a farmer residing on the place since owned 
by his son Albert, on the south part of Huckle Hill. He d. 
July 24, 1871. Children: 

i. Esther**, b. Dec. 8, 1815; m. 1849, Cyrus W.'^ Hale. She died 
June 10, 1893. 

ii. Margaret**, b. April, 1818; ni. De.xter G. Barnes of West Brook- 
field, May 31, 1843. 

iii. Gorham G.**, b. Jan. 26, 1821; d. Dec. 2, 1840. 

iv. Catherine E.*, b. Apr. 8, 1825. 

V. Tryphenia**, b. Apr. 10, 1827; m. April 22, 1851, Rodney R.^ Park. 

vi. Ezekiel M.**, b. July 27, 1829; d. Oct. 31, 1855. 

vii. HoYT Otis'*, b. July 21, 1831; d. Sept. 29, 1896, in So. Deerfield. 
viii. Martha A.**, b. Oct. 17, 1834; m. May 8, 1862, SamueF Aldrich. 

ix. Albert G.^ b. Oct. 12, 1839; m. Oct. 24, 1865, Mary Ann Clem- 
entine, dau. of Warren Osgood of Greenfield; m. (2) Amelia 
Miner. He owned and lived for many years on his father's 
place, then removed to Montague, where he made his home for 
a few years. The very last of his life he returned to town and 


bought the place on South street, built by L. Pierce Chapin and 
later owned by Walter Nichols. Several children. He died 
March 19, 1900. 

9., Samuel, Wright', (Caleb", Caleb', Caleb^ SamueP, 

Japhet^ Dea. Samuel',) b. Dec. 25, 1787; m. Apr. 10, 18 16, Me- 
linda Smith of Hadley. She was b. July 15, 1794 ; d. July 2, 
1872. He was by trade a stone cutter, residing' on the place 
later owned by his sons, vS. Wright and Curtis on South 
street. He was deacon in the Orthodox Congregational 
church ; d. Nov. 4, 185 i. Children : 

i. Samuel Wright*, b. Dec. 30, i8r6. He was a farmer, a man 
much interested in all that pertained to the early history of this 
place. He d. Dec. 31, 1893; unm. 
13. ii. Curtis^, b. April 4, 1818. 

iii. Elizabeth M.*, b. Aug. 22; d. Nov. 19, 1833. 

10. Chapin, Caleb', (Caleb\ Caleb\ Caleb\ SamueF, Japhet^, Dea. 

Samuel',) b. Aug. 18, 1792 ; m. Dec. 10. 18 16, Roxanny°, dau. 
of Joseph' Allen. She was b. July 20, 1798 ; d. Jan. 14, 1866. 
By trade he was a stone cutter. He resided the latter part 
of his life on a farm in the north part of Greenfield in the 
Lampblack district, but prior to that upon the place now 
owned by Henry Root. For many years he was deacon of 
the Unitarian church. Children : 

i. Eunice", b. Sept. 30, 1817; m. Jan. 16, 1859, Stephen P. Flagg 

of Wilmington, Vt. She d. Jan. 31, 1876. 
ii. John**, b. May 28, 1820; m. (i) Oct. 6, 1845, Charlotte V., dau. 
of Silas and Lucy Harmon of Bern., who d. Aug. 31, 1850; m. 
(2) Sept. 5, 1854, Julia E. Pierce. He resided in Greenfield, a 
farmer and stone cutter. He d. Apr. 23, 1892. Shed, at North 
New Salem, Mch. 7, 1901, ae. 80. Had: i. Charles E.**, born 
December i, 1847; <■'■ J"'"'^ 29, 1869. 2. Ralph H.'', b. .\ug 10. 
1850; d. Mch., 1893. By second wife: 3. Daughter, b. Sep- 
tember i; d. Sept. 9, 1856. 4. John P.^, b. June 25, 1862. 
iii. Horace**, b. Aug. 28, 1822; m. Aug. 23. 1849, Susan F. Wilder of 
Hingham. He resides in Lincoln, Neb. Had: i. Herbert A.\ 
b. June 6, 1851. 2. Helen VV.', b. Mch. 9, 1854. 3. Alice", 

CHAPIN. 345 

b. Nov. 3, 1856. 4. Walter F.', b. Nov. 27, 1861. 
14. iv. Frederick*, b. Oct. 5, 1824. 

V. Mary^, b. July 5. 1827; d. unm., May 31, 1894. 
vi. George*, b. Aug. 28, 1830; m. Aug., 1862, Lucy Munyan; resided 
Northampton. He d. Jan. 31, 1901. 

11. Chapin, Lucius', (Zalmuna', Caleb^ Caleb*, Samuel', Japhet', 
Dea. Samuel',) b. Sept. 23, 1792; m. Hannah, dau. of Isaac 
Barton of Bernardston. She d. Apr. 21, 1885, and was born 
Apr. 10, 1798. He was a machinist, tnillwright and carpen- 
ter ; d. June 12, 1878. The latter part of his life he lived on 
South street on the place now owned by Arthur Wells. 
Children : 

i. Lucius Pierce*, b. July 19, 1820; m. Martha L.**, dau. of Eras- 
tus^ Ryther, Sept. i, 1853. He was a carpenter by trade. For 
many years his residence was "around the mountain" now 
owned by Frank Putnam. He d. May 2. 1894. Mrs. Chapin 
m. (2) Dec. 6, 1900, Alfred M. Stratton. Had: i. George 
Dwight^, b. June 15, 1856; ni. (i) June 5. 1882, Belle C, dau. 
Thomas Metcalf of Northfield Farms. She d. July 21, 1890, 
ae. 31 years; m. (2) Oct. 14, 1897, Ella Sophia Potter of Bom- 
bay, N. Y. He resides in Springfield; is a traveling salesman 
for a lumber company. 

ii. Hannah Adeline*, b. Dec. 23, 1821; m. Richard H.* Hoyt, No- 
vember 28, 1844; d. in Greenfield, Feb. 15, 1892. 

iii. Harriet Lydia*, b. Oct. 15, 1823. For many years she success- 
fully carried on the business of dressmaking both in Greenfield 
and Bernardston; d. in Greenfield, Feb. 22, 1897. 

iv. Martha Amelia*, b. August 3, 1826; m. Jan. 7, 1852, Ezra L. 
Holton of West Northfield, where she resides. He d. Febru- 
ary 23, 1895. 

V. Norman, (twin) b. Nov. 7, 1828; m. Eufana Messenger of Penn. 
He resided in and d. in Pittston, Peon., Dec. 7, 1862. She m. 
(2) Mr. Marcy; res. Wilkes Barre, where she d. 187-. Had- i. 
Hattie J.^ b. Jan. 17, 1855; m. 187-, Bradford G. Crawford; 
res. Wilkes Barre, Penn. 2. Ella Norman^, b. March 17, 1863; 
m. Harry Posten of Wilkes Barre, where they reside. 

vi. Harmon, (twin) b. Nov. 7, 1828; d. Sept. 27, 1848. 

vii. Louisa Jane*, b. Dec. 18, 1831; m. (i) Edward K. Smith, by 


whom she had one child, Josie A., b. Apr. 19, i860; m. Frank 
E. Marsh, Jan. i, 1880. He d. Mch. 27, 1862; she m. (2) Sep- 
tember 18, 1867, Oscar C. Allen; res. Greenfield, 
viii. Is.abel'*, b. March 7, 1834; d. Sept. 20, 1835. 
ix. Son"*, (twin) b. and d. Feb. 7, 1836. 
X. Daughter"^, (twin) b. and d. Feb. 7, 1836. 
xi. Isaac Ward*, b. Feb. 7, 1838; d. Sept. 27, 1842. 

12. Chapin, Zalmon', (Zalmuna", Caleb', Caleb', SaraueP, Japbet', 

Dea. Samuel',) b. June 18, 1798 ; m. Clymene Eraerancy, dau. 
of Elihu Scott, Apr. 27, 1824; she d. Jan. 20, 1885, ae. 81 yrs. 
He resided "around the Mountain " on the place opposite the 
one owned by his son David ; d. Nov. 1 1, 1869. Children . 

15. i. Alanson*^, b. May i, 1825. 

ii. David**, b. Nov. 30, 1826; m. (i) Maria Chandler Vincent of Col- 
rain, Jan. 16, 1861. She died June i, 1862, ae. 2^ years; m. (2) 
Lucy Emily*, dau. of Sumner'^ Hale, Jan. 3, 1872. He owns 
the farm formerly his father's, 
iii. John**, b. Nov. 5, 1828; d. unm. April 18, 1869. 

iv. Philena*, b. Feb. 21, 1831; m. Ira Whitman of No. Adams, May 24, 
1869; res. Bernardston. 

v. Marietta**, b. March 9, 1835; resides Bernardston; unm. 

vi. Lvdia Eliza-, b. July 18, 1837; d. Sept. 21, 1849. 

13. Chapin, Curtis", (Samuel', Caleb", Caleb? Caleb', SamueP, 

Japhet', Dea. Samuel',) b. Apr. 4. 181 8; m. Janette H., dau. 
of John Nelson, Aug. 25, 1857. She resides on South street, 
Bernardston. Mr. Chapin was for many years deacon in the 
Orthodox Congregational church. He died March 28, 1875. 
Children : 

i. Homer Curtis', b. Nov. 24, 1858; m. Nov. 27, 1889, Nellie F. 
Cobleigh of Bernardston. He graduated from .\mherst College 
in 1881; then went to India, where he remained as a teacher 
for four years. He studied law in Minneapolis, Minn., practis- 
ing the same for a time in South Dakota. He is now resident 
of Florence, Mass., where he is engaged in newspaper work. 
Had: i. Bryant Francis'", b. December 24, 1890. 2. Mar- 
guerite'", b. July 7, 1892. 

CHAPIN. 347 

ii. Ida Rosanna^, b. March 14. 1869. Is a teacher residing in Bern. 
iii. Clifford Samuel**, b. Jan. 25, 1873. After graduating from the 
local schools, he has pursued his studies in New York, graduat- 
ing from the Bellevue Hospital Medical College in New York 
City, class of 1896, and from the City Hospital, Blackwell's 
Island, 1897; m. June 29, 1899, May Redfield, dau. \Vm. Wight 
of Bern.; res. Great Barringion. 

iv. Cora Janette", b. Sept. 12, 1866; d. Feb. 14, 1868. 

14. Chapin, Frederick", (Caleb', Caleb', Caleb', Caleb\ SamueP, 

Japhef', Dea. Satnuel',) b. Oct. 5, 1824; m. (i) Lizzie", dau. of 
William Eaton' Ryther, Mch. 12, 1863; she d. May 14, 1865; 
rn. (2) Hester Maria", dati. of Ruggles' Bagg, and widow of 
Field' Ciishman, Oct. 4, 1868. Mr. Chapin was a man of 
strong religious convictions, and for some thirty years the 
efficient superintendent of the Unitarian Sunday school. His 
residence was on South street, the old Allen place now owned 
by R. Harris. He d. Jan. 29, 1887. Mrs. Chapin resides in 
Somerville. Children : 

i. Charles Edwards", b. Aug. 8, 1869; m. June i, 1892, Annie E., 
dau. of Charles J. Sauer of Turners Falls; res. Greenfield; was 
a paper maker by occupation. He enlisted as sergeant in Co. L., 
2nd. Mass. Volunteers, for two years, April, 1898, in war with 
Spain; d. at Montauk Point, L. I., on his way home, Aug. 30, 
1898. He was a prominent member and officer of Mechanics 
Lodge F. and A. M., of Turners Falls. Had: i. Frederick 
Charles'*', b. Feb. 12, 1895. 2. Hester Rogers'", b. June 20, 

ii. Elizabeth Maria'-*, b. Sept. 9, 1870; graduated successively from 
Powers Institute, Northfield Seminary, and the special Latin 
course at Wellesley College; is now principal of the Pollard 
School in Billerica. 

iii. Frederick Field^, b. March 29, 1876; d. July 9, 1889. 

15. Chapin, Alansoin", (Zalmon', Zalmuna', Caleb', Caleb', vSamuel', 

Japhef, Dea. Samuel',) b. May i, 1825 ; m. Patience Lovina, 
dau. William Fox of Colrain. She d. Nov. 15,1893. They 
resided around West Mountain on the place now owned by 
Mr. Pratt. He d. Oct. 22, 1867. Children: 


i. Clarence', b. Sept., 1856; is dead. 

ii. John W.**, b. Jan. 28, 1859; m. Harriett E.**, dau. of Josiah 
GJ and Fidelia (Hale) Woods, 1880. She was b. April 7, 1862. 
Mr. Chapin resides at the village where he was selectman 1896- 
1897. He is engaged in the lumber and milling business; is a 
member of Republican Lodge F. and A. M. of (ireenfield. Had: 

1. Lucy F.'", b. Sept., 1882; m. July 4, 1901, Fred E. H. Allen. 

2. Evelyn'", b. Dec. 7, 1884. 3. Harry'", b. Feb. 27, j886. 
4. Warren'", b. April 1893; d. May 10, 1893. 

iii. Eliza M.^ b. April 15, 1861; m. Albert L. Wright, April 3, 1879; 

resides Beaver Meadow, Leyden. 
iv. Frank W.^, b. Oct. 26, 1862; d. Sept. 13, 1865. 
V. Maria**, m. William Wright; res. Bernardston. 
vi. Edgar", m. May 26, 1890, Etta, dau. Philo Sibley of Munroe 

Bridge; resides Bern.; Has: i. Blanche'". 

Chase, Loren P., b. about 1830; m. Jan. 5, 1858, Emma Stebbins 
of Bern. Mr. Chase- upon his coming to town settled in the 
Bald Mountain District near the old Rogers place, where he 
d. June 7, 1899. He was a veteran of the Civil War. A dau., 
Mary E., m. May 12, 1878. Edson C. Doolittle of Northfield. 
Other children. 

1. Chase, Rufus, the first of the name in town, is a descendant of 

Capt. Aquila Chase, and was b. June 10, 1784. He was a son 
of James Chase, who came from Conn, in 1766. The early 
home of this branch of the Chase family is supposed to be in 
Pomfret, Ct. Rufus Chase m. (i) Feb. 15, 181 5, Mirian, dau. 
of Dea. Ezekiel Gore. She was b. in Halifax, Vt., Feb. 9, 
1796. She d. Aug. 12, 1840. He m. (2) Mrs. Sylvia P. (Wil- 
lard), widow of Ezra^ Connable, Mch. 10, 1843. She d. Sep- 
tember 29, 1855 ; m. (3) Julia Munsell, Mch. 19, 1857. ^^e d. 
187-. Mr. Chase removed to Bernardston from Halifax, 
Vt., in 1829. He was selectman 1833-34-35-36-37 and 45. 
He d. Apr. 18, 1858. Children : 

2. i. Sanford Plumb^, b. July 14, 1817. 

ii. Rufus Dudley'', b. in Halifa.x, Vt., Mch. 27, 1823; graduated 
Dartmouth College, 1845; m. (i) July 8, 1858, Catherine O., 


dau. John Putnam; (2) Jan. 18, 1886, Mrs. Sophronia W. (Carll) 
Thompson. He became a prominent lawyer of Orange, Mass., 
where he d. May 10, 1891, and where his family now reside. 

iii. AzEL Utley^, b. also March 27, 1823; m. March 17. 1853, Lucy 
Maynard, dau. of Andrew A. Rawson. Mr. Chase resided in 
Brattleboro, Vt., several years after his marriage, later owned 
the present Myron Corbett place at North Bernardston, where 
he died Jan. 24, 1880. Before his marriage Mr. Chase was for 
many years one of the last of the old time stage drivers between 
Greenfield and Brattleboro. Mrs. Chase resides at the village. 
.She has always been actively interested in educational work. 
Her early life was spent as a teacher in Maryland. After her 
return North she had a private school in North Bernardston and 
later successfully conducted a school for young ladies at Brattle- 
boro, Vt. Since coming to Bernardston she has rendered good 
service as a member of the school board; is the local corre- 
spondent of the Gazette and Courier. 

iv. Mary Eliza^, b. July 16, 1828; d. May 5. 1845. 

3. Chase, Sanford, Plumb', (Rufus', James',) b. July 14, 1817; m. 
Apr. 20, 1843, Ophelia M., dau. of Isaac Barton. She was b. 
Oct. 15, 1821 ; d. Sept. 2, 1858. He resided at the old Chase 
Tavern, being engaged in fanning, and later became well 
known throughout Franklin Co. as agent for various agri- 
cultural implements. He d. Mch. 8, 1879. Children: 

i. Mary Eliza^, b. March 28, 1845; m. Newton C. Phillips, Mch. 28, 

1 866. They reside in Killingly, Ct. 
ii. Fred Barton^, b. Sept. 29, 1854; m. Sept. i, 1885, Lucy L., dau. 

of Josiah Gleason of Marlboro. They reside on the old Dea. 

Snow farm just east of the village. Had: i. Burton F.**, b. 

April 14, 1889; d. Jan. i, 1890. 2. Bertha E.^ b. also Apr. 14, 


Clark, Anna, mar. intention recorded Oct. 5, 181 1, with Tartus 
Ballard of Gill. 

Clark, Daniel, m. Fanny . Had : 

i. George, b. Nov. 6, 1843. 


Clark, Matilda, mar. intention recorded Aug. 5, 1822, with Henry 
Williams of Bernardston. She d. Sept. i, 1823, ae. 20 years. 
He. m. Nov. 29, 1823, for a second wife Thankful Clark of 

Clark, Samuel, b. Oct. 27, 1777, in Medfield ; settled in Vernon, 
Vt. ; m. Dec. 15, 1806, Rachael Stone, who was b. Nov. 19, 
1782, in Thompson, Ct. He d. July 29, 1858. Among his 
children were : 

I. i. Justice, b. Oct. i, 1817. 

ii. Wyman, b. Jiily 21, 1820; m. Sarah Blanchard of Marlboro, Vt. 
He d. Oct. 22, 1869. 
iii. Noah, b. Nov. 24, 1826; m. Phoebe Varney of Vt.; d. March 20, 
1876. These all settled in Bernardston. 

1. Clark, Justice, m. Cecelia L. (Stoddard), widow of Gardner Oaks. 
She d. Sept. 25, 1891. He resides on Huckle Hill on the 
George Parmenter place. Children : 

i. Solomon J., b. Feb. 21, 1847; d. Sept. 12, 1848. 

ii. Henry M., b. June 28, 1848; m. (i) Mary E. Nash of Warwick, 
1870; m. (2) Jan. 7, 1892, Alta C. Wheeler of Vernon, Vt. He 
res. with his father on Huckle Hill. Has: i. Julius H., born 
Nov. 9; d. Nov. 23, 1877. 2. Terry J., b. Jan. 22, 1877. 3. 
Newman H., b. Nov. 7, 1882. 4. Alta C, born Jan. 16, 1895. 

iii. Charles .M., born April 28, 1851; m. Mary L. Fairman of Ber- 
nardston, Aug. 27, 1873; resides Huckle Hill on the Guy Sev- 
erance place. Has: i. Lila May. 2. Ralph N. 3. Net- 
tie B. 4. Delia V. 5. Walter A. 6. Harry. 

Clark, Wilkins B., (Joel, Alexander who served in the Revolu- 
tion) b. in Shelburne, where he m. Catherine F., dau. of John 
and grand-daughter of Lieut. John Stewart of East Shel- 
burne, whose grand-father saw Revolutionary ser- 
vice. Wilkins B. Clark was an only son; two sisters removed 
West. He came to Bern, in or about 1836, settling in the 
east part of the town near the "Purple Meadow." He died 
Jan. 27, 1877. She d. Apr. 25, 1889. ae. 92 yrs., three months. 
Children : 


i. Catherine F., b. Jan., 1823; m. D. W. Temple, April 18, 1838. 
She died Oct. 30, 1875. 

ii. Charlotte F., m. George Keith of Greenfield, where she d. 

iii. Caroline A., b. July 15, 1828; m. March 8, 1849, Lorenzo'' Park; 

res. Hinsdale, N. H. 
iv. Dexter \V., b. April 12, 1834; m. Fannie Langdon of Torring- 
ton, Ct., where they reside. 
V. Isabel A., b. Sept. 24, 1837; m. Lucius VV. Cook, formerly of 

Bern. They now reside in Orlando, Fla. 
vi. J. Darwin, b. A|-)ril 12, 1844; m. April 8, 1867, Minnie, dau. of 
Austin T. Saunders of Montpelier, Vt. They reside on Huckle 
Hill on the "old Elias Parmenter Place." Had: i. Henry D., 
b. Sept. 30, 1868. 2. Earnest W., b. Sept. 24. 187 i. 3. Isa- 
bella, b. Sept. 30, 1878. 

Clogston, Henry Ward', (Wiliiatn H/, John Glasford', William^ 
John', who was b. in vScotland in 1741,) b. in Springfield, 
Mass., June 22, 1859. His ancestor, John', m. in 1765 in Lon- 
donderry, N. H., Anna Glasford, also a native of Scotland. She 
d. in Marietta, O., he in Goffstown, N. H. He saw Revolu- 
tionary service, being in the battle of Bunker Hill. John 
Glasford^ who tn. Eunice Roberts, and d. in Tunbridge, Vt., 
was a veteran of the War of 1812. The father, William H.\ 
was b. in Tunbridge, Vt., July 15, 1831 ; m. Sarah Elizabeth 
Poor of Robinson, Me., July 4, 1852. He was for many years 
connected with the Powers Paper Co. of Holyoke. Always 
fond of books, he has become an expert in the matter of col- 
lecting rare and quaint volumes and manuscripts. 

Clogston, Henry, Ward', m. at Tunbridge, Vt., Sept. 12, 1881, 
Eva L., dau. of Freeman and Jane O. Ross of Northfield, 
Vt. He came hither from vSpringfield, purchasing the farm 
formerly owned by R. H. Hoyt and later by Hiram Deane 
on Burke Flat. Like his father, he is much interested in 
books, of an historical nature especially, and has devoted 
many years study to the compilation of his family genealogy. 
Children : 

i. William Henry'', b. in Kern. July 3, 1882. 


Coats, Charles, came to this town from Deerfield, locating' upon 
the so called "Thompson Farm " just north of Burk Flat. 
He was of Deerfield in 1744, and was a soldier in both French 

and Indian Wars. He m. Thankful , who d. Sept. 22, 

1822. Nov. 28, 1762, he sold to George Lyons, a weaver of 
Bern., for £6, fifty acres which was a part of a tract pur- 
chased of Col. Timothy Dwight's lot, No. 180, in the third 
division, and which was bounded south by the country road. 
October 19, 1756, to January 23, 1757, he was stationed at Col- 
rain in Capt. Israel Williams' Co. His name appears on John 
Burk's roll ending Nov. 30, 1758; in Israel William's Co., 
Dec. II, 1755 to Oct. 18, 1756, "scouting to the Westward." 
Children : 

i. Miriam^, b. Feb. 14, 1749. 

ii. Charles', b. Apr. 20, 1751; d. Dec. 16, 1823. 

ill. Esther^, b. Mch. 26, 1753. 

iv. Simeon^, bap. Feb. 11, 1759; served during the Revolution six 
different enUstments from Sept. i, 1776, to 1780, being stationed 
the most of the time at Ticonderoga and in the northern army 
and campaigns. 
V. (Probably) P^lizabeth^, m. Benjamin Green; d. ae. 38 years. 

vi. (Probably) John^. He served four enlistments in the Revolu- 
tion, seeing service from xApril 19, 1775, until Jan., 1778. For 
100 days he was at Ticonderoga. 

vii. Reuben'', enlisted for one year, and date not given, into the Con- 
tinental Army from Capt. Amasa Sheldon's Hampshire Co. reg. 

The following are more or less nearly connected with the 
family : 

Charles Henry, b. in Bern., July 16, 1814; was a farmer; d. in 

Woodstock, 111., leaving a family of five children. 
David, b. Mch. i, 1788; m. Elizabeth^, dau. John^ Connable, Jan- 
uary 12, 1810; d. in Wisconsin. 
Charles Jr., brother of David, m. Mch. 22, 1813, Prudence'"', dau. 
John* Connable. She died July 18, 1815, ae. 19. He d. in Ohio. 

CONNABLE. Those of this name who have resided in town are de- 
scended from John Connabell, the emigrant ancestor who 
came to this country from London, England, in 1764, to Bos- 


ton, where he resided until his death in 1724. He was a 
member of Capt. Turner's Co., and for his services he re- 
ceived the sura of £2 4s. 6d. His grant in the Falls Fight 
township was heired by his son Samuel", his oldest son, John", 
having- d. in 1705. Mr. Connabell did not settle in Fall 
Town, but in June, 1730, gave his son Samuel' the power of 
attorney to protect and look after his interests there. Two 
of his children settled in town, Samuer\ who was baptized 
Apr. 7, 1717, and Sarah', b. Feb. 22. 1718-19, wife of James 
Couch. Another dau., Elizabeth^ made it her home here 
with Samuel after the death of her husband, John Lee, and 
was, at her decease, buried here in the old cemetery. The 
youngest child, Hannalr', b. Oct. 13, 1729, m. (i) James Max- 
well, May 18, 1749. After his decease she removed about 
the time of the blockade of Boston, to Bern., where she m. 
(2) Michael' Frizzle, and resided on "Frizzle Hill," where 
she d. She had six children by her first husband. 

L CONNABLE, Samuel', (Samuel-, John',) b. in Boston and bapt. at 
the Old North Church, Apr. 7, 171 7; m. in New Haven, Ct., 
about 1740, Mary, dau. of Benjamin and Rebecca (Brown) 
English. According to tradition they set out for their new 
home in Fall Town immediately after their marriage, riding 
the same horse, and carrying their household goods. In 
this tnanner did they make the entire trip to town. She d. 
Dec. 29, 1 79 1, ae. 76 years. Mr. Connable was one of the 
first settlers in town. The meeting house which he built 
was the first framed building in town, and according to the 
Connable genealogy, his house was the second dwelling. 
He built the first bridge in town in 1741 over Fall River, 
another in 1750, one in 1760 over the river at the saw mill. 
1784, it was voted "'that a bridge be built by Mr. Samuel 
Connabell's Old Saw Mill." He served as private Apr. 20, to 
May i, 1775, also went out July 10, to Aug. 12, 1777, in an 
expedition in the northern department, receiving i6s. 8d. for 
100 miles travel, and ^i 5s. 4d. for time. Mr. Connable held 
various town offices. As heir of his father and by agree- 
ment with his brothers and sisters, he received about 230 


acres of land in Fall Town, which amount he subsequently 
increased by purchase. A part of the house built by Mr. 
Connable in 1739 is still standing, as is also a large addition 
to it built many years before the Revolution, both in a good 
state of preservation. This is the place owned by the late 
Madison Ryther in North Bernardston. The farm and house 
have been owned by son John', and grandsons Joseph' and 
SamueP, since then by Hannibal Hadley, Elbridge Wheeler, 
Frank Temple, Laroy Cutler, a Mr. Look. It contains a unique 
feature in the way of a trap for rats built into the partitions, 
and shows the ingenuity of the builder. At the time of the 
building of the fort in 1739 there was no road or travel be- 
yond his home. The old shingles and clapboards were se- 
cured with wrought nails made upon the anvil of a neigh- 
boring blacksmith. At the time of the blockade in Boston, 
Mr. Connable went there and brought back his sisters, Mrs. 
Lee, and Mrs. Maxwell and her four children. That year it 
was judged that he raised a double crop of grain. This was 
noticed by the people and it was generally believed that 
Providence had thus rewarded him for his care of his sisters. 
He d. Dec. 3, 1796. Children: 

2. 1. Samuel*, b. Nov. 11, 1743. 

ii. Mary*, b. about 1747. After the death of her father, she lived 
with the family of her brother John*, and after his decease in 
1813, with his son Joseph^, occupying as her own the south 
lower room of her father's house, the use of which was given 
her by her father's will "so long as she shall live single, or be 
disposed to reside at my house." She always lived in the same 
house in which she was born, and died unmarried, Apr. i, 1S21. 
She was a remarkably ingenious, enterprising and industrious 
woman. It is a well known fact that her suggestions to her 
brother Samuel respecting the best methods of moving the 
meeting house in 1773 were adopted by him. She constructed 
a waterwheel near the house by which she could spin five "run " 
of linen in one day. She was one of the school teachers of Ber- 
nardston. Sept. 29, 1774, the town paid her ^i 15s. "for keep- 
ing school." 

3 iii. John'', b. 1749. 


iv. Sarah*, born in Sunderland May, 1751; m. (i) May 6, 1773, 
Hophni'* Ryther; (2) Ingraham; d. 1804. 

V. Rebecca"*, b. 1755; m. Ezra''' Shattuck, Jan. 22, 1778; res. Beaver 
Meadow, Leyden; d. Mch. i, 1816. 

vi. Elizabeth'', b. about 1757; m. William*' Newcomb in 1779; died 
Nov. 14, 1821. 

vii. Phoebe'*, b. about 1760; d. young. 

2. CoNNABLE, Samuel*, (SamueP, SamueP, John',) b. Nov. 11, 1743; 
m. Nov. 13, 1770, Rebecca', dau. of Lieut. David'' Ryther. 
She was b. May 23, 1753; m. (2) Judge John Bridgman of 
Hinsdale, N. H., to whom she was published Feb. 24, 1799. 
She d. in Bern., Apr. 20, 1837. Mr. Connable resided on the 
Myron Corbett place, it being the farm adjoining his fath- 
er's on the north. From 1770 on he held various town of- 
fices, in 1783 being town treasurer; in 1789-90, he was 
employed by the town in building bridges. He d. instantan- 
eously Apr. 29, 1794. Children: 

i. Anna^ b. July 30, 1772; m. Nehemiah Wright, June 5, 1794; d. 
June 16, 1853. 

ii. Eunice^ b. Jan. 27, 1774; m. Nov. 19, 1793, Dr. Simon Stevens 
of Guilford, Vt., where she d. Nov. 30, 1797. 

iii. Jonathan", b. Aug. 13, 1776; m. Oct. 22, 1801, Asenath Wright 
of Easthampton; she died Dec. 13, 1839. Mr. Connable for 
many years had the title of captain, being captain of the militia. 
His homestead is now owned by his grandson, Abbott C. Brown, 
where he long kept a hotel. In 1816 and 1818 he was one of a 
committee to build bridges; in 182 1 he was on the school com- 
mittee. He d. Jan. 5, 1841. Had: i. Rebecca Louisa®, b. 
June 13, 1803; m. Isaac^ Burrows, Oct. 30, 1821; d. April 6, 
1874. 2. Edwin Wright\ b. March 27, 1805; drowned June 3, 
1807. 3. Edwin Wright**, b. May 25, 1807; d. Apr. 23, 1833, 
unm. 4. Samuel Lorenzo**, b. June 8, 1809; d. Dec. 29, 1823. 

5. Mary Asenath*. b. May 27, 1812; m. (i) Feb. 24, 1830, Ben- 
jamin H. Carleton; (2) Dr. Isaac Jencks; (3) Daniel Joslyn. 

6. Eunice Emeline'^, b. July 2, 1814; m. Imla Keep Brown, 
March 27, 1838. 7. Laura Clarissa®, b. Feb. 14, 1817; m. 


Charles Pomeroy, Aug. 28, 1844; resided in Northfield; died 
Mch. 19, 1900. 8. Jane Amanda^, b. Sept. 15, 1819; d. Au- 
gust 7, 1829. 
4. iv. EzRA^, b. Nov. 12, 1779. 

V. Amelia^, b. Dec. 29, 1781; m. Ebenezer Sereno Field about 1800; 

resided in Gill; d. Aug. 15, 1831. 
vi. Caroline", b. June 24, 1784; m. William Felton, Dec. 27, 1806; 

res. in Franklin, Vt.; her oldest dau., Eunice, m. Otis Warner, 
vii. Rebecca^ b. July 22, 1787; d. Aug. 17, 1800. 

3. CONNABLE, John', (vSamueP, Samuel', John',) born 1749; m. (i) 
about 1779, in Guilford, Vt., Amy Edwards. She d. July 7, 
1785; m. (2) in Leyden Nov. 8, 1786, Sarah Dewey; shed. 
Oct. 25, 1806, ae. 36; m. (3) Mrs. Abigail Cong-don of Hadley, 
who survived him. Mr. Connable was chosen to various 
town offices; Committee of Inspection 1775. Reference is 
made to him as "Ensign John Connable," and it is likely 
that he served as ensign in the Revolution. He was private 
from Apr. 20 to May i, 1775, in Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co. ; 
July 10, to Aug. 12, 1777, in Capt. Amasa Sheldon's Co., Col. 
Elisha Porter's Reg., on an expedition to the northward ; 
Sept. 23 to Oct. 18, 1777, in Capt. Joseph Stebbins' Co., Col. 
David Wells' Co., on an expedition in the northern depart- 
ment; Mch. 25, 1779, he was chosen chairman of Committee 
of Safety and Correspondence. Mch. 14, 1773, he bought 
of his father for ^"40, six acres. Lot No. 69, 2nd divi- 
sion, a five-acre lot No. 52, lying near the east branch of 
Fall River, originally drawn by John Ingrahara ; 50 acres, 
lot No. 92, 3rd division, together with one-third part of the 
sawmill standing on the premises, one-half of mill pond and 
mill yard. He d. Aug. 26, 181 3. Children: 
i. Philenda\ b. Jan. 29, 1781; m. William R. Eddy about 1804; d. 

in Concord, Ohio, June 10, 1841. 
ii. Joseph^ b. Nov. 2, 1782; m. Polly Maxwell of Ouilford, Vt., De- 
cember 4, 181 1 ; removed Xenia, O. 
ill. Amv^, b. Sept. 23, 1784; m. Richard W. Allen, May 18, 1806. 

By second wife: 
iv. Sarah', b. 1787; m. Ebenezer Carpenter about 1807; d. in Wind- 
sor, Vt., about 1 813. 


V. David^, b. June 2, 1789. 

vi. Elizabeth^, b. Dec. 17, 1790; m. David Coats, Jan. 12, 1810. 
vii. Mary^, b. July 18, 1793; m. Zebina Carpenter July 30, 1817. 
viii. Lydia^, b. April 23, 1795; m. Obed Gaines, Sept. 28, 1815. 

ix. Prudence^ b. Jan. 22, 1797; m. Charles Coats, Jr., March 22, 

1813; she d. July 18, 1815. 
X. Lucy*, b. May 27, 1799; m. Mansier Thomas, May 16, 1828. 

xi. Ann'\ b. Oct. 2, 1801; m. John Kenny, Aug. 26, 1819. 

xii. JoHN^, b. Oct. 16, 1803; m. Eleanor Millerd, Dec. 27, 1832. 
xiii. Samuel^, b. Nov. 16, 1805; m. Oct. 18, 1837, Susan, dau. Timothy 
Martin. She d. Nov. 8, 1889, ae. 76 years. In the summer of 
1829 he was codfishing off the Labrador coast. In 1837 he 
bought his father's farm, the same upon which his grandfather 
settled about 17^9. This he sold to Mr. Hadley and took up 
his residence nearly opposite theschoolhouse, where he d.June 21, 
1890. For many years he had a cider distillery at North Ber- 
nardston. Had: i. Celestia Edwards^ b. July 10, 1838; d. 
July 14, 1861; unm, 2. Son", b. Sept. 15; d. Sept. 20, 1839. 3. 
Susan Jane^ b. Apr. 7, 1842; m. March 17, 1863, S. A. Sawyer 
of Peru, Vt. 4. Dwight Norris*', b. Aug. 21, 1843; m. Almeda 
Betsey Coon, Jan. i, 1878; res. Wayne, Neb; one dau. 5. Sarah 
Dewey", b. March 22, 1845; m. Sahiuel Stiles of Peru, Vt., 
Sept. 21, 1864; she d. in 1877. 6. Abby Bontecou^ b. Feb. 26, 
1847; m. Charles Hosley of Gill. Sept. 12, 1871. 7. Mary Ann 
Ashbury**, b. Aug. 13, 1849; m. Henry A. Bagg, Sept. 19, 1877; 
d. Feb. 25. 1899. 8. Harriet Augusta^ b. July 18, 185 1; m. 
June 19, 1878, Samuel Stiles, her deceased sister's husband. 

4. CoNNABLE, Ezra', (Samuer, SamueP, Samuer, John',) b. Nov. 12, 
1779. He always resided in the house in which he died, 
Mch. 31, 1840, and which was sold to Zenas Cutler. He was 
published with Abigail Stevens of Warwick, Oct. 22, 1808. 
She d. Oct. 23, 1812; published Apr. 16, 1814, with Mary Den- 
nison of Leyden ; she d. Nov. 7, 1836; m. (3) Sept. 3, 1838, 
Mrs. Sylvia P. Willard of Swanzey, N. H. She m. (3) Rufus 
Chase, Mch. 10, 1843; ^- Sept. 29, 1855. His farm is now 
owned by Mr. Myron Corbett. Mr. Connable served the 
town as school committee and surveyor of highways. 


i. Caroline Abby^, b. Jan. 5, 1810; m. Dr. A. R. Sabin. 
ii. Elbert Lee", b. Aug. 10, 181 1. 

iii. Charles Dennison^, b. March i, 1815; d. Aug. 21, 1818. 
iv. Mary Ann Dennison*, b. May 26, 181 7; m. Rev. Ashbury Low, 

Sept. 5, 1842. 
V. Elizabeth Frances", b. Apr. 27, 1819; rn. Nathan Hornaday, 

July 18, 1848. 
vi. Augusta Sophronia", b. Oct. 7, 1823; m. (i) George Wheeler, 
March, 1840; (2) Alexander B. Fulton, Nov. 20, 1853. 
5. vii. Samuel Charles", b. Jan. 3. 1826. 

5. CONNABLE, Samuel', (Ezra'. Samuer, Samuel', Samue?, John',) 
b. Jan. 3, 1826; is a carpenter and farmer; m. Oct. 6, 1848, 
Eunice Amanda, dau. Daniel and Martha Brooks. She was 
b. in Gill, Sept. 12, 1827 ; d. Sept. 20, 1886 ; m. (2) Mrs. Mat- 
tie B. Harris, Apr. 8, 1893. Resides in Gill near the factory 
of E. S. Hurlbert & Co. Children : 

i. Hollis Ezra', b. Aug. 19, 1849; d. Aug. 7, 1851. 

ii. Hollis Ezra", b. Aug. 6, 1852; m. May 22, 1878, Emma Jane, 
dau. Elihu C. Osgood of Greenfield. They reside in Greenfield, 
where he follows the trade of shoe trimmer; former occupation 
that of a carpenter. Had: i. Charles Elihu^, b. Mch. 9, 1879. 
2. Mary Brooks**, b. Aug. 3, 1880. 3. Edna Osgood", born 
March 13, 1882. 4. Hollis Ezra^ b. July 3, 1884. 5. Walter 
Dennison*, (twin) b. Nov. 29, 1887. 6. William Crreen*, (twin) 
b. Nov. 29, 1887. 7. Ruth*, b. May 15, 1892. 8. Emma^ b. 
Apr. 23, 1894. 

iii. Daniel Brooks'", b. May 27, 1854; d. July 24, 1859. 

iv. Mary Dennison', b. May 23, 1861; d. Dec. 28, 1861. 
V. Kate Allen^, b. Dec. 29, 1862; d. Apr. 15, 1864. 

vi. Samuel Wright^, b. Dec. 6, 1864; d. Jan. 15, 1892. 

vii. Willie Severance", b. Oct. 20, 1867; d. Dec. i, 1887. 
viii. Charles'', b. July 25, 1872; d. Aug. 15, 1872. 

Cook, Benjamin, b. about 1736, served for the town of Bernardston 
two or three terms in the Revolutionary service. Was dis- 
charged from the service in 1780. 

Cook, C. O., came from Turners Falls about 1890-94, purchasing 
the wheelwright business carried on by the late Nelson 


Blake, which he successfully conducts. He resides on the 
place owned by the late George Green. Has been twice 
married. A dau. married Marshall F. Whithed. 

CooLEY, Oliver, was a trader and inn-holder. He was early of 
this place, where the births of some of his children are re- 
corded. He removed to Deerfield about 1806, purchasing 
there the old tavern lot; m. (i) Jemima, dau. of Eleazer 
Wells. Their intention was published May 25, 1794 ; she d. 
June 5, 1820 ; m. (2) Hannah, dau. Eliakim Field, and widow 
of Samuel Grimes of Whately. His store was where the late 
Hartley Hale resided. He was selectman in 1808. Children: 

i. Jemima Harriet^, b. Mch. 22, 1795; m. May 24, 1814, Jackson 
Dickinson; (2) Judge Frederick Allen of Boston, Feb. 26, 1829. 

ii. Rodney Oliver'^, b. Nov. 24, 1805. 

iii. Charlotte Augusta^ m. June 5, 1828, Cyrus W. Clark of Tur- 
ner, Me. 

iv. Lucinde Eliza2, 5 Sept. 21, 1796; rn. Sept. 5, 1825, George Dick- 

V. George^, b. July 28, 1810; was a lawyer in Maine. 

vi. Mary^, b. June 6, 1818. 

COOLIDGE, JosiAH, was oue of the early inhabitants, being sur- 
veyor of highways here in the year 1776. 

CooLiDGE, Daniel, was warden in 1781. 

1. CORBETT, Moses, Sr., b. 1769, came here from Wilmington, Vt., 
to live with his son Joseph; m. Polly Loomis. She d. Mch. 19, 
1838, ae. 64 years. He died in Hartsville, N. Y., Jan. 8, 1853, 
ae. 84. He resided on what is known as the Bellows place 
on the old Leyden road, selling the same to John Lyons of 
Greenfield upon his removal from town with his son Joseph. 
Children : 

i. Joseph^, m. Jane Babcock of Leyden. He came here from Wil- 
miogton, Vt., settling on the "Bellows Place" on the old road 
to Leyden. As his wife was a Leyden woman, and the births 
of his children are here recorded, it is probable that he came 


here prior to 1820. With his family he removed West. Had: 
I. Jane^, b. Sept. 10, 1818. 2. Joseph B.^, b. Oct. 18, 1820. 
3. James W.^^ b. Feb. 27, 1823; settled in Illinois. 4. Nancy^, 
b- July 3, 1827. 5. George R.^, b. Dec. 31, 1830. 6, David 
C.^, b. Jan. 12, 1834. 7. Darius C.'', b. Jan. 12, 1834. These 
last two probably removed to California in the early fifties. 8. 
Mary Eliza^, b. Dec. 21, 1838. 
ii. JosiAH^. 

iii. Sally^. 

Iv. LuciNDA^, m. Blodgett; res. Wilmington. Vt. 

2. V. MosES^, b. Feb. 4, 1812. 

2. CoRBETT, Moses', (Moses',) b. Feb. 4, 1812; m. Betsey Carpenter 
of Rowe, Mass., Sept., 1839. She d. Jan. i, 1875, ae. 55 years. 
They resided in the south-east part of Guilford, on the road 
leading to the Sol. Andrews place. The last of his life he 
resided with and d. at his son Myron's. Children: 

i. Lizzie A.^, b. Sept., 1840; m. June, 1859, S. P. Sherwin; residence, 

ii. Theresa P.^, b. Sept., 1842; m. H. C. Ingraham; res. West Spring- 

iii. Myron L.^, b. Oct. 28, 1844; m. Mch. 19, 1867, Mary S., dau. of 
Hiram Johnson of Vernon, Vt. Mr. Corbett served in the Civil 
War, enlisting as a private in Co. K, 9th Vt. Vol., June, 1862. In 
spring of 1864 was promoted to corporal, and the succeeding fall, 
to the ofifice of sergeant; was mustered out of service June, 1865. 
In July, 1882. he came to town from Brattleboro, Vt., purchasing 
the old Connable place, later owned by Zenas Cutler, afterward 
by A. U. Chase, at North Bernardston, his present home. In 
1886 he was chosen selectman, and has served in that capacity 
for eleven years. In 1891 he went as representative from the 
ist Franklin Co. district. He is an active member of the 
Baptist church. Had: i. Cora E., m. Mr. Eastman. 2. 
Daughter, d. Dec. 25, 1881. 

iv. Jerome'^, m. Rose Corey of Wardsboro, Vt. ; res. West Springfield. 

V. Clarence C.^, m. Mary E. Ground; is a dentist residing in Ed- 
wardsville. 111. 

vi. David C, m. and resides in Denver, Col. 


vii. Jennie L., m. W. W. Bradbur, June 29, 1887; resides Mt. Ver- 
non, N. Y. 
viii. Apollos E., d. June, 1891; was a dentist of Cincinnati, O. 
ix. Leroy. 
X. Myrtie M.; res. West Springfield, Mass. 

Couch, James, was b. in 1718. He m. (i) Sarah^ dau. of SamueP 
Connable. She was b. in Boston, Feb. 22, 171 8-19, and died 
May 7, 1799; m. (2) Sept. 14, 1801, Mrs. Mehitable Alexander, 
their united ages being at that time 166 years. Mr. Couch 
was a house joiner by trade, one of the first settlers in town, 
coming here before 1747, and probably before 1744 ; resided 
on the farm now owned by Ralph Cushman. He took quite 
a prominent part in the very early history, holding many 
civil offices. Was selectman 1769, 72, 79, Committee of In- 
spection 1775, to which office was added that of Correspond- 
ence and Safety in 1777. During the Indian wars he was 
one of those who removed to the Burk Fort for protection 
when not engaged in active service. From Dec. 11, 1755, 
to Oct. 18, 1756, he was out in Israel William's Co. in an ex- 
pedition to the westward. His name also appears on Capt. 
John Burk's roll ending Nov. 30. 1758. He d. without chil- 
dren, Jan. 4, 1816, ae. 98. 

Cronyn, Rev. David, b. Feb. 27, 1839, ^^ N. Y. State; attended the 
Meadville Theological School ; is a retired Unitarian minis- 
ter, residing on the farm formerly owned by Amos Carleton; 
m. 1874, Zella R. Reid, who is a native of Indiana. Chil- 
dren : 

i. Ruth R., b. Sept. 10, 1875; m. 1901, Arthur Cairns; resides Saw- 

yerville, P. Q. 
ii. Zella R., b. May 5, 1877. 

iii. Thoreau, b. Nov. 25, 1880; now a student in California, 
iv. Fredrika, b. Dec. 9, 1883. 

V. Theodore, b. June 13, 1887. 

Crowell, Ransom, Levi', (Levi', Levi', Christopher', Christopher', 
John^ John", John'. The original name was Crowe. John', 


b. in England or Wales, was an inhabitant of Charlestown 
1635, 7, 8 ; of Yarmouth, 1638, where he died 1673. In the 
third generation the name assumed the present form of 
Crowell.) b. May 24, 1829, in Westminster, West, Vt. He re- 
moved from Putney, Vt., to Bernardston, about 1875, where 
he purchased the store opposite the New England House, 
and has carried on a most successful business. Since resid- 
ing in town he has identified himself strongly with the social, 
educational and religious interests of the place. In 1880 he 
received the appointment of justice of the peace ; has also 
been selectman for the years 1884 and 1885, assessor and 
trustee of Powers Institute. He has always been an active 
member of the Congregational church, and for several years 
its Sunday school superintendent. He m. May 23, 1850, 
Emily', dau. of Rev. i\ber Cutler of Northampton. Children: 

i. Homer Cutler'*, b. Jan. 14, 1852; m. Anna A. Fiske of Chazy, 
N. Y. He graduated at Middlebury, Vt., College, practiced 
medicine two years, and'after graduating at the medical college 
in New York, he was for a time in South America; since then 
he has resided at East Syracuse, N. Y., and Kansas City. 

2. ii. HiLAND Ransom^ d. Dec. 9, 1853. 

iii. Henry Lincoln^ b. Oct. 13, i860; m. June 6, 1888, Kate^ dau. 
of Dea. Henry* Slate. He was of the firm of R. L. Crowell and 
Son. He \^ actively interested in church and town affairs, and 
is the present town clerk, being chosen to that office in 1893. 
He is an active member of the firm of E. S. Hurlbert & Co., 
manufacturers of cutlery. 

3. iv. Preston Ranney'*, b. June 12, 1862. 

V. Jennie Sophia'*, b. Nov. 10, 1869; died June 25, 1872. 

2. Crowell, Hiland Ransom', (Ransom L.', Levi', Levi", Christo- 
pher', Christopher', John', John',' John',) b. Dec. 9, 1853; m. 
Lillian P., dau. of William Esterbrooks of Susquehanna De- 
pot, Pa., May 7. 1878. He has been successfully engaged in 
business in West Northfield, also at East Northfield. He 
disposed of his interests there and has now taken up his resi- 
dence in Southern California. Children : 

R. L. Cruwell. 


i. Willie, b. June 2, 1879; now a student in Massachusetts Institute 

of Teciinology, Boston, 
ii. Daisy E., b. Aug. 12, 1884. 

3. Crowell, Rev. Preston Ranney', (Ransom L.', Levi', Levi', 
Christopher', Christopher', John', John', John',) b. June 12, 
1862. He graduated at Powers Institute, also Williston Sem- 
inary 1882, at the University of Syracuse, N. Y., class of 1886, 
and from the Union Theological Seminary in 1890. In 1887 
he accepted a position as instructor of Latin and Greek in 
Rockland College at Nyack, N; Y. Since finishing his pro- 
fessional studies he has been pastor of churches at Cheyenne, 
Wyo, and Greenfield, N. H. He is now at Phillipston, 
Mass. He m. in 1891, Olivia S. Murray of Bern. Children : 

i. Jennie 0.'°, b- 1892. 
ii. Ruth \?°, b. 1895. 

CusHMAN, Nathaniel', (Lieut. Isaac\ Rev. Isaac^ Elder Thomas^ 
Robert', the Puritan who came in the Mayflower,) b. May 28, 
1712; m. (i) Sarah, dau. of William Coomer of Plympton, 
Nov. 22, 1733. She died April 14, 1753 ; m. (2) Aug. 23, 1753, 
Temperance Sims. She died Feb. 27, 1774. About 1740 
Mr. Cushman removed to Lebanon, Ct.; thence between 1774 
and 1778 to Bernardston, residing with his son. Dr. Polycar- 
pus° Cushman. He was a captain of the militia, and a man 
of great importance in those days. He d. at Montague, Oct i. 
1793. Children: 

i. IsAAC^ b. Oct. 20, 1734; resided Stafford, Ct., where he d. 1813. 
ii. Sarah'', b. Nov. 12, 1736; m.; d. Apr. 12, 1812. 
iii. Nathaniel*', b. Sept. 2, 1738; in. (i) Phoebe^ dau. of Peter^ New- 

2. iv. Consider®, b. July 6, 1740. 

V. Simeon^, b. Feb. 14, 1744; settled in So. Carolina, 
vi. William®, b. Jan. 29, 1746; d. in New York State, 
vii. Ambrose®, b. July 27, 1748; d. in Lebanon, Ct. 

3. viii. Polycarpus®, b. Nov. 14, 1750. 

ix. Artemas*, b. July 28, 1752; m. Sarah Willianis of Lebanon, Ct. 
He was selectman and assessor 1786-88 and 90. By trade he 


was a clothier. He was captain in the militia, and served in the 
Revolution. He died Oct. 18, 1841, at Colchester, Vt., at his 
daughter's. Had: i. John Williams^, b. June 4, 1778; d. De- 
cember 8, 1779. 2. Roxalena^ b. Nov. 18, 1779, (T. R.); m. 
Ebenezer^ Bardvvell of Shelburne, Mch. 27, 1803. 3. Anna^, b. 
May 21, 1782; m. William Granger of Greenfield. 4. Arte- 
mas', b. July 6, 1783; res. and d. in Ohio. 5. Thylura^ b. 
July 6, 1787; m. Rufus Parmilee of VVeybridge, Vt., 1810. 6. 
Sarah'', b. Sept. 4, 1788; m. May 28, 1816, Peter' Newcomb of 
Colchester, Vt., formerly of Bern. 7. Vilate^, b. March 30, 
1791; m. Alfred B., son of Jonathan Allen, Dec. 22, 181 1; 
rem. to Colchester, Vt. 8. Chloe', b. May 30, 1793; m. George 
A.^ son of Jonathan^ Allen, May 26, 1818; resided Burlington, 
Vt. She d. July 30, 1832. 9. Sophronia^, b. Mch. 16, 1798; 
m. Samuel Whiting of Bern. She d. in lonawanda Creek, N. Y., 
1835. ]o. Fanny'', b. July 16, 1801; d. unm., in Colchester, 
Vt., Sept. 27, 1848. II. Harriet", m. 1817, Jonathan M. Bis- 
sell of Bern.; d. in Illinois in 1852. 
By second wife: 
X. Temperance^, b. Aug. 31, 1754; d. in Ct. 
xi. Rebecca'', b. Nov. 28, 1755; d. young. 

xii. Abigail", b. Mch. 22, 1757; d. young. 

xiii. Mercy*', b. Feb. 10, 1760; d. Feb. 24, 1760. 

xiv. Joab", b. Feb. 27, 176 1; d. Nov. 4, 1824, in Ct. 

2. CUSHMAN, Consider", (Nathanier, Lieut. Isaac', Rev. Isaac', 
Elder Thomas^ Rev. Robert',) b. July 6, 1740; m. Submit 
Newcomb. She d. Feb. 29, 18 14, ae. 69. He was a soldier 
in the French and Indian War; resided in Lebanon, Ct., 
Bernardston, Greenfield. He d. in the north part of Green- 
field, Apr. 4, 1819, and with his wife, is buried in the ceme- 
tery on Log Plain. Children : 

i. Azel'', b. 1765, in Brookfield; d. July 12, 1816, in Chester, Vt. 
ii. Submit", b. 1767, in Brookfield; d. 1821, in Halifax, Vt. 
ill. Consider', b. Oct. 27, 1768; m. Rhoda Gaines of Gill, Jan., 1791. 
She was b. July 25, 1769; d. Nov. 13, 1853. He was a farmer, 
residing at Bernardston, Greenfield and Gill; at the latter place 
he d. Aug. 13, 1850. Had: i. Lucinda^ b. Feb. 18, 1792; d. 
May 2, 1803. 2. Calvin Newcomb**, b. July 25, 1793; d. Mch. 19, 


1847, at Marcy, N. Y., unm. 3. Serepla'', b. Feb. 19, 1795; 
m. (1) Stillman Spurr, Feb. 27, 1816, and had Clarissa, who m. 
Allen B.'* Hale; she m. (2) 1831, Amos^ Carrier of Bern, (second 
wife). 4. Zorah*, b. Nov. 12, 1796; d. Apr. 15, 1803. 5. 
Rhoda^ b. Feb. 17, 1798; m. Horace- Atherton, Apr. 29, 1817; 
she d. Sept. 14, 1830. 6. Mary^ b. Nov. 5, 1799; m- Oct. 28, 
1817, Amos^ Carrier. She d. Nov. 2, 1829. 7. Sarah^ b. No- 
vember 30, 1801; m. Apr. 29, 1823, Horace^ Hale; d. July 10, 
1846. 8. Aurelia Lucinda^ b. Sept. 5, 1803; in. May 26, 1829, 
Israel P.^ Hale; d. July 14, 1892. 9. Carpus^ b. Sept. 11, 1805; 
d. Apr. 5, 1808. 10. Harriet^ b. July 30, 1807; m. John''^ Nel- 
son of Leyden, Jan. 27, 1828; d. Oct. 5, 1862. 11. Lathrop^ b. 
May 23, 1809; m. Achsah W., dau. Jeremiah Dean of Gill, Oc- 
tober 24, 1839. She d. in 1886. Mr. Cushman was selectman 
in i860, was also assessor and overseer of the poor in Gill. The 
last of his life he lived on the "Green" in Bern. 

iv. Sally'', b. in Bern.; m. (i) Calvin Stratton of Montague; (2) Capt. 
Howes of Ballston, N. Y. 

V. Hannah^, b. in Bern.; m. Capt. Ephraim Upham of Montague. 

vi. SiLAS^, b. in Bern., March 5, 1778; resided at Westville, N. Y. 

vii. Ambrose'', b. in Bern.; d. in Fort Covington, N. Y. 
viii. Rebecca^, m. William Lord; resided Ballston Springs, N. Y. 

ix. Orilla', m. Major Wright; removed to Ohio. 
X. LuciNDA^, d. young. 

3. Cushman, Dr. POLYCARPUs',(Nathanier, Lieut. Isaac', Rev. Isaac', 
Elder Thotnas', Rev. Robert'.) Of the professional men, 
Bernardston's physicians easily assume a place in the first 
ranks. The first one in town was Dr. Polycarpus Cushman, 
who took up his residence here about 1772. Prior to that 
time the people had depended for medical aid upon the 
physicians of Deerfield and Northfield, and at a later period 
on Greenfield. As will be seen. Dr. Cushman was of full 
blooded Puritan descent. The ancestor, Robert Cushman, 
was a member of Rev. Mr. Robinson's church in Leyden, 
Holland, and came to this country in 1621. The maternal 
ancestor of Dr. Cushman was Mary, dau. of Isaac Allerton, 
who came over in the Mayflower in 1620. Dr. Cushman was 
born in Columbia, Ct., Nov. 14, 1750, and was one of 14 chil- 


dren. His education was obtained in or near the place of 
his nativity. When about 22 years of age he removed to 
Bernardston and purchased 175 acres of land, the original 
grant being to Medad Poraeroy. He built a large two-story 
house, entered upon the practice of his profession, continu- 
ing until his death. In 1774 he m. RachaeF, dau. of Aaron* 
Field. She was b. 175 1, and d. Sept. I, 1812. Dr. Cushman's 
practice as a physician was extensive in Bernardston and 
the adjacent towns. He was noted for his activity, industry 
and enterprise, accumulating a large estate. He was treas- 
urer of Bernardston in 1784 and 85, and also held other town 
offices. His remains were consigned to the old burying 
ground, where to-day may be seen the old headstone, bear- 
ing this inscription, which certainly might be commended 
upon the ground of oddity, as well as for the self-apparent 
truths contained therein : 






A. D. 1797 AETATE 47. 

Vain censorious beings little know. 
What they must experience below. 
Your lives are short, eternity is long, 
O think of death, prepare and then be gone. 
Tuus art and natures powers and charms, 
And drugs and receipts and forms 
Yield at last to greedy worms, 
A despicable prey. 

Mors absque morbo vorax 
Mortalium rapuit nedicum. 

Of the Latin a literal translation is difficult : "Barber's His- 
torical collections of Massachusetts " gives the following : 
"Rapacious death, without disease, has snatched away the 
healer of mortals." It is to be presumed that the following 
is more nearly the meaning of the author: "By disease, de- 


voiiring death has even snatched away the healer of mortals." 
This inscription is supposed to have been composed by Dr. 
Gideon Ryther, a pupil of Dr. Cushman's. Another transla- 
tion and one still more liberal, which is sometimes made, is : 
"He, who by his skill has saved others, himself has fallen a 
prey, through disease, to insatiable death." Children : 
i. Sophronia'', b. May 7, 1775; d. Aug. 3, 1814; m. Feb. 14, 1795, 
George^ Alexander of Bern. 
4. ii. PoLYCARPUs^, b. Sept. 21, 1778. 

iii. Simeon', b. Oct. 13, 1780; m. Nov. 10, 1818, Mary', dau. of Dea. 
Jonathan" Sheldon. He d. July 9, 1824, and she m. (2) Feb. 2, 
1826, Jason Brown of Bern. She d. Oct. 25, 1875. Mr. Cush- 
man was a farmer and clothier by occupation, residing on the 
place now owned by Jonathan Cushman, his mill being now 
owned by E. S. Hurlbert. Had: 1. Simeon Sheldon", b. Jan. 6. 
1821; m. (i) May 16, 1850, Sybil S.^ dau. Dea. Thomas Snow, 
She d. Dec. 10, 1855; m. (2) Widow Parmenter; (3) Amanda^ 
dau. of George^ Parmenter. She d. Mch. 5, 1862. He resides 
Fairfield, la. 2. Jonathan Field*, b. Feb. 4, 1822; m. Dec. 29, 
1855, Armenia B., dau. of James and Lucinda (Norton) bishop 
of New York State; no children. Mr. Cushman is a farmer, 
residing on his father's place. Mrs. Cushman is a great-great- 
grand-daughter of Rev. John Norton, the first pastor of Fall 
Town, her descent being as follows: Rev. John Norton^ John 
Norton^, Capt. John Norton^, Lucinda P.* (Norton) Bishop, 
Armenia B.^ (Bishop) Cushman. 3. Mary", b. Dec. 2, 1823; d. 
Sept. 4, 1848; unm. 

5. iv. Ralph'', b. Feb. 22, 1783. 

6. v. Seorim', b. May 30, 1785. 

vi. Rachael', b. September i, 1787; d. May 10, 1810; m. 1808, 

John* Purple, 
vii. Isaac' Dr., b. Sept. 12, 1790; d. Mch. 25, 1850, in Shclburne, N. Y. 

Of the Cushman families down to the present generation, 
there were many characteristics in common. They were 
men of quiet dignity, rather inclined to a pleasing reserve 
of manner, of sound judgment and strict business integrity, 
which enabled them to accumulate considerable property. 
Almost without exception they were zealous supporters of the 
Unitarian church and among the most constant attendants. 


4. CuSHMAN, Hon. Polycarpus Loring', (Dr. Polycarpus', Nathan- 
iel', Lieut. Isaac', Rev. Isaac^ Elder Thomas\ Rev. Robert',) 
b. Sept. 21, 1778; m. Sally, dau. of David Wyles of Colches- 
ter, Ct., Nov. 27, 1804. She d. at Saratoga Springs, N. Y., 
Aug. 13, 1845; m. (2) July 21, 1846, Abigail (Barnard), widow 
of Thaddeus Coleman of Greenfield. She was b. in Sterling, 
Nov. 29, 1786. Mr. Cushman was a prominent public spirited 
man, one who enjoyed the confidence and respect of his fel- 
low townsmen, as was shown by his repeated election to im- 
portant town offices. For fourteen years he was justice of 
the peace. For the years 18 10, 16 and 17, he was overseer 
of the poor, selectman and assessor; in 1816 and 1840, he 
went as representative to legislative halls; in 1844 he was 
one of the senators from Franklin Co. He was an enthu- 
siastic farmer, progressive in the true sense of the term, and 
was one of the first and most active members of the Frank- 
lin County Agricultural Society. He d. May 16, 1855, ae. -j"] 
years. His home was the place now owned by E. E. Ben- 
jamin. Child : 

i. Henry Wyles^, b. Aug. 9, 1805; m. (i) June 16, 1828, Maria 
Louisa, dau. of Thomas Dickman of Greenfield. She d. Oct. 11, 
1855; m. (2) June 2, 1858, Anne Williams, dau. of Thomas 
Fettyplace of Salem. She now resides in Greenfield. Mr. 
Cushman supplemented his common school education by courses 
of study at Ueerfield and New Salem academies. When eigh- 
teen years of age he entered the military school of Capt. Alden 
Partridge in Norwich. Vt., pursuing his studies there for two 
years, and from this institution he received the degree of Mas- 
ter of Arts in 1827. After leaving school for some time he 
worked upon his father's farm summers, teaching during the 
winter season. He later assumed control of the hotel, which 
under his management was most prosperous. "Then and to 
the close of his life, he devoted himself to political and public 
trusts, to the care of his own means and the means of others, 
to literary and antiquarian researches, to a round of recurring 
duties, public and private, which he discharged with unfailing 
precision, honesty and judgment." For nineteen years he was 
clerk and treasurer of his town, for fifteen years a member of 


the school committee. In 1837, 39, 40 and 44 he represented 
his town in the State Legislature; in 1844 he was chosen by the 
Legislature to fill a vacancy in the senate caused by the death 
of his Franklin County colleague, and by a singular coincidence 
he was seated side by side with his father, Hon. P. L. Cushman, 
of opposite political views. The latter had been elected to the 
Senate for that term by the peoples vote. In 1847. and for five 
years after, he was the Democratic candidate for Lieutenant- 
Governor; and in 1851-52, there having been no choice by the 
people, he was chosen to that office by the Legislature. He 
was a director of the State Life Assurance Company at Worces- 
ter, and of the Conway Fire Insurance Co., a member of the 
State Board of Agriculture, which he actively aided in founding 
in 1852. He was a resident member of the New England His- 
toric and Genealogical Society of Boston, and a corresponding 
member of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. In 1849 
he was chosen the first president of the Franklin County Bank, 
Greenfield, an office he filled through life. For many years he 
was trustee of the Franklin Savings Institution, and at his death, 
its president, as he was also of the Franklin County Agricul- 
tural Society. In educational matters he was always interested 
and actively so, being all that in his power lay, to promote such 
interests in his own and other towns. His various bequests as 
heretofore noted, bear testimony to how much the town of Ber- 
nardston is indebted to him in this as well as in other ways. 
And for a fuller account of his good deeds, the reader is referred 
to the foregoing pages. In historical matters he was intensely 
interested. It is to him that the Cushman family owe thanks 
for their excellent genealogy, and had he been spared longer, 
Bernardston annals would have been in print at least twenty- 
five years earlier. The Unitarian society lost in him an active, 
useful member, one whose interest and helpfulness were always 
to be relied upon, and in accordance with the provisions of his 
will, his home opposite the park became the parsonage for that 
society. For years he was superintendent of the Sunday school. 
The work he did toward planning and superintending the erec- 
tion of the Institute buildings, Cushman Hall, Cushman Park, 
and Library, attest his love and goodwill toward his fellow towns- 
men, who have every reason to hold his memory in grateful re- 
membrance. He d, in the midst ot his usefulness, Nov. 21, 1863. 


5. CusHMAN, Ralph', (Polycarpus', Nathaniel', Lieut. Isaac*, Rev. 
Isaac', Elder Thomas', Rev. Robert',) b. Feb. 22, 1783; m. 
Sarah", dau. of Major Samuel' Root, Sept. 19, 1809. She d. 
June 24, 1834; m. (2) Nov. 4, 1835, Mrs. Elizabeth D., widow 
of Rev. Charles Richardson of Charlestown, N. H., and dau. 
of David Dennison of Leyden. Shed. Mch. 11, 1878. Mr. 
Cushman was a man of good general information, having 
been a school teacher in his younger days, and retaining 
throughout life his cultured refinement and interest in pass- 
ing events. He was a justice of the peace, town clerk for 16 
years, treasurer for 21, and selectman and assessor four years. 
He successfully carried on a farm of 400 acres. His early 
home was on the place now owned by H. O. Root. Upon 
the death of his wife's father, Major Root, he removed to 
his farm, the one now owned by Ralph Cushman. He died 
on his eightieth birthday, Feb. 22, 1863. Children: 

i. Sylvira Sophronia^, b. Jan. 31, 181 1; d. July 29, 1840; unm. 
ii. Sarah Racheal*, b. July 9, 1813; m. Barnard W. Field, Oct. 27, 

1835; resided Gerry, N. Y. 

iii. Alonzo Ralph", b. Feb. 14, 1816; m. Sarah Selina, dau. of Lorin 

Munn of Greenfield, Oct. i, 1839. She was b. Jan. 7, 1819; d. 

Aug. 6, 1876. Mr. Cushman was a farmer, residing opposite 

"'^nathan Cushman's. The latter part of his life was spent at the 

je, where he was for some years assistant postmaster. He 

Dot. I or 17, 1880. Had: i. Rachael Field", b. April 11, 

• m. Feb. 24, 1864, Henry F. Capen of Hadley; resides New 

(Cain, Ct. 2. Clara Sylvira", b. Feb. 7, 1846; m. John M. 

Morse in 1875; resides Guilford, Vt. He d. Jan., 1901. 

iv. Lucinda", b. Mch. 14, 1820; m. Rev. Thomas Weston, Apr. 29, 

1852; d. in Greenfield. 
V. Mary Ann*, b. Aug. 4, 1822; d. Sept. 21, 1824. 
vi. Mary Ann", b. April 5, 1825; d. Dec. 11, 1833. 
vii. Lucy Root", b. Apr. 20, 1828; m. Lyman G. Barton, Apr. 29, 1852; 

resides Greenfield, 
viii. Samuel Root*, b. Feb. 15, 1831; m. and d. in Lake City, la., 
March 10, 1898. 
7. ix. Henry Clay*, b. Aug. 20, 1836. 


6. CusHMAN Seorim', (Dr. Polycarpus*, Nathanier, Lieut. Isaac*, 

Rev. Isaac^ Elder Thomas^ Rev. Robert',) b. May 30, 1785 ; m. 
Huldah^ dau. Elias' Parmeuter, 1 8 1 1 . She was b, Feb. 15,1 787; 
d. Mch. 21, 1879. ^^- Cushman was a successful farmer, 
residing on the place now owned by heirs of his son, the late 
P. L. Cushman, 2nd. Like the others of his family, he was 
a true man, striving for the best interests of all. He died 
Feb. 17, 1875. Children: 

8. i, Robert Seorim®, b. May 27, 181 2. 

ii. Emerancy Jane*, b. June 17, 1814; m. Nathaniel J. Bangs of 
Montague, Sept. 6, 1837; resided Brattleboro, Vt. 

iii. Hui.DAH Parmenter^ b. Aug. 20, 1816; m. Joseph Chauncey^ 
Slate, Mch. 6, 1839; she d. Sept. 3, 1897, in Sufifield, Ct. 

iv. Isaac Erasmus*, b. July n, 1818; d. Oct. 27, 1843; unm. 

V. RoxANA Harriet*, b. July 23, 1820; m. George Robbins, Sep- 
tember 26, 1848; resided West Deerfield, where she d. 

9. vi. Polvcarpus Loring*, b. Nov. 8, 1822. 

vii. Sophronia Rachael*, b. Jan. 3, 1825; m. Oct. 24, 1847, Major 
Houghton Tyler of Greenfield, where she resides. 

10. viii. Field Wells*, b. Feb. 14, 1827. 

7. Cushman, Henry Clay*,) Ralph', Dr. Polycarpus', Nathaniel', 

Lieut. Isaac', Rev. Isaac^ Elder Thomas', Rev. Robert^) b. 
Aug. 20, 1836; m. Jan. 16, 1861, Laura Keep, dau. of Imla K. 
Brown. Mr. Cushman has always been a successful farmer, 
residing until within a few years upon his father's large farm 
at North Bern., of which he became possessed by inheritance 
and purchase. This he sold to his son Ralph, and is now a 
resident at the village on the old Col. Ferry place. Children: 
i. Hope Elizabeth^, b. Feb. 14, 1862; res. Bern.; unm. 
ii. Ralph Henry', b. Sept. 30, 1864; m. May 5, 1891, Lizzie M., 
dau. of John Burrington of Shelburne, Mass. Mr. Cushman re- 
sides at North Bernardston, and is the owner of one of the best 
farms in town, being owned respectively by James Couch, Maj, 
Samuel Root, Ralph and Henry C. Cushman. He has devoted 
considerable time to the raising of fancy poultry, in which he 
has been most successful. He has been for several years trus- 
tee of the Franklin Co. Agricultural Society. Had: i. Julien 
Henry^", b. Feb. 22, 1892. 


iii. Emma Laura^, b. April 3, 1867; m. Sept. 16, 1890, Lewis R. 
Holden of Bondsville (Palmer), Mass., where they reside. 

iv. Alfred Brown^, b. Aug. 28, 1869; m. Oct. 13, 1897, Elizabeth 
C, dau. of Edson Hale. Mr. Cushman was one of the young 
business men of the place, with the brightest of prospects. His 
death was peculiarly sad, occurrifig Nov. 18, 1897, five weeks 
after his marriage. He was proprietor of a meat market. 

V. Lucy Barton'', b. Dec. 13, 187 1; m. Nov. 29, 1889, Charles M. 
Deming; res. Schnectady, N. Y. 

vi. Charlotte Nellie^, b. June 30, 1879. 

8. Cushman, Robert SEORiM',(Seorim', Dr. Polycarpus', Nathanier, 

Lieut. Isaac*, Rev. Isaac", Elder Thomas', Rev. Robert\) b. 
May 2 7, 1812 ; m. Sophronia Brainard, dau. of Alvah Cush- 
man of Montague, May 6, 1835. She was b. Mch. 7, 181 5 ; d. 
Mch. 4, 1865. Mr. Cush man's farm was near the site of the 
old Lieut. Sheldon Fort, in the east part of the town, now 
owned by Gardner Oaks. He d. Jan. 7, 1894. Children : 

i. Charles Parmenter^, b. Apr.' 15, 1836; m. Nov. 27, 1866, Mary 
Jane^, dau. Levi^ Park. He resided on his father's farm in the 
east part of the town, where he d. Feb. 11, 1887. Mrs. Cush- 
man resides in Springfield. Had: i. Theo Robbins'", b. 1870; 
d. Feb. 5, 1896. 

ii. Emma Phedora", b. Nov. 23, 1839; m. Apr. 25, 1865, Levi P.* Bur- 
rows. They resided in Greenfield. She d. July 11, 1899. 

9. Cushman, Polycarfus Loring', 2nd, (Seorim', Dr. Polycarpus', 

NathanieP, Lieut. Isaac', Rev. Isaac", Elder Thomas\ Rev. 
Robert\) b. Nov. 8, 1822; m. Apr. 14, 1847, Rhoda*, dau. of 
Horace' Atherton. 'She was b. Nov. 9, 1822. In early life 
Mr. Cushman kept a hotel in Somers, Ct., and the present 
New England House in town. He later owned and carried 
on his father's large farm upon Fall River. He always took 
an active interest in the social, political and religious life of 
the place. From 1858 to 1864 he served as selectman, in 
fact held most of the important town ofifices, and was always 
officially connected with the Institute, Cushman Hall and 








, . 




















^••- •■-,-- 








Library. He and his wife have both been prominently iden- 
tified with the Unitarian society for many years. He died 
suddenly Feb. 6, 1901. Children : 

i. Thomas Loring'', b. in Somers, Ct., May 11, 1851; m. July 8, 
1873, Mary Belle Tracy. She was b. Nov. 13, 185 i. P'or many 
years Mr. Cushinan was connected with the firm of Mackintosh 
& Co., shoe jobbers of Springfield, he spending the most of his 
time in traveling. In the meantime he devoted all spare time 
to the cultivation of his voice, always commanding a good posi- 
tion in the church choirs of that city. His love for and success 
in music finally induced him to relinquish his business, and for 
quite a time he gave himself up to study, spending some months 
abroad, thoroughly fitting himself for the adoption of music as 
a profession, and in which he has achieved good success, both 
as a solo singer of merit and a teacher. His residence is Mel- 
rose Highlands. Had: i. Loring Tracy^", b. May 12, 1874. 
2. Thomas Atherton'", b. May 26, 1884. 
ii. Ellen Sophia', b. Apr. 8, 1848; m. Oct. 8, 1874, Laroy Zenas 

Cutler^ They reside in Springfield, Mass. 
iii. Arthur Isaac*, b. Jan. 22, 1854; m. Dec. 15, 1880, Alice Kate 
Sprague. She was b. Oct. 29, 1857. Like the other members 
of his family, Mr. Cushman has good musical talent, and has 
been connected with the choirs in Springfield. He is with the 
wholesale house of Cutler cS: Porter, shoe dealers, Springfield, 
where he resides. Had: i. John Arthur'", b. Oct. 14, 1881; 
student at Institute of Technology at Terre Haute, Indiana. 
2. Laroy Cutler'", b. Dec. 7, 1884. 3. Elliott Sprague'", b. 
Jan. 28, 1887; d. May 10, 1889. 4. Louise'", b. Dec. 31, 1891. 
5. Burt Atherton'", b. Jan. i, 1894. 

10. CusHMAN, Field Wells', (Seorim', Dr. Polycarpus', NathanieF, 
Lieut. Isaac', Rev. Isaac^ Elder Thomas", Rev. Robert',) b. 
Feb. 14, 1827; m. Hester Maria', dau. of Ruggles' Bagg, 
Feb. I, 1853. Mr. Cushman d. Dec. 31, 1863. Mrs. Cush- 
man m. (2) Frederick Chapin, Oct. 4, 1868. He died Jan- 
uary 29, 1887. She resides with her dau. in Somerville, Mass. 
Children : 

i. RuGGLES Allerton^, b. Sept. i, 1856; m. Etta M. Dexter, July 22, 


1884. He graduated from the Bridgewater Normal School in 
1880, from the Hanover Medical College, Dartmouth, 1882, 
standing second in a class of 21. He is now division surgeon 
for the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad. Is also a 
member of the pension board, chairman of the board of health 
in Sanborn, Iowa, where he resides. Had: i. Dexter Aller- 
ton'o, b. Jan. 20, 1888. 
ii. Nettie Maria'', b. June 15, 1858; m. Apr. 5, 1893, George W. 
Allen; res. Somerville. Mrs. Allen took the teacher's course 
at the Quincy Training School, and taught until her marriage. 

iii. Agnes Jean^, b. Nov. 16, 1861; m. John Edward Ross Pember, 
Dec. 25, 1894. He is one of the night editors of the Boston 
Journal; resides in Somerville, Mass. Mrs. Pember received a 
liberal education, graduating from the Bridgewater Normal 
School and successfully teaching until her marriage. She was 
for seven years principal of the Bates School, Boston. 

iv. Field W.^, b. Sept. 19, 1864; (posthumous), d. Aug. 14, 1866: 

Cutler, Dea. Zenas', (Thomas', Thomas^ Abner\ Thomas^ 
Thomas^ James', who early settled in Watertown), b. Mch. 18, 
1804, in Wilmington, Vt. ; m. Dec. 5, 1826, Lucy, dati. of 
Thomas and Dorothy (Sawin) Wood. Mr. Ctitler was a 
farmer, although before the days of the railroads he engaged 
in boating on the Connecticut river between Turners Falls 
and Brattleboro, Vt. In 1841 he removed from his farm in 
Vernon, Vt., to Bernardston, purchasing what was known as 
the Ezra Connable farm in North Bernardston. This he 
brought to a high state of cultivation. He served the town 
as selectman and assessor ; was a member of the Unitarian 
church, and for thirty years one of its deacons. In 1870 he 
sold his farm to A.. U. Chase, and ever after made it his home 
with his son, N. S. Cutler. He d. in Greenfield, Dec. 29, 
1880. Mrs. Cutler d. in Springfield, Apr. 14, 1 88 1. Children: 

i. Lucy Jane**, b. Oct. 14, 1828. Her life was an incentive to all for 

a holier walk with God. She d. Dec. 4, 1863; unm. 
ii. George Thomas^ b. Oct. 9, 1830; d. Aug. 25, 1843. 

2. iii. Daroy Zenas^, b. Aug. 14, 1834, in Vernon, Vt. 

3. iv. Nahum Sawin^, b. Apr. 7, 1837, in Vernon, Vt. 


CUTLER. 375 

V. Laura Susanna^ b. Dec. i6, 1840, in Vernon, Vt. ; m. July 8, 
1857, Dwight Charles'* Warner; resides Springfield. 

vi. George Thomas^ b. Aug. 18, 1844; m. Nancy Sophia Goodenough 
of West Brattleboro, Vt. Removed about 1878 from Bernard- 
ston to Greenwood, Neb., where he is engaged in milling and 
mechanical pursuits. 

vii. Ella Brigham", b. Nov. 21, 1847; d. Oct. 28, 1851. 

2. Cutler, Laroy Zenas", (Zenas', Thomas', Thomas', Abner', 

Thomas', Thomas', James',) b. Aug. 14, 1834. When of age, 
he entered the shoe business in Springfield, which he has 
alv^ays followed either in retail or wholesale branches. Dur- 
ing the Civil War he enlisted in the 46th Reg. Mass. Vol., 
and was made sergeant of Co. A. He has also served as a 
member of the city government. Mr. Cutler takes a high 
rank among the business men of Springfield where he re- 
sides. Is the senior member of the firm of Cutler & Porter, 
wholesale boot and shoe dealers. He m. (1) July 26, 1865, 
Harriet Lillian, dau. of Albert Bly of Whitinsville, Mass., 
who d. Mch. 2, 1873; m. (2) Oct. 8, 1874, Ellen vSophia', dau. 
of P. L. Cushman", 2nd., of Bern. Children: 

i. .'\lice Lillian'', b. Nov. 16, 1869; m. Dec, 1892, Edwin B. Woodin. 
Mr. Woodin was teacher of chemistry in a military school in 
Chester, Pa., for several years; is now purchasing agent for Cut- 
ler & Porter, wholesale shoe merchants in Springfield, Mass, 
Res. Springfield; two daughters, Dorothy, b. Dec. 7, 1893, and 
Ruth, b. Nov. 8, 1897. 

ii. Mabel Laura", b. Dec. 21, 1872; d. Jan. 27, 1874. 
By second wife: 

iii. Grace Lucy^, b. June 19, 1876. 
iv. Daughter''*, b. and d. Nov. i, 1881. 

3. Cutler, Nahum Sawin", (Zenas', Thomas", Thomas\ Abner\ 

Thomas', Thomas', James',) b. Apr. 7, 1837, in Vernon, Vt. 
Upon attaining his majority he entered the boot and shoe 
business in Springfield, remaining there until 1872, the 
greater part of that time being associated with his brother. 
At the latter date he returned to Bernardston, engaging in the 


manufacture of ladies', misses' and children's shoes, his home 
and factory being on the site of the Dr. John Brooks home- 
stead. In 1880 he removed to Greenfield, his present home, 
where he is senior partner of the firm of Cutler, Lyons and 
Field, shoe manufacturers. During his residence in town 
he was actively interested in all that pertained to the inter- 
ests of the Unitarian church, of which he is a member. In 
1889 he served as representative to the lyCgislature, being 
returned the next year. He has also served six terms as 
selectman in Greenfield ; is a director in the Franklin Co. 
National Bank, and Greenfield Electric Light Company ; a 
trustee of the Masonic Hall Association. He has always 
taken a deep interest in local historical matters. Some years 
ago he, with the assistance of his wife and daughter, com- 
piled and published the Cutler Memorial. He m. Nov. 24, 
1864, Harriet Isabella', dau. of Richard H." Hoyt, a most 
efficient co-labourer and sympathizer with her family in their 
undertakings. Children: 

i. Lucy Jane^, b. Oct. 3, 1866, in Springfield; m. Nov. 24, 1885, 
Harry Whiting* Kellogg; res. Greenfield; was for some years 
organist at the Congregational and Unitarian churches, Green- 
field; elected member of school committee in 1898, serving three 
years, declining a renomination; has been always much inter- 
ested in historical work; is the author of this work. Has: i. 
Henry Cutler^ Kellogg, b. Oct. 4, 1886. 2. Earle Nahum 
Whiting^ Kellogg, b. Oct. 21, 1888. 3. Evelyn Kellogg", b. 
June 10, 1893. 

ii. Hknry Hoyt", b. Oct. 15, 1868; m. June 8, 1892, Lizzie May, 
dau. of Sumner Perkins. They reside in Greenfield; have one 
son, Nahum Sumner'", b. Apr. 30, 1893. 

Daventort. Martin Van Buren", (Calvin N.\ Oliver', Oliver', 
Thoma.s^, Thomas', who came from England about 1635, set- 
tling in Dorchester), b. Sept. 26, 1834; m. May 2, 1864, 
Maria A., dau. of Austin Miner. She d. Jan. 14 or 19, 1901. 
He resided for many years " around the Mountain," remov- 
ing thence to the Alonzo Cushman place near the Hurlbert 


factory, and not far from 1895, to his present home south of 
the Baptist parsonage. He has been a most successful farmer. 
No children. 

Davidson, Barnabas, b. about 1739. He enlisted for the town of 
Bernardston in 1781 for the term of three years, but was 
later reported discharged for disability ; received a bounty 
for his service. 

Davidson, Edward, b. about 1760; enlisted in 1781 to serve three 
years. The commands in which he served were in New 
York State. 

Davis, Daniel, b. about 1762; enlisted 1780 for the town of Ber- 
nardston, his birth place being given as Connecticut, and 
residence Guilford, Vt. He was reported as deserted in 1781. 

Davis, John, residence, Brimfield; enlisted for the town of Ber- 
nardston, Apr. 2, 1760, "for the total reduction of Canada." 
Service expired Nov. 30, 1760. 

Davis, John Edward', (Jacob', NathanieP,) born in Dorchester, 
June 14, 1853; m. July 8, 1875, Jane Tower of Florida. She 
was b. in Florida, Sept. 18, 1853. Mr. Davis came hither 
from Rowe, Oct. i, 1889, purchasing the place owned by Rev. 
J. H. Parmalee, his present home. Children : 

i. Roy Allison\ b. Apr. 11, 1876. 

ii. Nettie Tower*, b. Mch. 10, 1878. 

iii. Floyd Earle*, b. Mch. 18, 1880. 

iv. Walter Edward'', b. Apr. 30, 1886, 

Davis, Jonathan, date of enlistment not given ; term, "during the 
war " ; enlisted from Capt. Amasa Sheldon's Co., for the town 
of Bernardston, where he resided. 

Day, Robert', (James', Joel', John', Thomas^ Robert' of Newtown, 
now Cambridge, 1634,) was b. in West Springfield, Aug. 18, 
1800; m. Adaline, dau. Josiah Pomeroy of Gill, Nov. 13, 1823. 
She was b. in Warwick; d. in West Killingly, Ct., Feb. 11, 


1877. Mr. Day came to Bernardston in 1850, living for a time 
in the old Zebina Newcomb house just across the iron bridge, 
now owned by Mrs. Harriet Hale, later in the first house 
south of R. R. Parks. He d. in town. Children: 

i. Ellen Clayton'', b. July i, 1829; m. Joseph Snow of Danielson- 
ville, Ct., Dec, 29, 1852; is dead. 

11. Frances Pomeroy", b. Nov. i, 1832; d. unm., in Conn. 

iii. Josephine Field'', b. May 22, 1835; m. Frank Foster, and resided 
in Cleveland, O. She is dead. 

iv. JosiAH Pomeroy", b. Aug. 4, 1837, in Perrysburgh, N. Y.; m. 
Lucy A. Haskell of Wendell, Jan. 2, 1867. When i i years of 
age he came here, attending the district schools and Goodale 
Academy, later learning the blacksmith's trade. He saw much 
active service in the Civil War, enlisting Aug. 14, 1862, as a 
member of Co. H, 10th Reg., Mass. Vol.; was honorably dis- 
charged July I, 1864. Mr. Day established himself in the black- 
smith business in 1867, which he has followed until recently. 
His home is the place formerly owned by Richard F. Newcomb, 
east of the Unitarian church. Has: i. Josephine Esther**, b. 
May 17, 1872; a graduate of Child's Business College, Spring- 
field; m. Aug. 3, 1901, John E. Edgar; res. Springfield. 

v. Susan Ferry', b. Oct. 16, 1843; 'i^- Henry Andrus of Hartford, 
Ct., where she died. 

Dean, Charles, (Hiram,) resided for some time after his marriage 
on his father's farm, the present Clogston place, removing 
thence to his present home, the place he purchased of the 
Spragues in the south-east part of the town. He m. (i) Bercia 
Moore, the adopted dau. of Joel Cutler; (2) Miss Sprague. 
Several children. 

Denio Joseph-', (Aaron-, James',) b. 1734. James, the grandfather, 
was a Frenchman from Canada, who m. Abigail, dau. of 
John Stebbins of Deerfield. Jo.seph' settled in Bernardston ; 
was out as a soldier in the French and Indian War from 
1756-9, serving as corporal under Lord Loudon in 1757; m. 

Anna . He was surveyor of highways in 1777, 78, 86; 

d. Mch. 24, 1820. Children: 


i. Joseph*, b. Mch. 25, 1761; m. Charity Brown, 
ii. William'*, b. Aug. 14, 1762. His inteniion was publislied with 

"Anth}'" Larkin of Greenfield, Apr. 27, 1788. 
iii. Anna'', b. Feb. 23, 1764; m. June 9, 1785, John Sawtelie. 
iv. Sarah*, b. Aug. 24, 1765. 

V. David*, b. Sept. 20, 1767; settled in Gill. 

Dennison, a. L., is a comparatively recent inhabitant of the town, 
having purchased the farm north of school house No. 4, 
formerly owned by Frank Green. Of his family two daugh- 
ters are numbered as among the most successful teachers of 
the place. 

Dennison, Jabez, b. about 1761 ; enlisted for the town of Bernard- 
ston for the term of six months, June, 1780, "to re-inforce 
the Continental Army." 

Dewey, Joel N., b. May 19, 1815 ; m. Elizabeth Wardwell. He 
was a blacksmith, residing for many years in the first house 
east of Cushman Hall, his shop then being on the present 
library site. His later years were spent in the old Goodale 
Academy, now the Adams place. He died Nov. 18, 1892. 
Children : 

i. Charles S., m. Aug. 28, 1862, Henrietta L., dau. Charles Osgood 

of Northfield; one dau. 
ii. Sarah J., b. 1840; m. Gardner Greenleaf, Dec. 5, 1861; d. May 7, 

iii. Mary, m. Leslie Belding; res. Northampton. 

iv. Margaret E., b. 1845; m. William E. Safford; d. Mch. 30, 1886. 
V. Frederick J., b. July 14, 1846; m. Anna, dau. Apollos Morgan 

of Northfield Farm; one dau. He d. Feb. 16, 1879. 
vi. Henry L., b. 1848; d. Oct. 4, 1868; unm. 
vii. Frank A., b. 1851; d. Dec. 22, 1885. 

Died Feb. 13, 1804, Sarah, wife of David Dewey, ae. 61, "leaving 
a husband and numerous children.'' 

Dickinson, Bethan Henman, (Ozias, who came to town for two or 
three years, then returned to his earlier home), b. 1782. 


When some nine or ten years old he came here from Weth- 
ersfield, Ct., although his young manhood was spent in 
Waterbury, Vt., whence he enlisted for active service in 18 14 
against the British on Lake Champlain. He m.Tartia", dau. 
of Dea. Jesse' Field, in 1804. He resided just east of the 
Unitarian church, where he d. Mch. 27, 1853. His early 
home in town was in the east part of Bernardston. Children: 

i. Emily^, b. Dec. 15, 1804; m. Jabez Kenney; d. West. 

i. Jesse Field^, b. Oct. 14, 1806; d. Dec. 28, 1807. 

i. Lydia Burk^, b. Nov. 10, 1808; m. May, 1825, Orin Park of Gill. 

V. Charles^, b. Aug. 15, 1810; d. in Guilford, Vt., about 1890. 

V. Obadiah^, b. May i, 1814; m. Amoret H.', dau. of Rufus** and 
Camilla (Church) Marsh, May 19, 1841. Mr. Dickinson was 
one of the oldest railroad men in the country, being agent for 
the Connecticut River road for 44 years, resigning his position 
when that road passed to the control of the Boston and Maine. 
For a greater part of his service, he acted as telegraph operator, 
express agent, freight and baggage clerk. He d. Oct. 13, 1897. 
Mrs. Dickinson still resides in Bernardston. Had: i. Laura*, 
b. June 4, 1842; d. Aug. 9, 1891; unm. 2. Everett Newell*, an 
adopted son; res. Bern. ; is a clerk for O. W. Gray, 
vi. Fidelia^, b. Feb. 22, 1816; m. Joseph Wright, Jr., of Weathers- 
field, Ct., 1845; resides Hartford, Ct. 
vii. Albert'^ b. Oct. 18, 1818; d. Nov. 23, 1822. 

viii. Mary^, b. Sept. 25, 1822; m. Sept. 20, 1864, Chandler H. Steb- 
bins of Vernon, Vt., where they reside, 
ix. Louisa^, b. Apr. 14, 1831; d. Apr. 19, 1852. 

DOOLITTLE, Edward, came to town about 1880. settling on the 
Simon Edwards place on Huckle Hill. He was preceded 
here by his brother George, the families being descended 
from the Vernon Doolittles. He is married and has children. 

DoRRELL, William, was a soldier in the army of Burgoyne; son of 
an English farmer; b. in Yorkshire, England, Mch. 15, 1752. 
For a time he was a resident of Petersham, where he m. 
Marv Chase. Thence he went to Warwick and from there, 

DOTY. 381 

about 1794, removed to Leyden ; has descendants living- in 
adjacent towns. For further account of him see the account 
of the Dorrellites, pages 184-189. 

Doty, originally Dotey, Dote or Doten. Edward was a London 
youth in the service of Stephen Hopkins ; came thither in 
the Mayflower, landing at Plymouth, Dec. 22, 1620, when 17 
years of age. He is said to have outwitted the captain of 
the Mayflower in his design of making a formal landing, by 
jumping from the boat and wading or swimming ashore, 
thus reaching land first, for which offense he was flogged. 
He was also put in the stocks for fighting the first duel in New 
England. (See Early History of New England.) He was 
one of the soldiers of the Pilgrim Guard under command of 
Miles Standish. John"^ resided Plymouth, John^ John' both 
resided Plympton, Edward' at Plympton, James' at Leverett, 
was a Revolutionary pensioner. James' d. in Bernardston, 
May 3, 1826, ae. 74. His sons, James', and Joel', settled in 
town. Children : 

i. JoEL^, m. Oct. 29, 1822, Celestia Broderick of Conway. He had 
a blacksmith's shop near where Miss Maria Sanderson's ice- 
house now stands. 

ii. James^, b. Nov. 3, 1795, '"i Leverett. When at the age of 14, he 
came to town to learn the carpenter's and joiner's trade of Major 
Orra Sheldon; served his seven years of apprenticeship, and at 
the age of 21, received a full set of joiner's tools and his "free- 
dom suit of clothes." He was a remarkably well informed man 
for his time and circumstances, for as to the latter — owing to 
an accident which happened in his youth making him lame for 
life, he never had, as he used to say, but si.x weeks of common 
schooling. From his mother, whose maiden name was Eliza- 
beth Gilbert, he received those strong intellectual traits which 
all his family traditions agree were hers to an unusual degree. 
He was a great reader and a deep and liberal thinker. Though 
hard working and industrious, he yet found time to gratify his 
inherent love for reading, in the pursuit of the best information 
on all practical subjects, and but few, if any, could equal him in 
town in his knowledge of history, geography and mathematics, 


and the general sciences of the times. At one time he was said 
to have the largest and most valuable library in town relating 
to his favorite studies. Liberal in his religious views, he be- 
came one of the founders and the first clerk of the Universalist 
society of Bernardston. He m. Oct. 10, 1818, Sophronia Cush- 
man King of Hartland, Vt. She was b. July i, 1800; d. Apr. 18, 
1836. Mr. Doty d. Jan. 9, 1857, at Shelburne Falls. Had: i. 
Louisa Maria^, b. May 11, 1819; m. Dan P. Foster, May 10, 
1837; resides Walthani. 2. James Edward*, b. May 5, 1821; 
d. Shelburne Falls, 1855. 3. Adelia Sophronia**, b. Oct. 10, 
1823; m. (i) Frederick Townsley; (2) Benjamin F. Goodwin. 
She d. July i, 1846, at Shelburne Falls. 4. Thomas Franklin**, 
b. Jan. 5. 1826; d. Oct. 27, 1827. 5. Mary Elizabeth^ b. May 2, 
1828; m. Robert Fellows of Shelburne, where she d. 6. Har- 
riet Elvira**, b. Sept. i, 1830; m. Harvey Edwards; d. in Guil- 
ford, Vt., June 18, 1862. 7. Thomas King*, b. June 6, 1833; 
was adopted by his uncle Joel. Entered the ministry in the 
M. E. denomination; resided in Cleveland, Ohio. 

DwiGHT, Dr. William Monk, the eighth physician here, was a 
native of Windsor, Berkshire County, Mass., where he was 
b. in 1822. His father was one of the old tavern keepers on 
the direct stage line between Pittsfield and Albany. He 
early chose the study of medicine, and by his own exertions 
won his way through a course at the Pittsfield Medical School, 
from which he graduated in 1841 with high honors. While 
here he met Helen M., dau. of Rev. Eber L. Clark. vShe was 
then engaged in teaching at the Maplewood school. This 
acquaintance resulted in marriage in August, 1846. 

After brief settlements in different localities in Berkshire, 
Dr. Dwight located in So. Deerfield, remaining there eight 
years. He then removed to Bernardston, which place he 
made his residence for 18 years. In 1873 he removed to 
East Douglass, going thence in 1875 to North Amherst, 
where his death occured Nov. 13, 1892, his I'emains being 
taken to Bernardston for interment. 

Dr. Dwight was a most successftil physician, being thor- 
oughly posted in all professional matters, and taking a great 


pride in keeping- pace with the new methods and ideas as 
advanced in medical literature. For a number of years he 
was president of the Franklin Medical Society, and upon 
taking- up his residence within the limits of Hampden Co., 
he was called upon to fill a like position in the Hampden 
County Medical Society. For forty years he had been a 
member of the Massachusetts Medical vSociety. Although 
in no way connected with Amherst College, he nevertheless 
received from that institution the degree of A. M. in 1866. 
While in Bernardston he found time to devote himself to 
outside duties, being for 12 years postmaster of the place, 
also one of the trustees of Cushman Library, and one of the 
earnest workers for the founding of Powers Institute. He 
was always well read upon the general literature of the day, 
and took pride in so keeping himself. Possessed of reten- 
tive mind he profited by what he read. Mrs. Dwight resides 
in North Amherst. Children : 

i. Mary^, m. Edward H. Perkins. He is dead; she resides Hart- 
ford, Ct. 
ii. Nellie^, d. young 

ill. William G.^, m. Miss Ryan, Nov., 1896, of Holyoke. They re- 
side in Holyoke, where he is the editor and pubHsher of the 
Holyoke Transcript. 

Edwards, Thomas, b. about 1748; is presumably descended from 
Alexander Edwards, who in 1640 came from Wales and set- 
tled in Springfield. He m. Ruth . She d. Mch. 5, 

1832, ae. 84 years. He held several minor town offices. 
His home was on Huckle Hill, on the place now owned by 
John B. Field. He d. Aug. 7, 1808. 

i. Luther^, b. Apr. 30^ 1775; d. Oct. 3, 1792. 

ii. Olive^, b. July 14, 1777; m. Dec. 6, 1821, Jesse Billings of South 
Deerfield. (3rd wife) She d. Sept. 20, 1848. 
2. iii. Thomas Lyman^, b. Apr. 22, 1779. 

iv. Elizabeth^, b. Jan. 23, 1782; d. Oct. 21, 1843. 
V. SiMON^, b. Sept. 3, 1786; m. Tryphena H. Nash of Greenfield. 
Intention recorded Sept. 5, 1812. She d. Dec. 29, 1814; m. (2) 


Mary of New York State. She d. May 24, 1865. He 

resided on the Doolittle place on Huckle Hill. Selling this he 
bought and removed to the Col. Ferry place now owned by 
Henry C. Cushman. He d. Mch. 11, 187 i. Had: i. Jonas N., 
or Jonathan N.'^, b. 1814; d. Oct. 10, 1819. 
vi. Lathrop-, b. July 20, 1790; m. Lendy M. Melendy of Guilford, 
Vt.; resided on the farm now owned by Lorenzo Hales, removing 
thence in the autumn 1856 to Sullivan, Jefferson Co., Wis., 
where he d. Oct. 7, 1873. Had: i. George^, b. July 30, 1815; 
m. Nov. 21, 1850, Mrs. Ruth C. Melendy of Eagle, Wis.; resided 
Sullivan, Wis. 2. Henry L.'\ b. Aug. 12, 1818; m. Jan. 8, 1852, 
Eliza A. Gilbert of VVis. 3. Jonathan L."', b. Oct. 24, 1820; d. 
Oct. 2. 1823. 4. Harriet Elvira, b. 1822; d. Feb. 28, 1823. 5. 
Mary Gale^ b. 1824; m. Nov. 28, 1850, Monroe A. Webster of 
Montague, where she d. Oct. 13, 1851. 6. William Simon. 7. 
Elizabeth Helen'^ 8. Sarah Jane'. 9. Charles L •', b. 1836; 
d. Mch. 2, 1841. 10. John Melendy'*, res. Sullivan, Wis. 

The order of birth is uncertain in the above family. 

2. Edwards, Thomas LYMAN^ (Thomas',) b. Apr. 22, 1779; ^■ 
Thankful Alexander. Their intention was published June 2. 
1804. She d. May 16, 1842. He d. Jan. 6, 1819. Children : 

i. RuTH^, b. Apr. 23, 1805; d. Sept. 6, 1805. 

ii. RuxH F.^, b. July 19, 1806; m. Alvah'' Hastings of Gill; d. July 1 1, 

iii. 'I'homas L.^ b. Nov. i, 1808; d. June 28, 181 7. 

»wiGHT A.'', b. May 7, 1810; m. Mary W. Prouty of Halifa.x, Vt., 
Sept. 14, 1831. Had: i. Lyman I)wight\ b. May i, 1832. 2. 
Martha Dickinson-*, b. Aug. 12, 1833. 3- Austin Lorcnzo^ b. 
Feb. 25, 1835. 
v. Thankful M.'*, b. Apr. 11, 1812; d. in (iill, Dec. 15, 1865. 
vi. Trvphena''', b. Jan. 29, 1815; m. Mch. 27, 1832, George A.' Alex- 
ander; d. Sept, 9, 1836. 
vii. LuTHKR L.'', b. Nov. 28, 1817; d. Sept. 26, 1823. 

The records of the Edwards families are not very complete. 
Enda, John, by birth a Hessian, was a member of Burgoyne's 


army, and upon its disbanding, settled in town on the place 
now owned by H. Weimers, formerly by Dea. Arthur Wells. 
He has descendants living in this vicinity. 

Evens, John. The Evens farm lay on the top of West Mountain, 
west of Lewis Slate's, one part of whose land is to-day known 
as the "Evens Orchard." John and John Evens, Jr., were 
warned from town Feb. 9, 1790, at which time they were re- 
corded as being "Transient Persons." They had then been in 
town at least 12 years. It is supposed that he m. a sister of 

Israel Slate's wife, Hurlbert of Chatham, Ct. ; held 

some minor town offices ; was out for eight months in Capt. 
Alvord's Co., Col. Brewers' Reg. Had: John ; perhaps others. 

Ferry, Aretas\ (Noah Jr.', Noah', Charles', who came to this coun- 
try from Holland about 1660, settling finally at Springfield,) 
b. m Granby, Mass., June 19, 1800. In June, 1825, he began 
trade in his native place, four years later engaging in a like 
business in Montague, remaining there until his removal to 
Bernardston in the fall of 1837. Here he continued business 
for 16 years. For about 15 years he also manufactured 
scythe snaths, as noticed in another portion of this volume. 
In 1867 he retired from business, and purchased the P. L. 
Cushman farm, nearly opposite the hotel. He held various 
town offices both in Montague and Bernardston. Was ap- 
pointed justice of the peace Mch., 1834 ; chosen to represent 
Montague in the Legislature in 1836, and in 1868 represented 
his district a second time. He was a member of the State 
militia, and there obtained his title, declining a proffered 
promotion to the office of brigadier-general. 

He donated the ground upon which stands Powers Insti- 
tute, and was for many years a trustee of both that institu- 
tion and Cushman Library. He m. in 1821, Mary J., dau. of 
William Ward of Shutesbury. She d. Dec. 18, 1884; was b. 
Mch. 30, 1797. He d. Oct. 7, 1879. ^ ™^^ *^^ strong and 
natural intellect, he was an ardent advocate of good educa- 
tion, and by his gifts served to render aid in the cause that 
others might glean those things, the need of which he per- 
sonally experienced. Children : 


i. Susan Sanderson^, b. Jan. 13, 1822; m. (i) June 12, 1844, Judge 
Henry Perkins of Hartford, Ct. He d. Feb. 7, 1862; m. (2) 
Rev. Dr. George H. Clark of Hartford; she d. Dec, 1897. A 
noble woman who did much for the Institute here, and to make 
smooth the rough places in the lives of others. At the settle- 
ment of the Ferry estate she donated the sum received from the 
sale of her father's farm to the Institute, 
ii. Ward Aretas^, b. Aug. 21, 1829; resided on the homestead 
U[)til his death, Mch. 8, 1891; unm. 

Field, Aaron', (Ebenezer^ Samuel', Zachariah', the English 
progenitor of the American Fields.) Samue? lived at Hat- 
field, was sergeant in the Falls Fight ; SamueP inherited his 
father's right in the Falls Fight Township ; Aaron, born 
Mch. 17, 172 1, settled in town on Huckle Hill, about 1753, 
just north of the present John B.- Field place. The house 
has been burned ; m. Eunice, dau. of Nathaniel Frary of 
Deerfield, May 26, 1743. She was b. Nov. 30, 1721 ; d. Oct. 28, 
1813. He was a soldier in the French and Indian War, his 
name appearing on John Burk's roll ending Nov. 30, 1758. 
During the Revolution he served as Committee of Corre- 
spondence in 1775, to which office in 1776, was added that of 
Inspection and Safety. He began his career as town officer 
in 1762, and in 1774 was selectman, and treasurer 1776 to 81. 
He d. Mch. 17, 1800. Children : 

i. Chloe^, b. Dec. 29, 1743; m. 1764, Samuel Shattuck of Greenfield, 
ii. Eunice^, b. also Dec. 29, 1743; m. about 1761, Joseph Wells of 

iii. Irene'^, b. Sept. 11, 1745; m. in 1769, Lieut. Daniel Newcomb of 

iv. Joanna or Anna^, b. 1747; m. (i) Seba^ Allen, Aug., 1786. He 
d. July 10, 1798; m. (2) Salmon Clapp of Montague. 
V. Mehitable^, b. 1748; m. Dea. Jonathan" Sheldon. She d. Jan. 16, 

vi. Jesse\ b. Mch. 15, 1749. 
vii. Rachael^, b. 1751; m. 1774, Dr. Polycarpus'^ Cushman; died 

Sept. I, 1812. 
viii. AzuBA^, b. 1762; d. Jan. 6, 1831; unm. 

FIELD. 387 

ix. Olive^, m. Reuben Sheldon of Leyden. 
X. Maria^, d. in infancy. 

xi. Dfxime^ m. Shubal Fuller of Windhall, N. Y., Aug. i, 1790, 
(T. R.); rem. to Ohio. 

2^. Field, Dea. Jesse", (Aaron', Ebenezer', SamueF, Zachariah',) b. 
Mch. 15, 1749; m. Lydia', dau. Major John' Burk. She was 
b. Apr. 4, 1755; died May 26, 1808. Dea. Field served as 
tithingman in 1779, and warden 1786. He d. Jan. 15, 1823. 
Children : 

i. Letiiia'', b. Dec. 16, 1779; d. .May 20, 1864; unm. 

ii. Aaron*^, b. Aug. 3, 1780; m. Lovina^ dau. Moses* Scott, Jr., 1804. 
He d. Feb. 14, 1807; she m. (2) Timothy^ Hale, Nov. 26, 1812. 
She d. Sept. 12, 1863, in Wales. Had: i. Augustus Rodney'^, 
b. Feb. 22, 1805; m. Theola, dau. of Isaac Plummer of Brattle- 
boro, Vt.; deceased. Had three children. 2. Aaron Wesson**, 
b. Jan. 13, 1807; m. Harriet, dau. John Hamilton, and had four 
children. He d. in East Hartford, Ct., Dec. 26, 1872. 

iii. Eunice'*, b. Aug. 25, 17S2; m. John Reuben^ Slate, 1805. She d. 
Nov. 18, 1864. 

iv. Tartia**, b. Apr. 19, 1785; m. Bethan H.^ Dickinson, 1804. 

V. " Lucinda'', b. Jan. 11,1787; m. Josephus^ Slate, 1805; d. Mch. 13. 

vi. Lydia**, b. Apr. 20, 1788; d. Aug. 7, 1855; unm. 
3. vii. Jesse^ b. Aug. 25, 1792. 

viii. Sarah^, b. Apr. 11, 1795; ^- -^^S- ii' 1871; unm. 

ix. LoviNA^, b. Dec. 1, 1798; in. Nov. 22, 1821, Thaddeus* Parmen- 
ter; d. Dec. 8, 1871. 

3. Field, Jesse*, (Dea. Jesse', Aaron', Ebenezer^ Samuel", Zach- 

ariah',) b. Aug. 25, 1792; m. Lurancy*, dau. of Elias' Par- 
menter, Dec. 31, 1818. Slie was b. Jan. 30, 1798; d. Oct. 13, 
1876. He d. May 6, 1883. His home was on Huckle Hill, 
just north of the Seorim Slate place. Children: 

i. Mary Hoyt', b. ]Mch. 30, 1820; m. Mch. 6, 185 1, Richard Bagg 
of Montague, (second wife); d. May 30, 1888. He d. June, 1893. 
ii. Aaron Wesley", b. Apr. 5, 1822; d. Aug. 16, 1825. 

4. iii. John Burk^, b. June 27, 1824. 


iv. Harriet Lovina", b. Oct. i, 1826; m. Oct. 9, 1866, Otis Chitten- 
den, her deceased Aunt Sybil Parmenter's husband; res. North 

V. SoPHRONiA LuRANCY^, b. Dec. 26, 1829; m. Mch. 4, 1855, Alonzo 
Graves; resides Pine Grove Farm, Cxreenfield. 

vi. Aaron Wesley", b. Oct. 31, 1837. Began studying for college 
1859 under Prof. Ward; entered Williams 186 [, but left to serve 
in the Civil War. Returning, he graduated from that Institu- 
tion in 1865, and from the Theological School in 1870; m. (i) 
June 12, 1867, Jennie S., dau. of Jonas Raymond; m. (2) No- 
vember 19, 188^, Alice Breman. She d. Aug. 14, 1891. He 
resides New Marlboro, Berkshire Co.; three children; 

4. Field, John Burk', (Jesse", Dea. Jesse\ Aaron*, Ebenezer', Sam- 
uel", Zachariah',) b. June 27, 1824: m. Sarah Huey, dau. of 
Obee and Hanah (Littlefield) Hubbs of Brooks, Me., June 10, 
1857; resides on Huckle Hill, just north of the original 
"Meeting house site," and opposite the site of the Dea. Shel- 
don Fort. He was selectman in 1884-5 ^^'^ ^- Children : 

1. John Erie Burk**, b. Oct. 7, 1858; m. Apr. 29, 1885, Sarah, dau. 
of William Bain of Northfield. He resides on his farther's farm 
upon Huckle Hill. Had: i. William", b. Apr. 24, 1887. 2. 
Edith", b. Aug. 23, 1890. 3. Harriet Eveline'*, b. Jan. 19. 1895. 

ii. Harriet Lurancy**, b. Jan. 30, 1862; m. Marcus L. Southworth, 
May I, 1884; resides Brockton, Mass.; one son. 

Field, Edmund Longley', (Theodore", Elijah'. Joseph', Joseph^ 
Joseph", Zachariah',) b. in Hawley, July 27, 1831 ; m. June 5. 
1872, Harriet W. Grisvv^old of Greenfield ; resides East Bern., 
on the place formerly owned by B. S. Burrows: no children. 

Field, Morris Edwin', (Elijah', Theodore', Elijah'. Joseph\ Jos- 
eph", Joseph', Zachariah',) b. Sept. 30, 1857; removed from 
Charlemont to town 1899, residing on the old Dr. Wheeler 
place north of the Institute, now owned by George R. Paige ; 
m. Mary, dau. of Dea. Jason Rice of Greenfield. Children: 

i. Evelyn L.^ 
ii. Genevieve R." 


Flagg, Dr. Samuel Jr., the fourth physician in town, was b. in 
'East Hartford, Ct., Apr. 2, 1766, and was the son of Samuel 
Flagg of that place. He m. Mary, dau. of Jonah or David 
Wyles of Bolton, Ct., Nov. 23, 1790. He resided a few years 
in East Hartford, removing thence to Greenfield, and about 
the year 1798 to Bernardston, settling in the north part of 
the town, and practising as a physician until his death, 
July 30, 1804. In 1801 it was noted that he kept a hotel. 
He was buried with Masonic ceremonies, and judging from 
the published obituaries, must have been a man much re- 
spected. His widow m. (2) Simeon' Allen in 1806. vShe was 
b. in Colchester, Ct., Mch. 25, 1767, and d. Aug. 11, 1845. 

i. Charles^ b. Nov. 8, 1791, in East Hartford, Ct.; d. at Dedham, 

Mass., Jan. 3, 1847. 
ii. Mary Sophia'^ b. in Greenfield, May i. 1797; m. Dec. 10, 1820, 

Capt. Samuel^ Root of Bern.; d. Aug. 16, 1827. 
ill. Patty Eliza^, b. in Bern. May 8, 1800; m. J. B. Prentice of New 

York State; d in Bern., Oct. 7, 1829. 
iv. Samuel Griswold^, b. Mcli. 8, 1802; in. Harriet Maxwell of 

Flint, Anson, m. — Phila. She was b. 1803 ; d. June 7, 1859, 

ae. 56. He was a harness maker by trade, coming here from 
Townshend, Vt., or vicinity, his home and place of business 
being on South street, the place belonging to the Hare es- 
tate. Children : 

i. Lucy Maria^, b. Feb. 24, 1826; d. Jan. 15, 1844. 

ii. Louisa Cornelia^, b. Oct. 4, 1828; d. June 15, 1857. 
iii. Benjamin O.-, b. June 6, 1830; d. July 25, i860, 
iv. John Hayden'^, b. Feb. 21, 1832; d. June 30, 1854. 

Foster, Jacob, b. 1731 ; d. June 30, 181 3, ae. 82 years. He is re- 
corded as being the first "grave digger" employed by the 

Foster, John' Sergeant, (Jacob\ Isaacl Reginald', of Ipswich, 
Mass.,) b. Ipswich, in 1702. His name appears on John 


Burk's enlistment roll ending Nov. 30, 1758. He was in 
Capt. Williams' Co., stationed at Colrain, Oct. 19, 1756, to 
Jan. 23, 1757. In 1760 he resided on Gamaliel Kingsley's 
place, east of the present iron bridge at the village. Sept. 2 i , 
1764, he had laid out to him the draft No. 26, 3rd division, 
with two acres added for roads. The house which he owned 
at one time is still standing upon the Newcomb road, North 
Bernardston. He was of Deerfield, 1741. He m. in Lebanon, 
Ct., 1724, Hannah Thorp; resided successively at Lebanon, 
Ct., Deerfield and Bernardston. Children : 

i. Isaac', b. 1725; m. (i) July 11, 1754, Jane Allen; she d. Dec. 13, 
1762; (2) 1794. Editha Miller. Finally settled in Greenfield, 
where he became a prominent citizen; d. Mch. 13, 1796. 
2. ii. EzEKiEL^ b. 1727, in Lebanon, Ct. 

iii. John'*, b. in Deerfield; m. Mindwell Atherton of Greenfield, .Apr. 24. 
1781. He was a soldier in the French and Indian Wars of 
1746-57. He rem. from Bern, to Hancock, N. H., where his 
wife d., and he m. (2) Lydia Foster of 'i'emple, N. H. He d. in 
Hancock in 1810. Had: i. John". 2. Sarah*'. 3. Mercy''. 
4. Josiah". 5. Joshua**. 6. Rebecca**. 7. Silas". 8. Betsey**. 

There were probably other children, names not known. 

2. Foster, Lieut. Ezekiel', (Sgt. John', Jacob', Isaac', Reginald',) 

b. in Lebanon, Ct., 1727; m. May, 1751, Margaret Henry, at 
which date he was a resident of Deerfield. He served in the 
French and Indian Wars. Ezekiel Foster was out on the 
western frontier for 20 days in 1756. had the title of corporal. 
He was in Capt. Israel Williams" Co., stationed at Colrain. 
Oct. ig, 1756, to Jan. 23, 1757, for which service he received 
£4, I2S., 5d. He d. Apr. 17, 1805. Children: 

i. Ephraim^. 

3. ii. Capt. Ezekiel, Jr.^, b. 1752. 

3. Foster, Capt. Ezekiel, Jr.", (Ezekier. Sgt. John\ Jacob\ Lsaac^ 
Reginald',) b. in 1752; m. Chloe", dau. of Capt. William' 
Burnham, and sister of Capt. Elisha' Burnham. She was b. 
in Connecticut in 1757; d. in Leyden, July 9, 1849. ^^ 

FOSTER. 391 

served in military affairs, going out May i, 1775, as second 
lieutenant in Capt. A. Wells' Co., traveled 112 miles, being 
discharged Sept. 23, 1775; served again in 1778. He was 
engaged in the Shays Rebellion, and he it was who took an 
active part in the breaking up of the Dorrellite sect. He d. 
June 17, 1824, in Leyden. Children: 

i. Ezra', b. Sept. 21, 1779. 

ii. Rliakim', b. 17S6; m. Wealthy A. I). Phelps; d. in Ohio. 
iii. Horace', went to Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, 
iv. J()siah\ b. 1784. 
V. RuFUs", went to Hamilton, Ontario. 

vi. EzEKiEL, Jr'., went to Hamilton, Ontario; served with his father 
in the Revolution. He d. s. p., and his property was divided 
between the Canadian Crovernment and his heirs in Leyden. 
vii. Electa', b. June 12, 1796; m. Major Samuel Eason of Leyden. 

viii. Lurancy', m. Babcock; resided Caledonia, N. Y. 

ix. Chioe', m. Cately; res. New York State. 

Fos'iKR, Ezra', (Capt. Ezekiel, Jr"., EzekieP, vSgt. John', Jacob', 
Isaac", Reginald',) b. vSept. 21, 1779. He was captam in the 
State militia, selectman and overseer of the poor; m. Nancy, 
dau. of Joseph Smith, 1807. She was b. Oct. 25, 1781; died 
Feb. 21, 1875. He d. Mch. i, 1864. Children: 

I. Nancy-, b. May 6, 1808; m. Charles Hebard; res. Mich.; died 

July 14, 1849. 
ii. PoLLY^, b. Oct. 30, 1809; d. Nov. 12, 1809. 
iii. Sylvia*, b. Feb. 12, 181 1; d. Feb. 25, 1857. 
iv. Mary^ b. Mch. 2, 1813; d. July 8, 1852. 
v. EzRA*^, b. Feb. 2, 181 5; m. (0 ^^Y 6, 1846, Sarah A. Wilbur, who 

was b. 1818; d. June 4, 1862; (2) May 17, 1863, Susan A., dau. 

Manly Mowry. She was b. Sept. 15, 1840. Mr. Foster was for 

many years a teacher; resided the latter part of his life on a 

farm in Leyden. He d. Sept. 8, 1897. Had: i. Frank W.^ m. 

Martha Pond, 1873; was for many years in the clothing business; 

res. Greenfield; s. p. 2. Edgar S.''; d. 3. Charles'*; d. 
vi. Joseph S.*, b. Dec 18, 1816; m. Newton. They resided 

on Frizzle Hill, Leyden. Both are dead. Had: i. Leroy', 

resides Vermont. 2. Newton^, res. just above "Keet's Mills," 

Beaver Meadow, Leyden. 


vii. Sally Maria^, b. Apr. 2, 1819; m. Nelson J. Warner, 
viii. Louisa Sophia^ b. May 4, 1824; d. Feb. 5, 1848. 
ix. Ransom^, b. Feb. 9, 1826; m. Feb. 18, 1852, Climena, dau. Rufus 

and Sabra (Wells) Frizzell. She was b. Apr. 19, 1828; d. June 16, 

1897. He res. Beaver Meadow, Leyden; a farmer; d. Sept. 10, 

1899. Had: i. Mary C.^, m. Henry Potter of Brattleboro, Vt.; 

d. ae. 27 years. 2. Sara S.^, d. ae. 21 years. 3. Lottie L.^, b. 

Sept. 24, 1854: m. Frank J. Allen of Greenfield, May i, 1878. 

4. Nora H.", m. F. A. Cowan; res. Natural Bridge, N. Y. 5. 

Nancy S.^, m. Ur. Daniel Griffin; res. Lynn. 6. Frank R.'*, 

resides at home. 7. Lila E.^, is a teacher. 

5. Foster, Josiah', (Capt. Ezekief, EzekieF, Sgt. John', Jacob', 
Isaac", Reginald',) b. 1784 ; m. Anna Eustis. She d. Aug-. 26, 
1846; he d. Oct. 20, 1826. Children: 

i. Washington B.*, b. 1812; m. Theoma G. . He d. in New 

Haven, Ct., Aug. 24, 1836. Had: i. Washington Wells'", b. 
Feb. 8, 1833; brought up by his uncle in Bernardston. 

ii. JosiAH**, b.. 1816; ra. Mary M., who d. in Albany, N. Y., 

Apr. 22, 1851, ae. 42; he d. Mch. 31, 1853. 

iii. Daughter*, who m. Gilbert; res. Hartford, Ct. 

iv. George*. 

V. William Winchester'*, b. Aug. 23, 1820; m. Apr. 6, 1842, Susan, 
dau. Nathan Robbins of Deerfield. He d. May 22, 1855. She 
m. (2) Thomas Jefferson* Foster. He and his brother resided 
on the north side of the Newcomb road. Had; i. Freder- 
ick W.^, b. July 22, 1843; d. July 9, 1846. 2. Luette Louise^ d. 
Aug. 21, 1850. 3. Nathan W.^, d. Sept. 15, 1850. 

vi. Thomas Jefferson^, b. Dec. 6, 1822; m. (i) Potter of 

Frizzell Hill; m. (2) Susan, dau. Nathan Robbins, and widow 
of his brother, William W. Foster. After her death, he m, a 
woman from Ohio. He d. in Bern., on the Israel P. Hale place. 
Had: i. Daughter, m. Jenner Jones of West Deerfield. 

Fox, Noah, came hither with his brother William from Glaston- 
bury, Ct., about the time of the breaking out of the Revolu- 
tion. He m. Content . He was one of the persons 

warned from town Feb. 9, 1780, at which time he had prob- 
ably lived here at least 15 years. Children : 

FOX. 393 

i. Wealthy''^, b. Feb. 13, 1780; m. Oct. 14, 1800, Joseph Wise, Jr., 
of Deerfield. 

ii. Delight^, b. Sept. 12, 1781. 
iii. NoAH^, b. Aug. 12, 1783. 
iv. L.EONARD^, b. May 31, 1785. 

V. Tenty'^, b. Oct. 25, 1786. 
vi. Sally^, b. Nov. 21, 1788. 
vii. Ira~, b. May 24, 1791. 

viii. Chester^, b. May 19, 1793; drowned Aug. 10, 1803. 
ix. Anna^, b. July 13, 1795. 

1. Fox, William, b. about 1750; came hither in company with his 

brother Noah from Glastonbury, Ct. ; m. (i) Sarah, sister of 
Elder Levi Hodges. Shed. Apr. 2, 1783, ae. 32 years; m. (2) 
Elizabeth^ dau. of Benjamin' Green; she d. Mch. 20, 1839, 
ae. 82 years. In 1778 he served on the Committee of Corre- 
spondence, Inspection and Safety. That year his name ap- 
pears on the town records with the title corporal, prefixed. 
His home was on the Fox Brook road, north-west from the 
hotel. He d. July 12, 1823, ae. 73. Children : 

i. Sarah'^, b. Feb. 25, 1771; d. May, 1797. Perhaps that Sarah Fox 

who m. Nov. 20, 1793, Ruggles Green, 
ii. Patience^, b. Sept. 2, 1773; (twin) m. Jonathan^ Park, in 1792-3. 
iii. William^, b. Sept. 2, 1773; (twin), 
iv. Roger2, 5 June 2, 1775; d. Apr. 15, 1795. 
V. Fileta^, b. Apr. i6, 1777; m. Woodbridge^ Green, 1799. 
vi. Gad^, b. Nov. 28, 1778. 

vii. Lydia'', b. Aug. 22, 1780; m. Thomas Allis, 1804. 
viii. Aaron", b. June 18, 1782; (twin) m. Chloe', dau. Israel* Bagg; 
Intention rec. Feb. 28, 1807. 
ix. Miriam-, b. June 18, 1782; (twin) m. Daniel Sanderson of Sunder- 
land, Nov. 2, 1805. She d. Dec. 7, 1854. 
By second wife, Elizabeth. 
X. Ruel^, b. Mch. 12, 1784; d. Sept. 19, 1784. 
xi. Eli^, b. Feb. 9, 17S5; in. Harriet Briggs, Sept. 5, 1810. 

2. xii. Jared'^, b. July 11, 1786. 

xiii. Eunice-, b. June ro, 1788; d. Aug. 25, 1803. 

xiv. Chloe'"^, b. Mch. i, 1790; m. Sept. 18, 181 1, John^ Hale, 2nd. 
She d. Dec. 23, 1840. 


XV. Sena^, b. June 3, 1792. 

xvi. Sylvia^, b. Dec. 2, 1793; m. May 6, 1814, Darius Nichols, 
xvii. Terah^ b. June 22, 1795; m. Nov. 2, 1823, Sophronia^ dau. of 
Elias^ Parmenter. She was b. Nov. 3, 1802. He d. Oct. 26, 
1837, ae. 42. She m. (2) Moses Wait, Jr., of Hubbardston, 1838; 
d. Oct. 21, 1891. Had: i. Sheldon Snow^, d. Sept. 8, 1825. 
2. Terah^, d. young. 3. Sophronia^ d. young, 
xviii. Silas Green^ b. Nov. 12, 1796; m. (i) Oct. 10, 1824, Phinanda, 
dau. Zebediah^ Slate; d. Apr. 29, 1825, ae. 21 years; m. (2) 
Eunice F.^ da-u. Israel* Chapin. She d. Dec. i, 1888, ae. 83. 
He d. Mch. 23, 1883. Had: i. Frederick P.^ b. Apr. 12, 1825; 
d. May 10, 1831. 2. Amerus Goodsir\ b. Feb. 24, 1827; d. 
May 9, 1831. 3. Julia Ann-', b. Nov. 26, 1829; d. June 21, 
1845. 4. Solomon Chapin^, b. July 4, 1836; res. Montague, 
where he m. and d. 5. Celestia Ophelia'^ b. Oct 17, 1839; in. 

Mack; res. Bratlleboro. 6. Edmund Burk\ b. Mch. 2, 

1842; resides Nantucket, where he has been for a long time 
principal of the Coffin Academy. He is prominent in both social 
and civil affairs of the place, and has taken an active interest 
in advancing the welfare of all who have been his pupils; unin. 
7. Luke Gilmore^, b. Aug. 4, 1845; d. Mch. 29, 1868. 

xix. Elizabeth*, b. May 16, 1798; m. Apr. i, 1819, Seorim'^ Hale; d. 
May 18, 1843. 

There are one or two others, names not known. 

2. Fox, Jared^ (William.) b. July 11, 1786; tn. (i) Oct. 24, 1810, 
Lucinda, dau. of Carmi Wright of Adams. She d. May 8, 
1840, ae. 54 years ; m. (2) Jan. 12, 1842, Lucinda A. Mitchell of 
Charlemont. He d. Apr. 9, 1844, ^^^ she m. (2) May 17, 1845, 
Reuben' Park. She was b. Sept. 27, 1798, and d. Oct. lo, 1875. 

i. Selah WrictHT^, b. June 13, 1812; was twice m.; a blacksmith 
and mechanic; resided Whately, where he d. Nov. 3, 1881. 

ii. Horace B.'*, b. May r, 1813; was a blacksmith, removing in 1834 
to Whately; m. and d. Apr. 12. 1881. 

iii. Silas G.'*, b. July 14, 1815; resided New York State. 

iv. Eli C.'\ b. Mch. 8, 1817; m. Mrs. Margaret F. Newell Strickland 
of Greenfield, sister of the late Barnard Newell, and widow of 


Russell F. Strickland. Shekel, in Burlms^ton, la.. Mch. 22, 1895, 
ae. 86 years. For a number of 3'ears Mr. Fox kept the New 
England House. About 1865, he went VVest, where a few years 
later he died. Had: i. Herbert Duane"*, b. Aug. 6, 1842; re- 
sided in the West. 2. Everett C.*, is ticket agent of the Bur- 
lington railroad at Kansas City. 
V. F)dward VV.'^, b. Mch. 12, 1819; ni. Betsey W Thayer of Monta- 
gue, Apr. 13, 1841; resides Brattleboro, Vt. Had: i. Havil- 
lah R.\ b. Aug. 16, 1843. 

vi. Salmon H.'"*, b. Nov. 25, 1822; tn. twice; resided in VVest Swan- 
zey, N. H., where he had been a successful merchant; d Apr. 27, 

vii. LuciNDA S.\ b. Nov. 12, 1824; m. July 4, 1845, Benjamin A. Ed- 
wards of Chesterfield. She d. Sept. 6, 1847. He was a mem- 
ber of Co. H, 67th Reg., Ohio Vol.; d. May 14, 1888, ae. 65, 
and was buried in Bern. 

viii. Mary Janf;', b. Apr. 6, 1826; d. Sept. 17, 1826. 
ix. George F.^, b. June 10, 1829. 

Fr.anklin, Mrs. E. M., came to town recently from Guilford, Vt., 
residing on South st. Has children. 

1. Frizzel, Samuel', (Samuel", James', who was b. in 1626, came 
to this country about 1652, settling in Roxbury, and died 
Feb. 6, 1 7 16. ae. 90 years. The family is supposed to have 
been of Scotch origin,) b. 1700; m. Prudence Flagg of Water- 
town, Feb. I, 1727. Six of their children were b. in Shrews- 
bury. Children: 

i. Samuel*, b. Apr. 5, 1729, in Fratningham, said to have gone to 

Salem and joined the Shakers or Quakers, 
ii. John'*, b. Sept. 20, 1730, in Framingham; d, in Northfield, 1815. 
iii. Prudence*, b. 1732; m. Moses Dickinson. 1756; d. May 15, 1790. 
iv. Abigail*, b. 1734; ni. Jason Parmenter. 
v. Mary*, b. 1736. 

vi. Lucy*, perhaps, m. Nathaniel Brooks; resided Vernon, Vt. 
vii. Susanna*, b. 1739. 

viii. Michael*, b. 1740, in Leicester. He became a resident of Ber- 
nardston in or before 1746, so presumably Michael Frizzel was 
one of the 17 families settling in town. He m. Hannah'*, dau. 


of Samuel* Connabel, and widow of James Maxwell. They set- 
tled on "Frizzel Hill." She was said to be a great story teller. 
Mr. Frizzel was constable 1778. He was a soldier against the 
Indians in 1757, and his tombstone has the title captain upon it. 
He had no children, but adopted his nephew, Elijah, son of his 
brother Benjamin, to whom he bequeathed a part of his prop- 
erty. He d. 1815. 
2. ix. Reuben*, b. 1742. 

X. Benjamin*, b. 1758; rem. from Vernon to Canaan, Vt., ab. 1793. 

2. Frizzel, Reuben*, (SamueF, SamueP, James',) b. 1742; with his 

brother Michael was a pioneer in town ; m. (i) Rachael Orvis; 
(2) Widow Lydia Stebbins of Deerfield ; (3) Oct. 11, 1786, 
Esther, dau. of Joshua Lyman of Northfield. She was born 
June 12, 1752; d. Mch. 18, 1826. He was constable and col- 
lector 1779. He served in both the French and Indian War 
and the Revolution. He built one of the first frame houses 
in that part of the town afterwards Leyden, in which he d. 
Oct. 31, 1822. Children: 

i. Michael", b. 1770; m 1792, Sally, dau. David Page; removed to 
New York State and took the name of Frazier, which he be- 
lieved to be the original spelling of the name. 

3, ii. Reuben, Jr.', b. 1771. 

iii. Levi; left no descendants. 

iv. Zenas, changed his name to that of Frazier; res. Luzerne, N. Y. 

V. Susanna^, m. Mch. 3, 1785, Samuel Connabel of Leyden; res. 
New York State, 
vi. Rachael^ 

3. Frizzel, Reuben, Jr.", (Reuben*, SamueP, Samuel', James',) b. 
1771; m. Anna ; d. June 20, 1818. Children: 

Rufus", m. Almeda^ dau. John^ Nelson; she d. Feb. 5, 1901. 

Res. on south end of Frizzell Hill. 
Calvin^, rem. to Jefferson, N. Y., where he d. 
Amelia L).\ b. 1790; m. Jan. 15, 1822, Abel Shattuck. She d. 

Mch. 14. 1838. 
Rachael", b. Aug., 1796; m. James' Shattuck, Aug., 1818. She 

d. May 6, 1829. 


Bency*^, b. June 19, 1801; m. James' Shattuck, 1832; d. Oct. 27, 

Marcus*', b. July 27, 1805; m. Mch. 22, 1832, Cynthia Potter. 
She was b. Jan. 13, 1810; d. Sept. 29, 1898. He d. July 24, 
1877. He resided on Frizzel Hill until about 1870, then rem. 
to Bernardston, settling on the place now owned by his son on 
Burk Flat. Had: i. Elizabeth A.', b. Jan. 19, 1833; m. Nov. 9, 
1856, George R. Williams of Chicopee. 2. Lucia A.', born 
Nov. 13, 1834; m. May 31, 1858, Robert Williams of West 
Springfield. He d. Feb. 19, 1898. She resides in Easthampton. 
3. Joseph S.'. b. Mch. 2, 1836; res. California. 4. Henry C.\ 
h. Mch. 19, 1838; m. Mch. 6, i860, Angelia C.^ dau. Charles^ S. 
Park. He d. Aug. 7, 1867. She m. (2) Oct. 19, 1873, Arthur 
C. Brooks; res. Greenfield. 5. Emma V.', b. Sept. 2, 1841; d. 
Oct. 15, 1841. 6. Frederic M.', b. Aug. 24, 1841; resides on 
place formerly owned by Willis Gray, and later by O. W. Gray, 
Burk Flat. 7. Rufus A.", b. Feb. 14, 1846; m. Jan. i, 1877, 
Anna M. Strangford. She d. Feb. 2, 1887. He d. Oct. 17, 
1887. 8. Edwin C.'', b. Feb. 14, 1848;^ resides Northampton. 
9. George W.'', b. Nov. 1, 1850; d. Aug. 18, 1870. 10. Hat- 
tie A.'', b. June 1, 1853; resides Bern, with her brother Freder- 
ick. II. Emma C.', b. Sept. 10, 1855; m. Apr. 26, 1882, Rich- 
ard E. Spencer of Rocky Hill, Ct. She d. July 8, 1890. 

Climena'', m. (1) Newton; (2) James' Shattuck, Dec. 18, 

Ann^, m. Jabez Weaver. 

Miranda'', m. Justin Salisbury. 

Elizabeth'', m. Allen Eason; res. Leyden, 1886. 

Gilbert, Joshua, b. 1758; m. Elizabeth ; resided on Huckle 

HiU. She was b. 1769; d. Feb, i, 1814. He died Mch. 17, 
1825. Children: 

i. Abigail, b. 1799; d. Mch. 4, 1857. 
ii. Lucy, b. 1803; d. Mch. 12, 1813. 
iii. Henry, b. 1805; d. Mch. 9, 18x3. 

GoODALE, Hon. Job', (Nathan', John^ Zachariah', Robert',) b. in 
Marlboro, Mass., or Plymouth, Ct. He m. Apr., 1794, Lydia, 
dau. of Obed and Mary (Todd) Foote of Waterbury, Ct., 


where she was b. May 15, 1774; d. Mch. 30, 1863. Mr. Good- 
ale settled in Bernardston in 18 14, residing in the house now 
owned by Willis Stratton. His principal business was that 
of a drover. He also owned the grist and saw-mill formerly 
located near the iron bridge, which later passed into posses- 
sion of his son-in-law, the late Z. C. Newcomb. 

During the winter and spring months it was here the cus- 
tom to grind wheat and rye into flour, also plaster brought 
from Maine or Nova Scotia for fertilizer. vSummers the 
pond was drawn off, the land fertilized and grown into grass. 
.It is related of Judge Goodale that upon one occasion he in- 
structed his hired man to sow plaster upon this land ; the 
latter went to work ; only too late was the discovery made 
that a hogshead of rye flour had been sown instead of the 
intended plaster. This incident was the cause of considera- 
ble good natured railery at the expense of the Judge. He 
was judge of the old Court of Sessions and was a prominent 
man in his day. Was the founder of Goodale Academy. 
He made various bequests to religious societies, noticeably 
to the Congregational societies in Marlboro, and in town. 
To the Congregational society here he gave the land and 
meeting house so long as they should be used for no pur- 
pose except religious worship or occasional public meetings 
of a social and moral nature. The income of $1,000 was 
given for the purpose of procuring an able orthodox divine 
to annually preach a sermon in that church upon the import- 
ance of early piety and early Christian education for the 
benefit of the young people of the place, also the parsonage. 
He gave to the town $200 to be loaned at six per cent, or the 
legal interest paid annually, both principal and interest to 
be an accumulating fund until the whole amounts to $20,000, 
after which time the annual interest shall be appropriated 
to the support of the poor of the town so far as the same 
may be necessary, and the residue for the support of the 
common .<?chools, and a public library if that should be then 
thought expedient. Dr. William Goodale in the " Old and 
the New" says of him: "I have attended prayer meetings 

GORE — GOULD. 399 

with him in Marlboro, where he exhorted like a judge, and 
prayed like the Publican." He served the town as select- 
man in 181 5- 16-18. He d. Oct. 25, 1833. Children: 

i. Feronia^ b. Feb. 9, 1795; d. Apr. 4, 1798, at Gill. 

ii. Lydia Maria", b. Dec. 22, 1796; m. Feb. 27, 1817, Zebina Cur- 
tis^ Newconib. She d. Sept. 28, 1853. 

Gore, Dea. Ezekiel, b. 1771; m. Marian . He came here 

from Vermont, settling on the place now owned by Meric 
Slate on Burk Flat; d. May 14, 1847. ae. ^6 years. She d. 
Jan. 12, 1852, ae. 81. Children: order of birth uncertain. 

i. Marian-, b. in Halifax, \'t., Feb. 9, 1796; m. Feb. 15, 1815, Rufus 
Chase; d. Aug. 12, 1840. 

ii. John-, resided Brattleb{^ro, Vt. 

iii. Stephen'^, b. 1809; m. (i) .Ann Whitcoinb of Winchendon, Mass. 
She d. Feb. 27, 1847, ae. 37; m. (2) Nancy', dau. Dr. John 
Brooks, Apr., 1847. She d. in Shelburne Falls, 189-. He d. 
in Mitchell, la., Jan. 21, 1861. Had: i. Frances'', m. Dr. 
Hazlett of Nevada. He is dead. 2. Charles', resides Califor- 
nia. 3. Emma'', m. Jasper A. Gale of Warwick; resides Win- 
chester, N. H. By second wife: 4. Mary R.'', d. Jan. i, 1853^ 
ae. 4. 5. John, who d. young. 

iv. Mila'^, m. Jan. 19, 1834, Luke Gore (a cousin) of Black River, 

N. Y., "after a long and tedious courtship of three days." 
V. Lucinda^, d. Nov. 11, 1834, ae. 34. 

vi. Sarah', m. in 1827, Col. Arnold J. Hines of Guilford, Vt. She 
d. March 14, 1835. 

Gould, Gideon, d. Mch. 12, 1840, ae. 79; perhaps the father of 

Gould, Elij.a.h A., m. 18 16, Sophia Earl of Phillipston. She died 
Jan. 29, 18 1 8. 

Gould, Gardner, b. 1790; m. Mary Hills, Nov. 4, 18 10. She died 
July 24, 185 1, ae. 66. He resided on the original Beaver 
Meadow road the first house north of the old carding machine. 
The home site was afterward owned by D. W. Temple, 
J. Smith and J. O. Bliss: suicide by hanging, Apr. 10, 1859, 
ae. 69. Children : 


George \V., b. Feb. 28, 1813; m. Charlotte Burnett of (iuilford, 

Vt.; had two children, Susan A., b. Oct. 6, 1837; m. (i) 

FoUett of Readsboro, Vt.; (2) Rufus Amidon of Readsboro. 2. 
Chandler, m. and resides Springfield. 

William, d. Sept. 11, 1868. 

Lewis F., (twin to George) b. Feb. 28, 1813; d. in Vernon, Vt. 

Hannah M., b. June 25, 1816. 

Gould, Sally, sister of Gardner of Bernardston, m. Silas Hills of 
Guilford, Sept. i, 18 10. 

Gould, James, m. Eunice Wright, Sept. 30, 1811. 

Gould, Lovina, of Bern., m. July 9, 1835, Capt. Aaron Streeter in 

Gould, Mary, d. Nov. 15, 1864, ae. 68. 

1. Gray, Amos', (Jonas',) b. in Pelham, Mass., 1761 ; m. Betsey Reed 

Tyler, who was b. Sept. 5, 1766, and d. in Bern., June 25, 1843. 
He joined the Revolutionary Army when 16 years old, and 
served some time in the vicinity of West Point and White 
Plains. He lived in town for a number of years between 
the years of 1840 and 1850, and is believed to have been the 
last, and for some time the only Revolutionary pensioner in 
the place. Betsey Reed Tyler was the daughter of Hon. 
Joseph Tyler, who also served in the army, being in the bat- 
tle of Bennington, where he was severely wounded. Later 
he commanded the local artillery company, and was for many 
years prominent in town and county affairs. Amos Gray d. 
in Townshend, Vt., Mch. 3, 1850. Children : 

2. Wyllis*, b. Aug 29, 1789, in Townshend, Vt. 
Betsey^, m. Samuel Fessenden; res. Townshend, Vt. 
Lydia'*, b. Nov. 27, 1795; ^- Abijah Pierce of Jamaica, Vt. 
Mehitable'*, m. Bellamy; d. in Ohio. 

Tyler\ Sophia'', Ruth'', Polly'; all d. unm. in Townshend, Vt. 

2. Gray, Willis', (Amos^ Jonas',) b. Aug. 29, 17S9, in Townshend, 
Vt. ; m. Mch. 23, 1819, Emily Newell of Newfane, Vt., who 


GRAY. 401 

was b. Feb. 7, 1796; d. in Bern., Feb. 26, 1872. Mr. Gray 
moved to Bernard.ston in Mch., 1835, residing- there until his 
death. Oct. 16, 1857. He was a farmer by occupation, an up- 
right and useful citizen, and a life long and consistent mem- 
ber of the Orthodox Congregational church. His home was 
upon Burk Flat, the present Frizzell place. Children: 

i. Marcia MARIA^ b. in Townshend, Vi., Apr. 11, 1823; m. Reu- 
ben'' Park, Apr. 16, 1846; res. East Bern. 
2. ii. Ormanuo Wyllis*, b. in Townshend, Vt., Mch. 3, 1829. 

2. Gray, Ormando Wvllis', (Wylli.s'', Amos', Jonas',) b. in Towns- 
hend. Vt., Mch, 3, 1829; moved with his parents to Bern, in 
1835 ; was educated at Goodale Academy and Norwich, Vt., 
Military Academy, graduating in the scientific and engineer- 
ing department of the latter in 1849. ^^i"- ^ray m. Sept. 5, 
185 I, Roxcena L., dau. of Capt. Gideon Arnold of Dexter, 
Mich. She was b. in Brooklyn, Ct., Nov. 10, 1829, and died 
June 13, 1901. Mr. Gray is by profession a surveyor and 
civil engineer ; has been engag^ed mainly in the construction 
and publication of maps and atlases. From 1857 to about 
1870, in an association with the late Prof. H. F. Walling, with 
offices in New York and Boston, was. extensively engaged 
in making county maps from special surveys throughout 
New England, the Middle vStates and Canada, and during 
this time a number of State and general maps were issued, 
including an edition of the Massachusetts State maps in atlas 
form, the plates of which are now owned by the Common- 
wealth. In 1870 he moved to Philadelphia, where, in part- 
nership with his son, the late Frank A. Gray, a general sur- 
veying and geographical ptiblishing business was maintained 
for some years, operations extending over nearly the entire 
country. Returning to Bern, from Philadelphia, he bought 
the Dr. Carpenter place, and later, of Lorenzo Park, the 
Zebina Newcomb place, opposite. Upon this he made exten- 
sive repairs and alterations, fitting it into a model residence, 
which, for some years, he made a summer home. Retiring 
generally from business in 1890, he took up his permanent 


residence in Bernardston, where he has served the town as 
one of the selectmen, president of the trustees of Cushman 
Library, president of the cemetery corporation, and in vari- 
ous other positions of trust and responsibility. He has 
always taken an interest in matters historical, and acknowl- 
edgment is made to him for the use of historical papers 
consulted in the preparation of this work, and for his con- 
tribution of the valuable maps of the town. In 1881 the 
University conferred upon him the degrees of B. S. and C. E. 
He is the present owner of the brick store. Children : 

i. Frank ARNOLD^ b. in Bern., Sept. 4, 1852; d. in Camden, N. J., 
Sept. 17, 1886; (buried in Bernardston). Was educated at 
Powers Institute and VVilbraham Academy; traveled extensively 
in Europe and elsewhere; was in business with his father for the 
latter years of his life, having special charge of the drawing and 
engraving departments of the business; m. Sallie J. Paulson of 
Camden, N. J., Sept. i, 1885, who d. July i, 1888; had one 
child, Ella Paulson* Gray, b. in Camden, Nov. 15, 1886; died 
Feb. 3, 1889. 

ii. Mary Swift'\ b. Aug. 26, 1857; m. Dec. 12, 1877, Irvine Chittick 
Beatty, a manufacturer of Camden, N. J. Had: i. Infant\ b. 
Mch. 7; d. Mch. 10, 1879. 2. William^ b. Jan. 15, 1883. 

iii. Nellie May\ b. in Brooklyn, Ct., Dec. 7, t866; m. Sept. 5, 1888, 
Dr. Willard Henry'" Pierce; resides Greenfield, Mass. 

iv. Annie Newell^, b. in, Camden, N. J., March 3, 1873; res at 
home; unm. 

Green, Benjamin', came to Bernardston in June, 1760 or 1761, set- 
tling on the Woodbridge Green place, or where Galusha 
Newton now lives. He was a native of Salem, Mass, or of 
Rhode Island. En route from the latter place, the hostility 
of the Indians became so pronounced that he stopped at 
West Springfield, where for a few years he inade it his home. 
He m. (i) Elizabeth Coats, who d. at the age of 38 years ; m. 

(2) Hannah Robinson, widow of Ruggles. Mr. Green 

d. Dec. 28, 1806. There were probably sisters, surely, who 
came to town with him. Children, order of birth uncertain: 

nitK. >c^c*^^ 



GREEN. 403 

i. Eunice^, b. 1747; m. Moses Smith. 

ii. Benjamin^, m. Martha Wells. He was in town as late as 1780, 
up to which date he held town offices. He must have gone soon 
after to Gill or the south-east part of Bern. He d. Dec. 27, 
1796. His death is here recorded, but his body is buried in 
the cemetery near the brick school house on the Gill road, as iS" 
also that of his brother JepUthah. Had: i. Aaron", b. Aug. 11, 
1775. 2. Clarinda^ b. Oct. 28, 1777; m. Noah Allen of Gill. 
3. Claras b. Nov. 23, 1779. 4. Martha'', b. Aug. 13, 1782. 
5. Thomas^ b. Feb. 11, 1784. 6. Wells^ b. Sept. 10, 1785. 
7. Frederic', b. Oct. 30, 1788. 8. Jonathan^, b. Jan. 2, 1791. 

iii. Anna^, m. Jona. Hurlbert. 

iv. Esther^, m. Simons. 

V. Thomas^, d. young in Springfield, from the effects of a snake bite. 

vi. Sarah^, b. 1754; m. IsraeH Bagg, Jan. 11, 1776; d. Jan. 13, 1832. 

vii. Jephthah^, m. Margaret, dau. of Thomas, and sister of Israel 
Bagg of West Springfield. She was b. 1758. Jephthah Green 
was warned from town, Feb. 9, 1790, at which time he was re- 
corded as belonging in Springfield. He moved to Gill, residing 
with his son, Elijah. Is the ancestor of most of the Gill Greens. 
Had: i. Lucy'\ b. Feb. 24, 1777. 2. Barthasheba\ b. Sep- 
tember 29, 1779. 3. Polly^ b. Apr. 17, 1782. 4. Elijah^ 5. 
viii. Betsey^, b. 1757; m. William Fox (second wife); d. Mch. 20, 
1839, ae. 82. 

ix. Pattv^, m. Ebenezer^ Slate; res. Gill, Mass. 

X. Samuel^, b. Mch. 21, 1760. 
By second wife: 

xi. WooDBRiDGE^, b. 1 773; m. 1799, Fileta, dau. William and- Sarah 
Fox. He had the title of captain; d. July 2, 1848, ae. 75. (G. S.) 
no children. 

xii. RuGGLES^, b. 1794. 

There were probably also by this marriage children born 
between Woodbridge and Ruggles, some of whom were 
Silas, who m. Jan. 22, 1795, Polly Severance, Sarah, who m. 
1797, Eleazer Risley of Gill, and d. May 1797, ae. 26 years. 
Silas Green was in Capt. McClellan's Co. to march to Horse 


Neck under Col. John Mosely. An Ira Green died in town 
August, 1816, ae. 65 years. He may have been an older child 
by the first marriage. 

2. Green, SAMUEL^ (Benjamin',) b. in West vSpringfield, Mch. 21, 
1760; m. AbigaiP, dau. Daniel' Slate. She was b. 1766; d. 
Aug. 21, 1845. With others from this town, Samuel Green 
went to the battle of Lexington. When 17 years of age he 
went as a soldier to Ticonderoga, thence over the mountain 
and organized a company at Bennington, marched to White- 
hall, and down the lake. He was gone two months, receiv- 
ing for his services 40s. a month. He was out in four cam- 
paigns ; the second was in 1778, in Vermont, the third in 
1779, for a month to New London at the rate of 40s. per 
month, and the fourth to West Point. He was hired by the 
town for three months at the rate of 10 pounds specie and 
forty shillings continental currency. He d. Aug. 18, 1841, 
ae. 81. Children: 

i. Abigail^, b. Dec. 5, 1785; m. Dec. 19, 1810, Eli Wright of 
Adams, N. Y. 

ii. Elizabeth^, b. May 29, 1787; m. Apr. 3, 1810, Hatsel^ Purple; d. 
Nov. 25, 1857. 

iii. Anna^, b. Sept. 14, 1788; m. Nov. 27, 1807, George' Parmenter; 
d. Sept. 20, 1863. 

iv. RoDOLPHUS^, b. Apr. i, 1790; m. Nellie, dau. of "Si" Parmenter 
of Northfield. He d. suddenly Dec. 4, 1842. She d. Dec. 10, 
1841. Had: i. Siba A.*, m. Martha S.^ dau. Samuel' Wright, 
May 23, 1849. He d. Jan; 20, 1888. Shed. Dec. 11, 1897, s. p. 
2. Philanders.*, m. and resided in Ct. ; d. 3. Anna A.*, b. 
1825 ; m. Samuel M. Caldwell of West Northfield, Mch. 16, 1848; 
d. May 23, 1878. 4. Elon R.*, m. Augusta J., dau. of Asa Bar- 
ber of Guilford. He d. July 12, 1888. She d. Feb. 6, 1893. 
5. Samuel G.'', b. 1833; d. unm., Nov. 27, 1868. 
4. V. Benjamin^, b. Oct. 27, 1791. 

vi. Seba Allen'', b. Sept. 6, 1793; d. Apr. 14, 1807, 

vii. Sally', b. Aug. 4, 1795; d. unm. 

viii. Amanda', b. Apr. 3, 1797; m. Feb. 25, 1818, Ruggles^ Green; d. 
Nov. 9, 1885. 

GREEN. 405 

ix. Patty^, b. May 4, 1799; m. Daniel Brooks. 

X. Samuel Jefferson", b. Oct. 21, 1800; m. Patty Williams, Sep- 
tember II, 1823. He d. Mch. 15, 1865, and she m. (2) Emory 
Miller. He d. July 25, 1888. Mr. Green resided on the south 
side of the Northfield road, on the place now owned by George 
H. Bixby. Had: i. George P.\ b. Oct. 14, 1827; d. aged 
14 months. 2. George P.^ b. 1828; m. (i) May 19, 1853, 
Martha, dau. Otis Root. She d. June 3, 1864; m. (2) Amanda 
Coolidge. He d. July 18, 1891. He was a wheelwright, and 
resided on the place formerly owned by Field Cushman, south 
of the railroad bridge. 3. Sarah A.^ b. Sept. 19, 1830; m. Rev. 
George E. Fuller, Aug. 3, 1852; d. in Ware, Mass., Mch. 1 1, 1855. 

xi. Eunice L.^ b. June 28, 1804; m. Xenophon Williams; resided 
in Gill; both are dead. 

3. Green, Ruggles', (Benjamin',) b. Aug. 29, 1794; m. Amanda^ 
dau. SamueP Green, Feb. 25, 18 18. She wa.s b. Apr. 3, 1797 ; 
d. Nov. 9, 1885. He d. Oct. 18, 1849; resided first house 
north of Bald Mountain school house. Children : 

i. Samuel Jefferson^, b. Oct. 7, 1819; m. Sarah K. Merrifield of 
Brookline, Vt. Mr. Green during his residence in town occu- 
pied positions of honor and trust. He was for six years select- 
man, and for a long time served as a member of the school 
board. While here, his home was for many years on the Bald 
Mountain road, later on the old Snow place now owned by Fred- 
erick Chase. He now resides in Grafton, Vt. One son, Wil- 
liam, resides in Amboy, 111. 
ii. Francis Blake^, b. June 29, 1821; m. Elizabeth J. Hartsough of 
Gorham, N. Y. He d. Mch. 11, 1887; she m. (2) Albert Hare; 
d. Sept., 1901. 

iii. Hatsel Purple"', b. Dec. 9, 1822; m. Adelaide A. Forbes of Vt.; 
resided the later years of his life in Jacksonville, Fla., where he 
d. Mch. 17, 1891. 

iv. Elon Ruggles^, b. Feb. 18, 1824; m. Celinda D. Brown; died 

July 6, 1882. 
V. Frank Benjamin^, b. June 23, 1825; m. Mary E.^ dau. Ben- 
jamin^ Green, 1849; one dau., Minnie\ who d. young. He d. 
Mch. 10, 1895. 

vi. Alanson J.^, b. Oct. 8, 1826; resides Ware, Mass. 


vii. S"ARAH Amanda^, b. Oct. i, 1828; d. July 9, 1831. 

viii. AzRO K.^, b. Sept. 29, 1830; m. Jennie Bliss of Brattleboro, Vt. 

For some time Mr. Green was assistant postmaster, resigning 

his position in 1880, at which time he moved to Greenfield. 

He d. Aug. 23, 1887. Had: i. Cora A.\ b. Dec. 26, 1864; m. 

Frank Gaines, Aug. i, 1892; resides Orange, Mass. 
ix. Myron R.^, b. June, 1832; d. Aug. 22, 1852. 
'x. John B.^, b. Jan. 4, 1835; m. Ruth J. Taylor. She d. April 17, 

1876; m. (2) Ella M. Cushman of Ware, where they reside, 
xi. Victoria A.^, b. June 30, 1837; m. George E. Taylor; res. Shel- 

xii. Elizabeth J.^, b. Feb. r, 1839; m. Lawrence W. Dole; resided 

Gill; she d. Aug. 13, 1900. 

4. Green, Benjamin', (Samuer, Benjamin',) b. Oct. 27, 1791 ; m. 
18 16, Electa, dau. Joseph and Abby Gaines of Guilford. She 
d. Apr. 5, 1879. H^ resided on the Capt. Woodbridge Green 
place; d. Mch. 11, i860. Children : 

i. RuGGLES^ b. Feb., 1826; d. June 15, 1829. 

ii. Lucina Minerva", b. Sept. 11, 1817; m. Samuel Sheldon Wright, 
Apr. II, 1838; d. Apr. 26, 1856. 

iii. Joel Gaines", b. March 11, 1819; m. Evelina A.", daughter of 
Enoch^ Moore, 1845; resides in Minn. 

iv. Benjamin", b. May 28, 1821; m. May i, 1844, Mary A.^ dau. of 
Samuel' Wright. He d. Jan. 3, 1894. She d. in Holyoke, No- 
vember 12, 1900, ae. 78. Had: i. Coralinn M.', b. Apr. 17, 
1850; d. Apr. 5, 1856. 2. Ada M.\ b. Feb. 4, 1852; d. Sep- 
tember 20, 1852. 

V. Dennison W.", b. May 14, 1824; m. Caroline Minerva Stewart, 
May 13, 1851; resides Minn, 
vi. Eliza M.", d. Apr. 11, 1834, ae. i yr. 8 mos. 
vii. Abby Ann", m. May 17, 1853, John B., son of Dea. Daniel Slate. 

viii. Eliza M.", m. John Madison^ Ryther, May 17, 1853; d. Jan. 18, 
ix. Joseph S.", m. Mary Smith of New Salem; resides Minneapolis, 

X. Mary E.", m. Frank B.^ Green, May 23, 1849. 


Grout, Leonard B., son of Joseph of Guilford, Vt ; settled in Ber- 
nardston many years ago on the Casey Brook road. He was 
a soldier in the Civil War, serving- in the 52nd Reg., M. V. M. 
Has : Henry, and Mary who m. Smith, also another dau. 

GUELLOW, RuFUS, came to town from Townshend, Vt., in 1827, 
settling on the Northfield road on the place now owned by 
his son, Charles P. He was b. in 1772 in Connecticut; m. 
Mch. 6, 1800, vSarah Watkins. She d. Mch. 2, 1842, ae. 70. 
He d. Oct. 23, 1863, ae. 91 yrs. Children : 

i. Charles P. 2, b. Sept. 24, 1816; m. Apr. 16, 1843, Hester S. Dewey 
of Greenfield; occupation carpenter and farmer. Had: i. 
Sarah J.^, b. June 8, 1844; m. Thomas J. Wheeler, Jan. 20, 
i860; resides Chicago; no children. 2. Helen A.^, b. Apr. 19, 
1846; m. Hector A. Murphy, Sept. 2, 1867. 3. Lizzie ^V.^ b. 
Feb. 18, 1849; m. Nehemiah Andrews of Guilford, Vt., Sept., 
1868; d. Oct. 10, 1880. 4. Edgar A.^, b. March 21, 1851; res. 
at home; unm. 5. Alice \V.\ b. Dec. 21, 1855; m. C. W. John- 
son of Turners Falls, Nov. 8, 1879; d. May 14, 1885. 

ii. Philena^, m. Abner Crosier of Halifax, Vt., 1830; resides Thomp- 
son, Pa. 
iii. Charlotte^, m. John S. Caldwell of Northfield, Sept. 2, 1833. 
Is dead. 

iv. Asenath"^, b. 1803; m. Amasa'^ Sheldon. She d. Mch. 11, 1870. 

There were three other children, names not reported. 

Hale. This family came to town not far from 1760. According 
to tradition three brothers took up there abode here, Samuel 
and Chileab permanently, and Joseph removing after a few 
years' residence to New Hampshire. Upon the early records 
is the name of one Joseph Hale who was deerreave in 1767, 
warden 1774, constable 1777 and tithingman 1779. After the 
latter date, no further mention of him is found and presum- 
ably he was the Joseph who settled in New Hampshire. So 
far as is known, he had no family at the time of his removal. 
The former home of these brothers is supposed to be either 
Chatham or Haddam, Ct., and from the fact that Samuel is 
spoken of in one place as Samuel Jr., their father's name 
was probably Samuel. 


1. Hale, Samuel, b. 1737, and d. July 10, 1783, ae. 46 years; m. 

Lucy, dau. Daniel vSlate, who d. Oct. 18, 1821, ae. 76. She ra. 
(2) Oct. 23, 1787, Elisha Worden of Halifax, Vt. Samuel 
Hale, Jr., was chosen deerreave in 1776. Children, order of 
birth uncertain : 

2. i. JoHN^, b. Apr. 30, 1764. 

3. Li. Israel'-', b. May 18, 1766. 

4. iii. Samuel^. 

iv. Lois^, m. Asa Worden; resided Marlboro, Vt. 

V. Azuba'^, m. Smith; resided Hanover, N. H. 

vi. , Electa'', m. Joseph Weeks; resided Halifa.x, Vt. 
vii. Rachael^, m. (1) Sept. 18, 1788, Peter Worden of Halifax, Vt.; 
(2) Elder Allen, \vh(j preached for about a year at the Baptist 
church in t(nvn. 
viii. Freedom^, m. Samuel Niles of Halifax, Vt. 
ix. Patty^, m. Elisha Worden, son of her mother's second husband. 
X. Ann-, m. Abraham Brown of Hanover. N. H. Intention entered 

Jan. 30, 1785. 
xi. HuLDAH^, b. May 3, 1771; m. Gamaliel Kingsley, June 24, 1795; 
d. Dec. 13, "1802. 

2. Hale, Captain John', (Samuer,) b. Apr. 30, 1764; m. Feb. 5, 

1789, Sarah Wallis of Barre, Mas.>^. She was b. Oct. 27, 1763 ; 
d. Nov. 26, 1839; ^'^- (2) a widow of Gill. He resided on the 
farm now owned by Marshall Whithed on South street ; d. 
Aug. 24, 1852. Children: 

i. Caroline^, b. Apr. i, 1790; m. Apr. 15, 1812, James Couch** Root 
of Bern.; she d. Jan. 12, 1884. 

ii. Matilda'', b. May 26, 1792; m. Mch. 23, 1818, Isaac Barton, Jr.; 
d. Mch. 17, 1S66. 

iii. Adolphus''', b. Mch. 14, 1796; m. Apr. 29, 1863, Caroline Worden, 
widow of Ralph A.^ Hale. She d. Mch. 14, 1895, ae. 84 years, 
seven months. He d. Mch. 31, 1879; no children. Mr. Hale 
was selectman in 1830-2-4 and to 42 inclusive. 

5. iv. Horace'^ b. Oct. 9, 1799. 

6. V. Increase Sumner'\ b. May 11, 1802. 

7. vi. John Franklin^ b. Jan. 15, 1807. 

3. Hale, Lieut. Israel^, (Samuel',) b. May 18, 1766; m.(i) Jemima', 

HALE. 409 

dau. Chileab' Hale; their intention entered Jan. 16, 1785. 
She was b. Dec. 31, 1764; d. Dec. 28, 1834, ae. 70; m. (2) 
Elizabeth' Hale, half-sister of his first wife. She was b. 1771; 
d. June 29, 1852, ae. 81. He resided near the railroad cross- 
ing on South street ; d. Aug. 25, 1850, ae. 84 years. There is 
a tradition that old Lieut. Hale was "left-handed," and that 
this fact was the cause of his being known by the title 
"Lefttenant '' as he was called for many years, an easy cor- 
ruption of his title lieutenant. Children : 

8. i. JoHN^ 2nd., (Jack) b. 1786. 

ii. LoviNA^, b. 1791; m. (i) Oct. 22, 1812, Horace"*, brother of John 
Burk; (2) Alpheus Chapin, Nov. 14, 1816; resided Lorain, N. Y., 
where she d. Aug. 21, 1843, ae. 52 years. 

iii. Zadoc^, b. 1792; m. (i) Priscilla Chapin of Rowe; intention re- 
corded July II, 1812; (2) Maria Parsons. He settled in Mich- 
igan; d. Mch. 22, 1868. While in town he resided on South 
street, at the place now occupied by Fred Merrifield. Had: i. 
Mary'*, m. Israel Cummings of Chicopee. 2. Rosetta"*, m. 
Harry Amidon of Rowe, where she d. 3. Dwight^, d. in New 
Hampshire. 4. John"*, resided in Mich. 5. Charles ?.■*, re- 
sided Otsego, Mich., where he d. Feb. 16, 1899. 6. Hannah^, 
m. Orison Cook of Heath; d. in Mich. 7. Silvina'*, b. Mch., 
1841; d. Feb. 24, 1843. 

iv. Polly', b. 1794; d. July, 1795. 

9. V. George W.', b. 1796. 

10. vi. Seorim^, b. June 9, 1798. 

vii. Joseph PRIESTLY^ b. 1801; d. Nov. 19, 1819. 

viii. Philander', b. 1801 or 1804; ni. (i) Julia Ann Parker, widow of 
his brother George W., Nov. 10, 1825; d. Dec. 21, 1840; (2) 
Amanda I). Grover. She m. (2) in Vernon, Vt., Mch. 11, 
1851, L. Richardson of Royalston. Mr. Hale lived for a time 
on the place formerly known as the Edwin Tyler place, since 

owned by E. S. Persons, and now by Hodgens; d. July 2, 

1850. Had: i. Harriet*, m. Charles Sawtell, Jan. i, 1846; d. 
Apr. 27, 1870. 2. Samuel F.'', d. in New York. By second 
wife: 3. Ezra'*, b. 1843; '^- J^"- 4i 1853. 4. Son'*, d. Aug. 29, 
1832, ae. five months. 5. Henry W.'*, d. in Windsor, Vt.; was 
a member of the 52nd Regiment. 6. Sylvester^ d. in Monta- 


gue. 7. Elizabeth*, in. Herbert Worden; d. in Guilford, Vt. 
8. Charles*, d. Jan. 12, 1847, ae. seven months. 

11. ix. Israel Porter^ b. 1807. 

4. Hale, Samuel*, (Samuel',) m. May 24, 1791, Anna', dau. of Capt. 

Moses' Scott. She was b. Nov. 22, 1767. Upon the town 
records he has the title of lieutenant prefixed to his name. 
He resided in Gill. Children : 

i. Almeda^ b. Feb. 22, 1794; m. Joel" Aldrich of Guilford, Vt., 

Feb. 15, 1818; shed. Nov. 11, 1850. 
ii. NANCv^ b. Sept. 19, 1796; m. Obed Severance of Gill. 

iii. Harriet', b. Feb. 22, 1798; m. Simons of Gill. 

iv. Charlotte^ b. Aug. 29, 1801; d. unm. 

V. Ralph A.^, b. Mch. 30, 1803; m. Caroline Worden; resided in 

Ciill, where he d. 
vi. Mary B.^, b. June 16, 1806; m. Jan. 28, 1830, Levi^Park; died 

Mch. 3, 1871. 
vii. Samuel PRENTICE^ or Prince, b. Sept. 27, 1808; m. a lady from 

Boston. He resided in Gill; d. -Aug. 5, 1895. Had: i. John*. 

2. Emergene*, m. Ed. Purple of Gill. 3. Ida F.*, m. Nov. i, 

1 87 1, Henry DeWolf of West Deerfield. 4. Daughter*, m. 

Dwight Smead of Colrain. 

5. Hale, Horace', (Capt. John', Samuel',) b. Oct. 9, 1799 ; m. Sarah', 

dau. Consider' Cushman, Apr. 29. 1823. She was b. Nov. 30, 
1801 ; d. July 10, 1846. He resided on the place now owned 
by his son Ezekiel, on South street. He d. July 15, 1868. 
Children : 

12. i. Lorenzo*, b. Feb. 20, 1824. 

ii. Frederick*, b. Mch. 11, 1826; d. Sept. 17, 1864, unm. at Fort 
Magruder, near Williamsburg, Va. He was a member of the 
4th. Mass. Cav. 

13. iii. Ezekiel Chapin*. b. Dec. 12, 1828. 

iv. Maria Jane*, b. July 13, 1831; resided Round Mountain, Califor- 
fornia; m. Samuel T. Randall. 
v. John*, b. Oct. 18. 1833; resided West. 

6. Hale, Increase Sumner', (Capt. John", Samuel',) b. May 11, 

1802; m. Dec. II, 1828, Abigail', dau. of Edward' Nelson. 

HALE. 411 

She was b. Dec. 27, 1806, and d. Nov. 21, 1900, at the home 
of her daughter, Mrs. Bullard, in Greenfield. Mr. Hale re- 
sided on the place now owned by E. C. Burrows, where he 
carried on the milling business later owned by his son Hart- 
ley. He d. Nov. 2, 1885. Children: 

i. Sarah*, b. Oct. 12, 1830; d. Apr. 22, 1892; m. June 14, 1854, 
Newell Snow of Greenfield. Had: i. Cora M.^, b. May 8, 1856; 
m. Oct. 5, 1884, Thomas M. Wells. 2. Edwin Hale^ b. July 6, 
1861; d. Apr. II, 1878. 3. Walter NewelF, b. May 19, 1863; 
m. Lizzie Baird, dau. Matthew Chapman, June 6, 1888. 

ii. Hartley*, b. June 19, 1833; d. Aug. 11, 1841. 

iii. Mary*, b. Nov. 4, 1835; m. John Clark, Apr. 24, 1866; resides 
Greenfield, (Factory Village). 

iv. Esther^ b. Jan. 2, 1838; d. unm.. May 12, 1871. 

V. Laura Almeda*, b. July 4, 1841 ; m. June 4, 1875, Luke Bullard. 
She resides in the north part of Greenfield. 

vi. Harley^, b. May 27, 1845; d. young. 

vii. Hartley*, b. also May 27, 1845; m. Jan. i, 1877, Hattie B. 
Haskell of Leverett; b. Mch. 27, 1853. Mr. Hale succeeded 
his father in his saw-mill. Later he built a saw and grist mill 
on the south side of the railroad, opposite the station, which he 
operated a few years, when he purchased the old mill privilege 
on Fall River formerly owned by Chauncey Slate, where he 
erected new mills and a substantial grain elevator, which were 
burned a few years later. His business was enlarged beyond 
the grain and lumber departments so as to include coal and 
other commodities. He was one of the active supporters of the 
Unitarian society, and in his death, which occured Feb. 17, 1897, 
that parish, as well as the town, lost one of her enterprising, 
public-spirited men. Mrs. Hale resides in Montague; no chil- 

vii. Lucy Emily^, b. May 2, 1848; m. Jan. 3, 1872, David^, son of 
Zalmon' Chapin; resides in Bern., "around the mountain." 

7. Hale, John Franklin', (Capt. John', Samuel',) b. Jan. 15, 1807 ; 
m. his cousin Alcy, dau. of Joseph Weeks of Halifax, Vt., 
Nov. 21, 1830. She was b. July 25, 1808, in Halifax; died 


Dec. 24, 1895. Mr. Hale was selectman 1863-4-5. His home 
was on South street, now owned by his grandson, M. F. 
Whithed. He d. Dec. 17, 1893. Children: 

i. Ellen Adela*, b. Jan. 13, 1832; m. Nov. 25, 1855; Harvey 
B.^ Shattuck. He d. West. She resides with her niece, Mrs. 
Aimee Whithed. 
ii. Alma Ophelia*, b. Sept. 16, 1834; m. Nov. 25, 1858, Henry 

O.* Root; resides Bern, 
iii. Frances Cornelia*, b. May 30, 1840; m. Sept. 3, 1861, L. F. 
Whithed of Vernon, Vt.; resided Bern., where she d. June 13, 
1894. A woman whose beauty of character impressed itself 
upon all with whom she came in contact. Had : i. Marshall F., 
b. May 16, 1862; m. June 28, 1899, Myrtia L. Cook. 2. 
Aimee M., b. Sept. 25, 1866; has for many years been a success- 
ful school teacher. 

8. Hale, John', or Jack, (Lieut. IsraeF, Samuel',) b. 1786: m. (i) 
Sept. 18, 181 1, Chloe^ dau. William' Fox of Bern. She was 
b. Mch. I, 1790; d. Dec. 23, 1840; m. (2) Dec. 22, 1842, Caro- 
line P. Hosmer of Gill. He resided "around the mountain," 
where he had a large farm ; d. Mch. 18, 1856. Children : 

i. John Valentine*, b. Dec. 17, 1812; m. (i) July 16, 1836, Jerusha A. 
Sheldon; d. in Guilford, Sept. 27, 1841; m. (2) June 8, 1843, 
Almira E., dau. Isaac Barber. He resides on South st.; by occu- 
pation a carpenter and builder. Had: i. John Henry^, born 
Mch. 28, 1837; m. 1863, Julia Park of Westminster. Vt. He 
was killed in the war, May 5, 1864. Was in Co. I, Ninth Mass. 
She resides Norwood, Mass. 2. Francis D.*, b. Apr. 19. 1839, 

in Leyden; m. Dec, 1870, Kimpland; d. Apr. 7, 1871. 

Was a member of 21st. Reg., Mass. Vol. 3. James W.*, b. 
Sept. 19, 1841, in Guilford; d. in Newbern, N. C, Apr. 9, 1862. 
Was a member of 21st Mass. Reg. 
14. ii. Allen Blanford*, b. Oct. 16, 1815. 

iii. Sylvina A.*, b. i8i6; m. Apr. 28, 1841, Dea. Henry Slate; (first 
wife). She d. June 14, 1849. 

iv. Israel*, b. 1817; m. Gratia Rugg of Montague, 1845; d. Dec. 21, 
1850; m. (2) Sophronia , who d. Nov. 26, 1863. He set- 
tled in Ct., where he d. May 6, 1856. Had: i. George*, m. 

HALE. 413 

and resides in South Deerfield. 2. Ellen^, d. Apr. 30, 1857, 
ae. two years. 3. Maria E.\ d. Oct. 13, 1854, ae. one year, 
six months. 4. William B.^, m. a[)d had children; became a 
wealthy man, prominent in social and business circles; d. Apr., 
1895, '•'' Milford. 
V. Freedom^, m. Edwin Gaines of Guilford, Vt. 

vi. Silas P.*, b. 1823; m. Apr. 20, 1848, Sarah E.^, dau. Luther* Bagg. 
She d. Apr., 1893; he d. Nov. 28, 1874; re^-ided South street on 
the old Chileab place recently owned by Benjamin Green. 
Had: i. Ella M.^ m. Henry R. Wells, 1879; d. Mch. 22, 1886. 
He d. Sept. 3, 1892. 2. John Edson^, b. 1857; d. Dec. 19, 
1857. 3. Anna^, b. i860; d. Dec. 27, i860, 
vii. George M.*, b. 1826; d. unm.. May 15, 1862; res. on his father's 

old place, 
viii. C. Matilda^ b. 1827; d. unm., Dec. 17, 1856; was a teacher, 
ix. EDSON^ b. 1829; d. in C't.. unm., Sept. 17, 1849. 
X. C. Albert^, b. 1834; d. Dec. 17, 1859, unm.; was a successful 

9. Hale, George W.', (Lieut. Israel', Samuel',) b. 1796; m. Julia 
Ann Parker; resided on the Edwin Thayer place, now owned 

by Hodgens. He d. Feb. 17, 1823; she m. (2) her 

brother-in-law, Philander' Hale, Nov. 10, 1825; d. Dec. 21, 
1840. Children: 

i. Emily ).•*, m. Richard" Bagg of Montague, Apr. 5, 1842; d. Jan. 5, 

ii. Joseph Priestly*, b. Oct. 24, 1819; m. Lucy Ann Fish of Lunen- 
burg, 1841. He d. Oct. 15, 1883. Mr. Hale was thoroughly 
a self-made man. When 14 years old, he carried the mails on 
horse-back twice a week a distance of 75 miles. After two years 
of this service he located in Worcester, where he started a car- 
penter and paint shop, later engaging in the crockery trade. 
Having accumulated quite a property, he established, in i860, a 
piano factory at Hudson and Canal streets. New York. In this 
venture he was eminently successful, and accumulated a large 
fortune, being classed among the millionaires of New York. It 
is said that he made 50,000 pianos, all of which were sold on a 
cash basis. He was president and chief stockholder in New 
York, New England and Western Investment Co., located at 


31 Pine street. He was also interested in western business ven- 
tures. He took an active interest always in his native town, 
and did much for her citizens. Upon his death he bequeathed 
the sum of ten thousand dollars to the Unitarian society with 
which he was wont to worship. He also instituted the Union 
picnics, giving the sum of $1000, the income to be used for that 
object. Had: i. Julia^, m. (i) J. H. Demorest, D. I). S., b. 
Apr. 20, 1844; d. Mch. 21, 1877; m. (2) William E. Traver of 
Greenfield, where they resided. She d. May 6, 1898; four chil- 
dren. 2. George W.'^, b. May 7, 1842; d. May 13, 1843. 3. 
Maria E.*, b. June 14, 1845; d. Oct. 14, 1845. 4. Augusta W.^, 
b. Nov. 14, 1849; m. Charles H. Stone; d. Aug. 26, 1886; two 
iii. LuciNDA^, m. Salem F. Wright; resided Winterset, la., but now is 
in the family of S. B. Slate, Greenfield. 

10. Hale, Seorim', (Lieut. Israer, Samuel',) b. June 9, 1798; died 

July 2, 1851; m. (i) Betsey, dau. of William' Fox, Apr. i, 
1 8 19; d. May 18, 1843; (2) Thankful, widow of Luther Bagg, 
Nov. 15, 1843; resided on Burk Flat and South st. Children: 

i. Eunice Electa*, b. Jan. 15, 1820; m. Sept. 18, 1846, Jonathan 

Richardson; resides in Canada, 
ii. David Darius*, b. June 2, 1822; d. in New York State, 
iii. Lucy\ b. Aug. 12, 1824; m. Apr. 13, 1852, Lorenzo* Hale of Ber- 

nardston; d. Mch. 15, 1857. 
iv. Fidelia Maranda*, b. Oct. 19, 1827; m. Sept. 27, 1853, Josiah 
G.^ Wood of Whately; d. in Bern,, May 30, 1877. Had: Har- 
riet E., b. Apr. 7, 1862, who m. John, son of Alanson Chapin. 
v. SoPHRONiA M.*, b. Oct. 12, 1829; m. Madison Moore; d. in North 
Amherst, Sept. 10, 1856. 
vi. Austin Hubbard*, b. June 26, 1833; m. and d. in Col. 
vii. William Seorim*, b. May 9, 1835; went to Wisconsin, 
viii. James Alonzo*, b. Dec. 19, 1837; m. and went West. 

11. Hale, Israel Porter^, (Lieut. Israel', Samuel',) b. 1807; m. 

Aurelia L.', dau. Consider' Cushman of Bern., May 26. 1829. 
She was b. Sept. 5, 1803; d. July 14, 1892. Mr. Hale was 
selectman four years. He resided on his father's farm on 
the west side of the road north of the railroad crossing on 

HALE. 415 

South street (the house has since been burned), where his en- 
tire life was spent. "Generous, kind and cordial he always 
had a kind and friendly word for all, ready to see good and 
commend it wherever it appeared." He d. May 29, 1883. 
Children : 

1. HuLDAH E.^ b. Nov. 6, 1831; m. Seorem Burke, son of Seorem 
Burke Slate, Apr. 19, 1857; resides Greenfield; no children. 

ii. James M.^ b. May 5, 1833; m. Janette S., dau. of Seorem Burke 
Slate, Jan. i, 1856; resides first house south of the railroad 
crossing on South street; no children. 

iii. Alanson Porter*, b. Mch. 23, 1835. 

iv. LoRETTA AuRELiA"*, b. Oct. 12, 1 843 ; m. Rev. Hiram Norton of 
Rowe, May 5, 1863. Mr. Norton has retired from the ministry, 
turning his attention to mechanical pursuits. They reside in 
Greenfield. Had: i. Frank P.^ b. 1866; enlisted as a mem- 
ber of Co. L, 2nd Reg., Mass. Vol., serving in Cuba; d. in Camp 
Wikoff, Montauk Point, L. 1., Aug. 22, 1898. 2. Annie\ m. 

Cook; res. Springfield. 3. Charles*, machinist; res. 


12. Hale, Lorenzo', (Horace', Capt. John', Samuel',) b. Feb. 20, 

1824; m. (i) Apr. 13, 1852, Lucy E.\ dau. of Seorim^ Hale. 
She was b. Aug. 12, 1824; d. Mch. 15, 1857, ae. 32; m. (2) 
Aug. 23, 1859, Sophia Burdick, widow of Asa Hibbard Carle- 
ton. She d. Mch. 31, 1890, ae. yy. Mr. Hale is a farmer, re- 
siding on Huckle Hill on the Lathrop Edwards place. Chil- 
dren : 

i. David L.^ b. Dec, 1855; d. Mch. 23, 1857. 

ii. Emma\ b. Jan. 14, 1853; m. Uriah N. Streeter, Aug. i, 1880; b. 
in Vernon, Vt.; resides Greenfield. Had: i. Lorenzo". 2. 
Samuel". 3. Lucy", 
iii. Clarence*, b. Mch. 13, 1857; m. Lula, dau. J. Bridgeman Martin 
of Leyden, Apr. 30, 1885. Has: i. Ina", b. Jan. 2, 1890; d. 
Sept. 8, 1890. 2. Clyde", b. Jan. 17, 1897. 

13. Hale, Ezekiel CHAPIN^ (Horace', Capt. John', Samuel',) b. 

Dec. 12, 1828; m. Henrietta Wright', dau. of Isaac' Burrows, 


Dec. 23, 1856. She was b. Feb, 26, 1837. Mr. Hale resides 
on the farm formerly owned by his father on South street. 

i. Edwin Burrows^, b. Nov 3, 1857; m. Apr. 12, 1882, Nellie P. 
Read of Heath. For several years was a member of the school 
committee, superintendent of the Unitarian Sunday school, and 
has held various other town offices; selectman since 1892. He 
is a farmer, residing on South street at the old homestead. Had : 
I. Hazel Henrietta^, b. Feb. 11, 1884. 2. Jennie Evelyn*', b. 
July 7, 1887. 3. Liza Read'', b. Aug. 3, 1892. 4. Lena 
Marion", b. Dec. 17, 1893. 5. Julia Elizabeth*^, b. Dec. 25, 1897. 

ii. Frederick Lincoln'', b. Oct. 14, 1865; m. Feb. 17, 1897, Flora 
Goddard of Orange, where he resides; is a stationary engineer, 
iii. Horace Lorenzo^ b. Oct. 20, 1878; d. Mch. 31, 1879. 

14-. Hale, Allen Blanford\ (John', Lieut. Israel", Samuel',) b. 
Oct. 16, 1815; m. Apr. 7, 1840, Clarissa, dau. of Stillman 
Spurr of Bernardston. He d. Jan. 9, 1864. She d. 1897-8; 
residence at corner of South and streets. Children : 
i. Lucius Cushman^, b. Feb. i, 1841; was a member of 21st Reg 
Mass. Vol., wounded at Newbern, March 14, 1862; d. April 12, 
1862. His body was sent home by his comrades, who also 
assisted in erecting a monument to his memory, 
ii. Lewis Carpus^ b. also Feb. i, 1841; died April 4, 1842. 
16. iii. Almond D.^, b. Nov. 28, 1842. 

iv. Delia Elmira^, b. June 13, 1845; m. Nov. 22, 1870, George Emer- 
son** Warner of Brattieboro, Vt. She died Sept. 20, 1900. 

15. Hale, Alanson Por'J'Er', (Israel Porter", Lieut. Israe?, Sam- 
uel',) b. Mch. 23, 1835 ; m. Julia S., dau. Seorem Burke Slate, 
Jan. 22, 1857. Mr. Hale resided on his father's farm until 
about 1895, when he sold the same, removing to Greenfield. 
After a few years' residence there he returned, and now 
lives on vSouth street in the house formerly owned by Jona- 
than Allen. Is a farmer and butcher. Children : 

i. Nellie M.'', born Sept. 30, i860; m. Walter Nichols, of the firm of 
Nichols Brothers; resides Greenfield. Has: i. Morton". 2. 
Herbert*. 3. Helen". 

HALE. 417 

ii. Herbert A.^ b. Jan. 18, 1870; m. Apr. 30, 1896, Grace P., dau. 
Benjamin Miller of Colrain. He is a salesman for Cutler & 
Porter of Springfield; resides Greenfield. Has: i. Marjo- 
rie J.^ b. Nov. 9, 1897. 2. A dau.^ b. Nov. 21, 1899. 

16. Hale, Almond D.', (Allen B.\ John^ Lieut. IsraeP. Samuel',) 
b. Nov. 28, 1842 ; m. Lizzie, dau. of Ezekiel Bascom of Gill, 
Oct. 12, 1869. Resides on ancestral home. South street. 
Children : 

I. Irwin Bascomh'', b. Sept. 15, 1875; m. in Pawtucket, R. I., Feb- 
ruary 21, 1900, Bessie M. Reed; has dau. b. April 3, 1901; is 
now proprietor of the store formerly owned by R. L. Crowell & 

ii. Theresa M.'', b. Apr. i, 1877; m. June 8, 1898, Amos VV. Adams 
of Orange. 

iii. AvicE L.", b. May 5, 1887. 

L Hale, Chileab', one of the first of the name to come to this 
place with his brother vSamuel. He was five times married: 
(i) Mary , (2) Lydia , (3) Mercy , (4) Thank- 
ful Rich of Greenfield. "Entry of Publication" Sept. 20, 
1786, and the fifth time to a half-breed Indian woman. He 
resided on South street on the place owned by the late Ben- 
jamin Green. He d. Nov. 16, 1820, ae. 83 years, which would 
make the year of his birth 1737. Children : 

i. Amos^ b. 1762; d. May 5, 1834, unm. 

ii. Jemima-, b. Dec. 31, 1764; m. Lieut. IsraeP Hale; she d. Dec. 28, 

iii. Patty^ b., m. and resided in Petersham. 

iv. Eleizur-, m. (1) Jerusha Loveland, Oct. 10, 1791; she d. Apr. 2, 
1811, ae. 41. He probably m. (2) Polly Botedish of Montague, 
with whom he was published Nov. 30, 181 1. February i, 1816, 
he advertised his wife Polly. He resided on the east side of 
South street near the Chileab Hale place, where he died. Had: 

1. Olive'', b. Mch. 9, 1792; m. Simeon Sheldon, June 28, 1809. 

2. Adolphus', b. Feb. 22, 1794; d. May 7, 1877. 3. Jerusha', 
b. Aug. 13, 1797. 4. RusselP, b. Aug. 22, 1799. 

By second wife: 


V. Elizabeth*, b. 1771; m. Lieut. Israel* Hale, (second wife). She 
d. June 29, 1852. 

2. vi. Daniel^, born April 12, 1775. 

vii. Lydia^, b. March 6, 1777; m. probably 1793, Moses Mitchell. 
By wife Mercy: 

3. viii. Timothy^, b. Feb. 18, 1779. 

ix. Phoebe^, b. Aug. 6, 1783; m. Joseph*, Sprague. Intention re- 
corded Nov. 31, 1808. She d. May 31, 1862. 
By wife Thankful: 

X. Martha"^, b. Apr. 10, 1785. 

xi. Polly, b. June 16, 1788; m. Levi Parker. Intention recorded 
Feb. 7, 1808. 

2. Hale, DANIEL^ (Chileab\) b. Apr. 12, 1775 ; m. 1797, Mary, dau. 

of Reuben Park. She was b. Jan., 1766; d. May 16, 1867, 
ae. 91 years. He resided in the east part of the town, the 
place since owned by his son Charles, and now by Benjamin 
Hale, where he d. Jan. 14, 1866, the last survivor of the old 
generation of Hales. Children : 

4. i. LoREN'^, b. Apr. 15, 1799. 

ii. Aaron^, b. Oct. 6, 1800; m. Rachael Stevens. They resided in 
"Pisgah," Gill. Had: i. Laural 2. Barney*. 3. Margaret^ 
4. Lizzie*. 5. Aaron*. 

iii. Polly', b. June 19, 1803; m. Jan. 3, 1822, Joel, son of Israel 
Slate; resided West. 

iv. Betsey^, b. Sept. 7, 1805; d. Sept. 2, 1806. 

5. V. Charles^ b. Sept. 19, 1809. 

vi. Nelson', b. Mch. 9, 1813; m. Esther M.', dau. Oliver" Sheldon, 
June 4, 1846. She d. Mch. 19, 1864. They had one son, Nel- 
son, who went West. 

3. Hale, Timothy^, (Chileab',) b. Feb. 18, 1779; m. Nov. 26, 181 2, 

Lovina^ dau. Moses' vScott, Jr., and widow of Aaron" Field. 
She d. Sept, 12, 1863, ae. 78, in Wales. He d. June i, i860. 
He resided most of his life around the Mountain on the place 
recently owned by George, David and Joseph Wells, but d. 
on South street. Children : 

HALE. 419 

1. Cyrus Whitney\ b. Oct. 25, 1813; in. May 7. 1839, Maria J.**, 
dau. of Elisha" Snow. She d. June 8, 1848, ae. 27 years; m. 
(2) 1849, Esther^ dau. of Otis^ Chapin. She d. June 10, 1893, 
ae. 72. He resided around the Mountain most of his life. Dur- 
ing his later years he resided on the place he purchased of 
Reuben Park in the east part of the town, where he d. Jan. 15, 
1900. Had: i. Angeline M.'*, d. Feb. 14, 1850, ae. 10 years. 
2. George E^, d. July i, 185 i, ae. nine years. 3. Warren*, m. 
Jennie Thayer; resided many years on his father's farm around 
the Mountain. 4. Orra M.*, m. May 11, 1899, Charles H. 
Whitaker of Orange. 

ii. William BARTLETT^ b. Sept. 23. 1815; resided Ct., where he d. 
Nov. I, 1878; ni. Adaline Walbridge; she d. in Milford, Mch. 26, 
iii. Sophia S.^ b. Apr. 7, 1818; m. May 29, 1841, Whitman Walbridge 

of Wales, May 7, 1839; res. Ct. 
iv. Ranslev P.^, b. Apr. 29, 1820; d. Jan. 20, 1846-7. 

V. Francis M.\ b. Aug. 31, 1822; res. Ct. 

4. Hale, LoREN^ (Daniel', Chileab'.) b. Apr. 15, 1799; m. RachaeP, 
dau. of Joseph' Aldrich, Nov. 11, 18 19. vShe was b. Sept. 17, 
1797, and d. Oct. 21, 1869. He resided in Gill, where he died. 
Children : 

i. Seth'*, b. Aug. 26, 1820; m. (i) Apr. 13, 1846, Lovina^, dau. of 
Joseph^ and Phoebe Sprague. She d. Oct. 16, 1847; m. (2) 
Hepsibah, dau. of Jerry Dean, Nov. 16, 1848. She d. May 6, 

1885; m. (3) Widow Thayer, Nov., 1887. She d. . He 

resides in Gill. Had: i. Everett^ m. Laura Holton; res. Gill. 
2. Ella^ m. Ed. Dean; res. Orange. 3. Andre^, d. unm. 4. 
Clarence M.\ b. 1854; m. and resided in Wellington, Kansas, 
where he d. Jan. 24, 1896. 5. Newton', m. Munn; re- 
sides Springfield. 
6. ii. Sidney'', b. Apr. 13, 1822. 

iii. Rowena*, b. Oct. 2, 1824; m. Joel Randall, June 13, 1849; res. 

iv. Andrew^*, b. June 28, 1828; m. Sarah, dau. Elias Holton, June 24, 
1852; no children. He d. in Northfield, July 19, 1899. 


V. MarV*, b. Dec. 14, 1830; m. Almon^ Newcomb of Bern., Oct. 12, 
1852; she resides Greenfield. 

vi. LoREN'*, b. Oct. 20, 1833; m. Mary H., dau. Philander Slate, 
Dec. 23, 1856. They reside east of the village on the Northfield 
road; carpenter by trade. Had: i. Clifford^, m. Annie, dau. 
of Robert Strange of Leyden; resides Springfield. She d^ed 
Feb., 1895. 2. Bertie*, m. Fish; resides Athol. 

vii. Benjamin*, b. Apr. 21, 1836; m. (i) Sabrina C. Lock of Monta- 
gue, Apr. 8, 1858; m. (2) Lura C, dau. of Cyrus Hale, Nov., 
1874; resides on the Gill road near the railroad crossing. Has 
12 children. 

viii. Adolphus^, b. Aug. 6, 1838; m. Apr. 5, i860, Caroline, dau. of 
Phineas L. Wright, Apr. 5, 1860. She was b. Jan. 21, 1842; d. 
Dec 27, 1868; in. (2) Dec. 22, 1869, Etta J. Dunklee. She d. 
Jan. 10, 1885; (3) Mrs. Burdell; resides in Northfield. Had: i. 
Charles*, b. Jan. 15, 1862; m. Mary Oakes, May, 1886; resides 
Orange. 2. Fanny W.^, b. Dec. 23, 1864; m. Clarence M. Abbe, 
Mch. 15, 1893; res. Greenfield; two children: i. Mary New- 
comb'*, ii. J. Warren A^ 3. Benjamin*, b. Sept. 11, 1868. 
By second wife: 4. Willis*, b. Dec. 22. 1871; d. Aug., 1872. 
5. Carrie*, b. May 20, 1873. 6. Hattie*, b. Aug. 31, 1874; m. 
May 6, 1896, William H. Long; resides Greenfield. 7. Zaidee*, 
d. young. 8. Millie P.*, b. May 21, 1879. 

ix. Allen*, b. July 20, 1841; m. Sarah Reed, May 5, 1867; resides 
in Wethersfield, Ct. Had: i. George*. 2. Jessie*, m. George 
Lewis Wells, June 16, 1897.. 3. Izzie*. 

5. Hale, Charles D.^ (DanieP, Chileab',) b. Sept. 19. 1809; m. 
Lucy O., dau. Amzy Langdon, Sept. 3, 1835. She was b. in 
Rowe, June 5, 18 16. He d. May 18, 1871. By occupation he 
was a book binder, working at his trade in Springfield. For 
many years he lived in the east part of the town on the Ben- 
jamin Hale place. Children : 

i. Angelia*, b. Dec. 24, 1838; m. George Parker, June 5, 186 1; re- 
sides Greenfield. 

ii. George E.*, b. Sept. 3, 1840; enlisted in 21st Reg., Mass. Vol., 
Mch. 3, 1862; was drowned in the Potomac by the sinking of 
a boat in collision Aug. 13, 1862. 

HALE — HALL. 42 I 

iii. Henry VV.'', b. July i, 1844; m. Lucy A.^, dau. of Levi^ Park, 
Sept. 20, 1865. She was b. Oct. 10, 1842. He was a member 
of the 2ist Reg., Mass. Vol., enlisting Mch. 3, [862, and receiv- 
ing his discharge Oct. 16, 1862. He wason the same boat with 
his brother George when the latter was drowned. He now re- 
sides in Greenfield where his Grand Army comrades have hon- 
ored him with the position of commander of Edwin E. Day 
Post. He is engaged with his brother-in-law in manufacturing. 
Had: i. Homer B. P.^ b. Apr. 19, 1868; d. Feb. i., 1872. 2. 
Gertrude F.^, b. Nov. 4, 1872; m. Sept. 12, 1899, Hal A. Dad- 
mun; res. Greenfield. 3. Avie Blanche^ b. Sept. 13, 1877; d. 
June 5, 1886. 

iv. Hattie M.*, b. May 27, 1859; m. Dwight Benjamin, Sept. 17, 
1874; resided Greenfield. She d. July 27, 1901. 

0. Hale, Sidney', (Loren'\ DanieP, Chileab',) b. Apr. 13, 1822; m. 
Cornelia Fox, Apr., 20, 1847. Children: 

i. Edson\ b. Oct. 19, 1849; m. May 17, 1871, Emma, dau. of Albert 
and Keziah Dean of Gill, who was b. June 30, 1852. He resides 
on the old Joel Dewey place opposite the library, where he is 
engaged in the meat business. He is a member of Republican 
Lodge, F. and A. M., Greenfield. Had: r. Martha", b. May 10, 
1872; d. May 14, 1875. 2. Elizabeth C.'', b. Apr. i, 1874; m. 
Oct. 13, 1897, Alfred Brown^ Cushinan. He d. Nov. 18, 1897. 
3. Susie Cornelia®, b. July 18, 1881; d. Nov. 22, 1899. 

ii. Lillian^, b. June, 1866; m. Everett, son of Joel Gaines of Guil- 
ford, where they reside. 

Hall, Samuel, Lieut., m. Anna . 

i. Almeda^, b. F"eb. 22, 1791. 
ii. Nancv^, b. Sept. 19, 1796. 
iii. Harriet^, b. F'eb. 22, 1798. 
iv. Charlotte^, b. Aug. 29, 1801. 
V. Ralph"^, b. Mch. 30, 1803. 
vi. Mary S.^, h June 16, 1805. 
xii. Samuel Prentice'^, b. Sept. 27, 1808. 

Hall, Simeon, was deerreave 1777. Hi.s name appears on John 
Burk's enlistment roll ending Nov. 30, 1758. Children: 


i. Polly'-, b. Mch. 15, 1779. 

ii. Rachael', b. Jan. 6, 1781. 

iii. Deborah-, b. July 12, 1783. 

iv. Sally', b. Apr. 2, 1786. 

Hamilton, John, was b. in Brookfield, Mass., Feb. 9, 1768; m. Bet- 
sey Farrill. She was b. July 12, 1773 ; d. Apr. 18, 1857. Soon 
after their marriage. Mr. Hamilton came to town. He was 
one of eleven children, and the last survivor of the family. 
He held the office of justice of the peace nearly thirty years, 
and for twelve years was selectman. For five years he was 
representative in the Legislature. A much respected man 
in this community. He d. May 14, 1844. His farm and dis- 
tillery were in the east part of the town, now owned by Mr. 
Parker. Children : 

i. AsENATH 2, b. Mch. 5, 1796; d. Aug. 20, 1801. 

ii. George Washington^, b. Aug. 8, 1797; d. Aug. 16, 1801. 

iii. John Dwight'^ b. Oct. 31, 1799; d. Aug. 25, 1801. 

iv. Fanny^, b. Oct. 17, 1802; m. Erastus-^ Burrows, Oct. 17, 1820. 
She d. July 15, 1885. 

V. Mary^, (twin) b. Dec. 19, 1804; m. (i) Stephen Van R." Scott in 
1825; (2) Ezra Purple^ Newcomb, June, 1835. She d. Apr. 12, 

vi. Maria^, (twin) b. Dec. 19, 1804; m. Ale.xander H.** Newcomb, 
Nov. I, 1825. 

vii. Harriet'', b. Sept. 30, 1807; m. Aaron W. Field, 1829; d. Feb- 
ruary 23, 1882. 

viii. George Washington^, (twin) b. Jan. 7, 181 i; m.; d. Mch. 28, 
1878, in Williamsport, Kansas. 

ix. John Dwight^, (twin) b. Jan. 7, 181 1. 

Hare, Albert L., b. in Ellington, Ct. For 20 years he made his 
home in Louisiana, then removed to Bernardston about 1865, 
residing on South street on place formerly owned by Elijah 

Kingsley, Alison Flint and Samuel J. Lyon. He m. (i) 

Barber of Guilford, Vt. She d. He m. (2) Mrs. Elizabeth 


J. Hartsough, widow of Blake' Green of Bern. He d. Feb- 
ruary 10. 1900. She d. Sept. 4, 1901, the result of a railroad 
accident. Children : 

1. Minnie A. 2, m. John H. McCray; res. Rockville, Ct. 
ii. Albert P.-, (twin); res. Springfield, 
iii. Alcide B.^ (twin) d. July 10, 1864, ae. two years, 
iv. Flora Belle^, m. A. G. Gordon; res. Hazard ville, Ct. 

Har'RIS, ROMAMZO, came to town about 1888, purchasing the old 
Allen place on South street, which was later owned by Fred- 
erick Chapin. 

Hartwell, Edwin Ward', (Lucius', Ward', Jonathan', William', 
who early settled at Davis Mine, Rowe,) b. in Buckland, 
Mch. 25, 1835 ; m. Lucy A., dau. of Peter Wilder of East 
Charlemont, Sept. 29, 1857. Removed from East Charle- 
mont to Bernardston in 1889, residing four years at Cedar 
Lawn, then bought his present home on Green st., the place 
formerly owned by B. Park and M. Kenney. Children : 

i. Laura A." 

ii. George E.* 

iii. JosiE B.^ who m. Mch. 29, 1898. Henry A. Ballou of Westminster; 
graduated from Amherst Agricultural College in 1897; now a 
professor in Storr's Agricultural College, Connecticut. 

Hastings, Samuel', (Benjamin', Dea. Benjamin', Thomas\ of 
Watertown, who came in the Elizabeth in 1634, from Ips- 
wich, England) was b. Dec. 28, 1735, settled in Bern, as early 
as 1760, where he m. Thankful", dau. of Remembrance' Shel- 
don. She was b. 1747, and d. June 15, 1816, ae. 73. (G. S.) 
Apr. 16, 1760, Lieut. Hastings was chosen to assist in pitch- 
ing the timbers of the bridge. This was probably the bridge 
over Fall River at the village. He was surveyor of high- 
ways 1762, 1774 and 1776. The offices of deerreaves, hog- 
reaves and fence viewer he held two years each. In 1769 
he was chosen tithingman, 1773 constable, 1773 and again in 
1778 selectman, 1780 a member of the Committee of Corre- 
spondence, Inspection and Safety. He was one of the first, 


if not the first, owner of the tract of land now included in 
the Park, and thence south nearly to Depot street. He d. 
Oct. 20, 18 1 7, ae. 82. (G. S.) Children : 

i. SiBiL^, b. May 3, 1762. 

ii. Mehitable^, b. Mch. 7, 1763; m. Daniel Loveland, Dec. 16, 1793. 
iii. TiRZAH^, b. Dec. 22, 1765; unm. 
iv. Thankful\ or (rratia, b. Feb. 18, 1767; d. num., in Leyden. 

V. Afugail'', b. June 14, 1770; m. Dec. 28, 1793, William Harnard of 
Deerfield. She d. at Shelburne, Jan. 13, 1804. 

vi. Samuel\ b. Aug. 27, 1772. 

vii. Lydia", b. Oct. 9, 1774; m. John Merrill of (jreenfield and Shel- 
burne, 1802. 
viii. Elijah^, b. Aug. 17, 1776; d. s. p., in Jacksonville, Fla., Feb., 1826. 
ix. RuFus^, b. Nov. 19, 1777; m. Phoebe, widow of his brother, 
Stephen Hastings, May 10, 1815. He was selectman in 1817; 
settled in Leyden, Frizzell or East Hill. 
X. Stephen^, b. Oct. 4, 1781; m. Phoebe Jewett of Boston. She m. 
(2) May 10, 1815, her brother-in-law, Rufus Hastings. 

xi. Chester^, b. Dec. 19, 1783; d. unm; resided with his brother 

Hastings, Samuel', (vSamuer, Benjamin', Dea. Benjamin", 
Thomas\) b. Aug. 27, 1772 ; m. Olive', dau. of Capt. Jonathan" 
Slate. Their intention was recorded Dec. 20, t8oo, he then 
being of Waterbury, Vt. She d. Aug. 27, 1853, ae. 74. He 
d. June 7, 1857. Children : 

i. Alva*^, b. Mch. 26, 1802; m. Ruth F.', dau, of Thomas Lyman*'^ 
Edwards. She d. July 11, 1888, ae. 82 years. He d. Apr. 7, 
1883, in Gill, ae. 81; resided on South st. Had: i. Harriet 
Tryphena", b. Jan. 12, 1829; m. Jan. 23, 1850, Samuel D. Smith 
of Amherst. 2. Mary Thankful", b. Jan. 22, 1831; d. July 19, 
1837. 3. Henry Alvah', b. Dec. 7, 1832. 4. 'I'homas Lo- 
renzo^, b. Jan. 28, 1836. 5. George Alexander', b. Sept. 3, 
1839; was a member of the 20th Reg., Mass. Vol. He d. a pris- 
oner in Salisbury, N. C., Jan. 14, 1865. 6. Charles L.', born 
May 21, 1842; killed at Frederksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 1862. He 
was a member of the 20th Reg., Mass. Vol. Two daughters, 
names not obtained. 


ii. Chester®, m. Jan. r, 1829, Tryphena, dau. of Reuben Jewett; (2) 
Miranda Slate. 

iii. OLIVE^ m. Anthony Bascom. 

iv. Sarah R.^ m. 1840, Silas Hawks, (second wife). 

V, Abigail*'. 

vi. Harriet^ m. Chauncey Trask. 

vii. Samuel*', b. Sept. 11, 1816; m. 1840, Sylvia, dau. Erastus Arms. 

viii. Elijah Barnard", m. Charlotte Scott of Whately. 

In Atig., 1801, Ebenezer Hills had po.ssession of the clothier's shop 
lately owned by Georg'e Morey. 

Hills, S. RussELL^ (Silas' of Guilford, Vt.,) was b. Jan. 7, 181 5, and 
came here from 1840 to 1845. His home was upon Burk 
Flat. He m. May 27, 1845, Dellia E.', dau. of Amos' Carrier. 
She was b. Aug. 26, 1821 ; d. Nov. 6, 1891. Mr. Hills was a 
carpenter and farmer, owning the place built by Stephen 
Gore on Burk Flat, where he d. May 20, 1878. Of a nervous, 
energetic temperament, he was one who pushed ahead in all 
his enterprises. Children : 

i. Delia Annette^ b. Oct. 5, 1848; d. Sept. 23, 1849. 

ii. Charles Russell^, b. July 20, 1851; m. Dec. 4, 1877, Mary L., 
dau. of Joseph M. Wilder of Guilford, Vt. Mr. Hills resides 
upon the farm formerly his father's, and is one of the repre-' 
sentative men of this generation. He has been prominently 
connected with town affairs, among other offices holding that 
of trustee of Powers Institute, and being for six years one of 
the selectmen of the place. In social and religious life, he and 
his wife are always active, doing their part toward making all 
worthy undertakings successful. They are earnest supporters 
of the Unitarian society. Mr. Hills is a member of Republican 
Lodge, F. and A. M., of Greenfield. Had: i. Arthur^, b. and 
d. July 4, 1879. 2. Charles", b. Aug. 20, 1880; is student in 
Institute of Technology at Terre Haute, Ind. 3. Florence 
May*, b. Sept. 10, 1883. 4. Frank Burrows", b. Feb. 24, 1891. 

iii. Frank Herbert', b. Aug. i, 1853; m. July 17, i88t, Delia L. 
Pikt; resides Waltham. 


Hinsdale, ExPERIENCE^ was the guide for Capt. Turner in his 
expedition, and was lost in the attack of Peskeompskut, 
May 19, 1676. His grandson, John Doud, drew his share in 
Falls Fight Township. He was the son of Robert' Hinsdale, 
one -of the first settlers of Dedham. From Robert', the line 
of descent of the Bernardston branch is by SamueP, Mehu- 
man', (the first white man born in Deerfield), Samuel', Sam- 
uel', Samuer. SamueT was b. Jan. 25, 1784, resided many 
years on the Swamp road in Greenfield, removing thence 
to Bernardston, and settling about 1865 in the north part of 
the town, in the old Rufus Chase place. He m. Jan. 15, 1807, 
Sally, dau. of Nathaniel Clark of Colrain. She d. Apr. 26. 
1844, ae. 64. He d. Children : 

i. George Clark.", b. Dec. 29, 1807; m. and had a family, 
ii. Emily", b. Jan. i. 1810; d. Dec. 9, 1901, in No. Bern, 
iii. Mary Stebbins', b. Aug. 14, 1812; m. Apr. 16, 1833, E H. Ross. 
iv. Gideon S.', b. June 30, 1814; d. Mch. 26, 1834. 
V. Samuel Dexter', b. June 4, 1816; in. and had a family, 
vi. Maria', b. Oct. 13, 1818; d. Apr. 4, 1843. 
vii. Julia H.'', b. Dec. 29, 1820; m. June 16, i860, L. H. Long of 

Greenfield. (2nd wife), 
viii. Martha", b. Apr. 22, 1823; m. Apr. 9, 1S50, Isaac Baker, 
ix. Lyman", b. Dec. 17, 1826; d. at Deadvvood, Col., Aug. 15, 1853. 
X. Fanny', b. Apr. i, 1830; res. No. Bern. 

HoLTON, Charles Edward, M. D., one of the resident physicians 
of Bernardston, b. Lee, Berkshire Co., Mass., Dec. 18, 1868; 
graduated Medical Department University of Vermont, 1892; 
attended N. Y. Post Graduate Medical School; served as 
house surgeon at Elizabeth (N. J.) General, and Brooklyn 
Throat, ho.spitals ; was in practice at Roselle, N. J., before 
coming here. Married June, 1896, May Frances Fleming of 
Elizabeth, N. J. Has : 

i. Julia Lawrence^, b. Oct. 8, 1897. 

HORTON, Timothy K.', (Hosea', who d. Feb. 14, 1862, ae. 75,) born 
1803 ; m. (i) Betsey Greenleaf. She d. Dec. 3c, 1837, ae. 33 ; 
m. (2) Caroline G.. dau. of Daniel and Huldaa Greenleaf, a 


sister of his first wife. She d. Mch. 17, 1852, ae. 37; m. (3) 
Sept. 2, 1852, Huldah L. Gary of Woodford, Vt. He died 
Aug. 28, 1878, ae. 75. His home was in North Bern., on the 
place later owned by Joel Cutler, and now by Mr. Talbot. 
He d. upon Burk Flat, opposite the Burk Bridge Road. He 
succeeded Alvin Howe m the store in the north part. 
Children : 

i. Caroline F.^, b. Sept. 30, 1831; m. Nov. i, 1851, George W. 

Temple. They resided several years in town, 
ii. Helen E.', b. Dec. 3, 1833; m. Ralph Goodrich, then of Gill. 

She d. in Greenfield, 
iii. Henry R.\ b. Aug. 6, 1836; m.; d. in Brattleboro, Vt. 
iv. Eugenia A.^ b. Sept. 12, 1840. 
V. Emma Hopkins^, b. Apr. 12, 1844. 
vi. Abbv L.^ b. 1847; d. Jan. 20, 185 1. 
vii. Herbert G.', was a member of 33rd. Reg., Mass. Vol.; died 

unm., 1 89-. 
viii. Annette', m. Charles Newton; resides in Brattleboro. 
ix. Daniel^, resided Fitchburg. 
X. Orlando^ b. 1853; d. Mch. 10, 1871. 
xi. Flora A.', b. 1859; d. Feb. 4, 1863. 
xii. Ada A.^ b. 1864; d. Mch. 17, 1890. 
xiii. Francella A.^, (twin) b. 1869; d. Aug. 30, 1869. 
xiv. Frances^ (twin) b. 1869; d. Oct. 16, 1870. 
XV. Minna', b. 1870; d. Mch. 21, 1871. 
xvi. Eddie O.', b. 1872; d. Feb. 20, 1873. 
xvii. T. K.^, d. young. 

Howe, Doctor, brother of Samuel. They came from Marlboro ab. 
1850. After a few years' residence, he returned to Marlboro. 

Howe, Samuel, m. (i) ; m. (2) June 15, 1850, Nancy Park- 
hurst of Milford. She d. Jan. 27, 1861. He d. May 3, 1866, 
ae. 81. These brothers were eccentric characters. Samuel 
carried the mails to No. Bern, from the village, a forerunner 
of the " rural delivery," and was familiarly known as "Old 
4 o'clock," from his habit of calling out "4 o'clock " to sum- 
mon people to the roadside for their mail. Children : 


i. Alvin'^, b. 1816; m. Releaf, dau. Silas Hills of Guilford, Vt. She 
d. Nov. 20, 1889, ae. 73 He d. May 30, 1892, ae. 76. Had: 

1. George^, who d. Oct. 14, 1849, ae. i yr. 2 mos. 2. Son', 
who d. Feb. 19, 1855, ae. 7 weeks. 3. Isadore^ 4. Ida^ 
m. Howes. 

ii. Emmeline^, m. Mason Drury of Montague. 

Howe, Sampson, Lieut., is mentioned upon the earlier town rec- 
ords as having held various minor town offices from 1763 to 

HoYT, Theodore Barnard', (Jonathan", David', Lieut. Jonathan', 
David", Nicholas", Simon\ who settled in Charlestown 1628.) 
was the first of the name in town, coming here in 181 5 from 
his native place of Deerfield. He was b. May 22, 1786; m. 
Dec. 7, 181 5, Sophia, dau. of William and Sophia Whipple of 
Brattleboro, Vt. She d. June 27, 1868. He was a harness 
maker and saddler by trade; d. May 14, 1874. 

i. Harriet**, b. Sept. 10, 1816; d. Aug. 6, 1830. 

ii. Richard Henry*, b. Dec. 27, 1820; m. Nov. 28, 1844, H. Ade- 
line^ dau. of Lucius' Chapiii. He early settled on the place now 
owned by Mr. Clogston on Burk Flat, where for many years he 
carried on the saddler's and harness maker's trade, removing 
thence in 1872 to the "Brooks Place" on South street, making 
his home with his son-in-law, with whom he has ever since re- 
sided. For several years he served the town as selectman, and 
in 1878 represented his district in the Legislature. From his 
excellent memory many facts herein incorporated have been 
gleaned, and his readiness to go hither and thither in search of 
data has been of great assistance in the compilation of this 
work. He now resides in Greenfield. Mrs. Hoyt d. in the lat- 
ter place Feb. 15, 1892. Had: i. Harriet Isabella^ b. May 31, 
1846; m. Nov. 24, 1864, Nahum S.^ Cutler; resides in (Greenfield. 

2. Hannah Sophia", b. Oct. 22, 1848; d. Oct. 12, 1859. 

iii. Mariette*, b. Sept. 4, 1824; m. Thomas Williams Ashley of Deer- 
field, Oct. 9, 1844; d. in Deerfield, Aug. 18, 1849. 

IV. Jonathan*, b. Jan 20. 1829; m. Harriet V., dau. of Benjamin 
Willard of Dummerston, Vt., Jan. i, 1851. She d. Mch. 25, 
1896; m. (2) July I, 1900, Mrs. Laura Frances Campbell, dau. 
of Edward V. Poole of Smithboro, N. Y. She was b. Mch. 3, 







HOYT — HUNT. 429 

1861. In early life Mr. Hoyt removed frfjm Brattleboro, Vt., 
to Davenport. Iowa, where, as one of the earlier settlers, he soon 
attained a position of influence. He has filled many positions 
of trust and responsibility, and is to be found taking the lead 
in all that pertains to the advancement of public affairs. In 
social and Masonic circles he is also prominently connected. 
He is an extensive dealer in musical merchandise of all kinds, 
and Hoyt's music house is one of the oldest, largest and most 
complete in the West. He was for two years president of the 
Business Men's Association, which has under his administration, 
been exceedingly prosperous. Is also a bank director. 

Hoyt, Salmon Bennett", (Jonathan', Jonathan', David", Jonathan', 
David", Nicholas^ Simon',) cou.sin of R. H. Hoyt above, b. 
May 17, 1819; m. June 25, 1847, Rebecca Humphrey. She 
d. Mch. 30, 1887. Mr. Hoyt came to town from Deerfield, 
settling on South street, on the place long owned by Edward 
Pratt. He has always been an active member of the Con- 
gregational church. Has : 

i. Sarah"*, b. Sept. 6, 1850; m. Wells Frary, 189-; res. Bern. 

Hunt, Samuel, of Tewksbury, son of Samuel who was in the Falls 
Fight ; drew Lot 54 m the first division of land. Meadow 
Lot No. 12, and in 1742, Lot No. 82 in the 4th division. (Gov. 
Cushman.) According to the Hunt genealogy, there were 
two branches of the family who shared in the township; one 
descended from Capt. Ephraim of Weymouth, the other 
from Capt. Samuel of Dunstable. William of Ipswich and 
Norwich, Ct., (wife Sarah Emerson) is ancestor of several of 
the name recalled by those of the passing generation. His 
third son and fourth child was Thomas, b. July 30, or Aug. 5, 
1717, who with his children, settled in Beaver Meadow. 

Hunt, THOMAS^ (William*, William', SamueP, William' Goodman 
of Concord ab. 1635,) b. in Ipswich, July 30, or Aug. 5, 1717 ; 
m. Nov. 2, 1738, Mary Smith. She was b. July 12, 1712 ; d. 
Apr. 13, 1790. He d. May 21, 1803 ; resided Beaver Meadow. 
Children : 


i. Mary**, bap. Sept. 15, 1739; m. Enoch Goodwin; died in Nova 

Scotia, 1777. 
ii. Elizabeth'', bapt. Jan. 22, 1742; m. Leonard Wood worth; died 

Nov. 29, I 794. 
iii. Sarah^, b. Apr. 28; d. Oct. 4, 1744. 
iv. Thomas'', b. Aug. 17, 1745; d. 1814. 
V. Sarah*', b. July 11, 1747; m. David Goodwin, 
vi. Lvdia", b. Jan. 9, 1750, in Norwich, Ct. ; m. Hezekiah" Newconib, 

Sept. 15, 1768. She d. Mch. 19, 1834. 
vii. John r3EACON'', b. Mch. 15, 1752; d. July 14, 1819; m. Martha*, 

dau. Lieut. David Rider, Julv 25, 1775. ^'^^ ^^'^^ ^- -•^P''- 10, 

1755; d. Mch. 19. 1831. They had one child, Phoebe', b. at 

No. Bern.. Oct. 3, 1776; m. Amos Burrows, Nov. 17, 1794. 

Dea. John Hunt was private in Col. VVhitcomb's Reg., Capt. 

Wells' Co., May i, 1775. 
viii. Hannah", b. Aug. 24, 1756; m. David Hayes of Bennington, Vt., 

d. July II, 1 82 1. 

Hunt, Thomas, private in Col. Asa Whitcomb's Reg., Captain 
Wells' Co., May i, 1775 ; m. Anna . Children : 

i. John-, b Mch. 3, 1769. 
ii. Mary^, b. Feb. 12, 177 1. 
iii. Thomas^, b. Mch. 3, 1774. 

Hunt, Sylvanus, m. Malita : resided on Bald Mountain 

road north of Justin Slate's. Children : 

i. JuLiANNA P. 2, b. Mch. 7, 1832; m. Eli B. Haines of Guilford, 
Vt., 1848. 

ii. Sylvanus, Jr.'^, b. May 3, 1834. 
iii. Sarah M.'^, b. July 21, 1836; d. Nov. 19, 1853. 
iv. George Edward^, b. Mch. 3, 1843; d. Mch. 22, 1844. 

Hunt, Capt. Luther, had a store in town. He d. in Winchester, 
N. H., Aug. 29, 1837, ae. 41. 

Hunt, Amos, had his store advertised for sale in 1837. The con- 
nection, if any, with these families has not been ascertained. 

HuRLBERT, Lieut. Erenezer Sheldon, (Ambrose, Ambrose), traces 
his ancestrv to Lieut. Rbenezer Sheldon of Fort and Lidian 



fame, his great-grandfather being Ebenezer, Jr., and his 
grandfather, Jonathan Sheldon. His paternal ancestor was 
William Hurlbert, a native of Wales and a blacksmith by 
trade, who landed in Boston in 1626. His mother was Eliz- 
abeth', dau. of Dea. Jonathan" Sheldon of Bern. Ebenezer 
Hurlbert was the oldest of the family of five, and was born 
in Burlington, Otsego Co.. N. Y., May 17, 1820. He was given 
a good education, and during his minority, worked with his 
father in the latter's foundry and blacksmith shop. When 
22 years of age he entered a dry goods store in Chicago, 111., 
but at the expiration of one year returned home and resumed 
his trade, working with his father until 1826. He then en- 
tered the employ of E. and J. Wilbur & Co., hoe manufac- 
turers of Waterville, N. Y. Three years were here spent, 
when a partnership was formed with S. A. Willard in Clay- 
ville, N. Y., to carry on a like business. In Dec, 1852, he 
settled in Bernardston, establishing a hoe manufactory un- 
der the firm name of E. S. Hurlbert & Co., the Co. being 
S. N. Brooks and Jonathan Cushman, upon the site of the 
old iron works on Fall River. In 1864 he assumed the entire 
control of the business, retaining the same until about 1880, 
when the Nichols brothers were admittted to the manaee- 
ment. In 1892 the latter withdrew from the firm and re- 
moved to Greenfield, and Mr. Hurlbert again conducted the 
business alone. He has now associated with him Henry L. 
Crowell and Alonzo Alford. 

Upon the breaking out of the Rebellion, Mr. Hurlbert was 
commissioned Lieut, of Co. A, 52nd Reg., Mass. Vol. Infan- 
try. His interest in the Grand Army cause is deep rooted 
and abiding, and is to-day as enthusiastic as when, in 1862, 
he entered upon his field duties. 

He has been one of the trustees of Powers Institute and of 
Cushman Library. He was, in 1854, a member of the Massa- 
chusetts Legislature, and served upon the board of select- 
men from 1872 to 1883, inclusive. He m. Dec. 30, 1863, 
Laura D., dau. of Chauncey P. Burr of Mercer, Me. Children : 
i. Julia B.^, b. July 5, 1S67; m. Fred B. Dennison, and resides in 


ii. Helen L.-, b. 1870; d. Jan. 29, 1871. 

1. Kennev, Reuben', came from East Hartford, Conn., to Bernard- 

ston about 1770; b. about 1746; m. Jemima, dau. of Stephen 
Webster, b. about 1750 ; d. June 9, 1829. He d. Feb. 26, 1797. 
Children : 

1. Charity-, b. about 1776; d. April, 1799. 

2. ii. Reuben-^. 

iii. John-, who m. Aug. 26, 18 19, Ann^ dau. Juhn^ Connable. born 
Oct. 2, 1801. 

2. Kennev, Relfben', (Reuben',) m. Mch. 11, 1799, ^lary, dau. of 
Daniel Nightingale of New Hampshire. He was then of 
Gill, but later went to live on his grandfather Webster's 
place, recently owned by the late Freeman Williatns. Chil- 
dren : 

i. Jabez^, b. July 31, 1800. 

ii. Eunice^, b. Aug. 22, 1802. 
iii. LoRANsoM^ b. Dec. 15, 1804. 

iv. LoRANCY^, b. Dec. 15, 180.^; m. Jan. 26, 1834, J ustui Chapui. 
She d. Aug. 16, 1882. 

V. Charles". 

vi. Anna'', b. Feb. 13, 1807; m. Dec. 23, 1830, Noble Phillips of (rfld. 

vii. SxErHEN", m. Sophronia. dau. (;f Geo. .Alexander, 1835; went West. 

viii. Martin'', b. Mch. 27, 1826; m. Phoebe Donelson of Colrain. He 
enlisted in the Navy, and visited many foreign ports of interest. 
Upon his return he lived for a time on his father's, the old Web- 
ster place, later on the present Hartwell place, and in 1881 pur- 
chased the Hosea Aldrich place on the Huckle Hill road, 
where he resided until his death, Aug. i, 1901. Had: i. 
Henry\ who resides in Boston. 2. Arland'*, who m. Mary 
Alexander of Guilford, Vt.; resides in Greenfield. 
ix. Mary". 
X. Henry'', who went West. 

Johnson, T. Webster'', (Isaiah W., Jr.-, Webster',) b. in Vernon, 
Vt., Mch. 18, 1852 ; m. Martha L. Cobb, who was b. in Wind- 
hall, Vt., Oct. 24, 1863. The most of Mr. Johnson's life has 


been spent in Vernon, where he always enjoyed the utmost 
confidence of his fellow townsmen, as was evidenced by his 
election to most of the town offices — assessor, selectman and 
in 1898 he represented his town in the Legislature at Mont- 
pelier. Jan. i, 1899, he removed to this place, purchasing 
his present home, the J. P. Day place on River street. Chil- 
dren, b. in Vernon : 

i. LiLA Bessie^, b. Oct. 25, 1883. 
ii. Doris Mattie-, b. Aug. 28, 1889. 

KiNGSLEY, Dea. Elijah, was the first of the name to settle in town, 
coming here when 21 years of age from Lebanon, Ct., and 
building on the north side of the Northfield road, east of the 
village, the last owner before being torn down being Phil- 
ander Slate. He was m. at this time, and his wife performed 
the journey on horseback, having for a riding whip a locust 
switch, which was set out and developed into the large locust 
tree standing at the south-east corner of the old Kingsley 
house. In the old cemetery is a stone marked " Dea. Elijah 
Kingsley, d. Oct. 30, 1839, ^^- 99 years." His wife Dorothy 
d. Nov. 23, 1824, ae. 87. 

Dea. Kingsley served the town as selectman 1774, tithing- 
man 1780, constable 1781. His military record is as follows: 
in the Gazette and Courier mention is made of his having 
served five years in the French and Indian Wars. He was 
at the battle of Bunker Hill ; went out May i, 1775, with the 
rank of third sergeant in Col. Whitcomb's Reg., Capt. Agrippa 
Wells' Co. For the years 1777-78-79, he served on the Com- 
mittee of Correspondence, Inspection and Safety. Children: 

i, Gamaliel^, b. Aug. 6, 1774; m. (i) June 24, 1795, Huldah^, dau. 
of Samuel' Hale. She was b. May 3, 1771; d. Dec. 13, 1802; 
m. (2) Jan. 2, 1803, Celinda Pickett of Greenfield. She was b. 
Jan. 4, 1783; d. Nov. 4, 1855. He d. July 9, 1855. Had: 1. 
Amelia^, b. Mch. 27, 1795; "i- ^^^- ^7' i^iS, Alpha* Ryther; 
resided Dover, Vt.; d. Nov. 10, 1879. 2. Elijah^, b. Oct. 15, 
1797; m. and res. at Ontwa, Mich. 3. Chester^, b. Aug. 24, 
1799; d. By second wife: 4. Allen Robert", b. Apr. 16, 1804; 


m.; d. in Northfield. 5. Saxton Pickett'', b. Mch. 7, 1806; m. ; 
d. Feb. 26, 1878, in Waldo, Fla. 6. Huldah Hale^ b. June 12, 
1808; m. Feb. 7, 1843, Wm. Gates of Michigan. 7. Lutiann 
C.', b. Aug. 18, 181 1 ; m. Sept. 13, 1841, Philander M. Slate. 8. 
Clesson G.'', b. Nov. 11, 1813; d. Nov. 15, 1856, unm. 9. 
Henry A.'^, b. Apr. 17, 1818; d. Aug. 12, 1819. 10. Sabrina^ b. 
Apr. 17, 1820; m. Apr. 30, 1839, J. Parsons. 11. Roxana M.^, 
^- JiJly 3' 1822; m. Oct. 2, 1842, Samuel H.^ .Atherton; d. Au- 
gust 18, 1845. 12. Henry Almond'*, b. Jan. 23, 1826; d. Octo- 
ber 23, 1826. 

ii. Darius'-. 
iii. David'-. 
iv. Nathan-. 

v. Hannah^, (probably) who m. Apr. 9, 1794, James Harkins of 

Larkin, William, was hogreave 1778. Feb. 9, 1790, he was warned 
from town, and at that time was recorded as being a " tran- 
sient person." 

Lee, John, scribe and accountant; m. Sept. 15, 1736, Elizabeth', 
dau. of Samuel Connable. She was b. in Boston, Apr. 24, 
1 7 14. They were living in Fall Town or Deerfield in 1746. 
She became a widow and at the time of the Revolution was 
taken from Boston by her brother Samuel to his home in 
Fall Town, where she resided until her death, and was buried 
in the old cemetery. Had : 

i. Mary Lee^, b. Apr. 14, 1740; m. May 25, 1763, Aaron Cabot of 

LooMis, Daniel, b. 1737; probably from Lebanon, Ct. ; m. Eunice 

. She d. Jan. 28, 18 16, ae. 82 year.s. He was tithing- 

man 1774, 1776, constable and collector 1777, surveyor of 
highways 1777, 8, 9, 80, 81, 82, selectman 1781. The town 
farm is the site of the Loomis place. He d. July i, 18 19, 
aged 82 years. 

Lyon John, formerly of Greenfield, m. Patience . She d. 


Jan. 16, 1850, ae. 52. He d. Sept. 19, 1839, ae. 58. He resided 
on the old Leyden road in the north-west part of the town. 
Children : 

i. P'reeman', b. July 15, 1825; d. Dec. 20, 1852, unm. 
ii. Prudence^, b. June 20, 1826; m. Smith S. Bellows; res. on the 
old farm many years. Had: i. Marthal 2. Luella*. 3. 
iii. Louisa^, b. March 28, 1828; d. Feb. 15, 1852, unm, 
iv. Jane^, b. Feb. 9, 1831; d. June 4, 1861, unm. 
V. Marietta'-, b. Nov. 30, 1833; d. in Eden, Ga., Apr. 27, 1857, unm. 
vi. Betsey^, b. Nov. 21, 1836; d. Jan. 24, 1855. 
vii. John Lyman-, b. Feb. 9, 1839; d Aug. 26, 1841. 

McCloud, Lewis, of Rowe, b. Mch. 22, 1805 ; m. Minerva T.^ Slate, 
dau. of Dea. Timothy', Feb. 24, 1829; resided in Bern, from 
1833 to 1838, then removed to Amherst, where he d. Dec. 10, 
1884, ae. 79. She d. Jan. 15, 1892, ae. 82. Children: 

,i. Milton L.^, b. Mch. 26, 1831; m. Mary J. Smith of No. Amherst; 
three children. 

ii. Uri Brooks^, b. Dec. 16, 1834; m. Sarah J. Graves of North 

Amherst; four children; resides Charlemont. 
iii. J. Leroy^, b. Feb. 2, 1837; m. Mary Carter of No. Hadley; one 

child; res. Northampton, 
iv. Henry Martyn'^, b in Amherst, Sept. 22, 1838; m. Sarah A. Car- 
penter, dau. of Dr. E. W. Carpenter of Bern.; veteran of the 
Civil War; editor and printer, now insurance agent; res Amherst; 
one son, Albert Carpenter, in business with his father. 

Martindale, Edward C, son of Cyrus W. of Gill, b. Nov. i, 1858 ; 
m. (1) Oct. 23, 1882, Eliza J., dau. of Wm. Sandin of Bern. 
She d. Jan. 23, 1884. He m. (2) Mary, her sister, Jan., 1890. 
(Both wives b. in Fitchburg). Mr. Martindale settled in 
East Bern., on the farm formerly owned by his father-in-law, 
Mr. Sandin. He is now, and has been .several years, one of 
the board of selectmen and assessors. Children : 

i. Lawrence S.^ b. Jan. 15, 1884. 
ii. Fannie May^, b. Sept. 2, 1892. 


Marsh, Edwin J., of Brattleboro, Vt., came to Bern, about 1870, 
purchasing the old Samuel Green place on the south side of 
the Northfield road. He m. (i) Eliza C, dau. of Emory Mil- 
ler, who also came from Brattleboro, and resided on the 
Northfield road on the place now owned by Mr. Dole, where 
he d. July 25, 1889. Mrs. Marsh d., and he m. (2) Widow 
Taintor, and removed to Keene, N. H. Had one child : 

i. Frank J.^ b. Mch. 16, 1859; m. Jan. 12, 1880, Josephine A., dau. 
of Edward K. and Louise (Chapin) Smith. He resided and car- 
ried on the farm of his father's several years, but now lives in 
Greenfield. Has one dau., Edith. 

MiLLis, a Hessian, serving under Burgoyne, who came to Bern., 
residing around the Mountain, a relative of the Euda family 
with whom he resided afterwards on South street, the place 
now owned by Mrs. Franklin. 

Moore, Enoch', (Jonas', Ephraim',) b. Dec. i, 1797, came here from 

Rutland, Mass., about 1840. He m. Almira , who was 

b. Sept. 17, 1800. He m. (2) Mch. 2, 1865. Diana L. Dole 
of Greenfield. He was for many years a blacksmith, having 
his shop on River street, north of the railroad bridge. He 
d. Aug. 20, 1883. Children: 

1. Samuel Williams^ b. Nov. 9, 1823; m.; resides in .-\mherst, Mass. 
ii. Evelina Almira^ b. Sept. 30, 1826; m. 1845, Joel Gaines'' Green; 

res. Minn. She d. . 

iii. Susan Maria*, b. May 9. 1830; m. L. B.. Wright; d. Dec. 3, 1885. 

iv. Mary Catherine'*, b. Apr, i, 1832; m. Henry C. Denham, who 

was for several years proprietor of the New England House. 

He d. in Greenfield. Had: i. .Anna May\ who in. George C. 

Lunt; has one child. 

v. JosiAH M.-*, b. Apr. 2, 1834; d. Oct. 9, 1863. 

vi. Orramel*, b. July 5, 1836; res. Greenfield; carriage manufacturer, 
vii. Emily Augusta*, b. Nov. 20, 1840; m. Sept. 3, 1865. Chas. \V. 

Davis of Chesterfield, N. H. 
viii. Orianna*, b. Nov. 11, 1843; "i- Mch. 7, 1867, Jc^iathan" Allen; 
d. Dec. 4, .1873. 

NELSON. 437 

Nelson, John, was of Brimfield; moved in 1774 to Whitingham, 
• Vt. ; m. Mary Webber. Children: 

i. John, Jr-. 

ii. Ahigail'-, m. Joel Green, 

ill. Andrew^ 

iv. Benjamin^, m. and resided in Colrain. 

V. William^. 

vi. George^, b. May 13, 1762. 

2. vii. Edward^, b. in Brimfield, Feb. 22, 1765. 

viii. Betsey^. 

ix. MollyI 

2. Nelson, Edward", (John\) b. in Brimfield, Feb. 22, 1765. In 

1 78 1 he took up his residence in Colrain ; ten years later he 
went to Leyden, and when 26 years old, m. Hannah Ranger 
of Colrain. He lived in Leyden until 1857, then removed 
with his son to Bern. He d. Dec. 10, 1862 or 3. His wife d. 
July 7, 1841. He was a soldier under the leadership of Dan- 
iel Shay, and was at the attack of the armory at Springfield. 
He celebrated his 96th birthday by riding to Greenfield in a 
railroad car for the first time. Children : 

i. Hannah^, b. Apr. 17. 1791; d. in Leyden in 1846, unm. 

ii. Matilda^ b. Dec. 5, 1793; m. (i) Benjamin Buttock of Leyden; 

(2) Otis Hastings of Greenfield. 
iii. Sally^, b. Feb. 25, 1797; m. Jacob Grossman; d. 1829, in Mont- 

pelier, Vt, 
iv. LoviNA^, b. June 28, 1799; m. Ruel BuUard of Rowe. 

3. V. JoHN^, b. June 17, 1802. 

vi. LuciNDA^, b. Feb. 22, 1804; d. unm. 1829. 

vii. Abigail^ b. Dec. 27, 1806; m. Dec. 11, 1828, Increase Sum- 
ner^ Hale; d. Nov. 21, 1900, in Greenfield, 
viii. Mary', b. June 8, 1809; d. unm. in Leyden. 
ix. Almeda'', b. Sept. 8, 1812; m. Rufus* Frizzel of Leyden; died 

Feb. 5, 1901. 
X. Mina Elvira'', b. Jan. 27, 1816; m. Chester Severance in 1862. 

3. Nelson, John', (Edward", John'.) b. June 17, 1802; m. Dec. 27, 
1828, Harriet*, dau. of Consider' Cushman of Gill. She was 
b. July 30, 1807; d. Oct. 5, 1862; m. (2) July 16, 1863, Mrs. 


Sally Peck of Charlemont. She d. Feb. 7, 1880. He died 
June 15, 1882. He resided on the Bald Mountain road, on 
the farm now owned by his son, Moses R. This place has 
been owned by Col. Chapin, Daniel Wright, Alonzo Par- 
menter, Seba Green, Sheldon Wright. Children : 

i. William Sylvester*, b. June 25, 1829; member of Co. L, 2nci 
Reg., Ohio Vol.; was twice m.; d. Aug. 6, 1888, in Bern.; res. 
on the Bald Mountain road. 

ii. Harriet Louisa*, b. May 2, 1831; ni. Robert Cone of Colrain, 
Apr. 22, 1852; d. Nov. 29, 1868. 

iii. Hannah Ja.nette*, b. Aug. 26, 1833; m.* Curtis Chapin, Au- 
gust 25, 1857. 

iv. Laura Matilda*, born Aug. 6, 1836; m. Joseph M. Cheney, 
Apr. 17, 1856. 

V. Eunice Sarepta*. b. .May 16, 1839; m. James Streeter, Jr., of 
Rowe, Jan. 30, 1861. 

vi. MosES R.*, b. June 30, 1841; m. Sept. 19, 1865, Georgianna', dau. 
of Dea. David^ Streeter of Bern. 'I'hey reside in the Bald Moun- 
tain district. Mr. Nelson has a large farm, having added to 
the original by several purchases. He is an active member of 
the M. E. church. Had: i. Cola Richard^ b. July 20. 1867: 
m. May 21, 1890, Crace*, dau. Reuben' Park; resides Sawyers 
Mills, Northfield. 2. Arthur Henry', b. July 28, 1872; m. .Au- 
gust 17, 1899, Nellie May Parmenter. 3. Luinan Ranger', b. 
Feb. 26, 1874; m. Bertha, dau. James Streeter; res. Winchester, 
N. H. 4. Leon Frank^ b. Mch. 17, 1876. 5. Walter Lee\ b. 
Apr. 14, 1884. 
vii. Rosanna Elvira*, b. May 8, 1843; "">• Willard \). Nelson of Col- 
rain, Sept. 29, 1873; d. Jan. i, 1876. 

Newcomb, Hezekiah', (Simon^ Andrew', Capt. Andrew', who was 
at Boston in 1663,) b. in Edgartown, Martha's Vineyard, Mass., 
in 1693-4. Although not himself a settler in Bernardston, 
he was the father of two of the earlier residents. From old 
deeds it appears that June 27, 1737. he bought land in Fall 
Town of William Clark, both being then residents of Leb- 
anon, Ct., for the sum of $20, thus becoming a Proprietor. 
The land originally belonged to Clark's father. He 


qiiently added to this purchase until he became possessed of 
no inconsiderable amount of real estate. Among the land 
thus acquired, and by drawing lots with other Proprietors, 
were lots numbered 49, 56, 98, and 18 in the first division. 
Children ; 

i. SlLAS^ b. Sept. 2, 1 7 17; m. Submit, dau. James Pineo. He came 
to Fall 'I'own (now Leyden) in the spring of 1741. In 1742 he 
bought of his father Lot No. 10, ist division. He remained 
until the depredations of the Indians in 1744 forced him to re- 
turn to his Connecticut home. In the division of his estate his 
lands m Fall Town went to his eldest son, Daniel, who was b. 
there. Of his i 2 children only one is here given : Daniel* Lieut., 
b. Nov. 18, 1741, in that part of Fall Town now Leyden. In 
the settlement of his father's estate, he, as eldest son, received 
a "double portion." When 21 or 22 years of age he settled here. 
He served as warden 1769, 1783, constable and collector 1775, 
Committee of Correspondence, Inspection and Safety 1776, 1777, 
surveyor of highways 1777. He m. Irene Field; d. in Leyden, 
Sept. 9, 1794, and was buried in the Beaver Meadow cemetery. 
Of his ten chUdren, all having the name of Newcomb found for 
themselves homes in the neighboring states of Vermont and 
New York. 

ii. Peters, b. Nov. 28, 17 18. 

iii. Anne^, b. Mch. 4, 1720; m. Smith; both dead in 1770. 

iv. Hezekiah^, b. Dec. 27, 1722; doubtless d. young. 

V. Thomas^, b. Sept. 3, 1724; m. Ann Hibbard. 
vi. Jerusha'\ b. Mch. 24, 1726; m. Ezra Cleveland, 
vii. Elizabeth^, b. Dec. 19, 1727; m. John Barstow. 
viii. Samuel^, b. Sept. 2, 1729; d. Sept. 9, 1748. 
ix. Jemima^, b. Dec. 14, 1730; was twice m. 

X. James^ b. Feb. 7, 1732-3; m. Mrs. Submit Davis. 

Newcomb, Peter', (Hezekiah', Simon', Andrew', Capt. Andrew',) 
b. Nov. 28, 1718; m. Hannah, dau. Richard English. Moved 
to town in 1740. Dec. 25, 1742, he bought Lot No. 99, ist 
division ; Meadow Lot No. 58, 2nd division ; Lot No. 18, ist 
division ; No. 98, in the 2nd division, the one upon which 


his father agreed by bond to settle on in 1739. Because of 
the Indian troubles in 1744, he returned to his former home 
in Lebanon, Ct., where he died. He willed his property in 
Fall Town to his son William. Children : 

i. Phcebe^, b. in Fall Town Sept. 15, 1741; m. Nov. 15, 1759, Capt. 
Nathaniel Cushman; resided and d. Stafford, Ct. 

3. ii. Hezekiah*^, b. May 6, 1747. 

iii. Samuel®, b. Oct. 23, 1749; m. Mary Crandall; d. in Somers, Ct. 

4. iv. William®, b. Mch. 19, 1752, in Columbia, Ct. 

V. Jemima', b. Oct. 24, 1756; m. Capt. Gideon Clark; d. Columbia, 

vi. Joseph®, b. May 3, 1762; m. Elizabeth Martin; d. in Columbia, Ct. 

3. Newcomb, Hezeki.\h", (Peter', Hezekiah', Simon', Andrew', 
Capt. Andrew',) b. May 6, 1747, in Columbia, Ct. ; ra. Sept. 15, 
1768, Lydia', dau. Thomas^ and Mary (Smith) Hunt. She 
was b. in Norwich, Ct., Jan. 20, 1750; d. Mch. 19, 1834. He 
came to Bernardston between 1770 and 1773, probably set- 
tling on the farm situated upon the north side of the Leyden 
road to Frizzell Hill. This farm was a little west of and ad- 
joining the farm owned by his brother William, since owned 
by William Hart Newcomb. He was an early settler, " an 
active and zealous supporter of the literary, religious and 
political institutions of our country." He was surveyor of 
highways 1774-81, 82, 86, Committee of Correspondence 1775. 
tithingman 1775, warden 1776, selectman and assessor four 
years, town treasurer two years, justice of the peace many 
years, representative to the General Court three years. De- 
cember 3, 1776, he, with Caleb Chapin, Elijah Kingsley, 
Daniel Slate and Ezekiel Foster was chosen a committee to 
plan "ye pews in ye Meeting House according to Greenfield 
Meeting House also to sect said house & order where people 
maye erect pews," etc. June, 1776, he was employed by the 
town to hire three men for nine months to serve in the Con- 
tinental Army, the men to be hired by money paid by fines. 
He d. Jan. 25, 1821, his residence then being the place owned 
by the late Almon Newcomb, whither he had removed a few 
years previously. Children : 

IMi.roN Newcomb. Almon Newcomb. 

TiiK Newcomb Homestead. 


5. i. Hezekiah', b. June 12, 1769. 

ii. Richard English", b. Oct. 31, 1770; was thrice married and had 
seven children; resided in Greenfield; graduated Dartmouth 
College 1793; studied law with William Coleman, Esq., of Green- 
field; admitted to the bar 1796; representative from Greenfield 
1807; col. militia 1807-1813; appointed Judge of Probate 1821, 
and held the office until his death, in all 28 years. While Judge 
of Probate he held the ofiice of State attorney four years. He 
d. May 14, 1849. 

iii. Lydia', b. Sept. 24, 1772; m. Sept. 24, 1801, Cotton Graves of 
Sunderland; d. Oct. 22, 1837. 

iv. Sarah'', b. Aug. 8, 1774; m. Hon. Samuel C. Allen; resided North- 
field. She d. Jan. 22, 1797. 

6. V. William', b. June 18, 1776. 

vi. Mary', b. May 5, 1778; was a teacher; d. May i, 1843, unm. 

vii. Jemima Harriet", b. Jan. 10, 1780; m. Sept. 19, 1802, David 

Carpenter of Leyden; d. Sept. i, 1828. 
viii. Peter", b Oct. 3, 1781: m. May 15, 1803, Abigail, dau. Elias 
Parmenter. She was b. Apr. 25, 1782; d. Mch. 28, 181 3; m. 
(2) in 1814, Tirzah Smead; (3) May 28, 1816, Sarah", dau. of 
Capt. Artemas** Cushman. She was b. Sept. 4, 1788; d. at Col- 
chester, Vt., Oct. 12, 1870. He settled at South Hero, Vt., 
where he d. Feb. 25, 1853. Had five children. 

ix. Dalton^, b. Dec. 26, 1783; m. Nov. 5, 1808, Harriet, dau. of 
Obed Wells of Greenfield. She was b. Jan. 4, 1788; d. Jan. 5, 
1834; m. (2) May 1, 1834, Caroline Wells, a sister of his first 
wife. She d. P'eb. 23, 1858. He d. Aug. 20, 1861. He resided 
oq and owned the place since owned by his son, the late Almon 
Newcomb. He was one of the prosperous, substantial farmers 
of the town. Had: i. Horatio Dalton**, b. Aug. 10, 1809, a 
wholesale grocer residing at Louisville, Ky.; was twice m. 2. 
Elnora Caroline*, b. Nov. 12, 1810; m. Oct. 25, 1832, Arad Bur- 
nett of Guilford, Vt. She d. in Springfield in 1872. 3. Heze- 
kiah Hunt^ b. Sept. 22, 1812; m. and resided in Louisville, Ky., 
where he d. in 185 1. 4. Warren**, b. Oct. 15, 1814; (twin) m. 
resided in Louisville, Ky., but d. in New York City, Aug. 28, 
1866. 5. Wesson**, b. Oct. 15, 1814; (twin) m. and settled in 
Vermont. 6. Catherine**, b. Oct. 13, 1816; m. Gilbert Tuell; 
resided Iowa; d. Oct. 6, 1852. 7. Mary Harriet^ b. Sept 20. 
1818; resided Louisville, Ky.; d. unm. 8. Dwight**, b. Dec. i, 


1820; resided in Ind. ; unm.; d. . 9. Edwin^ b. Nov. 10, 

1822; d. at Sacramento, Cal., Jan. 22, 1850, unm. 10. Fran- 
cis^ b. May 17, 1825; d. in Louisville, Ky. 11. Wells'*, born 
Sept. 21, 1826; d. May 7, 1855; unm.; resided in San Francisco, 
Cal.; was for several years engaged in teaching. 12. Almon'*, 
b. Nov. 28, 1829; m. Oct. 12, 1852, Mary*, dau. Loren and 
Rachael Hale of Gill. She was b. Dec. 14, 1830. Mr. New- 
comb was a member of the Legislature in 1864-5, select»nan 
1867 to 1873 inclusive. As indicated by his election to these 
offices, he was a leading and influential public-spirited man, and 
a generous supporter of the Unitarian church, and every worthy 
public enterprise. He d. at his home May 29, 1885. Mrs. New- 
comb resides in Greenfield. 
X. Horatio Gates^, b. Sept. 27, 1785; m. twice; d. Sept. 18, 1857, 
in Greenfield. 

xi. SoPHRONiA', b. Jan. 10, 1788; m. Feb. 15, 1815, Rufus Graves; 
d. in New York State, Aug. 23, 1838. 

xii. Charles Jarvis", b Apr. 29, 1790; m. Aug. 19, 1817, Philena^ 
dau. of Elihu^ Scott. He went to Trenton, Wis., where he d. 
Nov. 3, 1857; was orderly sergeant of war of 1812. 

xiii. Zebina Curtis', b. Aug. 25, 1791. 

4. Newcomb, William', (Peter', Hezekiah', Simony Andrew', Capt. 
Andrew',) b. in Columbia, Ct., Mch. 19, 1752. By will he re- 
ceived all the real estate belonging to his father in Fall Town, 
whither he soon removed, living upon his farm there until 
his death, Dec. 29, 1822, in all 43 years. He m. in 1779, Eliz 
abeth', dau. SamueP and Mary English Connable. She was 
b. about 1757, and d. Nov. 14, 1821. Mr. Newcomb served 
nine months in the Revolutionary War, chiefly in New Jer- 
sey and Pennsylvania ; was with the army in Penn. when 
it waded the Schuylkill several times during a wintry night. 
He was in Capt. William Richard's Co., ist Reg., " Connecti- 
cut Line " ; enlisted Ap. 28, 1777; took the field the same 
spring at Peekshill, N. Y. ; joined Washington's army in 
Pennsylvania in September ; was in the battle of German- 
town, Oct. 4; went into winter quarters at Valley Forge De- 
cember 19, and was discharged at the expiration of his term, 
Jan. 12, 1778, and he immediately took up his residence in 


Bern. The house he built in 1779 is still standing on the 
south side of the Newcomb road about four miles from the 
village. Children : 

i. AsHAHEL\ b. Dec. 27, 1780; m. Nov. 29, 1804, Lucinda, dau. Sam- 
uel Sykes, b. in Suffield, Ct., June 16, 1782. They removed to 
Whitestown, N. Y. 

ii. Solomon', b. Apr. 3, 1783; owned a shop and water power a few 
rods east of hi.s father's house. He was a cabinet and chair 
maker; d. Dec. 8, 1845; unm. 
iii. Elizabeth", b. Oct. 19, 1784; m. Mch. 12, 1810, John Willis; re- 
moved West. 

iv. English', b. June 26, 1787; m. Nov. 18, 1816, Eunice Weld of 
Guilford, Vt.; d. Oct. 12, 1853. Shed. Feb. 12, 1862. They re- 
sided on Huckle Hill near the Vermont line. Had: i. Calvm 
Weld^ b. Feb. 7, 1818; m. Oct. 11, 1842, Dorcas, dau. of Jacob 
B. Tice; settled in Mattawan, -N. J. 2. Eunice Fidelia", b. 
Mch. 26, 1820; m. Sereno F. Thomas; settled in Vernon, Vt. 
3. Isaac Leander**, b. June 24, 1822; d. Oct. 14, 1844. 4. \Vil- 
liam Bradley*, b. Feb. 11, 1824; d. June 6, 1824. 5. Eleanor 
E.**, b. July 15, 1825; m. John W. Tice; res. So. Amboy, N. J. 
6. Samuel Rogers**, b. Dec. 7, 1827; m. Mary J. Thomas; re- 
moved in 1861 to Hinsdale, N. H. 7. Luther English®, born 
July I, 1830; m. Henrietta Tice; d. Apr. 29, 1855. 8. Sarah 
Ann\ b. May 13, 1832; m. Andrew Jackson Thomas; d. in 
Brattleboro, Feb. 3, 1858. 

V. Orson^ b, June 9, 1789; m. Sept. 14, 1814, Sylvia, dau. of Samuel 
and Susanna Frizzle Connable. They settled in Bridgewater, 
New York. 

vi. William', b. Aug. n, 1791; twice m.; resided New York State, 
vii. Samuel', b. Jan. 8, 1794; m. and settled in Illinois. 
8. viii. Hart', b. Nov. 10, 1795. 

ix. Obadiah", b. Mch. 10, 1798; m. and rem. to Illinois. 

X. Sally^ b. Oct. 31, 1800; d. Aug. 31, 1802. 

5. Newcomb, Hezekiah', (Hezekiah', Peter', Hezekiah', Simon', 
Andrew^ Capt. Andrew',) b. June 12, 1769, in Lebanon, Ct. ; 
came to Bernardston when three years of age. He m. De- 
cember 22, 1789, Ruth', dau. of Capt. Elisha' Burnham. She 
was b. Dec. 5, 1766; d. Apr. 9, 1846. He settled in the dis- 


trict of Leyden ; was justice of the peace over 3c years, and 
representative over 20. He was a farmer and "a man of 
strong intellectual power." He d. Aug. 19, 1844. Children: 

i. Maltilda*, b. May 10, 1790; ni. Mch. 6, 1810, Elijah Fuller; re- 
sided in Iowa, where she d. May 11, 1862. 
ii. Hezekiah**, b. Feb. 27. 1792; m. May 26, 1816, Nancy Rounds; 

d. in Courtland, N. Y. 
iii. CooLEV**, b. Nov. 13, 1793; m. May 30, r8i6, Lectania Bullock. 
iv. Rosalinda*, b. May 22, 1796; m. May 20, 1816, Daniel P. Rounds; 

resided in Truxton, N. Y. 
v. Theodore*, b. Mch. 10, 1798; m. Oct. 8, 1821, Mary Carmen; 

settled in Iowa, 
vi. Sarah^, b. June 24, 1800; m. Jan. i, 1826, Origin Hill; resided 

vii. John Adams*, b. Sept. 8, 1802; m. Jan. 17, 1828, Louisa M. 

Rounds; settled in Truxton, N. Y. 
viii. Maria Ruth", b. Jan. 6, 1805; m. Mch. 16, 1826, Almond Clark. 
She d. at Dansville, N. Y. 
9. ix. 1'homas Jefferson*, b. Jan. 16, 1807. 

X. James Madison*, b. Mch. 7, 1809; d. Feb. 12, 1812. 
xi. Sophronia*, b. Nov. 23. 181 1; d. Oct. 7, 1838, unm. 

fi. Newcomb, William', (Hezekiah*, Peter', Hezekiah', Simon', 
Andrew\ Capt. Andrew',) b. June 18, 1776; m. Mary', dau. 
Ezra* Purple, May 16, 1799. She was b. Aug. 25, 1778. He 
d. suddenly Aug. 28, 1823. His wife, awakening in the night, 
found him dead beside her. She d. May 31, 1855, aged "jj. 
Resided on the Newcomb road. Children : 

i. George VV^ashington*, b. Feb. 22, 1800; m. Jan. i, 1824, Martha 
Almira^ dau. of Amos^ Burrows; res. Bolton, Mass. 

ii. Phcebe Maria^, b. Apr. 28, 1802; m. Apr. 17, 1825, David New- 
comb Carpenter of Leyden. Their son, C. C. Carpenter, is in 
the United States Navy, 
iii. Alexander Hamilton**, b. July 8, 1804; m. Nov. i, 1825, Maria', 
dau. John Hamilton. He d. Aug. 28, 1854, in Leyden. 

iv. Charles William'', b. Nov. 30, 1806; was twice m. ; settled in 

V. Mary Julia*, b. Sept. 4, 1808; m. Oct. 10. 1832, Horace Potter 
of Leyden. 

















lo. vi. Ezra Purple*, b. July 3, 1812. 

vii. Charlotte Nancv*, b. Feb. i, 1815; m. Oct. 17, 1837, George 
W. Severance; resided Big Rock, 111. 
viii. Harriet Jemima*, b. Aug. 7, 1818; m. Dec. 5, 1839, Ebenezer 
Hinsdale; resided in Illinois. 

7. Newcomb, Zebina Curtls', Hezekiah", Peter', Hezekiah', Simon", 
Andrew\ Andrew',) b. Aug-. 25, 1791 ; m. Feb. 27, 181 1, Maria 
Lydia", dau. of Hon. Job^ and Lydia (Foote) Goodale. She 
was b. Dec. 22, 1796; d. Sept. 28, 1853. He m. (2) Mch. 2. 
1859, Mrs. Sarah (Lawrence) widow of Rev. Eber L. Clark. 
Mr. Newcomb was one of the representative men of the 
place, holding the office of town treasurer in 1823 and 1824, 
town clerk 1824, selectman and assessor the same year. Tn 
1836 he was appointed justice of the peace, which office he 
ever afterward held. For 44 years he was an officer in the 
Congregational church, and for nearly fifty years was en- 
gaged in mercantile business in town, his store, sawmill, 
house and large tract of land being- located on or near Fall 
River. He d. June 13, 1868. The later years of his life his 
home was the present O. W. Gray place. Children, by first 
wife : 

1. Henry Goodale**, b. Jan. 17, 1818; d. Oct. 8, 1843. 

ii. Martha Laurens**, b. June 9, 1820; res. in Oakland, Cal., unm. 

iii. Jane N.**, b. July 15, 1822; m. Nov. 25, 1853, Theodore L. Wright; 
d. Oct. 9, 1866, in Beloit, Wis, A son, Theodore L. Wright, is 
professor of Greek in Beloit College. 

iv. Susan**, b. May 31, 1824; d. Feb. 25, 1848, unm. 
V. Elizabeth*, b. Aug. 15, 1826; d. Nov. 9, 1827. 

vi. John Curtis^ b. Sept. 28, 1828; m. Nov. 10, 1859, Mary Doug- 
lass, dau, of Wm. 1)., and Mary L. Reynolds, b. New York City, 
Feb. 6, 1838; rem. June, 1853, to Beloit, Wis., where he was 
for several years of the firm of Wright & Newcomb, paper man- 
ufacturers, with salesrooms at Chicago. They were burned 
out in the great Chicago fire in 187 1, and he with his brother, 
R. F., went to Quincy, 111., and bought a paper mill, and started 
it up under the firm name of Newcomb Brothers, still retaining 
his interest in the Beloit mills. He is now engaged in the man- 


ufacture of picture frames in Chicago, 111. Had: i. William 
Douglas^ b. Jan. 21, 1861. 2. Mary Douglas^ b. May 20, 1870. 

vii. Elizabeth Maria^, b. Oct. 13, 1831; teacher; res. Beloit, Wis., 
and Quincy, 111.; unm.; d. in Jan. 12, 1890. 

viii. Edward^ b. Nov. 22, 1834; d. Oct. 30, 1838. 
ix. Richard Foote^ b. Sept. 20, 1837. He fitted for college at Wil- 
liston Seminary, but his taste for commercial affairs induced 
him to accept a position as salesman in a hardware house in 
Boston at the age of sixteen, where he remained a few years, 
when he returned to Bernardston to conduct his father's mercan- 
tile business. At the formation of the 52nd Reg., M. V. M., he en- 
listed as sergeant in Co. A, his service being with Banks' expedi- 
tion. For some months he served on the brigade staff, having 
charge of the ordinance. supplies, and later of the entire medical 
stores. Upon leaving the service, he was for some time associated 
with his father under the firm name of Z. C. Newcomb & Son. In 
1866 he removed to Beloit, Wis., where he engaged in the paper 
making business with a wholesale house in Chicago. The com- 
pany was burned out in the great Chicago fire of 187 1, and soon 
after, he with his brother bought a paper mill at Quincy, 111., 
and started it up under the firm name of Newcomb Brothers. 
In 1889 his mill was absorbed by the American Straw Board 
Company, with Mr. Newcomb as its president. Mr. Newcomb. 
as well as his brother, merit the great success which has attended 
their business career. Mr. Newcomb resides in Quincy, but 
much of his time is spent at their salesroom in Chicago. He 
m. May 2, i860. Eliz A. Bowman of Flushing, L. I.; b. Oct., 
1833; d. Aug. 28, 1864; m. (2) Sept. 22, 1869, Annie M., dau. 
of Dr. Henry and Eliza Ritchie of Beloit, Wis., b. May 24, 1843. 
Had: i. May Foote", b. June 2, 1861; m. Joseph W. Emery 
of Quincy, 111. 2. Eliz Maria^ b. Aug. 15, 1870; m. John A. 
Stillwell. 3. Sarah Ritchie**, b. May 10, 1873; m. Frank H. 
Whitney. 4. Florence*. 5. Richard Bernard", is a student 
at Dartmouth College. 

8. Newcomb, Hart', (William", Peter', Hezekiah*, Simon^ Andrew^ 
Andrew^) b. Nov. 10, 1795; m. (i) Apr. 18, 1821, Sophia 
Hannum of Belchertown. She d. Oct. 10, 1826; m. (2) Sarah 
Hannum, sister of his first wife, Apr. 17, 1827. She died 



Apr. 3, 1842 ; m. (3) at Hinsdale. N, H., Sept. 4, 1842, Rox- 
anna Tower. She d. July 5, 1868. He d. Jan. i, 1863, hav- 
ing with the exception of one year always resided on the 
original Newcomb farm on the Newcomb road, North Bern, 
Children : 

i. Elizabeth Sophia**, b. Aug. 22, 1822; d. Mch. 25. 1834. 

ii. Abigail Sarah'*, b. Jan. 27, 1825; m. Elbridge Cj. Hastings, 
Apr. 26, 1842; res. Illinois. 

iii. Martha Ann*, b. Oct. i, 1826; m. Oct. 5, 1847, Rev. Roswell 
Corbett. She d. Mch. 3, i860. 

iv. SoPHRONiA Maria**, b. Dec. 16, 1827; m. Nov. 17, 1852, Warren 
J. Potter of Greenfield. Oct. 22, 1864, she went to sleep, and 
for several days after her jaws were set, taking only liquids; 
later took some light foods. She slept until Feb. 23, 1865, when 
she opened her eyes, and spoke for the first time in four months. 
Said she had heard the conversation in the room, although una- 
ble to speak. She soon relapsed into her former state, and so' 
continued, sometimes awakening, until her death, Sept. 27, 1865. 

v. Louisa Lydia*, b. Dec. 17, 1829; d. Apr. 20, 1830. 

vi. Louisa Julia*^, b. Feb. 2, 1832; unm. 

vii. Ardelia Jane*, b. Dec. 23, 1834; res. with her sister Abigail; 
unm; has been a successful teacher. 

viii. William Hart*, b. June 7, 1837; m. November 26, 1867, Mary 
Wade, dau. of John C. and Sarah (Goodrich) Treadwell. She 
was b. in Lowell, Aug. 11, 1848. Mr. Newcomb owned and re- 
sided on the homestead of his great grandfather, Peter' New- 
comb until his removal to Greenfield in 1893. He d. at the 
latter place Aug. 29, 1900. Had: i. Mary Gertrude^, b. Jan- 
uary 25, 1871; d. 1889. 2. Edwin Hubbard', b. Oct. 5, 1873; 
res. in Greenfield. 3. Louise EtheP, b. July 25, 1880; res. 
in Greenfield. 4. Mertine Irene**, b. Mch. 11, 1890; d. Novem- 
ber T5, 1897. 

ix. Mary Elizabeth*, b. Apr. 22, 1839; m. Oct. 15, 1862, James R. 
Miner of Leyden, where he d. and she took up her residence in 
Federal st., Greenfield. 

X. Amelia Thankful*, b. Mch. 30, 1842; m. J. W. Pettigrew, 1883; 
res. Ludlow, Vt. 


9. Newcomb, Thomas Jefferson', (Hezekiah', Hezekiah', Peter', 
Hezekiah\ Simon', Andrew^ Andrew',) b. in Leyden, Jan. i6, 
1807; m. (1) Nov. 27, 1832, Euphemia S. Grennell. She was 
b. Feb. 14, 1813; d. Sept. 8, 1834; m. (2) Mch. 8, 1835, Re- 
becca S., dau. David and Lydia (Roberts) Hitchcock. She 
was b. in New York, Feb. 22, 1814. Mr. Newcomb owned 
and resided upon the ancestral farm in Leyden until 1870, 
when he removed to Bernardston, residing on the "Green" 
until his death in Mch., 1886. Mrs. Newcomb d. in 1886 also. 
Mr. Newcomb was a devoted member of the M. E. church. 
Children, b. in Leyden : 

i. Ruth Survivor", b. Nov. 30, 1833; m. Oct., 1859, Amasa S. 
Cowles; resided Lansing, Mich. She d. Dec. 18, 1898. 

ii. Sarah Eliza^, b. Feb. 23, 1836; m. Sept. 7, 1856, George H. 
Bixby, son of David and Lydia Bixby, b. in Haverhill, N. H., 
Mch. 12, 1827; settled in Bern.; resides on the place formerly 
owned by Samuel Green, and later by H. \V. Hale. Has: 1. 
Eleanor Lydia'", b. Apr. 4, 1859; m. Hendrick A. Slate, June 15, 

iii. SoN^ b. and d. Feb. 16, 1838. 

iv. Lydia Sophronia", b. June 8, 1839; m. May 9, 1861, Joel Hudson 
Nash of Greenfield, who d. June 13, 1899; res. Bern. Mr. Nash 
had spent many of the earlier years of his life in travel, having 
been nine years in California, three in Australia, several times 
to the West Indies, also the Sandwich Islands. He served in 
the Civil War as a member of Co. I, 2nd Mass. Heavy Artillery. 
V. Rosalinda Maria^ b. July 27, 1841; d. Sept. 9, 1842. 

vi. Ellen Maria", b. Sept. 27, 1843; d. Dec. 23, 1845. 

vii. Daughter^, b. Nov. 12; d. Dec. 4, 1845. 

viii. Alma Ellen", b. Nov. 27, 1847; <-'• June 23, 1870, unm. 

ix. Thomas Hezekiah^, b. June 3, 1849; m. Oct. 14, 1873, Elsie B. 
Taylor. They reside in Shelton, Ct., where Mr. Newcomb is 
superintendent of the Derby Silver Co. 
X. Eugene Adelbert^, b. Nov. 17, 1851; m. May 10, 1873, Hannah, 
dau. of William Deakin of Greenfield. She was b. in Sheffield, 
England, Jan. 23, 1853. Mr. Newcomb resides in Greenfield, 
where he is a member of the firm of Sheldon & Newcomb, hard- 
ware dealers. He has been the treasurer of Franklin County 


the past 12 years; has been for many years a member of the 

boards of water commissioners and registration. A prominent, 
public-spirited man in all that pertains to the welfare of his 
town. Had: i. WilHam Jefferson"*, b. Jan. 12, 1874; res. Shel- 
ton, Ct. 2. Edith Teresa'", b. Aug. i, 1875; stenographer. 3. 
Eugene Robert'", b. Dec. 4, 1882. 4. Rebecca'", b. Oct. 24, 1892. 
xi. Elwyn Dwight'-*, b. Mch. 13, 1854; m. Belle, dau. of Hiram 
Smith of South Hadley Falls, where they reside; two daughters, 
xii. EsTELLA Rebecca\ b. Sept. 19, 1857; m. Edward Wells of North 
Bern, in 1883. She d. in 1885. 

10. Newcomb, Ezra Purple', (William', Hezekiah', Peter', Heze- 
kiah', Simon', Andrew', Andrew\) b. July 3- 1812; m. June, 
1835, Mary', dau. of John Hamilton, and widow of Van Ran- 
sellear' Scott. She was b. Dec. 19, 1804; d. Apr. 12, 1888.