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Full text of "History of the town of Cornish, New Hampshire, with genealogical record, 1763-1910"

HISTORY 



OF THE 



TOWN OF CORNISH 



Vol. I. 




WILLIAM H. CHILD. 



HISTORY 



OF THE 

TOWN OF CORNISH 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 

WITH GENEALOGICAL RECORD 

1763-1910 

By WM. H. CHILD 



7A T TWO VOLUMES 



Vol. I. 

NARRATIVE 



Recording all events we can, 

Is rendering good service to fellow-man 



The Rumford Press 
concord, n. h. 






( f 



MOTTOES AND QUOTATIONS. 

"How carefully should we secure the memorials, while we may, of the long 
procession of true-hearted men and women that have borne with many tears, 
toils and prayers the precious Ark of God's Covenant, and of our liberties down 
to the present hour. We will not, we cannot forget those who toiled and dared 
and endured so much for God and for us." — B. W. Dwight. 

"A town exists in its history. Take away the memory of the past, and what 
remains? Only a name. Take away the example of the recorded wisdom 
of the past, and what ray of light would be left for our guidance? What could 
we do but wander in the maze of perpetual childhood? If we are bound to 
respect the claims of posterity we likewise owe a debt to our ancestors." 

— Chipraan. 

"He that is not proud of his ancestors, either has no ancestors to be proud 
of, or else he is a degenerate son." — From Walpole History. 

"A people who do not look back to their ancestors, will not look forward to 
their posterity." — Burke. 

In no way can the Divine Command, " Honor thy father and thy mother," 
be so completely obeyed as in tenderly recording their deeds and words. 



'i 



PREFACE. 

The writer of this history, although somewhat advanced in 
life, is yet comparatively a novice in the work. Being called to 
it in the midst of the onerous cares and labors of a farm, which 
already absorbed most of his time and energy, it may lack some- 
what in literary merit from what it otherwise would, while under 
any circumstances the writer could lay no claim to literary 
qualification or essential merit. It has, however, been his aim to 
give a fair, truthful and impartial record, and at the same time, 
making it as exhaustive as possible. He has also been deeply 
impressed with the magnitude and importance of the work in hand, 
and has carefully and prayerfully sought to do it, so that all inter- 
ested in it shall be satisfied. 

A powerful source of inspiration is found in the history of 
those ancestors whose achievements have been for the better- 
ment of the world. There is an intellectual and moral power in 
such an ancestry which elevates the character and improves the 
heart. 

The history of a town is scarcely more than the collective 
history of the families composing the town. The writer has 
felt it his duty to collect as much as possible, realizing that it is 
a duty we owe both to the living and the dead, to the future 
as well as the present, that these memorials of the past and present 
be preserved. It does not seem right that the memory of the 
dead should perish, that they who have done and suffered so 
much for their posterity should be forgotten on the earth. 

It is true that many do not highly appreciate researches 
of this nature. This lack of interest arises generally from too 
intense a contact of the mind with the present, excluding almost 
wholly the influences of the past and even of the future. It is 
no credit to us to be reckless of that past from whose womb the 
present has sprung, and without which the present cannot be 
interpreted. 

In New England there is a type of religious and moral character 
coupled with strong intellectual power such as the world has never 



viii PREFACE. 

elsewhere seen. Does any one inquire the cause? The answer 
is found in the personal character of the men and women who first 
settled here, who, under God, laid the foundation of all we so 
highly prize. They had an elevation of aim, a purity of purpose, 
a steadiness of resolve, a fortitude under trial, and above all, a 
deep sense of responsibility to God never elsewhere seen in the 
world's history. Their characters were formed in the school of 
adversity and thus they were prepared for the noblest of all 
human achievements, the founding of a Christian Republic. To 
such an ancestry we owe, under God, all that is valuable in the 
character and institutions of the American people. 

The town of Cornish has enjoyed her full share of these 
influences from the first. Her early settlers were men and 
women who were ready to stake their all upon the principles 
of political and religious liberty. Their venture proved a mag- 
nificient success. The lustre of their teachings and examples 
has been reflected upon their sons and daughters, as their record 
will show on the pages of this work. 



TABLE OF CONTEXTS 

VOL. I 

CHAPTER PAGE 

I. General Description — Situation — Boundaries — 

Territory — Approaches ■ — Name ■ — Altitude . . 1-3 

II. Charter — Grantees • — Reservations — Grant to 
Moses Chase — First Settlements — First Town 
Meeting 4-19 

III. Pioneer Life — Houses — Crops — Tools — Food ■ — 

Dress — Sports — Postal Facilities — Church — 

Wild Beasts — Forests — Flora 20-42 

IV. New Hampshire Grants — Claims of New Hampshire 

and New York — Vermont State Organized — New 
Hampshire Severed from Great Britain — Petition 
of Sixteen Towns — Cornish Convention — Re- 
solves of Congress — Boundaries of New Hamp- 
shire and New York Determined 43-53 

V. Revolutionary War — Stamp Act — Committees of 

Safety — Taxes Imposed by Parliament — Boston 
Massacre — Boston Tea Party — Battle of Lex- 
ington ■ — Bunker Hill — Provision of New 
Hampshire for War — Association Test - — Decla- 
ration of Independence — Trenton and Princeton 

— General Stark at Bennington — Saratoga — 
Burgoyne's Surrender — Cornish at Ticonderoga 

— Surrender of Cornwallis 54-78 

VI. Military History, 1783-1861 — New Hampshire 

Divided into Military Districts — Muster — War 
of 1812 — Cornish in War of 1812 — Mexican War 79-84 
VII. Cornish in the Civil War — Call for Volunteers — 
Second Regiment — Third Regiment — Fourth 
Regiment — Fifth Regiment — Sixth Regiment — 
Seventh Regiment — Eighth Regiment — Ninth 
Regiment — Eleventh Regiment — Thirteenth Regi- 
ment — Fourteenth Regiment — Fifteenth Regi- 
ment — ■ Sixteenth Regiment — Eighteenth Regi- 
ment — New Hampshire Battalion — First New 
Hampshire Cavalry — Heavy Artillery — Sharp- 
shooters — United States Navy — Cornish Men 
Drafted 85-106 



x TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER PAGE 

VIII. Churches — -Religious Proclivities — Union Soci- 
ety — Congregational, First and Second Churches 

— Second Division of the Latter — Baptist - 
Episcopal — Methodist Episcopal — Perfection- 
ists - - Millerites — Independent — Pentecostal 
Nazarenes 107-141 

IX. Schools-- Town Divided into School Districts - 
Town System — School Houses — High Schools — 
Supervision — Inspectors — Superintendents — 
School Board — Kimball Union Academy — Grad- 
uates of Kimball Union Academy 142-156 

X. Town Officers — Selectmen — Town Clerks — 

Moderators — Representatives ....:. 157-166 
XI. Societies — G. A. R. — Soldiers' Aid Society — Cornish 
Colonization Society — Temperance — Grange — 
Cheshire Lodge, Free and Accepted Masons . . 167-178 
XII. Manufacturing Industries — Tanneries — Carriage 
Building — Grist Mills — ■ Sawmills — Creameries 
- Blacksmithing — Harness Making, etc. . „ . 179-186 

XIII. Census Data of Cornish — Census of 1767 — of 1773 

— of 1775 — of 1790 — Population of Cornish in 
Twelve Censuses — of the United States — of 

New Hampshire 187-192 

XIV. Cemeteries of Cornish — Three Abandoned Ceme- 

teries — Eight Principal Cemeteries — Casualties 193-201 
XV. Pauperism — Care of Paupers by Town of Cornish 
Alms House — County Support of Paupers — County 
Affairs — Formation and Incorporation of Sulli- 
van County — County Courts 202-211 

XVI. Cornish Bridge — Blue Mountain Park — Proprie- 
tors of Cornish Bridge — Toll House Journals — 

Austin Corbin — Game in Park 213-219 

XVII. "City Folks " in Cornish (By Homer St. Gaudens) . 220-232 
XVIII. Town Building — Soldiers' Monument — Libraries 
- Town House — Record Building — Inscription 
on Monument — Stowell Free Public Library . 233-243 
XIX. Miscellaneous — Climatic Extremes — Hotels ■ — 
Stores — Centennial — Po'st Offices — Town Re- 
ports — Indians — Shows — Ascutney Mountain — 
President's Visit — Old People's Association . 244-262 

XX. Lawyers — Physicians 262-276 

XXI. Sketches of Cornish Men 277-346 

Vital Statistics 347-368 

General Index 369-376 

Index of Names 377-392 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



VOL. I. 



William H. Child Frdhtispiece 

Cornish Map, 1S05 opposite page 4 

Cornish Present Map 16 

Gen. Jonathan Chase House as it Appeared in 1870 . 65 

Group of Churches " 107 

Interior of the Congregational Church, Ground 

Floor " "110 

Interior of the Congregational Church, Gallery . " 111 

Group School Houses " 142 

William W. Mercer " "149 

Cornish Creamery " 184 

Hillside Creamery " 184 

Residence of Freeman Johnson, formerly Home of Town 

Poor "205 

Cornish Bridge Group " 212 

Map of Blue Mountain Park " 217 

Residence of Mrs. C. C. Beaman " 221 

Mrs. C. C. Beaman's Casino "222 

High Court, Residence of Mr. Norman Hapgood ... " 223 

Aspet, Residence of Mrs. Augustus Saint-Gaudens ... " 225 

Harlakenden House, Residence of Winston Churchill . " 227 

Residence of Mr. C. A. Platt "229 

Residence of Dr. A. H. Nichols " 231 

Group Town Buildings and Cornish Flat " 234 

Soldiers' Monument " 238 

The Stowell Free Library " 242 

Ascutney Mountain from Cornish Hills " 255 

Rev. and Mrs. James T. Jackson " 259 

Dr. Elijah Boardman " 267 

Dr. Lyman Hall "270 

Dr. George W. Hunt "271 

Residence of D. J. Spaulding, built by Dr. Roswell Leavitt " 272 

Dr. Nathan Smith " 275 

C. C. Beaman opposite " 277 

Mrs. C. C. Beaman " "279 

Col. L. H. Carroll "281 

Bishop Philander Chase " 293 

Salmon Portland Chase, and Cut of his Birthplace opposite " 300 

Winston Churchill " " 304 

Mrs. Winston Churchill " "306 



Xll 



LIST OF ILLTSTRATIONS. 



Dr. Levi H. Cobb page 308 

Jacob Foss opposite " 314 

Andrew Jackson Hook " 318 

Hon. Samuel L. Powers opposite " 323 

Prof. D. S. Richardson " 325 

Mrs. Mary C. Richardson " 325 

Rev. Joseph Rowell " 330 

Augustus Saint-Gaudens opposite " 332 

George H. Stowell " " 340 

Rev. J. W. Wellman, D.D " "344 



HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

CHAPTER I. 

General Description. 

Cornish, Sullivan County, New Hampshire, is situated on the 
east bank of the Connecticut River, which separates the states 
of New Hampshire and Vermont. It is situated about 43^ 
degrees north latitude and 72 degrees west longitude from 
Greenwich and 5 degrees east from Washington. 

It is bounded on the north by Plainfield; on the south by Clare- 
mont; on the east by Croydon and part of Grantham, and on the 
west by the western bank of the Connecticut River, at low- 
water mark. According to the terms of the grant it was at first 
the equivalent of six miles square and contained 23,040 acres by 
measurement. 

On June 24, 1809, a portion of Croydon, by legislative act, was 
annexed to Cornish, and on December 25, 1844, a portion of Gran- 
tham also was annexed. This latter addition soon after received 
the name of, and has since been known as "Texas, " as its annex- 
ation occurred a year previous to the admission of Texas into the 
Union. These additions to Cornish considerably increased her 
territory, but since then, no changes have taken place in the 
boundaries of the town. These changes were a great convenience 
to all of the families settled on farms west of the mountain ridge. 
Heretofore, the owners of these farms were practically iso- 
lated from the main portions of their respective towns by reason 
of this abrupt ridge between them, while by their annexation to 
Cornish they could readily join with her in all town affairs. The 
new line on the east was made to conform as nearly as practicable 
with the greater height of land. 

The approaches to Cornish, both by roads and railway are 
chiefly from the north and south, as the Connecticut River and 
Valley generally trends in that direction. A single bridge, on its 
western boundary, crossing the river at Windsor, Vt., furnishes the 



2 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

only approach from the west, and the mountain ridge on its 
eastern boundary seems to forbid extensive intercourse in that 
direction. 

Cornish received its name from some of the grantees of the 
town whose families came from the famous mining town of 
Cornish, England, but it did not receive the name until it was 
granted in 1763. A camp, however, had previously been estab- 
lished in the town near the river, which has ever since been known 
as "Mast Camp." Here the officers of the Crown with their 
workmen were sent to select and cut choice timber for the Royal 
Navy. This was cut in the winter and hauled to the river, and 
in the following spring when the water was high, it was floated 
down stream to some point where it was to be used for ship- 
building. There is no known record of how much timber had 
been thus used, or when the first white man came here in quest 
of it, but the forests were subsequently found to contain much 
timber suitable for such use. 

A point in the Connecticut River, at low-water mark, opposite 
the center of the town, is said to be 212 feet above sea-level. 
On leaving the river and going east, this altitude is rapidly in- 
creased by the successive elevations of land. The surface is diver- 
sified with meadows and hills, thus gradually rising to the sum- 
mit of Croydon and Grantham mountains on the east. The soil 
is equally diversified, and in places rocky, but taken as a whole, 
judging by its appearance, or the record of its production, Cornish 
compares favorably with the best towns of the state. These 
elevations in the surface are favorable to good drainage. But 
little stagnant water is to be found. Miasma is unknown. The 
brooks, two of which are of considerable size, find their source in 
the mountain sides on the east, flow westward and empty into the 
Connecticut River. Of this beautiful river which fringes our 
entire western border, a poet has well said: 

"Nor drinks the sea a lovelier wave than thine." 

This river renders no small contribution to the pleasure of the 
tourist while journeying along its beautiful banks. Its valley 
is celebrated for its beautiful and variegated scenery. On 
either side of the river are wooded heights sometimes pro- 
jecting and almost overhanging its banks and sometimes reced- 
ing, leaving the beautiful meadows and fertile farms spread 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 3 

out in full view of the tourist. In the near distance on the west 
stands in silent majesty the stately Ascutney ever in view, and 
the beautiful and historic village of Windsor lying between. 

The town has no lakes to add their charms to the beauty of the 
landscape, neither are there deep ravines or gorges and water- 
falls to thrill the beholder; but otherwise, Nature in her lovely 
garb is here in manifold combinations. Cultured taste seems 
to admire the scenery of Cornish, as the variety of its scenery 
seems inexhaustible. Verdant hills, rich pastures, and smiling 
meadows and pure streams of water, all combine to render it the 
seat of ideal homes. The hillsides and valleys, too, abound in 
springs of purest water, while beautiful forests crown the summit 
of most of the hills, and pure air breezes over all. 

"I love thy rocks and rills, 
Thy vales and templed hills." 



CHAPTER II. 
Charter— Grants, Etc. 

The charter for Cornish was granted June 21, 1763, to Rev. 
Samuel McClintock of Greenland, N. H., and sixty-nine others. 
The charter was renewed December 21, 1768. 

The following is a copy of the charter of the township of 
Cornish as granted by King George the Third to the original 
proprietors of the town: 

Province of New Hampshire. 

[L. S.] George the Third, by the Grace of God, of Great 
Britain, France and Ireland, King, Defender of the 
Faith &c. To all Persons to whom these Presents shall come, 
Greeting: 

Know ye that We of our special Grace, certain Knowledge 
and meer motion, for the due Encouragement of settling a New 
Plantation within our said Province, by and with the advice of 
our Trusty & Well Beloved Benning Wentworth Esqr. Our 
Governor and Commander in Chief of our said Province of New 
Hampshire in New England, and of our Council of said 
Province, Have, upon the Conditions and Reservations here- 
inafter made, given and granted, and by these Presents, for 
us, our Heirs and Successors, do give, and grant in equal 
Shares unto our loving Subjects, Inhabitants of our said 
Province of New Hampshire and our other Governments and to 
their Heirs and Assigns forever whose names are entered on 
this Grant to be divided to, and amongst them into Seventy 
Six Equal Shares all that Tract or Parcel of Land Situate, lying 
and being within our said Provience of New Hampshire con- 
taining by Admeasurement, 23040 acres, which Tract is to Con- 
tain Six miles square and no more : out of which an allowance is 
to be made for High- Ways and unimprovable Lands by Rocks, 
Ponds, Mountains and Rivers. One Thousand and Forty Acres 
free according to a Plan and Survey thereof made by our said 
Governors orders, and returned into the Secretary's Office and 



1 



' gnm/rt/fi fwjt" WH/2 \ '^y 2^ T* 1 ^ i y& n j/ *"%/£'''%%, ~w/ -K0p"Ol'n ~m>_fyvg a Sr yfifA^ 




CHARTER— GRANTS, ETC. 5 

hereunto annexed, butted and bounded as follows: Viz: Begin- 
ning at A Tree marked with the Figures 2 & 3. Standing on the 
Bank of the easterly side of the Connecticut River, which is the 
South Westerly Corner Bounds of the Town of Plainfield, from 
thence running South, Seventy Six degrees East by Plainfield to- 
a stake and Stones which is the South Westerly Corner of Gran 
tham and North Westerly Corner of Croydon, thence South fif~ 
teen Degrees West by Croydon Aforesaid, Six Miles to the North 
Westerly Corner of Newport, thence turning off and running 
North 77 deg. West. Six Miles to a Tree Standing on the Easterly 
Bank of Connecticut River, marked with the Figures 1 & 2, then 
up the river as that Trends, to the Bounds begun at, and that the 
same be and hereby is Incorporated into a Township by the name 
of Cornish, and the Inhabitants that do, or shall hereafter in- 
habit the said Township are hereby declared to be Enfranchised 
with, and Entitled to all and every the Privileges and Immunities 
that other Towns within our Province by Law Exercise and 
enjoy :— and further, that the Said Town, as soon as there shall be 
Fifty Families resident and Settled thereon, shall have the Liberty 
of holding two Fairs, one of which shall be held on the and 

the other on the annually, which Fairs are not to continue 

longer than the respective following the said and 

that as soon as the said Town shall consist of Fifty Families, a 
market may be opened and Kept one or more Days in each Week, 
as may be thought most advantageous to the Inhabitants. 

Also that the first Meeting for the choice of Town Officers 
agreeable to the Laws of our Said Province, Shall be held on the 
Second Monday of July next which said meeting shall be notified 
by Clement March Esqr. who is hereby also appointed the moder- 
ator of the said first Meeting, which he is to notify and Govern 
agreeable to the Laws and Customs of our Said Province; and 
that the Annual Meeting forever hereafter, for the Choice of 
such Officers for the said Town, shall be on the Second Tuesday 
of March annually. — To Have and to Hold the said Tract of 
Land as above expressed, together with all Privileges and Appur- 
tenances to them and their respective Heirs and Assigns forever 
upon the following Conditions: (Viz.) 

I. That every Grantee, his Heirs or Assigns shall plant and 
cultivate five Acres of Land within the Term of five years 
for every fifty acres contained in his or their Share or Proportion 



6 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

of Land in said Township, and continue to improve and settle 
the same by Additional Cultivations, on Penalty of the For- 
feiture of his Grant or Share in the said Township, and of its 
reverting to Us, our Heirs and Successors, to be by us or them 
He-granted to such of our Subjects as shall effectually settle and 
cultivate the same. 

II. That all White and other Pine Trees within the said Town- 
ship fit for Masting our Royal Navy, be carefully preserved for 
that use, and none to be cut or felled without our Special License 
for so doing, first had and obtained, upon the Penalty of the For- 
feiture of the Right of such Grantee, his Heirs and Assigns, to us, 
our Heirs and Successors, as well as being subject to the Penalty 
of any Act or Acts of Parliament that now are, or hereafter shall 
be Enacted. 

III. That before any Division of the Land be made to and 
among the Grantees, a Tract of Land, as near the Center of the 
said Township as the Land will admit of, Shall be reserved and 
marked out for Town Lots, one of which shall be allotted to each 
Grantee of the Contents of one Acre. 

IV. Yielding and paying therefor to us, our Heirs and Successors 
for the space of ten years, to be computed from the date hereof, 
the Rent of one Ear of Indian Corn only, on the twenty fifth 
day of December annually, if Lawfully demanded, the first Pay- 
ment to be made on the twenty fifth day of December 1763. 

V. Every Proprietor, Settler or Inhabitant, shall yield and pay 
unto Us, our Heirs and Successors yearly, and every year forever 
from and after the Expiration of ten Years from the above said 
twenty fifth Day of December, namely, on the twenty fifth day 
of December which will be in the year of our Lord 1773, one 
Shilling Proclamation money for every Hundred Acres he so owns, 
Settles or Possesses, and so in Proportion for a greater or lesser 
Tract of the Said Land; which money shall be paid by the respec- 
tive Persons abovesaid, their Heirs or Assigns in our Council 
Chamber in Portsmouth, or to such Officer or Officers as shall be 
appointed to receive the same; and this is to be in Lieu of all other 
Rents and Service whatever. 

In testimony whereof we have caused the Seal of our Said 
Province to be hereunto Affixed. 

Witness Benning Wentworth Esqr; our Governor and Com- 
mander in Chief of Our Said Province; the Twenty first Day of 



CHARTER— GRANTS, ETC. 



June, in the Year of Our Lord Christ, One Thousand Seven 
Hundred and Sixty three, and in the Third Year of our Reign. 



B. Wentworth 

By His Excellency's Command 
with Advice of Council. 

Theodr Atkinson Jun r Sec ry 



Prov c of New Hamp r Octobe r 1. 
1763. Recorded according to 
the original Charter, under 
the Prov. Seal. 
T. Atkinson Jun r Sec ry . 



Names of the Grantees of Cornish : 



Rev. Sam 11 McClintock 

Ensign John Whidden 

Samuel Ayers 

Cap* Philip Johnson 

Josiah Clark 

Will m Wallis Jun r . 

Thomas Berry 

Cap*. George Frost 

Noah Emery 

John Hill 

Jon a Barker 

Hunking Wentworth Esq. 

Nathan Goss 

John Grow 

Wyseman Claggett Esq. 

Nath 11 March 

Thomas March 

Capt George March 

Lieut Paul March 

William Blazo 

Will" 1 MC. Clane 

The Hon ble John Temple! 

Theod r Atkinson 

W m Temple 

Mark Hun g Wentworth J 

Joshua Haines 

Eleaz r Cate 

Thomas Sherburne 

Enoch Clark 

Will m Jenkins Jun r . 



>Esq r 



Josiah Foss 
Will" 1 Berry 
Benj a Philbrook 
Nath 11 Huggins Jun r . 
Cap 1 John Dudley 
Thomas Johnson 
John Weeks 
Dea n Ebenezer Cate 
Philip Babb Jun r 
Lieut Ebenezer Clark 
Daniel Pierce Esq 
Mr Jon a Greely 
George Bracket 
Stephen March 
Clem* March Esq 
Doct r John Hall 
John Fisher 
W m Cate Jun r 
Samuel Whidden 
Walter Bryant Esq. 
Greenleaf Clark 
Simeon Dearborn 
Cap* James Neal 
Nathan Marston 
Sam 11 Haines 
John Huggins 
Bracket Johnson 
Lieut. Nathan Johnson 
Cap 1 William Weeks 
Will m Pottle Jun r 



8 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Samuel Dearborn Joseph Jackson Esq. Boston 

Daniel Cate Joseph Stores Esq. 

Maj r Jon a Moulton Leveret Hubbard 

Cap*. Nath 11 Bracket Nath 11 Dowse 

Doctor Hall Jackson Sam 11 Fabion 

Reservations and Conditions of the Grant: 

Executed and recorded in due form. 

(It is not known why this part of the document was deferred 
so long after the main part was executed — over three months.) 

His Excellency Benning Wentworth Esqr. A Tract to Contain 
five Hundred acres as Marked B. W. in the Plan which is to be 
Accounted two of the within Shares,— one whole Share for the 
Incorporated Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in For- 
eign Parts — One Share for A Glebe for the Church of England as 
by Law Established— One Share for the first Settled Minister 
of the Gospel & one Share for the Benefit of a School in S d Town. 

Province of New Hampshire — Octo — 1 — 1763. Recorded 
according to the Original on the Back of the Original Charter 
of Cornish. 

T. Atkinson Jun r Sec ry 

Prove. New Hampshire. Oct. 1 st 1763. 

Recorded from the Back of the Original Charter of Cornish, 
Under the Prov c Seal. 

T. Atkinson Jun r Sec ry 

Comparatively, but few of the Grantees ever settled in town, 
as their names have never appeared on the town records as 
landholders after the settlement of the town. They, however, 
employed every available method to promote the early and rapid 
settlement of the town by offering flattering inducements to in- 
fluence emigration thither. Several of the grantees deeded their 
shares to others who were more hopeful in the venture and desired 
to settle in town. 

The proprietors held meetings and continued to legislate upon 
the affairs of the grant until the town had a population sufficient 
to manage them itself. The first proprietors' meeting was held in 
Greenland, N. H., August 15, 1763, nearly two months after the 



CHARTER— GRANTS, ETC. 9 

grant was made, and, in the absence of recorded authority, we 
have reason to believe meetings were held at such times and places 
as became necessary to meet the requirements of the landowners; 
but records of these have not been obtained. 

The British workmen at "Mast Camp" were not settlers, and 
made no attempt at settlement. It is claimed, however, that 
Daniel Putnam who soon afterwards became one of the first 
settlers of Cornish, spent the winter of 1764-65 at the camp, 
also a Mr. Dike and family were staying there to assist, perhaps, 
in boarding the mast-cutters. 

It cannot be expected the historian of today ■will antedate the 
times already named, or even to record all events that occurred 
during the time of the settlement of the town. Much, indeed, 
lies buried in the centuries preceding and during the time these 
known eveuts took place that would be of great interest to record; 
but the revolving ages have forever hidden them from the present 
generation, and no power can recover them. Fanciful tradition 
might be employed to some extent to gratify the curious reader, 
but it is thought better to record only authentic facts,even though 
the record be fragmentary and less entertaining. 

The first provincial governor of New Hampshire, Benning 
Wentworth, was appointed by the Crown and served from 1741 
to 1767, a period of nearly twenty-six years. It was during his 
administration that the township grants of Cornish and adjoining 
towns were made. He was succeeded by his nephew, Sir John 
Wentworth, who served until 1775, at which time all British rule 
ceased among her New England colonies. These were the only 
governors New Hampshire ever had that received their appoint- 
ment from Great Britain. It may not be amiss to mention for 
the benefit of the general reader, that our ancestors were, previous 
to 1775, all supposed to be loyal and loving subjects of England, 
our mother country; but, for reasons hereafter given, this rela- 
tionship ceased to exist about that time. 

It was the custom of Gov. Benning Wentworth to make reser- 
vations of five hundred acres of land in a single body in each of 
the townships granted by him. These were usually selected with 
reference to their situation and value. On all the early township 
maps these reservations were designated by his initials, B. W. 
The motives prompting him to make these reservations are mat- 
ters of conjecture. It is evident that he believed their proprie- 



10 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

torship would be entailed upon his successor in office. In this 
he was mistaken, for it was found that his successor, Sir John 
Wentworth, possessed no right in said reservations, and therefore 
they were still ungranted lands, and subject to the same modes 
of disposal as the rest of the towns had been at the first. In Cor- 
nish such reservation was a very desirable tract situated near the 
northwest part of the town, and bordering on the Connecticut 
River. In order to make this land available for settlement, put- 
ting it on a par with the rest of the town, it must needs be granted 
to the town or to some individual. A petition was issued by 
Moses Chase, then a prominent citizen of the town, to Sir John 
Wentworth, and the following grant was made by him to Moses 
Chase, Esq. 

Grant to Moses Chase, 1772. 

Province of New Hampshire George the Third, by the Grace 

[l gi of God, of Great Britain, France 

and Ireland, King, Defender of the 
Moses Chase's Faith &c> To all to whom thege 

Grant Presents shall come, Greeting: 

Know Ye that we of our special grace, certain Knowledge and 
mere Motion for the due encouragement of settling and culti- 
vating our Lands within our Province aforesaid, by and with 
the advice of our Trusty and well beloved John Wentworth Esq r . 
our Governor and Commander in Chief of oar own said Province 
of New Hampshire & of our Council of the same, Have (upon the 
Conditions and Reservations herein particularly recited and 
expressed.) given and granted & by these Presents for us our 
Heirs and Successors do give & grant unto our leige and loving 
Subject Moses Chase of Cornish in the County of Cheshire and 
Province aforesaid Esq r . and to his Heirs & Assigns forever, a 
certain Tract or parcel of Land containing by Admeasurement 
Five Hundred Acres, situate lying and being in our Said Province 
as by a plan or Survey thereof (exhibited by our Surveyor General 
of Lands for our Said Province by our said Governor's order and 
returned into the Secretary's office of our Said Province; a Copy 
whereof is hereunto annexed) may more fully and at large 
appear; Butted & Bounded as follows Viz. 

Beginning at a Stake and Stones standing on the bank of Con- 
necticut River on the north side of Blow-me-down Brook (so 



CHARTER— GRANTS, ETC. 11 

called) from thence running south 76 degrees East 288 Rods to 
a Stake and Stones, from thence running South 15 Degrees West 
283 Rods to a Stake and Stones, from thence running North 76 
Degrees West 286 Rods to a Stake and Stones standing on the 
bank of Connecticut River aforesaid, from thence up said River 
to the Bounds first mentioned. To Have and to Hold the said 
Tract of Land as above expressed to him the said Moses Chase 
and to his Heirs and Assigns for Ever upon the following Terms 
Conditions and Reservations Viz: 

First that the said Grantee shall cut, clear and make passable 
for Carriages &c. a Road of three Rods wide thro' the said Tract 
as shall at any Time hereafter be directed or Ordered by the Gov- 
ernor & Council aforesaid, which Road Shall be Completed in 
Two years from the date of Such order or direction of the Govn r . 
& Council aforesaid on penalty of the forfeiture of this Grant & 
of its reverting to us, our Heirs and Successors. 

Second. That the said Grantee shall settle or Cause to be set- 
tled Two Families in Three Years from the date of this Grant, in 
failure whereoff the Premises to revert to us our Heirs and 
Successors to be by us or them entered upon & regranted to 
such of our Subjects as shall effectually settle and cultivate the 
same. 

Third. That all white and other Pine Trees fit for Masting our 
Royal Navy be carefully preserved for that use; & none be cut 
or felled without our special License for so doing first had and 
obtained on penalty of the forfeiture of the Right of the Grantee 
in the Premises his Heirs and Assigns to Us our Heirs and Suc- 
cessors as well as being subject to the penalties prescribed by 
any present as well as future Act or Acts of Parliament. 

Fourth, Yielding and paying therefore to us our Heirs and Suc- 
cessors on or before the 24 th day of January 1774, the Rent of 
one Ear of Indian Corn only if lawfully demanded. 

Fifth That the said Grantee his Heirs & Assigns shall yield 
& pay unto us our Heirs and Successors yearly and every year for 
ever from and after the expiration of Two Years from the date of 
this Grant; one Shilling Proclamation Money, for every Hun- 
dred Acres he so owns settles or possesses, and so in proportion 
for a greater or lesser Tract of the Land aforesaid, which money 
shall be paid by the respective Proprietor Owner or Settler in our 
Council Chamber in Portsmouth, or to Officer or Officers as shall 



12 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

be appointed to receive the same: And these to be in lieu of all 
other Rents and Services whatsoever. 

In Testimony whereof we have Caused the Seal of our said 
Province to be hereunto affixed. Witness: John Wentworth 
Esqr. our aforesaid Governor & Commander-in-Chief, the 24 th 
day of January in the 12 th year of oar Reign Annoque Domini 
1772. 

J. Wentworth. 

By His Excellency's Command ) 

With advice of Council J 

The words "money for every Hundred acres" being interlined 
previous to signing & Sealing. 

Theodore Atkinson, Sscretary. 
Province of New Hampshire 25 th . Jan r y 1772. 

Recorded according to the Original Patent under the Province 
Seal. 

The Surveyor's Certificate of this grant to Moses Chase was 
as follows: 

Province of New Hampshire, Portsmouth 22 d . January 1772. 
These may Certify that this Plan Beginning at a Stake & Stones 
standing on the bank of Connecticut River, &c. (according to 
terms of the aforesaid grant) Contains 500 acres of land, and is 
a true copy of an Original Plan or Survey of said Tract as taken 
and returned to me by Capt n . Jonath". Chase Dept. Surveyor. 

Attest. Is 1 . Ringe, 

Surv r . Gen 1 . 

The French and Indian war (1754-1763), had just closed and 
many of the troops who had served in it were from Massachusetts 
and Connecticut. These on going to, and returning from, Can- 
ada passed through the Connecticut River Valley. They saw 
it was indeed a "goodly land," and brought flattering accounts 
of it home. These reports had a marvelous effect upon many, 
especially upon those who were anxious to try their fortunes in 
a new country. Applications to the proper authorities were 
soon made, and two tiers of towns on each side of the river were 
surveyed and severally granted and many of them were incor- 
porated as early as 1761. 



CHARTER— GRANTS, ETC. 13 

Nearly two years elapsed after the town was granted before 
.any active measures were adopted regarding the settlement of 
the town. But in the spring and summer of 1765, the first actual 
settlement began. Previous to this time the only item of Corn- 
ish history known was the establishing of a station called "Mast 
Camp " not far south of the present site of Windsor Bridge. This 
was established by order of British authority for the purpose of 
selecting trees suitable for the British navy. How long this 
had existed there is no record to show. 

In 1765, two years after the grant was made, Judge Samuel 
Chase of Sutton, Mass., and others of his family and relatives who 
had become enamored by the descriptions of the beautiful scen- 
ery, the tall forests and rich lands of the Connecticut River Valley 
resolved to make the venture. It was a long and tedious journey 
of 140 miles, first reaching the river by going in a westerly 
direction, and then ascending the river into the then unknown 
wilderness. 

They ascended the river until they reached Walpole, N. H., the 
extreme uppermost known settlement at that time on the river, 
unless we except that of Charlestown where a fort had been es- 
tablished several years before. At Walpole a part of the family 
tarried nearly two years. Judge Chase had meanwhile made 
extensive purchases of land of the proprietors of Cornish. At 
this time he was nearly sixty years of age and decided to stay at 
Walpole until the following year. His son, Dudley Chase, and 
son-in-law, Daniel Putnam, and Dyer Spalding, with their work- 
men, were the first men who came up the river in a canoe for the 
purpose of making a settlement in the virgin forests of Cornish. 

They landed on the river meadow near the mouth of Blow- 
me-down Brook in the northwest part of the town, on land now 
(1906) belonging to the estate of C. C. Beaman, Esq. Here they 
began to make a clearing, the first made in town. 

There is an absence of recorded authority; tradition says it was 
in the early days of June, when Nature was at her loveliest and 
the "leaves were green," that the woodman's axe first resounded 
through those forests. At this season they scarcely thought of 
a shelter except of the rudest kind, so intent were they upon clear- 
ing and preparing ground for the season's crops. During the 
season now before them, until the season's crops could be grown, 



14 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

they were wholly dependent for their supplies of provision upon 
Fort No. 4 at Charlestown, sixteen miles away, down the river. 

It was at this fort that the family of Dea. Dudley Chase had 
been left for safety while on their journey up the river, as the hus- 
band and father with his associates went on to prepare for them 
their future home in the "township of land" just across the river 
from what is now Windsor, Vt., in full sight of the dome of Ascut- 
ney. This family consisted of his wife and seven small children. 
It appears to have been a sore trial to her to be thus compelled 
to remain within the prison-like walls of the fort with no con- 
genial associate except her little children. 

These circumstances, and those that followed, with th?ir 
interesting outcome, are best described by herself as quoted by 
her youngest son, Bishop Philander Chase: 

"Days seemed weeks and weeks seemed months, and scarcely 
did a sun rise without witnessing my wandering on the bank of 
the flowing stream where I had parted with your father and his 
company of Cornish workmen. It was in one of these walks 
with my children by my side, that I saw at sunset a canoe coming 
round a point of the river bank, towards me. At first I thought 
of the approach of savages, but I soon recognized the well-known 
canoe of your father, and in it our trusty neighbor Dyer Spalding. 
My heart leaped with joy, and no sooner did the canoe reach 
the shore than the children were in it, and on his knees; nor did 
they allow him to stir till they told him that I was resolved that 
we should all return with him to their father in the woods. 'Do 
you know, dear Madam,' said he, 'that our anxiety to put in a 
crop and plant the ground for the coming summer has been such 
that we have had no time to build even the semblance of a house? 
I am come to tell you that your husband is well and to learn of 
your safety and health and to carry back a supply of provisions. 
We have all slept upon the uncovered ground, and as yet have no 
shelter for ourselves — much less for you, and your little ones. — 
Will you venture with them into the woods before you are sure 
of a refuge?' 

"To this I replied: '/ will go, and with all my children endure 
any storm if you will give me but a safe and steady conveyance 
to my husband. If there be no shelter, nor fence, nor fort, his 
faithful arm will guard me, and his trusty men will aid him, and 
their God, who is above all, will provide.' " 



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CHARTER— GRANTS, ETC. 15 

A much smaller degree of sagacity than Dyer Spalding 
possessed would have convinced him that Mistress Alice was 
mistress of the situation. 

The question decided, all the resources of his mind were called 
into action to make things ready for the journey up the river. 
"Such goods as we needed least were secured in the fort; and such 
as the boat would carry and were needed most, with ample pro- 
visions, were put on board and the morning sun was scarcely 
risen, ere by Spalding's help and that of the older boys, all things 
were ready for the voyage. 

"Spalding was a good canoe-man, and with the boys to lend 
a hand we made good progress, slow but unceasing. It was in 
time of Indian warfare, in a frail Indian canoe, and going up a 
rapid stream, yet we reached the little opening among the tower- 
ing trees before nightfall. 'There they are' cried the children. 
'There are father and his men; I hear his voice and the sound of 
their axes.' For a moment all was hidden from our view by the 
tall forest trees; this gave me time to utter a prayer of faith and 
benediction; 'May the God of our fathers bless your father and 
me, your helpless mother, and you, my dear children, now, even 
now, as we shall take possession of this, our dwelling-place in the 
wild woods; and though like Jacob of old, we have but a stone 
for a pillow and the canopy of Heaven for a covering, we may 
find God in this place, and may it be to us as the House of God 
and the Gate of Heaven." 

How the prayer of this faithful woman was answered, time has 
told. "Pilot Spalding made fast the canoe to the willows and 
asked us to await his return. Your father could get no direct 
answer to his inquiries: 'Is all well? and have you brought us 
a supply of food?' &c. 'Come and see,' replied Spalding and 
as they stood upon the bank, he saw the frail bark in which were 
his wife and children. The emotion of the moment was almost 
too much. I sprang forward, the little ones following. He re- 
ceived us with joy mixed with agony. 'Are you come here to die,' 
he exclaimed, 'before your time? We have no house to shelter 
you, and you will perish before we can build one.' 

" 'Cheer up, my faithful,' I replied. 'Let the smiles and the 
rosy cheeks of your children, and the health and cheerfulness of 
your wife make you joyful! If you have no house, you have 
strength and hands to make one. The God we worship will 



16 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

bless us and help us to obtain a shelter. Cheer up ! Cheer up ! 
my faithful!' 

"The sunshine of joy and hope began to beam from his counte- 
nance, and the news was soon told to the company of workmen, 
and the woods rang with their shouts in honor of the first white 
woman and her children, on the banks of the Connecticut River 
above the Fort No. 4. 

"All hands assembled to welcome the strangers. Trees were 
felled and peeled, and the bark in large sheets was spread for a 
floor. Other sheets were fastened by thongs of twisted twigs 
to stakes driven into the ground and were raised for walls or laid 
on cross-pieces for a roof, and a cheerful fire soon made glad our 
little dwelling. The space of three hours was not consumed in 
doing all this, and never were men more happy than those men 
who contributed so speedily to our wants. Beds were brought 
from the canoe to the rustic pavilion, and on them we rested 
sweetly fearless of danger, though the thick foliage was wet with 
the dew, and the wild creatures of the woods howled around 
us. The next day all hands were called to build a cabin which 
served us for the following winter, and in which, cheered by the 
rising prospects of the family, and the mutual affection of all 
around us, my enjoyments were more exquisite than at any other 
period of my life." 

One cannot but admire the spirit of this pure and high-minded 
woman; far from ail the comforts of ordinary life; so full of courage 
and possessing such a perfect trust in God. She was, indeed, a 
woman fitted by nature and grace to become the mother of such 
men and women as Cornish can gladly boast. 

On the 17th of October following, she gave birth to the first 
child born in Cornish, — a daughter who received her mother's 
name. 

It may be of interest to mention that this first family in town, 
soon after this, settled three miles further south on "Cornish 
Plain," on the farm now (1907) owned and occupied by William 
E. Chadbourne. Here they spent the remainder of their lives, 
each living to be more than fourscore years of age. (See Dudley 
Chase.) Other settlements soon followed by other families com- 
ing to town. In 1766 Judge Samuel Chase came with others 
of his family, who mostly settled in town. Prominent among 
these besides Dudley were Samuel, Jr., Solomon Chase, the first 



CHARTER— GRANTS, ETC. 17 

physician in the town; Jonathan who afterwards attained mili- 
tary distinction during the Revolutionary War. Moses Chase, 
a younger brother of Judge Samuel, with his family also came 
and settled in town within a year from the date of the first settle- 
ment. His name appears as one of the selectmen at the first 
meeting of the town in 1767. Many of his descendants re- 
mained in town for two or three generations following. Caleb 
Chase, another brother of Moses and Samuel, with a portion of 
his family came soon after. The children of these families of 
Chases were generally quite numerous; so those named Chase in 
town, for years, exceeded in number that of any other, or all 
other names combined. 

The name Belloivs was as strong numerically in Walpole, N. H., 
as the name Chase was in Cornish. The families intermarrying 
brought them into very friendly relations. A member of the 
Cornish family was one day boasting to one of the Walpole 
families that "there were Chases enough in Cornish to chase all 
others from out the town into Walpole. " The other replied, that 
"there were Bellows enough in Walpole to blow them all back 
again." Besides the Chase families, there were at the first 
Dyer Spalding and Daniel Putnam. These were soon followed 
by the Cadys, Wellmans, Richardsons, Bartletts and many 
others. 

All these very naturally selected desirable situations, chiefly 
at first along the banks of the Connecticut River. These estates 
have all "passed out" of their family names except that of Daniel 
Putnam whose estate is still retained by his descendants of the 
same name. Possibly there are remote descendants of those early 
families still living who retain interesting traditions of the settle- 
ment by their ancestors, including many facts of interest, but 
unhappily these are mainly beyond our reach and knowledge. 

The number of settlers were few during the years 1765-66, but 
all worked for the general good of the whole. Of course, there 
were diverse opinions regarding religious and political matters, 
but the time had not yet arrived for any organization to mate- 
rialize. Probably they did not feel the need of any during this 
time. Hard work and happiness joined hand in hand and as 
a result harmony prevailed. A general spirit of helpfulness and 
interest in each other's welfare existed on every hand. 

The two years of which we have no authentic record may be 

3 



18 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

termed "assembling years" for the colony. Their numbers the 
first year were too few to cooperate in a formal way, but in the 
autumn of 1766, the people had so increased in numbers that they 
became anxious to try the experiment of self-government on the 
following year. Accordingly they presented a petition to Judge 
Samuel Chase (he having become authorized to receive such 
petition), for a meeting of the town to be holden on the 10th of 
March following. Their petition was granted; therefore he, on 
the 28th day of February, 1767, issued a call for the first meeting 
to be holden as above. 

The following is a copy of the original call which is presented 
in its original form, etc. : 

Province of 
New Hampshear 

Pursuant to a Request of y e Inhabitance & Free holders of y e 
Town of Cornish To me directed one of his majestys Justices 
of y e Peace for y e Province of New Hampshere for calling a Town 
meeting In sd Town of Cornish. 

These are to notify and warn the free holders and other In- 
habitance of y e Town of Cornish, To meet at y e Dwelling House 
of M r . Jonathan Chase In s d Cornish on Tuesday y e tenth day 
of March Next at Ten of y e Clock In Y e forenoon. Then & 
There To act upon the following artichels (Viz.) : 

l ly To chuse a moderator To regulate s d meeting. 

2 ly To chuse a Town Clark. 

3 ly To chuse Selectmen 

4 ly To chuse a Constable or Constables. 

5 ly To chuse any other Town officer as y e Law Directs. 

Dated at Cornish Feb. 28 th A. D. 1767. 

Samuel Chase Justice of y e Peace 

Recorded by Daniel Putnam — Town Clark. 

The following is the response to the above call, — the first re- 
corded meeting of the free-holders of the town : 

Province of ) 

New Hampshear i 

At a meeting of y e free-holders & Inhabitance of y e Town of 
Cornish & Province afores d Held (Pursuant to a Notification) 
at the Dwelling House of Mr. Jonathan Chase In s d . Cornish on 



CHARTER— GRANTS, ETC. 19 

Tuesday y e tenth day of March anno Domini 1767 at ten o'clock 
in y e forenoon, The following votes were passed (Viz.) : 

l ly Voted and Chose Sam 11 Chase Esq. Moderator for s d 
meeting. 

2 ly Voted and Chose Daniel Putnam Town Clark. 

3 ly Voted and Chose five Selectmen Viz: Sam 11 Chase Esq. 
Mr. Elijah Cady, Mr. Jonathan Chase, Mr. Dudley Chase, & 
Mr. Moses Chase. 

4 ly Voted and Chose Mr. Tisdale Dean Constable. 

5 ly Voted and Chose Sam 11 Chase Esq. Town Treasurer. 

6 ly Voted that swine should Run at Large this Present year 
Being Yoaked & Ringed according to law. 

7 ly Voted and Chose Mr. Joseph Tinsur 1 st . Haward. 

8 ly Voted and Chose Phinehas Powers 2 d . Haward. 

9 ly Voted and Chose Mr. Elijah Cady Leather-Sealer. 

Sam ll Chase Esq b . Moderator. 

Recorded by Dan 11 Putnam, Town Clark. 

In the charter, already mentioned, the date of the town 
meetings had been fixed for the second Tuesday of March of 
each year. Every year since the above-mentioned meeting, the 
annual meetings have been called for this date. 



CHAPTER III. 

Pioneer Life — Early Customs, Etc. 

The early customs, manner and means of living in all the 
towns of New England were so similar that a record of them in 
any one town would not be unlike that of other towns in the 
same section. Recognizing this, the writer takes the liberty 
of quoting somewhat from contemporaneous writers on the 
subject, being careful to mention only such things as have often 
been verified by tradition and observation. The histories of 
Charlestown, Keene, Richmond, Washington, Bristol, Plymouth, 
Warren and others have contributed their aid to this department; 
for which the writer hereby renders his grateful acknowledgment. 

When the pioneer settlers first started for their new home m 
the unbroken wilderness, they generally left their families behind 
them in comfortable homes in the older settlement. They 
usually went in small parties of two, three or more. This they 
did for protection and mutual aid, as wild beasts and Indians 
might be encountered at any time. Each man took his trusty 
gun with a supply of ammunition, an axe, knife and tinder-box, 
and such other articles as might be most needed, together with 
a liberal supply of provision. 

This was the outfit of the first party who came up the Connec- 
ticut River from Walpole in the spring of 1765 and landed on 
the meadows now owned by the heirs of the late C. C. Beaman, 
Esq. (See Settlement.) It is said by historians of other towns 
that a liberal supply of rum and tobacco was counted among 
the necessaries or essentials brought into the new settlements 
or towns; but no such tradition is known to exist regarding the 
first settlers of this town, although those articles were subse- 
quently used quite extensively. 

After the arrival of the settlers upon their lot, one of the first 
things was to provide a shelter for themselves and their effects. 
The spring was the most favorable time of year for them to 
make a beginning. At this time hemlock would readily peel. 
After felling and peeling a tree or two, the bark was placed on 



PIONEER LIFE— EARLY CUSTOMS, ETC. 21 

opposite sides of a pole which was supported at each end by 
crotched stakes six or eight feet long. In this way a very good 
temporary shelter was quickly prepared. From this same pole 
their kettle was suspended for cooking purposes. Excepting a few 
dishes and utensils brought with them, the dishes at the first were 
of the rudest kind, — all wooden; plates, bowls, platters, etc., 
being split from small logs, and then hollowed and curved as 
best they could with the axe and knife. At first they slept upon 
the ground or on beds of leaves in their rude shanties, using such 
scant covering as they had. 

These extreme conditions generally lasted only while land 
was being cleared, prepared and seeded for the season's crop. 
This being clone, their next thought was the building of a log- 
house. Abundance of timber of the right kind was ever near 
at hand. The houses were built of straight, smooth logs, hewed 
on upper and lower sides and locked together at the corners 
so as to bring the logs into ciose contact. The unavoidable 
cracks between the logs were filled with mud or clay. Some- 
times, when they could afford it, the logs were hewn smooth 
inside, but generally they were left round. One opening was 
left for a door and one for a window. Each of these were to 
be closed by shutters made of slabs split from logs, as there were 
no boards or sawmills at first. The roofs were covered with 
bark supported by poles. After the first season many of the 
roofs were thatched with rye straw. The earth still formed 
the floor, which was rendered hard and smooth by use. Gener- 
ally there was but one room, sometimes two, partitioned by logs 
like the walls. 

The chimney was the hardest problem to solve; sometimes, 
none at all, with simply a hole in the roof for the escape of smoke; 
sometimes, with stone, topped out with short logs, built like the 
walls and plastered inside with clay, and generally built outside 
the cabin at one end of it. At other times, when the weather 
would permit, the open fire was used wholly outside the house. 
In this case a pole was supported on crotched posts from which 
the kettles were suspended by wooden hooks with the fire beneath. 

Poles were laid across overhead, in the cabin, for storing 
articles. Sometimes the loft was made a sleeping apartment 
for children or hired man. This was reached by a ladder. 

For a cellar, an excavation was generally made outside of 



22 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

sufficient depth and covered with logs and dirt, so that articles 
stored should not freeze. 

The first farming tools of the early settlers were few and rude, 
but their stock of these gradually increased in quantity and 
improved in quality. At first they were chiefly hand-tools, as 
hoes, spades, mattocks, forks, etc. The ground at this time could 
not be plowed, neither were there teams at first to do it. 

One of the first crops grown by the settler was rye, the seed 
having been obtained from some older settlement. This was 
"scratched in" the first autumn, using a pronged hoe for the 
purpose. Corn would also be planted the following spring, by 
opening the soil with a hoe or spade and putting in a "hill" 
wherever there was room for it among the rocks and stumps. 
Pumpkins, peas, beans and vegetables were planted in like 
manner. Crops of all these were generally satisfactory. The 
soil was new and fertile, yielding abundantly. The cultivation 
of the crops was but trifling, as there were no weed-pests at 
first to prevent full development of the crops. Potatoes were 
scarcely known and but little used at the time the town was 
settled. In two or three years the farmer wouid have grass on 
his place and there was always browsing and some native grass 
on the lowlands, so he could keep a cow, which added quite a 
little to the support of the family. He could soon have young 
cattle and a yoke of steers and a few sheep. Hogs and poultry 
he could have from near the first, but the horse was a luxury 
that usually came later. Seeds would be brought at the first, 
and one of his first acts was to plant a nursery of fruit trees, 
and a few years would bring him an abundance of apples, plums, 
and other fruits; and the women never forgot to bring a few 
seeds of their favorite flowers, also bulbs and roots for the garden. 
Every mother knew the medicinal qualities of many herbs and 
plants and was thus qualified to become her own family physician. 

The "sweetning" of the pioneers was wholly made from the 
sap of the sugar maple, caught in troughs made from small logs, 
split in halves and hollowed out. At the close of the sap season 
these troughs were inverted under the trees, and so were ready 
for use the following year. Such troughs were still used for that 
purpose within the memory of some people still living. The 
sap was boiled down in kettles suspended from poles, over an 
open fire, and when reduced to a syrup, was carried to the kitchen 



PIONEER LIFE— EARLY CUSTOMS, ETC. 23 

to be further boiled and clarified by the good wife. This 
furnished the only kind of sugar used by the families during all 
the earliest years. 

Later in the spring came soap-making. The waste grease 
was tried out and boiled with lye, and a sufficient amount of 
soft soap was made to last the family a year. 

Mechanics of all kinds were very important members of the 
community; for all tools and implements had to be made by 
hand. Scarcely any ready-made article could be bought. 
Coopers were much relied upon for making all sorts of wooden 
vessels. They not only made casks, tubs, barrels, buckets, but 
also the keeler, piggin, noggin, and all other wooden vessels in 
common use. 

Farming tools of all kinds were made by hand, and were 
generally of a clumsy make, and hard to obtain at first as no 
manufactories were convenient. Nearly everything had to be 
made at home from necessity. Even the entire clothing of the 
family was made within its own home. The cloth was made 
of wool and flax, spun and woven at home and made up by 
some good tailoress who came and spent several days in the 
family, doing up the family sewing for a year. The shoemaker, 
too, with his kit of tools and bench made his annual visits to 
each family, usually in the fall of the year and made up the 
necessary foot-wear for the entire family. The good housewife, 
aided perhaps by one or more of her daughters, was expected 
to do all the knitting for the family. Each woman, too, was 
always expected to be her own milliner and dressmaker. Few 
were the ornaments worn in those early days, except the beautiful 
ornaments of self-reliance and independence, coupled with con- 
tentment. 

When the settler first built his house he took care that it should 
be located near a fine spring, or by a running brook of pure water. 
The supply of water was brought from the spring or brook in 
buckets or pails. To furnish a more constant supply, and more 
even temperature, a well was dug, and the water drawn by 
a bucket fastened to the end of a long, slender pole with a spring. 
Later the 'Veil-sweep" was erected, and the "oaken bucket" 
attached. 

As time progressed, the carpenter and brick-maker appeared 
in the settlement, so that framed or brick houses could be built 



24 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

when desired; but the log-cabin remained for many years. The 
entrance to these cabins was secured by a heavy latch on the 
inside, to be raised from the outside by a raw-hide string running 
through the door. To fasten against intruders the string was 
pulled in, but this was seldom done, even at night, except in 
time of hostile Indians. The phrase, "The latch string out," 
is still used as an expression of hospitality. 

During the first season of the settlement, while the men were 
"roughing it," their wives and children usually remained at home 
in the old settlement where they could enjoy better privileges 
and remain in safety. Very seldom did the wife and children 
accompany the husband and father during his "shanty life"; 
but after the log house appeared and provision secured for their 
support, they rejoined him in the wild, and their real life as a 
pioneer family began. 

All the food at this time was the product of the farm, forests 
and waters of the vicinity. No fancy dishes of food adorned 
their rude table at the first, but only plain, substantial food 
such as the farm produced. Pork was the usual meat, varied 
occasionally by poultry or mutton or wild game. Wheat and 
corn bread, hot rye cakes with maple syrup, bean porridge — 
made of the broth of meat and vegetables, thickened with beans 
— "good hot or cold, but best when nine days old," were the 
first staple articles of food. After the advent of the cow, their 
diet was more varied and bread with milk, butter and cheese 
and pumpkin pie were then the daily articles of food the year 
around. 

Rude as were the habitations of our forefathers and apparently 
devoid of what we term luxuries, and even necessaries, they 
were, nevertheless, the abodes of contentment and happiness to 
a degree as great as is enjoyed in the more luxurious homes of 
the present. 

These homes all had huge fireplaces, in which, during the long 
winter evenings there was kept up a blazing fire that threw a 
ruddy glow over the healthful countenances of the happy group 
seated around. There were fire-sides then, and influences going 
out from them that are lost since the gloomy stove has taken 
their place. There may be centers of attraction in our homes 
now, but there are none equal to the "fire upon the hearth." 
"The fire upon the hearth is the center and symbol of the family 



PIONEER LIFE— EARLY CUSTOMS, ETC. 25 

life. When the fire in the house goes out, it is because the life 
has gone out. Somewhere in every house it burns in constant 
service, and every chimney that sends its incense heavenward 
speaks of an altar inscribed to Love and Home." 

The social gatherings during winter evenings in these rude 
homes, in which the young men and maidens met, clad in 
their homespun attire and engaged in their innocent sports, were 
seasons of enjoyment and mutual interest in each other not 
less true and pure than similar gatherings now, in which there 
is more display and more tyranny of fashion. 

Simplicity of dress, manners and equipage continued to be 
a characteristic of our forefathers until after the Revolutionary 
War. As wealth increased, the home-made garments, vehicles, 
etc., gave place to those of a more modern type. 

There were but few ornaments that adorned those cabin walls 
or shelves. The day of bric-a-brac had not arrived. The trusty 
gun and powder horn seemed to occupy the post of honor above 
the fire-place, while around the walls of the cabin hung crook- 
necked squashes, festoons of red peppers and medicinal herbs, 
and apples on strings, "quartered and cored," while on poles 
overhead were rings cut from the yellow pumpkin, all drying 
for winter use. Practical articles like these constituted the chief 
ornaments of these homes. 

The fireplaces were at first the only sources of heat for the 
entire household. If the house had other apartments than the 
kitchen, the sleeping rooms in the winter would be like the frigid 
zone, and the children sleeping in such rooms would often feel" 
the snow sifting in their faces during violent storms, and find 
their beds covered with it in the morning, and have to wade 
through small drifts with bare feet to get to the kitchen; and 
as the family gathered around the rousing fire, their faces would 
be nearly scorched while they shivered with the cold from the 
rear. But as wood was plenty, the householder took care that 
the fires were liberally supplied, and an air of comfort soon 
pervaded the kitchen, or "living room." Warming pans were 
sometimes used to warm beds situated in rooms remote from the 
fire. These consisted of a covered brass pan with a long handle 
attached. Coals of fire were put in and then it was inserted 
and slid about in the bed by the good housewife until the bed 



26 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

became warm and comfortable, when it was ready for its occupant. 
But this was a luxury too expensive to be afforded by ail. 

The fireplace was also the principal source of light for the 
family at night. This was generally ample for the "living 
room," so that the family could see to read and sew, and perform 
nearly all of their household labors. Pine knots were much 
used to obtain an increased light by throwing one or more of 
them upon the fire in the fire-place. But if a member of the 
family had occasion to go to some other room or to the cellar, 
some other light was needed. The tallow-dip or candle was the 
light generally used for this purpose. These were made by 
suspending wicks at proper distances apart on slender rods which 
were dipped in melted tallow in cold weather when the tallow 
would adhere and quickly cool. These were suspended between 
two poles. After repeated immersions the tallow dips wouid 
grow to a proper size and be ready for use. These candles were 
the main light aside from the fire-place. Oil and lamps did not 
come into general use for several years. 

The wearing apparel of our ancestors was likewise all home- 
made, and the materials were home-grown. Every farmer kept, 
at least, a few sheep and raised his own wool for family use. 
The sheep were sheared at the proper time and the wool stored. 
When the women were ready for the work, the wool was sorted, 
scoured and carded into rolls and spun into yarn, all by hand. 
Wool was spun on a large wheel turned by hand, the spinner 
walking back and forth to draw and renew her thread. The 
yarn thus made was knitted into stockings and mittens, and 
woven into cloth for the clothing and bed clothing of the family. 
Some of the woolen yarn was dyed, and the indigo blue dye pot 
stood in the chimney corner always ready for use, potent with 
its vile odors whenever it was stirred. Other dyes were used 
for other colors, as the butternut, sumac and golden rod. These 
with other combinations furnished all the varieties of color the 
artistic housewife needed for the family. Cotton goods were 
almost an unknown article. Many years elapsed after the 
settlement of the town before cotton fabrics were generally used 
in it. Flax was raised for the family linen. This is a plant 
grown like wheat or oats. When matured it was pulled up by 
the roots and, after threshing, was laid in gavels to "rot," so 
that the woody part of the stalk would separate from the fiber. 



PIONEER LIFE— EARLY CUSTOMS, ETC. 27 

Then it was gathered and stored. The winter's work of the farmer 
was to break his flax with a break, swingling it on a swingling 
board so as to remove the woody part. This latter work must 
be done on a clear, cold day. It was then hatchelled and ready 
for spinning. This was done on a foot-wheel, the spinner sitting, 
furnishing the power by the foot. The flax was wound on a 
distaff and carefully fed to a spindle. From the spindle, the 
yarn was reeled off into knots and skeins and was then ready for 
weaving. All farmers' daughters learned to spin and weave 
and they usually made their own marriage outfit. The following 
lines by Ebenezer Morse, in the history of Walpole, N. H., 
have a significance here: 

' "The boj'S dressed the flax, the girls spun the tow 
And the music of mother's foot-wheel was not slow. 
The flax on the bended pine distaff was spread 
With the squash shell of water to moisten the thread. 
Such were the pianos our mothers would keep 
Which they played on while spinning their children to sleep. 
My mother, I'm sure, must have borne off the medal, 
For she always was placing her foot on the pedal. 
The warp and the filling were piled in the room, 
Till the web was completed and fit for the loom. 
Then labor was pleasure and industry smiled 
While the wheel and the loom every trouble beguiled. 
And here at the distaff the good wives were made, 
Where Solomon's precepts were fally obeyed." 

Leather breeches of deer or sheep-skin were much worn by 
men for heavy work, also leather aprons. The women also used 
the strong, coarse cloth made of tow, or the combings of flax. 
The Scotch-Irish brought with them the art of making striped 
frocking, and it became an article of universal wear for farmers 
and laboring men, and was made in nearly every family. 

In the early days the woman's work was not only spinning, 
weaving, making butter and cheese and doing general housework, 
but they milked the cows and fed the hogs and poultry and 
gathered the vegetables for the table. During the Revolutionary 
War the women took almost the whole care of the farm and stock 
and performed the labor of the field during the absence of their 
husbands and brothers. It must not be inferred that the men 



28 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

were idle. Far from it. The farm needed and received the 
incessant and vigorous labor of the men to cut, clear, fence and 
prepare land for the future crops, and then to care for the same. 

The farmer had but little food-stuff to buy. Nearly every 
thing needed in the family was raised on the farm. He soon 
began to raise a surplus from his fresh and unworn soil, and this 
sold for good prices. Every thrifty farmer was supposed to 
make at least one trip annually to Boston to dispose of the surplus 
products of his farm. In winter there might be seen, almost 
any week-day one-horse pungs and two-horse box sleighs winding 
their course to Boston. The body of the load consisted of dressed 
poultry, butter, cheese, beans, peas, grain, dried apple on strings, 
woolen mittens and stockings, woolen yarn and sometimes 
woolen and linen cloth made by the thrifty women. Sometimes 
there were pelts, furs and skins of various animals. Frequently 
such loads "were "topped out" with one or more dressed frozen 
hogs. Frequently a number of neighbors started at the same 
time and kept company on the road. They carried their food 
with them — bread, cheese, cooked sausage, and frozen bean- 
porridge. Sometimes they trudged along on foot and sometimes 
on the circular step in the rear of their pung. When night came 
they paid ten cents or so for the privilege of warming their 
porridge by the tavern fire and sleeping on the bar-room floor. 

The return freight would be salt, molasses, a few gallons of 
the indispensable rum, a little salt fish, tobacco, a few spices, a 
little tea and a few yards of dress goods and ribbons for the wife 
and daughters. The arrival home of the thrifty farmer at these 
times brought joy to the whole household. In this way the 
goods and luxuries of the city came to be known and appreciated 
by those living in the wilderness. 

Cooking was mostly done by the open fire and the brick oven. 
Cakes were often baked on the hot stones of the hearth, and 
potatoes roasted in the ashes. Meat was roasted by being hung 
before the fire and kept constantly turning. In every good 
fire-place a large iron crane was hung which supported all kettles 
hung upon it. It was constructed on hinges, so that pots and 
kettles suspended from it could be swung backwards over the 
fire, or forward whenever desired. By this means all boiling 
of food, clothes washing, etc., was readily done. 

Stoves did not come into general use until near the middle of 



PIONEER LIFE— EARLY CUSTOMS, ETC. 29 

the nineteenth century. The brick oven was also a great aid 
to the housewife, which turned out its great loaves of brown bread, 
its pots of beans and pork, its roasts of beef, fowl and mutton, 
its delicious mince and pumpkin pies — all put in at night, and 
taken out steaming hot in the morning, the materials of which 
were all produced on the farm except the salt and spices. The 
modern butcher and baker were yet unknown. A little later 
they began to raise wheat, but that was a luxury, and the econom- 
ical housekeeper would make the upper crust of her pies of wheat 
flour and the under crust of rye. From that custom came the 
term "upper crust" as applied to aristocratic society. 

As before stated the fire on the hearth was seldom allowed to 
go out. To prevent this, a large brand was buried in the embers 
each night for a bed of coals the next morning. If by any chance 
the fire was lost, coals had to be brought from a neighbor's, 
perhaps over long distances; or by flashing powder with a flint- 
lock gun. Friction matches were then unknown, and were not 
used until about 1830. Clocks and watches were not generally 
owned, but the hour-glass, sun-dial or noon-mark were used, 
and when an evening meeting was announced, it was called at 
"early candle-lighting." 

The kitchen was the sleeping apartment of the farmer and his 
wife, the bed standing in one corner, with the wheel or loom 
in the opposite corner. The children slept in the loft above, 
or in a trundle-bed drawn from beneath their parents' bed. 
The only brooms the good housewife had, were made of hemlock 
brush tied in a bundle around a handle, or one of "birch-peel." 
These were made by cutting a yellow birch about three inches 
in diameter, and four or five feet long, taking off the bark of 
about a foot of the upper end, then peeling that end into thin 
narrow strips for the brush, and using the other end, shaved 
down, for a handle. 

The Bible and an almanac constituted about all the literature 
found in their homes. — No libraries, no newspapers. 

The sports of today were unknown a hundred, or more, years 
ago. Then it was working bees, raisings, wrestling matches, 
corn-huskings, etc. Women visited, but worked, taking their 
work with them. Quilting and carding bees were much their 
employment during the daytime. In the evening, both sexes 
came in for a jolly good time, the occasion often ending up with 



30 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

a dance in the big kitchen. The huskings were delightful fes- 
tivities, closing with a supper of pumpkin pie, "nut-cakes," 
cheese, apples and cider. A red ear of corn husked by a young 
man entitled him to go the rounds with kisses, and one husked 
by a girl gave her the right to kiss the lad of her choice, or, if 
her courage failed, to be kissed by every lad present. The only 
light furnished for these occasions was a tallow dip in a perforated 
tin lantern, which gave only a feeble light. Later in the season 
came the paring bees, where the apples were pared, quartered 
and strung to dry. After the feast came the social hour, usually 
devoted to playing of games; all games having fines and all fines 
being paid with a kiss. After these jolly frolics each young man 
was expected to "beau" his "best girl" home. 

Postal facilities were very limited in those days, even to the 
close of the eighteenth century. Mail was at first carried on 
horseback, once in two weeks or so; and this only along the 
principal routes. These routes were very few, and but few 
post offices were established at first. Farmers living away from 
these routes often had to travel many miles to obtain their mail. 
The condition of the roads, too, was very unfavorable. In the 
earliest days oftentimes a bridle-road afforded the only means 
of communication between neighbors. After highways were 
laid out the roads were made in better condition, so that carriages 
became more common, and travel more rapid. 

In those times, church and state were united. The church 
was sustained by the whole community under the management 
of the political machinery of the state and town; a tax for its 
support being laid on every propertyholder. This action was 
required by Great Britain in all her colonies, and therefore one 
of the conditions of the township grants was that a certain part 
of said grant should be set apart for the propagation of the 
gospel, etc. This practice continued even after British rule 
had ceased in our colonies. The emancipation of the church 
from political authority was largely due to the Baptists, whose 
tenets forbid magisterial authority or interference in religious 
affairs. (See Baptist Church.) All other churches soon after 
followed in their wake. 

The first meeting houses in town were plain buildings, but 
little better than barns, without much finish. The men sat on 
one side, and the women on the other. There were no means 



PIONEER LIFE— EARLY CUSTOMS, ETC. 31 

of warming them in winter ; and yet everyone was required to go 
to meeting, even though thinly clad and poorly shod, and remain 
through two long services, each sermon being at least an hoar 
long, besides two prayers and psalm-singing to each service. 
Between the two services there was an hour's intermission. 

It was a common custom on Sunday morning in winter to 
yoke the oxen to a sled, put on a few boards, put on a chair for 
"mother" or "grandpa," take blankets in which the children 
cuddled down, and drive, in some cases, miles to meeting, stay 
through both services and intermission with no fire in the 
meeting house, and then drive home through the snow to a 
cold house. Women sometimes carried heated stones for their 
hands and feet; and later foot-stoves were used. These were 
filled with live coals at the start, and sometimes replenished 
for the return ride home, at the house of a friend near the meeting 
house. It was thought essential that a child should be baptized 
soon after birth, and it is said that babies were sometimes taken 
to those cold houses for baptism before they were a week old. 
In summer most of the people walked to meeting. If a horse 
was owned, the man would take his wife on the horse with 
her youngest child on a pillion behind him, and the children 
walked barefooted, the older girls carrying their shoes and 
stockings and putting them on just before they arrived at church. 
The mother of the writer has often avouched the truth of this 
custom, as she was one of the many big girls who practiced it. 

The minister was regarded as a superior and sanctified being 
and entitled to great reverence and respect. At the close of 
the services the congregation would rise and stand while he 
passed out through the central isle. The early ministers preached 
morality as an essential element of true religion, and practiced 
it in their lives. Children were taught to show them great 
respect. If they met the minister on the highway, the boys 
would remove their hats and bow their heads, and the girls 
would make a low courtesy. Their visits in the family were 
not always relished by the children. The restraint on these 
occasions was irksome, and the fear of being catechised so great 
that they were glad to see him take his departure. 

Deacons' seats were built at the base of the high pulpit, 
facing the congregation. Here those officials sat each Sabbath 
adding much to the apparent sanctity of the services. 



32 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Tithingmen, chosen by the town and sworn to the faithful 
performance of their duties, armed with a long staff, took position 
overlooking the congregation, or walked the aisle, to preserve 
order and keep all the drowsy ones awake. 

The singing was performed by the reading of a line of a hymn 
by the minister or leader, who gave the key-note with his pitch- 
pipe or tuning fork, the choir singing it after him, and then 
taking the next line in the same way. 

The observance of the Sabbath was very strict; its hours 
begun at sunset on Saturday, and ended at sunset on Sunday 
night. All customary labors were suspended. All things savor- 
ing of levity or even mirthfulness were to be repressed, and all 
must go to meeting whatever the distance or the weather. 
Almost the only public and secular intercourse the people had 
on Sunday was during the hour intervening between the two 
solemn services of the sanctuary, when they caught a few moments 
for gossip. The less devout men of the congregation had their 
weekly chat in the horse-sheds at the rear of the church. 

Puritan morals frowned upon amusements generally. Card- 
playing, theater-going and dancing were considered abominations 
by all good church-goers. 

The free use of ardent spirits was not tabooed as at present. 
Ordinations and dedications, and even funerals were made 
occasions of feasting, and great freedom in those indulgences, 
and excess did not then seem to incur any disgrace. 

The first schools were primitive affairs. Owing to the lack 
of text-books and competent teachers, but little could be learned 
beside the "three R's:" (Reading, "Riting" and "Rithmetic") 
Schoolhouses were rude and uncomfortable. In winter the 
teachers were men, and the schools were effective and practical 
so far as they went. (See Educational Department.) 

"As a rule, the pioneers heretofore described, and their wives 
and the large families of girls and boys reared in those primitive 
homes, were among the purest and noblest of men and women. 
Though parents were austere and apparently unsympathetic, 
their hearts were warm under a stern exterior. Their Puritan 
principles were of the highest, and their industry, frugality and 
integrity made them the best of citizens; and most of those 
homes were pure fountains whence flowed the streams that 
formed the mighty rivers of the states and the nation. From 



PIONEER LIFE— EARLY CUSTOMS, ETC. 33 

such homes came the men, always nobly seconded by the women, 
who beat back the savages, subdued the forests; carried on the 
affairs of each little independent government, the town; organized 
the states; won their separation from Great Britain, and laid 
the foundation of this grand republic." 

The early settlers of these towns were a hardy and vigorous 
people, inured to hardship and danger. They were generally 
the young, energetic and enterprising members of the older com- 
munities. Respect for the authority of the church and state 
were striking features in the character of our forefathers. 

While not highly educated in the schools, they became liberally 
educated in the arts and methods of pioneer life. The rugged 
life they were compelled to lead developed new energies and made 
them the heroes of their own success. 

With all their devotion to law and authority they possessed 
a iove for freedom from restraints of society which is fascinating 
to many men and women. Their own lives as pioneers were 
divested of all such restraints and so they were at liberty to devote 
all their energies to the founding and growth of their homes in 
the wild. Their lives were a repetition of that of their ancestors 
nearer the coast who had fought and driven the Indians back 
and established homes the century before; the account of which 
stimulated these, their descendants, to a similar work and expe- 
rience. 

The rugged experiences of the first settlers served to develop 
them in every way and fit them for still greater achievements. 
It made them a class of men and women of a type apparently 
superior to those who were never called to such experiences. 

The following incident is a specimen of multitudes of similar 
experiences by early settlers: It is related by Levi N. Barn- 
ard, Esq., of Springfield, Vt.: 

"Nathaniel Gowing, who was born in Sutton, Mass., in 1734, 
came to Chester, Vt., soon after the settlement of that town in 
1763. The summer of 1765 was a barren one and the following 
winter was very cold with deep snows. Provisions were scarce, 
and Mr. Gowing, who lived in the north part of that town on a 
high hill, was forced to travel on snowshoes to Cornish, N. H., 
where the only grist-mill within many miles was located. He 
tramped across Weathersfield and reached the river (there were 
no highways then), went up the river on ice to Cornish and 

4 



34 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

secured sixty pounds of Indian meal, he then retraced his steps. 
The load proved heavy and he became nearly exhausted. In this 
condition he was tempted to lie down in despair, but the thought 
of his wife and children famishing at home kept him going, and 
after a long and weary tramp he reached home with his meal on 
his back, and on that they managed to worry out the balance 
of the winter." 

Mr. Barnard, now (1908) in his 99th year, has often heard 
Mr. Gowing relate this incident among other experiences of his 
early life. Many a like incident has been told where our ances- 
tors, when driven to straits, have performed heroic deeds and 
conquered difficulties that would seem well-nigh impossible in 
our day. To the masterful deeds of our forefathers, we owe the 
comfortable conditions of the present. Their heroic achievements 
paved the way for the generations that have since followed them. 

In all the early settlements of New England a vigilant system 
of self-defense was the only safeguard for the settlers. The 
dangers of the forests from Indians and wild beasts developed 
this spirit and made the hardy pioneers brave and warlike. 
Thrilling feats of bravery and valor were often displayed by 
individuals and by organized forces. The necessity of organized 
force was realized by all. The French and Indian War had 
been precipitated. French and English were rival claimants 
for vast tracts of the territory of North America. The French, 
joined by Indian allies, sought to drive the English settlers from 
their just claims. The English very naturally resented all these 
attempts, and a war lasting nine years ensued, resulting in a vic- 
tory for the English colonists. This was called the "French and 
Indian War." It ended in 1763, — two years before the settlement 
of the town. Cornish, therefore, as a town, played no part in 
this strife. Hostile forces may have marched through the 
solitude of her forests, but they left no record there. 

The principal, if not the only hero of that memorable strife, 
who afterwards made Cornish his home, was Capt. Joseph Taylor, 
whose interesting experiences are recorded in the genealogy of 
the Taylor family. (Which see.) 

Wild Beasts, Etc. 

The forests of Cornish, like those of other towns in this section, 
at first abounded with wild game of all kinds common to the 



PIONEER LIFE— EARLY CUSTOMS, ETC. 35 

latitude and climate. The most dangerous and most dreaded 
animals were the black bear, wolf and catamount. The wolves 
often made the night hideous by their howling, two or three 
making sounds as if there were a dozen or more of them. 
But these seldom attacked men unless pinched by extreme hunger. 
Children, however, were in much greater danger from them. 
Bears and wolves especially were counted a terror and a scourge, 
as they were ever ready when opportunity presented, to prey upon 
such domestic animals as might come within their reach. The 
raising of sheep was next to an impossibility by reason of their 
depredations. The state therefore offered and paid bounties for 
their destruction. We can realize that it was a pressing necessity 
that prompted the offering of liberal bounties for their extermina- 
tion. For several years it was necessary that all domestic animals 
be secured by corralling them at night to render them as secure 
as possible. It was no uncommon thing for the weary owner to 
be aroused from his slumbers at midnight by the dismal wail of 
his affrighted animals, caused by the stealthy approach of vora- 
cious beasts. Incessant war, therefore, was waged against them. 

Trapping the bear was a common method resorted to. Shoot- 
ing was considered less safe than trapping them, as a wounded 
bear becomes a terrible foe unless the hunter has made a fortunate 
shot, which he is not always sure to accomplish. 

The traps were made of iron and steel with long sharp teeth in- 
side the jaws which closed with a savage and relentless grip upon 
its victim which could in no way extricate itself. When caught 
in this way the bear or other animal could easily and safely be 
dispatched. 

Doubtless many a thrilling adventure with these animals 
occurred during the earlier years, which, had they been recorded 
would furnish an interesting chapter ; but unfortunately not many 
of these are left on record, or even handed down by tradition. 

Col. Jonathan Chase was the owner of a bear-trap. He 
oftentimes loaned it among his neighbors on condition that he 
should have the hide of all animals caught in it, while the trappers 
could have the carcass, and all the fun and satisfaction of the 
capture. 

The story has often been told of his loaning his trap to Ben- 
jamin Dorr and other parties in the east part of the town. The 
trap was set on the hill of the farm of Stephen Child near the line 



36 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

of the adjoining farm of Mr. Dorr. The land was but partially 
cleared, being covered with underbrush, fallen trees, etc. They set 
the trap by the side of a huge log or fallen tree. The following 
day Mr. Dorr and his companion sought the place to ascertain 
if they had caught any game. Evidently they had mistaken 
its locality. Mr. Dorr mounted a log and pointed to 
another log a little way off, saying to his companion, "There is 
the place where we set the trap," and suiting the action to the 
word he stepped off the log, intending to go to the other log, and 
stepped directly into the trap which closed upon him, piercing 
his ankle and holding him fast. His companion seeing his con- 
dition, at first endeavored to liberate him, but soon found that 
it required, at least, another man to aid in mastering the sturdy 
jaws of the trap. 

The next thought was to go to the nearest neighbor for help. 
Meanwhile Mr. Dorr was suffering severely from the lacerations 
of the cruel spikes of the trap, which held him firmly in their 
grip. His companion ran to the house of Mr. Child for help, 
and hurriedly told him the circumstances, urging him to come 
at once to the aid of Mr. Dorr. They went to the place where 
the unfortunate man was pinioned, and with considerable effort 
they extricated him from his unenviable predicament. His 
leg had received severe injuries, from which he never fully recov- 
ered, and, though he afterwards lived to a good age, was always 
lame in consequence of this event. 

But the joke came in on the settlement for the loan of the trap 
according to the terms then specified. Tradition does not say 
how the matter was adjusted, but it is hardly supposable that 
Colonel Chase claimed the "hide," for in this case the "game" 
lived until nearly 79 years of age. The writer well remembers, 
when a little boy, of seeing Mr. Dorr, as an aged and lame man. 
The event of the "capture " of Mr. Dorr gave occasion for many 
jocular remarks, doubtless enjoyed by all better than by himself. 
The locality where this event took place was said to be a favorite 
resort for bears. A clearing was made on the hill and a field of 
corn planted as a decoy for them. The rows or ridges made at 
that time are plainly visible at this day. 

One morning Mr. Child saw a bear leisurely sauntering about 
the barn evidently in search of a breakfast. Seeing the bear 
was disposed to leave, he seized a lever near at hand, and followed 



PIONEER LIFE— EARLY CUSTOMS, ETC. 37 

the bear towards the woods on the east, until the bear was crossing 
a shallow pond on a log, when Mr. Child sprang forward and 
struck the bear a vigorous blow, breaking his back, after which 
he was easily dispatched. This little incident has often been told 
the writer, also the place designated where it took place. 

Ezra Stowell, who lived on the mountain in the edge of Gran- 
tham (now Cornish), during the early part of the last century 
had one year an unusually fine piece of corn. He not only took 
great pride in it, but it was to be the chief dependence of the family 
for food during the coming winter. So it was with great concern 
that he discovered that the bears had also got their eyes on it, 
and were helping themselves to it freely. His wife sympathized 
with him in the loss, but when he declared his intention of going 
out that night to shoot the bear, she brought all her powers of 
persuasion to bear to dissuade him. She argued that if he failed 
to kill the bear, the bear might kill or injure him, and such a loss 
would be greater than any amount of corn. She finally wrung 
from him a reluctant promise to let the bear alone, and she 
retired to rest with a mind free from anxiety. 

But there appears to have been a mental reservation in the 
promise made by Ezra for he loaded his gun that night with a 
large charge of shot, adding two good bullets. He stood the gun 
in the hall near the door of the sleeping room, covering it with his 
coat; and when the regular breathing of his wife convinced him 
that there was no likelihood of argument being renewed that night, 
he softly arose, and taking the gun started for the cornfield. 

It was bright moonlight. As he crept along he heard the bear 
at work, and soon could see him as plainly as by day, going along 
between the rows, and every now and then reaching for a par- 
ticularly juicy ear, which he would twist from the stalk, munch 
with great relish, and then pass on for another morsel. As the 
bear approached he presented a fine target, and taking good aim, 
Mr. Stowell fired. The bear went down in a heap, and in a 
moment lay still. He seemed to be dead, but Mr. Stowell, with 
the caution of a frontiersman, would not risk a nearer approach 
without better evidence of death. He prepared to put another 
charge in the gun, but after the powder was down the muzzle 
he found that in his haste he had forgotten to bring the shot- 
pouch. He would not risk a return to the house, where his wife 
might already be awake; he dare not leave the bear without a 



38 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

complete settlement. He finally slid the long iron ramrod down 
the barrel, and fired that into the bear. There was no respon- 
sive movement, and he was fully satisfied that his first shot 
had killed the bear. He returned to the house, where he found 
his wife peacefully sleeping. She knew nothing of the adventure 
until he confessed to her. 

The morning came, a complete examination was made. It 
was found that one of the bullets had passed through the bear's 
heart and must have caused instant death. The other bullet 
had severed a corn-stalk as neatly as a knife could have done it. 

The ox team was brought into play and the bear's carcass 
drawn down to the house. He was a big fellow. His meat was 
a welcome addition to the homely fare of the day, and the thick, 
warm bearskin did duty for many years. 

These dangerous animals have long since disappeared except 
an occasional straggler, lured by the "Blue Mountain Game 
Preserve," may have been seen within a few years. 

Beside the dangerous animals was the beaver, once numerous, 
judging by the remains of their dams on meadows through which 
flow large streams of water. These are now entirely extinct, 
but the fox, mink, muskrat and raccoon still exist, despite the 
wary hunter's skill, also the woodchuck, rabbit, hedgehog and 
skunk. 

Of the feathered tribe the hawk, owl and crow are still plentiful, 
causing more or less trouble to those who raise poultry. The 
sparrow, robin, bobolink, swallow, oriole, blackbird, bluejay 
and many other kinds still exist, charming us with their beauty 
and filling our forests and meadows with their cheerful songs. 
Occasionally the whip-poor-wills' plaintive note may be heard on 
a summer evening. 

Forests. 

When the first settlers came to Cornish they found the country 
an almost unbroken wilderness. The land was covered with 
a heavy growth of wood and timber, all in its original stateliness 
and grandeur. The settlers were attracted by these conditions 
of the forests, as they furnished abundant evidence of the fertil- 
ity of the soil. Many of the trees were of immense size, especially 
the white pine. At first these were reserved for "His Majesty's 
masts," according to the terms in the original grants. This 



PIONEER LIFE— EARLY CUSTOMS, ETC. 39 

reservation continued only during the continuance of British 
rule in the grants. After this all timber remaining belonged to 
the owners of their tracts. 

Other varieties of trees common to the latitude abounded in 
all their primeval grandeur. The evergreens, hemlock and spruce, 
the former occupying a conspicuous share in the general forest, 
while the latter crowned the mountain's top and sides. 

Of the deciduous trees, the different varieties of beech, birch 
and maple, seem to have formed a large percentage of the bulk 
of the forest in many places. To these were added the oak, 
poplar and basswood, while the stately elm and ash were to be 
found on the meadowlands, or beside the streams of water. 

The above-named varieties have constituted the chief bulk 
of all the forests of the town, while many other varieties of less 
importance were found interspersed among them. 

The forests, at the first, were comparatively continuous and 
uniform; covering all the land except swale bogs and craggy 
heights, or where a tornado may have partially denuded it. 

With such a growth of wood and timber covering the land one 
may easily imagine what a task our forefathers had to prepare 
for the raising of the first crop of provisions. Yet they faltered 
not, and the forests rang with the sound of the merry woodman's 
axe mingled with his cheerful song. 

Legislation to protect the forests was not needed in those days. 
The significance of the modern title "forester " was then unknown. 
But on the other hand, the most effective means were employed 
whereby large tracts of land could be cleared as speedily as pos- 
sible of its immense growth of trees. Oftentimes the best wooded 
and timbered tracts were the fields chosen for crop-growing, 
especially if near the building, and so the fine growth of wood 
and timber had to be sacrificed. 

A very common way of beginning a clearing was to cut several 
adjacent trees two thirds or more off at the stump and then to 
fall one large tree against the one nearest it, causing it to fall in 
turn against others, and so the whole would be carried to the 
ground. This was called "driving a piece." The trees were 
allowed to lie one season to dry, after which they were cut, piled 
and burned. 

Another way was to girdle all the large trees and then remove 
all the smaller growth by grubbing and burning. The large 



40 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

trees dying, their shade was not sufficient to materially affect 
any growing crop. These might stand for years before they fell. 
Millions of feet of the finest timber, and wood beyond all estimate, 
were destroyed by these methods. There seemed to be no other 
alternative as they had no market value at that time, and so the 
chief aim of the settler was to destroy, which was chiefly done 
by burning. The clearing involved much hard labor. A portion 
of the logs were used to build a fence around the tract, and 
some of the finest were used for building the house, which 
was generally constructed of logs; and the remainder, the main 
portion, were cut, piled and burned. 

These methods were the common experiences of all pioneers 
who attempted settlement in the primeval forests. 

Sometimes the settlers would exchange work with each other, 
and at other times join in "bees" to hasten the work. 

It is said that some secret tact in planning and preparing log- 
piles for burning, gave rise to the satirical term of log-rolling. 

So hardy and physically powerful were many of these settlers 
and so skilled in the use of the axe, it is said that many a man 
"felled" his acre of timber in a day, and that some of them would 
drink a quart of rum, and chew a "hand" of tobacco while 
doing it. 

To the present generation, the destruction of those beautiful 
and valuable forests, seem little short of vandalism; but the 
exigencies of the times required it, as man must subsist on the 
products of the soil, and these could not be obtained until after 
the removal of the trees. 

Sawmills, however, soon began to be erected, and in this way 
some of the best timber came to be of great use to the settlers, 
enabling them to build better houses and materially adding to 
the comforts of life. 

Flora. 

Not unlike the record of other towns of central New England, 
is Cornish, in regard to the wild flowers of the forest and the 
field. The history of man cannot antedate their existence in 
great profusion and variety. Our Savior evidently alludes to 
the wild flowers when he speaks of the lilies of the field whose 
beauty and glory outrivaled that of King Solomon. 

In all the centuries following until our forefathers opened up 



PIONEER LIFE— EARLY CUSTOMS, ETC. 41 

their settlements, have the forests and fields been decked with 
wild flowers. 

"God might have made the earth bring forth enough for great 
and small, 
The oak-tree and the cedar-tree without a flower at all, 

"We might have had enough, enough for every want of ours, 
For luxury, medicine and toil and yet have had no flowers. 

" The clouds might give abundant rain, the nightly dews might 
fall, 
And the herb that keepeth life in man, might yet have drunk 
them all. 

" Then wherefore, wherefore were they made, all dyed with crim- 
son light — 
All fashioned with supremest grace, upspringing day and night — 

"Springing in valleys green and low, and on the mountain high, 
And in the silent wilderness, where no man passes by? 

"Our outward life requires them not, then wherefore had they 
birth? 
To minister delight to man, to beautify the earth. " 

— Mary Howitt. 

An observant mind, instructed in the love of the beautiful 
discovers that Nature has bestowed with unstinted measure the 
wild flower upon our hills and through our valleys. "Every- 
where about us they are glowing." In great variety, each in 
its own season, from early spring until the severe frosts of autumn 
these lovely messengers are sent for the pleasure and inspiration 
of man. Their varieties are almost numberless, and even un- 
named. They would teach us wisdom and incite to praise. 

"Were I in churchless solitude remaining, 
Far from all voice of teachers or divines, 
My soul would find in flowers of God's ordaining, 
Priests, sermons, shrines." 

— Horace Smith. 

The wild flowers of our primeval forests possessed charms 
hardly excelled by those of the present day. Ages before man 



42 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

saw them, they annually sprung up, flourished in their beauty, 
performed their mission, and then lay down awaiting the resur- 
rection of the following year. 

After the removal of the forests, the flora of the field under- 
went a change. The soil of the cultivated fields was now open to 
the reception of any foreign seeds which might be brought to it, 
and in place of the wild flower were the cultivated grasses with 
their flowers. So in the open field have the clovers and daisies, 
with their sweet flowers, in part supplanted the many varieties 
of the wild flower; while in their wild retreats, the latter still 
maintain their pristine excellence and beauty. 

A corresponding change of the flora has taken place in the 
gardens of cultivated flowers. Our grandmothers were content 
with a few lilacs, hollyhocks, poppies and moss pinks, and a few 
medicinal and fragrant herbs, but the modern housewife now 
revels among a great profusion of cultivated flowers of almost 
endless variety. 



CHAPTER IV. 

The New Hampshire Grants. 

The tract of country situated west of the Connecticut River, 
and now known by the name of Vermont was originally claimed 
by both New Hampshire and New York. In 1741, Benning 
Wentworth became governor of New Hampshire, receiving his 
commission from the king. He continued in office until 1767. 
In 1749, he received a commission giving him power to issue 
grants of the unimproved lands, including those lying west of 
the • Connecticut River. He and his successor continued doing 
so until the year 1764, when the king and council, revoking their 
former action, decided in favor of New York by declaring the 
eastern limits of their state to be the western bank of the Connec- 
ticut River, and that said line should be the western boundary 
of New Hampshire. 

The grants which Governor Wentworth had made during this 
period of fifteen years, of lands west of the river, was 138 towns. 
At this point begins the celebrated conflict of jurisdiction, which 
lasted twenty-six years, over the "New Hampshire Grants, " now 
known as the State of Vermont. 

Cornish, owing to its location in such close proximity to the 
territory in dispute, became a party in the bitter political strife 
of those years. Its inhabitants became such active participants 
in the controversy, that it is deemed proper to here record the 
leading features of that eventful period. Cornish, too, at that 
time, had her share of men of mental stature and influence that 
could not be defeated by any trifling opposition. Their inten- 
tions were doubtless in favor of the public good, even if in the 
heat of the controversy they have been charged with ambitious 
designs. 

The grants issued by Governor Wentworth of lands west of 
the Connecticut River, the government of New York now declared 
to be void and called upon the settlers to surrender their charters 
and purchase new titles to their lands of the government of New 
York at exorbitant prices. Some of the towns complied with 



44 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

this unjust requisition, but the larger portion of them refused 
to do so. 

These lands, or towns, which the settlers refused to repurchase 
were granted to others by the governor of New York, and actions 
of ejectment brought and judgment obtained against the settlers 
in the courts at Albany. The settlers, seeing no hope through 
the law, determined on resistance to the arbitrary and cruel 
decisions of the court. Having fairly purchased their lands of 
one royal governor, they were determined not to submit and 
repurchase them of another. The attempts of the New York 
executive officers to enforce their governor's decrees were met 
with avowed opposition and they were not suffered to proceed 
in the execution of offices. The settlers who so resisted were 
indicted as rioters, but the court at Albany found it impracticable 
to carry their decisions against the settlers into execution. This 
opposition soon became organized under the lead of Ethan Allen, 
Seth Warner and others, who stirred up the minds of the people, 
who met in their several towns and appointed "committees of 
safety, " and concerted measures for the common welfare. Their 
principal object, at first, was resistance to the high claims of 
New York. In 1774, the government of New York passed an 
act declaring that unless the offenders surrendered themselves 
to their authority within seventy days they should, if indicted, be 
convicted and suffer death without the benefit of clergy. At the 
same time a reward of fifty pounds was offered for the appre- 
hension of eight of the principal leaders who had become dis- 
tinguished in the opposition. This threatening state of affairs 
continued without abatement until the war commenced between 
Great Britain and her colonies, which event was close at hand. 
This probably prevented the parties from proceeding to open 
hostilities. 

During these years of strife and conflict of claims, another 
sentiment found birth in the minds of the settlers of these grants. 
They owed no allegiance to the State of New York, neither 
regarded any of her claims, save that of contempt. They began 
to regard it as no violation of compact, or of good feeling with 
New Hampshire, their mother state, should they become a sepa- 
rate and independent people. The sentiment rapidly developed 
in intensity and force that they, the inhabitants of the New 
Hampshire Grants ought, for certain reasons which they set forth, 



THE NEW HAMPSHIRE GRANTS. 45 

to be an independent state by themselves. Accordingly, conven- 
tions were held at Dorset, Vt., in July, 1776, and also September 
25th of the same year, and at Westminster, Vt., January 15, 1777. 
At this last convention it was resolved that the New Hampshire 
Grants be a new and separate state. This convention adjourned 
to meet at Windsor, Vt., July 2, 1777, when a constitution was 
adopted. It adjourned again to meet on December 24 following 
at Windsor, when the constitution was revised, and the day set 
for election of officers March 1, 1778, and the Legislature of the 
new state to be held at Windsor on the second Thursday of the 
same month. 

For months, previous to this the Province of New Hampshire 
had been taking steps to formally sever its connection with 
Great Britain and set up an independent state government. 
A series of provincial congresses had been holden at Exeter, 
N. H. The fifth and last of these was held December 28, 1775, 
when a committee was appointed to draft a new constitution for 
the government of the colony. This committee completed their 
work and reported the draft of the new constitution January 15, 
1776. The convention adopted and voted to be governed by it. 
These acts virtually changed the Province of New Hampshire, 
politically, into the State of New Hampshire. This seems to 
have been a transition period, more so than was realized at the 
time, for the government of the province and of the towns 
passed almost imperceptibly from the government of a king 
to a government of the people, and yet the records of those years 
hardly showed the change which had actually occurred. 

The severing of the relations between Great Britain and the 
Province of New Hampshire gave rise to this peculiar idea: 
that as the Crown had given towns charters, they were, by virtue 
of said charters, independent corporations of themselves, and that 
after their allegiance to the Crown was dissolved, they had a right 
to form confederations of their own, or to ally themselves with 
other federations as they saw fit or deemed best. This idea of 
independence became developed, especially in that portion of 
New Hampshire lying west of "Mason's Line" (so called). The 
Province of New Hampshire was originally granted to John 
Mason on November 7, 1629. The limits of his grant ex- 
tended "sixty miles west of the sea." The region between 
this line and the Connecticut River had subsequently been 



46 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

annexed to the Province of New Hampshire by royal authority. 
This authority now being annulled, the people believed they 
were under no obligation to continue under the government of 
New Hampshire, but had the privilege of choosing for them- 
selves the jurisdiction to which they should belong. 

Vermont having just organized as a state, was holding a 
session of its assembly at Windsor, in March, 1778. This 
seemed a favorable time for those towns east of Connecticut 
River in New Hampshire to take some concerted action to be 
admitted into the State of Vermont. By reason of kinship and 
similarity of habits they preferred to unite with Vermont, 
rather than remain with the people of eastern New Hampshire. 

A committee from sixteen towns east of the river presented 
this petition to the Vermont Legislature in their first session at 
Windsor on the second Thursday of March, 1778. They rep- 
resented that they were not under the jurisdiction of any 
state, and asked that they might be admitted to, and consti- 
tute a part of, the new State of Vermont. 

The towns east of the river represented at Windsor at this 
time were: Cornish, Lebanon, Hanover (then Dresden), Lyme, 
Orford, Piermont, Haverhill, Bath, Lyman, Littleton (then 
Apthorp), Dalton, Enfield, Canaan, Orange (then Cardigan), 
Landaff, Lisbon (then Granthwaite), Franconia (then Morris- 
town). The town of Cornish was especially active in this 
movement. February 9, 1778, they chose a committee con- 
sisting of William Ripley and Moses Chase to meet a general 
committee assembled at Lebanon on May, 1778, which committee 
voted to join the State of Vermont. So the town, at a meeting 
on June 2, 1778, likewise passed the same vote. Another town 
meeting was holden on August 11, 1778, to choose a justice of the 
peace, agreeable to an act of the Vermont Assembly and William 
Ripley was chosen. 

The Legislature of Vermont was undecided at first as to what 
to do with the petition. Members of the assembly from towns of 
Vermont on and near the river were inclined to favor the petition 
and even threatened to withdraw from the state, unless the peti- 
tion of their friends across the river was granted. This induced 
the Vermont Assembly to accede to the union, provided the assent 
of the several towns of Vermont could be obtained, and the matter 
be acted upon at the next meeting of the assembly. This con- 



THE NEW HAMPSHIRE GRANTS. 47 

vened in June, 1778, and it was found that thirty-seven out of 
forty-nine towns represented were in favor of a union with the 
New Hampshire towns. An act was passed at this time enabling 
the sixteen towns to elect and send representatives to their Legis- 
lature, and also that other towns east of the river might by a ma- 
jority vote be admitted to the union. But the controversy did 
not end here. It was found that many of the inhabitants 
of those towns were strongly opposed to their union with 
Vermont. New Hampshire, too, also put in a vigorous protest. 
Mesheck Weare, the governor of New Hampshire, wrote the gov- 
ernor of Vermont, protesting against the course she had taken 
in admitting those towns to a union with herself. This evidently 
unsettled the minds of many of the leaders of public opinion in 
Vermont, who had been looking forward to a union with the thir- 
teen original states. Therefore the governor and council of 
Vermont sent a messenger to Congress to see how the new state 
was viewed by them, and the course they had pursued in 
receiving the sixteen towns across the river. 

The messenger soon learned that Congress was unanimously 
opposed to the union of the sixteen towns with Vermont, but had 
no objection to the independence of the new state — the represen- 
tatives from New York alone dissenting. This information 
produced a radical change of sentiment throughout Vermont. 

At the next session of the Vermont Assembly at Windsor, in 
October, 1778, the members from the sixteen towns east of the 
river, having taken their seats, demanded that they be attached 
to some county or counties in the state. But this request 
was denied them. This plainly indicated a change from their for- 
mer opinions, and that they would doubtless seek to undo what 
they had already done. The members from the sixteen towns in 
New Hampshire indignantly protested against the action of the 
assembly and promptly withdrew. They were followed by many 
members in sympathy with them, from the towns in Vermont 
west of the Connecticut River. These seceding members from 
both sides of the river immediately (October, 1778) resolved them- 
selves into a convention, and after conference decided to call a 
convention of delegates from towns both sides of the river to take 
measures to form a new state independent of either Vermont or 
New Hampshire. This convention was called to meet at the 
"Cornish meeting-house on December 9, 1778." The convention 



48 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

met at the time and place designated and twenty -two towns from 
both sides of the river were represented by their delegates. They 
agreed to act together and disregard the limits established by the 
king in 1764. Anticipating the action of the Vermont Assembly, 
they now decided to make proposals to New Hampshire in sub- 
stance as follows: "Since Vermont has taken us and then dis- 
courteously rejected us we will now unite with you (New Hamp- 
shire) and give you our aid and influence in laying claim to all the 
New Hampshire Grants lying west of the Connecticut River, thus 
making one entire state subject to the approval of Congress." 
Until this be consummated they proposed to trust in God and 
defend themselves. 

While these schemes concerning New Hampshire and Vermont 
were under consideration, the State of New York was pressing 
her claims of jurisdiction over the territory of Vermont and tak- 
ing active measures to enforce her authority. Massachusetts, 
too, at this time was claiming a portion of the southern part of 
Vermont. 

These circumstances, together with the vigorous policy of 
New Hampshire and New York, induced Vermont to gracefully 
recede from her former position, so that at her next assembly in 
February 1779, a majority of the members were in favor of an- 
nulling their union with the sixteen towns east of the river. An 
act was then passed dissolving their union with those towns. 

This action of Vermont ought to have ended the whole con- 
troversy, but instead it afforded a fresh cause for dissatisfaction 
especially with the inhabitants of the sixteen towns that had 
recently been in union with Vermont. 

The convention in Cornish of December 9, 1778 (already 
alluded to) consisted of determined men, not easily deterred from 
carrying out any policy in which they engaged. Most of the 
prominent men of Cornish were strong advocates of the action of 
this convention. They voted in Cornish town meeting the follow- 
ing April (1779) that they were desirous the New Hampshire 
Assembly "should extend their jurisdiction over all the New 
Hampshire grants." 

The petition of the Cornish Convention of December 9, 1778, 
was presented to the New Hampshire Legislature April 2, 1779, 
by Jacob Bailey and Davenport Phelps. A committee was ap- 
pointed on the petition, who reported to the Legislature June 24, 



THE NEW HAMPSHIRE GRANTS. 49 

1779. The House of Representatives took it into consideration 
and adopted it in substance, thus laying claim to all of Vermont, 
with this provision: "Unless Congress should choose to allow the 
grants west of the river to be a separate state by the name of 
Vermont," in which case they (New Hampshire) would relinquish 
its claim to said territory. Congress, at this time, was appealed to 
by delegates from both Vermont and New Hampshire, each state 
representing its own case. Congress sent a committee to inquire 
into the merits of the controversy. Upon the report of this com- 
mittee, Congress recommended that New Hampshire, New York 
and Massachusetts each pass acts giving Congress power to settle 
all boundaries and adjust all conflicting claims between these three 
states, thus ignoring Vermont, the most interested party of them all. 
Congress had postponed any decided action, trusting the excite- 
ment would subside, and that they might adjust the difficulties 
among themselves. But this could hardly be possible owing to 
the diversity of schemes and opinions regarding the grants. These 
may be summarized in part as follows: New York claimed all 
of Vermont. Massachusetts also claimed a part of the southern 
portion of it. New Hampshire also desired to extend her claim 
west to the eastern boundary of New York, while, on the other 
hand, Vermont desired her independence as a state with her east- 
ern boundary still unsettled; and the grants of New Hampshire 
between "Mason's Line," and the Connecticut River clamoring 
either for independence as a state Math many of its inhabitants 
desiring union with Vermont on the west or with New Hampshire 
on the east. Each of these schemes had its able advocates 
possessing but little spirit of concession, which fact rendered 
the solution of the difficulties hard to reach. 

A convention met at Walpole, N. H., November 16, 1780. Col. 
Jonathan Chase had been chosen delegate from Cornish. They 
appointed a committee of representative men to formulate some 
plan of action in regard to boundaries and jurisdiction. They 
called another convention on January 16, 1781, at Charlestown, 
N. H., and caused one or more delegates to be appointed from each 
town in the grants to unite if possible on measures needful for 
the times. The convention met. Hon. Samuel Chase of Cornish 
was chosen chairman. Delegates from forty-three towns from 
both sides of the river were present. The convention adopted a 
set of resolutions claiming a right to join Vermont or submit to 



50 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

the jurisdiction of New Hampshire. An able and numerous com- 
mittee was chosen to confer with the assembly of Vermont on 
the subject of union with that state. 

The convention adjourned to meet at Cornish meeting house on 
February 10, 1781. They met agreeable to call, chose Hon. 
Samuel Chase chairman. Col. Ira Allen from Sunderland, Vt., 
told the members of the convention that the governor and council 
and leading men of Vermont were in favor of extending their 
claim in New Hampshire to "Mason's Line," sixty miles west 
of the sea. The effect of this communication was very marked. 
The convention therefore reported that all the territory of New 
Hampshire west of "Mason's Line" to the Connecticut River 
be united to the State of Vermont. This report was adopted by 
a great majority of the convention. 

The assembly of Vermont, now in session at Windsor, gave a 
hearing to the action of the Cornish convention, and a mutual 
agreement followed, subject to a certain provision, namely: 
that the question of union should be referred to towns exceeding 
twenty miles from the river, and if two thirds of such towns were 
in favor it should be considered settled. On the 22d of Febru- 
ary, 1781 , the terms of union were confirmed between the Vermont 
Assembly and the convention at Cornish. The two bodies 
adjourned to meet in their respective places on Apri 15, 1781. 

They met according to adjournment, the Vermont Assembly 
at Windsor and the convention at Cornish. The committee of 
the convention reported thirty-four towns east of the river 
favored the union and none opposed it. The Vermont Assembly 
from the west side reported thirty-six towns favoring and seven 
opposed to the union. The assembly informed the Cornish 
Convention that the union was agreed upon by a major part of 
the towns of the state, and that they would receive members re- 
turned, to sit in the assembly. This was accordingly done, each 
taking the necessary oaths of office. The member from Cornish 
was William Ripley, Esq. Thus the sixteen towns which united 
with Vermont a few years before, so soon to be dropped, were 
again brought in union with Vermont and as many more towns 
with them. 

The necessary political machinery of government was put in 
motion in the towns now united, agreeably to the constitution 
and laws of the State of Vermont. The government of New 



THE NEW HAMPSHIRE GRANTS. 51 

Hampshire energetically opposed this action of the tonus east 
of the river, as well as the aggressive movement of Vermont. 
Through its delegates to the Continental Congress, New Hamp- 
shire made a strong appeal for Congress, in some way, to settle 
the controversy. 

New troubles now arose to add to the already serious complica- 
tion, a large minority of the inhabitants of the towns now united 
to Vermont still rejected the union with much opposition, con- 
sequently the laws and the civil officers frequently came into 
collision. Disputes and contention prevailed and party spirit run 
high. Both Vermont and New Hampshire found it very difficult 
to extend their complete jurisdiction over those towns. Finally 
Congress appointed a committee to investigate the merits of 
the case, and hear both sides of the controversy through delegates 
from both parties. 

The State of Vermont at this time was seeking admission to 
the Federal union of the thirteen states, but on account of the 
claims of New Hampshire and New York to her territory, her 
request was denied. Finally Congress moved in the matter 
and sent an ultimatum to Vermont by a commissioner appointed 
for the purpose, viz.: that Vermont, before being admitted to 
the union, must confine her limits on the east to the west bank 
of the Connecticut River and give up to New York all the towns 
for a breadth of twenty miles east of the Hudson River, adopting a 
line from the northwest corner of Massachusetts to the south end 
of Lake Champlain. Accompanying this recommendation was a 
threat, in substance as follows: that in case of the refusal of Ver- 
mont to comply with those terms, all lands west of the Green 
Mountain range, running through the state, should be placed 
under the jurisdiction of New York, and all lands east of this line 
should be under the jurisdiction of New Hampshire; and that if 
Vermont neglects or refuses compliance with these terms, it would 
be deemed a hostile act, and that the forces of the state should 
be employed against them, unless these orders are carried into 
execution. 

The assembly of Vermont considered these resolves of Congress 
and firmly declined to accede to them, and resolved that they 
would not submit the question of their independence to any 
power. 

A period of excitement bordering on anarchy or civil war now 



52 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

reigned among the people. The majorities undertook to control 
the minorities, and the latter were not willing to submit to them. 
Both states appointed civil officers throughout all the towns 
that had united with Vermont. As a consequence, sheriffs, 
justices and courts came into collision in attempting to perform 
their duties as officers of their respective states. Many cases 
of injustice are left on record as occurring during this "reign of 
terror," orders were issued by the New Hampshire Legislature 
for three regiments of militia to be mustered, armed and provi- 
sioned and gotten in readiness to march into western New Hamp- 
shire to establish and maintain its authority to the Connecticut 
River. The governor and council of Vermont issued counter 
orders, and instructions were sent to General Payne to call out 
any or all of the militia east of the Green Mountains to assist the 
civil officers in the execution of the laws of Vermont, and, in case 
that New Hampshire makes an attack by force, to repel by force. 
Three regiments of Vermont troops were notified to be in 
readiness to act under the authority of Vermont. One of these 
regiments was Col. Jonathan Chase's Regiment containing the 
Cornish men. But they were never called to this service. 

Events at this time seemed approaching a fearful and bloody 
crisis. Men of cooler and more considerate minds now came to 
the front, anxious to avoid, if possible, the bloodshed that seemed 
inevitable. Governor Chittenden of Vermont wrote to General 
Washington, defending the right of his state to independence, 
but disdaining the right of New York or New Hampshire over 
any of her territory, and humbly asked his interposition in 
behalf of Vermont. 

General Washington replied (January 1, 1782) so wisely and 
pacifically as to put a better and brighter aspect upon the affairs 
in dispute. General Washington plainly told Governor Chitten- 
den that Congress would admit Vermont into the Federal union 
upon the condition that she must relinquish all claims to lands 
east of the Connecticut River and that said river be her eastern 
boundary, and that she must also relinquish to New York all 
lands lying twenty or more miles east from the Hudson River, 
and their eastern limit be the western boundary of Vermont. 
Upon the acceptance of these terms, Congress would doubtless 
receive Vermont into the union as an independent state, and thus 
guarantee her limits. 



THE NEW HAMPSHIRE GRANTS. 53 

The Vermont Assembly met at Bennington February 11, 1782. 
The letter of General Washington was laid before it. Its effect 
was immediate, and favorable to a settlement of the difficulty 
upon the terms it suggested, and a disposition to settle the matters 
in dispute pervaded the entire assembly. A resolution was 
soon passed, in substance, that Congress had determined and 
guaranteed the boundaries of New York and New Hampshire, 
and by so doing had determined the boundaries of Vermont. 
Accordingly on February 23, 1782, an act was passed estab- 
lishing the west bank of the Connecticut River as the east line 
of the state, and that the State of Vermont relinquish all claim 
or jurisdiction over all territory east of said line. This act dis- 
solved the union and excluded the members of the assembly from 
all towns east of the river. It is said that they withdrew from 
the assembly with some spirit of bitterness and chagrin. The 
inhabitants of these towns also shared in the disappointment, 
and it took several years for the animosity engendered by this 
long and bitter controversy to subside. 

Probably no town east of the Connecticut River carried greater 
influence, or was more deeply interested in the strife than was 
Cornish. For these, and other reasons, the "New Hampshire 
Grants" have received the generous mention here bestowed. 

It was a matter of regret that, following the political trans- 
actions just recorded, a small yet influential minority of Cornish, 
under the leadership of Judge Samuel Chase and others, would 
not yield to the will of the majority. Possessing a strong aversion 
to the government of New Hampshire, he, with others, seemed 
to possess the forlorn hope of independence, or of a union with 
any other government than New Hampshire. They called town 
meetings and elected their full boards of officers and undertook 
the management of town affairs. These doings, however, were 
met by the firm yet peaceful spirit of protest from the majority 
and after a few years this spirit of opposition slowly and reluc- 
tantly died away, and gave place to a better order of things. 



CHAPTER V. 
Revolutionary War. 

"The land is holy where they fought, 

And holy where they fell, 
For by their blood that land was bought, 

The land they loved so well. 

Then glory to that valiant band, 

The honored saviors of the land. " 

— MacLellan. 

New Hampshire was first organized into a separate province 
in January, 1G80. The first General Assembly met on the 16th 
of March following, and at once enacted laws organizing the mil- 
itia of the state, for the exigencies of the times seemed to demand 
the safeguard of an effective militia. 

The conflicting claims of France and England were liable at 
any time to devastate New England. So the colonists were not 
only interested witnesses of the strife, but they vigorously par- 
ticipated to sustain the claims of England whose colonies they 
were. 

The Indians, too, were a constant menace to the settlers, being 
liable to make murderous raids upon them at any time. They 
joined hands with the French, and the French and Indian War was 
precipitated, 1754-63. During this latter year, after the war 
had closed and all the clouds of war had disappeared, the militia 
of the state was found to consist of but nine regiments of infantry 
and one of cavalry. The colonists now enjoyed a few years of 
immunity from military strife and had the privilege of returning 
to their homes, cultivating their farms and enjoying the comforts 
of domestic life. During this period, however, the colonists con- 
tinued to increase and strengthen their military forces. In 
1773 there were twelve regiments in the state. Little did they 
dream that their mother country, the home of their birth, and of 
the graves of their ancestors, would be the power against which 
their military force would be employed! 



REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 55 

At first the most amicable feelings existed between the 
colonies and their mother country. These friendly relations, 
however, were soon disturbed by various causes: Tyrannical gov- 
ernors were sometimes appointed over the colonies, from whose 
decision there was no appeal. Criminals from England were 
transported to America. "Navigation Laws" compelled the 
colonists to do their trading with England. The arbitrary 
collection of duties by custom house officers appointed by Par- 
liament — these were some of the first causes that finally led to 
the separation of the colonies from England. 

In 1764, the famous, or infamous, Stamp Act was introduced 
into Parliament. This was regarded by the colonists as an 
assumption of power on the part of England to oppress her 
subjects in America. Petitions, remonstrances, and protests 
from the people were presented to the king and his Parliament 
to prevent if possible the proposed enactment. But, in the 
words of Patrick Henry a little later: "Our petitions have been 
slighted; our remonstrances have produced additional violence 
and insult; our supplications have been disregarded, and we 
have been spurned with contempt from the foot of the throne." 

The Stamp Act passed both houses of Parliament on March 
22, 1765, by a majority of five to one in the House of Commons, 
while every member of the House of Lords voted in favor of it, 
and the royal assent was likewise given. 

This action seemed to destroy all love and confidence here- 
tofore existing between England and her American colonies and 
a storm of opposition arose on every hand. This was wide- 
spread and apparently universal. In many places it assumed 
very demonstrative forms, so much as to interfere with the 
royal authority, which, until now, had existed. British troops 
were therefore sent to Boston and other points to assist 
the royalists in maintaining the authority due the officers of the 
Crown. This, instead of quieting the opposition, inflamed the 
colonists all the more. Parliament seeing they had made a mis- 
take in the passage of the Stamp Act, formally repealed it March 
18, 1766, but while doing this they would not relinquish their 
right to tax the colonies. Repealing of the act, therefore, had 
but little effect in quelling the opposition which had been so 
thoroughly aroused. 

While the popular clamor of the people was apparently unani- 



56 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

mous in opposition to the policy pursued by England, there were 
those who still remained loyal to the Crown and to their kindred 
and ancestors in England, and regretted to see the breach widen- 
ing that separated them from their kindred. They were not in 
sympathy with the prevailing spirit of the times, but rather with 
their mother country. These were by some called "Royalists," 
and by others "Tories. " As a matter of course as well as a mat- 
ter of history, these tories were an offense to all those aggrieved 
at the course pursued by Parliament, and were considered ene- 
mies to the common cause. This element, though not large, had 
its representatives all over the country, and even in many of the 
towns of New Hampshire ; but neither record nor tradition shows 
that any of the citizens of Cornish entertained those sentiments. 
The spirit and attitude that England manifested towards the 
colonists was anything but conciliatory but, rather, was well 
calculated to beget increased bitterness, and the people in all 
parts of the country were becoming seriously in earnest. Civil 
officers found it very difficult to maintain their authority, and 
many of them threw up their commissions under the king. 

The courts of justice were suspended, and the laws relating to 
civil affairs were but partially executed. 

By the militia law then in force, the execution of which was 
in the hands of the "Committee of Safety" and the Provincial 
Congress, every male citizen from sixteen to sixty years of age 
was required to provide himself with a musket and bayonet, 
knapsack, cartridge box, one pound of powder, twenty bullets 
and twelve flints. Every town was required to keep constantly 
on hand one barrel of powder, two hundred pounds of lead and 
three hundred flints for every sixty men enrolled. Even the old 
men, and those unable to do full military duty, were required to 
keep on hand the same supply of arms and ammunition as the 
active militia-men. 

During the few years of peace prior to 1765, no thought of 
another war had entered the minds of the colonists until now the 
people were rudely awakened to the fact that there was less 
than half the required amount of military stores in the country, 
and also that the veterans of the Indian wars were fast passing 
away, and their young men were learning nothing of military arts. 

Attention was called to these facts by the committees of 
safety and other prominent men. Accordingly, existing military 



REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 57 

organizations were strengthened, and voluntary associations were 
formed for the purpose of learning military tactics. Drills and 
trainings became frequent. Companies of minute men were 
organized and instructed to move at a minute's warning, and 
the manufacture of arms, equipments and ammunition was stim- 
ulated. Subsequent events proved the wisdom of these pre- 
cautionary measures. "Committees of Safety" were appointed 
in all the towns. They had the oversight and management of all 
affairs relating to movements of any militia; and exercised a 
general watch — care against any threatened danger. The com- 
mittee of each town were to apprize the committee of their neigh- 
boring towns, should necessity require, and thus they would be 
enabled to act together when any crisis should come. Expresses 
were kept in readiness to speed the intelligence to the country 
around and, in some cases, preparations were made to flash the 
news by signal lights. 

The culmination of such a series of events seemed imminent 
at any time, but the "dogs of war" were not let loose until 1775. 
On June 29, 1767, Parliament imposed a tax on lead, glass, paper, 
tea and several other commodities. This added fresh fuel to 
the flames. Newspapers became more outspoken than before in 
their denunciation of Parliament and the king. 

It soon became evident that the Crown was fast losing all 
patience with her colonies, and that it was about time she should 
show some intimations of chastisement. With a view of fright- 
ening the colonies into submission, General Gage, commander of 
the British forces in America, was ordered to take a regiment of 
soldiers from Halifax to Boston and quarter them on the citizens. 
This order being known, its effect was to intensify the bitterness 
already existing. It was sternly denounced by Samuel Adams 
and many others, and the press reechoed the sentiment. Never- 
theless, on September 28, 1767, the troops came fully equipped, 
with colors flying and paraded on Boston Common. 

Collisions between the troops and citizens were liable to occur 
at any time, and on March 5, 1770, occurred the so-called 
"Boston Massacre," in which five citizens were killed and six 
wounded, by British soldiers. This event caused such an upris- 
ing of the people that the troops were sent away. 

During nearly three years following this event, historians record 
but few striking events that were calculated to precipitate the 



58 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Revolution. It seems a little marvelous that at such high tide in 
the passions of men as was exhibited in 1770, that so few historic 
developments occurred during this time. There can be no doubt, 
however, that affairs were ripening for the great events to follow. 
Were they not years of gestation? Liberty had been conceived, 
but was not yet born. Perhaps this comparative quietude was 
needed for the full growth and development of the new -principle 
of Liberty which has since actually revolutionized the world. 

On December 16, 1773, occurred the famous "Boston Tea 
Party ' ' when 340 chests of tea were broken open and their con- 
tents thrown overboard into Boston Harbor. 

The news of this transaction was received in England on Jan- 
uary 27, 1774. This threw her into a flame of wrath. Thereupon 
the charter of Massachusetts was declared annulled, and the 
people, rebels. She also passed the famous "Boston Port Bill," 
closing the port to all trade, said act to take effect June 18, 1774. 
On September 5, 1774, the Continental Congress met at Phila- 
delphia. All the states were represented except Georgia. It was 
at this session that Patrick Henry in a burst of oratory uttered 
those immortal words that fired every heart by their patriotic elo- 
quence, saying in part that there was "no peace, but the war has 
actually begun." 

The British troops stationed in or near Boston were becoming 
more bold and began acting on the offensive. This being reported, 
continued to further arouse the people to a determination to 
resist the further assumption of power by England. This spirit 
extended to towns far remote, and men from those towns hur- 
riedly left their homes for the threatened theater of strife. It 
was now evident the "clash of resounding arms" was near at 
hand. 

The battle of Lexington soon followed, April 19, 1775. News 
of the battle spread like wild-fire throughout all the colonies. 
"It was the shot that was heard around the world." 

After this, there was no need of conscripting or even urging 
men to the opening conflict. No bounties were needed to induce 
men to enlist, but they voluntarily rushed forward to the "ranks 
of war" induced only by a love for liberty and home. 

Nearly every town in the Province of New Hampshire sent 
volunteers, so that by the 23d of April, 1775, 2,000 New Hampshire 
men were on the ground at Cambridge and Medford, Mass., 



REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 59 

while the whole force of men from Massachusetts, Connecticut 
and Rhode Island numbered nearly 20,000. They were entirely 
ununiformed, and many of them without equipments. 

Boston, with the British army, was now entirely enclosed on 
the land side. The patriots began throwing up entrenchments 
all along the lines, and the city was in a state of siege. 

At this time there was no staff organization from New Hamp- 
shire on the ground, and no rations, ammunitions or supplies of 
any kind provided by the authority of New Hampshire. The 
New Hampshire men were advised to enlist for the time being 
in the service of Massachusetts in order to draw rations and 
quarters. An arrangement to that effect was made by a com- 
mittee of the New Hampshire Provincial Congress with one from 
that of Massachusetts — the men to be accounted on New 
Hampshire's quota, and supplies were issued to some New Hamp- 
shire troops by the commissaries of Massachusetts. Even the 
commissions of colonel to Stark and Reed were issued April 26, 
by the Massachusetts Committee of Safety. These were accepted, 
to continue until New Hampshire acted. (McClintock's "History 
of New Hampshire," p. 332.) 

Most of the men who had gathered in such haste were farmers, 
impatient to strike a blow for their country, or to be at home to 
plant their crops and attend to their affairs. Seeing no prospect 
of immediate action at the front, large numbers of them 
returned to their homes, many with the consent of their officers, 
others without asking consent. There was no power to hold 
them because they had not yet signed enlisting papers in any 
regular service; and in some cases they were advised by their 
commanders to go home and prepare for a war of indefinite 
length. (Keene History, p. 177.) These facts account for the 
limited number of names of soldiers on the Revolutionary rolls 
of the year 1775. That a considerable number of men from upper 
Cheshire County (now Sullivan Comity) went to Massachusetts 
at that time to render military assistance has been accounted a 
matter of fact, but only a portion of their names appear on the 
rolls. Perhaps, however, family tradition in some instances has 
preserved the names of some of them. 

On the pay-roll of Capt. John Marcy's Company, Col. James 
Reed's Regiment, August 1, 1775, is the name of William 
Richardson and other Cornish men. 



60 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Joseph Taylor (then of Cornish) is found enrolled in Capt. 
Henry Elkins' Company, Col. Enoch Poor's Regiment, on July 7, 
1775, August 1, 1775, and also on October 10, 1775. 

On the 17th of June, 1775, the battle of Bunker Hill was fought. 
The whole number of Americans in that memorable battle did 
not exceed 1 ,700 men. Of these 1 ,230 men were from New Hamp- 
shire, and were largely from Cheshire County. The troops were 
under the command of Colonels Stark and Reed, both New 
Hampshire men. 

Of this battle it is said that "it was the bloodiest fight that 
could be called a battle, in proportion to the numbers engaged, 
that has ever been fought on American soil." The loss to the 
British army was not less than eleven hundred, killed and 
wounded, or more than one third of the English army engaged. 
The loss on the American side was about four hundred and fifty 
men, or about thirty per cent, of those engaged. 

The roar of cannon at the battle of Bunker Hill is said to have 
been heard by inhabitants of several towns along the Connecticut 
River. Citizens of Cornish declared they heard it, and, whether 
true or not, it has generally been so believed. 

Among the events of 1775, it is of interest to record that John 
Wentworth, the last governor appointed by the Crown for New 
Hampshire, after several ineffectual attempts to convene the 
Legislature during the summer of 1775, finally in September, 
abdicated and went away in a British frigate for Nova Scotia. 
To the last he urged upon the Legislature, but without avail, a 
restoration of harmony with Great Britain. This ended the 
last vestige of British rule in New Hampshire. The early hesi- 
tating measures of resistance and defence on the part of the colo- 
nies, now assume the gravity and dignity of war. The British 
government no longer oppressed a dependent, but engaged in 
grim war with a nation. 

On May 17, 1775, the Provincial Congress or Assembly met at 
Exeter, New Hampshire. Samuel Chase, Esq., attended it from 
Cornish. It was there recommended that "the selectmen of the 
several towns, parishes, and other places in the Colony, take 
an exact number of the Inhabitants of their respective Districts 
in classes, with the number of fire-arms and pounds of powder 
on hand, and the number of fire-arms needed, and that an account 






REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 61 

of the whole made under oath, be returned to the Committee of 
Safety for this Colony." 

Agreeable to the foregoing recommendation the census of 
Cornish for the year 1775 was taken, which was as follows: 

Males under 16 years of age 83 

Males from 16 to 50 not in the army 77 

Males above 50 years of age 9 

Females (all) 136 

Negroes & slaves for life 

Persons in army . 4 

All .... 309 

Fire-arms in Cornish fit for use 53 

Number of fire-arms wanted to complete one for every 

person capable of using them 33 

No powder in town but private property and that is 20 lbs. 

Cornish Oct. y e 30th 1775. 

Personally appeared Samuel Chase Esqr. and made solemn 
oath that he had acted faithfully and impartially in taking the 
above numbers according to the best of his discretion before me. 

Daniel Putnam — Town Clerk. 

The records of Cornish, before 1776, are silent about every- 
thing that relates to the Revolutionary War. While a record 
of a deep interest in the war would afford gratification to later 
generations, yet the fact of such omission reflects nothing upon 
the loyalty of the entire town. It seems that, at this time, the 
good people of Cornish were all engaged in the erection of a 
house of worship that enlisted their interests, means, and 
energies to their utmost. To them, religious rights and privi- 
leges were second to no other, as manifestly shown in this. 

After the British rule in New Hampshire was ended, the 
towns became aware of the fact that there was no general gov- 
ernment. No courts were held in Cheshire County from 1774 
to 1778, but each town instituted governments of its own 
and enacted laws for the management of its own affairs. 
Warrants for town-meetings were headed, simply "Cheshire 



62 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

S. S." and were called by the town clerk upon the order of the 
selectmen. A similar state of affairs existed among all the 
colonies. It is not to be wondered if strange local laws were 
sometimes enacted. 

The Provincial Congress on the 5th of January, 1776, adopted 
a temporary constitution. By the terms of this instrument 
a distinct and coordinate branch of the Legislature was created 
which was then called the Council. In later times this body has 
been styled the senate. During the Revolutionary War, and the 
period of this temporary constitution, there was no governor. 
The council and the house performed these functions during 
sessions, and the committee of safety during the recesses of the 
Legislature. For the year 1776, the councillors were elected 
by the house of representatives, and in subsequent years by the 
people. 

Early in March, 1776, General Washington seized Dorchester 
Heights and thus compelled the British to evacuate Boston, and 
on the 18th he started for New York with five of his best regiments, 
including General Stark with all his New Hampshire men as one, 
and on the 27th General Sullivan followed with the remainder of 
his brigade, but the latter was soon afterwards sent with his New 
Hampshire regiments from New York to reinforce the army of 
the North which was now slowly retreating from Quebec under 
General Gates. The smallpox had broken out in the Northern 
army and General Thomas had fallen a victim to it, so General 
Sullivan succeeded to the command. The Northern army 
slowly retreating before a powerful British army under Burgoyne, 
from the north, naturally caused great alarm throughout New 
England, particularly as bands of Indians at this time were 
hovering on our frontiers, threatening to repeat their former 
atrocities. 

Because of this, the government raised two additional regiments 
to reinforce the Northern army. These were commanded by 
Colonels Wyman and Wingate. 

In the enrollment of Colonel Wyman's Regiment, August 20, 
1776, are found the names of Peter Labere, J. Nathaniel Holden 
and Joel Rice, all of Cornish. (P. 324, Vol. 1, Rev. Rolls.) 

On the 12th of April, 1776, the committee of safety for the 
state, sent to the selectmen of each town the "Association Test," 
which in form was as follows: 



REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 63 

"To the Selectmen of 

"Colony of New Hampshire 
"In Committee of Safety, 
"April 12, 1776. 
"In order to carry the underwritten Resolve of the Hon'ble Con- 
gress into Execution, You are requested to desire all males above 
Twenty-One Years of Age, (Lunatics, Idiots, and Negroes ex- 
cepted) to sign to the Declaration on this paper; and when so 
done to make return hereof, together with the Name or Names 
of all who shall refuse to sign the same, to the General Assembly, 
or Committee of Safety of this Colony. 

"M. We are, Chairman. 

"In Congress March 14th 1776. 

"Resolved, that it be recommended to the several assemblies, 
Conventions and Councils or Committees of Safety of the United 
Colonies, immediately to cause all persons to be disarmed, within 
their respective Colonies, who are notoriously disaffected to the 
cause of America, or who have not associated, and refuse to asso- 
ciate to defend by Arms the United Colonies against the Hostile 
attempts of the British Fleets and Armies. 

"Extract from the Minutes. 

"Charles Thompson, Secretary. 

"In consequence of the above Resolution of the Hon. Continental 
Congress, and to show our Determination in joining our American 
Brethren in defending the Lives, Liberties," and Properties of the 
Inhabitants of the United Colonies: 

"We the Subscribers, do hereby solemnly engage, and promise, 
that we will, to the utmost of our Power, at the Risque of our 
Lives and Fortunes, with Arms oppose the Hostile Proceeding 
of the British Fleets and Armies against the United American 
Colonies." 

Copies of the above Association Test were sent to all of the 
colonies including the towns of New Hampshire. Returns from 
nearly a hundred of these towns have been preserved. No re- 
turn from Cornish has been preserved, and if the paper was cir- 
culated and signed by the men of Cornish, it has been lost. The 
province of New Hampshire then numbered about 80,000 inhabit- 



64 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

ants. Only 773 persons in the state refused to sign. In most 
cases these were the wealthy and influential men. 

The application of the foregoing test revealed the true attitude 
of the American people, and furnished assurance of success in 
the bold venture of July 4th when their independence was declared. 
The new nation now felt her increased responsibility and she re- 
solved to bend her every energy that the venture should prove 
a triumphant success. The Declaration of Independence was 
published by beat of drums in all the shire towns of New Hamp- 
shire. (Belknap's "History of New Hampshire," Vol. 2, p. 405.) 
"It was received by the army, the legislatures and the people with 
great rejoicing. That declaration brought great encouragement 
to the patriots, gave them a more definite object for carrying on 
the war, and united them in a common cause. That object had 
now come to be the establishment of a nation of their own under 
democratic rule; the dreaded alternative was the fate of conquered 
rebels. There could be no more powerful incentive to fight; no 
sharper spur to endure hardship and privation." 

Because of the continued threatening attitude of the enemy 
and the exposed condition of Ticonderoga, the assembly this year 
voted that 2,000 additional men be raised to recruit the forces 
already in service. At this time there were seventeen territorial 
regiments in the state. Col. Jonathan Chase's regiment was the 
seventeenth in number. The quota of men to be raised from his 
regiment was sixty-one. The full enrollment of his regiment was 
492 men, from which to enlist the quota. These enlisted Sep- 
tember 24, 1776, and were mustered in October 14, following. 
Colonel Chase marched with two companies, and Colonels Ashley, 
Bellows and Hale with several companies each, all for Ticonde- 
roga and vicinity. The record of their movements has not been 
found, but they received hearty commendation for prompt 
service, etc., from General Gates and were dismissed by him with 
honor November 9, 1776. 

Enrolled among the two companies under command of Colonel 
Chase were the following Cornish men: Capt. Josiah Russell's 
Company — Lieut. Daniel Chase, Ensign Josiah Stone, William 
Paine, Benj. Comings, Zebadiah Fitch, James Cate, Samuel 
Fitch, David Huggins, Thomas Hall, Jr., John Chase, Abijah Hall, 
Robert Dunlap, James Hall, Joseph Vinsen, Elias Gates, Stephen 
Cady, John Weld, James Wellman, Jr., beside several others 




Gen. Jonathan Chase house as it appeared in 1870 



REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 65 

who may have been of Cornish but whose identification is 
uncertain. In Capt. John House's Company, Colonel Baldwin's 
Regiment, in September, 1776, were enrolled the names of 
Briant Brown, Curtis Cady and Ebenezer Brewer, all Cornish 
men. (Rev. Rolls, pp. 422-23, Vol. 1.) 

On December 12, 1776, Capt. Joshua Haywood's Company 
was paid off by Col. Jonathan Chase. John Weld, Eleazer 
Jackson and possibly other Cornish men were of the com- 
pany. (Rev. Rolls, pp. 444-45, Vol. 1.) 

As the year 1776 was drawing near its close the outlook of 
public affairs was so gloomy that Congress recommended all the 
states to appoint "a Day of Solemn Fasting and Humiliation." 

The New Hampshire Legislature adopted the recommendation, 
and,- on the 13th of December it dissolved with the invocation: 
"God save the United States of America." 

The three New Hampshire regiments, Stark's, Poor's and 
Scammell's, had left the Northern army on the 16th of November 
and had marched down the Hudson River and joined General 
Washington on the 20th of December in time to take a leading 
part in the battles of Trenton and Princeton. Though worn by 
fatigue, and almost destitute of clothing at that inclement season, 
these New Hampshire regiments were counted by General Wash- 
ington among the best troops of his army, and their arrival gave 
him great satisfaction. At Trenton, the main column of attack 
was led by Colonel Stark with his New Hampshire men, and the 
battle was saved; the same troops, with Gilman's added, saved 
the day at Princeton. The battle of Trenton was fought 
December 26, 1776, and that of Princeton on the 3d of January 
following. 

These victories gave the colonists fresh courage, yet the winter 
of 1776-77 was, to the inhabitants of New England, a season of 
gloom and fearful apprehension, the regiments of New Hamp- 
shire troops having been withdrawn. This left their frontier 
exposed to the mercy of the British army, and the incursions of 
Indians. But a kind Providence seemed to intervene and the 
rest of the winter of 1776-77 passed without serious events 
happening to them. 

The following Cornish incident found among the "Chase 
Papers" illustrates the spirit that animated our fathers during 
those days: "The house of Col. Jonathan Chase was for a time 

6 



66 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

used as a station for collecting supplies for the government, and 
there was a guard left or stationed there in charge — a sergeant 
and a few men, as sentinels. These were detailed from a company 
of minute men that were enrolled in the town. On one occasion 
the guard was on duty when he saw something passing along 
near the river, which he hailed, but not being answered, he fired 
his gun at the object. This brought out the sergeant and guard. 
They decided to give the signal to call the minute men together; 
this signal was the firing of three minute guns. Before morning, 
without any other notice, fifty men rallied to headquarters, armed 
and equipped for service." 

Early in the spring of 1777, the colonists felt the necessity of 
vigorous action. Pressing appeals from Generals Schuyler and 
Wayne came to the Committee of Safety of New Hampshire. 
On the 3d of May the state committee sent orders to the three 
colonels of militia in Cheshire County, "entreating you by all 
that is sacred, to raise as many of your Militia as possible and 
march them to Ticonderoga." In response to this call, Colonel 
Ashley raised, and marched from Keene with 109 men, Colonel 
Bellows from Walpole with 112 men, and Colonel Chase of Cor- 
nish with 159 men. These men were all enlisted in four days. 
This ready response revealed the active and determined spirit of 
the times. In Revolutionary Rolls, volume 2, pages 14-19 is the 
full list of Colonel Chase's men. Nearly thirty of these men were 
soldiers of Cornish. The other men from outside, came to town 
and together they marched on May 7, 1777, for Ticonderoga, 
ninety miles distant. On reaching their destination they found the 
alarm had subsided, and the men were discharged on June 18, after 
serving one month and twelve days. It is not clear why the 
alarm should subside so easily, while General Burgoyne with his 
forces were still hovering so dangerously near ; yet such is the 
record. 

The three New Hampshire regiments, Colonels (now Brigadier- 
Generals) Stark, Poor and Scammell who had rendered such val- 
uable service at Trenton and Princeton were called north, and 
joined the Northern army in early summer. 

General Burgoyne now commanded the British army of 
the North, 10,000 strong. Seven thousand of these were choice 
troops sent from England, with the finest train of brass artillery 
(forty-two pieces) that had ever been seen in America; besides 



REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 67 

thousands of Indians employed as allies "to use as instrument 
of terror " (Bancroft's History, Vol. 5, pp. 579, 587) . Exaggerated 
reports of the strength of his army and the rapidity of his advance 
reached the states again causing great alarm throughout New Eng- 
land. Again the militia was ordered to the front, and turned out 
in greater numbers than before, Colonel Ashley having about 
400 men and Colonel Chase 186. These latter left Cornish June, 
27, 1777. Revolutionary Rolls, volume 2, pages 38-45, contains 
the full list of Colonel Chase's men. Thirty-three of these are 
recognized as Cornish men. While on their march they met 
troops returning home who informed them that Ticonderoga had 
capitulated with 3,000 men, on July 1st, to General Burgoyne. 

The men with their officers returned home disheartened and 
were soon discharged, after having rendered a brief service of 
from four to fifteen days. Hardly had these men returned, when 
another alarm rang through the state. The evacuation of Ticon- 
deroga and advance of General Burgoyne were threatening the 
subjugation of New England. 

This was perhaps the darkest hour in the history of the war 
for the New England States. The situation was so alarming that 
the Committee of Safety of New Hampshire issued a call July 
14, 1777, for the Legislature to convene on the 17th. A most 
depressing state of affairs existed. The treasury was empty. 
The state had no money, and no means of obtaining any. Here- 
tofore there had been such a draught on the state for men and 
money, that it seemed nothing more could be done. And yet 
Burgoyne must be stopped, or his army would overrun their 
territory, and their homes and property be sacrificed. When the 
gloom of the situation had been portrayed, Col. John Langclon, 
speaker of the House, arose and made one of the most telling 
speeches of the Revolution, when he said : "I have one thousand 
dollars in hard money. I will pledge my plate for three thousand 
more ; I have seventy hogsheads of Tobago rum which I will sell 
for the most it will bring. They are at the service of the state. If 
we succeed in defending our firesides and our homes, I may be 
remunerated; if we do not, then the property will be of no 
value to me. Our friend Stark, who so nobly defended the honor 
of our state at Bunker Hill, may safely be entrusted with the 
honor of the enterprise, and we will check the advance of Bur- 
goyne." * * * 



68 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

The effect of such patriotism and eloquence was magical. The 
offer was accepted with enthusiasm. The next day the Legisla- 
ture promptly voted ways and means for the immediate increase of 
the army. The patriotism of Colonel Langdon was contagious. 
No draft was necessary. Swift couriers carried the news to the 
remotest towns in the state and 1,500 men sprung to arms. 

The troops rendezvoused at Charlestown and General Stark 
took command. 

About the first of August General Burgoyne detached Colonel 
Baum with about 700 men, veteran soldiers, two pieces of artillery 
and 150 Indians for a raid through the New Hampshire Grants. 
He was also joined by several hundred tories. He had received 
orders to collect cattle and horses, and to destroy all such stores 
as they were obliged to leave behind. Information was received 
by General Stark that the enemy designed to capture the stores 
at Bennington, Vt. Pressing forward with his troops he arrived 
at Bennington on the 9th of August. Baum's advance reached 
Cambridge, twelve miles northwest of Bennington on the 13th. 
On the 14th the two armies came in sight of each other, and 
General Stark invited attack, but Baum was cautious and en- 
trenched. It being near night, Stark drew back about a mile, 
where his men lay on their arms that night. On the 15th it 
rained hard all day, and both parties remained in position. Gen- 
eral Stark now had about 1,600 men. 

On the morning of the 16th of August, General Stark, having 
decided to attack the enemy, sent Colonel Nichols with 300 men 
to his left, and Colonel Hendricks with 300 men to the right. 
Taking command of the main body in front of the enemy's breast- 
works, when all was ready, he, pointing to the enemy, made the 
short but immortal speech: " There are the Redcoats, they are 
ours, or Mollie Stark sleeps a widow tonight." Prompted by the 
same determined spirit his men entered the action, and the result 
was a complete defeat of Colonel Baum, who was mortally wounded, 
and a decisive victory on the part of General Stark. The result 
of this victory was far-reaching. It wonderfully cheered the 
spirits of the colonists, and was largely instrumental in the sur- 
render of General Burgoyne at Saratoga two months later. 

On the 23d of September, having received another requisition 
from General Gates, Colonel Chase again mustered the men of his 
regiment, then numbering 142 men, and marched from Cornish 



REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 69 

to Saratoga, September 26, 1777, a distance of 1 10 miles, to reinforce 
the army of General Gates, which was purposing to check the 
movements of General Burgoyne, and, if possible, to effect his 
overthrow. Two or three additional companies of men were 
subsequently placed under the command of Colonel Chase, so that 
when ready for action, his regiment numbered 235 men. After 
he had left Cornish, Colonel Morey with a company of thirty men 
marched to Cornish, reaching it October 1 . He intended to turn 
over his men to Colonel Chase but, finding him gone, he sent the 
men forward under Captain Chandler, with orders to place them- 
selves under Colonel Chase, and then he returned to enlist more 
men. 

The first battle of Saratoga had been fought September 19. It 
being a drawn battle, the forces lay confronting each other for 
eighteen days following. Meanwhile Colonel Chase, with his men 
had joined the army of General Gates. On the 7th of October an- 
other battle was fought and a decisive victory over Burgoyne was 
the result. The regiment of Colonel Chase was engaged in this 
battle, though not seriously, and ten days later they witnessed 
the surrender of Burgoyne. After the battle of October 7 the 
situation of General Burgoyne become desperate. He was 
almost surrounded by the American troops; his supply of pro- 
visions were becoming exhausted; his men deserting; reinforce- 
ments for the patriots were constantly arriving. Burgoyne 
called a council of war, and it was unanimously agreed "to enter 
into a Convention with General Gates." 

On the forenoon of October 17, 1777, General Burgoyne surren- 
dered his entire army to General Gates. Nearly 6,000 officers 
and men thus became prisoners of war, among whom were six 
members of the British Parliament. The trophies consisted of 
a splendid train of brass artillery consisting of forty-two pieces, 
5,000 stand of arms and an enormous quantity of ammu- 
nition and stores. The terms of capitulation were very favorable 
for the British: The troops to be conducted to Boston, and from 
thence returned to England; and the officers to retain all their 
horses, carriages and equipments. 

The surrender of General Burgoyne was the most complete 
triumph thus far gained by the patriots in their struggle for inde- 
pendence. The joy it brought to all their homes was unbounded. 
It inspired the army with confidence, so that it became invin- 



70 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

cible and final victory was assured. The cause of the tantalizing 
alarm that had so long harrassed the patriots of New England 
was now removed, and the seat of war was transferred further 
south. Many of the troops who had been called into service 
for this special emergency were discharged. The men who 
formed the regiment of Colonel Chase in this campaign were 
chiefly farmers, who had hurriedly left their farms, leaving their 
crops unharvested. These were now anxious to return home 
and secure their crops, and make preparation for the coming 
winter. 

On the day following the surrender, the following certificate 
of service and order was issued: 

"H. Q. Saratoga. October. 18, 1777. 
These may certify that Col° Chase with a regiment of vol- 
unteers have faithfully served until this date in the Northern 
Army and are now Discharged with Honor. 

"By order of General Gates. 
"Jacob Bagley, Brig r Gen 1 " 

On pages 373-376, volume 2, Revolutionary Rolls, is a list of 140 
men of Colonel Chase's regiment who were discharged by the above 
order. The following named Cornish men were discharged the 
date named: 

Lieut. Abel Spaulding Caleb Plaistridge 

Sergt. Samuel Chase James Cate 

" Joseph Spaulding John Chase 

Corp. Stephen Child Solm 11 Chase 

Jos. Vinsen John Morse 

Jabez Spicer Simeon Chase 

Solm n Wellman Dyer Spaulding 

Jonth n Huggins Eb r Brewer 

James Wellman Daniel Waldron 

and possibly others who cannot be identified. 

In the campaign to repel the invasion of Burgoyne, the little 
State of New Hampshire, then almost a wilderness, furnished 
more than 6,000 men, and contributed very largely to the grand 
results attained. (Keene History, p. 230.) 

It has never been the purpose of the writer to attempt to pre- 
pare a history of the Revolutionary War only so far as to record 



REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 71 

some of the principal events in which the soldiery of Cornish 
played an important part. 

As long as the principal theater of the war was in, and on the 
borders of New England, the New Hampshire troops were always 
available and cheerfully responded to every urgent call. While 
the greater number of these, since the surrender of Burgoyne, 
had returned to their homes, it is pleasant to record that there 
were quite a number of Cornish men left remaining in the service 
in other New Hampshire regiments which had now gone further 
south. Some of these men followed the fortunes of war to its 
close in 1783. During the terrible winter of 1777-78, at Valley 
Forge; at the battle of Monmouth, June 28, 1778; at the unfor- 
tunate battle of Camden, S. C, August 16, 1780; and in several 
other memorable engagements of the war, including the surrender 
of Cornwallis, October 17, 1786, the New Hampshire regiments 
were in active service. 

In several companies of each of these regiments are found the 
names of Cornish men. It would indeed be very gratifying to 
know the exact number and names of men that Cornish furnished 
to aid in establishing our national independence; but from lack 
of certainty of identification, it is impossible to determine accu- 
rately in every case, as their names appear on the rolls. 

The names of soldiers on these whose identity is comparatively 
certain are given below. Some of their names appear twice, or 
more, but occurring at different dates; presumably, having 
served out their former term of enlistment, they enlisted again, 
sometimes in the same regiment and sometimes in another. 

In Capt. Win. Scott's company, Col. John Stark's regiment, are 
the names of Jonathan Currier, William Richardson, Moses Chase, 
Loring Thompson, John Bartlett, Peter Spicer, Moses Brown and 
Nathaniel Bartlett. (Rev. Rolls, p. 614, Vol. 1, May 6, 1777.) 

In Captain Wait's company, Col. John Stark's regiment, is the 
name of Nathaniel Curtis. (Rev. Rolls, p. 596, Vol. 1, May, 1778.) 

On the muster roll of Capt. John House's company, Col. Bald- 
win's regiment, is the name of Daniel Putnam, aged thirty-seven. 
(No date.) (Rev. Rolls, p. 608, Vol. 1.) 

In Capt. Joshua Hendee's company, Col. David Hobart's 
regiment, is the name of Lieut. Daniel Chase of Cornish. (No 
date.) (Rev. Rolls, p. 157, Vol. 2.) 

Daniel Putnam's name is also found in Capt. Moody Dustin's 



72 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

company, 1st regiment, February 13, 1781. (Rev. Rolls, p. 223, 
Vol. 3.) 

In the "Record of Town Returns" are the names of David 
Haskell, Joseph Spaulding and Daniel Putnam, soldiers, under 
date of May 10, 1782. (Rev. Rolls, p. 502, Vol. 3.) 

A pay-roll of men of Colonel Chase's regiment, raised October 
28, 1776, and discharged November 18, 1776, contains the fol- 
lowing names: Col. J. Chase, Solomon Chase, Reuben Jirould, 
Samuel Chase, Nathaniel Goodspeed, Elias Cady, William 
Richardson, Isaac Wellman, Simeon Chase and Moses Hall. 
(Rev. Rolls, pp. 108-9, Vol. 4.) 

In Capt. Davenport Phelps' company, Colonel Bedell's regi- 
ment, whose services ended March 31, 1778, were the following 
names: Luther Hilliard, Briant Brown and Judah Benjamin, 
all credited to Cornish. (Rev. Rolls, p. 120, Vol. 4.) 

"We the Subscribers Being a Draft from the Militia of the 
Regt. of Col. Jono. Chase, Do Acnolege we have Rec'd of him, 
four pounds & ten shillings each, as one months Advanced pay 
agreeable to a Vote of the Council & Assembly of the State of 
New Hampshire: — Will" 1 . Ripley, Samuel Hilliard, Samuel 
Fitch, Lieut. Daniel Chase, Nicholas Cady, Ebenezer Brewer, 
Benf . Comings, John Whitten." (Rev. Rolls, p. 143, Vol. 4.) 

In Col. Joseph Cilley's regiment at Valley Forge, January 10, 
1778, continued the names of Peter Spicer, Daniel Putnam, 
Curtis Cady. (Rev. Rolls, p. 434, Vol. 2.) 

Revolutionary Rolls, pages 602-4, volume 2, contains a list of 
men raised in Colonel Chase's regiment February 17, 1779, all 
from Cornish: Curtis Cady, Nathaniel Curtis, Daniel Putnam, 
Moses Brown, Peter Spicer, Nathaniel Bartlett, John Bartlett, 
Moses Chase, Jr., Jonathan Currier, Loring Thompson, William 
Richardson, David Currier, Gale Cole. 

Kidder's history of the first New Hampshire regiment also 
makes mention of the continued service of several Cornish men 
as follows: 

Curtis Cady entered Feb. 1777, disch. Apr. 4, 1778. 

Daniel Putnam entered Feb. 12, 1777, disch. Dec— 1781. 

Peter Spicer entered May 1, 1777, disch. Mar. 20, 1778. 

Loring Thompson entered May 1, 1777, disch. May 1, 1780. 

David Haskell entered Jan. 1, 1782, disch. Dec. 31, 1783. 

Daniel Putnam entered Jan. 1, 1782, disch. 1783. 



REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 



73 



The following list of Cornish men marched May 7, 1777, from 
Cornish in Col. Jonathan Chase's Regiment for Ticonderoga. 
Time of service, one month, twelve days: 



Jonathan Chase, Col. 
Solomon Chase, Capt. 
Dyer Spaulding, Q. M. 
Stephen Cady, Sergt. 
Samuel Chase, 3 d Sergt. 
William Payn, Private 
Briant Brown, Private 
Solomon Chase, Private 
William Richardson, Private 
Moses Currier, Private 
Isaac Wellman, Private 
John Chase, Private 



Nathaniel Hall, Sergt. 
Stephen Child, Corp. 
Benj. Cummins, Corp. 
Gideon Smith, Corp. 
Benj. Chapman, Drum. 
John Whitten, Private 
Joseph Vinsen, Private 
James Wellman, Private 
Moses Hall, Private 
Andrew Spaulding, Private 
Eben'r Brewer, Private 
John Weld, Private 



The following is the list of Cornish men who marched June 27, 
1777, in Colonel Chase's Regiment for Ticonderoga. Time of 
service, from four to fifteen days: 



Jonathan Chase, Col. 
Moses Chase, Capt. 
William Ripley, Adj. 
Moses Chase, Jr., Private 
Abel Stevens, Private 
William Ripley, Private 
Elijah Cady, Private 
Eliphalet Kimball, Private 
Gideon Smith, Private 
Jabez Spicer, Private 
Josiah Stone, Private 
Jedediah Hibbard, Private 
Joseph Vincent, Private 
Moses Currier, Private 
Thomas Hall, Jr., Private 
Zebadiah Fitch, Private 
William Richardson, Private 
Nathan'l Dustin, Private 
Abel Spaulding, Jr., Private 



Abel Spaulding, Lieut. 
Reuben Jerald, Lieut. 
Elias Cady, Lieut. 
Nicholas Cady, Private 
Simeon Chase, Private 
Isaac Wellman, Private 
Moody Hall, Private 
Samuel Fitch, Private 
Ebenezer Brewer, Private 
Salmon Chase, Private 
David Huggins, Private 
James Cate, Private 
Samuel Chase, Jr., Private 
Dudley Chase, Private 
Caleb PI ast ridge, Private 
Hezekiah French, Private 
Benj. Swinnerton, Private 
James Wellman, Private 



74 



HISTORY OF CORNISH. 



The following is the list of Cornish men, not included in the 
foregoing organizations, who served more or less during the war. 
Great efforts have been made to make this list as complete and 
accurate as possible. 



Lieut. Eleazer Jackson 
Samuel Comings 
Ebenezer Dresser 
Frank Cobb 
James Ripley 
Samuel Paine 
Joshua Page 
Ezra Spaulding 
Peter Chase 
Nahum Chase 
Caleb Chase 
William Chase 
Thomas Chase 
Nath'l Huggins 
Robert Wilson 
Amos Chase 
Daniel Roberts 



Thomas Chamberlain 
David Davis 
Timothy Spaulding 
Moses Vinson 
Francis Dana 
Hezekiah Fitch 
James Wellman, Jr. 
Andrew Spaulding, Jr. 
Joseph Bartlett 
Richard Hawley 
Elijah Carpenter 
William Darling 
Peter Labere, Jr. 
Joel Rice, Jr. 
Nathaniel Holden 
Deliverance Woodward 



On June 24, 1779, the state voted that General Folsom shall 
forthwith issue orders to the several Colonels of regiments of 
this state for raising men to fill up the Continental Battalion 
belonging to the state and the regiment for Rhode Island, 
according to the order of the General Court recently passed, 
and the proportion of officers and privates to be raised in each 
regiment. The number of men thus called for was 280. 
Colonel Chase's regiment was to receive eight. (Rev. Rolls, p. 
655, Vol. 2.) 

Dr. Solomon Chase of Cornish was a very efficient and useful 
man in the entire Revolutionary service. At one time he com- 
manded a company in Colonel Chase's Regiment; but chiefly 
his duties were confined to the hospital as a physician and 
surgeon. The following order is on record (Rev. Rolls, p. 144, 
Vol. 4): 



REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 75 

Gen. Stark to Doctor Chase. 

H Quar r C: Town, Aug. 3, 1777. 

Doc r Solomon Chase — Sir — You are ordered and Required 
to take under your Care all the sick that is, or may be sent here- 
after from my Brigade of Militia to this place — And you are to 
Receive medicines out of the State Chest for the purpose afore- 
said. What medicines you use of your own private property, 
you'r to keep an exact account of — You'r also from time to 
time desired to send me an account of the State & Condition of 
the Sick under your Care, & this shall be your sufficient order — 

John Stark, B. D. G. 

To Dr. Solomon Chase — Chirurgeon to Colo.Hobarts Regiment. 

On the 16th of June, 1780, the Legislature passed an act 
ordering 600 men to be raised to recruit the three regiments in 
the Continental army in the state. The Committee of Safety 
gave orders to the regimental commanders to raise their several 
quotas, and 23 men was the quota of Colonel Chase. The men were 
to furnish their own Clothing, Knapsack & Blankets and serve 
till the last day of December next, or be liable to a fine of 500 
dollars. "They were to be paid forty shillings per month in 
Money, equal to Indian Corn at Four Shillings a Bushel, Grass- 
fed Beef at Three Pence per Pound, or Sole-Leather at Eighteen 
Pence a Pound." They were also to have five pounds each for 
clothing money, two dollars in paper currency per mile for travel 
and money for rations till they could draw Continental rations. 
(Rev. Rolls, p. 58, Vol. 3.) N. H. troops did service this year 
(1780) at West Point and in New Jersey. 

In the latter part of June (1780) the Legislature voted to raise 
945 men for a term of three months to reinforce the army at 
West Point. These were to form two regiments. The men 
were apportioned to be drawn from the other regiments. Colonel 
Chase was to raise thirty-six privates and two officers. The men 
were enlisted early in July, and marched via Springfield, Mass., 
to West Point, where the vanguard arrived August 4. These were 
discharged the latter part of October, 1780. (Rev. Rolls, p. 104, 
Vol. 3.) 

The burning of Royalton, Vt., October 16, 1780, was a lament- 
able affair. It was not done by an organized military body, but by 
Indian marauders accompanied by one lieutenant, one French- 



76 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

man and one Tory. They burned over twenty houses, and nearly 
as many barns, and slaughtered cattle, sheep and swine. They 
murdered two men and carried away about twenty-five captives. 
The attack was sudden and unexpected. The news of this event 
was quickly carried from town to town arousing the entire region 
and several companies of militia were soon marching to the relief 
of their brethren in Vermont. The companies were so hastily 
formed that the rolls, if there were any, have not been preserved. 
The records of several towns, including Cornish, testify to a re- 
markable and spontaneous muster of men about that time. But 
the enemy had escaped, and the soldiers soon returned to their 
homes. (Plymouth History, p. 130.) 

A law was passed by the Legislature, November 8, 1780, that 
the state reimburse all military expenses incurred by officers of 
the army during any emergency campaign. The following bill 
was presented. (No date given) : 

To Sergeant & 8 men 6 months in Vermont 152-18 

To 4 men 1 month Scouting & ammunition 25-14 

To Capt. Solomon Chase, Roll to Royalton, Vt. . . 60-15-9 
To Capt. Solomon Chase, Roll to Newbury, Vt. in 

1781 16-0-5 

To Dudley Chase for supplies 3 

To Moses Chase for supplies 17-2 

From the third item above, one might infer a good number of 
Cornish men went to Royalton at the time of the alarm, under 
command of Capt. Solomon Chase. (Rev. Rolls, p. 537, Vol. 3.) 

April 5, 1781, the Legislature voted to raise two companies of 
sixty-five men each, by June 1st to rendezvous at Haverhill. 
They were to be raised from the military regiments of Colonels 
Ellis of Keene, Chase of Cornish, Morey of Orford, Webster of 
Plymouth, and the regiment of the late Colonel Bellows of Wal- 
pole, and were to serve six months. (Rev. Rolls, p. 249, Vol. 3.) 

On February 1, 1786, Daniel Putnam of Cornish petitioned the 
Honorable General Court of New Hampshire, then convened at 
Portsmouth, as follows : The petition showeth that he (Putnam) 
was engaged as a soldier, in the year 1776, in Capt. Esterbrooks 
company in Col. Bedell's regiment; that he marched with the 
troops to Quebec, when he was taken sick, and had the misfortune 



REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 77 

to lose all his clothes to the amount of 14 pounds & two shillings, 
and being left by the troops with no care, incurred the expense of 
16 pounds for doctoring, which sum your petitioner was obliged 
to pay. Wherefore he prays your Honors to take his case and 
grant him the said sum, with interest, if you in your wisdom shall 
think proper. (Rev. Rolls, pp. 431-32, Vol. 3.) 

Daniel Putnam. 

During the Revolutionary War the people suffered much in- 
convenience from the depreciation of the currency. It continued 
to depreciate, and the price of the necessaries of life continued 
to advance until the people became greatly alarmed. Legisla- 
tion was sought to check the evil, but, whatever it may have 
done, proved of no avail. In 1780 it seemed to reach its 
climax. During this year Cornish voted to raise 800 pounds for 
schooling in town, also 2,000 pounds for mending highways, and 
the price of labor on highways in some towns was fifteen dollars 
per day; and wages and articles of commerce were correspondingly 
high. 

Without special active cause, this state of things slowly sub- 
sided and normal conditions and prices again prevailed. 

The cause of this inflation (as ever) was primarily due to the 
scarcity of gold and silver. Money must be had to equip soldiers 
for the service, and to pay them for their services. This led to 
the issuance of an undue amount of paper money whose value 
was uncertain. By resorting largely to a barter trade, or an ex- 
change of commodities, using them as mediums of circulation 
at prices agreed upon by the authorities, the trouble gradually 
disappeared. 

The condition of our troops on January 1, 1781, is thus 
described by Frederic Kidder in his History of the First Regiment : 

"The new year opened with a deep gloom. The whole army, 
North as well as South, was suffering severely, both for clothing 
and provisions. The winter was unusually severe. The soldiers 
were often on the point of starvation, and for days without meat 
and nearly all the time on short allowance, while most of them 
had received no pay for almost a year. As for clothing, they were 
often so destitute that many of them could not do guard duty 
without borrowing from their comrades, while for shoes they were 
still more deficient, and parties who were on fatigue duty for 



78 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

firewood and forage, could often be tracked by the blood from 
their bruised feet. It was at this period that General Washington 
addressed a pressing letter to President Weare of New Hampshire, 
earnestly urging the state to make some further exertion to re- 
lieve the distresses of the army. He said: 'I give it decidedly 
as my opinion, that it is vain to think that an army can be kept 
together much longer under such a variety of sufferings as ours 
has experienced, and that, unless some immediate and spirited 
measures are adopted to furnish, at least three months pay to the 
troops in money that will be of some value to them, and at the 
same time provide means to clothe and feed them better than they 
have been, the worst that can befall us may be expected. ' 

" The Legislature of the state nobly responded, and voted a gra- 
tuity of twenty-four dollars in hard money to each of the non-com- 
missioned officers and soldiers belonging to the state who were 
engaged to serve for the war." 

With the surrender of Lord Cornwallis and his army at York- 
town, October 19, 1781, the war was practically ended. The re- 
maining part of the story of Cornish in the Revolution relates 
mainly to the defence of the frontiers, and in coping with the 
various financial problems touching the soldiers and their families. 

The treaty of peace was concluded between the United States 
and Great Britain, September 3, 1783. 

In reviewing the immense sacrifices of our forefathers, it is 
becoming us, their descendants, to render them the meed of praise 
that is rightfully theirs, and that to these we are indebted for the 
blessings of civil liberty we enjoy today. 



CHAPTER VI. 
Military History, 1783-1861. 

After the war of the Revolution was ended and peace again 
restored, it was thought best that the military force of the 
country be maintained and that existing military laws be so 
amended and enforced that an effective army might be in con- 
stant readiness to meet any emergency that might arise. In 
1792, the general government passed an act establishing a 
system of uniform militia laws throughout the United States. 
This required the enrollment of all free, able-bodied, white, male 
citizens between the ages of eighteen and forty-five. 

New Hampshire being then a state, yielded a willing obedience 
to the law and took active measures to carry out all its provisions. 
The military officers who had served during the war, retained 
their rank and honors, and resumed their official functions, enroll- 
ing and drilling their men in their own towns or districts. 

In June, 1808, the State of New Hampshire was divided into 
thirty-eight military districts. Each district was required to 
enroll and equip all its eligible men, and these constituted a 
regiment. Each of these regiments was composed of one 
company of artillery and about ten other companies — chiefly 
of infantry. The fifteenth district embraced Cornish, Clare- 
mont, Plainneld and "the west company in Grantham." The 
troops of this district were called "the 15th Regiment of New 
Hampshire Militia." 

This regiment with six others, namely the 6th, 12th, 16th, 
20th, 28th and 31st constituted the 5th brigade and 3d divi- 
sion of New Hampshire troops. 

Various acts relating to the militia were passed from time to 
time by the Legislature, while parades and drills were kept up 
throughout the state. On December 22, 1820, a full and satisfac- 
tory code of laws was adopted, that, in the main remained in 
force until the militia laws of New Hampshire were repealed in 
June, 1850. 

Cornish furnished three companies of troops for the 15th 



80 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Regiment; one of artillery and two of infantry. One of the latter 
bore the name of "Stubtoe" or "Floodwood," by way of derision. 
All of these companies with their officers were required, on parade 
day, to be "uniformed and armed as the law directs." The 
general features of their dress were: 

The artillery were attired in red frocks trimmed with white, 
with dark caps and pants. The infantry were attired with dark 
blue or black coats, white pants. One of these companies wore 
high, bell-crowned caps with tall red plumes, tipped with white. 

The state furnished all the arms needed for these two com- 
panies of infantry, and also the field-piece or cannon for the 
artillery. 

The days of parade and drill during the year were usually three : 

1st. The second Tuesday in May, called the "May training." 

2d. A certain day usually in September. This was a day 
for a special drill preparatory to a general muster and parade 
of the whole regiment which occurred a day or two later. 

3d. The -general muster day. This was not only for parade 
but for the review and inspection of the entire regiment by 
military and civic officers of higher rank. 

Muster day furnished the acme of interest to all. Early in the 
day each orderly sergeant marshalled his company, which soon 
after received its commissioned officers in martial form. About 
eight o'clock, the companies about ten in number, each headed 
by fife and drums, united in line upon the field, thus forming 
the regiment. After a period of united drill and march, the 
troops were placed in form to receive their superior officers. 

The colonel, major, inspecting brigade general and other 
officers of note, with fiery, mettlesome steeds now rode upon the 
field with great pomp and the whole regiment was soon in 
obedience to the orders of the colonel for the day's parade. 

The pen poorly depicts the grandeur of those scenes as they 
appeared to the eyes of the ordinary country boy seventy years 
ago; the immense gathering of the people of both sexes and all 
ages, with peddlers and fakirs in abundance at every street 
corner; the air filled with martial music; the uniformed com- 
panies of marching soldiery, were all matters of acute interest, 
especially to the young. Sometimes, too, the interest was inten- 
sified by occasional discharges of cannon by the artillery and 
later in the day by a sham fight. 



MILITARY HISTORY, 1783-1861. 81 

All these scenes and experiences passed away upon the repeal 
of the law in 1850. The writer well remembers several occasions 
of this character, and the enthusiasm attending them. 

Several fields in Cornish have been used for these muster 
parades. Three different fields at the Flat, two on "Cornish 
Plain," south of Trinity Church, have been used for this purpose, 
and perhaps several others. A level tract of dry ground of 
suitable area is all the condition needful for such a field. Some 
years the 15th regiment mustered in other towns of the district. 
The time and place for each annual muster was appointed by 
the colonel of the regiment with the advice of his subalterns. 

The period of our national history following the Revolution 
was a constructive period and generally a peaceful one. The 
first note of war heard within our national realm was the war 
with Tripoli, 1803-05; when the American fleet under Commodore 
Decatur administered a chastisement upon that barbarous 
nation thereby conquering a peace instead of purchasing one. 

It sent a thrill of satisfaction throughout our nation to know 
that a stop was put to their preying upon our commerce as here- 
tofore. This over, the country generally enjoyed a few years 
of peace and prosperity until the war with England occurred, 
1812-15. A brief account of the causes, progress, and outcome 
of this war is here given: 

In the treaty of peace between the United States and Great 
Britain at the close of the Revolutionary War, were several pro- 
visions. Some of these, Great Britain had failed to fulfill, notably 
that of the evacuation of posts along the northern frontiers. 
This was a perpetual annoyance to the inhabitants of those 
sections, who continued to be fearfully apprehensive of further 
trouble. 

The unfriendly attitude of England towards France, too, was 
also unfortunate for the United States; for by an order in Council 
the British government had declared that all vessels trading 
with France were liable to seizure, and that all vessels clearing 
from hostile ports must touch at a British port and pay custom 
duties. Because of this order, British naval officers claimed 
and exercised in the most arrogant and offensive manner, the right 
to search American vessels, and oftentimes to impress their 
seaman into the British navy, despite all the strong pro- 
testation of American officers and men. 



82 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

President Madison urgently requested the withdrawal of 
this order in Council, and the discontinuance of this oppressive 
and unjust practice, but his requests were insultingly denied. 

In November, 1811, the President called an extra session of 
Congress and laid these grievances before it, and recommended 
preparation for war. 

On April 10, 1812, Congress authorized the president to detach 
100,000 militia to be organized and held in readiness to serve 
six months after entering service. Congress was becoming con- 
vinced there was no hope of a change of policy on the part of 
Great Britain, and that a resort to arms was the only alternative 
to protect the persons and property of American subjects and 
maintain the honor of the nation, and so war was declared June 
18, 1812. A month previous, in May, 1812, New Hampshire was 
called upon for 3,500 men. 

At the first, the declaration of war was not a popular measure 
in New Hampshire, or in New England. For this reason enlist- 
ments were a little tardy, and a draft was enforced. The records 
of the town show that on November 2, 1812, an attempt was 
made in Cornish to raise the wages of men drafted for the army, 
but the project was voted down. 

During the continuance of this war which lasted nearly three 
years it is stated that finally every requisition of the government 
was met with promptness on the part of New Hampshire, and 
that Cornish did her full duty and furnished her just proportion 
of men for the army. 

It is a matter of regret that no rolls of enlistments or of drafted 
men have been preserved. Search has been made in the archives 
of the state, and none has been found. 

On recent application to the War Department at Washington 
for the needful information, the following reply was received: 

"Adjutant General's Office, 

"Washington, D. C, May 11, 1908. 
" The War Department has no list of the soldiers from the town 
of Cornish who served in the War of 1812, and has no records 
from which such a list can be compiled. 

"F. C. AlNSWORTH, 

"The Adjutant General." 



MILITARY HISTORY, 1783-1861. 83 

During the summer of 1814, British war vessels lay off the 
coast of New Hampshire, and captured and burned several of 
our coasting vessels. A considerable force of New Hampshire 
men were therefore stationed at Portsmouth to be in readiness 
to repel any attack from the British. But fortunately no engage- 
ment took place. It is stated on good authority that several men 
from Cornish were among those stationed in Portsmouth. In 
August of this same year a British squadron sailed up the Ches- 
apeake Bay and landed a force of 5,000 troops, which advanced 
on Washington, burned the public buildings, including many 
of the government archives, and without meeting any resistance 
they retired as they came. This dastardly act roused the people, 
stimulated enlistments and unified public sentiment. 

It is possible and even probable that the paucity of war rolls 
may in part be due to the destruction of the public buildings with 
their contents at the time the British invaded Washington. 

On the 24th of December, 1814, a treaty of peace was concluded 
at Ghent, and the War of 1812-14, was supposed to be at an 
end. 

It is a remarkable fact, however, that the greatest engagement 
of the war took place at New Orleans after the treaty of peace 
was concluded. The British had evidently planned the capture 
of New Orleans and were so intent on accomplishing it, that 
the news of the treaty, if received at all, did not deter them from 
their purpose. The matter came to a final crisis on January 8, 
1815, when General Jackson gained a decisive victory over the 
British army, which ended all strife of arms between the two 
nations. 

The names and numbers of men who served in this war from 
Cornish cannot all be given. This is a matter of deep regret but 
all other towns have suffered a like experience. A few names 
can be gleaned from the traditional records of their families. 
These we append: 

Benjamin Edminster, Clark Kendrick, Capt. Andrew Dodge, 
Capt. Eben Comings, Daniel Jackson, Walter Weld (died in 
service), Eben Weld (killed at Williamsburg, Can.), Samuel 
Bernum, Ebenezer Deming, Jr., Everett Robinson, Andrew 
Comings (son of Benj.), Capt. Eben Comings, Edward Kimball, 
Daniel F. Spaulding, and Jacob Newell. 

After the war with England was over, thirty years of 



84 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

peace and prosperity followed. The state made her appropri- 
ations and active military drill was maintained throughout the 
country. The Southern States increased in population 
and power. The slavery system also increased and sought fresh 
avenues for increasing and strengthening its power. 

In 1846, the war with Mexico was ushered in. This lasted 
from April, 1846, until September, 1847. It was plainly a war of 
unjust aggression on a weaker power with the object of acquiring 
more territory for new slave states. As a matter of course the 
citizens of Cornish, with divided opinions, watched with great 
interest the opening, progress and termination of this war; but 
it is not known that they furnished any men for the service. 

After the war with Mexico was ended, all appearances of war 
with any foreign power, entirely disappeared, 

Another season of apparent peace and prosperity now followed. 
The warlike propensities, especially of the North seemed fading 
away. A generation had arisen which tried to believe that war 
was a relic of barbarism and that it never would again be employed 
for the settlement of disputes between enlightened parties or 
nations; that our people were too highly civilized to engage ever 
again in the destruction of their fellowmen on the battlefield. 
Military drill, especially in the North, had become unpopular. 
The glamour of military display presented fewer attractions than 
formerly. As a result of these causes, the existing militia laws 
of New Hampshire were repealed in 1850. 

From about that time military drill ceased in most if not all 
of the New England states, and no military organizations existed 
there except an occasional company in cities, whose duties chiefly 
were in aiding the authorities in preserving order and performing 
escort duty. While the military power was suffering this decline 
in the North, it seems strange that political party strife was 
increasing in intensity, especially during the years just preceding 
the rebellion, and among the states of the South. The legions 
of pro-slavery advocates were aggressive and determined, while 
the anti-slavery element of the country stood firm, unmoved and 
unsupported by any military power. But after the Civil War 
began, when they saw the nation's life imperilled, and heard the 
call for troops, thousands sprang to arms in her defence. The 
raw recruits of the North, who had scarcely dreamed of war, were 
soon transmuted into disciplined soldiers. 



CHAPTER VII. 
Cornish in the Civil War. 

It is not necessary to recount the causes which led to the 
fearful fratricidal strife which deluged our nation in blood, 
neither the immense sacrifice of lives and treasures required to 
preserve our national honor and unity. These are all recorded 
in the archives of the nation's history as a heritage for us, and 
for millions yet unborn. But the part that the citizens of Cornish 
took in that eventful period is the work now in hand. 

It has never been said that Cornish did not bear her just pro- 
portion of the sacrifices and burdens of that crisis, or that she 
was lacking in true patriotism. Of the eighteen regiments sent 
from New Hampshire, fourteen of them contained more or less 
Cornish men, aggregating, including those serving in other organ- 
izations connected with the war, men, most of whom served with 
honor. Thus it will be observed that Cornish sent a very large 
percentage of her citizen soldiery into the field, beside enlisting 
many of foreign birth and others to serve in her regiments when 
they became depleted and reduced by the casualties of war. 

The first call of President Lincoln was for 75,000 three months' 
men, and New Hampshire was required to furnish one regiment 
of these. This regiment was filled so quickly, that those first 
enlisting in town, could not find admission to its ranks, therefore, 
this regiment contained none from Cornish, but those who had 
enlisted for three months soon had the opportunity of reenlisting 
for three years in the second regiment soon to follow. The first 
regiment under command of Col. Mason W. Tappan left the 
state May 27, 1861, for the seat of war. This regiment had 
no serious engagement but did guard duty in and around 
Washington until the expiration of the time of its enlistment, 
and it was mustered out August 2, 1861. 

Second Regiment. 

This was the first regiment of three years' men. It was organ- 
ized at Portsmouth, N. H., in May, 1861, with Gilman Marston 



86 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

as colonel. It was mustered into service early in June, and 
on the 20th of the same month, with 1,022 officers and men, left 
Portsmouth for Washington, via Boston and New York. Gov- 
ernor Berry and staff, Ex-Governor Goodwin and many leading 
men of the state accompanied them to Boston, where they were 
received with enthusiastic demonstrations. An organization of 
1,400 ''Sons of New Hampshire" with Governor Andrew and 
staff, with prominent citizens and military bands escorted the 
regiment to a banquet prepared for them in Music Hall, where a 
patriotic address was given by Hon. Marshall P. Wilder. After 
being reviewed by Governor Andrew on the Common, they left 
for New York, where they were received by a similar ovation. 
They reached Washington on the 23d of June. On the 21st of 
July following, this regiment received its first baptism of blood 
at Bull Run, Va., the first great battle of the war. Here the 
regiment had nine killed, thirty-five wounded, four mortally, and 
sixty-three taken prisoners. Among the latter were two men 
from Cornish, John L. Rice and Albert L. Hall (See Rolls). 
Rice was also seriously wounded, left on the field and reported 
dead, and his funeral obsequies were accordingly held at home. 
But afterwards he was found to be alive, much to the rejoicing 
of his many friends. 

This regiment saw much hard service and sustained many 
heavy losses, especially at Williamsburg, Va., and later at 
Gettysburg, Pa., besides being engaged in many other battles 
of note, where in every case it reflected honor upon itself and 
the state. 

The rigor of its service and other causes, finally reduced 
it to about one fourth of its original numbers, and it was 
mustered out of service early in December, 1865, at City Point, 
Va., and discharged in Concord, N. H., December 26, 1865. 
Here they again met a hearty and generous reception. 

In the rolls of this, and all regiments hereafter given, it is to 
be understood that the men were privates and were residents of, 
or were born in Cornish, unless otherwise mentioned. All trans- 
fers and promotions will be noted in connection with the first 
mention of their names. 

Below are given, directly as recorded upon the military rolls 
of the state, the names and brief records of the men of Cornish 
in the 2d regiment, in all, 25 names: 



CORNISH IN THE CIVIL WAR. 87 

Asa M. Benway. Age 26, enl. Apr. 24, 61, disch. disab. June 8, 

61, enl. 2d, Sept. 1, 64, in Vt. Cav., killed. Mar. 2, 65, at 

Waynesboro, Va. Before the engagement he remarked that he 

should be killed in the first fight in which he engaged. It 

proved true. He was the only one killed. 
John H. Barry, Co. I, b. Plattsburg, N. Y. Age 26, enl. Apr. 

28, 61, not must., re-enl. May 21, 61. Captd. July 21, 61, at 

Bull Run, Va., paroled June 2, 62, disch. July 2, 62. 
James A. Cook. Age 47, enl. June 18, 61, from Claremont. 

Serg. non. com. staff., prom. 2d Q. M. June 9, 62, app. Capt. 

Com. of Substance July 2, 63, disch. disab. Sept. 8, 64. 
John Carroll (sub.) b. Ireland, Co. C. Age 21, enl. Dec. 6, 64, 

disch. disab. Apr. 7, 65, at Fort Munro, Va. 
Edward W. Collins, Jr., Co. I. Age 22, enl. Apr. 27, 61, not 

must., re-enl. May 21, 61, disch. disab. Aug. 16, 61. 
Edward Davis, Co. G, b. N. Y. Age 23, enl. Dec. 1, 63, con- 
fined at Camp Hamilton May 9, 64, released July 28, 64, and 

sent to Bermuda Hundred. No further report. 
William Gaines, Co. G, b. N. Y. Age 18, enl. Dec. 1, 63. Fur- 

loughed from Hospital Point of Rocks, Va. Failed to return. 
Albert L. Hall, Co. I, Age 21, enl. Apr. 28, 61, not must., re-enl. 

May 21, 61. Captd. July 21, 61, at Bull Run, Va., paroled 

May 21, 62, disch. July 2, 62. 
Burleigh R. Jones. Age 21, enl. Aug. 2, 61, from Hopkinton, 

Co. B, wd. June 25, 62, at Oak Grove, Va., d. July 1, 62, on 

Hospital Ship at Hampton Roads, Va. 
John Kennison, Co. H, b. Concord, Vt. Age 28, enl. Dec. 1, 63, 

disch. disab. May 12, 64, at Williamsburg, Va. 
Joseph Lumbeck, Co. K, b. Sweden. Age 21, enl. Dec. 4, 63, 

wd. at Cold Harbor, Va., June 3, 64, app. Corp. Nov. 1, 64, 

disch. Dec. 19, 65. 
Lewis Laurd, Co. K, b. Canada. Age 33, enl. Dec. 4, 63, disch- 

Dec. 19, 65. 
James Lee, Co. H, b. Philadelphia, Pa. Age 18, enl. Dec. 1, 63, 

disch. Dec. 19, 65. 
Timothy Malone, Co. H. b. Ireland. Age 27, enl. Dec. 1, 63, 

disch. Dec. 19, 65. 
Peter Mareau, Co. H, b. N. Y., enl. Dec. 2, 63, deserted Sept. 

8, 65, from Fredericksburg, Va. 



88 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Stephen Nichols, Co. K, b. 111. Age 20, enl. Dec. 4, 63, entered 
18th Army Corps and Point of Rocks, Va., Feb. 15, 65, No 
further record appears. 

Thomas Perkins, Co. H, b. Wisconsin. Age 19, enl. Dec. 2, 63, 
disch. June 20, 65, at Fort Munroe, Va. 

Andrew Pinder, Co. K, b. Ireland. Age 18, enl. Dec. 4, 63, 
disch. Dec. 19, 65. 

Clark Allen, Co. K, b. N. Y. Age 18, enl. Dec. 4, 63, wd. severely 
July 5, 64, at Petersburg, Va., disch. May 25, 65. 

John L. Rice. Age 21, enl. Apr. 28, 61, not must., re-enl. May 
21, 61, Co. A, wd. and captd. July 21, 61, at Bull Run, Va., 
paroled Jan. 3, 62, exch. and disch. Nov. 18, 62, for promotion, 
app. Capt. Co. H, 16th N. H. vols., Nov. 4, 62, must. Dec. 
2, 62, volunteered for storming party at Port Hudson, 
La., under G. 0. No. 49, headqrs. dept. of the Gulf June 
15, 63, app. Lieut. Col. Oct. 1, 63, disch. Nov. 25, 65, at New 
Orleans, La. 

Charles M. Smith, Co. H, b. Hartford, Conn. Age 19, enl. Dec. 
1, 63, d. of dis. Oct. 27, 64, at Fort Munroe, Va. 

George E. Tyler. Age 20, enl. Apr. 27, 61, not must., re-enl. May 
21, 61, in Co. I, d. Mar. 6, 63, of dis. at Boston, Mass. 

Thomas Welch, Co. H, b. Ireland. Age 27, enl. Dec. 1, 63, 
deserted in face of enemy May 19, 64, at Bermuda Hundred, Va. 

William F. Wright. Age 19, enl. Apr. 28, 61, re-enl. May 21, 61, 
must, in Aug. 13, 61, in Co. I, wd. Aug. 29, 62, at Bull Run, 
Va., d. from wounds Sept. 27, 62, at Washington, D. C. 

John B. Wright. Age 18, enl. Apr. 28, 61, re-enl. May 21, 61, 
must, in Aug. 21, 61, in Co. I, disch. Aug. 23, 64, near Peters- 
burg, Va. 

Third Regiment. 

This was organized in August 1861, and left the state for Wash- 
ington on the September following, 1,035 strong. It was soon sent 
to and stationed at Hilton Head, S. C, until April, 1862. In June 
following it was sent to James Island. Its first sharp engagement 
was at Secessionville, S. C, where it lost 105 men. Returning to 
Hilton Head it remained there until April, 1863. On July 18,1863, 
it was fiercely engaged in the siege of Fort Wagner, where it 
lost heavily, as did the 7th New Hampshire. During 1864 it was 
in several serious engagements, and at one time "well-nigh anni- 



CORNISH IN THE CIVIL WAR. 89 

hilated." With thinned ranks it was finally mustered out, July 
20, 1865. Cornish had, at different times, fourteen men in this 
regiment. Quite a proportion of these were not citizens of the 
town but were foreign born and hired substitutes. 

William Arnie (sub.), Co. B, b. England. Age 21, enl. Oct. 14, 63. 

No further record obtained. 
Elbridge G. Beers, 2d Co. K. Age 18, enl. Aug. 12, 61, d. July 20, 

62, in Beaufort, S. C. 
Joseph Brady (sub.), Co. I, b. England. Age 29, enl. Oct. 10, 63, 

sev. wd. May 13, 64, at Drewrys Bluff, Va., disch. disab. July 

20, 65. 
Dudley Colby, Co. K. Age 27, enl. from Franklin N. H., July 26, 

61, disch. Aug. 23, 64. 

James A. Douglass (sub.), Co. K, b. Edinburgh, Scotland. 

Age 20, enl. Oct. 8, 63, wd. Aug. 16, 64, at Deep Bottom, Va., 

disch. disab. July 20, 65. 
Joseph E. Horton, Co. B, b. Taunton, Mass. Age 18, enl. Aug. 19, 

62, sev. wd. May 13, 64, at Drewrys Bluff, Va., dis. June 26, 65, 
at Goldsboro, N. C. 

Thomas Langdon (sub.), Co. B, b. N. Y. Age 19, enl. Oct. 14, 63, 

sev. wd. and d. of wounds May 13, 64, at Drewrys Bluff, Va. 
Alcide Lallance (sub.), Co. K, b. France. Age 22, enl. Oct. 10, 63, 

sev. wd. May 18, 64, at Bermuda Hundred, Va., disch. Aug. 

4, 64, at Newark, N. J. 
Edward Mitchell (sub.), Co. K, b. Bridgewater, Mass. Age 20, 

enl. Oct. 10, 63, disch. Nov. 7, 64, at Staten Island, N. Y. 
Lewis Maier (sub.), Co. K, b. Germany. Age 22, enl. Dec. 17, 64, 

disch. July 20, 65. 
Thomas Murphy (sub.), Co. C, b. Liverpool, Eng. Age 22, enl. 

Oct. 10, 63, disch. July 20, 65. 
James Reagan (sub.), Co. K, b. Ireland. Age 25, enl. Dec. 27, 64, 

disch. Apr. 2, 65, at Wilmington, N. C. 
Henry Squires, Co. A. Age 25, enl. Aug. 30, 62, disch. disab. 

Feb. 7, 63, at Hilton Head, S. C. 
Sumner B. Tewksbury, Co. K, b. Milford, N. H. Age 21, enl. 

Aug. 6, 61, disch. disab. Mar. 11, 62, drafted, Oct. 19, 63, 

and assigned to 5th N. H., disch. from 5th June 28, 65. 



90 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Fourth Regiment. 

This regiment was organized in August and September, 1861, 
and started for the seat of war about the 17th of September. 

Its services during the first two years were wholly in the South, 
in Florida and the Carolinas. It joined the army of the Potomac 
in 1864, and assisted at the siege of Petersburg. It was mustered 
out at Concord, August 23, 1865. 

Cornish was represented in this regiment by four men: 

Moses Bohannon, Co. I, b. Danbury, N. H. Age 44, enl. Aug. 

23, 64, disch. disab. June 27, 65, at Concord, N. H. 
Michael Cane, Co. C, b. Ireland. Age 21, enl. Dec. 21, 64, disch. 

Mar. 17, 65, at Wilmington, N. C. 
David L. M. Comings, enl. Aug. 13, 62, from W. Swansy, N. H., 

assistant surgeon, d. of dis. at Swansy, Aug. 1, 63. 
Lucius Little (sub.), Co. K, b. Lenoxville, Canada. Age 20, enl. 

Jan. 17, 65, disch. Aug. 23, 65. 

Fifth Regiment. 

This was organized at Concord September and October, 1861, 
with Edward E. Cross as colonel. It left the state October 29, 
and was assigned to a division of the army of the Potomac until 
the following March and was then transferred to another division, 
Second Army Corps. It was at the siege of Yorktown and through 
the peninsular campaign, suffering heavy losses at Fair Oaks, 
Savage Station, White Oak Swamp and Malvern. A little later 
it lost one-third of its members at Antietam. At Fredericksburg 
December 13, 1862, it suffered severely. Of 303 officers and 
men present, it lost 193, or more than sixty per cent. It was 
also engaged in the battle of Chancellorville May 1-5, 1863, and 
also hotly engaged at Gettysburg, Pa., where Colonel Cross was 
mortally wounded, and where the regiment lost one-half of its 
numbers then present. 

After this, the regiment was sent home to recruit until Novem- 
ber, 1863. It then returned to the seat of war, and rejoined the 
army of the Potomac. It was engaged at Cold Harbor, Va., 
where it met with great loss. It was also at the siege of Peters- 
burg, at Deep Bottom, Reams Station and others, until April 
9, 1865, when Lee surrendered. 



CORNISH IN THE CIVIL WAR. 91 

It returned to Washington and took part in the final grand re- 
view and was mustered out at Alexandria, June 28, 1865. 

This regiment won the name of the "New Hampshire fighting 
fifth." Its record was brilliant, its losses great, its courage never 
daunted. It had its full share of the stern realities of the bloody 
field, as well as of the victor's triumph. 

Cornish was represented in this regiment by a dozen men: 

Edward Avery (sub.), Co. B, b. England. Age 22, enl. Oct. 
13, 63, deserted, Oct. 18, 63, at Concord, N. H. 

Nathaniel E. Beers, Co. G, b. Hartland, Vt. Age 40, enl. Sept. 
27, 61, disch. for disab. Sept. 1, 62, re-enl. Mar. 23, 64, in 
Co. A, 1st N. H. Cav., captd. June 30, 64, on Wilson's raid, 
paroled Dec. 15, 64, app. farrier, disch. from Cav. Co. July 
15, 65. 

Robert H. Chase, Co. G. Age 18, enl. Sept. 27, 61, from Clare- 
mont, transf. to Co. C, Mar. 1, 62, captd. at Fair Oaks, 
Va., June 1, 62, released and afterwards re-enl. Jan. 1, 64, 
app. Sergt. and Com. 2d Lieut. Co. K, July 1, 64, killed at 
Reams Sta., Va., Aug. 25, 64. 

John Hart (sub.), Co. E, b. Ireland. Age 21, enl. Oct. 13, 63, 
transf. to U. S. Navy, Apr. 19, 64, as landsman, served on 
U. S. S. S. Matthew, Vassar, Primrose and Princess, disch. 
Aug. 21, 65. 

John H. Hunter, Co. E. Age 21, enl. Sept. 7, 61, from Newport, 
N. H., wd. June 1, 62, at Fair Oaks, disch. disab. Jan. 8, 63, 
at Fort Munroe. 

Artemus M. Lewis, Co. G. Age 44, enl. Aug. 24, 62, from Clare- 
mont, disch. Mar. 3, 63. 

Nathaniel Smith, Co. G. Age 18, enl. Sept. 29, 61, app. Corp., 
wd. July 1, 62, at Malvern Hill, Va., at Hill, Va., Sept. 16, 62, 
at Antietam, wd. and captd. June 3, 64, at Cold Harbor, Va., 
released Feb. 28, 65, disch. Apr. 8, 65, at Concord, N. H. 

Stephen L. Stearns, Co. G. Age. 36, enl. Sept. 27, 61, disch. 
disab. Nov. 2, 63. 

Joseph Stevens, Co. G. Age 45 enl. Sept. 27, 61, disch. disab. 
Jan. 8, 62, near Alexandria, Va. 

William Sturtevant, Co. F. Age 36, draf. at Claremont, Oct. 
10, 63, disch. June 28, 65. 



92 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Cornelius H. Stone, Co. F. Age 18, enl. Feb. 12, 62, at Man- 
chester, N. H., captd. July 26, 63, paroled, and exch., re-enl., 
Mar. 29, 64, sev. wd. June 3, 64, at Cold Harbor, Va., disch., 
at N. Y. City, June 8, 65. 

William S. White, Co. G. Age 21, enl. Sept. 2, 61, disch. disab. 
Mar. 26, 63, at Fort Munroe, Va., re-enl. Dec. 29, 63, in 57th, 
Mass., disch. July 30, 65. 

Sixth Regiment. 

The sixth regiment was mustered into service November 30, 
1861, with Nelson Converse colonel. It was stationed at Keene 
until Christmas morning when it left the state for Washington. 
It was assigned to Burnside's expedition to North Carolina. In 
March, 1862, Colonel Converse resigned and Lieut.-Col. S. G. 
Griffin was promoted as colonel, and retained this position until 
he was promoted May 11, 1864. 

The military records of the services and achievements of this 
regiment compare favorably with those of the other New Hamp- 
shire regiments. It was engaged in several prominent battles 
of the war and finally was present at the surrender of General 
Lee. It also took part in the grand review at Washington, May 
23, 1865. It was mustered out of service July 17, 1865. Cornish 
had nine men in this regiment. 

Soldiers of the 6th regiment representing Cornish : 

Patrick O'Conner, Co. D, b. Ireland. Age 22, enl. Dec. 4, 63., 

disch. July 17, 65. 
Richard Craig, Co. H, b. Louisville, Ky. Age 28, enl. Oct. 28, 61, 

app. Corp. Feb. 1, 64, disch. July 22, 64, at Concord, N. H. 
Timothy C. Eastman, Co. G. Age 33, enl. Dec. 5, 61, from Suna- 

pee, N. H., d. of dis. Mar. 24, 62, at Roanoke Island, N. C. 
Ebenezer Mitchell, Co. G, b. Corinth, Vt. Age 43, enl. Oct. 7, 61, 

disch. for disab. Aug. 11, 62, at Newbern, N. C. 
Alvah S. Rawson, Co. G. Age 18, enl. Nov. 20, 61, re-enl. Jan. 

2, 64, in the same reg. and Co., app. Serg., killed July 3, 64, at 

Petersburg, Va., while looking over breastworks, bullet entering 

at eye. 
John Smith, Co. F, b. Ireland. Age 20, enl. Dec. 4, 63, deserted 

Feb. 10, 64, at Camp Nelson, Ky. 



CORNISH IN THE CIVIL WAR. 93 

Thomas Toole, Co. K, b. Ireland. Age 20, enl. Dec. 4, 63, captd. 

Oct. 1,64, at Poplar Springs Church, Va., released and afterwards 

app. Corp. July 1, 65, disch. July 17, 65. 
Russell Tyler, Co. G. Age 18, enl. Nov. 22, 61, wd. Dec. 13, 62, 

at Fredericksburg, Va., re-enl. Dec. 21, 63, in same reg. and Co., 

wd. at Spottsylvania June 22, 64, and at Petersburg, Va., Apr. 

2, 65, app. Corp. Dec. 24, 62, Serg. Dec. 21, 63, 1st Lieut. 

Mar. 4, 65, disch. July 17, 65. 
Henry P. Whittaker, Co. G. Age 18, enl. Oct. 10, 61, from Goshen, 

N. H., re-enl. Dec. 27, 63, in same reg. and Co., app. Corp., wd. 

May 6, 64, at Wilderness, Va., app. Sergt. Aug. 1, 64, 2d 

Lieut, of Co. I, June 1, 65. 

Seventh Regiment. 

This regiment was organized in the fall of 1861, in Manchester, 
N. H., and left the state January 14, 1862. It was mustered out at 
Concord, N. H., July 30, 1865. 

It contained fifteen men from Cornish: 

Charles C. Bartlett, Co. C. Age 32, enl. Sept. 30, 61, disch. for 

disab. Jan. 4, 63, at St. Augustine, Fla., re-enl. Sept. 3, 64, in 

Co. B, 24th V. R. Corps, disch. for disab. June 27, 65, at 

Washington, D. C. 
Thomas Bowen (sub.), b. Ireland, Co. F. Age 43, enl. Oct. 13, 

63, wd. and captd. June 16, 64, at Ware Bottom Church, Va., 

d. June 18, 64, at Richmond, Va. 
George M. Chase, Co. C. Age 28, enl. Sept. 24, 61, app. Corp. 

Nov. 15, 61, Sergt. July 18, 62, wd. and captd. July 18, 63, at 

Fort Wagner, S. C, rejoined reg. July 23, 63, app. 2d Lieut. 

Co. K, to date July 20, 63, disch. Dec. 24, 64. 
Nathaniel B. Dodge, Co. C, b. Barre, Vt. Age 22, enl. Oct. 9, 61, 

disch. for disab. Apr. 7, 63, at Hilton Head, S. C. 
Newton C. Dodge, Co. C, b. Barre, Vt. Age 33, enl. Dec. 12, 61, 

disch. for disab. Nov. 12, 62, at Davis Island, N. Y. Harbor. 
Edward A. Downs, Co. I. Age 23, drafted Sept, 20, 63, from 

Merrimack, wd. and captd. Feb. 20, 64, at Olustee, Fla., 

d. of dis. May 25, 64, at Andersonville, Ga. 
Marcellus Judkins, Co. C. Age 21, enl. Sept. 30, 61, d. of dis. 

Dec. 23, 61, at Manchester, N. H. The first soldier that d. 

from Cornish. 



94 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Charles Nevens, Co. (\ b. Bradford, N. II. Age 18, enl. Sept. 
22, 61, captd. July 18, 63, at Fort Wagner, S. C, d. July 
30, 63. 

Haldimand S. Putnam. Ago 25, a cadet of West Point, brev. 2d 
Lieut. Topographical Eng. July 1, 57, app. 2d Lieut. Apr. 
1, 61, 1st Lieut. Aug. 3, 61, and Gapt. engineers Mar. 3, 63, 
wasBrev. Major July 1, 61, for gallant and meritorious services 
in Manassas Campaign, Brev. Lieut. -Col. July 10, 63, for gal- 
lant services on Morris Island, S. C, Brev. Col. July 18, 63, for 
gallant service at the assault of Fort Wagner, where he was 
mortally wd. July 18, 63. 

David K. Ripley, Co. C, 1>. Plymouth, Mass. Age 44, enl. Sept. 
24, 61, d. of dis. Sept. 9, 62, at Hilton Head, S. C. 

William Scott, Co. C, b. N. Y. City. Age 18, enl. Oct, 2, 61, 
wd. Sept. 7, 63, at Morris Island, S. C, d. of wds. Oct, 5, 63, 
Fort Schuyler, N. Y. 

Benjamin C. Stearns, Co. IT. Age 32, enl. Oct, 21, 61, disch. 
disab. Sept. 20, 03, d. in Cornish, Aug. 13, 65. 

Edward L. Tasker, Co. C. Age 26, enl. Sept, 23, 61, from Leb- 
anon, N. II., d. of dis. at Beaufort, S. C, Aug. 9, 62. 

Orin Watkins, Co. II, b. Townshend, Vt. Age 38, enl. Oct. 1, 
61, re-en 1. Feb. 27, 64, in same reg. and Co., deserted May 1, 64, 
while on furlough. 

Andrew P. Wright, Co. C, b. Lebanon, N. H. Age 18, enl. Oct. 
18, 61, killed at Olustce, Fla., Feb. 20, 64. 

Eighth Regiment. 

This regiment was gathered chiefly from eastern and southern 
portions of the state, and its service was wholly in the South, 
chiefly in Louisiana. Cornish had but one representative in it : 

Joseph Edmunds, Co. F, b. in Quebec, Can. Age 20, enl. Nov. 
3, 63, transf. to Co. B. 9th Vols., res. Corps, Dec. 20, 64, disch. 
July 14, 65, at Washington, D. C. . 

Ninth Regiment. 

This regiment was organized in August, 1862 with Enoch Q. 
Fellows, colonel and Herbert B. Titus, lieutenant-colonel. It left 
the state on the 25th of the same month for Washington, D. C. 



CORNISH IN THE CIVIL WAR. 95 

It was assigned to the first brigade, 9th Army Corps of the Army 
of the Potomac. 

On September 14, it had its first engagemenl of note at South 

Mountain and on the 17th following at Antietam, ami at Freder- 
icksburg on December L3, 1862. Early in 1863, it went south and 
west as far as Vicksburg, Miss., and was present at the surrender 
of that city. 

The climate of the South seriously affected this regiment, and 
it soon returned and did service in Kentucky, and after- 
wards rejoined the 9th Army Corps on the Potomac, where, 
under Gen. S. G. Griffin it joined with the other New 
Hampshire regiments, in those grand and stirring events that 
culminated in the capture of Petersburg and the surrender of 
Genera] Lee. Soon after this, this regiment was mustered out 
of service. 

Cornish was represented by fifteen men in this regiment: 

Henry P. Blood, Co. E. Age 18, enl. Aug. 4, 62, app. Corp., wd. 

Sept. 30, 64, at Poplar Springs Church, Va., d. of wds. Nov. 

8, 64, at Beverly, N. .J. 
Daniel C. Buswell, b. Lebanon. Age 26, app. Capt. of Co. E, 

Aug. 10, 62, must, in Aug. 23, 62, as Capt. Had previously, 

from Apr. 29, 61, served in Co. B, 1st Minnesota Regt. and was 

disch. to accfjpt promotion. 
Albert B. Cressy, Co. G. Age 20, enl. July 23, 62, from Clare- 

mont (credited to Newbury), app. Corp., d. of dis. Sept. 14, 

64. at Whitehall, Pa. 
Charles F. Day, Co. E. Age 18, enl. Aug. 8, 62., app. Corp. was 

taken prisoner Sept. 30, 64, at Poplar Springs Church, Va., 

d. at Salisbury Stockade, S. C, or at Libbey, Va., Dec. 25, 64. 
Edwin W. Downs, Co. E, b. Enfield, N. H. Age 18, enl. Aug. 8, 

62, d. of dis. Aug. 26, 63, at Covington, Ky. 
human Dudley, Co. G, b. Mailboro. N. H. Age 18, enl. July 25, 

62, d. of dis. Jan. 19, 63, near Falmouth, Va. 
Dennis C. Hibbard, Co. A. Age 18, enl. Aug. 27, 64, disch. Feb. 

3, 65, at Fort Alexander Hayes. 
George A. Hutchinson, Co. K. Age 18, enl. from Newport, Aug. 

11, 62, d. of dis. Mar. 21, 64, at Camp Nelson, Ky. 
James N. Edminster, Co. E. Age 22, enl. Aug. 1, 62, must, in 

as 2d Lieut. Aug. 23, 62, resigned Oct. 27, 62. 



96 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Hollis Knights, Co. E. Age 23, enl. Aug. 8, 62, disch. for disab. 

Jan. 25, 64, at Camp Dennison, Ohio. 
Oscar D. Robinson, Co. E. Age 23, enl. July 25, 62, must, in as 

Sergt., app. 2d. Lieut. Jan. 1, 64, 1st Lieut. Mar. 1, 65, Capt. 

of Co. E, May 1, 65, disch. June 10, 65. 
Sidney C. Spaulding, Co. E. Age 18, b. Plainfield, enl. Aug. 8, 

62, d. of dis. Oct. 4, 63, at Paris, Ky. 
George B. Tracy. Co. E. Age 36, enl. from Lebanon Aug. 8, 62, 

as Corp., app. Sergt., wd. May 12, 64, at Spottsylvania, Va., 

d. of wds. June 6, 64, at Washington, D. C. 
Ithiel I. White, Co. K. Age 24, enl. July 31, 62, killed May 

12, 64, at Spottsylvania, Va. 

Tenth Regiment. 
The 10th Regiment had no one in it from Cornish. 

Eleventh Regiment. 

. The 11th Regiment had but two Cornish men, brothers, both 
born in Cornish, but residing elsewhere: 

Edwin Thrasher, Co. H. Age 21, enl. Aug. 13, 62, from Lyme, 
N. H., disch. for disab. Dec. 15, 62, at N. Y. City, enl. 2d. 
Sept. 13, 64, in Co.B, 18th N.H., from Lyme, disch. June 10, 65. 

Henry H. Thrasher, Co. C. Age 21, enl. July 7, 62, des. Dec. 
8, 62, at Falmouth, Va., enl. 2d May 3, 64, at New York as a 
landsman, served on the vessels, Potomac, M. A. Wood and 
U. S. S. S. North Carolina, honorably disch. Jan. 24, 65, from 
the North Carolina. 

Twelfth Regiment. 
The 12th Regiment contained no Cornish men. 

Thirteenth Regiment. 

The 13th Regiment contained but one man who was born in 
Cornish but enlisting from elsewhere : 

Amasa Huggins, Co. H. Age 43, enl. Mar. 31, 65, from Pittsburg, 
Pa., transf. to Co. B June 21, 65, disch. Dec. 19, 65. 

Fourteenth Regiment. 

This regiment was organized at Concord in August and Sep- 
tember, 1862 with Robert Wilson, colonel. It left the state in 



CORNISH IN THE CIVIL WAR. 97 

October for Washington and vicinity where it did guard duty gen- 
erally until March 63. It then, after a furlough of two weeks, 
sailed and joined the department of the Gulf at New Orleans. 

In July it was ordered north and became a part of General 
Sheridan's Army of the Shenandoah. Here it participated in 
the fierce battles of Deep Bottom, Winchester, Opequan, Fisher's 
Hill, Cedar Creek and several others. After this campaign in 
the Shenandoah Valley, it was again sent to the department 
of the South, where, in Georgia, it performed provost duty. It 
was finally mustered out of service at Hilton Head, July 7, 1865. 

Cornish was especially interested in this regiment, as it contained 
twenty-one of her business citizens among its ranks. These all 
belonged to Co. I. Following is the list: 

Reuben T. Benway, b. Plainfield. Age 19, enl. Aug. 20, 62, d. 

of dis. Nov. 12, 63, at Washington, D. C. 
Sylvester M. Bugbee, b. Hartland, Vt. Age 39, enl. Aug. 21, 62, 

as private, app. Capt. Co. I, Oct. 9, 62, must, in as such, 

dating Oct. 7, 62, resigned Dec. 17, 62. 
Versel E. Burr. Age 34, enl. Sept. 21, 62, d. of dis. Aug. 25, 64, 

at Fort Munroe. 
James H. Chapman, b. Unity. Age 40, enl. Aug. 26, 62, disch. 

July 8, 65. 
Charles B. Comings. Age 21, enl. Aug. 22, 62, app. Corp. July 

1, 64, and Sergt. Jan. 2, 65, disch. July 8, 65. 

Edward W. Collins, b. Paris, France. Age 44, enl. Aug. 22, 62, 

disch. for disab. Oct. 5, 63, at Washington, D. C. 
Thomas B. Edminster. Age 22, enl. Aug. 21, 62, d. of dis. Dec. 

27, 64, at Springfield, Mass. 
Walter H. Foss. Age 43, enl. Jan. 4, 64, from Hanover, N. H„ 

disch. disab. Feb. 24, 65, at Washington, D. C. 
John B. Hibbard, b. Bethel, Vt. Age 21, enl. Aug. 23, 62, disch. 

disab. May 28, 63, at Providence, R. I. 
Waldo L. Howard. Age 21, enl. Aug. 21, 62, disch. July 8, 65. 
Wilbur F. Howard. Age 22, enl. Aug. 21, 62, wd. Sept. 19, 64, at 

Opequan, lost a leg, disch. Jan. 27, 65. 
Harlan P. Hunter. Age 17, enl. Aug. 25, 62, disch. disab. May 

2, 65, at Concord, N. H. 

Marcus M. Lane. Age 22, enl. Aug. 22, 62, from Plainfield, wd. 
Sept. 19, 64, at Opequan Creek, disch. June 2, 65. 



98 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Alonzo Knights, b. Sharon, Vt. Age 26, enl. Aug. 21, 62. Cap- 
tured Sept. 19, 64, at Opequan, Va., paroled Oct. 2, 64, disch. 
July 8, 65. 

William S. Lewis, b. Hartford, Vt. Age 29, enl. Aug. 23, 62, d. of 
dis. Jan. 21, 64, at Washington, D. C. 

Theodore Miller, b. Troy, N. Y. Age 16, enl. Sept. 4, 63, musi- 
cian, disch. June 8, 65, at Hilton Head, S. C. 

Asa W. Richardson, b. Moretown, Vt. Age 39, enl. Aug. 21, 62, 
as Orderly Sergt., app. 2d Lieut. Co. E, May 27, 64, 1st Lieut. 
Co. F, Jan. 4, 65, disch. July 27, 65. 

Hiram H. Stone, b. Berwick, Me. Age 38, enl. Aug. 22, 62, d. of 
dis. Oct. 6, 64, at Washington, D. C. 

George Tasker. Age 20, enl. Aug. 20, 62, from Croydon. Cap- 
tured at Opequan, Va., Sept. 19, 64, paroled Oct. 8, 64, disch. 
June 8, 65. 

Sylvester Tasker. Age 21, enl. Aug. 20, 62, Corp., killed Sept. 
19, 64, at Opequan, Va. 

Charles Woodard, b. Plainneld. Age 20, enl. Aug. 28, 62, 
disch. July 8, 65. 

Fifteenth Regiment. 

This regiment contained but one Cornish man : 

Simon C. Kelley, Co. K. Age 24, enl. Sept. 13, 62, from Salem, 
disch. Aug. 13, 63. 

Sixteenth Regiment. 

This regiment (as also the 15th and 17th) was a nine months' 
regiment, organized late in the fall of 1862. It contained 
nine Cornish men as follows: 

Norman D. Comings, Co. A. Age 20, enl. Sept. 2, 62, d. Aug. 

14, 63, in Mound City, 111. 
George W. Ellis, Co. A, b. Brandon, Vt. Age 18 enl. Sept. 3, 62, 

disch. Aug. 20, 63, enl. Dec. 5, 63, in Co. G, 7th Vt. Inf., disch. 

from 7th Vt. Mar. 20, 63, at Brattleboro, Vt. 
Seneca Ellis, Co. A, b. at sea. Age 45, enl. Sept. 2, 62, disch. 

Aug. 20, 63, and d. Aug. 26, 63, in town. 
Henry Leavitt, Co. A. Age 22, enl. Sept. 2, 62, disch. Aug. 20, 63. 
Joseph Newell, Co. A, b. Ripton, Vt. Age 18, enl. Sept. 2, 62, 

disch. Aug. 20, 63. 



CORNISH IN THE CIVIL WAR. 99 

Lucian Spaulding, Co. A. Age 18, enl. Aug. 13, 62, disch. Aug. 

20, 63. 
Silas Spaulding, Co. A, b. Peru, Mass. Age 38, enl. Sept. 2, 62, 

disch. Aug. 20, 63, d. Sept. 20, 63, at Cornish. 
John M. Vinton, Co. A. Age 23, enl. Sept. 10, 62 , from Plainfield, 

d. of dis. June 16, 63, at New Orleans, La. 
Horace B. Wellman, Co. A. Age 21, enl. Aug. 30, 62, Sergeant, 

disch. Aug. 20, 63. 

Seventeenth Regiment. 
The 17th Regiment contained no Cornish men. 

Eighteenth Regiment. 

The 18th Regiment contained but one man from Cornish: 

David B. Hill, Co. E. Age 34, enl. Sept. 22, 64, from Conway, 
disch. June 10, 65. This regiment was raised for twelve 
months' service. 

Other Branches of Military Service. 

Besides the eighteen regiments heretofore mentioned, there 
were other branches of the military service to which Cornish 
contributed her share of men. Of the first cavalry furnished for 
the service from New England, New Hampshire sent in 1861, 
four companies: I, K, L, and M. These were called the "New 
Hampshire Battalion of the First New England Cavalry." 
Company L, contained two men credited to Cornish: 

Michael Trodden, b. Ireland. Age 32, enl. Dec. 19, 61. Capt. 

and paro. Oct. 31, 62, at Mountsville, Va., exch. Dec. 16, 62, 

des. Dec. 16, 62, at Camp Parole, Annapolis, Md. 
James P. Wheeler, b. Newport. Age 18, enl. Oct. 19, 61. Capt. 

June 18, 63, near Middleburg, Va., released July 23, 63, enl. 

2d from Newport June 2, 64. Capt. Aug. 17, 64, at Winchester, 

Va., d. of dis. Nov. 19, 1864, at Danville, Va. 

These four companies of the New Hampshire Battalion 
returned to Concord in February, 1864, and recruited for a regi- 
ment to be called the 



100 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

First "New Hampshire Cavalry. " 

Cornish furnished for this regiment nineteen men. A few of 
these were good and true, but the greater portion being foreigners 
were "bounty-jumpers," and having little regard for the cause they 
professed to espouse, rendered but little important service, and 
after receiving their bounty, deserted on the first opportunity. 

Following is the list and record: 

Alden Barker, b. in N. H. Age 21, enl. June 29, 64, Co. E, des. 

at Concord, Aug. 6, 64. 
Owen Barker, Co. E, b. Pomfret, Vt. Age 21, enl. June 29, 64, 

d. of dis. Nov. 4, 1864, at Camp Stoneman, D. C. 
John Burke, b. N. H. Age 27, enl. Aug. 10, 64, des. Aug. 29, 64, 

at Camp Stoneman, D. C. 
Ezra D. Clark, Co. A, b. N. H. Age 28, enl. Mar. 19, 64, disch. 

July 15, 65. 
John Conley, Co. F, b. Ireland. Age 31, enl. Aug. 16, 64, des. 

' Sept. 4, 64, at Camp Stoneman, D. C. 
Patrick Conlor, b. Ireland. Age 22, enl. Aug. 10, 64, des. en route 

to regiment. 
John Dolan, b. Canada. Age 21, enl. Aug. 11, 64, des. Aug. 27, 64, 

at Camp Stoneman, D. C. 
Horace Dow, Co. A, b. Vt. Age 28, enl. Mar. 19, 64, disch. June 

10, 65, at Washington, D. C. 
Alphonso N. Dunbar, Co. C, b. N. H. Age 18, enl. Mar. 31, 64, 

des. Apr. 25, 65, at Concord, N. H. 
Thomas I. Holbrook, Co. A. Age 26, enl. Mar. 23, 64, disch. 

July 15, 65. 
George W. Johnson, Co. A, b. Rockingham, Vt. Age 18, enl. 

Mar. 9, 64. Captd. June 30, 64, at Wilson's raid on Welden R. 

R., Va., escaped same day, disch. July 15, 65. 
James B. Kidder, Co. C. Age 19, enl. Mar. 31, 64, d. of dis. 

July 7, 64, on transport near City Point. 
Isaac H. Kingsbury, Co. A, b. Danville, Vt. Age 28, enl. 1st 

from Littleton, N. H., in Co. H, 3d N. H. Vols. July 30, 61, 

wd. June 16, 62, at Secessionville, S. C. app. Corp. Nov. 1, 62, 

disch. disab. Aug. 20, 63, at Botany Bay Island, S. C, enl. 2d 

Mar. 19, 64, and was credited to Cornish, app. Sergt. Captd. 

June 30, 64, at Wilson's raid on Welden R. R., and d. of dis. and 

starvation at Andersonville prison, Ga., Nov. 13, 64. 



CORNISH IN THE CIVIL WAR. 101 

James McBride, b. Ireland. Age 21, enl. Aug. 11, 64, des. same 
day at Camp Stoneman, D. C. 

Edward Mitchell, b. Ireland. Age 21, enl. Aug. 10, 64, des. Aug. 
29, 64, at Camp Stoneman, D. C. 

Patrick Munroe, Co. H, b. New York. Age 22, enl. Aug. 18, 64, 
des. Sept. 4, 64, at Camp Stoneman, D. C. 

Oliver P. Smith, b. N. H. Age 19, enl. 1st Dec. 27, 61 from 

in Co. F, 5th N. H. Vols., disch. disab. June 30, 62, enl. 2d 
Oct. 18, 62, in Co. A, 16th N. H. Vols., transf. to Co. A, 2d 
N. H. Vols. Apr. 16, 63, disch. Oct. 9, 63, enl. 3d Mar. 19, 64, 
in Co. A, N. H. Cav., app. Corp. May 1, 64, wd. June 13, 64, 
at White Oak Swamp, Va., disch. July 15, 65. Credited to 
Cornish. 

Thomas Smith, b. Ireland. Age 22, enl. Aug. 10, 64, des. Aug. 
29, 64, at Camp Stoneman, D. C. 

George T. Wentworth, Co. K, b. Great Falls. Age 21, enl. Mar. 
19, 64, disch. July 15, 65. 

Heavy Artillery. 

Two companies of this branch were organized in New Hamp- 
shire in 1863, serving at Fort Constitution and Kittery Point. 
In 1864 a regiment of twelve companies was raised in the state 
of which these two companies became a part. It was employed 
chiefly in the defence of Washington, and was mustered out 
June 15, 1865. Eleven Cornish men served in its ranks: 

Daniel E. Carroll, Co. A. Age 18, enl. Aug. 20, 64, disch. Aug. 

19, 65. 
John B. Chase, Co. A. Age 30, enl. Sept. 6, 64, transf. to Cos. 

B and L, disch. Sept. 11, 65. 
Barker B. Churchill, Co. L. Age 43, enl. Aug. 29, 64, transf. 

to Co. B, Artificer, disch. Sept. 11, 65. 
Edgar A. Churchill, Co. L. Age 18, enl. Aug. 29, 64, transf. to 

Co. B, June 10, 65, disch. Sept. 11, 65. 
Edmund H. Cobb, Co. B. Age 42, enl. Mar. 18, 65, disch. disab. 

Dec. 5, 64. 
Erastus O. Cole, Co. B, b. Barnard, Vt. Age 34, enl. Mar. 18, 64. 

disch. Sept. 11, 65. 
Josiah Davis, Co. B, b. Springfield, N. H. Age 34, enl. Aug. 31, 

63, app. Sergt, disch. Sept. 11, 65, as Orderly Sergt. 



102 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Charles R. Leslie, Co. B. Age 19, enl. Mar. 18, 64, disch. Sept. 

11,65. 
Samuel Merrill, Co. A, b. Hudson, N. H. Age 43, enl. Aug. 31, 

64. disch. Sept. 11, 65. 
Sydney K. Richardson, Co. A. Age 18, enl. Aug. 31, 64, disch. 

Sept, 11, 65. 
Eli B. Stearns, Co. A, b. Highgate, Vt. Age 36, enl. Aug. 8, 64, 

disch. Sept. 11, 65. 

Sharpshooters. 

There was but one man who enlisted in this service from Cornish, 
while some residents and natives enlisted in it elsewhere as shown 
later: 

Oliver M. Fletcher, Co. F, 2d. Age 23, enl. Oct. 9, 61, disch. for 
disability, June 21, 62. 

United States Navy. 

Clement Antoine, b. Western Islands. Age 30, enl. Jan. 26, 65, 
rank, seaman, served on U. S. S. S. Ohio, d. Feb. 8, 65, in 
hospital at Boston. 

Patrick Dawson, b. Ireland. Age 38, enl. Jan. 24, 65, rank, coal 
heaver, served on U. S. S. S. Ohio and Connecticut, des. from 
receiving ship Sept, 9, 65. 

Daniel Driscoll, b. Ireland. Age 22, enl. Jan. 27, 65, rank, sea- 
man, served on U. S. S. S. Ohio and Wachusett, des. from latter 
Mar. 4, 65. 

John Hayes, b. Philadelphia. Age 32, enl. Jan. 24, 65, rank, 
seaman, served on U. S. S. S. Ohio, Wachusett and Hartford, 
disch. as Coxswain from the latter Aug. 14, 68. 

Charles A. Jackson. Age 20, enl. Aug. 23, 62, rank, landsman, 
served on U. S. S. S. Ohio, Princeton and Augusta, disch. Aug. 
4,63. 

Robert H. Jackson, b. N. Y. City. Age 30, enl. Jan. 24, 65, rank, 
landsman, served on U. S. S. S. Ohio, Sea Foam and Winnipec, 
d. of dis. on the latter Mar. 18, 66. 

David Lambert, b. New Brunswick. Age 24, enl. Feb. 7, 65, 
rank, seaman, served on U. S. S. S. Ohio, Kearsarge, Tahoma 
and Yucca, disch. disab. from receiving ship at N. Y., May 
30, 67. 



CORNISH IN THE CIVIL WAR. 103 

James H. Mitchell, b. Kittery, Me. Age 28, enl. Jan. 24, 65, 

rank, ordinary seaman, served on U. S. S. S. Ohio and Wachu- 

sett, disch. as sail-maker's mate Jan. 8, 68. 
Thomas Rodgers, b. Denmark. Age 29, enl. Feb. 6, 65, rank, 

seaman. Served on U. S. S. S. Ohio, Kearsarge and Frolic, 

disch. as quartermaster from the latter Sept. 25, 68. 
William H. Smith. Age 19, enl. Mar. 4, 64. Served on U. S. S. S. 

Ohio and Cherokee, disch. from receiving ship at Philadelphia, 

Mar. 12, 65. 
William Thomas, b. Barnstable. Age 25, enl. Jan. 26, 65, rank, 

seaman. Served on U. S. S. S. Ohio, Wachusett and Hartford, 

disch. Aug. 14, 68. 

The following additional list of men were residents or natives 
of Cornish, who enlisted elsewhere and were credited to the 
towns where they enlisted. The names and records of a few such 
have already been given in connection with the branch of service 
named, and will be counted there in the summary. 

Edward F. Chapman, b. Cornish. Age 21, enl. Aug. 22, 61, 

from Plainfield, 1st U. S. S. S., rank, bugler, disch. disab. Feb. 

2, 62, at Washington, D. C, d. Oct. 16, 63, at Plainfield. 
Levi L. Chapman, b. Cornish. Age 26, enl. Aug. 22, 61, from 

Plainfield, 1st U. S. S. S., rank, private, disch. Sept. 8, 64. 
Beniah Colby, b. Hill, N. H. Age 55, res. Cornish, enl. Aug. 

23, 61, from Franklin, wagoner, Co. H, 3d N. H., disch. 

disab. May 7, 62 at Edisto, S. C, enl. 2d Aug. 29, 64 Co. C, 

24 V. R. C, rank, private, disch. for disab. Aug. 2, 65, at 

Washington, D. C. 
Newell J. Ellis, b. Brandon, Vt. Age 24, res. Cornish, enl. Aug. 

15, 64, in Co. G, 7th Vt., private, disch. July 14, 65. 
William H. Ellis, b. Brandon, Vt. Age 30, res. Cornish, enl. 

Aug. 29, 62, in Co. C, 16th Vt., private, disch. Aug. 10, 63, 

enl. 2d Dec. 1, 63, in Co. G, 7th Vt., at Cavendish, Vt., disch. 

Mar. 20, 66, at Brattleboro, Vt. 
Jason K. Ellis, b. Brandon, Vt. Age 21, res. Cornish, enl. Dec. 

28, 63, in Co. G, 7th Vt., private. Lost at explosion of 

steamer N. America, Dec. 22, 64. 
Warren H. Fletcher, b. Cornish. Age 23, enl. Oct. 8, 61, from 

Claremont in Co. G, 2d U. S. S. S., private enl. 2d Dec. 



104 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

21, 63, from Nashua, N. H., app. Corp., Jan. 1, 62., Sergt. 

Apr. 12, 64, 2d Lieut. Nov. 21, 64, transf. to 5th N. H. Jan. 30, 

65, app. 1st Lieut Co. F, May 1, 65, assigned to Co. G, June 

12, 65, disch. June 28, 65, as 2d Lieut. 
Edmund Hardy, b. Cornish. Age 28, enl. from rank, 

d. at May 30, 63. 

Lewis S. Hoyt, b. Cornish. Age 32, enl. Dec. 6, 61, from Nashua, 

N. H., in Co. G, 2d U. S. S. S., private, disch. disab. Mar. 24, 62 

at Washington, D. C. 
John H. Humphrey, b. Benson, Vt. Age 25, enl. Aug. 1, 62, from 

Plainfield in Co. E, 9th N. H., private, disch. disab. Nov. 

21, 62, at Washington, D. C, enl. 2d Aug. 31, 64, from Cornish 

in Co. A, 24th V. R. C, app. Commissary Sergt., July 1, 

65, disch. Nov. 14, 65, at Washington, D. C. 
Oliver Jackson, b. Cornish. Age 25, enl. Oct. 2, 61, from Man- 
chester, N. H. in Co. F, 2d U. S. S. S., private, enl. 2d Dec. 

21, 63, in same reg. and Co., transf. to 5th N. H. Jan. 30, 65, 

assigned to Co. H, June 17, 65, disch. June 28, 65. 
John S. Kenyon, b. Cornish. Age 26, res. Cornish, enl. May 31, 

62, in Co. D, 9th Vt., private. Captd. and paroled Sept. 15, 62, 

disch. disab. Apr. 16, 63. 
Charles B. Sisson, b. Fall River, Mass. Age 18, res. Cornish, 

enl. Oct. 11, 61, in Co. E, 1st Vt. Cav., rank, saddler. 

Captd. May — 62, near Winchester, Va., paroled Sept. 62, enl. 

2d Dec. 28, 63, in Co. 3, 1st Vt. Cav., wd. June 13, 64, at White 

Oak Swamp Bridge, Va., transf. to Co. A, June 21, 65, disch. 

Aug. 9, 65. 
William H. Sisson, b. Fall River, Mass. Age 22, res. Cornish, 

enl. Aug. 11, 62, in Co. F, 1st Mass. Cav., private, wd. Sept. 

14, 63, at Rapidan Sta., Va., disch. Nov. 7, 64, at Boston, Mass. 
David Squires, b. Cornish. Age 20, res. Cornish, enl. May 31, 

62, in Co. D, 9th Vt., private. Captd. and paroled Sept. 15, 62, 

disch. disab. May 26, 63. 
William H. Smith, b. Cornish. Age 24, res. Cornish, enl. Aug. 

5, 61, in 16th Mass., musician, disch. Aug. 9, 62. 
Charles Tasker, b. Sullivan, N. H. Age 18, res. Cornish, enl. 

Sept. 3, 61, in Co. K, 4th Vt., private, transf. to Co. A, 6th 

U. S. Cav., Oct. 30, 62. Captd. July 3, 63, at Fairfield, Va., 

paroled Aug. 2, 63, disch. Sept. 7, 65, at Frederick, Md. 



CORNISH IN THE CIVIL WAR. 105 

During the summer and fall of 1863, the demand for recruits 
exceeded the supply. More men were needed than had volun- 
teered for the service; so the government ordered a draft to be 
enforced in certain military districts in several states. 

The third congressional and military district of New Hamp- 
shire, with headquarters at West Lebanon, was ordered to furnish 
a certain number of men as her quota. Capt. Chester Pike was 
the Provost Marshal of the district during the war. Acting under 
the orders of Gov. J. A. Gilmore, he, with his aids, quietly 
enforced a draft on September 3, 1863, upon all the towns in his 
district. 

The following is the list of men who were drafted from Cornish, 
in all thirty-seven names, between the ages of eighteen and forty- 
five: 

Newell I. Comings John M. Deming 

George B. Walker Samuel F. Ayers 

Sumner P. Tewksbury Albert Penniman 

Frank S. Edminster Henry C. Freeman 

Frank B. Deming Lewis Dorman 

John B. Chase William D. Lear 

Edwin T. Ayers S. W. Bryant 

Henry Ayers Eli W. White 

Wm. H. Stickney Lucian 0. Williams 

Albert Weld John B. Stevens 

Samuel F. Bartlett Horace L. Bugbee 

Edwin H. Smith Philander W. Smith 

Marvin J. Deming Geo. W. Richardson 

Newell J. Ellis Charles N. Kenyon 

Edward Bryant Julius Dorman 

William E. Westgate Manson Stevens 

Frank B. Chapman Lewis F. Knights 

Adolphus G. Vinton Francis E. Freeman 
Martin M. Williams 

A part of these men were exempt from service by reason of 
physical or mental infirmities, while several others purchased 
a release by the payment of three hundred dollars, or by furnish- 
ing a substitute. The balance entered the service. 

The foregoing lists probably lack completeness, yet they 



106 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

conform to the records as received from the state department, 
with a few additional names derived from other authentic sources. 

The aggregate of all the foregoing lists is 202 men. Of this 
number 161 were credited to the town of Cornish and forty-one 
were credited to the towns where they enlisted. Of the 161 men 
credited to Cornish, several were of foreign birth and were hired 
as substitutes or otherwise, to replenish the ranks. A part of 
these proved to be "bounty-jumpers" for, after receiving their 
bounty, they deserted upon the first convenient opportunity, 
as shown by their records. 

The town during this crisis was always liberal in the payment 
of additional bounties and in providing for the wants of families 
of needy soldiers. As a result the town was obliged to hire money 
wherever obtainable to meet the requirements of the times. 

With a surplus in the treasury of $340 in 1861, the indebt- 
edness of the town in 1865 reached the sum of $37,000, then 
the war closed, so this proved to be the maximum amount of 
the indebtedness of the town. This was gradually liquidated 
during the years that followed. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Churches. 

A prominent feature in the character of our forefathers was, 
they were men and women of prayer. In every emergency the 
mercy-seat was their first and last resort. 

" I hear the pilgrims' peaceful prayer 
Swelling along the silent air 
Amid the forest wild." 

Their expectation was from God alone. They hung helpless 
on his arm, and poured out their fervent believing desires into 
his ear. Nor did they plead in vain. They had power with God. 
Eternity alone will fully disclose the influence of their supplica- 
tions. 

They observed the Sabbath with great seriousness. They 
prepared for its approach by a seasonable adjustment of their 
temporal affairs. They welcomed its arrival with joy, and spent 
its hours in the public and private duties of religion. A sacred 
stillness reigned in their habitations and neighborhoods, well be- 
fitting the day of God, and well calculated to raise their affections 
and thoughts to the eternal rest of Heaven. 

The Puritan element and their principles were found in all of 
the New England Colonies, wherever they settled, and from 
diaries, letters and other records still in existence, it is evident 
that the pioneers of Cornish thus recognized their dependence 
upon a Sovereign power and intelligence. They were sterling 
men and women, inured to toil for their daily sustenance, training 
their oftentimes large families as the wise man directs. Few, 
indeed, were the homes in which the children were not taught 
the Lord's Prayer, "Now I lay me," and other similar lessons 
as soon as their infantile lips could lisp the words. 

Thus was Cornish settled under very favorable auspices, so 
far as regards its moral and religious status. 

Coming, however, from different communities and from 
churches of different shades of belief, it could hardly be expected 



108 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

that entire harmony would continue to exist, for, as the popula- 
tion increased, each class or church sought to strengthen its 
own interests. These conditions served to separate the varying 
creeds, each from the other, causing more or less acrimony to 
exist between them. 

This state of affairs had a tendency to increase the number 
of churches and worshiping assemblies of the town. The re- 
lations between these different churches, especially at the first, 
seemed void of that Christian fellowship, so highly commended 
in the sacred word. Differences of opinion, too, on doctrinal 
points between different members of the same church, fre- 
quently led to bitter disputes and withdrawals. This condi- 
tion of religious affairs was odious to the feelings of a large 
number of the citizens of the town. Their better sense sought 
to prevail, as is shown by the following action of the town: 

On May 17, 1790, a call for a meeting of the town was issued, 
the chief business being to promote the religious unity of the 
town. The petition was as follows: 

"We, whose names are hereunder written, inhabitants of the 
town of Cornish, do most ardently wish that some plan that is 
general, Catholic and Charitable may be adopted by the different 
Churches and the inhabitants at large to unite and form one 
worshiping assembly and settle the gospel ministry and ordi- 
nances among us for mutual good and special benefit of our fam- 
ilies and rising generation, and being sensible of the inability of 
the inhabitants of this town to support several ministers and 
several different worshipping assemblies, and that we are now 
losing all the pleasures and advantages of religious society and 
public worship, and depriving our dear children, and the rising 
age of those opportunities to cultivate morals & religion which 
a good and Gracious God has most evidently provided both for 
us and them, while we are contending, disputing, indulging and 
promoting separation among us, that some kind, conciliating, 
effectual measures may be adopted by the inhabitants of this 
town to unite in the call and settlement of some wise, judicious 
and prudent gentleman in the ministry. We do unite in a petition 
to the gentlemen Selectmen to warn a meeting of the inhabitants 
of this town, to be holden on Wednesday the second day of June 
(1790) at the old meeting house in this town at one o'clock P. M. 
then and there to act on this article : 



CHURCHES. 109 

'To take into consideration the general matters mentioned in 
our petition, and see whether the inhabitants of this town will 
consent to propose, consider and finally to adopt any measure 
that may be advisable to effect as general a union in town as may 
be in supporting publick worship, and hereafter in calling and 
settling a gospel minister among us, such as that be entertaining 
and agreeable to the gospel in general. 

(Signed) 

Daniel Putnam Samuel Putnam 

William Deming Joseph Taylor 

John Vinton Stephen Child 

Eleazer Jackson Benj. Comings 

Abijah Tucker Seth Deming 

William Chase Nath 1 . Carpenter 

John Morse Benj n . Jackson 
Ebenezer Deming 

Cornish, May 17, 1790. 

"The town met agreeably to the above call and chose a com- 
mittee to reduce the petition into articles suitable for the town 
to act upon. The committee were: — Ithamar Chase, Caleb 
Chase & Lieut. Eleazer Jackson. The meeting was adjourned 
to June 16 th inst. at which time the town again met and consid- 
ered the petition, and adopted measures well calculated to restore 
harmony among them. The committee advised, 1 st , That the 
town recommend to the different churches to choose a committee 
of conference to settle the unhappy disputes existing and agree 
to submit, in case they do not agree, to mutual arbitration. 

"2 d That a 'Union Society' be formed whose purpose shall be 
to promote as general a union as possible among the churches 
and the inhabitants of the town; and that a committee be chosen 
to carry out these plans. 

'The report of the committee was accepted, and a committee 
was chosen consisting of Ebenezer Deming, Lt. Eleazer Jackson 
and Caleb Chase, for the purpose above mentioned." 

As the above record is all that can be found relative to the 
"Union Society," it is to be inferred that it did not become a 
success, well intentioned though it may have been. 

As years and decades have since passed by, the different denom- 



110 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

inations have assumed a more friendly attitude towards one 
another and not infrequently unite their efforts in a common 
cause. 

Congregational Church. 

The first settlers of the town were largely of the Congregational 
persuasion. As subjects of the Crown, the grantees of the town 
were required to lay out two hundred acres for the church of 
England; two hundred acres for the propagation of the gospel,, 
and two hundred acres for the first settled minister. The pro- 
prietors made ample provision in grants of land for the support 
of the gospel ministry dissenting from the church of England. 
At their first meeting after the survey and division of the town into 
lots, they voted that "there be at least one hundred & fifty acres 
of good land laid out in Cornish and set apart towards supporting 
a dissenting minister of the gospel in said town." They also 
voted at a subsequent meeting "to give one thousand acres of as 
good land as then remained undivided, to settle and maintain 
a dissenting gospel minister among them." 

In 1767, two years after the settlement of the town (which 
now numbered thirteen families), measures were first taken to 
settle a minister. 

The reader need remember that at that early period church and 
state had not been divorced. The towns regarded it as their 
right to manage all the prudential concerns of the church; to 
raise the necessary funds for their support, and employ their 
ministers and pay them for their services. So then a minister 
was pastor not only of the church, but of the town. 

On April 28, 1768, the town met to take action upon settling 
its first minister. The proposition was enthusiastically enter- 
tained, as the town voted unanimously to extend a call to Rev. 
James Wellman, of Sutton, Mass., to become its minister. Sev- 
eral of the families were from the same place and belonged to his 
congregation in Sutton. These, therefore, desired that he should 
become their pastor in their new settlement. 

After the terms regarding his salary had been adjusted, Mr. 
Wellman, with his family, moved to Cornish. The citizens 
of Windsor, Vt., united with Cornish in this project, with the un- 
derstanding that he should preach in Windsor one third of the 
time, and that one third of his salary for the first five years 




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CHURCHES. Ill 

should be raised there. A council of churches met September 29, 
1768, and organized a church, called the "Congregational Church 
of Cornish and Windsor. " At this time it consisted of ten mem- 
bers — six of Cornish and four of Windsor; and Mr. Wellman 
was installed as minister and pastor of the church and towns of 
Cornish and Windsor. 

The church was formed under a covenant which consisted of the 
"confession of guilt and inability to do that which is acceptable 
to God, — the profession of their belief in the Christian religion 
as revealed in the scriptures, — the scriptures as the Word of God, 
—the acknowledgment of their obligations to glorify God by a 
holy and righteous life, — the consecration of themselves and their 
children to God, — the engagement to walk in love together,— 
to maintain discipline, — to keep the Lord's Day holy, and attend 
upon the public worship of God, — to maintain family worship, 
and to train up all under their care in the paths of holiness and 
virtue." 

Public worship was held in barns in summer, and in dwelling 
houses in winter, until the fall of 1773 when a meeting house was 
erected on the banks of the Connecticut River. The people 
met for public worship clad in garments of home-made cloth, — 
men and boys with coarse woolen hats and caps, and striped 
blue woolen or linen frocks and pantaloons. The women were 
dressed in woolen or linen gowns and checkered blue aprons. In a 
few instances men gathered for worship on the Sabbath with 
guns in their hands from fear of the attack of Indians. 

Troubles of various kinds soon beset them. It was with dif- 
ficulty that the pastor's salary was raised. Money was very 
scarce. The land set apart for ministerial purposes was sold, 
and the avails expended at the expiration of two years. Dis- 
satisfaction also sprung up in the church respecting the receiving 
to membership those of doubtful doctrine and practice. 

On account of this, six brethren withdrew from the communion, 
and presented to the church their reasons for so doing November, 
1778. Much controversy followed, which resulted in the with- 
drawing brethren setting up public worship by themselves in 
1779. 

In the fall and winter of 1780-81, a Reverend Mr. Powers 
labored among the people in word and doctrine. A revival was 
the result. Most of the families in the eastern and northern part 



112 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

of the town were affected by the revival, and many were 
converted, yet the dissatisfied brethren did not resume their 
allegiance to the church. 

Reverend Mr. Wellman and church were much tried by this sep- 
arate worship and the sanction given it by neighboring ministers. 
So the church asked the advice of the Council, December 18, 
1780. The Council approved the action, and sustained the com- 
plaint of the church. The withdrawing brethren became more 
than ever dissatisfied with the condition and character of the 
church; and invited a convention of churches in April, 1781, to 
examine their grounds of complaint. The convention met and 
appointed another session at Lebanon in June, 1781, and sent a 
summons to Reverend Mr. Wellman, to appear before them. 
The summons was treated with a measure of contempt by Mr. 
Wellman and his church. He, however, sent a message to the 
convention, denying its jurisdiction and refusing to appear 
before them, giving six reasons therefor. This evidently preju- 
diced the convention against Mr. Wellman and his church, as 
results afterwards showed. 

The convention proceeded, and in its report severely censured 
the pastor and church for their action, and "openly declared 
that they could not recognize said church as a church of Christ, 
and that they felt themselves in duty bound to withdraw com- 
munion and renounce fellowship with them in the special 
ordinances of the Gospel until they shall be restored to our char- 
ity by visible repentance." 

This church was never again received to the fellowship of the 
other churches. Reverend Mr. Wellman continued to preach un- 
til October, 1785, when the churches of Claremont and Charles- 
town convened in council at Cornish and dissolved the pastoral 
relation of Reverend Mr. Wellman to the church and town. 

Thus terminated the existence of the First Congregational 
Church in Cornish. Her light went out in darkness after a brief 
existence of seventeen years and six months. The number of 
members received to full communion during this time was sixty- 
four. To half-way communion, forty-two. 

The town had been divided (in June, 1781), into east and west 
parishes by an act of the Legislature upon petition of the citizens 
of Cornish to that effect. Attempts were afterwards made to 
establish two separate churches, — one in each parish. The 



CHURCHES. 113 

Windsor association at first recommended this plan, but after- 
wards, October 14, 1800, retracted their former decision. A church 
was partially erected in the northwestern part of the town in 
1787, but was never fully completed. Another was erected near 
the center of the town in 1788. The former was located on or 
near the farm of Nathaniel Johnson, and the latter on the John 
Morse farm, situated south, and several rods below the site 
where the Center Church was afterwards built. This latter was 
styled the "East Church." 

On December 1, 1790, a council was convened at the North- 
west Meeting house, and Rev. Benjamin Bell was installed for the 
term of five years as pastor of the two churches in Cornish, beside 
preaching in Windsor. His services in Cornish were to be ren- 
dered at the Northwest Meeting house. The brethren of the East 
Church remonstrated and would not unite with their brethren 
of the Northwest Church. These two branches or churches soon 
began to realize the reproach they were bringing upon the Gospel 
of Christ by their visible estrangement from each other. Reverend 
Mr. Bell closed his labors in Cornish in April, 1795; and the two 
divisions or churches began to meet in conference, and proposals 
for reunion were made by each and reasonably considered. Such 
confession and acknowledgments were rendered by individuals 
•of both sections that a mutual agreement was made to unite 
in one body. This was publicly done December 13, 1795. 
Although thus formally united, they were not all of one heart and 
one mind. 

In the fall of 1797 and the winter following, Rev. Siloam Short, 
a faithful and earnest minister of the Gospel, labored among them. 
The Holy Spirit descended in great power upon the church and 
community. This brought the church together, and also to 
its right mind, doing the very thing that brethren, ministers, 
councils, and associations had failed to accomplish. When "God 
spake it was done." The church came up from its dark state 
"beautiful as Tirzah." The brethren were humbled in their 
own sight. They came together of one accord. Four successive 
days they spent in prayer, in confession one to another and to 
the church, and in asking and receiving forgiveness of one another 
and the church. Converts unto righteousness were multiplied, 
and seventy-six were added to the church as the result of this 
gracious visitation of the Holy Spirit. 



114 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

The following year (1799), the church, now apparently united, 
and harmonious, erected a large and commodious house of worship 
upon the hill near the center of the town. It was the general 
place for worship for the greater part of the inhabitants of the 
town, with an average congregation of nearly eight hundred, and 
in some instances nearly or quite a thousand souls. 

On September 24, 1800, Rev. Joseph Rowell was ordained and 
installed pastor of the church, which relation he maintained until 
April 1, 1828, when he was dismissed. The church enjoyed 
three precious seasons of revival during his ministry, and 157 
individuals were converted and added to the church. (See 
Rowell.) November 29, 1828, Rev. Joseph W. Clary was 
installed pastor of the church for five years. He was born in 
Rowe, Mass., in 1786; graduated at Middlebury College in 1808; 
studied theology at Andover, Mass., and was installed pastor of 
the Congregational Church in Dover from 1812 to 1828. His 
ministry in Cornish was blessed by two revivals, one in 1829 
and the other in 1831, and seventy -six were gathered into the 
church. He was dismissed in October, 1834. 

On October 1, 1835, Rev. Alvah Spaulding was installed pastor of 
the church, wiiich relation he maintained until February 7, 1865, 
when he was dismissed. Several seasons of revival were enjoyed 
during his pastorate. (See Spaulding Gen.) During his pastorate, 
the peace and harmony of the church was again disturbed. The 
meeting house on the hill was becoming old and uncomfortable, 
especially for the winter season, and the subject of locating and 
building a new house of worship absorbed the minds of the people. 
The church did not, and would not, agree upon the location of 
the new house of worship. Some wanted it built southwest 
of the church hill, while the larger number chose the interval 
lying north of the same. The majority prevailed, and the new 
meeting house, the present building, was built in 1841. 

This action resulted in a division of the church, and the 
withdrawal of the minority from its fellowship. This included 
several families of influence and caused a sore loss to the 
church. 

After a while the church seemed to recover from the effects 
of this trial; and her history since then has afforded few striking 
events, but rather a prolonged chapter of blessings. 

Soon after the close of Reverend Mr. Spaulding's pastorate, 



CHURCHES. 115 

Rev. Philander Bates became " acting pastor," serving the church 
nearly five years, or until December 28, 1870. He was born 
September 26, 1810, and died April 19, 1873. He was a graduate 
of Amherst College. 

In May, 1871, Rev. Charles M. Palmer, from Harrisville, be- 
came pastor of the church. His connection with it ended in 
March, 1873, when he received a call from the church in Meriden, 
which he accepted. (See Palmer Gen.) 

On December 17, 1874, Rev. James T. Jackson of Danbury, 
was ordained and installed pastor. In this capacity he served the 
church nearly twenty-two years, until failing health induced him 
to ask for a dismission. This was granted, and he removed to 
Merrimac, Mass., March 12, 1896. (See Jackson Gen.) His union 
with the church was a very happy and pleasant one both for 
pastor and people. Social and kind-hearted, he, with his 
equally gifted wife, endeared themselves to the people of 
their charge, as well as to all others by their kindly minis- 
trations. The Old People's Visit (which see), since so famous 
and popular, was originated by this worthy couple in August, 
1877. Since the close of Reverend Mr. Jackson's pastorate 
the church has had no settled pastor, but only short terms 
of service, by "acting pastors." Chief among these were 
the Reverends Silas G. Tucker, Maurice J. Duncklee, Perley 
Grant, J. E. Heath, A. J. Bailey of Meriden and D. T. 
Davies. 

It was on November 6, 1781, in the midst of solemn services in- 
cident to such occasions, that men of God, having due authority 
therefor, pronounced this "East Church of Cornish," a "Church 
of Jesus Christ." On November 9, 1881 (the sixth, being on 
Sunday), in the midst of Rev. James T. Jackson's pastorate, the 
church again assembled and celebrated its centennial with thank- 
fulness and joy. Invitations had been extended to all former 
pastors, officers and members then living, and a very gener- 
ous response was manifested. The season was a very enjoyable 
one, — a real home-gathering occupying the day and evening. 
The history of the church was given by the pastor and also 
by Rev. Joshua W. Wellman. Letters were read, and remi- 
niscences of great interest were given, interspersed by religious 
exercises and choice selections of music appropriate to the 
occasion. 



116 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

The Second Division. 

The outcome of the minority that withdrew from the parent 
Congregational Church furnishes an interesting, though brief 
and sad chapter. 

After the location of the present meeting house had been set- 
tled upon in 1841, and active measures adopted for building the 
same, a large and important portion of the church in the southern 
and western parts of the town felt aggrieved, and decided they 
could no longer remain in fellowship with the other portion. The 
"high hills" of separation arose between them. It was a grief 
to each portion, and especially so to the minority, but the "die had 
been cast," the new house was being erected and these, feeling 
themselves ostracised from the main body, took counsel and 
agreed to associate themselves together and set up worship by 
themselves. Accordingly they called a meeting on June 4, 1841, 
and chose a committee to prepare articles of association. These 
were soon reported, and also a code of by-laws, all of which 
were adopted, and the new organization assumed the name of 
"The First Congregational Society of Cornish." Public-spirited 
men among them, at their own expense, erected a parsonage 
with vestry attached, during the first year. This they located 
near the junction of the two roads leading towards Windsor. 
This is the church parsonage building of the present day. 

On the September following they took united action about 
building a new meeting house ( 42 x 56 )on ground in the rear of the 
new parsonage, to be completed on or before November 1, 1842, 
and chose the necessary committee to carry out their plans. 

The house was completed within the specified time. The pews 
were all engaged or sold and the horse sheds erected during the 
year. The avails from the sale of the pews were insufficient to 
meet the expenses incurred, thus leaving them considerably in 
debt. This they were never able to fully liquidate. 

In 1843, they invited Rev. Rufus A. Putnam of Epsom to 
preach for them. Opposition from outside was soon manifested, 
but he was employed nevertheless, and preached for them until 
October 18, 1846, when he was dismissed. 

The Sullivan County Association, having jurisdiction over all 
the Congregational churches in the county, had never looked 
with favor upon this offshoot from the main body. It was their 



CHURCHES. 117 

mind that the members who withdrew in 1841 should have 
acquiesced with the will of the majority, hence their opposition 
to another and separate church in Cornish. 

On the other hand, the new organization felt its cause to be 
just, and so moved vigorously forward, as if there was no opposi- 
tion. October 15, 1845, they met for the purpose of organizing 
a church to be connected with their society. This was affirmed 
by an unanimous vote and committees were appointed to perfect 
all necessary arrangements; they afterwards appointed November 
11, 1845, as the day for convening a council and organizing the 
church. The numbers of the council present were not sufficient, 
therefore the event was postponed until December 10, 1845, 
when the council was present, and the church was organized 
and pronounced a religious church of Christ, and in fellowship 
with the churches of Christ. The first called meeting of the 
church was on January 29, 1846, when they voted that their 
name should be: "The Evangelical Congregational Church in 
Cornish." 

The second meeting of the church was March 20, 1846, when 
it was voted that, under existing circumstances, it was advisable 
that the church receive to its membership all those having no 
letters of dismission from the parent church, as that body had 
refused to acknowledge them as a separate body. 

About this time the Sullivan County Association assumed a 
more determined attitude against them. In the Congregational 
Journal of May 12, 1846, an account was published of the 
Association's proceedings against them stating that they refused 
to acknowledge this new church as one of their body. Its 
doom, as a church, was now sealed. It was compelled to die. 
This action of the Association called forth a lengthy and vig- 
orous protest from the church, in which they set forth in a very 
able manner their grievances and claims; but all to no use. 
The powers were against them. The following October, Rev- 
erend Mr. Putnam and wife were dismissed from the church, 
and no other preacher succeeded him, only as an occasional one 
may have chanced to render a service. 

"Loving the Gates of Zion, " the people often assembled in 
their new and beloved house of worship, sometimes having the 
benefit of preaching, but oftener otherwise. In this way matters 
continued until the 26th of December, 1850, when they voted "to 



118 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

give letters of recommendation to any and all of their members, 
desiring to unite with any other Evangelical Church. 

This was the last meeting of the "Evangelical Congregational 
Church of Cornish." 

"The First Congregational Society of Cornish," associated 
with said church, continued to exist (only in name) a little longer. 
Its last recorded meeting was held March 7, 1853, and signed 
by Jesse O. Wyman, clerk. The house was then closed. 

Baptist Church. 

Among those who first came to Cornish were individuals who 
believed in the principles and practice of the Baptist denomina- 
tion. These principles or tenets briefly stated, are: 

(1) "Liberty of conscience. (2) That civil magistrates have 
no authority from God to regulate or control religion. (3) Bap- 
tism by immersion." 

Reverends Jedediah Hibbard, Job Seamans, Abiel Ledoyt and 
several other missionary preachers of this persuasion occasionally 
visited the town, and aided in laying the foundation of a 
church of this order. 

The church was duly organized July, 1789, in a barn owned 
by Moses Barrows, situated about forty rods southwest of 
the summit of "Furnald Hill" and about one mile northwest 
from where the church now stands. There were but nine mem- 
bers, Jonas and Zilpha Richardson, Moses and Elizabeth Barrows, 
Samuel and Rebecca Meekers, Nathaniel Dustin, Elizabeth 
Thompson and Charity Barrows. An addition of six members 
was made during the following year. 

It was organized by Rev. Jedediah Hibbard, who became its 
first pastor. He held this position until 1796, preaching but a 
part of the time in Cornish, as his duties as a missionary preacher 
often called him abroad. 

No records of the church have been preserved earlier than June 
24, 1791. On this date the following votes were passed: 

"1st That Bro. Richardson act as moderator to govern 
s d . meeting. 

"2d Chose Moses Weld, standing Clerk. 

"3d Chose Samuel Hibbard, Deacon. 

"4th Chose Elder Hibbard, standing moderator. 



CHURCHES, 119 



a 



5th Voted that Deacon Hilliard act as moderator in the 
absence of Elder Hibbard. 

"6th Voted to Commune the third Sunday in every second 
month." 

On the 17th of September, 1791, the following record was 
made: 

"1st Voted to join the Woodstock Vt. Association, with their 
consent. 

"2d Chose Elder Hibbard, Deacon Hilliard, John Weld and 
Moses Weld messengers to said association. 

"3d Chose Moses Weld to write a letter to the association from 
the church." 

Their union with the Woodstock Association was effected, 
and they remained connected with it until 1828. 

"On Sunday ye 2 d of October, 1791, the church pas d . the 
following vote: Chose Elder Hibbard, Dea. Samuel Hilliard 
and Bro. Moses Weld to sit in Council at Croydon on the 12th 
of October inst. for the purpose of installing Elder Abiel Ledoyt 
as pastor of the Baptist Church in Croydon." 

July 3, 1792, the church expressed their "approbation that 
Dea. Samuel Hilliard should improve his gift in public." 

"On Sept. 20, 1792, John Weld was chosen deacon and Moses 
Weld as leader in singing. At the same time a committee was 
chosen to confer with the Plainfield Baptist Church in regard to 
supporting preaching together." 

"May 3 d , 1794, voted to raise twenty pounds for preaching, 
each man paying according to his property." 

"December 19, 1794, voted that the meetings be held at the 
center meetinghouse during the pleasure of the church." 

During several of the first years, the church held its 
meetings in various places, generally in the families of its mem- 
bers; sometimes in the Center Church, and sometimes, in warm 
weather, in barns and groves. A building of one roof, standing 
near Arunah Buniap's house on the Flat, and bearing the unpoet- 
ical name of "Salt Box" was used for a considerable time as a 
house of worship. 

March 4, 1797, a committee was appointed to confer with the 
Newport Baptist Church about joining it as a branch of said 
church. This project failed of success. 



120 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

After the close of Elder Hibbard's labors with the church, Dea. 
Samuel Hilliard performed the duties of a preacher, rendering 
acceptable service for some time, at one time receiving forty 
dollars compensation therefor. 

In the year 1798 there was a great spiritual awakening in 
Cornish and Plainfield through the ministry of Rev. Siloam 
Short, an evangelist. Many were added to both Congregational 
and Baptist churches during this season. 

On the 26th of December, 1798, the church voted to provide 
the first utensils for communion service at the expense of the 
church and chose Dea. John Weld to procure them. 

February 13, 1799, the church voted "that it is the opinion of 
the church that we are not able to support preaching statedly 
the ensuing year." A vote on February 27, 1799, was passed to 
attempt to unite with the Congregationalists in joint worship, 
each paying their proportion for preaching. After careful con- 
sideration, this project was abandoned and the vote was recon- 
sidered July 11, 1799. Differences of opinion on this matter 
caused some alienation of feeling but on June 9, 1800, it was 
voted "to bury all unkind feelings and walk together in fellow- 
ship and brotherly love." 

Thus every attempt to unite with other religious bodies failed. 

In the year 1801, when numbering about thirty members, the 
church invited Elder Ariel Kendrick, who was about closing a 
pastorate in Salisbury, to become their pastor. He accepted 
their invitation and came and continued as pastor for nearly 
twenty years. After this, still remaining in town, he supplied 
the pulpit in the interim between two or three succeeding pas- 
torates. He was a humble and unpretentious preacher, but well 
versed in Scripture and sound on the tenets of the sect. During 
his pastorate, the church enjoyed three seasons of revival, — 
thus strengthening her graces and adding many to her numbers. 
(See Kendrick Gen.) 

In the year 1803, during the second year of Elder Kendrick's 
ministry, the church erected a new meeting house on the hill 
at the Center of the town, in close proximity to the Congrega- 
tional Church (already erected there in 1799). It remained there 
until the summer of 1818 when, for various reasons, it was taken 
down and removed to its present location on Cornish Flat. 
The dedication sermon of 1803 and the re-dedication sermon of 



CHURCHES. 121 

1818 were both preached by Rev. Aaron Leland of Chester, Vt., 
from the same text: Gen. 28: 17. Following the erection of the 
church in 1803, the records show a term of prosperity and peace. 
Officers were chosen and measures adopted that promoted the 
welfare of the church. 

In June, 1805, it was voted "to provide clothing for the poor, 
so they could all attend meeting." 

After due consideration about introducing a bass viol into the 
church choir, it was voted to do so March 19, 1810. 

September 2, 1810, "it was voted the duty of every family to 
maintain the worship of God in their families." 

In 1811 an unpleasantness occurred involving both pastor 
and people. It was due to the pastor's interference in the domes- 
tic affairs of some of his parishioners. Although well intended, it 
wrought some bitterness, but it afforded a good lesson of wisdom 
for future guidance. From this time until the autumn of 1816 r 
the church seemed to gain but little either in numbers or spiritu- 
ality. But after the disastrous season of 1816, when Nature failed 
to reward the husbandman for his toil, the minds of the people 
were disposed to receive blessings from beyond the reach of frost 
and drought. Under such conditions, a work of grace began 
which lasted several months. During this time large numbers 
were converted, thus showing that "man's extremity is God's 
opportunity." During this revival about forty souls were added 
to the church. 

In the year 1819 a still greater work was wrought, and the 
records show a list of sixty-four names added during the year. 

On January 6, 1821, the church dismissed several of its mem- 
bers to assist in organizing a Baptist Church in Claremont. 

Sometime during the year 1821 (date not definite), Elder 
Kendrick resigned the pastoral care of the church. From this 
time until June 29, 1826, the church had no pastor. Several 
different preachers came but evidently none of them were chosen. 

On this last-named date, the church invited Elder Simeon W. 
Beckwith to become their pastor. He came and rendered very 
acceptable service, endearing himself to all the church and 
community, but death claimed him the following year on May 
22, 1827. His remains rest in the cemetery at the Flat. A tablet 
was inscribed to his memory by the Free Masons of which 
fraternity he was a beloved member. 



122 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

On August 30, 1827, the " First Baptist Society" of Cornish 
was organized and incorporated. This continued in existence, 
exercising its functions until February 15, 1904, when, as laws 
had been passed empowering churches to become corporate bodies, 
and to manage their own financial affairs that formerly had 
devolved upon the society, the society was of no further use, and 
on this date ceased to exist. 

Early in the year 1828 Rev. Gibbon Williams, who was born 
March 13, 1797, in Monmouthshire, Eng., became pastor of the 
church. A solemn and impressive preacher and of agreeable 
manners, he proved an excellent pastor and the attachment 
between him and the church was very strong. 

The Woodstock Association, of which the church was a member, 
was divided about this time, and a new one formed on the east 
side of the Connecticut River called the "Newport Baptist 
Association," and the Cornish church became a member of this 
body in September, 1828. During this year a parsonage was 
provided, in which was a room furnished for a vestry for social 
meetings. This building still remains standing at the west of 
the cemetery on the Plat. 

In April, 1829, a donation of five hundred dollars was received 
from Dea. John Weld, the income of which was to be annually 
expended for preaching. Elder Williams closed his labors in 
Cornish, January 1, 1833, after a successful ministry of five years. 

During Elder Williams' pastorate, a great revival occurred 
which is thus described by Mrs. Marcia L. Fletcher, an eye- 
witness, and also "one of them." It had its beginning in the old 
red schoolhouse at the "City," so called. She says: "The few 
isolated disciples there realized that a very large class of young 
people there were giving their early years to worldly pleasures 
and felt something must be done to save them. With fervent 
prayers they felt that works must unite with faith. So they 
requested Elder Williams to hold a meeting at the schoolhouse 
on a Sabbath evening at 'early candle light.' The appointment 
was given, although the pastor's faith at first was weak, thinking 
the effort would prove abortive. But to his happy surprise, the 
house was filled with a very attentive audience composed largely 
of young people. This strengthened his faith, so he appointed 
another meeting. This was in the autumn of 1830. The Wood- 
stock Baptist Association was holding its anniversary with the 



CHURCHES. 123 

Windsor Baptist Church of which Elder Leland Howard was 
pastor. It was customary to send some of the ministers assem- 
bled to hold meetings in the neighboring districts in the evening 
of the first day of the session. So Elder Packard of Mt. Holly, 
Vt., was sent over the river to preach in the 'city' schoolhouse. 
The house was filled to its utmost capacity and a powerful sermon 
delivered from Gen. 24:58. On returning to Windsor, he said 
to Elder Howard: 'There is going to be a revival over in Cornish 
and you had better go over and hold meetings there.' 'I will 
when there is a moon,' said Elder Howard. 'Don't wait for a 
moon,' replied Elder Packard, 'the Holy Spirit is there.' From 
that time meetings were held two and three times a week by 
Elders Williams and Howard through the winter of 1830-31. 
Young people would walk several miles even on dark nights to 
attend the meetings. The climax was reached on a certain 
evening at a dwelling house, when, aided by brethren from Clare- 
mont, the Holy Spirit came in power. Old and young, strong 
men in the meridian of life, yielded to the sweet influences of the 
Spirit and it was estimated that nearly three hundred were con- 
verted during that revival. 'Those happy hours. How sweet 
their memory still!' It was a marked feature that very few of 
those professing conversion at this revival ever returned to the 
transitory pleasures of the world, thus evidencing a genuine 
work of grace in their hearts." 

In the autumn of 1833 Oliver Barron became pastor. He was 
a good man of strong mind and convictions and of great energy, 
possessing that independence which led him sometimes to unneces- 
sarily attack the opinions of others. His labors, however, were 
blessed by the addition of nearly one hundred souls. Among 
the years of these great revivals, there arose a class styling them- 
selves " Universalists " that advocated tenets quite at variance 
with those of the other churches of the town. It is not known 
that they ever formed any organization in town, although they 
employed preachers and held many meetings. By consent they 
often used the meeting houses for their services. 

Reverend Mr. Barron strenuously denounced them, giving them 
no quarter. On a certain Sabbath during his pastorate, these 
Universalists and the Baptists each claimed the use of the Baptist 
meeting house for the same hour of service. It became under- 
stood that the party first taking possession of the pulpit, after 



124 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

the unlocking of the doors, should occupy it for their service. 
After the doors were opened a rush was made for the pulpit by 
two strong men, representatives of each party, the Universalist 
leading. Just as they reached the "deacons' seats" at the foot 
of the pulpit, the hindmost man pushed the other into these 
seats, and, passing on, took possession of the pulpit. So that 
day they had Baptist services, but how profitable they were 
spiritually, the writer cannot say. 

In 1837, after a pastorate of four years, Elder Barron closed his 
labors in Cornish. He was succeeded the same year by Rev. David 
Burroughs, who was born in Lyndeborough, N. H., August 10, 
1810. He was a man of acknowledged ability and was greatly 
beloved by many. 

About this time the anti-slavery movement was deeply agi- 
tating the people of the North, and the majority of the church, 
with their pastor, was in sympathy with it, while some enter- 
tained opposite opinions. For this cause a bitterness arose 
between brethren, resulting in the withdrawal of some from the 
church. The pastor's strong denunciation of slavery begat 
opposition in the community outside, as well as inside the church. 
Even the air was at times polluted with the ungracious epithets 
of "nigger," "black abolitionist," etc., but the pastor never 
failed to calmly express his humane convictions. 

Some mischievous individuals bedaubed the white doors of 
the church with black paint, and on a certain Sabbath morning 
the pastor ascended the high pulpit stairs and found the pulpit 
already occupied by a black ram. He retraced his steps down 
the stairs and occupied the deacons' station as a pulpit for that 
forenoon. He made no allusion to the matter in his discourse, 
but the black occupant above, occasionally responded during 
the service, beside occasionally rising and standing on his hind 
legs, looking over the pulpit at the audience and causing much 
amusement for the children and the less seriously disposed part 
of the congregation. 

In the summer of 1897 the writer enjoyed a pleasant corre- 
spondence with Elder Burroughs, who was then eighty-seven 
years of age. He wrote that near the beginning of his pas- 
torate in Cornish, the weekly prayer-meeting became so reduced 
that often only two beside himself were present, namely: Arunah 
Burnap and Alvin Comings. ' These brethren had faithfully 



CHURCHES. 125 

remembered their covenant vows and so mutually agreed, if 
possible, ever to be present. Thus they 'held on' until they saw 
a grand awakening and nearly a hundred souls added to the 
church." 

Elder Burroughs' pastorate in Cornish ended in the winter of 
1841-42. He died August 30, 1898, aged eighty-eight, having 
spent sixty-five years of active labor in the ministry. 

August 22, 1843, the church called Nahum P. Foster to preach 
for them. He accepted the call and was ordained May 29, 1844. 
His pastorate in Cornish continued until December 9, 1854, over 
ten years. He was a man of fine talents, pleasing personality 
and an agreeable preacher. His union with the church was a pleas- 
ant one. About thirty members were added to the church during 
his .term of service. He was also a physician of skill, prac- 
ticing medicine in connection with his ministerial labors. He 
was born in Fitzwilliam, N. H., February 10, 1814, and died in 
New London, Conn., May 6, 1876. 

In 1845-46 the meeting house was remodeled. The old-time 
galleries, square pews, high pulpit and sounding board were 
removed. These gave place to the present audience room on the 
second floor with a vestry underneath. 

In 1846 a new parsonage lot was secured near the meeting 
house and the present set of buildings were erected. 

In January and February, 1856, revival meetings were held, 
conducted by Rev. John Peacock, evangelist, and about twenty 
united with the church as the result; sixteen of these were bap- 
tized February 17, 1856. 

Rev. Phinehas Bond was the next pastor beginning in Febru- 
ary, 1856. His pastorate closed in May, 1858. "He was an 
earnest, devoted man." 

In December, 1858, Rev. D. P. Deming was secured as pastor. 
His term of service lasted seven years. His motto was, "owe no 
man anything but to love one another." Reducing this to prac- 
tice, with the cooperation of the brethren a long-standing debt 
against the society was liquidated. The services of Elder Deming 
were very acceptable to the church and community. He was 
strictly evangelical and always in sympathy with those needing 
sympathy. This was his mother church. (See Deming Gen.) 
His services to the church ended December, 1865. 

The Sunday school, which hitherto had been active only during 



126 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

the warm seasons, decided in 1860 that hereafter it should be 
active at all seasons of the year. This decision has ever since 
been complied with. 

During the fall of 1866 and winter and spring following, Rev. 
John A. Baskwell preached for the church, but did not settle as 
pastor. He, however, rendered acceptable service. 

November 17, 1867, Rev. Halsey C. Leavitt of Swanton, Vt., 
became pastor of the church. He was born in Gouverneur, N. Y., 
September 27, 1827, and died in West Rutland, Vt., January 2, 
1885. He was an earnest and energetic preacher and worker. 
As a leader in social meetings he had few equals. His biographer 
says he was "judicious and careful" and as a preacher he was 
"scriptural, spiritual and faithful." During his ministry of five 
years in Cornish the church enjoyed the presence of the revival 
spirit in good degree much of the time. Two or three seasons of 
revival resulted in numerous conversions. His memorandum 
makes mention of eighty additions to the church, sixty-six bap- 
tisms, six hundred and nine sermons, twenty-five communion 
services, thirty-five marriages, fifty funerals and conducted over 
one thousand prayer meetings; all of these services rendered 
within the five years. His union with the church was a great 
blessing to it. 

On January 6, 1872, the church, through the efforts of Elder 
Leavitt, procured a new bell. It was suspended in the church 
tower February 17, 1872. The old bell, procured in 1818, had 
become cracked and unfit for use. The inscription on the new 
bell, as furnished by the pastor was, "Praise God in His Holi- 
ness." Elder Leavitt left Cornish Church for Newport Baptist 
Church in December, 1872. 

Rev. Gideon S. Smith succeeded Elder Leavitt, beginning his 
labors in February, 1873. He continued with the church until 
February, 1875. He was a conscientious and faithful preacher, but 
ill health rendered it advisable for him to resign. 

Prior to 1875 all of the pastors of the church preached sermons 
in both forenoon and afternoon on each Sabbath. Beginning 
in May of that year, they have since rendered but one sermon on 
each Lord's Day, except at an occasional evening service. 

In May, 1875, Rev. George A. Glines came from Hudson and 
was pastor of the church until May, 1880. In 1890 he was recalled 
and served the church another five years, ending in 1895. Owing 



CHURCHES. 127 

to failing health he then retired from the ministry. He was born 
in Moultonborough, September 17, 1827, and died in Claremont, 
July 6, 1907. As a preacher he rendered very acceptable service. 
Between his two terms of service Rev. J. K. Chase from Rowley, 
Mass., preached one year ending September 1, 1882. Also Rev. 
Dennis Donovan preached two and one-half years, ending in 
June, 1886. After the close of Rev. G. A. Glines' second pastor- 
ate in 1895, Rev. Charles E. Gould came and preached three years, 
closing in September, 1898. On July 30, 1899, Rev. Charles V. 
French became pastor until October, 1901. After this the pastor 
of Meriden Church, Rev. Thomas Adams, supplied the pulpit 
nearly two years. His services were followed by those of Rev. 
James Nobbs, who remained pastor a little over a year. He was 
followed by the present incumbent, Rev. T. C. Russell, who 
came in June, 1906. 



At the present writing (1909), the church, at the age of one 
hundred and twenty years, presents a great contrast to that of 
former years. Death has continued to remove her strong pil- 
lars of spirituality and of finance, until few are left to bear the 
burden. Few, too, have been the numbers that for many years 
past have been added to her membership. We will glance back- 
ward and present a portion of her history of more cheerful aspect. 

The decade showing the greatest degree of prosperity of the 
church was from 1830 to 1840. We present a few items: 

1830. Church numbered at opening of year, 111. 

Baptized 124, 74 of whom united with the church in 
Cornish and the rest in Windsor. 

1831. Church numbered 180. Raised for benevolence, $160. 

1832. Church numbered 184. Raised for benevolence, $195. 

1833. Several gold rings contributed. 

1834. Sunday school, 200. Volumes in library, 300. 

1835. Baptized into church, 87. Church now numbered 257. 
Sunday school large. Home missions, $37.06. 

1836. Church numbered 251. Library, 400 volumes. 
Sunday school, 200, with 20 teachers. 

1837. Church numbered 229. 

1838. Sunday school, 250. Teachers, 30. 

Volumes in library, 400. Donations liberal for all purposes. 



128 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

1839. Church numbered 320. Sunday school, 275. 
Teachers, 30. Volumes in library, 400. 

1840. Church numbered 277. 

About seven hundred have been baptized into the church, 
while many have been received by letter, making about eight 
hundred different members since the organization of the church. 
The present number is thirty-two resident and nine non-resident. 

Evangelists at different times have labored in the church. 
Prominent among these were Revs. Siloam Short, John Peacock, 
Edward A. Whittier and Otis L. Leonard. Their efforts always 
seemed to prove a blessing to the church. Sometimes the revival 
spirit would be manifest through the earnest prayerful labors of 
the pastor aided by the faithful members of his charge, and also 
by neighboring ministers. 

It is noteworthy that two of the church clerks served each 
twenty-seven years in succession, Dea. Arunah Burnap from 
1831 to 1858 and Dea. Henry E. Rich from 1858 to 1885. 

Ten men have gone out from the church as preachers of the 
gospel : George H. Hough, Thadeus Gage, Sanford Gustin, Reuel 
Lothrop, Calvin Baker, Daniel, Stillman and Horace Richardson, 
Charles H. Green and D. P. Deming. These were all men of 
fidelity and devotion to their calling. They have all passed away. 
Stillman Richardson died when just ready to enter the ministry, 
but the others filled the measure of useful lives in the work. 

Mr. Hough went as a missionary to India, becoming a com- 
panion of the immortal Judson in his sufferings and his joy. Of 
Horace Richardson a writer says: "True to Christ and his word, 
he wrought well, was of beautiful spirit, and leaves to church 
and family the legacy of an unsullied character." The biogra- 
pher of Daniel F. Richardson makes mention of " high scholarly 
attainments; of several successful pastorates; of his release from 
a palsy just before his death, and his rapturous joy as he then 
crowned the Savior, Lord of all." Of Charles H. Green a 
writer says: "Of pure and amiable character whose daily walk 
with God, rendered his society like rays of sunshine, and his 
labors were blest." His last words were, "He whom I have 
preached as the sinners' hope is now my own." (See Green Gen.) 

It is interesting to notice that during the early history of the 
church its members were required to attend divine service, and 



CHURCHES. 129 

be severely called to account for any absence therefrom. The 
modern sentiment hardly sustains this policy. But who shall 
declare the right? 

The Newport Baptist Association, of which this church is a 
member, has met with the church in annual session nine different 
years: 1833, 1837, 1846, 1849, 1857, 1860, 1869, 1885 and 1896. 
The New Hampshire State Convention has met there but once, 
June, 1844. 

The church and society have received the following legacies: 

1834. Dea. John Weld, $500, the income only to be used for 

preaching. 

1835. Ebenezer Weld, $1,200, the income only to be used for 

preaching. 

1885. Mr. and Mrs. Henry Gould, new pulpit, with chairs, Bible 

and all furnishings complete. 

1886. A library association, 168 volumes for adult readers. 

1887. Daniel G. Deming, one half of the yearly income from his 

estate after his decease in 1887. 
1899. Miss Sarah A. Bryant, about $300, the income only to 
be used for preaching. 

1901. Henry Gould, $2,200, under the trusteeship of the 

New Hampshire Baptist State Convention, the income 
of which shall annually be expended for Baptist preach- 
ing on the Flat. With this he also bequeathed and 
devised that his present home, with all its furnishings, 
should at his decease become the home of the pastor 
of the church and his family, during his pastorate. 

1902. Mrs. Sarah Gould, about $300, the income only to be 

used for preaching. 

In 1883 the old-time open belfry was changed to the closed 
tower of the present day. This was slated as was the entire 
roof of the church. 

There never has been a baptistry in the church, but on all 
occasions requiring it, ponds or brooks have been resorted to. 
August 25, 1889, a committee was chosen to make arrangements 
for a centennial meeting of the church. Accordingly centennial 
exercises were held in the church in September, 1889; a sermon 
was preached by Rev. N. F. Tilden of Lebanon. A history of 
the church was prepared and read by Rev. George N. Green, who 

10 



130 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

was then a resident supply for the pulpit. A poetic "Reminis- 
cence of Cornish Flat Forty and Fifty Years Ago," by Mrs. 
Susan (Baker) Kenerson was read. The occasion was of great 
interest to all present. 

By virtue of a law previously enacted, the church was incor- 
porated February 1, 1904. 

Episcopal Church. 

The existence of the First Congregational Church had termi- 
nated. Its remaining members were not of one heart and mind. 
They had apparently abandoned the jurisdiction of the old 
church and were absorbed in building up two separate places of 
worship further north and east. (For record of these see Cong. 
Hist.) The southern and western parts of the town therefore 
were left unsupplied with religious services. The old meeting 
house formerly occupied by Mr. Wellman's Church now stood 
empty. That section had become missionary ground, and 
open to embrace the doctrines and services of any evangelical 
church. 

During Reverend Mr. Bell's pastorate over the North Church 
in the fall of 1791, Philander Chase, the youngest son of Dea. 
Dudley Chase, entered Dartmouth College. While there he acci- 
dentally came across a "Book of Common Prayer, "■ — a rare book 
in those days. Instead of carelessly looking the book over and 
throwing it aside, he carefully and prayerfully studied it, and 
compared its forms and ordinances with the Word of God. The 
more he examined it, the more forcibly it appealed to his sense of 
what constituted the true way of worship. 

These ideas he communicated to his parents, relatives and 
friends. To these, truth was the great desire of their hearts. 
They desired something stable and sure in worship and belief. 
This prayer book seemed to them as a new light to guide them 
towards a more satisfactory form of worship than they had here- 
tofore experienced or witnessed. These considerations, joined to 
well-authenticated claims to apostolic successions in the ministry, 
were the principal reasons that induced the parents, relatives 
and neighbors of Philander Chase, to conform to the doctrine 
and practices of the Episcopal Church. Then again, these in- 
dividuals had been, in a measure, instructed in the new forms of 
worship, by distinguished clergymen of the Episcopal order 



CHURCHES. 131 

who occasionally had visited Cornish and other towns along the 
river. Prominent among these gospel preachers was Rev. 
John C. Ogden, afterwards their first pastor or rector, and Rev. 
Bethuel Chittenden, brother of a governor of Vermont. The 
visits of this latter gentleman were especially prized by these 
earnest seekers after the truth. 

Their numbers increased until they deemed it advisable to 
meet and organize as a society. This was done, and they held 
their first meeting on December 16, 1793, in the old Congregational 
Church. They drew up the following "Instrument of Associa- 
tion": 

"We the subscribers, inhabitants of the town and Neighborhood 
of Cornish in the state of New Hampshire, wishing to enjoy the 
Benefit of public religious worship and instruction for ourselves 
and families, do hereby associate ourselves together for that 
purpose as members and friends of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church, Agreeing with each other to conform to such future 
rules and regulations as in the circumstances of this society, 
parish, or church we shall agree upon — from time to time in Legal 
regular meetings, by a majority of votes, for the purpose of the 
same. — 

"And we further agree to attend upon the public offices of 
religion, for the present under the ministry of the Rev d . John 
Cozens Ogden as frequently as he can officiate among us at the 
old meetinghouse in said Cornish. — 

"In witness whereof we have set our hands this sixteenth day 
of December 1793." 

At the same meeting it was "Voted by a majority of the sub- 
scribers to this parish, that M r . Ithamar Chase and Jonathan 
Chase, J. P. be appointed as Wardens until Easter next. — ■ 

"Be it known that the above votes were passed and that four- 
teen persons also signed this subscription, paper or Instrument 
of Association in our presence on the day above mentioned, 
test d . by John Cozens Ogden, Presbytere the Episcopal Church 
and missionary in New Hampshire. 

"Voted that this meeting be adjourned unto Monday the 21st 
day of April next. 

Ith. Chase 



Wardens." 
Jona Chase J. P. 



132 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

The Monday after Easter Sabbath has ever since been observed 
by the church as the date of their annual business meeting. 

On their second meeting April 21, 1794, a committee was 
chosen to petition the General Court of New Hampshire for an 
act of incorporation under the name of Christ's Church. For 
some reason the committee failed in the discharge of their duty, 
and so the matter was postponed until the following year, when 
the committee was again instructed to renew their petition and 
forward their project to completion. 

The General Court was in session at Hanover on the first 
Wednesday of June, 1795. The committee then presented their 
petition. On the 16th of June it came before the court, which 
ordered a time for hearing later, when, if no objections appeared, 
their prayer would be granted. The bill passed both the House 
and Senate December 24, 1795, and the church was incorporated 
under the name of Trinity Church, which name it has since borne. 
John Prentiss at this time was speaker of the House, Ebenezer 
Smith, president of the Senate, and J. Taylor Gilman was gov- 
ernor. The incorporation of the church was recorded April 9, 
1796, by Nathaniel Hall, registrar. This same year the clerk and 
wardens were directed to request Gen. Jonathan Chase to give a 
deed of the common land where the old meeting house now stands. 

On August 10, 1801, the church took measures in conjunction 
with other Episcopal churches of New Hampshire for the for- 
mation of a district or diocese embracing this church. Delegates 
were appointed and sent to Claremont to a convention assembled 
there for said purpose and also to another convention at Con- 
cord. On May 25, 1802, the diocese was formed and a constitu- 
tion prepared to be adopted by its several churches. This was 
unanimously adopted by Trinity Church on November 1, 1802. 

By the terms of the grant of Cornish lands, the minister who 
first settled in town, had the benefit of two hundred acres of land, 
the first Congregational Church receiving this benefit by reason 
of their priority. The Episcopal Society, however, had its 
glebe lands; but coming a little later, found them mainly 
occupied, and in some cases improved by those occupyng them 
and who were reluctant to relinquish them. This gave rise to 
disputes concerning titles, and even lawsuits occurred before 
they could be recovered. But proper measures were taken and 
satisfaction finally obtained. 



CHURCHES. 133 

The old meeting house, built in 1773, was needing repairs, 
and it did not fully meet the wants of those now worshiping 
there. Something must be done; either to make extensive repairs 
or to pull down the old house and build a new and larger one. 
The latter policy was unanimously adopted. A plan for a new 
house had been drafted and submitted by Philip Tabor, a carpen- 
ter and builder. With this plan all were well pleased. Accord- 
ingly a meeting was convened on November 2, 1801 , to take action 
on the matter. A committee was appointed "to sell the pews 
of the old house and appropriate the avails for building s d . house. " 
A committee to purchase lumber, and solicit and collect donations 
was also appointed. The donations of timber and other material 
were liberal. The work was delayed, however, and the old house 
stood until after the business meeting of the society on April 2, 
1804. It was, however, taken down during that year. 

An article appeared in the town warrant of April 15, 1805, 
which was "to see how much money the society would raise to 
complete the house," but for some reason the article was "passed 
over." During the years 1806-07 the records are silent regarding 
the progress of the work, or the raising of means to carry it for- 
ward. It is supposable, however, that the work was progressing 
during those years, for in the spring of 1808, the society "warned" 
its first business meeting to be held in Trinity Church, which is the 
edifice of today. Probably the reason why so much time was 
spent in building was the scarcity of funds needful to speedily 
accomplish the work. The income from their lands at this time 
came in slowly, being jeopardized in litigation and the society was 
awaiting the outcome. 

The new house was located upon the site of the old one, and it 
"was to be 36 x 44 feet, with two porches and a belfry, with a 
steeple, and of a suitable heighth." 

It has numbered among its worshipers a class of noble and 
gifted men and women whose influence has been potent in all 
the affairs of the town. 

The attendance has never been of the fitful and overflowing 
kind, but rather of a steady, quiet order that is befitting and 
favorable to the worship and service of the Highest. 

The church has not at all times supported a rector of her own, 
but has received the ministrations of those from Windsor and 
Claremont and other churches near at hand. Rev. George 



134 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Leonard is the most notable exception as he was a resident of the 
town, and officiated as rector eighteen years. The records make 
mention in their order of Reverends Ogden, Chittenden, Barber, 
Montague, Felch, Leonard, Smith, Staples, Wright, Flanders, 
Randolph, Jones, Douglas, Gocldard, Ticknor and perhaps others. 
The services rendered by these worthy men, beside the visits 
of the Bishop and others, have enabled them to maintain services 
a large part of the time. 

In 1816 the church made an appeal to Bishop Alexander V. 
Griswold for aid, on the plea that their predecessors had disposed 
of lands rightfully belonging to them, and now wished these lands 
might be redeemed by subscription. Following this, the same 
year, the church was successful in securing donations, and deci- 
sions in law against those holding glebe lands, which gave them 
much encouragement. 

June 4, 1822, the clerk of the society, Capt. Bela Chase was 
voted as disqualified to hold office, or even membership in the 
church owing to his joining the Catholic Communion with his 
family. He was accordingly dismissed. 

According to the records, the society has held its annual meet- 
ings from 1793 to the present time, a period of 116 years, with 
the exception of the years from 1875 to 1895. The causes given 
for these omissions are the same as those applying to all the 
other churches in town, viz.: 1st, the decline in population being 
accompanied by a corresponding decline in church membership; 
2d, the present generation, as a rule, do not attach the importance 
to the service of God that their fathers and grandfathers did. 

In closing we append the interesting event of the consecration 
of Trinity Church in the language of the record. 

"To the Rt. Rev d Carlton Chase D. D. Bishop of the Diocese 
of New Hampshire, 

Rt. REV d Sir. 
"We the undersigned, Wardens of Trinity Church Cornish 
respectfully request you to consecrate our house of worship 
to the service of Almighty God. 
"Cornish, Jan. 11, 1846. 

"John L. Putnam 
Israel Hall 



Wardens. 



"A true record, Attest, John L. Putnam Reg r ' 



CHURCHES. 135 

"Diocese of New Hampshire, 
"In the name of God, Amen. 

"Whereas, it hath pleased Almighty God to put it into the hearts 
of His servants, the people of the Parish of Trinity Church in 
the town of Cornish in said Diocese to erect and devote a house 
to His great and glorious name, and whereas the officers of said 
Parish have moved and requested that the same may be publicly 
consecrated to Him according to the usages of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in the United States: — Now therefore be it 
known that I, Carlton Chase, by the grace of God, Bishop of 
said Diocese in virtue of my holy office, do this day dedicate 
and solemnly consecrate to God, and to the sacred purposes of 
the Gospel, this the aforesaid house under the name of Trinity 
Church, forever separating it from all unhallowed, worldly and 
common uses, and requiring and enjoining that henceforth it 
shall be wholly and exclusively devoted to the solemn uses and 
services of the blessed religion of Jesus Christ, according to the 
Doctrine, Discipline and worship of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church. 

"In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal 
this eleventh day of January, in the year of our Lord, one thou- 
sand eight hundred and forty six. 

"Carlton Chase [Seal] 

"A true Record, Attest, John L. Putnam, Reg r ' 

Methodist Episcopal Church. 

This church was organized November 5, 1838. There were but 
few members during the first years of its existence, as it was at a 
time when the other churches seemed to "cover the ground." 
The doctrines of the Wesleys, however, presented a charm for 
those who valued an earnest and aggressive, rather than a 
steady and formal mode of worship. 

Rev. John G. Bennett was the first stationed preacher in 1840. 
As he was a man of earnest piety, joined to other gifts of no 
mean order, he was enabled to give quite an impetus to the new 
sect in town. 

Rev. Amos Kidder, appointed in 1843, was the next preacher. 
The additions at first were slow and prospects not very encour- 
aging. Meetings were held in schoolhouses and in private resi- 



136 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

dences. The old brick schoolhouse on the Flat was used several 
seasons as a house of worship. Here the first and second meetings 
of the quarterly conference were held, July 1 and September 21, 
1843. Jared Perkins was the presiding elder. 

During a space of six years, from April 24, 1844, to July 10, 
1850, no record of the church is found. 

The "Evangelical Congregational Church and Society" had 
built their neat and commodious meeting house, but they had been 
frowned out of existence as a church, thus leaving their meeting 
house and parsonage without an occupant. It was in some 
respects a blessing to the Methodist Society to have the privilege 
of occupying the meeting house and pay rent therefor. 

Another fortunate thing for the Methodists was this: Many of 
the members of the former church that were anxious to affiliate 
with some earnest religious body, united themselves with the 
new order and became a very important factor with them. 
More than half of the members of the former church were 
thus absorbed in the Methodist Church. All were thus greatly 
encouraged and regarded it as an interposition of Divine Prov- 
idence in behalf of all concerned. From this time the church 
took fair rank with her sister churches in the district, and most of 
the time supported a local preacher of her own. Her members 
increased, and in various ways the Good Providence seemed to 
overshadow them. The preachers assigned were men of God 
and wrought good works, as several revivals evidenced. 

Up to 1860, the meeting house in which the Methodists wor- 
shiped belonged to the former pew owners. On April 22 of this 
year, a committee was appointed "to negotiate for the mortgage 
on the church and parsonage, for the benefit of the Methodist 
Church." On February 5, 1861, the committee rendered a partial 
report, sufficient, however, to encourage them to persevere in the 
undertaking. 

April 27, 1866, a meeting "to excite an interest in favor of a 
transfer of the property to the Methodist Church" was called, 
and further committees were appointed and instructed. 

On March 25, 1867, the committees announced that they had 
secured a "good and sufficient deed of the church and parsonage 
property within the last quarter" (the date of the deed being 
February 21, 1867), on condition that $200 should be ex- 
pended for the repairs of the meeting house. These terms were 



CHURCHES. 137 

mutually agreed upon. Having thus acquired possession, they 
immediately appointed a committee for the performance of the 
necessary repairs on the church. In less than three months the 
committee reported the repairs completed, and on the 27th of June, 
1867, the dedicatory services were held. The trustees formally 
presented the house for dedication in the following words: "We 
present this building to be dedicated to the service and worship 
of Almighty God." Rev. W. H. Clark, presiding elder of the 
Claremont district, had charge of the services and preached the 
sermon. The dedicatory prayer was offered by Reverend Mr. 
Dearborn of Vermont, followed by a voluntary, the doxology, 
and benediction. 

The years 1868-69 were years of gracious outpouring of the 
spirit, and blessing upon the church ; perhaps they were the best 
of all the years of the past. The records of these years are as 
follows : 

Members already belonging 63 

Added by baptism during year 18 

81 

Church property valued at $1,500 

Parsonage property valued at 500 



$2,000 

These were years of apparent prosperity. 

In 1872 the church reported many and extensive repairs, and 
also the purchase of an organ at a cost of $106. 

After the Methodist Camp Meeting had been established at 
Claremont Junction, this church took a lively interest in it, and, 
owing to its nearness, most of the members attended its annual 
meetings. 

In August, 1873, a committee was appointed to select a location 
among many others, for a tent or building on the camp grounds. 
A site was selected, agreeable to the minds of all, north of, and 
near, the preacher's stand. A building committee was at once 
appointed. Mr. Benjamin S. Lewis, of the committee, had charge 
of the work, while many ready and willing hands were there to aid, 
and the house was ready for occupancy in season for the meeting 
near the close of the month, and was filled to overflowing night 



138 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

and day throughout the meetings much to the satisfaction and 
apparent blessing of all who attended. These seasons of interest 
at the camp ground meetings continued several years, until, the 
church, through decline failed to pay its camp ground rent, and 
thus forfeited its right there and the building was removed. In 
April, 1875, the society rented its vestry to Cornish Grange, who, 
wishing it enlarged for their use, agreed to pay the church fifty 
dollars towards enlarging it, and five dollars per year for the 
rent of the same. They have occupied it ever since. 

The following is the list of preachers, in their order, that have 
been sent to Cornish, and have mainly resided here during the 
term of their appointment: 

John G. Bennett, Amos Kidder, Lorenzo Draper, John Clough, 
Richard Newhall, N. S. Bentley, P. Wallingford, John H. Griffin, 
George F. Wells, B. P. Spaulding, John S. Parker, C. F. Merrill, 
C. H. Leet, Edward Francis. Josiah Hooper, in all, fifteen. Of 
these Richard Newhall received a second appointment, and 
Lorenzo Draper received three appointments to the church. 
Besides these, several others, chiefly from Claremont, have 
supplied the pulpit. 

Thirteen presiding elders have had the watch care of this 
church. These, in their order, were: Jared Perkins, Silas 
Quimby, C. N. Smith, Newell Culver, A. C. Manson, Elisha 
Adams, John Thurston, W. H. Clark, James Pike, M. T. Cilley, 
G. J. Judkins, 0. H. Jasper, and - - Robbins. Since August, 
1891, there is no record of any business meeting of either the church 
or society. Occasional services may have been held, but no 
record of them is found. In looking over the history of this 
church for sixty years, and beholding it, from its small beginning 
grow to a healthy, happy and prosperous church, and then see it 
suffering a slow decline, almost to the stage of extinction of name 
and being, we behold a picture not pleasant to contemplate. 
Various causes have contributed to this. The death and removal 
of many of the principal members, and the age and infirmity of 
the few remaining, and the fact that, as in all other churches 
of the town, very few of the young are falling into the ranks, to 
fill the places thus made vacant, are the chief causes of the deca- 
dence of all of our churches. Yet they have all wrought well in 
their day, and perhaps all have fulfilled their mission. 



CHURCHES. 139 

Perfectionists, Millerites, etc. 

In the early forties of the last century a revolution among the 
moral, political and religious questions then existing, seemed to 
be the order of the day. Old doctrines that had heretofore been 
received with moderation were reexamined and received with 
fresh inspiration, and became subjects of absorbing interest to 
the many who embraced them. The minds of the people were 
inclined as never before, to entertain intense views, on many 
subjects. Especially did this apply to the doctrines of Sancti- 
fication and the Second Advent. 

A number of young men from Claremont, having become 
deeply impressed by the Scriptural requirements regarding 
heart.-purity, came to Cornish and held meetings in the homes 
of those whose doors were open to receive them. These styled 
themselves "Perfectionists," claiming Scriptural authority both 
in doctrine and name. This doctrine was received with avidity 
by many of the good citizens of the town. 

Soon after this, the doctrine of the Second Advent of Christ 
as preached by William Miller, swept over New England. This, 
too, received many adherents in our town, and of necessity gave 
an increased impetus to the former movement. Mr. Miller 
believed and preached that the world's history would end in 

1843; great excitement prevailed among many, believers in 
his doctrine were thereby incited to liberality and self-sacrifice. 

Means were readily secured, and a house of worship was erected 

by the Perfectionists on a tract of land deeded them by Hiram C. 

Fletcher, said deed bearing date, August 12, 1840. 

After Mr. Miller's prophecy regarding the end of the world in 

1843 had proved a failure, and "the end was not yet," many, 

who were ardent believers in both doctrines, were disheartened. 

Services dwindled and finally ceased; the house of worship 

became unused and finally closed. 

The town, at this juncture being in need of a house in which 

to hold its meetings, came into possession of said meeting house 

of the Perfectionists, and have since used it for all its public 

meetings. 

Whatever the result of these extreme views may have been, 

we are bound to credit those entertaining them with honesty 

and sincerity. Possibly the results may be greater, grander, 



140 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

and more far-reaching than human judgment can determine. 
At any rate, they led to a more prayerful and considerate study 
of the Bible, especially in regard to the Second Advent. 

Thus we see that every body of Christ's disciples that have 
lived and associated in Cornish, have had its joyful, hopeful and 
happy rise; its seasons of substantial prosperity in accomplishing 
its mission, followed by periods of decline, ending, in some 
cases, in its death. These monuments of perished hopes lie all 
around us. The historian would willingly, yet mournfully, 
inscribe to their memory the foregoing records of the former 
churches of Cornish. 

Independent Parish. 

Soon after the opening of the present century, it was found 
that the Methodist Episcopal Society of Cornish had become 
nearly extinct, and the church edifice was partly in ruins. A 
commendable desire prevailed among the citizens of that section 
to revive religious services, and to repair the house of worship. 
Rev. P. J. Robinson, pastor of the Unitarian Church in Windsor, 
was invited to hold services there in 1902. This movement was 
attended with a good degree of success. The ladies of the vicinity 
organized a society called the "Woman's Alliance," and accom- 
plished much for the benefit of the parish. The organization of 
a church there was effected March 30, 1905, under the name of 
"The Independent Parish." A constitution and by-laws were 
adopted; a full quota of officers was chosen from a membership 
of nearly fifty members, and Rev. P. J. Robinson was chosen as 
pastor, who served until December, 1905. A petition asking fel- 
lowship with the "American Unitarian Association" was presented 
and was duly granted. The committee of the parish now nego- 
tiated with the remaining trustees of the former Methodist 
Episcopal Church, for a lease of the church building for a term of 
twenty years, with the condition that they make certain necessary 
repairs on the church. This was accordingly done, and the church 
edifice was thoroughly refitted. Contributions for this purpose 
had been generously made: By the Unitarian Association, $200; 
F. A. Kennedy, $200; Woman's Alliance, $180; and other gifts, 
aggregating $700 in all; besides special gifts of value for furnishing 
the interior of the house by Mr. and Mrs. W. C. Houston and 
Mr. and Mrs. A. E. Lang. 



CHURCHES. 141 

In its new order and dress, the church was again dedicated, 
December 3, 1906. Rev. Sidney Snow preached the dedicatory 
sermon. He had served the church from December, 1905, until 
the spring of 1906, when Rev. J. E. Locke came and preached until 
August, 1907. He was followed by a year's service from Rev. H. L. 
Buzzell, who was succeeded by the present pastor, Rev. R. S. 
Barrow, who began his services in the fall of 1909. 

"The Independent Parish of Cornish is dedicated to the wor- 
ship of God, and to the cultivation of that spirit which was in 
Jesus Christ; and it has no other creed. It is now affiliated 
with the Unitarian Church at Windsor, whose pastor serves 
both parishes." 

Pentecostal Nazarene. 

During the season of 1908, a few members of the Baptist 
Church at the Flat became desirous of establishing meetings by 
themselves at South Cornish. Obtaining letters of dismission 
from the parent church, they organized a church at that place, 
and Benjamin F. Lindsay was ordained as its pastor. It was 
first organized as a Freewill Baptist Church. While earnestly 
seeking after the most acceptable forms of worship and spiritual 
development, Brother Lindsay came in contact with the sect of 
"the Pentecostal Nazarene." Its doctrines and practices 
appealed forcibly to his convictions, and the little church, 
through his influence, readily espoused the doctrines of the sect. 
It became identified with the denomination, and Rev. Mr. 
Lindsay was solemnly ordained as pastor, October 25, 1908. 

Meetings have been sustained there ever since with a good 
measure of satisfaction on the part of all concerned. The 
meetings have been held chiefly in the schoolroom of School 
Division 10. 

It needs the prophetic eye to determine the final results of 
this movement. It is to be hoped, however, that the moral and 
religious influences emanating from this little church, will be 
a potent factor for the uplifting and spiritualizing of many. 



CHAPTER IX. 

Schools. 

The early settlers of Cornish were generally educated men and 
women according to the standard of their times. They came 
from towns where they had enjoyed the privileges of established 
schools and, therefore, well appreciated their value. 

According to well-authenticated tradition the first schools of 
the town were assembled around the firesides and under the 
supervision of intelligent and painstaking parents. Next in 
importance to the preaching of the Gospel, they regarded the 
education of their children; therefore, as soon as possible after 
the pioneers had organized a town, they assembled in town meet- 
ing and adopted such measures as they deemed best and voted 
to raise money for the support of schools. 

The reservations in favor of schools, provided by the grants, 
proved an insufficient source of revenue; therefore additional 
means were soon needed. Then again, the meager income from 
these lands was, at first, necessarily so slow in coming, that 
some children might die in ignorance before getting any benefit 
from it. For many years after its settlement, the town, like 
many others, was supreme in authority on all matters relating 
to schools. This was due to the absence of all state law re- 
garding it. So the early schools of Cornish were not the creation 
of legislation, but were of spontaneous growth. 

The town's records for the years 1785-90 show its action on the 
subject as follows: On March 22, 1785, the town voted to divide 
the town into school districts, and raised £30 for schooling. 
Previous to this time there were no district limits and parents 
could send their children to school wherever they chose. On 
March 14, 1786, the town voted to raise £100 for schooling. At 
this time there were but two school districts in town. 

March 13, 1787, voted to raise £80 for schooling purposes. 

March 12, 1788, voted to raise £100. 

March 24, 1789, voted to raise £30. 



SCHOOLS. 143 

March 24, 1790, voted the subject of dividing the town into 
school districts be referred to the selectmen, who should also 
select sites for the locations and erection of schoolhouses. 

The history of the schools of a town in New Hampshire is 
divided into three epochs. During the first, or voluntary period, 
which ended in 1827, the schools, as we have shown, were estab- 
lished and maintained, and schoolhouses were erected by the 
town. During all this time there were but few and imperfect 
statutes. The proceedings of the several towns were so constant 
and uniform that a system was formulated and established with- 
out the regulation and compulsory influence of law. It was 
preeminently a town system. 

By the statute of 1827, and subsequent amendments, school 
districts became corporations with authority to choose their 
own officers, to own school lots, to build schoolhouses and to have 
a general control of their schools. The towns were instructed 
to raise money for school purposes, and to choose a committee 
for supervision. This, the second epoch, extended from 1827, 
until the abolishment of school districts in 1885. 

During this second epoch, the town attained its highest point 
in population, — over 1,700. Also the number of school districts 
in town reached their maximum, — sixteen in all. These had 
been numbered in the order of their need and organization. 
Numbers 1, 2 and 3 extended the entire length of the town, on the 
Connecticut River where settlements first took place. Numbers 
4 and 5 on the hills east and north of the last, where hardy pioneers 
had decided to settle. No. 6 on an interval in the northeast part of 
the town where a mountain stream spread, that invited manu- 
facturers. Numbers 7, 8, 9 and 10 following the intervale south 
and southwest with the adjacent hillsides, reaching to the north 
line of Claremont. No. 11, west of these last, embracing the 
territory east of the river districts and No. 4. 

The whole town was now embraced within the eleven districts 
already organized. The five other districts were afterwards 
formed by the division of districts already established. This 
was done to better accommodate the children of settlers re- 
mote from school privileges. No. 12, formerly embraced in 
No. 6, was formed by those who settled farther up the mountain 
stream east of the Flat. It bore the unpoetical name of "Poppy 
Squash." No. 13 was formed in 1828 from the southern por- 



144 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

tions of districts 9 and 11, and bordered on the north line of 
Claremont. No. 14 embraced the southeast corner of the town, 
large in territory, but sparse in population, except a portion of 
it called the " Hemp yard. " No. 15 was a small, sparsely settled 
district, lying east of No. 1, on "Root Hill," not conveniently 
accessible either to Nos. 1, 11, or 13, which lay contiguous. No. 
16 embraced the northeast corner of the town. It formerly 
belonged mainly to Grantham and was annexed to Cornish in 
1844. This district was thereafter called "Texas." 

After 1840, the population of the town began slowly to decline, 
and this decline continued steadily throughout the remainder of 
this epoch for forty-five years, or until 1885. During this time the 
town lost about seven hundred of its former inhabitants, so that 
its population at this date was only about one thousand. There 
were fewer families and these had become smaller, and the number 
of school children was correspondingly less. Some of the hill farms 
had become abandoned; dwellings had been torn down and re- 
moved; and the general trend of the remaining population had 
been to the village, or to more accessible lowland farms. It is 
easy to see what the effect of these changes would be upon 
school districts located on the hills and mountain sides remote 
from the more populous centers. 

The districts in town that first suffered from the lack of pat- 
ronage were the last ones formed, namely: Numbers 12, 13, 14, 15 
and 16. In some of these a single short term of school was taught 
during the year, and sometimes none at all. The scholars were 
so few that it was not always deemed advisable to open a school 
during the year, as the expense per capita would be so much. The 
number of scholars in most of the other schools was much less 
than formerly. To illustrate: The enrollment of the scholars in 
town in 1851 was 385 between four and sixteen years of age; 80 
attended school over sixteen years of age; 465 in all attending 
school. In 1886 the enrollment was 165 in all, according to 
the report of these two years. 

The causes that have contributed to this change are many. 
While the population of the country has steadily increased, many 
of the earlier settled towns of New England have shown a great 
decline. The increasing tendency of the young men and women 
of recent years to avoid the severe manual labor of their ancestors; 
the attractions of the great West with its labor-saving machinery; 



SCHOOLS. 145 

the innumerable professions and trades which offer better wages 
at a less expense of muscle, oftentimes coupled with the charms 
of city life, — all these and many other causes have been, and 
are still, at work luring the young men from the rugged hillsides 
to lives of fancied enjoyment elsewhere; and meanwhile several 
schools of Cornish had become extinct, and those that remained 
were but the skeletons of once active and populous schools. 

Similar results were manifest in many other towns of our state, 
some exhibiting even a greater falling off than Cornish. 

These conditions invited discussion among the leading educa- 
tors of the state. 

The people generally had become attached to the district 
system, and had enjoyed the benefit and pleasure of district 
rivalry and of local control, and although the system had become 
imperfect in that it denied equal privilege to all scholars ; still they 
were unwilling to admit of any change. They deemed it a sacri- 
lege for any lawmaker to meddle with an institution so dear to 
them as the district school system. 

But the time had come for a change. A more elastic system 
was needed. The districts would never have voted it. The 
leading educators in the state must take the matter in hand, or 
the district system with its inequality of privilege would continue 
with a tendency towards worse conditions. The town system 
seemed to be the only solution of the problem. Therefore, it was 
duly presented to the legislature; its claims as a panacea for the 
existing evils fully demonstrated, and the law was adopted in 
March, 1885. This closed the second epoch of the history of 
schools in New Hampshire. 

With the town system, was inaugurated a new era in the his- 
tory of the schools of New Hampshire. The little petty republics 
or districts of the town were all abolished and fused into one dis- 
trict. The several district officers heretofore chosen by them 
were needed no longer. The control of all affairs, both prudential 
and educational, was vested in three well-selected individuals 
called a "school board," or "board of education." These had 
power to temporarily locate and maintain schools wherever, in 
their united judgment, it was thought best; to hire teachers and 
provide all the needful requirements of the schools; and to super- 
intend the same. Scholars living remote from the established 
schools were provided with means of conveyance to the nearest 
11 



146 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

suitable school, and the new law provided for the raising of addi- 
tional funds for this purpose. In this way equality of school 
privileges could be secured for all the scholars of the town better 
than was possible under the former system. 

The term district as applied to the small local schools, was 
abandoned, and that of division, substituted therefor, as they 
were now but divisions of the one town district. 

Notwithstanding all the advantages the new law offered, it 
was at the first stubbornly opposed by the majority of the voters 
of the town, who even instructed their representative in 1886, 
to use his utmost influence to have the new law repealed, but all 
efforts in that direction failed, as a matter of course. It was now 
the aim of the school board during this storm of opposition to 
exemplify the merits of the law to the best advantage, by judi- 
cious management. Their plans in this respect were to a large 
extent successful, and so the unfriendly feeling in opposition to 
the new law gradually subsided. The general verdict of public 
opinion a few years later was that the system is an advance step 
in the cause of education. 

Schoolhouses. 

There have been sixteen schoolhouses; one for each of 
the old districts in town. Each of these, in their years of 
prosperity were filled with interesting and intelligent children. 
As before stated, after the decline in population, the houses, 
especially in the back districts or divisions, began to suffer 
from need of repairs; notably those in divisions 12, 14, 15 
and 16. Limited repairs from time to time had been bestowed 
upon these houses, but they had gradually grown more unfit for 
use, and extensive repairs were really impracticable. The new 
system was prepared to solve this problem. The scholars in these 
divisions were so few that the school board decided to convey them 
to other and more central schools, and the houses in those four 
divisions were removed or sold. 

In nearly all of the old districts, the original houses have given 
place to houses of newer and improved pattern. The old brick 
schoolhouse at the Flat, which so many years served the village 
school of sometimes nearly a hundred scholars, was, in 1878, 
superseded by one of more imposing and modern type, on another 
site. Several of the other districts had a similar experience a few 



SCHOOLS. 147 

years before under the old system. After the town system was 
adopted, a new house on a different site was built in division 10; 
and also one soon after, south of the last, near the Claremont line. 
This last has received the number 12, as the former house of this 
number had been torn down. 

At the present time (1909) there are thirteen schoolhouses in 
town in which schools are kept. Owing to the limited number of 
scholars, schools are not maintained in all of them at the same 
time, but when there is no school in a division, those scholars 
are to receive the benefit of another school in an adjoining divi- 
sion, thus increasing their school privileges. 

Under this head the following suggestions are pertinent: 
Schoolhouses are in themselves educative. 

It is a law largely governing our existence that we are what 
we have been made by our environments. 

It is not alone the spoken precept, neither is it the printed page, 
but both of these, in conjunction with the object lessons of life 
with which we come in contact, that mould the character of men 
and women. This is emphatically true while young. The knowl- 
edge that children obtain of life, at first, is principally obtained 
through their visual organs. The objects they then come in 
contact with are continually shaping the future of their lives. 
A large portion of their early life is spent in the schoolroom. 
Every object within and without, contributes its mite to the 
characters forming there. 

Thus the schoolhouse is a silent yet eloquent preacher. If 
the schoolhouse and its environments are unsightly from any 
cause, or constructed out of proportion, cheerless and uncomfort- 
able, the effect in embryo is stamped on the young mind that is 
ever seeking to adapt itself to its surroundings. It finally succeeds 
by becoming of like character. For such a house, a pupil edu- 
cated there, has no affectionate regard or even respect in after 
years. 

On the other hand, let the schoolhouse and all its surroundings 
be neat and orderly; let an air of comfort pervade the room and 
everything around, within, without, give evidence of good taste 
and refinement; introduce the child into such environments and 
note results. Its attractiveness is winning. He delights in his 
surroundings. They become a part of his nature. His character 
is forming with a love for all that is desirable and good, and in 



148 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

after years, next to the parental home of his childhood, will he 
remember the old schoolhouse with unspeakable affection. 

The value of proper educational privileges and surroundings 
cannot be overestimated, as they have to do with the choicest 
elements that enter into the trifold organism of man, as the im- 
mortal Daniel Webster has well said: 

"If we work on marble, it will perish; if we work on brass, time 
will efface it. If we rear temples, they will crumble into dust; 
but if we work on immortal minds; if we imbue them with prin- 
ciples, and with the just fear of God and love of our fellowmen, 
we engrave on these tablets something which will brighten to all 
eternity." 

High Schools. 

Not until near the close of the nineteenth century has Corn- 
ish been favored by any legacy or fund for the establishment of 
a high school within her borders, or in any way made appropria- 
tions to favor those desiring high school privileges. 

The need of a school supplementary to the district or division 
school has always been recognized by all progressive students. 
Hence from time to time private funds have been contributed for 
the establishment of brief terms of school in town for advanced 
scholars. These have been a great aid to many, especially to 
those whose finances were limited. After receiving these addi- 
tional school privileges many have left the schoolrooms for the 
activities of business. The advantages of such additional school- 
ing needs no proof. 

Such schools have usually been held in the most eligible school- 
rooms of the town, principally at the Flat; and in some instances 
in suitable private dwellings. Usually, these terms have been 
sandwiched between the summer and winter terms when the dis- 
trict schools were not in session. Teachers of advanced qualifi- 
cations have been employed. These have generally been selected 
from some academy or college. The last terms of high school 
in Cornish before the town system was adopted were held in 
district No. 7, in 1880-81, conducted by Miss Emily Leavitt 
(now Mrs. C. F. Huggins), a teacher of large experience, assisted 
by Rev. James T. Jackson. These were very successful terms. 

In addition to the local privileges already named, the advanced 
scholars of the town have, since 1813, been favored by the near 




WILLIAM W. MERCER. 



SCHOOLS. 149 

presence of an academy at Meriden. This academy has been a 
great boon to several scores of students from Cornish who have 
attended there, and have been fitted for college and otherwise 
prepared for the business of life. (See Kimball Union Academy.) 

As adjuncts of the high school as well as of the district school, 
singing schools, writing schools, and even spelling schools, have 
played an important part in the education of our youth. All 
these occasions are remembered as seasons of pleasure and profit. 

By the provisions of a will made by William W. Mercer 
of Cornish, who died September 19, 1895, a sum of nearly 
seven thousand dollars was left to the town on certain condi- 
tions. The income from this fund is to be devoted to the 
aid of worthy students of both sexes from Cornish, who, 
having passed the town schools, desire an academic or high 
school education. 

The town warrant of March 10, 1896, contained this article: 
"To see if the town will vote to accept the provisions of the will 
of William W. Mercer, and take action in regard to said legacy." 

At the meeting, the town voted to accept the legacy and to 
comply with the conditions of the will. The income has been 
expended agreeably to said will. Through this means a large 
number of worthy students from Cornish, who have attended 
Kimball Union Academy have received more or less aid from said 
income. Several students have been enabled thereby to pursue 
their studies longer, much to their advantage. 

School Supervision. 

From the settlement of the town until 1809, the selectmen were 
the sole guardians of the schools of the town. Upon them 
devolved the locating of the schools, the hiring of teachers and 
providing for schools and superintending the same. 

As the population increased, and also the number of schools, 
it became evident that another set of officers should be chosen 
to have the entire charge of the schools, and thus relieve the se- 
lectmen of this duty. These were usually to be chosen by the 
people and were styled "Inspectors of Schools." This title was 
continued until 1827 when a law was passed defining their duties, 
and changing their title to that of "Superintendents of Schools." 
This title continued until 1885, when it was again changed to that 
of "School Board." 



150 



HISTORY OF CORNISH. 



The law of 1827 also provided that each district should be inde- 
pendent in all its local affairs, and that a prudential committee 
be chosen by each district, whose duties would be the hiring 
of teachers, the maintaining of schools and having a general 
care of them. In this way, the superintending committee was 
relieved of all the financial concerns of each and every district 
in town, their only province being that of determining the quali- 
fications of the teachers employed, and a general supervision 
of their schools while they were in session. This was under the 
district school system which ended in 1885. Since this date 
the supervision of schools, together with the duties of the pruden- 
tial committees have devolved upon the school board. 

The following is a list of the supervisory officers of the schools 
of the town as far as can be gathered from the records. 

For the list previous to 1809, the reader is referred to the list 
of the selectmen of that period. Then a record begins as 
follows : 



Inspectors of Schools. 



1809 



1810 



1811 



1812 
1813 



1814 
1815 

1816 

1817 



Harvey Chase. 1818 

Rev. Joseph Rowell. 
Rev. Ariel Kendrick. 
Rev. Joseph Rowell. 1819 

Timothy W. Hall. 
Newton Whittlesey. 
Rev. Ariel Kendrick. 1820 

Rev. Joseph Rowell. 
Wm. Whittlesey. 1821 

No record. 

Rev. Joseph Rowell. 1822 

Eleazer Jackson, Jr. 
Hon. Ithamar Chase. 
One person for each school, 1823 
name not given. 1824 

Rev. Joseph Rowell. 1825 

Rev. Ariel Kendrick. 
Eleazer Jackson, Jr. 
Rev. Joseph Rowell. 1826 

Rev. Ariel Kendrick. 
Wm. Whittlesey. 

Wm. Deming. 1827 

Rev. Joseph Rowell. 
Rev. Ariel Kendrick. 



Eleazer Jackson, Jr. 

Rev. Joseph Rowell. 

Rev. Ariel Kendrick. 

Newton Whittlesey. 

Rev. Joseph Rowell. 

Rev. Ariel Kendrick. 

Eleven persons, one from each 

district; names not given. 
Twelve persons, one from each 

district, names not given. 
Newton Whittlesey. 
Rev. Ariel Kendrick. 
Rev. Joseph Rowell. 
No record. 
No record. 
Eleazer Jackson. 
Arunah Burnap. 
Benj. Chapman. 
Newton Whittlesey. 
Rev. George Leonard. 
Rev. Joseph Rowell. 
Newton Whittlesey. 
Rev. George Leonard. 
Rev. Joseph Rowell. 



SCHOOLS. 



151 



After 1827 no record of these officers appears on the records 
of the town until 1843. During a part of these years, superin- 
tendents were probably chosen, but their names and the records 
of their doings have not been found. During several of these 
years votes were passed showing that the people desired to dis- 
pense with the services of the superintendents. 



Superintendents of Schools, 1843-85. 



1843 



1844 



1845 



1846 



1847 



1848 



1849 



1850 



1851 



1852 
1853 
1854 
1855 
1856 



Harvey Chase. 


1856 


William Balloch. 


Rev. Alvah Spaulding. 




Lyman Hall. 


Elijah Boardrnan. 


1857 


William Balloch. 


Rev. Oliver H. Staples. 


1858 


William Balloch. 


Rev. Alvah Spaulding. 


1859 


Adophus G. Vinton. 


Elijah Boardrnan. 


I860 


Adolphus G. Vinton. 


Rev. Alvah Spaulding. 


1861 


Elihu H. Pike. 


Rev. N. P. Foster. 


1862 


Rev. D. P. Deming. 


Eleazer Jackson, Jr. 


1863 


Rev. D. P. Deming. 


Rev. N. P. Foster. 


1864 


Henry Ayers. 


Rev. Alvah Spaulding. 


1865 


George W. Hunt. 


Rufus A. Putnam. 


1866 


George W. Hunt. 


Elijah Boardrnan. 


1867 


George W. Hunt. 


Lyman Hall. 


1868 


George W. Hunt. 


Harrison Leslie. 


1869 


George W. Hunt. 


Lyman Hall. 


1870 


Henry M. Day. 


Elijah Boardrnan. 


1871 


Henry M. Day. 


Chauncey P. Jenney. 


1872 


Rev. Charles M. Palmer, 


Chauncey P. Jenney. 


1873 


Rev. Benj. P. Spaulding. 


Eleazer Jackson. 


1874 


Rev. Benj. P. Spaulding. 


William Balloch. 


1875 


Rev. James T. Jackson. 


Eleazer Jackson. 


1876 


Rev. James T. Jackson. 


Chauncey P. Jenney. 


1877 


Rev. James T. Jackson. 


William Balloch. 


1878 


Rev. James T. Jackson. 


Lyman Hall. 


1879 


Emily Leavitt. 


Elijah Boardrnan. 


1880 


Emily Leavitt. 


Carlos F. Huggins. 


1881 


Martha W. Day. 


Rev. Alvah Spaulding. 


1882 


Martha W. Day. 


Rev. Alvah Spaulding. 




Herbert Deming. 


Rev. Alvah Spaulding. 


1883 


Herbert Deming. 


Rev. Alvah Spaulding. 


1884 


George L. Deming. 


Rev. Alvah Spaulding. 


1885 


George L. Deming. 



Members of the School Board. 

The following is a list of members of the school board since 
the town district system was adopted. The law was passed in 
1885. On the March following (1886), the first members were 



152 



HISTORY OF CORNISH. 



elected. The law provided that one of the members of the board 
should be elected for three years, one for two years, and one for 
one year, and that thereafter, ordinarily, one member was to 
be elected annually to supply the place of a retiring senior 
member : 



1886 



1887 



1888 



1889 



1890 



1891 



1892 



1893 



1894 



1895 



189G 



1897 



1898 



Chester Pike. 




1898 


Maurice J. Duncklee. 


Herbert Deming. 






Frank J. Chadbourne. 


W. H. Child. 




1899 


Frank J. Chadbourne. 


Chester Pike. 






Ella I. Richardson (Mrs.S.K.) 


Herbert Deming. 






Maurice J. Duncklee. 


W. H. Child. 




1900 


Frank J. Chadbourne. 


Chester Pike. 






Ella I. Richardson. 


W. H. Child. 






Jennie L. Lear (resigned). 


Herbert Deming. 




1901 


Ella I. Richardson. 


W. H. Child. 






George L. Deming. 


Herbert Deming. 






Josiah Davis. 


Stephen A. Tracy (res: 


igned). 


1902 


George L. Deming. 


Herbert Deming. 






Josiah Davis. 


George L. Deming. 






Amy I. Hilliard. 


W. H. Child. 




1903 


Josiah Davis. 


George L. Deming. 






Amy I. Hilliard. 


W. H. Child. 






Rebecca Bartlett. 


Albert E. Wellman. 




1904 


Fred C. Pardy (appointed) 


W. H. Child. 






Alice O. F.Young (Mrs. W.E.) 


James W. Fitch (appointed). 




George L. Deming. 


Samuel Putnam. 




1905 


Alice O. F. Young. 


James W. Fitch. 






George L. Deming. 


Samuel Putnam (resigned). 




Fred C. Pardy. 


Herbert Deming. 




1906 


George L. Deming. 


Frank J. Chadborne 


(ap- 




Fred C. Pardy. 


pointed) . 






Herbert Deming. 


Herbert Deming. 




1907 


Fred C. Pardy. 


W. H. Child. 






Herbert Deming. 


Herbert Deming. 






George L. Deming. 


W. H. Child. 




1908 


Herbert Deming. 


Frank J. Chadbourne. 






George L. Deming. 


W. H. Child. 






Margaret Beaman. 


Frank J. Chadbourne. 




1909 


Elwyn W. Quimby (ap- 


Rebecca Bartlett (Mrs. ] 


D.D.). 




pointed). 


Frank J. Chadbourne. 






Fred C. Pardy (appointed). 


Rebecca Bartlett. 






Herbert Deming. 


Nellie F. Gould (Mrs. 


Chas. 


1910 


Fred C. Pardy. 


E.) (resigned). 






Herbert Deming. 


Rebecca Bartlett. 






Eben M. Johnson. 



SCHOOLS. 153 

In concluding the subject of the schools of Cornish, we would 
say that a chapter might well be devoted to the teachers of the 
schools during the several epochs of the town's history, but it 
would be a colossal undertaking to obtain a full list of those who 
have taught in town. Over seven hundred different teachers 
have had charge of the schools in Cornish since 1850. Prior to 
this date, extending back to the settlement of the town, a space 
of nearly eighty-five years, probably there were as many more. 

In passing this great number, it is proper to say, that among 
their ranks have been enrolled many who were eminently adapted 
to their calling, and who have given abundant evidence of their 
fitness by being repeatedly employed in the work. Some of 
these completed nearly a half century of teaching service here in 
to win 

It is also a matter of justice to make honorable allusion to a 
large number who were natives of Cornish, who have gone out 
and taken high rank as teachers and have spent, and are spending, 
their lives in educational work. Of such, Cornish may well be 
proud. A partial list of these may be found in the following article 
prepared from the records of Kimball Union Academy by Mrs. 
Marion W. Palmer. 

Kimball Union Academy. 

An important factor in the educational history of Cornish is 
its proximity to Kimball Union Academy. To this school, dis- 
tinguished during its existence for thorough mental training and 
high moral standards, Cornish has sent many of her sons and 
daughters. Indeed, the school itself may be said to be a child of 
Cornish, for Mrs. Kimball, the wife of the founder was a daughter 
of Moses Chase, one of the pioneers of Cornish, and was in full 
sympathy with her husband in the founding of the school, and, 
according to tradition, advised him in making it his residuary 
legatee. She gave freely of her counsel and her means to the 
school, enabling the board of trust to open the Female Depart- 
ment in 1839, which proved an important extension to the original 
design. From the year 1816 when we find the name of Levi Cobb, 
a farmer, upon the rolls until 1880 we may count up ninety-eight 
from Cornish who graduated or nearly completed the full course at 
Meriden. Of these sixteen became ministers, six physicians, four 
lawyers and a large proportion of the ninety-eight, both men and 



154 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

women, were teachers for a longer or shorter time. Beside these 
there is a still larger number who attended this school for a few 
terms, and from it received a touch of blessing which enabled them 
to do a better work in the world than could otherwise have been 
theirs. This work may be as important and count for as much 
in the great day of reckoning as that of those who went to higher 
schools and thence into professional life. 

We cannot overestimate the worth of education and religious 
culture in the home, nor can we bring together for review these 
homes, scattered as they are, far and wide, but we are thankful 
that Cornish has had these households and that she has sent her 
children forth to reproduce them through our own and other 
lands. It would be a labor of love to give a history of these ninety- 
eight mentioned, and recount the work they have done; but that 
would require volumes and the hand of a master. It is, indeed, a 
delicate task to select any names from so many that have done 
well, but we cannot refrain from mentioning a few individuals 
and families who have received especial benefit from the insti- 
tution: 

Rev. Levi H. Cobb, D. D., winning as a preacher and teacher 
and efficient in his work for the Church Building Society. 

The Leavitts, who went out from their Cornish Flat home and 
for two generations have been eminent and successful preachers 
of the gospel. 

The Wellmans, through the influence of this institution have 
sent out one, eminent as a preacher, another as a physician and 
several teachers of rare merit. 

The Rowells, a brother and sister going as missionaries to 
the Hawaiian Islands, and another brother, a clergyman promi- 
nent in religious work. 

The Tracy s, one of whom published four arithmetics and be- 
came professor of mathematics in Lansing, Mich., and teacher in 
several other places. 

The Wymans, one becoming much noted for his musical gifts, 
while others of the name excelled as teachers. 

The Spauldings, one of whom, the son of one who for thirty-six 
years was pastor at the " Center, " became a distinguished preacher 
of the gospel. 

The Harringtons, one of whom became a clergyman and was a 
power in all religious work. 



SCHOOLS. 



155 



Champion S. Chase, whom the great West knew as the mayor 
of Omaha and very eminent in political and social circles. 

The Powers, a name almost synonymous with good teachers, 
while others have adorned the legal profession, and the halls of 
Congress have listened to the voice of one of this name well known 
as a devoted alumni of K. U. A. 

Nor would we omit to mention the apostles of healing: Ford, 
Jackson, Comings, Fletcher, and others who have attained high 
standing in their profession. 

Others might be particularly mentioned as the Halls, the 
Comings, the Chases, the Richardsons, the Stones, the Fletchers, 
the Robinsons, and scores of others might be named upon 
whom Kimball Union Academy has set her seal of honor and 
influence. 

The following is a list of the Cornish graduates of K. U. A. 
from the opening of the school in 1813 to 1880: 



CLASS. 

Jonathan Leavitt 1818 

Thomas Hall 1819 

Jeffries Hall 1824 

Moody Chase 1825 

Moody Harrington 1827 

Daniel F. Richardson 1827 

Calvin Tracy 1827 

Levi N. Tracy 1830 

Daniel C. Rowell 1833 

George R. Rowell 1833 

Horace Richardson 1833 

John D. Ford 1835 

Horace Hall 1835 

George C. Chase 1836 

Benjamin N. Comings 1837 

George P. Comings 1838 

Truman Rickart 1838 

Jonathan Wyman 1838 

Francis B. Chase 1839 

Albert Chase 1840 

James C. Jackson 1840 

William A. Stone 1840 

Benjamin C. Chase 1842 

Joshua W. Wellman 1842 

Dudley T. Chase 1844 

Joseph Rowell 1844 



CLASS. 

Samuel W. Rowell 1845 

Levi Henry Cobb 1850 

William K. Fletcher 1852 

Abbie B.Cobb 1853 

Emily S. Leavitt 1854 

William H. Child 1856 

Frances L. Wyman 1856 

Lysander T. Spaulding 1857 

Marcia L. Kelley 1857 

Cordelia I. Richardson 1857 

Horace B. Wellman 1859 

Caroline M. Powers 1859 

Marion W. Powers 1859 

D. Story Fletcher 1860 

Erastus B. Powers 1860 

Sarah J. Walker 1860 

Ellen M. Spaulding 1861 

Oscar D. Robinson 1862 

James N. Edminster 1862 

Flora M.Clark 1866 

Alice V. Powers 1867 

Samuel L. Powers 1870 

David L. Spaulding 1871 

Martha W. Day 1872 

Albert K. Smith 1873 

Wallace L. Bugbee 1880 



156 



HISTORY OF CORNISH. 



List of Graduates from Cornish after 1880 to present, omitting dates. 



Carrie M. Deming. 
Edmund B. Chadbourne. 
Lizzie S. Chadbourne. 
Emily N. Tracy. 
Nettie G. Williams. 
Edmund B. Hunt. 
Arbella A. Johnson. 
Ada P. Wellman. 
Nellie J. Johnson. 
George D. Austin. 
Henry S. Richardson. 
Ida L. Child. 
Charles Alden Tracy. 
Clarence C. Walker. 
Mary Ellen Goward. 
Nellie Lucy Wyman. 



Ina Eliza Hilliard. 
Perley L. Barton. 
Cora May Andrews. 
Claude H. Deming. 
Clyde Leroy Deming. 
Leroy Harlow. 
Charles S. Richardson. 
Herman L. Walker. 
Harry D. Wither ell. 
Hubert I. Deming. 
Harold A. Fitch. 
Charlotte A. Davies. 
Annie Rena Howard. 
Mildred Lucile Hunt. 
George E. Hunt. 



Time would fail us to mention all who have attained distinction 
nor would we place the work of those named above others who 
are not mentioned. In humble spheres and quiet homes the real 
work of the world is done. In the schools of Cornish, and in the 
lyceums of the olden day, many by the hands of others received 
blessing from Kimball Union, who had never been within her 
walls. 

All good is not in the past. Cornish since 1880 has sent her 
usual quota to Meriden, graduating thirty. As the years go by, 
these also will come to places of influence and, even now, some 
are worthy to be remembered with the illustrious of the past. 



CHAPTER X. 

Town Officers. 

During the first twenty years after the organization of the 
town, ending with the election of 1787, the town annually elected 
five selectmen. 

Ever after this year, beginning with 1788, the number of select- 
men annually elected has been three. 

.SELECTMEN. YEAES OP THEIR SERVICE. 

Samuel Chase 1767, 1768, 1769, 1770, 1771, 1772, 1773, 1774, 

1775, 1785. 

Elijah Cady 1767, 1769. 

Jonathan Chase 1767, 1768, 1769, 1775, 1777, 1779, 1780, 1787. 

Dudley Chase 1767. 

Moses Chase 1767, 1768, 1771, 1772, 1773, 1777, 1778, 1782, 1784. 

Dyer Spaulding 1768, 1769, 1770, 1771, 1772, 1773, 1777, 1788. 

Daniel Putnam 1768. 

William Richardson 1769, 1770, 1771. 

Nathaniel Walker 1770. 

John March 1770. 

Elias Cady 1771, 1773, 1774, 1778, 1782. 

Samuel Chase, Jr 1772. 

Jonathan Huggins 1772, 1774. 

Joseph Vinton 1773, 1774. 

Daniel Waldo 1774. 

Samuel Comings 1775, 1776, 1781. 

Thomas Hall 1776, 1778, 1781. 

William Ripley 1776, 1777, 1778, 1780, 1782, 1783, 1784, 1786, 1787. 

Thomas Chase 1777, 1789. 

Stephen Cady 1778. 

Eleazer Jackson 1778, 1781, 1783, 1795, 1800, 1804, 1817, 1818, 1819. 

Abel Spaulding 1779, 1780. 

Ebenezer Deming 1779. 

Stephen Child 1779, 1780, 1784. 

William Paine 1779, 1780. 

John Huggins 1781. 

Daniel Chase 1781, 1783. 

Reuben Jirauld 1782, 1783. 

Benjamin Comings 1782, 1789. 

Caleb Chase 1783, 1799. 



158 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

SELECTMEN. YEARS OF THEIR SERVICE. 

John Weld 1784, 1791, 1792, 1793, 1794, 1807, 1809. 

William Deming 1784, 1788, 1796, 1797. 

Ichabod Smith 1785, 1786. 

Ebenezer Brewer 1785. 

Samuel Chase, 3d 1785, 1787. 

John Morse 1785, 1786. 

Elias Bingham 1787, 1788, 1807, 1808, 1811. 

Andrew Tracy 1787. 

Moody Hall 1789, 1790, 1791, 1792, 1793, 1794, 1796, 1798, 1799, 

1801. 

Benjamin Dorr 1790, 1796, 1797, 1799. 

Ithamar Chase 1789, 1798, 1799, 1800, 1801, 1802. 

David Reed 1791, 1792, 1795, 1802, 1803. 

James Ripley 1793, 1794, 1800, 1801, 1802, 1803, 1804, 1805, 1808, 

1809, 1810, 1816, 1817, 1818. 

Joseph Chapman 1795, 1797, 1798, 1799, 1804, 1805, 1806. 

Moses Weld 1799, 1805, 1806. 

Joshua Wyman 1803, 1811, 1812, 1813, 1814, 1815. 

Samuel Putnam 1806, 1817. 

.John Lovell Kimball 1809, 1810, 1818. 

Newton Whittlesey 1810, 1812, 1813, 1814, 1815. 

George Cook 1811, 1812, 1813, 1814, 1815, 1816. 

Timothy W. Hall 1816. 

Jonathan Wyman 1817, 1820, 1822, 1823, 1824, 1828. 

Solomon Wellman, Jr 1819, 1820, 1821, 1822, 1823, 1824. 

Eleazer Jackson, Jr 1820, 1821, 1825, 1826, 1829, 1830, 1831, 1832, 1839, 

1840, 1842, 1843, 1844. 

Benjamin Chapman 1821, 1822, 1823, 1825, 1826. 

John Weld 1821. 

Joseph Huggins 1824, 1846. 

Arunah Burnap 1825, 1826, 1841. 

Seth Johnson 1827. 

John L. Putnam 1827, 1829, 1830, 1833, 1836, 1839. 

Sylvanus Bryant 1833. 

Benjamin Comings, Jr.. . .1828, 1837, 1840, 1842. 

Obed Powers 1834, 1835. 

Leonard Comings 1828. 

Israel Hall 1834, 1835, 1837, 1838, 1841, 1843, 1844, 1845, 1846, 

1848, 1849, 1850, 1851, 1852, 1855. 

Rufus Day 1829, 1830. 

William S. Deming 1836, 1840, 1842, 1845. 

Simon Coburn 1831, 1832. 

William F. Comings 1831, 1832. 

Amos Richardson 1833, 1834, 1835, 1839. 

Stillman Jackson 1837, 1838. 

Reuben Davis 1838. 

Ebenezer Cole 1S45, 1847, 1853. 



TOWN OFFICERS. 159 

SELECTMEN. YEAES OF THEIR SERVICE. 

Joshua B. Wellman 1842, 1843. 

John Johnson 1846. 

James W. Bradley 1847, 1849, 1850. 

John T. Freeman 1847. 

Hiram Little 1844, 1848, 1849, 1850, 1853, 1854. 

Joseph B. Comings 1836, 1848, 1855, 1856, 1857. 

George W. Weld 1850, 1852, 1854. 

James M. Davidson 1851, 1852, 1856, 1857, 1858, 1873, 1874, 1875. 

Gilbert Hilliard 1851. 

Joshua B. Wyman 1853, 1854. 

Willard Heywood 1855, 1856. 

Chester Pike 1857, 1858, 1859. 

Lemuel Martindale 1858, 1859, 1860, 1866. 

George D. Kenyon 1859, 1860, 1861. 

William Balloch 1860, 1861, 1S62, 1863, 1865. 

Hiram A. Day 1861, 1862. 

Norman A. Deming 1862, 1863, 1864, 1875, 1876, 1877, 1881, 1882, 1883. 

Benjamin S. Fletcher 1863, 1864. 

Henry Gould 1864, 1865. 

Jonas Hastings 1865, 1866, 1867. 

Stephen A. Tracy 1866, 1867, 1868, 1871, 1872. 

Louis T. Chase 1867, 1868, 1869. 

Norman E. Hebard 1868, 1869, 1870. 

Dana N. Morgan 1869. 

Charles E. Jackson 1870, 1871, 1872, 1873, 1885, 1886, 1887, 1888, 1889. 

SethCole 1870. 

William C. Hart 1871, 1874, 1875, 1876. 

Edward O. Day 1872, 1873, 1874, 1876, 1877, 1879, 1880, 1882. 

Orville B. Williams 1877, 1884. 

Carlos F. Huggins 1878. 

Elias S. Leavitt 1878, 1879. 

Chauncey P. Jenney 1878, 1879, 1884. 

Benjamin T. Harlow 1880, 1881, 1882. 

Philander W. Smith 1880, 1881. 

William Tandy 1883, 1889. 

Edward T. Ayers 1883. 

William E. Westgate 1884, 1885, 1886. 

Albert E. Wellman 1885, 1886, 1887. 

Jacob Beal 1887. 

Charles H. Andrews 1888. 

James W. Fitch 1888, 1889, 1890. 

George L. Deming 1890, 1891. 

William W. Balloch 1890, 1891, 1892, 1893, 1894, 1896, 1897, 1898, 1899, 

1900, 1901. 

Charles H. Deming 1891, 1892, 1893, 1894. 

Clayton B. Hilliard 1892. 

Edgar A. Churchill 1893, 1894, 1895, 1896, 1901, 1902, 1904. 



160 



HISTORY OF CORNISH. 



SELECTMEN. YEARS OF THEIR SERVICE. 

Edwin G. Kenyon 1895. 

Frank C. Jackson 1895, 1896, 1897. 

Levi R. Dole 1897, 1898, 1899. 

Edwin O. Goward 1898, 1899, 1900. 

Eben M. Johnson 1900, 1901, 1902, 1903. 

Fenno B. Comings 1902, 1903. 

James B. Chadbourne. . . .1903, 1904, 1905, 1906, 1907, 1908. 

Erwin W. Quimby 1904, 1905, 1906, 1907, 1908, 1909. 

Robert A. Austin 1905, 1906, 1907, 1908. 

Fred N. Weld 1909, 1910, 1911. 

Norman C. Penniman. . . .1909, 1910, 1911. 
Charles S. Lear 1910, 1911. 



YEAR. 


TOWN CLERKS. 


YEAR. 


TOWN CLERKS 


1767.. 


. . Daniel Putnam. 


1798.. 


. .Moses Weld 


1768 . . 


. .Jonathan Chase. 


1799 . . 


. .Moses Weld. 


1769 . . 


. .Daniel Putnam. 


1800.. 


. .Samuel Putnam. 


1770.. 


. .Daniel Putnam. 


1801 . . 


. .Samuel Putnam. 


1771.. 


. .Daniel Putnam. 


1802.. 


. .Samuel Putnam. 


1772.. 


. .Daniel Putnam. 


1803 . . 


. .Samuel Putnam. 


1773.. 


. .Daniel Putnam. 


1804.. 


. .Samuel Putnam. 


1774.. 


. .Daniel Putnam. 


1805.. 


. .Samuel Putnam. 


1775.. 


. .Daniel Putnam. 


1806 . . 


. . Samuel Putnam. 


1776.. 


. .William Ripley. 


1807.. 


. . Samuel Putnam. 


1777.. 


. .William Ripley. 


1808 . . 


. .Samuel Putnam. 


1778.. 


. .William Ripley. 


1809.. 


. . Newton Whittlesey. 


1779.. 


. .John Morse and William 


1810.. 


. . Newton Whittlesey. 




Ripley. 


1811.. 


. . Newton Whittlesey. 


1780.. 


. .John Morse. 


1812.. 


. . Newton Whittlesey. 


1781 . . 


. .John Morse. 


1813.. 


. . Newton Whittlesey. 


1782.. 


. .Thomas Chase. 


1814.. 


. . Newton Whittlesey. 


1783.. 


. .Thomas Chase. 


1815. . 


. . Newton Whittlesey. 


1784.. 


. .Caleb Chase. 


1816.. 


. . Newton Whittlesey. 


1785.. 


. .Caleb Chase. 


1817. . 


. .Newton Whittlesey. 


1786.. 


. .Caleb Chase. 


1818.. 


. .Newton Whittlesey, 


1787.. 


. .Caleb Chase. 


1819.. 


. . Newton Whittlesey. 


1788. . 


. .Caleb Chase. 


1820.. 


. . Newton Whittlesey, 


1789 . . 


. .Caleb Chase. 


1821 . . 


. .Stephen Cole. 


1790.. 


. .Moses Weld. 


1822 . . 


. . Stephen Cole. 


1791 . . 


. .Moses Weld. 


1823.. 


. . Stephen Cole. 


1792.. 


. .Moses Weld. 


1824.. 


. .Stephen Cole. 


1793.. 


. .Moses Weld. 


1825.. 


. .William Whittlesey 


1794.. 


. .Moses Weld. 


1826. . 


. . William Whittlesey 


1795.. 


. .Moses Weld. 


1827. . 


. .William Whittlesey, 


1796.. 


. .Moses Weld. 


1828.. 


. .William Whittlesey, 


1797 . . 


. .Moses Weld. 


1829.. 


. .William Whittlesey 



TOWN OFFICERS. 



161 



YEAR. 


TOWN CLERKS. 


1830.. 


. .John S. Blanchard. 


1831 . . 


. .John S. Blanchard. 


1832 . . 


. .John S. Blanchard. 


1833.. 


. .Eleazer Jackson. 


1834.. 


. .John T. Freeman. 


1835.. 


. .John T. Freeman. 


1836.. 


. . John T. Freeman. 


1837.. 


. .John T. Freeman. 


1838.. 


. .John T. Freeman. 


1839.. 


. .Orlando Powers. 


1840.. 


. .John T. Freeman. 


1841 . . 


. .John T. Freeman. 


1842 . . 


. .Orlando Powers. 


1843.. 


. .Elijah Boardman. 


1844.. 


. .John T. Freeman. 


1845:. 


. .John T. Freeman. 


1846 . . 


. .John T. Freeman. 


1847.. 


. .John T. Freeman. 


1848.. 


. .John T. Freeman. 


1849.. 


. .Orlando Powers. 


1850.. 


. .Orlando Powers. 


1851 . . 


. .Orlando Powers. 


1852 . . 


. .Orlando Powers. 


1853.. 


. .Orlando Powers. 


1854.. 


. .John T. Breck. 


1855.. 


. .John T. Breck. 


1856.. 


. .John T. Breck. 


1857 . . 


..JohnT. Breck. 


1858.. 


..John T. Breck. 


1859.. 


. .JohnT. Breck. 


1860 . . 


. .JohnT. Breck. 


1861 . . 


. .JohnT. Breck. 


1862 . . 


. .JohnT. Breck. 


1863. . 


. .JohnT. Breck. 


1864.. 


. .John T. Breck. 


1865.. 


. .John T. Breck. 


1866 . . 


. .JohnT. Breck. 


1867.. 


. .Arunah Burnap. 


1868.. 


. .Daniel Chase. 


1869.. 


. .Daniel Chase. 


1870.. 


. . Daniel Chase and 




Gleason. 


YEAR. 


MODERATORS. 


1767 . . 


. . Samuel Chase. 


1768.. 


. . Moses Chase. 


1769.. 


. . Samuel Chase. 


12 



T. A. 



YEAR. TOWN CLERKS. 

1871 Timothy A. Gleason. 

1872 Timothy A. Gleason. 

1873 Timothy A. Gleason. 

1874. . . .Timothy A. Gleason. 

1875 Timothy A. Gleason. 

1876. . . .Timothy A. Gleason. 

1877 Timothy A. Gleason. 

187S Samuel M. Green. 

1879 Orlando Powers. 

1880 Samuel M. Green. 

1881 Samuel M. Green. 

1882 Samuel M. Green. 

1883 Samuel M. Green and John 

C. Boynton. 

1884 John C. Boynton. 

1885 John C. Boynton. 

1886 John C. Boynton. 

1887 John C. Boynton. 

1888 John C. Boynton. 

1889 William H. Sisson. 

1890 William H. Sisson. 

1891 William H. Sisson. 

1892 William H. Sisson. 

1893 Paul Davidson. 

1894 Paul Davidson. 

1895 Paul Davidson. 

1896 Paul Davidson. 

1897 Paul Davidson. 

1898 Paul Davidson. 

1899 Paul Davidson. 

1900 Paul Davidson. 

1901 Paul Davidson. 

1902 Paul Davidson. 

1903 Paul Davidson. 

1904 Paul Davidson. 

1905 Paul Davidson. 

1906 Paul Davidson. 

1907 Paul Davidson. 

1908 Paul Davidson. 

1909 Paul Davidson. 

1910 Paul Davidson. 



YEAR. MODERATORS. 

1770 Samuel Chase. 

1771.. . .Samuel Chase. 
1772 Moses Chase. 



162 



HISTORY OF CORNISH. 



YEAE. 


MODERATORS. 


YEAR. 


1773.. 


. .Samuel Chase. 


1820.. 


1774.. 


. . Samuel Chase. 


1821.. 


1775.. 


. . Samuel Chase. 


1822.. 


1776.. 


. .Samuel Comings. 


1823 . . 


1777.. 


. . Moses Chase. 


1824. . 


1778. . 


. . Moses Chase. 


1825.. 


1779.. 


. . Moses Chase, Esq. 


1826.. 


1780.. 


. .William Ripley. 


1827.. 


1781.. 


. .Samuel Chase. 


1828.. 


1782.. 


. . Moses Chase. 


1829.. 


1783.. 


. .William Ripley. 


1830.. 


1784. . 


. .William Ripley. 


1831 . . 


1785.. 


. .Samuel Chase. 


1832.. 


1786.. 


. .Samuel Chase. 


1833.. 


1787. . 


. .Samuel Chase. 


1834.. 


1788.. 


. . Moses Chase. 


1835.. 


1789.. 


. . Jonathan Chase. 


1836 . . 


1790.. 


. .Jonathan Chase. 


1837.. 


1791 . . 


. .William Ripley. 


1838.. 


1792.. 


. .William Ripley. 


1839.. 


1793.. 


. .Jonathan Chase. 


1840.. 


1794.. 


. .Jonathan Chase. 


1841 . . 


1795.. 


. .Dea. Reuben Jirauld. 


1842.. 


1796.. 


. .William Deming. 


1843.. 


1797.. 


. .Capt. Caleb Chase. 


1844.. 


1798.. 


. . Capt. Caleb Chase. 


1845.. 


1799.. 


. .Capt. Caleb Chase. 


1846.. 


1800.. 


. .William Deming. 


1847.. 


1801 . . 


. . Ithamar Chase. 


1848.. 


1802.. 


. . Ithamar Chase. 


1849.. 


1803.. 


. . Ithamar Chase. 


1850.. 


1804.. 


. . Ithamar Chase. 


1851 . . 


1805.. 


. .Ithamar Chase. 


1852.. 


1806.. 


. .Ithamar Chase. 


1853.. 


1807.. 


. . Ithamar Chase. 


1854.. 


1808.. 


. .Ithamar Chase. 


1855.. 


1809.. 


. . Ithamar Chase. 


1856.. 


1810.. 


. . Ithamar Chase. 


1857.. 


1811.. 


. . Ithamar Chase. 


1858.. 


1812.. 


. .Thomas Chase. 


1859.. 


1813.. 


. .Harvey Chase. 


I860.. 


1814.. 


. . Ithamar Chase. 


1861 . . 


1815.. 


. . Harvey Chase. 


1862.. 


1816.. 


. .Caleb Chase. 


1863.. 


1817.. 


. . Harvey Chase. 


1864.. 


1818.. 


. .Caleb Chase. 


1865.. 


1819.. 


. .Harvey Chase. 


1866.. 



MODERATORS. 

. .William Whittlesey. 
. . Harvey Chase. 
. .William Whittlesey. 
. . Eleazer Jackson, Jr. 
. .Eleazer Jackson, Jr. 
. . Eleazer Jackson, Jr. 
. . Eleazer Jackson, Jr. 
. .Eleazer Jackson, Jr. 
. .William Whittlesey. 
. . Newton Whittlesey. 
. . Eleazer Jackson, Jr. 
. .Eleazer Jackson, Jr. 
. . Eleazer Jackson, Jr. 
. .John L. Putnam. 
. . Sylvanus Bryant. 
. . Eleazer Jackson, Jr. 
. .John L. Putnam. 
. .Newton Whittlesey. 
. . Eleazer Jackson, Jr. 
. . Eleazer Jackson, Jr. 
. . Eleazer Jackson, Jr. 
. . Harvey Chase. 
. .Harvey Chase. 
. . Eleazer Jackson, Jr. 
. . Eleazer Jackson, Jr. 
. .Israel Hall. 
. . Eleazer Jackson, Jr. 
. .William R. Kimball. 
. .William R. Kimball. 
. .Sylvanus Bryant. 
. . Sylvanus Bryant. 
. .Sylvanus Bryant. 
. .Sylvanus Bryant. 
. .Samuel P. Thrasher. 
. .Edward D. Baker. 
. . Ebenezer Cole. 
. .William R. Kimball. 
. .Sylvanus Bryant. 
. .Bradley Burr. 
. . Bradley Burr. 
..William Balloch. 
. .William Balloch. 
. .William Balloch. 
. .Chester Pike. 
. .Chester Pike. 
. . Chester Pike. 
. . Chester Pike. 



TOWN OFFICERS. 



163 



YEAR. 


MODERATORS. 


YEAR. 


MODERATORS. 


1867.. 


. .Chester Pike. 


1885.... 


Chester Pike. 


1868.. 


. . Chester Pike. 


1886.... 


Chester Pike. 


1869.. 


. .Chester Pike. 


1887.... 


Chester Pike. 


1870.. 


. . Chester Pike. 


1888.... 


Chester Pike. 


1871 . . 


. .Chester Pike. 


1889.... 


William Balloch. 


1872.. 


. . Chester Pike. 


1890.... 


George L. Deming. 


1873.. 


. . Chester Pike. 


1891 


George L. Deming. 


1874.. 


. .Chester Pike. 


1892-94, 


, .Chester Pike. 1 


1875.. 


. .Chester Pike. 


1894-96 


, .Chester Pike. 1 


1876.. 


. . Chester Pike. 


1896-98 


. .Chester Pike.i 


1877.. 


. .Chester Pike. 


1898-00 


. .George E. Fairbanks. 1 


1878.. 


. .Lemuel Martindale. 


1900-02 


. .George E. Fairbanks. 1 


1879.. 


. . Chester Pike. 


1902-04 


. .George E. Fairbanks. » 


1880.. 


. . Chester Pike. 


1904-06 


. .George E. Fairbanks. 1 


1881 . . 


. . Chester Pike. 


1906-08 


. .George L. Deming. 1 


1882.'. 


. . Chester Pike. 


1908-10 


. .George L. Deming. 1 


1883.. 


. . Chester Pike. 


1910-12 


. .William W. Balloch. 1 


1884.. 


. . Chester Pike. 







While a province under the dominion of Great Britain the 
colonists could assert no self-governing rights, hence no repre- 
sentatives were chosen until after the Declaration of Independ- 
ence. Even after this event the records show no representa- 
tion to the General Court of New Hampshire until 1782. There 
had, however, been a Provincial Congress organized at Exeter, 
July 21, 1774. This held several sessions, and on December 
21, 1775, it assumed the prerogatives of a legislature and adopted 
a temporary constitution. Under this, from 1776 to 1783, inclu- 
sive, the members of the legislature were elected for the term of 
one year, and convened on the third Wednesday of December 
following. The town of Cornish did not choose to be represented 
there until 1782. On this and the following year, she chose and 
sent her representatives. 

In 1782 Cornish was classed with Plainfield and Grantham, 
and sent one representative. In 1783-84 she was classed with 
Grantham alone and sent two representatives each of these 
years. Under the state constitution, which became operative 
in June, 1784, the legislature was elected on the second Tuesday 
of March for the term of one year, and convened on the first 
Wednesday in June. Cornish had chosen her representatives 
on the March preceding, and these were there. 

1 Elected for two years. 



164 



HISTORY OF CORNISH. 



For reasons not now known, the representative for 1785 was 
recalled. Cornish remained classified with Grantham until and 
including the session of 1787. After this, to the present time, 
she has been represented by but one person. From 1784 to 1878, 
inclusive, the legislature was elected on the second Tuesday in 
March of each year and convened on the June following. 

Beginning with the session of 1879, the members of the leg- 
islature were elected on the first Tuesday after the first Monday 
in November for the term of two years, and convened bien- 
nially on the first Wednesday in June following, until and includ- 
ing the session of 1889. Since, and including the session of 
1891, the legislature has convened biennially on the first Wednes- 
day in January, the members having been elected on the previous 
November. Thus the elections occur on the even years, and the 
sessions are convened on the odd years. 

The town has been represented by the following men: 



REPRESENTATIVES. 

. . Ithamar Chase. 
. . Ithamar Chase. 
. . Ithamar Chase. 
. .Ithamar Chase. 
. James Ripley. 
. . Ithamar Chase. 
. . Ithamar Chase. 
. .James Ripley. 
. .James Ripley. 2 
. .Capt. Daniel Chase. 2 
. .Capt. Daniel Chase. 2 
. .Caleb Chase, 2d. 3 
..Caleb Chase, 2d. 3 
.. Caleb Chase, 2d.' 
. .Newton Whittlesey. 3 
. .Newton Whittlesey. 3 
. .Newton Whittlesey. 3 
. .Newton Whittlesey. 3 
. .Eleazer Jackson, Jr. 3 
. .Eleazer Jackson, Jr. 3 
. .Eleazer Jackson, Jr. 3 
. . Eleazer Jackson, Jr. 3 

1 Classed with towns. 
'Elected March; convened December. 

3 Elected in March for one year, until and including 1878; convened in 
June for one year, until and including 1878. 



YEAR. 


REPRESENTATIVES. 


YEAR. 


1782.. . 


Abel Stevens. 1 


1802. . 




Moses Chase. 1 


1803 . . 




William Ripley. 1 


1804 . . 


1784... 


Moses Chase. 


1805 . . 




William Ripley. 1 


1806 . . 


1785. . . 


Rep. recalled. 1 


1S07 . . 


1786. . . 


Dudley Chase. 1 


1808 . . 


1787... 


Moses Chase. 1 


1809. . 


1788... 


Gen. Jonathan Chase. 


1810. . 


1789 . . . 


James Wellman. 


1811 . 


1790.. . 


James Wellman. 


1812.. 


1791... 


James Wellman. 


1813. . 


1792 . . . 


James Wellman. 


1814.. 


1793 . . . 


James Wellman. 


1815.. 


1794. .. 


Capt. Daniel Chase. 


1816.. 


1795. .. 


Capt. Daniel Chase. 


1817. . 


1796 . . . 


Capt. Daniel Chase. 


1818. . 


1797... 


Ithamar Chase. 


1819.. 


1798. . . 


Ithamar Chase. 


1820. . 


1799. .. 


Ithamar Chase. 


1821 . . 


1800. .. 


Ithamar Chase. 


1822 . . 


1801... 


Ithamar Chase. 


1823.. 



TOWN OFFICERS. 



105 



YEAR. 


REPRESENTATIVES. 


YEA! 


!. REPRESENTATIVES. 


1824 . . 


. .Eleazer Jackson, Jr. 1 


1865. . 


. .Joshua B. Wellman. 


1825.. 


. .Eleazer Jackson, Jr.' 


1866.. 


. .Seth Johnson. 


1826.. 


. .Benjamin Chapman.' 


1867.. 


. . Seth Johnson. 


1827.. 


. .John L. Putnam. 1 


1868 . . 


. .Joseph B. Comings. 


1828 . . 


. .Benjamin Chapman. 1 


1869. . 


. .Joseph B. Comings. 


1829.. 


. .Benjamin Chapman. 1 


1870. . 


. .James M. Davidson. 


1830 . . 


. .John L. Putnam. i 


1871 . . 


. .James M. Davidson. 


1831.. 


. .John L. Putnam. i 


1872. . 


. .Sylvanus W. Bryant. 


1832.. 


. John L. Putnam, i 


1873 . . 


. .George D. Ken yon. 


1833 . . 


. .John L. Putnam.i 


1874.. 


. . George D. Kenyon. 


1834. . 


. .Sylvanus Bryant. 1 




. . Stephen A. Tracy. 


1835. . 


. .Sylvanus Bryant. 1 


1876. . 


. .Stephen A. Tracy. 


1836 . . 


. .Could not elect, did not send. 


1877.. 


. .Charles E. Jackson. 


1837 . . 


. .William S. Deming. 1 


1878.. 


. .No election in March. 


1838 . •. 


. .William S. Deming. 1 




Philander W. Smith elected 


1839.. 


. .Reuben Davis. 1 




in November. 


1840 . . 


. .Henry Breck. 


1879 . . 


. .Session. 3 


1841 . . 


. .Henry Breck. 


1880.. 


. .Dr. Geo. W. Hunt.' 


1842.. 


. Reuben Davis. 


1881. . 


. .Session. 3 


1843 . . 




1882 . . 


. .Hiram A. Day. 2 


1844.. 


. .Orlando Powers. 


1883 . . 


. .Session. 3 


1845.. 




1884. . 


. .William Tandy. 2 


1846 . . 


. .Benjamin Chapman. 


1885 . . 


. .Session. 3 


1847.. 


. .Amos Richardson. 


1886. . 


. .Chester Pike. 2 


1848.. 


. .Ebenezer Cole. 


1887.. 


. .Session. 3 


1849.. 


. .Ebenezer Cole. 


1888.. 


. .Albert E. Wellman. 2 


1850.. 


. .Ebenezer Cole. 


1889.. 


. .Session. 3 


1851 . . 


. . Ebenezer Cole. 


1890. . 


. .William H. Sisson. 2 


1852.. 


. .Joseph Wood. 


1891 . . 


. .Session. 4 


1853 . . 


. .Joseph Wood. 


1892 . . 


. .Edward O. Day. 2 


1854.. 


. .Elijah Boardman. 


1893 . . 


. .Session. 4 


1855 . . 


. .Elijah Boardman. 


1894. . 


. .William E. West gate. 2 


1856 . . 


. .Israel Hall. 


1895. . 


. .Session. 4 


1857.. 


. . Israel Hall. 


1896 . . 


..William W. Balloch. 2 


1858 . . 


. .Alvin Comings. 


1S97. . 


. .Session. 4 


1859.. 


. .Alvin Comings. 


1898.. 


. .Frank C. Jackson. 2 


I860.. 


. .Arunah Burnap. 


1899. . 


. .Session. 4 


1861.. 


. .Arunah Burnap. 


1900.. 


. .Josiah Davis. - 


1862.. 


. .Chester Pike. 


1901. . 


. .Session.' 


1863.. 


. .Chester Pike. 


1902. . 


. .Winston Churchill. 2 


1864.. 


. .Joshua B. Wellman. 


1903 . . 


. .Session. 4 



■Elected in March for one year, until and including 1878; convened in 
June for one year, until and including 1878. 

2 Elected in November. 

3 Convened biennially in June. 

4 Convened biennially in January. 



166 



HISTORY OF CORNISH. 



TEAR. REPRESENTATIVES. 

1904 Winston Churchill.i 

1905 Session. 2 

1906 Herbert Deming.i 

1907 Session.* 

i Elected in November. 

s Convened biennially in January. 



YEAR. REPRESENTATIVES. 

1908 Erwin W. Quimby.» 

1909 Session.* 

1910 Fenno B. Comings.' 

1911 Session.* 



CHAPTER XI. 

Societies. 

Grand Army of the Republic. 

This society was organized during the winter of 1865-66 at 
Springfield, 111. The first post was established in Decatur, 111., 
in 1866. Its ritual is secret. All soldiers and sailors of the United 
States army and navy who served in the Civil War between 
April 12, 1861, and April 9, 1865, are eligible for membership, pro- 
vided they have had an honorable discharge from said service. 

Its object and purpose is fraternal association and fellowship, 
as well as the perpetuation of the memories of that fearful struggle 
by those who were engaged in it, and also to exercise a kind 
guardianship and care of the widows and orphans of their deceased 
comrades. The movement became immensely popular and nearly 
all the veterans of the North joined it. Its membership increased, 
so that in 1893 it numbered 407,781. Posts were established in 
most of the towns in the North wherever there was a sufficient 
number of the veterans to warrant it. The veterans of Cornish 
and Plainfield established the "William H. Bryant" Post No. 
63, which holds its meetings alternately at each place. It was 
organized June 21, 1887, and was named in honor of William H. 
Bryant, adjutant of the Fourteenth New Hampshire Regiment 
of volunteers, who died in the service. 

Their principal public exercises, aside from the burial of deceased 
comrades, are associated with the beautiful and impressive 
ceremonies of "Memorial Day," on May 30 of each year, 
when they meet to decorate the graves of their former comrades 
with national emblems and flowers. Forty years have so deci- 
mated their numbers that but a handful now remain. These 
are still faithful to the memory of their heroic dead. Of the great 
majority who have passed on it may be said: 

"On fame's eternal camping ground 
Their silent tents are spread, 
While glory guards with solemn round 
The bivouac of the dead." 



168 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Soldiers' Aid Society. 

Among the noblest and most humane institutions ever founded 
were those of the Sanitary and Christian Commission, organized 
during the War of the Rebellion. The horrors of war, in all their 
detail, had been precipitated upon our nation. This national 
crisis demanded the immediate presence of troops in large num- 
bers to preserve the life of the nation. These were hurried for- 
ward to the theater of strife wholly unprepared to meet the fearful 
conditions that were sure to be their portion. The government 
at this period had made no provision for the amelioration of the 
condition of her soldiery beyond their blankets, uniform and 
rations. The new recruits from homes of comfort and plenty 
were forced to endure hardships that soon told upon their physical 
as well as their moral constitutions. Sickness became prevalent 
in camp. Sanitary laws were few and poorly administered and 
suffering increased. To these conditions were added the victims 
of strife on the battlefield. These could not receive the kindly 
attention they needed, for aside from the surgeon's services, there 
were none to minister to them as they needed. 

The government at first seemed blind to these conditions 
owing, perhaps, to its anxiety to swell the number of its defenders. 
When this state of things became known, a wail of sympathy 
arose from the entire North. This soon took forms of organiza- 
tion called the Sanitary Commission and the Christian Commis- 
sion; the one having special reference to the health and physical 
welfare of the soldiers, and the other providing as well for 
their moral and religious needs. 

Hand in hand these two agencies of love and mercy followed the 
fortunes of our soldiery throughout the entire war. The women 
of the North, without exception, espoused the cause of their 
fathers, husbands and brothers, and were first and foremost in 
all plans and labors to relieve their necessities and mitigate their 
sufferings. Nearly every village and hamlet of the North had its 
organization, and meetings were often held to raise funds and 
prepare articles for the comfort of their dear ones in the army. 
Beside the preparation of bandages and scraping of lint, the ladies 
prepared articles for sale and at times held fairs or festivals when 
these articles were sold, oftentimes realizing considerable sums 
to aid them in their benevolent work. 



SOCIETIES. 169 

Cornish was wide awake on the subject and was well organized 
with a large band of faithful, sympathetic and efficient workers. 
They sent a good many packages to the "boys in blue" whose 
hearts were cheered thereby; and none watched with deeper 
interest the fortunes of the war than did the good women of Cor- 
nish. Just previous to the close of the war they held one of their 
festivals for the benefit of the soldiers. The event was successful 
and a goodly sum was raised. As the boys soon "came marching 
home" this money was not needed and so was never sent them. 
A portion of it was afterwards expended for a chandelier for the 
Baptist Church, and the balance of it, with other money remain- 
ing in their treasury, amounting in all to $176.80, was devoted 
to the purchase of the soldiers' monument in 1889. (See 
Soldiers' Monument.) 

"Cornish Colonization Society. " 

Early woven into the fabric of our national life was the insti- 
tution of slavery. It began with the importation of a cargo of 
slaves into Virginia in 1619, and it was gradually introduced into 
the other colonies. It seemed to flourish at its best in the south- 
ern colonies or states and soon became an important factor in the 
society of those states. 

Meantime a sentiment unfavorable to it began to develop in 
the colonies, especially in the North. The Revolution, as a move- 
ment for liberty, declaring all men free and equal, joined with 
this humanitarian spirit, helped to increase the anti-slavery 
sentiment. The northern states soon abolished slavery, or pro- 
vided for its gradual extinction. Abolition societies were formed, 
but these accomplished but little more then to intensify the senti- 
ment already aroused. 

In 1816, an organization entitled the National Colonization 
Society was formed at Princeton, N. J., and immediately 
reorganized at Washington, D. C, its principal object being to 
encourage the emancipation of slaves and to obtain for them 
a place outside of the United States to which they might emi- 
grate. Branches of the society were soon established in almost 
every state. About 1830 the agitation against slavery took on a 
more ardent phase, and henceforth for thirty years, slavery was 
the most absorbing of political themes. 



170 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

On February 7, 1840, a branch of the Colonization Society was 
organized in Cornish, and the following preamble was adopted: 

"The deplorable condition of the African race, whether bond 
or free, calls for the sympathy of the philanthropist, and the 
prayers of the Christian. To these we rejoice to learn has been 
added a portion of active benevolence. To this charity we de- 
sire to lend our feeble aid, and to promote and encourage the 
object, we hereby associate ourselves together under the name 
of Cornish Colonization Society, and adopt as the basis of our 
operation the following. 

" Constitution. " 

This constitution consists of seven articles, drawn up much 
after the common form and somewhat lengthy: 

Article 1st explains more definitely the object of the society 
and as being auxiliary to the National or American Society, and 
that funds by them collected should be paid over to the State 
Society, which was also auxiliary to the National. 

Article 2d tells who are eligible and how to join the society. 

Article 3d prescribes the officers and their duties. 

Article 4th relates to the meetings of the society. 

Article 5th relates to funds and manner of raising them. 

Article 6th relates to specific duties of the treasurer. 

Article 7th relates to alterations and amendments. 

The above preamble, together with the constitution, was 
adopted on the last-mentioned date, and was signed by the follow- 
ing individuals: 

James Ripley James R. Wellman 

J. L. Putnam Joshua Wyman 

Alvah Spaulding John Hall 

Eleazer Jackson Harvey Chase 

Amos Richardson Harvey Smith 

H. H. Comings Israel Hall 

Reuben Davis Ebenezer Cole 

Nathan S. Luther George D. Kenyon 

Edwin Leslie John Johnson 
Sophia Richardson 

This organization was evidently effected at the home of Dea. 
Amos Richardson, as the foregoing record was found among his 



SOCIETIES. 171 

papers. We have been unable to find further records of the 
doings of this branch of the society, or when it ceased to exist. 
It was evidently begotten in the spirit of true philanthropy and 
perhaps accomplished its humble part in the praiseworthy work 
of its mission. 

Temperance. 

"Oh, that men should put an enemy in 
Their mouth to steal away their brains! that we 
Should with joy, pleasure, revel and applause 
Transform ourselves to beasts."— Shakespeare. 

During the first half century after the town was settled the 
use of ardent spirits was well-nigh universal. Every family kept 
it on- hand the entire year as a beverage or as a treat for occa- 
sional guests. It was especially indispensable in the field during 
the haying and harvesting seasons. Marriages, and even funerals, 
were occasions that called forth liberal potations of the stimulating 
draught. 

Liquors in those days were purer and contained less alcohol 
than at the present time; else such free use would have wrought 
more direful results. Delirium tremens was then unknown, yet 
the drink habit had baneful results. Then, as now, its use 
begat idleness and deprived a man of his reason, and led him to 
spend his time and money with convivial friends at taverns 
or elsewhere. In this way many a man lost his farm because his 
earnings largely went for strong drink. 

In process of time adulteration of liquors began to be prac- 
ticed, producing a cheaper but more poisonous drink, the use of 
which produced effects more dreadful than formerly. Delirium 
tremens then began to appear and the mad-house opened its 
doors more frequently as the result of its use. During the entire 
period previous to about 1825, temperance societies and temper- 
ance advocates were unknown. It is true, however, that germs 
of temperance principles were apparent from time to time, as 
shown on the records of the town, by certain votes passed, exclud- 
ing the sale of liquors in the vicinity of the house on town meeting 
days and other such occasions. 

About the time of the date above named, the effects and ex- 
tent of the use of ardent spirits, as then manufactured, were 
becoming fearful and alarming. Their use was increasing, with 



172 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

a corresponding increase of drunkenness and crime. These con- 
ditions received the attention of thoughtful and considerate 
men, who began to devise ways and means to check the growth 
of the evil. 

No legislation of importance, as yet, had interposed to ward it 
off. The voice and arguments of eloquent public speakers were 
now called into requisition. In this way a healthy sentiment 
was created in opposition to the general use of intoxicating 
beverages. Minor and local organizations were formed and 
pledges were passed through the community, receiving many sig- 
natures of men, women and children. In this way the minds of 
the people were prepared to embrace the Washingtonian move- 
ment which swept over the North in the early forties. This was 
a total abstinence society, organized at Washington, D. C.,— 
hence its name. It was formed solely in the interests of temper- 
ance and good order. It is said that a branch of this organiza- 
tion was formed in Cornish, but the records of it have not been 
found. It was during this period that the lines became definitely 
drawn between the temperance forces and those who still favored 
a free manufacture and sale of liquors, and these lines have been 
maintained ever since. 

In 1855-58 and 1877 laws were passed by the state pro- 
hibiting the manufacture and sale of spirituous liquors except 
for medicinal and mechanical purposes. These laws were not 
allowed to lie still, but have been modified more or less by nearly 
every Legislature since. The distinctive feature of prohibition, 
however, has been retained. 

In 1903 a local option amendment was attached to the law. 
This was a system of "high license" granting certain individuals 
the right to sell under certain restrictions, the rates being reg- 
ulated by a commission, according to the circumstances in each 
case. In order to render the amendment operative, it required 
a majority vote of the town to render it so. The supporters of 
high license won each year until November 3, 1908, when, by a 
bare majority, the promoters of temperance won the day, and, 
at this writing (1910), the town still remains "dry." 

Diversity of opinion has ever existed among the so-called 

temperance people in regard to the manner of suppressing the 

evil. Some advocate absolute prohibition by stringent legis- 

ation. Others would allow a limited manufacture and sale, 



SOCIETIES. 173 

having it strictly limited by law to medicinal and mechanical 
purposes, meanwhile endeavoring to educate the public mind 
against its excessive use. 

The only temperance organization in Cornish, of which any 
record can be found, was a branch of the "Sons of Temperance" 
that was organized on Cornish Flat, November 20, 1866. The 
distinctive features of this order were secrecy and absolute 
prohibition. It was instituted by the deputy of the "State 
Grand Division," aided by a large delegation from the Claremont 
Division. About thirty members were initiated at the first 
meeting, and the new division started off under very favorable 
auspices. Its membership subsequently increased until about 
eighty members were enrolled. 

They fitted up a hall for their use in the basement of the Bap- 
tist Church at an expense of nearly two hundred dollars. Meet- 
ings were regularly held. Literary exercises bearing on the 
subject of temperance constituted a prominent feature of each 
meeting which doubtless contributed in establishing a healthier 
one in favor of the cause of temperance. 

This organization, however, had but a brief term of existence- 
only about two years. The by-laws of the order requiring total 
abstinence applied as rigidly to the use of new cider as to the 
fermented article. This was an unforeseen temptation, and 
several members, unwittingly or otherwise, were found to have 
violated their pledge and were thereby amenable to the laws 
and were subjects for discipline. This proved a bombshell to 
the division, causing discipline and disaffection, and led to a 
decline of interest from which it never rallied. 

Its furniture and fittings, together with a small debt, were all 
surrendered to the Baptist Society, since which time the hall has 
been used as a church vestry. 

Patrons of Husbandry — The Grange. 

This is a secret association devoted to the promotion of agri- 
cultural interests. It was first organized in Washington, D. C, 
December 4, 1867. A sentiment was beginning to be enter- 
tained by the agricultural masses that their rights and privileges 
and voice in legislation were somewhat restricted as compared 
with those of other vocations. They began to realize, too, 
that they fed the world, and that they were entitled to reason- 



174 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

able consideration in governmental affairs. No organization had 
heretofore existed among them having any such end in view. Its 
purpose, therefore, was to arouse the farmers to a sense of their 
privileges and to restore dignity to their occupation by placing 
it at once on a level with the other callings and professions. So 
jealous were its first promoters that none were admitted to the 
privileges of the order but farmers and their families. Pro- 
fessedly it was non-partisan, yet it has exerted great political 
influence on many important questions of the day. 

With such an end in view, the order became quite popular, so 
that in 1875 it numbered 1,500,000 members. Local organiza- 
tions of the order were formed in nearly every section of the 
country. 

Unlike some other secret societies, the Grange bids the female 
sex welcome to all its meetings, and confers equal rights and 
honors upon them in all its deliberations. 

On March 25, 1874, the Cornish Grange was organized 
at the Methodist vestry by Dudley T. Chase, then master 
of the New Hampshire State Grange. There were twenty-five 
charter members. A large number of the farmers and their 
wives joined them in the seasons following. They continued to 
hold their meetings in the vestry until the following summer 
when the Grange took possession of the commodious quarters 
then used by the Methodist Church. 

The charter members of the Grange were: Samuel Putnam, 
Nettie L. Putnam, Dana N. Morgan, Julia A. Morgan, Henry A. 
Weld, Eliza A. Weld, Albert Weld, Lucy C. Weld, Lemuel 
Martindale, Rebecca W. Martindale, George D. Kenyon, 
Lizzie Q. Kenyon, Charles E. Jackson, Judith C. Jackson, Amos 
Richardson, Jane S. Richardson, Philander W. Smith, Almina S. 
Smith, Charles B. Comings, Lucretia B. Comings, James M. 
Davidson, E. D. Austin, Charles Williams, Charles D' Nevens, 
Curtis H. Blake. 

The first officers of the Cornish Grange were : Samuel Putnam, 
master; Lemuel Martindale, overseer; Dana N. Morgan, lec- 
turer; Charles D. Nevens, steward; Charles E. Jackson, 
assistant steward; George D. Kenyon, chaplain; Henry A. 
Weld, treasurer; Charles B. Comings, secretary; Philander W. 
Smith, gatekeeper; Nettie L. Putnam, Ceres; Eliza A. Weld, 



SOCIETIES. 175 

Pomona; Julia A. Morgan, Flora; Lucy C. Weld, lady assistant 
steward. 

July 6, 1874, the National Grange granted its charter, which 
was received and recorded by the New Hampshire State Grange 
July 15 following. 

Dudley T. Chase, Master. 

Christopher C. Shaw, Secretary. 

During the first few years of Cornish Grange the interest in 
the order was sustained, and its membership increased. This 
was largely due to the financial and social advantages it offered. 
As in other Granges it voted to purchase and make sale of staple 
groceries especially for the benefit of its members. This proved 
in some instances quite a saving to those who patronized this 
mode. Its social features were highly prized; affording, as it 
did, an opportunity for farmers and their wives to meet twice 
each month and enjoy an hour or two of pleasant social inter- 
course. 

But however prosperous or promising a social, political, or 
even religious organization may be at first, a law in nature seems 
to order a change and it is permitted to suffer a decline. Cornish 
Grange afforded no exception to this. After a brief period of 
prosperity the interest decreased and the attendance of its mem- 
bers grew less. In this condition, though slightly varied, it 
remained about fifteen years, or until 1895, when it apparently 
received a fresh impetus and new members were added to the 
order. As many of the new members and also some of the old 
ones resided nearer Cornish Flat than to the hall of Cornish 
Grange, the idea of a new grange being organized at the Flat 
seemed to meet with much enthusiasm. Accordingly, a pe- 
tition for a new grange was presented to the State Grange. 
The petition was favorably received and James W. Fitch, then 
deputy of the district, was instructed to organize a grange at 
the Flat. This took place on the evening of August 29, 1896, 
in schoolhouse hall. The name of the new grange was Park 
Grange No. 249. 

For several months the meetings were held in the room where 
organized, but during the season of 1897 the Grange purchased 
the "Bachelor" house across the street just above the cemetery. 
This building was entirely remodeled by removing all inside 



176 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

partitions and reducing all the rooms into one, which was 
refitted into the present commodious hall. 

The list of the charter members of Park Grange was as follows: 
John S. Andrews, Willis J. Coburn, Rev. Charles E. Gould, Mrs. 
Charles E. Gould, Dr. George W. Hunt, Miss Martha A. Harring- 
ton, Edmund B. Hunt, Mrs. Edmund B. Hunt, William H. 
Harlow, Mrs. William H. Harlow, Frank C. Jackson, Mrs. 
Frank C. Jackson, John B. Moore, Mrs. John B. Moore, 
Norman C. Penniman, Mrs. Norman C. Penniman, William H. 
Sisson, Mrs. William H. Sisson, Alfred S. Sisson, Mrs. Alfred S. 
Sisson, Arthur P. Thrasher, Mrs. Arthur P. Thrasher, Mrs. 
Minnie Spaulding; twenty-three in all. 

These were organized by electing John S. Andrews, master;* 
Frank C. Jackson, overseer, and Willis J. Coburn, lecturer, 
beside a full list of other required officers. 

On the 17th of September following, eight members of Cornish 
Grange received demits, and at the next meeting of Park Grange 
were received into its membership. 

From its start to the present (1908) this Grange has enjoyed 
a fair degree of prosperity and continued growth. Its present 
numbers are 110. In addition to its social features it has made 
a specialty of choice literary exercises with music which have 
been for the enjoyment and edification of its members, and the 
Grange is reputed to enjoy a good standing among others of its 
kind, as evinced by many testimonials for excellence of work 
and literary accomplishment from state officials. 

Cheshire Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons. 

Cheshire Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons was first organ- 
ized in Plainfield. Daniel Cole, David Read and others of 
Plainfield petitioned the Grand Lodge on October 26, 1814, for 
a new lodge to be called "Mt. Moriah Lodge." On the following 
day the grand master, Edward J. Long, considered the petition 
and ordered that the prayer of the petitioners be granted, and 
empowered them to assemble and perfect themselves in the 
several duties of Masonry, make choice of officers, make reg- 
ulations and by-laws . . . according to the ancient cus- 
toms of the order; but inasmuch as there was a lodge at 

* Deceased March 2, 1898, while master. 



SOCIETIES. 177 

Canaan already named "Mt. Moriah Lodge," that the lodge at 
Plainfield be called "Cheshire Lodge No. 23," and that the 
privileges thus granted be and remain in full force until the next 
meeting of the Grand Lodge. On January 25, 1815, the Grand 
Lodge assembled at Portsmouth and confirmed its former action 
and the grand master appointed William H. Woodward a deputy 
to go to Plainfield and install the first officers and present them 
their charter, which was finally done on the 24th of May, 1815. 

Thus propitiously started, the lodge increased in numbers 
and its members, for a time at least, were quite constant in 
their attendance, the lodge took fair rank among the other 
lodges of the state, and favorable mention of it was generally 
made by Grand Lodge deputies up to 1832, a period of seventeen 
years. The lodge had ever labored under one serious incon- 
venience that contributed much to the ill-fortune that befell it. 
The members of the lodge chiefly lived at opposite ends of the 
town, nearly six miles apart and the place of meeting was at the 
west end. The members at the east end began to think their 
privileges were not equal to those of their brethren of the west part, 
and desired some change. They, however, tried to compromise 
the matter by meeting alternately at each end of the town. This 
action of the lodge did not meet the approval of the Grand 
Lodge, and so the practice was abandoned. 

After 1832 the interest in the lodge seemed to decline. They 
failed to be represented in the Grand Lodge. They also ceased 
to work, and soon after, ceased to meet. 

On June 9, 1840, the Grand Lodge, then in session, declared 
the charters of twenty-six lodges forfeited, including that of 
Cheshire Lodge, and ordered them to be recalled, which was 
accordingly done. The Grand Lodge, unwilling, however, to thus 
lose its subordinates, sent a committee to the jurisdiction of 
Cheshire Lodge on June 8, 1841, to see if any hopes remained 
of the revival of the lodge. But so far as known the committee 
accomplished nothing. 

For nearly twenty-two years the lodge remained dormant, 
its charter being surrendered; consequently, there was no gather- 
ing of its members. 

The opening of the Civil War seemed to create a fresh interest 
in the order which was quite general throughout the northern 
states. The former members of Cheshire Lodge who were then 

13 



178 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

living, still retained their love for the order and desired to see 
the lodge again revived. A petition from these brethren was 
sent to the Grand Lodge asking for a renewal of the charter 
and that the lodge might be restored to the rights and privileges 
belonging to a lodge of Masons. The Grand Lodge saw fit to 
grant their petition, and on the seventh of May, 1862, they 
convened at the dwelling house of Dr. Charles C. Beckley in 
Plainfield, when officers of the lodge were elected and installed. 
A good degree of enthusiasm prevailed, giving promise of the 
productive results which appeared in the succeeding years. 

After the revival of the lodge in Plainfield it soon became 
apparent that a change in its location would promote the interests 
of the lodge by accommodating a larger number of its present 
and prospective members. During the summer of 1862 the 
lodge held all its meetings in Plainfield, but on the eighth day of 
September following, it was voted to remove the lodge to Cornish 
Flat, and that its next meeting, in October, be holden there. 
Permission for this removal had been previously obtained of the 
Grand Lodge through its deputy, and on October 13, 1862, 
Cheshire Lodge held its first meeting on Cornish Flat in Union 
Hall (since called Hampshire Hall). Here it convened at all of its 
stated communications until July 25, 1863, inclusive. Meanwhile 
the lodge had previously engaged and fitted apartments for its 
use in the upper story of the store of John T. Breck, and on 
the latter date it was voted to occupy the new hall at the 
next regular meeting. This was accordingly done on August 
22, 1863. Since this date the lodge has held all of its com- 
munications in this hall. Like all kindred organizations, the 
lodge has had its seasons of prosperity and its periods of 
decline of interest; but it has ever since maintained its rank 
and standing among other lodges of its order. Its jurisdiction 
embraces the towns of Cornish and Plainfield. Its membership 
has ever been composed of representatives of most of the good 
families of these two towns. 



CHAPTER XII. 

Manufacturing Industries. 

Not unlike every other New England town, Cornish has had 
her quota of domestic industries and her share of men to carry 
them on. 

Nature here has not been as favorable to the manufacturing 
of goods on a large scale as in some towns favored with greater 
water privileges. Yet such privileges as have been afforded 
have been utilized to the best advantage. 

During those years when the people were dependent upon goods 
manufactured in their own homes, workmen of every trade were 
at hand preparing the same for use. Coopers, tailors, shoe- 
makers, weavers and spinners and other workmen were then 
in demand in every home. 

Now all these are among the things of the past, and the people 
have but little use for them, as the goods once manufactured by 
them can be obtained "ready-made" in the markets and at 
cheaper rates, and, perchance, of better quality than formerly. 
For the same reason carding and fulling mills have gone out of 
business. Two prominent ones formerly did a good business 
in town: one in the west part of the town operated by Walter 
Mercer, and one near the Flat operated by Eldad Coburn. Each 
of these were active many years, greatly to the advantage of the 
community, and bringing profit to their owners. 

When every family made its own shoes, it was necessary that 
tanners should prepare the leather for the shoemaker. So with 
the departure of the shoemaker goes the tanner, both to the 
larger central places where at their trade they may find more 
steady employment and greater profit. 

There were several tanneries in town some of whose sites can 
scarcely be located. The last one to abide in use was at the 
Flat, owned and operated many years by Alvin Comings. The 
Weld families also carried on this industry to considerable extent, 
also the Comingses, in the early days of the town. 



180 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Blacksmiths, carpenters and wheelwrights still remain, although 
many of the articles heretofore made by them are procured from 
the larger factories and at a better advantage. A larger percent- 
age of the labor of these artisans now is that of repairing. 

For many years carriage building was a large item of industry 
at the Flat. Hiram Little, a skilled workman, employed a few 
men and for many years produced carriages that were second 
to none then in use; some of these are in use at the present time. 
Henry Gould also carried on a similar business there. Each of 
these men had successors in their shops who continued the busi- 
ness for a longer or shorter period; but these industries have de- 
parted, and even the buildings then used by them have been 
torn down and the sites almost obliterated. 

Brick has been made in several places and several houses have 
been erected in town from the product of the kilns. Four of these 
kilns are known to have been in use. Brick was formerly made on 
the Henry Bartlett farm not far from the site of his present house. 
A limited amount was made on the Joshua Wyman farm and the 
Wyman houses were built from the brick made there. On the 
mountain farm of Capt. William Atwood brick was made. In the 
southwest part of the town on the farm owned by Leonard Har- 
low, brick has been made in large quantities. This kiln is still 
used occasionally. Other places for making brick have probably 
existed, but they are slumbering in the memories of the past. 

Gristmills were counted of prime importance. The first of 
these erected in town was by Jonathan Chase on a brook on his 
allotment. This constituted a center for many miles around for 
farmers to bring their grain to have it ground for use in their 
families. This mill was built during the fall of 1765, soon after 
the town was settled. It was operated by Mr. Chase until 1773 
when it came into the possession of Samuel Comings. He and 
his children, and others of the same name and their successors, 
continued to successfully operate this mill and other mills adjoin- 
ing it for more than a century. This was long known as "Com- 
ings' mills." It was burned in 1894, but was succeeded by 
another doing a moderate amount of business. 

Dea. John Chase had for many years a gristmill in connec- 
tion with his sawmill which accommodated several families in 
that neighborhood. 

A gristmill east of the Flat, for two or three generations, 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 181 

did a large amount of business. Beside ordinary grinding like 
Comings' mill, it was fully equipped for the bolting of wheat flour. 
This mill recently became disused and now (1907) is in a state 
of ruin and decay. 

B. S. Lewis built a gristmill about 1850 but operated it only 
a few years; also Bryant's mill, in the west part of the town, was 
for many years successfully operated as a gristmill until it burned. 

The last gristmill erected in town is on the estate of the late 
C. C. Beaman, Esq. This is still active, doing the needful work 
for the estate and some for the neighborhood. It is the only 
gristmill now doing any business in town. The sites of some of 
these already named can scarcely be located; others may have 
existed, but none are left to tell their story. 

The decadence of gristmills is mainly due to a great change 
that has taken place in the commercial world. 

The great West is, to a large extent, now feeding the East with 
wheat and corn. These are raised and manufactured in the West 
and come to us ready for our consumption, so that many farmers 
think they can buy cheaper than they can raise the grain and get 
it ground near home, and so as a result, the eastern mills have 
been suffered to decay. 

The sawmills of Cornish are interesting to consider. The 
great necessity for lumber for building purposes incident to the 
rapid settlement of the town, and the difficulties of removing 
large logs long distances, induced many to utilize every sufficient 
stream of water, by building a dam and erecting a mill as near 
their home as possible; consequently, the number of sawmills was 
greater than that of other mills. 

The first sawmill in town was a companion to the first grist- 
mill, both built and owned by Col. Jonathan Chase. This, like the 
gristmill, passed into the possession of the Comingses who carried 
it on through their lives. A succession of owners have since 
operated it, and it is still active and doing a good amount of busi- 
ness. Below this mill, nearer the river, was another sawmill 
also built and used by Colonel Chase. This was used consider- 
ably in its day, but it has long since disappeared. 

At the Flat have been two sawmills. The lower one near the 
head of the street was rebuilt in 1832 by Abel Jackson, who 
operated the same a number of years, but it was in turn succeeded 
by others. This mill has recently been taken down and the site 



182 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

has nearly reverted to its natural state. The upper mill, 
now standing, was built and operated by Jonathan Wyman 
who came from Pelham, N. H., to Cornish in 1794. This mill 
is partially active, doing a moderate amount of business, but 
it is evidently doomed to destruction like all of the adjoining 
buildings whose industries were formerly active but have now 
passed away. This mill has passed through the hands of several 
owners, chief among whom was Henry Gould who built a fine 
dam of granite and otherwise substantially repaired the mill, 
as well as the gristmill which he also owned. 

An important sawmill was that of Dea. John Chase which 
was built about the first of the last century. It was burned in 
March, 1847, but rebuilt that season. It has done a large amount 
of business, but is now dismantled and ready for destruction. 

A sawmill, not long since, stood on the brook in "Slab City," 
owned and operated during its last years by James F. Tasker. 
Nothing of this mill is now left but huge walls of stone. The 
same may be said of a sawmill once standing on the Ichabod 
Smith farm, which did a good amount of business. On the mountain 
streams farthest east were three mills: one in the "Hempyard," 
and one in the "Poppy Squash" neighborhood, having long since 
ceased to exist. The other in school district No. 8, belonging 
to Edward O. Day, is still standing, but not used as a mill. 

The kind of saw used in all the old mills was the upright kind, 
attached to a pitman shaft that was fastened to the crank of the 
water-wheel beneath. There were two sawmills in town that 
had the circular saw substituted in place of the upright saw. 

Portable sawmills, run by steam or gasoline, with circular 
saw, have recently been established in several places for brief 
periods, doing a large amount of business. These have contrib- 
uted to the decline and decay of stationary mills that are de- 
pendent upon water power alone. 

Remains of other sawmills, and also of various other kinds of 
mills, comparatively unimportant, are pointed out by the "say- 
so" of men; but if they have a history it has become buried in the 
past, and of no use to the present generation. Slight evidences 
there are in some of these cases, but we can record nothing re- 
liable concerning them. 

Abel Jackson, a millwright, said, during the last years of his 
life, that he had built and assisted in building nineteen mills in 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 183 

town, and that Cornish had had thirty different mills. We 
are unable to locate as many as that, but are sure that the 
principal ones have been mentioned. 

Another industry of considerable interest to some and of credit 
to the town, was the gun manufactory of David H. Hilliard. As 
a manufacturer of rifles he had no superior. His reputation for 
making a first-class shooting piece went far and wide, and orders 
came to him from the Far West. He employed several expert 
workmen for years and tested with accuracy every piece himself, 
so that his reputation was thoroughly sustained. But age came 
on and he was obliged to relinquish the business which soon after 
declined, and has never been revived. He died in 1877, aged 71. 

Creameries. 

About the year 1878 the art of separating the cream from milk 
was discovered and brought into practice. It has proved to be 
an invention or discovery of immense value to the farmer, his 
wife and to the world at large. The slow and tedious process 
of making butter by hand has prevailed from time immemorial. 
This old process involved a large expenditure of muscle and time, 
both of the husbandman and of his good wife, who was usually 
regarded as the butter-maker of the family. By the new inven- 
tion this burden is mainly lifted from her shoulders; and on a 
larger scale, with greater results, the work is performed by 
machinery. 

It was a new and novel idea that milk subjected to rapid 
rotation should have a tendency to separate, throwing the cream 
into one mass, and leaving the impoverished milk by itself. This 
is accomplished by means of a large circular bowl containing the 
milk that is caused to revolve at a high rate of speed. The 
De Laval Separator was the first in use, but was soon followed by 
others. 

This invention or discovery spread like wildfire and separating 
stations and creameries were soon established throughout the 
chief dairy sections of the country. 

In 1888 a cooperative creamery company was organized at 
the Flat under the name of the "Cornish Creamery." A build- 
ing was erected near the Flat which was opened for business 
September 3, 1888. This plant has prospered ever since, dis- 




Cornish Creamery. 

Bert E. Huggins, Superintendent, 1910. 



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Hillside Creamery. 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 185 

tributing annually between ten and fifteen thousand dollars 
among its several patrons. 

On the following year the "Hillside Creamery" was organized, 
and a building erected in Cornish near Windsor Bridge. This 
creamery immediately went into operation and has done a thriv- 
ing business ever since. Its locality is very favorable, as it re- 
ceives much patronage from the farmers of Vermont living in 
the vicinity of Windsor. 

The power employed to operate each of these creameries is 
supplied by an engine. These are immense labor savers. Hand 
separators, or separators on a smaller scale, are used by some 
individual farmers in preference to using the cooperative plant, 
as they save the farmer the time and trouble required in carrying 
milk to and from the creamery. 

Blacksmiths. 

This class of artisans, to a limited extent, have found employ- 
ment in town ever since its settlement. As elsewhere stated the 
manufacture of iron goods has largely been assumed by factories, 
so the labor of the blacksmiths now is chiefly that of repairing 
and fitting. This, together with the shoeing of horses, renders 
him one of the most indispensable members of the community. 
A great number of these have lived and worked in different parts 
of the town. It would be impossible to recall all of them. A 
brief mention of a few of the most prominent must suffice. 

Daniel Putnam, whose services in the Revolutionary War also 
included that of blacksmithing, came back to town and worked 
at this trade more or less during his life. 

Charles Chase worked at this trade most of his life, serving 
the citizens of the town, especially those living along the river. 
John Fellows, near the south central part of the town, was also 
one of these serviceable men for many years. 

At the Flat was Capt. William Atwood. He came from Pelham, 
N. H., to Cornish in 1811. He built the brick shop that 
is still used as a blacksmith shop. He did a large business 
in this line, employing several different young men who became 
skilled workmen in the trade. He continued at this until age and 
infirmity compelled him to retire. This shop has since been used 
by scores of men of this trade, and the property has changed 
Owners several times. Prominent among those who have each 



186 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

spent years of service in this shop are : Stillman Coburn, Samuel 
Sherburne and Charles T. Sturtevant. At, or near each of the 
mills east of the Flat, shops have been located, but these have 
recently disappeared with the decay of the mills. William 
Atwood, Jr., worked at this trade on the hill east of the Flat, and 
afterwards built a shop on the site now occupied by Cornish 
creamery. This shop was used many years and then was torn 
down. Several blacksmiths who have wrought as such in town 
might be named as: Daniel Hamblett, Henry Gould, Ariel K. 
Spaulding, John Watson and others. 

Harness Making. 

Harness making has never been driven from the town by the 
competition of larger manufactories. With first-class workmen 
at this business, the idea has always prevailed among the people, 
that a better and more durable article may be obtained by em- 
ploying home skill, than from the markets of the ready-made 
goods, hence these home harness makers have generally found 
steady employment at their trade. So far as known, the principal 
of these in town have been located at Cornish Flat. Walter Stone, 
when a young man, built a shop and went into the business in 
the same building now used by Mrs. Louis Peaslee as a millinery 
shop. He continued many years in the business until in advanced 
life he left town for Webster, Mass. He was succeeded soon 
after by John M. Couch who came from Plainfield in 1845. He 
remained here nine years and then removed to Holyoke, Mass. 
His oldest son (by a second marriage), John L. Couch, con- 
tinued in town doing a thriving business for a number of years. 
He left town in 1864, and later removed to St. Johnsbury, Vt. 
Mervin G. Day, one of Mr. Couch's workmen, succeeded him, 
and carried on the business a few years. After Mr. Day had 
left town, William H. Sisson established himself in the busi- 
ness. With characteristic energy and thorough workmanship, 
he has built up a thriving trade in this line. First-class work- 
manship always commands patronage, and Mr. Sisson, in his 
business, affords no exception to this rule. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

Census Data of Cornish. 

During the administration of Gov. Benning Wentworth, the 
British government made efforts to have a census of the Province 
of New Hampshire taken, but they proved of but little account 
by reason of ineffective laws and insufficient funds. In 1767, 
under the supervision of the selectmen of the towns, the first 
census was taken. This is presumed to be nearly correct. The 
following is the report given by the selectmen of Cornish : 

Men unmarried from 16 to 60 17 

Men married from 16 to 60 21 

Boys 16 and under 36 

Men over 60 

Females unmarried 37 

Females married 22 

Population of Cornish in 1767 133 

The second census of the Province of New Hampshire was 
taken in 1773. The record of it was for many years lost, but 
afterwards was found by Senator A. H. Cragin of New Hamp- 
shire in the Congressional Library. It was then copied and sent 
to the New Hampshire Historical Society. 

The order for this census came from Gov. John Wentworth to 
the selectmen of Cornish, under date of October 15, 1773, and 
resulted in the following enumeration: 

Unmarried men in town 16 to 60 28 

Married men 16 to 60 36 

Boys 16 and under 52 

Men over 60 1 

Females unmarried 60 

Females married 35 

Widows 1 

Total in 1773 213 

Sam' 1 " Chase, 

Jon™ Chase, } Selectmen. 

Elias Cady, 



188 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

The third census was taken in obedience to an order from the 
Provincial Congress of New Hampshire, under date of August 25, 
1775. At this time it had ceased to be a province of Great Britain 
and was about to become an independent state. The following is 
the Cornish record: 

Males under 16 years of age 83 

Males from 16 to 50 not in army 77 

Males above 50 years of age 9 

Persons gone into the army 4 

All females 136 

Total 309 

Firearms in town fit for use 53 

No. of lbs. of powder in town 20 

And this last is "privit" property. 

Cornish, October ye 30th, 1775. 
Personally appeared Sam' 1 . Chase Esqr. and made solemn 
oath that he had acted faithfully and impartially in taking the 
above numbers according to the best of his discretion, before me, 

Daniel Putnam, Town Clerk. 

The fourth census of New Hampshire was taken after it had 
become a state, through an act of the Legislature in the year 
1786. The following are the returns from Cornish: 

Males of all ages 312 

Females 293 

Total 605 

To L. E. Thompson, 

Secretary to the State of New Hampshire. 

Wm. Ripley, \ 

Ichabod Smith, > Selectmen. 

John Morse, ) 

No other census was taken until an act of Congress approved 
March 1, 1790, came into effect. 

This act provided for a more extensive and elaborate enumer- 
ation than those preceding it. 



CENSUS DATA OF CORNISH. 



189 



The constitution of 1787 required that the representation of 
each state in Congress should be in proportion to its population, 
and therefore it was necessary to provide for enumerations, and 
that such enumerations be made decennially. The first was made 
in 1790, and in each decade since the enumeration has been 
increasingly elaborate. 

In 1790 the enumeration for Cornish was as follows: 

Heads of families in town 161 

Males under 16 years of age 258 

Males 16 years or over 238 

All males (white) 496 

All females (white) 484 

Colored 2 



Total population of Cornish in 1790 982 

The following shows the definite list of the population of 
Cornish at this time: 

Heads of Cornish Families in the Census of 1790, also Number in 

Each Family. 



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Aplin, Oliver 2 

Ayers, Thomas 1 

Backus, Simon 1 

Barrows, Moses, Jr 2 

Bartlett, John 3 

Bartlett, Joseph 

Bartlett, Nathaniel . . . 

Bingham, Elias 

Bingham, Elisha W. . . 
Bingham, Jonathan . . 

Bryant, Israel 

Bryant, Sylvanus .... 



1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

Cady, Elias 2 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 



Cady, Nicholas 

Carpenter, Nathaniel. 

Cate, Eleazer 

Cate, James 

Chase, Caleb 



3 
1 

1 
1 
6 
2 
1 

4 
1 
2 
3 

1 
2 



2 
3 
5 
2 
3 
1 
3 
2 
1 
1 
1 
2 
5 
3 
3 
1 
1 
6 



Chase, 
Chase, 
Chase, 
Chase, 
Chase, 
Chase, 
Chase, 
Chase, 
Chase, 
Chase, 
Chase, 
Chase, 
Chase, 
Chase, 
Chase, 
Chase, 
Chase, 
Child, 



<5 A fe 

Caleb, 2d 1 4 

Daniel 2 1 4 

Dudley 2 14 

John 2 12 

Jonathan 4 2 7 

Joseph 1 1 3 

Joshua 1 1 1 

Moses 4 2 4 

Moses, Jr 1 2 2 

Nahum 1 1 4 

Peter 2 2 5 

Samuel 1 1 

Samuel, Jr 4 3 10 

Simeon 2 1 3 

Solomon 3 3 4 

Stephen 1 3 

William 1 1 1 

Stephen 2 2 6 



190 



HISTORY OF CORNISH. 



i- ; <w : 

^ ^ CD bO d 

O « ^ d 2 

. j3 

S| § si 

o o <u 2 o 

sag 

Choate, William 1 2 5 

Cobb, Ebenezer 1 2 

Cobb, Francis 1 3 3 

Coburn, Asa 1 4 2 

Coburn, Dudley 2 2 2 

Coburn, Merrill 1 2 5 

Cole, Benjamin 1 1 2 

Cole, John 1 3 2 

Colton, Caleb 1 2 5 

Cotton, Bybye L 2 1 1 

Comings, Benjamin 2 5 4 

Comings, Samuel 4 2 6 

Comings, Warren 1 1 

Curtis, Nathaniel 1 1 2 

Davis, David 14 2 

Deming, Ebenezer 3 2 

Deming, William 2 1 

Doit, Benjamin 112 

Dunlap, Robert 1 1 4 

Dustin, Nathaniel 1 3 3 

Fairbanks, Abel 1 6 1 

Fitch, Hezekiah 12 2 

Fitch, Samuel 2 1 5 

Fitch, Zebadiah 14 4 

French, Ephraim 1 2 6 

Ferguson, John 2 2 2 

Furnald, William 1 5 1 

Gibbs, Eliakim 1 3 3 

Hall, Benjamin 1 5 3 

Hall, Moody 3 2 2 

Hall, Nathaniel 12 3 

Hall, Thomas 1 1 

Hall, Thomas, Jr 1 2 1 

Hambleton, Joseph 1 3 3 

Harlow, James 1 3 2 

Harlow, Robert 1 1 

Haskell, John 1 1 5 

Hildreth, Joel 1 2 1 

Hildreth, Samuel 1 1 2 

Hilliard, Luther 2 3 

Hilliard, Samuel 3 2 3 

Huggins, David 1 1 8 



fc- • TO • 

> rf (D bO C3 

si § si 

"3 g "* P g 

a a g 

Huggins, Jonathan 2 2 5 

Huggins, Nathaniel 2 3 2 

Huggins, Samuel 3 3 3 

Hunter, James 2 1 1 

Jackson, Benjamin 1 3 3 

Jackson, Eleazer 2 4 2 

Jackson, Michael 1 2 5 

Jackson, Perez 2 1 

Jackson, Stephen 1 4 

Jerould, Reuben 2 4 

Johnson. Abel 1 1 3 

Johnson, Abraham 2 3 

Johnson, Jesse 1 3 

Johnson, Joshua 2 1 

Kimball, Edward 1 3 3 

Kimball, Eliphalet 2 2 

Kimball, Eliphalet, Jr. ... 1 1 

Kimball, Lovell 1 3 

Lucas, John 1 1 4 

Luey, Thomas 1 1 2 

Luey, William 1 2 4 

Luther, Caleb 1 5 4 

McCauley, Samuel 1 1 

Machries, Samuel 1 1 3 

Morse, Jeremiah 1 1 

Morse, John 1 2 5 

Nutter, Thomas 1 1 1 

Page, Joshua 1 3 5 

Paine, William 1 6 4 

Parker, Stephen 1 1 2 

Pike, Samuel 2 2 

Plastridge, Caleb 1 5 3 

Pratt, Stephen 1 1 1 

Putnam, Daniel 3 5 

Record, Lemuel 1 2 2 

Reed, Benjamin 1 1 2 

Reed, David 2 4 2 

Reed, Elisha 1 2 3 

Reed, Jonathan 1 1 4 

Richardson, Jonas 1 2 3 

Ripley, William 3 3 

Roberts, Absolom 1 2 2 



CENSUS DATA OF CORNISH. 



191 



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2 M 

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60 ea 
03 01 



03 



60 



03 



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Roberts, Daniel 1 

Shapley, Jabez 2 

Shapley, Thomas 1 

Smith, Benjamin 1 

Smith, David 2 

Smith, Ichabod 1 

Smith, Joseph 1 

Smith, William 1 

Spaulding, Abel 2 

Spaulding, Andrew 3 

Spaulding, Dyer 3 

Spaulding, Darius 1 

Spaulding, John 1 

Spicer, Jabez 1 

Stone, Josiah 1 

Tabor, Phillip 2 

Taylor, Joseph 1 

Thomas, Samuel 1 

Thompson, Caleb 1 

Thompson, Loring 1 

Thompson, Thomas 2 



3 
1 

2 



1 
3 

1 
4 
4 

1 
2 

1 
2 



4 
4 
3 
4 
3 
2 
2 
2 
4 
4 
2 
2 
5 
3 
3 
2 
5 
4 
2 
4 
5 



Tracy, Andrew 3 

Tucker, Abijah 3 

Tucker, Chester 1 

Vial, Abraham 1 

Vincent, Richard 1 

Vinton, John 2 

Weld, John 3 

Weld, Moses 1 

Weld, Walter 1 

Wellman, James 2 

Wellman, James, Jr 3 

Wellman, Solomon 1 

Whiting, Nathan 1 

Whitten, John 2 

Wickwire, Samuel 1 

Williams, Benjamin 2 

Wilson, Robert 1 

Woodward, Joshua 1 

Wyman, Jesse 2 

Young, Thomas 1 



oS 

3 
1 
1 



"3 6» 

s 

11 



3 
4 
1 

2 
1 
2 
1 
2 
2 

1 
1 
1 
2 



4 
3 
1 

1 
1 
4 
5 
6 
3 
2 
3 
1 
3 
9 
4 
4 
3 
3 
3 
4 



In addition to the above were two colored people; one in the 
family of Oliver Aplin, and the other in the family of Dudley 
Chase. 

The following shows the population of Cornish and that of 
four adjoining towns on each decennial census since and including 
that of 1790 — in all, twelve censuses: 



Census 


Cornish 


Plainfield 


Claremont 


Croydon 


Newport 


1790 


982 


1024 


1423 


536 


779 


1800 


1268 


1435 


1889 


984 


1266 


1810 


1606 


1463 


2094 


682 


1427 


1820 


1701 


1460 


2290 


1060 


1679 


1830 


1687 


1581 


2526 


1057 


1913 


1840 


1726 


1552 


3217 


956 


1958 


1850 


1606 


1392 


3606 


861 


2020 


1860 


1520 


1620 


4026 


755 


2077 


1870 


. . . . 1334 


1589 


4053 


652 


2163 


1880 


1156 


1372 


4704 


608 


2612 


1890 


934 


1173 


5565 


512 


2623 


1900 


962 


1114 


6498 


372 


3126 



192 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

The following shows the growth of territory, and increase of 
population of the United States since 1790: 

1790 17 states, beside territories 3,929,214 

1800 21 states, beside territories 5,308,483 

1810 25 states, beside territories 7,239,881 

1820 27 states, beside territories 9,638,453 

1830 28 states, beside territories 12,866,020 

1840 30 states, beside territories 17,069,453 

1850 36 states, beside territories 23,191,876 

1860 42 states, beside territories 31,443,321 

1870 47 states, beside territories 38,558,371 

1880 47 states, beside territories 50J155,783 

1890 49 states, beside territories 62,622,250 

1900 52 states, beside territories 76,303,387 

The center of the population in 1900 was near Columbus, 
Ind. 

Following is the population of New Hampshire at each census 
beginning with 1790; also her representation in Congress at these 
periods. Before 1790, it was three. 

Year Population Representation 

1790 141,885 4 

1800 183,858 5 

1810 214,460 6 

1820 244,161 6 

1830 269,328 5 

1840 284,574 4 

1850 317,976 3 

1860 326,073 3 

1870 318,300 3 

1880 346,991 2 

1890 ". 376,530 2 

1900 411,588 2 



CHAPTER XIV. 

Cemeteries of Cornish — Casualties. 

Cemeteries of Cornish. 

It has been said that a contemplation of the soul's immortality 
cannot be exercised too much or too often. Amid the busy events 
of life this subject receives little thought. Reminders that our 
bodies are mortal are on every hand. In no place will our minds 
be brought to these contemplations more than at the graves of 
our friends. It behooves us, then, to turn aside and often visit 
the hallowed ground where they repose and to beautify and make 
attractive the places of their sepulture. The consciousness, too, 
that we are not to be forgotten and that our surviving friends 
will erect over our remains tokens expressive of their love, will 
rob the grave of many of its terrors. 

It was customary during the early years of the town for many 
of the people to bury their dead upon their own farms and in 
many cases to erect no tablet to their memory, save, however, 
placing a common stone at each end of the grave. In process 
of time the mounds and stones would disappear. The hands 
and aching hearts that tenderly laid their dear ones to rest, they, 
too, have mouldered away. In this way the records of many have 
doubtless been lost. 

The expediency of having common burial lots set apart by the 
town was soon recognized and practiced. 

There are eleven cemeteries in town, which have been 
used as common burial places. Three of these have been aban- 
doned as out of the way and counted unsuitable for the purpose, 
being far from present traveled highways, and in pastures almost 
inaccessible. A few years since the town, recognizing the re- 
quirements of the law regarding the care of cemeteries, enclosed 
each of these with a wire fence. These are some of the 
oldest burial places in town and of great interest to the geneal- 
ogist. They are (1) on "Kenyon Hill" containing five grave- 
stones and twelve graves unmarked. (2) On farm of Charles 
W. Comings. This was once a popular burying place, but has 

14 



194 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

long since been disused. It contains thirty-seven tablets, and at 
least fifteen mounds unmarked. Several persons of note in the 
town's history lie buried there. (3) On the Daniel Weld farm, now 
owned by Freeman A. Johnson. This contained at least twelve 
gravestones and about twenty -five mounds unmarked. But the 
vandal propensity of some lawless scamps has destroyed or 
broken all the gravestones in the lot except one, thus affording a 
strong argument supporting "total depravity," at least in this 
case. 

The other eight cemeteries are as follows: 

(1) At Trinity Church. This contains the earliest dates of 
burial in town. Twin sons of Col. Jonathan Chase were bur- 
ied there in August, 1768, followed by their mother who died 
November 25, 1768. These are the first recorded burials in 
town. In this yard there are 213 well-marked graves, and at 
least a dozen mounds unmarked. 

(2) "Mercer" burial ground up the river. This contains 
dates of burial nearly as early as the last. It contains 264 well- 
marked graves ; and about fifty mounds, at least, that have no 
headstones. 

(3) Cornish Flat. The most numerous of all; containing 
320 well-marked graves and about forty mounds that are 
unmarked. 

(4) South Cornish. Contains 247 headstones and thirty-eight 
mounds unmarked. 

(5) "New Cemetery" (Childs'). This was first opened in 
November, 1870; yet it contains 147 well-marked graves, and 
sixteen mounds unmarked. 

(6) Huggins' Cemetery. On the hills in north part of the town. 
It contains 116 well-marked graves and eight mounds unmarked. 

(7) Comings Mills' Cemetery. Contains 215 marked graves 
and about fifteen mounds unmarked. 

(8) Center Cemetery: back of Congregational Church. This 
contains 60 well-marked graves and six unmarked. 

The above figures were correct in 1898. Some changes have 
occurred in them since, as a matter of course. Those above 
termed "unmarked" refers to well-defined mounds, evidently 
graves. It is not claimed that these mounds indicate all that are 
buried in those yards, for many may have been buried there, and 



CEMETERIES OF CORNISH— CASUALTIES. 195 

their graves become wholly obliterated, but though unknown 
to us, God remembers them all, and none will be lost. 

The eight principal burying grounds of the town are usually 
kept in good order. Sextons are appointed for each yard who 
perform the labors of sepulture and also have a general care of 
the grounds. Five of these yards have been enlarged beyond 
their original limits, to meet the requirements of the town. 
And the "New Cemetery" was rendered necessary chiefly by 
the crowded condition of the Flat Cemetery. 

There are also a few private or family burial lots in town, 
well known and generally well cared for. The aggregate of 
decedents in all these burial lots in town are nearly as follows: 
about 1,700 well-marked graves, and over 250 nameless mounds, 
making nearly 2,000 whom it is known have been buried in the 
soil of Cornish. 

The writer has personally visited every known grave in town and 
copied every inscription with date of death and also copied many 
of the epitaphs. (These latter were much more in vogue a cen- 
tury ago and more voluminous than at the present time.) He has 
also visited burial lots in towns adjoining for the same purpose — 
the obtaining of needful data. The full list of all heretofore 
mentioned, amounts to 2,140 names. Most of these names and 
dates appear in the genealogical records of the several families 
of Cornish. 

This thought has often occurred to the writer when contem- 
plating this army of the dead. What a vast amount of mental 
anguish and suffering is represented here in "God's Acre" 
especially on the part of surviving friends! How many hearts 
have bled in sorrow! How many tears have been shed on this 
hallowed ground when dear ones have been torn from families 
and the earth has hidden them forever from view! It is the 
"wailing place" for all living, and hence a sacred place, and a 
profitable place for reflection. Here we may learn that: 

"We are the same our fathers have been; 
We see the same sights our fathers have seen; 
We drink the same stream and view the same sun, 
And run the same course our fathers have run. 

" The thoughts we are thinking, our fathers would think; 
From the death we are shrinking our fathers would shrink; 



196 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

To the life we are clinging, they also would cling; 
But it speeds for us all like a bird on the wing. 

"They died! Aye! they died; and we things that are now, 
Who walk on the turf that lies over their brow, 
Who make in their dwellings a transient abode, 
Meet the things that they met on their pilgrimage road." 

Casualties. 

The following list may not be a complete one, but it includes 
all the names gleaned from the various sources at hand. It 
does not, however, include any fatalities of war or of sudden 
attack of disease, but simply of those whose lives have suddenly 
terminated by some accident. 

1767. First recorded accidental death in town was Tisdale Dean 
of Claremont, who was killed at the Chase (or Comings) 
mill. No particulars ascertained. He had previously 
married Lucy Spaulding of Cornish. Was buried on the 
banks of Connecticut River. This death is also said to 
be the first in town from any cause. 

1773. Daniel Chase Putnam, son of Daniel and Anna (Chase) 
Putnam, was drowned in the Connecticut River. 

1785. Benjamin Swinnerton of Cornish was drowned in the 
Connecticut River while attempting to swim it in com- 
pany with an Indian. 

1798. May 27, Harvey S. Deming, two years of age, son of 
Alpheus and Hannah (Taylor) Deming, was drowned 
in a water cistern. The household cat coming in very 
wet caused search for the missing boy and he was 
found as stated. It was supposed that in attempting to 
throw the cat into the water he lost his balance and 
together they fell into it. 

1801. June 3, John Bulkley Paine, aged thirteen, son of Capt. 
Samuel and Lucy (Hall) Paine, and living with Gen. 
Jonathan Chase, was drowned in the Connecticut 
River. 

1812. June 10, Daniel Atwood, son of William and Elizabeth 
(Hall) Atwood, aged four years, was instantly crushed 
to death by falling in front of a cart, the wheel passing 
over him. 



CEMETERIES OF CORNISH— CASUALTIES. 197 

1814. April 4, Lucinda Hilliard, aged five, daughter of Amos 
and Sarah (Huggins) Hilliard, while playing with some 
beans, accidently inhaled one, causing almost instant 
death. 

1823. February 5, Lucy (Hilliard) York, wife of William York, 
went on foot visiting a neighbor. A heavy snowstorm 
came on. Not returning at a seasonable hour her fam- 
ily started for her and found her dead and partially 
buried in the snow. She was sixty years of age. 

1837. March 4, Rebecca M. Tasker, aged thirty-four, was 
drowned in Cold River on her way to town, by the up- 
setting of the stage while crossing the river at Walpole. 
A sister, Hannah (Tasker) Chesley, was drowned at the 
same time and place. 

1842. June 25, Edwin H. Lothrop, aged eighteen, son of Francis 
and Sarah (Huggins) Lothrop, fell from the roof of 
Dea. Ripley Wellman's house, striking on his head, 
killing him instantly. 

1846. June 25, Henry , a colored boy, aged seventeen, 

in the employ of Dea. Benjamin Comings, was killed 
on the highway by being run over by a team he was 
driving. 

1847. Savory Gile, living at the "Hempyard," fell upon his 

scythe, cutting his knee so badly that he soon after died 
of blood poisoning. Age not known. 

1848. July 27, four members of the family of Dea. Andrew 

Dodge were killed by the blowing down of a house 
during a fearful storm of wind and rain. (For further 
particulars see Dodge Gen.) It was the greatest calam- 
ity that ever happened in toAvn. 

1853. December 11, Hiram Coburn of Cornish was drowned in 

New York, aged twenty-nine. 

1854. March 26, Jonathan E. Tasker, aged thirty, fell from a 

building near Windsor bridge, receiving injuries ter- 
minating fatally. 
1856. July 4, Edna L. Weld, aged three, daughter of John and 
Anna (Bartlett) Weld, fell through a hole in a bridge 
in the "City," striking on the rocks below, fracturing 
1 er skull. She died on the following day. 



198 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

1856. July 26, Carter 0. Strong, aged nineteen, was drowned 

while bathing in mill-pond at the "City" in the even- 
ing; probably was taken with the cramps. Was a mem- 
ber of the family of the Kenyon brothers. 

1857. July 19, a little daughter of Israel Foster Weld, aged two 

years, was killed by a cart body falling upon and crush- 
ing her. 

1858. February 5, Arthur M. Wyman, aged thirteen, son of 

Milton Wyman, was sliding in the field near his school- 
house, when his sled struck a pile of frozen manure, 
breaking it, and a portion of it was driven into his body 
several inches. From the effects of this he died after 
a few hours of extreme suffering. 

1865. March 18, John C. Shedd, a boy of fourteen years, was 

drowned in a freshet. 

1866. October 22, Mary Treat, only child of Edward Kimball, 

aged two years and six months, fell into a pail of scald- 
ing water, from the effects of which she soon died. 
Sorrow stricken, the parents left town. 

1869. December 16, Lizzie M. Deming, aged two years, only 

child of Marvin J. Deming, inhaled a beechnut into her 
lungs, causing instant death. 

1870. February 17, Willie H. Chase, aged eight years, son of Henry 

S. Chase, while at play in the barnyard, was accidentally 
hit on the head by a piece of frozen manure, which 
soon caused his death. 

1871. April 11, a little daughter of Martin M. and Sarah A. 

(Bugbee) Williams, aged three years, fell backward into 
a pail of hot water, soon causing death. 

1872. August 31, Henry W. Sturtevant of this town, aged 

twenty-one, son of Nahum C, was killed on the Boston 
and Albany Railroad. 

1872. October 7, the house of Abner Lull was burned to the 
ground, and Mrs. Lull, aged seventy-eight, perished in 
the flames. Mr. and Mrs. Lull came to town in 1860, 
settled on the Gilman Chase farm, where they remained 
until her death. 

1874. February 21, Mrs. Jennie E. (Sisson) Raymond, aged 
twenty-one, daughter of John F. and Emily A. (Smith) 
Sisson, accidentally shot herself fatally, while toying 



CEMETERIES OF CORNISH— CASUALTIES. 199 

with a loaded pistol, while on a visit to South Wood- 
stock, Vt. Some have entertained suspicions of suicide, 
but proof is wanted to establish it. 

1874. August 5, Frederic L. Wood, aged nearly seven, son of 

Lyman D. and Susan A. (Flowers) Wood, fell from a 
loft in the barn, striking on his head, breaking his neck. 

1875. March 23, Peter Coult, aged twenty-six years, a wood- 

chopper in the employ of George Jackson, was killed by 
a falling tree. 

1875. September 4, Bertie E. Shedd, aged five years, son of 
Reed and Electa Shedd, was drowned in the Connec- 
ticut River. 

1875. December 15, Jedediah Huntington, aged fifty-six, while 
drawing wood, was instantly killed by falling in front 
of his load of wood, the sled passing over him. 

1878. January 27, George F. Badger, aged twenty-five, son of 
Rufus and Clarissa Badger, having frozen his feet a 
day or two previously, died of lockjaw. 

1878. April 18, Asa Jenney of Meriden, aged sixty-eight, was 
instantly killed on Cornish Flat by being thrown from 
his carriage, his head striking a stone. The horse had 
become frightened and suddenly turned around. 

1878. May 8, Nettie H. Read, aged thirteen, daughter of Har- 

vey S. Read, was terribly burned by her clothes taking 
fire, so that she died in a few hours. She was looking 
over the ruins of a building just burned. 

1879. November 28, Levi F. Stone, aged fifty-one, a painter, died. 

He was previously found in his barn partially uncon- 
scious with a broken skull, from the effects of which he 
died. Foul play suspected, but nothing conclusive has 
ever been obtained. 

1882. September 20, Henry Allen Bugbee, son of Benjamin 
Franklin and Almira (Williams) Bugbee of Cornish, 
was killed at Lebanon on the railroad. 

1885. April 25, Orville B. Williams, aged fifty-four, while plow- 
ing in his field, was kicked in the head by a horse. He 
lived but a few hours. 

1885. September 10, Caleb B. Williamson, aged sixty-seven, was 
instantly killed by being thrown from his carriage 



200 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

against a wall just north of the residence of Dea. P. C. 
Hardy, formerly the Daniel Chase, Esq., residence. 

1887. March 22, Lyman H. Hunter, formerly of Cornish, aged 

thirty-four, died from injuries received in Claremont 
from a stick of wood hurled by a circular saw. Was 
then living in Claremont. 

1888. June 23, Franklin H. Curtis, aged ten years, son of Hart- 

ley K. Curtis, was fatally kicked by a horse that he 
was attempting to feed in the stall. He lived but a 
short time after the injury. 

1891. June 26, Alfred C. Chadbourne, aged fifty-nine, died from 
the effects of a severe cut from a scythe received a few 
days previous, terminating in blood poisoning. 

1897. April 13, Peter Emery, aged sixty-nine, died from the 
effects of a severe cut in the foot received March 25, 
followed by blood poisoning. He lived on the Stearns 
place south of George Jackson's. 

1905. December 3, William Harvey Harlow, aged fifty-two, died 
from the effects of a fearful fall the day previous. The 
buildings of Wilbur Quimby being on fire, efforts were 
made to arrest the fire by tearing one building away. 
Mr. Harlow, with axe in hand, ascended a ladder to 
mount the roof, and when about fifteen feet from the 
ground the ladder broke, precipitating him backward 
to the frozen ground. He struck upon his head and 
shoulders breaking his back, while the axe followed 
cutting him severely in the face. Injured beyond all 
medical aid, he sank away and died early in the follow- 
ing morning. His loss was deeply deplored. 

1910. July 24, Leonard Smith of Cornish was drowned in the 
Connecticut River, while bathing. 

While no murder has ever stained the records of the town, 
events have transpired that have given rise to divisions of opin- 
ion regarding the possibility of such guilt. The case of Levi F. 
Stone, November 28, 1879, affords one of these. 

Another is concerning the tradition of a traveling man with 
a grip-sack of unknown contents and value, who spent a few days 
in the home of John Morse. On a certain night, it is said, he left 
the Morse home, intending going to the home of Antipas Marble. 



CEMETERIES OF CORNISH— CASUALTIES. 201 

Afterwards it was learned that he never arrived at the Marble 
home, and that he had entirely disappeared from among men. The 
facts becoming known, aroused suspicions, and gave rise to much 
unhappy conjecture and excitement among the good people of 
Cornish. A public hearing on the case was held, but no further 
facts were brought to light than above stated, and so the case was 
dismissed. The public, however, was hardly willing to abandon 
its suspicions. So it is said that buildings were searched, 
ground dug over, etc., but nothing further was found implicating 
any one in the case. The traveler was never seen again and 
his disappearance has ever been shrouded in mystery. The above 
comes to the writer from various sources as a dateless tradition, 
except that it occurred during the first quarter of the nineteenth 
century. 



CHAPTER XV. 

Pauperism — County Affairs. 

Pauperis?n. 

"For the poor shall never cease out of the land; therefore I 
command thee, saying : Thou shalt open thy hand wide unto thy 
brother, to thy poor, and to thy needy in thy land." — Deut. 15: 11. 



The settlements upon the frontiers of New England towns 
were peopled by rugged, self-supporting families. The prevail- 
ing conditions did not invite the aged and infirm, therefore, 
these at first, seldom removed from the older towns unless 
attended by relatives who were able to provide for them a com- 
fortable support. For these reasons, with few exceptions, only 
the industrious, able-bodied husbandman, the mechanic and 
a few professional and business men were found among these 
early settlers. A commendable sentiment of good fellowship 
prevailed in all the towns and between the families. The 
interest of each family was the interest of the whole community, 
and the interest of the whole community seemed to embrace the 
welfare and comfort of every family, so that the people con- 
sidered any poor or unfortunate individual among them as one 
of themselves, and therefore were inspired to alleviate their 
wants. Every misfortune or accident was followed by some 
substantial expression of sympathy. If a farmer was sick at 
seed-time, his fields were prepared and planted by generous 
hands, and if he failed to recover until the close of harvest, he 
found his crops secured and his granaries rejoicing with the 
products of willing labor. These neighborly offerings were 
a school of charity. Under this beautiful system, few public 
laws were needed to regulate the expressions of charity to the 
needy, and in such a community there were but few, if any, 
who were reckoned as paupers. 

This state of affairs could not and did not continue unchanged 
a great many years. As the population increased the number of 



PAUPERISM— COUNTY AFFAIRS. 203 

those needing help increased in a somewhat larger ratio, and 
consequently methods of rendering aid have undergone some 
change. The private, humane methods of the earlier years, to some 
extent, gave place to those of public expression through the select- 
men. These, however, at the first, generally treated each case 
considerately according to the circumstances and necessities 
of the needy. The methods of relief were as numerous as were 
the poor. Sometimes their taxes were abated; sometimes 
their rent was paid by the town; sometimes a cow was bought 
by the town and loaned to the needy family; sometimes the 
firewood, or a stipulated amount of clothing or provision were 
provided. 

While private charities were not debarred, the town was 
careful each year to adopt some system and to make appropria- 
tions for the support of its poor. In some cases the town would 
render a partial support to some not wholly dependent. Con- 
tracts were often made with families to keep certain of the 
poor at a stipulated price. This method soon degenerated 
into the inhuman practice of "selling the poor at auction," 
or consigning them to homes at the lowest possible price; in 
this way, some of the poor might fare well, while in other cases 
it might be otherwise. 

Cornish has passed through the experience of each of the fore- 
named methods. Tradition is replete with praises of the "good 
old times" when neighbors loved each other, but times have 
changed. It might seem to some that charity had lost its hold 
upon the human affections, and that individuals and communi- 
ties were more selfish than formerly and not as regardful of 
the needs of the unfortunate. Then, too, it is not easy to dis- 
possess the mind that poverty in itself is in a greater or less degree 
criminal. Those entertaining this impression seem to be forgetful 
of the words of the Master, who said: "Ye have the poor with 
you always, and whensoever ye will, ye may do them good." 
It is often unfortunately the case that the friends and near 
relatives of dependent ones are removed by death and then those 
who have been lovingly and tenderly cared for are left to the 
care of those who have little interest in them. All these things 
have had weight in the molding of methods for providing for those 
needing help. Instead of their receiving the kindly ministra- 
tions at home as in the early years, many of the poor are collected 



204 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

in homes with overseers employed over them whose duties are 
to provide for their chief necessities and furnish employment 
for such as are able to work. 

On April 11, 1780, is a record of the selectmen furnishing 
homes for certain poor persons. This is the first recorded action 
of the town upon the subject. 

The next record speaks of the town voting to "sink" all taxes 
against certain poor persons; and also provided for the care 
of Miriam Roberts, a poor woman. On March 8, 1791, the 
town voted to "abait" the town tax of sundry individuals who 
were unable to pay them. August 25, 1794, the case of poor 
Miriam Roberts again came before the town, when it was voted 
that "the selectmen take care of her till winter, and then convey 
her Killingly" the cheapest way they can! What was meant by 
this vote is not clear. Perhaps the recorder intended to write 
Killingly, Conn., but the record is as here given. At any rate her 
case does not appear again in the records. 

October 10, 1805, the town voted that the selectmen provide 
a "house of correction" for the poor of the town. We can hardly 
believe the town intended to provide a home of the character 
as implied by the modern interpretation of the above term. But 
if so intended, one may infer that the class of paupers alluded 
to were a set of "toughs" that needed "correction." 

March 10, 1807, the town voted the selectmen take care 
of the poor of the town "to the best advantage." Inasmuch 
as this had been their duty, it would imply that they provide 
homes for the poor chiefly with reference to its cheapness. 

The town also voted March 14, 1809, that the selectmen post 
notices on the several meeting houses of the town, regarding 
any pauper in order to receive proposals for their support. 

March 11, 1817, the subject of building a house for the poor 
was considered and referred to a committee who were to report 
at the next annual meeting. There is no evidence on record 
of any report being made on the following year, and the records 
are silent upon the subject until March 12, 1822. Then it was 
voted "that the selectmen be a committee to enquire into the 
expediency of purchasing a farm for the support of the poor of 
the town and report at the next annual meeting." Again the 
town records are silent as to the action of the aforesaid com- 
mittee for a full decade, or until March 13, 1832. At this time 



PAUPERISM— COUNTY AFFAIRS. 205 

the town accepted a report of a committee respecting purchasing 
the real estate then occupied by Rebecca Tasker and Betsey 
Huggins, for such purpose. This plan for some reason not given 
failed to materialize. 

The example of many neighboring towns had in the meantime 
been adopted by Cornish : That of constituting and denominating 
the selectmen as "overseers of the poor." 

On March 11, 1834, it was voted that the overseers of the 
poor contract with one or more persons on such terms as might 




Residence of Freeman A. Johnson. 

Formerly the. Home of the Town's Poor. 

be consistent with the interests of the town and humane treat- 
ment, and requiring bonds as to the latter clause ensuring 
humane treatment. A selectman moved a recommittal of plan 
to a special committee for later report, which was accordingly 
done. 

The following year, March 10, 1835, the committee on pauper- 
ism reported that the selectmen take into their special consider- 
ation the subject of the support of the town's poor; and that in 
their judgment a farm be purchased for the caring of said poor. 

On March 8. 1836, the town voted to choose a special com- 
mittee to look out for a farm and buildings suitable for the care 
of the poor of the town. John L. Putnam, William S. Deming 



206 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

and Joseph B. Comings were chosen as said committee. During 
this year, it is gratifying to notice these benefactions of the town, 
viz: (1) Voted the town furnish Thomas Lewis with a cow or its 
equivalent in money. (2) Voted the town loan twenty-five 
dollars to Peletiah Martindale to enable him to visit the eye 
infirmary in New York. 

There is no record of any action of this special committee 
during this, or the following year, but doubtless their efforts 
resulted in the action of the town the next year. On March 
13, 1838, an agent was chosen to contract for a suitable farm 
and buildings for the purpose, and Benjamin Comings was chosen 
as said agent. He contracted for and purchased the farm and 
buildings of the Dea. John Weld estate, more recently owned 
and occupied by his son, Horace Weld. Mr. Comings reported 
the expense of the farm, terms of payment and the town fully 
endorsed the action of its agent in this purchase, and then voted 
to choose a committee to prepare a code of rules, rates and regu- 
lations for the management of the town farm and its occupants. 
Said committee were Benjamin Comings, Benjamin Chapman 
and Simon Coburn. This committee on the following year 
(1839) submitted an exhaustive and elaborate code consisting 
of eighteen articles. These were readily adopted by the town, 
and the name of "Cornish Alms House" was given to the paupers' 
new home. Jonathan Wakefield and wife were the first superin- 
tendents chosen by the town to have charge of it. They were 
succeeded by others who served in the care of the unfortunate 
poor of Cornish. They were required annually to report their 
doings in full to the town, even the daily condition of each inmate, 
amount of labor performed by them, etc. This excellent and 
careful supervision was a source of mutual gratification both to 
the citizens of the town and to its unfortunate poor. 

This method of management continued for nearly thirty years 
when a change of the pauper laws of New Hampshire took place, 
enabling towns, so choosing, to place the burden of pauper support 
upon the counties to which they belonged. Accordingly a test 
vote was called for in Cornish on March 12, 18G7. The question 
was, "Is it expedient to abolish pauper settlements in town 
and throw their entire support upon counties?" The result 
of the vote in Cornish, as elsewhere, was in favor of this 
measure. 



PAUPERISM— COUNTY AFFAIRS. 207 

A county farm for Sullivan County was established at Unity 
and most of the paupers of Cornish were removed to it during 
the year. This institution, under the care and management 
of the county commissioners, provides a home for the county 
paupers similar to that the towns afforded. The town continues 
a temporary or partial support to those who need assistance 
for a season, but those whose necessities demand permanent 
assistance are humanely supported at the county farm. 

The abandonment of the town farm property for pauper use 
necessitated its sale. This took place on December 1, 1868. 
The proceeds of this sale amounted to $6,358.26, which was 
reported to the town on the following March. 

A fund of two thousand dollars for the worthy poor of Cornish 
was left by the will of Jacob Foss of Charlestown, Mass., who 
died June 22, 1866. (See sketch.) The town received the 
legacy on the following September, less a revenue tax. This 
fund is to be securely invested and its income to be annually 
devoted to the partial support of any worthy poor in town. 

On June 14, 1889, Edward D. Kimball of Mt. Auburn, Mass., 
a native of Cornish, gave the town the sum of three thousand 
dollars for the same object and on the same terms as did Jacob 
Foss. The interest from these two funds has proved a great 
blessing in ameliorating the condition and circumstances of 
many worthy individuals and families at home, who might 
otherwise have been conveyed to the county farm. 

The following is a list of paupers from Cornish who have 
died at the county farm since its establishment: Benjamin 
Edminister, 73 years old, died January 8, 1862; Charles Luey, 
45 years old, died November 3, 1877; John Bell, 69 years 
old, died May 5, 1877; William Lane, 78 years old, died 
December 25, 1878; Eliza Forehand, 57 years old, died May 
15, 1883; George Babcock, 72 years old, died June 1, 1884; Cath- 
erine Chase, 73 years old, died June 13, 1896; Caroline Jackson, 
68 years old, died March 20, 1897; Elihu Russell, 87 years old, 
died March 22, 1897; Albert Kelley, 79 years old, died March 
22, 1899; Frank Newman, 84 years old, died January 28, 1900; 
Albert Spaulding, 45 years old, died July 22, 1901; Edgar Geer, 
27 years old, died September 8, 1907. 

A peculiar, though rare type of pauperism, that once existed 
was the traveling mendicant. Their sustenance they begged 



208 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

from door to door. No laws, as now, at that time restrained 
them. They were dependent wayfarers, not from choice but 
from accident. Not tramps, in our modern sense of the word, 
neither thiefs, "hobos" nor "yeggs," but creatures of fortune, 
or rather of misfortune. To perpetuate the memory of one 
of this type, we would refer to a familiar personage called "Old 
Haines," or "Crazy Haines," who from the twenties to the seven- 
ties of the last century, wandered through many of the towns of 
New England, and always included Cornish in his trips. Some, 
doubtless today, will remember his tall, grim figure, clothed in 
tattered black garments, originally shaped for judicial or eccle- 
siastical dignitaries, with corresponding stove-pipe hat, or 
hats telescoped together. In memory of this man, Prof. David 
H. Lamberton of Morris ville, Vt., has inscribed the following 
touching memorial: 

"Old Haines." 

'Tis not of a Cornish man at all, these words of remembrance bear, 
That is, he neither was born nor bred, around here anywhere. 
He only straggled through the town, as seasons came and went, 
If not in spring, why then in fall, while fifty years were spent. 

His name was "Haines," or just "Old Haines," as boys, now men, recall, 
And these same boys remember, too, that, when they were young and small, 
The mother's threat to have "Old Haines" carry them off in his pack — 
Would bring more good from a mischief-brew, than a switch or slipper's 
whack. 

He begged his way and clubbed the dogs, that barked up and down his path, 
Or angered sore by taunting gibe, he'd swear in a mighty wrath, 
Yet country folk along the roads, wherever his wanderings led, 
Rarely denied his spoken need for food or a shake-down bed. 

'Old Haines" in stature was tall and thin, and erect in the red man's mold 
And despite the mark of a vagabond, there was a hint of a lineage old— 
A sign of blood that never had begged, a glint of a spirit in strife — 
And a remnant of youth that had promised more than a useless waste of 
life. 

His story, however, no man can repeat, as his silence upon it was strict, 
But the older folk who had known him long, declared him a sad derelict 
On the Sea of Love, where a woman's guile had left him adrift and astray, 
A bourneless, masterless, rudderless craft, where currents unchartered have 
sway. 



PAUPERISM— COUNTY AFFAIRS. 209 

Full many a year since the vagrant "Haines" roamed over these Cornish 

hills 
Has sped its way down the flight of time, leaving measure of good and of ills, 
And not only he, but his class, no more begs at doors of the dwellings of men, 
For Charity's kinder to playthings of Fate nowadays than her habit was then. 

Somewhere in a mendicant's grave his frame has crumbled away into dust 
The same as others 'neath marble shafts, who in life only threw him a crust, 
But the Reaper of all has garnered his soul, however benighted it trod 
Companionless ways in an unfriendly world, unwelcomed till lastly with God. 

A vagrant was "Haines," yet alas, it is true, he was scarcely more vagrant 

than we, 
Who chase our own phantoms and dream our own dreams, of successes that 

never can be, 
The difference is really far less than it seems, when gauged by Eternity's span, 
For of all that is gained and of all that is lost, there's a balance Divine in the 

plan. 

County Affairs. 

Previous to March 8, 1769, there were no county divisions in 
New Hampshire. The sessions of the Legislature and the courts 
for the adjustment of all legal matters were held at Portsmouth. 
At that time the state or province was divided by act of the 
Legislature, into five counties, that were named by the governor : 
Rockingham, Hillsborough, Cheshire, Strafford and Grafton. 
The three counties first named were organized in 1771 and their 
officers appointed. The organization of Strafford and Grafton 
counties was not long delayed. A message from the governor 
under date of May 28, 1772, to the council and assembly, recom- 
mended the establishing and organizing of these two counties, 
which took place about eight months later. These five counties 
embraced the entire limits of the state. Subsequently, from time 
to time, other counties were created and their boundaries defined 
by the Legislature. Cheshire County extended north from the 
line of the state of Massachusetts about sixty-five miles to the 
south line of Grafton County, and east from the west bank of 
the Connecticut River about twenty miles to the west lines of 
Hillsborough and Merrimack Counties, making an area three times 
as long as it was broad. It contained thirty-eight towns. The 
county courts were held alternately at Keene and Charles town. 
At each of these places a jail and other necessary buildings 
were erected. 

15 



210 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

To better accommodate the business of the northern part of 
the county, on December 8, 1824, the Legislature passed an act 
that the May term of the supreme court should be removed 
from Charlestown to Newport. This was only a partial relief. 
The inconveniences for the transaction of the business of the 
county were so great that it became apparent the only remedy 
was the erection of a new county. In June, 1826, the question 
of a division of Cheshire County came before the Legislature. On 
the twenty-third, by an appropriate act, the question of division 
was to be submitted to the several towns of Cheshire County; 
and also the question whether Newport or Claremont should 
become the shire town of the new county. A good deal of dis- 
cussion followed, but the result of the election was: first, a vote 
to divide the county, and second, that Newport be the county 
seat of the new county. 

The trial vote on the subject in Cornish took place on March 
13, 1827, when, by calling for the yeas and nays, the vote stood: 
128 yeas and 10 nays. On July 5, 1827, the county was incor- 
porated, to take effect on the following September. The county 
was named in honor of John Sullivan, one of New Hampshire's 
most distinguished patriotic soldiers, whose name was reverenced 
by the people of the state. 

The new county comprised the towns of Acworth, Charlestown, 
Claremont, Cornish, Croydon, Grantham, Goshen, Langdon, 
Lempster, Newport, Plainfield, Sunapee, Springfield, Unity and 
Washington — in all, fifteen towns. 

Sullivan County is about thirty miles long from north to south, 
and about twenty miles wide from the somewhat irregular line 
of Merrimack County on the east to the Connecticut River as its 
western boundary. The general inclination of its surface is 
towards the west, thus furnishing a water-shed for the Connecti- 
cut River. The highest point of land in the county is that of 
Croydon Mountain which has an elevation of 2,789 feet above 
sea-level. From its summit a large portion of the county can 
be seen. 

The scenery of Sullivan County is picturesque and delightful, 
though less imposing than that of the northern portions of the 
state. Along the Connecticut River are some of the best farms of 
the state. 



PAUPERISM— COUNTY AFFAIRS. 211 

The population of Sullivan County in 1890 was 17,304. In 
1900 it was 18,009, having made a gain of 705 during the decade. 

The removal of the courts from Charlestown to Newport 
necessitated the erection of new buildings at the latter place. 
The old jail at Charlestown continued to be used, however, by 
the county until April 1, 1842, when it was burned by Hicks, 
a notorious robber who was then confined there. A new jail was 
then erected at Newport at a cost of $3,300. A meeting of 
the town of Newport was held January 13, 1825, when it was 
voted to raise the sum of $2,000 to assist in building a new 
court house, the balance of the funds needed for the purpose 
were to be furnished by individual subscription. By the eleventh 
of February, 1826, the building was ready for occupancy. This 
building continued to be used as a court house until 1873. The 
increasing population and consequent increase of court matters, 
had awakened the citizens to the fact that the old building was 
insufficient to meet its present and increasing requirements; 
so steps were taken in 1872 towards the erection of the pres- 
ent commodious town hall and court house. This was soon 
erected at a cost of nearly $40,000. A county safe building was 
erected in 1843, which still continues to be used. 



212 



HISTORY OF CORNISH. 















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CHAPTER XVI. 
Cornish Bridge — Blue Mountain Park. 

The Cornish Bridge. 

By concurrent acts of the Legislatures of New Hampshire and 
Vermont, the former passed in January, 1795, and the latter a 
little later, the toll-bridge company which maintains the bridge 
across the Connecticut, known to the people of Cornish as "the 
Windsor Bridge," was chartered under the corporate title of 
"The Proprietors of the Cornish Bridge." The charter was 
granted to Jonathan Chase, to whom had been granted in the year 
1784 by the New Hampshire Legislature, a charter for a ferry across 
the Connecticut between Cornish and Windsor near the point 
where the bridge now stands. The original subscription agree- 
ment for shares of stock in the bridge company bears the date of the 
thirteenth day of April, 1796, and is signed by Jonathan Chase and 
by the following other subscribers : Nathaniel Hall, Ithamar Chase 
and Dudley Chase of Cornish, Nathaniel Leonard, Amasa Paine, 
Stephen Jacob, Isaac Green, Nathan Coolidge, Caleb Stone, 
Zebina Curtis, Allen Hayes, Samuel Shuttles worth, Stephen 
Conant, Jonathan H. Hubbard, Freeman Hopkins, Ebenezer 
W. Jucld, Nahum Trask, Abiel Leonard, William Leverett, Wil- 
liam Sweetser, Abner Forbes and John Leverett of Windsor, 
Benjamin Page of Hartland, Vt., and by the firms of Jones & 
Tuttle and George Bull & Company, both of Hartford, Conn. 
These subscribers, together with Benjamin Sumner of Boston, 
who did not sign, became the first proprietors. The subscrip- 
tion list also bears the signature of E. Brewer, but he does not 
appear to have become a stockholder. Jonathan Chase was by 
far the largest stockholder and Benjamin Sumner the next. 
Most of Jonathan Chase's conveyances of stock to his fellow- 
proprietors were witnessed by Nathan Smith and Philander 
Chase and acknowledged before Dudley Chase, justice of the 
peace. From the foregoing it appears that the promoters of 



214 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

the enterprise included in their number, in addition to the influ- 
ential Chase family of Cornish, the leading professional men and 
merchants of Windsor. 

The first meeting of the proprietors was held at the house of 
Nathaniel Hall, innholder, in Cornish, on May 4, 1796, pursuant 
to a notice dated April 14, 1796, published in the New Hampshire 
and Vermont Journal of Walpole, and signed by Jonathan Chase, 
Esq. At this meeting Jonathan Chase was moderator and was 
elected the first president of the company. The proprietors also 
chose at the same meeting the following other officers: Abiel 
Leonard, clerk; William Leverett, treasurer; and the following 
board of directors: Jonathan Chase, Esq., Nathaniel Hall, 
Nathaniel Leonard, Perez Jones, Caleb Stone, Ithamar Chase 
and Jonathan H. Hubbard. 

The first bridge constructed by the company was built in 
1796 at a cost of $17,099.27, a sum which, as the proprietors 
admitted, "in consequence of the unexpected rise of labor, pro- 
visions and the materials necessary for such a work," was "far 
beyond their expectations." This bridge was probably un- 
covered and supported by three piers between the abutments. 
It lasted until the spring freshet of 1824, which carried it away. 
The second bridge was presumably of similar design and was 
built in 1824. Some of the old toll-house journals, kept during 
the life of the second bridge, throw much light on the times. For 
instance, the records from December, 1824, to about 1840, which 
were kept in great detail, show to what a vast extent sheep- 
raising was carried on. This was before the railroad had touched 
Cornish. Then the Cornish Bridge was a truly great artery for 
commerce. Sheep and cattle in great numbers passed over the 
bridge from the North and West on their way to market. On the 
Sabbath day, October 23, 1825, there crossed the bridge, 450 
sheep; on the 24th, 838 sheep and 259 cattle; on the Sabbath 
day, October 30, 328 sheep; on the 31st, 200 sheep and 108 
cattle; on November 7, 920 sheep and 236 cattle; on December 4, 
470 cattle. The record for that year was about 9,500 sheep and 
2,600 cattle. The droves went to market chiefly in the autumn 
and early winter. The records for the years 1837 to 1841 show 
the total numbers of sheep and cattle as follows: 



CORNISH BRIDGE— BLUE MOUNTAIN PARK. 215 



YEAR. 


SHEEP. 


CATTLE. 


1837 


13,233 


2,420 


1838 


14,084 


2,208 


1839 


12,229 


1,705 


1840 


11,451 


2,657 


1841 


11,513 


2,988 



The largest drove in one day which the writer has found recorded 
was on September 30, 1833, when 1,000 sheep crossed. 

In the years 1825 to 1836 Skinner's stage, Pettes' stage and the 
Concord and Lebanon stages were regular patrons of the bridge. 
Colonel Nettleton's Boston stage was using the bridge in 1826. 
Charles Bell, Jeremiah Hubbard and Joel Nettleton were stage 
drivers in the early thirties and in 1836 Paran Stevens' stage was 
crossing. The toll-gatherer of the period from 1825 to 1836, 
one Colonel Brown, found time to record in the journal his com- 
ments on the weather and to mention events of interest. In the 
year 1825 there seems to have been a great drought. Among the 
toll-gatherer's repeated and sad observations on dry weather, 
smoky air and no rain, we find on August 12: "Many fields Corn 
dried up and Cut up for Cattle." On September 23 he recorded: 
"Mill Brook so low the Mills have stood still for 3 months." 
On October 7: "In many places in Mill Brook there is no water." 
But a "powerful" rain came on October 27, so that on October 
29 he could record: "Rafts and Boats run on the Connecticut." 
Earlier in the same year, February 16, there was a "Convention 
for navigating the Vally of the Connecticut River," which, with 
the help of the October rain, may have caused the appearance of 
the rafts and boats. But historically the most interesting item of 
the year was noted on Tuesday, June 28, when "Marquis Fayette 
passed with his Suit." On September 14, 1826, there was a 
"Muster at Cornish." On September 13, 1831, there was a "Wolf 
Hunt," followed the next day by " Calvenistick Convention." 

In 1849 the second bridge was lost by flood and that year a 
third bridge was contracted for. This bridge had but one pier 
and was a covered lattice bridge of the same type as the present, 
and stood until the night of March 3 and 4, 1866, when its turn 
came to be carried away. The contract for the erection of the 
present bridge, "to be constructed after the plan and in all 
respects equal to the late one built by Brown and others," bears 
date, April 3, 1866, and is signed by James F. Tasker of Cornish 



216 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

and Bela J. Fletcher of Claremont as builders, and on the part 
of the proprietors by Allen Wardner, Alfred Hall and Henry 
Wardner. The bridge was framed on the meadow to the north 
of Bridge Street in Windsor village and put in place before the 
end of the year. The length of the bridge is upwards of 470 feet, 
and each span about 220 feet between supports. 

Besides the names of members of the Chase and Hall families, 
some of the other familiar Cornish names to appear upon the 
bridge company's books are Davis, Wood, Balloch, Fitch and Weld. 

While toll-gates have never been popular institutions with the 
public at large, it may fairly be said that this particular bridge 
company has served the public well and has furnished, at not 
unreasonable rates, adequate means of communication between 
Cornish and Windsor for about one hundred and thirteen years. 
During that period no part of the cost of building or maintain- 
ing any of the company's several bridges has fallen on the towns, 
counties or states. On the contrary the company has borne all 
of such costs and has been a large taxpayer in Cornish and 
Windsor besides. Of late there has been much talk of a free 
bridge and a good deal of claptrap has been written and spoken 
on the antiquated system of supporting bridges and roads by 
tolls. It is true that the system is old, but it is obviously fair; 
and the appeals for its abolition derive their greatest vitality 
from that instinct in human nature which desires to get some- 
thing for nothing. If Cornish, in having a toll-bridge, is old- 
fashioned and behind the times, her people can bear in mind 
that in New York City the great Brooklyn and Williamsburgh 
bridges are toll-bridges, that four toll-bridges cross the Ohio at 
Cincinnati, that the Mississippi is spanned by a toll-bridge at 
St. Louis and by another at Hannibal; that there is a toll-ferry 
across the Potomac at Washington, and that every one of the 
fourteen ferries from New York City to New Jersey is operated 
only for tolls and by private capital. H. S. Wardner. 

Blue Mountain Park. 

This is a large tract of land situated on either side of and 
including Croydon and Grantham mountains. It embraces 
portions of Croydon, Cornish, Plainfielcl, Grantham and Newport. 

It contains about 24,000 acres, being in size equivalent to a 
primitive township. The town of Croydon contributes a larger 



CORNISH BRIDGE— BLUE MOUNTAIN PARK. 217 




percentage of its territory to the park than any other town, while 
Cornish contributes a strip along her entire eastern boundary 
amounting to about 2,800 acres. 

Before the park was established, the land all belonged to indi- 
vidual owners and consisted of a large number of upland farms, 



218 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

while higher up above them were timber lots belonging to indi- 
viduals generally more remote, who used their lots each year to 
obtain their supply of lumber. Mr. Austin Corbin, the prime 
promoter of the enterprise, conceived the idea of purchasing these 
farms and woodlands, and by fencing, converting them into a 
forest game preserve. He had become aware that the noble 
buffalo of the country were fast becoming extinct, and that other 
animals of note were about to share the same fate, which aroused 
him to the sublime project of preparing an asylum wherein 
a few at least of these valuable animals might be preserved from 
the avarice, cruelty and greed of man. It was perfectly charac- 
teristic of the man to do this. Few others would or could dare 
embark in an enterprise of such dimensions, but Mr. Corbin 
enjoyed the satisfaction a little later, of having it said that he 
had the largest and best appointed fenced game preserve in the 
United States. 

Under Mr. Corbin's direction, Mr. Sidney A. Stockwell began 
the purchase of the farms and timber lots in 1886. The pur- 
chases were completed sometime during the following year. A 
wire fence was erected enclosing the entire purchases excepting 
irregular portions of some farms that could not well be embraced 
within it. The length of the fence is a little less than thirty miles 
and it is about eleven feet high. The fence is strengthened at the 
base by a lining of wire netting, and also by iron stays midway 
between the wooden posts. A telephone wire passes around the 
entire length of, and above the fence, for the convenience and 
cooperation of those having the care of the park. 

An association was formed and incorporated in 1888, with 
Mr. Corbin at its head. In 1890 Mr. Corbin began to intro- 
duce game into the park. This at the first consisted of about 
thirty buffalo, one hundred and forty deer, embracing four 
varieties, thirty-five moose, one hundred and thirty-five elk, 
and fourteen wild boar, a few Himalayan goats and six 
antelope. 

All the game, but the moose, has done well, except during 
one severe winter, when there was a great loss among the elk 
and deer. Since that time they have been fed in winter by 
cutting browse for the deer and elk, and feeding the boar with 
corn. 

To avoid being overstocked, large numbers of the animals 



CORNISH BRIDGE— BLUE MOUNTAIN PARK. 219 

have been sold to zoological parks and gardens and to other parties. 
At present (1908) there are about one hundred and sixty-five 
buffalo, five hundred deer, fifty elk, and four hundred to five 
hundred boar, also a few moose and red deer. 

A proprietary game club was started in 1899 with a lease of five 
years. The members, men from New York, Boston and Wash- 
ington, were allowed certain shooting privileges. The club was 
successful and they propose soon to start another. 

The sudden death of Mr. Corbin in 1896 very naturally effected 
a greater or less change in the management of the affairs of the 
park. This is especially shown in the sale and removal of im- 
mense quantities of lumber from it. This action on the part of 
the association possibly gives rise to emotions of regret among 
those who admire Nature as seen in the full-fledged forest. 
Nevertheless, the association maintain that their action is un- 
der the direction and sanction of the Forestry Bureau at 
Washington. 

The present directors (1908) are Mrs. H. M. Corbin, Mrs. 
Isabella C. Edgell, George S. Edgell, Austin Corbin, Jr., William 
E. Chandler, A. N. Parlin, William Dunton and A. C. Cham- 
pollion. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

"City Folks" in Cornish. 

You have long called them the "City Folks" of "Little New 
York," these strangers who have bought land in Cornish. For 
a time the phrase "City Folks" set up a barrier that surely 
no right-hearted man could approve, whether he were from the 
country or from a town. But that antagonism is passing and 
the words, now too old to be displaced, carry with them only 
good-humored reference to the origin of the possessors. 

The coming of the "City Folks" began over a quarter of a 
century ago in as much to be expected a fashion as any immigra- 
tion could possibly have been conceived. Mr. William M. 
Evarts of New York married Miss Helen M. Wardner of Wind- 
sor, Vt., and eventually made his home in her town in 1843. 
Their oldest daughter, Miss Hettie Evarts, became the wife 
of a rising young New York lawyer, Mr. C. C. Beaman. So 
in 1884 it was quite natural- that the young people should cross 
the river to Cornish, where they bought land of Mr. Chester 
Pike for a permanent country home, adding to their property 
from time to time until now the Beaman family owns almost 
two thousand acres hereabouts. 

Shortly after his arrival, Mr. Beaman, in turn, tendered what 
had been the William W. Mercer place, with its old brick house, 
"Huggins' Folly," to his New York friend, the sculptor, Mr. 
Augustus Saint-Gaudens. For the first few years the latter 
preferred to rent the land, but eventually in 1891 Mr. Beaman's 
offer to sell was accepted, and from then to the time of his death 
the sculptor spent untold energy in beautifying his home. 
Through these two men came all the others attracted to our town. 

During these early years it required a nine-hour train ride 
to reach Cornish from New York; and nine hours seemed infi- 
nitely further then than now. So, probably, despite the influence 
of the two "founders" the "colony" would have failed to make 
its beginning when it did had not the peace and dreamlike ripe- 



"CITY FOLKS" IN CORNISH. 



221 



ness of the hills, with their dark clumps of trees and their river 
winding south before the mountain, called strongly to these 
artists who desired a simple living. No country at a distance 
can compare with Cornish. No country near at hand can equal 
it. Go north toward Hanover — it is flat. Go east over the 
Corbin Game Preserve — it is covered with scrubby bushes. 
Go south toward Claremont — it is sandy, with a dearth of 
intimate detail. Go west behind Ascutney — the barren pas- 
tures are but scantily shaded by trees. Yet sadly enough through 




Residence of Mrs. C. C. Beaman. 



their very coming, the beauty of out-rolling pasture slopes, 
dotted with round-topped maples and quartz out-crops, is begin- 
ning to lose its charm. For as the "City Folks" have bought 
the mowings and the pastures and have no longer tilled them 
or allowed stock to graze upon them, the land which they admired, 
through their own neglect, is rapidly reverting to that unshorn 
appearance from which they fled. 

Those who bought first were simple in their tastes. Mr. 
Saint-Gaudens worked upon his commissions in a dilapidated 
barn, hastily provided with a north light; Mr. George deForest 



222 



HISTORY OF CORNISH. 



Brush of New York, the painter, spent a summer in an Indian 
tepee at the foot of Mr. Saint-Gaudens' mowing, and later 
returned for several years to rent from Mr. Beaman the modest 
house on the old "Big Tree Farm" just over the Plainfield line, 
north of what was then Mr. John Freeman's property; while 
Mr. Thomas W. Dewing, another charming painter of New 
York, in 1885 bought a portion of the one-time Mercer farm 
from Mr. Beaman and lived there in the midst of a rambling 




Mrs. C. C. Beaman's Casino. 

Said to be the First Framed House Constructed in Cornish. 

confusion of small buildings. These were the original "City 
Folks." 

In 1889 came Mr. Dewing's great friend, the mural decorator, 
Mr. Henry Oliver Walker of New York, who bought land from 
Mr. Chester Pike on the Plainfield stage road. Mr. Walker's 
modest house, wholly hidden from the highway, is perched bird- 
like on the edge of a fascinating ravine. His recognition as an 
artist, which he gained for himself at about the time he painted 
his "Lyric Poetry" in the library of Congress, has continued 
in such other compositions as "The Pilgrims on the Mayflower," 
in the Massachusetts State House. 



"CITY FOLKS" IN CORNISH. 223 

Very shortly after Mr. Walker, came his intimate friend, Mr. 
Charles A. Piatt, who settled just south of him, also on some of 
the Chester Pike land. From his house Mr. Piatt may see the 
blue silhouette of Ascutney rising above his grove of tall pines, 
with such a singular composition of lines as to suggest Italy. 
During those early years Mr. Piatt was a landscape painter and 
an etcher. But later, when he took up the career of an architect, 
this view gave him his cue to decorate Cornish slopes with pseudo- 




"High Court," Residence of Mr. Norman Hapgood. 

Italian buildings and to crop the heads of our native white 
pines that they might pathetically imitate the fashion of the 
trees in southern Europe. 

In 1892 Mr. Piatt in turn brought his friend, Mr. Stephen 
Parrish of Philadelphia, who, strangely enough, has been the 
only man to build a house on the north slope of a hill, out of 
sight of the much-prized mountain, purchasing his property 
from Mr. S. A. Tracy. Mr. Parrish is a man who was able to 
take up painting at the age of thirty and make a success of it; 
for certainly success includes creating delicate landscape paintings 
mostly for one's own pleasure. 



224 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

At about this time, too, in 1890, Mr. Dewing's friend, Miss 
Emma Lazarus of New York, set up her home, "High Court," 
on the western edge of the Austin farm. While the next year 
Mr. William C. Houston of Boston bought from Mr. Beaman 
what had been part of the Williams place, above the old Mercer 
mill, and Mr. Henry Prellwitz, a landscape painter from New 
York, and Mr. Arthur Whiting, a musician from the same city, 
took portions of the southern slope of Mr. Edward Bryant's land. 

Meantime, while these newcomers had followed in the foot- 
steps of Mr. Augustus Saint-Gaudens, the Beaman family in 
turn had brought their allotment, for Mr. Alfred Bullard of 
Roxbury, Mass., in 1886, leased Mr. Beaman's farm, "Chase- 
holme." Miss Charlotte Arnold and Mrs. Clendenen Graydon 
of New York began to rent "The Butternuts," formerly belong- 
ing to Mr. William Mercer, from Mr. Beaman. Mr. and Mrs. 
Fraser Campbell of New York since 1890 have occupied the 
cottage next to it, which belongs to the Beaman estate, and 
Mr. Frederick Todd and his family from Roxbury, Mass., in 
1895 established themselves in a new house belonging to Mr. 
Beaman near at hand. 

Thus was formed the group of the first period of ten years, 
a sociable, unsophisticated group, whose chief entertainment 
centered in Mr. Beaman's Saturday night balls in his "Casino," 
an old building which he had moved to close by his residence. 
From 1895 on, however, the Cornish "Little New York" began 
to assume a more fashionable atmosphere, with somewhat 
pretentious elements creeping in, until close to 1907 when the 
"boom" reached its final height. Of course Cornish could never 
have attained the elaborate limits of the country around 
Lenox, Mass., or Dublin, N. H. Those regions are controlled 
by bankers or business men, who back their original purchases 
by large fortunes. While here, with scarcely an exception, 
most of the residents, after the fashion of artists, live to the 
extent of their incomes. It is strange, indeed, that this gen- 
uinely rich element has never crept in, yet such is the fact, with 
the exception of the late Dr. George Hayward of Boston, who 
in 1901 bought the old Eggleston place, just over the Plain- 
field line, and of Mr. Albion E. Lang of Toledo, Ohio, who in 
1905 bought land of Mr. Frank J. Chadbourne, just north of 
Doctor Hayward's. Rather, the newcomers have given the 



"CITY FOLKS" IN CORNISH. 



225 



region a literary turn which is supplanting the artistic one, 
for the only painters and sculptors here now are Mr. and Mrs. 
Kenyon Cox, Mr. Stephen Parrish, Mr. Henry C. Walker, Mr. 
and Mrs. Louis Saint-Gaudens, Mr. William H. Hyde, Mrs. 
Homer Saint-Gaudens, with, across the Plainfield line, Mr. Herbert 
Adams, Mr. Maxfield Parrish and Mr. and Mrs. Henry B. Fuller, 
with a welcome summer transient or two such as Mr. James Wall 
Finn. 

Mr. and Mrs. Kenyon Cox of New York, in 1896 bought land 




'Aspet," Residence of Mrs. Augustus Saint-Gaudens. 



from Mr. John Freeman and set up their house in a picturesque 
spot between woods and fields where the ground falls away toward 
a creek brawling beneath the antiquated dam of the one-time 
"Freeman's Mill." Mr. Cox is a mural decorator of scholarly 
and earnest workmanship, a leading American in his craft. 
Perhaps the most popular of his canvases, and the one so fre- 
quently seen reproduced, is his painting of "Hope and Memory." 
In it is represented a tall dark-clad figure, whose step lingers 
as she turns her face backward to the visions of the past, sharply 
contrasted to the lightly garbed, joyous-faced companion whose 



16 



226 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

hand she holds. Mrs. Louise Cox, the painter's wife, is best 
known by her intimate pictures of children. 

Mr. Louis Saint-Gaudens came directly through his brother, 
Mr. Augustus Saint-Gaudens, when in 1903 he bought a few 
acres of land from Mr. William E. Westgate. Shortly after 
this he purchased in Enfield, N. H., an old hip-roofed Shaker 
Meeting House, which he had moved to its present site and 
wherein he now lives. Mr. Saint-Gaudens has long been a 
sculptor of thorough and consistent work, in which he is greatly 
helped by his wife. 

Mr. William H. Hyde of New York bought the larger part of 
Mr. Dewing's place in 1905, since, unfortunately, the latter 
artist became disgruntled with Cornish at the end of that first 
period and, as he expressed it, "trekked North" in search of 
pastures "new" where picture hats would no longer spoil his 
keen enjoyment of unsophisticated landscape. Mr. Hyde is 
a portrait painter of some reputation in New York City. 

Mrs. Homer Saint-Gaudens, like Mrs. Fuller, is a miniature 
painter. Mrs. Saint-Gaudens and her husband lived for a time 
on a tiny lot of land purchased of Mrs. C. C. Beaman, just to 
the east of the home of Mr. Augustus Saint-Gaudens and are 
now established in the old home of Mr. Frank Johnson. 

Mr. Herbert Adams, Mr. Frederick Maxfield Parrish and Mr. 
and Mrs. Henry B. Fuller have not really resided to any extent 
in Cornish, though the town may well claim them as a part of the 
community. Mr. Adams came here through the influence of 
Mr. Augustus Saint-Gaudens, whose faithful admirer he has 
always been, following Mr. Brush at Mr. Beaman's "Big Tree 
Farm" in 1894, and remaining there until 1904, when he built 
upon some land which he had purchased from Mr. Elmer DeGoosh 
in Plainfield. Mr. Frederick Maxfield Parrish, son of Mr. 
Stephen Parrish, in 1898 bought land from Mr. Charles Williams 
and thereon erected for himself "The Oaks," his charming home. 
His delightful magazine illustrations and his recent decorations 
need no further mention here. Mr. and Mrs. Henry Brown 
Fuller of Boston built upon land which they had bought from 
Mr. Solomon Stone. Mr. Fuller has established himself as a 
painter of much poetic imagination, while Mrs. Fuller is generally 
accorded the position of the first miniature painter in America. 

The change of the center of interest of this peculiar community 



"CITY FOLKS" IN CORNISH. 



227 



from painting to literature, developed most naturally through 
two of its artists, Mr. Charles A. Piatt and Mr. Kenyon Cox. 
Mr. Piatt became interested by writing a book upon Italian 
Gardens, wherein he shows his perspicuity and good taste. 
But with Mr. Cox literature was a much more serious business. 
For besides being a decorator of recognized power, he has long 
proved his merit as an art critic, holding an established place 
on The Nation, and publishing occasional books. His thorough 
and learned essays combine an understanding of his subject 




Harlakenden House," Residence of Winston Churchill. 



with an excellence of style that could only be equalled by one 
other man in the country, the late Mr. John LaFarge. Mr. Cox 
and Mr. Piatt then formed a connecting link between the older 
artists and the more recent apostles of writing for the sake of 
literature alone. 

The first of this latter class, Mr. Louis Evan Shipman, and 
Mr. Herbert D. Croly, both men of New York, came to Cornish 
in 1893. For that and the following summer they and their 
families hired the square, wooden, white-painted, century-old 
farmhouse set about with elm trees, then belonging to Mr. 



228 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Frank L. Johnson, and now the home of Mr. and Mrs. Homer 
Saint-Gaudens. But at the end of that period they had become 
sufficiently enamored with the beauties of the landscape to 
establish themselves permanently. Mr. Shipman in 1902 
bought the John Gilkie farm in Plainfield. In the past he has 
staged, among other plays, "D'Arcy of the Guards," a comedy 
of delicious and healthy temper, and dramatizations of Mr. 
Winston Churchill's novel, "The Crisis." Mr. Croly, however, 
remained near to where he originally spent his summers, buying 
some pasture land in 1897 from Mr. Edward Bryant. There, 
with the help of Mr. Piatt, he set up his white dwelling among 
the tumbling hillocks and blue-green clusters of pine trees. 
And there he has spent the past seven years producing his most 
scholarly work on American sociology, called "The Promise of 
American Life." 

The next author to come to Cornish, brought by Mr. Shipman, 
was Mr. Winston Churchill of St. Louis. He decided to buy 
at once, and in 1898 purchased from Mr. Leonard Spaulding 
and Mr. John Freeman some five hundred acres of woodland and 
valley mowings. From here Mr. Churchill has taken close in- 
terest in local affairs, and written a large part of "The Crisis," 
"The Crossing," "Coniston," and "A Modern Chronicle." 

After Mr. Churchill, there appeared in the vicinity a man 
laboring in quite a different department of the literary world, 
that of journalism, Mr. Norman Hapgood, biographer, and 
editorial writer of Collier's Weekly, who purchased from Miss 
Emma Lazarus in 1902, "High Court," her dwelling designed 
by Mr. Piatt in the Italian manner and situated on the crest of 
one of the foothills that line the valley. Mr. Hapgood is well 
known for his unbiased and unprejudiced attacks on what seems 
bad in American politics and American customs. 

Following him came an author of still other literary tastes, the 
poet and dramatist, Mr. Percy MacKaye of New York, who in 1904 
leased a little brown-colored house, "The Snuff Box," tucked into 
a corner of the estate of Admiral William M. Folger, who had 
bought his land from Mr. Charles Gilkie in 1898. Mr. MacKaye 
remained in "The Snuff Box" until 1906 when he rented what 
has been the old "Wells" house, now on the estate of the late 
Dr. George Hayward. Mr. MacKaye hopes some day to make 
this place his permanent dwelling. Mr. MacKaye displays a 



"CITY FOLKS" IN CORNISH. 



229 



fertile sense of poetry and wealth of imagination, which he 
devotes his days to expressing in dramatic form. His "Scare- 
crow" produced by Mr. Henry B. Harris, has been probably his 
most successful drama. Previous to this Mr. MacKaye has 
produced "Jean D'Arc," played by E. H. Sothern and Julia 
Marlowe; "Sappho and Phaon," performed by Bertha Kalish 
under the direction of Harrison Grey Fiske, and the comedy 
"Mater" also produced by this same manager. 

On the heels of Mr. MacKaye there arrived in "The Snuff 




Residence of Mr. C. A. Platt. 



Box" Mr. Langdon Mitchell of Philadelphia, a dramatist of 
established reputation, who had been living for a time in 
Mrs. Elizabeth Perkins' house in Windsor, Vt. Mr. Mitchell 
appeared before the public about ten years ago with his produc- 
tion of "Becky Sharpe," a dramatization of Thackeray's novel, 
"Vanity Fair." Others of Mr. Mitchell's best plays are his 
extraordinarily clever translation of "The Kreutzer Sonata," 
and a piece produced by Mrs. Fiske a few years ago known as 
"The New York Idea," a satire on divorce. 

A third dramatist in this community, Mr. Philip Littell, lived 



230 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

for four years in what is known as the Beaman "Turnpike House," 
where he finished a charming adaptation of William J. Locke's 
novel, "Simple Septimus," played for a time by Mr. George 
Arliss. Mr. Littell has returned this year to live in Mr. Church- 
ill's "Farm House." 

Two other writers of younger years remain, Miss Frances 
Duncan, an essayist on horticultural subjects who has installed 
herself in the old "Cherry Hill" farm leased from Mrs. C. C. 
Beaman; and myself. 

Finally, to complete the list of Cornish "City Folks," mention 
should be made of Mr. George Rublee of New York City, who 
in 1907 bought the Houston place; Misses Elizabeth and 
Frances Slade, who in 1903 built a house upon the pasture 
land purchased from Mr. William E. Westgate; the Misses 
Emily and Augusta Slade, who also in 1903 made their home 
upon land obtained from Mr. Lyman Bartlett; Miss Frances 
Arnold of New York, who has leased the old Mercer cottage 
from Mrs. Beaman; and Mr. and Mrs. Herbert C. Lakin of 
New York, who now live in "Chaseholme," belonging to Mrs. 
Beaman. 

So much for the actual Cornish colony. But there still 
remain a few others in Plainfield who are so closely connected 
with the "City Folks" in this town that their names should not 
be overlooked. They are Mr. William Howard Hart of New 
York, who in 1907 bought land of Mr. G. F. Lewin; Mrs. 
Geohegan, who built a house upon land once belonging to the 
Eggleston farm; Mr. and Mrs. John Elliott of Boston, who bought 
land from Mr. John DeGoosh and Mr. Walter Williams; Miss 
Edith Lawrence and Mrs. Grace Lawrence Taylor, who in 1899 
went to live upon land purchased from Mr. William W. Taylor; 
Mrs. M. C. Davidge of New York, who purchased the "Old Kings- 
bury Tavern" just outside of Plainfield from Mr. Charles Empey; 
Miss M. E. Wood, who now occupies the "Big Tree Farm" 
which she leased from Mrs. Beaman in 1903; and Mr. and Mrs. 
Robert Treat Paine, now living in the E. S. Shinn house on the 
old Westgate farm. 

Such is the extent to which the "City Folks" have grown, 
adding by the money they have brought with them to the pros- 
perity of the community. Moreover, as time passes, it is pleas- 
ant to realize that a kindly spirit has sprung up between those 



"CITY FOLKS" IN CORNISH. 



231 



who have bought in Cornish and those who have sold, a spirit 
which did not exist ten years ago. For though, since the begin- 
ning, a desire to be friendly has lain dormant in farmers and 
"City Folks," yet, the difference of inherited ideas has made it 
hard for the two groups to recognize the good qualities in one 
another and to tolerate their quite unconscious stepping on one 
another's toes. This maturing friendship should be all the 
more prized, since despite the fact that "Little New York" has 
reached its growth, yet the persons who have come, unlike the 




Residence of Dr. A. H. Nichols. 



residents in many other summer places, have come to stay. Year 
by year their dread of frozen water pipes, the lack of proper 
heating, or hired help has dwindled, and year by year the "City 
Folks" remain later in the fall and venture back earlier in the 
spring. Already there are eight of these men who vote in this 
town and who remain here for the greater part of the year. 
They are Mr. William E. Beaman, Mr. Winston Churchill, Mr. 
George Rublee, Mr. Stephen Parrish, Mr. Herbert D. Croly, 
Mr. Percy MacKaye, Mr. Louis Saint-Gauclens and myself. 
And, as time goes by, more of those who come and go, and who, 



232 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

therefore, are careless of the needs of the town, will join the 
ranks of those who stay and who are vitally anxious for the 
good of the community. 

The remaining shyness which exists in both groups will surely 
wear away in the near future. Many of the "City Folks" would 
be only too glad to lend their best efforts in town and school 
meetings or in the Grange, if they had the chance which they 
are somewhat too diffident to ask for. Many of those who have 
always been here, while glad to welcome the "City Folks" into 
their circles, dread risking the snub which they feel might follow 
the offer. And year by year the barriers are falling. The fire 
of 1909 on the edge of Mr. James Bryant's pasture did infinitely 
more good than harm; for the burned portion was of small 
consequence, whereas the acquaintance bred by sitting all night 
in the rain together guarding the smouldering embers, taught 
both farmers and "City Folks" that men are just men. No one 
wishes another fire, yet when a few more good reasons have 
appeared to throw the "City Folks" in spite of themselves into 
the arms of those who belong here, the change for the increased 
happiness of the town of Cornish would be immeasurable. 

Homer Saint-Gaudens. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 
Town Buildings — Soldiers' Monument — Libraries. 

Town Buildings. 

During the earlier years the town seemed to claim juris- 
diction over all the religious interests within its limits. The 
town built the houses of worship. The town employed the 
preachers to minister in them. The liabilities of the town 
included the settlement and support of the minister, as well 
as all church buildings and repairs on the same. 

At first there seemed to be no diversity of opinion regarding 
this matter. Church and state were "at one." A wonderful 
harmony existed, as nearly all of the early settlers were in habitual 
attendance upon divine worship. In process of time differences 
of opinion arose on doctrinal tenets. Then divisions followed. 
Loyalty to a common cause weakened. Each faction became 
more independent of the other. The town, too, gradually 
relinquished her responsibility of the churches and separation 
between town and church authorities became final, and the 
church or churches became independent of all town action. 
The intelligent interpretation of the Constitution of the United 
States also contributed to this latter state of things. 

As the town had enjoyed the privilege of using the houses 
of worship for her public business, under restrictions, the practice 
still continued. Oftentimes meetings for town business were 
called at dwelling houses, but ordinarily were "warned" to meet 
at the meeting houses. The meeting house "on the river," and 
later the old Congregational Church "on the hill" near the center 
of the town were the places where the town usually met for 
the transaction of its public business. A building especially 
for this purpose was much needed. The old Congregational 
house on the hill continued to be used by the town a few years 
after divine worship in it had ceased, but it was becoming unsuit- 
able even for that, and so about 1844 it was taken down. 

About 1840-41 the people of Cornish, as elsewhere, were 
stirred by a wave of religious enthusiasm. During this time 



234 



HISTORY OF CORNISH. 




TOWN BUILDINGS— SOLDIERS' MONUMENT— LIBRARIES. 235 

the "Perfectionists" (which see) built a house of worship which 
after a few years became disused. At this opportune time the 
town purchased this building and suitably fitted it up for the 
use cf the town. Since that time it has been used for the hold- 
ing of annual and other town meetings. All such meetings are 
now "warned" to meet at the "Town- House." Its location is 
nearly central, and is readily accessible, and is generally counted 
as suitable for the needs of the town. 

While the town was generally well satisfied with the town 
house as a place for a full meeting of the town, there existed a 
pressing need of a place to safely deposit the accumulating 
records, books, papers, etc., belonging to the town. With 
every change of town clerk these valuables were shifted to a 
new home, incurring more or less risk of damage and loss. 

A large safe was provided by the town for the most valuable 
portion of its documents; but this afforded only a partial solu- 
tion of the difficulty, as its capacity was insufficient for its 
requirements, and this cumbrous article had to migrate to the 
home of the newly elected clerk, there to remain until his suc- 
cessor was chosen. Then, again, a convenient room for the 
selectmen to meet in for the transaction of the town's business 
was much needed. It had been their custom from the first 
to meet at hotels or private dwelling houses for this purpose. 
Realizing this state of affairs the town felt justified in inserting 
in the warrant for town meeting March 9, 1886, the following 
article: "To see what sum of money, if any, the town will 
vote to raise and appropriate for the building of a suitable 
place for the safe keeping of the town-records agreeable to Chap- 
ter 74 of the General Laws." 

The article was favorably considered by the town at this 
meeting and it was then voted to raise the sum of $800 for the 
erection and finishing of a small brick building, containing all 
needful safety vaults, library cases, etc., with a commodious 
selectmen's room in front, with all necessary furnishings. Labor 
soon commenced, and during the season the building was made 
ready for occupancy. The records, books, etc., were then lodged 
there in safety. The safe, before named, also found a permanent 
resting place in the selectmen's room. This safe had been pur- 
chased for the town by virtue of a vote passed March 12, 1872, 
when the town voted to raise $300 for the purchase of a safe. 



236 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

It was bought of the American Steel Safe Co. for said sum. 
It may be of interest to record that while the safe stood in the 
store of Boynton Brothers (George H. Boynton being then 
town clerk) that an attempt was made by some burglars to force 
it open. They drilled through the outer door of the safe and 
attempted blowing it open with explosives, but fortune did 
not favor their designs so they abandoned the job and got 
nothing. 

An annex to the rear of the Record Building was made in 1895, 
at an expense of about $450, furnishing the only "lock-up" belong- 
ing to the town. Its chief use has been to accommodate certain 
moneyless traveling gentry, called tramps, with cheap lodgings, 
crackers and cheese moistened with "Adam's Ale," all at the 
expense of the town. Sometimes this institution receives its 
share of patronage, but has no constant boarders. 

Soldiers' Monument. 

The town warrant of February 22, 1889, for the meeting to 
be holden on March 12 following, contained the following 
article: "To see what action the town will take in relation to 
a soldiers' monument, and raise money therefor." 

The same article in substance had appeared in previous war- 
rants, but had been set aside through the indifference and oppo- 
sition of a majority of the town. A goodly number of the 
minority, however, were in hearty sympathy with the project, 
and were intent that something should be done. Prominent 
among these were Joseph B. Comings, Hiram A. Day and Wil- 
liam H. Sisson, — the latter a soldier of the Rebellion, and the 
other two, fathers who had each given to their country's 
cause, a son who had been buried in graves far from kindred and 
home. 

These men continued to agitate the subject, making investi- 
gation as to resources, etc., and received such measures of 
encouragement as to induce them to cause the above article 
to be again inserted in the warrant. At this meeting the article 
obtained a favorable hearing, and the sum of two hundred and 
fifty dollars was voted by the town for the purpose, and a com- 
mittee of three men was chosen to take the matter in charge, 
secure further pledges, obtain a suitable design, and make a 



TOWN BUILDINGS— SOLDIERS' MONUMENT— LIBRARIES. 237 

contract for the construction and erection of the monument. 
The doings of this committee appear in their report in the town 
report of March 13, 1890, which is as follows: 

"Your committee appointed to raise funds and take charge 
of all things pertaining to a soldiers' monument, would report 
as follows: Having a sufficient sum pledged outside of the 
'Soldiers' Aid Society' money, and the amount voted by the 
town which in our opinion warranted the making a contract, 
due, after receiving and carefully considering the proposals 
and designs of bronze, marble and granite companies, decided 
to accept the proposals of the Sunapee Granite Co. to erect 
a monument made of cut granite according to a design furnished 
by us, to be surmounted by a statue of a soldier at 'Parade 
Rest,' said statue to be cut from granite and to be six feet in 
height above base, model furnished by them. The name, com- 
pany and regiment of all the soldiers who died in 'The War of the 
Rebellion,' who were counted on the quota of the town, to be 
inscribed on the polished die, and a suitable inscription on the 
base, and contracted with said company to furnish the monument 
complete above the foundation for $900.00. The foundation 
was furnished by the committee, the labor and all expense of 
said foundation, except the cement used, were furnished by 
contribution. After considering the different places proposed 
for location, we decided to accept a plot of ground sixteen feet 
square and approaches thereto offered by the Baptist Church 
and Society in the south end of their park on Cornish Flat, and 
a lease was taken of said plot in the name of the town for ninety- 
nine years. 

"We would at this time acknowledge the obligations we are 
under to Hon. William M. Evarts of New York, who so gener- 
ously contributed toward the expense; and to C. C. Beaman, 
Esq., of New York, who so kindly furnished the design (except 
the statue), for the monument, and contributed largely towards 
the expense, and to both of them and their friends for their 
valuable advice and suggestions in regard to material, plans 
and location, and to the citizens generally who have given of 
their time and money so liberally, and helped your committee 
make the monument a success." 



238 



HISTORY OF CORNISH. 




Soldiers' Monument, Cornish Flat. 



TOWN BUILDINGS— SOLDIERS' MONUMENT— LIBRARIES. 239 

statement: 

The committee acknowledge the receipt of the following 
sums of money for the monument : 

From Town Treasurer $250.00 

Soldiers' Aid Society 176 . 80 

Hiram A. Day 100.00 

Joseph B. Comings 100 . 00 

Hon. Win. M. Evarts 50 . 00 

C. C. Beaman, Esq 50.00 

Henry Gould 50.00 

All other persons 1 12 . 25 

Deficit afterwards voted by town 19.85 

$908.90 
Total expenses were: 

For monument $900 . 00 

Cement for same 8 . 90 

$908.90 

William H. Sisson, ) 

Stephen A. Tracy, }■ Committee. 

Albert E. Wellman, J 

The monument stands in the south end of the park on Cornish 
Flat, placed due north and south, surmounted by statue facing 
south. On upper base, below the die is inscribed: 

"Erected by the town and grateful friends in memory of the 
sons of Cornish who fell in defense of the Union. 

"A. D. 1861-1865." 

Upon the four equal sides of the die of the monument the 
following names of soldiers are inscribed, who died in the service : 

north side. 

Henry P. Blood, Co. E, 9th N. H. Inf. 
David K. Ripley, Co. I, 7th N. H. Inf. 
Edwin W. Downs, Co. E, 9th N. H. Inf. 
Luman B. Dudley, Co. G, 9th N. H. Inf. 
William S. Lewis, Co. I, 14th N. H. Inf. 
William Scott, Co. G, 7th N. H. Inf. 
Versal E. Burr, Co. I, 14th N. H. Inf. 



240 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

SOUTH SIDE. 

Marcellus Judkins, Co. G, 7th N. H. Inf. 
Charles F. Day, Co. E, 9th N. H. Inf. 
Charles Nevens, Co. G, 7th N. H. Inf. 
John Gilbert, Co. F, 3d N. H. Inf. 
Edmund B. Chadbourn, Co. G, 5th N. H. Inf. 
Ithiel J. White, Co. K, 9th N. H. Inf. 
James P. Wheeler, Co. L, 1st N. H. Cav. 

EAST SIDE. 

( !ol. Haldimand S. Putnam, Col. 7th N. H. Inf. 
George E. Tyler, Co. I, 2d N. H. Inf. 
Andrew P. Wright, Co. C, 7th N. H. Inf. 
William Wright, Co. I, 2d N. H. Inf. 
Hiram Stone, Co. I, 14th N. H. Inf. 
Sylvester Tasker, Co. I, 14th N. H. Inf. 
Alvah S. Rawson, Co. G, 6th N. H. Inf. 

WEST SIDE. 

Thomas B. Edminster, Co. I, 14th N. H. Inf. 
Norman D. Comings, Co. A, 16th N. H. Inf. 
James B. Kidder, Co. G, 1st N. H. Cav. 
Asa M. Benway, Co. E, 1st Yt. Cav. 
Reuben T. Benway, Co. I, 14th N. H. Inf. 
Sidney C. Spaulding, Co. E, 9th N. H. Inf. 
Elbridge G. Beers, Co. K, 3d N. H. Inf. 

Libraries. 

The town has ever manifested a willingness to supply its 
inhabitants with what reading matter the times could afford. The 
churches invariably supplied their Sunday school libraries with 
religious reading, as far as their means would allow. Such 
libraries began their existence nearly coeval with religious service 
in the churches and have been maintained ever since as an 
important factor of church service. 

During a part of the thirties and until nearly the middle of the 
nineteenth century, a circulating library for adults called the 
"Cornish Social Library," was maintained in town, much to 
the pleasure and edification of the people. The records of this 



TOWN BUILDINGS— SOLDIERS' MONUMENT— LIBRARIES. 241 

library have not been found, and whatever of such there was, is 
doubtless lost. 

In 1861 a Sabbath school library association was formed on 
the Flat. It was especially to purchase and preserve religious 
books for adult reading for which there seemed to be a strong 
demand. The number of its volumes was about one hundred 
sixty. This association, with its original plan, was maintained 
twenty-five years, when all restrictions were removed, and its „ 
books were all donated to the church library and placed under 
the same restrictions as the juvenile Sunday school library of 
the Baptist Church. 

A law was passed by the Legislature of 1891, providing for the 
establishing of libraries in each of the towns of New Hampshire 
where they did not already exist. 

Section 23, chapter 8 on Free Public Libraries, Laws of 1891, is 
as follows: 

"The board is hereby authorized and directed to expend, 
upon the application of any town having no public library owned 
and controlled by the town, a sum, not exceeding one hundred 
dollars for books, for such town entitled to the benefits of these 
provisions, such books to be used by the town for the purpose of 
establishing a free public library and the commissioners shall 
select and purchase all books to be provided." 

The above board of commissioners consisted of four persons 
of the state appointed by the governor. No town was entitled 
to the benefit of the law until such town had accepted its provi- 
sions at a regularly called meeting of the town. 

The law also provided that a board of library trustees, three in 
number, should be elected by each town, one for three years, one 
for two years and one for one year, whose duties should be to 
provide for the care and circulation of the books and to judi- 
ciously expend all appropriations made for books. 

The law also required of each town making application for 
the library, an appropriation by such town of a certain sum of 
money additional, to be expended for books and maintenance of 
the library. 

After the enactment of the law in 1891 the town appeared 
comparatively indifferent regarding it. An article, however, 
appeared in the town warrant of March 8, 1892, as follows : " To 
see if the town will elect a board of library trustees, and appropri- 

17 



242 



HISTORY OF CORNISH. 




The Stowell Free Library at Cornish Flat. 

A Gift to the Town from Hon. George H. Stowell. Erected 1910-11. 



TOWN BUILDINGS— SOLDIERS' MONUMENT— LIBRARIES. 243 

ate the money necessary to receive the gift of one hundred dollars 
worth of books from the state." 

The article was postponed at this meeting, but it appeared 
again on the warrant of 1893. At this meeting the article shared 
the same fate as on the preceding year. 

At the meeting on March 13, 1894, the town voted to accept 
the proposition of the state agreeably to the foregoing law. Dur- 
ing this year the necessary money was raised; the hundred dollars 
worth of books were received from the state, and the new free 
library began its life. It was thought best to divide the library 
for the convenience of its patrons, leaving half at the Flat and 
half nearer Windsor, with privilege of exchanging the same at 
any time. The library has been in successful operation ever 
since. 

During the season of 1909, Hon. Geo. H. Stowell of Claremont, 
who was a native of Cornish, made known his intentions of erect- 
ing a valuable library building in his native town and, when com- 
pleted, of presenting the same to the town under the name of 
"Stowell Free Public Library." 

Mr. Stowell's preference for a site for said building favored 
Cornish Flat, as it was the center of his activities when young. 
He is proposing to expend the sum of six thousand dollars on said 
building and its furniture. 

The town unanimously voted (March 8, 1910) to accept 
the proposed legacy, and to furnish a site whereon to build ; and 
the work began in early spring and was carried on during the 
season, and, excepting the interior, was nearly completed before 
the close of the year 1910, the date this record closes. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

Miscellaneous — Climatic Extremes — Hotels — Stores — 
Centennial— Post Offices — Town Reports — Indians — 
Shows — Ascutney Mountain - - President's Visit — Old 
People's Association. 

climatic extremes. 
The Cold Winter of 1779-80. 

The winter of 1779-80 was the most severe that had ever been 
known in this country. It is said that the cold extended south so 
that Chesapeake Bay was covered with solid ice from its head to 
the mouth of the Potomac. At Annapolis the ice was five to seven 
inches thick, so that loaded teams passed over it. Snow was so 
deep in all New England that nearly all roads were closed for 
several weeks. People traveled only on snow shoes. Travel 
had not been so much obstructed for forty years. 

— Boston Chronicle, Jan. 28, 1780. 

The Dark Day of 1780. 

The nineteenth clay of May was remarkable for its uncommon 
darkness. The morning was cloudy, attended with a little rain. 
Between ten and eleven o'clock the darkness increased and 
began to assume the appearance of evening. Fowls went to 
roost, and cattle collected around the barnyards, as at the ap- 
proach of night. Before noon it became so dark as to be difficult 
to read without a candle; and lights were necessary at dinner 
and to transact the ordinary work of a family through the after- 
noon. The evening was enveloped in total darkness. The sky 
could not be distinguished from the ground. All these circum- 
stances caused much consternation throughout New England. 
A little before midnight the clouds began to separate and the 
vapors to disperse and some glimmerings of light appeared. 
The next morning was cloudy but not unusually dark. 

The theory generally accepted as to the cause of this phe- 
nomenon was this: For several weeks previous there had been 



MISCELLANEOUS. 245 

extensive fires in the woods, and the westerly winds had driven 
the smoke and cinders, with which the air was charged, all over 
this part of the country. On the morning of the nineteenth, 
the wind came in various directions but principally from the 
eastward, and brought with it a thick fog. These opposite 
currents meeting, stopped the progress of the clouds and formed 
several different strata of them. Owing to their number, breadth 
and density they became almost impervious to the light of the 
sun. The atmosphere was likewise filled with clouds of smoke 
and cinders, as well as with vapors which gave it a dirty. 
yellowish hue. Pieces of burned leaves were continually falling. 
The darkness extended throughout New England and was ob- 
served several leagues at sea. 

The traditions of this day have often been repeated within 
the memory of the writer, and these also state that the phe- 
nomenon gave rise to fears in the minds of many that the end of 
the world had come, and that these fears were not fully allayed 
until Nature had resumed her wonted appearance on the follow- 
ing day. 

The Year 1816. 

But few, if any, now living retain any remembrance of the 
year 1816. But the hardships of that year were by those 
immediately concerned forcibly impressed upon the succeeding 
generation. The year is designated as "the year without a 
summer." In New England it went by the phrase, "eighteen 
hundred and starve-to-death" and also as "the cold summer of 
1816." 

It was phenomenal in every sense, being unlike any other year 
of modern, or even of any known ancient record. The sun's 
rays seemed to be destitute of heat, and all Nature was clad in a 
sable hue. Men and women became frightened and imagined 
the "fire in the sun" was being extinguished, and that the world 
was about to come to an end. Ministers took the phenomenon 
as a text for their sermons. The winter of 1815-16 was not 
unlike that of other years, and did not indicate the character of 
the weather that subsequently prevailed. 

January was mild, so much so that artificial heat was but 
little needed for comfort. This continued until near the middle 
of February, when a " cold snap " occurred, followed by more mild 



246 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

weather. There was nothing unusual in the climatic conditions 
of March. 

April was the first manifestation of this strange freak in tem- 
perature. The early days of April were warm and bright; but 
as the month drew to a close, the cold increased, until it ended 
in ice and snow with a very low temperature. 

May was a month of bitter disappointment to those who de- 
lighted in balmy days, opening spring and budding flowers. 
Almost every attempt of the husbandmen to start the usual 
crops, was attended by frosts and a blackened waste. Corn 
was killed, and the fields again made ready for a second 
planting; but the people's disappointment was complete when 
they found ice formed to the thickness of half an inch in the 
pools. 

June, usually the month of roses and other bloom, was this 
year a month of desolation. Frost and snow were common. 
A few intervening warm days permitted some crops to partially 
develop a growth, and then be followed by a frost or snow. 
Various kinds of fruit were nearly all destroyed. One day this 
month, snow fell to the depth of ten inches in New Hampshire 
and Vermont. Matters were beginning to assume a serious 
aspect. 

July was accompanied by frost and ice and it is said that those 
who celebrated the "glorious Fourth" found an abundance of 
ice handy for immediate use on the next morning. This caused 
the good people to look grave. This month, Indian corn was 
finally destroyed in all but the most favored locations, and but 
a small quantity escaped. 

August came, and with it the expectation and hope that the 
cold weather would end, but in this they were disappointed. 
Ice formed even thicker than during the previous month and 
almost every green plant was frozen. The scanty corn was 
cut for fodder. The little that was ripened in sheltered localities 
and states was worth almost its weight in silver, and farmers 
were compelled to obtain corn grown in 1815 for seed used in 
the spring of 1817, at a cost of five dollars per bushel. 

The next month was ushered in, bright and warm, and for a 
week or two the almost frozen people began to thaw out. It 
was the mildest weather of the year, and just as the people got 
ready to appreciate it, the cold winds with Jack Frost came, 



xMISCELLANEOUS. 247 

and hardened and whitened everything in their path. On the 
sixteenth of September, ice formed one fourth of an inch thick, 
and winter clothing was brought forth and wrapped around shiv- 
ering humanity. By this time people had given up all hopes of 
seeing flowers bloom or hearing the birds sing, and so they began 
to prepare for a hard winter. 

October kept up the marvelous record of its predecessors. 
Scarcely a day did the thermometer register higher than 
30 degrees. November was also extremely cold. Sleighing was 
good nearly all the month, but when December came, the 
spell seemed broken, and, strange to say, this month was the 
mildest and most comfortable month of the year. 

As a matter of course, breadstuffs were the highest ever 
known and it was impossible to obtain many of the common 
vegetables at any price. 

The writer has often heard the circumstances of that year 
mentioned by those who experienced them, and therefore be- 
lieves the foregoing account is no exaggeration. 

Tornadoes or Cyclones — 1821, 184-8. 

Cornish has been slightly visited by two, at least, of these 
troublesome events. The first one, in 1821, was the larger, and 
the most destructive generally. It seemed to form not far north 
and west of Cornish, passing over the north part of the town in 
a southeast direction, striking Croydon Mountain. Here it 
destroyed nearly every tree on hundreds of acres. Passing over 
the mountain, it finally spent its force about Wendell Harbor 
(now Sunapee) where it did considerable damage. 

The cyclone of 1848 was of less dimensions. It started and 
followed nearly the same course as the other, sweeping down 
through "Dodge Hollow," overturning many trees and destroy- 
ing one house with disastrous results. (See Dodge Record.) 

Snow-Crust of 1862. 

During the winter of 1861-62 a large amount of snow fell, 
somewhat larger than usual. Slight thaws, followed by freezing, 
had hardened each successive layer of snow during the winter 
and thus formed a solid icy mass about three feet deep, firm 
enough to hold any team in safety. A good deal of teaming 
business was safely done upon the surface of this crust for several 



248 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

weeks. This vast body of snow and ice was very slow in melting, 
and therefore remained until late in the season. As late as the 
middle of April, teams could be driven over it in safety, it being 
at that time about two feet in depth and still retaining its solidity. 
Many an enjoyable morning sleigh ride over this crust was taken 
in April, riding over fields and even fences, avoiding the highways 
as much as possible, as there was no sleighing there. 

There were scarcely any spring rains this year to hasten the 
melting of the snow, but the increasing warmth of the sun soon 
caused the snow to disappear, while underneath it the green grass 
had finely started. Some now living can easily recall the events 
of this season. 

Floods—July 19, 1850. 

The circumstances of this flood are vivid in the mind of the 
writer. They resulted from a succession of very heavy thunder 
showers occurring on the afternoon of July 19, 1850. These show- 
ers were almost continuous, lasting from 2.30 p. m. until nearly six 
o'clock. The rain poured in torrents most of this time. The 
effects were very marked and sudden. The brooks were swelled 
to unheard-of dimensions. Intervales and meadows were soon 
under water. Bridges were carried away. Acres of grass just 
ready for cutting were ruined. Some brooks were diverted from 
their original channel. The upper sawmill at the Flat, with 
its dam, gave way. The water with the timbers coming down, 
caused the lower dam also to give way, and the debris was all 
carried down stream and deposited on the meadows below. The 
damage to highways and bridges in Cornish by this freshet, 
amounted to nearly four hundred dollars. 

Floods— March 3 and 4, 1866. 

This was a veritable thaw and spring freshet. Water was high 
in all the brooks. Those pouring their waters into the Con- 
necticut River caused the ice to break up. This dammed the 
water of the river at Cornish bridge. The latter could not stand 
the pressure, and gave way, and the bridge all went down stream. 
The other damage in Cornish was only trifling. A new bridge 
(the present one) was erected the following season. (See Cornish 
Bridge.) 



MISCELLANEOUS, 249 

Floods— October 4, 1896. 

A succession of heavy rains occurred on this day that caused 
the water to rise as high as was ever known by any persons of 
that time. This rain was more general throughout Nevv England 
than was the flood of 1850. The damage was great and wide- 
spread. Brooks became small rivers and swept off many of the 
bridges crossing them. Roads were washed and many of them 
rendered impassable for a time. These conditions were similar 
in all of the surrounding towns, but the damage was chiefly con- 
fined to highways and bridges. 



Hotels. 



During the first half of the nineteenth century there was necessarily 
much more business on the highways than now. All the merchan- 
dise for the country stores, all the surplus products of the farm, 
all the products of the mills, passed over the highways for long 
distances, to reach their destination by the slow and tedious 
agency of horse power. All thus traveling over the roads were 
obliged to stop wherever night overtook them. This made 
necessary a large number of public houses or taverns. The 
leading thoroughfares were thickly dotted with them in all New 
England towns. These houses were always open to receive and 
entertain teamsters and all other travelers. Here they usually 
found comfortable quarters both for themselves and for their 
teams, with ample refreshments and lodgings for both. 
These taverns were the news centers of the town. Here the 
post-riders always stopped, bringing occasional letters and news- 
papers; and later the stage coach, bringing in the same, together 
with passengers with the latest news. Every weekday night 
here congregated travelers and teamsters, and many residents 
of the town, and discussed the general news of the day, as 
well as the local happenings, not forgetting meanwhile to test 
the quality of the landlord's grog whenever they felt so 
inclined. These were generally counted as "gay old times." 
They still linger in the memory of a very few aged persons. The 
writer well remembers, when a boy, of hearing the old men of 
those days speak of the good times they had enjoyed in the old- 
time taverns. 



250 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

But within the last sixty years, these things have greatly 
changed. The advent of the steam car on the railroad has 
revolutionized the modes of travel and the conveyance of merchan- 
dise. Long-distance travelers now go on the cars from center 
to center, and so have no use for these country hotels. For this 
reason taverning on the old plan has almost entirely disappeared 
in all the New England towns. In Cornish the houses hereto- 
fore thus devoted to the use of the public have been converted 
into private dwelling houses. The number of these which were in 
town, and the number of their landlords or owners can be told 
only by much research that does not warrant a sufficient com- 
pensation for the effort; but it is known, however, there were 
many of them. Several houses now standing are pointed out as 
having once been public houses. There are but two that now 
remain in use in town: one near Windsor bridge, and the other 
at the Flat. In each of these the entertainment feature has been 
made secondary to that of the saloon, usually attached to each. 

Stores. 

One of the most essential members of a community is the 
vender of goods necessary for the use of the people. A good 
many different persons at different times have been thus employed 
in different parts of the town. No sooner was the town settled 
than a need was felt that at some convenient place a ready supply 
of needful articles could be procured. Apprehending this need, 
Col. Jonathan Chase opened the first store in town on his prem- 
ises on the river. This store continued to do business for a good 
many years. As the population of the town increased east- 
ward from the river, other places were opened for the sale of 
goods in several parts of the town. Citizens of the town residing 
near Windsor have gone there to procure their supplies and do 
their trading because more convenient. The greatest trading 
center finally located at Cornish Flat, where a store was opened 
some time prior to the opening of the nineteenth century. This 
has ever since been considered a trade center of the town, — 
all the time having one store and much of the time two of them. 
Among the most prominent merchants who have been longest 
in trade there have been, Esq. Daniel Chase, Capt. William 
Atwood, Newton Whittlesey, Henry Breck, Orlando Powers, 
and Breck & Powers, John T. Breck, Lafayette H. Smith, Timo- 



MISCELLANEOUS. 251 

thy A. Gleason, Boynton Brothers, George W. Hunt and others. 
For about twenty-five years George E. Fairbanks has kept a 
store of general merchandise at South Cornish. This has been 
a great accommodation, especially to many living in that section 
of the town. 

Centennial Anniversary. 

March 14, 1865, an article appeared in the town warrant 
which read: "To see what measures the town will adopt, and 
how much money the town will vote to raise for the purpose of 
celebrating the present year, the anniversary of the settlement 
of the town which took place June, A. D. 1765." 

When the subject came before the town for their action, the 
advocates of the movement were not in sufficient numbers to 
warrant further action, and so the subject was indefinitely 
postponed, much to the regret of the minority. 

It appears that on May 31, 1865, the town, or a self-appointed 
committee, attempted to rally the citizens to reconsider their 
former action and they met for this purpose at the town house ; 
but little enthusiasm was manifested and so the project was 
abandoned. 

Post Offices. 

In all the earliest years of the town, before the advent of the 
steam cars or even the stage coach, a place was appointed for 
the reception and distribution of mail in some convenient home 
on the river road. This of course was named Cornish Post Office, as 
for a time it was the only post office in town, receiving the entire 
mail designed for the people of Cornish. 

It is well to note the fact that the quantity of mail in those clays 
was much less in proportion to the population than at present. 
Letters were a greater rarity and sent at greater cost. Magazines 
and newspapers were few in number and but few taken; hence, 
the post-riders on their weekly or semi-weekly rounds were not 
heavily loaded with mail. 

As the population of the town spread eastward and northward, 
it became quite inconvenient for the citizens of the newer 
parts of the town to obtain their mail from the Cornish post 
office. For this reason a post office was opened at Cornish 
Flat which for many years was the chief receiving and dis- 



252 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

tributing center for the largest part of the town. This office, 
with that on the river, handled all the mail of the town until 
after the middle of the last century, when, owing to the nearness 
of the Cornish post office to that of Windsor, the office of the 
latter seemed to absorb the former, and the citizens of West 
Cornish were obliged to go to Cornish Flat or to Windsor for 
their mail. This order of mail service was unsatisfactory to the 
western and middle parts of the town, yet it continued until 
1878, when a petition by George E. Hilliard and others was 
presented to the post office department, for a post office at 
the "City" (so called) to be called "Cornish Center Post Office." 
The petition was granted and the office was opened July 1, 
1878, in the house of Mr. Hilliard, and himself appointed post- 
master. He held the office until his death, March 31, 1904. 
After this his widow was appointed and served until June 15, 1908, 
when she resigned. On September 15, 1908, the office was 
discontinued by reason of the establishment of new postal 
routes under the law creating rural free delivery routes. During 
the thirty years this office was in operation, it was a great con- 
venience and received a good share of patronage. 

In 1879 another post office was established in the southern 
part of the town on the mail route from Cornish Flat to Clare- 
mont. It was called "South Cornish Post Office." It was 
granted on petition of George E. Fairbanks and others, and Mr. 
Fairbanks was appointed postmaster. This office, under the same 
management, continued twenty-nine years, or until June, 1908, 
when it was discontinued, being supplanted in part by the rural 
free delivery routes. 

In 1879 another petition was sent to the post office depart- 
ment for an office at the geographical center of the town. This 
fact gave prestige to the scheme and the project was favorably 
entertained, and another office was opened there January 1, 1880, 
near the Congregational parsonage, bearing the name of 
"Cornish Post Office." The name of "Cornish Center Post Office," 
which had been applied to the office two miles nearer Windsor, 
has sometimes been mistaken for this office at the Center. 

The town, therefore, has been favored with four contempora- 
neous post offices for more than a fourth of a century, ending in 
1908, at which time three of them gave way to rural free delivery, 
while the other at the Flat, is still active (January 1, 1909). 



MISCELLANEOUS. 253 

Town Reports. 

In 1850 the first annual Cornish town report was printed 
for distribution among the inhabitants of the town, and they 
have been issued yearly ever since. The first year it was simply 
a sheet, but has been in pamphlet form each year since. 

All records of the town prior to the above date were recorded 
by the town clerk in the ordinary book of records and were 
kept in his office. 

A law enacted in 1886 requires the town clerk to make a full 
record of the vital statistics of the town each year. Since that 
year this report has been prepared and appended to the other 
town report. 

Indians. 

Previous to the settlement of Cornish, the Indians had appar- 
ently receded to other sections, chiefly towards Canada, therefore 
they figure but little in the early history of the town. Occasion- 
ally some friendly Indians have appeared for a brief period, but 
owing to their roving habits and their natural dislike of agri- 
cultural pursuits, none ever became permanent citizens of the 
town. Nothing now remains of them in New England except 
in tradition or song, or the sweet names they left on mountain, 
lake or stream. 

Shows and Exhibitions. 

The citizens of Cornish are no exception to the mass every- 
where who are fun loving, and seeking after the new, the curious 
and exciting things of the world. These proclivities are innate 
and are ever seeking their gratification. Large and pretentious 
shows have not been attracted to the town, owing to the sparse- 
ness of the population, and the smallness of the village, hence, 
the people of the town have generally resorted to adjoining towns, 
more populous, to attend shows and "see the folks." 

For several years the circus and kindred shows were debarred 
from showing in the State of Vermont, while at the same time 
they were permitted in New Hampshire. This gave occasion 
for them to exhibit on "Cornish Street," near Trinity Church. 
The proximity of this place to Windsor gave opportunit}' for many 
from the Vermont side to attend. 

The only circus that ever made a showing at Cornish Flat 



254 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

was there August 11, 1851. It drew quite a crowd for so small a 
place. 

School exhibitions have sometimes furnished interesting enter- 
tainments. Some of these have displayed a good deal of merit, 
reflecting favorably upon those who have taken part in them. 

Ascutney Mountain. 

Situated outside the town, and outside the state, and "beyond 
the river," even its mention seems out of place. Yet, in truth, 
it comes in for its share of honorable mention among the associa- 
tions of Cornish. 

This noble mountain has greeted the eyes of thousands who 
have lived in town that have since passed on to greater heights. 
Like a faithful sentinel it has stood with unchanged face looking 
down into the affairs of our town. Before Cornish had any 
history to record, it stood in silent majesty by her side. Would 
that it had been a chronicler of all the events that have been 
enacted within the radius of its vision! then the historian of 
today would have abundant material wherewith to accomplish 
his work. This mountain rears its lofty head 3,320 feet above 
the level of the sea. The traveler to its summit is richly paid 
for his toil by the view he obtains of the surrounding country on 
every side. For this reason foot paths, and even bridle paths 
have been prepared that the tourist may enjoy a day's outing 
on its summit. 

O life-long companion of our days, we've watched thee from our homes; 

We've seen thee mid summer's bloom and winter's cheerless gloom; 

Our homes, they change; our dear ones pale in death; 

Our earthly aspirations are creatures of a breath, 

But thou, O Mount, remain unchanged. 

Thine attitude, thy friendly presence still remains 

To cheer us on our way. 

Mid all the changing scenes dost thou look down 

With unchanged, benignant face, and fresh inspiration give. 

No wonder then we love thee. No wonder we're here today 1 

To breathe into thine ear the words of adoration pure. 

What shall we render thee in token of our love 

But tribute to our God who reigns above, 

Whose handiwork thou art? 

Thy beauteous form was moulded by His hand, 

Thy nakedness was covered by a mantle green, 

September 5, 1908. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



255 




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256 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Woven by the same. 

We've never heard thee boast, there is no need of that, 
Thy silent majesty is ample thy glories to repeat. 
In reverence would we bow before thy shrine, O lovely Mount. 
We would enjoy thy presence for a day, 
And leave thee to thy solitude again. — But ere we go, 
Permit thine admirers to ask thee questions profound : — 
What are the secrets locked in thy bosom pure? 
What tales of weal and woe hast thou been a silent listener to? 
When didst thou first rear thy lofty head 
Above the chaos of the plain? 
Why didst thou appear in our lovely valley alone, 
Rather than among thy kindred of the verdant hills? 
Was it that thou shouldst receive adoration full by being alone? 
When will thy watch-care cease, thy silent vigils end? 
Ages have seen thy beauty, and basked in thy shadows, 
And thy face remains the same. 
The rains of summer and the snows of winter 
Have swept over thy summit. 
If thou hast rejoiced, we have not known it. 
If thou hast sorrowed, the breezes of Nature hast wiped 
The tears from off thy face. 
Is eternity written on thy brow? 
Are thy years without end? . . . 
We will not pause for answer, for thou hast none to give. 
Thy Maker alone can answer. 

But today, thou art ours. We will enjoy thee as one of the gifts of His boun- 
teous hand. 

W. H. Child. 

President Roosevelt's Visit to Cornish. 

During the closing days of August, 1902, President Roosevelt 
made a tour through Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont. 
Thursday, August 28, he was at the Agricultural Fair at Newport, 
N. H. The day following he spent his time in hunting in the 
noted game preserve of Blue Mountain Park, and spent the 
night there in the club house in "Central Station." Leaving 
this place about 8 a. m., on Saturday (30th), the presidential 
party crossed the mountain and arrived at Cornish Flat about 
10 a. m., where many citizens from this and adjoining towns 
had assembled from curiosity and to do him honor. 

The event had been anticipated to some extent by the citizens, 
therefore some preparations were made to give him a fitting 
reception so far as the circumstances would permit. The school 



MISCELLANEOUS. 257 

children and other young people, having been taught the "Flag 
Drill," which consists of a graceful salutation, in unison, of our 
national flag, accompanied by a pledge of loyalty to it, were 
stationed at the expected time in front of the soldiers' monument 
awaiting the coming of the president. On his arrival at this 
spot, the procession halted, the salute and pledge were rendered 
under the tutelage of Dr. G. W. Hunt. All the children 
then presented Mr. Roosevelt with a fine bouquet of flowers, 
banking his carriage almost to overflowing. 

These tributes to the flag and himself, the presence of a body 
of the Grand Army ranged by the monument of their deceased 
comrades, all together presented a scene deeply impressive and 
evidently gratifying to the president, as he gave visible evidence 
of deep emotion. He then spoke substantially as follows: 

"I want to thank you for what you have done, and for the 
very kind and graceful way in which you have greeted me this 
mgrning. I cannot think of anything that augurs better for 
the country, than in just such a typical old American town as 
this, to have the school children drawn up before a monument 
like that (pointing to the soldiers' monument), in the town which 
was the birthplace of Salmon P. Chase, and to have them look 
towards you, the veterans of the great Civil War, you who have 
proved your truth by your endeavor, and to see in you an example 
of what they are to be when they grow up. 

I believe in preaching, but I believe in practice a good deal 
more, and it has been given to you, my friends of the great Civil 
War, to practice in the four years when the life of the republic was 
at stake, the virtues which we so earnestly ask that our children 
shall learn — virtues that count in war as well as in peace. Of 
course, there are exceptions, but ordinarily the man who is a 
first-class soldier in war has got in him the stuff that will make 
a first-class citizen in time of peace. The men, who, in this 
beautiful country of yours, till the soil, make their living here 
and breed up American citizens have to show the same funda- 
mental righteousness, and the same virile virtues that you did 
in time of war. 

"It is not enough, Gentlemen, to mean well either in battle 
or in civil life. You not only had to mean well, but had to do 
well, and it is the same in civil life. 

"I think there is but one class of people who deserve as well 

18 



258 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

as the soldiers, and these are they who teach their children of 
the present, how to be the masters of our country in the future. 
I thank you." 

After his speech the president shook hands with the members 
of the Grand Army and a few others, and then he and the rest of 
his party left the teams that had brought them to the Flat, and 
entered other carriages prepared to receive them. Two of 
these were each drawn by six horses and one four-in-hand team 
was driven by Winston Churchill of Cornish. The president 
chose the latter team and the party left for Windsor, Vt., where 
Mr. Roosevelt was to appear before an agricultural fair then in 
progress. As the party left the Flat they were enthusiastically 
cheered by the crowd they left behind. Accompanying the 
president were his secretary, George B. Cortelyou; Senator 
Proctor and Ex-Governor Dillingham, both of Vermont; 
ex-Senator Chandler of New Hampshire, and others, consti- 
tuting the president's bodyguard. The day was fine and the 
occasion one of interest to all present. 

Old People's Association. 

This institution apparently found its origin in the kindly 
hearts of a beloved pastor and wife who were ever on the alert 
to render a cheerful and happy service to all about them. In 
their family resided an aged widow, a native of the town and 
relic of a former prominent family. They planned, with her 
consent, to invite to the parsonage a goodly number of the 
elderly people of the town, chiefly ladies, many of whom she had 
not met for many years. 

The time appointed for the visit was on Wednesday, August 
15, 1877. The day was a beautiful one, and the gathering a 
complete success. Eighteen of the aged people were present. 
The pleasure incident upon the reunion of so many aged people, 
so long separated, was almost beyond expression. They seemed 
to forget they were old people, and again became boys and girls 
as of long years before. The occasion was one of thorough enjoy- 
ment to all present, and afforded them one of the happiest clays 
of their lives. The writer's mother, then seventy-six years of 
age, was one of those present, who stated on her return home that 
she "never had so good a time in her life," as she had met some 
she had not seen since girlhood. As the party was about to 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



259 



disperse, the question arose : "Shall we meet again?" " Yes, Yes," 
was the eager and unanimous response. "But when?" By ad- 
vice of the pastor, Rev. James T. Jackson and his worthy wife, 
it was decided they again meet on the Wednesday nearest the 
20th of August on the following year. 

The second meeting, in 1878, was in the Center Church, and 




Rev. and Mrs. James T. Jackson. 

seventy-five were present, "a social, happy company," followed 
by a picnic dinner in the vestry. On August 20, 1879, they met 
again, and one hundred and fifty were present. At this time it 
was voted to become an organization with the pastor as act- 
ing chairman, a secretary and a committee, and that the day 
of meeting hereafter should be on the Wednesday nearest the 
20th of August of each year. 



260 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

On August 18, 1880, more than two hundred were present. 
On August 17, 1881, more than three hundred were present. 
Thus the "visit" increased in favor and apparently became a 
permanent institution, and has held its convocations every year 
since with unfaltering interest. The numbers present, aside from 
those already noted, have varied from 300 to 800 every year. 
Sons and daughters of Cornish have come from nearly every 
state in the Union. It is a somewhat remarkable fact that every 
day of meeting has been clear and beautiful for the thirty years 
prior to 1907. 

The first four years of its records were kept by Albert E. 
Wellman; the next two by George L. Deming, and since 1882 
by W. H. Child. 

The meetings have been of a thoroughly social nature. The 
pleasure of reunion with so many natives and former residents 
of the town has furnished a happy feast every year. The elderly 
people of adjoining towns have delighted to join in all the festiv- 
ities of the occasion. There has been no necessity of a set pro- 
gramme in advance to advertise the occasion, as every year so 
many have come from abroad who have contributed to the 
interest and enjoyment of the occasion by their presence and 
cheery remarks. The forenoon of each of the days is wholly 
informal and devoted to meeting and greeting the incoming 
guests. The dinner hour over, they assemble in church, where 
the exercises are more formal. These have always been prefaced 
by brief religious exercises, followed chiefly by reminiscent 
addresses from visitors, the whole being interspersed with appro- 
priate songs and other music. 

The meeting of August 21, 1907, though fewer were in attend- 
ance than usual owing to unfavorable weather conditions, was 
possessed of its usual interest. Choice songs were rendered and 
interesting addresses given by several. We append a brief one 
by E. Wellman Barnard, Esq., of Springfield, Vt., a son of Cornish, 
who was present. 

"Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen: I am happy in the 
knowledge that I first saw the light of day on a New Hampshire 
hill in the good old town of Cornish. Like its namesake over the 
sea, around it hovers rich memories of the best records of human 
impulse and mental and moral effort, and like other choice spots 
on earth's surface, it has an atmosphere peculiarly its own, 



MISCELLANEOUS. 261 

where mind and matter seem to come into close communion, 
giving a greater power to each production of thought and pur- 
pose. 

"I believe it has been fairly settled that the Old Home idea 
originated right here, and this thirty-first anniversary is an 
earnest demonstration that it was not a passing fancy with 
Cornish people. Your persisting in it has brought about wonder- 
ful results, results you could hardly have dreamed of at the 
outset. The idea itself has encircled the globe, and the Old 
Home habit has taken strong hold of many communities in other 
lands beside our own. States now vie with each other in sending 
out Old Home literature and invitations. It also fosters the 
restoration and preservation of old-time structures, holding them 
out as visual reminders to adorn historic pages. It is well to 
preserve the relics of other times and days so the mind's eye 
and the visual eye may together grasp the full meaning of the 
long ago they represent. Old Home days mean something to 
all the families of New England, in that they preserve the relics 
of the past and intensify our regard for her institutions and for 
each other. I have all faith in a great future for upper New 
England. The cloud-capped granite hills of New Hampshire 
and the green hills of Vermont have a use in the annual routine 
of this nation. Ere long this territory will become the "Mecca" 
of tired brain. Men and women of art and literature, students 
of science and people of leisure will find solace in this beautiful 
landscape where hills in billows roll, and doubtless will make 
permanent homes among us. I need not remind you that Cornish 
has a big start in this direction, and today Cornish needs no 
political designation in the Hall of Fame. Long may she hold her 
proud position and be a magnet to draw benefits to surrounding 
territory." 

It is proper to mention that the prime object of the insti- 
tution was the annual reunion among themselves of the aged 
people of Cornish and vicinity; hence its first name: "Old 
People's Visit." Soon the relatives and friends living abroad 
esteemed it a privilege to meet with their aged relatives in 
town. In this way the idea of family reunions on this day 
sprung up and added a prominent feature. In this way, too, the 
home-gathering spirit was fostered, and the importance of the 
occasion was increased, while it still retained its original name. 



262 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

The sentiment spread to several other towns where similar 
organizations were formed with very gratifying results. 

In 1899, after Cornish had enjoyed its "visits" for twenty- 
two years, His Excellency, Gov. Frank W. Rollins, who knew a 
good thing when he saw it, a man of generous impulse and kindly 
spirit, conceived the idea of a state organization based upon the 
identical principles embodied in the Cornish Old People's Visit. 
It was received by the state with great favor and added much 
to the name and fame of him who promulgated it from his high 
position. Instead of there being a single day devoted to reunion, 
a week was to be devoted to it, and one of its days to be used for 
a public gathering. This new organization took the name of 
"Old Home Week." The new name, with a slight variation in 
its form, constitutes the only difference, while the spirit and 
purpose in both remain the same. 



CHAPTER XX. 

Lawyers — Physicians. 

Lawyers. 

A list of natives of Cornish, who have devoted their lives to 
the practice of law elsewhere, would be a lengthy one. It is not 
proposed to make mention of these. Many of them, however, 
receive brief mention in the records of the families from which 
they sprung, and also a few, among the records or biographies 
of Cornish men (which see) . Mention here is made of only those 
who gave a greater or less portion of their lives to the practice 
of law in town. 

The modern, up-to-date lawyer was an unknown quantity 
during the early years of the town. Justices of the peace had 
the handling of all cases of litigation between man and man, as 
well as the execution of necessary documents in the transfer 
of property, and all other business now devolving upon the modern 
attorney. 

Judge Samuel Chase seemed to head the list of these. Coming 
to town in advanced life, bringing with him the rich experience 
of many years of such service in Sutton, Massachusetts, he 
was the acknowledged authority for, and executor of, such busi- 
ness as came before the early inhabitants of the town. His 
younger brother Moses was also found eminently capable of 
discharging a similar service. Doubtless other men beside the 
two named, rendered such service. 

Of the second generation, the name of Harvey Chase, Esq., 
first presents itself. His is the first publicly recorded name of an 
attorney-at-law that lived in town, who had chosen the law as 
a profession. 

Harvey Chase was born in Cornish, November 13, 1778. He 
was the son of Esq. Moses and Hannah (Brown) Chase, a lawyer 
of fair abilities and success, yet never attaining the distinction 
that some others of his name did. He was a graduate of Yale 



264 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

College in 1800. He led a quiet life in town, dividing his time 
between the duties of his profession and those of agricultural 
pursuits. He lived in Cornish near Windsor, Vermont, where 
he obtained considerable patronage in his legal business. 

He married Eunice Dana and by her had four children. (See 
his genealogy.) He died February 18, 1857. 

Alonzo B. Williamson was born December 20, 1815, in Wood- 
stock, Vermont. He studied law in Claremont with P. C. Free- 
man, Esq., and was admitted to the bar in 1837. He first prac- 
ticed law in Claremont a few years. He then came to Cornish 
Flat where he established himself for about two years in the 
practice of his profession. These years were 1843 and 1844. 

Not finding the field as lucrative and promising as he had hoped, 
and having received an appointment as postmaster at Claremont, 
he returned to Claremont where he spent the remainder of his 
life. Here he was postmaster, county solicitor, state senator, 
etc. He was a person of good ability, a respectable advocate, 
and quite a politician. Habits of intemperance somewhat in- 
terfered with his business during his later years. He married 
Sarah Ann Blake of Bellows Falls, Vermont, and had three 
children. He died March 19, 1860. 

Edward Dimick Baker was born in Meriden, April 21, 1827. 
He availed himself of several years of study at Kimball Union 
Academy. He was a very successful teacher until he gave his 
attention to the study of law. He read in Enfield and Concord 
and was admitted to the bar in Sullivan County in July, 1851. 
Soon after this he opened a law office on Cornish Flat, where he 
continued in practice until October, 1855, when he removed to 
Claremont, where he spent the rest of his life. 

Soon after his settlement in Cornish, he married, November 
12, 1851, Elizabeth Ticknor of Plainfield, who after this was his 
life-long companion. They had no children. In social and legal 
standing, in prospering in his profession, and in securing an ample 
competence, he seemed to have made his life a success. He 
died February 1, 1895, at the age of nearly sixty-eight. 

During his four years of practice at Cornish Flat, his business 
was comparatively light. This was due to several causes: a 
sparse population; the dislike of cases of litigation, by the 



LAWYERS— PHYSICIANS. 265 

staid people of the town, and the habit of patronizing petty 
justices on ordinary matters, thereby saving expense. These 
circumstances were not in harmony with the aspirations of the 
young, ambitious lawyer, so he decided to leave the town and go 
to Claremont, where his life record was chiefly made. 

Physicians. 

The following is a list of all the physicians who have practiced 
in town since its settlement. 

The list may not include a few, who, for a brief period, have 
made a trial settlement and then left the town. Quacks of all 
kinds are excluded, but only men of principle and honor are 
included. 

Neither does the list include natives of Cornish, who having 
chosen the profession, have gone forth and made a name and 
fame elsewhere. 

The larger portion of those named have a family record in the 
genealogical department, to which the reader is referred for 
additional information. Repetition has been avoided as much 
as possible. Still, in order to do justice to each department, 
some repetition has been tolerated. 

ISAAC ALDEN. 

Dr. Isaac Alclen for a few years was a practicing physician 
in Cornish and Plainfield, but was never prominent in his profes- 
sion. Of a modest and retiring disposition, he never won his 
way to great distinction. He was, withal, a man of many virtues, 
a safe counsellor and had many friends both in and outside of 
his profession. He was established as a physician in Orange 
and Chelsea, Vermont, before coming to town, but never acquired 
an extensive practice. As a lover of nature, he took great pleas- 
ure in farming and gardening pursuits, so that he, in his later 
years, gradually let his medical practice subside and gave his 
attention more to the cultivation of the soil. (See Alden 
Gen.) He was born February 11, 1770, and died August 25, 
1845. 



266 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

DR. JOHN S. BLANCHARD. 

Dr. John S. Blanchard was born August 10, 1805, in Canaan, 
New Hampshire. He attended medical lectures at Dartmouth 
College, afterwards studying with Doctors Smith and Muzzey, 
the latter granting him his diploma. He located and first began to 
practice at Cornish Flat in 1829, immediately succeeding Dr. 
Aaron Pierce. He continued here in practice until about 1843 (?) 
when he removed to Meriden that his children might receive the 
benefit of the academy there. He still continued in practice 
at Meriden several years, as his health would permit, until his 
death in 1861. 

Of the old school of medicine, he was counted a successful 
practitioner, and well skilled in his profession. He was much 
interested in all educational enterprises, and assisted several 
young men to obtain an education. He was a kind and indulgent 
parent and very anxious that his children should always be under 
Christian influence. Politically he was a Democrat, and was 
postmaster while at the Flat. 

In 1832 he married Louisa Jackson of Cornish who survived 
him several years. (See Blanchard Gen.) 

ELIJAH BOARDMAN. 

Dr. Elijah Boardman graduated at Dartmouth College in 1818 
and from the medical department in 1831. While pursuing 
his studies (he taught school many terms with excellent success, 
several of them being in Cornish) he formed pleasant associations 
that led him to choose it as his life home. He had previously 
studied medicine with Doctor Cole of Cornish, and later com- 
menced practicing in the same town. Doctor Boardman was 
a man of fine scholarly attainments, modest and reserved, con- 
scientious and distrustful of his own abilities, even though 
possessed of a mind richly stored with a knowledge of men and 
things. This lack of self-confidence probably was no aid to him 
in attaining those higher ranks of eminence in his profession 
to which he was justly entitled. But he had the full confi- 
dence of all who knew him and was reckoned a safe counsellor 
and an excellent family physician. He was a friend to every- 



LAWYERS— PHYSICIANS. 



267 



body and everybody was his friend. It was a common saying 
regarding him, that he was never heard to speak disparagingly 
of any one. 

He was born in Norwich, Vermont, July 24, 1794, and died 
in Cornish, January 27, 1880. (See Boardman Gen.) 




Dr. Elijah Boardman. 



JOSEPH CHAPMAN. 

Dr. Joseph Chapman is said to have been one of the first 
doctors in town. He was born in 1757, and died in 1810. 
Records concerning him are somewhat meager, but the tradi- 
tions preserved by his descendants evidence him as a man of 
influence and culture for those times. Of his medical equip- 
ment little can be gleaned, but his success in the profession is 
confirmed by the united testimony of his posterity. Being 
settled upon a large farm, it is to be inferred that farming 
supplemented the practice of his profession, and that in both 
branches of his calling he was successful. 



268 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

EBENEZER BREWER CHASE. 

Dr. E. Brewer Chase, son of Lebbeus Chase, was born Novem- 
ber 30, 1815. The preparation for his profession is not known, 
but he was accounted quite skillful in his profession, and had a 
fair share of patronage, especially in his neighborhood along the 
river. Although strictly moral, he possessed a spirit of inde- 
pendence that rendered him somewhat indifferent to the criti- 
cisms of others. This led him to be careless as to his speaking, 
manners and dress. These circumstances did not contribute to 
the popularity of which he was really deserving. He died Jan- 
uary 21, 1855. (See Lebbeus Chase Gen.) 

SOLOMON CHASE. 

Dr. Solomon Chase was born in Sutton, Massachusetts, Sep- 
tember 1, 1742. He left Sutton when of age, came to Walpole, 
New Hampshire, where he studied medicine and after receiving 
his diploma, practiced there until 1773 when he rejoined his rela- 
tives and settled in Cornish. He was the first physician known 
to settle in town; and his entire life was devoted to his profes- 
sion, unless we except an appointment as captain over a com- 
pany of militia, but in this case he soon changed the sword for 
the medical saddle-bags. 

During the Revolution, he received appointments from head- 
quarters and was made surgeon-general in the Continental Army 
for several years. Sometimes he had the charge of the sick and 
wounded of three regiments (another account says two brigades), 
which duties he faithfully rendered, reporting satisfactorily to his 
commanders. These commissions are matters of national history. 

On his return home he resumed his practice and so continued 
until extreme age. His descendants refer to him with pride and 
pleasure. He was, without doubt, a physician and surgeon that 
met every need the community required. He died November 
1, 1828. (See Chase Gen.) 

STEPHEN COLE. 

Dr. Stephen Cole studied medicine with Drs. Roswell Leavitt 
of Cornish and E. E. Phelps of Windsor, Vermont, they granting 
him a license to practice. Afterwards he received an honorary 



LAWYERS— PHYSICIANS. 269 

degree from Dartmouth College. After his preparation was 
complete he made his first trial settlement at Huntsburg, Ver- 
mont. This place he soon left, returning to Cornish in 1813, 
where he remained seventeen years, or until 1830. After leaving 
Cornish he continued practice, and finally settled in Peru, New 
York, where he died in 1876, at the advanced age of 89 years. 
While a resident of Cornish, he acquired a host of friends. He 
was accounted a physician of skill and judgment, and enjoyed 
a good patronage. (For family record, see Cole Gen.) 

ISAAC DOTON. 

Dr. Isaac Doton was born August 18, 1790. He studied 
medicine first with Dr. Asa Crosby of Sandwich; attended 
lectures at Hanover in 1814 and began practice in 1815. He set- 
tled in several places; came to Cornish in 1839 and remained here 
four years. Leaving town in 1843, he settled in Bradford, New 
Hampshire, and Lowell, Massachusetts, and Manchester, New 
Hampshire, where he died August 18, 1865. He was a physician 
commanding the respect and confidence of the people of Cornish, 
and had a good practice while here. (See Doton Gen.) 

NAHUM PARKER FOSTER. 

The introduction of this noble man into Cornish was brought 
about by his accepting a call to preach in the Baptist 
Church in 1843. He came as a candidate for the ministry 
and was ordained on the Flat, May 29, 1844. His medical 
training had been previously obtained, and also consid- 
erable practice. He had attended lectures at Dartmouth 
College, and from it received his diploma in 1834. During the 
entire time of his pastorate in town he was also actively engaged 
in medical practice, — "healing the bodies as well as the souls 
of his fellowmen. " This, of course, gave rise to some criticism 
resulting in diverse opinions, but Doctor Foster was a man of 
uncommon gifts, and seemed able to be a master in both branches 
of his calling. As a preacher he was eloquent and entertaining. 
As a doctor of medicine he seemed not a whit behind his fellows. 
He had many warm friends and admirers in both professions, and 
among the general public. His pastorate in town as also his 
medical practice ended in 1855, when he left for other fields of 
labor, chiefly in Massachusetts and Connecticut. 



270 



HISTORY OF CORNISH. 



Near the close of his life he made an extensive tour of Egypt 
and Palestine. On his return he gave many addresses relating 
to those countries. He was born February 10, 1814, and died 
in New London, Connecticut, May 6, 1876. 

LYMAN HALL. 

Dr. Lyman Hall was born in Croydon, December 9, 1805, 
and died in Cornish, May 24, 1862. He studied medicine and 




Dr. Lyman Hall. 



graduated from the medical department of Dartmouth College 
in 1832. After two brief settlements, first at Mt. Desert, Maine, 
and also at Blue Hill, Maine, he came to Cornish in November, 
1844, and spent the rest of his life here. As a physician, he had 
a good practice, was always genial and mirthful and therefore 
beloved and highly respected. As a citizen he was well informed, 
reliable and ranked well among his townsmen. He took much 
interest in the schools of the town and was repeatedly chosen as 
school superintendent. At his decease a far-reaching community 
mourned his loss. (See Hall Gen.) 



LAWYERS— PHYSICIANS. 



271 



GEORGE W. HUNT. 

Dr. George W. Hunt had the honor of rendering the longest 
term of service in town of any of his profession. For nearly 
forty-five years he was the "beloved physician" of Cornish and 
adjacent towns. He came to town in August, 1862, and his 
public services ended with his death, March 3, 1907. Doctor 
Hunt was born in Georgia, Vermont, May 20, 1828. He was 

















■ §m m 






% . v 






I — 











Dr. George W. Hunt. 



a graduate of Castleton Medical College. Afterwards, in 1868, 
he received the honorary degree of M. D. from Dartmouth Col- 
lege. He enjoyed a fine standing, not only among his fellow 
physicians, but among all classes of society to whom he ren- 
dered professional services. His skill was acknowledged by 
all and, to a large extent, he enjoyed the confidence and re- 
spect of the community. He had been in town but a few months 
when he decided to make it his life-home, and built for himself 
a fine residence on the Flat. 

He contributed much to the social and intellectual status of 



272 



HISTORY OF CORNISH. 



the town. Deeply interested in all educational subjects, he has 
been superintendent of schools and a zealous promoter of all 
up-to-date methods. ■ He was a man of broad. views, large under- 
standing and intensely optimistic in all his beliefs. As a politi- 
cian, he was a Republican, and as such represented the town in 



the Legislature of 1880. 



(See Hunt Gen.) 



HENRY KETCHUM. 

Dr. Henry Ketchum came to Cornish Flat in 1899 and stayed 
about two years, and then settled elsewhere. He appeared to 
be well skilled in his profession, but lack of patronage, and the 
loss of his only child, apparently discouraged his remaining longer 
in town. 

ROSWELL LEAVITT. 

Just previous to the opening of the nineteenth century, in 1799, 
Doctor Leavitt with his young and accomplished bride came from 




Residence of D. J. Spaulding. 
Built by Dr. Roswell Leavitt, 1804-05. 



Charlemont, Massachusetts, to Cornish. They both came on 
horseback. Here they had purposed to establish their home, 
but the reason of their choice is not now known. The prepara- 
tion for his life-work, too, is not found on record, but he came to 



LAWYERS— PHYSICIANS 273 

Cornish thoroughly equipped to take high rank among those of 
his profession. He soon found himself in the midst of a lucrative 
practice, and enjoying the society of many friends. Prosperity 
seemed to attend him and his good wife who contributed not a 
little to his good fortune. He built the capacious and imposing 
brick house near the Flat, now (1908) owned and occupied by 
Darwin J. Spaulding — but earthly good fortunes are liable to 
reverses and so with Doctor Leavitt. A severe fit of sickness 
nearly wrecked him. Occasional fits of insanity seized him, and 
in one of these he terminated his heretofore useful life by hanging 
himself while yet in the prime of life, at the age of forty-two years 
and ten months. He left an enviable name, a host of friends and 
a posterity who have taken high rank. (See family record.) 

C. W. MANCHESTER. 

Dr. Constant Wood Manchester was the son of Dr. John and 
Susan (Wood) Manchester. He was born in Plainfield, New 
Hampshire, April 20, 1831. When a small boy, his father moved 
to Morristown, Vermont. He lived there a few years, then 
moved to Royalton, Vermont, where he grew to manhood. 
Choosing the medical profession, he studied medicine with his 
father, also with Dr. H. H. Whitcomb of the same town. He 
attended lectures at Dartmouth Medical College, also at Bur- 
lington, Vermont, where in June, 1858, he graduated. In August 
of the same year he commenced the practice of medicine at 
Cornish Flat. He lived there until August, 1860, then moved 
to Meriden, where he successfully practiced his profession until 
February, 1874. He then moved to Lebanon, where he resided 
and practiced until he died August 4, 1892. While residing in 
Cornish in May, 1859, he married Miss Amelia Chamberlain of 
Royalton, Vermont. In March, 1861, a son was born to them, 
an only child, Dr. Frank Constant Manchester, now a prac- 
ticing physician in Grafton, New Hampshire. 

AARON PIERCE. 

Dr. Aaron Pierce was born in Barnard, Vermont, November 
23, 1787. Choosing the medical profession attended lectures at 
Dartmouth College, where he obtained his diploma. After com- 
pleting his course he married Sarah Hough of Lebanon. He 

19 



274 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

chose Cornish as his first field of labor. So with his new bride 
he settled on Cornish Flat in 1819. He remained here ten years 
or until 1829, when he left town, and was succeeded by Dr. John 
S. Blanchard. While here Doctor Pierce was adjudged a good 
family physician, and won the confidence and good will of the 
people in a large degree. For reasons unknown to the writer, 
Doctor Pierce saw fit to close his services here and go to other 
fields of labor. He established himself first at Weathersfield, 
then at Irasburg, and finally at Barton, Vermont. In this latter 
place he lost his wife, Sarah, in 1842, and in 1844 he married 
Mary Billings of Lebanon who survived him nearly twenty 
years. 

Doctor Pierce was tall and of commanding presence, with 
strong convictions and forceful manners. It is said that after 
leaving Cornish he was licensed to preach, which he did with great 
success in connection with his medical practice. He died in 
Barton, Vermont, June 1, 1860. (See Pierce Gen.) 

S. T. SHAW. 

Dr. S. T. Shaw came to town from Claremont and settled on 
a farm for a few years, dividing his attention between his pro- 
fession and his farm. He was accounted a fair practitioner and 
had a measure of success. 

NATHAN SMITH. 

The record of Doctor Smith sounds like a romance. Fortune, 
coupled with his own exertions, seemed to open to him paths that 
led to distinction and renown. How well he walked them, the 
results of his life-work show. While Rehoboth, Massachusetts, 
may claim the honor of his birth, Cornish claims the honor of 
discovering his worth. 

He never left the plow until twenty-eight years of age. He 
then began laying the foundation for his future usefulness. After 
four years of initiatory practice in Cornish as one of the best of 
physicians, his record, as copied from Dartmouth College records, 
is as follows: 

"Nathan Smith, M. B. Harvard, 1790; A. M. 1798; M. D. 1801; 
also Harvard, 1811. B. 13 Sept., 1762, Rehoboth, Mass. Prof. 
Theos. and Pract. Med., 1798-1813; also Anat. and Surg. 1798-1810; 
Prof. Theos. and Pract. Med., Surg, and Obst., Yale, 1813-29. Prof. 



LAWYERS— PHYSICIANS. 



275 



Theos. and Pract. Med., Bowdoin, 1820-25. Lecturer, Med. and 
Surg., Univ. of Vt., 1822-25. D. 26 July, 1828, New Haven, Conn." 
The savor and influence of Doctor Smith's career were entailed 
upon his descendants and inspired them for like exalted positions 
in life. (See his genealogy; also the records of his two eldest sons 
and their children.) 




Dr. Nathan Smith. 



ROBERT THORNBURGH. 

Dr. Robert Thornburgh was born in New York City and 
studied medicine there. This was supplemented by attending 
several courses of lectures at Dartmouth Medical College, so 
that he acquired a thorough fitting for his work. He opened 
an office on the Flat where he practiced about two years with 



276 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

excellent success. Receiving an appointment from the govern- 
ment as a surgeon in the United States' employ, he left Cornish 
and has been stationed in the Marine Hospital at Manila, P. I. 

EBENEZER WRIGHT. 

But little is now known of Dr. Ebenezer Wright. He married 
a daughter of the Rev. James Wellman in 1781. He lived near 
the Cornish line in Plainfield and practiced in both towns. 
Tradition speaks of him as a well-qualified and successful physi- 
cian. He died October 28, 1798. (See Wellman Gen.) 



CHAPTER XXI. 

Sketches of Cornish Men. 

"Lives of great men all remind us 
We can make our lives sublime, 
And departing, leave behind us 
Footprints on the sands of time." 

CHARLES C. BEAMAN, ESQ. 

Few men, not natives of Cornish, have seemed more interested 
in its affairs, and have won the love and respect of their townsmen 
more. than did Charles C. Beaman, Esq. 

He was a lawyer by profession and practice, and as such first 
settled in New York City. He had become associated with the 
eminent Wm. M. Evarts of the same city, whose summer home 
was at Windsor, Vt. 

In his association 'with this family, Mr. Beaman had become 
enamored, not only with the cultured and winsome daughter of 
Mr. Evarts, but also with the beautiful lands lying over the river 
in Cornish nearly opposite the village of Windsor. Here he deter- 
mined to locate a summer home, and to this end he purchased 
extensively. He revived and adopted " Blow-me-down " as the 
name of his new estate. Here he built in 1883 the present delight- 
ful residence, since occupied in summer by himself and family. 

During his residence in Cornish he ever had a keen eye to sub- 
stantial material improvements. It was through his efforts that 
"Hillside Creamery," since such a boon to many farmers, was 
started and carried to complete success. The arched stone bridge 
over Blow-me-down Brook on his estate, one of the finest stone 
structures in town, stands as a monument to the enterprise and 
benevolence of Messrs. Beaman and Evarts, the town, however, 
paying the cost of a wooden bridge. Near the bridge he erected 
a dam and grist-mill for the use of the general public. 

His benevolence embraced liberal sums for the improvement 
of highways in town, — for the erection of the schoolhouse in 
Division 10, for the beautiful Soldiers' Monument at the Flat, 



278 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

beside numerous other gifts, as no worthy cause ever appealed 
to him in vain. As a final gift, he bequeathed a thousand dollars, 
the interest of which is to be expended for the erection and main- 
tenance of guide-boards in town. 

The love and interest Mr. Beaman had for his adopted town 
was contagious among his numerous friends of the city. As they 
visited him and his family in their Cornish home, they saw the 
charms of the locality — the beautiful river, the mountain view, 
the verdant meadows, the wood-crowned heights, the pure air and 
gushing springs of water. 

Several of these friends were induced to follow Mr. Beaman's 
example, and came and purchased, not primitive land, but 
estates that had been occupied and improved since the first settle- 
ment of the town. (A more extended account of these modern 
settlers in town is given elsewhere. See, also, Beaman Gen.) To 
Mr. Beaman, therefore, belongs the honor of being the pioneer 
and promoter in this movement which has effected so great a 
change in the social status of the town. 

As was his usual custom he retired in the fall of 1900 to his city 
home for the winter, where he was taken sick with pneumonia and 
on the fifteenth day of December following he passed away from 
earth. 

Judge Henry E. Howland of New York, a dear friend of Mr. 
Beaman, bestowed upon him the following tribute: 

"Nature casts men in various forms, but rarely does she give 
to the world a more thoroughly finished product than Charles 
C. Beaman, for there were combined in him all those qualities 
that command the respect and win the love of men — strength 
and gentleness, marked ability, a high sense of duty, kindly 
thoughtfulness for others, geniality of temper, brilliant wit, and 
unfailing generosity. With these, he won his way to distinction 
in a community where there is no royal road to success, and where 
rivalry is fierce and unceasing." 

The incidents in his career are like a finished romance. It is 
a story which every father can place before his boys and ask no 
better of them than to copy it. 

It is said that genius consists in seizing upon opportunity, and 
his career justifies the assertion. 

After graduating at Harvard in 1861, where he made a marked 
impression, he entered the Harvard Law School and in 1865 was 
awarded the first prize for his essay on the "Rights and Duties 



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SKETCHES OF CORNISH MEN. 279 

of Belligerent War Vessels." It was well written, displaying 
discriminating judgment and an admirable knowledge of inter- 
national law, and when published in the North American Review, 
attracted the attention of Senator Sumner, who thereupon ap- 
pointed him his secretary and clerk of the Committee on Foreign 
Relations in the Senate. In 1868 he began to practice in New 
York, and in 1871 he published his book on the "Alabama Claims 
and their Settlement." He was then appointed examiner of 
claims in the Department of State, an office which he filled with 
signal ability. He was appointed by the President solicitor of 
the United States before the Tribunal of Arbitration at Geneva, 
a selection due to his knowledge of the subject, and to the influen- 
tial gentlemen connected with the commission who realized his 
ability. At Paris he soon showed that he knew more about the 
details of claims than any one else, and was in constant consul- 
tation with Messrs. Gushing, Evarts and Waite, the counsel 
for the United States. Mr. Evarts was accompanied by his fam- 
ily, and Mr. Beaman there made the acquaintance of his daughter, 
Miss Hettie Sherman Evarts, whom he subsequently married. 

After the conclusion of the arbitration he represented many 
of the claimants in establishing their claims, and of course re- 
ceived substantial regard for his services. 

Thus Mr. Beaman's opportunity came by the chance choice 
of a subject for a prize thesis, and he so well availed himself of 
it that it brought him position, his wife, and a fortune. 

He practiced his profession in partnership with Edward N. 
Dickerson, a distinguished patent lawyer, until 1879, when he be- 
came a member of that firm of notable lawyers composed of Wm. 
M. Evarts, Charles F. Southmayd and Joseph H. Choate. By 
the retirement of its senior members, he was at the time of his 
death practically at its head, and as such, entrusted with the 
largest and most important business interests as counsel for great 
railway lines, for important corporations and leading capitalists 
whose operations were world wide. How well he administered 
these weighty trusts, all who were brought in contact with him 
will freely admit. 

His trained legal mind, sound judgment, far-reaching sagac- 
ity, fair conclusions, conciliatory spirit were effective and con- 
vincing and brought him high reputation and successful issues 
to his clients. 

With all this engrossing professional work pressing upon him, 



280 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

he was always a leader in any movement for the public good, 
social, charitable or political, unsparing in his efforts and regard- 
less of himself. 

But it is for his personal qualities that he will be best remem- 
bered. He was one of the cheeriest men that ever drew the 
breath of life, bubbling over with boyish enthusiasm, gifted with 
an irrepressible humor. 

"Whose wit in the combat as gentle as bright, 
Ne'er carried a heart-stain away on its blade." 

Buoyant, fascinating, pervading the very air with his conta- 
gious sympathy, he was the center of every social gathering, and 
the best man at a dinner table for raillery, repartee and brilliant 
passage at arms in conversation. 

"He made a July day short as December, 
And with his varying childness cured in us 
Thoughts that would thick our blood." 

He was responsive in his sympathy with suffering and sorrow, 
quick in his emotions, gracious in his universal benevolence, 
gentle and tender with every young thing, and the very soul of 
hospitality, which, as hundreds of his friends will long remember, 
he dispensed with a lavish hand at his estate of Blow-me-down, 
which he loved so well. He was a grateful, affectionate son, a 
loving husband, a devoted, thoughtful father, a kind and helpful 
neighbor and a noble man. It seems impossible to think of him 
as dead. No man could have left a larger gap, for he brightened 
his world while in it and it is poorer for his going. He died as he 
had lived, like a Christian gentleman, knowing that his end was 
near, in the full possession of his faculties, with a message on his 
lips, he said: "Give my love to all my friends. I don't think I 
have many enemies," in which every one who knew him will 
concur. 

Although the summons came to him in his prime, the measure 
of his life was as full as if it had rounded out the psalmist's term 
of human existence up to the limit beyond which all is vanity, 
and he came to his eternal rest as one who 

"Bends to the grave with unperceived decay, 
While resignation gently slopes the way; 
And, all his prospects brightening to the last, 
His Heaven commences ere the world be past." 



SKETCHES OF CORNISH MEN. 
COL. LYSANDER HERBERT CARROLL. 



281 



Born in Croydon, October 8, 1835. Received his education in 
the schools of Cornish. At the age of seventeen engaged with 
Francis Robbins of Sutton, selling stoves in Sutton and sur- 




Lysander H. Carroll. 

rounding towns. At the age of twenty-two purchased the 
business of Mr. Robbins and continued the same until 1865, 
when he removed to Concord, where he engaged in the stove and 
hardware business under the firm name of Carroll & Stone, a 
very lucrative business which he followed for six years. 

During the next twelve years he conducted the popular dining 
rooms of Piper & Haskins in Concord. In 1875 he was appointed 
colonel on Governor Cheney's staff, and with them represented 
New Hampshire in the United States Centennial Celebration at 
Philadelphia in 1876. 



282 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

In 1876 he was chosen to bear the votes of the New Hamp- 
shire presidential electors to Washington on the election of 
President Hayes. 

For two years he acted as transfer agent of the mails at the 
Concord depot. In 1879 was appointed by President Hayes 
postmaster at Concord, which position he occupied under two 
administrations. During his second term he inaugurated Con- 
cord's present free delivery system. After this, until 1895, he 
was associated with and a director in the banking house of E. H. 
Rollins & Sons. In 1895 and 1896 he was a member of the Leg- 
islature from Ward 6, Concord, and in May, 1899, was appointed 
labor commissioner, which position he still holds (1910). 

Colonel Carroll is an active member of the South Congrega- 
tional Church, Concord. 

As a Republican he has been active in political campaigns 
since 1856; a member of the Republican state committee for over 
thirty years and a Knights Templar Mason. 

He has two daughters: Jennie B., the wife of Horace J. Davis, 
member of the Davis Paper Manufacturers at Contoocook; 
Ella B., the wife of Edward M. Nason, keeper of the state house 
at Concord; and one son, Charles Herbert, a popular conductor 
on the Boston & Maine Railroad, married Annie Wilkins of Man- 
chester. 

CHAMPION S. CHASE. 

Champion Spaulding Chase was born in Cornish, March 20, 
1820. He was the son of Deacon Clement and Olive (Spauld- 
ing) Chase. 

His education consisted of the primary education afforded by 
the district schools of Cornish, supplemented by several terms 
at Kimball Union Academy. 

He was a teacher for several terms in the common schools and 
also an assistant teacher in the academies of Amsterdam and 
West Hartwick, N. Y. 

He then studied law in Buffalo, N. Y.; was admitted to the bar 
in 1847, at Canandaigua, N. Y., and opened his first law office at 
Racine, Wis., on May 1, 1848, the same day of his marriage to 
Sophronia Butterfield of Homer, N. Y. 

He remained at Racine until the opening of the Civil War. 
Previous to that event, in 1851, he was admitted to practice in the 



SKETCHES OF CORNISH MEN. 283 

United States Supreme Court at Washington, D. C. In 1856, 
he was a delegate to the National Republican Convention at 
Philadelphia, which nominated John C. Fremont as a candidate 
for the presidency, and the same year he was elected to the 
Wisconsin State Senate for two years, during which time he, as 
chairman of the judiciary committee, supervised the revision of 
the statutes of the state. 

For several years he was a member of the board of education 
of Racine and two years was chairman of the board. 

During the Civil War he rendered a variety of valuable serv- 
ices during a period of four years. He was commissioned pay- 
master in the Union Army for a while; was on special duty in 
the West and Southwest; was at the sieges of Knoxville, Mobile 
and Vicksburg and afterwards had headquarters at New Orleans 
for nearly two years. He, at this time, was brevetted lieutenant 
colonel for meritorious services in the Gulf Campaign. He was 
honorably discharged in January, 1866. The same year he went 
to Omaha, Neb., the year before Nebraska was admitted to the 
Union as a state, and upon its admission, he was the first attorney- 
general of the state, and in 1869, was appointed a regent of the 
State University of Nebraska for six years. 

In 1874 he was elected mayor of Omaha, and also in 1875, 
1879 and 1883, for two years each, in all seven years, ending in 
1885. While mayor, Colonel Chase received, and officially and 
socially entertained, a large number of distinguished people. 
Among them was the king of the Hawaiian Islands, the emperor 
of Brazil, the governor-general of Canada, also President Hayes 
and Mrs. Hayes, General and Mrs. U. S. Grant, besides Generals 
Sherman, Sheridan, Custer and others. 

In Masonry, he was eminent commander of Mt. Calvary Com- 
mandery, Knights Templar, of Omaha, and generalissimo of the 
state commandery. He was also identified with the G. A. R. 
and the S. A. R. and other similar organizations. It was a com- 
plimentary act on the part of the Legislature of Nebraska that 
they should name one of their counties, Chase County, after him, 
and also one of the towns in said county was called Champion. 

As a public speaker, Colonel Chase achieved a large reputation 
and his services as such were sought in many parts of the West. 
Many of his speeches and addresses have been published. Notably 



284 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

among them was one delivered in the Wisconsin Senate in 1857 
in opposition to the extension of slavery. 

Colonel and Mrs. Chase had but one child, a son, Champion 
Clement, born February 25, 1860, in Racine, Wis., who con- 
tinues to reside in Omaha, and is now the editor and proprietor of 
the Omaha Excelsior. 

Mrs. Chase died in Omaha, January 3, 1882. He again mar- 
ried. He died in Omaha, November 3, 1898, from the result of 
a fall. To the last he was devoted to the memories of his native 
town, often expressing his loyalty and love for it. 

Impressive funeral obsequies were held by the several socie- 
ties to which he belonged; the various city officials joining the 
cortege, while the chiming bells contributed their solemn notes 
to the occasion. 

DUDLEY CHASE. 

Dudley Chase, son of Dudley and Alice (Corbett) Chase, was 
born in Cornish, December 30, 1771. He entered Dartmouth 
College when but sixteen years of age, in the autumn of 1787, 
and graduated from it in the class of 1791. He then gave his 
attention to the study of law and was admitted to the bar in 
1794. He began its practice in Randolph, Vt. This place was 
his home during the remainder of his life except as public duties 
called him away. The town of his adoption became so identified 
with his name, that he was familiarly known as "Judge Chase 
of Randolph." Successful and eminent at the bar as a jurist, 
as well as a safe legal counsellor, he won the confidence of his 
clients, thereby opening the way to broader fields. 

He was the state attorney for Orange County from 1803 to 1811. 
The Legislature of Vermont recognizing his fitness elected him to 
the United States Senate in 1813, which position he held four 
years, completing the unexpired term of his predecessor. After 
this he was judge of the Supreme Court of Vermont from 1817 
until 1821. Several times he represented his town in the state 
Legislature, and was speaker of the House in 1823 and 1824. 
In 1825 he was again elected to the Senate of the United States 
for the full term, ending in 1831. After the expiration of this 
term he retired from political life to more quiet duties in his 
adopted town. Of his services while in the Senate much might 
be written expressive of his ability, high moral integrity, and 



SKETCHES OF CORNISH MEN. 285 

sound judgment, but his history during those ten years in the 
Senate is found in the nation's records of those times. 

While a member of the Senate he was approached by his 
nephew, Salmon P. Chase, who at that time desired his influence 
in procuring a clerkship in some department of the govern- 
ment. Judge Chase was doubtful about the expediency of his 
nephew's wish, so he took a half dollar from his pocket, and 
offering it to him said: "If you wish to make a success in life, 
buy a spade and go to work." This was a cooler to the ardent 
aspirations of the nephew, who of course indignantly refused 
the money and went away somewhat disheartened at the 
apparent unfeeling attitude of his uncle. Judge Chase was 
never charged with nepotism and by this transaction showed 
that, as in his own case, if one is to obtain offices of honor 
and trust, he is to earn them by showing himself worthy 
of them, as he had done, and not receive them through the 
recommendation of friends. 

Chief Justice Chase in his last visit to Cornish in 1866, in 
speaking of the circumstance, jokingly said in the hearing of the 
writer, "I guess I made a mistake in not taking the half 
dollar, for, if I had taken it, I might have been president of the 
United States." 

Judge Chase's success as a lawyer and statesman was known 
all over the country, and his honesty as a man and citizen was 
never questioned. One wonders what this pure and noble man 
would think of the "log-rolling" too often practiced by the 
politicians of today! 

He was also a great stickler for the dignity of the court. 
Under his rule, no "boy's play" among the lawyers of the 
court was tolerated, and everything tending towards levity was 
frowned from his presence. Trifling cases were not suffered to 
find a place on his docket, but were ordered settled at some 
other tribunal than his. 

After his retirement from political life, he devoted himself 
to the duties of his profession, and also to the improvement 
of his home in Randolph. As in his political life, so in all his 
domestic matters, he was the exemplar of thoroughness in every- 
thing he did. He was the best farmer, had the best fences, 
best and most beautiful garden, and he built the finest house 
in that section of the country, planted the finest orchards, 



286 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

raised the finest fruit. He also planned for the best and widest 
roads in Randolph. 

In earlier life he married Olivia Brown. They had no children 
of their own, but they adopted or supported twelve children, 
educating the boys and giving the girls a portion at their mar- 
riage. 

Olivia died in January, 1846, and Judge Chase died the follow- 
ing month. Their ashes repose in the old cemetery at Randolph 
Center, Vt. 

ITHAMAR CHASE. 

Ithamar Chase was born September 27, 1762, in Sutton, Mass. 
He was but three years of age when, with his mother, he came 
to Cornish Like other boys of the early days, but little is left on 
record concerning him. It is said, however, that he early gave 
evidence of an energetic business talent. He prepared for, and 
entered Dartmouth College and there pursued his studies for some 
time, but for reasons unknown to the writer, he left college and 
went soon after to Keene, N. H., at, or a little before his majority. 
It does not appear how long he stayed there, or the business he 
followed, but he won the heart and hand of Janette, the beautiful 
and gifted daughter of Alexander Ralston, at that time the wealth- 
iest, and one of the most influential men of Keene. 

Soon after their marriage, he, with his wife, returned and re- 
sided in Cornish. Here he spent the best part of his life. Here 
most of their children were born. Here, enjoying the confidence 
of all of his townsmen, relatives and friends, he received at their 
hands the best official gifts in their power to bestow. He was 
justice of the peace, and chief legal counsellor for the town and 
vicinity. 

While residing in Cornish it is related that a certain couple 
came to him to get married. It was in the evening of the day 
of the annual town meeting. Mr. Chase had been moderator 
and had also administered the oath of office to nearly all officers 
chosen that day, and being wearied with the duties of the day, he 
was sitting in his easy chair in front of the large fireplace "toast- 
ing his feet, " and in this attitude fell asleep. A knock at the door 
was answered by Mrs. Chase, who, upon learning their business, 
came to Mr. Chase, and, jogging him, told him there was a couple 
at the door wanting to get married. In a half-conscious condi- 



SKETCHES OF CORNISH MEN. 287 

tion he told his wife to bring them in. She complied with his 
request and they stood beside him. "What do you want?" 
asked Mr. Chase, rather gruffly. " To get married, " they replied. 
"Well then, hold up your right hands." They did so, and he 
administered the usual qualifying oath of office, making a little 
variation in the latter clause, and pronounced them husband 
and wife, to their apparent satisfaction. They paid their fee 
and went on their way rejoicing and he returned to his slum- 
bers. 

After the death of his father-in-law in 1810, he, with his family, 
returned to Keene, and here spent the brief remainder of his life. 
He took charge of the Ralston Hotel and also of the management 
of the estate. He also engaged in the glass manufacturing busi- 
ness. This, however, did not prove a financial success. 

He was a member of the council for the State of New Hamp- 
shire for several years, ending in 1816. 

He was a prominent Free Mason, and was the first master of 
Hiram Lodge in Claremont. Subsequently his name appears on 
the rolls of the first Royal Arch Chapter in Keene. 

He never sought eminence but, rather, was one of those robust 
characters that always prove equal to all the labors and duties 
that are imposed upon them. It is of this type of men that leaders 
are ofttimes born, as was proved in the present case. 

But his busy life work ended August 11, 1817. Being a zealous 
member of the Protestant Episcopal Church, and in harmony 
with his desire, his funeral was conducted according to the rites 
of that church. It was the first funeral of this order ever solem- 
nized in Keene. It was largely attended and created a deep and 
favorable impression on behalf of the church. Reverend Doctor 
Strong of Greenfield, Mass., officiated. Mr. Chase was buried in 
Keene. 

On his tombstone is written: 

"And now, Lord, what is my hope? 
Truly my hope is ever in Thee." 

GEN. JONATHAN CHASE. 

Jonathan Chase was born in Sutton, Mass., December 6, 1$32. 
He was the son of Judge Samuel and Mary (Dudley) Chase. He 
came to Cornish in 1765 at the time the town was settled. Al- 



288 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

though young, he devoted himself actively to the interests of the 
new settlement in every way. He became an extensive land 
proprietor, a farmer and surveyor. He opened the first store 
ever kept in town, which continued many years. After buildings 
were erected, he also kept the first inn. In the absence of any 
public place of meeting, his doors were ever open for all the meet- 
ings of the colonists for any purpose whatever. Several of the 
first town meetings were held there. His counsel and means 
were freely bestowed on all progressive measures. He built, 
owned and operated the first sawmill and gristmill in town. 

The influence of the French and Indian War and other stirring 
events of those times evidently tended to develop in him a martial 
spirit, fitting him as a military leader, for he soon became a bold 
and efficient organizer and leader of the militia of Cornish and 
vicinity. It soon became evident that he possessed an admirable 
fitness for leadership, as on August 30, 1775, by act of the assembly, 
he was commissioned colonel of the territorial regiment consisting 
of the towns of Hanover, Lebanon, Lyme, Orford, Cornish and 
Plainfield. 

All the able-bodied men of these towns between the ages of 
sixteen and fifty were enrolled, subject to drill and call to service 
whenever and wherever needed. At first the terms of enlistment 
were short, simply meeting the requirements of each campaign. 

The full account of the military services rendered by Colonel 
Chase during the Revolutionary War are omitted here, but they 
find brief mention in the records of that eventful period. It is 
true, however, that during the war his military record at all times 
and under all circumstances reflected honor upon himself and the 
town of his adoption. He manifested his fitness as a commander 
in many ways. He was bold and fearless though not rash or 
arbitrary and of fine physical proportions. He was beloved by 
his men and fellow officers who quickly responded to his orders, 
while he in turn as quickly responded to the orders of his superior 
officers, and whenever a fearful crisis was imminent, his cool and 
deliberate counsel was sought and heeded. He served during 
all the short campaigns in the North until the theater of war was 
removed to the South and West whither he followed its fortunes 
for sometime afterwards. 

After the war was over, in 1788, he was appointed brigadier- 
general on Governor Langdon's staff. In 1789 he, under the same 



SKETCHES OF CORNISH MEN. 289 

rank and title, was appointed on Governor Pickering's staff. By 
virtue of these appointments, and supported by a splendid mili- 
tary record of the past, his claim to the title of general was un- 
disputed, this title he ever afterwards bore. 

Not alone in the counsels of war, or on the battlefield, was 
General Chase a power. In the general affairs of the town he 
was active in all measures for the development of its resources. 
The offices of the town were often tendered him. Some of these 
be accepted while he refused others. He was selectman nine 
years; three years town treasurer. Three years he served as 
moderator, and represented the town in the Grand Assembly in 
1788. In the opening of new highways in town, General Chase 
was the leading spirit. He established- the first ferry across the 
Connecticut River between Cornish and Windsor. This was done 
in 1784, and it continued in use until 1795. (See Cornish Bridge.) 

An examination of his public papers and private records shows 
he had a wonderful business capacity and sound judgment. While 
many have gone out from the town and been mighty in influence 
in other places, probably no resident of the town ever consulted 
her interests more effectively during his day than did he. To 
him the town has been, and still is, indebted for much of the pres- 
tige she has enjoyed. Though no grand monument marks his 
final resting place, yet the record of his works furnishes a monu- 
ment that will abide. 

The activities and exposures incident to a pioneer life, his 
military campaigns and hardships connected with them, together 
with the burden of his responsibility to his adopted town, all left 
their impress upon his naturally robust constitution, and in the 
midst of his seeming usefulness he died January 12, 1800. He 
was twice married and had eleven children. (See his family 
record.) The slab over his remains bears this inscription: 

"One of the early settlers of the town, filling a variety of offices 
with honor to himself and advantage to the public." 

DR. MAURICE J. CHASE. 

Dr. Maurice J. Chase, a son of Benjamin C. and Eliza (Royce) 
Chase, was born in Cornish, March 4, 1826. 

When quite young, less than four years, his father died, and 
he went to live with his grandmother until he was twelve years of 

20 



290 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

age. After this he went forth into the world to make his own 
living as best he could. 

Favorable impressions concerning the medical profession were 
early stamped upon his mind, and in all his youthful years, he never 
faltered in his aim nor was tempted to abandon his early choice. 

During this period of his life he resorted to a variety of com- 
mendable occupations to secure a livelihood. Of vigorous health 
and praiseworthy ambition, he did not shun any of the labors in- 
cident to the farm or shop. He worked on farms, chopped wood, 
and made himself generally useful. Besides this he availed 
himself of all the educational advantages his time and means 
would allow. As soon as he was of sufficient age and qualification 
he taught school winters, clerked in stores, etc., never losing sight 
of his main purpose in life, — to secure an education along medical 
lines. After leaving the district school he attended Kimball Union 
Academy for some time. In 1845 he went to Hanover and began 
the study of medicine under the late Dr. Dixi Crosby. Here he 
took two full courses of lectures, and also a full course at the med- 
ical school at Woodstock, Vt. On June 17, 1850, he counted 
himself equipped for life work in his profession. At this time 
he found himself in debt about four hundred dollars, but by dil- 
igence in his practice and prudent saving this was soon liquidated. 
He commenced his practice in Truro and South Boston, Mass. 
But he soon became convinced that there were broader fields of use- 
fulness in the West, so he removed to the State of Indiana in 1854. 
He remained here but two years and then removed to Malcomb, 
111. In July of 1859 he located in Galesburg, 111., which place he 
ever after made his home. More than forty-five years he spent in 
active practice of his profession in this town. He was one of the 
prominent figures of his profession, not only in Galesburg, but in 
the surrounding country. He was distinguished for his self- 
sacrificing spirit in behalf of his suffering patients. His profes- 
sional idea of ethics was to allow himself no rest until every effort 
and power of his had been exerted for the aid and relief of those in 
sickness and suffering. In this way Doctor Chase earned an hon- 
orable distinction in his practice. For careful and painstaking 
treatment his reputation was acknowledged among his patients 
and fellow practitioners. His clinical instruction was full and 
complete, and his diagnosis of thousands of cases all stand as 
proofs of his ability. As a physician, therefore, his labors were 



SKETCHES OF CORNISH MEN. 291 

crowned with success, and much of this has been attributed to 
the sympathy which he felt and expressed for his patients. Care 
and attention in Doctor Chase's treatment were counted quite as 
important as medicine. 

Before going to Galesburg — while living in Indiana — his own 
child became seriously ill. Being then but a young practitioner 
he called in several older medical advisers, without any success- 
ful results. The death of the child under the circumstances con- 
vinced him of the errors of the old Allopathic school of medicine, 
and thereafter he became a convert of the new Homeopathic 
school, of which he was the most successful exponent in that 
section of the state. 

In religious belief, Doctor Chase was a Universalist, but as 
such was never aggressive. The religious tenets of his faith 
were exemplified in his family and among the many patients of 
his extensive practice. 

As a politician, he was a Republican, but never took an active 
part in the movements of his party. While not active as a politi- 
cian, there was one question upon which he had strong pronounced 
views, and this was the liquor question. With this he would 
effect no compromise. Never was there a more uncompromising 
foe of the liquor traffic than was Doctor Chase; and during his 
entire practice he lived up to his convictions and never prescribed 
liquor as a medicine. Doctor Chase was united in marriage, 
March 15, 1849, with Lucy F. Crocker at Falmouth, Mass. Four 
children were the result of this union, two of whom died in infancy. 
The others are residents of Galesburg, 111. 

Doctor Chase remained active in his profession until the spring 
of 1905. At this time he lost his favorite driving horse which 
proved quite a shock to him. This ended his practice away from 
home, yet he continued to minister to such as called upon him 
until the first of May, 1906, when as the result of a fall down stairs 
he was compelled to take to his bed from which he never rose. 
He died September 7, 1906, but was survived by his wife whose 
loving companionship he had enjoyed more than fifty-seven years. 

From the Galesburg Daily Republican Register of September 
7, 1906, we append the following: 

"In the death of Dr. J. M. Chase, the city loses another of its 
strong, capable, and forceful men whose lives have been stamped 
on the community. 



292 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

"He was a thorough student of his chosen work. In certain 
lines he was very proficient. His skill in treating the ailments 
of childhood was pronounced. He seemed to have an intuitive 
knowledge of what to do. He appeared to comprehend the 
language of their complaints, and the children loved him. 

"Doctor Chase was a man of strong and clear convictions and 
left no one in doubt as to his belief on any given public question." 

In speaking of his avowed antagonism to the use of alcoholics 
it says: 

"It can never be said of him that he contributed to the 
downfall of any man by arousing in him a thirst for alcoholic 
drinks through the agency of his prescriptions. In other ways 
he helped the cause of morality here. He lived a long and 
useful life and his influence was ever for the best. He was a 
man of kindly instincts, a man of social nature and of large infor- 
mation. 

"His career has reflected honor on the profession, and on the 
community and merits eulogy and appreciation." 

BISHOP PHILANDER CHASE. 

Philander Chase, the youngest son of Deacon Dudley and 
Alice (Corbett) Chase, was born December 14, 1775. All of his 
brothers leaving the paternal homestead for professional life, he 
indulged the fond dream of being the chosen son to remain on the 
farm with his parents and care for them in their declining years. 
On the other hand, these self-sacrificing parents had a deep anxiety 
that the last of their sons should become a minister of the gospel, 
and such was their constant prayer. Unfavorable' providences dis- 
couraged the plans of the young man, while at the same time they 
seemed to open the way for the fulfillment of the parents' desire. 
Upon his recovery from a serious accident, it was decided that he 
should begin his studies preparatory to entering college. This 
accomplished, he entered Dartmouth College in the fall of 1791. 
While there, his religious views underwent a change, the results 
of which are, in part, related in the history of Trinity Church 
in Cornish. 

He graduated from Dartmouth in 1795, the summer before he 
became of age. His aim now was the study of the ministry and he 
soon became a candidate for holy orders in the Protestant Epis- 



SKETCHES OF CORNISH MEN. 



293 



copal Church, with a temporary residence at Albany, N. Y. 
Efficient instructors, together with free access to well-chosen 
theological libraries, were favorable circumstances in forming 
his character and fitting him for the great work before him. 
A portion of his time not thus spent was devoted to teaching. 
During this period, in 1796, he married Mary Fay of Hardwick, 




Bishop Philander Chase. 

Mass., daughter of Daniel and Mary (Page) Fay. He was or- 
dained, May 10, 1798, to the diaconate in St. George's Church, 
New York. After this he devoted himself to missionary work 
and the organization of parishes in various sections of the country. 

The Protestant Episcopal Church in America was then in her 
infancy and her constituency at that time were few and much scat- 
tered. To be a missionary at that time involved many hardships. 

Mr. Chase was ordained to the priesthood in St. Paul's Church, 



294 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

New York, November 10, 1799. From this time until October, 
1805, he was engaged in the organization of parishes and in having 
charge of the Seminary at Poughkeepsie, N. Y. On the latter 
date, having received an appointment, he sailed from New York to 
New Orleans, La., where he organized Christ Church and became 
its rector and teacher. He remained there six years, devoting all 
his energies to the establishment of the church in this section. 
He then returned north to Randolph, Vt., where his two children 
had been left during his southern labors. 

In the autumn of 1811, he became established as [rector of 
Christ Church in Hartford, Conn., where he remained until March 
2, 1817. 

Being still prompted by the spirit of missions, he left this happy 
rectorate for the wilderness of Ohio, where he took charge of three 
churches, and also of the Worthington Academy. While there, 
on May 5, 1818, Mrs. Chase died, and a memorial tablet was 
erected there to her memory. On June 3, 1818, he was elected 
to the bishopric of the diocese of Ohio, and on February 11, 1819, 
was duly consecrated as such in the city of Philadelphia as the 
first bishop of Ohio. In 1819 he married Sophia May Ingraham 
of Philadelphia. 

Mr. Chase began to realize sensibly the need of help. His 
labors were great. His remuneration small and the prospects 
of the church in Ohio were anything but flattering, and he con- 
ceived the idea of visiting England to solicit aid from the mother 
church, and so he left Worthington, August 4, 1823, and returned 
East where he spent a few weeks among his kindred. He em- 
barked for England, October 1, following. 

Opposition to his plans arose on both sides of the Atlantic, 
but feeling his cause was of God his faith was equal to the hour. 
It was then he adopted the inspiring motto: "Jehovah Jireh," 
which was ever after his watchword of success. 

The opposition to his well-intended plans began to assume a 
serious form. The English press published articles well calcu- 
lated to prejudice the public mind against contributing funds 
to the furtherance of church and educational interests in 
America. It was under these disheartening circumstances that 
he landed in England. 

Mr. Chase had previously formed the acquaintance of Henry 
Clay, then in Congress, who was a warm personal friend of Lord 



SKETCHES OF CORNISH MEN. 295 

Gambier in England. Mr. Clay sent letters of introduction by 
Mr. Chase to his friend, explaining the object of his contemplated 
visit to England. These were finally favorably received and 
Mr. Chase received an invitation to visit Lord Gambier at Piatt 
Hall, his home. Lord Gambier also told him of the opposition 
to his scheme, admitting that he, himself, shared in a measure 
the same sentiments. Mr. Chase expressed desire that oppor- 
tunity be granted of disabusing his mind by full explanation. 
This favor was granted the day following and resulted in the 
assurance of Lord Gambier's support for the cause in Ohio. In 
this he was soon joined by Reverend Mr. Pratt and others. A 
meeting of the clergy was called, the subject fully discussed and 
a series of resolutions were adopted, all commendatory of Bishop 
Chase and the object of his mission, promising him full sympathy 
and support. Many fortunate circumstances tended to pro- 
mote the success of the Bishop's mission. Many who at first 
were prejudiced, being touched by his manly and earnest life be- 
came kind and generous friends. His unfeigned desire to spread 
"the faith once delivered to the saints, " was so sincere that many 
generous souls responded, and it was said " England had not seen 
such a bishop in a thousand years. " During the remainder of his 
stay in England (until July 17, 1824), he received little less 
than a bounteous ovation at the hands of the clergy and faithful 
laity. On the latter date he sailed for America in the Orbit, 
the same ship that brought him to England. He was forty-three 
days on this voyage. Some time after his return a convention 
was called which met November 2, 1824. The bishop recited 
the kindness shown him by English friends and told of their gener- 
ous gifts for the purpose of founding an institution of religion 
and learning in Ohio. The next question was, where shall such a 
college be built? The academy at Worthington, Ohio, was still 
in successful operation and under the immediate care of the 
bishop, but it was deemed best to locate the new college else- 
where. Eight thousand acres of land were purchased in Knox 
County, Ohio. This tract was chiefly in its primitive state, 
requiring vast outlays for its development. Students from 
Worthington, and others, all under the lead of the bishop, cut 
their way through the tangled forest to an elevated plain 
whereon the college was to be located. Willing hands were not 
wanting; buildings were hastily erected. The right to confer 



296 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

degrees was granted by the state and the college received its 
name "Kenyon College" from Lord Kenyon of England who was 
its largest donor. The tract of land was called ' 'Gambier Hill, " 
in honor of Lord Gambier whose gifts were large. The chapel 
was "Rosse Chapel" in honor of Lady Rosse of England, who 
contributed largely to this object. The school at Worthington 
was removed to the new college and thus Kenyon College began 
its life in 1828. 

This college owes its inception, its founding, its growth, its 
career of usefulness, its honorable record, its rank among sister 
colleges to the far-sighted sagacity and untiring zeal and energy 
of Bishop Chase. Never was a greater undertaking so swiftly 
accomplished by the sole power of one man. There is scarcely 
a parallel to it in all the history of American educational 
institutions. 

He was a man of heroic mold in every way, physically of gigan- 
tic proportions, with a strength and endurance seemingly almost 
fabulous, and with a mind of the same commanding proportions 
as his body. 

He was, in fact, a man of national reputation, both as a scholar 
and a teacher, and with a personality that commanded the instant 
attention and respect of everyone. 

The original design of Bishop Chase in founding this college 
was to make it solely a religious institution for the education of 
the clergy and lay members of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 
"a school of the prophets." The trustees, on the other hand, 
were willing, and even desirous that it also serve the purposes of 
an institution for general education. This gave occasion for a 
breach between Bishop Chase and his faculty which could not be 
healed. The latter prevailed, much to the sorrow and disap- 
pointment of the bishop, who without any contention and for the 
sake of peace, made the great sacrifice and resigned the presidency 
of the college and took solemn leave of the same in the early 
summer of 1832. 

For three years he resumed missionary labors as aforetime, but 
in the summer of 1835 he was notified of an appointment to the 
Episcopacy of Illinois. At this time there was but one finished 
church in all Illinois. 

Although well advanced in years, Bishop Chase now stood 
upon the threshold of another vast state beholding her needs. 



SKETCHES OF CORNISH MEN. 297 

The motto on his shield, "Jehovah Jireh" was still untarnished, 
and he again summoned those wondrous powers to action. He 
resolved to again visit England for aid. He accordingly sailed 
October 1, 1835, landing at Portsmouth. He returned the fol- 
lowing May. 

While in England he received many tokens of love and respect, 
beside much substantial aid for the furtherance of his mission in 
Illinois. 

Like the "Star of Empire," he moved westward and pitched 
his tent on the fertile prairie lands of Peoria County. Here he 
purchased 3,200 acres of land whereon he located and erected the 
new college. He named it "Jubilee College," for, as he says, 
"that name of all others suits my feelings and circumstances. I 
left those dear places by me named Gambier Hill and Kenyon Col- 
lege and now in 1838 I can again blow the trumpet in Zion for joy 
that another school of the prophets, 500 miles still farther towards 
the setting sun, is founded to the glory of the Great Redeemer." 

In a marvelously short time all the preliminary stages were 
passed, and the second college founded by Bishop Chase came 
into successful operation. 

Thus two prominent educational institutions of the West, 
whose influence has been great and world wide, owe their exist- 
ence to the devoted and sanctified energy of a Cornish boy — 
Philander Chase. 

It is not out of place to add the following from the gifted pen 
of Marie M. Hopkins, president of the Chicago Branch of the 
Woman's Auxiliary of the Board of Missions: "Our prairie 
wind tells us of heroes of Church as well as of State. If you will 
pardon a personal allusion, my grandmother was Alice Chase, 
who claimed as her youngest and best beloved brother, Philander 
Chase, first Bishop of Ohio and later of Illinois. To this pure and 
sensitive boy, a son of New England's soil, the mystical voice of 
the unknown beckoned as alluringly as it had beckoned to his 
great progenitor La Salle, so many years before, La Salle and Chase 
— Chase and La Salle — they were men cast in the same mold. 
The voice sounded from the great Middle West, whose broad 
acres teemed with harvests that could support the world, whose 
vast plains afforded ample room for a population of millions then 
unborn. Philander Chase listened to this voice, and came to 
the Middle West. It is like reading a romance to read the life 



298 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

of this great man. He founded Kenyon College and then Jubilee; 
he worked for years without a salary, supporting his family by 
the produce of his farm. His Episcopal palace was a log hut 
which he called 'Robin's Nest, ' 'because it was made of sticks 
and mud and was filled with young ones.' He endured perils 
by land and perils by water, the deadly pestilence, the violence 
of the persecutor, doubt and impatience, discouragement and 
discord and all the devices of the powers of darkness. Obstacles 
existed before him to be annihilated; hindrance rose in his path 
to be trampled under foot. Philander Chase did not coo like 
a dove; he roared like a lion. Even as Richard, that lion-hearted 
king of old England spent the best years of his life in ridding the 
Holy Land from the polluting touch of the infidel, so did Philander 
Chase spend his great strength in wresting the Middle West from 
the iron grip of heathenism and religious indifference. As long 
as time shall endure, so long will this portion of the country bear 
the indelible impress of this lion-hearted Bishop." 

But the end came as it comes to all. 

On Monday, September 20, 1852, Bishop Chase entered into 
rest. He calmly approached his end with undimmed eye, and 
with natural, mental and spiritual forces unabated. His mortal 
part rests in the cemetery at Jubilee. 

SALMON CHASE. 

This son of Dea. Dudley and Alice (Corbett) Chase was 
born July 14, 1761. He was the second of eight brothers, all of 
whom after obtaining a liberal education became distinguished 
in the medical, or legal profession, while a portion of these became 
eminent in the political arena. 

The subject of this brief sketch was a graduate of Dartmouth 
College in the class of 1785, choosing the legal profession for his 
life work. On leaving college, he went to Portsmouth, N. H., 
and there studied law in the office of Judge Henry Sherburne. 

On completing his studies, he was admitted to the bar and 
established himself in Portland, Me., then a thriving young town 
of great promise. Here he continued in the practice of his pro- 
fession until his death, August 14, 1806, at the early age of forty- 
five. The degree of eminence to which he might have attained 
had his life been prolonged is simply one of conjecture, but the 



SKETCHES OF CORNISH MEN. 299 

brilliant talents manifested during his brief career gave assurance 
of great ultimate success in life. 

Mr. Chase was a sound, well-read lawyer and had such a 
reputation throughout the state that he came to be called the 
"law-book." His opinions were implicitly relied upon in cases 
of doubt and difficulty. 

James D. Hopkins, Esq., a contemporary, said of him: "He 
was not only an able lawyer, but he was well versed in all the 
branches of solid learning; in legal science and in mathematical 
and metaphysical learning he had few superiors." And further 
said: "Mr. Chase was held by all his contemporaries in very high 
respect as a lawyer." His practice was very extensive, more so 
than any lawyer of the time in the state, and confidence in him 
was unlimited. 

Another contemporary said of him: "Salmon Chase was a 
sound lawyer, but not an eloquent advocate." He could not 
plead as well as he knew. By many it was said of him that "he 
was a kind and amiable man, easy and accessible in his manners 
and of fine personal appearance. From his sincerity and frank 
manners he always had great influence with a jury." The late 
Judge Dawes of Boston said of him that he never saw him enter 
the court but with feelings of profound respect. 

Salmon Portland Chase, his nephew and namesake, was so 
named to perpetuate his uncle's name, as also the place of 
residence. 

Mr. Chase was twice married. First, to Miss Mary Stinson of 
Portsmouth, by whom he had one son, George, born September 
29, 1800, who graduated at Harvard College in 1818 and com- 
menced the study of law in Portland with great promise, but died 
November 11, 1819. The mother had died in 1801. Second, in 
1804, he married Mrs. Sarah L. Waldo of Portland, by whom he 
had one daughter, Elizabeth, who married Doctor Howard of 
Boston. The mother and daughter and also the son survived 
him several years. 

Mr. Chase's death was very sudden. He was at his office on 
Monday and on the following Sunday he died of bilious fever. 

He was tall, erect and handsome and an excellent model of a 
lawyer and gentleman of his day. (Extracted from the "Annals 
of Portland, Me.") 



300 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

SALMON PORTLAND CHASE. 

Chief Justice U. S. Supreme Court. 

Salmon Portland Chase 7 was born January 13, 1808, in Cornish. 
When eight years of age, he, with his father's family, removed to 
Keene, N. H. He was but nine years of age when his father died, 
leaving him to the sole care of his mother. To the praise of this 
excellent woman it is said "that a Christian's faith and a mother's 
love, as high and pure as ever ennobled the most famous matrons of 
history, stamped the character and furnished him the equipment 
for the labors and triumphs of his life." 

His uncle, Bishop Philander Chase of Ohio, assumed for a 
time the care and expense of his education. This drew him West, 
where he spent two years pursuing academic studies. He then 
returned to his mother's charge and entered the Junior class of 
Dartmouth College, from which he graduated in 1826 at the age 
of eighteen. At this time he wrote in his diary: "Knowledge 
may yet be gained and a golden reputation. I may yet enjoy the 
consciousness of having lived not in vain. Future scenes of 
triumph may be mine." 

After spending four years in Washington in the study of law 
and teaching a law student in the office of William Wirt, he was 
admitted to the bar December 14, 1829, and at twenty-two he 
established himself at Cincinnati, 0., thus transferring once and 
forever his home from New England to the ruder and more 
expansive society of the West. 

During boyhood's tender years, under the pious instruction 
of his mother and the inculcations of the bishop, he accepted the 
Episcopal Church as the body of Christian believers, in whose 
communions he ever found the best satisfaction. His adherence to 
the Christian faith was simple, constant and sincere; he accepted 
it as the rule of his life and no modern speculation ever shook the 
foundations of his belief. His reliance upon God was evident 
when laying out all the important plans of his busy and strenuous 
life. His education had been of a kind to discipline and invig- 
orate his natural powers. His oratory was vigorous, forcible and 
earnest, his rhetoric ample, his delivery weighty and imposing. 
" With him the sum of practical wisdom seemed to be, in regard 
to all earthly purposes, to discern the path of duty and then pur- 
sue it. His force of will to accomplish was prodigious, his courage 




Salmon Portland Chase, 
Chief Justice United States Supreme Court. 




Birthplace Salmon Portland Chase. 



SKETCHES OF CORNISH MEN. 301 

to brave, and fortitude to endure, were absolute. Equality of 
right, community of interest, the reciprocity of duty were to his 
mind the adequate principles by which the virtue, strength and 
permanence of society were maintained, and he did not hesitate 
to oppose vigorously everything that endangered them." 

A man possessed of such endowments necessarily confers 
authority among men, while they are prepared to successfully 
antagonize the endangerments of great and valued principles. 

In the ten years of professional life following his admission to 
the bar, he established a reputation for ability that in due time 
brought him high rewards. During this time, in his leisure hours, 
he compiled the Ohio statutes, then a mighty work. 

This period was the quieter part of his life, but was soon broken. 
The high offices awaiting him were not to be reached by the path 
of jurisprudence, but by statesmanship. His first political move 
was, after the death of Harrison in 1841, to make slavery the 
touchstone of politics and the basis of political action. Neither 
of the political parties could be pressed into the services of the 
principles and course of action he believed to be right. Each 
tolerated slavery, though under different restrictions. 

The history, growth and development of the anti-slavery prin- 
ciple affords a chapter of great interest to the student of our 
national history. Its adherents bore the names of: "Liberty 
party," "Abolition party," "Free Soil party" and "Independent 
Democrats." 

The sentiment continued to expand until it culminated in the 
election of Mr. Lincoln in 1860. 

Through all these years Mr. Chase was ever championing the 
cause of the slave. To him must be awarded the full credit of 
having resolved upon, planned, organized and executed this 
political movement, himself either leading or cooperating. 

From 1840 to 1849, Mr. Chase was simply a citizen and could 
expect no political station or honor until it should come from the 
prosperous fortunes of the party he was striving to create. All 
at once, by a surprising conjunction of circumstances, he was 
elevated at a bound to the highest and widest sphere of influ- 
ence which our political establishment presents, to the Senate 
of the United States. He entered that body March 4, 1849. A 
handful of Liberty party men held the balance of power to pre- 
vent or determine a majority. 



302 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

He was the anti-slavery champion of the Senate, whose 
speeches summed up the calm argument of unflinching anti- 
slavery men, and spread it through the country in the crises of 
1850-54. More than any other man he is credited as being the 
founder of the Republican party. His term in the Senate ended 
March, 1855. The highest authority then said of him: "We 
always counted on his opposition to all corruption or extravagant 
expenditure and depended on his cooperation to restrain action 
of the federal government within its proper sphere. He ever 
showed a consciousness of moral responsibility in all his political 
services." 

His term in the Senate was followed by two successive elections 
to the governorship of Ohio. In this high station, all the official 
functions as governor were discharged with benefit to the legisla- 
tion of the nation and to the administration of the state. At the 
close of his gubernatorial terms, he was reelected to the Senate. 

The presidential election of 1860 approached. The Republi- 
can party, the party he had assisted in creating, now took the 
field for the first time with an assurance of ultimate success. 

As a candidate for the presidency, Mr. Seward seemed to lead 
in public favor, while Mr. Chase, with a following scarcely less, 
stood second. In the Republican convention in Chicago, May 16, 
1860, the chances of these two men were so nearly equal that their 
friends resorted to a third candidate, and Mr. Lincoln received the 
nomination and was elected. 

Recognizing the mental and moral worth, as also the invalu- 
able services rendered by these two men, Mr. Lincoln invited both 
of them into his cabinet, giving Mr. Seward the office of secre- 
tary of state and Mr. Chase that of secretary of the treasury, 
which he held three years. 

The Civil War was precipitated. The financial problems of 
these times assumed a magnitude never before known, and 
seemed to require almost superhuman wisdom to solve them. 

Mr. Chase seemed to rise equal to all the requirements of the 
hour, and his management of the finances of the Civil War was 
the marvel of Europe and the admiration of our own people. 

He resigned the portfolio of the treasury in June, 1864, and on 
the December following he was appointed chief justice of the 
United States, which office he held for the remainder of his life. 

The distracted and disrupted condition of the country, 



SKETCHES OF CORNISH MEN. 303 

the best policy to pursue in the construction of the same, were 
problems now confronting all the heads of government, including 
the judiciary. In all matters brought before the chief justice, 
even the trial of President Johnson, he displayed the dignity, 
tact, sagacity and sound judgment befitting his exalted station. 
"As a constructive statesman, Mr. Chase must ever stand among 
the greatest Americans." Mr. Lincoln said of him: "Chase is 
about one and a half times bigger than any man I ever knew." 

It is not claimed that Mr. Chase was free from faults, or that 
his judgment was infallible. This can be claimed by none; but 
taking his entire record before the world's impartial tribunal, 
their verdict would be as expressed in the language of his dis- 
tinguished friend and associate, Hon. Wm. M. Evarts: "A lawyer, 
orator, senator, governor, minister, magistrate, whom living a 
whole nation admired; whom dead a whole nation laments. Upon 
an eminent stage of action, the tenor of his life was displayed on 
all the high places of the world. . . . The places he filled 
were all of the highest, the services he rendered were the most 
difficult, as well as the most eminent." ' 

Mr. Chase was thrice married. His wives were all ladies of the 
State of Ohio. His first wife was Catharine J. Garniss, whom he 
married March 4, 1834. She died December 1, 1835, leaving a 
little girl, who lived only four years longer. September 26, 1839, 
he married his second wife, Eliza Ann Smith. They had three 
children: Kate (later Mrs. Governor Sprague) was the only one 
who lived. Mrs. Chase died September 29, 1845. A third 
marriage took place November 6, 1846, with Sarah Bella Dunlop 
Ludlow. Two children were born to them, of whom the only 
one that lived was Jeanette Ralston (later Mrs. Hoyt). On 
June 13, 1852, Mr. Chase was again bereft of his wife. Thence- 
forward he lived a widower to the end. 

His last visit to his native town was in July, 1866. A reception 
in honor of him was held July 24 at Chester Pike's, where, as 
chief justice, he met his townsmen and friends in pleasant social 
reunion. The occasion was one of great interest and enjoyment, 
as the writer, who was there, can testify. 

The activities and responsibilities of his strenuous life were 
proving too much for his physical constitution, and after a 
second paralytic shock, on May 6, 1873, he died May 7, 1873, 
at the age of sixty-five. 



304 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

WINSTON CHURCHILL. 

Winston Churchill, the author of " The Celebrity," " Richard 
Carvel," 'The Crisis," "The Crossing," "Coniston," etc., was born 
in St. Louis, Missouri, November 10, 1871, only child of Edward 
Spalding and Emma Bell (Blaine) Churchill. He is of old New 
England ancestry, being ninth in descent from John Churchill, 
the ancestor of the Plymouth branch of the Churchill family in 
America, and on the maternal side is descended from Jonathan 
Edwards, "the most eminent graduate of Yale College," and 
amongst whose descendants are numbered the presidents of ten 
colleges and universities, a remarkable and unequalled record. 

Mr. Churchill was educated at Smith Academy, a well-known 
private school in St. Louis, connected with the Washington 
University, and later was appointed to the United States Naval 
Academy at the age of eighteen and graduated in the class of 
1894. The year after he entered the Naval Academy, he organ- 
ized and was captain of the first eight-oared crew which repre- 
sented the navy and revived at Annapolis the sport of shell 
racing which had been dead since the seventies. 

The chief qualities which are inculcated into a youth at the 
United States Naval Academy are self-reliance and determina- 
tion, and those graduates of it who have not chosen the navy for 
their career have usually made eminent successes of what they 
have elected to do. This is signally true of Mr. Churchill. He 
had not been a year at the Naval Academy before he became 
interested in American history and American problems, and 
before he had finished his course he made up his mind to devote 
his life and energies to these, — not only with the pen, but as an 
active participant. Much of the atmosphere and some of the 
material for "Richard Carvel" was gathered by him while he was 
still a midshipman, and in the brief intervals between the scien- 
tific studies and drills he began to read at the Naval Academy 
library some of the history which he used in that and subsequent 
books. 

Upon graduating, Mr. Churchill became the sub-editor of the 
Army and Naval Journal, and within a year was managing editor 
of the Cosmopolitan Magazine at Irvington. In order to devote 
his time exclusively to the book "Richard Carvel," at which 
he was then at work, he resigned from the Cosmopolitan. Just 




WINSTON CHURCHILL. 



SKETCHES OF CORNISH MEN. 305 

about this time he wrote the first of his well-known novels, a 
humorous sketch called "The Celebrity," and this he submitted 
to the Macmillan Company. The immediate result of this book 
was a contract with the Macmillan Company for "Richard 
Carvel," then unfinished. This book, published in 1899, the 
first of a series dealing with vital epochs in American history, 
was so far above the class of the so-called historical novel, the 
craze for which was then at its height, that it at once raised the 
author to the front rank of novelists, a place which has been 
well sustained by his subsequent books, as Mr. Churchill is a 
painstaking writer. The publication of "Richard Carvel" was 
followed, after an interval of two years by "The Crisis." Two 
years later came "The Crossing," that wonderful tale of George 
Rogers Clarke's conquest of the Northwest, and in 1906 he 
published "Coniston." We of Cornish feel more than a passing 
interest in the story of Coniston, this true picture of New Eng- 
land life and politics. From our hills we can look on Coniston 
Mountain, can follow the myriad windings of Coniston Water; 
can even see on a clear day what was once the home of 
"Jethro Bass," that wonderful, rugged figure around which 
the story of Coniston is woven. Those of us, and there are 
many, who hold in loving memory "Jethro Bass" and his wife, 
"Aunt Listy," are grateful to Mr. Churchill for immortalizing 
them. "Jethro Bass" had his detractors, but Mr. Churchill 
is not one of them. 

In 1898 Mr. Churchill bought from Leonard Spalding, his farm 
house, barns, etc., and about one hundred acres of land, this 
property being formerly known as the Ayer homestead. A 
part of this land overlooked the Connecticut, and Mr. Churchill 
cleared the woods at this spot and erected " Harlakenclen House," 
considered to be one of the finest residences in New Hampshire. 
In 1903 Mr. Churchill purchased the adjoining property, known 
as the Freeman homestead, and he has now something over five 
hundred acres, mostly of excellent timber land. Mr. Churchill 
is gradually foresting this timber land on scientific principles. 
The Freeman house has been practically rebuilt and is now one 
of the most attractive and commodious houses in the neighbor- 
hood. Since making his home in Cornish in 1898, Mr. Churchill 
has been actively interested in the town's welfare. He has done 
much for it in the matter of good roads, and any appeal to 

21 



306 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

him for the betterment of the town's interests is always met with 
a hearty response. 

Mr. Churchill represented the town of Cornish for two suc- 
cessive terms in the Legislature from 1903 to 1907. At the con- 
clusion of his second term, he had planned a temporary rest and 
retirement from politics, but he was appealed to by prominent 
men in Claremont and surrounding towns to be the candidate 
for the state Senate from this district. Looking upon this appeal 
as a duty not to be lightly disregarded, he acceded, making it a 
condition, however, that if he were elected he would do his utmost 
to aid in any movement tending to "put the power of govern- 
ment into the hands of the people where it belongs." The direct 
result of this announcement, strengthened by the effect of "Conis- 
ton," which had just been published, was an invitation signed by 
such eminent and conservative citizens of the state as the Rev. 
W. W. Niles, bishop of New Hampshire, Prof. James F. Col- 
by, head of the law department of Dartmouth University, and 
others, asking Mr. Churchill to be a candidate for governor on a 
reform platform. Mr. Churchill was a young and courageous man, 
and an indefatigable worker during his terms in the Legislature, 
and it was believed that his name would give the reform move- 
ment an impetus which could be gained in no other way. And 
so it proved. Mr. Churchill, as the candidate of the Lincoln 
Republican Club, inaugurated campaign methods which were an 
innovation to New Hampshire, delivering on an average of ten 
speeches a week, besides writing weekly articles for the news- 
papers. It was a short campaign — of only six weeks duration, — 
but the results of that vigorous six weeks were far-reaching. Mr. 
Churchill and his associates in the campaign had no idea that he 
would be elected- — that was not the end for which they were work- 
ing, but the people were aroused, as the people will be at times, 
and here was the opportunity to lay facts before them, which 
they did. The sole issue, as it is almost needless to say here, 
was the control of the state government by the Boston and Maine 
Railroad, a control which had existed for so long, that by most 
people it was accepted as a state of things which must be endured 
because it could not be cured. Never was such a convention 
known in New Hampshire as followed that memorable campaign 
of six weeks. Unlike previous conventions, the results were not 
known the night before. The principles of the Lincoln Republi- 




MRS. WINSTON CHURCHILL 



SKETCHES OF CORNISH MEN. 307 

can Club were embodied in the Republican state platform. Five 
candidates were in the field, and on the first ballot Mr. Churchill 
had 157 delegates. He led the candidates on the eighth ballot, 
but did not have the required number of votes for election, and 
he was defeated by a margin of fifty-two votes on the ninth. 
The nominee of the convention failed of election at the polls in 
November and his election was made by the Legislature when 
it met in January. 

One of the victories of the reform element in the Legislature 
("Churchill Republicans," as they were pleased to call themselves) 
was the passage of the present anti-pass law, this being one of the 
important planks in the platform. 

Early in the spring of 1907 Mr. Churchill was again requested 
to be a candidate, but this honor he declined, believing that he 
could do more good for the cause he had at heart by being in 
a disinterested position. 

Mr. Churchill was married in St. Louis, Mo., October 22, 1895, 
to Miss Mabel Harlakenden Hall, of illustrious English descent, 
and they have two children, Mabel Harlakenden, born July 9, 
1897, and John Dwight Winston, born December 21, 1903. 

LEVI HENRY COBB, D. D. 

A truthful sketch of Doctor Cobb is but little short of an 
eulogy. His useful life chiefly transpired within the radius of the 
remembrance and knowledge of the writer, who is therefore pre- 
pared to heartily endorse the many tributes offered to his memory. 
Chief among these memorials is that of Charles H. Richards, D.D. 
of New York, from whose gifted pen the writer has quoted exten- 
sively and for which he would return all grateful acknowl- 
edgment. 

Levi Henry Cobb was born in Cornish, June 30, 1827. He was 
the son of Levi and Calista (Bugbee) Cobb, who lived the simple 
and quiet farmer life in the northern part of the town. Here the 
son had the practical training of the farmer boy, which was of 
great value to him in his after life. The influence, too, of that 
Christian home was mighty in molding his character for fitness 
for the service he afterwards rendered. He became a member of 
the Congregational Church in Cornish on March 3, 1839. After 
this he resolved to obtain a liberal education with the hope that 
God would open the way for him into the Christian ministry. 



308 



HISTORY OF CORNISH. 



He seemed inspired with an ambition to make the most of 
his powers that he might be of the greatest possible service to 
his fellowmen. 

With this end in view he entered Kimball Union Academy in 
1847. This famous school gave him the intellectual drill and 
spiritual development which he needed. He was a diligent 
student and a leader in the religious life of the academy. 

Graduating from the academy in 1850, he entered Dartmouth 




Rev. Levi H. Cobb. 

College and graduated from it in the class of 1854. He had many 
distinguished classmates, among whom he made his mark as a 
young man of vigorous intellect, inflexible principle, genial and 
devotedly Christian. Rev. Charles Caverno, a classmate of his, 
thus writes of him: "I know of no other one of my classmates 
who has seemed to walk so continually and directly to the end 
he had in view as Levi H. Cobb. There seems to me a straight 
line from the time I first knew him to the time of his departure 
to the life of Heaven,— just a straight line and the duties done 



SKETCHES OF CORNISH MEN. 309 

that belonged to that line. That he was good, we all knew; but 
he was a great man. He not only did good work, but a great 
amount of it. He did not write in the sand, but in human souls 
and that will live in influence in this world, and in the world to 
come forever and ever." 

He completed his preparation for his life work at Andover 
Theological Seminary in 1857. A parish was already awaiting 
him in North Andover, Mass., whose call he had accepted and 
he was ordained there the following autumn. 

Of his feelings concerning the great work he had undertaken 
he has written: "From an early day, far back in my home life 
on the paternal farm, my soul has gone out warmly and with 
constancy towards the work of the ministry. And when, after 
years of waiting, on the 28th day of October, 1857, ordaining 
hands were laid upon my head, setting me apart to the work of 
the ministry, it was the happiest day of my life up to that point. 
The work has grown in endearment. The seven years of my first 
pastorate were an upward inclined plane of increasing enjoyment 
in it, and love toward my co-workers there. There was not an 
office in the gift of my nation, nor a throne on which any nation 
in the old world could have placed me, which I would have ex- 
changed for the place God gave me in the hearts of that people." 

During this pastorate, on January 12, 1858, he married 
Miss Harriet J. Herrick of Essex, Vt., whose acquaintance he 
had formed at the academy in Meriden. She has been a true 
helpmeet in all his fields of service. Four children have gladdened 
their home. (See Cobb Gen.) 

The condition of his health required him to give up his pastor- 
ate at North Andover, and he went south to Memphis, Tenn., 
where, for nearly two years he was superintendent of schools for 
white refugees and colored people. After this he returned to 
New England and took an important position as teacher in 
Kimball Union Academy, where he had prepared for college. 
Here he was exceedingly popular and successful in his work. 
But greatly as he enjoyed teaching, his heart was in the ministry. 

After two years at Meriden, he was unanimously and enthusi- 
astically called to the pastorate of the church in Springfield, Vt. 
Entering upon this work May 2, 1867, he enjoyed another pas- 
torate of seven years. Those years were very fruitful. More 
than ninety new members were received into the church the 



o 



10 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 



second year. The church grew so they were led to the building 
of a new and attractive sanctuary, all paid for by the grateful 
people. During these seven years he had the joy of welcoming 
into his church two hundred and sixty-four members. Other 
records of the church and pastor during those years gave evi- 
dence of a remarkably successful pastorate. 

Again, by reason of his health, he was induced to sever his 
loving connection with this people and try the climate of the 
Northwest. He was appointed Home Missionary superintendent 
for Minnesota, with home at Minneapolis. Here, again, he put 
in seven years of heroic service. The statistics of these services 
and their results are truly wonderful. The limits of this sketch 
will not allow their mention. 

During the year 1881, by request he became General Home 
Missionary secretary for the Rocky Mountain district with head- 
quarters at Denver, Colo. This extensive and important field 
he was obliged to relinquish owing to his election in February, 
1882, as secretary of the American Congregational Union, which 
at that time, was the name of the Congregational Church Build- 
ing Society. 

He entered at once upon that office which he held for twenty- 
one years. It proved to be the greatest work of his life and the 
one by which he will be longest remembered. The recital of 
his activities and of the vast results accomplished during these 
twenty-one years would fill volumes. More than two thousand 
churches and nearly half that number of parsonages, scattered 
throughout our country, all owe their existence to the prayerful 
and untiring efforts of Doctor Cobb. What monuments to his 
memory as viewed from the earth side, while from the heaven- 
ward side no human being can estimate their importance! 
Eternity alone can reveal. 

With lavish expenditure of vital power, he gave himself to this 
work which he loved. He traveled from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific, from the Lakes to the Gulf, visiting the churches and 
estimating their opportunities. He was in every national council 
to tell how the work was faring. He was delegate to the two 
international councils — in London in 1891 and in Boston in 1899. 
He was trustee of Carlton College in Minnesota, and of Rollins 
College in Florida. He was for thirty-three years a corporate 
member of the "American Board." He was a member of the 



S-KETCHES OF CORNISH MEN. 311 

Anthropological Society and of the American Institute of Chris- 
tian Philosophy. He also edited twenty-one volumes of the 
Church-Building Q uarterly. 

At length, when seventy-five years of age, his health suddenly 
failed. Up to that time his form had been as erect and his step 
as strong and steady as that of one twenty years younger. He 
was compelled to retire from active service, but as an expression 
of respect and honor for his long and distinguished services, he 
was made secretary emeritus of the society. 

In his enfeebled condition, his indomitable spirit, though 
sweetly submissive to the Divine decree, was restless on behalf of 
the cause he loved so well. He still continued to send out arti- 
cles and letters which were effective helpers in the good cause. 
His parting message, published in the Quarterly almost on the 
day of his death, shows the same clear intellect, the same 
ardent devotion to the Kingdom of God as aforetime. 'Twas 
like the dying soldier's bugle call for a charge as he falls upon 
the field. 

Thus he passed within the vale. God called him with all his 
trained powers to a still larger service in that unseen country. 
For him, death was a promotion. 

On the 8th of February, 1906, three days after his decease, his 
weary form was laid to rest beside his dear ones in his former 
parish in Springfield, Vt. 

"Servant of God, well done; 
Rest from thy loved employ." 

DR. DAVID L. M. COMINGS. 

Dr. David L. M. Comings was the son of Uriel and Sarah 
(Robinson) Comings and was born in Cornish, October 14, 1825. 
After leaving the district school he pursued a three years' course 
of study at Norwich University, then under the charge of the 
lamented General Ransom. 

In 1847 he commenced the study of medicine and graduated 
from the Medical School at Castleton, Vt., in the spring of 1850. 
Soon after this he began the practice of his profession at Plain- 
field, where he remained two years. While there he made the 
acquaintance of Eliza W. Wardner of Plainfield, whom he married 
November 24, 1851; they never had any children. In the 



312 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

spring of 1852 he located at the village of West Swanzey, N. H., 
where he continued in the practice of his profession with increasing 
success until he entered the military service of his country at the 
opening of the Civil War. Those who knew him best during this 
active practice in Swanzey, remember him not merely for his 
devotion to his profession. They remember him also as the 
upright and conscientious citizen who did not turn from the path 
of duty through fear or favor, but interested himself in whatever 
pertained to the peace and good order of society. He was ever 
found faithful to the cause of education, temperance and social 
improvement. His kindly and Christian bearing in the domestic 
circle can be appreciated only by those who had the opportunity 
to observe him at his own fireside, surrounded by those whom he 
most loved and trusted. The perfect control which he ever 
maintained over his feelings, the self-discipline which never 
allowed an angry or unkind word to escape his lips gave him a 
serenity of temper which hardly belonged to one of his ardent 
temperament. 

At the breaking out of the Rebellion, although not in political 
sympathy with the administration, he cheerfully put forth his 
efforts to put down armed treason and to uphold the government 
of his country. He did not stop to inquire what course others 
intended to pursue, but chose his position promptly and main- 
tained it to the end. 

When further surgical assistance was required in the Depart- 
ment of the South, in the spring of 1862, he cheerfully offered his 
services and was commissioned as assistant surgeon of the 
Fourth Regiment, New Hampshire Volunteers. He remained in 
sole charge of that regiment for some time, much to the satis- 
faction of the soldiers and officers. After some months of faith- 
ful and devoted service to the sick and wounded, his health 
failed, and he was reluctantly compelled to leave the scene of 
his active and useful labors. After a protracted and painful 
journey he reached his home in Swanzey accompanied by his 
faithful companion in life, who was at his side from the first of 
his illness. After a lapse of some weeks of suffering and weak- 
ness, which medical skill could not overcome, he closed his 
earthly career without a murmur, and with full consciousness 
to the last. 

Doctor Comings died on the first day of August, 1863, leaving 



SKETCHES OF CORNISH MEN. 313 

to the world the example of a man who had performed his duties 
with integrity and fidelity. In the language of one who knew 
him best, and was with him to the last, "he died as he had lived, 
a Christian." 

AUSTIN CORBIN. 

This man was not a native of Cornish, nor did he ever reside 
within its limits. The writer, however, feels justified in presenting 
his name and merits by reason of the fact that he purchased and 
owned more of the territory of Cornish than any other indi- 
vidual, unless we except the primitive owners of the town. For 
account of this, the reader is referred to "Blue Mountain Park 
Association" (which see). 

Austin Corbin was born July 11, 1827, in Newport, N. H. 
After a good public school education, he went, in 1846, to Boston 
and was employed as a clerk one year. He then studied law; 
graduated from Harvard Law School in 1849, and he began 
practice in New Hampshire in partnership with Ralph Metcalf, 
who afterwards became governor of the state. Like many other 
young men he longed for the West. In 1851, he went to Daven- 
port, la., in the practice of law. This he soon abandoned and 
gave his attention to schemes of finance that opened propitiously 
and developed successfully. He was a man of large conceptions 
and sought to use his capital for the development of plans along 
large enterprises. He first gave his attention to the improvement 
of Manhattan Beach, and the building thereon of two hotels, etc. 
He then gave his attention to the "Long Island Railway," then 
insolvent, and established it upon a sound and profitable basis. 
He did the same with the Reading Railroad — then in bank- 
ruptcy. This was the most stupendous undertaking he had ever 
assumed and he became its president. He also became deeply 
interested in making the extreme eastern end of Long Island a 
terminus for a trans-Atlantic steamship line, which would con- 
siderably lessen the time in going to Europe. Had he lived, this 
latter enterprise would doubtless have been carried out. 

When Mr. Corbin left Davenport, la., he came to New York 
City, where he organized the "Corbin Banking Company" on 
Broadway. This institution continued in a thriving condition 
during, and in connection with, all his other vast business 
enterprises. 



314 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Mr. Corbin never lost his love for nature or for his native town. 
He established his summer home in Newport, N. H., on the home- 
stead where he was born. This home and its surroundings was 
admirably fitted up with everything needful and attractive. He 
purchased fourteen hundred acres more of land adjoining it on 
which he contemplated making great improvements. After this 
he bought large tracts of land and established the extensive game 
preserve, called the "Blue Mountain Park Association" (which 
see). 

His purposes regarding this park and the many landholders 
adjoining it were on a large and munificent scale, and had he 
lived a few years longer, he would have verified the wisdom of his 
plans. 

But a sad and tragic death awaited him. When seemingly in 
the midst of, and near the fulfillment of many of his designs, he 
was violently thrown from his carriage on June 4, 1896, receiving 
injuries that terminated fatally within a few hours. His sudden 
death was a great shock to all his friends and wide circle of 
acquaintances. 

Mr. Corbin was a man of great energy and activity. When 
asked why he did not retire from active business and enjoy his 
fortune, he replied: "I already get my enjoyment in attending to 
my business." 

"His robust and active mind, his keen intelligence, his indomit- 
able will, his rugged independence and self-reliance made him a 
natural leader among men. 

"Whatever he did, was done with his whole strength. He 
devoted his talents to the accomplishment of worthy objects. 
His mission was to build up, and not destroy. Aggressive, master- 
ful and fearless as he was, he also possessed the gentler traits of a 
genial manner, a hearty honesty, and kindly and generous dispo- 
sition which endeared him to all his associates." 

JACOB FOSS. 

Jacob Foss, the son of Walter and Lucy (Cook) Foss, was born 
October 17, 1796, in Cornish. He married Martha Abbie How- 
land of Boston; they had no children. When he became of 
age he went to Boston. He took great pleasure, after he became 
a successful man with large means, in telling the story of leaving 




JACOB FOSS. 



SKETCHES OF CORNISH MEN. 315 

his country home, with all of his earthly possessions tied up in a 
bandanna handkerchief. 

He had decided that after reaching Boston he would accept the 
first offer made him for steady work, and very soon he engaged with 
Guy Carlton for employment in his morocco factory in Roxbury. 
Here he remained six months. He then went to Charlestown to 
the distillery of Putnam and Pratt. Here he worked for small 
wages at first, but being an industrious and observant man, in 
whom his employers soon learned to confide, they kept promoting 
him in the business until he reached the position of foreman or 
superintendent. He gave himself up to his business, making 
economy and improvement his chief study, leaving himself no 
time for anything outside of it. Every day and evening he 
could be found at his post watching the process of fermentation, 
evaporation and condensation, the changing of molasses into 
spirits, or overseeing the preparation of packages for shipment for 
market. So closely did he confine himself that his health became 
impaired, and with a constant asthmatic tendency, he was an 
invalid for years; but he kept on his course until his pecuniary 
growth was an assured fact, and he was looked upon as a rich 
man. 

While attending to his regular duties, he discovered that car- 
bonic acid gas, as it escaped from the fermentation of molasses, 
would convert pearl-ash into saleratus and he obtained permis- 
sion to place boxes of pearl-ash over the vats in the distillery for 
this purpose. The foundation of his fortune was now made. 
Out of this business his gains were sufficient to purchase the dis- 
tillery, and he entered into partnership with Mr. Addison Gil- 
more, and carried on the distillery in conjunction with making 
saleratus. The business continued for a long period and they 
took their places among business men of high rating and large 
means. 

Mr. Foss purchased a fine residence on Chelsea Street, Charles- 
town, which is still standing. He also erected a brick building 
with a hall named by him, "Constitutional Liberty Hall." Mr. 
Foss was a Democrat, but never a zealous partisan. He believed 
in the American form of government and the ability of the people 
to carry it on. 

He was an intense admirer of Andrew Jackson as a soldier and 
a statesman. Constitutional liberty was another of his settled 



316 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

convictions, which accounts for the name given his hall. He was 
a great admirer, too, of Daniel Webster; and the character of 
Washington was to him the very foundation on which our repub- 
lic was built. 

He was a large contributor to the fund for the purchase of the 
paintings of Webster and Washington; and that of Jackson was 
almost wholly at his own expense. The pictures hang in the old 
city hall in Charlestown. 

Mr. Foss was a lover of his country and a true patriot. When 
the war with Mexico broke out a regiment of 770 men was raised 
in Massachusetts, having one company from Charlestown. A 
meeting was called for the purpose of raising $1,500 in aid of the 
families of the enlisted men; but the meeting was called in an 
illegal way and the town treasurer refused to pay the amount. 
Meanwhile the money was needed, as the company was nearly 
ready to be mustered into the service. In this emergency Mr. 
Foss came forward and advanced the amount ; so the necessary 
funds were provided. 

On the opening of the Civil War in 1861, when the city guards 
and artillery were ordered to the national capital, a public meeting 
was held in the city hall, April 17, 1861, and a committee chosen 
to see that the company from Charlestown was provided with 
all necessary supplies, and to make provision for the care and 
comfort of their families. Mr. Foss was chosen a member of 
this committee, but his health was such that he could not 
actively engage in the work, but he acknowledged the honor of 
the position and his appreciation of its meaning in a letter as 
follows: 

"Charlestown, April 22, 1861. 

"Gentlemen: — Having been chosen by the citizens of Charles- 
town at the mass meeting held in the City Hall on the 17th inst. 
one of the committee to aid the Charlestown military, it is impos- 
sible for me, on account of my feeble health to attend personally 
to the details of the service required in this crisis, which is the 
noblest work for all loyal citizens. I have this day deposited in 
the Bunker Hill Bank in this city $3,000 (a certificate of which I 
enclose) to be at the disposal of the committee, for them to draw 
and disburse without recourse to me." 

In his will were the following bequests: 



SKETCHES OF CORNISH MEN. 317 

$2,000, the income to be expended towards celebrating the anni- 
versary of the battle of Bunker Hill, either by ringing the bells, 
firing salutes, music, or decorating the streets. 

$2,000, the income to be expended in the purchase of United States 
flags for the use of the city of Charlestown on all occasions. 

$2,000 to the poor fund, the income to be expended for the worthy 
poor of Charlestown. 

$2,000 to Tufts College. 

$1,000 to Cornish, his native town, the income to be expended for 
the purchase of United States flags ; and 

$2,000, the income to be expended for the benefit of the worthy 
poor in said town. 

These legacies to Cornish were received September 14, 1866. 
Their sum of $3,000, less the revenue tax of $180, leaving $2,820. 

Mr. Foss' whole estate was appraised at about $350,000. 

He. died in Charlestown, Mass., June 2, 1866. His remains 
were carried to the cemetery with the old flag, which he loved so 
well, wrapped about his casket. 

ANDREW JACKSON HOOK. 

Andrew Jackson Hook, only son of Moody and Eliza (Carroll) 
Hook, was born December 7, 1864, on the old farm which his 
father occupied for over sixty years, now included in "Corbin's 
Park" in the eastern part of Cornish, N. H., where the first nineteen 
years of his life were spent in caring for his aged parents, and 
obtaining what education he could get in the old No. 8 school- 
house. On leaving the farm he attended business college in 
Manchester, N. H., from which he was graduated in the spring 
of 1885. He at once entered the employ of A. C. Carroll & Son, 
general merchants of Warner, N. H. This position he held six 
years; resigning this, he leased and managed the Kearsarge Hotel 
in Warner for one year, after which he conducted a retail 
grain business for about seven years when his health failed and 
he was compelled to retire from active labor for a time. In 1898, 
he was appointed postmaster of Warner, which position he has 
held by numerous reappointments until the present time. 

In 1898 he was also appointed railway mail clerk, but was 
obliged to decline the same on account of his post-office duties. 
He has filled many positions of trust, having been elected select- 
man, high school committee, town clerk and for the past fourteen 



318 



HISTORY OF CORNISH. 



years has been treasurer of the town of Warner, also has been 
clerk and treasurer of the Warner Village Fire District and of the 
Kearsarge Creamery Association ever since their organization, 
and is a trustee of the Sugar River Savings Bank at Newport, 
N, H. Notwithstanding his numerous duties he has found time 
to settle many estates in probate court, and has done considerable 




Andrew J. Hook. 

business in lumber and real estate, now owning about 1 ,300 acres 
of timber lands. He has also built up an insurance business in 
and around Warner, until he now has one of the best country 
agencies in the state. Being musically inclined he has been at 
the head of one of the church choirs in Warner for the past 
twenty-one years. He is a Granger, and has received all the 
degrees in Free Masonry from the first to the thirty-second, 
inclusive, having held office in most of the bodies including 



SKETCHES OF CORNISH MEN. 319 

that of Master of Harris Lodge, No. 91, and is a member of the 
Order of the Mystic Shrine, one who appreciates the true prin- 
ciples of Free Masonry. He married November 17, 1888, Florence 
B. Colby of Warner who was a cousin of ex-Governor Harriman 
of New Hampshire. They have no children. 

ERI HUGGINS, JR. 

Eri Huggins was the youngest son of Eri 4 Huggins and was 
born February 14, 1848. When the Civil War broke out, his 
father and two older brothers at once gave themselves to the serv- 
ice of their country. This, doubtless, inspired the youngest of 
the family to do in like manner. So he, then but fourteen years 
of age, went to Alexandria, Va., where on April 1, 1862, he 
enlisted with his father and brothers and other relatives, in the 
famous "Iron Brigade" from Wisconsin, which is said to have 
lost the largest per cent, of any brigade in the Northern Army. 
He enlisted as a private and carried a musket until he was 
appointed assistant commissary of his regiment. This position 
he held nine months. He was in all the battles, some twenty in 
number, in which the brigade was engaged, including the battles 
before Petersburg and Richmond, and at Appomattox when 
General Lee surrendered. In all this service he escaped serious 
injury and received his discharge April 24, 1865. 

It may not be out of place to here notice a fact in the history 
of his father's family. The cases are few where the love of country 
is so strong that it could not only induce a father to enlist, but 
that he should be followed by every one of his sons. Such was the 
case her9. In the great struggle for national life, these four noble 
men, a father and three sons, pledged their all to the success of 
the Union cause. The father alone yielded his life, but the sons 
were all permitted to live and enjoy, at least for a time, the 
fruition of peace. Well may Cornish be proud of such a record of 
her sons. 

The war being over, Mr. Huggins traveled for wholesale 
houses for several years, and finally in 1886 located at Fort 
Bragg, Cal., which has since been his residence. Here he has been 
superintendent of the supply and mercantile department of the 
"Redwood Company," the largest milling company on the 
Pacific Coast. During these years he has also held the following 
offices: Agent for Wells Fargo Express Company; president of 
Board of Education; city treasurer; president of Board of City 



320 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Trustees arid also of the People's Building and Loan Association; 
postmaster, auctioneer, etc. He was married January 27, 188S, 
to Miss Harriet R. Wilson of Ticonderoga, N. Y. They have no 
children. 

Mr. Huggins is still in the prime of life with a commanding 
personality and hosts of admiring friends, who are proud of his 
record. 

JOHN C. HUGGINS. 

John C. Huggins was the oldest son of Eri Huggins. 4 He was 
born in Cornish, March 3, 1840. He early sought to try his for- 
tune in life by himself, so at fourteen years of age he left the 
parental roof and went to West Acton, Mass., where relatives 
were residing and afterwards to Petersburg, 111., where an uncle 
of his had resided since 1849. Here he completed his education 
and went to Racine, Wis., and engaged in teaching. This he 
followed until the opening of the Civil War when, at twenty-one 
years of age, he enlisted in the Second Wisconsin Regiment, 
which formed a part of the famous "Iron Brigade," which ren- 
dered such distinguished services during the war. Here he was 
promoted, first as private commissary and afterwards as colonel 
on General Fairchild's staff. While here he was joined by his 
youngest brother, Eri, his "pet," then but fourteen years of age. 
They passed through the war together and both came out un- 
harmed, although they passed through many hard-fought and 
bloody battles. 

After the war was over, he engaged in mercantile business in 
St. Louis and Chicago for a few years. 

After this he returned to Racine, where he united with the 
"Fish Brothers" in establishing a large carriage manufactory, in 
which business he continued several years. Here he was an active 
citizen, holding many offices of trust and honor. But for a time 
he was induced to change his business for a more lucrative one. 
He engaged with other capitalists in the lumber business on the 
Pacific Coast with headquarters at San Francisco and Fort 
Bragg, Cal., with his family residing at Oakland, Cal. In this 
enterprise, too, he was successful. 

After he left Racine, Wis., it appears that the carriage manu- 
factory there suffered a financial depression, and he was induced 
to return for a time (leaving his family still in Oakland) that he 
might rehabilitate the manufactory and put it again in a prosper- 



SKETCHES OF CORNISH MEN. 321 

ous condition. He had nearly accomplished his purpose, when he 
was attacked by la grippe, and after a relapse, superinduced 
by overwork and exposure, he returned to his family in Oakland, 
shattered in body and mind, and died December 19, 1892. 

Mr. Huggins' life was a busy and active one. Possessed of 
superior ability and character, he was the most genial of asso- 
ciates and truest of friends. He inherited from a long line of 
uncorrupted ancestry all those virtues, inborn courage, unfailing 
hope, and manly aspirations that have individualized the genuine 
New Englander in every part of the world. 

In 1870 he married Eva J. Bowers. 

PHILANDER CHASE HUGGINS. 

Philander Chase Huggins was born in Cornish, February 28, 
1814. At the tender age of fourteen, his father died, thus leaving 
him to work out his own fortune. He had received only a com- 
mon school education, but the school of hard experiences to which 
he was called afforded him an equipment such as no university 
can confer, and he became an accomplished man of affairs. 

Soon after the death of his father in 1828, he entered the store 
of Newton Whittlesey on Cornish Flat, where as a faithful and 
efficient clerk, he served several years. 

In 1837 he resolved to try his fortune in the then "far West," 
so he left Cornish and was one of the early pioneers of the State 
of Illinois. He first settled in Woodburn, where he opened a 
store. Here he remained until 1840, when he removed to Bunker 
Hill, 111. Just previous to this he made a visit to his native town, 
and on his return he took with him a bride, Mary L. Whittlesey, 
daughter of his former employer. They were married November 
18, 1839. She was born June 7, 1801, and died November 
11, 1845. They had no children. His second marriage, which 
occurred November 6, 1846, was to Mrs. Elizabeth F. Knowlton 
of Bunker Hill, who was born in Ashford, Conn., March 13, 1817, 
and who survived him, dying May 17, 1903. They had seven 
children, the first five dying in infancy; the next, a daughter, 
Mary E., born December 24, 1857, who married Henry B. Davis, 
attorney-at-law in St. Louis, Mo.; the other, a son, Frank E., born 
July 11, 1860, now (1905) a wholesale shoe dealer in Columbus, 
Ohio. 

On removing to Bunker Hill, Mr. Huggins opened a general 
store which was a great accommodation to the people as well as 

22 



322 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

profit to himself, it being the only store in the place. He became 
postmaster, and also engaged in various manufacturing interests; 
built and operated the first flouring mill there, also a castor oil 
mill. 

In 1852 the Alton and Terra Haute Railroad was projected, 
and Mr. Huggins, through great effort, was successful in securing 
Bunker Hill as one of the stations on the road in spite of great 
opposition by rival neighborhoods. This accomplished, it opened 
a prosperous career for the place. In like manner, Mr. Huggins 
was ever a prime mover in every public enterprise that contrib- 
uted to the welfare and prosperity of his adopted township. The 
academy, the Congregational Church, the church of his choice 
and devotion, with all its fine improvements, Bunker Hill Bank, 
the cemetery with its beautiful soldiers' monument, and the 
public library, all owe their establishment to him in no small 
degree. He was also an honored Mason and Odd Fellow and 
member of the local lodges. In politics, he was originally a Whig, 
while his township was largely Democratic. His personal popu- 
larity so reduced the Democratic majority of 900, that he lacked 
but a few votes of an election twice to the state Legislature. 
When the great Free Soil agitation arose, he became a Republican 
to which party he adhered until his death. Whenever he was a 
candidate for office, he received a large part of the opposition 
vote. 

In 1869 he was nominated for, and elected as county judge. 
Here, as in other responsible positions he displayed that tact and 
fidelity to true principle so characteristic of the man. 

In 1879 he was elected supervisor of his township, and at the 
time of his death, January 16, 1892, he was police magistrate of 
the city, having accepted the position through the earnest solici- 
tations of his many friends, in spite of his own personal objection. 
A few years before his death, he received a severe hip injury which 
obliged him to relinquish active labor, much to his distaste, and 
accept a more quiet indoor occupation. 

The life of Judge Huggins was a beautiful one. Truly it was 
an object lesson which many a young man might study and imi- 
tate with profit. His biographer says of him, that, "in every 
relation of life he was as nearly the perfect man as we ever see 
in the human. As a husband and father he was the personifica- 
tion of affection and devotion. As a citizen, neighbor and friend 




HON. SAMUEL L. POWERS. 



SKETCHES OF CORNISH MEN. 323 

he was self-sacrificing and sympathetic, ever giving his best efforts 
in behalf of the community and those appealing to him for aid. 
As a companion he was cheery and helpful. His well-trained 
mind, his wide knowledge of men and events, made him a most 
entertaining and instructive conversationalist and wise adviser. 
To his foresight and judgment are due, not only the private for- 
tunes of many who sought his counsel, but the present existence 
of interests upon which depend in great measure the prosperity 
of his own, and other towns of the county. Indeed his influence 
did not cease here, but it may be said he stood side by side with 
the foremost men of the state in zealous and intelligent effort 
in aiding its development. " 

SAMUEL LELAND POWERS. 

Samuel Leland Powers was born at Cornish, October 26, 1848; 
prepared for college at Kimball Union and Phillips Exeter Acad- 
emies ;' graduated from Dartmouth College in the class of 1874; 
studied law at Nashua, N. H., at the Law School of the University 
of the City of New York, at Worcester, Mass., and was admitted 
to the Massachusetts Bar in November, 1875; has since been 
admitted to practice in the federal courts, courts of the District 
of Columbia, and the Supreme Court of the United States. He 
became a resident of the City of Newton, Mass., in 1882, where 
he has since resided; has been a member of both branches of the 
municipal government, and of the school board of that city, 
being president of the city council in 1883 and 1884; was elected 
to Congress from the Eleventh Massachusetts District in 1900, 
and reelected in 1902, declining the nomination in 1904. While 
in Congress he was a member of the committees on judiciary, 
District of Columbia, and elections, and was also a member of 
the special committee of five appointed by the speaker in 1903 
to draw the Anti-Trust Bill, which passed the Fifty-eighth Con- 
gress. In 1903 he was elected by the House of Representatives 
as one of its managers to prosecute the Swayne impeachment 
trial before the United States Senate. He had charge of Presi- 
dent Taft's canvass in Massachusetts for his nomination to the 
presidency in 1908. In 1910 President Taft appointed him a 
justice of the Customs Court of Appeal of the United States, 
which he declined. 

Mr. Powers is a member of many of the leading clubs in Massa- 



324 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

chusetts. He is president of the Middlesex Club, vice-president 
of the University Club and the Newton Club. While living in 
Washington he was president of the famous Tantalus Club of 
that city. 

He is senior member of the law firm of Powers & Hall, one of 
the large and active legal firms of Boston, which is prominently 
identified with corporations engaged in electrical development. 
The firm is counsel for the telephone interests in New England, 
and formerly represented large street railway interests in Massa- 
chusetts, Mr. Powers at one time being president of no less than 
eight street railway companies. In 1905 he was elected a life 
trustee of Dartmouth College, and has always taken a deep in- 
terest in educational matters. He was married in 1878 to Eva 
Crowell, and they have one son, Leland, who was born in 1890, 
and graduated with honors from Dartmouth in the class of 1910. 
He is at present pursuing a post-graduate course for Master of 
Arts degree, and is going to Harvard Law School the coming year. 

DAVID SIDNEY RICHARDSON. 

David Sidney Richardson was born in Cornish, September 1, 
1821. He early manifested a strong love for literary pursuits. 
Nature seemed to have paved the way and implanted in him a 
strong desire to obtain an education, not exclusively for himself 
but that he might thereby become a blessing to others by becom- 
ing an instructor of youth. This ambition became his ruling 
passion — the high calling towards which all his youthful energies 
were directed. He early sought the means of preparation for 
his life work by attending the academies of Kimball Union, New 
Hampton, and finally, Dartmouth College from which he after- 
wards received honorary degrees. He left the college in the 
midst of his course that he might engage in teaching. From this 
time forth to the end of a protracted life he followed it as his life 
work. 

It is said that he founded six academies in New Hampshire 
and North Carolina. At Franklinton, N. C, he founded a 
flourishing institute of which he was the principal for several years. 
Here he established the North Carolina Journal of Education 
and edited it several years. 

While here, he married on January 1, 1851, Mary Cleora Stone, 
a gifted teacher of similar aims and experience, who was also a na- 
tive of Cornish. The union proved a happy one in every respect. 



SKETCHES OF CORNISH MEN. 



325 



His former prosperity and influence thus augmented, brought 
increased prosperity to the institute which continued until the 
opening of the Civil War. This had a disastrous effect upon the 
school. The young men of the school were all conscripted into 
the Confederate Army and himself among the rest. The school 
buildings were converted into a hospital. The academy never 
recovered from this misfortune. 




^ f^7 j. 





Prof. D. S. Richardson. 



Mrs. Mary C. Richardson. 



He soon after left Franklinton for Mobile, Alabama, where 
he opened a military academy, and continued in charge of it 
fifteen years. 

In 1884, he removed to California and became professor of 
ancient classics in McClare's Military Academy at Oakland. 
He remained thus connected with this institution several years, 
until age and failing health induced him to relinquish all further 
public effort as an instructor. 

Still retaining his love for teaching, he, in his own private home 



326 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

in Oakland, continued to instruct a choice few who earnestly- 
sought his tutelage. 

In 1903, being eighty-two years of age, he bade a final farewell 
to his life-long profession, and retired to San Jose, the "Garden 
City," where, in the home of his only son, he died April 7, 1905. 

In many respects Mr. Richardson was a remarkable man. 
The sprightliness and vivacity of childhood and youth never 
seemed to leave him. He was mirthful, optimistic, versatile, 
and withal was possessed of a very tender and affectionate nature. 
He was also resourceful, having at hand an almost limitless fund 
of information and anecdote. Therefore, as a conversationalist 
he greatly excelled. These beautiful characteristics rendered him 
a magnet that won many friends in every community. It was 
the writer's privilege to know, and in some degree to associate 
with the subject of this sketch, and he can cheerfully inscribe 
this brief tribute to his memory. 

MARY CLEORA (STONE) RICHARDSON. 

The excellent models of female character which Cornish has 
produced have been many. It is not possible to tell the whole 
story of the scores and hundreds of the worthy, faithful and self- 
sacrificing women who have become the "mothers of men." 
The pen of the recording angel alone can render them the justice 
and honor they deserve. Hidden away from the rude observa- 
tion of the world, have these performed their high and holy mis- 
sion and the world has received the benefit of their toil. 

A beautiful exemplification of this is found in the life record 
of Mrs. Richardson. Hers was a life ennobled by useful work, 
sanctified by suffering and self-sacrifice, and crowned by the 
love and veneration of all who knew her. 

She was born in Cornish, December 23, 1827, the daughter of 
Capt. Josiah and Experience (Stevens) Stone. This household 
was one of mutual love and good- will. Piety was its ruling note, 
while its other distinguishing characteristics were intelligence, 
refinement and activity. Under such influences as these a family 
of seven children were reared to go out into the world to fill places 
of trust and usefulness. 

She early professed the religion of her fathers and became a 
consistent member of the Congregational Church. At fourteen 
years of age she taught her first public school, wherein she mani- 



SKETCHES OF CORNISH MEN. 327 

fested such aptitude for the work as gave abundant promise 
of brilliant success as a teacher in after years. 

She obtained her education from New Hampton and Kimball 
Union Academies, and the Washington Female Seminary near 
Pittsburg, Pa. Near the close of her course in the last-named 
institution, while valedictory honors were surely awaiting her, 
she accepted a position as teacher in Ray's Academy at Louisburg, 
N. C. At this time, 184(3, the schools of the South were few 
and inefficient, presenting an inviting field for teachers from the 
New England States, many of whom there found their life work. 
As yet, the bitter sectional animosities had not made their appear- 
ance, and teachers from the North were welcomed and treated 
with every respect and consideration. Her acceptance of the 
position in Louisburg marked the opening of a career which cov- 
ered her best years. All unconsciously to herself the gates were 
opening upon the theater of her life work. Here came love, joy, 
and suffering, Upon this chosen field of duty she was destined 
to experience all of Life's bitter sweet, its shade and sunshine, and 
finally to emerge, chastened and ennobled, the perfect fulfillment 
of the promise of her youth. 

At Louisburg her reputation was soon established among pupils 
and parents; but near the close of the second year, owing to im- 
paired health, she was compelled to resign her charge and return 
North. Soon after, she returned to North Carolina and opened a 
select family school in Bedford, about twelve miles from Louisburg. 
From the start it was a pronounced success. Such devotion as 
existed between teacher and pupils is seldom seen. Her whole 
heart went into the work, and the result could not be other than 
one of love and progress. 

It was while engaged in this school that she made the acquaint- 
ance of David Sidney Richardson, her future husband. Although 
both came from Cornish, they had no previous acquaintance. 
He, too, had sought the South as a fitting field for the exercise of 
his chosen profession of teacher and educator. The acquaintance 
grew to friendship and from friendship to love. They were mar- 
ried January 1, 1851. The union thus formed was destined to 
endure for over half a century. Henceforth their lives became 
one in every purpose, sympathy and aim, and hand in hand 
they went down the years together, mutually comforted and sus- 
tained by the faith and trust of perfect union. The life of this 



328 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

gifted, devoted woman, and that of her husband sounds like a 
romance of more than ordinary interest. The founding and estab- 
lishing of academies at Cedar Rock, Franklinton and Wilson, 
N.C., and the marvelous success attending each, proved the beau- 
tiful realization of their youthful dreams. 

But this good fortune could not always remain unalloyed. 
Trials must come. The loss of three little children brought 
sorrow to the mother heart. A sister and co-worker in their 
academy also sickened and died. Then came the dark and 
stormy days of the Civil War when they saw the institution 
which they had so laboriously built up, engulfed and over- 
whelmed in the turmoils and passions of that fearful strife. 
From beginning to end, they saw it all. Their institution was 
converted into a soldiers' hospital, and Mrs. Richardson became 
the ministering angel to relieve suffering and to tender comfort 
and sympathy to all about her. 

While the deep convictions of her early Northern training still 
existed, yet it did not impair the love and confidence of those to 
whom she ministered. No bitterness of sectional hatred could 
exist in her soulful presence, and when distress and ruin was every- 
where, it was impossible for a soul like hers to fail in sympathy. 
The war at last came to an end. It was not possible to maintain 
their loved institution amid the wreck and chaos of war and 
reconstruction. Their fortune was gone; patrons were dead; 
accounts could not be collected. The furnishings of the acad- 
emy with libraries and musical instruments went for nothing. 
The people were bankrupt, they could not pay, and their labors 
as educators at Wilson were abandoned. But there yet remained 
with them the love for the school room. 

At Mobile, Ala., in 1868, Mrs. Richardson opened her 
"School of Fine Arts," while her husband established his "Mo- 
bile Military Academy. " Both of these enterprises were success- 
ful from the start and during a period of fifteen years. Here Mrs. 
Richardson turned her attention exclusively to art, although her 
talent as a painter had long been recognized. The best talent of 
the time became interested in her work and her studio was 
crowded with pupils. Among these were Amelie Rives, since 
Princess Troubetskoy and Robert McKenzie and many others. 
The masterpieces, the results of her genius, were many. Thus, 



SKETCHES OF CORNISH MEN. 329 

in the center of a constantly growing circle of devoted pupils and 
friends, the years went by. 

In 1883, needing rest and change, they decided to go to Califor- 
nia which ever after became their home. They located in the city 
of Oakland. For a time she reopened her studio and continued 
her art work with marked success, but advancing age and failing 
health compelled her to stop. Her art receptions were discontin- 
ued, and the number of pupils limited. 

A son, Frank Harper Richardson, born August 11, 1867, 
their only living child, had married in 1890 and a few years later 
became a widower with three helpless children, little girls, from 
two to five years of age. Mrs. Richardson, the grandmother, 
now nearly seventy years of age, with true heroism assumed the 
care of these helpless orphans and took the mother's place. Only 
a mother can know what that means. The burden thus self- 
imposed she was destined to carry to the end. How bravely and 
tenderly she did it needs no laudation here. 

One further change of home before the end. In 1903 their son 
Frank, who had now become the stay and support of his aged 
parents, and whose business was in San Jose, desired to make that 
city the parental home. To Mrs. Richardson the mere wish of 
her idolized son was sufficient for any sacrifice. So the home in 
Oakland was disposed of, and their goods transferred to a beautiful 
residence in the "Garden City." Her stay here, however, was 
brief and transient, from November, 1903, to the afternoon of 
July 3, 1904, when the light faded out of those tired eyes, and 
her beautiful spirit found its release. Her remains rest in Cypress 
Lawn Cemetery, a beautiful spot overlooking the sunset sea, 
but her noblest monument is in the hearts of the many who knew 
and loved her. 

Mr. Richardson, too, was a beautiful character, a fitting com- 
panion for the subject of this sketch. He was ever optimistic 
and mirthful under all the severe trials of his life, unless we except 
the last one — the loss of his beloved companion. For her he truly 
and sadly mourned, but not for long. On the seventh of April, 
1905, he passed away. His last words were of Cleora, and he 
passionately kissed her portrait until he breathed his last. He 
was buried by her side in Cypress Lawn Cemetery. 



330 



HISTORY OF CORNISH. 



REV. JOSEPH ROWELL. 

Rev. Joseph Rowell was the fifth son of the senior Rev. Joseph 
Rowell and was born in Cornish, April 22, 1820. He fitted for 
college at Kimball Union Academy, class 1844. He graduated 
at Yale College in 1848 and Union Theological Seminary in 1851. 
He chose the profession of his father, and like him became a bold 



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Rev. Joseph Rowell. 



and fearless preacher. Choosing the world at large as his field of 
labor, his tendencies were to mission fields abroad rather than to 
domestic pastoral labor. He was employed several years at Pan- 
ama and New Grenada, S. A., as missionary. In 1858 he organized 
the "Mariners' Church" in San Francisco. This has seemed to 
be the chosen field for his life work, a noble work instituted and 



SKETCHES OF CORNISH MEN. 331 

maintained in the interests of mariners, a class whose spiritual 
needs are much too often neglected. He has continued his 
connection as chaplain of this church in the "Golden Gate" 
ever since. The fruit of his labors there has been rich and 
abundant. 

Record has been kept of the converts made through his efforts 
in the Mariners' Church since his connection with it, and they 
reach the total of 5,700 souls. With good reason it is said that 
Chaplain Rowell has been remembered in prayer in every part of 
the globe, for his converts have entered every port in both hemi- 
spheres. Like "Father Taylor" of Boston, he has been called 
the "Sailors' Friend." 

He is still a man of remarkable physical and mental vigor, 
being at this writing (1909) in his ninetieth year. Seldom has 
man been so well preserved in all his faculties as has Mr. Rowell. 
His has been a robust, strenuous, active, as well as a useful life. 
In order to give the reader a better idea of Rev. Joseph Rowell, 
we append a characteristic letter written by him to the writer 
a year since, in reply to an invitation for him to attend the annual 
meeting of the aged people of Cornish in 1908. We give the 
letter entire: 

San Francisco, 7-23-08. 
Dear Bro. Child: 

Your invitation to attend the " Old People's Association " annual 
meeting is before me. I had thought it quite possible that I 
might be at the meeting this year, as I have been very near you 
this last spring. I have returned from a trip to the Mediterranean 
Sea, and particularly the Holy Land, where I traveled the paths 
which Jesus used, visited his birth-place and the scenes of his 
miracles, his death, and burial place, his resurrection and ascen- 
sion — the joy and privilege of my life. I suppose that I am the 
oldest person that ever made this trip; but I bore the fatigue and 
trial better than many who were younger than myself; indeed, 
it was commonly said of me: "He keeps at the head of all explor- 
ing parties," and not seldom: "He is the youngest man aboard 
the ship!" 

I traveled 15,000 miles or more and did not miss a meal on the 
whole trip. I was a pretty good specimen of Cornish vigor, 
and in this way, did you all credit. I should be glad to be with 
you, though there are so few eyes there now that ever saw me, 



332 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

and nearly all my old friends have gone over the river. The 
Book speaks of "the things that remain," — Yes, the things re- 
main — the hills and valleys, and even the old houses, but the 
people, where are they? 

Possibly I may visit the dear old town again — God knows. 
But I shall certainly see the old faces again, "over Jordan." 

Kindest regards to all. T _ 

JOSEPH KOWELL. 

AUGUSTUS SAINT-GAUDENS. 

Augustus Saint-Gaudens, the celebrated sculptor, was born 
in Dublin, Ireland, his father being a southern Frenchman and 
his mother an Irishwoman, but was brought to America when 
six months old, and his childhood and youth were passed in New 
York City. He attended the public schools until his thirteenth 
year when he was apprenticed to a cameo cutter. The trade was 
a fortunate choice for one destined to future mastery of work in 
low relief, and he exercised it for his support during his student 
years in Europe. He went to Paris to study sculpture in 1867, 
and entered the studio of Jouffroy in 1868. In 1870 he went to 
Rome and remained there about three years. He returned to 
New York in 1872 and opened his studio there. He married 
Augusta F. Homer in 1877, and returned to Paris in 1878 to 
execute there the statue of Farragut, the earliest of his important 
works, which was exhibited in plaster at the Salon of 1880. Its 
success was immediate and conclusive. A great career was begun, 
and from that time he moved forward from triumph to triumph 
until he was universally recognized as not only the greatest 
sculptor of America, but the foremost of American artists and one 
of the first artists of his time in any country. The esteem in 
which he was held by his fellow artists was perhaps most clearly 
shown when, at the Pan-American Exposition held in Buffalo in 
1901, he was, on the unanimous recommendation of the jury of 
fine arts, composed of architects, sculptors and painters, awarded 
a special medal of honor " apart from and above all other awards." 

His connection with the town of Cornish came about through 
his friendship with the late C. C. Beaman, from whom he pur- 
chased in 1885 the old brick house then known as "Huggin's 
Folly," and the land about it, and gradually transformed it into 
his beautiful home of "Aspet." At first it was a summer residence 
only, but when he went abroad again in 1897 to execute the great 




AUGUSTUS ST. GAUDENS 



SKETCHES OF CORNISH MEN. 333 

equestrian statue of General Sherman, which is perhaps his 
masterpiece, Saint-Gaudens gave up his New York abode, and on 
returning to America in 1900 he made "Aspet" his permanent resi- 
dence the year around. The final work on the Sherman statue 
was done here, and all his subsequent work was carried on from 
sketch to completed model in the two studios which he erected. 
The larger studio was destroyed by fire in 1904, when much of his 
work then under way was lost, as well as some souvenirs of other 
artists, including two portraits of himself, one by Bastien-Lepage 
and the other by Kenyon Cox, — the only portraits painted of 
him in his prime. The studio was rebuilt in more permanent 
form and the lost work re-begun, and in that studio his assistants 
are still busy (1907) reverently completing the work left unfin- 
ished at the time of his death. 

Other artists were brought to Cornish by the attraction of 
Saint-Gaudens's presence, as well as by that of its beautiful 
scenery and fine air, and by degrees the artistic and literary 
colony was formed which has gradually spread over a part of the 
neighboring town of Plainfield. Its members looked upon Saint- 
Gaudens not only as a great artist and a beloved friend, but as the 
founder of the colony, and on June 23, 1905, celebrated the 
twentieth anniversary of his coming to Cornish by that fete and 
open air play, given upon the grounds of "Aspet," which has al- 
ready become almost legendary and which the sculptor himself has 
immortalized by the creation of a charming plaquette which he 
presented to all who took part on the occasion. The altar, under 
its columned canopy, which was the background of the play, still 
stands in a recess of the pine groves of "Aspet," though much 
dilapidated by weather. To many friends of Saint-Gaudens it 
has seemed that no more fitting memorial could be erected to his 
memory than a reproduction of it in permanent material and 
suitably inscribed. 

The artist had returned from Paris in 1900 an ill man, and 
from that illness he never recovered. At times he seemed again 
fairly vigorous, and he was able, with the assistance of a corps 
of devoted assistants, to do much valuable work. Upon their aid 
he became, however, more and more dependent as time went on. 
In the summer of 1906 his illness took so grave a form that work 
was altogether suspended and he ceased to see even his intimate 
friends. From that attack he rallied somewhat, but he was 
greatly altered. The end came on August 3, 1907. According to 



334 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

his wish his body was cremated, and his ashes are deposited in the 
cemetery at Windsor, Vt. An informal service was held at his 
studio on August 7 in the presence of friends and neigh- 
bors, but of only a few of his many friends in other parts of the 
world. 

As a man Augustus Saint-Gaudens combined great energy 
and power of will with a singular patience and a natural gentle- 
ness and sweetness that made him greatly loved by those who 
knew him, and most loved by those who knew him best. As an 
artist his leading characteristics were mastery of design and great 
decorative feeling combined with exquisiteness of workman- 
ship, as shown in the many works he executed in low relief- 
works unsurpassed in this kind since the Florentine Renaissance; 
a profound insight into human character as shown in many of 
these reliefs and in his great portrait statues such as the Farragut, 
the Lincoln and the Sherman and that ideal portrait, as real as 
any of them, the Deacon Chapin; a creative imagination as shown 
in such typical figures as the "Angel of Death" in the Shaw Memo- 
rial, the "Victory" of the Sherman group, above all, the brooding 
figure of the Adams Memorial — an imagination which gives these 
figures a strange individuality and raises them out of the rank of 
conventional allegories into that of original inventions. He was 
less interested in the problem of the expressive modelling of the 
human figure and cared little for the study of the nude, but his 
work steadily advanced in mastery of the purely sculpturesque 
qualities of mass and movement until his greatest works are 
nearly as fine in these respects as in decorative beauty of com- 
position and imaginative beauty of conception. His great 
Sherman group is indubitably one of the half dozen finest eques- 
trian statues in the world. 

The fame of Saint-Gaudens belongs to America — his art to 
the world at large. To the town of Cornish it will be an abiding 
glory that it contains his chosen home. 

"In his life in Cornish, Saint-Gaudens drew around him many 
friends of artistic and literary repute, and his beautiful home, 
'Aspet,' with his numerous little studios has for many years 
been the Mecca of the world of sculpture in America, and that 
it should be there that the hand which touched the clay and 
marble into life became still, was the wish of Augustus Saint- 
Gaudens." 






SKETCHES OF CORNISH MEN. 335 

LOUIS SAINT-GAUDENS. 

Born on Lispenard Street, New York, January 7, 1854. Ran 
away from the public school at the age of thirteen. Served occa- 
sionally as apprentice until the age of eighteen, when he went to 
Italy, where he made a living setting cameos, a trade taught him 
by his brother. He lived in Rome three years, in this time he was 
seriously ill with pneumonia and later with Roman fever. He 
sometimes worked in the art classes of the French Academy at 
Rome. After this he went to France and studied art in Paris, 
then wandered through England or worked with his brother 
until he returned to America in 1880. He rented a studio in 
New York and did work for architects, including the "Piping 
Fun" ordered by Stanford White for the house of P. T. Barney, 
and the medallion portrait of Commodore De Kay. For ten 
years, from about 1883, he worked most of the time in his broth- 
er's studios, although part of the time upon his own orders. The 
"Angels of the Church of the Ascension" were modelled there. In 
a studio in Harlem he modelled a relief for the Union League Club 
and the lions for the Boston Library. 

In 1901 Mr. Saint-Gaudens came to Cornish where he worked 
in collaboration with his brother for two years. He then built a 
house and studio and modelled two of the statues for the new 
custom house in New York, "Prince Henry" and " Van Trump," 
and the portrait of Mr. Breierly. 

In 1905 he began the sculpture of the new union station in 
Washington, D. C, D. H. Bernham, architect. President Eliot 
of Harvard chose the subjects for the statues for the exterior 
decoration, "Fire," "Electricity," "Freedom," "Inventive Im- 
agination," "Ceres," "Archimedes." These statues are being cut 
on single stones of white Bethel granite at Northfield, by the 
Daniel Ellis Company. 

Mr. Saint-Gaudens is now modelling studies of three Roman 
soldiers, seven feet in height, which are to be reproduced for the 
forty-six statues which will decorate the waiting room of the 
station. College athletes have posed for most of the statues, 
which is a departure made because the college men more nearly 
approach the perfection of the antique statues. This work will 
be in place on the station about 1912. 

Mr. Saint-Gaudens has modelled these statues almost without 



336 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

assistance even with the manual labor and has dispensed with 
many of the ordinary mechanical helps and methods — and has 
made numberless sketches and changes to gain the classical ideal. 

ANNETTA JOHNSON SAINT-GAUDENS. 

Born in Flint, Ohio, September 11, 1869. Her ancestors were 
early pioneers to Ohio, from New England, Virginia and New 
Jersey. 

She was educated at home until the age of thirteen when she 
and her sisters attended private school. 

At thirteen she began modelling by herself in native clay and 
at the age of sixteen was sent to the Columbus Art School, where 
she studied for three years with Dora M. Norton, graduating 
from the school in 1888. After two years spent at home she went 
to the Art Students' League in New York, where she studied 
drawing with Troachtanam and modelling with Augustus Saint- 
Gaudens. She worked with Saint-Gaudens as student and assist- 
ant most of the time for five years, with the kindness of friends 
earning her own way much of that time, working on the statue 
of General Logan for one year and a half. She returned to Ohio, 
being worn out with the work in New York. In Ohio she modelled 
the bust of Professor Orton and President Canfield of the Ohio 
State University. In the summer of 1898 she returned to New 
York to model the portrait of Emerson MacMillin. 

In 1901 the family moved to Cornish, where they have lived, 
excepting two winters spent with her parents in Claremont, Cal. 

Mrs. Saint-Gaudens assisted her husband for several years, and 
for two years has been experimenting in cutting marble and 
modelling small statues, vases and portraits for terra cotta. 

DR. DAVID S. C. H. SMITH. 

David S. C. H. Smith was born in Cornish, June 27, 1797. He 
was educated at Dartmouth and Yale Colleges. His father, the 
renowned Dr. Nathan Smith, was connected with both of these 
institutions. Having chosen the medical profession for his life 
work, he went to Sutton, Mass., and commenced its prac- 
tice in 1819. There were already three other doctors there, all 
quite distinguished men in their profession. This circumstance 
made his place a hard one at the first for the young man. But his 
thorough training and the prestige of his father's fame, soon made 



SKETCHES OF CORNISH MEN. 337 

him the most popular physician in that part of the country. 
He was called in consultation by many of the doctors for miles 
around. He drove to Rhode Island almost every week for years 
and was frequently at Providence. 

He was a large man of fine personal appearance, had large 
piercing gray eyes and some of his patients thought he could 
look straight through them and tell exactly what ailed them; 
and, indeed, diagnosis was his forte. 

To understand the complicated and intricate mechanism of 
the human system requires great research, as well as intuitive 
genius, judgment and skill. All these Doctor Smith possessed in 
a remarkable degree. So when other physicians had a human 
machine on their hands that they could not keep going, they 
sent for him to find out what cog was broken, what pin loose, or 
what pulley disbanded. Some seemed to think that he could 
put in a new mainspring, wind up the system like a clock, give 
motion to the pendulum of life and restore a defunct body to 
animation, strength and vigor. He used to say that other doctors 
would send for him when they thought their patient was dying, 
and once in many cases, such a person would recover; then he 
got the credit of the case, giving him an increased reputation. He 
said he had no proof that he ever cured any one, though circum- 
stances sometimes seemed to indicate it, and that the recuperative 
power was more frequently due to the constitution and courage 
of the patient, than to the skill of the doctor. 

He was a great naturalist and seemed to know all about ani- 
mated nature. He was almost as intimately acquainted with 
the American birds as Audubon himself. He also gave much 
attention to entomology. His hat was frequently lined with 
insects which he had pinned there to be placed in his cabinet. 
He furnished Professor Harris several thousand specimens for 
his valuable work. He also gave a description of the reptiles of 
New England for President Hitchcock's great work. He trav- 
eled one year through the Western country that he might 
master the study of botany. So he became a great botanist and 
could classify and give the medical properties of nearly all the 
known plants that grow in this country. 

Like his father he was a great man, but never became rich; 
indeed, at one time he was quite poor and deeply in debt, and his 
creditors attached his horse, so that he had no way to visit his 

23 



338 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

patients, and he became discouraged. One day a man came for 
him to go to Thompson, Conn., but the doctor told him that he 
could not go as he had no horse. The man told him that he would 
take him there in his own carriage and bring him back. "Well, " 
said the doctor, "if you will do that I will go." So he went. 
"When he reached home the man asked him what was to pay. 
"Oh, nothing," said the doctor, "y° u have had trouble enough 
already." "But I am going to pay you for all that," and the 
man gave him a ten-dollar bill and left. The next day a man 
came for him to visit a poor family in the south part of the town. 
He said: " If they are poor I'll go, for I am poor myself. " When 
he reached the home he found they were poor indeed, and he 
said that starvation was all that ailed them; so he took out his 
ten-dollar bill and gave it to the poor woman to buy wholesome 
food for her sick children. It was all the money he had. He 
thought their rich neighbors could doctor that family as well as 
he could. 

During this season of financial embarrassment, Doctor Shat- 
tuck of Boston sent his son with a good horse as a present to 
Doctor Smith. Doctor Shattuck formerly was one of his father's 
students, and had a great regard for the family. Soon after 
this Mr. James Phelps volunteered to build him a house, telling 
him he could pay for it from his earnings in small installments 
as was most convenient. 

At one time he was quite skeptical, although his mother was a 
pious woman and read her Bible through in course as often as she 
could. When she died, her book-mark was at one of the Psalms. 
He had her Bible and sacredly kept the mark where she left it. 
So thinking of his good mother and her Bible, he learned to love 
it for her sake. This led to his conversion and he was made 
happy in his new-found hope. 

He was thrice married. His first wife, Lucy Hall of Sutton, 
Mass., whom he married July 26, 1820, was the mother of his 
five children. She died September 23, 1850. He left Sutton 
in 1848 and removed to Providence, R. I., where he died 
April 6, 1859. 

JOSIAH FRANKLIN STONE. 

Josiah Franklin Stone, the fourth son of Capt. Josiah and 
Experience (Stevens) Stone, was born in Cornish, October 16, 



SKETCHES OF CORNISH MEN. 339 

1822. He was educated at Kimball Union Academy and New 
Hampton Institute. At nineteen years of age he engaged in mer- 
cantile pursuits, first with his brother Samuel, and afterwards by 
himself. He married Malvina Clark of Sanbornton. His friends 
were numerous, his credit good, and his business flourishing, 
until his generous impulses overruled his better judgment and 
he signed papers for his friends, and all his earnings were swept 
away. After this misfortune he resorted to other occupations. 
He settled in Winchester, Mass., in 1850. His fellow towns- 
men, recognizing his sterling qualities and business abilities, 
thrust upon him every office of honor and trust within their 
gift — seven years as selectman, eight years assessor, trustee 
of savings bank, representative to state Legislature in 1879, 
where he was on the committee on banks and banking. He was 
justice of the peace for more than twenty-five years. He had 
a general charge of the public schools and settled many 
estates. In 1880 he was again chosen to the state Legislature 
where he was on the committee on railroads. During this 
session he was stricken with pneumonia and suddenly passed 
away, February 2, 1881. His biographer says of him: 

"There was silence in the street and overwhelming sorrow in 
every heart. It was like a loving father's death. It was there- 
fore fitting that at his funeral services, the governor of the state, 
committee from each branch of the Legislature, trustees of the 
bank, fellow-officials of every position should attend, and the 
flags to be at half-mast, and business places all closed. All 
classes felt they had lost a personal friend, a helper, whose sym- 
pathy and counsel had lifted them over many hard places, and 
on whom they had leaned with confidence. Rarely do we meet 
a man whose personality combines so much nobility and inspires 
so much confidence, and makes such strong impressions on a com- 
munity. All felt intuitively that behind the public man was 
character so sound that no temptations of designing, grasping, 
dishonest men could ever degrade it. 

It was in the family circle that his inner life of purity and 
beauty shone like Ben Adhem's " great awakening light," and 
happy was that favored guest, who by chance was sometimes pres- 
ent and participated in those private "feasts of reason and flow 
of soul": to grasp the strong warm hand and feel the glow of the 
Heaven-lit face and hear the jubilant greeting when the loving 



340 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

father of the devoted family circle was the "Presence in the room. " 
The writer was that favored guest and still lives (1903) and offers 
this feeble tribute to one of the truest friends he ever had on earth. 
The love between them was like the love of Damon and Pythias. 
And should Cornish ever erect a memorial shaft for those whom 
Cornish hath loved, or who loved Cornish, let the names of these 
two friends be graven side by side: Josiah Franklin Stone, David 
Sydney Richardson." 

GEORGE H. STOWELL. 

Among natives of Cornish, N. H., to achieve honor and suc- 
cess in after years, is George H. Stowell, son of Amasa Stowell. 
He was born October 28, 1835, and his boyhood days were passed 
on the home farm. He lived the rugged life of the times, with 
more work than play, assisting in the cultivation of the farm, and 
attending the public schools whenever opportunity afforded. Of 
hardy, persistent New England stock, the heritage of ancestry 
and the early training of a New Hampshire mountain farm had 
their influence in forming habits of thrift and industry that 
eventually placed Mr. Stowell's name prominent among the list 
of New Hampshire's public men. 

In March, 1860, ambitious promptings led him to give up farm- 
ing and he removed to Claremont, the town adjoining Cornish 
on the south, a prosperous and growing community offering 
inducements and possibilities that appealed to Mr. Stowell's 
instincts and temperament. 

His first venture was in the gravestone and marble manufactur- 
ing business, which he carried on successfully until 1864, when he 
purchased the hardware stock of Levi B. Brown. Mr. Stowell 
made no change in the location of the business, in the northwest 
corner store of Oscar J. Brown's brick block, and for thirty-seven 
years, or as long as he remained in business, he occupied this 
site. "Stowell's Corner" became a landmark; a synonym of busi- 
ness prosperity and a place of far-reaching influence in affairs of 
both town and state. 

The business grew until it became one of the best known hard- 
ware firms in New Hampshire. The stock was increased to cover 
a wide range of commodities, and when coal revolutionized the 
fuel business, the first car-load of anthracite coal for house use, 




GEO. H. STOWELL. 



SKETCHES OF CORNISH MEN. 341 

was brought to Claremont by Mr. Stowell. Eventually, coal be- 
came an extensive branch of his trade. 

Meantime, he was actively engaged in other occupations that 
called for executive power and careful financial management. 
To meet the demands of Claremont's growing population, tene- 
ment houses were needed, and Mr. Stowell was one of the pioneers 
in erecting a number of first-class structures for this purpose. And 
when, in 1887, the old wooden "Brown Block" on the corner oppo- 
site Mr. Stowell's store was destroyed by fire, he was the leader 
in organizing the syndicate that procured the site of the burned 
property, and built thereon Union Block, one of the finest and 
best appointed business blocks in the state. His last building 
venture of public consequence was in 1895, when he built 
"Stowell Block," a handsome, modern business structure on 
Pleasant Street. 

With multitudinous and increasing business cares, Mr. Stowell 
has neVer been too busy to neglect public affairs, in which he is 
prominently identified. His advice, influence, and sound con- 
servative judgment has contributed much to promote Clare- 
mont's importance as a town. His own business success, by his 
own efforts, made him a power in any enterprise where careful 
financial discrimination was needed. In return for these qualifi- 
cations his town has honored him in various ways as an able 
representative citizen. He was a member from Claremont in 
the New Hampshire Legislature in 1871 and 1874; a state senator 
in 1875 and 1876; member of the governor's council from 1881 to 
1883; aide, with rank of colonel, on Governor Prescott's staff 
from 1887 to 1889; member of the state constitutional conven- 
tions of 1876 and 1889 and a delegate to the Republican National 
Convention at Chicago in 1884. 

In 1888 he was in Europe several months on a pleasure trip, 
and to restore his health, which had partially failed. 

In town business his name is always found on important boards 
and committees, and with the exception of the year 1878, he 
served continuously from 1873 to 1894, as chief engineer of the 
local fire department. In this important public service he kept 
pace with larger towns in maintaining fire fighting facilities, and 
saw the department reorganized from hand tubs to modern steam 
equipment. 

Mr. Stowell sold out his hardware business in 1901, but is still 



342 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

a busy man of affairs, and occupied in the management of the 
People's National Bank, a sound financial institution which he 
helped organize and of which he is vice-president and a director. 
Not yet willing to retire from active business, he, in May, 1906, 
with three other well-known business men, bought the Monad- 
nock Mills of Claremont, the largest cotton manufactory in the 
northern part of the state. This seemingly stupendous venture 
again evidenced the sagacity and sound judgment of Mr. Stowell, 
for the mills have ever since been running successfully. 

It was also characteristic of Mr. Stowell that he should cherish 
a tender regard for the town of his nativity. As an expression of 
this, he conceived the idea of erecting and furnishing a beautiful 
library building on Cornish Flat at an expense of six thousand 
dollars, and presenting the same to the town of Cornish under 
the name of "Stowell Free Library." After the site was deter- 
mined the town purchased the lot, and in May, 1910, active 
labor was begun on the building. This was continued throughout 
the season, and although not entirely completed at this writing, 
a beautiful brick building greets the eye of every beholder, and 
is a perpetual reminder of the benevolence of him who conceived 
and erected it. 

December 24, 1857, Mr. Stowell married Miss Sarah E. Field, 
the union proving a happy one. Their only child, Cora E. Stow- 
ell (Putnam) born June 24, 1860, died March 8, 1903. In her 
memory, Mr. Stowell has erected a granite and bronze mausoleum 
in Mountain View Cemetery at Claremont. Mrs. Stowell died 
September 14, 1908. 

The Stowell residence at the corner of Pleasant and Summer 
streets is attractively located, and conspicuous in its handsome 
architectural design. Here, amidst the comforts of his own acquir- 
ing, enjoying the confidence and good will of his fellow citizens, 
he approaches his declining years, ripe with the fullness of a well- 
ordered life, and keenly in touch with the men and the movement 
of the times. 

JAMES ALBERT WELLMAN. 

James Albert Wellman, son of Albert E. and Emily (Dodge) 
(Hall) Wellman, was born in Cornish, May 4, 1867. After attend- 
ing the schools of his native town he prepared for college at 
Kimball Union Academy. He entered Dartmouth College in 




REV. J. W. WELLMAN. D. D. 



SKETCHES OF CORNISH MEN. 343 

1885, and graduated therefrom in 1889 with the degree of Bache- 
lor of Science. Immediately after this he entered upon the busi- 
ness of life insurance as special agent of the Connecticut Mutual 
Life Insurance Company. Later he became the general agent of 
this company for Vermont, with headquarters at Burlington, 
Vt. After five years he resigned this position to accept the New 
Hampshire state agency of the National Life Insurance Company 
of Vermont, with headquarters at Manchester, N. H. He has a 
large number of men under his direction, and the annual business 
of his agency is about $800,000. Insurance in force, over $6,000,- 
000. In the amount of premiums collected it has now become the 
second largest in the state. The new business written by this 
agency exceeds by a large per cent, that written by any other 
state agency in New Hampshire. Mr. Wellman is president of 
the Agents' Association of the National Life Insurance Company 
of Vermont. He is an ex-president of the New Hampshire Under- 
writers' Club, and he has represented New Hampshire on the 
executive committee of the National Association of Life Under- 
writers. He is accredited to be one of the ablest and best-informed 
life insurance men in New England. Mr. Wellman is a director 
of the Manchester National Bank, one of New Hampshire's 
greatest financial institutions ; a director of the Manchester Safe, 
Deposit and Trust Company; and a director of the Franklin 
Street Congregational Church. He is a thirty-second degree 
Mason, and a member of Trinity Commandery, Knights Templar. 
He is a member of the Derryfielcl Club, the Intervale Country 
Club, the Society of Colonial Governors, the Society of Colonial 
Wars, and the Society of the American Revolution. He has demon- 
strated the fact in many ways that he is a thoroughly successful 
business man. In 1898 he married Florence Vincent of Burling- 
ton,Vt., daughter of Dr. Walter S. Vincent and Harriet (Laurence) 
Vincent. They have two children: (1) Harriet Vincent, born 
February 22, 1900; (2) Dorothy Hall, born October 30, 1901. 

REV. JOSHUA WYMAN WELLMAN, D. D. 

Rev. Joshua W. Wellman, D. D., was born in Cornish, 
November 28, 1821. He was the eldest son of Dea. James Ripley 
and Phebe (Wyman) Wellman. Deacon Wellman, the father, was 
a son of James and Alethea (Ripley) Wellman, and a grandson 
of Rev. James Wellman, who was installed the first pastor of 



344 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

"the first Church in Cornish," September 29, 1768, three years 
after the settlement of the town. (See Church History, also Well- 
man.) Alethea (Ripley) Wellman, the grandmother, was a de- 
scendant in the sixth generation from Gov. William Bradford of 
the Plymouth Colony. 

At the age of fifteen the subject of this sketch entered Kimball 
Union Academy where he fitted for college. He graduated from 
the academy in 1842, and from Dartmouth College in 1846. 

In the winter of 1838-39, he taught his first school in Hartford, 
Vt., and later, during his college course in Upton and East Ran- 
dolph, Mass. (now Holbrook). From 1846 to 1849 he taught in 
Kimball Union Academy a part of each year, and in 1847 was 
principal of the academy in Rochester, Mass., for two terms. 
Entering the Andover Theological Seminary in 1847, he gradu- 
ated therefrom in 1850, and was then a resident licentiate in 
the seminary for one year. He was ordained to the Christian 
ministry and installed as pastor of the historic " First Church in 
Derry," N. H., June 18, 1851, where he remained five years. He 
was installed pastor of the "Eliot Church" in Newton, Mass., 
June 11, 1856, and was dismissed therefrom October 23, 1873. 
His pastorate in Newton included the exciting period of the Civil 
War. During the early part of the conflict he visited the South 
and saw something of the horrors of war. He was strongly 
opposed to slavery and supported the war as necessary to save 
the Union. The plain statement of his views in his sermons pro- 
duced considerable excitement at a time when many believed 
that the pulpit should be silent on such subjects. He continued, 
however, in every way that seemed to him to be proper, to help 
forward the cause of the right. The church became eminently 
patriotic and twenty-seven men from the congregation enlisted 
in the war. 

During this pastorate the church grew from a small member- 
ship to be one of the largest and most prominent churches in the 
state. 

March 25, 1874, Mr. Wellman was installed pastor of the 
"Ancient First Church" in Maiden, Mass., and which under his 
care also grew into a large and influential church. He remained 
its pastor until May 6, 1883, when he was dismissed from its 
pastorate. Since that time he has had no pastoral charge but 
has done considerable pulpit work in his own and among neigh- 



SKETCHES OF CORNISH MEN. 345 

boring churches. During this period he has devoted much of his 
time to literary work, still retaining his residence and church 
relationship in Maiden. 

October 24, 1854, he married Ellen M., daughter of Caleb 
Strong and Prudence (Durfee) Holbrook of East Randolph, 
Mass. (now Holbrook), who died June 24, 1901. Their children 
were: (1) Arthur Holbrook, a lawyer, who practices in Boston, 
who married October 11, 1887, Jennie Louise Faulkner; (2) 
Edward Wyman, who married October 1, 1884, Emma R. Patch 
and died April 17, 1891; (3) Ellen Holbrook, who married 
October 24, 1883, Robert Cushman King; (4) Annie Durfee, who 
died April 7, 1903. 

Mr. Wellman was elected a corporate member of The Ameri- 
can Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions in 1867; was 
one of the managers of the Congregational Sunday School and 
Publishing Society, and a trustee of Pinkerton Academy and of 
Phillips Academy in Andover, serving on each of these boards 
for several years. He is a member of the New England Historic 
Genealogical Society, a corporate member of the General Theo- 
logical Library of Boston, and for many years a director of the 
American College and Educational Society. He was a leading 
advocate in the formation of the Congregational Club of Boston, 
of which he was an original member. Olivet College in 1868 and 
Dartmouth College in 1870 bestowed upon him the degree of D. D. 

He has published: (1) Church Polity of the Pilgrims, 1857. 
(2) The Organic Development of Christianity in the Direction 
of Education and Learning: Address before the Society for the 
Promotion of Collegiate and Theological Education in the West, 
Boston, Mass., May 30, 1860. (3) Sermon: Our Nation Under 
the Government of God, Newton, Mass., August 3, 1862. (4) 
The Good and Faithful Servant: Memorial Sermon of John C. 
Potter, Newton, Mass., 1870. (5) Tract: Christianity and Our 
Civil Institutions, 1870. (6) Sketch of Rev. James Munroe 
Bacon, 1875. (7) Free Public Libraries: Address at the Open- 
ing of the Free Public Library, Newton, Mass., June 17, 
1870. (8) In Memory of Mrs. Maria Brigham Furber, 1883. 
(9) Transcendent Value of the Christian Sanctuary: Rededica- 
tion Sermon, First Church, Derry, 1885. (10) The Andover 
Case, with introductory, historical statement, careful summary 
of arguments of respondent, full text of arguments of complain- 



346 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

ants, and decision of board of visitors, pp. 194, 1887. (11) The 
Questions at Issue in the Andover Case, 1892. (12) Historical 
Discourse: 250th Anniversary of the Organization of the First 
Church of Christ, Maiden, Mass., 1899. (13) Origin and Early 
History of the Eliot Church, Newton, Mass., 1904. 



BIRTHS, MARRIAGES AND DEATHS IN CORNISH NOT 
RECORDED IN GENEALOGIES. 

A PARTIAL LIST OF BIRTHS IN TOWN NOT FOUND IN ITS 

GENEALOGIES. 

In Alphabetical Order Until 1863. 

Abbott, Samuel and Betsey, son, Samuel S., July 6, 1811. 
Abbott, Samuel and Betsey, son, John, Aug. 4, 1813. 

Ashley, Seymore and Martha, dau., , Feb. 7, 1864. 

Ballard, Israel and E., son, Daniel, Nov. 12, 1778. 
Bancroft, Timothy and Matilda, dau., Louisa, Jan. 13, 1817. 
Belden, Samuel and Abigail, dau., Abigail, Sept. 21, 1810. 
Blodgett, Buzzell and Rhoda, son, Joshua Nathaniel, Nov. 16, 1863. 
Brown, H. N. and Hannah, dau., Eugenia M., June 24, 1861. 
Coats, Charles W. and Calista, dau., Annie C, May 10, 1862. 
Coil, Peter and Anna, son, Peter, Feb. 8, 1862. 
Cole, Samuel and Rebecca, dau., Mary, March 31, 1794. 
Conlin, John and Mary, dau., Sarah J., Aug. 4, 1860. 
Conlin, John and Mary, son, Patrick, April 5, 1864. 
Comings, George B. and Olive, a child, Jan. 11, 1862. 
Crossman, John and Elizabeth, son, Charles H., Oct. 21, 1858. 
Dearborn' John and Elizabeth, son, George L., July 17, 1854. 
Dorman, Lewis and Sarah, son, Henry, Feb. 28, 1861. 
Eddy, Zechariah and Phebe, dau., Eunice, Feb. 26, 1796. 
Eddy, Zechariah and Phebe, son, Elias Newbury, Jan. 12, 1798. 
Farwell, John H. and Eliza, son, Fred, June — , 1861. 
Farwell, John H. and Eliza, son, Frank D., Oct. 30, 1862. 
Flanders, Stephen and Susanna (Luey), son, Alba, March 26, 1803. 
Flint, J. J. and Silvia, son, John, May 28, 1863. 

Flint, J. J. and Silvia, son, , March 26, 1865. 

Follett, Jesse and Judith, dau., Louisa Adelaide, May — , 1813. 
Follett, Jesse and Judith, dau., Sarah Ray, April 30, 1815. 
Graves, Eldad and Sarah, son, Eldad, Jr., March 15, 1773. 
Greely, Thomas and Ann, dau., Sarah C, Jan. 20, 1860. 
Hawley, Richard and Keziah, dau., Lucy, Jan. 21, 1778. 
Hibbard, Daniel and Hannah, son, Daniel, July 6, 1776. 
Horton, Zenas and Nancy, son, Valentine Baxter, June 29, 1802. 

Johnson, George F. and Frances, a child, , March 21, 1863. 

Kennedy, Bartholmew and wife, twin sons, , Feb. — , 1859. 

Knight, Lorenzo M. and Calista, dau., Kate, July 1, 1860. 
Knight, Lorenzo M. and Calista, dau., Elma, Aug. — , 1862. 
Lewis, T. B. and wife, dau... Hattie L., Dec. 13, 1861. 



348 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Lewis, and wife, dau., Dec. 31, 1850. 

Marston, Ezra and wife, son, , March 17, 1859. 

McCarty, Michael and Catherine, son, Martin, May 1, 1860. 
Morey, Willard and Lydia, son, Williard, Aug. 28, 1788. 
Packard, Judson and Abigail, dau., Eunice, March 23, 1861. 
Powers, Phinehas and Elizabeth, dau., Tirzah, Nov. 22, 1768. 
Powers, Abraham and Rachel, dau., Rachel, June 25, 1770. 
Remington, David and Sybil, dau., Susanna, Oct. 31, 1777. 

Robinson, George H. and wife, son, , Aug. 12, 1851. 

Royce, Henry and Emeline, dau., Lucy, May 26, 1863. 
Sargent, Stephen and Lucy, son, Moses, June 26, 1804. 
Shedd, Reed and Electa, son, Marcellus R., May 15, 1860. 
Simonds, Isaac and Mehitable, son, Samuel Curtis, May 29, 1797. 
Smith, Abraham and Abigail, dau., Harriet, May 18, 1798. 
Snow, Amos and Lydia, dau., Esther, Sept. 16, 1774. 
Spaulding, Elisha F. and Lucy, son, Ed. E., Nov. 21, 1859. 
Stearns, Edward and Mary, dau., Jennie M., July 15, 1860. 
Tuket, Israel and wife, son, Charles Henry, April 9, 1850. 
Warner, Jerry and wife, son, Jerry Bradley, March 1, 1810. 
Warner, Jerry and wife, son, Charles Henry, Feb. 4, 1812. 
Watkins, Oren and Marcia, dau., Georgianna, March 7, 1862. 

Wilder, James and Mary, dau., , Sept. 26, 1859. 

Wilder, Sylvanus and Mary, dau., Mary J., May 26, 1859. 

Wilder, James and Mary, twin sons, , Feb. 6, 1862. 

Wilder, James and Mary, dau., Bertha, Dec. 26, 1863. 
Wilson, Levi and Sarah, dau., Sally, April 29, 1799. 
Witherill, Theodore and wife, dau., , Feb. 27, 1859. 

Partial List of Births in Town Not in Genealogies, 1863-1887. 

In Chronological Order. 

Lucy C. Royce, May 26, 1863. 
John W. Flint, May 28, 1863. 
Joshua N. Blodgett, Nov. 16, 1863. 
Bertha G. Wilder, Dec. 26, 1863. 
Patrick Conlin, April 5, 1864. 
Ida M. Wilder, July 7, 1865. 
Arvilla Baskwell, Dec. 19, 1866. 
John W. Wilcox, Dec. 30, 1866. 
Everard C. Wilder, June 26, 1867. 
Etta M. Parkhurst, June 6, 1868. 
Albert Shedd, Nov. 16, 1869. 
Flora Ada Smith, Jan. 21, 1870. 
Herbert A. Whiting, April 20, 1870. 
Fred A. Shallies, July 26, 1870. 
Edwin H. Shedd, Aug. 12, 1870. 
John A. Wakefield, Sept. 12, 1870. 
Franklin S. Ashley, Oct. 13, 1870. 



BIRTHS NOT FOUND IN ITS GENEALOGIES. 349 

Grace M. Parkhurst, Jan. 27, 1871. 
Jane Sargent, Feb. 1, 1871. 
Eddie S. Loverin, April 4, 1871. 
Henry Dana, Aug. 30, 1871. 
Abby Fiske Howard, Sept. 25, 1871. 
Edna Stearns, Feb. 8, 1872. 
Nellie Royce, March 3, 1872. 
Mary W. Curtis, April 12, 1872. 
Son of Carlos Messer, Aug. 27, 1872. 
Effie Jordan, Feb. 9, 1873. 
Dau. of Carlos S. Gee, March 4, 1873. 
Velzora H. Comings, March 28, 1873. 
Fanny V. Thayer, Sept. 16, 1873. 
Florence Harris, Dec. 10, 1873. 

Child of Enoch Quimby, , 1873. 

Henry H. Royce, Feb. — , 1874. 
Fred Vadney, April 27, 1874. 
Almeda Whitmore, July 21, 1874. 
Charles Joseph St. Johns, Dec. 11, 1874. 
Shirley Walter Humphrey, April 8, 1875. 
Fred W. Knight, April 17, 1875. 
Lizzie A. Pope, May 3, 1875. 
Lucius R. Jordan. May 14, 1875. 
Susan M. Skinner, June 25, 1875. 
Walter E. Bailey, Sept. 8, 1875. 
Charles W. Vadney, Oct. 1, 1875. 
Maria Stearns, Nov. 27, 1875. 
Fred P. Messer, Dec. 31, 1875. 
Alexander Wilder, April 4, 1876. 
Charles Austin, June 5, 1876. 

Carl E. Farwell, , 1876. 

Son of Alfred Lucas, Nov. 20, 1876. 

Ann L. Hutchinson, Dec. 28, 1876. 

Dau. of Darnel Whitmore, Dec. 28, 1876. 

Willie Spencer, twin, Jan. 15, 1877. 

Willis Spencer, twin, Jan. 15, 1877. 

Dau. of John P. Small, March 21, 1877. 

Dau. of David Marcott, March 31, 1877. 

Winslow Jacobs, April 18, 1877. 

Wallace Harris, April 27, 1877. 

Dau. of Warren S. Whipple, July 10, 1877. 

Bertha Skinner, July 10, 1877. 

Son of Warren H. Fletcher, July 20, 1877. 

Morris Jordan, May 14, 1878. 

Franklin Curtis, June 21, 1878. 

Grace E. Morgan, Nov. 13, 1878. 

Eliza A. Messer, Nov. 21, 1878. 

Son of Keron Ryan, Dec. 9, 1878. 



350 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Son of Daniel Whitmore, Dec. 30, 1878. 

Son of George F. Davis, Feb. — , 1879. 

Lena A. Pope, March 8, 1879. 

Ernest Whitmore, March 21, 1879. 

William McCarty, July 26, 1879. 

Molly B. Mason, Nov. 4, 1879. 

Chester A. Spaulding, Nov. 14, 1879. 

G. J. A. Benjamin, Dec. 25, 1879. 

Jessie Noyes, July 1, 1880. 

Patrick Reynolds, Oct. 7, 1880. 

Roy M. Harris, Oct. 24, 1880. 

Son of Ozro V. Eastman, Dec. — , 1880. 

Son of Daniel Whitmore, March — , 1881. 

Lena E. Kempton, May 16, 1881. 

Louis L. Comstock, Oct. 15, 1881. 

Lulu Boyd, Jan. 19, 1882. 

Nellie L. Eastman, Jan. 31, 1882. 

T. R. Francis, April 15, 1882. 

Mary E. Wiley, April 17, 1882. 

Guy H. Eaton, May 18, 1882. 

Amy B. Anthony, Aug. 10, 1882. 

Lena M. Spaulding, Jan. 22, 1884. 

Cleveland H. Curtis, Oct. 17, 1884. 

Dau. of Wm. A. Sweet, Jan. 4, 1885. 

Dau. of Frank H. Cass, May 16, 1885. 

Dau. of Edmund Curtis, Jan. 10, 1886. 

Dau. of Sumner U. Dunsmoor, Feb. 9, 1886. 

Herman C. Terry, May 6, 1886. 

Son of Leonard Hadley, June 4, 1886. 

Max W. Cole, Aug. 28, 1886. 

Son of Fred A. Spaulding, Nov. 17, 1886. 

Dau. of Rufus G. Smith, Dec. 7, 1886. 

In all 317 births in town not included in genealogies. 

Births in Cornish Not Recorded in Genealogies, 1887-1910. 

In Chronological Order. 

To William F. and Allie (Chambers) Terry, a son, Sept. 4, 1887. 

Napoleon and Mrs. Ruth (Spaulding) Miller, a son, Frank Orin, Nov. 12, 
1887. 

Leander and Susan (Browe) Bordeau, a dau., , Jan. 19, 1888. 

Edmund and Jennie L. (Bythrow) Curtis, a son, , Feb. 5, 1888. 

Darwin and Etta (Sweet) Jordan, a dau., , March 10, 1888. 

James L. W. and Ella M. (Carroll) Thayer, a son, , May 24, 1888. 

Winfield S. and Mary ( — ) Newman, a dau., , June 8, 1888. 

Frank F. and Julia F. (Lewis) Royce, a son, Chester Pike, July 17, 1888. 
Fred and Kate S. (Marshall) Billings, a son, , Sept. 22, 1888. 



BIRTHS NOT FOUND IN ITS GENEALOGIES. 351 

To Fred A. and Emma (Olson) Spaulding, a dau., Oct. 19, 1888. 

Harry A. and Jessie (Robinson) Harris, a dau., Susan, Dec. 13, 1888. 
Joseph and Martha (Beers) Jondro, a son, Clayton Elmer, May 18, 1889. 
Philander C. and Mary J. (Newman) Sargent, a son, Nov. 5, 1889. 
Charles F. and Gertie C. (Elmer) Wright, a dau., Alice May, Nov. 7, 

1889. 
Charles M. and Lucy (Nash) Bythrow, a dau., Maude, Nov. 30, 1889. 
Napoleon and Mrs. Ruth (Spaulding) Miller, a dau., Myrtie May, Dec. 11, 

1889. 

Martin M. and Alice L. Williams, a son, , Jan. 29, 1890. 

Thomas and Kate (Lee) Burke, a son, Thomas Francis, Feb. 28, 1890. 
James L. W. and Julia M. (Olney) Thayer, a son, James L. W., Jr., July 16, 

1890. 

Dwight and Rosa J. (Spaulding) Hammond, a dau., •, Aug. 18, 1890. 

Aleck and Louise (Burg) Duclos, a son, , Dec. 13, 1890. 

John W. and Mary J. (Kenyon) Flint, a dau., Ida May, Feb. 2, 1891. 
Clarence M. and Bertha L. (Hewes) Kenney, a son, Ralph Hewes, March 

6, 1891. 

Henry and Grace ( ) Nash, a dau., , April 20, 1891. 

Dana and Jane (Sargent) Martin, a dau., May 2, 1891. 

Fred and Kate S. (Marshall) Billings, a son, Edward Percy, May 8, 1891. 

John H. and Laura S. (Morse) Bellair, a dau., , June 2, 1891. 

C. A. and Ida (Fletcher) Wardner, a son, , June 14, 1891. 

Thomas and Nellie (Conlin) Cary, a son, Thomas C, July 15, 1891. 
Napoleon and Mrs. Ruth (Spaulding) Miller, a son, Willie N., Dec. 13, 

1891. 
Erwin and Jennie M. (Dana) Williams, a dau., Hardie L., Dec. 27, 1891. 
Elmer E. and Minnie Bell (Hayes) De Goosh, a son, , April 25, 

1892. 

Charles and Alice (Chapman) Alexander, a dau., , May 2, 1892. 

Ernest E. and Nellie (Donahue) Hill, a dau., — — — , June 22, 1893. 

Edmimd and Kate (Quigly) Marcott, a dau., , Sept. 4, 1893. 

Winfield S. and Mary F. (White) Newman, a dau., - -, Sept. 6, 1893. 

Charles M. and Lucy M. (Nash) Bythrow, a son, , April 15, 1894. 

Frank and Hattie (Davidson) Williams, a dau., , May 1, 1894. 

Daniel and E. Areanna (Spaulding) Headle, a dau., , July 6, 1894. 

Elwin and Mary (Small) Sherwin, a dau., , Sept. 19, 1894. 

Lendel B. and Lena O. (Nelson) Chase, a son, Lewis, Nov. 14, 1894. 

Oliver and Zoe (Cardia) Fecteau, a dau., , Jan. 30, 1895. 

Edmund and Kate (Quigly) Marcott, a son, , June 2, 1895. 

Fred L. and Hattie M. (Chase) Lasure, a dau., , June 5, 1895. 

Charles and Minnie (Brown) Haven, a son, , July 18, 1896. 

Charles M. and Lucy M. (Nash) Bythrow, a dau., , Aug. 24, 1896. 

William E. and Vinnie E. (Jordan) Curtis, a son, , Sept. 2, 1896. 

Webster and Agnes (Donald) Pratt, a dau., , Sept. 4, 1896. 

Herbert and Ellen M. (Nelson) Leslie, a son, , Sept. 6, 1896. 

Oliver and Zoe (Cardia) Fecteau, a son, Ubel, Oct. 13, 1896. 
Frank and Bertha (Jones) Sherwin, a son, , Oct. 15, 1896. 



352 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

To Joseph and Louisa (Chamberlain) Dolan, a son, Raymond, Nov. 1, 1896. 

Edmund and Kate (Quigley) Marcott, a son, , Nov. 23, 1896. 

Lewellen and Alice (Biglow) Gibson, a son, Elwin, May 30, 1897. 
James W. and Ella (Moore) Smith, a son, Leonard E., June 20, 1897. 

Duane W. and L. Minnie (Lobdell) Small, a dau., , Aug. 22, 1897. 

F. E. and Alice (Frost) Demary, a dau., — — , Sept. 14, 1897. 

Chester and Catherine (Hammond) Smith, a dau., , Oct. 21, 1897. 

Frank H. and Hattie (Davidson) Williams, a son, , Oct. 23, 1897. 

Eugene E and Nellie (Kimton) Webster, a dau., Lillian R., July 8, 1898. 

George R. and Abbie S. (Blood) Gassett, a son, , Aug. 8, 1898. 

Justin and Martha E. (Whitlock) Judd, a dau., - — , Aug. 11, 1898. 
Joseph and Louisa (Chamberlain) Dolan, a son, — — , Aug. 21, 1898. 

Will and Jennie J. (Sargent) Brace, a dau., , Sept. 21, 1898. 

Lendel B. and Lena O. (Nelson) Chase, twins, Lynne D. and Lettie L., 

Oct. 3, 1898. 
Herbert I. and Ellen M. (Nelson) Leslie, a dau., Gertie E., Nov. 5, 1898. 
Ernest E. and Nellie (Donahue) Hill, a dau., Eva M., Dec. 15, 1898. 
Walter and Cora B. (Packard) Jordan, a dau., Hazel D., Feb. 1, 1899. 
Alfred and Ellen (McGuire) Cody, a son, Frank, May 9, 1899. 
Justin and Martha E. (Whitlock) Judd, a dau., June 16, 1899. 
A. C. and Lena M. (Dodge) Bowness, a son, Arthur L., June 18, 1899. 

Edward F. and Bella (Devoe) Van Epps, a son, , July 3, 1899. 

George C. and Minnie (Mobbs) Redman, a dau., , July 29, 1899. 

James W. and Ella (Moore) Smith, a son, , Aug. 2, 1899. 

Fred C. and Blanche (Perkins) Smith, a son, , Sept. 14, 1899. 

Joseph and Louisa (Chamberlain) Dolan, a dau., , Nov. 22, 1899. 

Frank C. and Carmen P. (Gordon) Harris, a son, Francis C, March 18, 

1900. 
Dr. Henry B. and Alice (Shedd) Ketchum, a dau., Grace, March 23, 1900. 

Duane W. and Minnie (Lobdell) Small, a son, , April 5, 1900. 

David J. and Emma (Blaize) Chamberlain, a son, , April 5, 1900. 

Louis and Lena (Pope) Herschell, a son, Deane, April 15, 1900. 
Ernest E. and Nellie (Donahue) Hill, a dau., — — , Aug. 21, 1900. 
Zeb. and Mary (Goodrow) Fountain, a son, James, Nov. 2, 1900. 

A. A. and Nellie (Royce) Lawton, a son, , Nov. 29, 1900. 

Rev. Charles V. and Abbie E. (Hall) French, a dau., Dorothy, Dec. 8, 1900. 

Guy and Hattie (Spaulding) Hammond, a dau., , Feb. 12, 1901. 

Herbert I. and Ellen M. (Nelson) Leslie, a dau., Nettie E., Feb. 25, 1901. 
Fred and Rosa (Pressy) Leach, a dau., Gladys, Feb. 26, 1901. 

Joseph and Elizabeth (McCreedy) Marcott, a dau., , July 2, 1901. 

Antoine and Maie (Fouquet) Tonachella, a son, , Sept. 15, 1901. 

Edward and Delia (Gerrow) Chamberlain, a son, , Sept. 21, 1901. 

Henry W. and Margaret (Sullivan) Dana, a son, , Oct. 5, 1901. 

Frank C. and Carmen P. (Gordon) Harris, a dau., , Nov. 25, 1901. 

Joseph and Louisa (Chamberlain) Dolan, a dau., , March 15, 1902. 

Stephen M. and Aurilla (Hurd) Thornton, a dau., Stella A., April 1, 1902. 

James R. and Martha A. (Davis) Marshall, a dau., -, April 7, 1902. 

Justin and Martha E. (Whitlock) Judd, a dau., , April 18, 1902. 



BIRTHS NOT FOUND IN ITS GENEALOGIES. 353 

To Maurice W. and Mary F. (Jenny) Colby, a dau., , May 27, 1902. 

Joseph and Elizabeth (McCreedy) Marcott, a son, , Sept. 15, 1902. 

Duane W. and Minnie (Lobdell) Small, a dau., , Oct. 19, 1902. 

Ara M. and Mabel W. (Hastings) Hastings, a son, , Dec. 13, 1902. 

Clifford C. and Lizzie (Begnon) Phillips, a dau., , June 17, 1903. 

Henry W. and Margarett (Sullivan) Dana, a dau., , July 27, 1903. 

Peter T. and Nellie V. (Spaulding) Saunders, a son, , Aug. 2, 1903. 

F. P. and Margarett (Abbott) Dunne, a son, , Sept. 2, 1903. 

Fred and Evangeline (Child) Wilkins, a son, , Sept. 12, 1903. 

Stephen M. and Aurilla A. (Hurd) Thornton, a son, Adelbert C, Oct. 6, 

1903. 

Frank C. and Carmen P. (Gordon) Harris, a dau., , Oct. 26, 1903. 

Henry B. and Clara M. (Dorwin) Howe, a dau., Bernice A., Jan. 19, 1904. 

Joseph and Louisa (Chamberlain) Dolan, a dau., , April 2, 1904. 

Frederic and Phebe (Frye) Redman, a son, George F., April 15, 1904. 

Justin and Martha E. (Whitlock) Judd, a son, , April 29, 1904. 

Charles E. and Nellie S. (Pequin) King, a son, Henry E., July 4, 1904. 
Edward and Deha (Gerrow) Chamberlain, a son, John, Aug. 30, 1904. 

Joseph and Elizabeth (McCreedy) Marcott, a dau., , Sept. 13, 1904. 

Maurice W. and Mary (Jenny) Colby, a son, Carlos D., Oct. 7, 1904. 

Ivan L. and Kate M. (Stickney) Davis, a son, , Feb. 23, 1905. 

Herbert H. and Emma (Leems) Royce, a dau., Aretha P., March 7, 1905. 

Alexander and Ida (Campbell) Harper, a dau., , March 20, 1905. 

Henry B. and Clara (Dorwin) Howe, a son, , March 26, 1905. 

Fred and Evangeline (Child) Wilkins, a son, , July 21, 1905. 

Charles A. and Eleanor (Hardy) Piatt, a son, , Aug. 6, 1905. 

Solomon and Soprina (Arnold) Bilow, a son, , Aug. 16, 1905. 

Earl W. and Elnora C. (Benway) Brown, a son, , Sept. 2, 1905. 

Fred E. and Lena M. (Woodward) Emery, a dau., Charlotte L., Dec. 10, 

1905. 

Duane W. and Minnie (Lobdell) Small, a dau., , Dec. 22, 1905. 

James W. and Mary (Peyson) Pratt, a dau., Ida M., Jan. 3, 1906. 

Israel and Mary M. (Spaulding) Chamberlain, a dau., Louisa, Jan. 28, 1906. 

Henry B. and Clara M. (Dorwin) Howe, a dau., Elizabeth I., Jan. 28, 1907. 

Octavius J. and Elizabeth (Pardy) Bishop, a son, , April 7, 1907. 

Lewis and Maggie (Gerrow) Chamberlain, a dau., , July 9, 1907. 

Harry and (Jarvis) Weeden, a dau., , July 23, 1907. 

Duane W. and Minnie (Lobdell) Small, a son, , Aug. 25, 1907. 

James W. and Mary (Peyson) Pratt, a dau., , Sept. 4, 1907. 

Solomon and Soprina (Arnold) Bilow, a son, , Sept. 18, 1907. 

Arthur A. and Margarett A. (Nichols) Shurtleff, a dau., , Oct. 1, 

1907. 

Joseph and Louisa (Chamberlain) Dolan, a dau., , Oct. 20, 1907. 

Fred and Evangeline (Child) Wilkins, a son, , Oct. 28, 1907. 

Willie L. and Velona F. (Picknell) Nelson, a son, Alfred J., Jan. 16, 1908. 

Edward F. and Sarah (Mahoney) O'Brien, a son, , Feb. 5, 1908. 

Clark A. and Ida (Fletcher) Wardner, a dau., , March 1, 1908. 

John M. and Elsie (Lull) Tewksbury, a son, , March 8, 1908. 

23 



354 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

To Earle W. and Elnora (Benway) Brown, a dau., , March 31, 1908. 

Samuel F. and Cora G. (Judd) Smith, twin daughters, , , 

April 9, 1908. 

William J. and Isabella (McKavey) Hanley, a son, , June 6, 1908. 

Julian and Mabel S. (Robinson) Burke, a dau., Persis E., Aug. 25, 1908. 

William and Esther (Kellogg) Bugbee, a son, , Sept. 17, 1908. 

Stephen and Ellen M. (Griffiths) Duling, a son, , Sept. 21, 1908. 

Henry B. and Clara M. (Dorwin) Howe, a dau., Ruby M., Nov. 23, 1908. 
Percy and Marion (Morse) MacKaye, a dau., Christiania L., Jan. 10, 1909. 

Louis and Lena R. (Pope) Herschell, a son, , Jan. 28, 1909. 

Leon and Mildred (Robertson) Munroe, a son, , Feb. 4, 1909. 

Stephen M. and Aurilla A. (Hurd) Thornton, a dau., Elsie, Feb. 24, 1909. 

Edward F. and Sarah (Mahoney) O'Brien, a son, , March 30, 1909. 

Homer and Carlotta (Dollery) Saint Gaudens, a son, Augustus, July 8, 

1909. 
Maurice and Mary F. (Jenny) Colby, a dau., Charlotte, Nov. 14, 1909. 
Orrel F. and Huldah E. (Scribner) Atwood, a dau., Bulah, Nov. 24, 1909. 

EARLY MARRIAGES, 1770-1834. 

A List of All Marriages in Town Recorded Prior to 1834, Except Those 
Appearing in Family Genealogies. 

In Chronological Order (Nearly). 

Joseph Vinson and Eunice , Sept. 4, 1770. 

Joseph Kee and Mary Nichols (both of Plainfield), Aug. 30, 1773. 

Joseph Marsh and Betty Marsh, Sept. 29, 1773. 

Thomas Wilson and Esther Spaulding, Nov. 24, 1774. 

Robert Dunlap and Mary Vinson, Sept. 26, 1775. 

Richard Vinson and Abigail Messenger (second wife), Jan. 30, 1776. 

Ethan Clark and Lucy Eager (both of Claremont), Dec. 29, 1788. 

Stephen Dexter (Claremont) and Prudence Hubbard (Newport), Oct. 4, 1789. 

David York and Eunice Bugbee (both of Claremont), Oct. 21, 1789. 

Joseph Edmonds and Wid. Esther Hilliard, Nov. 25, 1790. 

Samuel McColly and Abigail Wilson, July 15, 1790. 

Charles Waterman and Sarah Aplin, April 22, 1790. 

Elisha White and Sampson (both of Claremont), Dec. 30, 1790. 

Nathan Rand and Mollie Parker, Oct. 18, 1792. 

Amasa Grover (Bethel, Vt.) and Mary Jones, Dec. 9, 1792. 

Benjamin Shaw (Woodstock, Vt.) and Hannah McColly, March 27, 1793. 

Sanford Tracy (Washington) and Elizabeth Hildreth, June 11, 1794. 

Nathaniel Wheeler and Anna Read, Feb. 13, 1794. 

Dr. Thomas Fields (Plainfield) and Thankful Townes (Claremont), Feb. 5, 

1795. 
Lemuel Richardson and Polly Chase, March 12, 1795. 
Jacob Whipple (Croydon) and Rhoda Whiting, June 25, 1795. 
Elisha Herrick and Sarah Bridge, July 4, 1795. 
Ebenezer Clark and Eunice Chase (both of Keene), Sept. 5, 1795. 



MARRIAGES NOT FOUND IN ITS GENEALOGIES. 355 

Ansel Burrows and Hannah Eliot, Dec. 30, 1795. 

Francis Dean and Lucy Eaton (both of Plain field), Jan. 5, 1796. 

Eldad Hart and Polly Farrington, Nov. 6, 1796. 

Nathaniel Pierce and Submit Curtis, June 23, 1796. 

Isaac Simonds and Mehitable Pierce, Aug. 30, 1796. 

Bryant Brown and Betsey Day, Nov. 14, 1796. 

John Hildreth and Sukey Crague, Dec. 14, 1796. 

Stephen Parker and Ame Ayers, April 2, 1797. 

William Temple (Plainfield) and Wid. Lucy Lucus, Feb. 14, 1798. 

Bartholomew Harris and Hannah Read, March 1, 1798. 

John Rich (Dummerston, Vt.) and Elute Burbank (Hartland, Vt.), July 15, 

1798. 
Samuel Chase and Polly Barstow, Feb. 18, 1801. 

Joseph Barstow (Windsor, Vt.), and Nabby Kenerson, March 15, 1801. 
William Lyon Tucker and Elizabeth Perkins Smith, March 25, 1802. 
Daniel Dudley (Newport) and Zurviah Fitch, March 30, 1802. 
Barna Tisdale and Martha Wright, Dec. 30, 1802. 
Asaph Belmont and Sally Simpson, Nov. 4, 1803. 
Jonathan Hilliard and Susanna Luey, Dec. 13, 1803. 
William Johonnett (Windsor, Vt.) and Abigail BrOwn, Feb. 29, 1804. 
Warren Smith and Peggy Williams, April 26, 1804 
Caleb Thompson and Eunice King, May 14, 1804. 
Pearce Luther and Sally Sweet, May 22, 1804. 

Thomas Straight and Sarah Stone (both of Plainfield), May 31, 1804. 
Dr. Jonathan Badger (Concord) and Eliza Hall, Nov. 5, 1804. 
Israel Hall (Windsor, Vt.) and Marion Wood, Nov. 17, 1804. 
Abel Gates (Plainfield) and Ida Chase, Jan. 26, 1805. 
Francis McCarty (Hanover) and Martha Dustin, March 14, 1805. 
Simeon A. Freeman (Fairlee, Vt.) and Polly March, April 2, 1805. 
Thomas Penniman and Zurviah Dudley, Oct. 4, 1805. 
Peter Abbott and Olive Read, March 6, 1806. 
Winthrop Merry (Windsor, Vt.) and Olive Ayers, March 15, 1806. 
William Butman (Barnard, Vt.) and Olive Hildreth, June 24, 1806. 

Nichols (Crownpoint, N. Y.) and Alice Young, Jan. 13, 1809. 

Samuel Williams and Abigail Belden, Dec. 28, 1809. 

John Davis (Epsom) and Rachel Davis, Jan. 5, 1810. 

John Hale and Achsa Smith, Aug. 30, 1810. 

Wyman Stevens (Plainfield) and Deborah Thompson, March 7, 1811. 

Samuel Clark and Bathsheba Porter, Nov. 21, 1811. 

Joseph Little (Boscawen) and Sarah Burns Luey, March 12, 1812. 

Aaron Post, Jr., and Eliza Gibson Luey, April 19, 1812. 

Samuel Huggins and Mary Russell, July 9, 1812. 

Barna Palmer and Dorothy Bissell Shapleigh, Jan. 28, 1813. 

Daniel Kingsbury (Plainfield) and Sybil Aldrich, Nov. 23, 1814. 

David Dana (Pomfret, Vt.) and Rebecca H. Chase, Feb. 23, 1814. 

Samuel Read and Mary Stevens, Dec. 22, 1814. 

Levi Nichols (Enosburg, Vt.) and Rachel Smith, Jan. 10, 1815. 

Philip Walker (Croydon) and Betsey King (Grantham), Jan. 12, 1815. 



356 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Josiah B. True (Salisbury) and Abigail Roberts (Plainfield), Jan. 15, 1815. 

John Gove, Jr., and - Scott (both of Grantham), Aug. 19, 1815. 

Oliver Sawyer and Betsey Russell, Sept. 24, 1815. 

David Elliott (Coventry, Vt.) and Laura Chase, Feb. 18, 1816. 

Josiah Bemis and Esther Riggs, April 13, 1817. 

Theodore Clark and Betsey Davis, Sept. 30, 1817. 

Abner Wilder and Ruhama Paine, Dec. 21, 1817. 

John Gage (Grantham) and Hannah Norton, Feb. 15, 1818. 

Josiah Putney (Hopkinton) and Eliza True (Plainfield), Feb. 15, 1818. 

James Emerson (Haverhill, Mass.) and Betsey Bradley, Feb. 19, 1818. 

Otis Copeland (Braintree, Vt.) and Rebecca Wilder, March 19, 1818. 

Josiah Gove and Mary Brown, April 21, 1818. 

Amos Rice (Weathersfield, Vt.) and Anna Whiting (Claremont), May 3, 1818. 

Moses Abbott and Abigail Burrill, Aug. 10, 1819. 

Relief Spaulding and Dorothy Lamberton, Aug. 9, 1819. 

Eliab Ripley and Fanny Clark (Plainfield), Dec. 3, 1819. 

Perley Fifield and Miriam Morgan (both of Plainfield), Jan. 23, 1820. 

Joshua York and Hannah Bishop (Windsor, Vt.), March 13, 1820. 

William E. Smith (Grantham) and Lucy M. Johnson (Plainfield), April 12, 1820. 

Stephen Pingrey (Lebanon) and Judith True (Plainfield), Dec. 18, 1820. 

Asa Collins and Sally Brown (both of Plainfield), Feb. 7, 1821. 

Lovell Spaulding (Northumberland) and Laura Clark (Plainfield), Oct. 22, 

1821. 
Wibur Andrews and Orinda Ross (both of Plainfield), Oct. 22, 1821. 
Nathaniel Goodale (Morristown, Vt.) and Mary Thompson, Jan. 26, 1823. 
John Allen, Jr., and Dorothy Gove, March 20, 1823. 

Paschal E. Burnham (Windsor, Vt.) and Asenath Williams, Nov. 20, 1823. 
Moses Wright (Enosburg, Vt.) and Ruth Smith, Jan. 12, 1824. 
Charles Stanley (Dublin) and Lucy Winch, Nov. 30, 1824. 
Stephen M. Bush (Orwell, Vt.) and Salome M. Morse, Sept. 9, 1827. 
Rufus Wheeler (Plainfield) and Sarah Bingham, April 8, 1830. 
James Stone and Mary Whitby (both then of Cornish), Dec. 29, 1821. 
Edward Aiken and Lucinda Stone, Feb. 27, 1823. 
Mr. Tucker (New York City) and Louisa Wigginson Brown (Boston), Jan. 17, 

1826. 
George A. Simmons (Boston) and Belinda R. Wells, Sept. 5, 1832. 
Lemuel Thompson (Boston) and Eliza Hall, Nov. 11, 1833. 
Danford Belden (Orwell, Vt.) and Betsey Tasker, June 1, 1834. 
Alvah Smith and Eliza Thomas, June 5, 1834. 

The marriages of this list, that should follow, have not been fully secured, 
excepting since 1861. After this date the record shows the entire list up to the 
present time. Beginning with 1887 the law compels an elaborate tabulated 
record of all vital statistics. This has been a great aid to the compiler. 

Marriages from 1861-1910. 

Martin V. Chapman and Matilda Jordan (both of Plainfield), Dec. 31, 1861. 
J. J. Ferson and Rhoda A. Doyle, May 13, 1861. 



MARRIAGES NOT FOUND IN ITS GENEALOGIES. 357 

Abial Lane and Marian Butman, Jan. 1, 1863. 

C. H. Hopkins and Susan C. Logan, March 17, 1863. 
Ezekiel Place and Sophronia Albe, Oct. 24, 1863. 
George H. Corliss and Susan A. Austin, Nov. 12, 1863. 
Edward A. Worthen and Marietta Simonds, Dec. 12, 1863. 
William Goodwin and Amanda Willey, Dec. 12, 1863. 
William A. Wells and Celia A. Hill, Dec. 15, 1863. 
Charles Watriss and Mary Mead, Oct. 18, 1863. 

Rufus Cobb and Julia Brown, Feb. 6, 1864. 
James D. Squires and Mary E. Hall, July 25, 1864. 
Denison Pratt and Cynthia Smith, Sept. 9, 1864. 
Cyrus R. Bagley and Jennie E. Sleeper, Aug. 17, 1864. 
David Morrison and Sarah D. Bartlett, Oct. 18, 1864. 
Leander Sanderson and Eliza M. Paine, Feb. 26, 1865. 
John Conlin and Ellen Gilbert, Oct. 28, 1865. 
Joshua B. Wilcox and Hannah M. Redmond, Dec. 27, 1865. 
Samuel E. Barnard and Janette Burr, Oct. 13, 1865. 
George F. Johnson and Adeline Willey, Dec. 31, 1865. 
Henry F. Sears and Sarah J. Walker, Aug. 21, 1866. 

Edgar A. Chapman and Laughton, Dec. 31, 1868. 

Henry J. Pollard and H. W. Barrcws, Nov. 2, 1869. 
Benjamin F. Foster and Nettie B. Spaulding, Dec. 7, 1869. 
Eugene Parker Robinson and Hattie Abbie Fitch, May 12, 1869. 
Leonard W. Newell and Abbie A. Jones, Dec. 24, 1870. 
John P. Foster and Mary J. Kenyon, Dec. 9, 1870. 
James Moran and Lucia A. Chapman, Aug. 18, 1870. 
George W. Hunt and Minerva Kendrick, Aug. 18, 1871. 
William W. Cook and Clara Ferguson, Dec. 16, 1871. 

D. F. Cutting and Luella Stearns, May 29, 1872. 
Justus O. Cole and Lizzie Ann Hilliard, Oct. 26, 1872. 
Charles F. Blaisdell and Katharine A. Wadrobe, April 20, 1872. 
Charles H. Hobart and Lizzie L. Spaulding, Feb. 18, 1873. 
Calvin T. Dunklee and Amoret S. Felt, July 12, 1873. 

Edwin J. Fletcher and Mary Sears, Sept. 28, 1873. 
Albert O. Davis and Mary Livingston, Oct. 23, 1873. 
Joseph S. Stickney and Emily F. Jordan, March 25, 1874. 
Atwood W. Reed and Sarah Moores, June 22, 1874. 
Ransom G. Hastings and Ella M. Davis, Nov. 27, 1874. 
Jabez P. Reed and Mrs. Lydia B. Rice, April 13, 1875. 
John E. Bradley and Alice Martin, June 1, 1876. 
Thomas T. Burnham and Ida Carlisle, Sept. 25, 1876. 
Homer L. Morgan and Susan A. Hathorn, Sept. 30, 1876. 
Henry P. Crandall and Ella F. Willis, July 4, 1876. 
Orlando C. Boynton and Louise A. Chase, Feb. 8, 1877. 
Adam Sawyer and Ada Dodge, July 3, 1877. 
Isaac Godfrey and Abbie White, Aug. 9, 1877. 
George E. Wilson and Jennie P. Jackson, Jan. 1, 1878. 
Darwin L. Dow and Sarah E. Cheney, Sept. 17, 1878. 



358 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Arthur W. Britton and Tilla C. Chadwick, March 22, 1879. 
Albert Monroe and Fannie J. Martin, Jan. 14, 1880. 
Giles Pratt and Lucy A. Chapman, Feb. 24, 1880. 
Henry Hoisington and Linda Thompson, April 10, 1880. 
Edgar A. Royce and Ada E. Cutts, Nov. 24, 1880. 
Martin M. Williams and Alice S. Williams, Feb. 16, 1881. 
James W. Dana and Eva Boyd, Feb. 27, 1881. 
William A. Sweet and Alvira Strong, Jan. 28, 1882. 
Fred B. Newman and Minnie White, Nov. 27, 1882. 
George A. Burke and Rosa B. Gardem, June 6, 1883. 
Rufus A. Kidder and Delia A. Fairbanks, March 22, 1884. 
Lemuel A. Price and Celia A. Buck, April 26, 1884. 
Edmund Pendleton and Lizzie Shattuck, June 2, 1884. 
Lucian I. Pingree and Lurette E. Sargent, July 2, 1884. 
J. A. Graves and Carrie Nichols, Aug. 18, 1884. 
Carlos D. Royce and Kate Adams, Nov. 16, 1884. 
George W. Whittle and Bertha Wilder, Nov. 25, 1884. 
Willard A. Northrop and Ada C. Webster, Sept. 6, 1885. 
Napoleon Miller and Mrs. Ruth Spaulding, Feb. 2, 1886. 
Albert C. Stafford and Mrs. Mary C. Barrows, May 4, 1886. 
Dana Martin and Jennie J. Sargent, July 19, 1886. 
James H. Purrey and Clarissa L. Spaulding, Sept. 4, 1886. 
Charles B. Weeden and A. Joslyn, Feb. 9, 1887. 
Frederic Billings and Kate Marshall, Aug. 17, 1887. 
Winfield S. Newman and Mary F. White, Nov. 23, 1887. 
John Nelson and Jennie E. Home, Jan. 10, 1888. 
Clarence G. Osmore and Nillar F. Thayer, March 9, 1889. 
Charles F. Wright and Gertie E. Elmer, April 29, 1889. 
James L. W. Thayer and Julia M. Olney, Oct, 13, 1889. 
Dana Boyd and Mary E. Plant, Feb. 9, 1890. 
Michael J. Regan and Ella B. Rowe, Sept. 7, 1890. 
Erwin E. Williams and Jennie M. Dana, Sept. 20, 1890. 

Clark McCane and Rosa Stone, , 1890 (?). 

Charles E. Curtis and Emma G. Andrews, Jan. 21, 1892. 
Albert A. Lawton and Nellie A. Royce, Aug. 17, 1892. 
Freeman T. Watton and Estella E. Davis, Jan. 17, 1893. 
Hosea L. Hadley and Ann M. Mattoon, Jan. 23, 1893. 
Fred S. Shepard and Gertrude Sturtevant, April 17, 1893. 
Edmund Marcott and Kate Quigly, June 16, 1893. 
Webster W. Pratt and Agnes Donald, April 15, 1894. 
Daniel W. Ackley and Catherine McCreedy, April 17, 1894. 
Oliver W. Bythrow and Lavina Sterling, July 4, 1894. 
Willis Willey and Ella J. Hugaboom, Sept. 25, 1895. 
A. WiUett and Caroline Norton, May 26, 1896. 
Fred H. Elliott and Lena E. Kempton, Nov. 25, 1896. 
George A. Sargent and Mary Monet, April 30, 1897. 
John W. Stewart and Mary B. Brown, Sept. 6, 1897. 
George R. Gassett and Abbie S. Hunt, Oct. 6, 1897. 



DEATHS NOT FOUND IN ITS GENEALOGIES. 359 

Edward E. Webster and Nellie Kimpton, Dec. 27, 1897. 

John C. Fairchild and Charlotte E. Houston, Sept. 27, 1898. 

Louis Herschell and Lena O. Pope, March 30, 1899. 

Fred C. Smith and Blanche A. Perkins, April 25, 1899. 

Chester A. Spaulding and Myrtie W. Packard, Sept. 2, 1899. 

Scott E. Jordan and Addie E. Packard, Sept. 2, 1899. 

Loren C. Horton and Effie J. Rollins, Sept. 19, 1899. 

Stephen M. Thornton and Aurilla A. Hurd, March 11, 1901. 

George M. Hodgman and Martha A. Harrington, March 22, 1901. 

Daniel W. Ackley and Bertha A. Rice, April 2, 1901. 

Alfred E. Kirk and Gertie G. Magoon, Dec. 25, 1901. 

Leonard F. Johnson and Mrs. Clara D. Kempton, Dec. 26, 1901. 

Israel Chamberlain and May M. Spaulding, Sept. 4, 1904. 

Fred E. Emery and Lena M. Woodard, Feb. 28, 1905. 

Samuel F. Smith and Cora G. Judd, Aug. 12, 1905. 

Robert A. Walker and Mary Ellen Leslie, Dec. 24, 1905. 

Harry L. KeUogg and Ethel H. Pardy, Oct. 24, 1906. 

George J. Compton and A. Maude Kitchen, Nov. 20, 1906. 

Nelson A. Potwin and Myra A. Smith, Aug. 16, 1907. 

Frank V. Walker and Ina A. Pardy, Sept. 18, 1907. 

Cleveland H. Curtis and Mrs. Helen B. Peabody, Nov. 7, 1907. 

John B. Wright and Mrs. Frances L. Whitney, March 1, 1908. 

Herbert L. Robinson and Julia A. Howard, Aug. 12, 1909. 

Noel J. Huggins and Louise D. Rodgers, Oct. 18, 1909. 

Jesse O. Dwyer and Amelia H. Colton, Nov. 16, 1909. 

Leonard Smith and Viola C. Chapman, Feb. 14, 1910. 

Clarence H. Stygles and Mary E. Gordon, Feb. 22, 1910. 

John Bean and Mary A. Kewak, March 22, 1910. 

George McDonald and Viola Picknell, April 24, 1910. 

Henry M. Bean and Josephine L. Bean, May 26, 1910. 

Darwin B. Johnson and Flora B. Jordan, June 8, 1910. 

Justin White and Nora E. Despe, June 8, 1910. 

Webster O. Sanders and Idella Quimby, Oct. 17, 1910. 

William H. Curtis and Carrie E. Clark, Dec. 4, 1910. 

Chester A. Wright and Ola W. Gay (of Boston), Dec. 10, 1910. 

Two hundred forty-four marriages not in genealogies. 

LIST OF DEATHS NOT FOUND IN GENEALOGIES. 

Abbott, Moses, Nov. 17, 1848, 77 yrs. 

Allds, Sarah, widow of James, June 14, 1814, 72 yrs. 

Allen, Hosea, Nov. 26, 1843, 45 yrs. 

Allen, Lydia, Feb. 12, 1875, 84 yrs. 

Allen, dau. of William, April 22, 1833, 16 yrs. 

Allen, child of John, Jr., , 1826. 

Allen, child of John, Jr., April 27, 1827. 
Arguin, Louise, June 20, 1902, 82 yrs. 



360 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Austin, Wilbur M., March 26, 1860, 4 yrs. 

Austin, George S., Sept. 18, 1871. 

Bachelor, Peter C, son of Caleb and Prudentia, Aug. 12, 1803, 5 yrs. 

Bachelor, Betsey, dau. of Caleb and Prudentia, Aug. 10, 1803, 3 yrs. 

Bachelor, child of S., March 24, 1827, 6 yrs. 

Bachelor, , child of James, March 23, 1842, 6 yrs. 

Bachelor, child of "Mrs. Bachelor," June 27, 1846. 

Bachelor, Sam., Sept. 7., 1892 (infant). 

Bailey, Walter E., son of Emma, Jan. 12, 1876. 

Baker, Hattie A., wife of Elder L. F., Aug. 4, 1880, 24 yrs. 

Barney, Mrs. Harvey, June 9, 1878, 79 yrs. 

Barton, Russell, Aug. 17, 1899, 12 yrs., 9 mos., 7 d. 

Bartlett, Mrs. Alonzo J., July 27, 1883, 43 yrs. 

Bartlett, infant of Gamaliel, July — , 1826. 

Bartlett, child of Gamaliel, April 12, 1832, 2 yrs. 

Bartlett, Chester, son of Nathaniel and Amy, April 28, 1799, 1 yr. 

Bartlett, Erastus, son of Gamaliel, Sept. 18, 1825, 2 yrs. 

Bean, Henry E., May 19, 1885. 

Beers, Charles M., Sept. 1, 1888, 39 yrs. 

Benton, Olive, wife of Jonathan, March 18, 1846, 88 yrs. 

Benway, Charles E., April 29, 1867. 

Billings, Edward P., Dec. 30, 1894, 3 yrs., 7 mos., 22 d. 

Billings, Fred M., Jan. 4, 1895, 6 yrs., 3 mos., 12 d. 

Bixby, Amasa, Aug. 5, 1850, 85 yrs. 

Bixby, wife of Amasa, Jan. 8, 1845, 81 yrs. 

Bixby, Amos, April 15, 1904, 84 yrs., 10 mos. 

Bernard, Samuel, April 9, 1846, 60 yrs. 

Bernard, Huldah Gilbert, his wife, Aug. 28, 1882, 78 yrs. 

Bernard, Hollis G., their son, Oct. 1, 1841, 1 yr. 

Blanchard, child of Henry, Dec. 8, 1835, 4 yrs. 

Blanchard, Amarilla, dau. of Nathaniel and Sarah, Aug. 5, 1824, 24 yrs. 

Bomar, Katie, July 24, 1908, 33 yrs. 

Boyd, David, Sept. 10, 1871. 

Boyd, Lulu, March 24, 1882. 

Brewer, "Mrs." (No further inscription.) 

Brewer, Experience, dau. of Betsey, Oct. 30, 1795. 

Brigham, Lucy, wife of Enoch, Aug. 18, 1828, 36 yrs. 

Brocklebank, James, Sept. 25, 1903, 74 yrs. 

Bryant, Calvin, Feb. 18, 1810, 27 yrs. 

Burbank, Franklin, June 28, 1896, 80 yrs., 7 mos., 9 d. 

Burbank, Mary, his wife, Nov. 8, 1890, 84 yrs. 

Burham, Abigail, Feb. 19, 1899, 74 yrs., 9 mos., 10 d. 

Burr, Versel, Aug. 14, 1837, 11 yrs. 

Burke, Lucy, wife of Benjamin Franklin, March 25, 1841, 27 yrs. 

Burke, Susan M., her dau., July 11, 1840, 1 yr. 

Burnham, M. M., July 24, 1882. 

Butman, Mrs. Olive, Feb. 5, 1836, 87 yrs. 

Butman, Sybil, Feb. 27, 1883. 



DEATHS NOT FOUND IN ITS GENEALOGIES. 361 

Bythrow, Horace A., Jan. 14, 1901, 72 yrs., 10 mos., 10 d. 

Bythrow, Charles N., his son, Aug. 9, 1898, 36 yrs. 

Bythrow, infant of Charles N. and Lucy, Aug. 24, 1896. 

Bythrow, Mabel M., dau. of C. N. and Lucy, Sept. 16, 1890. 

Campbell, Josiah, infant of David and Lydia, March 25, 1807, 2 yrs. 

Carroll, James, Oct. 7, 1873, 83 yrs. 

Carroll, wife of James, July — , 1835. 

Carroll, infant child of James, June 2, 1835. 

Cass, dau. of Frank, May 16, 1885. 

Chase, Elizabeth, dau. of Cotton, May — , 1843. 

Chase, Elizabeth, infant dau. of A. and M., Jan. 4, 1845. 

Chase, Sarah, Aug. 1, 1872. 

Chaffin, Palmer, Nov. 7, 1862. 

Chamberlain, Harry P., June 27, 1874. 

Chambers, infant of "Mrs. Chambers," Feb. 25, 1831. 

Chapman, Mary Jane, Nov. 10, 1903, 62 yrs., 3 mos., 15 d. 

Chapman, Alvin, infant son of Stephen and Lydia, Jan. 8, 1813. 

Chapman, Caroline Matilda, infant dau. of Rev. Benjamin, March 17, 1800. 

Clapp, "Mr. Clapp," Jan. 1, 1841, 18 yrs. 

Clark, Harry, Oct. 16, 1841, 57 yrs. 

Clark, Samuel, Jan. 23, 1873, 90 yrs. 

Clark, Bathsheba, his wife, Nov. 25, 1855, 68 yrs. 

Clark, Samuel W., their son, Oct. 13, 1855, 2 yrs. 

Clark, Elizabeth Bean, his wife, Jan. 1, 1892, 67 yrs. 

Clark, Polly, July 3, 1817, 41 yrs. 

Clement, Roxana, wife of William, March 4, 1832, 43 yrs. 

Clement, child of William, April 8, 1829, 4 yrs. 

Coats, "Mrs. Coats," Aug. 6, 1829, 29 yrs. 

Colby, Rebecca, July 19, 1889. 

Corser, Mary M., June 2, 1887, 74 yrs. 

Cotton, Ebenezer, July 20, 1865, 78 yrs. 

Cotton, Mary, Oct. 21, 1876, 81 yrs. 

Cotton, Ellen, Feb. 15, 1861, 20 yrs. 

Coburn, Smith, July 17, 1864. 

Cole, Francis A., June — , 1871. 

Coburn, child of Ellen, Feb. 21, 1875. 

Coult, Peter, March 23, 1875, 26 yrs. (See Fatalities.) 

Conlin, Mary, Aug. 3, 1891, 63 yrs. 

Corliss, Ella H., Aug. 24, 1906, 62 yrs., 20 d. 

Cranford, Jane L., Jan. 10, 1892, 72 yrs. 

Cummings, infant dau. of Edward W. and Carrie, March 22, 1892. 

Currier, Polly. (Date effaced by time.) 

Curtis, Widow Dorcas, Sept. 3, 1827, 78 yrs. 

Curtis, Franklin H., son of Hartley, June 23, 1888. (See Fatalities.) 

Curtis, William E., brother of last, April 10, 1897, 29 yrs. 

Curtis, infant son of last, Sept. 5, 1896. 

Curtis, Horace, Aug. 21, 1886. 

Daniels, William H., July 28, 1881, 37 yrs., 10 mos. 



362 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Dannatt, Robert, Aug. 26, 1890, 79 yrs. 

Dannatt, Robert, son of above, May 21, 1906, 35 yrs., 3 mos., 3 d. 

Dannatt, Emma C, June 6, 1902, 35 yrs., 4 mos., 24 d. 

Davidson, Ira, March 26, 1875, 76 yrs. 

Davis, Bailey, Oct. 8, 1875, 54 yrs. 

Davis, Albert O., March 13, 1892, 39 yrs. 

Davis, Nellie M., Jan. 10, 1904, 33 yrs. (A teacher.) 

Deming, Mary A., Oct. 10, 1893, 28 yrs., 2 mos., 24 d. 

Deming, Lizzie M., Dec. 16, 1869. 

DeGoosh, Ann, Sept. 8, 1893, 81 yrs. 

DeGoosh, infant of Elmer, Jan. 7, 1896. 

Dodge, Amos, Aug. 29, 1881, 73 yrs. 

Douglas, son of Ansel, Sept. 21, 1883, 19 mos. 

Duncldee, Calvin T., May 30, 1898. 

Duncklee, Mary J., Feb. 15, 1896, 69 yrs., 2 mos., 15 d. 

Dunbar, Charles, Feb. 10, 1875, 89 yrs. 

Dunlop, Robert, Jan. 16, 1801, 47 yrs. 

Dudley, Mary, Oct. 24, 1862. 

Dustin, Widow Jemina, Sept. 23, 1836. 

Dutton, Amasa, Aug. 5, 1832. • 

Eager, Abraham, Jan. 11, 1834, 6 yrs. 

Eaton, Charles, July 28, 1876, 20 yrs. 

Edgerton, Calvin, son of Eliphalet, Sept. 28, 1828, 18 yrs. (At K. U. A.) 

Elms, infant of E., March 12, 1829. 

Emery, Peter, April 12, 1897, 68 yrs., 9 mos., 20 d. 

Emery, Eliza, his wife, March 8, 1908, 78 yrs., 11 mos., 7 d. 

Emerson, Moses, July 16, 1847, 70 yrs. 

Emerson, Sarah, his wife, Nov. 10, 1854, 75 yrs. 

Emerson, Moses B., only son of last, Aug. 20, 1841, 24 yrs. 

Esterbrook, Eliza, April 11, 1865. 

Esterbrook, Chauncy, Jan. 29, 1908, 78 yrs., 5 mos. 

Farnum, Moses, Sept. 19, 1828, 54 yrs. 

Farnum, wife of Moses, Sept. 27, 1828, 55 yrs. 

Fisher, Horace, Aug. 22, 1831, 19 yrs. 

Fitch, James, Oct. 25, 1803, 23 yrs. 

Flint, Dea. Josiah, Jan. 6, 1842, 79 yrs. 

Flint, Rebecca, his wife, April 24, 1840, 78 yrs. 

Flint, J. J., June 10, 1884. 

Flint, John W., May 21, 1894, 30 yrs. 

Follett, Levi, Feb. 1, 1837, 76 yrs. 

Follett, Sarah, his wife, Oct. 12, 1823. 

Forehand, Christopher C, April 12, 1882, 61 yrs. 

Forehand, Eliza C, his wife, May 15, 1883, 56 yrs. 

Forehand, Willie L., their son, Sept. 17, 1876, 10 yrs. 

Forehand, Charles E., son of Sullivan, Nov. 25, 1901, 29 yrs., 3 mos. 

Forehand, Maude E., his wife, Jan. 27, 1905, 28 yrs., 1 mo., 4 d. 

Freeman, Edward J., April 4, 1888, 64 yrs., 10 mos., 1 d. 

Frost, Eleanor B., March 30, 1896, 45 yrs., 10 mos., 4 d. 



DEATHS NOT FOUND IN ITS GENEALOGIES. 363 

Fifield, Charles P., July 30, 1871. 

Fitch, Julia A., Oct. 30, 1871. 

Foster, Anna, dau. of Jacob and Sarah, Sept. 4, 1803, 19 yrs. 

Gates, child of Trobridge, Oct. — , 1838. 

Gates, "Mr. Gates at the river," Dec. — , 1842. 

Gates, John, June 26, 1879, 80 yrs. 

Garland, Harold A., infant son of E. H., Feb. 25, 1907. 

Gee, Carlos, March 26, 1876, 3 yrs. 

Gentle, Louis, infant of Louis and Sarah, Feb. 21, 1897. 

Gilkey, Laura A., Feb. 9, 1897, 77 yrs. 

Gilkey, Charles, son of James, Feb. 11, 1901, 74 yrs., 4 mos., 12 d. 

Goodrich, Dr. Josiah, son of Hezekiah, May 18, 1802, 31 yrs. 

"His duty finished to mankind. 
To God his spirit he resigned." 

(Epitaph.) 
Gould, Daniel, April 11, 1814, 18 yrs. 
Gleason, Elizabeth P., April 10, 1877. 
Griggs, Charles, Oct. 23, 1798, 17 yrs. 
Grow, Adeline, March 18, 1869. 

Grover, Patience, wife of William, April 9, 1871, 74 yrs. 
Grover, Eldad, infant of Eldad and Sarah, March 30, 1773. 
Graves, Sarah, wife of Eldad, June 15, 1774. 
Hadley, Florence, dau. of James and Jane, Jan. 20, 1900, 17 yrs. 
Hadley, Avis, Feb. 23, 1909, 76 yrs. 
Hall, Widow Olive, Aug. 14, 1829, 73 yrs. 
Hardy, Timothy, Sept. 26, 1873, 80 yrs. 
Hardy, Ann Nichols, his wife, April 24, 1870, 72 yrs. 
Harris, Nathan, Feb. 22, 1900, 61 yrs., 9 mos. 
Harris, Leroy, his son, June 14, 1899, 19 yrs., 7 mos., 25 d. 
Hart, Benjamin, Feb. 19, 1881, 84 yrs. 

Hawley, Franklin Z., son of Zebina and C. M., Nov. 3, 1842, 3 yrs. 
Haynes, John, son of Nathan and Hannah, Aug. 24, 1799, 2 yrs. 
Haynes, Joshua, son of Nathan and Hannah, Aug. 17, 1803, 3 yrs. 
Haynes, Mrs. Joseph, March 14, 1828, 71 yrs. 
Heady, child of "Mrs. Heady," Jan. — , 1837, 7 yrs. 
Heath, Truman L., July 13, 1892, 62 yrs. (See Military.) 
Heath, Sarah I. Russell, his wife, Aug. 22, 1861, 32 yrs. 
Heath, Maurice, their infant son, July 20, 1859, 2 yrs. 
Herrick, Elizabeth, wife of Elisha, Oct. 19, 1794, 24 yrs. 
Herrick, Amos, their infant son, Nov. 20, 1794. 
Herrick, Sarah, wife of Elisha, Aug. 17, 1803, 39 yrs. 
Herrick, infant of Sarah and Elisha, April 15, 1796. 
Herrick, Betsey, dau. of Elisha and Sarah, Aug. 30, 1803. 
Hibbard, Daniel, Oct. 21, 1776, at Ticonderoga, N. Y. 
Hicks, Levi, Dec. 28, 1875, 78 yrs. 
Hicks, Tamson, his wife (?), May 11, 1866, 77 yrs. 
Hickson, George H., Sept. 15, 1897, 47 yrs., 1 mo., 11 d. 



364 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Hitchcock, Edward, Sept. 10, 1864. 

Horton, Zenas, Jr., Feb. 25, 1829, 28 yrs. 

Hodgman, Lucy Ann, Jan. 8, 1890, 54 yrs. 

Hodgson, Flossie, May 21, 1901, 19 yrs., 6 mos. 

Humphrey, Samuel, March 19, 1886, 80 yrs. 

Humphrey, H. Maria, his wife, Feb. 13, 1888, 75 yrs. 

Humphrey, Shirley Walter, son of Willard, March 9, 1876, 1 yr. 

Hunt, Clementine M., June 20, 1903, 19 yrs., 10 mos., 25 d. 

Hyde, Mary Ann, dau. of Asaph and Dorothy, June 25, 1829, 18 yrs. 

Jones, Fred L., son of Silas L. and M. K., Aug. 17, 1878, 23 yrs. 

Jondro, Clayton A., son of J. and M., Aug. 16, 1893, 4 yrs. 

Johnson, Nancy, Feb. 11, 1865. 

Jordan, Ellen, Nov. — , 1878. 

Jordan, Morris, Feb. — , 1879. 

Jordan, Margaret, June 10, 1879. 

Judd, Wilbur H., infant of Charles and Lucy E., Sept. 3, 1865. 

Judd, infant son of Justin and Mattie E., Aug. 21, 1897. 

Judkins, Marcellus, Dec. 23, 1861. (See Soldiers' Monument.) 

Kelley, Charles, June 30, 1871. 

Kenney, Mehitable S., Nov. 13, 1870, 80 yrs. 

Kenney, Clarabell, June 18, 1866, 20 yrs. 

Ketchum, Grace, infant of Dr. Henry B., Nov. 6, 1900. 

Keating, son of Thomas, June 30, 1878, 11 yrs. 

Kimball, Clarissa, wife of James, Oct. 18, 1806, 19 yrs. 

Kimball, her infant child, Oct. 18, 1806. 

Kimball, Ella, March 6, 1901, 44 yrs., 1 mo., 5 d. 

Knight, Henry C, Aug. 10, 1880. 

Lamson, Jonathan J., July 10, 1896, 72 yrs., 11 mos., 13 d. 

Lane, Hannah, Aug. 19, 1829, 64 yrs. 

Locke, Lavinia A. (Russell), Jan. 26, 1899, 81 yrs., 3d. 

Locke, Charles E., April 22, 1892, 49 yrs. 

Lougee, Joseph. (Grave unmarked.) 

Lougee, Lucy Dodge, his wife, Jan. 28, 1871, 44 yrs. 

Lyscom, Sarah Payne, wife of Darius, Oct. 31, 1864, 78 yrs. 

Marble, infant son of Enoch and Anna, March 16, 1801. 

Marcott, Nelson, Oct. 13, 1901, 49 yrs. 

Marcott, Mary E., Jan. 12, 1905, 72 yrs. 

Marcott, Thomas, July 18, 1905. 

Marcy, Stephen, son of George S., July 18, 1900, 23 yrs., 1 mo., 22 d. 

Marcy, John S., Sept. 28, 1838, 38 yrs. 

Marston, Jonathan, April 24, 1834, 19 yrs. 

Marston, wife of William, Sept. — , 1842, 26 yrs. 

Marshall, James, June 7, 1900, 70 yrs. 

Marshall, Emily, Feb. 8, 1899, 45 yrs. 

Martin, Mr., of Northboro, Mass., Nov. 25, 1838. 

Mathews, Lucy, Feb. 15, 1889, 98 yrs., 5 mos., 7d. 

McGovern, Mary, May 9, 1892, 44 yrs. 

McAllister, Lydia, March 15, 1891, 87 yrs. 



DEATHS NOT FOUND IN ITS GENEALOGIES. 365 

Merrow, Mary, dau of. John and Clara, Aug. 12, 1803, 4 yrs. 

Mellen, Eleanor C., May 6, 1906, 86 yrs. 

Miller, Ruth R., wife of Napoleon, Feb. 2, 1898. 

Moore, Fred, July 10, 1879, 17 yrs. 

Morrill, infant of Levi, Nov. 11, 1829. 

Morrill, child of William F. C., Sept. 3, 1849. 

Morse, Betsey, June 23, 1834, 34 yrs. 

Muzzy, Jonathan, Jan. 9, 1846. 

Muzzy, wife of Jonathan, Aug. — , 1844. 

Nelson, Eunice D., Jan. 15, 1890, 74 yrs. 

Nelson, Alfred J., April 3, 1908. 

Nelson, Benjamin F., Feb. 5, 1909, 29 yrs., 1 mo., 1 d. 

Newman, Mrs. Franklin, Oct. 22, 1880, 58 yrs. 

Newman, Frank P., son of Fred, Oct. 15, 1889, 2 yrs. 

Newton, Harriet M., Sept. 27, 1857, 17 yrs. (Suicide.) 

Newton, Laura W., Feb. 9, 1896. 

Newton, Francis, April 7, 1830, 77 yrs. 

Norton, Harriet, Aug. 3, 1864. 

Norris, Mary, dau. of Senator Moses Norris, May 2, 1897, 51 yrs., 6 mos. 

Nutting, Cyrus, son of Timothy, July - — , 1841. 

Paine, Sarah, wife of Darius Lyscom, Oct. 31, 1864, 78 yrs. 

Parker, Mary, first wife of Capt. Stephen, July 27, 1793, 54 yrs. 

Parker, Sarah P., wife of Joseph, April 24, 1821, 25 yrs. 

Parker, Mrs. Rev. John, Oct. 27, 1876, 55 yrs., 6 mos. 

Parkhurst, Abbie J., Aug. 18, 1867. 

Peach, Julia A. Bailey, dau. of P. A. Hardy, Nov. 30, 1871, 36 yrs. 

Penniman, Zurviah, wife of Thomas, July 30, 1832, 84 yrs. 

Perry, Wid. of Capt. David, (Anna Bliss), Oct. — , 1835, 90 yrs. 

Phelps, Calista, Feb. 15, 1898. 

Phillips, Zephaniah, Aug. 23, 1808, 43 yrs. 

Pierce, Elizabeth, wife of Nathaniel, April 5, 1863, 65 yrs. 

Phillips, George F., son of Hiram, Feb. 14, 1887, 32 yrs., 6 mos., 10 d. 

Pike, Miss Ruth, June 6, 1828, 50 yrs. 

Picknell, Clifford A., Aug. 13, 1905, 9 mos. 

Piatt, Captain, Dec. 27, 1828. 

Piatt, Mrs., March 16, 1828. "Old Age." 

Poland, Lucinda, dau. of A. and M. P., Jan. 16, 1847, 14 yrs. 

Porter, Sarah, wife of Isaac, Oct. 8, 1828, 24 yrs. 

Porter, Mrs., Jan. — , 1837. 

Porter, Wid. Lucy, Sept. 19, 1830, 76 yrs. 

Porter, Ruth, wife of Lyman, June 15, 1871. 

Porter, Arlettie, her dau., June 8, 1871. 

Prout, Henrietta, dau. of Thomas E., Oct. 3, 1878, 9 yrs. 

Prout, Willie, brother of last, May 3, 1879, 19 yrs. 

Putney, Sarah D., wife of Charles E., July 15, 1881, 28 yrs. 

Quimby, Enoch, July 18, 1878, 70 yrs. 

Quimby, wife of Enoch, Aug. 26, 1881, 50 yrs. 

Rawson, George H., son of Enos and Elvira, April 18, 1849, 6 yrs. 



366 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Rawson, James K. P., son of Enos and Elvira, March 2, 1849, 4 yrs. 
Reynolds, Mrs. Patrick, Dec. 30, 1876, 50 yrs. 
Read, Elisha, April — , 1839, 85 yrs. 
Read, Mary, his dau., Nov. 12, 1843. 
Read, Ernest P., Sept. 18, 1884. 
Redman, George, March — , 1902, 35 yrs. 
Rice, Alonzo V. P., Aug. 6, 1894, 81 yrs., 3 mos, 18 d. 
Rice, Rosarah (Spaulding), Nov. 28, 1893, 63 yrs., 28 d. 
Rickard, Levi, March 16, 1865. 
Rickard, first wife of Levi, May 9, 1846. 

Rickard, Lucy Allen, second wife of Levi, Jan. 6, 1885, 72 yrs., 11 mos. 
Robinson, George, May 24, 1865. 
Root, Elias, Jan. 17, 1868. 
Royce, Joel, March 27, 1875, 83 yrs. 
Royce, Seba. his wife, Nov. 20, 1846, 51 yrs. 
Royce, Calvin, their son, Nov. 30, 1834, 4 mos. 
Royce, Harvey, their son, May 9, 1837, 7 yrs. 
Russell, Hannah W., Jan. 10, 1894, 85 yrs., 2 mos., 2 d. 
Russell, Sarah, June 18, 1874, 76 yrs. 
Russell, Allen D., May 7, 1906, 67 yrs., 9 mos. 
Ryan, William P., Aug. 10, 1880. 
Ryan, James W., his son, Sept. 25, 1901, 75 yrs. 
Ryan, Forest C, Jan. 19, 1879, 6 yrs. 
Sanborn, Mary A., Oct. 19, 1900, 87 yrs., 3 mos. 
Sargent, Lovinia, wife of John E., Sept. 29, 1870. 
Sargent, Flora, dau. of P. C. and M. J., Feb. 5, 1895, 1 yr. 
Sargent, Electa, wife of J. R., May 15, 1878, 33 yrs. 
Sargent, infant of Mary, Sept. 5, 1896, 1 mo. 
Sargent, Mrs. Mary, Aug. 3, 1877, 83 yrs. 
Sawins, Sarah Richard, wife of Samuel, Jan. 20, 1842, 69 yrs. 
Sawyer, Sarah, Dec. 24, 1869. 
Seaver, Henry, Jan. 31, 1872. 
Seton, Christopher, June 15, 1830, 75 yrs. 
Shapley, Jabez, Sept. — , 1836, 90 yrs. 
Shaw, Mrs. Susan R. Stevens, June 14, 1892, 79 yrs. 
Shedd, John S., March 18, 1865. 
Smith, Hannah, Oct. 2, 1869. 
Smith, Lydia, March 7, 1873. 
Spaulding, Theodosia, Feb. 2, 1865. 
Spaulding, S. L., March 22, 1883. 
Stearns, Ida E., April 5, 1862. 

Shaw, John S., Nov. 20, 1893, 81 yrs., 11 mos., 5 d. 
Shepard, Rebecca M., Jan. 9, 1906, 87 yrs., 11 mos., 18 d. 
Sherwin, infant of Frank and Bertha Jones, Oct. 18, 1896. 
Shelly, Calvin, March — , 1847. 

Shedd, Bertie E., son of Reed and Electa, Sept. 4, 1875, 5 yrs. 
Silloway, Warren, son of William and Abigail, Sept. 15, 1889, 56 yrs., 5 mos. 
20 d. 



DEATHS NOT FOUND IN ITS GENEALOGIES. 367 

Skinner, Miss Betsey, Dec. 6, 1827, 22 yrs. 

Smart, Sarah S., dau. of Joseph and Polly, Nov. 28, 1897, 80 yrs., 11 mos. 

Small, J. M., son of Duane and L. N., Sept. 9, 1897, 17 d. 

Smith, Calista B., April 17, 1897. 

Smith, Sarah, wife of Capt. Samuel, March 1, 1815, 38 yrs. 

Smith, Albert, her son, Feb. 26, 1815, 9 yrs. 

Smith, Pethuel, son of Warren and Peggy, June 29, 1815, 7 yrs. 

Smith, Joseph, son of Walter and Anna, May 7, 1787, 17 mos. 

Solgee, John Jacob, Jan. 20, 1835, 84 yrs. 

Spofford, "Widow Spofford," Oct. 18, 1830, 95 yrs. 

Spaulding, Mary J., wife of Nathan, Feb. 21, 1887, 54 yrs., 6 mos., 2 d. 

Spaulding, Clarissa, dau. of Leonard and Sally, Aug. 5, 1803, 2 yrs. 

Spaulding, Lena May, dau. of Leonard, Jan. 5, 1887, 3 yrs. 

Spaulding, Mrs. Rhoda, Dec. 7, 1884. 

Spaulding, Anna, wife of Capt. Abel, Feb. 8, 1826, 37 yrs. 

Spaulding, Leonard D., Dec. 7, 1909, 71 yrs., 9 mos., 12 d. 

Spencer, Junius A., Feb. 12, 1889, 60 yrs., 7 mos., 12 d. 

Stearns, Harriet, Oct. 29, 1843, 47 yrs. 

Stone, Mary Jane (at Faith Home, Portsmouth), Feb. 24, 1881, 65 yrs. 

Stone, Wid. Elizabeth, March 31, 1850, 89 yrs. 

Stearns, Mary J., dau. of Charles, Oct. 1, 1894, 36 yrs., 4 mos., 25 d. (Suicide.) 

Stearns, Benjamin, March 20, 1875, 88 yrs. 

Story, Sarah W., May 14, 1902, 77 yrs., 3 mos., 25 d. 

Straw, Mrs. George H., Jan. 6, 1885, 41 yrs. 

Strong, Carter O., July, 1856, 19 yrs. (See Casualties.) 

Strong, G. B., brother of last, Oct. 3, 1907, 73 yrs., 11 mos., 23 d. 

Sturtevant, Elsie E., June 10, 1902, 18 yrs., 5 mos., 10 d. 

Tappan, Wid. Judith Solgee, March 21, 1836, 63 yrs. 

Tasker, Mrs. Rebecca H., April 4, 1838, 66 yrs. 

Thomas, Miss Sarah, Oct. 1, 1813, 44 yrs. "She by her own labor acquired 

the sum of 500 dollars, which she gave wholly by her will to the support of 

the gospel among the heathen." (Inscription.) 
Terry, Mary E., Feb. 1, 1908, 74 yrs., 6 mos., 7 d. 
Thatcher, "Mrs. Thatcher," May — , 1835. 
Thomas, Ann, Sept. 24, 1904, 70 yrs. 
Tinkham, child of Peter, Feb. 26, 1831, 9 yrs. 
Tinkham, infant of Peter, Oct. — , 1826. 
Tift, Joseph L. W., April 29, 1891, 62 yrs., 9 mos., 18 d. 
Town, Moses, May 28, 1841, 31 yrs. 

Town, Eliza Jane, dau. of Aaron and Mary, March 30, 1840, 5 yrs. 
Town, Wid. Betsey, Oct. 14, 1846, 68 yrs., at alms house. 
Tracy, Etta, July 3, 1874, 32 yrs. 
Trobridge, Mrs. James, July 27, 1883, 47 yrs. 
Tucker, Lucy, wife of Abijah, Jan. 12, 1796, 58 yrs. 
Turner, Laura Ann, Jan. 27, 1820, 2 mos. 
Thompson, J. M., April 28, 1874. 
Truman, N. T., June 28, 1885. 
Trodden, James W., Sept, 30, 1863. 



368 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Vinton, "Grandchild of Daniel," April 20, 1829. 

Voorhees, Henry, May 31, 1876, 40 yrs. 

Walker, Helen R., May 16, 1903, 58 yrs., 3 mos., 2 d. 

Walker, Katie, Sept. 16, 1900. 

Wardner, Frederic, Jan. 16, 1904, 76 yrs., 29 d. 

Waterman, Mrs. Albert, Dec. 26, 1877, 31 yrs. 

Welden, Alexander, Jan. 12, 1876, 26 yrs. 

Wetmore, Mary, dau. of David Marcott, Oct. 12, 1898, 30 yrs. 

Whitmore, Mrs. William, July 31, 1874, 23 yrs. 

Whitmore, Mrs. William (second wife), Dec. 22, 1879, 27 yrs. 

White, a child of "Mrs. White," Sept. — , 1834. 

Whipple, Benjamin, son of Jacob and Rhoda, July 9, 1799, 4 yrs. 

Whittaker, child of "Mrs. W.," Jan. 1, 1841. 

Wheeler, Diana, April 13, 1875, 76 yrs. 

Wellman, Merton, son of William P. and Ella L., July 11, 1868. 

Whitmore, Lillie, Nov. 28, 1870. 

Whitmore, Lydia, Sept. 8, 1872. 

Whitmore, Frances E., Feb. 13, 1876. 

Wiley, Susan, wife of Andrew, June 21, 1862, 63 yrs. 

Wilton, Guy, Jan. 9, 1892, 4 mos. 

Wilder, Gerrard S., Dec. 16? 1866, 17 yrs. 

Wilder, James, Dec. 31, 1873, 58 yrs. 

Winch, Luther, Feb. — , 1827. 

Williams, Mrs. A., Jan. 11, 1865. 

Williams, Edna M., April 11, 1871. 

Williams, Maria, March — , 1870. 

Williams, Amy Gates, Feb. 2, 1875. 

Williams, Electa, wife of Elisha, April 19, 1834, 33 yrs. 

Williams, Jonathan W., their son, April 27, 1833, 5 yrs. 

Williams, Eliza Ann, their dau., Jan. 21, 1837, 15 mos. 

Williams, "Widow Williams" in 1826. 

Williams, Gertie May, dau. of M. M. and A. L., Dec. 3, 1891, 9 yrs. 

Williams, Orlando E., Jan. 23, 1890, 55 yrs. 

Williams, Lucius F., son of Frank H., Feb. 8, 1899, 1 yr., 3 mos., 21 d. 

Williams, child of Frank H. and Norma K., Sept. 6, 1903. 

Williamson, Caleb B., Sept. 10, 1885, 67 yrs. (Accident; see Casualties.) 

Wood, Thomas, May 20, 1838, 36 yrs. 

Woodard, Rosa, March 17, 1898, 26 yrs. 

Wright, Thomas, Oct. 8, 1878, 50 yrs. 

Wright, Moses, Feb. 4, 1856, 91 yrs. 

Wright, Mary, his wife, June 1, 1833, 65 yrs. 

Wright, Loami, infant son of Eb. and Martha, July 20, 1785. 

Wyman, Leonard, infant son of Benjamin, Feb. 24, 1809. 

In all 429 names, mainly in alphabetical order. 






GENERAL INDEX 

Pages 

Approaches to Cornish 1 

Ascutney Mountain 254-255 

Blue Mountain Park 216-219 

Austin Corbin 218-219 

Present Directors 219 

Boundaries of Cornish 1 

Casualties 196-201 

Cemeteries 193-196 

Three Abandoned 193-194 

Eight Principal Cemeteries 194 

Census taken 1767 187 

1773 187 

1775 61,188 

1786 188 

1790 189-191 

Population and Growth of Territory since 1790 192 

Centennial Anniversary 251 

Charter of Cornish 4 

Chase, Dudley, Settlement of 13-16 

Chase, Moses, Grant to 10 

Surveyor's Certificate 12 

Cheshire Lodge, Free and Accepted Masons 176-178 

Churches of the Town 107-141 

Congregational Church 110-118 

Covenant Ill 

Land Granted for 110 

Division in the Church 111-112 

Convention of Churches 112 

Union of Two Branches 113 

Erection of New Edifice 114 

Centennial 115 

Rev. James Wellman 110-111 

Rev. Mr. Powers Ill 

Rev. Benjamin Bell 113 

Rev. Siloam Short 113 

Rev. Joseph Rowell 113 

Rev. Joseph W. Clary 114 

Rev. Alvah Spaulding 114 

Rev. Philander Bates 115 

Rev. Charles M. Palmer 115 

24 



370 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Pages 

Rev. James T. Jackson 115 

Second Division 116 

Organization 116-117 

Erection of Meeting House 116 

Rev. Rufus A. Putnam 116 

Disorganization 117 

Baptist Church 118-130 

Tenets 118 

Organization 118 

Early Records 118-119 

Erection of Edifice 120 

Revival 122 

New Bell 126 

Decade of Church History 127 

Legacies 129 

Rev. Jedediah Hibbard 118 

Dea. Samuel Hilliard 120 

Elder Ariel Kendrick 120 

Elder Simeon W. Beckwith 121 

Rev. Gibbon Williams 122 

Oliver Ban-on 123 

Rev. David Burroughs 124 

Nahum P. Foster 125 

Rev. Phinehas Bond 125 

Rev. D. P. Deming 125 

Rev. Halsey Leavitt 126 

Rev. George A. Glines 126 

Rev. Gideon S. Smith 126 

Episcopal Church 130-135 

Chase, Philander 130 

Organization 131 

Instrument of Association 131 

Incorporation 132 

Erection of New Edifice 133 

Consecration of Trinity Church 134-135 

Ministers 133-134 

Methodist Episcopal Church 135-138 

Records of 1868-69 136 

Evangelical Congregational Church Bought . 136-137 

Methodist Camp Meeting and Grounds 137 

Preachers 138 

Elders 138 

Rev. Amos Kidder 1 35 

Rev. John G. Bennett 135 

Unitarian Church 140-141 

Organization 140 

Methodist Church Leased 140 



GENERAL INDEX. 371 

Pages 

Woman's Alliance Organized 140 

Dedication 141 

Millerites 139 

Perfectionists 139 

Pentecostal Nazarene 141 

Benjamin F. Lindsay 141 

Civil War 85-106 

Cornish in the Civil War 85-106 

Heavy Artillery 101-102 

New Hampshire Battalion 99 

Second New Hampshire Regiment 85-88 

Third New Hampshire Regiment 85-89 

Fourth New Hampshire Regiment 90 

Fifth New Hampshire Regiment 90-92 

Sixth New Hampshire Regiment 92-93 

Seventh New Hampshire Regiment 93-94 

Eighth New Hampshire Regiment 94 

Ninth New Hampshire Regiment 94-96 

Eleventh New Hampshire Regiment 96 

Thirteenth New Hampshire Regiment 96 

Fourteenth New Hampshire Regiment 96-98 

Fifteenth New Hampshire Regiment 98 

Sixteenth New Hampshire Regiment 98 

Eighteenth New Hampshire Regiment 99 

Cornish Men Enlisted Elsewhere 103-104 

Cornish Men Drafted 105 

Cornish in the United States Navy 102-103 

Sharpshooters 102 

Climatic Extremes 244-249 

Cold Winter of 1779-80 244 

Dark Day of 1780 244 

Year 1816, Hardships of 245-247 

Tornadoes, 1821, 1848 , 247 

Snow Crust of 1862 247 

Floods 248-249 

Cornish Bridge 213-216 

Bridge Chartered 213 

Subscribers to Stock 213 

First Officers 214 

Construction of First Two Bridges 214 

Toll-House Journals 214-215 

Construction of Last Two Bridges 215-216 

Cornish Colonization Society 169-170 

Constitution and Signers 170 

Cornish, First Settlements of 13, 20-21 



372 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Pages 

Cornish in Revolution 70-74 

in War of 1812 83 

in Civil War 85-106 

Cornish Men, Sketches of Prominent 277-347 

Cornish, Name of 2 

Situation of 1 

County Affairs 209-211 

Organization of the Counties 209 

Sullivan County Incorporated 210 

Newport the County Seat 211 

County Farm Established 207 

Dark Day 244 

Elevation of Town 2 

Fifteenth Regiment New Hampshire Militia 79 

Floods 248-249 

Flora 40-42 

Forests 38-40 

Gov. Wentworth's Reservations 9 

Grand Army of the Republic 167 

Grange 174-176 

Organization 174 

Charter Members 174 

First Officers ' 174 

Park Grange, No. 249 17<> 

Charter Members of Park Grange 176 

Grant, Reservations and Conditions of 8 

Grantees of Cornish 7 

Grantham Annexed to Cornish 1 

Hotels 249-250 

Indians 253 

Lawyers 263-265 

Libraries 240-243 

Sabbath School Library Association 241 

Stowell Free Public Library 243 

Manufactures 179-186 

Early Manufacturing Interests 179 

Carriage Building 1£0 

Brick Making 180 

Gristmills 180-1M 



GENERAL INDEX. 373 

Pages 

Sawmills 181 

Creameries 183-185 

Blacksmithing 185-186 

Harness Making 186 

"Mast Camp" 2 

Merchants 250-251 

Mexican War 84 

Military Districts. State Divided into 79 

Militia Laws, Uniform Established 79 

Repealed S4 

Millerites 139 

Muster 80-81 

New Hampshire Grants 40-53 

( Irants Made in Disputed Territory 43 

Grants Claimed by New Hampshire and New York 42-45 

Settlers Required to Purchase New Titles 42-43 

Opposition of Settlers 44 

Vermont State Organized 44-45 

New Hampshire Severs Connection with Great Britain 45 

Town's Independent Corporations 45-46 

Sixteen Towns Petition Vermont for Admission 46 

Vermont Favors Union 46-47 

New Hampshire Protests 47 

Matter Laid Before Congress 47 

Congress Opposes Union with Vermont 47 

Sixteen Towns Withdraw from Vermont 47 

Convention Called to Form New State 47 

Proposals to New Hampshire for Admission 48 

Vermont Relinquishes Claims to New Hampshire and New York 

Territory 53 

Cornish Petition 48 

New T Hampshire Claims All of Vermont 49 

Convention at Cornish 50 

Convention Favors Union of All Towns with Vermont 50 

Congress Petitioned to Investigate 51 

Terms on Which Congress Will Admit Vermont to Federal Union. ... 51 

Vermont Declines to Accede to Terms of Congress 51 

Collision Between Officers of Vermont and New Hampshire 52 

General Washington Advises Vermont to Accept Terms of Congress . . 52 

Settlement of Controversy 53 

Opposition Party in Cornish 53 

New Hampshire Made a Separate Province 54 

New Hampshire Severs Connection with Great Britain 45 

"Old Haines" 208-209 

Old People's Association 252-262 



374 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Pages 

E. Wellman Barnard, Address by 260-262 

Old Home Week 262 

Park Grange, No. 249 175-176 

Pauperism in Cornish 202-209 

Town Provides for Paupers 204-205 

Alms House 206 

Support of Paupers by County 206-207 

Paupers Who Have Died at County Farm 207 

Pentecostal Nazarene 141 

Perfectionists 139 

Physicians 265-276 

Pioneer Life 20-42 

Log Houses 21 

Crops 22 

Home Made Implements and Clothing 23 

Ornaments 25 

Food 24 

Method of Cooking 28-29 

Heating and Lighting 25-26 

Exchange of Farm Products for City Goods 28 

Dress 26-27 

Woman's Work 27 

Social Gatherings 25 

Sports 29-30 

Postal Facilities 30 

Church and Observance of Sabbath 30-32 

Character of Settlers 32-33 

Wild Beasts 34-38 

Forests 38-40 

Flora 40-42 

Post Offices 251 

Cornish Post Office 251 

Cornish Center Post Office 252 

South Cornish Post Office 252 

Rural Free Delivery 252 

President Roosevelt Visits Cornish 256-258 

Proprietors, First Meeting of 8 

Putnam, Daniel, One of First Settlers 9 

Revolutionary War 54-78 

Militia Organized 54, 56, 57 

Stamp Act 55 

Committees of Safety 56-57 

Taxes Imposed by Parliament 57 

Boston Massacre 57 

Boston Port Bill 58 



GENERAL INDEX. 375 

Pages 

Boston Tea Party 58 

Continental Congress, Session of 1774 58 

Lexington, Battle of 58 

New Hampshire Men Enlist in Service of Massachusetts 59 

Bunker Hill 60 

Provincial Congress Meets at Exeter 60 

Council Established 62 

British Evacuate Boston 62 

Association Test 62-64 

Declaration of Independence 64 

Capt. John House's Company 65 

Capt. Joshua Haywood's Company 65 

Trenton, Battle of 65 

Princeton, Battle of 65 

Chase House, Incident of 65 

New Hampshire Militia Ordered to Ticonderoga 66-67 

New Hampshire Roused by Speech of Col. John Langdon 67-68 

Stark at Bennington 68 

Saratoga, Battle of 68-69 

Burgoyne's Surrender 69 

Stark's Regiment 71 

Baldwin's Regiment 71 

Hobart's Regiment 71 

Record of Town Returns 72 

Chase's Regiment 64-65, 70, 72-73 

Bedell's Regiment 72 

First New Hampshire Regiment in Revolution . 72 

Chase, Dr. Solomon, Order to From General Stark 75 

Reimbursement of Military Expenses 76 

Royalton, Vermont, Burning of 75 

Currency Depreciation of 77 

Surrender of Cornwallis 78 

Schools 142-156 

District School System Adopted '. 143-144 

Town System Adopted 145-146 

School Houses 146-148 

High Schools 148-149 

Supervision 149-153 

Inspectors of Schools 150 

Superintendents 151 

Members of School Board 151-153 

Kimball Union Academy 153 

Cornish Graduates of Kimball Union Academy, 1813-1880 155-156 

Settlers, Early 13-17 

Shows and Exhibitions 253 

Societies 167-178 



376 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Pages 

Grand Army of the Republic 167 

Soldiers' Aid Society 168-169 

Cornish Colonization Society 169-171 

Temperance 171-173 

Orange 173-176 

Cheshire Lodge, Free and Accepted Masons 176-178 

Soldiers' Monument 236-240 

Statement of Committee to Raise Funds 239 

Names of Soldiers Inscribed on Monument 240 

Stores 250-251 

Summer Colony 220-232 

Temperance Society 171-173 

Territory of Cornish 1 

"Texas" 1 

Toll-House Journals 214-215 

Tornadoes • 247 

Town House Purchased From Perfectionists 235 

Town Meeting. Petition for 18 

Call Issued 18 

Response to Call 18-19 

Date Fixed 19 

Town Officers • 157-166 

Selectmen 157-160 

Town Clerks 160-161 

Moderators 161-163 

Cornish Represented in General Court 163-164 

Representatives 164-166 

Town Record Building, Voted to Build 235 

Erection 235 

Safe Purchased 236 

Attempt on Safe by Burglars 236 

Annex Built 236 

Town Reports 253 

Union Society 108-109 

Vermont State Organized 44-45 

War of 1812 81-83 

Cause 81 

War Declared 82 

British War Vessels on New Hampshire Coast 83 

Burning of Washington 83 

Treaty of Ghent 83 

Capture of New Orleans 83 

Cornish in War of 1812 83 

Wild Beasts 34-38 

Winter of 1779-80 244 



INDEX OF NAMES 

Pages 

Adams, Herbert 226 

Samuel 57 

Rev. Thomas 127 

Alden, Isaac 265 

Allen, Clark 88 

Ethan 44 

Col. Ira 50 

Antoine, Clement 102 

Arnie, William 89 

Arnold, Charlotte ' 224 

Frances 230 

Ashley, Colonel 66 

Atkinson, Theodore 7 

Atwood, Daniel 196 

Capt . William 185 

Avery, Edward 91 

Ayers, Edwin T 105 

Henry 105 

Samuel 7 

Samuel F 105 

Babb, Philip, Jr . 7 

Badger, George F 199 

Bailey, Jacobs 48 

Baker, Calvin 128 

Edward Dimick 264 

Barker, Alden 100 

Jonathan 7 

Owen 100 

Barnard, E. Wellman 260 

Barron, Rev. Oliver 123 

Barry, John H 87 

Bartlett, Charles C 93 

John 71, 72 

Joseph 74 

Nathaniel 71, 72 

Samuel F 105 

Baskwell, Rev. John A 126 

Bates, Rev. Philander 115 

Baum, Colonel 68 

Beaman, Charles C 181, 220, 237, 239, 277 

William E 231 



378 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Pages 

Beckwith, Elder Simeon W 121 

Beers, Elbridge G 89, 240 

Nathaniel E 91 

Bell, Rev. Benjamin 113 

Bellows, Colonel 66 

Benjamin, Judah 72 

Bennett, Rev. John G 135 

Benway, Asa M 87, 240 

Reuben T 97, 240 

Bernum, Samuel 83 

Berry, Thomas 7 

William 7 

Blanchard, Dr. John S 266 

Blazo, William 7 

Blood, Henry P 95, 239 

Boardman, Elijah 266 

Bohannon, Moses 90 

Bond, Rev. Phineas 125 

Bowen, Thomas 93 

Bracket, George 7 

Capt. Nathaniel 8 

Brady, Joseph 89 

Brewer, Ebenezer 65, 70, 72, 73 

Brown, Briant 65, 72, 73 

Moses 71, 72 

Bryant, Edward 105 

S. W 105 

Sarah A 129 

Walter 7 

William H 167 

Bugbee, Henry Allen 199 

Horace L 105 

Sylvester M 97 

Bullard, Alfred 224 

Burgoyne, General 62, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70 

Burke, John 100 

Burnap, Arunah 128 

Burr, Versel E 97, 239 

Burroughs, Rev. David 124 

Buswell, Daniel C 95 

Cady, Curtis 65, 72 

Elias 72, 73 

Elijah 73 

Nicholas 72, 73 

Stephen 64, 73 

Campbell, Fraser 224 



INDEX OF NAMES. 379 

Pages 

Cane, Michael 90 

( 'a rpenter, Elijah 74 

\ a I haniel 109 

Carroll, Daniel E 101 

John s ~ 

Col. Lysander Herbert 281 

Cate, Daniel 8 

Dea. Ebenezer ~ 

Eleazer ~ 

James 64, 70, 73 

William, Jr 7 

Chadbourne, Alfred C 200 

Edmund B 240 

Chamberlain, Thomas 74 

Chandler, Captain 69 

Chapman, Benjamin 73 

Edward F 103 

Frank B 105 

James EL 97 

Joseph 267 

Levi L 103 

Chase, Amos 74 

Capt. Bela 134 

Caleb 17, 74, 109 

Champion Spaulding 155, 282 

Charles 185 

Lieut. Daniel 64, 71, 72 

Dudley 13, 73, 284 

Dudley T 174 

Ebenezer Brewster 268 

George M 93 

Harvey 263 

Ithamar 109, 286 

Rev. J. K 127 

John 64, 70, 73 

Dea. John 180, 182 

John B 101, 105 

Col. Jonathan 17, 35-36, 49, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 72, 73, 132, 

180, 181, 287 

Dr. Maurice J 289 

Moses 17, 46, 71, 73 

Moses, Jr 72, 73 

Xahum 74 

Peter 74 

Philander 130 

Bishop Philander 292 

Robert H 91 



380 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Pages 

3e, Salmon 73, 298 

Salmon Portland 300 

Samuel 13, 49, 50, 53, 60, 70, 72, 73, 268 

Samuel, Jr 16, 73 

Simeon 70, 72. 73 

Solomon 70, 72, 73, 268 

Capt. Solomon 73, 76 

Dr. Solomon 74. 75 

Thomas 74 

William 74, 109 

Wille H 198 

Child, Stephen 36-37, 70, 73, 109 

W. H 260 

Chittenden, Governor 52 

Rev. Bethuel 131 

Churchill, Barker B 101 

Edgar A 101 

Winston 228, 231, 304 

Claggett, Wyseman 7 

Clark, Lieut. Ebenezer 7 

Enoch 7 

Ezra D 100 

Grecnleaf 7 

Josiah 7 

Clary, Rev. Joseph W 114 

Cobb, Edmund H 101 

Frank 74 

Rev. Levi Henry 154, 307 

Coburn, Hiram 197 

Colby, Beniah 103 

Dudley 89 

Cole, Daniel 176 

Erastus 101 

Gale 72 

Stephen 268 

Collins, Edward W 87, 97 

Comings, Andrew 83 

Benjamin 64, 72, 109 

Charles B 97 

Dr. David L. M 90, 311 

Capt. Eben 83 

Joseph B 236, 239 

Newell 1 105 

Norman D 98, 240 

Samuel 74 

Conley, John 100 

Conlor, Patrick 100 



INDEX OF NAMES. 381 

Pages 

Converse, Col. Nelson 92 

Cook, James A 87 

Corbin, Austin 218, 219, 313 

Couch, John L 186 

John M 186 

Coult, Peter 199 

Cox, Kenyon 225-226 

Cragin, Senator A. H 187 

Craig, Richard 92 

Cressy, Albert B 95 

Croly, Herbert D 228, 231 

Cross, Col. Edward E 90 

Cummins, Benjamin 73 

Currier, David 72 

Jonathan 71,72 

Moses 73 

Curtis, Franklin H 200 

Nathaniel 71, 72 

Dana, Francis 74 

Darling, William 74 

Davidge, Mrs. M. C 230 

Davis, David 74 

Edward 87 

Josiah 101 

Dawson, Patrick 102 

Day, Charles F . . 95 

Hiram A 236, 239 

Dean, Tisdale 196 

Dearborn, Samuel 8 

Simeon 7 

Deming, Rev. D. P 125, 128 

Daniel G 129 

Ebenezer 109 

Ebenezer, Jr 83 

Frank B 105 

George L 260 

Harvey S 196 

John M 105 

Lizzie M 198 

Marvin J 105 

Seth 109 

William 109 

Dewing, Thomas W 222 

Dodge, Capt . Andrew 83 

Nathaniel B 93 

Newton C 93 



382 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Pages 

Dolan, John 100 

Donovan, Rev. Dennis 127 

Dorman, Julius 105 

Lewis 105 

Dorr, Benjamin 35-36 

Doton, Isaac 269 

Douglass, James A 89 

Dow, Horace 100 

Downs, Edward A 93 

Edwin W 95, 239 

Dowse, Nathaniel 8 

Dresser, Ebenezer 74 

Driscoll, Daniel 102 

Dudley, Capt. John 7 

Luman B 95, 239 

Dunbar, Alphonso N 100 

Duncan, Frances 230 

Dunlap, Robert 64 

Dustin, Nathaniel 73 

Eastman, Timothy C 92 

Edminster, Benjamin 83 

Frank S 105 

James N 95 

Thomas B 97, 240 

Edmunds, Joseph 94 

Elliott, John 230 

Ellis, George W 98 

Jason K 103 

Newell J 103, 105 

Seneca 98 

William H 103 

Emery, Noah 7 

Peter 200 

Evarts, William M 220, 237, 239 

Fabion, Samuel 8 

Fairbanks, George E 252 

Fellows, Col. Enoch Q 94 

Fisher, John 7 

Fitch, Hezekiah 74 

James W 175 

Samuel 64, 72, 73 

Zebadiah 64, 73 

Fletcher, Oliver M 102 

Warren H 103 

Folsom, General 74 



INDEX OF NAMES. 383 

Pages 

Foss, Jacob 314, 817 

Josiah 7 

Walter H 97 

Foster, Rev. Nahum Parker 125, 269 

Freeman, Francis E 105 

Henry C 105 

French, Rev. Charles V 127 

Hezekiah 73 

Frost, Capt. George 7 

Fuller, Henry Brown 226 

Gage, General 57 

Thadeus 128 

Gaines, William 87 

Gates, General 64 

Elias 64 

Gilbert, John 240 

Geohegan, Mrs 230 

Gile, Savory 197 

Glines, Rev. George A 126 

Goodspeed, Nathaniel 72 

Goss, Nathan 7 

Gould, Rev. Charles E 127 

Henry 129, 180, 239 

Mrs. Sarah 129 

Gowing, Nathaniel 33 

Graydon, Mrs. Clendenen 224 

Greely, Jonathan 7 

Green, Charles H 128 

Griffin, Col. S. G 92 

Gustin, Sanford 128 

Haines, Joshua 7 

Samuel _ 7 

"Old Haines" 208 

Hall, Abijah 64 

Albert L 86, 87 

James 64 

Dr. John 7 

Lyman '. 270 

Moody 73 

Moses 72, 73 

Nathaniel 73 

Thomas 73 

Thomas, Jr 64 

Hapgood, Norman 228 

Hardy, Edmund 104 



384 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Pages 

Harlow, William Harvey 200 

Hart, John 91 

William Howard 230 

Haskell, David 72 

Hawley, Richard 74 

Hayes, John 102 

Hay ward, Dr. George 224 

Hendricks, Colonel 68 

Hibbard, Dennis C 95 

Rev. Jedediah 73, 118 

John B 97 

Hill, David B 99 

John 7 

Hilliard, David H 183 

George E 252 

Lucinda 197 

Luther 72 

Samuel 72, 120 

Holbrook, Thomas 1 100 

Holden, J. Nathaniel 62 

Nathaniel 74 

Hook, Andrew Jackson 3.17-319 

Horton, Joseph E 89 

Hough, George H 128 

Houston, William C 224 

Howard, Waldo L 97 

Wilbur F 97 

Hoyt, Lewis S 104 

Hubbard, Leveret 8 

Huggins, Amasa 96 

David 64, 73 

Eri, Jr 319-320 

John 7 

John C • 320-321 

Jonathan 70 

Nathaniel 74 

Nathaniel, Jr 7 

Philander Chase 321-323 

Humphrey, John H 104 

Hunt, George W 271 

Hunter, Harlan P 97 

John H 91 

Lyman H 200 

Huntington, Jedediah 199 

Hutchinson, George A 95 

Hyde, William H 226 



INDEX OF NAMES. 385 

Pages 

Jackson, Abel 181 

Benjamin 109 

Charles A 102 

Daniel 83 

Lieut. Eleazer 65, 74, 109 

Dr. Hall 8 

Rev. James T 115, 148, 259 

Joseph 8 

Oliver 104 

Robert H 102 

Jenkins, William, Jr 7 

Jenney, Asa , 199 

Jerald, Reuben 73 

Jirould, Reuben 72 

Johnson, Bracket 7 

George W 100 

Lieut. Nathan ; 7 

Capt. Philip 7 

Thomas 7 

Jones, Burleigh R 87 

Judkins, Marcellus 93, 240 

Kelley, Simon C 98 

Kendrick, Elder Ariel 120, 121 

Clark 83 

Kennison, John 87 

Kenyon, Charles N 105 

John S 104 

Ketchum, Henry 272 

Kidder, Rev. Amos 135 

James B 100, 240 

Kimball, Edward 83 

Eliphalet 73 

Mary Treat 198 

Kingsbury, Isaac H 100 

Knights, Alonzo 98 

Hollis 96 

Lewis F 105 

Labere, Peter 62 

Peter, Jr 44 

Lakin, Herbert C 230 

Lallan ce, Alcide 89 

Lambert, David 102 

Lane, Marcus M 97 

Lang, Albion E 224 

Langdon, Col. John 67 

2.5 



386 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Pages 
Langdon, Thomas 89 

Laurd, Lewis 87 

Lawrence, Edith 230 

Lazarus, Emma 224 

Lear, William D 105 

Leavitt, Emily 148 

Rev. Halsey C 126 

Henry 98 

Roswell 272 

Lee, James 87 

Leonard, Otis L 128 

Leslie, Charles R 102 

Lewis, Artemas M 91 

B. Sidney 181 

William S 98, 239 

Lincoln, President 85 

Lindsay, Benjamin F 141 

Littell, Philip 230 

Little, Hiram 180 

Lucius 90 

Long, Edward J 176 

Lothrop, Edwin H 197 

Reuel 128 

Lull, Mrs. Abner 198 

Lumbeck, Joseph 87 

McBride, James 101 

McClane, William 7 

McClintock, Rev. Samuel 4,7 

MacKaye, Percy 228, 231 

Maier, Lewis 89 

Malone, Timothy 87 

Manchester, Constant Wood 273 

March, Clement 7 

Capt. George . . . . : 7 

Nathaniel 7 

Lieut. Paul 7 

Stephen 7 

Thomas 7 

Mareau, Peter 87 

Marston, Col. Gilman 85 

Nal han 7 

Mercer, William W 149 

Merrill, Samuel , 102 

Miller, Theodore , 98 

William 139 

Mitchell, Ebenezer 92 



1XDEX OF NAMES. 387 

Pages 

Mitchell, Edward 89, 101 

James H 103 

Langdon 229 

Morey, Colonel 69 

Morse, John 70, 109 

Moulton, Maj. Jonathan 8 

Munroe, Patrick 101 

Murphy, Thomas 89 

Neal. Capt . James 7 

Nevens, Charles 94, 240 

Newell, Jacob 83 

Joseph 98 

Nichols, Colonel 68 

Stephen 88 

Nobbs, Rev. James 127 

O'Conner, Patrick 92 

Ogden, Rev. John C 131, 134 

Page, Joshua 74 

Paine, John Bulkley 196 

Robert Treat 230 

Samuel 74 

William 64 

Palmer, Rev. Charles M 115 

Parrish, Frederick Maxfield 226 

Stephen 223, 231 

Payn, William 73 

Peacock, John 128 

Penniman, Albert 105 

Perkins, Thomas 88 

Phelps, Davenport 48 

Philbrook, Benjamin 7 

Pierce, Aaron 273 

Daniel 7 

Pike, Capt. Chester 105 

Pinder, Andrew 88 

Plaistridge, Caleb 70, 73 

Piatt, Charles A 223, 227 

Poor, Col. Enoch 60, 66 

Pottle, William, Jr 7 

Powers, Rev. Mr Ill 

Samuel Leland 323-324 

Prellwitz, Henry 224 

Putnam, Daniel 9, 13, 17, 71, 72, 76, 109, 185 

Daniel Chase 196 



388 HISTORY OF CORNISH: 

Pages 

Putnam, Col. Haldimand S 94, 240 

Rev. Rufus A 116 

Samuel 109 

Rawson, Alvah S 92, 240 

Raymond, Jennie E. (Sisson) 198 

Read, David • . . . . 176 

Nettie H 199 

Reagan, James 89 

Rice, Joel 62 

Joel, Jr 74 

John L 86, 88 

Rich, Henry E 128 

Richardson, Asa W 98 

Daniel 128 

David Sidney 324-326 

George W 105 

Horace 128 

Mary Cleora (Stone) 326-329 

Sidney K 102 

Stillman 128 

William 59, 71, 72, 73 

Ripley, David K 94, 239 

James 74 

William 46, 72, 73 

Roberts, Daniel 74 

Robinson , Everett 83 

Oscar D 96 

Rev. P.J 140 

Rodger, Thomas 103 

Rollins, Frank W 262 

Roosevelt, President 256 

Rowell, Rev. Joseph 114, 330-332 

Rublee, George 230, 231 

Russell, Capt. Josiah 64 

Rev. T. C 127 

Saint-Gaudens, Anetta Johnson 336 

Augustus 220-222, 332-334 

Mrs. Homer 226 

Louis 226, 335-336 

Scammel, Colonel 66 

Schuyler, General 66 

Scott, William 94, 239 

Shaw, S. T 274 

Shedd, Bertie E 199 

John C 198 



INDEX OF NAMES. 389 

Pages 

Sherburne, Thomas 7 

Shipman, Louis Evan 227-228 

Short, Rev. Siloam 113, 120 

Sisson, Charles B 104 

William H 104, 180, 236 

Slade, The Misses 230 

Smith. Charles M 88 

Dr. David S. C. H 336 

Edwin H 105 

Gideon 73 

Rev. Gideon S 126 

John 92 

Leonard 200 

Nathan 274 

Nathaniel 91 

Oliver P 101 

Philander W 105 

Thomas 101 

. William H 103, 104 

Spaulding, Lieut. Abel 70, 73 

Abel, Jr 73 

Rev. Alvah 114 

Andrew 73 

Andrew, Jr 74 

Daniel F S3 

Dyer 13, 70, 73 

Ezra ' 74 

Joseph 70, 72 

Lucian 99 

Sidney C 96, 240 

Silas 99 

Timothy 74 

Spicer, Jabez 70, 73 

Peter 71, 72 

Squires, David 104 

Henry 89 

Stark, Gen. John 62, 65, 66, 67, 68, 71 

Stearns, Benjamin C 94 

Eli B 102 

Stephen L 91 

Stevens, Abel 73 

John B 105 

Joseph 91 

Manson 105 

Stickney, William H 105 

Stone, Cornelius H 92 

Hiram H 98, 240 



390 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Pages 

Stone, Josiah 64, 73 

Josiah Franklin 338-340 

Levi E 199, 200 

Walter 186 

Stores, Joseph 8 

Stowell, Ezra 37 

George H 243, 340-342 

St rong, Carter 198 

Sturtevant, Henry W 198 

William 91 

Sullivan, General 62 

Swinnerton, Benjamin 73, 196 

Tappan, Col. Mason W 85 

Tasker, Charles 104 

Edward L 94 

George 98 

Jonathan E 197 

Rebecca M 197 

Sylvester 98, 240 

Taylor, Grace Lawrence 230 

Joseph 60, 109 

Capt. Joseph 34 

Temple, John 7 

William 7 

Tewksbury, Sumner B S9 

Sumner P 105 

Thomas, General 62 

William 103 

Thompson, Charles 63 

Loring 71, 72 

Thornsburgh, Robert 275 

Thrasher, Edwin 96 

Henry H 96 

Titus, Lt.-Col. Herbert B 94 

Todd, Frederick 224 

Toole, Thomas 93 

Tracy, George B 96 

Trodden, Michael 99 

Tucker, Abijah 109 

Tyler, George E 88, 240 

Russell 93 

Vincent, Joseph 73 

Vinsen, Joseph 64, 70, 73 

Vinson, Moses 74 

Vinton, Adolphus G 105 



INDEX OF NAMES. 391 

Pages 

Vinton, John 109 

John M 99 

Waldron, Daniel 70 

Walker, George B * 105 

Henry Oliver 222 

Wallis, William, Jr 7 

Warner, Seth 44 

Washington, General 52, 62, 65, 7S 

Watkins, Orin 94 

Wayne, General 66 

Weare, M 63 

Weeks, John 7 

Capt. William 7 

Welch, Thomas 88 

Weld, Albert 105 

Eben 83 

Ebenezer 129 

Edna L 197 

' John 64, 65, 73, 129 

Walter 83 

Wellman, Albert E 260 

Horace B 99 

Isaac 72, 73 

Rev. James 70, 73, 110, 112 

James, Jr 64, 74 

James Albert 342-343 

Rev. Joshua Wyman 343-346 

Solomon 70 

Went worth, Gov. Benning 9, 43 

George T 101 

Hunking 7 

Sir John 9 

Mark Hunking 7 

Westgate, William E 105 

Wheeler, James P 99, 240 

Whidden, John 7 

Samuel 7 

White, Eli W 105 

Ithiel J • 96, 240 

William S 92 

Whittaker, Henry P 93 

Whitten, John 72, 73 

Whittier, Edward A 128 

Williams, Rev. Gibbon 122 

Lucian 105 

Martin M 105 



392 HISTORY OF CORNISH. 

Pages 

Williams, Orville B 199 

Williamson, Alonzo B 264 

Caleb B 199 

Wilson, Col. Robert 74, 96 

Wingate, Colonel 62 

Wood, Frederic L 199 

M. E 230 

Woodard, Charles 98 

Woodward, Deliverance 74 

Wright, Andrew P 94, 240 

Ebenezer 276 

John B 88 

William F 88, 240 

Wyman, Colonel 62 

Arthur M 198 

Jonathan 182 

York, Lucy (Hilliard) 197 



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